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Tobacco Institute

Our Tobacco Dilemma

Date: 25 Mar 1979
Length: 20 pages
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Page 1: vbu42f00
S n'P -1~611M.iuthc frnen r~rA+n.~u•ntar A!ennen anA , `alow•Btot~qo suicide:' Health, Education and Wet•' ltre Staehry Joseph Califano said In the report's , • pilipfx. • When demog:•aphers look at death rateL for•tjl/•eetaes related t~ cigaretle smokfng. they?; IdatlfyfD0,000 death5 each year from lung can- ,eer, 22Ag0 deaths frmn other eancers, up to acco • Is the7iAglr`mnst important cause of bron- chitis and emphyaetaa• • Is one of three key risk factors in heart at- tacks. .-;3 .- • Can harm the fetus and the health and tle- velopmat of ttte.baby in ttnthere who amoke. ln owe sectlon^ot the repon, the Center for Disease Contiol th~~ttlana ealls cigarette smoking Tobacco is direrth• a part of the lives of the estimated 1.8 milGon adult Carolinfans - one of even• three w h o- ho smoke cigarettes. Thousands of younRcr peoplr• some below• age 12. also smoke in North Carolina and South Carolina. MostlY. people sannxe because they enjoy it. "When I have a onacert or after the first half or after the eoncert ti s k!nd of a relief for me to smoke a cigarette says Leo Driehuys, -46, music director for the Charlotte Symphony who smokes a pack a tla. ••tl-hrn I have an eveniqg ~~ off and I have a dere hrfnm dinner. I like to smoke and talk Io r• vtft It gives a kind of •' cozy feefinR. etr t un nnt Whether Carolimaa: smpkr or louches tiarly eqeno-• : life in some Impact is multiplied be:ausr the entire T Tohact•o lunt•hr~ . in tobacro wae• Its bacrn in. •+n ~ arettes last year. ' ' Fcderal. statr and Inral Rn,ernments cotiect' f Tobacco is the base nl our small larn!s. nur y F` top agricultural praduct- bringing in more than fI d~ biltion for growers in 91 of North Carolina'.a 100 counties. More than I33.J00 North Carolina fami• .y $, lies are associated with tobacco farms. Warehousemen sell the crop in 49 North Carn- •~r. • lina market citks. More than 27,000 North Caroli- .u, na workers ma.de more than hatf the nation's dg- ; S' dustry - from grow!r.* u• ctgarettr manufactur• ~ ing - is concentrated tr• tinrth C arnl,na. -.~ thalatnotlnv•- • Gansesfimg uncer. •1o, k taxes. "ut f Tobacco money built Durham and Winston• oot! . Salem, a city where the.mell of the leaf hangs In •ola , the dot:r;awn air. Tr*.:co prnfNs helped create •IIIq Wakr F*•rftt 1inv~'e•vty. Dukr Itnlvenl[y..:Dttkr 'a1 ' Power Co., the N•C. School of-the Arts. ' uo : That positive side of tobacco was the only one i 1 most people knew until 1964. the ycar the firsi i U.S. Surgeon General's report on smoking con• ~ - ;, firmed some of smoking's hazards. J3 As a resutt, more and more smokers began to quit, and the nonsmokers' movetn'em grew. Tha nntlon that North Carolina had a-dikmma was, . •+ .- '1 . however, seldom seriously addressed. t 1 fri:htenin;; Dlescagc . Two months ago came the latest' findinga In- ' the 1979 version of •'Smoking and Health: A Re= ' port of the Surgeon General." The message,was' and frightening. ' ;,~ • ' _ '+.Z"There un be no doubt that smoking is itU more tlun'49.OMt deacns trnm chronic pulmonary ; s,+ t dtsrase yieveryone of thrm retatrd to smokin Amoq~~athher conclur,nns. th• national experts ~i wl!o pteparqti tMe=surgeon Frneral's report found Whe single moat important factor contributing to Tht' IrBmrdt pH•r.nnifird The hazards are personified in Jamrs MrMa• nua, 62- a formrr painter and puperhanarr from "James cank°be helped too mueh now," saYs hded,Yecause evitlence on maaN• eritical polnts his wife, Glennle. "But It this (publishing picture fonflleting, dangerous because It dlverta atten• of McManus-vsing a respirator) keeps someone Imm other suspected hazards ... ;' else from smoking. It wlll be worth it." ~ 'yy+Gpv_ Jim Hunt, who comes from Wilson• in Despite the surgeon general's report, the to• t~bPdtb•s3dt Eastern North Carolina, savs we ~ health bacco indus[ry does not agree the case against sbosldn i.°elose our eyes to any potential smnking ia closed. hiLnd from the excessive use of tobacco: • But• dds• "There are a number or things that I be• The Tobacco Institute, aWashinFton•basrd hta g speclal three•county, Obaerver survey, lfisagreed with the t.ronclusiona o( the htrgeon general. Even a large majority of smokers s.id the surgeonsen- eral Is right. . . . . . .. .. Most of us ih•e in a state that depends on to• bacco. Most of us agree,that smoking Is bad for us. Where we gn from here Is our tobacco diiem- ma. INSII~E Who srnoks a Yn: d Health: Suryeor~ t p L, „ ..a:~ .-~t10 ~ s.i» o k~s r i?U ttlny.: Who qultt Ttie ::~iconomy A Ns'.. . Tob.cco'4 }utur..Y whyA survey :; qeneratrepo, ' They're: bfeCO,~inO - Nwhy ~nd how they ~row onlobacco :Tha" lndustry' is . ` Pap.3 on emokinp Paq. tz = PsSo 11 , mllitant ~~ Pabe 1a :`. .Paga i6 ; < boo.r~inp V +.._, ! , . premature mortality In the United States." , The report estlmatas'that tife expeetan- top physician, points out apother problem: "Each year. the health dantage resulting from c!garettr smoking rnsts this nation an estimated $27 billinn In medical care, absenteeism, decrraard work pro• ductistit,v and accidents." A Special Re~~~~t•1 cultural and econom+r In~ea whose end product- cigarettes - kills n,mr of us. stark contradictions: i• Is a positive part of our Tobacco has betrme our dilemma, a mattrr of vest is beginning ttc trpresent something elsr, that smoking robs people of their health, the har- But this year. tvtth conclusive new evidence re[tes. have meant to nur economy and eulture. • harvest - leaves who,e cured golden cotor sym- bolizes what tnbart•o and its prime producL ciga• Bv summer's end. we will have reaped the of this year's toharc+• crop already tint new• plowed seedbeds. nation of climate and +nd. the first green shoots Nourished bY Norta Carolina's peculiar combi- but bad for health ~ Section l ~ ~ ~'lt10,~ ) s` . ~ , l d~~ . ~rr~rr SUNDAY, MA H 2b, ~. 1l79 ; ' N.C.'s top crop: part of our lives more than 36 bitYon annuain• in tobaccn-reiated ~ Tobacc.o ~i~rehouse.•ci~are ~ factory cy at any given age ts significantly shortened by • MonrtiFt'/ti'-".Ihalon Counti•. McMpui (plMUret~ on qigamte smoking." For example, a two•pack•a•._:~this page):.1tas been hoapittifizkl:7fn and off for Eay.moker between 30 and 35 has a life rxprr- , years with amoklpg•oaueed etttphysema. Smoking uney etght to nine yeare shorter than a nonsmok• 100 cigarertes'a day (five packs) whep he`quit in er of the same age. NovembeY1877, MeManus speaks only ~wlth dlffi- Surgeon General Jullus Rfchmund, the nation's culty and needs an oxygrn tank to survlve. t1a~ P!rMarad•La!LLMG3tfyl:ataRK.aLtt . fLa+rLMD,ry!ILDRaxE6rwwRyM1 i r. Iribker wlth etttp~lyeema iilustrate,our,iobqfi~o ditemmn ... 11 t '(' N ¢ ^ p 1~ ` ' ~, . ta r n, . rr ae ; . , up..wRh 45 atnployta, apabt. Jiwe are taore hataSSt}~ ~itlophol N ae pd eho- indinj tdbaeco rrtd emokikg in'1l77: )eararot wd sug.n~riJbo k.ryWulln's:oas! : r ~rr for wHicb reports are pub4c.. •r ° .: •. , !l hP ~C~IYIk, ix {tvef ,. sraennac. are oecam+y waceram snu , . Fot tnoat hfojfll'Nr68nlane however'the de• . , pation with amoking may be both on- - pate about the hazards of amoking ie over _ , tpptled ynd dangeroua," the leatttutr says. •'Un• Only about 1 In'.-10 people of 401 polled id a
Page 2: vbu42f00
Y ~ . 1 Tohacco And The Future ' ~ ,.. . , • ~~ ~ lf f erent 1anuages g• ~.^ r 1. ;4r palgn to bnost tobacco's image and hold thr line on f a t•n',l•ON•Ing ann•.mnkrng e/forts. R.J. Reynolde launched Itr.~ "Prldr In 7o6accn" campaiga complete tvlth blll-, U pn Colo-ne. . ` hoards. bcmper stickers and:llats that carr,v the elo•~ The vndustn• gan. con[r)buted mnre [han 55.6 milliea ~ P11 tu hdp dr'eat Proposition 5, which would hwe'prn. F ~•. 24 h+hned srr,•saing In enclosed public places in C•all/or• i {' garettes are:, ma 20G T14E CHARLOT'D'E OBSERVER gun„fLr, yb. 1979 . IndustrY's By HOWIaRD COVINGTON And ROltERT HODIERNh • c...•w. sw w.er.. RALEIGH - Thr dlay after the Unlfnd States nor- malized relations wttr China, threr (thlnrre officials concludmg a huaineas aip boarded•an nirplane home, their travel bags atotded'wlth American rlgarettes. Those cigarettes w,cre a aymbol fnr the thousands of North Carolinians ra•hase Ilvea deprnd nn tobacco. Not since Sir Wather. Raleigh rnnvmred Queen Elizabeth 300 years ag:o'that the plant avas a market- able product has the future growth of Nnrth Caroli- na'a tobacco indust;r xelled nn hr•na•Ily upon the , smoking habits of the tc.t of the world And the future Idmks good. ' In contrast to its doneetic markrl. where sales are static at about i7iFbillion cigarettes annually, America's tobacco fefasatv is /indmp rich new mar- kets abroad. where saokers bm+gh• 3.6 trillion ciga• rettes Jast year. • And industry petn.le and Inwmakers from tobacco states believe they v•arotect the industry from fur- ther anti•smoking eIIaes at home. that tobacco,ivlR weather this storrtt_ • • "There is no dqMn these media blitzes have cut the. consumption or tanbacca." says N.C. Agricltlture Commissioner Jim G>•amam. "This is a direct ahreat to the economy of -Nort! Tarnhna. "But tobacco•wlb Ihere before Joe CalifatioTgcre- tary of health,•tdtteaamm and welfare) or JimGraham came along, and•7 n-dirr people will be smoking. chewing and dipping ump after all of us are gone." 'R think there•is pnmg to be a market,,and a dg- nificant matket, ior a• Inng, long time to come and meybe foreves'•^ saR (,m•. Jim Hunt, who bas en- couraged manutactur'•-• to expand their plants tn North Carolina. t>• I - Philip Morris.,.tbr neNon's fastest-grorvin6 ciBa• rette tnanufacturer• h.eF taken him up on iL Work has atarted ne a new Philip Morris plant in Cabarrus County, exztncted to open by 1982 and eventually employ as 'rtmny as 2,000. It will be able to produce up to 60 billion cfgarettes a year - a little less than 10 persxmt of U.S. demand• , "We have tremenrdous confidence fa the indus- try." aays Hugh CuOnttao, chief exermtfve officer of Philip Morris USA. '•We are building the Cabarrus County plant because of future domestic needs and future foreign needs.- ~ `The indisetr•v ttdlf still Rtqtr' John Maxwell Jr.. of Lehman Brothen• the indus• try's best-known Wall Steet analyst. has-predlcted "the Industry will stiiil Itrow, but at a slow ratr." Tht• New York Timea r.morted last month that all etx majur cigarette compmnies make money and that R..t. Reynolds, Philip Mor-es and American Brands realvr profits of more than =0 percent from tobacco reae• nues. The federal govr-sment's anti-smoking campaign poses the most serioaus threat to the domestic indus" trtt Health. Educatmm and Welfare (HER') officials will spend S29 millnnn-tbi9 year to help Americans stop smoking• : • • v One visible produrta Is thl 1979 U.S. Surgeon Gen- eral's report on smmt:tng and health. Another is the first antl•smoking te.rvtsion commericiat the govern• ment has produced aalPPe 1972, scheduled to begtn within a few weeks. - The commercial nnrns with a close-up. head-on ~ar{ f Cigarettte maker°s don't 1ooli at it as illoi-al d ileiilizia By NED C81!}Eus-• benefits that outweigh possible tw.•.v..srwea.r medical hazards. WINSTON-SALE16--0 Wllliam '7 could stop smoking tomorrott'. Hobbs, board ebanrmtaDr `t1r, R.J• bust I'd hate the thought of !t:' Reynolds Tobacco Ca:; tsees ao Hobbs said. Huntel said he Im't moral problem In .cki+g?aad sell- addicted to cigarettes. although, he Ing a Product that uaexedeial gov-` sald,lie becomes Irrltable when he.• a whlle and • yW,. , ernment says an ki10}oat •ti doesn't smoke for " dn't 'nlax as well as when he ~ •'We're not killiu>F tpeopl°e:' sV's ~~~, Hobbs, 63. who has eever•worked for any company eseept 7tJR, the°'-Hobbs and Hunter don't deny a world's biggest cignrette maker. atatlstieal connection between •'We're providing a glvat Bvelihood, smoking and health problents, but for many thousands .T TteoPle Ia a,-s¢bey aa,v satistics area't enough to s16•bi0lon /nduun t9tatpaa Y6.~-,~¢ tcattvitlce.•tkettl of a4trect Hak. ,; billlop fn taxes evt•rc-gar;~• r" " r Thert ls,no clinical evidence Morgan Hunter. mmpan9 ptesi•~ that slMows a direct causation of Hobbs said. "AR studies dent, adds: "We are a legal:'1lgiti- cancer,. mate industry InvoHaing=thKl43ands idone havs been of a sutlstical aa• ot people and trBB'ianaxpff 'dol• auta I.don't know af any tlne that lars .•: aWe don't a.veany'hang- ;arty,eomponent`In tobacco-smoke dog approach for uitatat`do.'Our •has been Identified as the cause of people are proud to .vertd fbr` RJR, vny-•aleeaee. Too mudh smoking and we are a vert ttrmud compa- might not be,9ood fot • parwtt. ny," but too much ot a dot of thlhga . Included,° . Industry and mosc North Caroli- could also be na officials share tihe vlew that (Hobbs and Hunter aren't wrong producing tohact•o amd cigarettes as far as they go In comments poses no motal dileamma. That posi- •about the statistics of smoking and tion is based on the sdra there is no cancer, but there's more to the conclusive proof stmaktng is h•rrnt° medical studies than they conreded, ful - or at least thtm smoking Is Rescarchers say the klnd of experl- no more harmful lban a loi of inents that directl)• show smokme other things. causes cancer in humans would be unethical because they would re- qttire researchers in'try to Induce cancer in humans. Itm research has shown components of smoke cause cancer of the lung, mouth. and chest areas ot rats, according to the Duke Cancer Informatlon Serv ice.) "1 don't think tha- s any more nf e moral issue than wnethrr or not my tather•tn-Iaw• in uuwe ought 10 be producing beef. a'hich is very good beef and has a lot of chnlex" terol in it and It mtTht be danger- ous to hralth:' Gov..7tm Hunt said. "Or whether or not •rn the state nf Kentuckv, thev nugtr- to be produr• Although they continue In de• Ing alcnhnh, hrvcraarre ... . /end smoking. cigerette company officials are starting to:show con• Huut sr,•, ••moral dimensions to the qurstiou> of whether or not the poot. sntall /arme- so manv of w•bom nre m.nleeu tn producing tobaccm att gn+ng m' M• able n• make 1, hvtng or e• Ir/t avithnm lhe (tm' thln/: Ih.+' 'nerulla Ivrtl• them (becausc oi an,~,•amokmg rl• forts)." Hobbs and Htmte^ ol R..1. Rr. • nolds say il clgarett• smnking tN an dangerous. It stands no rcaaou ntam people should die of nung cancer., •'Why dnn't 90 percent of sntok' '•As a corporation and as Indlvld• ers dle of cancerT" 99obbs asked, _. uals, we share a serious twncern Smoking or•rr a I'ertod. of yiat~a about major public Jledth prob• • may cause probleraf'[o youC•lulln e'Jema. and we eomntlt reeourees to. but it so I'm not a•+c•are'af9t•1've' help find the cauata of dieeases, never had any probbrm:' - that have been slallatlcslly aeaoci- Hobbs, a native od Eden In Rock• ated with cigarette smoking, We Inltbam County. laas smoked tp~ r~Itave no trouble aoLY ung a world more than 40' yes_'••s. Htihtt~'.°°4`J, ln whlch there are dPferent points also smokes. They say smokln Is b of Vlew, but 'we de pgve troublt • pleaaure and p, vid,ex psylMdli .aS1~ wlth sedon who t>il~a[ata," opln- a 2 cern over health questions. : . ~; lear~.in ~, g:~ U.S. cigarette makers fin market o."erseas. as the . V e5t Cernlam, attests. A Atorri.'s H i(• h mond pla n t prepared for f'orei:rn flistrt`~Ition. v4T - shot of a burning cigarette. The narrator's distin voire belongs to actor James Earf •tones, "Hallelujah! We Americans have seen thr I and we're putting it•out:' Jones sacs asthe cigar is crushed out. "This country is kicking the ha Most of us now doa't smoke." The television commercial sounds the ms themes of next year's aoti•smokmg efforts. Jones. in his most solemn tace• says that wh tewer people are smoking, •'We still got troubl Kids are starting. Trouble. Women who take the p and smoke. Trouble. Pregnant women who smol Trouble. In certain jobs smoking means real trouble Some HEW officials believe the battle has b about won. ••Essentially, the corner has been tarned: • say Jtihn Pinney; iv`h`o hetidc ihe anti•smoking campaign "That doesn't mesn we're home free. especially wit kids But to a great extent we have turned th where a ver rnrnrr. In 20 years we'll be a nation small percentage of the people smoke. ••I don't think there's anything the cigarette mak- ers can do about it. They should face up to reali- ties It is not compatible wim the growing con- ccrn for good health. I think the future helongs to the nonsmoker." But Congress will have sorpething to sa~ about HEW's efforts, and tobacco interests are showing one of their traditional strengths there: having the right person in the right spot. - . Rep. William Natcher, D-Ky_ has taken over the chairmanship of the appropriaUons subcommittee that will handle the S47•millioe budget request for the anti•smoking campaign. Kentucky is the second largest producer ut tobacco in the country and Natch- er is expected to try to cut the request. Tobacco farmers can also depend on Rep. Walter '•We recognize that a company in the tnbacco business confronts a special challenge." Philip Morris said In Its 1978 annual report• "We make a producl thal carries a health a•armng. that cannot be ad- verttsed nn television and radio In ahe I).S. attd many other eountries, nd that some people would like to legislate out nf existence by revlv. Ittg a form of prohibltlon,' .loti if B In adc uon. manufacturers kave develnped low• t tar. Inw•n-rotine brands designed to hold on to cus- (f tomers wa•, may be shaken be medical conclusions t on smnk+r.g and health• In 1978, low-tar cigarettes F made up .'f) percent of the domestic cigarette market, I; up lrom 2S percent the year before, according to th^ ~ US. Department of Agriculture. , Comvames won't talk much about their domestic marketing strategies - whether they involve deveb i npng nrw smokers or capturing an inereasing per F- caanges o/ exishng ones. G But +t s clear the potential for future growth is f a)nrud where cigarette consumption Increased an es- • ttaaated 2.7 percent last year, compared to a tltree- k ttmLS of I percent increase in the U.S. The marRet Is M ~ In developing nations where cigarette amok- t ot under attack and is,regarded aa a symbol of sacces. . Lart year, foreign sales of U.S: produced ciga• . `t:etlea hit more than 80 billion in 197g - the highest ever• accrordtng to industry estimates. -- And U.S. companies' internanonal tobaeto mbmd• ~~~~,~ ~ fsfin are doing aa•ell. ntsHanPMUPMORRIS eroraFrana:taarraos • phihp Morns International. with 5.5 percent of ' Fhbdll th 180 bd i ~ te market aroa, ses moreanransn Jones• a Democrat from Farmville ~ricJr more than 170 countries. It sells more cigarettes ~a- overseas f200 bi)lionl than Philip Morris USA, does at F'astern North Camlins. to look om tor,Tkeir lnter• Mme t168 billion). Its Marlboro brand is the world's ests. Jones is chairman of the HoosaNrlgriculture ~ belier. Committee's tobacco subcommittee• ~ When he first arrived in Was '~' ta 1986, " - Jones says. there was so little controvetay attoat to- ° RHSSia'g tteu'1 on tfte list 'bact•o "there wasn't a single meeting-orihe snbcam- RJ. Reynolds Tobacco International makes ci mittee. There wasn't anything to considec: Re- But recently Jones has felt eompelied'totake de-• rettes ia 20 countries. sells them In more than 140 fensive measurea eoncentrating ffis: ~dn the '~ is negotiating to sell its cigarettes in Russia. price support pzogram• ,, Chinese leaders• many of them chain•smokers Iike It's an easy pmgram to defend, ~a eca the Late Mao Tse•tung, haa•e already had at least one HEW Secretary Cagfeno,.dn the grotmds tfut tL~e overture for sales there- The-potential new owner of system helps hold down supply. ._ IJggett 6 Myers. Dolph Overton III of Smithfield. But it is also easy m7defend )xranie Joces attd was a.isitor to the new Chinese liaison ofhcr in other lawmakers from tobacco states have maxsztaett- Washington weeks before he offered to buy L&M .cr.rore~An'-rarryvrtroyc.c ita.ar prvpnmr em, rhe this vear for an estimated S200 million. _ favor is usually retumed. ~. >•: • - Fozaga manutac[urers provtae a srrong '•I would tend to vote for whrt;the°grdta yeopk ~-for North Carolina's raw tobacco. Last year, N.C. want:' says Charles Whitley, a Mount Olive Dema• farmers produced 800 million pounds of flue•cured crat who sits on the tobacco subcomtnitter. °And tobacco - two-thirds of the flue-cured tobaccn they tend to vote for what we want." - grown in the L'nned.5tates.,Nearlc_hall the total wan most to European nations ivhere cig- . shipped abroad.• f.nr•ottrn•hn • si •ns for industrt• arene manulacturers compete w•tth U.S. compaeurs >, f• f• . .on_ foreign markets. Tobacco interests were encouraged last August The competition is kern. -hen President Carter said during a trip to ti'ilson "More and more countries are growing more to- hat the price support system wouldn't end under his bacco." said Dr. Hugh Kiger• ta•ho heads the Tobaccn " Lnt Extwrters Association in lialeigh And becauae el•. .residency. He also said he supported Califaaos ons to make tobacco even safer than it Is today:' of cheaper land and labor costs, "they are giving us A good indication of how secure tobacco interests fits on Pnce." el fn Cangress is their relatively low level of politi• Iadustry experts have been keeping particulariv where tn In last year's election, tobacco°inteteats close watch on Brazil. a top comperitor,e , giving. ve just over $100,000 spread among more than 200 • 6otrernmem controls , tobacco production and ad• didates. By modern standards, not a very-hefty vant•ed research has produced a high•quslity leaf• the umque flavc• •1 nL If the threats were pe-ceived as greater. the But even in these markets.+. would be greater. aroma of North Carolinas flue-cured tobacco is a The industq• also has been waging its own cam• treasured ingredient in cigarettes. . t There are choices yoii cl®n 't want :rz to gro_ ~v tobacco :~- Sy HOWARD COVHQGlON oe,.rnr saW tn+.:>^•-.. CLINTON - 'SYlteiI- t•uady Packing Co. opened„ietF in the mid•195os, the firm'wat luyisi about 100 hogs !i %F'e41t "lroo Sampson County fat•taet~boae main focus was tobat~a_ ta', . . .•_ .a=-.~ Last year, Sampson ~Oouaty farmers earned atmqst•as mttcJt from raising hogs as ;thpy die from growing tobbaco a fsa- dy's 800 workers bntchered S,OOD hogs a week and'sook home nearly $8 miaion- f)~F ehecks. Ahr•rrudi tv. Tobacco Is still North Carob- ni s top money crop But that might he changing in the next few years. Chicken.. turkeys and eggs - North Carolina's S700• mlllion poultry inductr. - could soon pass Inbacco a• ihe state's leading agricultural proctuct.. That's an Important point too those who wonder if North Caro- lina could -swltch to a nontnbsc• co-dependent econnm~ If it chose. . "5'es, there atr alteraauce• to tobacco." N.C. Statr AFncultun 'School Dean J.E l.egates said in a recent speech. "A neaa• genera- tion ol North Caroltr,n tarmera have hecome competm.r 11nh other Iarmers In the U S in prn- ducing (other) crnpa and hve•- tock." In some ways, Nn:th Caroli- na's tobacco industry is already All•At~%~t'it'an .eene at Titnma»a'ille. S,C•. atteliun undergoing key changes. Ciga- tT~ rette-making companies have di- versified Into businesses.ranging except 1 r nwn,•' "' government haven't been very pto• .7rom beer to real eaute, and e em~~duY( of moMy thal •to. ductivrand we•n aot•Betting any-_; mechanization ts rrptadn$• ths , Ai apend,on health where wfth'statistica,' Hobbs nid. `tobacco field worker. ounatant themi.:-,. •-'pdr purpose is to find the ause s~ Re nolds alone he. f• ant•er If /t's related to alte•' And even though more than o e emlllba and $25 rettes , We just want to find 133,300 North Carolina farm :ntedical i`esearch during the answert."- owners etlll hold tobacco a11ot• o decadN; t0 deteraUae -'k' Sald Huoter• "There's -alwava ments, (ewer and fewer are acto- vernment'atesearch ts isome Industry under attack trom ally In the tobat•co•gmwing busi- ` to debunk the atutUe loaophy falitreta negative atudf!-,1~t ~t.~.. '•somlbody But you can't let this nas. lnetead, large-scale farmers ,..botytet•yog or you91 become par•, are leasing the right to grow to- 1 d to othez tarmers •i~about It. _ , ~ICCO aea Bne ano by the federal government and eombining them into large tracts on which using harvesting tdr- chinery is prontable: ••tiut we know you ean't I •' grow• them:' says Legates. also must have a conttnutng suntial market tor them." Even aunflowers a Cliristmas trees won't help small-scalt farmers who h stopped growing tobacco to new endeavors. -Without monry trom renting their fed tobacco allotments to others, farmers sav, they would trouble surviving Oconomical the other businesart. ?1'rir buainpsgea The concentration of tobacco . growers has meant that many farmers re developing other erops and atarting tlew businees• ' es• Today, North Carolina ranks first in the numtxr of awlne pro- ducers w'ho sell more than' 5.+00 bogs a year: and first in-retelpta from farm loreatry: growint sweet potatoes and t:ucumbers tor pickles, u aWll as tobacw. -'•When I waf°6rowie6'up'we had about 4,300 tarms de Wilson Cottnty:' C.ov. Jlm Hunt said re• In adjoining Duplio Countp Jimmy Stroud and his bmtbe6- Earl• once grew more tkan 39.' acres of tobacco. Now they-pao duce only hal/ that and laae' switched to turkey and- eently "Now•we'va iot:ahout eattle. . • -hlt. • ., 1-000 tarms. (The fatmsra) •have - gone Intu awine,•tbey've •gone "We can make more money tnto sweet potatoes• ihat aprt or off turkeys with a whole lot kss thing• And, ot eours0.,a dot of investment;'seysJimmyStruud" them hat•e gone leto the Flreatonr plant, the Dlnner Bell plant. which Is a swln:•i+:,,king house 'Ibey are working for Central Snya. Kerr Olaas and al these new induaMes they have(!; h m broug t m. But evrn with the changes, t baccn rrntatns crucial, particulari ly to North Carolina'e smal farmers It is the only crop tha can be grown euccessfully o manv farms with limited ac erage. "No other crop for which w`j: have a stable market can pmvider'a the per•arrr return that Is resE' '' ized from tohacco;' Legatea sayt,t Prufilabl,• rrop .t Researthrr,c at N.C. State U aerstqhaae experimented wlf6` sunflmvers, grapes, Chrlatmfs trce* trelhs tomatoes and ntraw- berrtesw aa•hich wlll produce tts many dollars per acre as tobac ~Mt '
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MN p, ~t•01 I!p ~1 _'F . p NNpMMr~7:. ~md^••• qt"wi6'S~~ieS°%. ~°dp^e°"Sy~^ ~ E.~Fpgo(1Geoa.. ~o ~ ~r°.2.~~ ~~II~ +'.^°' rMreeS ~' g"~C= wpS°9 °Mr°. 0.Qp 8 a -raA $ ~uc^b8°^cg'g" ~Dp~~~R p~ o.. ate~eZUZS< g°° S~' v_ex".~••-ZSsC B ° ee R$tl~p'Se:pQ in $a 5'~Fe".El~NgE°p~o`~S, ~ ~7 }aCM. ~ y ° •w~ErnZejj _°. C ~° •' p11 i+ ~y~ epTp 0 yi n e°`C C'~b~fj p er i'fi n~e w0~w°~~ cC g~anC'~G"a^gtrnse~~ Con'~'" n7 egC ~gef~°pp~-oLg"w e6ngZ~ ~~g Ft~u i~ja Bd ~`rnr' 0^° r 7 q0~..y . BC 'Ga op"pfCi~hg 08&~rQn~'°~+~~i~jz ,3~~, < °Se ingl3~nq6.S~~ IFi04 rdC6 ~5 ~~ 6?g~6e$ nri~i~T twd~~74 ~ 11 1
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20 THECNARLOTTEOnec.RVER Sua.,Man25,1878 Opinion Rott-eNrttt, a.w...4ruwr RIt7NRDA.OP[Et, rikr ROBLRTSUAR[Z, ar...m,.wi+ $D1VQSf/tMt, r*.r.lraiwMlYer ' $TUAtITDtld, M..r.[.a- ..: . ;LPaca.AmottNr, .a..wr.a.• -- T1M~14~F`~95~ ~ e real sto tobacco ni ~if"e11l about A nd7Y p* ah~d!!as the Carollnas, tha Lrttl -bYb~tCOtt•pradttdng area ln the W aces pa pptpL usk 1n exe- mining ! ditamtpL t tobacco produc- tton,_ fg1~ plsltM .~h~tptae oaused by amo~lt~t~;~ ^y- .n+*ys . ' It1 it(fj ~ 1hlt~t Ot ca4ttonqng the ProDllg4l'~i ° r ~p~ust}y and AOUt/aa! lead• ers ki{flflfuM to Aak[.awkdga it link be. tw0~p giq k~ia~/and aapctr. they are m 3~V1Qi/gj~ }ta iltnwAg pttnorltY. a antM steadily In the Past t yPFta- A lth,vay we conducted for thi{ !ppaiLI teport d onstrates that evsa CataiipILLU who ttta its )nse isr mar{ u+~ft ~ha 1lveraL4 Aln4 ~ If the tobacoo inqf}gtty M WtmLgad, A® er qusattoa tba.~tiiltitdtabd~ . . ± ~ : - 14 g~ tba eitficulty wef ttot in confront• hr; tllr 1Mobi0at. Nor wtp it in contpllin{ vaat (aftrtatatlon aboltt amaking; sinoksrF notttraldk.rs, farnt4nt mstmlacturari, pole itietAtifC!looU.F4ptsr and rtseeraht The "at dlftlcqtty was in ttndlAB Mtt• sw1lL - . : Obuarver .dttora st»t two mdntka ago, folktw/ng tetrase'of the second surgeon ge 4tala raport, to pHn sA exhaustive 10o at ERWkIn[ aeA , . ,"thtt tUae, We .eotudentittas 700 0t tbe intorm.1taand argumeatt mijht~rpdtta a"blqsptint" for tba Car• oiinaa to prepue for ths day when, and if. gmoking declined to a lsvel that dam• agsd the tobatxm Industry. We f0und littH •ividenee that the to• baec0 tntluatry faca Lreat danger. We qe Lo aoluGea for the economic, beilltlt and othtr ptoblem ao oomprahsn• stv0 that ft wttTalfta description aa a "blasptint° We do stefvtpp directions wo~th Oenafdarlag, and otkr them for yow rAA!ldsrtt/os u ut Mltpalel on thk aaGUN a!f ltlttefl0, Otentimfa rnd cul• toril tAfinaauas, tobaoco and the Caroli- nas tnay be tnaeparablm If tbtMare not, It is clear tbat 2he parting would come with grott agony. ptth Lreat human avTtering• N.C. Gav- Jim H::r,t bas observed that the Isrue ot lnanulaetortng a+product that can dantaga health Ia not tne only moral dilemma faced by,C;rp~iq~,..,; ,. He's right. Queaticnhof morallty, arise In conaldsriaL `ovemment acUon that could put out of buthtw,ehe amall tarm- er .._ who hu Dsas: glvm,lueeaUVa to ttrow tobat'tio, e ot h5n.•. Aad wbat str.ut-lnottt obiitadons to the tsaa of tbousands of people who maka a Hvint throuak.tb{ ta.nufaeturtnL. saia and distribution of tobacao products? Yat. becattM +ara. ira t,LtoUnlans, we .: : t ntdt • - To live;'.th ~tobacco~_ _ r~ »ta a" . ;we must:fntce its dangers ~= •.., t, .~ty„_ .. , A nation that `ttataatGea/31i5xeltlLCAg biingeconomiCdlsaLtartRORFatatas aru.xlmumamonnt®f.pet~lflchola !. The iWenl J,av.rnramt sbould is likely to be a naUtmfWtoili•tatiotul eontinue ieMaceh Utto hew satokln~ acts and contradictosy prat*fs. Tbat : contributes to beart aad Iung Oireutq, is the proof aad the jy 4,ttbidom. tt Cdfaf.tbt oampLntq LbetaJd t>sntinue accpunta for thb pet~tltl''pD~qOd oJ lupQltlgYiLlrttht>OLL10tOlgarsulL• tobacco In the Unlted6tgtbg.d7mtLi~?~?t Y. It !s tUsW ttf ari tdgarnaa to •tiLrd!y anyone SslUv.ft rti~ki6 pwple auda' aV 1tla Ntttth Caoltna Isn't bwrdoug to beft, Aitst.Tttokt and undet ttp 1t !A iouth Catollaa. ers Want to quit. Yet U.g. tigaratq Thoge lawa at• Widely lrnorad. They consumption continuesto climb. - . shoutd be strictty enforced. • Some antt•smokrers oali for the`, . 4, Tye.public schools fall In their )ob government to end ~s tobacco priee~'` of health edttatitm 1t they do.rtt taach support prograta. 'Tfaey afthin- dotYt^ atudents fheluxarda of atno>dny, Edu- know or don't care Utatteading the catora and medical tixpel'tb should de• progt'am rnlght weII -lmcrease the pro- velop a mttdel tourae on the effects of duction of tobacco aztdbwer3tsprice. smoking on bealtb "=•-and parentg • Few North Carolinians want ghould insist on its ttge. - their children to smoke. 'Yet health classes in some N.C-pablicschools tell iess about the dangersof smoking than students could learn from the warning on a cigarette pac3c. •,• " • Scientists have concluded that cigarette smoking is dangerotts•, few sensible citizens doubt it.•Yet some politicians and tobacco-industry spokesmen treat that conclusion as Sf it were an old wives' taie. Given t.hose contradictions, it is not surprising that state and national poli- cies on tobacco are less than models of clear thinking. Some changes are needed to protect our citizens' health and cut• state's economy. The changes wa..re.crommend are designed to ensure individuals the right to make an Jnfotmed choice about tobacco. They are: • 'l. North Carolina's political ieadera should continue their cIIorts to diversi- fy the state's et:onmr- The achieve- ments of Gov. Jim Tinrtand his.prede- cessors to promotltS diversttication of Jndustry are commenFabie. So are the have a speclal il _. deal with the itCdl by smoktng• To lure that we can smoking. We pq{t~gp{ta tottt~ In the past t4h1 "i>Jllitha, tttwa thiw Observer ptatlRR/ Lryapottsth ph g~= phsn, artirtg tMffdtlat wrJttrb ttlf~iLr~Ar ers and eAlto;~g, w Aq~W wmkN` H a iKil toWi ehiqk MR~i ttifpt mott ottle. prehanrivp ibolt at the tobacq0 la4wtty ever undartaklis b~t tp Amanatp aet[IpM , per, -~':, Wo'v. tYNf~ eaailihts tvery NIe of the amokla •gpd oLpap coaftowrty. Whetf ~at0 ~iti 6ttntGau bntr[Mn b• bacob {nAq~ty~t taUvsa aa8 taH'. oat teeearGUb" y~^ 1 81110111114041 to NB thraegh tARat~4fBIBIi anl cauAtltalatgN !or tht Thu a tfAa • sdl r- weskand! with tePOrt~s aM o0N7rt Wpy manyLntaf KLAaa~dwc aWdttas ~t ap~ oial msntiept Hob t7op bacoo tnd f qve'1 mamai ~ tor, pot08:Itt/~! ~ubtteittoat ttpbRl andapd/atM• • ff viewed phyilalssa and fesearchars to unaarnabH tWabouaand{ of pLps afttt• tan on amoklag sAd heaitb, Howard Covtntum, frtna Our itaislgb buroau, lntetvkwsd political and~o vsrn. mental llLurq attd Oatae business Hadats. 1)on Hedwatl. a. 131tetneas writer, aptnt days roportlnt •sad -wtlGist ataut the commercial gfA etOaomla mesnlnj of ta baceo la tht CarollnaL, " Phot~p~raabM Thil Drake,.(iary Parker and Mat7t fludet traval1d ztany muff to show the peepH6 the faetories and the great farmHndt that an a part of tbs to• acco atory.. Ed Willtetna, editor ot the editoHal vages, persuaded national columnists Tom Wicker, a former North Grolinian: and Jsme. J. Klipat•t&;, a virginlea, s: !vrtt- eotumna on tobacco especiatly fer The Obeerver. They appear on this page, along with fiov. Hunt'a essty. In the final anilyals, thU spcdal report on tobacco and smoking is about peopis. You will ass the picturss and namn of aeorss of people in tbts report SmOkers, nonsmokers. 1`hyaldans, eanoer .!elims. Farmsrs, lobbyista. Compatly prwidsath hctory workers, in almost avtry uea, they are CarollAl- anr, Thts,•after af1, is sbout tu, Rich Oppel 5. The Department of Health. Eduu- tion and Welfare should continue Its program of educating the public about the hazards of smoking. Health offi- cials should no more be content wtth quietly publishing facts about smoking than they were with quietly publishing facts about pellagra. 6. The federal government should not ban tobacco or stop Its price-sup- port program. Banning tobacco would lead to nationwide flouting of the law. making criminals of otherwise law- abiding addicts. As Tom Wicker notes elsewhere on this page, stopping the price-support program would have little, if any, effect on smoking. 7. People who eitJoy smoking and accept the risk should be free to do so. Millions of smokers, however, want to stop but can't - they are addicts. The federal government should label tdga- zettes "addictive^ and fund more te- search into ways to combat tbLs and other drug addictioas, ti. Polith3ans and tobaeco efforts of agricultuial zrrearch centers aPok~ ~~ should atop denying that and county agents to help farmers pm~ ngerous- Few people su•a duce other profitable emps. Tltnde bn- misled by such aelf•servinL lmow- dertakinEs reduce the.threat that qt re- IIothingiam. ThiL ttnconvlnotag deceit• vet•atl Jn the tobacco fadtlstfy, ecould Is disgtaebfttl.'r.i6s. ~ ta i, . qR70tatbndl[MMAx autew .AM Ya..,a,1.r.eMa~sv M.neYtaMRwaF : a}~'wra~ o`/e.a sMn+rt'~..r ~ a~' w S•'~rr., ~urt aaa, ae owrsn, wesa s..ar - 441 hny gW Iuhe a! h0 i e ` ~ lii 101111,1170 n ~ the of wa'ton tar•n Chr1 ;nd sLrlcu 1y turveyi ither ent for tobacctF leuiA tbe leader ldi* of tabacso aMt OfJll cash ${I1aIna ta Io77• w,ai aAd Ialaries pr0lfltine and 09r tBvK i1,8 b11U ao~AuOt~; ftpgfon ttlp yealy, mlployment 111i Aatpp. and it'{ Impp~miataf at fArmtfs, a {~ote tbta a blUtol i18,GD8 ppople in . aA~ (a Aroducd (aa httbHl lio eide tf4trn. IAost si EMM vt oo, f b 7~~e left ht~lding the bag e : ~ :" imar~t t~isaWears., • I am a efermed tsd~eiter who kicked a- ~lalliaL ar Oal 40 fhe.atvp`lean ltto• her of smokers, as a legitimate ;•.nlic heavy ctjarette habtt 12 years ago and asaaa would not pnt an end to?nbacco health projecL That raises a possib8ity hava a.vjr touakad thglWlta~s J'm In p•w9ai ahraad- It woaid aot~vett put, omiaaua to the tobacco grower - that no dnubt' that smoq~L !a afli •y gnd, aD a1rL M bbaep~towr1ag hatGat hothrough aacumWatiog evidence ot health givan hUf a chantA. I praack CsUfmo• J! wAl Efeate 0 fr0e mafket SA tobaceo tutzard, or growing success la edur^Nag Ilke ssrtnons aLaAUt ^ I'v0 persuaded asat dt 7[onte eat7ataktt 4ka bt+attess the public about that harard, o: ,•••n, atY ehll}rea te a~,~~ft tr• iraraaoYS fir antalK t.~ers, f ut. amaking might decline so much that Cge- In vtliw of a~ Cutt. I~ b0 a7tpsobd ~~'~t p~~ of bmdnar, aad proba- rette manufacturers would shift Into my, to favor a'bga•iR'sm et ar altd b~~ _~= be T~m ~~~~ other Unes. They are diversifying already. • the tovernnteaty t~ro tlttobah '~""" expeni-, ' •• aa a hedge against the future. ~ ~ ~ ~e p ~' ~ With that possibility ln mind, tobacco , ` V ~~ Oo, or wma ~ Htg HaatMAy /t0yg.. Ifut I eeaR ;bot ptatAlogrg fr at • 1LLttfnepaLlMRy. LFfloa W ptfaa aoPPv state legialatora and the US. Depnn ttent expatrtate ~'ar-IIHa~~.l rd »it. gr.~.apr,.~~ >>~a~n m of ABHtviture might do well to begin nativsststa'a1i~s stcashehgrtr.,_v=r,.~ s~,~'Rl~r~.~:'.•~;•'_.. thinking of ways to divert, over time, J'm oppoqd 1o a ban On 1tMh~gj lL~ ~• ~~~~'--~•-~'~ their atates' economies and many of their cause l've tYd aU about pmhiNttea attl Vm ~ y~~~s pow the eitizens' farms Into other pursusu• Low- 1»uuse I lived Mltough ltalpb Nsdsfa Of• =~~b b~b H~O~ ~~est state or federal loans, !or ex- forts to sttap `i!L all Into seat baTra, lfor ~ ~ ~K~ bY'aftantte amPle, might be made available to 2obac- 1tu publlo liaLtlfn to the baa on saeoba- ~~'!~ b~ ~~l do farmers needing capital for a move Tlabetal0ltM,be, ail°tM )<OVStamaIIi 4a{.4asouraged. ,lnto_some other kind of agriculture, or wvrvllayf•er~° •1 4O;tOM 1>~.lWfl mm*through rr iao• dtflrrrrf JaVtitP dtt ~'3SF~.~9tate-a6• I bslisrk t~bsaotber wNldgaaAtany Of• oomii*if" oddgtwd !t~ ~pe b~'~ well' ~cu(p>ril colleges might encoerage and fastt. Aad lf !t tidn't, pe0pls's OsttrmlA•' ~~~ ~ a~Kquence, educate students to look to other crops• ttat0 tttea a baif~AlAUoa faWWss in Lhis The tobacco farmer shouldn't be left a!~ to Mat bsn, tks blaolt taKkK ait00t 1gg,DOD of them in }tolding the bag it tn some aot•/mpossible • that would vJtsbly davalOp, the N~ ~„ - ~s~ qdm to- future his market disappears. ~ "oWd ~~ a~ beaoa=argsL, all of eham asting In good 1L~qtt d~ e tha dl"ytP0at tbr !~ ~~gt always bsi bela a leglti• And, here's a friendly suggestion from kr1 t1LLt'L OPidtafl0 (A SkIL OOaaa- ~{ay~~, - one •who's always been proud of his yy, CaaLNY d rettlse to paM tbQh a bav0 bssn ratde, eareers home state: Some North Carolinians moat bitaaywayt,- t'1LhHyLa, g~r{, lt1rM tkapsd Oa thst tact. The heavily benefiting from federal tobacco -; ttppoaa ~the pr/G suppott pto• OeOSSl~las At st twt 10 sratas depend price supports - not just farmers but ~• LrD7M td0, h purttq OamDlala Of baaatbM bbaeae fnrmlag none moce warehousemen and other businessmen tbs coAtt NtwseL itlad thr so trlat Ltortil Carolina. AU Of that would "who serve the industry mtght tone rrpmtaS'.ff }sY1100a11y aad yptshiy disrupted by •down their fashionable cries ot outrage a to disDtMRap. about "big governmaat" and " qta lul) Of yaMaR W 1rf7a0 !tlppprt prpgtafA - par-lcderal !n- 1o phiah q It Mgl} ~1( ~~ wkW Ktok a move probably terference" NobodY owes more to both Ua't liall y the 4[alsli IMM Nttb it say Offsat on smoh• than tobacco men - thn[aqng . altn +r; trt.~,L. »ri targat. Tom WFcher, an associote editor of the setekieg-~' . fta 04(ta[••} ayftll•' >br atkp bo1, t itsaRlly approve New York Times, ts a crop losas_i~ of price tuppottt._,~.. ot ~a!afmaat attorta to redueo tka num• -s.,..; ,Ftpu .t.t~A ir•- !rz•R;a°CCY0 t ;E `B~ ~v~a`at au~horlty has ~' . Califano made himself the great nanny of us aIl?' Sa IeA by kLtk Itttt- a tteputy mK» "ittlei~e4 tvoaklai teaesatton he does not Hh the ffio bh~oton ttuo. He-fne babltuaf 34 mkNoa Is that ealf.tto pi plth•4ttr •mon `I ~re~eve I have a du _ to do all I can to keep ` u ' tobacco econoYny stro• ~ att ~ ~tIM11lette a t,M agar eWk 0( - - {L a7rrsga wags + t7ta seoond• g~ q Itta Ctt bbatrw ~ tY .WaLa lelts t ph1GL Moais, ttYtaR to !!nd :OurA Llpgait toOMae factw'Y. 3 !p ttn[ working i ~0la eeprmYtit ep Ircing aparsaoa fr'aro 0 foreiga to NttrW Carollna 1t.±vuld mska peopy fhsald-~•t to decide for themaelns tvbpkqr to an,r~ke. The feder- a1 govppya,et•/1lultln•t be allowed to ragutafa fhfs.part o/ tnIf prtvate lives, •atty.meH Waa~-ft Iboytd ~lt us whether, we should rat dessert M have a cocktail. There anr fitapty tbotts a> whiob tbe fed- eral goVfra attouid involve itself in ourtps/ees b~idtftow ta Itve our lives• d-f[a 1nWt Jutp rrminding Peorle •;gU tbatM~tObaeeo fs Nfa1 to nur edonomY and to tbs tVSiLbalrg of rnsnY people who 'f0e afiA M aK'tt af ~L~M) am p~, blacks or Inmans with tew • ria~y fbL4t i tMltf ~1•irsr dif tk0 Ottport noatkaL other IpporAmftles~T~ry benefit most ^dT. ~+M+s•aetttptatslf= _~w~ras R kaw a OtRy to eo 6{t I ean imtn'f>s tdtacco -aupport ProBrm"; t hrz0t tbnt + ad 7a a Hss a! ttreag fas tka Y M iLLp s.r a.Daore .momm t tiVhy 3~i fa ~1•e e as fanan, a ,rsatser weuld do fK Ma state'a pro~q, •: a 4 Vra swaa! by 0}y( That's wfiY I'H ad U•S U Im dO n.^tisc Id fWA IraotMt y~ssaadn[ ttoh.rc HtranMball. ~dntt'tbat tobacao wlll tron ds. PR tk~ br }~L pls b0'Jykyo eeuad of t[Ne aego- .tia tq tM tJta, mast important coP fa W~ a~•a~ 'qatlLf bttrrklrg b Afserican N~ l:~liaa•for a bnB ume. and that M~ thetivatfd snarket wfil remain stmn¢• At Mal tft L~+ M,~ ~d0a' the fnms tJme,.wa mun candnue to work "' tK 1 teltted to t lndustrY Y Oem to :' , Ws'M a lesea qt ~~ t'tn tamP • harA t0 Mitsa a vatfety o areas .•,i (~ilts anA ponl~ry ~i the swtteette bNlth of our Npf¢ ~a ~ m p,cate It In u'{ 1A swwt pNi~ fnawlry. J!OA't believe we yvh~ pappla 6aveo't l,ad chances In the e•nl tlai b We mus[ Ys,.tabiea fr1 ak~ ~a pur alMS iq aAY Potep peKtOrakemanWacturingio s• •ot Ih ihe etate yhl• ~~ ~rd itotn the agMSaive use of cn~ ro~k new attrrnative egdcul- x qrk.a.a I am hastra sxcsniW. for there .p~ p~q~s,q~s, we muat conunue re- - ~ eatanslon, waN sawral thinta tbat I bNtRVa are more • setsm tato better straln. of toWccoI and ..d: t w 9171b a tt ~- aiaeboll{ Oaat Ohoitftarol and A t w 1 tato !vs harmtut ciB•rettes. We must .,;n>, ~ staa bsttntol ia eaesas kaep to ew tacu. •rs out aynn open n . gt we 10a. E~•va wa gbottl4 iatarm qir yotmg ''tnt we sbouiM't torgeG nor abonld we , tad !or gl,t reatpts ht NL1dt yott gdd tM Mir f~~ ~• w an avarata }plf,Ldti 11 tobaaMl ~M~Y~ OS ths t>a~AH eanLers ot exas- ilvs aaa of tebatwa, being txrefui to talk •b4st ftaats, fNt VtOpajaOaa• We -tib0itasR ea009rAj0 p0anA~ peoPle to OtarYa afAsn tht,/ at+~i't af tA age m taabr aatfs5aat ttR thomatltu, I beiteve tt'a st~p[eprtaq for )farents to itt~e them @ot to maok0, 1aa„ af[et the hati ate satd6 avaiiable, = '~om ~Viieke reker The far~arier shaiuldn•'t WASIiING'~N •- Two months have mak* some of us who h.ve etopped ~ assed ~M ~ Secretary Joseph Call- amorstR take up the"hablt again. . p 15th anniversary edi- Tlar rationale that ordinarily ia-ad• non of "Smot$ag and Healthl" That te• ~ for the government's pushy later• pon has been . ~n8 e a nlow burn• It ~ in our private flves is that smok- dea9s witb a tssume in this field but tnL eauses lung cancer; lung cancer the key fssue: .. . . vieelas have to be hoapttaUzed: bospitali- How did ing get to be Joe Call• saea~a ~n Involves public funds: there- laao's busineaila the first place? fera, CaUtano is justiffied, etc. This is the II"he anniveMri• edition is as thick as same rattonUe by which professional do- two bufiding ~tks and equally indigest- gooders htttlfy lawa requiring helmets for ible- It is t!e,Qku• `Adth tables, chnrts, - mes>YCy'dere and eirbags in automoblles. graphs and biil~ogrephies. It Is a massive, IDat this line of reasoning is fatally de' atnpefyhtg, attbDmpasstng piece of work. fe,dda~e• Every terminal Wment under But it nevetlbothers to justify the role tnoan or sun may reqWre boaplfaGZaUon. die someUme. amokats and of goveramaa! in undertaktng to per- We aIi will tunda pe~lelt stop smoldng• If the gov- noaasmokers aIIite. The kinds of (nng can- ~y~ts ~aSgn of behavioral modiG- cer attritmted to cigarette smoking aon• qs~n pmY bt Iuatiffed, It should be stimte but a part of the 350,000 deaths ykat authority baa Calltano ~s b~g~e great nanny of us aUY ~~o yjr't the slightest doubt or t hla mlalon• Ha taUa us n to ttw'koercroa." ea- 6ut he dou sease to aw at,pnaoqkn, adu0ttion, pdbbda to ~ty tha e adult popula• to • ellmge the parmnat uoj n~ and womsn- Hta :h~tP them stoP`smoking taz falda toward tnptuons ~ so8dtude, ta atnwa+~tougb to teY•ths federal government forget, the HveHkood tftat mbacco brings to the peo• pie Of t{orth Carolina and the South. To y.sr• faH to stand strong for our people and av asormmy would be the poorast aort of .,,, . leadership• N•C• Gov- Jint Hunt grew upon a to- bdcco form in Wilson Cottnty'. 2d1 native of Hamtet, primarlly the responsibltity of the state, but of the private marketplsce• What we - do with our ln•es and bodies - wheta we find our pleasures, how we exercise our uetes - is our business, not Joe Cal' ifano's• The proper role ot government ts not to lnhlblc our liberties, but to maka our llbardas secure. This Is what a free eoclety is ali about- So long as an indlvidual's habit cauere no signlficant harm to anyone else, the state has no right to reshapc him in ways that are thought to be more wholesome• There is no evidence that John Doe's smokiag ls a danger to Public health or to public safety. John's own personal health, l sub• mit, is John's own ruponribtUty. I am aot recommending that anyone ' smokin I W lrom cancer annually, and all mW~- take uP L q t ZO taontba'ago . tult when GB ~cmd~ a~ the pteamra of a; amt9es eotnbined produea iW than the deaths that result fmm bsut disease• °S~ ~~°Q ~~e ~~'y Yet~awilt,Y•mtHy; ff'a abam~d to ~ bot'•abrsdv4 gaamDot ~t wis m~y, dee~ t ~ saPpoae that govarnment4 fa some LadHka ~sucs, I have tq~t !rlad m)nt~pos ~~ '~ aaa a duiy to wHpe out toorbinf, ~•~ve•Wdamant Ott attothet soeL fika i s•ssf letd us Into ever4suaL >uti sl~" ytwsrnment ought to Ha to sat dowa oa hosplai ao.u W a lrae peopla tiMCYr U tt tha tunoffo9 at tto»-;,~ or to bW. ~~ ~~~ ~W to haav- ~' wrsaa w rsut m se:moos-and HattuMr' C$"' ...,... y o-; e o.._. .' i 'saA o aubJectw to behavlaral modifldY_-. •tfa.~ :Oa the at'ouads 0f "wefidtt~'Aadf ~~eatsd~cotrt'mxnkt~?wos~ 0 aafiondAy ayndt-~ ht .w toW yteladu~i~prl ~ In ao}t JorolSiwRlchmondNoa N ew~Lea ~ ~ ds.
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~ By RON FEINBERG tle. Fortyone percent of thox•whn have ever smoked oss'rv'rsrarnv don•t smoke now, but that probably includes people Every day, about ono-third of all adult Carolinians who simply experimemed with cigarettes and didn't ght cigarettes and suck smoke Into their lungs, in continue. I •aearch of the satlsfaction smoking can bring. nst, according to a speeial aurt•ey conducted by ~ he MOhFerver, wish they didn't. The survey found that 75 percent of smokers ave tried to quit - many succeeding for more than a year before smoking agun• And most smokers are mnvinced smoking Is dangerous. Sixp•-three percent gree or stronglyagree with the 1979 U.S. Surgeon eneral's report that evidence of the hazards of ciga- tte smoking Is "overwhelming:" But they keep on puffing. IILW.ard,•33Faaaletsnt-dirrctor-of-qualityr control . tfor atextlle mill in Wingate. started smoking after -joining the Navy In the early 1960s. quit In 1969 for .four weeks, and started back after gaining 10 ii1FFFpounds. r He smokes about a pack of Winstons a day even though he agrees with the surgeon general about ,'•ismoking. k "Well, 1'm not absolutely stupid," he says. r'7here's a chance you can smoke and won't get sick. It's a heck of a gamble. If you lose you'll probably be ^dead, but I've established a habit that's extremely' bard to break. . . Floyd Holshonser, a foundry worker who lives In ••And the plain faci is I enjoy smoking," he adds, 'Monroe, quit smoking fn 1975 after hls doctor disc•ov- °There's no two ways about It, I simply enjoy amok- •ercd what Holahouser ulls °'blistering'• on one of his , hmgs• For 10 montfu, he mansged to do without dga-' The Observer survey was conducted In early Feb• rettes before martin gng agtln- ruary in Mecklenburg, Union and Gaston counties. •"]he problem Geared up, but I was very tense, - ,Telephone interviews with 401 persons, 18 or older, nervous all the time:' he ays. "I don't know what•s became the sample base, meaning the error factor for in cigarettes, but there's something that relaxes me, the survey is plus or minus 5 percent. ' • and I find it bard to do without it.•• More than half the 401 persons interviewed - 59 _ ~, Hotshouaersaya be thbtks smoking Is hazardous to percent - said they had smoked at one time or an- other• Thirty-fh•e percent now smoke. 24 percent smoked and quit, and 41 percent have never smoked Over the last three decades, there has been a ges• . eral but erratic decline in the percentage of people who smoke in the United States, according to polls by the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health and the American Institute of Public OplnioA (the Gallup Poll), ' The surveys vary a little. But generally they show that 44 percent of all adults smoked in 1944. 42 per- tcent In 1955. 46 percent in 1968. 43 percent in 1971, 40 percent in 1974, 38 percent In 1977 and between 33 and 36 percent in 1978. That's about 54 miltlon ult smokers today. The largest declines came after 1961 and 1967 surgeon general reports that eon- then heart .ted amoking with lung cancer. disease. .aonal style," the ad said. ti-smoking television commercials started regululy..:_ •MOSt smokers In The Observer survey say th C ey i • daMng that period. Eon'[ light up at any particular time, 11 percent s•v Er Tt emo'te er leASt once or twice daity. to 20 percent of current smokira:gn'lar'•• \obod••'s h• ical they smoke only after meais rnd 6 percent say t;:el• Repnie Crufner. 17. a senior at West Side High in s Although former smokers tend to be somewhat /1 smoke only when they are nervous. Andeip n, S.C., started smoking regularly when he better educated than smokers.'educaNon levels don't ? If the percentage of -amokers is the same in the About half the smokers in The Observer survey n•y5.t6 and recently quit after he coughed up blood. relate strongly to whether people smoke. Ten percent ;Carollnas as across the nation - and The Observer say they smoke between a half a pack and a pack of •'* father has smoked ell his life:' he says. "It of smokers are college graduates. compared to 14 per- survey indicates it Is - 1.2 million adults smoke in cigarettes a day. About 17 percent ay they smoke ame*aturaily. Besides, everyone w•as sort of doing cent ot nonsmokers and 29 percent of former smok- North Qrolina and about 600,000 in South Carolina. more than two packs a day. it, I4*ad smoking in a way. I really don't know how ers. Twenty-nine percent of smokers have less than a Filter cigarettes are far and away the favorite of to de>~be iL•• high school education, compared to 30 percent for e' There are no typical smokers. Age, educational surveyed zmokers - preferred by,89 percent. Sixteen are other survey statistics which compare nonsmokers and 23 percent for former smokers. "level, race and incomr don't have much to do with percent ay they smoke low•tar "light" branda. smo fa nonsmokvs: 'who does or doesn't smoke, according to The Ob• Smokers get started early in life. Five percent lit . Former smokers are a little more likely to have ^ti server sun•r)•. ' up for the first time before they were 12, 7 percent • ntokers arc much more liketc to have prrsnnat higher incomes than smokers and nonsmokers, but .S5 The characteristics most smokers seem to share - between 12 and 14, 18 percent between 15 and 17. doctorsseho smoke. Twenty-four percent ol smokers ll the di(ferencrs aren't other the~ejgaettes - are a nagging fear they ue Nineteen rceo[ started smokin between 18 and' 21, say their doctors smoke~comoared to 8 percent for great. Forty-two percent of 515000aIlnuall endangering the{r health and t deaire to qu1G - But non kers and 6 perttnt for former smokers, smnke.rs say the._~ earn_Less,tha0_._y__ The Observer survey deals onI wlth adults. __ y compared In 44 percent of nonsmokers and 29 per- TwmlY•Ih'e percent of smokera strongly agree there ia ample evtdence smoking among young people kers are about twice as likely to be mar- cent of farmcr smokers. Eighteen percent of smokers • 39 percent agree is widespread. Nationally, the surgeon general eati- ri~ ppppie who smoke than are nonsmokers and say they earn more than f25d00 annuall,v, eompared with the surgeon general's findings, I ~~okers. Otheraise, marital status and smok• to 12 percent of nonsmokers and 24 percent-of torm• ~ and 15 percent dlagree or strongly dlagree, ma tes 6 mlilion people between 13 and 19 smoke - f ~ Sixty- ' 000 amokera under lY2 But nonsmokers and former smokere are likely to and there are 100, tpg app~ar ucrelated-three percent ot smokers er amakers. , ' be even more convinced of the dangers. Fifty-two - are ad and 62 percent of nonsmokers are- mar• . . percent of all nonsmokers and 43 percent of all /orm• A 1978 study by the Charlotte Drug Education ri . er smokers strongly agree with the surgeon general. Center indicited slightly more than EO percent of all • Men are slightly more likely to be smokers :And only 4,percent of nonsmokers and 7 percent of girls in Chariotte-Mecklenburg junior and aenior high le who quit smoking are slightly more than women. Seventy-two percent of men and 49 per- a11 formermtoketsdisagm with the fladings, mhoola have at least experimented SMlth dgarettes, lik ve eWtlves who suffer from a amoking= cent of women say they haa•e amoked at one time, compared with 44.6 percent of all male studenta. The rela -~teast Twenty-eight percent of former Fottyslx percent of men and 32 percent of women QWtting.' Is a long, hard bat- survey ays about 20 peteeot of aR fifth through 12th a smo rt =elatives with sach diseaaes, compared say they smoke now. ' p_the sat fvly aAOwed, t •r .. . ~t`t~ • Earliest tobacco ad, f rom Loi'illard,1789. We smoke less. and fear it more Of current smokera,. 75 percent tried to quit and failed. Sixteen percent of those were eble to quit for less than a week, 19 percent lasted a week to a month. 19 percent for a month toatx months, 11 per- cent for six months to a year, and 28 percent longer than a year. . Concern about health waa the reason most often cited for quitting. Thirty-eight percent of smokers who quit or tried to quit said they stopped for health reamns. Two percent faid_ quit because smoking was too expensive. , - Eightyseven percent.1 r emokers~the _,A successful quitters - iud~lappcd completely and abruptly - cold turkey.' •'r r• . Seventeen percent whotried to quit and failed safd they started back because K made them nervous not.to smoke, 13 percent said they just couldn't break the habit, 11 percent sald they resumed because they gained weight, and 7peraent aid they missed the taate• The rest cited reasons that Included foolishness, the need to camouflage the odor of alcohol and the fnfluence of friends. 'I'm addicted' his health, but be can't do without cigarettes. "i started back against my doctors orders,e aid.'•I'm addicted. I have to smoke: • IJke Holshouser, many smokera said habit Is the reason they smoke. In fact, habit is almost as impor- tant as enjoyment as a reason people smoke, the sur- :~ Forty-four percent of eurrmt amokers interviewed "" `haw` There are no ty pical snlokers. Age, In The Observer survey say they smoke because they •s enjoy It, 39 percent say they smoke from habit and 13 7 '/ percentaytheyamaketorelax, ellucational le.-el, race all,fl income doll t The Tobacco Institute, a Washington•based indus- • ~ • try lobbying group• used a recent national advertise•,. ~1it~:~-1ueh to do 1/-ith N'llo does or (loesll i'. " ment to describe why people smoke. Smoking Is "a•1 ~ - - ' small ritual that welcomes strangers, provides cotn- .- ~~ `_ panionship in solitude. fills,•empty' time, marks the Slllbli .y aCLorl11IIg to The Uuserver sur.eya significance of certain occadons and expresses per- From Indins, gthe gift of tobacco torts Df ICing James 1. who for- bade tlle ita of the ••sot•w•eed: - A ' tnnovative conquista- dorea,'21red of the ptpe, tried wrappYnQ4 thelr tobacco in rolls and bet(an exporting their find - cigars•t-'i,o those who could pay the pr3ci`{n Spain. . Columbus and the explorers that The beg{ars of Seville, unable followed tried the stuff Inaide the to af(irdguCt luxury, settled for Indlans• pipes, liked the senation discatyarW:-ller butts, shredded and thought the people back home and mi/hl be wllling to pay for thelr _tt•rTh own toitacco• were The putfing gtarted - In France •r1UcF, In 1E36t Portugd, 1559. Spaln, . 1559, and England, 1fiE3. At rirst, only the otoiiilty smoked, stuffing ground bits of to- baeeo In a long, slender pipe. 77te practica flourished, daspite the•at- /, f~ ' J buried Tobacco has Its roots deep In American history. Europeans discovered the weed when Christopher Columbus stum- bled onto the New World in 1492 and spotted the natives drawing smoke through their nostrils with a Y•shaped pipe called a tabaca, habit from Turkish offirers dnring the Crimean War• In 1884, the industr,v gnl a major boost when Washingtan Duke's tobacco company in Dur- ham introduced the first efierth•e cigarette rolling marhim• at Its Durham factory. After a elow F'nrt. cigarettes gained respectabiBty in the United States around the turn nf the cen- •fitto.crapsofpaper. . tury. ..x.-_ . r''peopti's aookut R,J, Reyno9ds Tobacco Co. of at ot, ci~a- t Winston-Salem Introduced the first . ~ot brlght~buriey1Maryla Q~leat •and Imported Turkish tobat•co, It adaPtatlott of Ms 'yaa cnlled "Cmel•• and qWckly meaning~ b°camec e eem lngto- one of the firat uatlotul - IISE svhen French 'brandt. •r? '..i -. •. fIckad stp tha• Ay the-Roaring Twantlu, maa ..,,. THE CHARLOTTE OBSERVER' Suo.. Mar. •L5, 1979_ _ 76_ If You Quit Smoking, But Startet4 Again, Why? `_ . 17'/0 Too Couldn't Gained Missed Nervoua Kick it Weioht Taste - 52% para varrous ciMr anawu oe d+dnY knor DahFranTnrOnte•n.5m.n C.u•ha.GEDSGEelEW1CHEa and wnmen were putfing in ear- nrsp enlm•ing their cigarettes with bathtub gm. Cigarette sales In the United States increased about 600 percent between 1915 and 1930, 110 per- cent during and after World War 11, then dipped In the early '60s after reports connecting cigarette smoking with lung ancer- Sales picked back up by 1965, reached 500 billion cigarettes a year by the end of the decade aui peaked at 650 blWon a ya+.r by tl•e .. , mid-1970a, i.ast•year. Americm lorglk - . 615 bilBon eigaretNa - 7 lnb- ef them foreign brneds, aDeaffllt to the U•S, Department ag A&toa1•-,- tura. r r t ._~ . .~Rassli0slatts~ = ._ TIMN 448796
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. . . ,@y,.r.. - 1 aG THE CHARLOTI'E OBSERVER Sun., Mar. 25, 1979 The Tobacco Eeonomy ~ Industre3T giant stashes its eggs 0 ir~ ; 1-1 ZpY I II11M113 ~S ~L I,-@4 7 ~ t L,, ~.. ( Sy•l 13p DON HEDWELL - ment. Del Monu ,vill give Rey. o...rvwm.wm.r nalds a natnonal market for ita W;INSTON•SALEM - Richard Own brands. JnsMur Reynolds wouldn't recog- The Del Mnnte acquisition will - nizt •tne woridwide entrr0rise that _ boost Re,•nolds's emptoyment RTew "1r6m his plug chrwing to- 7.000. from 34.000 tn 7 haccn busine.4s launchrd In For. :And it aa•ill add more than ai.5 f syth tLounty more than 100 years blthon in annuai sales, boosting ago. nontnbaccn Interests to nearly bali. yP=-' ' , he tolal busine P ` R.S. Re •nolds Industries has tss volume. growrr into the South•s largett Tobacco, :hougS, apparently corpnr.ationa a dia•ersitied giatit will contlnue to provide• the bnik ,. I ranWmg at the top of the nationk of Reynolds's profib, u tt Eaa jj j - etgarattte manufecturers with lottr since Richard Joahua Reysmlds . . of t1rQ top 10 brands - Winstdn, first cranked UP opentloes ia his • 'Satem:, Camel and Vantage. "Little Red Factory"Jn 1675• And Paul Stichq 61, wiw It aalso ranl:s as a finaneial•pow. 1973 came out of early retirement erhmuce .mong the nation's con. from Federated Department Stores sumer products },rms, repoLttng to accept Reynolds's presidency, `s "proHtc of nearly $442 milUon on disputes any notion the company . salwf r.or 56.6 billion iast,yenr• plans to turn its back on tobacco. lts recent purchest;.Of Del +, t nk>( _t~, ~ Mont:n~ Corp• will boost,it-[(oID No. f06(iCCO will 8U/'CLTF - ' 41 m about No. 26 on Forluae's ••]t's liat af:.America's top 500 imtt{yHal Preposterous to think com iess its cash and borrowln wr've lost Interest In aomeWing rsp ~• has been estimated rt that's worth 54 billion (ia annual •~. . mote -tnan $1 billion over.the aext sales): • says Sticht. firing up a The new research ladlity is de• ' d~. fi~ ~. .~:• prpeful of a Reynolds test-blend signed to keep tha firm compet• Although ReynoIds is !n North Carolina nlont, the t°baccoy itive for a domestic eigarette mer- ',. firm smends more than 9600 mil- "1 really think tobacco aaiB sur- ket growing at an infinitesimal diversifying, there•s lion .rverp pear in payrolls for ~'ive and prosper. Arter all. it's rate. (Reynolds'a ahare of that - 18.OInn employees. taxes, divi• been under attack for bnndreds of 615•billion•cigarette•a•year markrt little doubt the' dena_. ~urchases of goods and ser- y~rs." has grown to aboul a third, cornerstone of.t-he . ` ,•,ees nd civic contributions. Sticht is expected to step mp to though itc Winston brand hasn•t the firtn's chairmanship when vet- regained the top ranking it lost to - Re••••nolds is• as one exeNtive Company is cibaretle6 desetrred it• ••an enormously pow• eran Cotin Stokes retires in ApriL Philip Morris's Mariboro in 1976.) erful •linanciai machine•"" ,-,,, Despite the worldwide scope of Recognizing the faster growth --.rhieh generate 81• • r i,< operations. Reynolds has com- of intrrnational business, the firm ?. - - ' billion in sales ever • Y.•». in recent years, inost ot tha, •machme's profiG have been mrtted a big chunk of expansion to baught MacDOnald Tobacco lnc• } tnr cit~• where it was born. V1in- (Canada) for $75 milhon ush, and •• '~ ~•ear, l.aH•rence Beckner dire<-.rd into businesses unrelated ~ to fnmactr - fonds, shipping, en• scon•Salem. 80 miles north of more recently estahlished R..1. ;/ .> /// fnarlntte is the base of its bac- Revnolds Tobacco International as ; e:gr ~nd packaRinR. ,; ,. (above) inspects • manu(acturing, a eita• tha11o ave a separate corporation. Tnrmcco generai'es those prolits. rs name to two cigarette brands. Yet Reynolds's investment In C1U°aretteS as they c0[n: nbsrr•+ed one Reynolds o[ficial• a city that's home to 12,000 em• domestic tobacco facilities ha.c ' S from the R.J. Re nold6 •'ana you ean't reinvest In the'to• plna•ees. been modest compared to the S • haccn nuainess because that's pret- Sticht's own office is an the money it has sunk into other en. lilanufacturinp plant in ' , ty we1: staRnanf:' '~ fifth floor of Reynolds•s angatar. terprises• some of which have yel •,.~ . (Rrvnolds isn't the only tobacco Rlass•sheathed $40 milUon xvrld to provide a satisfactory return. Winsinn•Salem, Nhile , mamuraacturer diversifying - Phil• headquarters building dedicated Cigarette profits• for instance, •• Lorene ~~lurphy (left) {l. ip SNorris has acquired 'Miller only a year ago. . will underwrite the 5670 million r~:~y.. L^ ./r BrewrmR. a California homlbUitd• Downtown. where the sweet Reynolds is investing in new con- keeps ~ an e•e on the ~ inR mmpany and a Wisconsin tis• fragrance from Reynolds's tobacco tainer vessels for its Sea-Land aub- ue-paper mill. American Brands plants lies heavy on the air. a steel sidiar}•. • g 11ackaSed prOdllCt. _ ; Inc. mas James B. Beam Distil9ng, frame soon will grow into the 16• Cigarette profits will provide 11 a sraolrt company. Acushnet story Reynolds Plaza office tosTr. cash fnr the 5580 million slated to spor-nmR Roods, a iundlotiot/,,lirpt I'hat bullding will open nrxt year develop Aminoit•s domestic oil , and •7w„ kod compames• alongside th, landmark d2-story production. Follow•iuK Kuwait's ~ (:•-na(lara is a dlt•lsion al Loewx Reynolds Building. whosr revolu• natinnal,zauon last year of Ami- Corp.. u•hieh owns CNA Fuian,cial tiont+ry 1929 design was repeated noil's operations, Aminoll has p,- ; anC suosidwries that develqp,pnd early In the 1930s with New turned to developing its reserves n operattr resSdential and eommereial York's Empire State Building. in the United States. proprerty. The Liggett Group owns North of town, adjoining Rey- Reynolds officials insist that any the .company that makes J&B nolds's Bowman Gray research threat to smoking didn't dictate scorCn and Wild Turkey bourbon. center, a S35-miilion research and the diversification, but -they say , the Bt.tpo dog food company and a development tacility soon will rise their firm will survive no matter '~ - ~ - Peoas»Cola bottling company In -to serve subsidiaries. ' - what happens to tobacco. " " tnrma. •tnbacco reS2ach will etOpha,iit--t!&n-•.ah.nbue llan_-oDca ktn (Bmm•n & Williamson. a whollv the search for new blends and would affect miihons of people, "- r- - t t owneS substdiary of B•A•T Indus- brands. not seek a medically safer includrng hundreds of thousands of a ~ tries <nf Britain, has interests in cigarette; that research. paid for tobacco farmers and their fami- Gitttheelc and Saks Fifth Avenue by Reynolds and other cigarette hes; • says Sticht. ••And of eourse depazunent stores.) manufacturers, is conducted it would affect us. -~ through trade organizations. •'But we•d still be around:" D)ineraify, diversify A 736•vear acquisition pro ram ` '~~"" ~ ° has dhversified hs operations, a5 The U.S. Cigarette Market: 'rOne~ company hopes to d iverS•y st;:»s_.t, . t •Moeated RJR Foods Inc• by ~. - . • for Reynolda stock and How Much They Sell . .. - 516m>miHton ush - four ffrms that7~aoduced sueh brands ss Ha- 1 . - ~ Ou~~o~alie.business altogetheP . waiifm Ihmch, Chun King Oriental TOP 10 ~•'~' an,C liiatb Mexican foods and My- CIGARETTE '-• I T-F(tsevttddfng• • "~• Even ia'a tobacco iiatr9 eomrnitted to di- low-tar brands, Overton says, an ambitious firm ' ~ m3ild t500 million [n cash and BRANDS ''A versifirttlon. L[ggatt 4k lR9r+a Is'n aa extreme can capture a larger share of the market. , stodtttar the parent flrm of Sea- `~- rase: ,; .,..a+,:r•;_" Overton says he will continue L&M'a manu• LamH 'Rldtrstries. The acqnlsiUon The-• Dnrham•basaA 1Ctt>t: •aho.e newer tacturing operations in Durham, comfdrting madrelReynolds the nation•s largest ~•t brands such as .I•tli. 7>a1t:..Det•ade •nd Eve news In a town where the firm employs about - abig"iin)<firm. _ r . ~ •: •- -. ~--:~ haven't been 1h1e--a• acptaoeaae declining 2,500. . : • dltcquired American lndepen- 1. MarlbelO 'IB~K Chesterfield label that idpei aaake it famous. Llggett p)ant to move Its corporate head- dena(Dtl Co. (Atmndp. which pro; plans to divers(fy tfg1C a•t ot tie business and quarters from Durham, its home since 1970, to ducssri ts'ude oil In the Mideast; for - . right out of North C.fokaa• - i,a •-+ of/ices In Montvale, N.J. - iSSS miWon cash fn 1970.f 'Six 2• ~Ninaton '. ~ X The parent Ligge.tt Gtonp w•aats to shed fu Created in a small tobacco ahop in Hellcvtile. - yeara Jator,• 1t added BUrmaFi •OII ' . ~T eigarette interests to en•oeatrate en atmmbatco Itt. Liggett & Myers was part of the American ' , Co ~1135: propertlea for~y 2i mit- . 3• K~l products including JarB Saa~h atld Wild Turkey 7lobaceo Trust until the Supreme Court broke Ilom ftn what then waa 4h~"IarBeet .bo u rbon;' ' ourbon; Alpo canned dog toott aad Blns Lustre• the mlat Iri 1911. • " easln aansaetion In U.S: fit'LMry. . 4. Safem - Dirt Buster outdoor eleaa3ag system. ~::•• .-With i2&1 million In 1976 tobacco sales, Lg• • Swapped • Reynoldq''`stoek ~-•Llggett, whose .mahet shate of the astbds . aatt has continued to turn a profit in recant FSimsm. a manuLcturfr and` sup• 5. P~II Mall • cigarette business bas deelined to Srh:pemnt years desplte a declining market ahare. But Its . pli¢ of vinyl packaging • films. =-~ sold its Intemational tabacco business lart June slide from third to Uet place among the slx I Flimltr was added In 1967 to the 6. Kent to Philip Morris Inc• for a10g million. major U.S. cigarette manufacturers Inapired Es• SO-ymar-old RJR Archer alominum And directors are expected to vote iriv this qulre magazine ket year to label It "a hapless ilifi paek•aging busineas, traditional - 7• Benson ~jy° month on selling the mmesuc cigarette business corporate entltl••" Revmolds tobacco packager. & Hed ea that launched il in 1822 Protecting IU corpnrele flnnks. the 1.{ggetl Fabruar}'s takeover of Cali[or- S t~-~-- It etwld take anotber month for federal regu• Group has dlvenlfled intn a multih,dr of nonur• nia-asased Del Monte, combined 6. Camel ~% lators to rule on the a2no-millmn sale to Dolph haccn ventures, and plans mnre of the same II witir R•1R Fonds subsidiary, will _ Overton. who directs an international rnnstruc- the tobacco sale wins approval. mak:r Reynolds the Unlted Statei 9. Venla $,1yo tinn firm out of Smithf*eid - a Johnston Coun• Today. Liggett's 10 subsidiaries product Isrg,••~! fruit and vegetable canner. 9e ty community 55 smles trom L&M's Durham wine and alcohol In New Ynrk City, pet /ond In . R:rvnolds gave Del Monte stock- '-• headquartezs. Allentown. Pa., sporting equipment In Oprlika, holaecrs 5621 million In cash anA 10. Meril .'~9% ••1 feet there's a bik opportunity here:' says AIa•: cereal and popcorn in Cedar Rapids, Iowa• prenecred stock for the compan.•. ' Overton, 52, whose CacO Development Co. runs home cleaning products In Indinnepolis and fash• wh,cr will operate under its tradi• 0- p,ni,ee°n BvGEORGE aaErS<r,HER a Mideast construction trus,ness fon accessones in Pro,'Idence, R.1. - tiontaL name and current manap^• aDURCE: Th. Tobacco Indutry Smce many smokes are s.a•,tching to new - Don Bedu•ell Officials: Who smokes? Ry MARK SCANDLING trxe nr six cigars a da,v end pu"r Dr Sarah Mnrrow, Commerc( s..wisrnuoar.rvr Ins pipe an hour or two. Secreten• D.llt. '•Lauch" F°irclnih, Labor Commissioner John Brooks, 1 *at y Lt. Gov, Jimmy Green, who '•1 enlov smoking;' Graharr. Cultural Resnurt•rs Seeretary Sara .~.a~ ovmt• tobacco warehouses, has • sa}•s. •'It ,s a poor man's iuxtac' Hodgk,ns, krvrnue Srrrel°ry Di•'~('~~ kl 4~ y` , bem smoking 20 to 30 dgarettes a and a rich man's therapld' Mark Lynch- and Transportation day nor 35 years• Secretary Thomae Bradshaw Jr• ` " 71mmy Green Thad Eure Jim Graham - Jim Hunt Johningram Graham isdt convinced unce: nt's Jual a haMt I acquired and _ nud smoking are linked. °The gov North Carolina's U.S. •seuators ~ ) I mipy 14 so I keep srnokiog." he • ernmem has been studyin it for and representatives: Republican aa,c. Green, who smokta low•tar, and he en)oya tlgsrettes, espedally peace who lived about a hilf-mlls' ~ 1,, earc, and the eWdence still Sen. Jesse Helms (less than a peck Ca e1s a nEe Winstons.dNow ' Iota•mieotlno Real, Itaows smoklnj~ : lA.p,BUtsl never almoke at home be- so yellow(•as aole fromdnico nt •` 1"n'i cleer:' He seys anti-amoking o[ nnfiltered Luckles a day). Dem• smokea .omettmes , Richardcon Catiae my wite (Minta dlsa rovas stains. That old uire, who could legl.lation would deatroy lndY.idn- o~tie Sen Robert Morgan (an ) .), PPl w • occaaional dgar). W.1tar Jones, D- >'rtYer. D•8th, (an oeculoeal "dls- _ C "Y jtless .veryone .vo rrleii ,.otlt".San aYa• roll a cigarette with one h.nd, FI IlberUea, ertet" elaar). Charles Roae, D•7N lst Dlstrlet (lyfi+2 p,acka a day,' Uttlb btt abont {etthg cancsr lrmrh- - Eure, who takes severat d.ys to• lived to tx 95 and that made all (' = varlo,sa b,a,Ms), •L,H. Fountain, D• 4u-~aed to amoka but• doesn't now). tJr ~at•, nlcotloe, eharcoal' atida ilnlsh a pack, began smoking my daddy's warnings aeem like ~ Somey,onamokerd In .rat. ao+• 2nd (sevaral dgars a day). Charles ~'•G. Hetner, D•ath, (Ilaht smoker wlumevar o)se they tell us is In,,,wben he waa 14.' _ . water on a duck's back.° Eyre srnment are: Gov. Jim Hunt. ta- Whltley. Il•7rd (qult lya•paek•4 of Vantage and dgarsL Jim Mar• I cl/Meatoo, but I•really don't wo eoane,,my daddy told me taya• ' •rA` aurance' Cm,misaloner Joha 1.- day Kool bablt In 1a85 tin, R•91h, (never amoked). James tht¢aattch about tt," GC•oea says.~,• all-a ~bout the dangera of snoldng, N•C. Agriculture Commfsat0aar gram, CMN'•Justice Suate •51arp• ' -• ~ -- •• Broyhlll, R•lflth, (light amoker 'tU - ~ He told m4 1L would ... shorten Jim Graham didn't start amtddni Natural Reto,trces and Comas~,. Ike Andrewa, D-4th. (2•packs a he qult In early 70s), Lamar Xiecrahry of State 17ssd Eui•e•, myJ(fa• nnt0 be anrolled at N•C. State Uni~ : Developmdnt ®oerotary Ho.ard day of flltered Cat•lmoa or Salema, Gadger, D•lltb, (qult about 15 _ •ys l+Ys a°Rreti cigar cbewss°' y"Hut the» wo a lusttoe a[ the veraity in 1938. NOW he amokM Lee, Human Ratoarnaa f.atrta:7 P~. • ld)>•A aaplten DItlL D•Sth 7rra at0)• R, n ~ • TlM•n14G'S-7%A
Page 7: vbu42f00
.t The Tobacco Ecoa.omy .Tobacco-economy has :.i:: M ~ ro1#3 .~o~i1CCP ii@I ed '1he tobuco thew aueltinea pulied itom the ttalk P !s atoead in ittore thaa 8i 00p ehtay, alumtnum bulk- uke Utliverglt , Wake ~~°'v;°' ~ e0't fr001'g'00D ~ gl0,oo0 .aeh Y. 4nlekiY replae W the onee•famluar • . taU .aoodea Wms. Among eh. tnanutaetnnre 1. Pow- Forest';" and Duke ell 11Lnnfaatmtng Ca., a Bemtetta,riifa, s.G, anhsidt• ary of CLatlotte's Rowa Corp. PQwelr . r..:. ~.. ! , eashocmps to fall to the auchine. H t the machlna Naplaeed tew workers. Maay bincka aad young whites, tradltlonal tteld Wofkers, bad already loft the flfmS for other loba. . " • Growers who atiU harvest by band depend on snarecroppen, family.members and any hired labor tney caa find. Farmers often go to the•dties for. workers or, In some instances, hire migrant workers from Mexfto who have never seen a tnbacco plant, said N-C. State'a ChappelL ' • 'To some ettteat;-tobaico mechantrltton came along and saved the family farm rather than de- snoyed It," says Dr. Walton Jones, economist with tha N.G Deparnnent ot Natural Resources and Com- mudty Developmeat. .tk0 ia.ella~b .. paw tr(+o•tfifNs ef eit: ~ • Ihe tnala ingradlmt tutaotun By DON BEDWELL ° And JACR CLAIBOR-\'E ' OCwrv.rn•eWtaen ''When Gov. Jim Hunt dedicated R.J. Reynolds Industriec' world headquarters In Winston-Salem last year, he alluded to the mon- umeat•bu}}ding that has 5ernme a tobacco-Induatry tradltioc in North Carolina. . He noted that Reynolds bad helped launch tho N.C. School of Performing Arts. helped charter the Winston-Salcm Ars Council and sponsored a slate Oontest to generate art for its headquartera. . Assteet nat in Pennsl'e+•anla. m• dustries trad}Uontdly eocaibute to • Park near R.lelgh, the culture and educatloe M atatei '; The lirm, which has tripled /ta where they flourish, Atr M stot to• charitable eontribuUoqa ovar the bacco, another Induatry slo doubt• past f{va yearb matches employee Would play the role in Nath Caro• •contributlona to achools up to aa. i10A00 and• Uu begun matddns But a ts tobacco In Notth Cri»1 eoaMbptloat to hwpitale and aul. Baa and Reynolds is noa alOM la turU`'(IrjanlietlOnb Lorlllard, as•'laduatry wbose psogts Wva Amatftan Tobacco Co. and the helped shape our clttez utUluea, Liggett Group match alumni aon- pdtura end blgher educa+doo. : trlbutlona to e011ages and unlveral- Tobacco fortunes >ta.e even fi:a; -: ^ t9ftngad the face of the Yad, ae- Jmt'i. yryrlad CaroUnu dtles atlng Duke Power Co. m harness graw up around textile taUls, auch lA 777b t/1kaeCi~ on Td p{to~;' .' . ~ It' lrieir ~(~ atutt >ka a ptek a ~ North CaN11111111 country't ihtµvrad fc In cigarettq, Nort more thYn h>11t ipt t0 hluft- tJlliritiu pilCe ta the cobatry qtdt p,` m) 1M aat}ea'a fal',ett tobacco company,~a,~qrytel ~NorthGroAaa TOhecet) tppst~yr paratrn eaq SYipaSon•6a{•m, a clty WbttR ((ll bi 7rlN GUM IaE( hgep 11' tba doWntawn.`,~(! gi} jdbafas.~lptaOR4 dteerate bOn• queti of btldM ttt~ verdtOY,~Duki ~~wthqt ,><t ~a ! wer~C'or,dTh N,C• scnety pt the Aria snd tl. nuks ttaelpwmeeb wpose glftft ~l9 GroUtiat Oollegs tiouNab, t'ritli the ftate Hotl.s u the court boatt, "the po- Iltkxl ppwer of tohaes. 3nteresta is uacbntestad; saya N•C Ilotua jS"aker Carl 8tawart of Gastonla. For eatnp1!t fcc • 4'kfl J~Jrl.'e~jt}a:n~~t1s.ambly hsa paaaM only one ta tatliTy~ .Rla~am la recent I'.art - an s ~y gliit tiyt t11t Atatiufa0lufare' levaatDr'y fo11~b~(4{ ttte tabact» lndaatry mort• ~db Wf~t/ fdR tme atate's top health Ofn- tiqta R.p~s Secntary Cuah Morrow, j 4t~ 1k1 jtry~~Iylh$Mo ro to bl /eGula op11ilo,a heatpr tsea Nl tar a[ ahe di the Aslrr/Ean Ga.-- cer.a no p~b ht ihlfdatl6qtd erllM.~: 0 ntl'emoki ng taamnalgat -q tjpllke moat medital groups, tho N,t:. 7dedit.td ~ d2((E(Y acup d garat e~.avartlatng ip (ta taadtd(9 - ouratl The aource ot tobacec s power Isthe money ttmaker tor Just about everymne Invotved. 171atlted on enly 580.tmt0 acres, or ono-balf of t` percent of the state's av:n.lnble farmland, tobacco Is the leading cash crop, br-=ging in mora tltu;).<. t~• lion for sharecropper fa.-~crs and lar~h ptaelts,p producers alike. Whea today's aeedl}npr are full grdtva4lda _ mer, they will prove a aaooey-maker°Yar.lanqerI , the 91 (of 100) counttes wmere tobacco Ip gfo4s, warehousemen who help sarJ} the crop /a A ° cities, the 27,000-plus w'orkers who maaafseMA ' about 358 billlon cigarettes in North C, arollsa yeulp %° ' and even state, federal amd local govarttmsnts tha~ 1 collect more than S6 bii:aaa anaually Ia taluceo->~• ~~een being ahle to get tlong„ bncco Is grown by tult the 133,338 farm owners who lated taxes. North Grolina co}lects znore thaq t111RdWop 4 ~~s allotment rentt are not rewrdedhad allotments In 1978. tob;~. Ia turn, IDecbnnizatloa has meant new indttstries yeu fmm dgarette sales taaas alona . , fa:h~{a~Itt sat besg !ln bffactlve censur tt, t~ar~ Mayodan in Rockingh.nm County coUeds Nnt ~: ~~~~ Nact meahMnintlon trronBht ms}r~ 6up .)~ and new.btudneas for North Carolina. ,,, ;3,000 a year - from the aonacco a}lotment astlgtt~ `•' '"'''absCCa f>fim ta7Uer this decade, no ane kgq Since the early '70s, farmers have llocked to tsta- 4:st on tor artp baw ltapy aUotment holders actrtally chioery dealers and bought the luge, awkward-look- t0 local parkland. tobaeco Butthe number la decUaing. ing tobacco harvesting, machines that cost between '^RJR Industrtes lnc., Fortttrit ~3nlglti4a'~` ~~d t~d ;3000 ,.aCtanlattlq RtanlattlqR made It avantageousor gro. $20,000 an,0. llst ot Amerlce's top 500 f:-•ms and the mnlrilla eotA.-" .. r t;Ilotlnanta,}rom others and consolidate thaM In 1971, oonly 43 mechaniea3 harvesters mlted pany f !ut qear p11; - or R,J. Reynolds T:inateo Co.,Am~gt auu on which tnechaalcal harvestet(t ~ across North Carolina tobacco fields. Last year, more ;6.6 atll}ion in property tues to Winston•8alem ap{ be used alailt *MdRq~,. .:~ than 3,000 harvested nearly 40 percent of the Forsyth County, Its home mase. _ John Cy;pe, Ip pI C, Department of Agr1u1.i1tp 350,000 acres devoted to tobacco tn North Carolina, 11 obody knc+us the tola2 tobaeeo .paataBrt. taid naly 52.OD0 tarme-s grow tbs iccording to N.C. Agricultural Extension Service. tobacco aaslga,8.to 3t5,000 farm owners who !_tpki Hatzington Manufacturing Inc. of Lewiston, in There are no accurate ~gnres on bow many pea- jlua•cured altappenta. -.. - v:-. Sertfe County, and Long Manufacturing Inc. of Tar- pie are Involved In the groa'ing, harvaetlag aad Sf{;e Tbe Toba. ~'t'a= :Coaedl estimates tbjt tbe boso, in Edgecomb County, were among the first to keting of the state's crop. 'qtvalent ef-QD{1 ploplt etrned fuU-tam ~.-6 ,S~. bufld'•barvestera for farmers throughout the south- A 7975 Research Tr~agle InsUtqta iNgY `ti05~ ' hoods growipt {p8 haryeatlag the crop in 1913, lfnt east-The nmeUs are based on a prototype developed ducted for the Industry-sprmsored Tobacco Tatc Cona- there are no cUptptSli'm figaras. _ at N.C State fn Raleigh. ctl tn Richmond found tatmcco is reaponYbU fe; tllt ._• eqtvalent of about 110.W0 fnll-time Jolq, tafs tatal state 252~00 lndustry. ~ lt-y q) abo 0 Who Worlc in NorW CatCUEl~The-'• t~a~'s~h -. ~~.>~..,~ in ~Q-u.th Caro Ma Council economist Glenn Chapptll aald tt ~e 110,000 figure !s the cmmnlative wmt tlns Notth Carolinians devote to aii ^*••es of the besiatss, fropt the dawn•to-dusk farmer ro a sales dark ia dows• By (Jl(AtitlB R-t5wtA1tD ~treU esUmates there arn only 7,000 growars maaq tba tobacco-producfng region, but aay the effect town Charlotte who rings np the aala af 1 Npk et ng atheta' allotmenta• would be tnlnor on South Camllna's economy. Ciguettes a[ North Cat•n7ttu's lowett•ja•tyhWa01_ It's been tftt~ N tinea q11aeco otarlsok VlrtuaUy all Soeth Carolina's tobacco farms Ue The loss of tobacw, says James Hlte, proteanor of prices. - tSotton as South 's telp qsh eipp. int ita Im. - ng the state's rnastel plain, mostly /n the north- Agricultural Economics, "would make a difference, Altogether, the eounem tndustry~tpp~y'>Wd,' t5i ' pot•laaca to the atatt MMM't tp w)aat tobaoa ra Pee Dee region. That fact - and the absence but it really would be noticed overall In the state." tobacco Industry generates about tB.G h11Uea {Lyaar co means to North Ctrollbh ° a tobacco mannfacturing industry - mold the pol• Hite's studies ahow tobacco contributed abottt for the state's economy. Sate Commel'b Doparptteat South GroUna, (tb; R dt.!'}6~A~ plNse, e=porbf ca of tobacco In the Palmetto State. one-half of 1 percent to the gross state product fn reaeuchers say that In aP75 the ta)aoto tadus4ry pnly ttta raw prodpetf tofraasa tapt thR tlalahed prod- Horry County, home of Myrtle Beach and the 1975, accounting tor;68.21n}llion of the state's $12.4 produced $3.8 billion in lmished produets ent ot tbp pet, Ngatetter. A. rand Strand beachra 7a the capital of SC tobacco biWon dollars, In 1973 doliars ,.... 531.5 btlllon !n totat goams produce4 {p tiF0,.Oqdfd S,C• tobae ttdAl ea h/ Mliiton td- t 17,200 acres were harvested In 1977, and, ae• Tobacco does not muster staunch statewide acp- au e. { 1978, tor more tlraa 1!0 batco~ ~ n'- dr } g~-eat of°AgricOtrnre umotsUe~ port the way /t does in Nortb Saralltaa. T.hpij av,l- The bulk of the state's eaop Is aro, rp tp the }Jed= Although th8ts 1 A Nolftl tkrolltta~•_. ~~tyrs 38.8 n,}}p~ pounds of harvested tobacco dent ln the clgarette taxes In the two stntes: North ~tont and eastern covae;re. Cured bltftnt ~0 itpouAt, ¢.C. fartlt1t0~1tittt.tlOtl•.taad Laf, tY;t laoad It second oalY to Pltt CountY, N.C„ in flue- Carolina Lvlea a 2-cent•a•pack tar, South Carolina known as 41ue-cured (aiso bright aad Virginla), ft has The stste'a ;171•mWlon tobatxo salw tn 1977 :,~ed tobaceo pmdudioa ln 1977. • demands 7 cents - raised from 6 cents In July 1977. a unique flavor aad aroma tthat maka American dga- placed !t behind only North Carollna aed Kentucky ~+ T•he Halllday brotbers, Joha and Joseph -- pid to ,ejtt II~till fi ht rettee some of the most pa~ttiar In the world. and s1lghUy ahead of Temesaee and Virglnia. , lta oWnera ot the atata•s largest tobaeco allotmeat - '' - p ~ '' In mountain countles, g:romrs produce burley to. As Soudt Carolttus Vadlti.ooal Ieadtvg ush crop, ;ilve ia Gallvanta Ferry In Horry County. "Evety time we try to get sometlilng for tobacco, jatxo, a heartier, darker aeat that Ia-band•harvested tobaceo gunered ;.45 milUon mora la 1877 than the ~~.x. Thma tamlUu wlUt tobaeco farming in. South Wa's'a aot an npltlU flght,° says John Holliday. ,. , and alr•8rfed In •open bazo>S 2locth GroUna produtes No. 2 two aop, soybeans.l7tat Year. tobaexo ylelded :~aroUna eatlmate the brothers• allotment • at 650- Robert I'eak, director of the S.C.State Davab about 27 mlllton pounds aC italty.t•ysar - 1 Per- ahout 34 percent of tttoaeY >mda tn S•C- cop aales. `, ~, a tigta'a the Ifollfdays woA't confirm or believes that~wsa lcey m PLWp.Mar. Fent of tbe .natton'a tntat - oompared to abot gp0 In North Camllna lt qfeldad aboat 54 pettxat ~•'qt•s sometbint we would ratner not talk about ^~'s dedsioa to build In North t~rollna. '•'rt^-. r• mUUon pottnds of flue-enfod. Burley ls used In dga. :-. ., . Jabtt HolUdqy aaya w1Ut e]ang6. "it'a considerable. Leak artNes .that spredding such lnvestmenU ' rettea as well a, itt plpe aem ehewlns mloacco- So~'beaJld beat tobacco Irs pteKy large.•• amund to other states -. ob. tgy gosn, it', enor•• tells Each moie year than •the 133,U300 S ID epartmet ttb0astlt epartmettt Carolina ot xarm Agrloulttt ceowners ce PreUminary figures lndidta soybean sales edged mans," he bubbles when asked about the emnoade ~" Behind Harry fn 1977 S.C. tobacco amteage effect of a new•plant - would win the dgarette in- how 1pinY pounds of tnmaoeo they can grow t6am- out tobacco by ;2'mlllloa'In I97& Bat farmers `.~orenee (12,800), WI1llamsbnrg (8,490). Ma eame rlon dq.pyy more support in Congress and state kglr selves or lase'to tomeatte else in thelrcrnpry to nteded 1.47 taUUon acres to sruw the soybeans, only "EC•020). DRtap (6.010) and Darltngton (5,870) oonn- lantres suoD as South Carollna's. •..-b•. :. grow In their name. In ~mge for thls.'eoatin] on,. 71,000 for tobaceo• '. '1..t -. , Iies, AU the atate's 10 tobacco afarkets aad 41 ware- ••q•hey would aqy. ~7tou gaya haven't done any ' aupply.'•the government euaianteea growers K l6U! ~ Yqt will be rememberad as tha year South :-~ are !a'tbase dx countta. tbing to help us down there.' •' says Leak, recalling buy at a set prlca,aq)• ooenrco they eatlt ~el! Op tha Carolina lost a chavice to break Naath Carolina's mo- !.~~'~Tohacao axPerts say loss of the dependable mlua S.G officials' efforts to petsaade the flrm io locate In oPen market. ~ • ••T° nopo}y on tobacco mantaC[oring lnthe Carofinas. it<pdotlar would be disastrous for the Pea Dee. E'rye- South Catollna. "And we •would siy: .'Wall, yoa - - •.~ rs:r t.' A yeu ago -.despite (aK•tafoate eftorta of S.C. =CWIy kar'd.bi4 they say, would be the amall family .haveat date anything to help us"' ' • It'a as g-d aJ gold• i"' •''s politicians - Philip Morris decided to build a;1p0• farm, 9nable to ralse the money to finance a quick Even without a cigarette planG'Sauth•GraoUnts -, r: 1••' •. m11Uon ciguette plant in Cabunts County, N,C„ ln- ~s3lft •to anotbar erop, Most of the state's tobacco tobacco growers and experts aro usually quick to as• Jiecaure of the gttarsQIIaer a farm owntz'a tNlet• stead o1 near ColumbL. •-- •- ~ ;ums fit thet deatxlptlon, they say; aert tbat tltey. not their northern adghborr, produce meat is more than lust sarthotlratton to grotv,tobae• ,. 'Tha onty thing South Catodna does 1s [Row the ~'rYat ivoU/4 1>~ably sea a tnw aucdoning al 1be natfaa'a best tlueattred irf. But they alsoadmit, co-„Bankera use Ic as ~tb*•'•~t on farmerf~:- loaat. tobacco, wll the tobacco and amoka tlit tabacco,' Xafms If yoU dld away with tobacco tn South Carolt- when pressed, there's reaily little or no diHatena, • Local otficlals ttet Properq values based part)y an a aayi Susan Johnson, tobacco isarketloj apedalist for 'na,°taya Klt7aU, of Clemsons Pse Dee station In "When I'm In South Catollna. I say we grow•the farmer's allotment•' the ti,C. Department of Agrleultsus, -- ;2+lotmtpa,' ;'7feu would probably Me a lot of `baak- ixst tobacco," says BItVeU, a North Carolina tutlw •-<ylllotmenta siso mean aAdttonal Income for Lrm-~ . In 1978, some 23,800 farnm to about 20 of the iopttyaalee. Landing Institutions Nould be very re• Who left N•C. State in 1975. "in North.Mrollna," he ers or former farmers .rLo don't grow tobacco but state's 46 eountles held tobacco allotuunta. But Clem- -laetant to f(nance growers. It would be chaos:' adds with a chuckle, "well, it I went back then 1'd wLo lease their allotmea5 to other tlrowars -.otten soa UNvetslty extenstoa tobacco apedaUst Ben Xlt• .•. Clemson's economists make similar predictions for aay North Carolina was better ° ,•. -.. ~ dM{,rytrh,/4ara1{.La1Wh6f fh.lt y. . _ rs. (~t ttt ~10 paf~Egt Pt the tlnal dabaccg - • of them that own these allotments a! #ha Uving oa ItmaU, fixed Incomes," (lov, t aaid recently, t'That income 1s absatutely ecome N.C.'s lifeline - i- WAKEFORe3rUNIVER3[iY ' Oaswr,rPneto "We'Teally`don't know how many people ueta- volved In harvesting tobaeco; " says Dr. Joseph Cbap• peU. an N.C. State University economist (no relation to the Tobacco Tax Councll's Glenn Chappeil). He eatimates'that three-fourths of the state's to. Salem and financed the campus there. The 8400-m}llion-p}us Duke En- dowment sustains Duke, Davldson College, Johnson C. Smith Unlver- at(y In Charlotte and Furman Unl- versity in Greenvllle, S.C. The en- dowment has built hospltals, churches, orphanaRes and ret tlrement homes throughout ttln Carollnas. Income from Reynolds founds- tlons helps support Wake Forest University. - The Z. Smith Reynolds Faunda- tion made a series of grants to the state's Division of Archives and and History to finance collection, praservatten and publication of co- WcUal records to study state hlsto- ry', achol.rsh/p and culture. Tobacco is bringing ns art and education the Catawba River Into lakes that communldes as Kinston and Wil- helped attract Industry to the rural liamston were born or hastened to Piedmont. maturity by the expansion of to- The story doesn't end with bacco factttties• North Carolina tobacco pioneers When the colonlal legis}ature such as James Buchanan (Buck) tried to establish minimum stan- Duke, whose American Tobacco dards for growing and exporting •Co. fortune helped launch Duke tobacco, it authorized the creation Power Co., or wlth Reynolds of warehouses for product /nsper- tounder Richard J. Reynolds. tlon. Those warehouses sometimrs Only lact year, North CaroUna became the nucleus for a town, at- newcomer Philip Morris USA tracted a country store, a church, aweetened Its announcement of a pethaps e school. tttass pro• new Cabarrus County dgarette The Introductlon of plant last yeu wlth a $100.000 ductlon and Its concentration of donation to the National Humanl- power ereated Investment capftal tfes Center at Research Triangle that helped underwrite the state's growing textile Industry. The Dukes, who built American Tobacco Co. fnto a trust that eon• trolfed 75 percent of the nation's tob.cco tnanufacturing unttt it was dlsmantled by the Supreme Court gIn 3978, Liggett gave the atata . ia 1911., also built some of the 71 tIM plantt In tbs state to make acres north of Durham that In- r,cluaea4 tagville Plantation, an un• denlm.i., '; Ipaortla pre-CIvD War tobacco Duke tobaetto money bnllt Duke p Oon It is considered an ar- ' Unlversfty and fU medioal schooL;•lchttatxttral treasure and a soclal Lfnd and caah from RJ. Reynolda ~and eislttval Windfa}I that provides and bis helra moved Wake Forest , fl;at-hand Information about from Waka County to Winston- •Foutharn alavery. -. THECf1ARLOTI'EOBSlRYER.'.ttttn.,Mae,:8.197e 174; >• r Tobacco inspires art, such as Pauline Dove's "Back of R.J•'s" from the Springs Mills Trav'eIing Art Show. Tobacco also helps finance art, such as these dancers fronl the N.C. School of Pcrforining Arts. Paper capital Beyond the farm, to,b.ceo (s woven Into the eco- tiomlc, political and wala( fabrte of the atate.' In P/egah Fartnly •p.^lsejtnttln town lust outside Bnvard In 1Yansylvanla`Comtty: ~2,8f1p people work In the plants of the F,eplta Ppperand Film Group, which produces more cigarette paper~lhsn any other plaace In the world- Ecusta, the atxns largest emp(oy4r, sella papers to 4SBTStiL~IDlyyxar3Arers whose product goes around the world. At home, the company pumps $40 m11Uon in wages into the local economy. At the other end of the state, North Cuollna's ports m Wllaungton and]YW rebead Clry move about half the state's tobat:co~crdp eltber as raw leal or eiguettes, onto ships for esport. Tobacco not only is North Carolina's leading ex- port eommodity, tt reduces the nation's export defidt The US. exports about 80 b}llion cigarettes and about twice as much raw tobacco as !t imports. There are ]20 North Carolina companies hiring about 6,000 people who do nothing but prepue the raw leaf for cigarette producdon- The large cigarette plants !n Greensboro (tACU- lard). ReldsviBe (American), Durham (American end L&M) and Witlstoo-Salem (R1. Reyno}ds), provide 'jobs for 27,000 workers whose wages average more thea;6.62 an hour, near the top for North Carolina wage earners. Philip Morris Is building a plant ln Ca• barrus County. It is expected. to .open by 1982 and eventually employ as many as 2,000. It will be able to produce up •to 60 billion cigarettes a year - alitUe less than 10 percent of U.S. demand• Gov. Jim Hunt said be's trying to convince a for- eign cigarette manufacturing firm, one that will make dgarettea for safe abroad, to locate In the state. Though there are no cigarettes made In Meck)en- burg County• tnd the closest tobacco plant Is'miles away. Charlotte's trucking industry has grown right along witb tobacco. • A atady by Tobacco Instimte, an fndust'ry group, found in 1975 tbat tobarrp.aesles 2,000 jobs in the motor freight and railroad buslnesses.
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40 THE CHARLOTTE QBSBRVER 'San., Lar. 4e,1 g7i :..... Smokers: lIow-They Started ; l1.rJIR.Y F Everody ~else was doing it... Y, `I'd tit•atcll my fat~er smoke while I was growing up. # looked like he en joyed smolcinb so much that I knew.. I had to try.' ~ _ By RON FEINEERG Ing, drlnking. aex - alluring and o•w'..rt"ew'e'r attractlve.'lhey want to be adults, Bits of ash float acrou Carelyn so they, act Itke adults:' • Wahirab's down Jacket, coming to IiaW Arrowood, 41, of Harts.' rest in the creases of her bkte rtUe, S•C., watched her father slacks. ' ' smoke and batened to her mother She nervously flicks at i elga- wara her not to smoke for years. rette, knocking more aahes onto "Sha mbe It such a big issue, her clothing and-the tlle floor at aia/ I had put enough hatefulness Eastland Ma13, where she apends - i ihe to Ignore her;' Mrs. Arru- Samrday afternoons. • Wood says. Smoking Is what Saturdays are :=: ghe started smoking when she ali about for Caretyn, 17, and her was 18, quit briefly when she was friends at Independence Htgh.- gnant, and now smokes about Schoolln Charlmta •' •^ ~~:~ ka a day. It's a rite ofpaapge, partvlt~..,~.•~id~watch my father smolfo growing uP, aomenhing thar goef` yaytle I was growing up. It looked along with makeup and datfag~- 140 he enJoyed smoking so much and borrowiog the tamlly car. •V4,11ustI kne.v 1 had to try.'• Youngsters have been aneatdas,•_ Whn Mrs. Arrowood was Y off with their frknds for years tq ~ lrenager, cigarette advertising secretly puff on tkelr.flrst eisa•W wasp't aimed at women as It Is rettea .. - Carelyn "dld."Nom~~~ ~pdaye parents know she smokes. ~'~'v`.~"~' rI'eeuage airls sre a whole new But t»oat aren't anra why ~ atarket. Advertising campalgns are s talks about It beln~~ ~g directed at them and the Carelyn gtae famber of Rirls smoktng Is lo- People atart smoking liaeaiss thing to do, that all her.irleads_ _ccasingP Dt. 1•laxman says. ' smoke. Psychologists talk akaK • Those advertisements that peer pressure. ^j~-- sbotv beaupful couples In love(;• .`I know I shoul46ave never started. But all my frienda'°; .,. I'm trying to stop. I really don't know it-hv ~ I ever started.' --Carel~•n IT"ahlrab y ~ f`DZy friends were snmo'ang, every'one was smoking. I guess I sort of got suckedin: -DougDillenbeck they want to belong," says,fts:Ja. dlth Flaxmaa. an asslstant•}atr(a.r sor of psychology at IJNC, „Dr. Flaxman has been c{+t~lq with smokers for years, esatdatttt why they smoke to qwL , ojij_R "A teenager wBl have a:~fnad who smokes, someone ttte) •!Ym and respect. They'll tell then aa come on and atatt smoking, Tlhryry don't want to be thought of sat a aissy. They want to beloag ~ 1~ Flaxman says, ~ Peer pressure LZ Douglas Dillenbeck of Matthews agrees. He started smoking o a teenager because of peer presatteL . "My friends were smoktng, e.~ eryone was emoking. I guess I amt of got sucked In," saya DiBeabeek, 33, a manager with a Charlotte loan company. Psychologists agree peer ptes- aure is the maut.reaaon.p.eaple, start. '- •y--,,,- But there are othett reuoos_ % stmouodings offer a positive asso- dattoa" with smoking, she ex- ltiaint. "Young girls identify with tam women In the advertisements. t t .1 They want to be like them. So t they smoke:' • Jllore girls try il • Aaording to the National Clear• laghouae for Smoking and Health. 20.2 percent of all females be- tween the ages of 15-16 smoke, compared with 18.1 percent of aales of the same age. In Charlotte-Mecklenburg, ao- eording to a study done by tho- Charlotte Drug Education Center In 1978. 50.3 percent of all female junior and senior high school stu- dents have at least experimented with smoking. This compares with 44.6 percent of all male students. In the tobaeco-survey conducted by The Observer in Mecklenburg, Gaston and Union counties, 27 t percent of smokers Interviewed ~ said they began smoking because of peer pressure, 8 percent uld =! they smoked to appear older, and f In a smdy Included In Janttary's 2 percent said they started as a € surgeon general's report, a iton p way to rebel against parental a- F of psychologists report "the estab- thortty. The rest cited other rea- f, lishment of smtlltln$ can be seen sons. 1• as the resulCOfltdtlal etperlmea- Carelyn Wahlrab crushes her . tatlon with 'cfita!•ettes repeated cigarette out. tossing the butt ir ro suffideatly often for acquisition of a nearby trash ean. j a habit and for addictive prooesses She leans against the guardrx, t+ll to take hold. around Eaatland JlsaB's Ice skating •'Among the major variables rink, and tries to-expfain why she contributing to Initiation are social started smoking when she was 13. , pressure and Imitatlon of peers or "I know I should have never family members who amoke. Var!- atarted. But all my friends ... I" ;• ables Influencing the dedsion b Iier words amp. She pulls smoke inelude ... adolescent re. sleoder plaatle smoke filter from -_ hellion, Imitatlon of adult behav- Ler poeket and points to ite foi~, and the Impact of advertis- "Ya know, my boss gave me Ing." . thts to help me amp smoking. I'm Dr. Flazmatt says, "Teenagers trying to stop. I really don't know find anything adulta do, - amot• why I ever started." _. _ - --• . ~-. Cass Ballengerg '7 teB mt,y daught~ ski reason I keep smokljl~~ I don't want to be a bttrasmao them In my olda~ b- aVs state Sen. Cats liallettgeG3$ of Hiakory. , I Although BallengeA-a3$ai publlcan, says this JoldagV. 6e admits that In the bsodicaf bls mind there's some -tttath In his words. Ballenger rememmera When he puffed his firscsig- arette. "I think I eet the samods on fire behind my L+crnse when I was 5," he saym. "I w'as influenced by an etil older brother." lie began smoking semms- ly In the service whea be was 17. Ballenger, who wow smokes about a pack of 5der- Its a day, believes, "I rnaJ1y have smnked too long (37 years) already to prc•,t a great deal by quitting nc- ." Ballenger isn't conce: ned about the recent US. 3ur- geon General's repor: on smoking• "lt doesn't affect me one way or the other," he says. "It's got to the point w•nere government studies say you ahouldn't cat eggs. drioa. li- quor, eat steak. If you can d! that stull out, are you lpoing to live to be 2007 "People live too long sow- adays. I hope my ~nt will aanse me to dle ed a Laart attack at a Ifpe ofd aq ot Ab. I think It'pa a paaeue past t~ deff tetl Lt~e.Rt. ltva I Calvin Brown "I tllalt I startad probably •!n my sealor ieat' of high 'school," attqs lawyer Calvin 'Brotvn of txtariottt, 43, who amokes a pack of Pall Mall .,Gold 1008 each dttq. • "And that was In. '1954 ... Yause all my bud- dlea had started smoking. My *older brother was In collegee and he started smoking and ~ he had a big Influence on I me. .. rve jttst formed aa habit and that's all It Is - a pure habit. "When I get up In the morning I start and I smoke all day 'til I go to bed' at night, and that's crazy I guess." Brown calls the surgeon general's recent smoking re- port "frightening ... You're endangering your health even greater than what he said the first time." Although he w'orries about cancer and heart disease, brown has made no decision about quitting. "I want to, yes. I think about It every day - about quitting, but I light up an- other one." Is he addicted? "Ycah, 1 am." Betiy Chafin 'Rt was mol then," eays Betty Cbafln, Charlotte's mayor poo tna, reflecting on wlpr aba statted smoking in Wlk~ja. . 7bday, Ms. Chatln, 37. agreea aha Is hooked al- thmtgh abe now lights up Iea than a pat:k of Merits a day. t'sAntsomuchapart of other habits," saye Ma. Chafin, who partlcularly en- joys a cigarette after a meal or at a eoctall party. "You know, 1f you have a drink in one hand, you feel you have to have a cigarette In the other hand;" she ezplnins. "When I'm at home in a lei- surely mood, I don't smoke mcch:' The surgeon general's re- port made her worry atwut her own health and the health of others. "Then~s no doubt in my mind that smuk- ing Is bad for my hrnith•^ she said. "I worry most about the young people that are starting to smoke. "1 am aware that heart disease runs in my family. Both of my mother'a parents died of heart disease. "I've tried cutting down, which Is what I'm doing right now; she.saya, "1 said I'd quit the first of the year and then we atarted our (po- lice) wlretap heaHnga and I tatd.'We1l, Iql have one, and thsa anotksr,f° Ia she addictadt "ibat aounda ao aw• fn1 ... I lluses I am becatisa, I havan't qtdt." +g :;:a Leo Drieltuys ;~: Ifo Diiahuya, music direo- tor for Yha Charlotte Sym- phony, began smoking at 26. • I'm '7urprlaed that I started `fhat late," he says, "bee.use I'm from a famuy where ttly father and mother both smokW. In the profea- slon whera I am, sometimes there Is • lot of tension. Onee I took a cigarette just for fan - then the hablt be- came wot•M." DrIehuys, 46, smokes a pack of Carlton a day. "When I have a concert or after the first half or after the concert, It's kind of a re- Ilef for me to smoke a cige- retts ... , \1'hen I have an evening off nd I have a drink before dinner, i like to smnke and talk to my wife. ]t g/ves a kind of cozy feel- ln~- I don't know how to say 1t.' "t think the- doctors are absolutely rtght that It's a bad habit. But you need a lot of will power to qu1V' Like other smokers, he worries about cancer."Of course," ba saya• '•l:veryone can get It," Drlehuyt plans to quit. "Absolutely. You always promlae ~ raelf to quit on the IasG~ of the year but It didn't rverk this year. I am aware ttlJEt It la not very sood for ]'6ur health." i i -~,rt : ~~M 1 Tommy.Faile 'Tve beeasmoklag pr4ba•` bly about- 32qaan," sa3Y~ country muale sbu'Tomtqy. Fa9e of Ch Now amoktng two paoks. of Vantage a day. Faile, 1SO, rtarted becanse the othei kids were doing It - It was sort of a sneaky thing to do. "I don't know," he aays when asked why he smokes. °Everything's bad for you now. You Just kind of hope nothing will happen to you and keep on going. "When I'm traveling by myself, I smoke. When I'm working, I smoke more, a.ter coffee and so forth. "I think everyone ought to c,it, including me. They're no: good for you. I have a Lttle bronchial trouble and It ):R aggravates It. I went to t"e doctor and he told me If I didn't complrtely quit It'd never go away." Cancer and heart trouble ' worry him. • But. Ilke my ded's 82 I years old and smoked 60 years or more and never had aay trouble - worked In a textile mill. too." . F.lle would Iike to quit smoking. "You always say, 'I'm going to quit.' You always say, 'One of these days."' Maxine Gill ,~' . tYaf ~ti wken I - txartM att~ Ada't know what I ftttis~setNojj Into,' says Max- ~ ~~ ef the Rock ::57 'and within tLe`Iast tdlt 7eat's rra quit oft and on:Jwt to pro.e I could, I kLow tltat 1 ahoold. and I thtali lt's one of those things you just have to talk yourself tnto" After smoking for 30 years off .and 'on, she eoa• lights up a pack a day of Benson & Hedges Llghm• ' The surgeon general's re- port has made some lmpres- slon on her, elthough she has " .. mixed emotions abOut most gover.nment re- ports ... because you eao make figures do what }wu wam to. But It does make sense that you can't let smoke in and out of your lungs for 30 years and not feel some repercussioos from It. "I've already got :.- high blood pressure and cancer of the intestlnes, and I still don't quit. I'm stupid. I Yad an operation three years ago for that (cancer of the intes- tines) and they got ft" She also had a stroke in 1969. "I'm all the walking r'ea- sons why ono sboulda't smoka" . . .. . . Carrie Graves ,. "I think I smoked myltraL • ~ one when I was about 1n the ~ 10th or 11th grade In school •and It Just seemed to be am - exclting thing to do," rf- members Carrie Gravea, ,a . Charlotte community leader. "I smoke malnly for the reason that I Ilke to smoke," says Mrs. Gravea; who 9ghts up two packs of Salem Lights a day. Mrs. Graves usually has her first smoke when she gets up in the morning. "If I'm on the phone, I tend to light up a eigarette, If I'm in thr car. I light up a clga- retie. \1'hcn I finish eating, I ha%e tu smut•..• a cigarette. 1'm addictrd to It. Sometimes I Just go crazy for a fix." Mrs. ({raves thinks the surgeon general's report Is probably true but• "I don't know. I see that all the thtnf• I like to cat and the air nnd everything is hazard- ou.. to yuur health ... • I was alntost afraid to sit down and eat," She thinks about quitting now. "1 used to didn't think about It. It's not becauee of the surgeon general's report. It's like we talk to klds and we tell then It'd be better not to smoke .., and /t's kind of hypocritical to tell a kid you're better not to amoka and you're -standing there wlth a cigarette in your hand;'
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m } lMNafnN TaSTGd GOOD IWT It~~?~'~ , fd . rts,a'r; ,, M Nm T :.g s rkv rr~1tnr'17 aer. Hollyw0od atarf aaelitMaaphrey Bogart and Mae West added a gle..~iitwek. to smoking's appeal, trad.astab~~qgaretWs ilowbr'ow itn~a ~e. 4Ti~t r ® a ~+ a~y~y, +. _ I It •-t al ~~. ..M1411 i•/f y1/ •f . 5- ~ ~ ~ s.~.v.. r ... But how they affect a smoker's well-heiiig Is•a ti•orry. W-'... fyMFMfRLQri~M>~ .•~~~_ ww+,~swa 1939: The selling point in thls Life magazine ad was how soothing cigarettes ,: cre for one's nerves. sc e (i ~r ur!/ivut/ _ ki ® , s . Gobden; Lights ~ ~ ~.,~ ~~., . ••- - ~ 1949: iLisla111NaIIad , Toda2t-Adsusethetar; raso pkarontd '' eomenr.t'clgarettes as s~ lrrita~>smt9roaf:. ~t P~IIt to those u iY.; = '"-woa2'!ladaboltt tar. • ii 1957: wltu~ atibllsbed Itself as a top brand Idth a catchy jingle, a grantniit~~if errorand aa " Image of cfaatt•t'iitiproker.,•: n rf r . . ,,..rti ,. •~,, rn ~rze '.t~~ ~ T'~1•S C ! 1949: A Ladies Home Journat ad `-'Botlay: The Winston ads are desee.dants of the sought out the woman smokerfor •sttceessful Marlboro Man ad campaign, which sold Herbert Tareyton cigarettes. the cigarette an its ties to tM rngged Westerner who smoked it. Bob James •'I was about 12 years old ` (when I started smoking), t and I've been smoking a long ' tlme;" says the Rev. Robert James, executive presbyter ' of tha Mcckleaburg Presby- tary. I hardly remember, but I ~ think it was just the 'in' `- thing to do. My friends In ` the achool grades, they were smoking. We thought It was a smart thing to do - grown-up." i James hax asked himself ' many times why he smokes. •'It's a nauseous nuisance," ' he says. "I don't know. It's . more habit. I think you would have to say it's an. ~ addiction. (I smoke) because I thoroughly enjoy cigarettcs and haven't fouod the cour• . age to qult" . James, who declined to , glve hls age, smokes loss . than a pack of L&M filters a daY. .. I' have noticed that ;- there are times of the day • (when I usually smoke), like In the mornings following a cup of coffee, when I first { get to the office. Another • time for me Is following = atress situations: "I am concerned, yes; • (about cancer and heart dla• aue) not just for myself but for many others. . • . I keep telling mysell I wIB (quit). I would say I I _ have a strong deprndency on dprettes. I thlnk I should ~ qult I think all of us should ( qoft" .hZ. I Rn W Like matty smokers, Lie- colnton Msyor,tV.M- Lentz started smoklajr,to look grown•up• N!'s:been•smok- lnQ ever alnes,e~ . 1've bas6'tooking for aomathing IU~e ti0 years." muses Lentb; ~'m almost 76 and started xhea I was 18 or 19 whan• was in col- lege ^ r,y ' Lentz smokes a pack of Salems a day.' "I light one Without thinking: • he says. Frankly, just aubconciously I try to limit myself to an ~ average of one an hour. L I think it doea aase some ten- sionl' The surgeon general's re- port hasn't Influenced him much. "('ve never had a short• ness of breath or any pulmo- nary Illness," he says. "I'm too good a Presbyterian. What w11I be will be. I'm a f:rm believer In the doctrine of predestlnation•" Nor Is he worried about cancer and heart disease. "I don't worry period. I do the best I can do, at leut I think I do ... . I think you I can eat yourself to death quick as you can smoke yourse)f to death, and drlnk- In the same way." ~a doesn't plan to qult "I tNed It one tlme and I gained so much wriRht I hGd to buy all new cluthes and coulda't afford It. "I could stop right this minute If I wanted to You know everything you do Is Immoral, Illegal or un- healthy:" • Bob llilIer < Dr. Bob IIG=ez.. t7urlotte orthopedic sorsaon,.picked up the cigaratta lwlit during his second year or0otkge- "I had a rooseata that amoked- Hs 1rt Jtdlo-tvas paralyzed frotat'tlte wafst down - and ttte first thing he did In th.e moia{ag when the alarm weat off, he started smokrnga'eigarette.I think I star:a4 amoking with him." t Milier, blames habit for why •'e continues to smoke t': patks of Merit Menthol a day,.,• ••I ¢et up early in the morning. aad my quiet time Is between quarter after 6 'tii 10 'ul 7, and I smoke a couple cigarettes with cof- fee." Miller [tas tried to q"it - unsuccessfully. "The usual time I would break down Was right after I finish operating," he says. The recent surgeon gener• a1's report contained no star- tling revelatiotu for Miller: Although he worries about cancer and heart disease, the doctor acknowledges "I gueu I don't worry very se- riousiy.'• e Jim RleStdson, postmas- ter for bfciyt Holly, says peer pre#ttre probably started 15. I "A lot ran aro said RlchaY¢spn, a smoker for 37 yeateRrho now lights up 1;5 JO#lis of Viceroys daily. t smolqt+aow because of habltl" hti'says, "and !t's somethin 'that I enjoy even ~ though reafize smoking , probabl ';c not the best thing foripq "I don'tt'haPe a particular time (what I stnoke more)• Smoking a pack and a half a day, It's pretty regular. I enjoy smoidng after I eat more than any other time." Richardson, 52, wonders why the aurgeon general's report can't be more absolute in its flndings• •'I personally feel that smoking Is• a bad habit and wouid injure your health, whether the surgeon general says it or not." Richardson, chairman of the N.C. Soeial Services Commission,.ls concerned, about cancer and heart dis-~ ease - "not only from smoking but frotn everything ~ else." Yet, h,e hasn't given much thought to kicking the habit even though, he agrees, he's probably addicted.. "I probably-anL yes, and addicted becatttse I really haven't given 1~ a secioue et• fort I thlak I could qutt to- morrow ff I wamed to." / king at age 8te kids that I ith smoked," 1919: A Saturday Evening Post ad hints that smoking ean "get on your nerves; • and appeals to cigar smokers to switch to another brand. Janet Volz -1tinet Volz, who anchors WHIV news, was hooked oate she learned to inhale. `t started when I was in eolblge aad girls in my dorm a'er~ amoktng:' says Mlas Vtt~, •'I had never had a cag- aretate before. I would smoke cigarettes in the dorm with I the other girls. I didn't know how to Inhale and once•.I 'learned to inhale. I was ' hooked ..- - tt's a nasty, smelly, dirty habit." ktlss Volz would not re- veal which brand she smokes, but said she inhales about 1 tii packs a day. "When I'm at home, I don't smoke u much. As sontt as I walk In the news- rottm with all the pressure. I start smoking. When your deadline is approiching, and the phones are rinaing, and you serm to have DO million things to do, and the pres. sure Is mounting - that's when yuu seem to smoke more." The aurgeon general's re- port "reaftlrrtted• my belief that if you're pregnant, you shouldn't atnoke. I have al- ready made up my mind that ~ It I am ever lucky enough to havs a child aome day, I would quit. •I~~wish I had never started, A If I get It (cancer or em• Physema) some day I'm sure I'll be kicking myself and saying, 'Boy, were you stu- pln to smoke cigarettes.' "I'm a nervous wreck whenever I've tried to quit. I udt say that I couldn't stop. I could: stop If I really wanted to,^ ' .. THECHARLOTTEOBSfptiHA Sun•-Jrar.25.1D7g 50 Totlac: The low-tar cigarette mast 5ght the claim that it has less taste than its high-car competttion, Sarge Waldrep Gaston County Sheriff C.L. "Sarge" Waldrep quit almost - after he had a heart attack in August 1978. -The doctor suggested I not smoke anymore. I prayed about It, and I all of a sud- dea quit. I started sucking On suckers. I gained weight ... :' Three months after the heart attack, Watdrep found a pack of cigarettes in his office. "It stayed there fnr a day,'• he said. "I looked at It aad I took one, and It was the best cigarette I had tasted .-- • The next day I smoked another onP " J..'Waidrep took hi+ first puff 'at 14 because hts friends smoked and he thought It was a grown-up thing to do. Now, he smokes a pack of . Vantage a day. "I can only give you one reason why I do and It's a stupid reason - I just do. I get pleasure out of It. I find myself under pressure. I think it's just habit to me." The surgeon general's re- port, "makes me look like more stupid than what I was. It's given me more of a' desire to stop. But there's a thing about !t that I always - put it off until tomorrow- "I have some concern about my heart because I quit smoking after a heart attack. I've yielded to the flesh more thaa the spirit of God I guess:' ~ Winston Churchill Wt_stom Churchill, late Britis3 prnme minister, ra- tlonel hianself to 15 cigars a. day. tie .n•rote: •'How can I tell that my temper would have 9eem as sweet or my compamomship as agreeable • if I bad adJured from my youth the Goddess of Nlco- tineT' Other !amous smokers from `The Book of Lists": . • Siam d Freud, founder of psyeitnanaalysls. smoked as many as 20 cigars daily, even zfter he got jaw and , Polar. :arncer. • rly.eas S. Grant. Civil War gr.nnesl and U.S. presl- dent. amMted 1.4 cigars the er.cono eap• of the Battle of the W:id'r:aess In VlrRinle. • Tamnas Ma: shail, vice president under Woodrow Wilson. enaned efle phrase, "What this: country needs Is a really gnnd 5-cent cigar." • Sir W.iter Raleigh, En- giish navigator and• passion- ate pipe snaoker, was doused with water by a servant who believed his muter was on fL-e. • Nargaret StnlthTaylor, wife of Za(itary Taylor, 12th U.S• presudent, smoked n pipe tn the White House. • Mark Twain, author, smokrrl ct3atrs. He sald quit• ting +vas easy - he had "done :t 1r.rJ timea-" TIMN 448798
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Tobaeco ti proii(tt ~ri 8t ot 100 Narth Carolina countlss: Ci9arettes are manufactut+d In maJor plants In Winston-8alem,, Durham, Greenaboro.and . Retdevilt.; ona plant Is under construction In Cabarrus County Burley tobacco.,Is qcown In 29 counties, most haaviix ~in the mountain area of North Carolina in Over 3 Million Pounds Grown ~ Over 1 Million Pounds Grown Q Over 100,000 Pounds Grown Under 100;1100 Pounds Grown +~. .a _. Q 30-45 Million Pounds Grovtrt~ ~•~- Over 10 Million Pounds Grown ~ Over 20 Million pounds Qrown . ~~ . . •l [] Over 1 Million Pounds Grown. L] Under 1 Million Pounds Grown r ObfarnraMMlioeaYaE°Ra@eREnACHER vil:' i It's ®uw rlives wrapped up i Smatter farmers like Bill York need price supports Dy Lab7.t:r)R lAYSOUft ONtwr fqe W,RR Enl York Is a•th)rd-generatfon tobacco farmer. In his six years of tending a swateh ot Iredeii County • with the uneertallntiea ot fazming. "You just never know- what's gonna happen next and bow much you7t suffer because of It." But York's not Just talking about the weather. He's never been a cigarette smoker, but he fears the federal government's anti-smoking campaign will filter down to his rung on the tobacco production ladder and affect his.• liveiihood _ Specifically. York fears the Qow ernment will end Its 4Syear-old tobacco price support program There's gold in the soil of tobacco land It Is a rare combination of soil and chmate that makes North Carolina's tlue-cured tobacco a treasured ingre- dient in cigarettes. The conditions produce in the tobacco leaf a unique combination of sugar and nicotine - the substances generally regarded as those which give North Carolina tobacco Its flavor and aroma. Because that sets it apart from tobacco grown else- where in the world• North Carolina tobacco commands the world's highest pnces. < , vi. oe~w.r nna er vint. owt[ purins the 197g etaaon: York. Ahandfnl of tobacco seed miy be worth about 829 ~~ i,m;u-~ °~ `f°en; dibi hih"f creyg cost o converting hls farm operation. Conversion is costly because it's impossible to rnodlty tobacco harvesting equip- ment and storage and curing barns so they can be used for other uops. "I'd have to atart from scratch," he said. "And if I dld, what wouid I do with the $20,00 0 worth of , ~~y 4'~ (tobaeeo) equlpment I' ve airead y .Ar'+$aji aot? ... I'd have to buy all new _ db ' ~~1 f ` d; ~' `"h0l' °•t" ye arm goo Without them, Pa have to fI ,)a kiss my a b f he sstd, be~ never mtda eaough , .,..Lhere'a no way the govern- t money to.tvna sopblstlcated opet* . - aUos Uks hislatger competttprs, , ment could give me a subsidy big . Witb ley money Im,pted In ma- enough to help me make the elaiaery, fertilizer and pesticides, change. No way.° his erop Is often inferior to the Tobacco farmr Joe Coleman of : Iraf tbat comes from the wealthier Tabor City on the South Carolina ... - lineinColumbusCountyisInalm- _: f ;7haYs why small farmers aeed, itar shape. Although be's a diversi- Yffq sapports," York. aald: "It fled farmer with 43headof cattle. which guarantees minlmum prices for tobacco. - even interior arades -_ sold otn the auction 9o ttsefkar ' ' • .-_ . z„3aTpa ns ::. keep. up with the big aprn6arrs :.: If they vote (the _. 'rg f ytegam) ottt, I'd have to kiss my - -''• lasg°°dlua- i ~<Hi j ••at prce supports areust ae ' l f 00 Important to large-scaeanners. • "In bad •weather years we need ~ price snpports to get by." said - Cheater Worthington, 43, who "~ runs a g00-acre tobacco farm near ' GlllC reenve, N.. 1. ""I don't care how much tobacco _.~ you produce, If It's not good - ll' i enough to se, youren trouble." Tobacco is North Carolina's No. I cash crop - and one of the few that allows farmers to turn a de- e.mt profit on small tracts of land. On the 1978 markets, tobacco brought more than 51,200 an acre compared to the $160 an acre ' earnings for peanuts, $140 for cot• ton and $92 for soybeans. "When you look at the figures;" he eaid, 'it's obvious that I couldn't make a living off any other crop -.. not with the (17 + acres of tobacco) land I've got:' If York were forced to switch . to other crops, he said It would be i years before he could make enough money to offset the "in- 100 acres of soybeans and 6 acres of earni matt ot his income comes from hts 36 acres of tobac• co. Although it would be easier for him to get out of the'tobacco busl- ness and fall back on his other crops, Coleman says hesvould suf- fer a major income loss if he made, the swltch. He's also convinced it would be impossible for the gov- ernment to force farmers Into crop conversions because of the dwin- dling availability of farmland. "When you deal with other erops, volume Is the name of the game," sald Coleman. 51. "My fqrm Is a medium-sized opera- tlon .•. you need thousands of acres to make apy money ... and there's just not enough farmland around for every farmer to have that much:" Many tobacco farmers are confi• dent the government will make no effort to drive them out of busl- ness - principally because It would result In higher welfare ex- pendltures and a loss of the sub- stantial revenues from tobacco taxes. - "The (federal) government has never had a balanced bud- get ... but It got over 56 billion last year off tobacco taxes:" Cole- man said. " ..I don't think they'll put us out of business." He's convinced there's a way to keep smokers and tobacco grow- ers healthy. .. Juat tell us what's ln the tobacco that causes cancer and wa'A breed It out,"
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.Letw.'t.._~` __ DeYca 17nlvsrsltya Bad Habtts ' ~t.•",qlnta • designed to kelp people ~ a~- , overcome amolting. Insomnta~ 1•~ onprof rt~_ overeating., tension and ¢ad kablta- • `' • • Smokers meet in groups of 11R1CS L toar to eight for lyr houra cC weekdays and the following Afonday. Several methods are aud: self-hypnosia, relaxation• ,- About four etmss s risr the training, aversive therapy, MeUOiina LtmO Assodaticc aad.';=roap dtscusslon aad support Seventh-Day AdvrnUat Chureh- and eognttiva psyehology •- cosponsor stop•amoking clinics which Dr. Robert Shipley of fn Charlotte- They cost i5 and Duke University Medical Center average sbout Io0 partidpants• Sessions are held an five con- secutive weeknights. Partit:l-pants are urged to quit cold turkey, but those who want to taper off are helped- Participanta rtsa a buddy ays- tam, similar to Alcohollcs Anonymous, ia which each per- eon helps aad gets help from another participant. Participants are divided Into t:.atns; an ex-smoker is team leader. Each night everyone tells how many cigarettes he or ahe smoked that day, and each team's total Is added. Teams cnmpete to see w•Alch gets to ':ero cigarettes first• Clinics also include films, lee- tures ar.d tips on how to psych yourself up and avoid pitfalta 'most smokers face. When erav- ings become great during the dsy, participants call buddies for encouragement- The Metrolma Lung Assoda- ttan's J.E, Ltppard says about 90 percent quit after tive days• lie estlmates 80 percent are stlB off cigarettes a year later. • For $145, you can earoll Is Dave Lawrence David Lawrence Jr» 37, executive editor of the aa' ,trolt Free Press and former '•editor of The Ofrerver. re- members one ChrtstmY 1918 present as the heginning of .the end of his 20•yeu, three :pack-a-day habit. The gift, Water P!k One vatep At A Time Yilters te- aluyes tar and nicottna /ntake • over an eigbt-week period, "By the end of e/ght •weeks, says the theory:' as• -plained Lawrence In a (g7g ,Obssrver column. "quitting twlll be a lot easier. It wasn't :for me:' When he reached the last ,flltet•, Lawrence quit cold turkey. : "The first days and weeks •vrere the toughest," he said. It was almost impasathle to .dletata a letter, to be In a mssting over a few miA. utes ... . I was teaaa, Irriir ,blq too tough on people. t "I dld not feel bater, a1- ,though I did not have to 'elear my throat of phlegm tevery morning „ . Food .did not taste better, I wanted , .a cigarette worse. • The only advice ... is ~ ~lt's a one-day-at-a-tlme sort rRtt thing. I made It a practice of telling everyone I met at . the time that I was qWt• .tittF Jacc>< Lewis ~~laanalynn "Jaod" Lewis. a fres-lance artist, took aa nutuual approach to kickint tha habit - she smoked and ~ draek herbal teas. :, When I'd get the urge or be under extreme preasure qr duress, I started moking herb teas --• : aaya Ms, Lewis, who smoked a-pack of True Green ciga- rettes a•week for about a year. "I mix them all togeth- ar and roB them like an ald- fashioned cigarette." • She quit because sbe felt cigarettes were affecting har lungs and reading wmpre- hension. • I'm getting away trom them (the herbal cigarettea) now. If I had a pipe I think I'd do It more often. It yoa do it In public people frown and yon have to go through a lot of explanatlons so I Jwt do It occaslonally now.' She also drinks herb teas to calm her nerves, "I read somewhere (that) !f you can, ellminate all the toxins from the body. I want on several julce faats and drank celery and gsrllo juice and mhteral water. "I gut the urge atrongly (to smoka)." aAa s~ya. "You detiniilY feel withdrawai. At flrst 1 was )ust eating profuaelY. but now It's tr p.rad a~( and I faal mota esl•, erastte•_ r describes as °cleaeing up your crazy thoughts about smoking. "Most people are fairly am- blvalent about smoking," he says. "Part of them wants to quit and part not- When they're tempted to have a cigarette this debate goes on In their heads. There's a whole bost of ration- altutioas that are used to altow one to have a dganKU, Wa taack lndivlduals ways to deal with them." ' • Clients are told not to amoke between sesstons. On about the third day, they're given dga- rettes. "We have them fate the wall, smoke at their normal rate aed concentrate oa all the negative sensations;' Shlpiey say+. , ; Moet look forward to'mok- Ingt but ara disappointed. "It hurts their throa4 their mouth tastes terrible, their chottl are,tight and their nose gets clogged up,^ he says. Shipley says almost everyone quita by tha end of the clinlc. 8ut be says the important thing Is that about 60 percent aren't smoking a year later. Y" _ SbarB huaw, a ~ieNotfe bema• maker and two-pml•a•dtly smoker, quit cold tarker ae.sial llma - once for a whole Fec 'But the whole tiae I stopped I always wanted oses' ahe says, "I was,alwaya leantas orer trying to ia'Aa9a meaeane eFtds smoke-'• .G1 grnr ago. Mrs. Usaw went to Char2mte hypnotist Staaa Reiztss- Sha haantamokei a+a, Hypnotism is aa faereasingly popular qaitting tnd- although ex- perts disagree oe :s vakte. Some say it's aot an eCeetive way to control fiehavior, bat aa help indi- viduais dowhat they wanttfo do. Robert Shipley, the Duke psy- t•2fologis4 says thete is no avtdence •bypaosis affect. >see,king- But be thinks itt can help :bose able to go lato stmsg hypnacc traaces, j*., 1ut Rs.tgatysa, a}kD ta edgegtlqhal ptnia ttdatelt uta~ ir a i;~ht acAl.ve is ese.essr~ ts k yppla quit amoktng. For yeara, hr}utista tcMtlto maka people thiak tfry hate/- ntta smoke. tt dltrT wort =;;•~~ smoking alter tttrn to five conseo- So now a Rdsias toeussa ~; benefits of qWttlag. s DollgMayt'~~~r_~ BriAei,h h i~j heart attack atti' M p bet prompted Doug gita)•!f, 37. a WBTV parsoeatlty,' to quit i amoking. Hs remaAken prr ' daely the dsy aatl thqs: Nov. 13t 1954, at 9:30 a,p, 'It (the Brltlalt teport) had been In the ArirA t4at week and a grau10 pere !n the contr made a $2 be quit smokin My dad major heart VW#k; and he was a chila teNbe{, end I thought It *l y{ster lli antmtpts ts sttty sH. "I cbews `ttat aed eAewed aa~~ 1 sto/ about twt isks Ntare ThattWgIvbt~, saQ I galaeA sa.meweig6tauhaQMM osadfet.itatIfottttwas teortSy lt•" • • tartW best~rr „A~haatYwt tgne aayb /1- W(~ pickles. LAesse I d anQ t11eaYte{ M iRBSp PPI•M aever tastN'f~.~ 1 do beitaYSypq~! Mp to make uf y9itf 111IM (qpaf quitting). It- U s taa Htter will power, Yelt kaw to dao dde this•/iii wU Voy ttMSt to do." R4t• We we could /},Ys Mayes. }prrt had a Doris A fI Yushaas rtckstt of aes~ag, - aea a He'd ltrs. rl woratt ae4 [ ~at oN enlMp Mit ttNl ~~~ iRMR wt4 aatt~~ r ts st11l clrcumsuntiaL Jarvlk said physical changes orcur In people whn try to qW4 indirating they suffer ttve with- drawal, not Just psvchological. t'Itnnges occur in brain waves, inrludmR a xigmficant slowing ol hr.un acttatv, after suhJruts are drprtv,'d ot tnbacco for 24 hours. The effect is reversed after smok- ers have two cigarettes withia five minutes. Other physiological changes tn- elude weight gain and blisters In the mouth, nausea, headache, dlar- rhea, increased appetite, drotvsf- ness or Insomnia, restiessness and inability to concentrate. What about long-term effects - effects that would explain tha high relapse rate of quitters? •By t.r the most common and clt»icalfy the most Important factory aad oral graiffkatiott fs withdrawal from tobacco fs ctav preaent.° Ing tor tobacco: • Jarvik says- Nicotlne the nleet powerful 'The best estimates fndicata pharmacological agent la eiganYto that 90 percent of ali smokers ln smoke - increases puW ratq withdrawal will verbalize their blood pressure and the amoitnt of need for+ cigarettes. Moreover, adrenalin and other ehemkak• In among •amokers who have been the bloodstream. ^abatinenbtorSve tv nine year; For novicw or In largs dosa, ao aut•asttw report that they .- Neatina can cause neusea or rom• eoytlaw to . hava re least an oeca. 'ttiag, the report says. But tdeottas slonat eraving foettabatxxt6^ .tapt also "have a.faciBtartng ef- Jarvik: saya+ttlere ta "eottddeb. feet upon learaing and memoty lablid"hl ae evence tat gradua with. aalmala and possibly la Attmanr,' drawatftau.tobacco Is even more according to several studies, dttflattt.thaneahrttpt witAdrawaL .. 73a sadtton onaddicttos nertbyAtl fk , -Pan aaneneerom'sm Dyt ~ hm•msoo ~lo- ~ lo-uo• s~at' at pqchfatry and p [n [~'to more, nther than Ioat, aat the Universiqr of CaAfotMa ~Ort M ~~~~' The rO' ag Ip A.gdaa says the avidmes aatY Ml pttrtialjyr abWtteat amokw t. ht'a ctuanto aata ot wlthdntw . ;'astrvrpnot.avrktotaxe tLAtaltOtlnaisthevitaltagdtt ~as. aL"'t. osa't letp tt. Yoa owe your kndy reipeet a'ad attention- As sooa aa yaa stop amoking you're WnI~ tmto clearly, you view things b a plropar perspective, you're feeling more energetic, more physically at- tracttve ReizUs, 36, says 95 percent ot hU_ several hundred clients a year quit smoking. But he only accepts clients referred by doctors, and he screens out those who want to quit only because of nagging spouses. Relzise gives euents a 24-hour ration of clgarettes - usually a fourth their normal amount, but so toore than 18 - which he says ta enough to avoid physical wlthdrawa/ symptoms. Then he concentrates on ntaking smoking "a totally conscious act' . When ctlents smoke, c:ce t a; s al- lowed to ec aothing eae• 7I the phone rings, they must either ig- nore It or put the cigarette out. If they're driving and waat a dga- retta, they have to pull over to the elde of the raaQ- They atuet faatta all attaptlop as the dgsratte• "leople aoart natlu the dlttt• rette Is not bel}U1g thsm to rela: ~ Retalss says, Each day Ae gives eBents hyp• noaa auggestloes to make the pro- gnm eaNar. Ha uys moa< quit uuve daily eas.Loas, for whtck'ha charges $45 saeh. The first susfon r takes about an hour, the' othera about 43 minutes. "Yoa ara yeer tNt's Relatss telif a kspsoazea "Your body is isaae.at aM ~r He teaohea clients self-hypnosfs Iess. It's at your eaey. 1/ yett O16W to relnlt~e his setggtalosg ag$ to tiaw to put lsisaa t/ 7e.r M[>lpljl< keep paep/a tro~ telapee, ckett~ er ftetft mptei •bptltl villa q ~I11t the ~;,IF00 boeW. quit,n aald "He had a ,%uitting thsa .I ered ttte the reached evor eigarette and ed aaoiker." niy 3, 196g had smok• Ths g9-ysar• Itasa polltlcal was smok- ot Salaeut a tatt. /1t • ,p0o0 ttt~ / S [otd~ .~ 60 ia tke Sppslt ~er te .~gjt~M MAnd tkal'g ti uva Way dt And I AttisS htthMa _ t no lonpi tly, ^1 love q btti t doa't reauy I 1°°Aihiiii . ~a~l r Dennis Ias$ Dmnls Itgtb, 89-r1ar-old- ttrrsident of NCNB Devel- opuent Corp., kqew he had to quit stnoking whea the ei- evator broke,and he had to climb IO fUghts to his office, leaving hiM~tufflAg and put- fiaA- 11 siho ~}I! ts cau~ht his Mesth . i ya{dQayin Afarch lMg d gbout a Flor- ira eass tYkleh the family Of a~whs smoked and ~iat /ifaar aued the Teb.ao co. ~ (~gt artlale were pie• ~ ~ healthy ptnk lunge th)r blaek dlr tlltgN ktige of the decadent." , Nya lask, wke stnoked two i OMU a day of Matlborea I and stiae tfyadg fer eight Pkt ash did ttro` things to ttulet HyPatveAttiattag .- Aat lust hriatklAg deeplyye Mtt Btarally gaspittg fow », ;ive tlmtfa whenere ilr . wanted a algarette, and . ' qlad to bratilt ail the ga{at/g. ~ tfona with snoWng. P+l, nYou haYa to do it pe1~ . fialkeY.^ lla uivlses a, . !'j hlto think you need to foree ,_y0nraelf to draln off semt: ~ tkat aaw~y .. wa0dns er tonnlag. Yoo taally have to forc. youtasU to. thiak flood ~asltk," - Does k~.~~~ why you're hooked help? It's tobacco - not the act nf amoking - rhat makes cigarette smoking addictlve, acoording to the 1979 U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Smoking aad Health- The report cites the Roval Col- lege of Physlcians in I.ondon, Which calls tobacco smoking ••,t form of drug dependence different from, but no less strong, than that In other drugs of addiction:'- 'There is much direct evidence that cigarette smoklog necessarily Invotves tobacco and probably nic- otine:' the report says. "Cigarettes made of nontobacco materi- als ., are not popular "Low or no-nicotine cigarettes allow their smoken to go through all the motions of smoking. Light- ing, handling and puffing can be the same as wlth usual dgarettes, so the opportunlty for vlattal. ol- symptom to appear faltowing CoYnmercial products Dro/stmtas offer tnexpenstve• drugs and devices to help you quit smoking. The One Step At A Time IiI- ter system sells for about 510- taeluding four ftlters desigaed to wcan yoa from smoking !n aight. weeks. Filter I reduces tar sad nkot3ae 25 percent: fil- ter $ 50 peteeet: filter 3, 70 percent, flher 4, 90 peoceaG You're supposed to use each Hlter two weeks, quitting after two weeks on f(lter 4. But many people doo't, and the company now marketa fttter 4 in sepaxate P~gm- Based on '•extensive tele- phons stnveys.^ product man- agar Jack Towns eatlmata. a. quit rata of ]0 pereent - beb ter than ft sounds sinea few peapie usttalty sra able to quit amoktag gradually. ' TSte company elaims to have 'helped a million people stop smoking, but acknowledges It now sells as many filter 4s as complete systema - a fact crlt- les say shows the system doesn't work for most people. ~ Two other popnlar stop• amokieg aides are Bantron and H8ltoben, pNs that contain the auea key iagredieat - tha drug trb~totttsd aa s taiso- ObtaZAad: fmm dried lea.eA and haha, Iobeline Aas ttuny of the aams-antoaotnle effects aa aieotins -eha pbYaled effeets over which you ordinarily have no control such as blood pres,• sura or lanathing. Jolin 1: arker, a pharmacologist for Purex Corp, which markets Bantron. says lobeliae is about a tenth ay potent as nicotine and is not addictive In small doses (2 mg in Bsatroo, 5mg in Ntkobaa} Lobellne aervea as a tstttich and helps people withdraw frora their nicotlne addietlone Panker aays purex clattm It betps tttost people quit smokhtg tn five to 30 days. Parker says surveya' suggest 50 to 60 percent auo- ca.u atter two or three months. '2ong-term rd say 25 to 30 perceutr attaoeoa. But I don't havrso=sdats to back that etp becaube .retm•never done long- urm fdimwbpa:' : :ot . : Some ra.eafcheat say 1lobelins Il no more eflective thaa a pler ceho• A revfew of studies pub- lished by the U.S. Department of Health. F-docation and Wel- fare last year notes widespread claims lobellne satisfies nicotine craving, but saya flatly. "There , 'ts no evtdence to support this contention." i The U.S. Food and 1>rug Ad' ~i ~ mintstratfon is expected to an- nounce whether It canattters Itho drug safe and effective- If It doestt't;- )obeilee could be beaaed. Willie Stratfort~ l Willie Stratfors, wiis. smoked for 30 yeara, thanka hts mother for helping hlat,' to quit five years ago. "When my eon ar,duated from Air Force achoni, my , mother and I went to the graduation: • recalls dtrat. . ford, 55, a U.S. Postal bstv.: 'tee manager who aatoked 734 packs day. "My heab- er aaid, 'Your IYK gotng up and dowa aad,up and down andavaryltNly's looking at yat' -r:• ~ "And ooeasleAdlr.aiy, bbreath became sYoffK.aad I'd whaeaa A let Oq tyrq.. fag - and 111114411 tryit nine': ta.n thousand tlttta before - as I aalN tAy prayera, I sald a prayK tsada the sifta of the arpa, thraw the dga- Fettem b tAa trash can sntt I MaMeA'/ tifpsta~ aleea. - ' '~iNl, I ain't Oanl . .~~ Atme, agd 1 said. rqtt, Jestu.' - TrI/I1.A 1 decide Ea.alo' /A0 1 just 00 it.' Ies. ISfti Rt gA artMlan Well-9f• that you draw ea ttAtf• Tt just giva you..tba •ttsnAth to go oa. - . -'I think that the human mind cab de anything it• wanta to do. I think It aaa draw on the artesian weB of atreagtk - this Isaer aMe gtA that ws havw We don't need a eTateb ~ 1 loan Webber quit to nrot+ ~~ to her htuband she could. "My husband said, 'Well) .Jeas, roa ahould etdp." :M». VYebber, 40, nf Char. lotte,. recalls. "He had stopped several months ha• •tore that. And I said, 'Oh .I71 stop. And he said, 'You'!i never stop: .. I /ust threw tha eif' arettea In the trash un, I haven't had a dgarette In my , mouth dnce." That was two years ago. 'T started iogging a weak later, and I-could only ga a hatf a block -.. . And i was determined to keep np with that so I went out every day and now I Jog anywhers fromlyrto5mlleaaday-" Mrs• Webber, 10, president of AMICO Inc•, a Charlotu computer card manufactut` tam sotnpany, didn't thiak about ataoWn~ when sbe dr eldes to quit af'ter amakieff for ?0 years, InAaling a p clti a day of a low-tar-agd-Alea tise brand• t'I thlnk whes yon mats ap your mlet to do aotns' thieg and have a atrens tnm tteatton faetor - that'a wiat gaes yeu ttvar tte tump.• i
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L u 'IHECHAKLO'ITEUUSLRVER Sun"Mst:21,397! - ._ ... ._..i~. ' - - Smolking. And'Health _...,. ., .. . , . "Lygarafb amokind is a health hazard of su//'icient fmportona in fhe umtad.Sta~aa to warranr approprt• ' at. r+ttnadta! atYtare." • 2 -1964 U.S. Surgeon General's Report Luther Terry, M.D., Surgeon Genarai. • •'The scientific evidence on the health hazards of cigantte smoktng ts overwhelming," - 1979 U.S. Suraeon General's Report Julius Richmond. M.D. Asafstant Secretary for Health and Surgeon Gatteral Since the original U.S. Surgeon General's-report In 1964 deemed cigarette smoking a health hazud, the warnings have gotten progressively stronger, through a succession ot surgeons general in different administratlons. , That flrsb nport, based on 6.000 sdennno artt- cles, sald cigarette smoking causes lung cancer and chronfe bronchltla, but that It was unclear whether smoking causes coronary artery disease. The report said bluntly that other charges had not been provad• t~ t= . toe dust In the ttgtlla induatry. _~ Ad ertensiv stOdy often cited in the surgeoe '- Zidaatlata could davtse tMa which would likely - Taday, thousands~tit addltlocal research proieets , . •~ general's report gives some Idea of the risk. Tga peove exactly htrwdgatett. smoke ausa lung an• - Producing 30,000 studies that form the Msa fer • G(garatte smoking during pregnancy has ati study, started In 1961 by the British Madlcal Aseoelb - ag aae ethaa dlauses In ibamana: But ressearehers say 1979 surgaoa pneraPa tqort,- Provtde Indlaputabla verp afteM an the fatus, the health of the baby fEd tlon, ttionltored 34,400 tnale doctors. Tha tnost raeaatt thaM' klttd af~pc1~ vroald be unathlcul be- oaw avldence about tk: harards of smoking. bttt the the tutun daveloptnent at the intant and ehild- report, publlahed ta 1it7& Included 20 years of obsen atise tqey,would lavolw tr~tng to Indua potentially report b ttot a blanket Indlctment vstlons ittvolvina 10,072 deaths >p ottatttgqR{aitqgx Ia-t,mnaiq; ottatt are oiow to unant- ' e E,y ridudp~ thi;bo} dy'a natttraF detens+ tn ~~ ~ ~t 111 ttdan ro0a'to health: kari ~, ~~ ~. Surgtql ~anhif Ntls~ lth~monA sdya the report afaat smeklag htueaH t11e ckaneu ot talluaaaa and Stttoliert wttY `b0 P~ent mon Uktly to "prbldts attatg txetlhdotn whate thsy ati wuraa. dled thia ttogatnokera c • i1R~lW~alfatt llabdkUdlraetor ot tke Ftam• ofbK Intlcdaua dlsaarig • , tN b tka a avtda ed h t r ld ilt l k. u t 6 l ~ ~ y aa p ov ~tnmea ~ a ~ ~ ~ .rnae Fr Iw>i~iear ke h1d dk If of tsmon ant rata.s ~ llvawotkiagu~~~wkoathsatWabl•faaiari' ` ~~yf r ~ Yd~%not trotthsae M oandnaiaea it wggab fd, • « • ~t9ggratte rmoldiS6 ept tvdua th, aftaett timaa gnYa.t.arr thas` tlbaamokers fka meaae, It gE .~ e ~ w. tttrf. Bnea' at thqWrx tvllar thae an gaps Ia ~stlaa e drnp t~ x•~ nt. ~ 10 da ,at ~per I~,0o0 people,~whlal. cstwaok s' eAqw w we ysalt "~i` and olEer chemlale Cttarett• atttoklag cae ad: wlth dieottals dled of lutta canesr at a rate ot 140 pee 100.000 pt•. dd ttse asatkat ee ttM baad of aafaL!°evWanca wh11• faund on thi b to adv.ne bldctl - ~r Ple ater wk~ tsldna ta !ar thaa T6 d { e ~tag ` Prodncta Wt! Wbaeta Por doetars wbo smoked more f` k Dt svaamn! thets. . a a»a11Yw.d.baaalawoat>te a ~. ~ et•. t~~' Y~...q . _.~ day. ttte rW was 231 deaths per 100,000 aamtt.rL ;YN ~te ~t7i taaaes~u ~' r; ra x Tha aftbdt of dgarstts amok[ni on kealth ig otra Dt. Thamas Jtmes, tltolka/ecfi~ o1rt/Edtep a! tk• I Hat ea0erb Iuvn aid dostaa of mb.dtlaiar 4te tsh.tmlaa. el¢Otfi ratet ,. ,.. (Alveeahy or Afaf•sa at isf>tingtrt>•r addq "No taia wtnant.4 as ~r after the stndy trnka .amoaat o! ~tt d- eea temldb.r adttlnfag a s.amokle ts tM m~ ; dgaatW smohed with lztent ar dlseaaa.-tlomt-d ".smoking is the largest preventable txuse oi. For cancer or the etephYgus& th• deatk rat• tbr INI lttLsetlas tasaastt taat t thos. cpaduston~ - , .+'+^ ~-a" death fn Ameria ° Health. Education and WaNsre ... . . ~ ' .r~`~ ' thaa tar noesmoksn. t`'' smokers was iTtfinea higher . , 3:° Saaetary Joea h Califano eald when the 1979 report Th th nte wae 2•L7 ttme+ kigh~ for d k ' p e amo ara ea . ..... •• n . .- - was released in January. '•W[ten demographers look. chronfa bronchitis and emphysema. 2.5 times higher . r. ,.~ ~ e Frk every, prevmtabla death from hijfhwyf ao- at death rates for dlsease+ related to dgaretts smok:7 for fatal ntcerss, .6•6-tima higher for satto ar 2;•~~ ~~ af~~raPOs i • difattts, thara wera approximately two dMffis ttoba !t• they-tdentify 80,000 daths each year from luag' eurysms- Medical Editot ltobvt , .. .. -'r-.. . - anar, 22A00 deaths from other ancen, up to - Comq 3!,' fs edumn• &f-: Iung , caaar whleh ceuld hava ben pravanttl ff tke ~.000 deaths trom cardlovaacalar dlseue, and mote . "The riska odf orven8 mortality and specific mon• anns at the Mdtr: hrs eppeared in~ ?he Obstrvar, vletlms kadntsm°ked Ugarattea' 'b•2, f,r>'~' ~, tlian 19,000 deaths from chronto pulmonary dfseafet miity trom lung cancer and coronary heart dlsesae week[y aina Nosember 19R3 ~"`'zv' -averyone of them related to smoking." •3 w'ere lower in thaea amoking lower'tar' aad Ncottne e Cigiratte smokhtgis one of the threr key ttalc }, cigarettes than ia those smokiniL hihher Yar' and do•- The Onal vetaim of Sseoking and Health won't be s factors In heart attadq. and sudden heart fathtres Sald•Surgeon General Richmondt'•Each year, that otine dgWttes," ~e surgeon general sa3d- ' pubOthed untllMay. To get a copy thee, write to the i Smoking mu1t1p0ea,tha effect of the two other maior health damage resulting trom cigarette moking costa7 But he add•; tlie riskks for those people'~ren still Superintendent ot Dac®ean, Washingten, D,C• factora, high blood:prersura and blgheholestsrnth thts. nation an estimated g27 biiliaa In medfal are,' tlgnlficantiy ht than fn nonamokers•" 20402. or to the Cditee at Smoking and Health. Room ~ absenteeism, decreased work productivity and acd-• ~ 110 Park Buliding, 5600 Fishers La., RodcvHle, Md. t-°----~e-lmoking-is-oma ot the~key cansas of cancer ot dpts•" --- ~ ..--.. Dr- LUyler .-H~moad. of th• Ameian Catxer 20857. The eost has aot beem a.t. i Cancers of all l~nds. • tracec~„1o sm.ol~ng • The sutgeoei general'iyrepott re• add to th• risk of oral cancer. veals naw evidanltr^ttmn links Cigarette stmking can lead to smoking to many fo~ys of cancer. often-tatal canelr of the esophagus, Although exprsts, ha•vEtt;t estab• the surgeon general's report says. . lished how itt htppens., dgaretn Federal statistics show that 7,224 smoking is a cause of cancer of the people died of esophageal cancer, mouth, wlndpipe and esophagus. It and the` American Cancer Society also Is asaaclated,wlth cancer of the estimates that 7,500 of the estl- bladder, kidney ind. pancreas, the mated 8,400 people who get the dis-' report says. .. I ease this year will die. Pipe and dgar smokers have al- . Of the 34,400 Brltish doctors, 65 most the same risk of mouth, wind• died of this cancer, and smokers pipe and esophageal cancer aa dga, were 8•75 times more likely to die rettt amokers. The risk from those of It than nonsmoken- Among the three' cancers Is even greater for 239,000 veterans, 111 dled, with ' smokers who also drink alcohoi. smokers about six times more likely The cancer section of the eurgeon to be vtetlms than nonsmokers. genenl'a report was prepared by th! National Cancer Instimte. Again, the rate of cancer In- The National Center for Health creased as the number of cigarettes Statlstla reported. 3.351 deaths In amoked Incressed. 1978 from cancer of the larynx; the Reseacnhers have not proved dg- •Amerfan Cancer Sodety estimates antte smoking causes cancer of the 10,400 cases, with 3,500 deaths pre• bladder, but have found a strong as- dlded thls year. sodatlon between the two. - A study of 34,400 British doctors, Bladder cancer killed 9.673 per- "- ieported in 1976, recorded every- sons in 1976, lyderal`siatiat~ thing that happened to their health show. An estimated 35,000 people over 20 years. Thlrty-elght doctors will get the dlsease this year, died ot larynx cancer. Cigarette 10,000 will die. - • amaken were 13 times more likely In the atudlea of British doctors to be victims than nonsmokers. and U.S. veterans, smokers were The likelihood that smokers will about twice as likely as nonsmokers , . get aneer of the larynx 1s actually to die of bladder eanoer. greater than the mortaBty, sstudies Other siadles showed the number ~I auggest, because 60 percent of thoae of cigarettes smoked daily - and who get cancer of the larynx an during a BfetLne -kad a direct re• ~ cured - that is, they survive at latlonahip to the risk. least five years. • For thoee who quit amoking• the Experts have teotentatdd the risk approaches that at nonsmokers chance a nule smtater will develop after ssvm yara. cancer of the larynx is Ig tlmes People who smoke-and work that of a nonsmoking man. For with dyes, rubber, leither, print. women who smoke, the risk is nine petrolaum and other msanla chemi- tlmes greater. A-person• who als have aa.inereased risk of blad- smokes mon than. 35 dprettas a der canar, the report ays. day and drinks heavily runs a risk Kidney ancer, whfck will kill an of aneer of the Iaryns 22 nmu estimated 7,500 of the 18,500 peo• grester than nonsmokers and non- ple it strikes annuaBy, killed 141 drinkers. , ' person! In the U.S. veterans smdz, Generally, The risk Increases with with smokers somewhat more Iike• the number ot cigarettes smoked ly to die than nonstaokers. The re- each day and the number of years port does not show results from the of amoking. But smoking filter ciga• British doctors study for this type rettea cuts the risk by between by of cancer, but overaR tallies show ono•fourth and nee-haft. - smokers are between 1.42 and 2.46 And quitting helps. The rlsk of tlmes more likely to die from k1d• developing cancer of the larynX di- ney cancer than aengmokers. Evf- minlahes steadily atter smokers dence also shows the amount of quit. After smokera have quit for 10 . cancer Increases with the amount years, their risk approaches that of smoked daUy- those who have never smoked. pancmfle ,anenr baa one of the Oral cancer - Including cancer highest mortaBty, v.•atss of au aa• M the Bp, tongue, tloor- of th• eera, It killed 19,738 people In 1979, month, gums aod throat - parallels - according to federal statistics. windpipe cancers In relatlon'to dg- About 20,200 of the estimated aretie smoking. 23,000 people who get the diseasa Oral ancer 1s slgnlnantty asse• this yaar will die. In North CaroB- dated with smoking pipes, dgars na, 1t killed 468 persons fn 1977. and chewing tobacco. The veterans study and about a The health suttstla center says half•dozen studfes warldwide fndl- g,114 persons dlad froat oral can- eate amoken W about twtce as eas la 1976• The Amerlean Cancer likely to die from cancer of the Society estimates 24,400 cases, with panereas than•aensmoken. 8,g50 deaths thls year. .., 6tudles alao ahow tharlsk of pan- The 20•year study of British doe• crntle cancer Increases with the' tors shows 38 docton died of oral number ef algatettes smoked. A cancer and that smoksrs were t>f two•p.ek•a•day amoker has tlve umes more likely to dID than non• a noe rtlmr tke rbk of panrntlc noer smokers. as a nonsmoker. In a study nf 23p.t100 U,B, vater- Pancreatic a0eer Is Bnked to the ans, rntuken were about four titnsa amount of lat and the amount and more likely to die of ora, eanoer. type ot protetas In the dle4 but The National Cancer Iasikutt whetMr theM an aa tmportant a rys alcohol and paar dental eara risk fatxer r aat•king is not dsar. . , . f• ~~ t Interagency effort BRITISHDOCTOR'SSTUDY, k~,y,,r~ Each sectlon of "Smoking and Health: A'Re- port of the Surgeon General" was prepared by ex- perts In the field - experts on whom the govern- ment relles for all federal health research and statlstics. ~y For Instance, the Center for Disease Contror - the same organization that figured out what caused legionnatre disease - prepared the seetion on mortality. The section on ardiovascular dis- eases was prepared by the National Heart. Lt!ttg and Blood Instltute, which handlea all government grants for heart disease. str Cause Of Death i Heart disease killed smokers 1.6 times more often than non- smokers, ^4 to sufter no Iil etfects. Sdentlsta say that Is because the mouth, windpipe and esophagus, and-works with The report eaid ° Bfe expectancy at any cigarettes affect different smokers differently and be• alcohol to multiply the risks- ~r given age la ,tgnlnantty shortened hy •dgvatta cause not ali disease shows up by the time of death. <r smoking." It said a two•pack-a-day, smoker hetwua But the odds of getting soma diseases are so much • Cigarette smoking may be even more Impdr' 30 and 33 haa a life expectancy eight to nine yurs gsater for smokers that the surgeon general has con, tint than stress In ausing ukers. -~ shorter than a nodsmoker of the same age, duded the avldance of the hazards of cigarette aomk- • Cf{ Wtte rmok/ng is the dng(s most importan„~ t The degrea of risk from amoking depends oe the ~ L"overqYalming'w eaust of bronchitis and emphyama. That risk Is evtn tYPe of dgaretu, the amount smokee, tha numbar at ~ ~~~~~~,,,,fg,~,,,,,,er s - years ot.moktng and the degree of inha0ng,. :.s..~ ~!n~ ^"~8- """f5 ~~~qqqttt greater for thao ex aaed to substane a h c , _ p e suc a Aortic aneurysm killeti smokwrar E.e timss more often than non- smokers f. • Stomach ulcers killed smokers 2.5 times more often than non- smokers Respiratory Tuberculosis killed smokers 5.5 times more often than nonsmokers Lung Cancer killed smokers 14 times more often than non- smokers Oral Cancer killed smokers 13 times more often tha~, non- smokers - z Esophageal cancer killed smok- ers 4.7 times more often than nonsmokers roduced smoking report The Food end Drug AdmWatrattoa researched the section on the interaction of cigarettes with drugs and foods. The agency rules on the safety of drugs and the purity of foode. [n all, 10 agencies were Involved In preparing the reporL The gencles based their work primarily an studies - more tltea 30,000 in all - already com- pleted at univeraftlea and research facilltfes aroundthe world. Some agencies used outside experts to prepare their sections• s5 ~. Emphysema killed sinokers 24.7 times than nonsmokers gt11mC@ ts7s s,uywn danat.re tteprt- ~:' ~~~; dhofety, atudlad the afhct of low•tar•aed-nlct#Ine dgaretses, and teusd a.erW death rates 62 perant hlghtr for smokm of tow.ur•.nd•nlcotlna dgatettes than far non.mokan. ThT deah rate was ti4 percent higher for smokers ot medlum•etrength brands. 81 pereent higher than nonsmokers for smokers of high tar and nlcotine dgannes But people smoking low•ter cigarettes tend to smoke more, and When that happens, their advaotage disappears. Smokers can reduce their risk of prnblems by quitting before disease symptoms appear. In such cases, the damage that gmoking does largely dlup• pears over a decade, with some effects beginning to disappear whhin days. However, once symptoms ap• pear, the damage may be permanent. Of eaune. thousands o[ peopta amoke and eppear .._..._;_...... etrtwraW AaYewaaoaGeaaEnM:ttea~ Ulcers have been linked to smol~ing . .i,- . _ If you thfnk stress Ilr_aEe major factor In ulcera, the sor. .. • geon general's report hstatWs "for you. The major factol}nqy be emnking, although scidntsta can't explain precisely wttlf -; The National lnstitute of~Ai- thrltls, Metabollsm end Dtges- tlve Diseases, which prepued the section on ulcers ln. the surgeon generpl'a rrpnrq, esti. mates about 10 percent~of Americans will aufter trot0.nl- cera during-their lifetimes. That adds up to 2.5 qilBton ulcer patients each yeaz.- in- cluding 400.000 who require hospltailzatlon and 150,000 who need surgery• =~•: The results ot moat ahtdles of smoking and ulcers are °strJkingly consistent," accord- Ing to the report. Y.I . • A key 1966 study eom• pared 100 ulcer patlents to people without ulcers, and found 90 percent,ot ulcer pa- tlents smoked, compared to 60 percent of nonulcer patients. About 61 percent of ulcar.pa- tlents smoked a pack a day, compared with 38 prrant ot the control group - a contrast so striking that the .dds are only one In 100 It occurred by chance. ~ In that atudy, smaking waa the only variable reistqd to el- cera. There was no r4faNon to strea, whether tronl family. Job or finances. • A study of 36,656 pa• bodys wayof netttrallztng e:. ass add ad protectlng the !n- testine from ulcers. Repeated studies comparing stomach acid aecreted in smok- ers and nonsmokers got differ- ent results, with most showing no increase In acid. But four studies have indl- eated that smoking decreases bicarbonate output, which could play a role in intestinal ulcers. One study even showed the efTect in nonsmok ers who Sons, re ed in the Feb. 2E, Port nonsmokers also Included In were a<ked to smoke. 1974, issue of the- New En- the study was 58 percent, the The team also found increas- gland Journal of Medicine, same as the amokers.The re' Ing eadence that smoking In• found that men who smoked searchen offered technical ex- creases tbe amount of material got ulcers 2.1 times more oftan phmaUons for that, but no firm 'from the intestine (Including -than nonsmoken, and women • eoncluslons. - bile) backing up Into the stom- who l d t LL amn e go t 1.6 an times more often. The freqnen•, ey of ulcers inereased in reLL- tton to the number of dga, rettes amoked each d.y, the number of years of smoking, and degree ofinhaung• e In another etudy, re, eearchers.took 80 smokers with fresh ulcers and advised. 40 to quit. After four weeks, 75 percent of those told to qult showed marked healing of the ulcer, compared to 58 percent uf those who continued to smoke. Smokers also run a greater ach, perhaps because smoking tisk of dying from ulcxrs than lnterlera with operatlon of a noosmoken. valve between the stomach and The Institute teem examined Intestine, four studies of the relationship The institum team terms the between smoking and ulcer blocking of bicarbonate In the mortality and found that. "In Intestine "a plausible but nn- general .,• male cigarette proven mechanism" for devel- amokers have more than a opment of Intestinal ulcers" twofold greater chanee of and says the backing up of In• dying from ulcer diseaes than - testlnal materials into the nonsmokers." atomacb "coutd be relevant" In But the relationehlps don't development of stomach ulcers. show how smoking leads to ul• If a smoker develops an cers, and pinning that down Is uleer, will It help to stop . proving dlfflculc for research- smoking? ~ But the difference was acm- ers, ' Studies are mixed, but it ally even more marked. Some One way to prove it would probabiy does help. The report of thaee told tn quit did not. be to show smoking Increases cancluaes that cigarette smok- Of those who qult, 88 percent ulcer•ausing acid In the stom• Ittg "probably retards the heal• ahowed marked healing. Curl• ach or decreases nereHon of Ing rates" for both atomaeh i ously, the healing rate of 24 blcarbonate, whieh la the attd fataatlnal uleae, The frequency of ulcers- •: increased in retation'to: Ae nunlber of cibarettes snloked each day . . . t
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t .y ~ • THE CHARLOTTE OBSERVER Sum..Mar.25.1979 76 or smokers, cigarettes 9 mokingtAnd Health '' . . _ . . . _._ ~.. ~.~: ..:~i; cut shot• t the brea th of life k •" James itcNanus, 62, of Monroe bas emphysema. He needs help to breathe. Body's •riatural defenses ' can't stand up to smoke Cigarette smoking impairs the body's natural defense system, making smokers more vulnera- ble to disease, says the surgeoa r.eneral's report. In a sectlon prepared by tbe National lnstitute of Allergy and infectious Diseases, doctors say the adverse effect of smoking on the body's basic defense sys- tem •'has been well documented In both animal atudles and in man:' The report says cigarette smoking harms the tiny, hairlike cilia that sweep the respiratory tract clean of foreign particles, ]t also impairs white blood cells - alveolar mscrophages - that work In the lungs as a primary defense against toxic compo- nenta of tobacco smoke and d'u- eases such as the bacteria, ata- phylococcus. Smokers have more of the cells, which release enzymes that can damage sur- rounding tissues. Smoking also Inhibits forma- tion of antibodies, key elements of the body's Immunity system. Smokina also inhibits formation of antibodies, key elements of the body's, immunity s-- stem. All those faotnrs lead to In- creaaed dlsease In smoken. For Instance, a study reported in--the 1969 Fingia of the Ameri- can Jourtul' of' Epidemiology found the IncNeice of Influenza was 21 percent higher among amokers thaa anumoken. And amokers had swte flu that was not qufte bad uoagb for people to consider tfssmselves "sick-^ The repat also examines the . questloo ot a tobacco allergy, and conclttdes there is no proof that people are allergic to ciga- rette tobacco or smoke. The re- port -totes, however, that "many phystcians are convinced that tobacco products can and dq•, act" to cause allergic responses. And, the report adds, It'a ••generaily accepted" that "•to-bacco and/or Itsproducts can exacerbate underlying allergie., conditwns In both smokers and: nonsmokers." ~0,,, There Is plenty of evidenee, say astituta researchers, thap" tobamo smoke can "trigger ae• aggravate aatharntic symptoms^-- . .~: ~. served the medi- cal histories of 356.534 men and 445•875 women in 25 states for six years. There were 14,819 heart attack deaths. Among the findings: • Men he• tween •10-49 who smoked more Smols~re er~ taking a bi, ~~~ chance wi thv their hearts !4'rt4'H.:yFI". ::V ~•VJ Smokers are much more IlkeV`jjjW` ~, but those factors ,mahfagmon than a pack a .~, than nonsmokers to have heatd aartaot as importan4 The other Tle.surgeon general's reptirt attacks and sudden heart fiilures, •fkctpra,Include high stress, per- ssye researchers conclude tbjt according to the surgeon iener• aotullty, diabetes, obesity, gout, smnkiag sa "dose-related"~ap al's report. ,'.'atseof birth control pllls, phyal- hesrt at4cks •9a terms of yea,g Smoking, high blood presanty •_qt Inactivity and family history. of emoking, number of eigarettes and high cholesterol • are the • In one study cited in the re• smoked per day and the habit of three moA Important risk factorry poft, Dr. Cuyler Hammond of the inha6ng. The association Is gen- for heart attacks, accortAng to American Cancer Society and his eraliy consistent, -reprodueible ' b the report s section on cafd vaM.:,,• ~~ g colleagues ob- and predictive^ cular dlseases. va, •1n North Carolina ta I~fT ~, heart attacks killed 8,217 parsoag.: - 18 percent of tpe atata's 46.493 deaths Studies In the report IndiaatC:- • hfen who smoke mrtre tltan two packs of cigarettes a day-an more than twice as likely to have fatal heart attacks as non- smokers.. But the risk /nr those who quit drops gradually to about the same as for noesmok- ers. • •'Smokers of low tar and nicotine cigarettes have a higher risk than nonsmokers, but •they have a lesser risk than those who smoke hlgh tar and nicotine ciga- rettea," according to experts from the Natlonal Heart. Lung and Blood Institute who prepared the report, The report's subsection on heart allecks focuses on atudles enowing that emoking, high blood preaaure, nd high blood cholesterol are about equal rlsk factora. The report says other' factors eontrlbute to the likelihood of a than two packs a Heart attacks are uused whn qgerette smnking is the single most Imporlant caup ot two major lung diseases - chronic bronchi- tls and emphysema. . i - The more c garettes people smoke, the higher the ~ ll/ adds emphysema and bronchitis will kill them, ac- cording to the U.S. Surgeon Generai's repnrt• p arette smokers had 21 ti-• h h g rs c e d.at rate frotR bronchitis and emphycema as nonsmnkers, ae- casding to a study of British doctors cited bv the Na- rloaal Hear4 Lung and Blood Institute, which pro- duted Ute sec[fon on noncancerous lung diseases for tly gttrgeon general, _ ?Chronic bronchitis and emphysema killed 1,068 ps~atu In North Carolina in 1977, a deatti- rate of 1~,32 per 100,000 people - up from an avtrage of 17.7• for the past five years, according to state starls- ~•-- ~Joseph Califano, secretary of health, education aUt weifare, says 19,000 Americans die from smok- ~~ea trolated broachitis and emphysema each year.- _P..+_.'sjhe probfem Is dlsabihty and sickness as well as 'Ck,Chmnie bronchiUs and emphysema rank second o111y to coronary artery disease as a cauae of dlsabfB- sy, the surgeon general's report says. , .:~And onee smdy quoted ia the report notes, "A nlponber of recent studies have established a higher pr.valence of respiratory symptoms In adoleatmt, tNnage and kers.•• young adult smokers as compared to . . T •. aonamo `~ In a finding of considerable Importance to the textflefadustry and textile workers, the report noteat: :•'Expamres to cotton ftber,asbestos and coal dast In partteular appear to act in concert with dgatttt~ amoklag in promoting the development of putmoMtg problem =hfegular heart rhy- The repntr also concludes that thyms that ean lead to sudden cigarette smonting: death. About 55 percent of cases • occur In people who have no his- • May Iterm cause the Intense tory of heart d{sease. heart patns r.alied angina pectoris Clgarette smoking was the "but the finnlings are inconsla• most potent trontributor to sud- tent: • • _ "'' .Lung of a smoker.nith em h ema: •'- That means cotton dust and.dgarette amoite ..tp.•~ . combine to cause a greater risk of lung probletmt 1n oknh sok thnokr wh dnY A a, ~ tutea ondentca twns ettow aome peopeaw resul4 textile workers may have a• higher death nte from fung diseases than most people. (Fs timates vary on how many Carolinas textile saffer from brown lung, or bysainows, a dls- ease many scientists say is caused by cotton fiber duat. Industry officials say only 1 percent of • the 150,000 cotton mill workers in the state have the dis• ease, while U.S. Labor Secretary Ray Marshall esti- mates 150.000 of the nation's 800,000 cotton workers have the illness to a degree. In an important Indication of the relationship be. tween smoking and lung problems. British research- ers monitored 34.400 male doctors for 20 years. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema killed 254 of them. . Among nonsmoking doctors, the annual death rate from those awo diseases was 3 per 100.000 nonsmok- ers. Among former smokers. the rate was 44 per 100.000. AT ,:ng all (1:._luding cigars and pipes) the rate was 50 per 100,000. The rate increased sharply according to the amount smoked each day - computed by the nnm- ber of grams of tobacco smoked rather than number of cigarettes. The death rate was 38 per 100,000 for 1-14 grams. 50 per 100,000 for 15-24 grams, and 88 per 100,000 for 24 grams and above. (A regular Win• ston cigarette weighs about 0.8 grams.) Researchers have examined air pollution, occupa• tion, socioeconomic conditions and genetics as possi- ble factors in chronic bronchitis and emphysema - and found smok:ng is still the most important. Doctors looked at lungs during autopsies of 300 residents of St. Louis. a high-poliution city, and Win- nipeg. Canada. a iow-pollution city. Nonsmokers m St. Louis had more emphysema prnblems than nonsmokers in Winnipeg, indicaung pollution can cause emphysema. But among smokers, the incidence of severe emphysema was four times higher In St. Louis, indicating '•tobacco.smoke may have a cumulative or synergistic effect with air pol- lution exposure:- Experts concluded that any increased risk of bronchitis and emphysema because of air pollution. "is small compared to that due to cigarette smok- • ing .. . What about the effect of job or Income? Reaearchers cited a 1977 report of a continuing s[udy of 9,228 residents of Tecumseh. Mich. ••Most of the differences in the prevalence of den death from irregular heart rhythm, according to a 1975 study of 1,838 New York male civll servants and 2,282 men in the Framingham, Mass. The report offers several then- rtes but no firm conclusions on why dgarette smoking causes sudden death. One theory sug- geats smoking further inhihits in- adequate blood supplies to por- tlons of the heart muscle. That in turn sets off fatal irregular heart rhythms. Smoking also is involved in aortic-aneurysms - weak spots In the walls of aortas. The weak spots burst, leading to hemor- rhage and often, death. Two studies related the inci- dt?nce of aneurysms to the num- ber of cigarettes smoked, and found pack-a-day smokers were four or tive times more likely to die from aneurysms than were nonsmokers. Two-pack-a-day chronic bronchitis In subjects of differing occupation- The evidence that smmking causes excessive al, educational or Income classes were a« nbutable to amounts of the enzyme, •.vmr:n leads to lung destruc- ' differencee In smoking habits; • the report satd. fion, is not considered defimtttve. among nonemoken, and ... the percentage Increased with amount of cigarette smoking: • Among nonsmokers, 62.9 per- cent had no or only slight hard- ening of tite artcries, and 15.3 percent had advanced cases. Among those smoking more than two pack. a day, only 18.7 percent had none or ,hght hard- ening of the artertes, 35.4 per- cent had moderate hardening, and 45.9 percent had severe hardening of the .vrteries. - The Institute says animal ex- periments on why hardening of the arteriee occurs •'must be re- garded as unsatisfactory:' S6, while doctors are sure smoking helps harden the arteries, they still don't know how. O.fyf;rn r'ul off? , , The Institute al.o noted that dayd had 5.3 times the rate of an artery supPly9ng blood to the• researchen have apeeulated nleo•• fatal heart attacks of nonsmok- heart fs completely blocked, cut-' ers: those who smoked 10-19 cig- ting off the flow of blood to a.~ tine and carbnn monoxide mlght arattes had 2.6 timea the death portion of tha heart muscle and~~ aggravate the cutting off of oxy rate of nonsmoken. ..r klllfng the muetle. gen to the heart muscle, ano~K ~ important element In heatt at. • Women between 4i1•4p who A major source of Infortnation tacks. smoked 20•30 cigarettes dally on hardaning of the arteries ' ' had 3.62 times the heart attack atheroapleroala _ came from au~- They concluded that morr ra.- death rate of noasrwkars; thow topates on peopia who dld not dla ; search on the specific rehttlon- who smoked 10-19 cigarettes has of eofpnaty artery dlse.y. Dr.Q, ships of nicotine and carbon twlce the death rate. OacarAuerbach conducted autop. '.monoxide to heart atfacka sles on 1,372 persons at th.) "would be particularly usefuL" A: 1970 astudy of 3,283 mda OranM, NJ., Veterans Adnttnis. Nicotine increases the heart rate. C.allforala /oqjahoremen lumped tration Hospital, and reported In ; Carbon monoxlde decreases the nonsmokers with thoee smoking 1965: "The percentage of inea amount of oxygen available to less than a paek & day and stIll with an advanc[d degree of coro• the heart. found twice the deaths from nary atherosclerosts was hlghilr Smoking is the most Important hurt attaoks among people amonj elgaretta smakera t4aa contributor to another heart Tlat means the mora a +mohe, the longer you smoke jnd rne tnore yen fnhale, the greater~ your risk of heart attack. - "Smoking is causally related to coronary heart disease In the common sense at that Idea, and far the purposes of preventive medicine;• the surgeon generali report says. .. One way smoking cauaea heart_ attacks is by accelerating hard. ening of the arterles• • r~ -:.a... . _.. smokera were seven or eight times more likely to die from an- • Probabl!v dnrs not cause strokes. ertheer thuae caused by blocking of arterlrs supplying blond to the mrain or by Intrace- rehral hemor-rhages, In whlch binod leaks tmtu ihe brain tissue. But in women:. tt may play a role rn another ktmd of brain hemor- rhage, calle:d a .vubarachnold hemorrhagn. in which blood flows into -t:re brain's lnternal . fluid• • Is afactor In causing circuiatorv +'romlem In the arms and legs •u;u trequently leads to gangrene. , ':ndanger Is particu- larly strong for diabetics who smoke. '•There ts ato reasonable doubt that cigarette, amoking as a risk factor far ttnese cardiovascular diseases has been proven." the report .aya. •^lta dimensions as a risk factnr rtm them have been e+tahlished faor the American peo- plr..~~ curysms than nonsmokers. In a fnre.Nword to the report, Dr. G.C. McMillan of the Na- lleaith, Edusation and Welfare tinnal Heart, Lung and Blood In• secre.tary Jataph Callfano says stitute, offers several theories '^tokmg is :related to °25,000 why smoktng causes aneurysm, 'tenths frorm cardlavascular dis- but says there is little evidence `•ase -/emturding heart attacks . to suppofithem• vnaa. rtoncs eoburio)i bit Healthy luna; smoa catuses black:s~o[s: - a genetic predisposition to chrrnnic bronchitis and em- physema, but smoking incremma the risk. : A Swedish stbdy looked• at situattone Involving sets of twins where one twtn: smoked and the other dtdn'4 Researchers sepantea the sets of twins Into those which had an inheritea predlsposition to cough and those that didn't• In 497 cases the sets of -wins showed no Inhcr- ited predisposition to cough. In those cases, 12 per- cent of the twins who smokr.d had coughs - a rate three times higher than thatr for those twins who dtdn't smoke. In 41 cases the twins hau a genetic predisposition to cough. In those cases. :: uercent of the smoking twins had a chronic caugh. c:mnpared the the 24 per- cent who twins who didn't:mtoke. Though symptoms of :tan, disease begin disap- pearing once smokers quit. v!udies Indicate the lungs of former smokers aren't as maective as those of peo- ple who have never;at8qked_ „.. Even after 10 years, doc:rnrs can measure a differ- ence in amount of emphy-cmta between those who once smoked more than a pau:k a day and those who smoked less. - Why does smoking cause tung deterloration? There are several theortes. One is that emphysema : irreversible destruction of lung tissue, which deprtt'es the lungs of elasticity and the ability to respond to :ncreased oxygen needs. Sdentists attribute the lungs ••lastic properties to the presence of the protein elasartn. Enzymes released tn the lungs may destroy elasnc. , Ordinarily, there's a deiitaue balance in the lungs between chemlcals that stimtwate and Inhibit enzyme production. , But smdies have shown -mat, for several reesons, the lungs of smokers have more of one of the de- stro}•ing enzymes than the !untps of nonsmokers. Scientists have producea ^mphysema in animals with the human chemical. clastase. Other studies show cigarette smoke In humtans attracts white blood eellss into the lungs and ;mtmobilizes thept. Other studies show cigarette smoku: forces cells to release elastase: - every.yeza;- ~ ! i TIMN 448800
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~ 14f) TH6 ~FtARLOTr1 OBSEAVER' Sun» Mar. 25,1979' . SIli0I~i11~: HOW To ~ - ! y -he~~ ht t ace i~=' there s ust no eas wa t® ~ bxeal~ abit . ~t .. _ 1 - fy E1LL BIDDOM oa.r.w sre wna. it happens to everyone who qutts smoking: You're bursting with pride and telling everyone In sight. Then you run Into a smart aleck. "That's nothing!" he snorts. "I've quit thousands of times:' But no matter what anyone tells you. quitting smoking Is satne• thing. If you don't believe It, ask Char- Iotte lawyer Winfred Ervin Sr. Fifty to 60 tlmes a day, Ervin attaches a One Step At A Time fil- ter to %Inw-tar•and-nicotina (5 mg tar, 0~I mg nicotine) True ciga- rette. Stralning for satisfaction and drawing In mostly air, he puffs away like It's the lut ciga- rette he'll ever smoke. He's been doing this for more than two years - almost all of that time using fllter 4, whlclt re- moves 90 percent of the ciga- rette's tar and nlcotlne.. It's aup- For free advice and literature on ho.v to quit e The local unit of the American Cancer Lung Assoeiation at 537•5778 from 8:30 a•m: ford group ereatment. No guarantees. Call 1- Sncletv. In Charlotte. call 3:6-1659 from 8:30 4:30 p.m. weekdays, rhere's an answering 919-684•sa7 weekdays, Irotn 8 a.m: 4:30 a.m: 4:J0 p,m. weekdays• Information in-device at other hours, P•tn- cludes films on how lo stop smoking. litera- Clinics in the Carolinas include: ture, posters. hnnklets and speakers. • Seventh-Day Adventist Church and • I'he Iluke Cancer Information Service Metroiina Lung :\ssoctation Clinic: Held In Durham. From North Carolina, the toll-, about four times a year In Charlotte, the ,.Iin- free number Is 1-800•672-11943. From South ic's cost is $3_ Five I1t-hour sesslons at night Carolina. call 1-919-28g-2266, teU them your Include films, doctnrs' lectures and group name and number, and they'li call you to re- support. Call Metrolina Lung Assoctatlon, duce tall charges. Both numbers are an- 537-5778 weekdays from g:30 a.m: 4:30 p.m., swered 9 a.m:4:30 p.m. w-eekdays. After or the Carolina•Conference of the Seventh hours, the phone is answered by a recording Day Adventist Church, 535-6720 from 7:30 device, and they'll call back :he next work- a•m.-5:30 p.m. Monday through Thursday. ing day. • Behavior change and self control pro : gram: Duke tlnlversity Medical Center's pro- e The local unit of the Ameriun Heart gram includes aversive therapy, cognitive Associatlon. In Charlotte, call 374•0632 from psychology, selfhypnosle, relaxation training. 9 a.m: 5 p.m. weekdays. Group treatment, Is $145, Indivldual treat- • The loeal unit of the American Lung ment, $50 a session (usually six sesalons). Assoclation. In Charlotte, call the Metroiina The fee Is negotiable for those unable-to af- • Kip t'enter for the Control of Smok- Ing: Fivo a,ulc sesslons, one hour each. Cost is 5350. Ilratment Includea averslv therapy, induding .•lectne shock. Money returned if you smoke two cigarettes In presence of therapist at end of program. 1t yoa quit but start smuking again within a year, you can tak~ the program agaln free. Cllnlcs are held spdradically in Car•olinas cities. Call 1•803- 799-8376 anvtime 0 Quit-Smoking Center of North'Caroll- na: In Durham at the Wellons Vlllage Shop- ping Center. the cost for the Kip-llke pra gram Is $250 for Indlviduals, $393 for couples. Money-back guarantee If you don't quit after one week. Further treatments ot- fered free for one year. Call 1•919-683•2021, weekdays from 9 a.m: 9 p.m. posed to be the "final step," • - I gueu I'm just kidding my- with themselves about It. They tried to quit or would try it they Many methods boast high suc- product manager Jack Towne re- self." Ervln says. ^• - say, 'I never succeed at anything-7 thought they'd aucesed.. , •.^-, cess ratea based on ehort-term centty mentioned McPherson as He'e not alone. • "'Iitat In turn m.kar It less uke- . U you want to trY« there are - quittin` Experts advise viewing one of the one mililon people who Psyehologias say It's as hard ly that they will succeed at other doaens of ways. A'a Metroliha secq clahns with healthy skeptl- supposedly have quit by using the for heavy smokers to quit u it Ia things in the tuture-try1 ng ba LunS AssodaUOa' 1)Iraetor J,E. cism. And few - H anY - insur- filters. ror herol* addicts to get oft the control their sating or drinking e'.:i Auddy"-Lippard•pWs.Ilt:!'There'a ance plans will pay for the cUnics,. ;_.But McPherson says be resumed needle. For every proud atory you; • whateqer. So people who try to, a many ways ef qtdttiagamoking, In December 197ft. Miehael Mo• imoking a week,after he wrote hur from a successful qWtter, the quit smoking have to br prepar>rd-= as a country dog'at jpt•at'gattlng Phersoa, ot Newport,• in Carteret the letter. •"t decried I enjoy i h ' U.S. Office of Bmoking and Health uys, thete are three at four who tried and failed- 't • • • . That's why experts advise: If at flrst• you don't aueeeetf quit, quit -again, And don't get down omyourselt R you fall. '"rhefe'a a danger in faigng;' says Dr. Robert• Shipley of the Iluke University Medical Center. -'Some people get pretty nasty Cold turkey Experts uy you're gkely to fall If you try to quit any way other than cold turkey. That means quitting at a given moment, One . moment moment you're a smoker, nextt you're not• Its long•term success rate (25 to 30 percenG experts uy) Is nothing to cough at. Here are some tips: e Plck a time when you're not under unusual pressure, • Begin each day by telling yourself, •'I• choose•-not to amoke." If thethanght of oaver smoking Is too°awesoma: prom- Ise not to smoke for the next day, or the next hour.. e Drink eight 8-ounce gfass- u of water or fruit juice a day the flrst few days to wash nico- tine and other water-soluble components of cigarette smoke from your body. e Avold splcy foods because they contain alkaloidsthat stimulate cigarette cravings. Stay away from coffee, tea, cola and Iiquor for the same e Se ner o n• reason. Avoid heavy, satisfying- third day everything is down- meals and don't loiter at the _hlll,"_Llppard says. "You bl ta e• haven't got It whipped but • Don't relax In your favor-' you're well on the way." QUITTERS ... Jim Atkins "I pnyed and simply gave It over to the Lotd," That's how Gastonla law- yer Jim Atklns, 47, says he kicked his cigarette hablt s1X years ago after 27 years. ' "I'd had a bleeding ulcer and I hadn't quit then even though I was rlsking bleed- Ing to death by cigarettes," he sald. "I was smoking three packs a day and I'd tried Life Savers and I'd trled stronger filters and going a gttle longer each day without smoking. `"And I was talking to my '• pastor one day and he said, 'Is there anything you I haven't given up to the Lord?' And I said, yes, my clgarettes. And he said, 'Do you want to give them to Him7' And I said yes. And he uid, 'Well tell Hlm: And I said, 'Lord, I give you my clgarettes.' And I never smoked another ona, "I don't thlnk smoking Is sinful per se. But something that becomes so Important to you that you can't quit, that you haven't allowed that to be yielded or surrendered to the Lord, then I think that is dnfuL" Atkins advlaea thoss who want to stop smoking to "let the Lord taks care of It, as .rjth ah things,n TMau~.gYWA I John Belk I Former Charlotte Mayor ~ John Belk remembers how i his doctor scolded hlnt after ~ he Ut a cigarette after an ex- aminatlon In 1958. "That's one of the vrorst things you an do," Belk says his doctor told him. "I had a bleeding ulcer and I went to the doctor. I'd just bought two packs of dg- arettes. I handed him the two packs of cigarettes and I quit." Belk spent a week In the hospital until his ulcer stopped bleeding. "I was flat on my back," he recalls. "I got rid of the bleeding ulcer and the cigarettes. too:' Belk, president of Belk Stores Services, had smoked for 20 years and wu puffing three packs of Pall Malls a day, "I just qult." he says. "That wu tt-I just knaw I had to quit smoking ,-: . I just decided to qult Uks you decide to go to the movies. "I was a slave to them. I'd wake up at 5 In the mornln` and light a clgarstte to find out why I was awake. I still miss them, I enjoyed them very much. I still want a cig- aratta today. lt's kind of a nervous hablt:" Belk, 58, advises potential quitters "Just to stop. It's just deciding what to da"' ng, esays-;,, t••ebane." ivta> (oc sp County near the coast, wrote ta faok for tallura A lot ot people t1oR like to talk aboat thaG but gtvat e..~Sama of the moti met}i~ thank Teledyae Water Pik, ttlakers; -. -' FSqxrta saY na elaF>5s of success that more than half the psople ods Include grou~' cs,•.vtl.tlcil of One Step At A Tlme Itlterst shtlutd be made••lttitA-a person fall, It's ImportantP . emphasize tha hsalthX haaefita•of "This year your company has al- - quits for one yeadEven• then the SUU, the governmeet' aeUmates• quitting; hypnot/saL..atfhln~:,kF* lowed me to have the best etalms ntay be sutpet'ty-because some 30 mlU[on 'Americana have plants aatf•smoklog,suggestiona•,'ln Christmu 1've had In 11 years- some who resuma.smoking won't quit smoking since; the U.S. Sur• your subconsclous; avaraia~-theta- That's how long Cve been smok- admitIt. _',•,. geon General llrat warned ot_Its py,whichttseselechtcahoelsand log-,-,.I'w gone two weehs. '11va`ethar'unj(on~.~t~Sout:quIt- health hazards In 19fi4, other unpleasant sansatfon!•t0 without a cigarette and for me ting: !~.',~'{ -~ And, the government eaUmates, make you hate dgsrettea: andyar- that's a milestone Now Cm • Yott tnay iatn wefgiit: Quib• 90 percent of the some 54 millioa tons pills and fUters that ptomisa free." ters have Increased appetltes and Amerleans now amoktng have to he(p you taper ofL ~l--.-Cittng_that=Ietter,._Ona- Step tend to albbis snacks takeep their ite easy chair, where you're vsed to smoking, and don't watch-TV all night; try hobbfes to keep busy- • Keep sugarleu gttm• car- rot sticks. celery aticks or fruit handy for when you uave a cigarette. Try walking and deep-bruthing exercises to calm youraeU• • Brush your teeth when you want a cigarette. This makes your mouth feel clean and helps kill the craving to smoke. • Change your dally routtne- Take a different route to work, or do household choru fn a dif- ferent order• • Shower before going to bed at the end of your fL•st smokeless day.' Go to bed 30 minutes early - your nerves are probably edgy, and you caa use the extra resL • If a real crisis develops- tell yourself. "I choose not to smoke for one minute longer ^ Cigarette cravings peak at 17 seconds and dwindle off after 37 seconds, according to. J-E- Llppard, director of the Metro- lina Lung Association. "Whea a minute's up you can say, 'That wasn't too bad, I can do It an- other minute.' Each time you deny yourself a cigarette `yon build up willpower." • On the third smokeless day start taking whole wheat graln and vitamins, especially vitamin B, which seems to off- - v us stral "After Lk t Tapering off• .;:3 . Commm`ercial clinics- Mose Loftlo, 57-year-otd presl- dent of the Dlitard Paper Co- in Charlotte, Is a member of the ~ - - J~ .:c~ . For most people, quitting'~ gradually is harder than going: - cold turkey, '•Tapering Is like cutttng ort a dog's tall a little at a nmel' . the Metrolina. Lung Asaocis. • tion s J•E- Lippard ;ays, , -Probably the most Impor• " tant element is choosing the• 'exad: day when you will quit- ' altogether - and then sttck-- ing to it. Many taperera forget - about the end date and smoke as much as when they started. Some tapering tips: • Buy dgareCea a pack at `• 'a time. This makes getting cigarettes more bothersome and expensive. • Smoke your regular brand for two or three days, then switch to one with about a third less tar and nicotine. Switch to a stlll•lower brand a - few days later• - e Make getting at ciga- rettes Inconvenient. e Wrap paper around your, cigarette pack. When you• smoke, mark the time and - on a scale from 1 to 5 - how much you need and enjoy it. Eliminate dgarettes you don't need_ e On your end day, throw away your dgarettu and go cold turkey. . sarah•Bo:yd';' a Sarah Soyd• remembers July 31. 1977_ She had a heart attack - and quit smoking 1 ytJ packs of Vantages a day. She did It cold turkey In the hospltaL Today, Mrs. Boyd. 44, Is a secretary and receptlonist for the American Heart Aasoda- tlon in Charlotte• I - ; "After you have a heart attack, it's quite painlW.'And you know that smoking's going to- make you hurt more and so you don't do (t° (- Mrs. Boyd had open heart surgery in October 1977, She believes smoking didtt't di- rectly cause her heart prob. lems - "t have atherosclero- sis, hardening of the arteries• It's an tnhertted dlaease:' When she came home from the hoipital, Mrs. Boyd had to flttd a substitute for smoking.i,~ka ehewed gum ••'tl/ my Jates hurt. . You ~at il the uhtrays out of tlta- 110ub and keep away froht )t as much u posstble. 'rye doctor even told ma noR to let anybody In the hoassrtLkt smoked. "It's-a way of tife, amok-. Ing. And after you've done It for 23 years, It's very hard- And when people etart feel- Ing better (after hospitalize- tion) Is when they start smoking again." . board of directors of the Metroli- na Lung Associatlon- He's also a smoker - two packs a day for 33 years, "It's been a sore spot for rne ~~ for a heA of a long time," he j says. He tried to quit many times. Seven years ago he bet friends he , could quit - and lost 570, Four years ago he went throagh a yung Assoclauon cOnic. A year 9ito he went to a hypnotist. I°I just never quit- I got down to just a few cigarettes a day, but atter three or four days I was back up to normal:' a11• About two months ago, Loftin signed up for a one-week clinic I offered In Charlotte by the Kip Center for the Controi of Smok- i ing; a franchise named after founder Kip Russo of Hawaii and "surted two years ago in Hawaii. '~ It uses aversive conditioning to make smoking disgusting, suppos- edly forcing clients to lose their desire for cigarettes. Clients are put In a 7-by8 foot plastlctent- Electrodes are at- Clarles Deal ~ L thought It wu ludi- ~brous to let the government ~ benefit from my weakness," t says Charles Deal, 48. editoF ~. and publisher of The Hickory News, who chueked his Marlboros in June 1963 after smoking two to three packs a day for 15 years: "I gave the excuse - I was living in Florida at the time - that they had just gone up on the tax about 5 cents." .r "I ate a lot ot candy and chewed gum - probably drank more cottee;' remem- bers Dea4 "I probably had withdraw- al symptoms for'slx to nine months. I found out I had used It very much as a crutch. I found out I couldn't even start a story without lighting up. My work really suffered. It seems like you just have to make up your mind. I think Itt you have the char- acter, you can do it• I think the wlll is the w¢ole thing:' ~ 1,. . minda ott antoktn~ Gtlnslv.rY F'4 widely, but LldpaN MYS 1g ta 13 . pounds Is average, Many cllnlcs Include cnunselina on how to watch your weighe- and most peo. ple ean take oft added pounds through dlet and exercise a/ter quitting. • It you're a w.oman. the ndds are you'll have a;t•t.rder tlme ,pdt• ting and are more tely tn Ihll• Researchers are,n t sure why, but women often suffer harsher withdrawal sympenms - head• aches, nausea, consatpation or diar- rhea. drowsiness cc insomnia, fa- tigue, irritability. :estlessness or an Inability to concxntrate. Sume quitters a:ffer no such symptomat others recover from thelr addiction ia a few days - usually after nltseme is washed from the body. 3ut for some. phyeical wlthdrawal may tnke weeks, And the psychologlcal craving for cigareates may last years. Now for the- Oesght side: You can quit smokla` t7tperts say al-' most everyone ua And the key ts all methods Is motivation. Yma sattst want to ' qWt. You may deeftgi emokin 'g', fllthy habit:yoa aqf ba pa~ by your famllYi ee yatt may vrant co qult, aa tha Aerican LunL1lY* soclation advlss: "Just 1nr•dha healthotiL" '?`' But face iC ffi you buy f1lot• 's with little holas on top to-°1at : smoke escape, and then you at12f~' ; a-tinger over taa hole, nobody'~ •going to vroGS yon most likely ta'' succeed- tached to thetr tirms.?key Ught • A 1978,revtewr of numerou:~l ' four clgarettes, placa thrsa Int a atudles, published by the U:S. butt-and,ash•pkckad asht'tsy.' and . Center for Disease Control In At- puff the fourth without InkaUo4: ; lante, concludes electric ahockt don't deter smoking for Iong. Smoke envelops them.. Each But, a report by cue U•S. Offica time the smoker exhales hcmust of Smoking and Ixalth cites re• lean over the uhtray's monttrous cent studies shovrtmg 54 percent mound of butts. and - ailow the quit rates short-tcrsn and 30 per- smoke and ashea to b1Uow Into cent loog-term (tws to slx years) h[s face- for averslve eonentioning pro• Each time a smoker does any, grams using rapid sanoking. thing associated with smoking he But doctors sar the method Is shocked with 20 to 3l/ volts - may be dangeroas It produces uncomfortable but not painfuL dralnaUc effects on respiratory Diane Fieids of Lextegton, S.C., mte, heart rate aaid blood pree- who operates the Chnrlotte.lran-- ~e' and Is not adtised for those chise, acts as friend and tnuaut- with h~ lung or circulatory or and tells clients to call for sup- problems. port when they can't suppress the CUnics asing it vsually ask po- urge to smoke, and H necessary tentlal c8ents it they have heart to come to the clinic and snlff the problems and advise some to see ashtray. . . a doctor before enr Wng. Onn the third day, after ntcoUne A reporter wateced in January supposedly has lett, thd• dleot'a while LofCrn went through his system. he must puff quickly and fourth day at tlte 34p clinic ln Inhale until he gets sick or•can't CharlotSe. tolerate any more. Usually his Loftln was con5dent he'd fJ- hands and legs get numb, he nally broken his Io®g habit, breaks into sweat, his heart But betynse he'd faUed before, pounds and he feels awful, be hadn't told hia wife, Vangle, who's bothered bysmoke, that he- "Remember this next time you was In the program. feel Uke you want a dgarette,'• Loftin, however. was amoking Ms. Fields advises, again by ffid•Febr-y- Ms. Fields has treated about 200 people, and says 90 percent have quit. She says she's given two refunds, aod two persons have taken the program again successfully. The Quit•Smoking Center of North Carolina opened In Durham In December• It charges $230 and uses methods simllar to Kip's, Ron Hatley Ran Hatley, 38, quit smok- Ing three years ago becauu he got tired of his wife's yel- ling and his constant cough- mg't got to the point I wae coughing a lot. s: ort-winded and all of the things that went along with smoking," says Hatley, part-owner of Sailing Endeavors Ltd. In Cherlotte. Hatley. 38. had been smoking two packs of Ra- leighs a day for 15 to 20 years and was able to quit a(ter he met Stan Relziss, di- rector of the Hypnosis In- struction and Information• Center in Charlotte. "1 laid down comfortably on a couch." says Hatley "and looked at a spot on the ceiling and he went through a routlne, told me to relsx .., . It's basically just a relaxation and a count- down into the hypnotic state. "It wa agonizing when I went through the process of Cutting down. I just got tired ot counting cigarettes and being aware of smoking and being addicted to It. "I think a lot of tt was I waa ready to qult, end I needed a tool and I used that (hypnode)- I'm not real heavy on will power, so I have to have a crutch, not a crutch but a tool." "I stayed off poetiy good for a while, but now- I'm smoking about six a day," ihe said, "When that week ended an Kip I thought I was off thetm. iet I guess I must not have beem completely or else I woutdn't ba're broken." - Pralsing the Kip program for helping him cut ddwv. Loftin said be planned to try ixagain. And he bad stopped smokfmg In his home. _ udn JH0e11s0, 'Joe `Hudson, chairman of I the Unton Board of County . Commissioners, quit a 33- year-old smoking habit after he attended a smoke-filled meeting in Raleigh two years ago. '•tt was really bad:' says Hudson, 47. "You could look across the room and couldn't see anybody. It wu awful. Everybody was smoking. Ev- erybody was using it as a crutch:" Hudson quit "because I thought they w^re hurting me- I quit on Saturday and went to church nn Sunday and couldn't smoke there and went to a m.wie and couldn't smoke thcre and didn't let anybody know 'tiI I thought I had It licked. I. quit chewing tobacco at the same time I quit smoking. I ate more and I still eat more and I've gained 13 pounds. "It's amazing how much better you feel. You don't cough and carry on any more. If you want to quit you just got to quit. There's no magic formula, You just make up your ntlnd and qull" Maurice Kanip Dr. Mauric Kemp qult'bs- cause he couldn't justify smoking ami being In the health bustmss. Kamp, = former Meck- lenburg Ccuaty health dlrec- tor, kicked :he habit about eight years ago, after 35 years of snn:,king a pack a day of Citesterflelds and Lucky Strikes;• ' "I knew all the proper reasons to quit but I just never cou,d do it," Kamp' says, "lt was an addictlon• 4 was sick of )t and I had the foolish noncm that I could smoke dgars and it wouldn't be as harstful. I changed from clgareces to cigars. "Like ail addlctlons, you look for su3sntutes and ex- cuses and tv s all poppycock. { The only .a-ay I've found Is t never to atat gmoking:" - Kamp rennemben what It -~ was like to withdraw, giving up cigarettes and cigars at once. For two weeks, he says, he was on edge. 'You go through withdrawat ... . I felt ner- vous. I was irrltable. I wai hard to get along with. I bad a bag of hard candies In tny drawer and I would suck on ; those duma aattdles:' Today. R.amp descrlbu '~ himself aa an antl•smoking zealot: "I rause hell wlthpao- • ple smoking around ma"
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v{ • . . •>. A Smoker's Struggle ~ ~ a ea- W only success has been not t0 tad men wtano ~ k prayer, duplN knowing abouL amolting a. Today I will 4ot smojty r r so tttor~ ba ~ - efms o tk>tn',ymalnng days tince. hut I hava t13aa!tatta.hringa oa d s •~ yes:eompleted a stookefree montd .-•i;' 'RLe•sense at defeat Is.ettor•motu. Tet, my miil enmuragiit~ta- Hundreds Rare, as wetC Fera thosu n'ho coa-- aa objec4 not_of fear. or_ ~ ease, but ot of IoaYtimb smokers are tfini or hav8 fessed long tlme lodn(< struggles desPtta indtfference. ttl h ' LLYS GARY • . - n}oa tatNly. upen ttleadt .tr.wr i.tt wre.r 7 -pow• ' " = SYnOItIn~ ust one cigarette- brintY ~'J Unanlmously - and thla was deeply Reaeon erfW and motivations to paasloe uft may emoking. provtde but In ~~ ~ J '~s movlog - UI terveatly wished ma sua q au, whathor they had aucceeded or ~ ihe end the addltted .Inne reaelvea the on depression self-loathing The .• lasue - sometlmea wlth a hlghar powea ~ • wera sUlt atrugaling. There woa as®ure w, cer,Y°'Ie~~`~~t' attd of prayert TMir ettpreselona were I aheuld kno not because so I h¢ve not tost but I hnve nn[ won. of mntidence. I eould fdl For that reasoo i dtd nnt wnnt ro Ile in se nse of def eat is e normous. tngtn snd so many dependad upon my the bed I had made, a public announce- suceeas, Whatever happened to me, came tnent that I had tarr.er nun smoking, ~~ Defeuted-nlen win no battles. tM message, would dntermine what wlth the honeat rrp,ut 1 prnmised. . would happen to uneountrd numhers. - I~ays Gary Those who know my lung-ttme en- How, with mdny depending on me, alavement have made aa eimuitaneuus re- wif,.h the prayen of many" with many aolve to quit. Among them was Jack Pen- pocsiWy concluding that !t Gary had not _ t, -~ .+!•' ` ' sutteeded they could not, either, tould I tes, a design artist who. with admitted confess the hard facts? trepldation, decided that if Kays Gary In the begianing. I brnke, On the third could do it he could do it. His wile, dag when no woras would come at dead- ,. : . Jack did It. Not one slip. Boa. k smoked. Sty head reeled• I almost Ruth, exults that his beard no longer • smells like a landfiB. f~ •I` gan a ain• Others pledged gifts to Holy Angela ~M 8 Nursery, to be de0vered after 100 smoke- L'anr days later, under the tutoe dr• ' free days. Some suggested a Quitters eumstances, the sa~e thing happened. A Club with get-tngethers. amake'less week. .=ad been mk4 would " Nobody wanra to be alone - yet kick- pu!%me over the rcmp. I succeeded for ,-ieg the habit oa be a lonely undertaking. ttvo'.weeks and hr.: ce un the night of the I cannot congratulate myself, as can so . 35thy day during a instratina personal many othera. There is no victory, even dtuatton: over :Le next two days, .r..' -' • Insiat overwhelmingly when three puks of cigarettes become * amok_d 10 d uectes. '~ Mlfd. exercise has belped. During my no mera aboat nnoidng is e~wbelmtna• Peremd letters L iie an again. 'n~ ~•' • n gest ao-smoking period acqaaintaacea Yet. thta cannot be. ~ that quitting smoking by going mld tur- one cigarette or when three smokelesa t~ TrilBng myself to forget nIl the pro~ ~ t~bld me I looked better and wu more Smokin fk in fnsani 7[any an if• key la the key. A rire few insist they did weeks are broken by smoking four ciga- ~ y Isea about three ds}i. a week, twe dayr.~P=BYelY• That haa not happened ia the dqys ~~ e will escap ~ arasp- Some tl ei with adeomP iated formuli ~mo- achusvedtdespryittd aft.temPtaHoos, lrustra~ ~ whatever. I'v'e had more nonantd ~•,yApliowlni a break.-over. Smoking jtut oM. ~ de la Lt ~1 , .. . tions and crisese wham. tobacco becomes kwth- et n tY d ~ dtsitr ta hn f.~':.- ' .~n. u a ~.~ 's d..w ,r ,..~_ . ~ . . • . t1bll . ~ ,. .d .. r' r g-~ 7'-[s;t6 S .e sb i' !' ^attt+3~rfk.t .'n°,T- ~hn k % ~ - , .i-.~R I ~e„' ._ -~ ,5~. . . .~.'.:. ~ _- . .•_~, -.,, . .. .. . . . . 3•_, .,. , . . . " Extra p4unds_ ..:_ memory fight ~ g ~1N vaisitoi~ ~our- ~•~A . .:. • hi ` ' it k}~ 'Iiel~` m are worth it ,:~df 20 is;mspira,tional year~ ~t ~ ~ 1 e r r T~u}Aa t O2TEO85BRVfiR Sun,• Mer, 25. 1979 _ 130 .;~~. ~ . to q~ t, a rri `~ssa e from the t those: ~t s ~' renches ~ ~; ,.~®r n g diatraedon aid"~a OLOblemg it visits 77- q--. Y.m so proud ot your determinatlon i to' stop smoking. I am hoping your , . wonderful victory will inspire (a rela- tive)as well as matty others who read . yot5[,colurm. I doatthink this will be ' s help. You will easy without God need' to talk with Him constantly, asking for strength and will power• Your devoted wtfe should be a great source of lnsptntien- So hang in there as,we follow your account of self•dis- dplFite with your drug problem. We ]opn•and admire ~aa.= ' MARY LOII DAVIS Old Farm Road '~ Charlotte ~ Your cijarettes ~ vs. my weight ~_ I ased to smoit~ 39 years ago. A ~ pack a day. But w2ta I got married I quit cold turkey. I got another prob- lem. Fat. I became k.te: enormous and three years ago i had heart failure. The doctor asked me if I smoked. I said, '•No," Thea be said to live I would have to ime :00 pounds. By the help of God I did -aat but I have been at u standstill !~r a year. I need to take off 57 poun¢s more. Will you ao• cepc my chaflenac my weight against your cigarettes' '!~ay'be thls w1ll give me incentive- I x+leve together we eaa make it. F~FL MdaatHolur ~ .. '-.---.. Straw broke smoher's back - I almost swallnsed my Kmt Golden Ltght as I read ponr eolutnn today- I actually put out i<ee Kent andmade it tkrough the remsnder of the coltmm withcut any destre: I Your decision ais had the effect`tK being the prover'tal straw thatbroke the camel's (in :-Le case KeaYs) back. Though at times I could actually eat 4 one, ftlter and all, like laltway ' through the Sunday aermotl, t>ri'1b1- lowing are my reasosa for laying them down: The hypocrtry of IL 2M~ mtok--• Ing•and its prapannd Nfect oL,my three sons. 3. My darlln+wlfa ~eho bas'prayed many yrayera foTaty deBv- eraace and who eme. needg- h.lp• to help get her pray~rs answered. (Pqr a while I thougM lhat her prayers, my prayers and the IsYing on of baads by fellow-behevers might glve ma. super- natural dellveranri, Now It seems I must lay this do•Min o a lfke be- cause it had ber~'me anaacrlfke Idoi 1n my llfe). 4. The nnt~ceahle deterloratlon, ever so slowly, r~ my Mealth ~ the past five years. i• Thanks for vour column ... the catalyst for my own deHverance at just the right hme. as you are prone to f do. Your Influence Is profound and by your proposed published reparts of ? your health prnateu, tnany wiB be glven tbe incer•tlve to stop now, ' wheteas theY had believed It was too ~e J•r. r(1NIn1t8URS Pageland. S.C, ~ `1~ith God's help ~ we-ll lick it My daughter and I have declded to quit smoking tnday at 1 p.m. IJke your- srtf, It Is abeohnHy neeessary for life. Maybe one day at a time or even live mtnutes at a Itnte with t)od's help we'll Bck IL Your aharing with ua, no matter what the feelings ara, ran help ol af ua. CharbCa NAD1NIi ICEATINO :~>Itartil'pttptng fac yoa the seoood ~ pitagraph' htW yom•• cohtmn. gl+tv @ ltetp to 7nmw d the great support .va Itavq to'.Cemurage Yon to bes soocrsfal . ln:th7a:most dlffkvlt'Hfat m stop :.~tMyear leens overwket~y tMWc:nf 10g0.eben you wtlI be kesalqr and ptnod• Ybo wlll fiet great aad bw Bfe .ven mete, whfeh for you woafd be aa eztraordiaaq atdttavemeat nETIYBR/IDSZT Deresttlyd Bogd ~almte You really know how I feel Following yom cotomn and a eaII f4ommy daughter urging me so step smoking (like you) after 40 yeas I said I would and meant it. I burned a carton and a half of cigarettes in my fn'!ptace to keep me from reaching and aemag one to go with my Satu~ay morniag coffee. By I P•tn, Saturday. fee{ug kke a mental ease, I went to the oeues store and bought a carton of my best little °friends.' Sunday I read your eoi- -- umn and thoughq "Man, he rsally knows how I feeL" If you stoP for two weeks, tbaYS o.er the hump. tve stopped ttviu, ooce fer eight months, once for ever a year and I felt so tmtch beuar. I wfB Rop. Thars a Proml~, ZI. Charlotte Health worries aren't enough : Unselfish orientation fs the-tay to'. success or failure in throwing e(f ds weed. One's health concerns rio.a te~-~ teottestiaa • ally don't provide sufficient to quit What else an explain peapfe's failure to quit in the face of gtfna baik risks? Love Ilfe and othea tttors Ikm myeelf: so my childree don't go., t~ with amoking aa a mod.Jt so I na rt .. working agalnst my body's gensaf w!.'to health .... CYNTHIA C TGT Charlotte Datlaa t~e inid= 50a ai a youngster bf 2T, I my third effort to stop selda~.I eventually brbkb the habit, and athr 22 years have no desire to. s(eoke,' i~y success was due to a fre• qaea y[NDor who came nightly in thf >>e~akti te allbw me to emoki while drdntif)F euperiencing the sensations of eekta+ aed also the dreadful pain oh • tes~ Itang I- bad not and perhaps could ~ot atop ameldng. Words cannot de- aesibe Nil joy and eneouragement I felt when tht vf6fur would awaken me to siow L>ti tlat I had added anotber short the .rtt~hetrt ht§oidng. Hi atlli h~ ` sas traubiet I haw Israed bia nhme ~ k fa atiieet He !s "fhe Dtr.ammak- et:- aad I ibpe be vista you. PASSSLEYl. 3FAVFw ~a[fn1t+ t ~:. Tobacco is an addiction ~ ~ avyou're banging In there ~ a quit smoking. Shortly after Yoa begia the struggle, I did also. It's been med' mcoaraging to ma to know that at ltasc one other person in the world nodhataeda how hard It is to qsit and fs ttqing ft aqqhow It seemr b taltaet enough ts known ~ aboat tobaece JllgdeHon. tn many cases ' }araliel to dta~additalott and aleohol- ~~- I wondeP:ff some day mbasee t.ay not be mtiedered the most aeri- ons addictive ltmbblem of them all. I yope the day w~ come when some of ._l>m tax m dgarettea will be resurq ta underataading the -,,. Led for aadotts prob they cause for so .~.ivay, ot us, jtg<Sa4 now happens with ='}art of the Itqa~Maxes. In my county there are no gt.~op programs to make ;~ldtting easier{pm though I have re- one fra~the Mid-State Lung =~ ~ In any aae:~imwing what you're atruagle. -=Vteg through latps me in my =swn though _wtP~Atebabb',ttever meet a. ~ NAME AfT~yD SY IHSQUFSI` ~Y' . ~ `~tily father died of 1>ncer at 4.He never met even one of his dsu~llters•in-IQ~r much less his brandchildren. Tlie ironv is th~swe i•aised Ihe product that probably killed ht ... I wince each time I reeall this: ks. I stopped V153.30 ago After 12 years I chose to qu$ amot- Ing 10 weeks or 70 days or 1.790 koaa • or 210 packs or 4,206 dgatems ar Sl53.30 ago. My seif-dladplioe is mw self-sansfactlon. Hurrsy for me ani hnn ray for youi ' . I added two arttdee to my dadafoe heforn the find honA They were nat to nee family or frlMtda•ts vent my wltit• ,: Anwa) teneiona and not to wtbetmrta food for daarKtei;'„ . I can't ra/ty trll you that I fsep like a new penea. hut I can tell you that ciprntas ae longer dKertnlne my daily rounne• And I feel good about myself. I not osly dr fied those who Ignored and snewM at difflcult fea bbasiWly byp mysetf ~ cettainly for myself - a feat my doetor father termed "probably the mast to• pattant deciston of your life.' LIIIDA SLUDER Iw11mf Ale:aadris. Va. I was a slave to the Ita~ bit "I had eatdei~a thousand tlmee~ bad never, ttiM tt+ quit until 1970. Oa. SSaturday ntiM I tfdt on moralga unds when. an preparWba for teaching ttp- dturth acbool datS, I realized 1 was a practlcUg Idolitar„~ slave to my habit. I wea iehedniltts~y life around the next dgarette -„ takina a 10•minute break durlnj a igvie, longing totr thM preacher to aK. ts the IaR "Amen•° That was It. I waa' not going te be a slava to anything. 'rtle surgeon general, ant:er society, Readers Digest. etc., were all beside the point I sdd, •'Lord, I can't stop atnektng but You an help me. He did and I d~ I have had niee gaoa eough-fra yea~. By the way. !t's 2 e'ebek In the nenting but you've been on my rttlfid all day and I had to get up and let yott know I'm pulling for JOHN BROCIC I wrote a couple of thn s t$ Jafivity, never quite believing I would maW it through the month. I'm proud to a;y I did make it through February and so fat have not smoked since Jan. 31. Ij has not been easy and I have g•alned=four very unwanted pounda. My husband says he can no longer hear me breath- ing all over the house. He's quit, too, but says he hummed a few during the month, rm afraid if I keep gaining I'll gat discouraged and start smoking agiitl. I fight It by exercising mora and myself ryself that extra pounds are bet- ter than the emphysema rve already --got I-hope other "quittere- are doing wel4 It is a good fee0og. Haven't even worked np a decent cough since JaE. 29. statesvfne BL•1TIE MFNDHIiNi~ :; . About ~ yeira lgb we were aeited'. - fea to each ot)ier_ at a. Charlotte baa- 'quet I was tn the agony of breaking a , 1-3 pack a diy habit. What I remember , most is that•yoy:vere vowing over and , over to quit enmklni. I see pu finally got around' lo W: There sin t no easy way. It's one day at l'time. Cold turkey. Dut moze importatttt: two or three years down the road•when you think you've got it whipped yo8'II decide to puff on a pipe, take't drag from a fag or chomp on a dgar JueE to see what It's like after all that dme. DohR:` I tried that and was back on thetn• viotrie'than before. It was almost a year before I managed to quit a second time. Good lttck- Dr. E•C. IIART , ICanttapoU;^ -•,C ":~s• .:- ; TFl~„"" ' : t ; . . •,175. F ans they want king regu- ; 'Two eoughs, a hack and a wheeze me tars. One cough and a wheeze means',tiHrothol lights. Three coughs, low tar. A gasp and two hacks The•Rule Book was a big help My habit was 25 years old and I had two good reasons for giving them up. My husband never smoked and I was a source of irrihtion to him. I alnn had bad hadaches. I really wanted to kick the habit. One night I prayedfor ~ed I was n dgarette smoking rep we able to quit the next day with no dedre to smoke. Believe me, when all elu edla, r8ad the Rule Book. I bad been a believer In prayer but tMs was a itue beeslna tor me to be able to give them up and no,• gYa ~rYght nor have any of the bad cerris a temper. MBS. JAt7C M. 6TlVpH. 's'NSZrot•t M•tll, S.C. Advice, prayers and good wishes i On your dedsinn to kldt the habft. Tons of advice. Thouaands of good wishrs. How many pr{vln, Hera ira two. From us, to Him, to you. Please help Kaya to make the grade. The road Is rough as we know so welL We have traveled 1t, too, 5ut now everyone knowa and he eUn Jteip ao many who are tryktg toa Charlotte Mf~ft~the died of -lttrig caricer For 20 yeara,'from I6 to 36, I was a eonsummafa tteer of tobacco products. I I quit and restarted many times. The number 48 kept floating In front of me. My father died of lung cancer at 48• He never, met evaa one of his daughters-in- law 6tnlh leas his grandchlldren• The irony is'that we raised the.product that probably killed him. We were Virginia tobacco farmer). I wince each time I ro- call thts, We may have contrlbuted to someone else'a poor health or death. Today rm 50. I have out-Bved my fa. ther by two years. They say If ymt aUU" away from cigarettes 10 to 13 yeats your body Is restored to pre-tobaeco days. Could be. I play a strenuous aame of tennis and you know what elaeT I think I stand a pretty good chance of looking my grandddldren In the 1aee, NAME WITHHELD BY REQUFST Charlotte .. . ' Boy, wasn't he surprised! I smoked 41 years and quit cold tur• key ao it tatt be dons. I quit In March 1 aurg ~~~~~~ery. 1 rWly sm. MR•9• GENE 3TAlNL7 IaootuVlL TIMN 448801 JEFP AIa) MAIIY
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{ for ~.~~~.g cancer ~ 156cumentMg the conaectioq be• out, IgsreWtll~ • bkm with lung prpatt lung cancer and amolting ciqclf qmdn, n• It says •Yn• wy tha rirongest aingie alement crensa 14 ItlP cer mortality o} tpi 196! U,g. Surgeon General'a amon, V{4111a `cannot be ex- npdrt pldilW" hlf tRi that more and I0. ~ !eslloltpfepqcN by tha NS• mart woatgll, •working and tidtl~ C1ndeM Iga{ItUtO, the 1679 mi~ht M~'g' to canar•caua- aqf111eoq dlnara4'U t1pOrt lSfttt$ • the In chemteqla 1' e workplace. q~.kEtltndr111ttpddLVs-aS:;i;~"-. •4ne.n1u6N f lt: anar In,dtat. `kH Lrom or every blghway praven Fli le de~accldents, t there I sn.ys the mortality overaR rate rontlnuing climb s Is probably were a itroxlmataly two deetha caused by eaneer eatehing up with trom tune cancer°v+hich•-eould ^olderperson.whotua-rmollitarad hava been areventedta ~%,,i,k~i~~Ic• hlgh-tar.and•tiicotlat eljaretua ~M14.311A}x:~?10.~.#I~itliNi 1(t} :. d YI 9dla ao for the ma• ahllitt+~t~e IIt g _- ~ 10t700 1qqC ~`~ ~11a. $a; WUhtAit ~ 4!e2aRamcirts 1Qjj:uEqt. t. ~~~~! nltal death rats ott 1~•a90 ~il~ 8qAd 60 q tna 0 a~tys ~ bt 11l~ klilpd ~1t ' lt~~, 4C 4 qti g11td ~t~'! ~1 ~~tN-; ~~ ~tnnat a r ttntleqw:M Ltti. •• risk of lung- cancer: Increases dt-• redly with the number of clga- rettes smoked. Taken together, the studies Indicate people who emake two packa of cigarettes a day run a riek of getting lung cancer about 20 times greater than the risk for nonsmokers. "Cigqretta smoking Is causally related to lung cancer In men." the 1964 report said. "The magni- tude of the effect of cigarette smoking far outweighs all other factorThs. "e data for women, though less extensive, polnt in the same direevon!' The National Cancer Institute now says, •'fn the fifteen years since the 1964 surgeon generai's report was published, these con- ciusions have been contirmed by numerous Investigatione In many countriee:* ' 111.1.1. Meanwhile• lung cancer has contlnued to rise sharply: In 1950, amid the first public in- diwtions of a link between ciga• . rette smoking and lung cancer. doctors reported 18,313 lung can- cer cer deaths. In 1964, deaths hit 45.838. Last year. there were 92.400 lung cancer deaths. Since population has been In• creasing more slowly, the In- creases mean a skyrocketing mor• ta9ty rate from lung cancer - from 19.9 deaths per 100.000 men In 1950, to 04.5 per 100.000 men In 1976. For black men, the rate was even higher - 93 deaths for 100,000 men in 1976. For white women, the death rate has gone from 4.7 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 women In 1950, to 19.5 In 1976. For black women, the 1976 rate was 17•4 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 women. The report says those figures demonstrate that there is a sert• In the 1964 surgeon general's report, the effect of smoking on pregnancy and,Infant health was kissed off in a single page. Researchers have learned a lot since 196!• In the 1979 surgeon general's report, a 94-Page section on preg- nancy and infant health declares "cigarette smoking during preg-, nancy has a significant and ad•': verse effect upon the well•being of the fetus, the health of the newborn baby and the future de• velopment of the infant and child:' The latest research corroborates findings from the late 1960s that smoking mothers substantially in- creaae their risk of spontaneous abor.tios• premature birth, and death at the infant during the first days of lite• In addition, doctors are finding "evidence of long-term impair- ments in physical growth, dimin• ished intelleetual functlon, and de- flciencies in behavioral development" for children of smoking mothers„ the report says. Reports differ Reporta dlffer on whether those gapa are eventually clnsed, hut new studies indicate some children of smoking mothers remnin physi• eally and mentally stunted as late as age 11. The sretinn on amoking and in- fant health was preparcd far the National Institute nf •Child Health and Human Development by the • Inatltute'a staff and faculties at Johns Hopkins School of Hyglene and Public Health and the Loma Linda University School of Medl- dna lihtnt 44 $golA g- cancer• rates dec8ve In men doctors attribute fylklajmptlon of elga• es to filter and Institute report ectlve studles monitored med• 1Ad recorded• the g the stud- of 34,400 in 1978, from lung can- cK:'.Overall., smoken were 14 times more. Bkely to dtk from lung cancer than nonsmokera•r• Docton who smoked between one and 14 dgarettes a day had a lung cancer death rate about eight times higher than nonsmokers. Those who smoked 15 to,2t eiga- rettes daily had a death rate near• ly 13 ttmes that of nonsmokers. Doctors who smoked more than 24 cigarettes daily were 25 times more likely than nonsmokers to get lung cancer. • An 8yryear study of 239,000 American veterans Included 1,256 lung r.ancer deaths. The ratio: a death rate 12 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers. Smokers who begin puffing early In life are much more likely to die from tung cancer than those who start later, studies ahow- In the veterans study, those who began smoking after 25 had 5.2 times the lung cancer mortall- Lrisk of nonsmokers. The risk almost two times greater for smokers who started between 20 and 24 than for those who started after 25- The-lnng cancer morta(t- ty risk was almost three times greater for those who started be- tween 15 and 19 than far those who started later. How smokers inhale also helps determine their lung cancer risk. "Inhalation of'smoke well Into the lungs is the major mechanism whereby lung tissue is exposed to carcinogens which ultimately pro- duce lung cancer," the National Cancer Society notes. Generaliy, studies show those who say they inhale deeply have up to 17 times the lung cancer death rate of nonsmokers. Those who say they inhale lightly run a lung cancer death risk about eight times greater than nonsmokers- Some researchers have sug- t~py~ '~!M!I'~ ~; ~ '" ~ ~J, lan/n,bn Fr.m CHtCAnp LUkO ATaaQa7leM ;d~. ~~ Researchers lay 45 atttdles In• volving mora than BOO,f1pQb[rths confirm that bgHu boc9*.smok• Ing mothers average aboliYa half• pound lighter than babiea•born to nonemokers, a -Low birth MMght Increases the likelihood of a variety of central nervous rystem probiema - in• eluding cerebral palsy, poor motor coordination and learning diublB- ty. The lower tlte welght, the i11 ow em 'tMit~ How does dgaratb ~ u ~ ___ ~ Dr- Edward Ladta 1C: ali totta pulmooaq dlaeaae alrrd~daadhK 11R~1 fl NV~CN .. the ways .eteatisu beusveana<antsr {sivw- ~bieema HttaapeulhclN 0MQM ops hom amokint, }~qf ttiqpehi ~ g}. Virlually tbe entire ra~jialR.eRT qYRqaa~. ''~ d9dA tils;(1~~ ~(~ flt Rned with slender coiumwefli}it aW wr(tA `'' ~ hi1~ l~qtcq at iaW Flgt;•W hairlike dlla at the endr. ellalt ~~ ~~ (i NIq! tl lutants from the lungs ~,',ti W~ 4fft Bnt irritatton from c tn meiecs "t.l ~h..~ sntoke gradvadty csuses [tte.eHteao chsngH. ~m ~~ ~ ~roa' ' °4t . e..,e " , >~ognW and' Fira4 they lasa thetr cilla aM. tteitn to tookkii) cants F! more like cubes than cot®s At?* the irrit4• hy _.~i ~~I,R,,_ It doeatY Wpttltg.• :. ~~ tion continues, the cells grew.a~ts and mote ~ ~~~~• ^`~ i~1 clmr, ~. T•~~..~ "'i ~ 1} qUll mlcmaFop{i1`~t Ifl 579ff~ Srregular Eventually the «>s ~'lyln to fiit• 1pt~~~ltaya I a penon quits smokldE . . ten out and boie llks akin «0;: Lgtdla saya, 100 1 cNfa ls, That stage is called squamas anetaplasia and ~ h'mpMmk apptar. It'a often tdo W gHt 1's atilt bnty .qnamaua metaplatla " In tho' It often occurs more or less avuitaneausly at tate_ ,lungs, the problem may regress and about 50 sites In the lungs_ TflOli- symptoms Include spitting up the lunds might return to near•nnrmal. Bbt At that polat, the cells are aot cancerous, bload,. ~explained pain, or a visible tumor no one kdows when the damage is Irreverel• . But it's a daafter aign "we sea frequently in on a dtt'tt X ray. Often. Landis said, squa- ble. amokers," IAndis' says. T3e oegs indicate mous•esQ cancer Is-not detectable on X ray About 70 percent of lung rancer Is the cancer may follow after a petied of months until Il.Istoo late. squamous-cell variety. Landis said. Treatment or years of addfflonat exposnre b smoke. He'aafd thefive•ysar survival outlook for tocvsee on surgery, if possible. Drug treat. . Ffnally, squamous caRs lose aB control patieststbho already are spitting up blood or ; men6fa rarely suctaessfui- and become "frankly tats.Hgnam and inva- are in patn Is '•10 percenG or thereabouts.'r Other forms of lung cancer Include ad• sive.' Landis saya, The survival rate once a tumor shows on enocudnoma, small•cell or nat•ceil cancer, That Is squamous-ceLL rmcer. the leading a chest X ray depends on the size and loca- large-cell cancer and alveolar•ceil cancer• kind of lung cancer• tion of tbe-cancer. A cancer on an outtying. The. relation between those cancers, and The eetls clearly tout: abn,,raaL to tha porttoa of ths lung, discovered when it's au•t smoking is not as_clear• ~ gested lung cancer might be due to inherited factors or ea<iron• mental faetors other than savok- Ing. But studies of identical twins wlth similar environmental aad genetic backgrounds support-evi- dence that smoking causes long cancer. Low-tar-and-nicotine cigaxettes help reduce smokers' lung emcer risk. Dr. Cuyler Hammond, vice pres- Ident for epidemiology and s>;atls- tles of the Amer•can Cancer SrKt- ety, and his collegues eoapated lung cancer deatk rates forpestple who smoked •_igh•tar dytettes with death rates for low-far dga- rette smokers. Among men_ lung eanca mor• tality rates for •ow•tar dgarette smokers were 20 perast lower than those ta kigh•tat. CFfuette greater the chance of proNlens thet a pack a day. Institute researchers formr the - A smoker who quits for preg. Ilksllhood of low birth wefght di• 1fancy redufta her ehancea of da- ractly relates to the erwoant a ~livKing an underweight hab}i to wamaa emokes• For tnatanoe, ln q•" abotkrttahe same as those for nnn• atudy ot mothers who w e~ ~tnoet~ leas th.u 120 pounds, ahont 6 pere: • The studies led the Institute to cent of nonsmokers ltad-fotr birth 4eonclude maternal amoking Is the wetght babies, compared to 10.2: sole reason for underweight fnr 21 parunt of thosa who smoked lass to 39 percent of o1t bablet who thae a pack a day, and 13-8 per- welghed laas thmt: 5% pounds at unt of mothers who smoked more MLtL, sX t,ea in stae uattalql !~ i1R trood attet' auriety ~IPO th6 'Mlctlon Bttt If th} ~fbdy .s .potq ~. 1% or a lnthe. ar qA`tr~pttill ~a l th dth{ ungs,aea rqe _ aqid lung cancer aap 0 114 tptaly+t+ af caBs hl tlaattit qt{peasive, ~roceu. r•r:e;: ~ uld tk. Ees11 ralqilonahid' tVl~pd caneer and amokiq~ e - ,9A pq.pett"er.^ In the past three e~Mr ¢dhl t recaU treating a single eaN oT. t;i11 cancer where the peraeq-41d ideld[~MOM a11 the time." hi tiah~ smokers. Among women, low-tar smokers had a 40 pereent rlower deattt rate. Hpemond found the idnantagea of lew-tar-and•nicotine dgarettes di•+appeared for smokers who sim• ply lncreased the amount they smoked after switching.. , Smokers can reduce their risk nf tung cancer by quitting - al- though 15 years after quitting former smokers snll have death rates higher than people who nevtr smoked, according to the re- porG Atr pollution may contribute to lunS~esneQ, researchers say: • ~ .: Lang cancer death rates are higher in urban atees then !n rural areas ao °it Is possible that there is sa lntetactlon between the car- cinogens ia cigarette smoke and other compounds in the •.-at- masphKe° . ,.. But cigarette smoking remains For example, asbestos workers - the most important cause of.tuog who smoke are 92 times more ' cancer, and •'in the absence oLcig- likely to develop lung cancer than arette smoking, the comhined ef- nonsmokers who don't work with . fects of all atmospheric agensdo asbestos. Workers mine asbestos : not increase the death rates for in Jackson and Yancey counues In " lung cancer more than a%e:y few North C.tralina. . cases per I00,000.persoas:' And rhe lung cancer risk for The surgeon generai s aoozt uranium workers who smoke Is. : notes that pipe and cigaz srr.rters four [imes greater than /or urani- have lung cancer death rates .::gh-• um workers who do not smoke. er than nonsmokers "but suhs+an• tially lower than those of cigarette The National Cancer Institute smokers •.. . There is little evi- concludes the section by noting: dence that lung cancer is as;od• "Fortunatel•v. IunR cancer is large- ated with the use of chewing to- ly a preventahle problem. Signift- bacco or snuff:' reductions In the number of People In certain occupations deaths from lung cancer can be run higher risks of lung cancer, al- achieved if a significant portlon of though the report notes "workera the smoking poptilatlon can be can substantially reduce or eltml- persuaded to stop smoking, and if nate the potential for harmful oc•• a reduction can be brought about nf young people cupational exposures by e8minat•• in the number ing cigarette smoking who take up smoking." ?•. Pregnancy and smokirig can be' a tragic combination In another etudy, D.G. Dunn and three colleagues reported In iseues of the Canadian Jnurnal of Public Health that aignlflcant differences between children oi smoking and nonsmoking mothers rema,ned at age 6h, and "there was no evl• Matarnal smoking can he a dl-- denca that the children of amoking rect ceoae of fetal or newborn woman 'caught up' In growth death In an otherwise normal In• with the nonsmokars' childr.rl" -' fant pftmarlly because smoking A third study - called the llrit-' deprive! ths ehlld of adoQuatt ox- lah Perlnatal Mortality Stddy =; ygen• ~tt ' r r s b The researehern eoueluded looked at all ehlldren born in ' based on 10 smdles, that lower Great Pntain from March 3 to vbireh weights could not` be,'ex- March 9 1958 - about 17000 in- - 5_mokmg mothers plained by ahortK pregnancies fants. The children werb evalutted " substantiall inerease among smokers than nonsniokers• at birth and ages 7 and 1L- y~,t Y That means, thb fnstltute says "Physical and mentil retarda- their risk of 'I•ou'er birth wdght for smokers' tinn due to smoking In pregnaney ~-'==~~ were found and this deficit in- w,T~ , Infants must be due to a direct re ,•reased with the number of ei a tardation of fetal rowth " In 8- ~• S Onta11e1t115 g rettes smnked durin nane " p nther worda, the intams were stm- at hath a es, the g PreB Y .• ply amall for thefr a e rather than R report says. aborhun, g' Not nnlv were the smokers' premature, children shorter, they were "be- premattlf•e The results are less clear abnut twern three to live months re- whether the retardation of growth larded in reading, mathematics birth and and'devalopment is long-lerm•or„ and general abillty." permaneaG : The institute's report also- cites death of the J,g. Hardy and E•D. Melllts re-; studies showing the risk of spon- ported in the Dec. 23. 1972, twoe.• taneous abortion and fetal deeth, infant during of Lancet, a medical journal, abdut as•well as deaths during the first 81 palrs of children matched hy• days of llfe,.tnereases as maternal the f irst dayS race, age of mother, educiuonsi smoking increases. background, sex and birthday. Od The report cites one study of life, the average, children at mothers which found pregnant women , who smoked showed signifieantly who smoke are 80 percent more . lower birth weigbts hdghts and• likely to experience spontaneous head clrcumferences~than childten abortlons'.than nonsmoking of mothers who did not smoke, • • w'omen, And a 1976 study In Washing• nfre~'~ Lag conti too County, Md., showed the in• • By age 7, children of tmoking fant death rate per 1.000 blrths mothera wen still behind In eath wn 23•5 for nonsmokers• 28.2 for meuurement, but the dlfferencYs smokers of less than a pack a day,•Weran't slgniflcanL • and• 31.8 for smokcrs of a pack a - - day or more. "In uther wurda, smnktng In• ~ creased the risk by :0 percent and heavy emnking Increasrd It by 33 ; percent," the study said. ,
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t aking•• And Health ~ The cigarette: ~ chemical factory t in miniature The National Cancer instftuta describes the lighted eigarette as a "unique ehem(cal factory genarat- Ing more than 4,000 known com- pounds•" The factory operates at high temperatures - the burning tip reaches as high as 1,90D degrees By the time amoke reaches the Inhaling tip, the temperature Is down to about 1D0 degrees• - The Intense heat affects the way the dtemicals act So do the myrfad eombinatlons and reactions of those 4.000 compounds. Sclen- tlsta doa't fully understand all these effects. Nere's,some of what's in that smoke: , GAS .. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Cigarettes with perforated filter tips tmy have unusually low levels of carbon monoadde, a poi- sonona gas that kills by asphyx(a• uM+- • Nitroten oxldes. Tobacco smoke coneains nitric oxide, a toxic chemtral; nitrogen dioxide, 'an irritant. aad nitrous oxide (or nitrogen moaoxide), an anesthenG a Nttrosaminea. A family of compounds snown to cause cancer In animals Cellulose acetate filters remove the-ce compounds from the smoke; charcoal filters don't. • HydroFen c}•anide, the eiga• rette's man•- killer of cilia in the lungs• It's htghly prnsonous and can brmg oa respiratory arrest. 1t's used as a rat poison and insec- ticide. • Sulfur compounds- including hydrogen sutftde, a poisonous gas; carbon disuiftde, a poisonous so4 ven4 and sulfur dioxide, a safer chemical used to make pharmaceu- ticala, • Aldehydes and ketones, In- cluding tormaldehyde, They Inhibit the movement ot tiny hairltke cilla that help clear foreign particles from the lungs. • Alcohols. Cigarette smoke t:ontains methanol, ethanot (drink- )ng alcohol). propanol and at least 10 other alcohols. Alcohols can react with other chemicals under high temperatures: scientists don't know all the results of those re- actions. PARTICLES Part(cles• taken as a group, make up the "taP" of dgarettes. Filters and low-tar cigarettes have cut the tar average by more than half since 1957- • Nicotine. The nicotine aver- age In cigarettes bas been cut nnt .,d n ` ~ ••; . a ;'•: , Put this in your Smoking pipes sad df++'+ /s far sefer than smoking cigarettes, ac- eording to the surgeon general. Pipe and ctgar smokers have only slightly more cases of faW heart disease. chronic bronchlus, emphysema - and disease in ten• etal - than nonamokers, the re- port says, says. more than half In the last two decades• Scientists disagree about whethM er nicotine is carcinogenic, but agree that nicotine decomposes into severai chemicals that may be. • Nitrosamines. These are the anly known carcinogens found only in tobacco. They're much most prevalent tn cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. • Aromatic amines may be the reasod for the association between bladder cancer and smoking. They Include two known bindder urcin- ogens found lo trace amounts in cigarettes. - • A(kanes and alkenes- They come from the waxy coating on leaves. These chemicals may alow tumor development• • Aza-erenes•,Traces of several earclnogenic aza-arenes have been found Ia tobacco sawke• Some are mutagens, eapable of fnducing ge' netie changes. - • C.rboxylic acids. More titib ao varieties have been identiTied, accounting for up to 7 perceot of smoke • part[cles• Theyre also called fatty-aclds. It's still to be determined the role these ehemf- cals play In causing cancer from tobacco, but fatty acids are tumor promoters In other types of gtud- les. • Metals. Tobacco contains minerals from the soil, from ferti- lizers, and from spral•s, particular- ly calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Traces of 76 metals have been discovered in cigarettes and 30 - including arsenic and nickel - show up in smoke. Arsenic bas plummeted in ciga- rettes as pesticides have changed. but there's still between one-half and one p~.t•" pt: million. Some ar- senic in tobacco is trans- ferred to saaf.-. some to be depas- ited in boc t.ssues. (The inc:r:rnal exposure limit of arsenic is :: average of one-tenth of a parc l=r million for eaclt „ ... Complex things are wrapped up in sn1a1l pacl~'ages e-1;,:'~ ' There's ea•en variation Within an leaf and what the smoke does. have in lung cancer. Eveqr~l•e ,paper's porosity at• Individual tobacco plant. But cigarettes are more than to- • Moisture retainers keep eiga• fectsyi~•J{praingqunlity. Nicotine eontent is highest ontlbacco. rettes moist, enhance flavor. Fgr_-istenoe,hlghly porous test peprr delivered fhe same picotina, buV lesnar. feetaldehydc. aoro- lein, formaldehyde. carbon monox• !de and hxdmgen cyanide. •FflttRS:"Charconl filters re' movd'lsordetoxic gases; cellulose filters teHd id ¢emove the aclds. New'qrYeperation technlques; such 'as•tfrtsze drying, can also- change the product. Freeze drying reduces • nlcotine, but leaves the same amount of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.,,. _ •Rd' W hat'a In a cigarette? Well, there's tobacco, and paper to wrap"ft, and usually a fil- ter ..• . _ . That's what's visible. In fact, scientists have discov- ered more than 4,000 compounds In cigarettes. Many could be athang the com- ounds that make tobacco un- gealthy. Tobacco plents vary widely In chemical makeup - with miner- als, soil properties, moteture sup= ply, temperature and light affect- Ing composition and quality'• the high Iraves of epIc:a. Sup,,,. :.3ditises include: • Flavor-enhancing additives enntxnt i~ higher i:• +he miAdle • Ccsir•o sotutions to hold tY.^_ such as fruit extracts, methol oils leaves. Acid is highest on the low• blends together and improve 11a- and aromatics. est leaves- vnr and burning. These n•picall}' "•The flavorings normally Factors that promote good burn- include sugars, syrups. licorice and used --. are usually selected from Ing will result in lower nicotine - balsams. substances generally considered and cyanitte, more carbon monox•; Casing additives, when burned, safe to humans, even though such ide. The higher the leaf on theproduce undesirable as well as de- detinitions do not guarantee that stalk, the iarae It will burn. ", sirabie products. l.icorice, for in- subsequent ... (burn products) The National Cancer Institute ' stance, is thought to be linked are safe." says the National Can- says residues from herbicides, fet'•with polynuclear eromatic hydro- cer Institute. tilizers, pesticides and insecticidea earbons, which are under study tn • A wide variety of paper, may affea what's In the tobacco- ~~.tletermine what role, Jf an)•, they with additives. Some jobs are pnuingsm4ers •in d.ou~ble j'e® _ T SI. tttken ia some lydasti•ies -- The probltm disappeared whea percenY Ha l+navy smokers who~fly, the bad effectsot~ ~oking tos• Over ttve yeacs,• •~patioaof ~af¢ty•and Fleatth has ds•' .}~ W' . thete ~sese. ;}adudhtt textiles - san a greater atnoking was banned In the work worked at Yhe blast furnace~ cotton dust are.simply eom• 134 lung ,cancer deaths •among' terimned•that thesdme among the ifelt Itom smotdng tkaa oost peo- area, and handwashing,was Te- That's an ia@ortant difference, bd- rD(aed. As byssinosis progresses, 9.591 smokers, compared to 2 chemiads that can enter the body , pie qutred before smokfng cause levets above 5 percent can; tiseeftects ot the two become deaths among 2066 ,anonsmokers: through cigoqtte amo)drtg: formal- ,.-'Dae problem ts that aome ehem• Another difficulty Is that some be dangemmfor people witb':-'worse than if they were'sinfply The institute concludes that• dehyde, borort~trifiuoritle,'organo. Researchers have "workers exposed to tobacco fin, methyl parnihion: diniiro• ~.iaa4 (a tke xrotk place ua ton• of the same toxic chemicals in cig- heart diseaz .=• "added together- tatninate tobatxo products, en• arette smoke occur at some-jobs, - Smoking saa eampound the ef=",jound similar effects for coal dust smoke and asbestos experience far ortho•crmsot,:esarbaryl. inorganic -" grsater levels of lung cancer than tWorides, • `~nd•chlortae., ~ fnorganic-mereury and . dblbtl< the tiemiats to ester.}he meaning workers run the risk oT feMOf.fotate 6auMous Substances, dvat which Ie`~ ~~~igarette smoke can actitally would be expected •from the eoa- tead - body ytroo~ tn{t.latiw, Lges{Ioa bfgher•than-usual exposure, includiag e•ttoa : ~ 1Dr.ttkbt ataatreptloq, r•••' 'r. - Smoking produces carbon mon- common ~ ~ Ile Plants. The surr ~oo,~ttbine with toxic agents .foqa(1 tt9bution of either tobacco smoke ~~Mi~ (ouitd'in tabaCZ~ or asbestos elone:' .~ to cause problemsgrtatot, '~~~pt~ dnd the. work piace (tt• • •,~'~taVatiarl insqtute tor+0otv- . ax[de, for Instance, so people who geon geatstlY report cites studies:. 't yv_ork afloaai•}ta.lYs.nd,Safaty.rsport• lmoke and work fn an industry sbowint'~on workers who,' Sha two elementslndivid'ua}- Researchers also have found • ~ about westers whose dgarettes that p lar e amounts of .smoke hsre snora byssinosis, or that smokin ckttlL,(acatdne, •aldehydes, orsenii:i ` g :-~y;~ g can contribute to in- ,~dmtum, formaldehyde, hydrogen roducea 'stfitrte tud•{YOftt;,piamn(pa(W avtth Tel• Grbon monoxtde may be fa extra brown 1WIt disease, [han noq•4'- _~Socle ;.asbestos workersmiflei, dustrial accidenis. The in ~~de; hydrogen: su/(tde, lead, •lon. AwJat=tlN •Teflow was,lteat«{ danger, smoking ~ workers. yYiy,)it ~tsbestosla, a nonmalignenf,4 now recommends t)tat worker~ la tnslhyl qftnte, methylene eh(oride. one experiment aonsmoking • Brown •Mtst caYntPtotna include ;nplratory disase, Sut ia smo$=. ~aln kinds of tndustrles, faekd- nfaotine, nitrogen dlotdde and phr Ay., heF}~R~.1at t ntaattse=;y In avac~tot;~s'Ixs+.sssdts}'la.pad~lblw:-blut furnace workersd skowed chest Slghis~ss.'t»ugh and short- 'rrs,:. asbestosla can. lead to ]uogInt coal mines, retraio !rom snxdc•; '~. ,- , • erlag lttd Htlts'ttehidl•Jated aM , •dncentrations.nt 4.9 percent ot aess of tn+autt and the disease can` eana7:,;:r- y rl' ` nt - proximately„d[ti thoufar. belinelpi carboxyhemoglobin in their blood leadd to e~ obstructive lung _.,:In oJie,axperlment, ecientists ob• -• 7/ 1~t'>i'dak with any of the~ ~'sr -" ',' h'^ • serve¢.11,666,_ orkers who tS olk around these chemicals!' "•chemionts, `yoU might ask alrout ' one bal/fitsa# i}ta'. Nis iaetttaA "'bY the end of their ahltts. That diaease, w - ' The Nationat institute for Ocett• • amoking around thamh xUesrChtnYelt,=yt6::Or,tr tar: ••1t.'COmpared to concentrations of 7-4 Researtfscs have found that int-stalled }nsuLUon contelning asbes- • s pipe•.• cancert The study showid pipe • she But death ratrs from orai and related cancerr• 1ar ptpr and cigar smokera "equal ot exceed thos• }or cigarette staokers:" the report Even though •'PIPe and cltir Center for Dlsease Control in At- of lung cancer 5.8 times more' smokers run less tlsk ot dyint of lanfa, cites one study showing often than nonsmokers. By compa• lung cancer than cigarette amok• elgar smokers are fi.'e tlmes more rlson, dgaretfe smokers died from ers, the risk is still greater thaa 1(kely than nonsmokers to die lung cancer at a.rate •14 times }or nonsmokeS• Itom ofaL wlndplpt or aaophqeat treaterthan nonsmokera; r The rlak Increases wtth ths •~ktrs ats 5 6 tlntea more llksly ,• aors"n tenernt s r~port amount smoked. One study IounA ~~dls 'h9t8 thesA ditaues •thaA.,dlnd •Itttte evlaenee to !nd anan smoklnt more •tban tour d•'' nonsra0korl.' Cigarette smokerf "~~~•Sla"CoSe My snft(ed Wa or 10 pipa dalt,y kad "algnlll• •,died al rlka dUeasea. r•bottt five'~;,,~p„ ~~a,.Bp ~d tutu).;.t cantly hlgher" death •ratp than t(mes ta often as aoasmokSri. ,yct, ,ry,r:sv, cfu• ,=, mea who aevar smoked. Those „Tps risk ot dylag of laa4 Cancat' <•' drhd ett~'the stirgbon tene}aP. Edwin Jr`~ emoklnt lena tud deat6 rata:aitd- (g clearly less for •plpe'tnd cigar , tteport appesrsd. •Dr•. lar to nonsntakersf, " amokers tttan for dtartift allfok- Chaltman of the department dical ' ers --•llthouth the rlsk'0;iraater oral surgeryrar the Me The report's aection avr nonel s- tban ior nonsmokera. Ona study lets of Gaortlla. reported snuff -+4 tette tobacoo use, prepared by (~a found p(pe and cigar stnokas died creases the eKr of orai canFer. ._...- ~• l:'l eight-hour shift.) Nickel in all forms is carcino- genc.• • Radioactive compounds, Sev- erai radioactive compounds have been found in cigarettes, particu- larly potassium 40 and Lpolonium -Smuking cigarettes ma,v redilt•e :}be effecliveness of sonte drupa, 'Aecording to the Food and Urui: Administratiatt (FUA). : And smoking csn cuntpuund possible hnzords from sunte drus>. aiccording to the FUA. w'hlch pn•• ~ared fhe section of •thr surgeun seneral's report on interactions br- .tween smukln8 and food and X~ragb. . The rfieort found that sotar iDNgs - inciuding thc common t'prescriptlon palnkiller Darvon and :a family of drugs called theophyl- ltnes, u.ed to treat asthma and Zronchllls - act ditferentfy on -/mokers. 'Oaa study rated Darvon ineffec- va In ordinary doses for 10 per- 'etnt of nonsmokera, 15 percent of .Lght Smokers and 20,3 percent of eary smmttkera, Researchers think nen reasan 4s that smoking,sonie- Itow decreases dhe pain threshold --_ Yn . other words, smokers r'an ""` - !t cu Pan than•nonamokers• •s1m PII' takiqg more ot a S /sn't a solution for amokers, .,;evardose of 1>lrvon, for in• . is dangerous and patients tutinely warned pot to ex- Y.' THECHARLOITEODSERYENRun.. Mar• 2• 1070 9G 210. Analysis of human tissues in- dicates the lung, blood and liver of smokers contain higher concentra- tions of polonium than those of nonsmokers. Radioactive polonium has been shown to cause cancerin animals. ceed the recommended dose. Sunre• drugs. such as phenecetin, fun.• of thr key druRs in populur pn:nkiht:, sut•h as kmpirmf a,r burned up faster in a smuker•x hod~, tneaning the smoker gets Ies% effect from the drug, re- scachers believe. Onr dror w'iddy used to trcal bloud pre.aurt• may be coum- crarre•d he the mrotinr ht u}a• rcur:• atudar. iwee sttotcn. PhcID av CHUCR BURTON • Agricultural ehenlicals., Stricter- controls Dn insecticides have-changed,these residues. For instance, DDT used to be present- at 10 parts per million on tobacco. Today, It's less than one-half part per million. ' TIMN 448802 t birth control pills wilI lead to car- diovascutar disease or blood clots. A 1973 report trum.the Collabo- ralivt• Gruup fo: the Study of Strokc In )'utmg \\'omrn found. "women who tuuk the pill and amuked one pack ot cigarettes had a 200 percent increased risk uf a struke" ot•rr wnmen who took the pill and didn't smukr. - 9hr Fl1A ahn cltrd a studv sbuwing that ts•umrn bctsveru 39 Ntcottne Increases heart rate, and 45 who smnkr and take estro- blood pressure. and heart's output gen heve a substantially higher ot blund. The drug Inderal Is sup- risk of a heart attack than those posed to decrease hcarl ratc, blood who don't smoke, pressure and heart output. But several studies ahowed smoking The FDA said smokers need to after taking Inderal Increases let their doctors know they smoke blood pressure- That a(armed the because cigarette smoking alters FDA. which said, "The possibility the Tlsults of diagnostie medical that smoking reverses or blocks, tests, _ even tn part, the antl-hYPertenslv6_' ,,.t effect of (lnderai and drugr ttkb J'jhe-eeyort Quotei wme ~.at~.}v il) •.. Is obviously'• •• a mattef' deACe''tbat smokers atraoeD aalp•• , tor eoncern:' isttmeti tiet fraun Jodd dlffuwtlr tttal~f _ ntSnnnP•ltera. For iastattce6 no ~,.. But smoking has no known el• kers roteltu,aippiWt~ -}ect on some commonly ast%dy m t~y 3ban satoktss. att^. .:~' drugs, including Valium, studied • usd&{eyeU~1'q[~lowers 'both . h1aW 'att!•""` bave found. . "'" &{eyeU of vltamla st3, pu'otA:, y'. .~ abt9sbacaw. the vhantbt ta wed••• •rhe report notes that dgarette' up cottntering the effet3t of t1Mr" smoking Increases tllp odds that cyanlda In tolracco J,fiplBt. , 1{
Page 18: vbu42f00
---- ° rt,: : 120 THE CHARL.F.J'ITE OBSERVER Sun.. Mar• 25, 1979' • i I Nonsm•okers:: Rising Militaney Your cigarette can be a pain in the nose to me By RODER'ff COIHN ebwrvw MMeti: aa'N. The proverblalamoke-fllled room Isn't a grsat threat to healthy nonsmokerx. ar,cording to the U.S. Surgeon Gmural'a report. A roomful of annuaers can pro- duce enough carbom monoxlde to lead to slight, tempnr.a.y dReriora- tion of reflexes anu: mrrttat alert- ness In nonsmokers. Lut fhe effect Isn't normally enoulgh +o fmpair a nonsmoker's ability -oo drive a car, for example. The report does conclude that smoke from ciga-t•ttes causes problems for unheulthy nonsmok- ers and makes somu healthy non- smokers uncomforuinte. The section of thtr surgeon gen- eral's report on invmtuntary smok- 1ng was prepared bty the Center for Disease Cootrol an Atlanta and written by Dr. Davtui Burns of the pulmonary divl'slon mf the Univer- sity of California at San Diego. Researchers ha've found that levels of carbon mmnoxide and other chemicals In ctgarette smoke lncrease In rooms w'Itete°smokers congregate. The conmentrations are higher than expetnted because smoke from the tip of a cigarette - called sidestreant amoke - has more nicotine, caxiaon •monoxide and ammonia than ane smoke that comes from the end of the ciga- rette for Inhaling. Nonsmokers abmc'b.those cbem- Ieals - but usually mot ln'danger- ous levets. ~ It takes a, lot For Instance A.IK. Ray and T.H. Rockwell wriiing us the Nov. 5, , "Annals of tne •New York after exposure to the unvennlated 1970 , Academy of Scieanas;". reported room. The pafn-also came at a that high levels of cnrbon monox• lower heart ntem tde translate into z seduction of Aronow also gave patients with drtving abllity. Burc the carbon chronic lung diaeases exercise monoxide In smokr•-filled rooms stress tests and found their breath- ordinarlly isn't enautgh to eause ing became labored sooner after those problems In anmamokers. exposure to a smoke-fitled•room. And J.P_ Cano ledt x team that Burns reports several investiga- studied nicotine in anine. among tors have found a significant rela- nonsmokers aboard a submarine. tionship between parental smoking In that closed envtranment. non- and respiratory illness in children smokera showed a risme.ina nicot7ne - but it's unclear If that's the re• s levels, but the amount was less suit of emoke (n the house or thee than l percent of the amount in fact that parents who smoke:: smokers. coogh more and spread germs. i. Burns also notes that carcino- ••The relationship between pa•- gena - cancer-causing agents - rental smoking and infant tnfec- are found In the clouds of smoke tion was greater when both In a smoke-filled room, but says it parents smoked and Inereased Is not established that these t:hem- with increasing number of ciga4 icals "can act as carcinogens at rettes smoked each day," Bumst - these levels delivered by tnbeta- said. tion." •'The existence of a true tobacco: Studies differ on whether smoke allergy has not been established;" 1n a smoke-filled room alters tile Burns says, but people with a; heart rate, blood pressure and '•hiatory of allergies to othr- sub- other bodily functions df non- stances are more likely to report smokers. the irritating effects of tobacco." Several researchers have•found When 250 nonallergic patients that high levels of carbon monox- In a 1968 study were asked about Ide - like those preseot In smoke- their reactions to cigarette smoke, filled rooms - can cause prob. 69.2 percent reported eye irrita- lems in unhealthy nonsmokers. tion. 31.6 percent headaches. 29.2 W.S. Aronow and his colleagues percent nasal symptoms aad 25.2 studted two smokers and eight percent coughs• nonsmokers with angiaa pecWrlt, a heart allment.The subjects exer- Not JtWI aub1eehTe cised on a treadmill atter a period • in uncontaminated air. They exer• p;eaotlons were not just subiec- cised again after exposure to 15 tive. Reaearchers •ra+ntwt peo- cigarettes smoked over two bouys pie complaining of eye irritation in a well-ventilated room, and found flowing tears and othrr ob• again after exposure to 15 clga• jective signs of physical irritatton. rettes in an unventilated room. In a 1975 survey by the Pianon- The level of carbon monoxide tn al Clearinghouse for Smoking and the hemoglobin In the blood rame He.lth, researchers asked a uuon- from 1.25.percent In the unconta- al sample to agree or disagree initiated air to 1.77 percent in the with the statement: "it is anno,v, ventilated smoking room, to 2.29 ing to be near a person w•ho is percent In the unventilated room. smoking cigarettes." The federal quality standard Is 1.5 Of those who had never percent. Excess carbon monoxide smoked, 77 percent of the men •levels reduce the blood's oxygen• and 90.5 percent of the .romen carrying capacity. -- agrecd. Just more a th:ro of ; ' d Pain of angina began 22 percent the men and women who smoke sooner after exposure to !he ventl- agreed Ic was annoying. lated room and 38 percent sooner A 1971 study sponsored bv the Federal Aviation Administranon and several other federal agencies surveyed airplane passengers on miUtary and commercial sircraft -- all of which were well venu-. iated. "In spite of the low level of measurable pollution," the study said. "ot•er 60 percent of the non- smoking passengers and 15 to 22 percent of the smokers repotud being annoyed by the other pas- sengers'a amoking.^ Former letter carrier now delivers anti-sni okers' messa~es 1!y FRYE GArr~r aAn' find myself walking away from ` O0i11Q SfM7Y^*" eituations, rather than forcing the BiR McCracken shuddera when lasue:' he thtnks of it - the July dght in That's, not the picture of Mo- 1977 when he and his wife spent Cracken that most people have. an eventng at C7tartotte's Sandpip• It's been less than three years er Restavrasn°patftn~a,~vap`Vtasatnee h"e°oe-~aLTe pres~enl° o7"the neafood and inhaling, for several Charlotte chapter of GASP (Group hours, the tobacco smoke of their -Against Smokers' Pollution). faUQv!IHtroos• . ' During that time, GASP has =•9y' the time McCracken got irmunted an aggressive defense of Iloms, :his ainuses aehed and !is• %a very simple prmetple: that It you baviWng was labored. Iie sssm -.don't want to smoke, yout lungs paipd, out and waa rushed to stnd sinuses shontdn t be defiled by MerFq' Hospital in a neighbors .-the fumes of othera. . In 1975, McCracken began ha Zot there dotors E+~ik •e .•svearng a face mas to protect :filai+ihots ot Adrenalin. Betladryl ~;ylmsNf from tha mloke of his fel- +and..'~ortlauee - attaekins tke =;yow workers at ttteCharlotte post "syntptoss of one of the worat re- •t~Uce, where he-was a letter car- actiotts7o tobacco smoke ma~sL'afer. His supervlsor, t)9. Sloan, them )Ld ever seen. .;:~.,CaUed a meeting to discust the ait- -' d MCaacen claims that ancru entit[ed . eetere a,. .nd ed-ed- staan .'Becama• of that eetlsitivtty ~'c~iberately blew sigar smoke in and jha.4xow'ieg conviction Lali ~faca entttletl sao avrainted air apaeaY•%~- McCracken fikdan~asitul ttult com• MMSackea 1as become CharlotMi ' nt against Sloan; asking for •most °mlHtut and aggresdetf I5,000 in damsgea and launching champion ot aoasmokers' rlghts~~= )tis career as a militant nonsmok- }Ia.talems a reluctant wartiA:.. The case was thrown out of -however, ai lre aettles himadt ~It; rt, the judge unpersuaded by acotlrb~ 'beginss to rtfleet aiy. uments that in trtcCwcken's the whole,flqerience. Hands foli• smoke Is a serious weapoa: - ed in itvnt~t klrtb ltis eyes E McCracken, who tutlred..on a relentlessly ta a tuft of carpet, sabllity pension not o#idaUy,.><e-; speaks aoftfp aad wlth a atelt ft ted to his reaction to smoke, ap- S Id • y^-" ' - a vo t eM , ~., ._ riwtaw~u.taneuvsratea- led, This month, the N-C. Court "It's inaetltbly bard for me,~ he Appeals u held the lower court p Bi111VicCrackrr~: `1'm Rot an aggressive person' ~ys. "I don't ltke eonnict_ Pm:.ot iing. It's one of a number of . aa aggressive l+~n by natute. ~•tnbolic legal actions in which 3 hes been Involved over the last century otlts Ufe was re4tively several years. unaffected by controverry and ~, Acting aa head of GASP. Mo public noloriety. The char,ge, he Craekea has gone to cuuti against aaye, has been dramatic and dll/t•. Ic convenience store clerks`who seU, eult ~. cigarettes to minors, against Char- "I had to get an unlisted (phonel -loite businesses that don't post no- number:" he exptains wdt7i a sr bg smoking signs, and, most recently, "People w•ere calling me at ail against Mecklenburg'County ofti- hours of the night, I got used to cials for fatling, he says. to proteet crank calls, people saying all kinds ttte rlghts of-nonsmokas. °?:• _ . of thtngs. I finally took the GASP.. "We tried to usetha laws aow sficker off my car because people on the books to eaD. attention -to were dumping ash trays on it, or ' the problem," McCracken says. writing obscenities. «We were successful .in getting «1 admit I've ocnsioaally made some stores to put'~Ap (no emoY• a public spectacle of myself when. Ing), sigaa. Rnd wlth the helpp ot d 111 b t b •~me o e y woula get 8eren the media, we have pointed cot . u~ I requested that they not that there Is a problem: •Dut tha smoke. There have been scenes, problem has not gone atirl7 .- and they have beea hud-on Sue, SLrICL8lYa108'~• ^-••1~my ~fe (who doesn't smoke). It's •¢- ~ pttt a definite strain on dur mar- Patt of the solution, McCrackea? riaga' believes, would be a more sifla-• °`,Balm' use of the emotional drain gent ban on public smoking. He"r1f •aueh siiuationr, MsCrackea and GASP last year tried to pM=•• ~ be's deliberately btttred his suade Mecklenburg County rntn•-.profile In the last year, quit'{ty or• mlastoners fo pass a sweeping pro- gang nonsmokers to flex their hlbttlon against amoking in public political muscle In the next local places. "' election. But even if his name Js Commissioners rejected the no. less otten in the headlines, friende smoking ordinance in what Mc•• ~ it's unlikely be91 ever ahut Cracken termed "a major disap-` * Urely: • .'•.. • -•t en . up He says he'tt compll- _ tng - with the help of GASP'a - '•He'g very atubborn ^ays Me• : In g00 members and active support• Cracken's fellow GASP founder, era - a mailing list of nonamok-° Larry Stearos, a proleasorat Cen. ' ing voters who can pressure tu• tral Piedmont Communlty College. tare eommissioners. "I've never known him to back •For those actlvlties, McCracken, down on his principles. I guep EJ, has paid a price. The first half-. you could say he'a dogged." • You're ~aying a lot more than you think for that pack The money you pnr i^ that 7 G _ -• 7 y higher proportion ot current vending machine to tiu,• r Faci: of Snlolill2~' S ll(~en costS drew the 0'o~ eTrinlent ll2to 1he ~'~ ~ll l smokers and former smokers re• etgarettes Is not fhe amt< cost of b t7 ~ poated they have a limitation of smoking• - - activity than do persons who There are many hldden: costs as are not merely personal and prl• fire deaths were smoking-te4ted. smokers and former smokers •'was more time In the hospltal. never smoked. although the dit/er- well. vate. Those consequences, econom• So far In fiscal 1979. onr of five markedly higher than among That meana smokers end former ences arr not eiwnys striking." In the foreword to t'.za'r5. Sur• !t and mraicat, affect not only the fire deaths has been related to µ'nrkers who had nevrr smoked," smokers spent 145•894.000 extra lir sald one farmr narrmving geon General's report• S,asryS C:dt• amokrr• but every taxpayer .•. : smoking. _ tbr dillrrrnrr Is Ihr fart thnt a fano, secretary of hentt:r.. rduru- K'~1>on said, aeys in bed, based nn calculetinns tlon and welfare (HEw', esttnmud Thosr cu.ts include health insur- • The Public Health-Serviee lie found the rate of dsys out assuming "that smokers and form- higher proportinn uf smokers had that treating amokimF•relatcd sncr. fire insurance, disability pay- has esttmated workers miss as . was 33 percent higher emong er smokers w•ould experlence the died. health problems acconmss for 55 ntents anu other private and tax- many as 77 million work days .- male smokers than nonsmokers, same rate of bed disahillty It they In eddhlon, tht• group of form- bllllon to $9 billion of Cne nation's Payer•suppurted progrems. .19 percent of all workdays lost - 4' percent higher among female did not smoke as did those who er smokers is made up of two i205 blllion annual lnea/th carr from smokin related roblems, smokers and 42 percent higher had never smoked cigarettes." very dllferent kinds of people - bIU, "not to,mentlon nnr eost ot The sutgeon general's report yid Ronald Wilson, ehief of the among tnrmrr smokers, male and Among male Workers between thosc who quit smoking before doesn't include a epectic section on female. there was any noticeable deleteri- ioat productlvlty, wagnr and al,• the hiddrn costs ot smoking. But health status end demographic ••The heaviest smokers reported 17 and 44, those who never amok- ous lmpect on their health and aenteelsm caused by amtokmg•rr- other organizatione and agencies aoalysis branch of the National the hi hest rates of work toss," he ed averaged 3 days out from work those who quit smoking because lated fUneas - en (addlttuoaal) an• have made such ulculations• Boma Center for Health Sutlsdcs tn ~, g each year, former smokers aver- ot poor health" nutl cost esdmated at >uZZ (bflUon) exampler tAo morbtditM seaton ot the ~ 'L~1Wlwn aald his ]985 Health In• aged 4.2 days, smokers. 5.5 days. W Ilson found that of those be- . to $18 btlUon." . morbidity Among male workers t5•84, tween 17•44, about e percent of Thoae hidden eosts ame a major ' f ta Smoking causes 12 to 13 per• tiron genenl's report. it'lvjew Survey found smokers aonsmokeri averaged 4.4 d.ys nonsmokers, 9.4 percent of former bW re days In t I8 M b n 'Th percent mo er• !Ofe a os4 estlmates mry ~y~~ fo(~mer amokera 5,5 d.ys, smokers and 9.6 percent of amok•° • reason why the federa0 govern• cent of all flras and 80 percent of 1neCt Ia involved in its auEi•stnak• all fire deatha, accordingto HEW s' Wilsonn repeated the ataNy W ecuse 41 Illness or Injury than eurrent smokett, 4.5 days: Many ers were chronically dlsabled• ing eampalgn. offtce of smoking and health. -La 'tarmd smokers now acoonnt tor=1 >KOple w'bo had never smoked. . c., former smokers had developed For those between 45 and 44,- ,'No person, given th~stsgger-. 1974, the latest Year`for wblch .••p?Kent Jf ali woi;k ~,1ost.a~ ~,Aad th~"ouat ot dayse/nabM '.A%lc bronchlds and emphysema 22.3 paArnnt ot-n.onsmokerr wera y d ns r emo a p jam aiso B'he ct maeqnencra flscal 197g, seYsn of CharlotU s 16 The num>wer of days lost atnORR °~ , Smokers alm tended to spend «FaF most age aad aes groups, • ti -Aobert Coaa • ang cosw. -aW - ,..., -- -.----• _ -_- -- -- - -- • --- - - - -_ ...._ ` -'--- - - -. _ ...... that smoklttQ Is dmpqg' a pdvate Fire Protecdon Assodatton abows '•Wt at the same rate as foaataok " tqaarattee amoked increased," Wllsoa atp meuured long-term eent ot tha former amoken and- eoncern;' Calitano a:7II. afda,13•1,600 of 1,270,000 structural 'ers. there would be 61• m1WaR •Id ~i/l(apa, wlto counted the dlsability - whether a person fs: 26.2 percent of the current amok• a ublfe inaatth prnb-~ firas were caused by smoking. In fewer days loat. i.~ viest amoking ti person report- restHetsd fn work or recreationt ers. •- - bt t .-Cl"LE4-g$oZ4
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Nonsmokers Arise Thank you, . they do care i€ you smoke ItY !R!i OAILWID daplw 11" wror tt's hard to mistake how Hrends 1[orrrison faels about it, Hehlnd her desk at McDougall Honda, a Charlotte ar dealer where ahe•s a title clark, there's a wall full of signa proclalming her commltment to smoke•free air. "KISSING A PERSON THAT SMOKES;' says one, "IS LIKE LI(IfING AN ASHTRAY." Anoth- er is more serlous: "I Haw An Al- ~ To Smoke. Thank you for ~'F-tpltlits Ms. Morriston: "About 80 peneent of the people that eoota in here ara very eooperatlve. But the ether 10 percent will come In here and amohe, and by the time they leave, rlt be gasping." In Charlotte, as elsewhere• aea- tlmeats such u Hrenda Merrison's are beeoming mon and more eotn- mon. They resot a serious and growing discontent among non- smoking Amerluns - a rapidly iicreasing tendency to assert their oppoNtlon to tobacco fumes. Stna 1973, at least 32 states. and the District of Columbia have paased Lws.to reduce emoking !n North Caro- eaciosed publle areas. Ifna'and South Catollna have no sttch state Iawa, but Charlotte is amon{••mare than 500 cities and countles tutfonwlde that restrict publ[c_smotlnin g~ the las __ -.t flv 'T tblttk e -years the whole natlonal course has changed from catering to smokers to:saying , there are a lot of other people 'lloy ,who need clean dr: " says Tammy Lesemel a drug edu- catlon twunselor /e Charlotte. Ms. Losesna, 32, an ardent noo- smoker, has posted a bright yel- low afgn oa her living room door wlth' a message that acreama in bold block type: "NO SMOKING, LUNGS AT WORK•" Although she hu mellowed aome in the last year, Ma. Leaesae remembera when she was "abso- lutely" tmintimidatable" when she would ask people•not to smoke- =Z rememba one man on an ele- vator got so mad he lttat tttrned around and ref a.ed to talk to me," she says. "He kept on putfing an hle dgar, but he wouldn't answer me. He eaid, NJhat about my right to smokeY I told hlm. 'I have to breathe this alr.' " Ms. Leaesne agrees the results of such pushiness have been mixed. "Some smokers have beeome more conslderate,^ she wys. "But others aeem to have hardened•" One who has - or who at least believes the pendulam has swung too far in the direction of non- smokers - Is Roneld F7int, a GOldsbot•o bnetaeaeman. Along with two business assod- ates. he has founded the National Smokers Righta Associatlon to lobby against new legal re- strlctions on smoking. "We're not out to step on other. people's rights;" says Flint, a smoker for 34 years who now runa through three paeks a day of ItM Llghts• But ha " thete Is a onal ampaign nnder waY ~ apeukeaaed by the U.S. govmn. ment -'YO make amokers feel Itka second•class citlxens,'- Fent's orgaataattdn SW" satm a feeble antidote to amtlamokin; ef- forts of the U.S-. Dsp+rtment d. Health, Eduritim and 9leHare and Brendss'Morrieon .aye about 90 percent of the people are cooperative. 'But tNO i'4(st will come in here and smoke, and ' by the time they leave, I'll be gasping.' also work with the anti•smokera" The tobacco industry has poured . millions into such public relations. In California alone, opponents of Proposition 5- a sweeping smok- ing ban In most public places - spent s5.6• mllilon to suuessftdly defeat it. Moet otthe money came from large tobacco companies. A gltnitar'fight ?s now looming in Dade•Founty,Fla„ and the bo. tles are•beeondog faml0ar, Sinoe 1973, when •ANzona passed the first stateafltle legislation to amit Pubitcsteokhlg; hundreds of slmi- -Lr bills ltnn^been Introduced thtnugitout ehe sountrY• ' :: - ' n not fared'weH aVer F Theyy have _ . _ :;yirar•]q•, eENtnrelaro6YWaLDRAga a.ncc. aa.a, ..+ paesed a Clean IaAt~or Act that " aon.mokers' gcogys regard as mora'!La three dozen naLlottai : bruary fn sevenl nanonl ma[a- era didnY want such segregatloa, model legislatl,o~ni'ea ; dtlmas amups acroas the munery..,>~nes, the institntt 'Wrote: If "So take heart," the ad eontln• . In 1977, Totatnple, a study by But Flint and people like him ~ you've ridden an>' phnea lately, ved. "Most nonsmokers think the Public,}IEalth Service's Center have a powerful ally. It's called you've found ythmdf banished to smokers are OK.and they like to for Dlswd Control In Atlanta re- tbe Tobaoro Insdmte = the North ,abe back of them, last to be be around us That doesn't yealed qfgt _ 133 bllls to limit Carollaa-based lobbying arm of served. last to lues..- - lYs easy mean that the tiny ~, .tketobaooo/ndustry• get the feeHat-yon're being anti-smokers are going smokiag,i6ere lntroduced fa 44 -Alaratd by the potentiel l go rtateb.OdIY.l2pnaaed. tlnt-: rpicked on. and•maia ta feel like a away. TkeY wonY ..- - We donY range eCect of legal 11mitQ oa ~ social outrast." - know what to do about these anti. - The only recent attempt to push smoking; the Inatlmte has mounted smokers any more than you do - through such a law ia North Cuo- a poblio itelations eampaign to dr- The ad wmt:m to say that a-except to treat them all with the Hne came in 1975, when state Sen• !Nt saei searlctlons- --pair of Seattle zeatastants decided •courtesy and kindness we deserve 'McNeil Smith, D•Greensboro, In a urefnlly phrased 'WOrda:to segregaaaa+...>tem and non- from them. It works with our drafted ati unsuccessful bill to ' Tt)-Smofs>BS" advertisement dtttfllg~ smokera soonta®d that nonsmok- friends, the nonsmokets; it may Ilmtt smoking In certain public r , . , ---- ~- ---- -- ._ _ meetings. The law inn tobacco land does little to curb the habit qearAno in fher recent fallure catne last ~ Meeklenburg County, - --- • . . ~, where the county commissioaers In the Carolftisj, tsw lawa tF' New regulations saggest aeatdti-. smoking ottibn.nas rre punishable rants against about a dozen busi- refused to ban emuking in major strietsmoking, , cigar and pipe smokers as far bymaxlmomflnesofSSfland)all nesseswithoutno•smokingsignss stores;and^public buildings People under 171may not bqy tram noesmoking sections as pa^ terms of.»p to 30 esys- Most posted signs before their throughout the eounty. , dgarettes In North CaroHna- Vio- dble• - cases came to court- •'7•hls ts,a dlfflwlt erea to Pmh, 1ators face fines aT ap to SSOO aaQ In Ctrstotte, smokht People attending eveats at the g is forbtd. Charlotte Coliseus= are asked not In one of their most publicized the rights-of nonsmokers,•' eon- taH terms of up to e moatbc den on elevators and city bwea. to smoke. But Maa:eger Paul Buck cases, GASP leaders brought cedes Larrp Stearns, a leader In In South 'CarcIIna, dgarettes Retail atmea that employ Ye said compllance is 'strimly volun- charges against 7-Eleven clerk the Charlotte. chapter of GASP may not be sold to anyone under than 25 or are designed for more ~." Patricia Ann Lyons iv 1976 for (Group agalnst Smokers' Pollut- than 20 eustomers must poat.ao- , selling cigarettes to minors. Ms. Ig, and violemrs Lee }a terms of ffinking sigvs ~: Thwt opposed t`, smotmg have Lyons was convicted but not fon). . :.., . up to a year and Mon of np'ffi` Smoking Is forbidden In pabHa complained over tha years that en- fined. •'MOSt'_smokera are sensitive S10o - half of wktrh goes to atty or private hospltals, except in vf- forcement of no-smm•-,lang laws has "We have raised the issue, and people, aaQ many, o1 them have Informer In the ase- ryees, waiting rooms, or patl®t's been hz About tC.-se years ago, succeeded in persuading a number become niare eotisiderate. But The federal 'Civil Aetonadtlea rooms where the attending pyysl- GASP (Group Agzznst Smokers' of businesses to•post signs," says there is-salir4 jabblem, and I Board (CAB) requires airplanes to clan has given permlulon- ' 3t. - Polhrtion) tried to fotu better en- Larry Stearns, GASP cofounder. thlnk it v~,dl1.be with us for a setasldeaBectlonfornottsmokers• Violations of Charlotte's 3o- forcement - swearing out war- "Butthere'sstillaproblem•" whileQ:!s e'o sa" ' ' ys ~ itZ r^~~`irr`~ Potter a~ smoKer'-~~ view: : :,,ct' , ... It's my, boi~~tTiTS is the c~utch eed ~My NANCY NILAND thtrd lnhalatton, t•was' l, taq~, and he aees tlut as a seo- oaswwr tuee wnw goner•" ond-Itand Issue. . " . 'Reid Potter considers hlmself Wbatever Lfs.. petaoatd teel-• "It aeems to me that seoond- a annslble man who also hap- Ings, regulating smokiag !n band tobacco smoke does not pens to smoke. So he's not public places doesn't bother pose near the danger that you going to get belligerent when Potter's legal sensibilities - he have /n the elty air breathing somebody asks him not to light feels it probably comes within the exhaust of automobiles." he up ••.- the state's power to regulate saya. Groups such as GASP On the other hand, the 33- matters of Public health. (Group Agalnet Smokers' Pol- year•old lawyer figures his But Potter is irritated by lution), a militant nonsmokers' afght to smoke In public is at what he thinks is the govern- rights org•nizatlon, "are miss- - least as defenslble as a non• ment's schizophrenia - bans ing the forest for the trees.'• smoker's rlght not to breathe on television tobacco ads, re• Since Potter's secretary sornebodyelselsmoke: quired warnings on cigarette~ .tnokes, there's bren no protr c H I want to smoke. I think I packs and Subsidies of tobacco 1em at the offlce, but his depen- ahould have that rlght;" Potter farmers, dence on smoking has affected aqye. "AOd smoking has beoom. "lt's somrwhat hypocritial Ms social Hfe - just as many a~gh4,• , to ban smoking in publtc places ~n~kers socialize wlth other •But hls personal feelings because It'a adverse to public nonsmokers, Potter soclallzes about smokin~ often war with health, and then not take steps ~m other smokers, bis undentanding of the law - to prohibit the sair and mslrl. Potter feels few smokers ac- be's aware that the government butlon ot cigarettes:-hr eav. Potter tivel don't il bt back when a legally can regulate smoking in Is rca11,v nnnnynd hy aon moker a ks them not to pme igetancq, smoking bans !m movie hou..a, LikE many smokers, Potter where those "ludicrous ansee•' light up because they are defen• sot started In high school be- flash on the screen and a.k sive about their habit - he cause "everybody elae was People not to amoke "for the calls it hLs crutch. Many go to doing it:" Hoon, he was smok• convenlence of our patrons." great lengths to satisy their Ing 11/r packs a day. His brand Wel1, he's a Patron, too. pnt• nonsmoking companions - and is Raleigh Lights. ter figures, and It'a not to hu their need to smoke. 'Four years ago, he stopped oonvenienoe eot to anoke. As a A young woman he didn't gor about five dqys. • rasalt, he walks np and down know very well lavlted him to t•"My insomnia was cured," the alste. puffing a cigarette In dinner. He went to her home the bachelor recalls. "When I the back, hoping the managa• and began to light up. She wpke up in the mornings, I felt •, ment domax Aod him out, asked him n°t smoke in ber tike getting out of bed. Yt .. Why•aot' baw smoking aeo- home. asemW llke I could get a lot • ttoas In public piaas sach, as '1 d1dnR.have -any adveras - abra'Work doae:' .• ,. movie, Iheutets and restaurants, reat•tlon to that," he says. "So I, -Dttt Ita stsrt~d ag.ln lata oLi„n7vonden,Pottsa )tud went out to the bar•kyard Ohacnoon at a eontar.nd. :.r ••Effotu . to ban s.noking ffi!or a cigaretta. IapI nt balf of •SOatabody oNersd ma a dg-: publtc savolw around the Isans my data In the bacYyad - by • agetta, and I Ht It up ... by the t4( .lesc°ad-haad euote. Patts myselt." -8 ,,. . ,. . ~ . . ~ f•t^ i A R4.. _ • . (^ .tYse ., cs 'It seems to nte second- hand tobacco smoke does not pose near the danger you have... breathing the exhaust of automobiles: -- Reid' ` t. 'I don't regard myself as militant (but) I've gotten to the point where Pm less interested in the ~~q„,. other guy's comfort: We've beenpassive fox,r~7~~ too ~ong - yc~.. ''MyNANCYNII.ItIQD of the American Medical AessodaUoa He?Livl,ttt to CPCC Preafdent R1t3- The "vvay Larry Stearns flgures It, your smoking Is bad for his health. And he doesn't mind telling you so. MortYxnd more nonsmokers are speaking out Inr what they consider their right to .clean air - and more and more smokers are getting burned about tha-wholr thing- SmokHtg Is not a righ:. insists Stearns,40. a physiology tca;hrr at Central Pledmont Communitc College (CPCC). Like driving a ca-. :< a privilege that government car, - ~and should - regulate. On the other hand. Stearr.s isn't about to risk a punch in tne nose about It. ° "If I have the law on mv s?de, I'll aey something" to snmrm•r ~~ hr.- amoke Is bothering hir.: I'll suffer In silence •.. or Irs.. ' Steatns began smoktng as a trrn• ager because a frlend he ac:mrrd smoked. "I didn't like the taste of tobnccn so much;' he recalls. •'1 hked the wooziness It gave you." Soon; be was smoking 1!z packs e day. In 1962, when be was 23, he qait asipan ot a general physical fit- neaa program that included a lot Of blcycle riding and a lot of dieting. •rhe' vanlty +of a high sehool star •athlete was piqued-Stearns had a]- waln eon+ed.red himself a pretty . good Ypbyalai spetimen•' and his out•otellhapa body was beginning to bothselj Im. H"~t *Iso'lafivenoed by reports In Sd•twgazlne and tha iournal .. THE CHARLOITE OBSBRVgR1I;mIdr. fg. ID7@- IG . ~ ~maker S vl,e - l. that smoking was being linked m~ ard Hagemeyer, and evenmall,q ae• var/ous dieeases. As a graduate stu- cured -a ban a$alnet smoking on the dent In zoology at Clemson Universi• third floor"bf. Garinger. But' Hage- ty In Clemson, S.C., Stearns had ac- meyer, he says, required considerable cess to many early reports on persueding' smoking and health. The process left Stearns more eon- ilts wilr. Martha, quit with htm - vinced than ever that itopsmoking a good thing, he says, because he's Americans had been passive and d- not sure ltee could stay marrfed to a lent far too long. • smoker. Nrsides, quitting together Along with former Postal worker made it easier. Bill MeCrscken, Stearns helped Mrs. Stearns, 39, says she had launch a Charlotte chapter of GASP smoked <,ff and on about five years (Group Against Smokers' Pollution) when she ]omned her husband's quit- - g militant nonsmokers' organira- ting effort. They have two children, tion dedicated to the proposition that a bny. 5. and a girl. 2t/Z. 'no one should be required to inhale But Stearns didn't try to get any- the'by-products of burning tobacco % body else to. quit until 1975, when nnless they chose to do so. doctors removed a malignant tumor Many smokers are defensivs about tn•m h,.c nasal cnvhy. their hebit. Stearne feels, and "pmbm '1 hr tumnr wasn't related to amok- bIv are Insecure. And 11 }•ou threaten ing, hnt thv sursery left Stearns with them, they react with hostlllty. a smuking problem - he can't filter 'Tf I'm greeted by a hostile re- atr aa rflactivel,v as before, so sntoke syopsb I will usually ask the penoo or dutv air Is a real problem for him• why. they are hostlle, and try to get Nowadays, if you walk Intoan ele• them to alm down. If I'm lmstteceaF vator with a cigarette and Larry fuLlJustleave^ • Stearns wants to rlde that elevator, lt•a noi just strangers be oon[eoob he'll hold the door open, point to the " about smoking. Although moat of kts No Smoking" dgn, and ask you to frfeWs,tba,t .mok4 "I 6ava Iast put the cigarette otrt. -. . About three years ago. Stearns lNenda••ashen 1 aaid. ffi tmr ina ` home. Z ~ ~,d not smoke•• began finding It mtseaeingly dlNleaa ~~u that ffi~~n to breath u be dellvered his lectutss •• 1t waa batd for 1dm to'~s _• '-j !rom h d t d l. ~~' bl awar U or am a c a •eP"~'~ ~° m a~ i ll nger Ha third-floor affia at Gar " dtsno'a/opsooktnj. . "The bu0ding Is poorly ventllated , says Stwrns,'"When people smoked, ' v"1`Adn't'I~"sard myself as fs111trR, the tobaeoo tumes would become 'AFttyt: Zita ~7YS gottn to tLa Dd~ ~ t* , ' .. very bothersome, I decided to regfs iiheH !dt'Nils tatersltW la tfe Mbt ter a eomplalatr" ~- '
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1011i THE CHARLG1T$d8jitYF•R Sun., Mar.25, 1979 A Saf e Cigarette? If you can just learn to smoke young.cocoa beans... Ds there a wfe way to aaoke? 1Docton and health researchen anaswer "no" - smoking an7 dga- recne containing tobacco is more d.mgerous than not smoking. 9rsientlsts carefully refer to bw- tusrand•nlcotlne cigarettes only as "leass hazardous." But the word on theese Ggarettes, which are taking a ssteadlly increasing share of the m7ttket, is encouragine: • /•atest studtee show they do . remuce your risk of cancer and efurontc lung diseae. • As the tar and nicotine eon• tem: drops, safety increases - prmvld•d the smoker doen't amcDke more dgaretta. 9 Hfut even the highest-tar•and- nlctatlne cigarettes on the market todutv - Players regular (35 m` tar and 2.5 mg nicotine), BngWh Ovasls king and Bull Durhau king ifltmr - have lea tu thta t6a ev- sraqte dgarau of 25 years ago l..a.t year, Dr. Gse Gott of rhe Nattmrtal Cancer Instltute said tar anuL •ntcotlne In sorne brands are so lotx =a smoker could eoantms,l5 to 23 mgaretta dally of branlts such as mirlton, Now, Strtde, Cu•Iton nte>nt*ol and Now tteathel before eqitaaHng the "two-a-day" rlsk leveel for eigarettes tnafe before -1.9M -`"'_'-4°'=-k+Ll . 'IYke decitne ftP tar ~sstd Wcotltls In ahmerican dilaYettts 4itlag the paat'two deeadesl Is ia ma)or reason w171y the lung eancer=death tate in aa(6t ta salnee age groups Iaf bl% leveU off, says Dr. t~tf tfam- tnomd of the American-4neer So- dettS • %fany younger smoterf have neiTet' used the unfiltered high-tar• anttt•nicotlna brands of the •5tlc• VWlten the first reports oa smok- )ng •and health began appeuing in 19Sr1. only 1 percent of all dga- t'etttes had filters, (Patiiamenc, in 19A1, waa the first dgarette to batre a filter) and the average dg- etttcte Lrontained 2 mg of nicotine an¢. 36 mg of tar, wrote Dr. Julius Rlc'amond. the U.S. Surgean Gen- ernL, in the current "Smoktng and HeaYlttt." JisY the time the first surgeon geraeral's report on smoking and healith appeared In 1964. filter cig- arenttes took 60 percent of the mamcet; the average nicotine con- tem• was 1.3 mg: the average tar comrrnt 23 mg. Itr. 1977, the surgeon general sua:. filter cigarettes were PO per- cent: of the market, the average tar content was 17 ntg, the aver- age nicotine content 11 mg. Thir- ty nercent of the market was takl=7t by cigarettes with Jese than 15 :mg of tar• ^The reduction hai been accom• pltsrned, the report says, by ln/7di- fyims the fllter, redur'~^the to- baceo protein in dgarettes and changing the way tobacco !s treated. (One way cigarette companies got low-tar dgarettes was by puf- fing up the tobacco. so a cigarette has g to 10 percent less tobacco. Less tobacco means less tar and nicotine.) I '•The $64 question Is: How harmful is nicotine?" asks the Cancer Society's Hammond, a leading figure in establishing smoklog's health hazards• 'TeoPle don't want to emoke nilxttineles cigarettes any more than they would want to drink whicey wlth• out alcohol ... - . - if nicotine is safe at low lev- tls;' he said. •Ynen they can make 'Even the lo~~~st yield of cigarettes presents q;~. np and °ev.r been able to Ih ve held .11.11 9 h h l e 1 111 lc u N 8' health hazards very much higher than up [hnwgh 13 y.arc, contlaua to ahow smokers, of htgh•tar dgs- can would be encountered if;_(people) smoked ae:~h rate~hmeNdiu•taruNg.rettes t ,,R were in the ml6aie. low•tar the : no cigarettes itt all ' ` lowest. ... •: • Projeds p•hr•/dogs sntoked ~. - filterd and nonh~vrd cigarettea . .- Ji=dius Rich.mond through a hote 1. thelr throats. Without the filter rhere was great "• damage to titr e.,g~ lungs from Surgeon General canCet•nd aanrer-~erGat Inng dla. vasee-TkedoRa sra•king fllterdg- arettt'+ hed ltetfe evtdence of dam• age- Ho dog exp',sed to low•tarr a safe dgarette• Taking out the tsr"acenpatlosaliy related fIIIIesa, would •be encountered if they °~A ~unt tr~Mrtatn the New ia no great problsm:' ~'ohroelc t'sepiratory o'••°•• fetal smeked no cigarettes at all •.. :' ~ But nicotine,'a key rason dta~growthMardation -_-: Hammond cites tbree different tland Journal of Medlclne•'a •d rettes are addicting, is also a por He sald soms studies t4tdt aorta of rtudies as "pieeas of a jig• showing fewer of the biological sible source of aome eancer•cana allegedly lees k.rnfd siga- save puazie" showlag. bw•tu, ~ges /a the eNk of the lungs ot = ~ Ing chemicals, and scientists arenY crettet may have higher maa.~ea• bof'°icotine elganttq ara las ~en tbat frequently lead to •;a sure whether any alcotlna at aB Is'tlons of esrboa ntoaotrlde-' hartardous: •r ~r. ^ safe• - gJchmond said the we t'ar ro- • A million•pet'ws, -12•yenr - "All three tyrs of evidence'w Surgeon General Rlahmond also~iuced -t tar and nleotine eilismstaea study he did for:fbt American show the ame tmng - that's reports, "IS addition to tu aod•:,•hu not tean proved. Psopts.eh. Gsoer Sotlety.ftttul;"vsry coa• tehat coevinces, sn• so strongly, a atcodne. dgtteRS stnoke eentatney~tuh "should be warnett fleat. 8t ~ a4uable evWaaa.di Mwer lunt tlald Hamawad• ¢ _R{am/rtsal alse tound that whae ,b a gueau pbaae wlth mmMerow r, shittleg to a tat luutdolW s:t~a•~ ~faeoer death tati ta /ow.tar•aad- componenb sudt as hydrogen cy+~1ytq, they may fe tec& tsss'inant. 1k+ohne elgerettM.!!;m. .. MOl• eaMktn of hsgh•tar•and-tdM- .y.r .oolft tmlatae .mmaae hyamar•. ~ h,:ard Ir they btyrn ~~.; -Neslmand tttas sub1'fs~," ik: ; tl'a branu hu .early twice the ~~ baasand earbos tttouoxlde, t#~o cigarettes or IttkaTt>q zama~rlMlidY ~'~.-'9MtIR•10M-ren~a, ~b T•at's of nosmmoken (a ratio ars>s tds L/aWL.`Met, a wker.llt'IM to tk snate smokers of • °Carbat tsoleo.idde, in ps~at-'~#t)epty - d i f ~ a rat o o --t ~ fu, has bee.Idesttttled thronghout, tJtAnd taoet d all thty aiwtY iWltslt' ta. dit/Ri{'e Jl~iltltotiatr-,Iwt* l6saulds athowe this report aa a poWble critical ',mi.tloeW that even tYe 7ewas~fiissit/s •Yodslfa;lJlses wlts•}eslfl , factor in coronary beart disease.' `~'{tId ef, dgarettes Igote+tts ]tad0f=. ~~••ke tnrry tateek Ot waB 41s-.1-~ ~ttamy. however he ,. . atherosclerosis and sudden death, yatat~ds vary muck hitlsar lhaa; I+••pk ts~ Itavt hees tryingao amoking ef low ,i+ ~ How'much of what you're imohing is tar~aid nicot ne? :~i .¢...a /r ... Rb rrN F.e.r,t Trw. e,/m.p• u. ew err .wr sre s.wh uw g~' Y n. epw eKe. ssu sar~. ~' wprw+...r st t~. tC' r aen ao.rat. ra.ws. TI» ur.d. .r. IYre r atr. ... r. nr; bnep.nul Ka.r wnn me tK wr rrs any iel! Yr. ssr. tT w u • .n! Wt~ pxaw.a nv tn. Mmnn. v.We• Fsnµy aeK mr.w. pall aL ~r. kkb IK,17 W 1 i=w¢~''~t' H.re wd,f penK4W Nv. IarK r..Y M FNYn K.Y tI W Il FY • LIp/M YYN MIK. ~a~Mp ,n. tl» uw.n.a In tlrm r. rvw ann wl.n mK u w rs nn.mm mwmw. t~r ar,~ - .'- ino» In pon r+au. . .I/ a n~Yw bl~r,~:. w ur j. en•r il~ar' a'aatii ~ .rm.e.l~l~r_f~ • r..•. AroprYlnanllKm.nmW,UlMar.mp/KW ul.Ypmmw/'wiiaY.NWU. Yr. »rmnfmiv~ --'~•'' 3I:RS~wn p~rwN+/W~-- o.s mlwK.m. a,., 71 w Is. ~» In/n mIK I..nmw~ rs::°'~ aeru aar rl.~en. wao. AmKlonLwlml~Ommslw,ewu. rn.r swu beenKSWas. 'i~ ' ~ pereent etpre IamR cancer deams ., ' among rttale smmners who con• - sumed 20•39 low-tr.r-and-nicotlne~ dgarettee than amlong thooe who •,•t ' sokd 119 hiditl : me-g:h-tar•an•nLrone , dgeretta, Amonq women In the ta mey«, . me eomparison• the lung cancer death rate was mrt.e than twice an „•. much. ,- Dut, be said. that probably . doesn't happsn aecen. In the mil•.."n lioa•penae study. "We asked the .•t question on tiw different oaa- ,- stons, and there rms not a general •- tendency to lnet•ease amoking;' Hammond said. '-"'ne majority was smoking about thP same." • - Cigarettes that ~oun't contain to• bsct0 have not .caught on any- •.- •where. The cotmmerclRlly pro- ,- duced tobacco ess eigarettes, lnclude "Free.' •vhich contains.• "absolutely no rt:,cotine" and is Amerkan Uohe 29 nm RnK m.Ktbl, e W Np k,ne fYK Lr. r.nl. WM tln2 ml mn1Yd. a•pt d~ /alar.rfhpt N W t ,~ •t s.L rK Yw MK. Y w 1 L alerlt tppa lagmm tmK, lt aef a~~•~ sra ~fr sr~ie mwK/,~lt , r aeblr kIM mIK mnMel. 15 W t!. .,q AbpyN N. kint an~. n W a1 1/100p IOp fiI/K @•t~ ~p,. MtlM, 1 nlnw n t p mI r - K rn. ~r. o mm Y W LL ml Gan. Yme r.K• t W a . v klm IIK In.mW aea ea, t~ Iwn /p»r .YneIN, • .rnw a Mpotea renwr fkK aurs reN Kn Nlr nrNnN e allp ~7o mm enK a aM~ a. t[Er° 1 pllt aw u , , . , aY. . roo.l v. M.ra7ominnnKmmtw,arti"" awns,.r.Yrrat eeMOn b H KW illbr arrt tt.la), a MM rp n.n enrr, a.M l2 .YlliMpr kIM HNK. Y.M LL SK.rM rf wm n/K IIwN.KY1.1S W ml~%0e` ~C.MM,opnK.ntm,..ml+•K.uWts AalnuuLrKlmelKm.Mlr ttraz. iK.les.ts.,.n.Lrn.nnwtYwwat ... em.on i H.apa tpe mm mr tp.n Iwad. a K.M u...n LrMa Iw ...n e.w. t W u slwrKf kw mNr nwMIN hr.aas, i7aps yy la M t.l. Km1 1a mm YIK mmnN" I7 W 1.1• 12. TMr rmm atK, Y nM 1.2... eenwn s H.ep.. ta m,tl tsr. nrKlr tls Kw G.r.n L.M. Ipp m• wr t,.,nr. s K MK ~.nn~N  r Ttls,. r n..m.r mPltlr, tr . .aa v aemen u 00mmnt.l" e11K, 17 W Lt Kre SwkYr ~WSx L/knRe.Y6 s"f~Yw~'rY~ >.r1 ».rn.nwrn_wlr,swk bHedpes1aln.,awa1 ~tppmmfYlKm.nerh}a~ Yd IYle.wantLL aenwn a Heaoet 100 mm I/nK rnetlne1,17 aM Kl,q 5.ro Kiry /nr ,nenlro'• t W e.i Npw killp /IitK InW tbad• 1 er U ~1r~npr~ YlplttW}~ W 1.0. Kaa r.w.r m,Mnp 7p.ro 11. N klnp /~IK mmtMl tNN pvtL t r at Tpt 1r! mm 9,K,1r W//. N Durnem ki~y mIK ~0 ane 7.a. Kpel kvy fnM menlre., ( Yt pakr, is W a~ Ilt kmp hIIK mIMIN. dt W LL T.p 1» Iwlw YIK n,.MM, Y W t1 umN reptlbr, 7y Yb fA tI dd GOW SltaipNf reYWl, laWY Lx• 7KMKA W 91R, tr W 12 I kllq hlter, 1/ anE 11. Kod Lap !MK m.ntro•. trw Ll Old GOIe Str.{phti kIM 75.M li ' TpM•M LWt Ylnt tpK. rKy tL , Cenlon Kbe /MK IhsrE Wall. rA KM tS W KaG Mes Linr N,w r.w.... Y W e1 0Y GGr mlKS kW flnK alMa r9L i r TKeyr. r mm /N. Y W LL uss /n.n os. Kea lae...n Mr,-.•ms. Y.ns ta. LL T.no,Y~ «•K r~y as 4rnnnlJnofiIIK,14Ma1 LaMxMnMrln.rae.arr.17W11 aywy F41MkM1A1K.1t Nt~, Tru.YqNK.SWat [.mon unp finK meMM1• 1 aq lL L a M eir /MK, n xa t1 =da Gda 100t lal mm 11YK 71 r LL Tnn aw tar wIwIMN, f W el , 4rIlnnlpOmmmlM,..nde.4 ~,( MLqNam.lx, C.7iMLL P.P.pA4Nk~M,2iaMl.l ~r~ 1BOlrnn,lilK.ItM ae CMfIlr/i!b rl9Ybr. a itM 11. L L M tat mm MK. n W r.i. p INp K:re Mv, n W t2 Tru. Yea r..,m s+K, nwlKnr. n~n/ aa CMSler/leb kuq, 7e W U. ' , Lt M L~.'~n Ipp mm 4nr. e.M tl pW ALp IEih. MilOt 1411~ rMK 7seei TwiH ID• mm MKYwm mwKUpl, n W 11 Cn![Ier/ieb kmp nller. 17 ind 1.L L lta mm MK meT.rcf. Y W LL ti1 ALN 00 mm eI/K. » W tA VMIMe YYe »Yr 11 W mr+ea CMSIMiNElOlK tt LfM p M.plapn.nnwo.nxw,tsrv. ~Jn1M~ rn..,drna,taWet aec.ae klnp mIK,mm S. nHne EA. u r LT• ar rW mm enK mnMpl. » W Ll P•qrWnwlt kinp mMr~1~K,1 p.ek), t r LL -..TM•..KI mK Y W Lt• peteae Kinp e:IK menllwl 5 atl e,t LKk RwlNK, 17 .na LL PW.n,ent Yyh fWK,. W ny Vlttrw• C.ra AY~ YYU ti MYLL ap I kin0 i;lt[r, lr .ne 0.3. LNk Iw mm/iIIK, 19 u+C t2 PKlbinent tpp mm 1nK. i7 W LL VlO,fe 1~ m,n IpYf. Y 1r19 12 aprel klnp nnK mentMl, tt pM LL Lpn .bes t7p mm!u'eK, n ani 13 PeHb Mortla Mu4r, rp anA 1.1. VY.IN. f•na rw rbn /r. 1. W at GuM.ur~K kYw fiuK lMra e.u). K Wt,1, Lw.:nea na mm r ermatnd. U pM 13 Pnpis MNrrc yrv~K k1~,~.7f r u yy~r SYw Lm,nn aer ry.neM, dW aa- LL lalrYVSTIlbnIlW.r.7<WLl - MKeAbn4CbinMMW100lw~~a 'W'uYwY~91pr .}aMI3 E /NW bk~ (Er M d i , . IM( ~ WW] W l . Eva lae mm Mer, It.n9 1a. ~:: ix mm K Urrfa P:rxY)~ii.lla'a tt Ia the face of increasing medical evidence against smoking,,the tobacco imdustry continues to remind us..• I~lat rTmtw~rnK.. .n.u• . raL~~n~w.IyL~1 ~.~ eLL~.! 1M~~(~.rmm~:~~ '~~n. '11Wa2 Phn.. ~tYMrEMCk) YMt~P ass AI.OM/•,W9K.SaaM/A . M~.Knel ~ilr~.~K~i.y. A tYYWnrr.ntNrrla,IMt.1.W msde from "the ccoaer outer layer hdi of te eoeoa bea.t " accorng to , the manufactur•• international Drands Inc. • Celanese Fiber Marketing Co. , In Charlotte mu•es a tobacco supplement ullee : ytrel that'a in- cluded In 70 pe^rent of British - brands that conratn supplements- But aales erttoun• to less than 1.., percent of the =,ritish cigarette market, aad are de•rlining. There al- °e tv~T® sides to eve~~ Yissue -°- eve~i. this •e~. 1 e .1 .... ~ mrt lam 20. 1979, the daybtJprs Smokins artd ifan"tks claims about smoking are sclentific certale- who smp smoking deaease S eca ~ r taatn aignitt- ;Vy .~ ~ ~~s cuJnr..' ~~scuJnr tli.. •t c(• St!lmlth: A Report of the SYaseon ~,aterMl." the Tobao ties, the Tobacco Instlmte sets forth here certain tvi- •eantly •.- - Conoa. 11r bas earsaleasad tM the re- ~:~t:>^ - • • ea Fbtatftute essusd its atTt report. Smo)tinf ond dena which rdata to such ptdgmenu ported gtattttlc il telriaait~ ltsl:a.ea a.l ooatraeet•-ft`f L1ltBrsa~i at the et•leeare, eRam•Iaed Is ft. Hmrtfh, 1964-1979, the~orttinuing Corttroversy.' • • ~.. iive nse, ®eldng afi BIaom lstatr caeee tdesltlsts tt/ j qtt~graiafirtr t!a the aak st coroaary hart die- ahe report htcludes a preface by Horace Xome- Pub[ic amoking overlook ether taeboes that t.qw ataplat. ette at.riol~ a+tr 4 strattt$ =seeeJatai ts•hk g..etic aad lifestyle gtr.tC, president of the insiifutc and a former congresa- ship -. •. taetetai +- -. -: ttmm from North Carofitr-wfio wrote,'•The American otlew P••pIs'a smoke ha never been skovi ti - -1a 11177, theilrector of the goternmental agency paqple would bs,<betfer ease dbeaw ta sonsmokess. ~..~. n t, tspotl[hia;Lsr otnfiovasLwtar research told a Coa- Sdrtlsu reseatthvs government eftidals ttl ~.61tpa! LRi~C~sl~C =~'{zyfeaie9al'iu~aittee thet 'v tlll d s ke w th ' h He ! n. 1 g~~ ,t w s on o aarxvrd # g gotvrmnte hadlMt o cta)s andt~ { s. aven aomt well•known anti-amokin S ~'•. aad '~ ; . nrs~t rottps w~hkh ~i~t•• r 4~~have atafed that smotint ta pnbBC Plaees does fat~ att.oat aselsalwlatsalriltWiaaw~ks~ `~ wen tUlt t:ddnR he •,hypouts- ~ z s~amae thtra abattdotted ,° ~„_h.ra the ltxlthy nonsmoken.Some perwes toq ffnl ' hahJ ta t1• aa~ atf ~sen >~ ~~etwr~M s;~.w ~~n gng Woleatecl and cessation of rf r g/ttD rltiytjt OJ ypaglptg the tooaRO amaae a[ eacner. annoyin' [n .ama pa.-, ^---- ••- •--- - y~Otrj ~fyl-dday er pnveat the t,nset of heart dth . . 'k'''IOnmeatlld.ea. i^UT' I : ~ disr~ats and fhea eamstanees ` j ~ ~ ~ ~~: _easRn Ntt.awhlle, -•sutlstldaws were finding that t L , ~~a disesm eo.Wlued the dedins -tx3 Some persons who favor )unniob tobacco s~~_ -~t_epn,iz the late7960s - ta all age groups, in- ~~~a P~~'dte an arNde nlished last retat9(Joeeph)tXBfaaO'Lhttt7st;lett~Pasceatat>117to ~ ~"[or,Ixatt ":'lYte prOCeas of lnakbtL olicy fs batttr 'dalmhtf that expoeure to dsmtte .moke rnmtted I~~taaars may be ocwpaHo.altyl.llted L[YSght aatq': ~y atM Nt both whites ead oanwhftes. 'a t 1 u h b n ~ . dea' ' ~ a a ,me nYa am tns.ataa.ate otsaa a~ta- when ar,eaa ef'a~* cbaneea tn the e:erdee perrormanee abiBty ot pr ,~.new evldence to 1s'r6. t977.nd 197s r~i~ •a .a alrie untmowns talt tt3 ,t umn wlch .evere angl>u p~:. wbat ts nwlb/: tiO°: wm.e ewn ~slm.bee ~etaad sigolnaatbr ftas; •~a,41es, personality •p~urne and hormonu z~n antaees.r,l>ao :l ott aa:.r.a ;: ~ e•+~ e.~nn.u a . p « ltnor.d ts tha thla ttnay te ~tb;cat w aewte ~ ~at;aa ate irnphtxted In catoeary diseasee wr:.ad by (),e Hght y rea aattwd deliberation mrher .: ldcn for faulty design as well.as unaopported ~ bl t6e sotretary acatalqr sdirate4 that tsatweest..,-__Am Important developmat ts eardiovaarnlar t+- tfestrtYht heat NaetJand duslons based on patleats' seH•desaibed symPtame.~: 21 aad 3g peresat of all eatteexs 7vare acaapationally •~ ~ reported in 1977, by a gtoup of roaeafch- Natta'e will 7wt Somt nonamoken dRim to be allertOc te relatM.'Ihey atttibuted a aiable P•oP~ of all oo• ~ ~,ho epor~tMrt'that they were eoable to duplicate `~ s'hMDetl[C v . , 3rfYH Aer• aat:nafa sn l1alM aEtokG HOweva7. adthK dgttfeftt amoke IIaf dnPatieoel tlnoEit tD atbeafae apetltra and ~neted ,~ p~ ,t1IIEintt,- ipjytk they aald htd sng• the eomoonenu as fonttd in dorette smoke hta~'that 'l~haP• the mnst .tlt.pasunt lenon • to, b. ~.~„~ .,a^ nt r•seaen rne.ealde In th. n....t- -. -...w. s,..` °'+ fO~tt, ~elf•fl~ktiolp fM( tR. ~~~" demollat•atea to be a auman auergen. • ' ~ .disaster -y s `~rt ot eardiovaseular dlssaes •-. . . . , °w ~.~~ t~~ ,. , I.ornegay Another claim freqnenul• made by anti. css devektp whae tu ,rarb 'mawteuatio u . ; •+.,[M~en{grrtg~p}ASelr'n~`ehronic diseases tt71/1' that erblldt•en are harmed by their parentP .an lostblbeingattrlblrtedtaastretfaL•Wrs,' . •-,•; ,-• >-QLrofUC Pu1LriOftary Disease ' yiiYdptly to theillO@yallfomce of scientific knowl- Is mainly based on several studies published fa 'Z1tdtaeerialatla and "r~ksoe.a in the medleal ,t adtge , gtany aciasitikr stn beroming concerned latest 1960s and 1970s suggesung that d 1-9 CIIIt!]E! , yndersnndiag of chronic obstrrett.e Pulmonuy dts• ~ oa y~ +qoking mav be both tut- smoke may be responsible for adverse effects in ease permk no firm conclusions ab.a smoking, fmsnded~ geroltitdtJoundcd because tvt- dren• However, questions have been tzlsed ~~~ ra~ to eOrMQ ~'aaP Iprnlbrtaat dfag• Chronic bronchitis and emP~xma are highly detrtoe at y mmt aitiptl pev#s is crontlicting, dango- both the experimental methods and the reliab)Bty , bvanta' 2) changes i, the reported lceqnea• ~sas• Despite serS• the eondusions. Moreovar, a number of reeeat ' ataa of heg cancer cell tyres ad 3) Lteads to dga- complex and poorly understood oters becauae it dtvaitt ~reattwt from other suspected c estte toas.mPtlOn aad bi es>teer a'ornBtl' aata ous claims gaPs In abound the that medical these komvk d(•d)seaees d(• are In ihls caused by ana, • ~~ • ••• - have failed to demonstrau adverse effects in ebBdmt.• "'It is fimc for aH pa8iei to tiu• cantroTrra.• to m smoking parents 't•aLes serions questfoni aboa a>~ epaeiusbas regard. !as >rokt.g. smoking• The validity of such elal.s is ehallenged by •• adlmit that there is much fhaf is unknou•n• Dotng so Wbat some have called tbe ~demic' in lun can. a recent National Heort, Lung a~ Blood Institute w,-ill encourage research to rtdun the dchcit m ola• Ot~eralf mortality .`~ ~~attq, in this eentm•y hameeo linked by some atatnnent that ••the exact etiolog,t' ot emphysema and other chronic lung diseeses is unkar•uLn Here Imwu'ledgc are and excerpts finerease+om our tbat rrpnr: , m trnder.aandtaR=" the The use of results from flawed population .lodlN tetM increased pop g• However, 1t words • ai' the Tobacco Institute, antnduatry g'oup,' to lrighten people by attribming large nvmtren s1d has been apeculated utarity that ttcs of senokin t•eoorted Inaease may • 7-he Tobacco lnshtutr m DemKe N'r'r issued anothex deaths yearly to smoking may be misleading attd is in faetbave been ceatM It^set* by improvrmenta in most rearettable. • t diagnostic teohnlques .. •• Ever tf at least a portion booklet: •'The Smokfnt: ('nntrot'er••'. A Perspective.'• ~ Despite millions of dollars aprnt xmre thet time Assertions that nonsmokers a a group live longer of the 'epidemlc' is reaL treads ta lung cancer death Here are excerpts~- . battn by the government and the tooacco tndustn• on than smokers are based on studies thet were poorly rates an not be atlsfaemaib' explained by dgaretu Dr• Sherwin Fetnhnuuier, culu.:•i anthropologist amtoking and health-related research. mam• questtons designed and sutlstically flawed. For exemple, thty' cottsnmptlon patterns .••- on the faculty ut thr depertment ot psycMatry at the aamut the relattonship between smoking Yhd disease /nvolved samples not representative of the general - Ae apparent change In the rePnrted frequencies of Harvard Medical School ,, has found recurring in• t•emtain unenswered. Noa•• as In 1964. the/P an su- U.S• population. Despite these problems, data fr~ htng eandf all types waa ob.eryad in 1977 ~HS where the denlnl at pleasure was,at eottomr tistncal refationships and several working Arpotheas, the reports are still used to support a variety et Betanse of Ihis reported iscew in the lung cancer a.n attempt to seize or malnimn political power• This bur no definitive and final answers. _ claims sbout smokers' mortality, including the ek eell net enarall araocuted with d arette wtt true of sndent dlripn laws. sexttal tabGOS, rt• er.nmenclor industry Ihcan explain the relled assG- that several hundred thouwnd Americans die ~ smok~g Mr/oui doubt fi Cast en the rots of smoking handier Ly~ p~hrr~ sw„Ilie .A r t[dU tmeDtodeye1or °Lmons of snloking with iung uneer, he.rt dlscase, year because they smoke• With such use - and mit- in tha development of this diseas. antl•tobaecn prnRrem• • use - of eata, lt ls probably not surprising that a emtnnysema, low Intant birth weight, and yes, even caveat In the 1964 surgeon general's report Is ofeen Initlally, their •'war asnlnst canixr" eoneentnted eamcer of the pancreas. overlooked: "Statistical methods rrannot ettabllsic a _ ot~ter tQ7tceTS on medicsl resenrth •.. . 7 hen It degenerated lnto a, Na one knows why - or how -- a unttrous uusal relationship war against ciRar6ttes, uqlh untold bl9ioos of warn- grrnw¢h begins, whether !t is in the lung, pancreas Or •rly aRablishment of aal r.ladenship between tngs each year about the allcged healtlt haurds of, btYtddrr. jpe~n a~ g~~g smoking and eattcen of the ffi?ax, esophagus and smoking• Now tt hae furthrr degenerated into a war hn one knows why the walls of human arterle. bladder mast involve eotsiaetrable guesswork, be- against smokers. waged thrnugh vtlificatlon, bsnlsh•. b--ome clogged wlth Il{Nds or how clots that can Inconsistent findings from studies of smoking cause of the vastly dttfersac incidence patterns, and ment from public place., denial of employment, and keatd to strokes get their atart• womea and th•Ir chtldnn make it Imposdble to draw trends of these diw.s•s and multiple suspected repressive taxation • . 1, No one knows why pregnant wtmfen who smoke tonvlaohtg eonelnlons from the dan• 1 caus•s. „ The more elusive vlctorv appeart, the greater the natvr lighter infanta on the average than women who Although the abbrevlated 1977.7it 1tEW report to Incongruities 1n the 1fepWs of lneidenee rates for resort to harsh and unJustl/led means, Induding t1Mr dmu't smoke, or why sotne women,'whether or not Congress concludes that cigarette smoking Is'•proba• (other cancers'an ahnes: impossible to recondle denlal of personal rights and the ,tretohing of thsey amoke, have smaller [nfants. _•'. - bly causally assoclated"with inereased p•rinst1 wlth the cigarette smoking sauYal hypothesis .••. truth ,••. i9 SdenUsts have not proven that clgarotte anoke et mortality. It teUes on gata which Indlute that any ~ lyoreoyer~K, eWdeatcfedintes that a number The efforts to deny the right to pnrslN the aat/s•e atpy of the thousands of tts •s•atatltueuts as found ls elaims of a uussl Pslattonahlp have a highly quae• .1at th..e eaanrs may be tsssadated vwith alcohol twn- Tactloes of emoking add up to nothing las tltan yT~'t e}ilsarette smoke cause hurattEisease••Nor tave aden- tionable foundation. The data suggest th.t such fao• sumptlon and that the atukldui.w of alcohol with dg- anny by a tninority of anti-smokers. I •.,1 IK^~a tfua demonstrated that the healthy nestualookK 1s tot•s as blstory of pnvloua pregnancy loa and hoepb `areta aatoklog may nat oop• empound ths rsslWw- It Is nlevant to note that many, tt hot >~ ytls yaemed by hls nelgbbor'a cigarette `mo)dng• ta1 PttY atams (pablie n. prlvats) have trMtst eHeo4`a adpe aut ntsy hlas oth.r o xs.tatlaaR. Ia addltlew the tntners ot the tonaLtutlon sn)oyad the .se ot M-~ -1 • t How Indignant ea th kl i . ,e e ~ut beeallae aome ageadea ia..t • It a l feat n and others qtal eontraeeptlvts: Th ttfie Iitentllrs dora . and pntrttlonsl faete7s fa the atiololda of tbaM Ma• been at any attempt to infringe on that paryoaal g~ht t tl tdt e ro o den b e . 0 p , xs o f m a msaat, mem a arhto lltst don't Bke dgar.tte aaoke alx and r•wuet as not support the eWm that oral contnceptlve .arl ars. through tuatlmt, resWctions aed prohlbitlo.s( •~ r ' ~ . •~f :r t ~, x< < --iMAl Ac~~g~ ~ A " l u . teteat weAC ha fmpliated .oeaptlotW eaposlurs baceo aa we rnat smo nt ... : . sywmtlll luV6 olemn" oo pregeancy•allcOme thaa m b VS t ~, . -.

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