Asks why support immunology? Defines immunology. Describes how lungs react to foreign compounds, diseases associated with smoking. Mentions increase in colds and lung infections in children of smokers. Discusses scholar program in immunology and lists personnel involved. Suggests RJR's interest in immunology.
Original document code was 1000.
- R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.
- Minor Subject
- Environmental Tobacco Smoke (Second-Hand Smoke) -health effects --youth
- Health and Medical Research -diseases and conditions --respiratory disease
- Health and Medical Research -diseases and conditions --respiratory disease ---chronic bronchitis
- Health and Medical Research -diseases and conditions --respiratory disease ---chronic pulmonary obstructive disease
- Health and Medical Research -diseases and conditions --respiratory disease --emphysema
- Tobacco Industry -research
- Major Subject
- Health and Medical Research
- Smoking and Health Controversy
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:,Immunologyro>is': the study~of4='the+`bodys-, defense mechanisms.
Specitically, it is the"study of the white blood cells
(neutrophils, lymphocytesr'and- macrophagc;) and cellular
or }foreign, material,. ~ The., lung and cardiovascular system have _?
antibodies that protect the body from pathogenic microorganisms
. . . " . , ,Z i.
,. ; ~...
defective immune system (e,.g.,, pneumonia . in combined .
diseases affecting these systems that the immune system helps
overcome. Additionally, some-diseases are the,result of a"
Foreign compounds may cause tissue damage resulting in a
secondary inflammatory response (a natural defense that attemptss
to remove debris and to heal tissue damage). This can occur in
the lung, for,example, following.exposure to inhaled~gases such
as chlorine. Acute tissue damage, cell death, and subsequent,
fibrosis (scaring) of the lungs can occur from inhalation of
chlorine gas or other noxious gases. The immune system is
intimately involved in this process. The acute damage and tissue
damage attracts white blood cells such as neutrophils and
macrophages. These cells engulf or eat tissue debris; however,
enzymes can leak from these cells that may cause further damage.
This inflammation stimulates fibroblasts to lay down connective
tissue in the form of scar tissue. Any inflammatory process in
the lung including pneumonia can result in fibrosis or scaring,
which is a irreversible change in the lung.
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Why sf~ould R. J.
interested tin;;<,immunology? n
.... f . . +'r . .
. . . ,. ~' . .. ' _ ` . ~
There are several diseasesass,ocia.ted., wi th smoking by. ~.
, . , . ..
;, epidemiological;',studies,~'that, involve the immune system. Althosr ~#
. , . ,, .. F , . ., . , . . ; ~
,. ,. .f..
the exact relationship of;smoking to these diseases~is now known,'
many of the changes are hypothesized to be related to
inflammatory cells and therefore, the immune,system.
chronic brohii, chronic onic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and emphysema. Inflammatory cells ara seen in chronic
bronchitis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary dissase i
long-term inflammatory changes. Emphysema is hypothesized to
result from increased transit time of white blood cells in
certain areas of the lung which is beli3ved to result in
increased concentration of proteases and free radicals from white`
blood cells. These proteases and free."radicalsrare hypothesized
to break down elastin and other connective tissue.
In`addition, another concern is recent epidemiological studies
that suggest smoking by parents may lead to an increased risk of
colds and other infections in infants less than six months of
a g e . A04V#x~ -- `
The study of immunology in relationship to these disease enti ties
could help elucidatu Oe mechanism of these diseases and help
determine the relationship, if any, between cigarette smoking and
onset of these diseases.
Other product-related diseases where the immune system has been
suggested as a factor include life-style related abnormalities
resulting from excesses due to alcohol, food, salt, etc.
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`' r. ~ ri '"
~~. ~Why~immunology., "ini
e Scholar's Program?
initial focus.for'this,; program-..
because of, the.. rapid:.progreas being nade in.ti. the' field,""`
particularly as it relates to understanding chronic pulmonary
Other frontiers in biomedical sciences will be the focus of
.future scholar's programs but initially in'order to not diffuse
- L--- - -- - - -- - - - -.
the RJR effort a single focus was selected. With the limited
resources available, a single focus .area., was ,,chosen.c to, enable:..
. , _ , . . ~., , .,. .
better selection of a few highly qualified individuals.
Furthermore, this focus complements the current emphasis on,the
chronic degenerative disease program and allows our Scientific
Advisors to focus their search for talented, scientists',within; a
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.r~ 'F W
Pro~essor~of~LEled ic i ne'
School' "of;' Medicine n
; New Haven,;`Connecticut
ogy`of chronic degenerative''
Professional Interests.- Epidemiol '
. . .
Fred Se i tz°, , M. D.
~ P5esideiit~Enaeritus ~''`
New York, New York
Professional Interests: Development and
ac yn c ar y, M.D.
The Rockefeller University
New` York';~"'New `York
Professional Interests: Biochemistry cf diseases and
co-developerywith Avery, MacLeod
role4'of ` DNA'jin `"cell" replication.
~ Leon °Golbekg; M.D., Ph.D. q
Professor `of `'Comrauni ty Occupa tional
Duke University Medical Center
Durham.North Carol ina
Professional Interests: Mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
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he`"immune system is the basic host defense mechanism and can be
establishment of immunological memory perpetrated by long lived
lymphocytes` to recognize and `re'spond to anagens (foreign
compounds/proteins) in a highly specific manner and; the
characteristics of specific immunity are: the ability of
divided into specific and non-specific immunity. The central
lymphocytes (memory cells) which allow the host to respond to a
second contact with the anagen in an anamnestic manner with
".enhanced,.cellular,activity. Non-specific immunity refers to
generalized host defense mechanisms.
The specific immune system is composed of two major components,
derived lymphocyte system. Basically, this is a system which
now referred to as -ar thymist derived and a, berca equivalent
allows the human organism to respond to and to defeat insult from
foreign chemicals. This is a major problem that one sees in