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Tobacco Products Liability Project

Carbon Monoxide A Review

Date: 1976
Length: 266 pages
681852224-681852489
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Abstract

Details the effects of carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke on individuals.

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Page 91: 681852224
Chapter 3 Pa~e 45 9O 97. 98. 99. I00. I01. I07.. 103. I04, 105. Schar£, S. },I., Pezmutt, S., and Bro..'nbcrger Barnea, I5., Effects of hypoxic aud CO hypoxia on isolated hearts, ,L Appl. Physiol., 39, 75Z-758, 1975. Tsujimoto, A., Nishikawa, T., Dohi, T., Kojima, S., Comparison of pharmacological responses to nicotine and release of catecholamL'~es from ~he adrenals in dogs and monke)'s, -~ur. J. Pharmacol., Z6, 236-242, 1974. grankl0 W.S., Winters, W.L, and Soloff, L,A., The effects of smoking on the cardiac output at rest and during exercise in patients with healed m).ozardial infarction, ,Circulation, 31, 42-44, 1964. Stewart, J.E., Booker, W.~d., and %Vest, W. L., Chronic nicotine administration and norepinephrine sFnthesis in the i~olated guinea pig heart, Arch. Imt. Pharmacodyn. TheraD., 201, 36~-367, 1973. Wennn~atrn, A., and Junstad, M., Nicotine mediated release of prostaglandin g from the rabbzt heart, Ac~a Physiol. Stand. , 96, 28 I-Z82, 1976. Leb, G., Derntl, F., Robin, E., and Btng, R.~., The e~fect of nicotine on effective and total coronary blood flow Ln the anesthetized closed-chest dog, J. Pharrnacol. Ex;). Ther., 173, 138-144, 1970. Bing, R.J., Wayl~nd, H., Rickart, A., and Hellberg, K'., Studies on the coronary microcirculation by direct visualization, _G. Ital. Cardiol., I, 401-408, 1971, Bing, R. J., and Hellberg, K., Coronary blood flow in relation to angim.a pectoris, Circulation, 46, 1146- t 154, 1972. Tillrnanns0 H. , Ikeda, S. , Bing, R.J., The effect of nicotine on the cornnary n%icrocirculation in the cat heart, J. Clin. Pharmacol. , 14, 426-433, 1974. Gould, L., Vcnkataraman, K., Goswami, A~., and Gomprecht, R.F., Cardiac effects of ~%vo cigarettes, J. Clin Pharmacol. New Dru~s, 13, 7o-82, 1973. 681852314 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 46 91 106. 107. 10B. 109. II0. 1II. 112. 113. 114, 115. 116, Bek.heit, $., and Fletcher, X., The effects o£ smoking on myocardial conduction in the human aeart, Am. Heart ft., 91, 712-720, 1976. Seling, A., WPW-Syndrom nach akuter lntoxikation mit Kohlenmonoxyd. (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome following acute intoxication wit~ carbon monoxide), Med. Kl!n..01, 499-~01, 1906. Do~xner, E., and Ivlerlen, ~v. F., Syaxdrome de Wolf.f, Parkinson et White au coors d'une intoxication aigue par l'oxyde de carbone, Ac~ Cardiol., 1, 302-304, 194~. Sharer, N. , Srnilary, M.G. , and MacMilLxr~ F.P., Primary myo- cardial disease in man resulting from ~,cttte carbon monoxide poisoning, Am.. J. Med., 38, 316-3Z0, 1965. Procita, L., and tngenito, A. ft., Comparison o£ tam cardiovascular (C'v) effects of some gaseous components Of tobacco smoke, Fed. Proc...., 32, 805, 1973. Ilebekk, A. , and 2vljos, O.D. , Effect of nicotine on severity of acutc myocardial ischemic injury in dogs, Scand. I. Clin. Lab. Invest., 33, 145-151, 1974. Ilebekk, A. , and Lekven, J., Cardiac effects of nicotine in dogs, Stand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 33, 153-159, 1974. Ivij~Js , O.D., Ztebekk, A., ~'-f~tcts of nicotine on myocardial metabolism and periormance in dogs, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 32, 75-30, 1973. Astrcp, P., Kjeldsen, K.. and Wanstrup, J., Enhancing influence of carbon monoxide on the. development of atheromatosis in cholesterol- fed rabbits, J. Atheros_cler. Res., 7, 343-354, 1967, Hellung-Larsen, P., Laursen, T., Kjeldsen, K., and Astrup, Lactate dehydrogcnase isoenzymes of aortic tissue in rabbits expose~l to carbon monoxide, 3". Altheroscler. Res., 8, 343-349, 1958. l~jeldsen, K., Wanstrup, 2L, and Astrup, P., Enhancing itxfluence of arterial hypoxia on the deveio~ment of atheromatosis in chol~~ 681852315 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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92 Chapter 3 ~aDe 47 II?. I18. I19. IZO. 121. 12Z. 12.3. 124.. 125. IZo. Kjeldsen, K., Srnokinc and A.~herosc!erosis. In',-esti.-ations on the Significance of the Carbon Monoxide Content in Tobacco Smoke in Athero~enesis, Copenn~gen, }Zunksgaard, 145pp., 1969. Kjeldsen, :K., Astrup, P., and Wanstrup, J., Reversal of rabbit atheromatosis byhyperoxia, 3. Atheroscler. Res., I0, 173-178, 1969. Wanstrup, J., Kjeldsen, K., andAsLrup, P., Acceleration of spontaneous intimal-subintimal cha.nges in rabbit aorta by a prolonged moderate carbon monoxide exposure, Acta Pa~oh Microb£ol. Scan~., 75, 353-362, 19o9. Kjeldse~, ~., Astrap, P., and W~strup, ~., Ultrastructura~ gu~mal changes in the rabbit aorta after a mod~at~ carbon monoxide exposure, Atherosclerosis, I6, 67-82, 197Z. Thomsen, H. K. , Kjeldsen, K., Threshold limit for carbon mono~de- induced myoc~rd~damage. An electron ~croscop~c s~dy ~ rabbits, Arch. Environ. Health, 29, 73-78, 1974. Kjeldsen, K., ffhomsen, H.K., and Astrup, P., Effects of carbon moncxide on myocardlum (ultra=tructural changes in r~bbits after moderate, chronic exposure),Circ. Res., 34, 359-348, I974. Thomsen, H.K. , and Kjeldsen, K., Aortic intimal injury in rabbits. An evaluation of a threshold limit, Arch. Environ. Health, 30, ') 604-607, 1975. Siggaard-Andersen, J., Kjeldsen, K., Bonde Petersen,. F. ,: and Astrup, P. 0 A possible connection between carbon monoxide exposure, capillary filtra~/on rate and atherosclerosis, Acta Ivied. Stand., ISZ, 397-399o 19o7. Astrup, P., Pauli, H.G., Kjeldsen, K.. and Petersen, C.E., Introduction and general description of me study and of the procedures for prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide and hypoxia, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Lnvest., 2z, 5-8, 1968. Kjeldsen, K. , and Damgaard, F.. Ir~luence of prolonged carbon monoxide exposure and altitude hypoxia on serum lipids in man, 681852316 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 4B 93¸ IZT. 1Z8. 129. 130. I3I. 132. 133. 134. 135. Kjetdsen, K., and Dam_~aard, F., !rdluence of prolonged carbon monoxide exposure and high altitude on the co.,npo~ition of bJood and urh;e, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Lnvcst., ZZ, 20-Z50 1968. Klausen, K., Rasmussen, B., Gjellerod, H., Madsen, H., and Petarsen, E., Circulation, metabolism a-d ventilation during pro- longed exposure to carbon monoxide and to hig~ altitud~ S=and. J. Clin. Lab. ~vest~, 2Z, Z6-38, 1968. Siggard-Andersen, J., Bonde Petersen, .F., Hansen, .T, 1., and Metlemgaard, K., Plasma volume and vascular perrne&hiltty during hypoxia and carbon monoxide exposure, Scand, ~. Cl~n. Lab. ~vest,, Z~, 39-48, 19o8. Bond(: Petezs. en, F., Siggaard-Andersen, J.,Kristensen, J.H., and K~eldsen. K., Capillary filtration rate on the ~uman calf d~tring expostt/e to carbon monoxide and h)~oxia (5454m), Scand. J. Clln. Lab. ~vest~, ZZ, 49-54, 1968. K~eldsen, K., and ]Vlozes, I%~. , Buerger's disease in Israel. investigations on carboxyhemoglobin and serum cholesterol levels after sn~oking, Acta Chir. Scand.. 135, 495-4980 1969. Siggaard-Andersen, J., Petersen, F.B., Hansen, T.I., and Melle~gaard, K. ~ Vascular permeability and plasma vohtme changes during hypox/a and carbo~ monoxide exposure, Anto~b 20, 356-358, 1959. Astrup, P., iutraerythrocytic Z, 3-dipnospno~lyc~rate and carbon monoxide exposure, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 174, ZbZ-Z54, 1970. Astrup° P. , Effects of hypoxia amd of carbon monoxide exposures on experimental atherosclerosis, Ann. Int. h{ed., 71, 4Z6-427, 1969. Astrup, P., Kjeldsen, K., and Wanstrup, J.° Effects monoxide exposure on the arterialwalls, Ann, N.Y. 1740 ~9.1-308, 1970. 681852317 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 ~age 49 140. 141. 14Z. As~rup, P. , Karbeskadigende virkning af CO og hypoxi. (Smo~.~,ing and coronary disease. Vessel mitring effecto£ CO and Laka.-~idnin~en, 67, ZS6-Z$10 1970. Njeldsen, K. , Carboxyhe'rnoglcbLu and serum cholesterol levels in smokers correlated to the incidence of occlusive arterial disease, A~n~roscler. Proc., Zn~ ~t. Sxmposium, R. ~. Jones (Editor), 5pringer-Ver!ag, ~ew York, 378-381, 1970. Kjeldsen, K., CO-eksposit£on ogaterosclerosefzekven$. (Smoking and coronary disease. CO e×posure and frequency" of a~terlo- sclerosis), ~akartidn£n~en, ~7, 2o~-Zv~, 1970. Ast:up, P,, Pathological ~fects of moderate carbon monoxide exposure, Staub-Re£n~altun~ der LuSt, ~-~, 20o~3, 197Z- Astrup, P., Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke and its influence on the d~veloprnent o~ vascular diseasc, .Re~b~#it_ation, 25, ll-lZ, ~97Z. Astrap, P. , Some physiologlc~l and pathologic~l effects of moderate carbon monoxide exposure, Br. Med. $., 448-45~, I772. 143. 144. 145. "146. 147. Astrup, P., Carbon monoxide, srnokLug, and cardiovascular disease, Circulation, 48, I167-II~8, 1973. AStrup, P., Carbon monoxide, smokin~ and a~berosclerosis, . p~st~rad. Nied. 5., 49, 697-705, 1973. Kjeldsen, ~., C~rboxyhemoglobln and seru~n cholesterol levels in smokers correlated to the incidence of occlusive arterial disease, Atherosclerosis Proceedings of the 2~d ~ternatio~l S~os£~, ~. I. Jones (Edilor), Springe:-Verlag, Ne~v York, 378-381, 1970. Ast:up, P., and E~Idsen. K. C~bon ~ono~de, smo~ng, and athero- sclerosis, ~cd. Clin. Nortk ~., 58, 3Z~-350, 1973. Astrup, P. Cazbon monoxidc i~alatio=--~me ~oz clearan=e from blood in reversible coma, J. ~. Med. Assoc., 230, ~0~4~ 1974. 681852318 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 50 149. 150. 151. I5Z. 155. 154. 155. I55. AstruF, P., Pathological efiects of moderate ca."bon monoxide exposure (Danisn),Nor~. Mcd., ~9, 323, 1974. Astrup, .~. , Carbon monoxide, smo.htng and cardiovascular diseases, Prze.~.lad Lek.ar.skit 21, 353-354, 1974. Ant:up,2.o , gjeldsen, K., Den Humane Ateroskler6se (Human Atherosclerosi$), ~eskrift f0r L_..~e~ez, 13~, 5Z3-551, 1974. Astrup, P., Tobacco smoking and coronary disease, Acta Cardtol., 20, 105-I17, 1974. Trunaut, R., Boudene0 C., and Claade, ff:R., Sur quelques tellers h,~moraux de l'intoxication chro.-dque par l'ox~de de carbone chez leLapin. (On some h~oral effects of cnro~c carbon monoxide poisoning ~ rabbits, A~n. Biol. C~..P%ris~ Z6, Ig~9-1Z60, 1968. Tr,~naut, R., Boudene, C., Claude, J.R., ffacotot, B., Recnercnes sat lee effete de l'exposition prolongee du lapin et du rat a de tree faibles concentrations d'oxyde de carbone, IIL Etude de l'ac~on sur le s)-steme cardiovascRlaire (I). (Research of the eHects of prolonged exposure of rates ~d rabbats to very low concentrations of carbon monoxide. ~I. The effect on ~e cardio~scular sys~m), Arc~, ~al. Prof. Paris# Andcrsson, A., A study of cardio-vascular alterations in animals exposed to carbon monoxide dt~ring long time, Opuscula ha.cO., 17, Z03-Z09, 197Z. Birnstingl, M., Hawkins. L., and X{cEwen, T., Experimental atnerosclerosis during chronic exposur~ to cartoon monoxide, " E~r. Soc. Exp. Surg., Z, 92-93. 1970. Birnstingl, M.A., Brinsor., K., Cha:-:rabarti, B.K., The effect of snort-term exposure to czrson monoxide on platelet stickiness, Br. J. Sur~., 58, 837-839, 1971. Scott, IRA. Henson, D.E. S., and Hans, G.M., Relations bet~veen~nat~?~ic|i~cl~a thromboarteritis in rabbi~, Am. 681852319 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 9B 158. 159. 160. Fisher, E.R., Who!ey, ]x~., and Shoemaker, R. , Cigarette smoking and cholesterol atnerosclerosis of rabbits. Arch. Pa~hoI., 98, 418- 4ZI, 1974. Stuplel, M., Riotte, D.,Roossel, A., Romary, Y., Ho,~hon, Girard, l~., Dekov, S., Denesvre, A., Bourgeois, M., ~o~le~, G., Cavailles, M,, and Pr~lieze. D., Esperimental study of the ebfects during periods beseem one and Lqre¢ months, (French), B~II. Stupfel, },4., and Bouley, G., Physiological and biochemical e£fects on ra~ and mice exposed to small concentrations of carbon monoxide £or long periods, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 174, ~42-368, 1970, 161. I6Z. 163. 164. 165. 166. Chen, C., Okamoto, K., Nait~, Hiroshi, Nakajima, Y., and Kusunnoto, S., Eflects-Human health: Toxicity, tlss~,es, carbon monoxide, ~. JaD~ Soc. Aft Pollution~ 5, IS0,' 19~0."7 :.."i.. ~. MacKenzie, W.F., Patrick, R.L. Jr., and Monteleone, P.N. Jr., Patholog)- in animals exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide ~or six months, Prec. Conf. Environ. Toxic., Z3-ZT, 1970. Asmussen, E., and Paulsen, N.V., Cardiac hypertrophy in CO- " treated young rats and their ability to withstand stress. Acta Physiol. Stand. 2-9, 307-313, 1953. Truhaut, R-. Boudene, C., a~d Claude, I.R., Thyroid fixation of iodine - 131 in the rat chronically poisoned with carbon monoxide, (French), Ann. Biol. Clin. Paris~ Z3, 73-82, 1965. Ramsey, J.M., The immediate haematological response in the rat to experin~ental expos~,res of carbon monoxide, I- Imhvsiol., Z02, 297-304, 1969. Mazalcski, S.C. , Coleman, R.L., Duncan, R.C. , and Nan, C.A., Subcell~lar trace metal alterations in rats exposed to 50 ppm of 681852320 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 52 97 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 177. Ix4azeleski, S. C., Effects - H~rr.,an Health: Carbon monoxide_, rats, _toxiciLv,__ _ .'neta~s, Oklahoma Usiv,, Oklahoma City, Thesis (Ph.D.), ,106p~., 1968. Jones, R.A., Strickland," J.A., Stunkard, J.A., and Siegel, J., Effects of experimental anh-nals of long-term inhalation exposure to carbon monoxide, To>'.icol. Apol. Pharmacol., 19, 46-S3, 1971, Penney, D., Benjamin, M., and Dunham0 E., ]Effect of carbon monoxide on cardiac weight as compared with altitude~ effec{s, J. Ao~I. Physiol. 37, 80-84, I974. Per~uey, D., Sakai, J., and Cook, K., Health ~[rowth: Lnteracting effects of carbon monoxide and age, Growthr 38, 321-328, 1974. Penney, D., Dunham, Zi.~ and ~enjamt~, .l~., Chronic carbon monoxide exposure: time course of hemoglobin, heart weisht and lactate dehydrogenase isoz~e changes, To.col. Appl. ~harmacol., 28, ~93-497, 1974. Bartlett, D., Jr. , Postnatal growth of the mammalian lung: Lack of influence by carbon monoxide exposure, Resmir. Phvsiol. , 23, 343-349, 1975. ~V.it/<.ov, D., Milenkov, H., Ka.ntarev, N., Irdluence of nicotine on the activity of lipoproteLu lipase, Folia Medl.ca, 13, 327-331, 1971, Bizzi, A., "/acconi, ~. T., Medea, A., Garat't~ui, S.. Some aspects of the effect of nicotine on plasma FFA and tissue triglycerides, Pharmacolo-~y, 7, 216-224~ 1972. Milenkov0 H., Mitkov, D., Pelter, P.. and Georglev, G., The effect of chronic treaU'nent with tobacco smoke upon the lipo- prote~-n lipase and the lipolytic activity of the arterial wall o£ white rats, Folia Medica, 14, 339-342, 1972. Reckzeh, G., and Dontenw£11, W., Effects ofcigare~e smoke on hamsters, Arch. Environ. Health, 20, 7-15, 1970. Dontenwill~ W., Chevalier, H.-J., Harke, H.-P., Lafrenz, U., ., Reckzch, O., ~nd Schneider, B., The effect of l.or~-te~iletcif~ ~ hamsters, Virchows Arch. (Pat~l.~#~. ~, ~,~]~7-I~ ~9~-~ " 5S185233i 681852321 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter 3 Page 53 179. 180. 181. 18Z. 183. 184. 185. :86. Wehner, A.P., Olson, R.J., and B~:sch, R.H. span and decreased wight h~ hamsters exposed to cigarette smoke, Aych. Environ. Health, ~I, ]46-153, Lewey, F.H. , and Drabkin, D. L., ~xperirnental chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in dogs, Am. I. Mad. Sci., 208, 502-511, 1944. 1%;ussel.-nan, N.P., Groff, W.A., Yevich, P.P., Wilinskl, F.T., Weeks, M.H., andOberst, F.W,, Continttous exposure of laboratory amhnals to a low concentration of carbon monoxide, ~erospace Made, 30, 52.4-5Z9, 1959. Vernot, E.H., MacKenzie, W.F., MacEwen, J.D., Monteleone, P.N., George, M.E., Chikos, P.M., Back, "~.C., Thomas, A.A., and Haun, C.C. , Hematological ei£ects of long-term continuous animal exposure to carLon monoxide, Prec. Conf. Env4-'ron. Toxic, 7-ZZ, 1970. Ahrned, S.S., Moschos, C,B., Regan, T.J., and Lyons, Cardiovascular effects of chronic cigarette smoking ~nd nicotine use £nbea~les, CIr. Res., ZZ, 255A, 1974. Thomsen, H.K., Carbon monoxlde-induced atherosclerosis in primates. An electron-microscopic study on the coronary arteries of Ivlacaca Irus monkeys, Atherosclerosis, Z0,.2.~3-240, 1974. Webster, W.S., Clarkson, T.B., and Lofland, H.B., Carbon monoxide-aggravated atherosclerosis in the squ/rrel monkey, Exp. h4olecular Pgthol., 15, 36-50, 1968. Eckardt, R.E., Macfarland, I-I.N., Alarie, Y.C.E., and Busey, W.M-, The biologic effect from long-term exposure of primates to carbon monoxide, Arch. Environ. Health, 25, 381-387, 1972. Debias, D.A., Banerjee, C.~i., Birkhead, N.C., and Friedman, ~.H.F. , Th~ e~fects of chronic exposure ~o carbon (~00 DDm) on the cardiovascular 5vs:cm of k~onkevs, Thomas Univ~rsi~-, Jefferson Medical Col~ege, Philad~phia, PB-Zlb, 5!7, 46pp., 197Z. t;Si 55232'2 681852322 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.
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Chapter ~ P~ 54 99 188. I89. 190. 191- 192. 193. 194, 195. DeBias, D.A., Birkhead, N.C., Banerjee, C.M., Kazal, L.A., Holb~:n, R, R. , Greene, C. H. , Ha-~rer, W. V. , IRosenfeld, L. IM., ~..'_enduke, H., Williams, N., and Friedman, I%4. H.F., ~ Arch. Arbeitt 29, 153-167, 197Z. Debias, D.A., Banerjee, C.M., Blrkhead, N.C., Hatter, W.V, and l~azal, L.A., Carbon monoxide inhalation effects following myocardial infarction in monkeys, Arch. Environ. Health, 17, 161- 167, 1973. Debias, D.A., Banerjee, C. NL, Greene, C.H., and Scott, S.D., E£fect of induced myocardial infarct/ou and carbon monoxide on the ventriculaz fibri!la~ion threshold in ~e mo~ey, Fed. Proc., 33, 344, 1974. DeBias, D.A., Banerjee, C.M., Birkhead, N.C., Greene, C.H., Scott, S.D., and Harrer, W. V., Effects o£ carbon monoxide inhalation on ventricu/ar fibrfllat~on, Arch. Environ. Hgaltht 42-46, 1976. Kupke, I.R., Biosynthesis of lipids in per~sed dog aorta and coronary artery. IL incorporation of (Z- C) acetate into lipids of two aortic layers and of the coronary artery rudder the influence Of nicotine, J. l~olecular and Cell. Cardiol., 4,27-38, 1972. Stefanovich, V., Us~ti, S., The effect of nicotine on lipid synthesis in isolated arteries, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol., 6, 993oi004, 1973. Fisher, E. IR., Rothsteim0 R., Wholey, M.H., and Nelson, R., Irdluence of nicotine on experimental atherosclerosis and its deter- minants, Arch. Pathol., 96; 198-304, 1975. Parring, H.H. , The effect of hypoxia and carbon monoxide exposure on plasrn.~ volume and capillary permeability to albumin, .Scznd. 3. Clin. Lab. invest., ~0, 49,56, 197~. N:ulhausen° R.O., Astrup, P., Niellemgaard, K., A comparison of prolonged exposare to carbon monoxide and hypoxia in man, Scand. $. Clin. Lab. invest., 2Z, 9-15, 1968. -- PRIVILEGE D ;51S52323 681852323 Subject to Claims of Privilege and Confidentiality: Produced Pursuant to Court Orders in State of Minnesota, et al. v. Philip Morris, et al.

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