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Tobacco Institute

Second Latin - American Workshop; Doral Hotel and Country Club; Miami, U.S.A.; July 29-31, 1985

Date: 29 Jul 1986
Length: 254 pages
TIMN0289347-TIMN0289600
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snapshot_ti TOB11700.03-TOB11702.56

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TIMN-0289345-0289600
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101
Site
Cb705, TI Storage Box 889
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Mn1-53
Mn1-59
Litigation
Minnesota AG
Ending Date
31 Jul 1986
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05 Jun 1998
Type
REPORT
UCSF Legacy ID
jpr62f00

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*************~*~****************~****~~*************~**~****~** SECOND LATIN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP DORAL HOTEL AND COUNTRY CLUB MIAMI, U.S.A. July 29-31, 1985 ****~~*~:********~x********~**~***~****~************************ TIMN 289347
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CONTENTS Programme ......................................... List of Participants .............................. Presentations: INTERNATIONAL SCOPE AND MAJOR NEW ISSUES by Bryan Simpson ................................. Page 3 6 10 SILENCE IS NO DEAL by Alberto Borrini (presented by Jorge Basso Dastugue) ............... 30 THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY AND BRAZIL'S ECONOMY by Roman Skowronski............................. SMOKING AND HEALTH Dr. Charles Waite ................................. Discussion Groups - Day 1 ........................ DEALING WITH PUBLIC ISSUES by Martin Ryan Haley .............................. GOVERNMENT RELATIONS by Francisco Moreno .............................. 67 70 117 127 139 RESPONDING TO A GOVERNMENT BILL Argentina (presented by Jorge Basso Dastugue) .... 142 PRESENTATIONS TO NATIONAL DELEGATES TO FAO AND OTHER UN AGENCIES by Antonietta Corti .............................. 190 Discussion Groups - Day 2 ........................ 200 OVERVIEWS OF DEVELOPMENTS: Costa Rica .................................... Honduras ...................................... Jamaica ....................................... Mexico ........................................ Trinidad and Tobago ........................... Uruguay ....................................... Venezuela ................................-..... 208 214 217 220 224 234 238 TIMN 289348
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TIMN 289349
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TIMN 289350
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4 Monday, July 29 16:30 - 18:30 Registration 19:30 Informal Dinner Tuesday, July 30 9:00 - 9:30 Introduction and Welcome to Workshop Review of Issues and Infotab's Activities BRYAN SIMPSON COMMUNICATION AND ARGUMENTS 9:30 - 10:30 "The Tobacco Industry Will Need to Change 0:30 11:00 its Message" Discussion MARIANO GRONDONA COFFEE BREAK 11:00 - 11.45 "Silence is No Business" (Alberto Borrini) 11:45 - 12:15 Discussion JORGE BASSO DASTUGUE "The Tobacco Industry and Brazil's 12:15 - 14:00 Economy" ROMAN SKOWRONSKI LUNCH 14:00 - 15:00 The medical issues - Anomalies and 5:00 15:15 counter-a•llegations Discussion CHARLES WAITE, M.D. COFFEE BREAK 15:15 - 16:45 Discussion Groups 16:45 - 17:00 (See separate sheet) Discussion Group Reports 20:00 DINNER TIMN 289351
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5 Wednesday, July 31 ISSUES MANAGEMENT 9:15 - 10:00 Dealing with Public Issues 10:00 - 10:45 Discussion MARTIN RYAN HALEY Government•Relations 10:45 - 11:15 Discussion FRANCISCO MORENO COFFEE BREAK 11:15 - 11:45 Responding to a Government Bill 11:45 - 12:15 JORGE BASSO DASTUGUE Presentations to national delegates to 12:15 - 14:00 FAO and other UN Agencies ANTONIETTA CORTI LUNCH 14:00 - 14:45 Sponsorship - A film prepared by the 4:45 16:00 Tobacco Advisory Council Discussion ROBERT L.O. ELY Discussion Groups 16:00 - 16:15 (See separate sheet) COFFEE BREAK 16:15 - 16:45 Presentation of discussion group results 16:45 - 17:00 CONCLUS IONS AC:Jg 160785 TIMN 289352
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6 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS . TIMN 289353
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7 LATIN AMERICAN WORKSHOP List of Participants (As at July 3, 1985) NATIONAL MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATIONS BRAZIL COSTA RICA Mr. R. SKOWRONSKI, Vice President, Associaqao Brasileira da Industria do Fumo (ABIFUMO) Mr. J. UGARTE, Manager, Instituto Costarricense del Tabaco EL SALVADOR Mr. E. RODRIGUEZ, Manager, Asociacion Salvadorena de la Industria Tabacalera GUATEMALA Mr. L. BATRES, President of Association, „ (Tabacalera Nacional S.A.) LEAD COMPANIES BARBADOS Mr. T. STOUTE, Chief Executive, British-American Tobacco Co. (Barbados) Ltd., CHILE Mr. P. IHNEN, Corporate Affairs Sub-Manager, Cia. Chilena de Tabacos S.A. ECUADOR Dr. L. ALVEAR VERGARA, PA/PR & Legal Manager, Fabrica de Cigarrillos "El Progreso" HONDURAS Mr. J. QUIROZ, General Manager, Tabacalera Hondurena S.A. Mr. G. GOMEZ, Tabacalera Hondurena, S.A. MEXICO Mr. R. SEPULVEDA, Marketing Services Manager, •Cigarrera La Moderna S.A. TRINIDAD Mr. A. WALKER, Chairman/Managing Director, The West Indian Tobacco Co., Ltd., VENEZUELA Mr. F. ROSA, Managing Director, C.A. Tabacalera Nacional Mr. J. FERNANDEZ ALVARADO, Director of Corporate Affairs, C.A. Tabacalera Nacional TIMN 289354
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8 MEMBER COMPANY REPRESENTATIVES BAT ARGENTINA Mr. J.R. BASSO-DASTUGUE, Director/Corporate Affairs Manager, Nobleza- Piccardo BRAZIL Mr. K. LIGHT, Public Affairs Director, Companhia Souza Cruz COSTA RICA Mr. E. CORDERO,'Leaf Director, Republic Tobacco Co., U.K. Mr. R.L.O ELY, Head of Public Affairs, B.A.T., London VENEZUELA Mr. P.J. ROMBAUT, General Manager, C.A. Cigarrera Bigott Sucs. Mr. R. DREW-BEAR, Public Affairs Manager, C.A. Cigarrera Bigott, Sucs. Philip Morris ARGENTINA Mr. J. VIVES, Director Empresa, Massalin Particulares, S.A. Mr. G. MEIRELLES FREIRE, Director - Corporate Affairs & Legal, Philip Morris Brasileira S.A. COSTA RICA Mr. M. CORNEJO, Public Relations Adviser, Tabacalera Costarricense U.S.A. Mr. F. MORENO, Corporate Affairs Director - Latin America/Iberia, Philip Morris International Ms. A. GONZALEZ, Corporate Affairs Supervisor - Latin America/Iberia, Philip Morris International R.J. Reynolds BRAZIL Mr. C. JARDIM, PA/PR Vice-President, R.J.R. Tobacos do Brasil Ltd., PUERTO RICO Mr. A.J. MARCONI, Vice-President PR/PA, R.J.R. Tobacco Company U.S.A. Mr. R. MARCOTULLIO, Vice President Public Affairs, R.J. R. Tobacco International Inc. ./... TIMN 289355
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9 ROTHMANS U.S.A. Mr. J. DYSON, Regional Manager - Latin America, Tobacco Exporters International GUEST'SPEAKERS ARGENTINA Mr. M. GRONDONA• U.S.A. Mr. M. RYAN HALEY, The Haley Companies U.S.A. Dr. C. WAITE INFOTAB Ms. A. CORTI Mr. B. SIMPSON r TIMN 289356
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10 INTERNATIONAL SCOPE AND MAJOR NEW ISSUES Bryan Simpson Secretary General INFOTAB TIMN 289357
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11 INTERNATIONAL SCOPE AND MAJOR NEW ISSUES MR. BRYAN SIMPSON SECRETARY GENERAL, INFOTAB LATIN AMERICAN WORKSHOP MIAMI, JULY 30-31, 1985 GOOD MORNING LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, MAY I, ON BEHAL F OF I NFOTAB, G I VE A VERY WARM WELCOME AND WE WILL DO EVERYTHING THAT WE CAN DURING THE COURSE OF THE NEXT TWO DAYS TO SEE THAT YOU ALL HAVE A "FRUITFUL" WORKSHOP. MY ROLE TODAY IS TO PORTRAY TO YOU THE CURRENT CLIMATE OF SMOKING IN THE INTERNATIONAL. SCENE AND THEN TO HIGHLIGHT THE NEW ISSUES AND HOPEFULLY PROMOTE DISCUSSION LATER IN THE WORKSHOP ON HOW BEST THE CHALLENGES CAN BE MET TN YOUR AREAS, FIRST A BRIEF UPDATE ON INFOTAB. 1. INFOTAB LOGO WE HAVE A CHARTER, THIS IS PART OF IT. AS YOU CAN 2. CHARTER SEE, WE HAVE ESSENTIALLY AN INFORMATION AND-RESOURCE ROLE: AND WE ARE CONFINED STRICTLY TO THE AREA OF SMOKING ISSUES, OUR CHARTER FORBIDS US FROM BECOMING INVOLVED IN COMMERCIAL OR MARKETING MATTERS. WE WORK THROUGH THE NATIONAL TOBACCO MANUFACTURERS 3. EXTERNAL LINKS ASSOCIATIONS AND THROUGH WHAT WE CALL LEAD COMPANIES, THESE ARE OUR EXTERNAL LINKS - OR THE NETWORK OF OUTLETS THAT WE SERVICE, INFOTAB HAS NO MANDATE TO TAKE DIRECT ACTION ITSELF, THE ACTION ROLE BELONGS TO THE ASSOCIATIONS TO THE COMPANIES AND THEIR ALLIES IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, TI1V`.~N 289358
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12 HERE YOU CAN SEE THE GLOBAL, DISPOSITION OF THE 4. MAP INDUSTRY NETWORK - EMBRACING SOME 58 COUNTRIES THROUGH: NMAs, MARKED IN YELLOW, AND THROUGH; LEAD COMPANIES, MARKED IN PINK. WE ARE SO PLEASED THAT MOST OF OUR NMAs AND LEAD COMPANIES FOR THIS AREA ARE REPRESENTED HERE AT THIS WORKSHOP, THERE ARE 29 NMAs IN ALL, AND 30 LEAD COMPANIES. UGANDA WAS THE LATEST TO JOIN AS A LEAD COMPANY. IN ADDITION TO THE 29 NMAS AND THE 30 LEAD COMPANIES, 5. LEAF DEALERS THE INDUSTRY NETWORK NOW ALSO INCLUDES 10 AND SVENSKA TOBA 3 INTERNATIONAL LEAF DEALERS, ALL OF WHOM HAVE JOINED INFOTAB AS ALLIED MEMBERS, AS ALSO HAS THE SWEDISH TOBACCO COMPANY, SVENSKA TOBAKS, FROM THIS YOU ARE ABLE TO SEE THE INTERNATIONAL SCOPE 6. NETWORK SUMMAttY OF INFOTAB'S NETWORK OF "OUTLETS". WITH SIX COMPANIES AS FOUNDING MEMBERS, FOUR AS ASSOCIATE MEMBERS, 29 NMAs AS ALLIED MEMBERS AS WELL AS ONE COMPANY AND 10 INTERNATIONAL LEAF DEALERS, MAKING A TOTAL OF 50 MEMBERS, TO THIS, ADD THE 30 LEAD COMPANIES, MAKING A TOTAL NETWORK OF 80 OUTLETS - COVERING 58 COUNTRIES, WE RELY TOTALLY ON THE INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION OF 7. INTERNATIONAL OUR MEMBERS IN THE INDUSTRY CO-OPERATION. CO-OPERATION AND OUR OBJECTIVE, OF COURSE, IS TO ASSIST IN THE 8. DEFENCE OF TH_ DEFENCE OF THE WORLD-WIDE TOBACCO FAMILY, AND THAT FAMILY F-NCLUDES, OF COURSE, ALL PARTS OF THE FAMILY AND NOT JUST THE MANUFACTURERS. r),jMlti( 289359
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13 HERE BRIEFLY IS THE ORGANISATIONAL CHART OF THE SENIOR 9, ORGANISATION OF STAFF SENIOR STAFF AND HERE THEY ARE, 10. PICTURE AND HERE IS THE WHOLE GROUP, THERE ARE SEVEN 11, PICTURE NATIONALITIES, AND THEIR ABILITY TO SPEAK LANGUAGES RANGES - THE MOST FLUENT STAFF MEMBER HAS SEVEN LANGUAGES, WE HAVE A VERY STRONG INFORMATION SERVICE SECTION, AND HERE IS THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR THAT, WE HAVE 12 PEOPLE. IN ORGANISATION INFORMATION SERVICES AND OUR DATA BANK IS PROBABLY GOING TO BE THE BEST IN THE WHOLE OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY ON SMOKING ISSUES. WE HAVE JUST PASSED THE MARK OF HAVING 3 500 DOCUMENTS ABSTRACTED AND PUT ON TO THE COMPUTER - USING THE STAIRS SYSTEM, SOME COMPANIES ALREADY HAVE DIRECT ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM, AN 80 PAGE USER MANUAL HAS BEEN DISTRIBUTED TO OUR MEMBERS GIVING FULL DETAILS, 12, INFORMATION SERVICES ORGANISATION 13. COMPUTER BUT AN INDUSTRY NETWORK DOES NOT JUST STOP THERE, WHAT 14, WIDER TOBACCO ABOUT OUR ALLIES IN THE WIDER TOBACCO FAMILY? FAMILY EXPERIENCE IN OUR INDUSTRY, WHICH HAS BEEN ECHOED IN OTHERS AS WELL, HAS SHOWN THAT THERE ARE WHOLE SECTORS THAT ARE CONCERNED IN AND DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF THE TOBACCO INTERESTS. THESE MEMBERS OF THE WHOLE TOBACCO FAMILY ARE OUR ALLIES AND SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO BECOME AN ACTIVE EXTENSION TO OUR NETWORK, FOR EXAMPLE, WE HAVE EMBARKED ON A VIGOROUS CAMPAIGN 15. TARGET TOBACCC 'FO THOSE THIRD WORLD GOVERNMENTS THAT HAVE STRONG TOBACCO GROWING SECTORS, THIS IS FEATURED LATER ON THE AGENDA OF THIS WORKSHOP, THE FOCUS IS TO GAIN ALLIES, TIMN 289360
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14 ALLIES CAN ALSO BE NUMBERED AMONGST LEAF GROWERS, WE 16, LEAF GROWERS WERE DELIGHTED TO BE INVITED TO ADDRESS THE INTERNATIONAL FLUE CURED GROWERS ASSOCIATION AT THEIR LAST MEETING IN BRAZIL, ALLIES ARE ALSO LEAF DEALERS, WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR 17, LEAF DEALERS THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN TOBACCO LEAF, WE NOW HAVE 10 AS MEMBERS. WE PRESENTED TO THEM AT THEIR ANNUAL CONFERENCE THIS YEAR. THEY WILL BE OF TREMENDOUS HELP IN COUNTRIES WHERE NO MANUFACTURING MEMBERS ARE ESTABL I SHED - THAT I S TO 'SAY, WHERE WE HAVE NO NMAS OR LEAD COMPANIES, SEVERAL LEAF DEALERS JOINED AS A DIRECT. RESULT OF THAT CONFERENCE. ALLIES ARE OUR MEMBERS EMPLOYEES - THOSE WHO WORK FOR 18, EMPLOYEES MANUFACTURERS, ASSOCIATIONS AND DEALERS, WE SHOULD AT THE LEAST, BE GIVING THEM INFORMATION TO HELP PROVIDE A BALANCED VIEW OF SMOKING ISSUES AND THUS ALLOWING THAN TO RESPOND AS INDIVIDUALS WHEN THEY ARE ATTACKED, ALLIES ARE THE ADVERTISING INDUSTRY. ACROSS THE 19. ADVERTISING GLOBE, THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR ADVERTISERS, WE ARE FINDING THAT THE ADVERTISING BUSINESS IS BECOMING FIRM ALLIES AS THEY INCREASINGLY RECOGNISE THAT THE FREEDOM TO ADVERTISE TOBACCO IS THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE FOR THEIR INDUSTRY. IF TOBACCO GOES ,,, WHAT WILL GO NEXT? WE HAVE EXCELLENT RELATIONS WITH THE I,A,A „ THE 20, I,U,A.A,/ U,K,'S A,A „ THE E,A,A,A „ THE E,,A,T, AND THE I,U,A,A, W,F,A, CHAPTERS NOW CALLED THE W,F,A, WE ARE ALSO HELPING THE I,U,A,A, BUILD THEIR MEMBERSHIP, TO ESTABLISH CHAPTERS IN MORE COUNTRIES, SO THAT THEY MAY QUALIFY FOR &BSERVER STATUS WITHIN THE U.N. SYSTEM. TIMN 289361
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15 MAJOR OPPONENTS 21. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION NOW LET US TAKE A BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF OUR MAJOR OPPONENTS AND THE HIGH LEVEL OF ACTIVITY BEING DEMONSTRATED BY THEM. A MAJOR DEVELOPMENT OVER RECENT YEARS HAS BEEN THE SYSTEMATIC AND RAPID IMPROVEMENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION OF OUR OPPONENTS, THE LEAD AND INSPIRATION FOR THIS HAS UNDOUBTEDLY COME FROM THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, EVEN THOUGH THEIR SMOKING CONTROL PROGRAMME DOES NOT FEATURE PROMINENTLY B.Y SUCH MEASUREMENTS AS THE SIZE OF THE BUDGET ALLOCATED FROM CENTRAL FUNDS, THE CREDIBILITY THE W,H.O. LENDS TO THE WHOLE INTERNATIONAL CRUSADE AGAINST SMOKING IS UNDENIABLE AND INCALCULABLE, THE BLUEPRINTS THAT HAVE COME FROM THEIR EXPERT COMMITTEES IN THE FORM OF "W,H.O. RECOMMENDATIONS" HAVE BECOME ARTICLES OF FAITH TO MANY OF OUR OPPONENTS AND GUIDE THEIR EVERY ACTION. 22. W,H,O. LOGO HERE IS THE MAP ISSUED BY THE W,H,O, WHICH SHOWS IT IS 23, W,H,O, MAP STRUCTURED INTO SIX REGIONS ACROSS THE GLOBE, WITH HEADQUARTERS IN GENEVA, YOU CAN SEE THAT THEIR LOCATIONS AND REGIONS ARE: - WASHINGTON FOR THE AMERICAS - COPENHAGEN FOR EUROPE -*ALEXANDRIA FOR THE EASTERN MEDITTERANEAN -(VEW DELHI FOR SOUTH EAST ASIA - MANILA FOR WESTERN PACIFIC - BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO FOR AFRICA, WHAT WE DO KNOW IS THAT THE W,H,O. HAS STRO,NGLY 24, W,H,O, REPORT EMPHASISED THE NEED TO CERTAIN CENTRAL AMERICAN GOUNTRIES TO INTRODUCE SMOKING CONTROL MEASURES ALONG THE LINES PROPOSED IN THE REPORT OF THE NOVEMBER, 1982 "EXPERT COMMITTEE ON SMOKING CONTROL STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES", TIMN 289362
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16 THE W.H.O. CONTINUES TO PRESS GOVERNMENTS, PARTICULARLY OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, TO LEGISLATE TO PROHIBIT TOBACCO ADVERTISING AND SALES PROMOTION, IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE, TOO, AN OBSERVER'S VIEW THAT THE WAO. IS NOW CONTENT TO LET THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES AND PRESSURE GROUPS TAKE UP THE RUNNING ON THEIR OWN IN THE INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES, THUS ALLOWING THE W,H.O., WITH ITS LIMITED RESOURCES, TO GIVE PRIORITY TO AND CONCENTRATE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD. CERTAINLY THE INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES (OR N,G.O,'S) AND PRESSURE GROUPS ARE EXTREMELY ACTIVE IN ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. 25, U,I,C,C, LOG^ HERE'S THE ONE THAT LEADS THE FIELD - THE INTERNATIONAL UNION AGAINST CANCER, THE U,I,C,C, IT RUNS A PROGRAMME OF SMOKING CONTROL WORKSHOPS AROUND THE WORLD IN COLLABORATION WITH THE W,H,O. AND OTHER BODIES. WE UNDERSTAND THAT THEY PLAN ONE FOR KENYA BEFORE THE END OF THE YEAR, CLOSELY LINKED TO THE U,I,C,C. IS THE I,L.C.S,H. OR 26, I,L,C,S,H, INTERNATIONAL LIAISON COMMITTEE ON SMOKING AND HEALTH, SLIDE SET UP AT THE TIME OF THE WINNIPEG WORLD CONFERENCE IN JUNE, 1983, ITS JOB, AS ITS NAME STATES, IS INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATION AND THE U,I,C,C.'ACTS AS ITS SECRETARIAT, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF OTHER INTERNATIONAL N,G,O.'S 27, I,O,C,U, SLIDE ACTIVE IN THEIR OPPOSITION TO TOBACCO - BUT I SHOULD LIKE TO MENTION ONE - THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF CONSUMER UNIONS - I,O,C,U, IT HAS A MEMBERSHIP OF 120 CONSUMER GROUPS IN 50 COUNTRIES, HAVING GROWN FROM JUST FIVE FOUNDING GROUPS IN 1960, TIMN 289363
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17 HERE IS A LOOK AT THEIR "CONTINUING WORK": COMMITTEES, WORKING GROUPS AND THEIR NETWORKS, THE CHAIRMAN IS NOW, LARS BROCH, A YOUNG NORWEGIAN WHO WAS HEAD OF CONSUMER PROTECTION IN THE O,E,C,D, I,O,C,U „ HAVING BEEN ACTIVE IN TOBACCO, PARTICULARLY IN CONSTITUENT MEASUREMENT, HAS NOW, WE UNDERSTAND, DECIDED TO CONCENTRATE ON PHARMACEUTICALS, WHERE THEY SEE MORE OF A POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY FOLLOWING THEIR SUCCESS WITH I,B,F,A,N, IN THE BABY FOOD MARKET. THEY WILL BE PRESENT IN FORCE AT A MAJOR W, H, 0, MEETING IN NAIROBI IN NOVEMBER ON PHARMACEUTICALS, ACTION IS OFTEN AT A MUCH HIGHER LEVEL IN COUNTRIES 28. NATIONAL WHEN IT IS STIMULATED BY NATIONAL BODIES EITHER BODIES MEDICALLY-BASED OR LAY ORGANISATIONS, SUCH AS: A,S,H, IN THE U,K, AND THERE IS ALSO AN A,S,H, IN THE U,S,A, G,A,S,P, IN AUSTRALIA, AND THERE IS, OF COURSE, N,I,C,O,S.H, IN NIGERIA AND O,A,S,I,S, HERE IN ZIMBABWE, THE THRUST OF THE ATTACKS HAS SHIFTED, MARKEDLY, FROM THE SCIENCE TO POLITICS. OUR OPPONENTS AND THEIR ATTACKS ARE GLOBALLY CO-ORDINATED, To CONCLUDE THIS REVIEW, I JUST WANTED TO TAKE YOU ON A 29. MIDDLE EAST WHIRLWIND TOUR OF THE WORLD TO TOUCH ON THE HIGHLIGHTS MAP - SPECIFIC THINGS THAT ARE HAPPENING OR COMMENTS ON THE ATMOSPHERE AND TRENDS IN THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE GLOBE, RIDDLE EAST IN THE MIDDLE EAST, IT IS THE GULF COUNTRIES THAT ARE THE REAL PROBLEM. THINGS HAVE BEEN GATHERING MOMENTUM SINCE THE LATE SEVENTIES. FROM EARLY BEGINNINGS WITH AN ADVERTISING BAN IN SAUDI ARABIA ON RELIGIOUS TIMN 289364
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18 GROUNDS IN THE EARLY SEVENTIES, BAHRAIN AND KUWAIT TOOK UP THE RUNNING AROUND 1978/79 WITH A LOT OF THE PUSH COMING FROM JUST SEVERAL KEY, INFLUENTIAL PERSONALITIES, REGIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE GULF CAUSED THE WHOLE PROCESS TO ACCELERATE - JOINT DECISIONS BEING TAKEN WITHIN THE MEETINGS OF THE ARAB HEALTH MINISTERS AND MORE RECENTLY WITHIN THE GULF CO-OPERATION COUNCIL. THE INDUSTRY HAS A MIDDLE EAST WORKING GROUP OF THE COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE REGION TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION AND TO TRY TO FIND SOLUTIONS. BUT THE SITUATION REMAINS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT, GOVERNMENTS ARE INCREDIBLY AUTHORITARIAN AND DECREES ARE PUBLISHED FROM ONE DAY TO THE NEXT. EVEN BASIC, RELIABLE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS HAPPENING OR LIKELY TO HAPPEWIS HARD TO COME BY. THE GULF NEWSPAPERS ARE LITERALLY LOADED WITH ANTI-SMOKING ARTICLES, A LOT OF THEM PICKED UP FROM THE INTERNATIONAL WIRE SERVICES. AND, ON TOP OF ALL THIS THERE IS A MOVE TO LINK SMOKING WITH ISLAM, TO TRY TO GET IT ACCEPTED THAT THE DICTATES OF THE KORAN MAKE SMOKING ILLEGAL IN RELIGIOUS TERMS, FOR THE FUTURE IT LOOKS TOO THAT WITH THE CHANGED SITUATION ON THE WORLD'S OIL MARKET, THEY ARE BEGINNING TO EXAMINE WAYS TO INCREASE REVENUES - SO INCREASES IN TAXATION ON CIGARETTES MAY WELL BE EXPECTED. AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND IN AUSTRALIA THERE IS IMMENSE PRESSURE ON ALL THE ISSUES. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE ANTI-SMOKING FORCES ARE TRYING DESPERATELY TO ACHIEVE ANOTHER "NORWAY" - A WESTERN COUNTRY THAT INTRODUCES A TOTAL ErAN ON ADVERTISING, PROMOTION AND SPONSORSHIP OF CIGARETTES, MICHAEL DAUBE HAS NOW JOINED THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN HEALTH AUTHORITIES AND EVERY ANTI-SMOKING GROUP IS NOW CONCENTRATING ON THIS PART OF THE WORLD, HAPPILY THE ASSOCIATION/NMA THERE IS DYNAMICALLY LED BY THE COMPANIES. THE ASSOCIATION HAS ALREADY WON 30, ASIA MAP TIMN 289365
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19 SOME SIGNIFICANT VICTORIES. THE LATEST IS THE PROPOSAL FOR ROTATIONAL WARNING LABELS (ONE WITH AN ADDICTION MESSAGE), USING 20% OF SPACE AND ON FRONT AND BACK OF PACKS, IN NEW ZEALAND, THERE HAS BEEN A PETITION TO PARLIAMENT TO BAN ALL ADVERTISING, THE NMA THERE HAS PUT IN A COMPREHENSIVE SUBMISSION TO PRESENT THE INDUSTRY'S CASE. ASIA IN SINGAPORE THERE HAS BEEN A TOTAL ADVERTISING BAN FOR OVER 12 YEARS - BUT CONSUMPTION IS STILL RISING, IN INDONESIA, INCIDENTALLY, THE CRETEK INDUSTRY HAS OVER 70% OF THE MARKET, IN MALAYSIA, THEY HAVE HAD A SUCCESS ON THE TAXATION FRONT WHERE DESPITE STRONG OPPOSITION FROM THE PRIME MINISTER, WHO IS STRONGLY ANTI-SMOKING, THE MINISTER OF FINANCE HAS DECREED THAT HE WILL NOT INCREASE TAX ON TOBACCO PRODUCTS, THE REASONS HE GAVE WERE ECONOMIC, SINCE HE FELT THAT PREVIOUS TAX INCREASES HAS RESULTED IN DECREASED CONSUMPTION, IT WAS FELT BY THE INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA THAT THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY HAD PLAYED A VERY USEFUL.ROLE IN THIS AFFAIR, THIS STUDY HAS ALSO BEEN ADAPTED INTO A CONDENSED VERSION IN BOTH ENGLISH AND MALAY AND HAS RECEIVED WIDE PUBLICITY, TOGETHER WITH PRESS COVERAGE, THE CONTENTS OF THE BROCHURE ARE ESTIMATED TO HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO OVER 5 MILLION PEOPLE - OR 35% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION. THE NMA IN MALAYSIA NOW EMPLOYS THE LOCAL OFFICE OF THE INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRM OF BURSTON MARSTELLER, IN HONG KONG THERE HAS BEEN A BIG BATTLE ON THE ADVERTISING FRONT, WITH MAJOR HEARINGS BEFORE THE BROADCAST REVIEW BOARD. TII4N 289366
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20 IN INDIA, PAKISTAN AND BANGLADESH THERE IS A DEFINITE INCREASE IN MEDIA COVERAGE ATTACKING THE INDUSTRY IN TERMS OF DEFORESTATION, ALLEGED COMPETITION BETWEEN TOBACCO AND FOOD CULTIVATION AND GENERAL ANTI-SMOKING THEMES. LATIN AMERICA THERE HAS BEEN A VIRTUAL EXPLOSION OF ANTI-SMOKING ACTIVITY IN LATIN AMERICA. JUST TWO OR THREE YEARS AGO, THE INDUSTRY IN THIS REGION THOUGHT - IT CAN'T HAPPEN HERE. WELL IT'S NOW HAPPENING EVERYWHERE. AND WE AT INFOTAB ARE PROBABLY RECEIVING. AS MANY, IF NOT MORE, ENQUIRIES FOR MATERIAL AND ASSISTANCE FROM LATIN AMERICA AS FROM ANYWHERE ELSE. FORTUNATELY, LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES STILL HAVE A LOT OF PRIVILEGES, AND WE HAVE PLENTY OF AMMUNITION THAT CAN BE USED TO HELP MAINTAIN THIS SITUATION. HOWEVER, THE INDUSTRY THERE WILL HAVE TO BE VERY VIGILANT. IN URUGUAY, SMUGGLING IS CAUSING DIFFICULTIES; BUT THE GOVERNMENT HAS REFUSED TO MAINTAIN A TAX DECREASE OBTAINED LAST YEAR BY THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY BECAUSE OF THE PRESSURE THAT CAME FROM OTHER INDUSTRIES TO BE GRANTED SIMILAR ADVANTAGES. IN ARGENTINA, THE RECENTLY-FORMED CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT IS PRESENTING THE INDUSTRY WITH A COMPLETELY NEW SET OF REGULATIONS. ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC SMOKING RESTRICTIONS PLUS THE INTRODUCTION OF A WARNING LABEL ARE IN THE MAKING. NOT TO MENTION TAXATION. TAXATION, AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, IS A MAJOR ISSUE IN MOST LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES WHERE INFLATION AND FOREIGN DEBTS ARE SOARING. IN BRAZIL, THERE IS, AMONGST OTHER BILLS, .DRAFT LEGISLATION ON WARNING LABELS ON PACKS. 31. LATIN AMERICI MAP TIMN 289367
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21 AND, AS WE SAW EARL I ER, LATI N AMER I CA APPEARS TO BE A MAJOR TARGET OF THE U. I. C. C. WHO HAVE RUN A SER I ES OF EIGHT SMOKING CONTROL WORKSHOPS IN THE REGION. ALSO JUST RECENTLY SET UP IS A LATIN AMERICAN CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE FOR SMOKING CONTROL, COMPRISING 12 COUNTRIES. THE ISSUES ARE REALLY RISING RAPIDLY ON THE LATIN AMERICAN CONTINENT AND THESE WILL REQUIRE THE MOBILISATION OF ALL AVAILABLE FORCES. U.S.A. 32. NORTH AMERICA MAP THE U.S.A. NOW REQUIRES CIGARETTES PACKS AND ADVERTISEMENTS TO CARRY STRONGER, ROTATING HEALTH WARNINGS (FOUR OF THEM), THIS LEGISLATION ALSO REQUIRES CIGARETTE MANUFACTURERS TO SUBMIT TO THE GOVERNMENT AN ANNUAL LIST OF CHEMICAL INGREDIENTS ADDED TO THEIR TOBACCO. IN ADDITION, IT ESTABLISHES A SMOKING RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND INFORMATION PROGRAMME. THE WARNINGS WILL BEGIN APPEARING IN OCTOBER THIS YEAR, WITH EACH OF THE FOUR BEING ROTATES EVERY THREE MONTHS, THE BIGGEST HEADACHE IN THE U.S.A. TODAY, THOUGH, IS PUBLIC SMOKING RESTRICTIONS AND RESTRICTIONS ON SMOKING IN THE WORKPLACE. SEVERAL STATES HAVE ALSO BANNED PRODUCT SAMPL I NG. THERE IS IN THE STATES AN ALMOST PURITANICAL, EVANGELICAL APPROACH TO A NEW STYLE OF HEALTH LIVING. GAP•IADA I N CANADA, THE I NDUSTRY SCORED A MAJOR SUCCESS I N THE TAXATION FIELD BY SUCCEEDING IN NEGOTIATLNG A FAVOURABLE CHANGE IN THE TAX STRUCTURE. UNFORTUNATELY THIS HAS BEEN SHORTLIVED AND THE PREVIOUS STRUCTURE HAS BEEN REINTRODUCED, TIMN 289368
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22 UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND THE LATEST BIG EVENT IN THE U.K. HAS BEEN THE LAUNCHING BY THE BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (B,M,A,) OF A MAJOR CAMPAIGN TO GET A TOTAL BAN ON CIGARETTE ADVERTISING AND SPONSORSHIP, THIS IS BEING VIGOROUSLY OPPOSED BY THE INDUSTRY, AND A BILL INTRODUCED WITH THE HOUSE OF LORDS BY THE B,M,A,'S, LORD PITT, WAS DEFEATED, IN IRELAND A SERIOUS PROBLEM HAS ARISEN WITH THE HEALTH MINISTER'S INTRODUCTION OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANTI-SMOKING PROGRAMME, THIS INCLUDES A LEVY OF 2% TO BE CHARGED ON ADVERTISING BUDGETS, IT IS NOT CLEAR WHETHER SUCH A LEVY -WOULD BE ALLOWED UNDER THE TAXATION RULINGS WITHIN THE COMMON MARKET. THE NMA IN IRELAND IS HARD AT WORK ON THESE PROBLEMS, SCANDINAVIA THE SCANDINAVIAN REGION HAS BEEN FOREMOST IN ANTI-SMOKING ACTIVITY FROM THE NORDIC COUNCIL'S INITIATIVES IN THE EARLY SEVENTIES, NORWAY INTRODUCED THEIR COMPREHENSIVE "TOBACCO LAW" WITH TOTAL ADVERTISING BAN IN 1975. HOWEVER, THE CONSUMPTION FIGURES SHOW PLAINLY THAT AFTER SEVEN YEARS OF A TOBACCO ADVERTISING BAN, THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE BAN WAS FOLLOWED BY ANY SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN OVERALL OR PER CAPITA TOBACCO CONSUMPTION. NORWAY IS A SOMEWHAT UNUSUAL CIGARETTE MARKET IN THAT PBOUT TWO THIRDS OF ALL CIGARETTES SMOKED ARE ROLL-YOUR-OWN, AND NOT MANUFACTURED CIGARETTES, IN FINLAND, THE HEALTH BOARD HAS LET IT BE KNOWN THAT IT WISHES TO INCREASE RETAIL PROCESS OF CIGARETTES BY 50%, 33. WESTERN EUROrE MAP TIMN 289369
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23 IN SWEDEN, THERE IS A MAJOR PASSIVE SMOKING CASE. A WORKERS COMPENSATION INSURANCE COURT JUDGED THAT A WOMAN'S DEATH FROM LUNG CANCER COULD BE ATTRIBUTED TO PASSIVE SMOKING, THIS IN TURN LED HER TO HER ILLNESS BEING CLASSIFIED AS AN OCCUPATIONAL INJURY, DENMARK HAS THE HIGHEST TAX INCIDENCE ON CIGARETTES IN THE WORLD - 88% OF THE RETAIL PRICE IS TAX IN DENMARK, REST OF EUROPE LOOKING AT THE REST OF EUROPE, IN GERMANY THE MARKET IS PICKING UP AFTER THE LAST HEAVY TAX INCREASE, BUT THE QUESTION IS, WILL THERE BE A 30-40% TAX INCREASE AGAIN IN TWO YEARS TIME? TAXATION SUCCESSES HAVE BEEN THE ORDER OF THE DAY IN FRANCE, WHERE A SPECIAL TAX THAT HAD BEEN INTRODUCED TO INCREASE THE REVENUES OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS HAD TO BE REPEALED, AS IT WAS FOUND TO BE AGAINST COMMON MARKET RULES. AND IN HOLLAND, WHERE THE INDUSTRY RECENTLY NEGOTIATED A PRICE INCREASE WITH NO TAX INCREASE, IN SPAIN THERE ARE SOME NEW PROPOSED ADVERTISING REGULATIONS. IN GREECE, THERE ARE TWO DRAFT ARTICLES FOR A LAW AGAINST ADVERTISING, SIGNS ARE THAT THE ANTI-SMOKING MOVEMENT ARE TRYING TO GET COMMUNITY-WIDE ACTION ON SMOKING AND HEALTH QUESTION IN THE COMMON MARKET. UNTIL NOW, THE TREATY OF ROME HAS BEEN ASSUMED TO HAVE NO MANDATE IN THIS AREA - ONLY IN SO FAR AS FREEDOM OF TRADE AND MOVEMENT OF GOODS IS CONCERNED. HOWEVER, THERE IS NOW A MOVE TO GET COMMON ACTION GOING ON PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY ACROSS THE 10 MEMBER COUNTRIES, TIMN 289370
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24 EASTERN EUROPE 34. EASTERN EUROPE MAP EASTERN EUROPE IS INTERESTING IN THAT DESPITE EXTREME ADVERTISING BANS AND RESTRICTIONS, CONSUMPTION HAS NEVER CEASED RISING. AFRICA 35, AFRICAN MAP IN AFRICA, THE SITUATION IS REALLY NOT TOO BAD YET, BUT THE PRESSURE FROM THE ANTI-SMOKING GROUPS AND FROM THE W,H.O, AND U.I.C.C, PEOPLE CAN BE EXPECTED TO INCREASE. To INDICATE ONE DIMENSION OF THIS PRESSURE, AN OBSERVER REPORTED IN OCTOBER, 1983 THAT EARLIER IN THE YEAR SEVERAL AFRICAN COUNTRIES INCLUDING GABON, ZAIRE, ZAMBIA, TANZANIA, KENYA, MOROC00, ALGERIA AND NIGERIA, HAD SOUGHT ADVICE FROM THE W,H.O, IN CONNECTION WITH THEIR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES. THE W,H.O, IS SAID TO HAVE STRONGLY EMPHASISED THE NEED TO INSTALL SMOKING CONTROL MEASURES ALONG THE LINES OF THEIR EXPERT COMMITTEE'S RECOMMENDATIONS. ANOTHER IS THE INCREASING "POLITICISATION" OF THE ISSUES AND THE ATTEMPTS TO RAISE PUBLIC OPINION IN WESTERN NATIONS, PARTICULARLY IN EUROPE, AGAINST THE ALLEGED MALPRACTICES OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN REGIONS SUCH AS AFRICA, I AM SURE WE WILL BE HEARING MORE ABOUT THIS FROM B.A.T, KENYA. FOR FRENCH WEST AFRICA, WHERE THERE ARE NEITHER NMA'S OR LEAD COMPANIES, AN INDUSTRY WORKING GROUP MEETS JUST AS WE SAW IN THE MIDDLE EAST. HAVING SEEN THE &AN ON ADVERTISING COME IN IN SENEGAL, THE COMPANIES ACTIVE IN THE IVORY COAST MARKET DECIDED TO DEVELOP A CODE OF VOLUNTARY RESTRICTIONS ON CIGARETTE ADVERTISING IN THE IVORY COAST. WE WILL BE HEARING MORE ABOUT THIS LATER, TIMN 289371
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25 AFRICA NUMBER 1 IS THE MOST POWERFUL SHORT WAVE TRANSMITTER IN AFRICA, BEAMING FROM GABON TO 14 COUNTRIES AND CLAIMING AN AUDIENCE OF 15 MILLION LISTENERS. A BAN ON ALCOHOL AND CIGARETTE ADVERTISING WAS ANNOUNCED THIS YEAR TO TAKE EFFECT AS FROM JANUARY 1, 1985, FOLLOWING DISCUSSIONS WITH THE STATION AND TALKS WITH THE AUTHORITIES THE BAN ON CIGARETTES HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN. # # # I HOPE THIS HAS GIVEN YOU A GOOD IDEA, AND A BROAD 36, INFOTAB LEAF PERSPECTIVE OF THE DEVELOPMENTS THAT ARE TAKING PLACE, AND, MOST IMPORTANTLY, THE SORT AND SCALE OF PRESSURES THAT YOU CAN EXPECT TO HAVE TO FACE HERE IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARRIBEAN SOONER OR LATER. OUR EXPERIENCE HAS LEAD US TO THE VIEW THAT MAXIMUM EFFORTS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL, IN OTHER WORDS LOCAL EFFORTS, ARE THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF WITHSTANDING THESE PRESSURES. THE ISSUES THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE MAJOR ISSUES WHICH WILL EMERGE IN YOUR PARTICULAR AREA WILL FOLLOW THE SAME PATTERN AS THE REST OF THE WORLD. THE ONLY POINT AT ISSUE IS WHEN THIS WILL HAPPEN. THE REPORT ON THE W.H.O. ASSEMBLY ANNOUNCED SMOKING CONTROL SEMINARS TO BE HELD LATE IN 1985 IN BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, CHILE AND URUGUAY, FOR 1986 ;PHE SCHEDULE INCLUDES SEMINARS IN BOLIVIA, COLOMBIA, PERU AND VENEZUELA, TIMN 289372
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26 IN THE CARRIBEAN, MEMBERS HAVE REPORTED GREATLY INCREASED NEWS COVERAGE OF SMOKING ISSUES; WARNING NOTICES HAVE BEEN ASKED FOR ON PACKAGES; ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS (VOLUNTARY) HAVE BEEN INSTITUTED AND INSURANCE COMPANIES ARE ACTIVE OFFERING DISCOUNTS TO NON SMOKERS, TAXATION THERE, AS IN FACT EVERYWHERE IS BEING INCREASED AND IS DEPRESSING SALES. WE CAN IDENTIFY FOR YOU, THE MAJOR ISSUES AS WE SEE THEM: THE MAJOR ISSUES THE PRIMARY HEALTH ISSUE REMAINS THE CORE OF OUR 37. PRIMARY HEAL H PROBLEM, MANY, MANY IMPLICATIONS ARE INVOLVED IN- RESPONDING TO THIS ISSUE, THERE IS NOT EVEN AGREEMENT AMONG MANUFACTURERS ON BOTH SIDE OF THE ATLANTIC ON HOW TO TAKE A STANCE ON THESE ISSUES, SO WE USE THIRD PARTY EXPERT ARGUMENTATION AND FINDINGS. MARKETING FREEDOM ARE BEING ADDRESSED IN A 38. MARKETING CONSTRUCTIVE WAY AND ARGUMENTATION ON ADVERTISING AND FREEDOMS SPONSORSHIP IS WELL DEVELOPED, THIS BOOKLET WITH THE I,A,A, IMPRINT HAS BEEN VERY 39. 16 COUNTRIES USEFUL IN ARGUING AGAINST ADVERTISING BANS AND RESTRICTIONS. SOCIAL COSTS/SOCIAL BENEFITS IS AN ISSUE THAT HAS 40. SOCIAL COST/ PROBABLY NOT CONFRONTED YOU YET IN AFRICA TO ANY SOCIAL BENEFIT DEGREE, WE HAVE USED ACADEMICS QUALIFIED TO WRITE ON NUBLIC POLICY AND REGULATION ISSUES AND ADVERTISING AND RESEARCH COMPANIES TO DEVELOP ACCEPTABLE THEMES. THIS ISSUE IS PARTICULARLY USED BY OUR CRITICS TO PURSUE THEIR PORTRAYAL OF SMOKING AS A SOCIALLY UNACCEPTABLE CUSTOM, TIMN 289373
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27 TAXATION IS PROBABLY THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUE FOR THE 41. TAXATION INDUSTRY. THE DIFFICULTY FROM AN INTERNATIONAL I NDUSTRY PO I NT OF V I EW I S THAT I T VAR I ES SO MUCH FROM COUNTRY TO COUNTRY THAT YOU CANNOT PROPOSE A FORMAT AND SAY "DO THAT AND THE RESULT WILL BE SUCH AND SUCH", THE MATERIAL INFOTAB HAS PRODUCED TRIES TO PUT 42, TAXATION FORWARD AS WIDE A RANGE OF OPTION AS POSSIBLE - SO BINDER THAT COUNTRIES CAN PICK AND CHOOSE AMONGST THEM FOR WHAT IS THE MOST APPROPRIATE TO THEIR OWN SITUATION, THE EFFORTS TO IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON PUBLIC SMOKING 43, PUBLIC SMOKING ARE NOT FAR ADVANCED IN AFRICA, BUT IT HAS BECOME A REALLY HOT ISSUE IN A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES, LAST YEAR INFOTAB SURVEYED THE WORLD IN THIS RESPECT, FIFTY-FOUR COUNTRIES KINDLY RESPONDED TO OUR QUESTIONNAIRE, INCLUDING MANY OF YOU HERE, To ILLUSTRATE THE SCOPE OF THE ATTENTIONS OF THE ANTI-SMOKERS, 26 KINDS OF PLACES WERE IDENTIFIED WHERE RESTRICTIONS HAVE OCCURRED, To SHOW THE OVERALL EXTENT OF BANS AND RESTRICTIONS 44, SURVEY BAR HERE IS A SLIDE SHOWING THOSE COUNTRIES WITH BANS AND CHART RESTRICTIONS IN 50% OR MORE OF THESE 26 LOCATIONS, HERE IS THE SECOND SLIDE SHOWING THOSE COUNTRIES WITH 45, SURVEY BAR BANS AND RESTRICTIONS IN LESS THAN 50% OF THESE SAME CHART LOCATIONS, WE HAVE WORK IN HAND TO STRENGTHEN OUR ABILITY TO 46, E,T,S, ETC. REFUTE THE CLAIMS OF THOSE WHO.. SAY THAT CIGARETTE SMOKE HARMS THE NON-SMOKER. SPECIAL EMPHASIS IS BEING PLACED ON THESE PAPERS DELIVERED AT GENEVA IN 1983 AND VIENNA IN 1984, WHERE SCIENTISTS GENERALLY AGREED THAT TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE AMBIENT AIR IS NOT A HEALTH HA.ZARD, ' TIIVIN 289374
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28 THE QUESTION OF YOUTH COMMENCING SMOKING IS A MAJOR PLATFORM WITH OUR MAIN OPPONENTS AND RESEARCH IS BEING UNDERTAKEN TO ESTABLISH THAT YOUTH IS NOT SMOKING DUE TO ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES, GLEN SMITH, DIRECTOR OF THE CHILDREN'S RESEARCH UNIT IN LONDON HAS COMPLETED A STUDY IN AUSTRALIA WITH 1 200 RESPONDENTS, WHICH WILL BE PUBLISHED SHORTLY, NORWAY IS THE NEXT COUNTRY TO BE STUDIED, SINCE OUR OPPONENTS ARE CLAIMING THAT THE ALLEGED DECLINE IN SMOKING BY THE VERY YOUNG (THEY CITE UNDER 15'S) IS DUE TO THE TOTAL BAN ON ADVERTISING THAT HAS BEEN IN EFFECT SINCE 1975. THE QUESTION OF DEFORESTATION IS BEING ADDRESSED TO OFFSET ACCUSATION OF EROSION OF FOREST RESERVES BECAUSE OF WOODFUEL USED IN CURING TOBACCO. THIS ISSUE FEATURES ON OUR PROGRAMME AND B.A,T. KENYA ARE IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE BATTLE. 47, YOUTH ISSUE 48, DEFORESTATIOP OUR EXPERIENCE SO FAR, HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT IN THE 49, ECONOMIC AREA OF ECONOMIC IMPACT THERE IS NO DOUBT BUT THAT IMPACT WHEN YOU WALK INTO GOVERNMENT OR DECISION-MAKERS REPRESENTING THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY, THE GREATEST CHANCE YOU HAVE OF GETTING AN EVEN HEARING OR OF BEING IN COMMAND IS WHEN YOU ARE TALKING JOBS AND SHARE OF G,N,P, THEREFORE, INFOTAB, HAS TAKEN A STRONG ROLE OF SUPPORTING ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES. A VERY RECENT ON IS FOR ZIMBABWE FOR WHICH INFOTAB 50, BRAZIL SLIDE GAVE ASSISTANCE, WE WILL BE HEARING MORE ABOUT THE STUDY LATER IN THE PROGRAMME, ALSO OTHER COUNTRIES WHERE STUDY PROJECTS ARE ON-GOING. THERE ARE NO MINUSES IN PRODUCING THESE STUDIES, 51, E.I./COUNTRIES ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES NOW EXIST IN THESE 16 COUNTRIES, TIMN 289375
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29 Now JUST COMPLETED IS AN ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY PROJECT 52, E,I, STUDY/ OF WESTERN EUROPE WHICH COVERS 18 COUNTRIES AND WILL, COUNTRIES WHEN IT IS PUBLISHED IN SEPTEMBER, GIVE A LIBRARY DOCUMENT THAT WILL BE ABLE TO BE USED IN DISCUSSION WITH THE E,C, COMMISSION AND OTHER BODIES, AND WILL DOCUMENT OBJECTIVELY THE STRENGTH OF THE INDUSTRY ON A PAN-EUROPEAN BASIS, MAJOR NEW I SSUES - ROTATIONAL WARNINGS (ILLUSTRATED) - "PASSIVE" SMOKING LEGAL CASES - TAXATION LINKED TO HEALTH COSTS - USE OF PETER TAYLOR'S BOOK - USE OF 1985 SURGEON GENERAL'S REPORT - CONCENTRATION ON CHILDREN'S SMOKING INFOTAB PLANS - UPDATES OF ISSUES BINDER AND "INDUSTRY IN ACTION" BINDER, - PRESS RELEASE EXPRESS SERVICE - FOR NEWS ITEMS SUITABLE FOR PUBLICATION, - YOUTH AND ADVERTISING, - SMOKING AND SOCIETY - ALSO IN SPANISH, - REGIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES, - INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP, - WORKSHOP FOR THE TRAINING OF SPOKESPEOPLE, - TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANS/DOCUMENTALISTS HST SEMINAR, MARCH, 1985) - EXTENSION OF PROGRAMME SEEKING SUPPORT FROM GROWING COUNTRIES, NAY I CONCLUDE ON THE NEED FOR UNITY WITHIN THE INDUSTRY. THERE HAVE BEEN SOME SUCCESSES IN TAXATION, ADVERTISING AND IN DEFENDING THE INDUSTRY IN PUBLIC AND PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRIES. L'f E HOPE THAT THE I NTERCHANGE OF V I EWS AT TH I S MEET I PJG WILL FURTHER STRENGTHEN OUR ACTION AND RESOLVE. TIMN 289376
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30 SILENCE IS NO DEAL El Silencio No es Negocio Alberto BORRINI (Presented by Jorge Basso Dastugue) Alberto Borrini cumplio dos decadas de periodismo especializado. Egres6 de la Escuela Superior de Periodismo de Buenos Aires, y estudi6 despues en la Facultad de Filosofia de Madrid. Asistio a congresos, conferencia.s y seminarios sobre comunicaciones masivas en Japbn, Alemania, Irlanda, Estados Unidos, y entrevisto a escritores, catedraticos y publicitarios de fama mundial: William Bernbach, Vance Packard, Peter Drucker, Louis Pauwels, George Lois, David Ogilvy, entre otros. TIAIN 289377
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31 t El Silencio no es negocio Alberto Borrini En 1959, un colega y yo dimos varias clases sobre Inforr.aci6n Empresaria en la ' Fundaci6n de Altos Estudios de la £mpresa, de Buenos Aires. Pretendianos ensefiar. periodisno a los empr.esarios; era un poco preiraturo y no tuvimos mucho 6xito, pero en cambio nosotros, los periodistas, aprendirtos mucho de las er,presas y los, empresarios. Desde entonces, mii especialidad fueron las empresas y los negocios. Despu6s de pasar por varias publicaciones rauy importantes de la Argentina, con otros colegas furidamos la primera revista de negocios que se distribuy6 en kioscos en la Argen- tina: N;ercado. Esta revista ernpez6 en 1969, y fue tar.ibi6n la primera que incluy6 una columna semanal sobre canunicaci6n y publicidad. :'oy son varias las publica- ciones argentinas que se ocupan regularmente de estos temas. llds tarde nuestro grupo se hizo cargo del diario de negocios El Cronista Car.er.cia fundado en 1908; ahora, desvinculado de la revista Mercado, soy uno de los editores de El Cronista Car.ercial donde sigo escribiendo, todos los jueves, una columna sobre canunicaci6n. En mgs de veinte arios de periodismo, pude entrevistar a varias de las mayores per "sonalidades mundiales de la ccmunicaci6n y el managanent en Europa y los Estados Unidos; entre ellos podria citar a los publicitarios William Bernbach, David Ogilvy y George Lois; a los profesores y consultores Peter Drucker, Octave Gelinier y Theodore Levitt; a los escritores Vance Packard y Louis Paui:tels. El ano pasado, interesado especialmnete en la ccr:unicaci6n politica, convers6 en Nueva York con Tony Schvrartz, c;uien colabor6 en las campanas de los presidentes Johnson y Carter y varios aspirantes a congresales. Muchas de estas entrevistas fueron recogidas en cuatro libros, uno de los cuales, El silencio no es nec7ocio, resumi y actualic6 para ustedes. En realidad, el trabajo que sigue es tanto una sintesis del libro car,o la prime- ra versi6n del gui6n de un audiovisual en el que ya estoy trabajando. Este audio- visual, que exigirg varios cientos de slides, serg ex.r.ibido el ano pr6ximo a em-
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32 presarios y ejecutivos argentinos. Era mi propbsito presentarles personalmente este material; una serie de canpraai.- sos profesionales me impidieron viajar, por lo cual le pedf a mi amigo Jorge Basso Dastugue que me reemplazara en Miami. No es un simple reemplazo; con Basso Dastugue hanos conversado muchas veces de este tema, cruzando nuestras experiencias y lecturas. Para 61, cano para mi, "El silencio no es negocio". 0 TTMN 289379
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33 EL S=CIO PdO ES MC',OCIO Ustedes ya saben lo que decia l•lark Twain de la mfisica de Wagner: "No puede ser tan mala ccmo suena". Pienso que a la empresa hay que darle el mismo beneficio de la duda. Porque si nos limitamos a escuchar la mfzsica, en otras palabras lo que dicen de ella, o piensan de ella, podemos llegar a la lamentable conclusi6n de que la empresa privada no tiene demasiado porvenir, aunque los criticos y adversarios no sepan explicar satisfactoriamente cCxno piensan reemplazarla. En todo caso, lo que queda en claro es que cada vez son menos los que estdn dis- puestos a defender a las empresas, y que, en consecuencia, las e:npresas deber9n encargarse ellas mismas, individualmente y a trav6s de sus entidades representa- tivas, de su defensa. Este trabajo trata precisamente acerca de esta necesidad. No contiene soluciones. Cada empresa es un caso particular, up. problema original. Este trabajo se propone, en cambio, repasar las herramientas conque cuenta la empresa para estar mejor protegida de los vendavales de la opini6n pfiblica. Pero primero, a manera de pr6logo, vamos a ver juntos algunos ejemplos de las amenazas que se ciernen sobre las empresas; amenazas cue puaden recientes tener ori- genes diversos, pero que en general confluyen en un misr,io punto: la temible, y a veces imprevisible, opinibn pGblica. * La tragedia quimica de Bophal merecib este titulo en la portada de Business Week: "Union Carbide fights for its life". Es una lucha en la que no s81o intervi nen ingenieros, ecologistas, abogados, sino tambi€n canunicadores y relacionistas La imagen y el prestigio de Union Carbide quedaron.seriamente dafiados, y su repa- racibn exigirg todo el talento rue la empresa pueda obtener entre los especialis- tas en canunicacibn. * Si alguna duda quedaba de que las empresas son, ademgs de organismos econdmi.co: .TIMN M938®
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34 tambi6n organismos polfticos, ahi estd el ejenplo de Sud6frica. Hace un par de meses, el diario Clarin, de Buenos Aires, reprodujo un articulo firmado por el titular de IPM, John F. Akers, en el que aclaraba la posici6n de su anpresa con respecto al apartheid. EscribiS Akers: "IBM podria desaparecer (de Suddfrica) co un sacrificio financiero muy pequeno... Pero nosotros creemos que lo correcto es permanecer y redoblar nuestros esfuerzos para lograr la igualdad social". Esta ' es la respuesta a las crtticas que se estaban haciendo a las trescientas empresas norteamericanas que actfzan en S.iddfrica. * Otro articulo, 6ste del vicepresidente y director of corporate affairs de Philip Morris, Stanley S. Scott, fue publicado en The New York Times y reproducidc en un aviso de la empresa que apareci6 en otros medios. Scott titulb "Smokers ge a raw deal". Los productos conflictivos, cano las bebidas alcohblicas y los*ciga- rrillos, tienen razones adicionales para estar en guardia. MAs y m6s, la lucha por la supervivencia se entablard en el daninio de la opinidn pfiblica,.y el mejc ejemplo es la campafia contra el abuso del alcohol que se desarrolla en los Esta- dos Unidos. Dicen que el bar mas famoso de los Estados Unidos es el de la serie "Love boat"; las leyes del rAting impiden cerrarlo, pero los dirigentes del Writers, Producez.. and Directors Alcohol and Drug Abuse Conanittee ya se han puesto de acuerdo para dejar de ensalzar al macho bebedor. * Queda a prop6sito para el final el caso de Procter & Gamble, porque prueba que las amenazas a las empresas pueden llegar al extremo de figurar en una de las columnas de Ripley. Procter & Gamble es una empresa gigantesca; en 1984 vendib por valor de 12.900 millones de dblares. Sin embargo,'fue conmovida se.riamente por un simple y absur- do rumor, que en 1980 empezb a vincular su logo, de 103 afios, con el diablo. Alguien descubri6 en el 1cgo el signo del Anticri,.:=t-o. el 666. Y asi empezb todo. En un sSlo mes, la empresa recibib m6s de 15.000 llamadas telefCnicas de personas
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35 que querian saber si lo que se decia era verdad; Procter & Gamble luch6 hasta que hace unos meses decidi6 retirar el logo de la discordia de los envases de sus pro- ductos. Estos son unos pocos ejemplos, tal vez extremos, del contexto negativo en clie de- ben moverse hoy las errpresas. Pero no hay que olvidar el clima'que crean programas de televisi6n cano "Dallas" y "Dinasty", que invariablenente relacionan al dinero y los negocios con la perversi6n, y tampoco a los libros "best-sellers" que salen de las usinas de Harold Robbins, Jonathan Black, Arthur Hailey y otros. T_,a f6rmu- la infalible para tener 6xito con una novela parece ser una mezc1a de sexo, violen- cia y denuncia empresaria. Lo curioso es que estas lucrativas agresiones a la empresa cano instituci6n parten de otras empresas, editoras y productoras de programas de televisi6n; taunbidn es curioso que autores cano Robbins, por ejanplo, se valgan de las mismas t6cnicas de m~Lrketing y pranoci6n que luego critican en sus libros. Por lo dEnls, ilevan la misma vida que adjudican a los malvados empresarios: disfrutan de residencias millonarias, relucientes piscinas y largas pausas de descanso en el Caribe. Tal vez estas paradojas tuvo en cuenta el soci6logo Irving Kristol cuando dijo: "Piense usted en algo que pue3a perjudicar al capitalismo e irIInediatamente un ca- pitalista le sacard a1gGn provecho." Y ahora, vayamos directamente a nuestro tema. 0 TIMN 289382
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36 Este trabajo parte de las siguientes premi..sas: 1) Las empresas, cano acabamos de ver, actfzan en un contexto socioecontni.co cada vez m9s conflictivo, y en el que la opini6n pfiblica adquiere una importancia cre- ciente y a menudo decisiva; 2) Esta situaci6n exige contar-con una filosofia institucional, que a su vez con- siste en interroyarse pexmanentgnente acerca de ?.os prop6sitos de la empresa, a corto y largo plazo; 3) La filosofia institucional debe traducirse, entre otras iniciativas fundamenta les, en informaci6n regular y honesta a los distintos ptiblicos de la empresa. Informaci6n. Ido basta el mecenazgo, aunque sea elogiable y ayude a tener una personalidad. Ex- periencias ca:1o las aciunuladas por el Business Coami.ttee for the Arts, entidad integrada por las canpanias de Estados Unidos que apoyan a las manifestaciones artisticas, son demostrativas. Pero en estos tiempos una de las mayores tentaciones de las empresas es la de trz tar de remontar su imagen con el auspicio de las artes y las ciencias. Crec que estos aportes ayudan. Pero no es inteligente pensar que se puede solucio- nar un conflicto con un concierto. ido se puede porque los pGblicos, en las situaciones conflictivas, no pueden apoyar lo que no conocen ni canprenden. Y las empresas, aunque nos cueste admitirlo, son unas ilustres desconocidas para mucha gente, y para no pocos lideres de opani6n. Hay un aviso de la empresa Warner & Swasey, de Cleveland, que me parece antol6gi() Lleva este titulo: "Fmerican business can sell anytr.ing except its most important product: itself." Por supuesto lo mismo puede decirse de las em,.nresas argentinas y las de otros pas- ses, con alguna excepci6n cano Jap6n. Otro aviso de Warner & Swasey es una verdader declaraci6n de principios: "Wzen WAIN 289383 4
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37 you bury your head in the sand, you're already up to your neck in trouble". Un tercer aviso de la misma empresa dice asi: "There is nothing gross about profit". El tema de la ganancia estA en el centro misno de las posiciones antietnpresarias; es cierto aue muchos no quieren entenderla, pero tambi6n es cierto que son mayo- rta las empresas que no quieren explicarla. Quiero contarles que me interes6 tanto esta campana de Warner & Strrasey, una fl- brica de mAquinas industriales, que escribi para tener m6s informaci6n. Patrick tfcCarthy, director de canunicaciones y relaciones pGblicas, me respondi6 que se trata de la campafia institucional m9s larga de la historia de la publici- dad norteamericana. Ehipez6 en 1936; desde entonces, fueron publicidas m9s de 1.200 piezas diferentes. Primero, los avisos se propusieron incrementar el grado de conocimiento de la empresa, de manera que los vendedores y pronotores no tuvieran que hacer una llamada frta. Pero despu6s, la campana fue inclingndose por lo que McCarthy llama "una declara- ci6n de la filosofla de nuestra firma". Warner &Swrasey no se limita a publicar los avisos en diarios y revistas. Env,ia reproducciones a todos los que las piden; la campafia circula tambi6n en los cole- gios, debido a que muchos maestros usan los mensajes para plantear la discusi6n sobre el tema de la libre empresa en las aulas. Nada mejor para las empresas: el dia que en las aulas de los paises libres se ge- neralice este debate, habrd r•Z9s personas capaces de pensar por si nismas acerca de la funci6n de las empresas en una sociedad mo3erna. Esta campana de Warner & Swasey prueba ademds que son las enpresas y sus organi- zaciones las que tienen que informar y pranover la ref 1exi6n de los pfiblicos. Son las empresas las que deben trasnitir los aspectos positivos de organisr;los que, con todos sus defectos, producen, crean riqueza y contribuyen al desarrollo , TIMN 789384
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38 econEm.ico, social y cultural de un pais. Deben hacerlo hoy m6s que nunca. Ccmo periodista, tuve ocasi6n de conversar varias veces, en Buenos Aires y en Paris, con el escritor y consultor franc6s Octave Gelinier. Es un fil6sofo del management. Dice Gelinier que las dificultades actua- les de la empresa son, por una parte, el fruto de maniobras malintencionadas que hay que contrarrestar. Pero, adangs, que esas dificultades son sintcma de una inadaptaci6n de las empresas a su entorno actual. ZTerminardn las empresas por convertirse en pesados dinosaurios condenados a de- saparecer por su incapacidad para moverse entre los medios de difusi6n y los dictados de la opini6n pfiblica? e:Es posible que organisnos que han probado ser tan tan eficientes en el terreno del consumo, que han satisfecho y orientado necP- sidades de los pfblicos, claudiquen por no saber utilizar la canunicaci6n que requieren las circunstancias? LSerd ccmo dice el aviso que vimos antes, que la empresa no puede venderse a si misma? No necesariamente. La empresa tiene a su alcance una bateria de herramientas de canunicaci6n externa, bien conocidas por to3os ustedes. Pero igualmente vamos a recordarlas: - Press releases o gacetillas, cano las llamamo$ en la Argentina. Conferencias o reuniones de prensa. - Discursos de los directivos en distintas tribunas. - Articulos periodisticos y reportajes, generalmente motivados por iniciativas o acontecimientos empresarios. - Video-Clips. - Corporate Advertising. D6je.nme decirle que los video-clips, o capsulas filmadas, son uno de los qltimo: recursos incorporados por las empresas. Este material de informacibn empresaria, distribuido entre las emisoras de televisi6n, es la primera cuna que se introduc en un medio tan esauivo para las empresas. , t TII'.:~TJ 2`938~
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39 de difusi6n. Las gacetillas, por ejemplo. En la Argentina se las usa mucho, a veces se abusa de ellas. Muchas empresas las ven cano la forma de estar en los diarios y revistas sin pagar por el espacio. Con este punto de vista parecen un excelente negocio, pero en realidad son, a veces, nada mAs que una manera de satisfacer miriimamente la vanidad de los ejecutivos. En el mejor de los casos, las gacetillas son una po- bre muestra de informaci6n empresaria. Face unos anos hice un estudio de las ga- cetillas que publicaban los diarios argentinos; en buena proporci6n se referian a viajes al exterior de empresarios y ejecutivos. Viajar al exterior entonces, y adn ahora, era un sSmbolo de status. Pero adverti que siempre eran viajes de ida, nunca de regreso al pals. Los ejecu- tivos, de acuerdo con las gacetillas, segulan de viaje irXlefinidamente, y sus an- presas quedaban ac6falas. ,LPero por qud tenSan inter6s en publicar sblo los viajes de ida? Tengo la respues- ta porque, precisamente, convers6 con algunos de los viajeros a su regreso. Nie explicaron que no queri-an hablar, no querian que sus ccrpetidores se enteraran de las m6quinas que habtan canprado en el exterior o los nuevos pro3uctos que ha- btan visto en ferias y exposiciones. LO no querlan hablar porque no hablan canpra- do ninguna maquina ni visitado ninguna feria?. Dios sabe. Decididamente, no creo que las gacetillas, al menos cano se las entiende en la Argentina, sirvan de mucho. Entre las herramientas gratuitas, ademls de las gacetillas, estan las reuniones • de prensa y los reportajes. jPor qu6, entonces, las anpresas invierten dinero en corporate advertising? BkIsicamente porque de todas esas herramientas de co:nunicaci6n que vi.mos, la corporate advertising es la finica que la ernpresa puede controlar totalrnente. Porque es publicidad. Y porcrue es paga. TIMN 289386
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40 Puede controlar el espacio que tendrd el mensaje en los medios de difusibn. Pue3e controlar el timing. Puede controlar la ubicaci6n en los medios, es decir el contexto editorial que rodeard a la informaci6n de la empresa. Este del contexto tiene su importancia: yo no querrta que las noticias de una empresa saliera entre las noticias de poli- cia. Tanto las gacetillas, como los'reportajes dependen del interds o de la buena volun- tad de los medios. La corporate advertising depende exclusivamente de la empresa. La empresa redacta la informaciSn que desea trasmitir y la publica cuando quiere y donde quiere. Otra ventaja de la publicidad institucional es que puede ser planificada y ejecu- tada de acuerdo con el inter4s mds amplio de la empresa, incluyendo el interds canercial. Porque la publicidad institucional, si bien se hace primordialmente para vender la empresa, ayuda tambAn a vender sus productos. La tecnologia hace que los prc ductos tiendan a parecerse mas y mas entre si, hasta el punto que es dificil, a veces, encontrar diferencias sobre las cuales apoyar la publicidad ccnercial. En estas circunstancias, la empresa puede ayudar a hacer la diferencia. La publicidad institucional es vista hoy como un paraguas que protege a todos lc productos y servicios que brinda la empresa. Esta publicidad cobrb un fuerte impulso en los Estados Unidos, durante los ditimos ai=ios. En Europa muchas empresas la ven to3avia cano un lujo; sin embargo, segGn el especialista Anthony TnTreford, de una agencia especializada de Londres, en 1980 mAs de 30 de las 150 empresas del r&bking de The Times hacian publicidad institu cional regularmente. En 1974 eran apenas 9. Pero volvamos a los Estados Unidos: 1) Hasta mediados de la d'ecada del 60, esta publicidad era poco relevante. En 19 ? ! 'I'I1N/iN 289387
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41 no absorbia m6s de 150 millones de dblares. Hoy se invierte en ella bastante mjs de 1.000 millones anuales. 2).La mayoria de las empresas del r6nking de la revista Fortune hace publicidad regularmente. 3) Varias decenas de empresas tienen presupuestos institucionales que desbordan los 10 millones de d6lares anuales. 4) Estas cifras, de todas maneras, no cuentan toda la historia, porque es imposi- ble medir la proporci6n de publicidad institucional que se ests inyectarrlo, en for- ma creciente, en la publicidad canercial. Autos, bancos y canpanias de aviaci6n hablan cada vez mds co:no empresas, en sus avisos. Los cigarrillos, por su naturaleza, simpre concentraron sus energSas en los pro- ductos, o, pcdrta decirse, en las sensacicnes asociadas con los productos. En mu- chos avisos de cigarrillos ni siquiera estd el producto; me refiero a que no se habla del producto, especificamente. Pues bien, algo empez6 a cambiar, creo yo, con Vantage y Merit. A fines de la decada del 60, o principios de la del 70, Vantage public6 avisos absolutamente diferentes de los que los cigarrillos publicaban hasta ese manento. ,,.,., '.' .: Avisos con opini6n, que podrian~escribirse en una de las vertientes m6s nuevas de la publicidad institucional: la advocacy advertising o advertorial, mezcla de advertising y editorial. Ya veremos esta raza de avisos mas adelante. i Tengo en mi archivo varios avisos de esta epoca de Vantage. Uno de ellos, un spreat llevaba este titulo: "Vantage is changing a lot my feelings about smoking". Seguia un texto inusual para un cigarrillo, de mcis de 100 palabras. Vantage desplaz6 el centro de atenci6n de las sensaciones y los estados de &Limo, e impuls6 al consu- midor a reflexionar conjuntamente sobre el acto de fumar. Merit, en seguida, public6 el famoso aviso en el que podia verse el edificio de los laboratorios de Richmond. No puedo confiar demasiado en mi memoria, pero creo que la presencia de los laboratorios en la publicidad del cigarrillo no.es nada f TIIWII'*' 289388
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42 canfin; adem9s, el texto tenia cientos de palabras. Esta campana ccmbin6 exitosa mente lo canercial con lo institucional, y una versi6n de ella fue vista en la Argentina. En la publicidad institucional norteamericana hay que destacar tambi€n la pre- sencia de los presidentes y directores generales en los avisos; es una forma de camprcmiso con el m,ensaje que el pGblico, al parecer, saber valorar. He visto anuncios en los que testimoniaban, para sus anpresas, los presidentes de Greyhound, de Irving Trust, de U.S. Steel, de Eastern. Sin duda, el mensaje de los presidentes constituye el m6ximo endoso que puede tener la informaci6n de una empresa. Conozco dos casos en que los presidentes se hicieron tan famo- sos cano sus ccmpanias a raiz de aparecer en la publicidad: uno es el de Frank Perdue, un productor de pollos, y otro es el de Lee Iacocca. Iacocca, despu6s de haber salvado a Chrysler, puede aspirar a cargos politicos de primera linea Incluso al de presidente de la I-:aci6n, segGn algunos. Ustedes querrcin saber ahora qu6 pasa en la Argentina con esta publicidad. Buen quizd la mejor prueba de cl-ue progresa, aunque no a la velocidad que a muchos nos gustaria, es que tenemos un concurso exclusivamente consagrado a la publi- cidad institucional. Lo lanz6 mi diario, El CrQnista Caaercial, en 1980. Tam- bi6n se aprecia una mayor demanda de investigaciones de imagen, paso previo al lanzamiento de campafias de este genero. A esta altura quisiera recoger las opiniones de un publicitario muy importante David Ogilvy, a quien pude entrevistar durante el que creo fue su f~ltimo viaje a la Argentina, durante la d6cada del 70. Ogilvy asigna una importancia decisiva al camprcmiso personal de los rrAcimos directivos con esta publicidad. Fuxlamentalmente, porque a menudo s61o con su apoyo puede mantenerse la campana hasta obtener resultados, mds lentos que los ccmerciales. Las campanas institucionales necesitan tiempo, continuidad, y s6lo la alta di- recci6n puede sostenerlas. Los presidentes no tienen necesariamente que aparecer
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43 en los avisos, pero deben apoyarlos. El m9ximo directivo, ademds, estA en una posici6n que le permi.te comprender y conciliar los intereses y aspiraciones de las distintas greas de la empresa. Y finalmente, s61o una persona con su autoridad puede obtener el dinero para hacer bien el trabajo. Ibdavia es m9s necesario el canpraniso de la alta direcci6n en esa vertiente de la publicidad institucional de que habl9bamos hace un manento: la advocacy o advertorial. Las gnpresas, en este caso, ya no hablan de si mismas, de sus mdquinas o de su personal o de su historia; hacen pGblicas sus ideas y conviccio- nes. Las e<npresas, acuciadas por las dificultades y las criticas, han enlpezado a publicar editoriales. Pude conversar, hace un par de anos, con el publicitario que bautiz6 y pranovi6 en6rgicamente esta publicidad: John O'Toole, presidente de Foote, Cone & Belding, una de las diez mayores agencias del mundo. O'Toole us6 por primera vez el t6r- mino advocacy advertising en 1974, para referirse al uso de la publicidad por parte de las empresas, tanto para exponer sus puntos de vista a la opini6n pfi- blica, como para defenderse de las criticas que provengan de los medios masivos de ccmunicaci6n. O'Toole resume asi sus opinioneS: "El gobierno no nos defendera. Nuestros amigos de la televisi6n no nos ayudardn. La prensa puede hacer algo, pero el adversa- rio tiene ideas mAs coloridas y emocionantes para ofrecer. Nos aueda, entonces, la advocacy advertising". Que es cano decir "cuedamos solamente nosotros". Tambi6n entrevist6 a Albert Stridsberg, profesor de la Universidad de Nueva York y autor del trabajo mas im-portante sobre el tema: "Controversy advertising" Controvery, advocacy y advertorial son usados ccrio sin6nimos. Les reccmiendo la lectura de este libro, editado por Hastings House. Stridsberg define asi esta publicidad: "Any kind of paid public caununication or message, fran an identifie TINTN' 289390
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44 source and in a conventional mediLUa of public advertising, which presents infor mation or a point of view bearing on a publicly recognized controversial issue". Con esta publicidad de ideas las enpresas no enganan al pfblico porque no disi- mulan que estdn haciendo publicidad: la firman, le dan la forma de avisos y la pagan a los medios. Esto queda claro para el pdblico. Pero que tenga la forma de avisos plantea a la advertorial un serio problema: debe luchar con los demds avisos para ganarse la atenci6n del pGblico. Por eso estos avisos, a pesar de descansar en el contenido, deben tambi6n preocuparse por la forma. S61o el impacto de la forma puede conducir a la reflexi6n del con- tenido. En la Argentina esta publicidad viene a reemplazar a las prehist6ricas Solicita- das, farragosos ccr,nuiicados de las empresas, publicados generalmente en circuns tancias conflictivas para dirigirse a la opini6n pGblica. Casi siempre se limi- taban a eso, a dirigirse. Pocos de estos a:ensajes llegaban, porque tenSan, y aGn tienen, aspecto y lenguaje burocrdtico. Pero el mayor conocimiento por par- te de empresarios y publicitarios acerca de la advertorial estA cambiando las cosas, en la Argentina; las Solicitadas ya tienen titulos y textos m9s elabora- dos, y muchas de ellas son prcducidas por agencias de publicidad. Antes el res- ponsable de una Solicitada se limitaba a enviar el texto a los medios, y 6stos debian ccrrLponerlo con sus recursos tipograficos. El resultado era que la misma Solicitada adoptaba un aspecto diferente en cada diario que la publicaba. Esta publicidad parece hecha a medida para los productos conflictivos. Veamos el caso de los cigarrillos. ?'o me demorar6 mucho porque ustedes deben conocer estos avisos de memoria. `Th Desde hace unos anos, Tobacco Institute se encarga de la defensa del cigarrillc Es advertorial, :ncis que corporate advertising, porque se manejan ideas, funda- mentalmente, y porque, cc7no diria Stridsberg, se insertan en "a publicly recognized controversial issue". TIlM-N 289391
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45 La Ciltima campana de que tengo noticia, canpuesta por una serie de spreads, empez6 con uno que llevaba este titulo: "How many questions have you asked about cigarettes?". A partir del segundo aviso, la cainpana se plante6 y respondi6 a varias de esas supuestas preguntas, co:no 6stas: "Does cigarette advertising cause kids to start smoking?". "Do cigarette canpanies want kids to smoke?". "Is cigarette advertising a major reason why kids smoke? No.". Estos son avisos publicados por una entidad. Reci6n el ano pasado, en un movimien• to inusual y no aprobado por todos, R.J. Reynolds lanz6 su propia advertorial, con mensajes que llevan estos titulos: "Snoking in public: Let's separate fact fran friction". "We don't advertise to children". "The most inflammatory question of our time". Son s6lo tres ejemplos de una serie que lleva ocho o diez piezas. Pero en materia de advertorial, la empresa que la utiliza con mayor convicci6n y mAs agresivamente es, ccmo ustedes saben, la petrolera Mobil. Me puse en con- tacto"con el vicepresidente a cargo de este tema en la empresa, Herbert Schmertz, un hanbre polemico, que cuenta con pocas simpatias entre los periodistas, sobre todo cuando, el ano pasado, influyo para que Mobil ranpiera relaciones con The Wall Street Journal, a raiz de la publicaci6n de una noticia que consider6 falsa. Desde que se plante6 la conveniencia de redactar sus propios editoriales, Mobil quiso publicarlos lo mAs cerca posible de los verdaderos editoriales de los diarios; por eso canpr6 un espacio en la p9gina enfrentada al editorial del The New York Times apenas esta secci6n se abri6 a la publicidad. Desde este espacio, Mobil descarga campafias muy agresivas, fundamentalmente contra los medios que a su juicio tergiversan los hechos. Es famosa su reacci6n ante un programa de la CBS que afect6 sus intereses. El
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46 aviso, de doble p6gina, fue titulado: "How CBS on october 24, 1979, prefabricat i the news". En 1983, hizo una serie de avisos bajo este tttulo general: "Are the media givi..g us the facts?". En una de las piezas de esta serie, arrenetfa contra la pelicul "All the president's men" y "the mith of the crusading reporter". Mobil es muy directa, frontal. Algunos la llaman el John Wayne de la advertoria norteamericana. Si quieren saber mi opinibn, creo que toda empresa debe tratar de poner de su lado al periodismo en vez de atacarlo. De una controversia cano bsta sie:npre saldrd perdiendo la etnpresa. ZY cfmo estamos en Argentina en esto de la advertorial? Por supuesto, pocos, relativamente, saben qub cosa es la advertorial en la Argentina. Pero hasta los que la desconocen la empiezan a practicar. Son casos aislados, y por supuesto mAs discretos que el de :lobil, pero en proceso de expansibn. Uno de esos casos es el de los productores farmacbuticos, nucleados en la Cgmar- Argentina de Especialidades Medicinales. El problana que se cernia sobre la industria, en 1978 o 1979, era un proyecto del gobierno de entonces que consis- tSa en reducir las listas de me3icamentos que pueden recetar los medicos, con el propbsito, se decta, de concentrar la producci6n y reducir los costos. La entidad empresaria no canpartia este criterio y respondi6 con una campana advertorial. Veamos los titulos de algunos avisos: "La libertad del mbdico es ul, derecho del paciente". "E1 mejor ranedio es la libertad de receta del mbdico". "Libertad para la salud". Es preciso acotar que esta campafia de ideas se hizo casi al mismo tie-npo que otra, institucional, co-isagrada a mostrar ccmo era.la industria farmaceutica, cudles eran sus logros, cuInto personal ocupaba, etc. Otros avisos de ideas publicados en la Argentina fueron firmados por grandes rr'DIPr 289392
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47 Renault Argentina, autcmotriz, sali6 al cruce de la ofensiva de los autos im- portados, en 1979, con una doble pAgina en diarios titulada "Pensar en impor- tados es humano. Errar tambi6n°. Eran manentos en que, bajadas las barreras aduaneras, llegaban a Argentina importantes cargamentos de autos de Jap6n, Europa, Estados Unidos. El pfiblico estaba fascinado. Renault invit6 en ese a- viso a reflexionar sobre la diferencia existente entre un auto que se importa y otro que se produce en el paSs, principalmente en el terreno del servicio posventa. Y tenia raz6n, porque pocos anos despu6s muchos de esos autos importados han quedado hu6rfanos, en la Argentina. Ford Motor Argentina sali6 al cruce, en 1981, de las altas tasas de inter6s pagadas por las colocaciones financieras, que estaban desalentando el consumo. de bienes. Uno de los avisos nostr6 una rueda anpantanada, con este titulo: "Si, son tiempos difSciles". En el texto proponla canprar en vez de especular financieramente. Finalmente, en mi archivo est5n los avisos de Siemens, la empresa ale-nana ra- •dicada en la Argentina. Siemens tambi6n se vio amenazada por el ingreso al pais de equipos telef6nicos importados, particularmente japoneses. La empresa hizo hincapi6 en el service, con avisos rnuy bien hechos, ycon sus convicciones sobre el mercado: "Cuando es tarde todos se lamentan". "Considere una cosa antes de escoger:. el futuro". "Un buen inversor mira detr9s del escenario". Siemens cLunplSa en ese mcnento 70 anos de vida en la Argentina y los queria hacer valer ante los reci6n llegados. Buenc•, basta de casos y avisos y vayamos a una reflexi6n final sobre la ccr,u- nicaci6n empresaria. TIMIJ r 289394
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48 Vinlos primero las razones por las cuales las e:npresas ya no pueden permanecer calladas. 'r.oy, mds que nunca, el que calla otorga. Por eso el silencio ya no es negocio. ~ En Argentina, todavia se escucha justificar el silencio con una frase que nadie me supo explicar bien: "low profile". Me han explicado en que consisten, por ejemplo, el "cash flow", el "break-even- point" y otras figuras por el estilo. Por supuesto no las entendS, pero me convencieron de que son valiosas. En cambio, estoy seguro que muchas veces, casi siempre, el dichoso "low profile" no responde a un estudio a fondo de la situaci6n de la empresa y a la elecci6n de un bajo perfil en el terreno de la canunicaci6n. Creo que, al menos en la Argentina, el "low profile" esconde la absoluta inca- pacidad de la empresa para moverse en el espinoso terreno de la carnuZicaci6n. Cano la empresa no sabe que hacer, qu6 decir, entonces opta por callarse y cali- fica su actitud de "low profile". Queda bien y calma los nervios. En Argentina, una empresa que elige temporariamente este catnino, puede haber situaciones extremas, debe investigar y estudiar su situaci6n m6s, mucho rrAs que otra que se decide a hablar, a canunicarse. El "low profile" exige haber analizado todas las variables, y no tener nirxP u-ia duda de que no hablar por un tiempo es la mejor salida. De esta decisi6n, una de las mAs importantes que puede tanar una canpania, de- ben participar desde los responsables de las ccmunicacior_es hasta la direcci6n general. El "low profile", antes de ser implementado, exige una fluida relaci6n con los medios de difusi6n. Una relaci6n si se quiere m6s afiatada todavia que la exi- gida por una politica agresiva de ccmunicaci6n. Porque, en todo caso, el "low profile" es una salida que afecta solamente a ~ TIMN 289395
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49 lo que debe decir la propia enpresa. Pero zqu6 pasa con lo que pueden decir los demgs? zAcaso se le puede imponer el propio "low profile" a los dends? . Si la idea es no contestar los ataques, al menos habria que mantener una buena relaci6n con los medios para que ellos conozcan la otra cara del problema y puedan informar correctamente. t4anter.er informados a los medios, darles la posibilidad de confirmar una noti- cia o un rumor que afecte a la empresa, es una manera de poder mantener ese bajo perfil. Ya vemos, entonces,'ct.mo hasta para mantener un "low profile" es necesario an- pezar por traicionar al "low profile". Es que nadie, aunque se lo proponga, puede darle la espalda a la informaci6n en esta sociedad de la informaci6n. Puede informar mds o menos, pero siempre deberd estar pendiente de la informa- ci6n de los dergs, particularmente de aquella que puede perjudicarlo. La informaci6n esta mcldeando nuestras vidas mucho m9s de lo que podamos cal- cular. La dependencia de la informaci6n fue dramdticamente enfatizada por Theodore dt lLi6ro M-zite, el autor de la serie "The making of the president". Dijo T7hite: "El sis- tema politico vive hoy bajo el terror de la televisi6n... Cualduier cosa que suceda en politica serd vista y juzgada a trav6s de la pantalla. Tuvimos una serie de presidentes que duraron un s61o periodo desde 1960; uno de los proble- mas es que la televisi6n los sobreexpone. La duraci6n pranedio de las mejores series (en los Estados Unidos),es de alrededor de 4 anos. Luego el pGblico se aburre de ellas..Io mismo pasa con los presidentes". Ronald Reagan quebr6 este diagn6stico de White, pero a nadie escapa que es el presidente que mejor se vale de los medios de difusion desde I:ennedy, o tal vez desde Franlclyn Delano Roosevelt. A Reagan lo llaman "el gran carnznicador". Si las instituciones politicas han debido adaptarse a estas circunstancias, ; Tj-1ViN 289396
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50 si la capacidad de moverse entre los medios de difusi6n es hoy vital para los presidentes, pocas dudas caben de que la expresa tendrd que aceptar este desa- ffo o quedar expuesta a conflictos cada vez m6s graves. La anpresa tiene que informar, dialogar, cUmurLi.carse. No hay sucedcneos para esta tarea. Ya no basta con hacer el mejor producto y al mejor precio posible. Ya no basta cunplir con to3as las leyes, pagar los impuestos, ser un buen sitio de trabajo, actualizar la tecnologSa y tener ganancias moderadas. Ya no basta con invertir dinero en las artes y los deportes. Un conflicto nunca se soluciona con el auspicio de un concierto o de un parti- do de fG.tbol. Un conflicto se soluciona, si tiene soluci6n, con informaci6n honesta. Casi sienpre, con informaci6n que se ha dado antes de que se produjera el conflict,. CuSnto mejor informados est6n los distintos pfiblicos de la empresa, mejor po- sicionada estard la empresa para enfrentar y salir de un conflicto. Cuanto antes se decida la anpresa a informar regularmente, cuanta mayor infor maci6n obre en poder del pfiblico, tanto mas fdcil le serd moverse en estos tiempos. La informaci6n es un capital que la gnpresa debe mantener al dia si quiere pr- perar. • El silencio, en cambio, no es negocio. 0
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51 "SILENCE IS NO DEAL" Alberto Borrini In 1959, a col league and idel ivered se•.,or;;l conFerenres on managerial information at the "Fundacion de Altos Estudios de 'a Er;,presa" (Business High Studies Foundation) in Buenos Aires. We tried to Leach jourr~lism to businessmen; it was a bit premature and wu didn't succeed, ou;. :•.c, .ne journalists, learnt a lot about corporations arid businessmen. Since then, my speciality has been corporations and business. After having worked for many very important publications in Argentina, some colleagues and I founded the first business magazine which was distributed at news - tands in Argentina: "Mercado" (Market). This magazine began in 1969 and was the first one to include a weekly column on communications and advert- ising. Today, many Argentine publications deal regularly with these subjects. Later on, our group took charge of "El Cronista Comercial'! (The Commercial Chronicler), a business newspaper founded in 1908. I am at present one of the editors of "El Cronista Comercial" (The Commercial Chronicler), where I write a column on communications every Thursday. In more than twenty years of journal ism, I:•ias able to intervie:•r many of the world's most important personalities on communications and management in Europe and the United States, among them I'd like to mention admen ,4/illiam Bernbach, David Ogilvy and George Lois, proffesors and advisers Peter Drucker, Octave Gelinier, and Theodore Levitt, authors Vance Packard and Louis Pauwels. Owing to my special interest in political communications, last year talked to Tony Schwartz in I'Iew York, who helped in the election campaigns of presidents Johnson and Carter and of many Congress candidates. Many of these interviews were put together on four books. One of these, "El silencio no es negocio" (Silence is no deal) I have summmarized and upda ted fo r you. r In fact, the following paper is a combination of the summary of that book' and the first version of the script for an audiovisual I am at present working on. This audiovisual, demanding hundreds of slides, will be shown next year to Argentine businessmen and executives. Certain professional commitments have prevented 11 ?:mfrom travelling to Miami to deliver this paper in person, as would have been hiswish; I have there - fore asked my friend J.R.Basso Dastugue to stand in for me. ~~,0939`;
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52 He is not just replacing me; we have often talked with Basso Dastugue about this subject, exchanging experiences and reading material. For.him, as for me, "Silence is no deal". SILENCE IS NO DEAL You already know what Mark Twain said about Wagner's music: "It cannot be as bad as it sounds". I believe corporations should also be given this same benefit of the doubt. Beacuse if we just restrict ourselves to listening to the music, to what people say about it, or what people think about it, we may come to the sad conclusion that private firms have no real future, even though critics and opponents may no come up with an answer as to what to replace them with. In any case, it is clear that day after day, less`people are willing to defend corporations and consequently corporations will have to take care of their own defense, either individually or through their representative bodies. This paper deals precisely with this necessity. It offers no solutions. Every corporation is a unique case, a singular problem in itself. Instead, in this paper we try to counter the strong winds of public opinion. But first of all, let us look at some recent examples of the threats that loom over corporations. These threats may have different sources but they mostly converge at the same point: the dreaded and sometimes unexpected, public oninion. If there was ever any doubt about- corporations being political as well as economic organizations. let us look at the South African example. A couple of months ago, Clarin, a Buenos Aires daily, reproduced an article by John F. Akers, general manager of IBM. In its he makes clear his Company position on apartheid. Akers writes: "IBM could dissapear (from South Africa) t•rith very little f"inancial sacrifice... But we believe that the correct thing to do is stay and double our effo'rts in-order to attain social equality". This is the answer to the opponents of the three hundred American companies working in South Africa. i, r y) I ~~'~-L '' 2,,9399
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53 A The Chemical tragedy at Bophal carried the following heading on Business Week: "Union Carbide fights for its life". This is a fight in which engineers, ecologists and lawyers are taking part, as well as experts on communications and public relations. Union Carbide's image and prestige were seriously damaged, and to restore them, it will need all the talent it can obtain from communications specia- lists. Another article, this one written by the Vicepresident and Corporate Affairs Director of Philip Morris, Stanley Scott, was published by the New York Times and reproduced in one of the firm advertisement. Scott tittled it "Smokers get a raw deal". Conflicting products such as alcoholic drinks and cigarettes have extra reasons to be "on guard". More and more, the fight for survival will depend on control of public opinion. The best example is the campaign against alcohol abuse at present being carried out in the United States. It is said that the most famous bar in the United States, is the bar of the "Love boat" serial; rating regulations prevent it from being closed dot•in, but the leaders of United Producers and Directors of the Alcohol Drug Abuse Committee have agreed to stop exalting the "macho drinker". Last but not least, is the case of Procter & Gamble, which paves that threats to corporations may reach such proportions. That they are fit one of Ripley's columns. and for Procter and Gamble is a gigantic corporation, in 1984 its sales totalled U$S 12.900 million. Nevertheless, in 1980 it was seriously damaged by a simple and absurd rumour linking its logotype of 103 years, to Devil. Somebody discovered that the Anticrist sign, 666, appeared in the logo. That.is the way it all started.. In just one month, the firm got more than 15.000 telephone calls from people wanting to know if this was true; Procter & Gamble resisted, until they Finally had to draw the problematic logo from their products a couple of months ago. These are just a few, may be extreme, examples, of the negative context in which corporations have to move. But we must not forget the atmosphere created by TV programmes such as "Dallas" or "Dinasty", what invariably relate money and business with perversion or "best sellers" of authors such as Harold Robbins, Jonathan Black, Arthur Hailey and others. The successful formula seems to be a mixture of sex, violence and business denunciation. TIMN 289400
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54 It is curious to note that these lucrative agressions to the corporation as an institution, come from other corporations publishers and TV producers; it is also curious to note that authors such as Robbins for example take advantage of the same marketing and promotion techniaues that they later 'criticize in their books. Furthermore they lead the same lives that they award to wicked businessmen: they enjoy millionaire homes, shining swim- ming pools, and long holidays in the Caribbean. Sociologist Irving Kristol may have had these paradoxes in mind when he said: "Think about something that can harm capitalism and a capitalist will immediately take some advantage of it". Let us now get on with our subject. This paper starts from the following premises: . 1) Corporations, act, as we have already seen, in an ever more conflictive socio-economic context, where public opinion becomes increasingly important and often decisive. 2) This situation calls for a corporate philosophy, which constantly requires us to question the short and long term purposes of the corporation. 3) This corporate philosophy, among other funadmental initiatives, must be translated into regular and honest information to the corporation's different customers. I n f o r m a t i o n Patronage is not enough, although it is praise-worthy and helps to develope a personality. Experiences accumulated by the Business Committe for the Arts, (an entity made up of United States firms which supports the arts),show us this. Yet in these times, one of the greatest temptations faced by corporations is trying to improve their image by sponsoring arts and sciences. I believe these contributions help. But it is not intelligent to think that a conflict can be solved with a concert. This is not possible because customers, cannot in conflictive situations, support what they neither understand nor know. " And though it is hard for us to admit it, corporations are absolutely unknown to many people and not too few opinion-leaders. TIMN 289401
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55 An advertisementby Warner & Swasey, from Cleveland, is, I believe, .anthological. It says: "American business can sell anything except its most important product: itself". Of course the same may be said about corporations in Argentina and other countries, with few exceptions, such as Japan. Another advertisment by Warner & Swasey is a true declaration of principles: "When you bury your head in the sand, you are already up to your neck in trouble". A third advertisment by the same corporation says: "There is nothing gross about profit". The issue of profits is right in the center of corporation positions, it is true that many people do not want to understand it, but it is also true that most of the corporations do not want to explain it. I want to tell you that I became so interested in this campaign by Warner & Swasey, an.af industrial machines company, that I wrote to them for more information. Patrick Mc Carthy, Communications and Public Relations Director, wrote back to tell me that this was the longest institutional campaign in the history of American advertising. It began in 1936; since then more than 1.200 products were advertised. At first, the advertisments tried to increase the degree of knowledge regard- ing corporations so that salesmen and promotors would not have to make "cold calls". But later, the campaign started becoming what Mc Carthy calls "a declaration of our corporate philosophy". Warner & Swasey do not restrict itself to advertising in newspapers and magazines. Copies are sent to all those who ask for them; the campaign also circulates within schools, as many teachers use the messages to discuss free enterprise. Nothing better for corporations: the day this debate becomes generalized in classrooms of free countries, more people will be able to think on their own about the function of corporations in modern society. This campaign by Warner & Swasey also proves that it is corporations and their organizations that have to inform and elicit the reflection of customers. TIMN 289402
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56 It is corporations that have to transmit the positive aspects of organiza- tions that with all their defects,'produce, create richness and help in the economic, social and cultural development of a country. It must be done today more than ever. As a journalist, I many times had the chance to talk to Octave Gelinier, French writer and consultant, in .Buenos Aires and Pai-i,'s, He is a philosopher in management. Gelinier maintains that the current difficulties of corporations are on the one hand, a consequence of ill-intentioned man,euvers that have to be countered. But, besides, these difficulties are a sympton of the lack of adaptation of corporations to their current environment. Will corporations end up becoming heavy dinosaurs condemned to dissapear because of their incapacity to move among mass media and the dictates of public opinion? Is it possible for organizations that have proved to be so efficient in the field of consumption and have satisfied and orientated the needs of customers to have to give.up because of not knowing how to use the communication required by circumstances? Is it, like the advertis- ment we have seen before, that a corporation cannot sell itself?. Not necessarily. Corporations can make use of an array of tools for external communications, which you all well know. But letters repeat them anyway: - Press releases or "gacetillas", as we call them in Argentina. - Press conferences. - Speeches by directors in different tribunes. - Press articles and interviews, generally motivated initiatives or events. - Video-clips. - Corporate Advertising. by corporate Let me tell you that video-clips are one of the latest resources incorporated by companies. This material containing corporate inforr;ation and distributed among TV broadcasters, is the First ",wedge" in a media as elusive for corporations as this. Many of the tools we've mentioned take andvantage of free advertising space in the media. Press releases, for example. In Argentina, they are very much used sometimes abused. t,11any corporations think of them as the way to show in newspapers and ~'Tl%AN 289403
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57 magazines, without paying for the space. to be an excellent'business, but they are minimally satisfaying executives' vanity. investigation of press releases published them talked about trips by executives and From this point of view, this seems sometimes, just one more way of A couple of years ago, I made an in Argentine newspapers; many of P businessmen to foreign countries. Travelling to foreign countries was at that time, as it is today, a status symbol. But I mentioned that those trips were only out of the country; executives never come back. According to t-he press releases, they kept on travelling indefinitely and their corporations were left acephalous. But why were they eager to publish those trips abroad?. I have the answer because I talked to those travellers upon their return. They explained to me that they did not want to talk, they did not want their competitors to know what machinery they had bought abroad or what new products they had seen in fairs and exhibitions. Could it be that may be they did not want to talk because they had not bought any machinery or visited any exhibition?. Only God knows. I definitely don't believe that these releases, the i•:ay we understand them in Argentina, are very useful. Among free tools, such as press releases, we find press conferences and interviews. Why, then, do corporations invest their :-oney in corporate advertising?. Basically, because out of all these communications tcols we have seen, corporate advertising is the only tool that can be absolutely controlled by corporations. Because it is advertising. And because it is paid for. Complete control can be exerted on the advertisment from the tittle up to the last line of the text. Corporations can control the space the message %.;ill have in the media. They can control timing. They can decide what editorial context will surround the advertisment. This is very important: I would not want my message to appear report. next to the police Both releases and interviews largely depends on the interest shown by the media. But corporate advertising depends exclusively on the company. or good will '11 . AIN 289404
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58 Corporations write the information they wish to transmit, and they publish it when they want to and where they want to. Another advantage of corporate advertising is that it can be planned and put into practise according to the widest interests of the company, including its commercial interest. Because corporate advertising, even though is mainly used to sell the image of the company also helps to sell its products. Technology tends to make products look more and more like each other, up to the point where it is sometimes hard to find the differences on which to base commercial advertis- ing. In these circumstances, corporations may help to make the differences. Corporate advertising is seen today as an umbrella which protects all the products and services provided by the company. In the last few years, this kind of advertising has become very important in the United States. In Europe, many corporations still see it as a luxury; nevertheless, according to specialist Anthony Wreford, from a specialized agency in London, in 1980 more than 30 of the 150 companies listed by The Times ranking advertised regularly. In 1974 only 9 did. But let us go back to the States: 1) Until the mid-60's, this kind of advertising was somewhat relevant. In 1970 not more than 150 million dollars were invested in it. At present, it attracts an investment of more than 1.000 million dollars per annum. 2) Most of the corporations listed in the ranking prepared by Fortune magazine advertise regularly. 3) Several dozen corporations count on corporate budgets that go far beyond 10 million dollars per annum. 4) In any case, these figures do not tell us the whole story, because it is impossible to measure the proportion of corporate advertising being increasingly injected into commercial advertising. Cars, banks and airlines tend to carry their messages more and more like corporations do in their advertisments. Cigarettes because of their special nature, have always concentrated their energies on the products, or shall we say, on the feelings associated with the products. In many cigarette advertisments we do not even see the ` ~ TIMr: 289405
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59 product; there is no specific mention of the product. Well, I believe that something started to change as from Vantage and Merit. At the end of the sixties, or early seventies, Vantage published some advert- isments which were completely different to those published until then. Advertisments with opinion, that could be :rritten into one of the net•lest branches of corporate advertising: advocacy advertising or advertorial, a mixture of advertising and editorial. We shall later come to this kind of advertisment. I have kept.many of those first Vantage advertisments in my file. One of them, a spread, says: "Vantage is changing a lot.my feelings about smoking". •It was followed by an unusual text for a cigarette, with more than 100 words. Vantage shifted the attention from feelings and moods, and invited the consumer to think about the act of sroking. Immediately after, Merit published the fa-ous advertisment in which one could see the building of their laboratories in Richmond. I cannot trust my memory completely, but I believed the presence of the laboratory in a cigarette advertisment is not common; besides,the text had hundreds of words. This campaign succesfully combined the commercial and the corporate aspects; a new vers i on of i t:vas seen i n.4rcen t i na . In U.S. corporate advertising the presencie of presidents and general managers is now being used. It is their coi-maitment with the message; and the audience seems to appreciate this. I have seen advertisments in which the presidents of Greyhound, Irving Trust, U.S. Steel, and Eastern attested for their companies. These messages are undoubtedly the best endorse.:ent the information the company may have. I know of two cases in which the presidents became as famous as their companies due to their presence in zhese advertisments: one is Frank Perdue, a chicken producer, and the other is Lee laccoca. laccoca, after having rescued Chrysler, is, according to some observers, capable of occupaying very high political Position, even that of President of the U.S. You would may be like to know what is goino on i-n Argentina :vith this advertising. Well, perhaps the best evicence that it is developing, although not as fast as some of us would iike is the existence of a contest devoted exclusively to corporate advertising. My newsoaper, 1/=, la7.in.r.:::_ it in .'.2 ~r e n^: ~I.^,'l .-- TIN~r? 289406 .
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60 r greater demand of image investigations, which is the previous step to the launching of this kind of campaign. very important publicist, whom I was able to interview during what I believe was his last trip to Argentina, during the seventies. At this point I would like to bring to mind the opinion of David Ogilvy a Ogilvy attributes decesive importance to the personal commitment of top executives with this kind of advertising. Basically, because it is often only thanks to their support that the campaign may reap success, even though at a slower pace with regard to commercials. Corporate campaigns need time, continuity, and only top management can sustain them. Presidents do not necessarily have to appear.in advertis- ments, but they must give them their support. Besides, it is the top executive, from his position, who can understand and reconcile the interests and aspirations of the different areas of the company. And finally, only somebody with his authority can obtain the money to do the job wel1. But the recently mentioned branch of corporate advertising, where the commitment of the top management is still more important is advocacy'or advertorial. Corporations, in this case, do not talk about themselves, their machinery, their personal or their history, they transmit their ideas and convictions. Corporations, pressed by difficulties and criticism have started to publish editorials. . A couple of years ago, I was able to interview the publicist who baptised and promoted this kind of advertising: John O'Toole, president of Foote, Cone and Belding, one of the ten largest advertisna agencies in the world. 0'Toole used this word advocacy advertising for the first time in 1974,to mear the use of advertising by corporations, both to state their points of view tu public opinion, and to defend themselves from the criticism coming from the media. O'Toole summarized his us. Our friends on TV our competitors have left, then ourselves". opinions as follows: "The government will not defend will not defend us. The press may do something, but have brighter and more exciting ideas to offer. 4ihat we is advocacy advertising. This is like saying "!•/e just have TIr1IN289407
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61 t , I.also interviewed Albert Stridsberg, professor at the University of New York, and author of the most important paper on the subject: "Controversy advertising". Controversy, advocacy and advertorial are used as synonymus. I recommend you read this book, published by Hastings House. Stridsberg defines this advertising as follows: "Any kind of paid public communication or message, from an identified source and in a conventional medium of public advertising, which presents information or a point of view bearing on a publicly recognized controverial issue". With this kind of advertising, corporations do not cheat their customers because they do not pretend they are not advertising: they sign it, they shape it into advertisments, and they pay the media and this is made clear to the customer. Shaping the message like an advertisment is a serious problem for the advert- orial: it must compete against the other advertisment to call the customer's attention. That is why these advertisments, although they rely on their message, must also worry about shape. Only the impact of shape will make people reflect on the message. In Argentina, this kind of advertising has come to replace the prehistoric Paid Ads., or the confusing com.muniques of companies generally publi-shed in conflictive circumstances and directed :.owards public ooinion. They often restricted themselves to this, to address public opinion. Few of these messages were efficient,-because they had and still have a burocratic look and language. But greater knowledge about advertorial on the art of executives and admen is changing thincs in Hrgentina; Paid Ads~rnow have more elaborated headings and texts and many of them are produced by advertising agencies. Before, those who signed a Paid Ad would have to compose it with their typographical resources. As a consequence, the same Paid Ad would have different looks defending on what newspaper published it. This kind of advertising seems to be made o measure for conflictive products. Let us talk the case of cigarettes. I will not take long, because you must a l l know these adver t i smen ts by hea r t. For some years now, the Tobacco Institute has been in charge of deFending cigarette. It uses advertorial, more thar, ,:orpor.ate advertising, specially because ideas are handled and, as Stridsbero :•:ould put it, they are inserted in a "publicly recognized controverial issua". M a non-commercial paid advertising issued in massive press media (newspapers, magazines) in which companies clarify facts. of interest to public opinion. TIMN 289408
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62 The lafest campaign I know of composed of several spreads, began with this head line "How many questions have you asked about cigarettes?" As from the second spread, the campaign posed and answered many of those questions: "Does cigarette advertising cause kids to start smoking?". "Do cigarette companies want kids to smoke?". "Is cigarette advertising a major reason why kids smoke? No". These are advertisments published by an entity. But it was last year, in an unusual movement not well regarded by everybody, that R.J. Reynolds launched its own advertorial, with messages such as the following: "Smoking in public: let's separate fact from friction". "We don't advertise to children". "The most inflammatory question for our time". These are only three examples of a series containing eight or ten pieces. But as regards advertorial, the corporation which uses it with more convictior and in a more ag3ressive manner, is, as you know, Mobil, the oil company. I came into contact with the vicepresident of the company regarding this subject. Herbert Schmertz is a controversial man, not well regarded by journalists, specially after he last year influenced Mobil to break with The Wall Street Journal, due to the publication of some information he considered false. From the momen t i t wa s dec i ded i t t•1a s more conven i en t to wr i te the i r own editorials Mobil strove to publish them as close to real newspaper editorials as possible. So as soon as the New York Times offered to sell advertising space opposite their editorials, Mobil bought for very aggresive campaigns,especially against the media to the corporation misinterprets facts. The reaction towards a CBS programme that now famous. it, using it that according affected Mobil's interests The advert~sement occupying a double page, carried the Following "How CBS on October 24, 1979, ppreFabricated the news". In 1983, there were a series of advertisments under this general is by head line head line T1 I°N 289409
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63 "Are the media giving us the facts?". In one of the pieces of this series it lashed out against the movie "All the president's men" and "The myth of the crusading reporter". Mobil is very direct and frontal. Some people call them the John Waynes of American advertorial. If you want my opinion, I believe that every corporation must try to have the press on its side instead of attacking it. Faced with a controversy such as this, the company will always be the loser. And how are we getting on with advertorial in Argentina?. Of course, very few people know the meaning of advertorial in Argentina. But even these who do not know it are beginning to put it into practice. They are isolated cases,and obviously, more discreets than Mobil, but it is expanding. One of these cases is that of pharmaceutical manufacturers grouped in the Argentina Chamber of Medicinal Specialities. The threat to their industry in 1978 or 1979 was a bill presented by the go'vernment of the time, proposing to reduce the lists of medicines that doctors could prescribe, in order to concentrate production and reduce costs, or so they said. The Chamber did not share this view, so its answer was and advertorial campaign. Let us take a look at some of the headings of the advertisments: "The doctor's freedom is the patient's right". "The doctor's freedom to prescribe is the best medicine". "Freedom to health". It is important to add that this campaign of ideas was carried out almost at the same time as another corporate campaign, showing what the pharmaceuti- cal industry was like what it had achieved, how many people asked for it and so on. ~ Other advertisments of ideas published in Argentina 4•rere developed by very important multinational corporations. In 1979 Renault Argentina, the car company, met the challenge of imported cars, with a double page in newspapers, titled "Thinking of imported cars is human: So is making mistakes". Those ~•rere the times ~•:hen, with ffree importation many important car shipments t•:ere arriving in Argentina From Japan, USA or Europe. People were Fascinated with that advertisment, Renault was inviting the people to think about the difference between an TIM1Y 289410
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64 imported car and locally produced one, specially as regard servicing. An they were right, because after some years, many of those imported cars became orphans in Argentina. In 1981 Ford Motor Argentina became concerned over high interest rates being paid for financial operations, which was threatening consumption. One of the advertisments showed a bogged down tire with this title: "Yes, these are hard times" the text proposed buying instead of speculating. Finally, I have kept in my files, the advertisments by Siemens, the German Company that settled in Argentina. Siemens was also threatened by the importation of telephone equipment, particularly Japanese. With very well done advertisments, and their convictions regarding the market, the company emphasized the question of service: "When it's late everybody regrets". "Consider something before choosing: the future". "A good investor looks back stage". Siemens at the moment was celebrating its 70 years of working in Argenti- na and they wanted to assert thi s fact before ne.•icomers. Well, no more cases and advertisments. Let me now make a final reflection on corporate communications. We first talked about the reasons why corporations cannot remain silent any longer. Today, more than ever, silence gives consent. That is why silence is not a deal any longer. In Argentina, it is still possible to hear, corporations justifying their silence with a phrase nobody could explain properly to me: "low profile". I have been explained, for instance, the meaning of "cash f-low", "break even point" and other phrases. Of course I did riot understand them, but I was convinced they were valuable. Instead, I am sure that many times, the famous "low profile" is not a consequence of an extensive review of the situation of the company and of the election of a low profile in the field of co-nmunic.:tion. TIMN 289411
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65 I,believe that at least in Argentina, "low profile" hides the absolute incapacity of corporations to move in the thorny field of communications. As corporations do not know what to do, or what to say, they chosen silence and this attitude is called "low profile". It seems all right and it soothes nerves. In Argentina, corporations that in extreme cases, choose this road temporarily must investigate and study their own situation, much more than any other corporation that decides to talk, to communicate. A low profile must be kept only after having analized all alternative, in order to be absolutely sur'e that keeping silent for some time is the best solution. This decision,one of the most important for corporations, must be taken jointly by those responsible on communications up to general management. Before being implemented a"loti•r profile" a fluent relation :Jith the media is needed an even stronger relation than the one recuired by an aggressive communications policy. Because, in any case a"low profile" is a solution that only affects what the company itself has to say. But what about :;hat everybody else might say? Can you i mpose your own "10%:: prof i I e" on c:-e res t? . If the idea is not to answer attacks, at least a cood relation should exist with the media, making sure that they know all sides of the problem in order to be able to inform the public correctly. Keeping the media informed, giving them the chance to confirm the news or rumours affecting corporations, is one :•:ay to keep that "low profile". So we see that to keep a"low'profile" it is necessary to start by betraying that "low profile". Because in this society of information, nobody can turn its back to information, even if he wants to. You may inform more or you may inform less, but •:ou must always pay attention to information from others, particularl; that t•rhich can affect you. Information is shaping our lives more than I::e can 'estimate. Our dependence on i n forma t i on tvas d ram.a t i ca l i y e7phas i zed by Theodore Wh i te, author of a series of books called "The making of the president". White says: T:ITAnT 289412
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66 "The political system lives today under the terror of television.... Every little thing that happens in politics, will be watched on the screen and judged. We had a series of presidents who only lasted for one period since 1960; one of the problems is that television overexposes them. The average life of the best serials (in the United States) is about four years. After that, the audience gets bored of them. The same thing happens with presidents". Ronald Reagan broke this diagnosis of White, but everybody knows that he is the president who makes the best use of mass media since Kennedy, or may be since Franklin D. Roosevelt. Reagan is called "the great communicator". I.f political institutions have had to adapt to these circumstances, if the capacity to move in the media is today essential for presidents, there should be little doubt that corporations must accept this challenge or be exposed to more serious conflicts every time. Corporations must inform, talk, communicate. No substitutes are allowed. It is not enough anymore to make the best product at the best possible price. It is not enough anymore to obey every law, to pay taxes, to be a good company to work for, to update technology, or to make moderate profits. It is not enough anymore to invest money on arts and sports. A conflict can neverbe solved by sponsoring a concert or a soccer match. A conflict can be solved, if there Most of the time, with information is a solution, with honest information. provided before the conflict began. The better informed the different customers are, corporations will be in a better position to face a conflict and put an end to it. It will always be easier for corporations to move with the times, if they make up their minds to inform regularly and to offer its customers the greatest possible amount of information. Information is an asset that corporations want to progress. Silence, instead, is not a deal. must up date constantly if they .1 TT:IOIP; 289413
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67 THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY AND BRAZIL'S ECONOMY Introduction to a slide projection (Video-tape also available) Roman SKOWRONSKI ABIFUMO, Brazil
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68 THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY AND BRAZIL'S ECONOMY The second edition of our audio-visual on the tobacco industry and Brazil's economy was up-dated with statistical data in 1984/85. The same subject is recorded on video tape system. Basically, the audio-visual line follows what we have printed in our 28-page booklet, now in its third edition. All this material is part of our communication programme. We are using the video tape in our Association in small groups. It is shown almost each day to leading journalists, economic editors of the main Brazilian newspapers, magazines, trade organizations, and recently in a new program in university circles. Tobacco generates wealth, and it is this aspect that we want to show to professors and students of economic faculties. Our program, through the Federal Council of Economy, covers 167 universities and faculties of economics. As you may know, Brazil is a fertile land for technocrats. They have ruled the country for the last twenty years, and all indications are that they will remain in power for the next few years. Therefore we want to teach them, as well as to agronomy students, the importance of the tobacco sector in Brazil's economy. The video tape that you will see has already been incorporated by some universities in their normal curriculae activities. 4000 copies of the corresponding booklet have been distributed to the Brazilian press, to Congressmen, most of the federal universities, and naturally to all echelons of the federal government. Our house organ is distributed to the same public, and sent to state and municipal authorities (mayors and state legislative assemblies). Presently, as we have a new government, we are selecting key members among 10.000 addressees within the federal state and at municipal level. Through member companies, our video tape has been shown to 150 representatives and 20 *senators and 8 Secretaries of State, leading professors of economy, our allies and key members of the press. '1'IMN 289415
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69 Most importantly, we are now able to quote official sources on tobacco data, which we were in a position to communicate earlier. Addendum: English translation of video tape script. T,r8 9 ~'15
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(1) ADDENDUM (English translation of video-tape script) ABIFUMO THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY AND BRAZI L' S ECONOMY Institutional Audiovisual AUDIO NARRATION TEXT (Sung by women plantmg ): " Eu num pranto mais cafe vou pranta canavia. Se a cana dum de dinh,~i-o, ole, le' eu vo ~ ve se o fumo d6... " Sweet, sad voices echo through the fields in Brazil's Northeast where women are busy removing the stems frorn tobacco leaves. There are quite a number of old times songs, which are -)owadays a significant part of our folklore, which v,/ere meant to be sung while these women were working, spevially at the harvest tirne.--- " If sugar cane doesn' t pay, let us see if tobacco will " - these simple words describe the part tnat tobacco has played in the country's economic develop-nent. As far back as the i--ighteenth Century, the revenues deriving from the cultivation TTTIVIN 289417
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o f tob acco ove rtook those produced~ by gold mining and stood second only to sucar cane. But no son ,, however optimistic, could guess the highly si Jnificant co ntribution the tobacco leaF would ha ve in Brazil' economy, as it happens nowadays: roughly two and halF milliqn Brazilians live from production, industrialization and comme cialization oF tobacco. (Text Pause For transition oF atmosphere, imaJe and sound track). Cigarettes, cipars, pipes ... you wouldn' t have thou ;ht they were so important, would you? In Fact, few people are aware of the fact that behind the simple pleasure of smoking exists an intricate economic structure which is oF enormous relevance to the interest of the country. • In the last fifteen years, Brazilian tobacco exports have grown more than one thousand and five hundred percent. In 1984, Brazil ranked as the world' s second iargest exporter of tobacco, which accounted for 1.74/0 oF total foreign trade. Projections show that this percentare will Lend to _•row. To- b acco ranks third in the list oF a~;ricultural staples, after soy4
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beans and coFFee. Its quality, supported by aggressive trading policies, has allowed Brazilian tobacco to conquer significant market shares in the United States, the United Kingdonri, Western Germany and Italy. The outstanding performance oF the tobacco sector has been creatly responsible for the 13 billion dollars surplus shown by Brazil's trade balance for 1984. However, by its participation in the Brazilian economy, the tobacco industry does more than produce vital foreic n ex- chance. The Fi~:u res relating to internal aspects are also it-n- pressive. Brazilian industrial sector has Finally shown a positive growth after three years of negative _ rowth of its economy. The tobacco industry, however, in spite of the down tradir1 when consumers start avoiding expensive blends giving pre- Ference to cheaper blends, was positive growth. able to produce a remarkable Its contribution to the country's income through federal taxes is traditionally between 8.1% and 12.2% of the total arno~ in 1984 it reached 8. 4%, i. e., in every one thousand cruzeiro levied by the Federal Government in taxes, including income tax, 84 cruzeiros are produced by tobacco. 0~, TIT'./1.N 289419
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(iv) And all this not even including another significant tax: 1CM (added-value sales tax), levied by the states. In each pack of cigarettes bought by the consumer in 1985, 13.71% shall be collected by the states. In 1986, this percentage may reach 17%. Now... What does this mean? It means that, according to Lrazil's budgetary proposal presented to the National Congress, only the federal taxes collected with the tobacco industry would be sufficient in 1985 to cover all the costs of the Department of Agriculture... ... or to cover 76% of the expenses required by the thr-z military ministries... . or to insure twice as much the expenses with public health, sanitation, housing and urbanism. What makes it possible for the tobacco industry to mGke li;~is vital contribution in helping to pay for public expenses? There is a simple explanation: Brazil, of all countries in the v,,orld, is the one where direct taxes levied on tobacco pe-oducts sl-iow the highbst percentage. RJ4Q.^.tSSEr.:B:EIA,IO-s/2.717•CEP200rI-Tel:2425173(Ce~tr~CnYi, Faeqti TrMN 289420
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(v) Similar taxation in the United States doesn't come to 3 4% of the final price paid by the consumer, while in Brazil the proportion is above 74%, as follows: I PI: 57. 93% ---- ICM/INDUSTRY: 11.84% --- ICM/Retail: 1.87%; PIS: 1.04%; CONTROL STAMP: 0.75%; FINSOCIAL: 0.59%.----- TOTAL: 74.02% (Spurce: Federal Revenue Office).- Yes, a pack of cigarettes which costs one thousand cru- zeiros pays more than 740 cruzeiros in taxes. In percentage levied for Tax on Industrialized Products, which, incidentally, is the heaviest of all taxes, cigarettes break every record, paying no less than 38%, while alcoholic beverages pay 12 percent; automobiles and transportation mu- terial: 11 .4 percent; Chemical Industry: 6 percent; Metallurgi: 4.4 percent and all other sectors: 28.2 percent (Source: FedeL ral Revenue Office). And this figure of 38 percent, regarding 1984, is expectp'd to grow in 1985. VJhat factors have allowed f_3razil to become the world' s fourth largest producer of tobacco? Well, the maturity and RJA D=: CSSEr.!3'_EtA,lO-s/2.717-CEP"[OO,!-Tel ?42-5173(Ce.ntroCa-~JCcM.e.~:-~---) RIODE.;-.' NEIRO - oR4SIL TIMN 289421
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(Vi) p erfection with which the Brazilian tobacco industry functions today ~is of course the result of many decades of hard work. The tobacco leaf is indigenous to the American continent the natives called it Petum, Betum or Betom. They harvested the leaves, dried them and carefully rolied them up inside p alm leaves. It took only a few years after the Portuguese had first laid eyes on an indian smoking tobacco, For the smoking habit to spread throuohout Europe and from there to the East to where it was taken, according to a chronicle of the Sixteenth Century, "by sailors and workers of all classes, free men and slaves alike, and also by many a noble personage, by soldiers of the guard and not a few priest, clerics and friars. However , Brazilian tobacco would not have reached such high quality pattern, which places it presently 'as second major world exporter, had it not been for the assistance the producer receives from the industry. There are at present approximately one hundred and f ifty thousand small tobacco planters in the country, one hun- dred and fifteen thousand in the states of Parana, Santa Cata- rina and Rio Grande do Sul, and another thirty-five thousand r.~'I~II~T 2894z2
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To these planters, the tobacco industry gives all conceiv able,support through periodic calls by agronomists and agri- cultural technicians, who bring them the most up-to-date tec nology available, as well as guidance in matters of subsistenc crops such as black beans, corn and others. Besides this, they are also instructed on the 'rnore resistant tobacco species to diseases and plagues. Ecological saFeguards are carefully taken into account by the tobacco industry. The planter learns to exercise pest con- trol by biological means and to choose the correct chemical, acm rding to recommendations. For over ten years now, pest killers containing DDT, BHC or chlorates have been banned frorn the tobacco fields to protect plant and animal life and the quality of the tobacco it self. This protection to ecology-and to the quality of the final I product has been acclaimed by all world consumers of Brazilian tobacco, which is considered of the same quality as ZimbabvVe s and American tobacco. In the South of Crazil there are today rnore than 200 ;' Tl1, MN 289423
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million eucalyptus trees planted in the tobacco planting area. The balance between planting and consumption leaves a annual surplus of 21 million eucalyptus trees. This is because firewood, together with vegetal and mineral coal, are used by farmers in their ovens, and have c a- dually replaced fuel oil in the mills, in an effort of the tobac sector to give its contribution to the use of alternative soure s of energy. Native species are also preserved, in order to keep the e cological balance in the area. The assistance which industry gives the farmers is not by any means restricted to the technical field. Being fully aware of the relevance of the social welfare of the producers, they are helped in getting Einancings from major Brazilian banks, including Banco do Brasil, through its Rural Credit Department, to be paid back at the end of the crop. And as a noble crop, tobacco planting depends greatly on hand labor, which implies a large number of workers. Two Brazilian towns, both of them among the five hund l argest in the country, rely on tobacco to a special degree. .7.I1dAN4 289424
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Santa Cruz do Sul, where seventy nine percent of the po pulation is employed in the, tobacco fields and factories; .., and Arapiraca, where more than half of the one hundred and forty thousand inhabitants work at tobacco plant- ing. (Text Pause for Transition of Atmosphere) Cigarettes, cigars, pipes... would you have thought they were so important? From the choicest blends prepared for connoisseurs, down to black plug tobacco, each variety demands care and know-how and each, whatever its particular use and social level, is deeply rooted in our everyday habits. Tobacco is a source of pleasure... but it is also a source of income for the subsistence and the future of the whole Brazilian population, who at this time depend on the s trength of tobacco cultivation, industry and trading. (Text Pause) (Preparation for the end). (Wornan planting starts to sing again): Tr.Ntr1 289425
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" Eu num pranto mais caFe, , vo pranta canavia.. . se a cana num de dinheiro.. . au v6 ve se o Fumo di... " TIMN 289426
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70 SMOKING AND HEALTH The Scientific Controversy Dr. Charles WAITE, M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.A.P. Medical Consultant to the Tobacco Institute of the United States . Currently editing new text books of diving medicine and . emergency medical Vice President of care the newly formed sub-speciality board for . ,hyperbaric medicine, U.S. Medical Director and V.P., International training and . Educational Systems Technology, Inc., Washington, D.C. 35 years service as Physician (Medical Officer) U.S. Navy. . Retired Rear Admiral - 1976 . Formerly Deputy Surgeon General. Distinguished Service . Medal. Joint Command Surgeon for the Pacific (Vietnam) . Authority on Lung Physiology . Deep sea diving and submarine medicine - numerous research papers published. TIMN 289427
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71 INTRODUCTION (Slide One): "WARNING.....THE SURGEON GENERAL" In the United States this caveat is more ubiquitous than any printed statement or warning sign'that has ever appeared or is likely to appear at any time in the future. It is a sign of our times, partially derived from our obsession with longevity, (Slide #2), and health. (Slide off) The Surgeon General's warning concerning smoking and health is also an indicator of the rise of "Interventionism". Indeed, intervening in the true public health sense, may prevent disease and save lives, particularly when the scientific facts are truly known, for example, pure drinking water is a prerequisite for good health. The kind of "interventionism" that I am talking about is based either on theory or someone else's idea of what constitutes good health and they are bound and determined to force their particular lifestyle on you. (Slide #3). This cartoon is illustrative of "the shower adjuster" fervor of certain individuals and groups attempting to dictate or force their particular idea of what is or is not good for you and me. (Slide off). Regrettably, there is at the moment a scientific „clique of "lifestyle theorists" who would have us believe that if smoking were abolished, all disease would disappear from the world. This scientific group is aided and abetted by certain crusading do-gooder groups, such A.S.H and G.A.S.P. whose fanatical activities are well known to all. On the fringe of this TIMN 289428
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72 "righteous alliance" or I should say, "seif-righteous" alliance, to ban smoking everywhere, are the "health-oriented" societies which collect large sums of money for the promise of eternal life and spend most of it on.salaries and overhead, including such frivolities as "campaign buttons" and bumper stickers. Some of the money from these health socities has been used to encourage scientists of varying degrees of skill to write a large number of papers, particularly of the epidemiological variety, attempting to strengthen the theory that smoking causes this or that disease. As you know however statistical association is not the same as knowing the cause. The majority of these papers are of little scientific merit and do little to enhance our true understanding of the problems involved or answer the main questions. There is not enough research being conducted to discover the mechanisms at work in causing cancer or heart disease. The scientific laws of cause and effect and proof-positive are being pushed aside and ignored...and the Surgeon General says "smoking causes this or that" without the scientific evidence required to make such statements. (Koch's Laws in Medicine... postulates). Theories are incorrectly being given the status fact and scientific truths and a headlong rush-to-judgment is of , drowning out the voice of reason, particularly any scientific counter-opinion which points out flaws in the current theories. TIMN 289429
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73 Today we are going to talk about some of the major flaws in these theories and I am going to tell you what some of the finest scientists in the world have to say about what is wrong with the current theories on smoking and health. Who is this U.S. Surgeon General? Is he the expert he seems to be or made out to be by the average citizen? This particular Surgeon General is the chief medical officer of the oldest public medical service in•the United States (1793). Originally when the U.S. was basically a maritime nation, the U.S. Public Health Service was responsible for the health of our merchant seaman, later the service extended its services to our aboriginal indians, and in the first third of this century and since the Surgeon General is the watchman for the general health of all the citizens. In particular, the Surgeon General was effective in controlling contagious disease such as measles, whooping cough and poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, leprosy and the like. In the past two decades these diseases have all but vanished and the Surgeon General needed some new cause to make his own. Tobacco use obviously that new cause. At the moment there are some new threats to the public health, such'as Legionnaire's Disease A.I.D.S. which are competing for the'S.G.'s attention with is and smoking. It is absolutely true that when Legionnaires Disease first appeared, smoking was actually thought to be a legitimate top suspect by the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Even the air conditioning system was blamed until finally a totally new TIMN 289430
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74 bacterial agent was found.to be the cause. The current Surgeon General is a political appointee and unlike some of the.previous spokesmen for the now dismembered Department of Health Education and Welfare, is at least an M.D.. He is in fact a pediatric surgeon who has inherited the "party line" against smoking. He has stated his*major goal is to create a smoke-free United States by the year 2000. I don't think he intends to close the factories or do away with automobiles and trucks, I think he means cigarette smoking. Nevertheless, he is pursuing this goal with the great zeal found only in a former smoker. He is not an expert on smoking and health, he is however, an astute politician and he is responsible to the Congress of the United States to provide an annual report on Smoking and Health. THE SURGEON GENERAL'S REPORT ON SMOKING AND HEALTH - A CRITIQUE (Slide #4): What is wrong with the annual report published by the Surgeon General? (Selective) The report is actually put together by a private contracting firm which annually collects all of the anti-smoking scientific literature in the various categories of disease. Research not favorable to the theory that cigarette smoking causes disease is selectively edited out or not even considered. Each year features some aspect of smoking and health, TIMN 289431
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75 for example, this year the subject will be "Smoking and Occupational Health". The introduction, findings and conclusions are always the same. Key editors of this report, most of whom are life-style theorists selectively and with obvious bias use the available data for the report and ignore any views to the contrary. According to Dr. Richard Hickey, Senior Researcher in Statistics at the renowned Wharton'School of the University of Pennsylvania, "The Annual Surgeon General's Report is nothing more than a brief for the prosecution". The failure of any tort litigation against our industry, points out the disturbing fact that today, jurists are more discerning and discriminating in the evidence of scientific truth than is a certain segment of our scientific community. So, to summarize, the current reports of the S.G. are selective, biased in editing, incomplete, because contrary evidence is ignored, contain mostly theory, because that is all there is and always incorrectly conclude that smoking actually causes disease, without the evidence to back these conclusions. (slide off). Little has been added to support the thesis of the original S.G.'s Report of 1964. This report was based on a compilation of seven epidemiological surveys, the largest of which was the "Hammond-Horn" survey and which concluded that there was a possible correlation between smoking and lung cancer. Today, these original surveys are the major foundation on which current reports are based. A significant number of highly regarded research scientists and TIMN 289432
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76 physicians, including epidemiologists and statisticians have severely criticized these studies and question their validity. (Slide #5) Flaws in the statistical basis of the 1964 Report. The reasons for this challenge to the validity of the 1964 Report include: (a) Individuals were not randomly selected (b) Population surveyed included more smokers than non-smokers (c) The survey included only 25 of the states, all of which were highly urban and industrialized and therefore was not truly representative (d) Interviews, were in the main, conducted by inexperienced volunteers (e.g.) wives of M.D.s interviewing their husband's patients, many of whom were chronically ill, and therefore "pre-selected". (e) The survey failed to gather data on alcohol use, occupational and environmental exposure, age and genetic background (family history of disease). (Slide off): Epidemiological surveys even when properly performed, ~ - _ ~'IUN 289433
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77 using a proper design, can only conclude, at best, that there is or isn't a statistical association or link. Scientifically..they cannot conclude or even be interpreted as concluding that a proof of causal relationship exists. LUNG CANCER Lung cancer was'the first disease to be statistically associated with a history of cigarette smoking. Based on this association many of today's medical students are taught that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. Because of the vigorous anti-smoking campaigns of the federal government and various health organizations, not the least of which is the World Health Organization (WHO),*much of the public believes that smoking causes Lung cancer. (Slide #6): Evidence against smoking being the principal cause of LC(Lung Cancer). o In the early part of the 20th Century, lung cancer was Y underdiagnosed and in the past two decades it has been overdiagnosed. This unevenness*has led to the false conclusion that there has been a major increase in the incidence of lung cancer. o Recent simultaneous increases in the incidence rates of lung cancer for both men and women; but women in general
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78 began smoking cigarettes 30 years later than men.. o Significant increases in the lung cancer rates for non- smokers in recent years (Enstrom, NIH) o The statistical data base for the incidence of lung cancer is very poor. In 1948'there was a major change in the International Diagnostic Nomenclature used by . physicians worldwide which forced a lumping together of lung cancers making it impossible to tell whether the lung was the primary site for the cancer or was the target for secondary metastasis from another site. (Explain) o Inaccurate death certificate data, especially as regards the diagnosis. In some surveys for accuracy it has been 40% or higher. Because of the current trend for medico- legal suits, autopsies are seldom requested or performed today. There is another phenomenon also noted because of this general belief of the association between smoking and lung cancer...if a patient presents himself to a physician with the complaint of a cough and is a non-smoker, his medical care will be different that of a smoker with the same complaint. than In general, the search for lung cancer in the non-smoker will be less vigorous, leading to a missed diagnoses. TIMN 289435
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79 (Slide #7): Some Key Questions For the Researchers If smoking causes lung cancer: (a) Why is cancer of the mouth, larynx, tongue and trachea (windpipe) rare and diminishing even though it is claimed all of them are caused by smoking? The highest concentrations of cigarette smoke are found in the upper part.of the respiratory tract. (b) Why is it the vast majority of heavy smokers do not contract lung cancer and 10% of the non-smokers do? (c) If as the Surgeon General says, that smoking is the principal cause of lung cancer and coronary artery heart disease...why has CHD diminished astonishingly so in the past two decades., while the lung cancer rate has increased slightly? (Slide off) More important to physicians are the major discrepancies concern- ing lung cancer cell type, specifically the small cell carcinoma claimed to be associated with smoking is diminishing while the adenocarcinoma type (large cell) thought not to be associated with „smoking is on the increase in both men and women. Additionally, there is the lack of a clear cut dose/time relationship between smoking history and the incidence of lung cancer. (K. Herrold, USPHS and Passey, Doll and Hill, U.K.) TIMN 289436
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80 Perhaps the most important discrepancy in the smoking-lung cancer hypothesis has been the total failure of researchers to produce lung cancer by smoking animals, that is exposing dogs, chimps, rats, etc. to high concentrations of tobacco smoke. The most notable failure in recent times being `~`~~~~'s dog experiments, a widely criticized experiment which was extremely embarassing to the scientific community. If smoking is not the principal cause of lung cancer, then what are the other possible causes? Highly suspect are: (a) The environment (b) Occupational exposures; geographic hot spots in the U.S. (Blot, Fraumeni). Asbestos -which produces chroni' lung disease and a type of cancer not associated with smoking. (Epstein, The Politics of Cancer). Radon (c) Genetic predisposition. Familial cancer. Additionally, many sex and ethnic differences exist which are not explained. CORONARY ARTERY HEART DISEASE Once a statistical association between smoking and coronary artery heart disease had been suggested, the Federal government and the TIMN 289437
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American Heart Association made available sufficient resources to conduct several large prospective studies in an attempt to causally link smoking with heart disease. These studies were of the "risk intervention type, (explain). Half the population under study receives "normal" or routine medical care, the other half has selective intervention into their style of living, (e.g.) Diet, low cholesterol, regular exercise routines, no smoking, curtailed alcohol intake, etc...Both groups are followed for ten or more years and are given annual checkups and interviews. (Slide #8): Worldwide Risk Intervention Studies # M.R.F.I.T. # FRAMINGHAM # OSLO # UNITED KINGDOM (ROSE & HAMILTON) As stated previously, the intervention consisted of attempts to lower the CHD mortality rate by lowering cholesterol levels, attempting to lower the blood pressures in those with hypertension and eliminating smoking. Little or no attention was paid to age, eff ects of daily stress, occupation or the genetic background. The results to date for these studies are as follows: I. THE FRAMINGHAM STUDY: In 1978, after sixteen years of studying the value of risk intervention the principal author, Dr. William Kannel reported; TIMN 289438
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82 "that elevated blood pressure had been confirmed as the dominant contributor to heart disease in his study, but they were continuing to study other risk factors". It was also reported that intervention had no effect on the incidence of an ina pectoris, a principal symptom of CHD. Additionally, there was no excess heart disease in male smokers over age 55 years and none in females at any age. The Framingham Study has several basic design flaws, one, there was no good baseline medical data between smokers*and non-smokers, and two, there were significant problems with controlling the life styles of the two groups. There is some recent evidence that overzealous attempts to lower the blood pressure in individuals with moderate hypertension has increased the mortality rate in the "intervention" group. II. THE M.R.F.I.T. STUDY: After ten years study at a cost of $115,000,000 this study failed to confirm that in spite of a 46% reduction in smoking in the intervention group, there was no significant difference in the mortality rates between smokers and non-smokers. This failure been noted by the scientific community at large and has been widely commented upon in the leading international medical and scientific journals, Lancet, J.A.M.A., British Medical Journal Science, (these references are appended in addition to others this subject:). has and on TIMN 289439
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83 III. THE OSLO STUDY: This study similar in design to the two previous studies reported that of the two risk factors, high serum cholesterol and cigarette smoking found in Norwegian men, that efforts to intervene resulted in a significant lowering of heart disease, but that the decrease was due solely to the lowered cholesterol and that the cessation of smoking had no effect on the significant decline noted in the study. IV. THE UNITED KINGDOM STUDY - ROSE AND HAMILTON: This study was unique in that the onl risk factor studied by intervention was smoking. The authors reported that there was no evidence of any reduction in the overall death rates in the group whose smoking was reduced. In the authors own words, "the results were disappointing." So much for intervention, as Carl Seltzer, a professor at Harvard reported in the American Heart Journal in U.K. study and others as evidence that "the 1980 referring to the to a reversibility of the claimed risk factor of cigarettes smoker's life has not been demonstrated."..."it is reasonable to believe there is no proof that stopping (smoking) reduces the risk of heart disease." In P.R.J. Burch's letter to the Editor of the New England Journal of Medicine state, "The conclusion that quitting smoking results in a substantial reduction in mortality is not established." TIMN 289440
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84 What other evidence exists that no significant link exists between smoking and heart disease? (Slide #9): Other Evidence Against A Link Between Smoking & CHD: o Total failure to demonstrate how any smoke ingredient causes coronary artery disease in animals or humans. (Astrup, Hugod, Aronow) o Ancel' Keys and American Heart Association's Study of CHD and smoking in six European countries, the U.S. and Japan. Sixteen groups of men comprising 12,763 men, age 40-59 were followed in Yugoslavia, Finland, ItAly, Greece, the U.S. and Japan. The study ran ten years and at the end of that period, Keys concluded that the "big three" risk factors for CHD are age, blood pressure and high serum cholesterol. Smoking had no significant effect on the heart attack rate or the overall mortality. Some other interesting anomalies were also noted; among Japanese men, the heaviest smokers (20 or more/day) had the lowest death rate after ten years; in Yugoslavia, heart disease rates were higher in men who had never smoked than in those who smoked ten-twenty cigarettes a day: in Italy and Greece no significant difference was found between smokers and non-smokers. o There is additional good evidence that heredity, stress, environment and diet play a major role in CHD. (Cederlof, Selye, et al). ' TIMN 289441
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85 o At the moment, untreated high blood pressure is the most likely major risk factor significantly linked to CHD. (Slide #10): Graph of the Per Capita Cigarette Consumption Versus Age-adjusted Death Rates for Major Cardiovascular Disease, 1950-1980. (explain) This graph is additional evidence of the lack of association between smoking and heart disease. In recent U.S. Congressional Hearings concerning smoking and heart disease and whether to strengthen the warning labels on cigarette packages, there are two notable quotes: Edward Brandt, Asst. Secretary for Health of the U.S., March 1982; "The exact mechanisms of how cigarette smoking affects CHD are still unkonwn and are the subject of considerable research now underway." Dr. Carl Seltzer, Prof. of Epidemiology, Harvard Univ., J "The U.S. Government's proposed warning "cigarette smoking is a major cause of heart disease" is not scientifically valid." Dr. ,P.R.J. Burch, concurred in Dr. Seltzer's statement. , TIMN 289442
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CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE (This includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis and at times a combination of the two) If the hard evidence is sparse and inconclusive for linking smoking to lung cancer and heart disease...it is even LESS conclusive in any attempt to link smoking to chronic obstructive pulmonary'disease. In fact it is practically non-existent. Even within the Public Health Service there is a wide disagreement, while the Surgeon General's Report repeatedly insists there is a connection, in fact stating that smoking is the leading cause of emphysema, other conclusions in the same report stated, "filling the major gaps in knowledge about the relationship between smoking and chronic obstructi.ve lung disease is still required." Data concerning the incidence of COLD is severely flawed. In 1979 the International Classification of Disease stopped treating chronic bronchitis and emphysema as distinct disease entities, which they are, and joined them together as a single diagnosis under the new heading "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Diastrously this has obscured the true incidence of both diseases. Therefore any statements concerning the incidence of these two distinct entities as related to cigarette smoking are highly sus- pect. I TIMN 289443
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87 (Slide #11): Lack of Evidence Concerning the Suspected Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease o While it is entirely possible to produce emphysema in laboratory animals using certain chemicals...no one has been able to produce emphysema changes using cigarette smoke. (Cite pLjEga".. s dog studies) o Many current studies in adults and children report minor .changes in lung function when exposed to cigarette smoke...but the authors conclude that this is not the same as producing disease. o Sir Charles Fletcher of the United Kingdom, leading researcher in the field.of COPD and coauthor with Peto and Hill on a leading text on this disease frankly states; "While some smokers develop COPD, it is remarkable that most smokers not." do Additionally there is strong evidence that some cases of emphysema are in fact brought on by an inherited susceptibility; alpha-one- antitrypsin antitrypsin enzyme deficiency; occupational exposure to silicon, infectious bacterial and viral agents, nutritional and renvironmental factors. Hearings before a U.S. Senate Sub-Committee on Health and Environment in 1982 concluded that the causes of COPD have not been established and that further research is needed." ' TIIVVIN 289444
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88 In conclusion..this final statement concerning COPD is true for the entire field of smoking and health, additional research is sorely needed in all diseases which have been linked only by statistics. Besides these scientific gaps in research and numerous flaws or anomalies, there are some general public questions: (Slide #12): o Why is the evidence just presented ignored? o Why is so much time, effort and money placed on trying to prove smoking may be related to certain cancers, heart disease and chronic lung disease while other possible causes could be pursued? o Why, when the federal government and the research community puts so much emphasis on the importance of animal studies e failure to (e.g. benzene, sacharrin, PVC, etc.) does th produce any form of disease in a variety of animals using gnored? cigarette smoke continue to be i J While I have not discussed the equally inadequate evidence and research on passive smoking, use of oral contraceptives and ..smoking, occupational disease, etc. I will be pleased to take your questions. References for all my statements are available for you to take with you. , TIM-N 289445
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89 References for Mortality Data 1. Briggs, R., "Quality of Death Certificate Diagnosis as Compared to Autopsy Findings," Ariz Med 32 (8) : 617-619, August, 1975. 2. Busuttil, A., et al., "The Accuracy of Medical Certifi- cates of Cause of Death," Health Bull 39(3): 146-152, 1981. 3. Gittelsohn, A. and J. Senning, "Studies on the Reli- ability of Vital and Health Records: I. Comparison of Cause of Death and Hospital Record Diagnoses," Am J Public Health 69(7): 680-689, July, 1979. 4. Rigdon, R., "Reliability of Data from Death Certifi- cates," N Engl J Med 303(24): 1422, December 11, 1980. 5. Stenback, F. and H. Paivarinta, "Relation Between Clinical and Autopsy Diagnoses, Especially as Regards Cancer," Scand J Soc Med 8(2): 67-72, 1980. 6. Gwynne, J., "Death Certification in Dunedin Hospitals," NZ Med J 86(592): 77-81, July 27, 1977. 7. Engel, L., et al., "Accuracy of Death Certification in an Autopsied Population with Speci'fic Attention to Malignant Neoplasms and Vascular Diseases," Am J Epidemiol 111(1) : 99-112, 1980. ~ 8. Rosenblatt, M., et al., "Diagnostic Accuracy in Cancer ... as Determined by Post Mortem Examination," Prog Clin .Cancer 5: 71-80, 1973. 9. Rosenblatt, M., et al., "Causes of Death in 1,000 Consecu tive Au topsies," NY State J Med 71(18): 2189-2193, September 15, 1971. 10. Bauer, F. and S. Robbins,"'An Autopsy Study of Cancer Patients. I. Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnoses (1955 to 1965) Boston City Hospital," J Am Med Assoc 221(13): 1471-1474, September 25, 1972. „11. Cameron, H. and E. McGoogan, "A Prospective Study of 1152 Hospital Au topsies: II. Analysis of Inaccuracies in Clinical Diagnoses and Their Significance," J Pathol 133(4): 285-300, 1981. 12. Ehrlich, D., et al., "Some Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Cancer Diagnosis," J Chronic Dis 28(7/8): 359-364, August, 1975. , T'IMN 289446
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90 13. Holmes, F., et al., "More on Reliability of Death Certificates," N Engl J Med 304(12): 737, March 19, - - 1981. 14. Mason, T. and F. McKay, U.S. Cancer Mortality by County 1950-69, National Institutes ot Healt , Pu ic HeaT7 fi- Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 74-615 (Washing- ton: Government Printing Office, 1974). 15. Percy, C. and A. Dolman, "Comparison of the Coding of Death Certificates Related to Cancer in Seven Coun- tries," Public Health Rep 93(4): 335-350, July/August, 1978. 16. Jimenez, F:, et al., "Cancer of the Lung in Males," Bull NY Acad Med 51(3): 432-438, March, 1975. 17. Feinstein, A. and C. Wells, "Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer: The Problems of 'Detection Bias' in Epidemio- logic Rates of Disease," Trans Assoc Am Physicians 87: 180-185, 1974. TIMN 289447
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91 References for Lung Cancer l. Pollard, H., Interview, "The John Scott Show," WOR-TV, New York, N.Y., February 5, 1975. 2. Enstrom, J., "Rising Lung Cancer Mortality Among Non- smokers," J Nati Cancer Inst 62(4): 755-760, April, 1979. 3. U.S. Public Health Service,, The Health Consequences of Smoking. 1968 Supplement to the 1967 Public Health Serv~.ce Review, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, PHS Publication No. 1696, 1968. 4. Furst,, A., Statement, U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Subcommittee on Health, Cigarette Smoking and Disease, 1976 Hearing, 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., February 19, March 24 and May 27, 1976 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1976), pp. 108-115. 5. Auerbach, 0., et al., "Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Dogs. II. Pulmonary Neoplasms," Arch Environ Health 21(6): 754-768, December, 1970. 6. Manber, M., "Dog Smoking Tes,ts Seen Cancer Proof," Newark [N.J.] News, February 6, 1970. 7. Brower, L., "Smoking and Cancer," New York Times, February 15, 1970. 8. Sterling, T., "Comment on Smoking Dogs," Arch Environ •Health 22: 631-632, May, 1971. 9. Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollution, Particulate Polycyclic Organic Matter, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council (Washing- ton: National Academy of Sciences, 1972). ., 10. Anonymous, Environment: 21, May, 1973. 11. Hir th, R. and G. Hottendorf, "Lesions Produced by a New Lungworm in Beagle Dogs," Vet Pathol 10: 385-407, 1973. 12. Georgi, J., "Filaroides hirthi: Experimental Trans- mission Among Beagle Dogs Through Ingestion of First Stage Larvae," Science 194: 735, November 12, 1976. 13. Gifford-Jones, W., "'Cancerphobia': The Universal Disease," The Doctor Game (Toronto: Stewart, Ltd., 1975). McClelland & TIMN 289448
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92 14. Rosenblatt, M., Statement, U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Cigarette Labeling and Advertising -- 1969, Hearing, 91st Cong., lst Sess., April 15, 30 and May 1, 1969 (Washington: Government 'Printing Office, 19,69) , ,pp. 1255-1263. 15. U.S. Public Health Service, Smoking and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General, Department ot H`ealth, Eaucation a We are, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066, 1979. 16. Berkson, J., "Smoking and Lung Cancer: Some Observa- tions on Two Recent Reports," J Am Stat Assoc 53 (281) : 28-38, March, 1958. 17. Detering, K. and E. Hartmann, "Mortality Associated with the Pill," Lancet II: -1024, November 12, 1977. 18. U.S. Public Health Service, Smoking and Health. A Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon Genera l or-the Prbic Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, PHS Publication No. 1103, 1964. 19. Sterling, T., "The Effects of Self-Selection Factors in the Study of Smoking and Lung Cancer," Presentation, The Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Associa- tion, Montreal, Quebec, August 16, 1972. 20. U.S. Public Health Service, The Health Consequences of Smoking: 1977-78, Department of Hea th, Eaucation ana Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50065, 1979. 21. Doll, R. and A. Hill, "Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death in Relation to Smoking," Brit Med J II: 1071-1081, 1956. 22. Hammond, E. and D. Horn, "Smoking and Death Rates -- Report on 44 Months of Follow-up on 187,783 Men. Part I. Total Mortality. Part II. Death Rates by Cause," J Am Med Assoc 166: 1159-1172, 1294-1308, 1958. 23. Dorn, H., "The Mortality of Smokers and Non-Smokers," Proc Soc Stat Sect Amer Stat Assn, 34-71, 1958. 24. Doll, R. and A. Hill, "Mortality in Relation to Smoking: Ten Years' Observations of British Doctors," Brit Med J I: 1399-1410, 1964. 25. Hammond, E., "Smoking in Relation to the Death Rates of One Million Men and Women," Epidemiological Ap roaches to the Study of Cancer and Ot er C ronic Diseases, NQ;Monograph 19, ed. W. Haenszel, January, 1966, pp. 127-204. TIMN 289449
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93 26. Kahn, H., "The Dorn Stu dy of Smoking-and Mortality Among U.S. Veterans: Report on Eight and One-Half Years of Observation," Epidemiological Approaches to the Study of Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases, NCI Monograph 19, ed. W. Haenszel, January, I9TU, pp_._1-l25 - ,. 27. Burch, P., The Biology of Cancer: A New Approach (Baltimore: Unive~ty Park Press, 1976). 28. Lee, P., (ed.), Tobacco Consumption in Various Countries, Tobacco Research Council, Researc Paper, No. 6, th ed.; Edinburgh: T. and A. Constable, Ltd., 1975). 29. Segi, M., et al., Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Statistics: Japan and the World, Japanese Cancer Association, GANN Monograph,on Cancer Research No. 26 (Tokyo: Japanese Scientific Societies Press, 1981). 30. Rosenblatt,.M., Statement to U.S. Congress. 31. Berge, T. and N. Toremalm, "Bronchial.Cancer -- A Clinical and Pathological Study: II. Frequency According to Age and Sex During a'12-Year Period," Scand J Respir Dis 56(2): 120-126, August, 1975. 32. Belcher, J., "The Changing Pattern of Bronchial Carcinoma," Br J Dis Chest 69: 247-258, 1975. 33. Sterling, T., "Additional Comments on the Critical Assessment of the Evidence Bearing on Smoking as the Cause of Lung Cancer," Am J Public Health 66(2): 161-164, February, 1976- 34. Beamis, J., Jr., et al., "Changing•Epidemiology of Lung Cancer: Increasing in Women," Medical Clinics of North America 59(2): 315-325, March, 1975. 35. Hueper, W., "Lung Cancer and Smoking in Perspective," Lawyers' Medical Cyclopedia.... of Personal Injuries and Allied Specialt es, ed. C.J. Frankel; Revi.sed Vol, v, Part B (Indianapolis: The Allen Smith Co., 1972). 36. Burch, P., "Smoking and Lung Cancer: The Problem of Inferring Cause," J R Statist Soc Part 4, 141: 437-477, 1978. 37. Gottlieb, M., "Lung Cancer and the Petroleum Industry in Louisiana," J Occup Med 21(6): 384-388, June, 1980. 38. Hoiberg, A., "Cancer Among Navy Personnel: Occupa- tional Comparisons," Milit Med 146: 556-561, August, 1981.
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39. Hoover, R. and J. Fraumeni, "Cancer Mortality in U.S. Counties with Chemical Industries," Environ Res 9: 196-207, April, 1975. 40.' Blot, W."and J. Fraumeni, "Geographic-Patterns of Lung Cancer: Industrial Correlations," Am J Epidemiol 103: 539-550, 1976. - r 41. Menck, H. and B. Henderson, "Occupational Differences in'Rates of Lung Cancer," J Occup Me d 18(12): 797-801, December-, 1976. - 42. Sterling, T., "Does Smoking Kill Workers or Working Kill Smokers? or The Mutual Relationship Between Smoking, Occupation, and Respiratory Disease," Int J Health Serv 8(3): 437-452, 1978. 43. Ford, A. and-O. Bialik, "Air Pollution and Urban Factors in Relation to Cancer Mortality," Arch Environ Health 35(6): .350-359, November/December, 1980. 44. Shear, C., et al., "Evidence for Space-Time Clustering of Lung Cancer Deaths," Arch Environ Health 35(6): 335-3~43, November/December, 1980. 45. Mason, T., et al., Atlas of Cancer Mortality for U.S. Counties: 1950-1969,. Department of Hea•Tta,-Eaucation an We are, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 75-780, 1976. 46. Mason, T., et al., Atlas of Cancer Mortality Among U.S. Non-Whites: 1950-1969, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-1204, 1976. 47. Bjelke, E., "Dietary Vitamin A and Human Lung Cancer," Int J Cancer 15(4): 561-565, April, 1975. 48. BBa osu, T., "P°a Br a J Cancer 33: 119 Vitamin A in Patients with Bronchial Carcinoma. -121, January, 1976. - - 49. Mettlin, C., et al., "Vitamin A and Lung Cancer," J Natl Cancer Inst 62(6): 1435-1438, June, 1979. - 50. Wald, N., et al., "Low Serum-Vitamin-A and Subsequent Risk of Cancer. Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study," Lancet II: 813-815, October 18, 1980. . ,.~ . 51. Shekelle, R., et al., "Dietary Vitamin A and Risk of Cancer in the Western Electric Study," Lancet II: 1185-1190, November 28, 1981. 52. Bishop, J., "Lung Cancer Risk May Be Cu t by Nutrient in Some Fruits, Vegetables, Study Finds," Wall Street Journal, December 3, 1981. TIMN 289451
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95 53. Fritschner, S., "Can a Carrot a Day Keep Cancer Away?" Washington Post, December 10, 1981. 54. Anonymous, "Mind and Cancer," Lancet I: 706-707, March 31, 1979. 55. Kissen, -D., "Psychological Factors, Personality and Lung Cancer in Men Aged 55-64," Brit J Med Psychol 40(Part I): 29-43, March, 1967. 56. Horne,*R., et al.,-"Psychosocial Risk Factors for Lung Cancer," Psychosom Med 41(7): 503-514, November, 1979. 57. Abse, D., et al., "Personality and Behavioral Charac- teris tics of Lung Cancer Patients," J Psychosom Res 18: 103'-113,. 1974. 58. Osler, W., cited in Lancet I: .1302, June 16, 1979. 59. Fisher, R.; Smoking: The Cancer Controversy, Some Attempts to Assess the Evi eT nce (E in urg and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1959). 60. Burch, P., "Smoking and Lung Cancer." 'TIMN 289452
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. References for Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers l. Hirayama, T., "Non-Smoking Wive's of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer: A Study from Japan," Brit Med-J I: 183-185, January 17, 1981. 2. Trichopoulos, D., et al., "Lung Cancer and Passive Smoking," Int J Cancer 27(1): 1-4, 1981. 3. Garfinckel, L., "Time Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality Among Nonsmokers and a'Note on Passive Smoking," J Natl Cancer inst 66 (6) : 1061-1066, 1981. - 4. Anonymous, "Japan Study Linking Passive Smoking with Strong Ca Risk Startles Experts," Med World News, February 16,.1981., 5. Macdonald, E.., "Non-Smoking Wives of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer," Brit Med J II: 915-916, October 3, 1981. 6. Rutsch, M., "Non-Smoking Wives of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer," Brit Med J I: 985, March 21, 1981. 7. Lehnert, G., "Krank durch Passivrauchen? [Ill by Pas- sive Smoking?]," Munch med Wschr 123(40): 1485-1488, 1981. Translation. 8. Schmahl, D., Quoted in "Lungenkrebs durch Passivrauchen? Studie aus Japan bestatigt Verdacht/ Widerspruch aus Deutschland [Lung Cancer from Pass.ive .Smoking? Study from Japan Confirms Suspicion/ Contradictory Opinion from Germany]," Suddeutsche Zeitung, March 18, 1981. Translation. 9. Sterling, T., "Non-Smoking Wives of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer," Brit Med J_ I: 1156, April 4, 1981. 10. Grundemann, E., et al., "Non-Smoking Wives of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer," Brit Med J I: 1156, April 4, 1981. r11. Macdonald, E., "Non-Smoking Wives of Heavy Smokers Have a Higher Risk of Lung Cancer," Brit Med J_ II: 1465, November 28, 1981. 12. Schievelbein, H., "Lungenkarzinom bei Passivrauchern [Lung Carcinoma in Passive Smokers]," Munch med Wschr 123(17): 668-669, 1981. Translation. TIMN 289453
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13. Garfinkel, L., Interview, "Nicht vom eigentlichen Problem ablenken, [Let's Concentrate on the Main Issuej," Munch med Wschr 123(40): 1483-1484, 1981. Translation. 14. Swomley, J., Letter to Carol M. Thomas, Secretary, Federal Trade Commission, October 19, 1981. 15. Stewart, R., "~The Effects of Low Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide in Man," Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effects on the Nonsmoker: Report from a Workshop, ed., R. Rylander, (DenmarTc: P.. J. Sc~Fim3T; Vo3ens, 1974), 56-62. 16. Bridge, D. and M. Corn, "Contribution to the Assessment of Exposure of Nonsmokers to Air Pollution From Ciga- rette and Cigar Smoke in,Occupied Spaces," Environ Res 5 (2) : . 192-209, 1972. 17. Anderson, G. and T. Dalhamn, "Halsoriskerna vid passiv rokning [The Risks to Health of Passive Smoking]," Lakartidningen 70: 2833-2836, 1973. Translation. 18. Hutcheon, D., Statement, State of New Jersey Public Health Council, Public Hearing on Regulation of Smoking in Certain Public Places, Trenton, New Jersey, December 12, 1978. 19. Hinds, W., and M. First, "Concentrations of Nicotine•_ and Tobacco.Smoke in Public Places," N Engl J_ Med 292(16): 844-845, 1975. 20. Hinds, W., "The Lung and the Environment," Seminars in Respiratory Medicine 1(3): 197-210, January, 1980. 21. Huber, G.., "Smoke and Heat," N Engl J_ Med 293: 47-49, 1975. 22. Badre, R., et al., "Pollution Atmospherique par la Fumee de Tabac [Atmospheric Pollution by SmokingJ," Ann 23. Phar Pr 36(9-10): 44'3-452, 1978. Translation. Klosterkotter, W. and E. Gono, "Zum Problem des Passivrauchens [On the Problem of Passive Smoking]," Zbl Bakt H , I Abt Orig 162: 51-69, 1976. Translation. 24. Holzer, G., et al., "Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Evaluation of Exhaled Tobacco Smoke," J_ Chromatography 126: 771-785, 1976. TIMN 289454
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25.' Brunnemann, K., et al.; "Assessment of Carcinogenic Volatile N-Nitrosamines in Tobacco and in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke from Cigarettes," Cancer Res 37: 3218-3222, 1977. 26. Brunnemann, K. and D. Hoffmann, "Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. LIX. Analysis of Volatile Nitrosamines in Tobacco Smoke and Polluted Indoor Environments," Environmental Aspects of N-Nitroso Compounds, eds. E. A. Walker, et al., (Lyon: IARC Scientific Publica- tions, 1978), pp. 343-355. 27. Hoffmann, D., et al., "The Role of Volatile and Non- volatile N-Nitrosamines in Tobacco Carcinogenesis," Banbury Report: A Safe Cigarette?, eds. G. Gori, et al., (Cold Springs Harbor: Cold.Springs Harbor Laboratory, 1980), pp. 113-127. 28. Repace, J. and A. Lowrey, "Indoor Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke, and Public Health," Science 208: 464-472, 1980. 29. Repace, J. and A. Lowrey, "Tobacco Smoke, Ventilation, and Indoor Air Quality," Presentation before The Sym- posium on Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality, Semi- annual Meeting of ASHRAE, Houston, January 25, 1982. 30. Spielvogel, L., Comments on J. Repace and A. Lowrey Presentation, "Tobacco Smoke, Ventilation, and Indoor Air Quality," The Symposium on Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality, Semiannual Meeting of ASHRAE, Houston, Januacy 25, 1982. 31. Sterling, T., Comments on J. Repace and A. Lowrey Presentation,""Tobacco Smoke, Ventilation, and Indbor Air Quality," The Symposium.on Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality, Semiannual Meeting of ASHRAE, Houston, January 25, 1982. 32. Hugod, C., et al., "Expo,sure of Passive Smokers to Tobacco Smoke Constituents," Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42: 21-29, 1978. 33. Pimm, P., et al., "Physiological Effects of Acute Passive Exposure to Cigarette Smoke," Arch Environ Health 33(4): 201-213, 1978. 34. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, Sub- committee on Tobacco, Effect of Smoking on Nonsmokers, Hearing, 95th Cong., 2nd Sess., Septembeo 7, 1978 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978). TIMN 289455
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99 35. Fisher,' E., Statement, U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Tobacco, Effect.of Smoking on Nonsmokers, Hearing, 95th Cong.-;2nd Sess., September 7, 1978 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978), pp. 2-20. 36. Langston, H., Statement, U.S. Congress, House, Commit- tee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Tobacco, Effect of Smoking on Nonsmokers, Hearing, 95th Cong., 2nd Sess., September 7, 1978 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978), pp. 158-184. 37. Wynder, E., Quoted in "Unter Vier Augen: Wenn Schon-dann lieber harmlos raucher [Face to Face]," Schweizer Illustrierte, October.26, 1976. Translation. 38. Wald,"N.,."]3reathing'in Their Smoke," Oxford Times, March 6, 1981. ~ TIMN 289456
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100 . References for Laryngeal Cancer 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Surveil- lance, Epidemiology, and End Results: Incidence ana Mortality Data, 1973-77; NCI Monograph 57, National Institutes of Health, NIH Publication No. 81-2330, June, 1981. 2. Hammond, E. and D. Horn, "Smoking and Death Rates -- Report on Forty-Four Months of Follow-Up of 187, 783 Men. II. Death Rates by Cause," J Am Med Assoc 166(11): 1294-1308, March 15, 1958. 3. Kahn, H., "The Dorn Study of Smoking and Mortality Among U.S. Veterans: Report on Eight and One-Half Years of Observation," Epidemiological Approaches to the Study of Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases; NCI Monograph 19, ed. W. Haenszel, January, 1966, pp. 1-125. 4. Stell, P., "Smoking and Laryngeal Cancer," Lancet I: 617-618, March 18, 1972. 5. Doll, R. and A. Hill, "Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death in Relation to Smoking: A Second Report on the Mortality of British Doctors," Brit Med J II: 1071-1081, November 10, 1956. - Doll, R. and A. Hill, "Mortality in Relation to Smoking: Ten Years' Observations of British Doctors," Brit Med J I: 1399-1410, May 30, 1964. 6. Burch, P., "Are 90% of Cancers Preventable?," IRCS Med Sci 6: 353-356, 1978. T 7. Boyle, P., et al., "Cancer of the Larynx in Scotland," Br J Cancer 41: 196-197, 1980. 8. Ferrara, F., "Ecological Analysis of Lung Cancer in the City of La Plata," Proceedings of 2nd International Clean Air Congress, 1970, pp. 244-247. a. Stell, P. and T. McGill, "Exposure to Asbestos and Laryngeal Carcinoma," J Laryng 89(5): 513-517, 1975. TIMN 289457
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101 References for Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers 1. Smith, E., "Epidemiology of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers in the United States: Review of Recent Literature," J_ Natl Cancer Inst 63(5): 1189-1198, November, 1979. 2. Roed-Petersen, B., et al., "Smoking Habits and Histo- logical Characteristics of Oral Leukoplakias in Denmark and Hungary," Br J Cancer 28: 575-579, 1973. 3. Einhorn, J. and J. Wersall, "Incidence of Oral Car- cinoma in Patients with Leukoplakia of the Oral Mucosa," Cancer 20(12): 2189-2193, December, 1967. 4. Roed-Petersen, B., "Cancer Development in Oral Leuko- plakia Follo.w-Up of 331 Patients," J Dent Res 50(3): 711, May/June, 1971. (Abstract] 5. U.S. Public Health Service, "Chapter 5. Cancer," Smoking and Health. A Report of.the Surgeon General, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066, 1979, pp. 39-42. . .. 6. Decoufle, P., "Cancer Risks Associated with Employment in the Leather and Leather Products Industry," Arch Environ Health 34(1): 33-37, January/February, 1979. 7. Spitzer, W., et al., "The Occupation of Fishing as a Risk Factor in Cancer of the Lip," N Engl J Med 293 (9) : 419-424, August 28, 1975. .8. Hollinshead, A. and G. Tarro, "Soluble Membrane Antigens of Lip and Cervical Carcinomas: ReactiVity with Antibody for Herpesvirus Nonvirion Antigens," Science 179(4074): 698-700, February, 1973. 9. Henle, W., et al., "Antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Other Head and Neck Neo- plasms, and Control Gr"oups," J Natl Cancer Inst 44 (1) : 225-231, January, 1970. 10. Huang, D., et al., "Demonstration of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Nuclear Antigen in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells from Fresh Biopsies," Int J Cancer 14: 580-588, 1974. 11. Glaser, R., et al., "Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas Positive for Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in North America," J Natl Cancer Inst 64 (6) : 1317-1319,'"June, 1980. TIMN 289458
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l0t 12. Easton, J., et al., "Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the United States. A Pathologic Study of 177 U.S. and 30 Foreign Cases," Arch Otolaryngol 106(2): 88-91, February, 1980. 13. Devesa, S. and D. Silverman, "Canc er Incidence and Mortality Trends in the United States: 1935-74," J Natl Cancer Inst 60(3): 545-571, March, 1978. 14. Segi, M., et al:, (eds.), Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Statistics:. Japan and the World, Japanese Cancer Association, GANN MonograpE--on Cancer Research No. 26 (Tokyo: Japanese Scientific Societies Press, 1981). 15. Lee, P. (ed.), Tobacco Consumption in Various Coun- tries, Tobacco Research Council, Research Paper No. 6 (4th ed.; Edinburgh: T. and A.' Constable.Ltd., 1975). TIMN 289459
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C.0.P.D. References 1. Aviado D., Testimony, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, Smoking Prevention Health and Education Act of 1983, Hearing, 98th Congress,'First Session, May 12, 1983 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1983), pp. 258-278. 2. Burrows B., et al., "The Relationship of Childhood Respiratory Illness to Adult Obstructive Airway Disease," Am Rev Resp Dis 115: 751-760, 1977. 3. Fletcher C., et al., The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, 1976, 272 pp. 4. Lebowitz M.D., "The Relationship of Socio-Environmental Factors to the Prevalence of Obstructive Lung Diseases and Other Chronic Conditions," J Chron Dis 30: 599-611, 1977. 5. Moser K.M., Bordow R.A., "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathology," in Manual of Clinical Problems in Pulmonary Medicine, Bordow R.A., et al. (eds.), Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1980. 6. Openbrier D.R., et al., "Nutritional Status and Lung Function in Patients with Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis,•" Chest TIMN 289460
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104 83: 17-22, 1983. 7. Quanjer Ph.H., et a1., "Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves in a Follow-Up Study," Scan J Resp Dis 57: 309-310, 1976. 8. Salvaggio J.E., "0verview of Occupational Immunologic Lung Disease," J Allergy Clin Immunol 70: 5-10, 1982. 9. Tager I., et a1., "Studies.of the Familial Aggregation of Chronic Bronchitis_.and Obstructive Airways Disease," Int J Epidemiol 7 : 55-62, 1978. 10. Tisi,G.M., Pulmonary Physiology in Clinical Medicine, Second Edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore/London, 1983. 11. U.S.-Public Health Service, Smoking and Health: •Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, DHEW, Pub. No. 1103, 1964. 12. U.S. Public Health Service, Smoking and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, DHEW, Pub. No. (PHS)79-50066, 1979. ~ 13. U.S. Public Health Service, The Health Consequences of Smoking, Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1983, DHHS, Pub. No. DHH(PHS) 84-50204. TjMN 289461
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105 14. U.S. Public Health-Service, Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 1980, Monthly Vital Statistics Report, National Center for Health Statistics, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Sup.), Aug. 11, 1983. TIMN 289462
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106 PASSIVE SMOKING ., _ References l. Fifth World Conference on Smoking and Health, "Conference Recommendations," Winnipeg, Canada, July 10-15, 1983, 13 pp. 2. Gori G.B., "Sidestream Smoke -- Fact and Fiction," preprint, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1984. 3. Rylander R., Peterson Y., Snella M.-C. (eds.), ETS -- Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Report from a Workshop on Eff ects and Exposure Levels, March 15-17, 1983, University of Geneva, Switzerland, 152 pp. 4. U.S. Public Health Service, Report of Workshop on Respiratory Effects of Involuntary Smoke Exposure: Epidemiologic Studies, May 1-3, 1983, Department of Health and Human Services, December 1983, 12 pp. 5. Wynder E., Valentin H., workshop on "Passive Smoking from a Medical Viewpoint," Vienna, Austria, Bavarian Academy for Occupational and Social Medicine news release summary (trans.), April 11, 1984. ( , TIMN 289463
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Coronory Artery Disease Risk Factor Intervention REFERENCES 1. U.S. Public Health Service, Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, PHS Publication No. 1103, 1964. .. 2. U.S. Public Health Service, Smoking and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHFW Publication No. (PHS)79-50066, 1979. .3. Dawber, T.R., et al., "Symposium on Arteriosclerosis: The Epidemiology of Coronary Heart Disease -- The Framingham Enquiry," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 55: 265-271, April 1962. - 4. Kannel, W.B., "Recent Findings of the Framingham Study, "Resident and Staff Physician": 56-71, January 1978. 5. Wolinsky, H., "Atherosclerosis," in Cecil's Textbook of Medicine, Beeson, P.B., et al. (eds.), Vol. 1, Fifteenth Edition, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1979. 6. Lundberg, G.D., "MRFIT and the Goals of the Journal," Editorial, JAMA 248(12): 1501., 1982. 7. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group, "Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: Risk Factor Changes and Mortality Results," JAMA 248(12): 1465-1477, 1982. e. ~ Factors Prevent Coronary 8S. Oliver, seas , "DoC~f 1065k1066 Heart Di ~" BMJ 285(10) 1982. 9. Hjermann, I., et al., "Effect of Diet and Smoking Intervention on the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease," Lancet II: 1303-1310, Dec. 12, 1981. 10. Holme, I., "On the Separation of the Intervention Effects of Diet and Anti-Smoking Advice`on the Incidence of Major Coronary Events in Coronary High Risk Men. The Oslo Study," J Oslo City Hospital 32: 31-54, 1982. - 11. Rose, G. and P.J.S. Hamilton, "A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effect on Middle-Aged Men of Advice to Stop Smoking," J Epidem Comm Health 32: 275-281, 1978. - 12. Rose, G., et al., "A Randomised Controlled Trial of Anti-Smoking Advice: 10-year Results," J Epidem Comm Health 36: 102-108, 1982. - TIMN 289464
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13. Friedman, G.D., et al., "Charactertistics Predictive of Coronary Heart Disease in Ex-Smokers Before They Stopped Smoking: Comparision With Persistent Smokers and Nonsmokers," J Chron Dis 32: 175-190, 1979. 14. Seltzer;'C.C.; "Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease: What Are We To Relieve?" Editorial, Am Heart J 100(3): 275-280, 1980. 15. Friedman, G.D., et al., "Mortality in Cigarette Smokers and Quitters," NFJDI 304(23): 1407-1410, 1981. 16. Seltzer, C.(:., "Mortality in Cigarette Smokers and Quitters," Letter to,the Editor, NEJM, 305(15): 890, 1981. 17. Burch, P.R.J., "Mortality in Cigarette Smokers and Quitters," Letter' to the. Editor ,'NF:Jr.R 305 (15 ): 389-8g0 , 1981. 18. Havlik, R.J., "Understanding the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality," Editorial, JAMA 247(11): 1605-1606, 1982. 19.. Havlik, R.J. and M. Feinlieb (.eds.), "Summary of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality," In Proceedings of the Conf erence on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 79-1610, May 1979. 20. Kannel, W.R., "Seeking Explanations for Secular Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality," Letter to the Editor, JAMA 24fi (10 ) : 1178-1179, 1982. 21. Williams, R.R.,-et al., "Decline in Coronary Mortality Rates: Utah vs. United States," in Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, Havlik,R.J. and M. Feinleib (eds.), see reference 19.. 22. Kleinman, J.C., et al., "Trends in Smoking and Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality," in Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, Havlik, R..J. and M. Feinleib (eds.), see reference 19. 23. Kleinman, J.C., et al., "The Effects of Changes in Smoking Habits on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality," AJPH 69(8): 795-802, 1979. 24. Hampton, J.R., "Falling Mortality in Coronary Heart Disease," RMJ 284(5): 1505-1506, 19R2.
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10 9 25. Elveback, L.R., et al., "Coronary Heart Disease in Residents of Rochester, Minnesota: II. Mortality, Incidence and Survivorship, 1950-1975," Mayo Clin Proc 56: 665-672, 1981. 26. Guberan, E., "Surprising Decline of Cardiovascular Mortality in'Switzerland: 1951-1976," J Epidem and Comm Health 33: 114-120, 1979. 27. Burch, P.R.J., "Review: Ischaemic-Heart Disease: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and C'.ause," Cardiovascular Res XIV(6):307-338, 1980. 28. Keys, A., et al., Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart.Disease, Harvard Univ. Press, °_ Cambridge, Mass.,*1980.' 29. Kleinman, J.C., et al., "R.egional and Urban-Suburban Differentials in. Coronary Heart Disease Mortality and Risk Factor Prevalence," J Chron Dis 34(1): 11-19, 1981. 30. Gordon, T., "Recent Decline In Coronary Disease Mortality in the United States: Part of a General Decline In Mortality," Letter to the Editor, Am Heart J 103(1): 151-152, 1982. 31. Cederlof, R., "Cardiovascular and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to Tobacco Smoking. A Study on American Twins," Arch Environ Health 18(6): 934-940, 1969. 32. Cederlof, R., et al., "Respiratory Symptoms and Angina Pectoris in Twins with Reference to Smoking Habits: An Epidemiological Study with Mailed Questionnaires," Arch Environ Health 13(6): 726-737, 1966. 33. Cederlof, R., et al., "The Interactions of Smoking Environment and Heredity and Their Implications for Disease Etiology: A Report of Fpidemiological Studies on the Swedish Twin Registries," Acta Med Scand Sup. 612: 106-117, 1977. 34. Pesonen, E., et al., "Thickenings in the Coronary Arteries in Infancy as an Indication of Genetic Factors in Coronary Heart Disease," Circulation 51: 218-225, February 1975. 35. Carmelli, D., et al., "Contrasting Patterns of Familiality for Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Finland According to Type of Coronary Manifestations and Locations," Am J Epidem 116(4): 617-621, 1982. 36. Nora, J.J., et al., "Genetic-Rpidemiologic Study of Early- Onset Ischemic Heart Disease," Circulation 61(3): 503-508, 1980. TIMN 289466
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110 37. Snowden, C.B., et al., "Predicting Coronary Heart Disease In Siblings--A Multivariate Assessment," Am J Epidem 115(2): 217-222, 1982. 38. Newman, M., "Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease in the R"ritish Army Compared with the Civil Population," Letter to the Editor, BMJ 283(8): 619, 1.981. .:39. Dimsdale, J.E., et al., "Predicting Extensive Coronary Artery Disease," J Chron Dis 34(11): 513-517, 1981. 40. Kromhout, D., et al., "Dietary Fibre and 10-Year Mortality from Coronary.Heart Disease, Cancer and All Causes: The Zutphen Study," Lancet II: 518-522, Sept. 4, 1982. 41. Keys, A., et al., "The Diet and All-Causes Death Rate in the Seven Countries Study," Lancet II: 58, July 11, 1981. 42. Friedman, M. and R.H. Rosenman, "Association of Specific Overt Behavior Pattern with Blood ~~ and Cardiovascular Findings: Blood „ Cholesterol Level, Blood Clotting Time, Incidence of Arcus Senilis, and Clinical Coronary Artery Disease," JAMA 169(12): 1286-1296; 1959. 43. Dembroski,.T.M. (ed.), Proceedings of t he Forum on Coronary Prone Behavior, U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 78-1451, 1978. 44. Friedman, dR., "Type A Behavior; A Progress Report," The Sciences, New York Academy of Sciences: 10-11, February 1980. 45. Buell, J.C.' and R.S. Fliot, "Psychosocial and Behavioral Influences in the.Pathogenesis of Acquired Cardiovascular Disease," Am Heart J 100(5): 723-740, 1980. 46. Hamburg, D.A. and G.R. Elliott, "Atherosclerosis and the Behavioral Sciences," Arteriosclerosis 2(5): 357-358, 1982. '47. Kaplan, J.R., et al., "Social Status, Environment, and Atherosclerosis in Cynomolgus Monkeys," Arteriosclerosis 2(5): 359-368, 1982. 48. Reich, P., et al., "Acute Psychological Disturbances Preceding Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias," JAMA 246(3): 233-235, 1981. Lutz, E.G., "Tranquilizers and Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality," Letter to the Editor, JAMA 248(3): 306, 1982. TIMN 289467
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Ill Kannel, W.B., "Tranquilizers and Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality," In Reply, Letter to the Editor, JAMA 248(3): 306, 1982. Wood, C., "The Psyche and The Heart," New Scientist, Nov. 5, 1981. 49. Astrup, P., et al., "Enhancing Influence of Carbon Monoxide on the Development of Atheromatosis in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits," J Ather Res Ther 7: 343-354, 1967. Wanstrup, J., et al., "Acceleration of Spontaneous Intimal- Subintimal Changes in Rabbit Aorta by a Prolonged Moderate Carbon Monoxide Exposure," Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 75(3): 353-362, 1969. 50. Armitage, A.K., et-al., "The Effect of Carbon Monoxide on the Development of.Atherosclerosis in the White Carneau Pigeon," Atherosclerosis 23: 333-344, March 1976. 51. Hugod, C., et al. (including Astrup), "Effect of Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Aorta and Coronary Intimal Morphology in the Rabbit," Atherosclerosis 30: 333-342, August 1978. 52. Hugod, C. and P. Astrup, "Exposure of Rabbits to Carbon Monoxide and Other Gas Phase Constituents of Tobacco Smoke (Influence on Coronary and Aortic Intimal Morphology)," Munch Med Wochen 122/Sup. 1: 18-24, Feb. 20, 1980. 53. Hugod, C. and P. Astrup, "Studies of Coronary and Aortic Intimal Morphology in Rabbits Exposed to Gas-Phase Constituents of Tobacco Smoke (Hydrogen Cyanide, Nitric Oxide, and Carbonyl Sulphide)," Chapter 12 in Smoking and Arterial Disease, Greenhalgh, R.M. (ed.), Pitman Medical, London, 1981. 54. U.S. Public Health Service, The Changing Cigarette--The Health Consequences of Smoking: AReport of the Surgeon General, Department of Health and Human Services, DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 81-5056, 1981. 55. Sievers, R.F., et al., "Effect of Exposure to Known Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide. A Study of Traffic Officers Stationed at the Holland Tunnel.for Thirteen Years," JAMA 118(8): 585-588, 1942. Jones, J.G. and A. Sinclair, "Arterial Disease Amongst Blast Furnace Workers," Ann Occup H, 18(1): 15-20, 1975. 56. Weir, F.W. and V.L. Fabiano, "Re-Evaluation of the Role of Carbon Monoxide in Production or Aggravation of Cardiovascular Disease Processes," JOM 24(7): 519-525, 1982. TIMN 289468
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112 57. Holme, I.; et al., "Risk Factors and Raised Atherosclerotic Lesions in Coronary and Cerebral Arteries: Statistical Analysis from the'Oslo Study," Arteriosclerosis 1(4): 250-256, 1981. 5R. Dimsdale, J.F., et al., "Predicting Coronary Atherosclerosis," Circulation 63(3): 519-526, 1981. Vlietstra, R.E., et al., "Factors Affecting the Extent and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Enrolled in the Coronary Artery Surgery Study," Arteriosclerosis 2(3):, 208-215, 1982. . 59. Knoebel, S.B.,. Statement, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on-Tohacco, Effect of Smoking on Nonsmokers, Hearing, 95th Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 7, 1978, pp. 49-55. 60. Aronow, W., "Effect of Passive Smoking on Angina Pectoris," NEJM 299(1): 21-24, 1978. 61. Niden, A., "No: Environmental Smoke Can Irritate, Not Injure Others," Los Angeles Times, Oct. 29, 1978. 62. Fisher, E.R., Statement, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Tobacco, Effect of Smoking on Nonsmokers, Hearing, 95th Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 7, 1978, pp. 2-20. : 63. -Shephard, R.J., The Risks of Passive Smoking, Croom Helm, London, 1982. TIMN 289469
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References Criticism of the CHD Intervention Studies 1. M.ultiple Risk Factor InteYvention T=ia?Research Group, "Multiple Risk Factor intervention Trial: Risk Factor Changes and Mortality Results," JAMh 248(12): 1965-1G77, September 24, 1982. ; 2." Lundberg, G., "MRFIT and the.Goals.o= The.Journal," JA.M2k 2a8(12): 1501, September 24, 1982. 3. Kolata, G. , "Heart Studv Produces a St:rp?'ise Result, " Science 218: 31-32, October 1, 1982. 4. Oliver, M., "Does Control of Risk Factors Prevent Coronary Heart Disease?," Br Med J II: 1065- 1d66, October 16, 1982. 5. Editorial, "T?"ial'S of Coronary Fieart Disease Prevention," Lancet 11: 803-804, Octobe'"~-9, . . 1982. • 6. Hjermann, I., et al., "Ef~=ect of Diet and Smoking Intervention on the incidence of Coronary Heart Disease: Report ~rom the Oslo Study Group of a Randomised. Trial in Healthy Men, " Lancet II': 1303-1310, December 12, 1981. 7. Rose, G., et al., "A Randomised Controlled Trial of Anti- Smoking Advice: 10-Year Results," J Eaidemiol Commur.itv Health 36: 102-108, 1982. TIMN 28947/0
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Coronary Artgr,y Weqrt, D,i.sease. Ref erencds 1. NHLBI, "Report of the Working'Group on Heart Disease Epidem- iology", AiIH.Pub No. 79-1667, 7 July 1979. 2. Havlick, R.J., Feinleib, M. (Eds), "Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality", NIH Pub No. 79-1610, May 1979. 3. Williams, R.R., et al., "Decline in Coronary Mortality Rates: Utah vs United States". in Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary-Heart D isease Mortality, Havlik, R.J. and Feinleib, M (eds), see reference 2, - 4. Kleinman, J.C., et al'.,, "Trends in Smoking and Ischemic Heart D:~sease Mortality", in Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, Havlik, R.J. and Feinleib (eds) see reference 2. 5. Kleinman, J.C., et al.,."The Eff ects of Changes in Smoking .Habits on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality", AJPH 69(8): 795-802, 1979. 6. Hampton, J.R., (editorial) "Falling Mortality in Coronary Heart Disease", BMJ 284(5): 1505-1506, 1982. 7. Elveback, L.R., et al., "Coronary Heart Disease in Residents of Rochester, Minnesota: II. Mortality Incidence, and Survivorship, 1950-1975", Mayo Clinic Proceedings 56: 665-672, 1982. 8. Guberan, E., "Surprising Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality in Switzerland: 1951-1976", J Epidemiol Comm Hlth 33: 114-120, 1979. 9. Patrick, C.H., et al., "Sex Differences in Declining Cohort Death Rate from Heart Di~sease", AJPH 72(2): 161-166, 1982. 10. Anonymous, "Why the American Decline in Coronary Heart Disease?", Lancet 26 Jan 1980. 11. Gordon, T., "Recent Decline in Coronary Disease Mortality in in the United Mortality", States: (Ltr), Part of a General Decline Amer Ht J Jan., 151=152, 1982. TIMN 289471
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I :i 5 12. Kannel, W.B., "Seeking Explanations for Secular Trends. in Cardiovascular Mortality", (Ltr), JAMA 248(10): 1178-1179, 1982. 13. Lutz, F.G., "Tranquilizers and Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality",•(Ltr), JAMA 248(3):306, 1982. 14. Kannel, W.B., "Tranquilizers and Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality", (Ltr), JAMA 248(3): 306, 1982. 15. Gillum, R.F., 'fIschemic Heart Disease Mortality Declining Since 1940", (Ltr),'AJPH 72(2): 213, 1982. 1$. Havlick, R.J.., "Understanding the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality",. (Editorial)', JAMA 247(11): 1605-1606, 1982. 17. Kleinman, J.C., et al., "The Effects of Changes in Smoking Habits on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality", AJPH 69(8): 795-802, 1979• 18; Anonymous, "Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease", (Notes and News), Lancet 28•Aug: 507, 1982 . 19. Kimrn, S.Y.S.," et al., "Secular Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality: Regional Variation", Circulation 68(1):.3-8, 1983. 20. Trial Research Group, "Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Risk Factor Changes and Mortality Results", JAMA 248(12): 1465-1477, 1982. 21. Lundberg, G.D., MRFIT and the Goals of the Journal. (Editorial) JAMA 248(12): 1501, 1982. 22. Kolata, G., "Heart Study Produces a Surprise Result", (News and Comment), Science 218: 31-32, 1982. 23. Oliver, M.F., "Does Control of Risk Factors Prevent Coronary Heart Disease", (Editorial), BMJ 285: 1065-1066, 1982. 24. Anonymous, "Coronary Disease and Multiple Risk Factor Intervention", Lancet 9 Oct: 803-804, 1982. TIMN 289472
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25. Graham, I., et al., "Mode of Death Related to Smoking in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease", J Irish Med Assoc 70(7): 234-235, 1977. 26. Rose, G., Hamilton, P.J.S., "A Randomized Control Trial of the Effect on Middle Aged Men of Advise to Stop Smoking", J Epidemiol Comm Hlth 32: 275-281, 1978. 27. Burch, P.R.J., "Coronary Disease: Risk Factors, Age, and Time", Amer Ht Jr 97(4): 417-419, 1979. 28. Oliver, M.F., "Risks of Correcting the Risks of Coronary Disease and Stroke with Drugs", (Sounding Board), NEJM 306(5): 297-298, 1982. 29. Kolata, G., "Heart Study Produces a Surprise Result", (News and Comment), Science 218: 31-32, 1982- 30. Oliver, M.F., "Does Control of Risk Factors Prevent Coronary Heart Disease", (Editorial), BMJ, 285: 1065-1066, 1982. 31. Burch, P.R.J., "The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial", (Ltr), JAMA 249(11): 1435, 1983. 32. Seltzer, C.C., "The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial", (Ltr), JAMA 249(11): 1435-1436, 1983. 33. Oliver, M.F., "Should We Not Forget About Mass Control Coronary Risk Factors?" Lancet 2 July: 37-38, 1983. of 34. Meijler, F.L., Contribution of the Risk Factor Concept to Patient Care in Coronary Heart Disease", J Amer Co1 Cardiol 1(1): 13-19, 1983. 35. Stallones, R.A., "Mortality and the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial't, Amer J Epidemiol 117(6): 647-650, 1983. 36. Arnold, C.B., "MRFIT and Clinical Practice", (Editorial), Prev Med 12: 475-477, 1983. TIMN 289473
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DISCUSSION GROUPS DAY ONE COMMUNICATE ON SMOKING AND HEALTH (Target, means, content) Group I Mr. F. ROSA (Leader) Dr. L. ALVEAR VERGARA Mr. J. BASSO DASTUGUE Ms. A. GONZALEZ Mr. R.J. MARCOTULLIO Mr. G. MEIRELLES FREIRE Mr. P . J . ROMBAUT Mr. R. SKOWRONSKI Mr. J. UGARTE PREPARE INDUSTRY ACTION WHILE SITUATION IS QUIET Group II Mr. A. MARCONI (Leader) Mr. L. BATRES Mr. E. CORDERO Mr. H. CORNEJO Mr. J. DYSON Mr. R.L.O. ELY Mr. J. FERNANDEZ ALVARADO Mr. P. IHNEN Mr. K.H.L. LIGHT Mr. E. RODRIGUEZ Group III Mr. J.D. QUIROZ (Leader) Mr. R. DREW-BEAR Mr. G. GOMEZ Mr. C. JARDIM Dr. F. MORENO Mr. R. SEPULVEDA Mr. B. SIMPSON Mr. J. VIVES Mr. A.L. WALKER TIMN 289474
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Discussion Groups - Day 1 Group II - Prepare Industry Action While Situation is Quiet The subject we were looking at was "preparing industry action while the situation is quiet". The problem, on the first premise, was that the best time, and probably the only time, to rationally prepare any action is when the situation is quiet and when there is no real pressure on the industry. Of course, one can never tell when pressure is going to come, whether it is from the WHO or from a new report, or whatever other source it might erupt from. Basically, I think that what we came up with was that preparation is very important in terms of having the industry united from the process of growing of leaf, all the way•through the chain to the retail sales operation, to include all aspects along the way, so that everybody is trying to work towards the same goal. We obviously have areas to defend where we can be very positive. In some cases it isn't even a defence. We talked about the contribution that the tobacco industry as a whole makes to local economies, starting from the growth of the leaf, the agricultural side of the industry, the employment generated -Cj:h in =he ,:} o`.+TLnCj si..-:~res ....,. _. a-}-`%.,"Of° _;.i'_nC` a`-, '`;:'_i TIMN 289475
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industry in terms of preparation, packaging, processing etc., all the aspects leading to the final product. Also, what is very important, as we heard earlier today, is the revenue generated by the sale of the end product and the taxation from which the government benefits. Those areas are very, very important. The problem is getting the information-across to the people who matter. This involves lobbying the legislative bodies at quiet times when there is no pressure on the.people to take a position. To inform them of the importance of the industry to the economy in general and, I believe, to try to make it clear to them that some of the data which they may or may not have available may in fact not always be true or that some medical data is actually unsubstantiated. The legislative bodies have to be lobbied with a view to getting this information across to them as well as to the scientific bodies which may be interested. It is also• very important to reach the media so that they don't just print everything that is bad, about the industry. It is important to try and give them favourable information, not just on the medical side, but on the industry position, on the support that the industry generates for local economies. It is also important to try and get a positive message across rather than a negative one that they might get from taking, for instance, the WHO view. TIMN 289476
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120 It would seem to be a good idea to have pre-emptive measures in terms of codes of conduct for advertising, particularly perhaps, vis-&-vis non-adult smoking and the position on smoking in public places, given that it is probably better to suggest something than have something imposed. All that lobbying would probably culminate in a position paper which would.be available, though not necessarily used prematurely, to present all the facts to defend the industry on the issues covered. And then also to represent the industry case to the medical and scientific bodies directly, particularly on the- basis of the unproven or statistical medical data. I think that these are the basic issues that we touched on. The question came up as to what INFOTAB could do to help. One of the areas that we thought we might question was: •would INFOTAB be able to provide representatives or spokespeople either to speak to medical bodies in any country that might have a problem, or to legislative bodies? TIMN 289477
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121 Discussion Groups - Day 1 Group III - Prela.re Industry Action While Situation is Quiet We were asked to discuss the same theme, that is, industry action when the situation is quiet and how INFOTAB could help in doing this. We first concluded that we should never accept that we are in a very quiet situation. It can become a very volatile situation overnight and therefore, lesson number one is: "no complacency". We should pre-empt anti-smoking-group attacks on the industry by self imposing those restrictions which we know are un-defendable, and which have been imposed through legislation or otherwise in other parts of the world. We should also assure good relations with the media, medical associations proper authorities, community leaders, to make sure that they have a balanced point of view of the situation and also know the positive side of the story. We should also make sure that they realize the positive effects, economic and other, of the tobacco industry as a whole. We should assure that we have an intelligence system, i.e. a barometer really out on the market place amongst the public, the legislative bodies or any other potential anti-smoking activists or groups to assure that we know what is brewing amongst these different organizations so that we can take the proper corrective action in time. TIMN 289478
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Group III (cont'd) We thought that we should begin publishing more positive articles, giving the positive side of the activities that our industry provides. We felt that this is one of the areas where INFOTAB could probably help, given its large experience and its ability to look at the world as a whole. In our Group, we realized and we do accept and feel, that NMAs are very important, but it was readily accepted that it is not always easy to achieve co-operation and NMAs or proper industry plans cannot be really set up to pre-empt as we suggest, unless the NMA or member companies are in agreement. In fact this has been very difficult to achi.eve. We feel that a friendly arbitrator could be the answer and-again we feel that INFOTAB has a role to play here, perhaps. Allies should be identified and briefed on the positive side of everything that our industry does. Also we should assure that they are well informed and are ready to react when necessary. This is a bit of a repetition of what Group 1 mentioned. It is really all we have but, on the other hand, I feel that the areas in which we should act in our relatively quiet situation are somewhat limited. TIMN 289479
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Discussion Groups - Day 1 Group I- Communicate on Smoking and Health (Target, Means, Content) (Presented after Groups II and III) I will be very brief because apparently some of the points that we discussed in our group have•already been touched upon by the first and second group. Our.discussions, as you saw, lasted a bit longer than expected and it goes to show the interest the group have in what we did. The discussion was somewhat unusual in that the topic we had was "communicate on smoking and health: Target, means, content". In Latin America, smoking and health is not being dealt with directly through the media. In other words, the type of campaign which R.J. Reynolds is carrying out in the US is not being done by any.of us, nor do we believe apparently that it might be appropriate for the type of environment we are.working in. One of the main differences might very well lie with the types of society; obviously, in the US, the public at large has a much greater input in the decision-making process which leads to the making of laws. Here, companies have better access to the centres of power. It is therefore a lot easier to influence the decision making process without having to involve TIMN 289480
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Group I (cont' d) the public at large. Also, the public at large is not very often active in this type of controversy. We agreed that what we are doing in each country is act in order to keep the freedom of advertising. In other words, we are attacking the issue more than attacking the symptoms of it. This is basically what is being done: And each of the country representatives went through some of the things they are doing. Obviously everybody, one way or the other, was trying to use allies or the media or meetings with government officials and so forth.. What I want to get to in the end, because I think this was the more important part of the discussion, is the way most of the countries were successful in doing what they meant to do, which is keeping the freedom of advertising - Ecuador is keeping a bill from becoming a law, Argentina is doing the same thing, Brazil has for many years been trying to get a law approved in Congress, etc. One of the other things which came out of the discussions, and apparently is the result of the speech by Dr. Waite, is the idea of having medical experts. In the group, Argentina had probably the best example of medical experts speaking up to counteract the concept behind a bill. TIMN 289481
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125 Group 1 (cont' d) They were also successful in using legal experts in meetings with advisors to the various government committees which were involved in the drafting of the bill. Some recommendations surrounding these issues are as follows and,addressed either directly or indirectly to INFOTAB. 1. It was suggested that papers written by experts be sent either directly to various companies, or to journalists. The idea here is to get information to the journalists so that they can counter-balance the information which they are receiving from the world-wide organizations which are obviously our opponents to a certain extent. This will allow the journalist to become more critical. . The idea of using AP or UPI was one of the recommendations made. Find a way to do that. 3. The main point was to create a group of medical experts which can travel. We should also create a local network of medical experts which can respond to the controversy, at medical level, at universities, academies of medicine and so on and so forth and which will lend credibility to what we are trying to do. Someone pointed out that it is quite difficult for any one doctor to go against conventional wisdom in any country. So therefore, if you TIMN 289482
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Group 1 (cont'd) of view, that might make it that much easier. If the Centre could manage to create a group of two, three, four, or five doctors, this could help us create a network throughout Latin America, which would be very helpful and useful. The group felt strongly about that. 4. Another idea which was brought up, also maybe through INFOTAB, was the use of the work of professional statisticians to disprove the data which are being presented. This should be done strictly from a statistical point of view, without obviously getting the controversy. into 5. The other idea which could not be done through INFOTAB, but rather could be done locally by all of us, is to use the journalists a lot more - try to get better contact with journalists so that, with all the other things combined which I said before, our point of view could be put across. , These, in summary, are the specific recommendations the groups came up with and there was pretty much unanimity about them. TIMN 289483
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,FIMN 289484
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127 DEALING WITH PUBLIC ISSUES Martin RYAN HALEY Chairman, The Haley Companies . Public Affairs and Government Relations Services (State, U.S. Federal and 43 nations among them in various Latin American countries) 1 TIMN 289485
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128 The only time of day more difficult for a speaker than early morning is immediately after a luncheon which begins to take effect. But ahis morning everyone here seems fresh and bright; apparently it was a calm and studious evening. I like the phrasing of the subject "-Dealing With Public Issues". We often hear about "manaEing" issues; I have often felt that if an issue could be "managed" it would not be an issue. There are many things we can do with an issue. The British expression would be "to cope" with it (and, every time I hear that verb, I know that we're in trouble). We can deny an issue, we can plan an issue, present an issue, resist an issue, or change an issue. But above all, we can try to deal with it. That is why I liked the title which you gave these comments. It is a phrase which soundly describes the challenge. I am going to talk briefly about the nature of issues, about the environment in which we are confronting them. Then, I would like to suggest to you some guidelines for dealing with issues. But first I would like to try to clarify two differences which must be on the minds of some here, and otherwise would seem sure to be discussed. The Nature of Our Issues , One is that dealing with issues must depend upon a nation's form TIMN 289486
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129 of government. In my view, that isn't exactly right. Forms of government have not changed since Plato described the tyrant, .the oligarchy, and democracy (which he said was the worst form of government). We substitute for these forms in our time the dictator, the authoritarian system, or the democratic system. It used to be possible to say that all three' exist in.nearly identical proportion in our hemisphere. That is no longer the case. But the guidelines I am going to suggest cover all three forms. The difference in dealing with issues is not in the form of govern- ment. The difference is in application and timing of actions we take about the issues. Under one form of government action might be earlier and, under another, it might be later; we'll come back to this but the point is that the guidelines are constant. The second difference which I would like to volunteer at the outset is that we have to be realistic. I have no illusions; a great many industry associations have limited staff. We should not be discussing programs which could be. carried out very well with a staff of sixty people and seven departments of specialists. It is necessary to be aware of this from the outset. Unfortunately, our public issues were established as issues ten years and more ago, by our adversaries. If we had known fifteen TIMN 289487
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130 years ago what we know today, I think that there is a strong possi- bility that a fair number of these issues would not be public issues. They are public issues today because, between ten and fifteen years ago, they were permitted to become public issues. Who is to say that these were public issues? I think that most of them were p rip vate issues. But that chapter of the book is closed. Ten years ago, just two kinds of issues were prominent: taxation and smoking restrictions. Taxation was separate, intended to raise government revenues, not tied. to the other issues. Now, within five years, all of the issues have been joined. We can visualize them as an upward curve on a graph, because tobacco issues come in Iayers. The layering effect means that earlier layers do not go away; as we climb this graph, new issues are added to join those, which began fifteen or so year.s ago. Naturally, our objective should be to try to jump ahead of the issue curve, very difficult to do but a necessary objective. If I were to project the curve out, rising, with this layering effect from the past, I think I can see the next three which we should try to overtake: addiction; advertising, morality. TIMN 289488
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131 Taxation will become part of these new issues on the rising curve. Now taxation plays two roles: the old one for revenue, and the new one -- punitive, which is another addition to building social . unacceptability with every new issue. The global adversary is now twisting and combining all issues, so that they mesh, they interlock, to support the growth of social unacceptability at different rates in different nations. Velocity of change is lower where issues still stand separately, but velocity tends to accelerate when these issues are combined. We know them all, but now we must see them differently, when they are combined to support the growth of social unaccep,:ability. Our Hemisphere Before describirig some universal guidelines to be applied on all issues regardless of industry structure and nation, I'd like to the politics of our hemisphere. comment on I think that the most significant political development in the Western Hemisphere last year and this year is in the growth, strengthening, reaching out, and extension of Christian Democratic Parties and ~ movements. Obviously, this movement received gre<<t emphasis with the Duarte TIMN 289489
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132 victory in El Salvador. Washington thought he was going to lose. They were two to three Congressional seats low in estimating the '"Salvadoran Congress. With victory, Duarte has inspired others to try to accomplish the same thing, perhaps in different ways. He did this beginning with meetings with visitors during his inauguration. I think it is safe to say =-there might be some disagreement about this - but the Salvadoran war is won. B ut it may take two or three years more before its ending is official and signed. The hemispheric Christian Democratic organizational impetus is coming largely from Panama and I am sure, some of you know the name of Ricardo Arias Calderon. I happen to think that he is one of the leading political thinkers in the world today. He is Western Hemisphere President of -the Christian Democrats until the end of this year, a remarkable man, whose influence is going to be felt very soon in six or eight countries. As you know, there is no international organization of Christian Democrats. The Socialists have their Socialist International, as the Communist International, and there is a Democratic International, actually the parties of the Center--Right and Right. The Christian Democrats have a looser organization, so that philosophically there TIMN 289490
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133 may be a vast difference from one country to another. They are attempting to organize themselves better internationally but without interfering in local party sovereignty. I go into this in some detail because I think that in the next two to four years, the group here today is going to find itself having much to do with this movement. From the stimulus of El Salvador, with management and direction from Panama and to a certain extent from Caracas, we rapidly come to Guatemala where there will be the hemisphere's next election, approxi- mately ninety days from now. There do not seem to be any signs that it is going to be delayed, so we may expect a return to repre- sentative government there. The Christian Democrat Vinicio Cerezo maintains a solid eight to ten percent lead. His principal opponent, at least until a week or two ago, Roberto Carpio Nicolle, finds himself with a disintegrating campaign of the Center Right. His •coalition parties are beginning to look elsewhere. After Guatemala, in the line-up of elections there will be Costa Rica. ~ . Even in Chile, I watch the Christian Democrat Valdez with amaze- ment. He seems to be untouchable, with the exception of, I think, only one night in jail. So much representative government is arriving in so many places at the same time. This is unprecedented in the hemisphere in the TIMN 289491
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134 past 160 or 170 years. Authority is bei:zg questioned and this would not have occurred even a year or two ago. This may be a new political environment for. our issues, We don't know if things are. going to stay this way, but with every month that goes by - and a consolidation of the movement - it becomes more and more sure that this will be our new environment. It is a paradox. For those who attempt to persuade and attempt to win their positions in public issues, very often it is easier to work with an authoritarian government. The audience is much smaller. Perhaps a single person. Yet, we know that, as organizations, as companies, as people, we believe in representative government, we know what is right. But the fact remains that advocacy and defense are much- more difficult in a truly representative government, than in one which is authoritarian. Nevertheless, as I said before, the guidelines are the same in dealing ~ with any form of government. only the method of their application changes. Guidelines I would like to suggest eight guidelines for dealing with issues. They vary in use according to timing and application, national TIMN 289492
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135 style and mood. But the guidelines are always valid. We should always attempt to define our own playing field. Time after time our adversary sets up the playing field, which is a terrible beginning for us. At times we walk head-first onto*that field, and with predictable results. Instead, we must seek to define i:he outline, stake out, and build our own playing field, We have seen a good example of this technique in some aspects of the health issue, wherever it's been successfully converted to an issue of personal freedom, (2) We must never stand alone. This is not a truth with no (3) exception, but most of the time when we are forced to starid alone, we lose. With some thought, planning, and preparation, it simply isn't necessary. As a public issue shows signs of developing, plan the 11 adversary campaign. Take a half-day, and work out a campaign against us as if the adversary knows everything about us that we know. In political campaigns this is called the "doomsday exercise". Fortunately, it's safe to assume that the adversary doesn't know everything about us that we know, but this is still an extremely useful exercise. TIMN 289493
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136 (4) Given the layering of our issues, the proliferation along the rising curve I was talking about (and I didn't think I'd ever find myself saying this), the time is coming when we are going to have to be more careful about priorities. In the United States, we now frequently find a single state with five or six kinds of adverse legislation running simul- taneously. That's less apt to happen in a nation, but it could in the future. For setting priorities, we should be using a single measurement: wh'at is more important for selling cigarettes. (5) Fifth, we should dare to question and challenge our adversaries' premises. There is ;in example of this oppor- tunity in virtually every issue. This guideline can be applied by simply den in the existence of social cost. We have support for that from Aristotle, Plato, Aquinas, and Sp:.noza, to name a few. . Setting a social cost is behaviorism run rampant. Every- thing has a social cost, if that is the way someone wants to measure it. Everyone of us in this room is burning up a substantial social cost this morning simply because we are living. Philosophically and theologically, the case TIMN 289494
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137 can be made that social cost is not a valid concept. The idea of questioning basic premises and challenging them, applies also to taxation. This is obviously going to be an increasingly difficult issue, certainly in this hemisphere, with forced national austerity and the IMF. But, not only is the tax on cigarettes wrong, consumer taxes 'are wrong. They are all regressive. They are all unfair. Why shouldn't the opening position be against all consumer taxes? Properly documented, this might not be much of an exaggeration. (6) One guideline that's very easy to forget is how important it is to neutralize civil servants on any issue, anywhere by becoming a source of research, a source of information, to help them, to be valuable to them. (7) This one is very close to the point about the playing field: I suggest to you that we should avoid semantic traps, which are so accidental, so automatic. We should be developing our own terms of language, our own way of saying things. A classical case, still apparently unresolved, is what was once called "environmental smoke", which deserves comment because "environment" is soinething TIMN 289495
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good, something nice, which organizations, over a period of years, have made a good thing, a good word. "Ambient" is instead at least a neutral word. (8) Finally, an eighth guideline: we should improve our non- economic arguments. This is not to say that the economic arguments should be entirely set aside but, at times, they become tiresome to government and particularly so when they apply to only a very smalll percentage of a govern- ment's trouble. There are good non-economic arguments. Better ones can be developed. For example, it should be demonstrated how tax increases weaken the fabric of representative government. They cause a loss of faith in that government. Literally, they weaken a struggling democracy. And this is only one example of many non- economic arguments. .i~o I leave you some thoughts about change in the structure of :issues, the new political environment emerging in this hemisphere and some ideas about universal guidelines. Thank you, and if there are questions, I would be delighted to try to reply. -FIMN 289496
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139 GOVERNMENT RELATIONS (notes) Francisco MORENO Corporate Affairs Director - Latin America/Iberia, Philip Morris International TIMN 289497
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140 GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Francisco Moreno 1. Government relations are here to stay. 2. They will increase 3. They affect everything we do: (a) Government will interpret scientific facts for action (b) Prices -the political background to change (c) Tax - the social aspect (d) Advertising - Sponsorship, etc. The nature of government - NOT normally MONOLITHIC BUT a bureaucratic morass Public debate may not be the same as government perception, e.g. governments (as opposed to individuals) are not really interested in smoking and health but in economic impact. Ministry of Health is usually a lightweight. Several areas of government can affect us. We must watch those ass". How governments parts and also take advantage of the "mor actually function is more important than individual categories. How do governments see the industry? They see it as: . Passive . A good excise source . As NOT reacting adversely Therefore, we can be an easy target for negative action. TIMN 28949f'
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141 The areas of responsibility within governmental departments are ill-defined. So issues are inconsistently dealt with. Often money is scarce. At the same time, the dominant traits of government philosophy in the Latin American continent puts emphasis on distribution instead of creating wealth. Also includes a paternalistic attitude. These things we cannot change. Governments' interest do not always coincide with those of the industry. We need to think carefully to determine when we must be united and when we can afford to see the individual stances. We risk credibility. And government can use our divisiveness. There are two ways of influencing behaviour: Coercion Persuasion, no other. or Persuasion offers a benefit to the other person for doing what we want. The people who win political debates in the USA are those who have a reputation for being able and willing to retaliate politically, e.g. AMA, Oil Industry, Real Estate, National Rifle Association. Effective lobbying is not just the beauty of the argument or the justice of the case but the pressure we bring to bear. CONCLUSION How do we flex our political muscle? r TIMN 289499
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142 RESPONDING TO A GOVERNMENT BILL Presented by Jorge BASSO DASTUGUE on behalf of the Camara de la Industria del Tabaco Elaborado por la Comisi6n Controversia sobre el Tabaco - Azgentina TIMN 289500
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143 INTRODUCCION El papel y la influencia de la publicidad en el mercado y sobre el consumidor es para muchos muy poco conocida y es frecuente que se estructuren ideas que poco o nada tienen que ver con'la reali- dad. Soci6logos y publicistas que anal izaron el tema han obtenido como conclusi6n que la publicidad no tiene el poder de crear deseos en los consumidores y, por lo tanto, es efectiva solamente cuando ac- tua en concordancia con los deseos de los consumidores, quienes deciden en base a la informaci6n que les resulta util. Durante mucho tiempo se ha insistido en que la publicidad de ciga- rrillos aumenta el consumo e incita a los no fumadores, especial- mente a los j6venes, a iniciarse en el h6bito. Estos argumentos carecen de respaldo cientffico, se contraponen ' ~ a los resultados de las investigaciones sobre el consumidor y se ,., . :,. contradicen con la experiencia en aquellos palses que restringie- ron o prohibieron la publicidad de cigarrillos. En este documento se citan las opiniones que, sobre el tema de las restricciones publicitarias en distintos paises, han expresado expertos en la materia y se,incluyen datos empTricos que demues- tran ]a inefectividad de las prohibiciones y/o restricciones a la publicidad de cigarrillos. No solamente son ineficaces para el fin perseguido, sino que las prohibiciones y/o restricciones producen otros efectos negativos tales como: desalentar la competencia, congelar las posiciones re- lativas de las manufacturas en el mercado, dificultar el lanzamien- to de nuevos productos y por ende el desarrollo de nuevas tecnolo- gias y m6todos de producci6n que podrian satisfacer m3s adecuada- mente al consumidor. TIMN 289501
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144 A la vez lo priva de su derecho a elegir a trav6s de los medios de comunicaci6n y atenta contra su propia responsabilidad y li- bertad individual. Es posible que muchos no recuerden o desconozcan la posici6n de la industria tabacalera argentina, la cu6l,frente a estos cues- tionamientos, ya en la d6cada del '70, se impuso un c6digo de autorregulaci6n (que fue incluido en el C6digo de la Comisi6n Interempresaria de Autorregulaci6n Publicitaria - CIAP), el cual es cumplido estrictamente por las empresas del sector. Considerando al h6bito de fumar como una decisi6n adulta, ese c6- digo apunta'a que la publicidad de cigarrillos en nuestro pais est6 dirigida a mayores de 25 an`os y su fin especifico sea lograr que los fumadores cambien de marca. En otras palabras, es utili- zada como un ltcito elemento de competencia. En los considerandos de los diversos proyectos de ley de restric- ci6n a 1a publicidad de cigarrillos, se hace menci6n a multiples afecciones y enfermedades y se las asocia con el consumo de taba- co en forma taxativa, es decir que se dan por ciertos argumentos que ]a comunidad cientifica considera en controversia. En los parrafos siguientes se analiza uno de los proyectos que es tal vez el m5s abarcador, tanto en sus considerandos como en su faj resolutiva: el del Diputado de la Naci6n Alberto R. Maglietti. En este an6lisis nos hemos permitido citar, frente a cada afirma- ci6n del legislador, la opini6n de expertos internacionales, asf como resultados de investigaciones a las que el Diputado no hace referencia. La posici6n de la industria del tabaco es abierta al di6logo y a la necesaria participaci6n de todos los sectores involucrados para arribar a medidas coherentes y razonables en la materia. TIMN 289502
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145 LIBERTAD DE EXPRESION La Constitucion Nacional consagra expresamente la libertad de expresion entre los derechos que gozan los habitantes de la Na- cion. Dicha libertad de expresi6n debe entenderse en su acepc'ion amplia, como por otra parte surge del juego armonico del art.14 que la consagra y el art. 33 que, confirmando lo expuesto, sen`a- la que las declaraciones, derechos y garantlas enumerados en la Constitucion no deben ser entendidos como negaci6n de otros de- rechos no enumerados, pero que nacen del principio de la sobe- rania del pueblo y de la forma republicana de gobierno. El derecho de informarse libremente es la contrapartida del de- recho a difundir las ideas y ambos, con independencia de su con- sagracion constit6cional, son inherentes a la soberania del pue- blo y, por consi'guiente, si bien pueden ser reglamentados, no pueden ser suprimidos como tales. Expresamente la Constitucion consagra que los principios, garantlas y derechos no podran ser alterados por las leyes que reglamenten su ejercicio. El proyecto de ley por el que, con el supuesto objeto de pro= teger 1a salud publica, se restringe hasta su casi total eli- minacion la publicidad relativa al tabaco en sus varias formas, contiene, sin duda, excesos que por vra reglamentaria conllevan a la supresion del derecho a la libre difusion -en este caso co- mercial- y consiguientemente, restringen en la misma medida el derecho a informarse por parte de los consumidores. Ello va mas alla de la autorizacion reglamentaria que faculta la Constitu- cion.Nacional. En el analisis de la proteccion constitucional a la libertad de expresion aparece como primer interrogante si la misma se extien- de a aquellos asuntos y formas de tratamiento que revisten natu- raleza comercial. Hasta donde se extiende el ambito de la proteccion constitucio- nal es una cuesti6n no frecuentemente planteada. lIncluye este ; . 1 TIMN 289503
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146 solamente la difusion de logias y la expresion de comunicacion de mensajes ideas politicas, la difusion de ideo- opiniones o se extiende tambien a la comerciales en sentido amplio? La proteccion ha sido establecida para defender la difusion, la comunicacion y el derecho de quien expone a hablar y de quien es- cucha a reci,bir el mensaje. En consecuencia, si existe un dere- cho a publicitar protegido constitucionalmente, tal derecho se extiende tanto al derecho a difundir como a recibir informacion. Incluso, es admisible sostener que la sociedad tiene un conside- rable interes en el libre flujo de la informaci6n, sea esta de caracter ideol6gico o comercial. Esta ultima, aun siendo de ca- racter estrictamente comercial puede ser de interes pubiico. La difusi6n de'esa informacion debe ser hecha de tal modo que el mensaje despierte el interes de quien lo recibe. La publicidad, que en oportunidades puede parecer inapropiada o carente de valo- res esteticos, cumple, en general, esa funcion de atraer la atencion del destinatario y de esa forma, difundir informa- cion acerca de quien vende un producto o presta un servicio, por que motivo lo hace, que caracteristicas tiene el objeto publicitado y cuales son las condiciones contractuales de una eventual operaci6n comercial que lo involucre. Es razonable entonces inferir que esa difusion tiene un valor para la sociedad y como tal ha merecido la proteccion constitu- cional y legal. El hecho de que goce de esa proteccion constitu- cional, Ileva a concluir que el Estado careceria de facultades para suprimirla totalmente en la medida que lo difundido sea una-actividad enteramente legal, por la sola razon de que, sin fundamento suficiente, se estima que la misma es perjudicial para los receptores. AI estar el flujo informativo de caracter comercial incluldo dentro del espectro de la proteccion constitucional a la li- bertad de expresion, el tipo y la amplitud de,los medios a disposici6n del Estado para regular la difusion de los mensajes
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147 comerciales, se reducen considerablemente. Nada obsta a la ac- ci6n estatal conducente a suprimir o limitar significativamente aquellas comunicaciones que por sus formas o contenidos enaan`en al publico. En cambio si la informacion no es erronea o engan`o- sa, ni esta relacionada con una actividad ilegal, el poder es- tatal esta circunscripto a la adopcion de normas regulatorias del tiempo, modo y lugar en que se produce la difusi6n y no se extiende de ninguna manera a la regulacion prohibitiva de toda comunicacion o norma con efectos practicos similares. La actividad desarrollada por las industrias manufactureras de tabacos en sus variadas formas es legal y se halla minuciosa- mente reglamentada por normas generales y especificas que abar- can todos y cada uno de sus aspectos. En consecuencia, solo la existencia de un fuerte interes publico puede conducir a la a- dopcion de una limitada y razonable restriccion de la libertad de difusion de dicha actividad industrial y comercial. Todas las restricciones excesivas que so capa de regulacion conducen a la total eliminacion de ese derecho de expresion, inherente a la actividad desarrollada, no pueden ser sostenidas al evalua'r- se su validez constitucional. En el supuesto de que exista un interes publico en la actitud que el Estado asumeJen este caso con el objeto de proteger la salud de la poblacion,y la protecci6n constitucional de la li- bertad de expresi6n, deben coordinarse ambos a fin de fijar una reaulacion que asegure aquel objetivo sin olvidar la garantia constitucional. En tal sentido, se ha reconocido que el Estado puede disponer regulaciones del modo, tiempo y lugar vinculados a la difusion del mensaje comercial. Dichas regulaciones impor- tan sin duda una restriccion, que es constitucionalmente valida en l,a medida que se basa realmente en las circunstancias de modo, tiem 'o esa apariencia y lugar y no cuando ba~ pariencia encubre en reali- dad una restriccion del contenido o del tema motivo del mensaje .... o de la expresion cuestionada. En este ultimo supuesto, se excede, indudablemente, el alcance de la potestad regulatoria estatal, cayendo en la supresion de un derecho constitucional. TIMN 289505
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148 REGLAMENTACION DE LOS DERECHOS INDIVIDUALES. LIMITES. Es indiscutible que el Estado Nacional, en ejercicio de sus pode- res de policia, se encuentra facultado para reglamentar los dere- chos individuales, incluyendo la libertad de expresion, en aras de la seguridad, moralidad o salud publica (conf.articulo 14 de la Constitucion Nacional). Sin embargo, esta facultad no es absoluta ni ilimitada, ya que "los principios, garantias y derechos reconocidos en los ante- riores articulos, no podran ser alterados por las leyes que re- glamentan su ejercicio". (conf. articulo 28 de la Constitucion Nacional). Es reiterada y unanime la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de la Nacion (en adelante CSN), en el sentido de que si.bien la re- glamentaci6n puede restringir o encauzai`'actividades en la medi- da que lo exijan el orden, la seguridad, la moral o salud publica, esta reglamentacion jamas puede ser infundada o arbitraria, sino que debe ser siempre razonable, es decir, justificada pQr.las circunstancias y proporcionadas a los fines que se procuran al- canzar con ella. En palabras de la CSN, el'qrado de razonabilidad depende del gra- do de adecuacion existente entre las obligaciones y restricciones que la ley impone y los fines cuya realizacion se procura. Si tal adecuacion o proporcionalidad no existe, la restriccion es arbitraria e inconstitucional. En base a las precisiones que se efectuaran''mas adelante•, no pare- ce que las restricciones impuestas por el presente proyecto de ley, en particular las del art. 3, se adecuen al estandar de razonabili- dad establecido por la CSN. TIMN 289506
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149 En virtud de la falta absol,uta de pruebas cientificas y•concluyentes de que el habito de fumar tiene una relacion causal con enfermedades y de que las restricciones a la publicidad han producido a mediano o largo plazo una disminuci6n global del consumo de cigarrillos, las restricciones que establece el art. 3 del proyecto de ley carecen de la razonabilidad, adecuacion y proporcionalidad que nuestro orden constitucional exige para que las limitac'iones a las libertades in- dividuales sean legitimas. Si bien analizaremos este aspecto con mayor detenimiento mas adelan- te, zar una no parece razonable que el poder publico este legitimado a avan- sobre la esfera de las libertades y derechos individuales sin causa suficiente que lo justifique. Debe tenerse en cuenta que no se trata de negar el interes y el deber del Estado de velar por la salud de la poblaci6n, sino de 1lamar la atencion con respecto al hecho de que los medios a utilizar ca- r.ecen, como se explicara mas adelante, de adecuacion y proporcio- nalidad con 'los fines procurados, constituyendo por ello un nuevo, infundado e injustificado avance en desmedro de las libertades in- dividuales. Debe remarcarse en este aspecto que no todas las regulaciones de modo, tiempo y lugar son, per se, constitucionales. Unicamente aquellas que son razonables,'y cuyo objetivo es la satisfaccion de un importante interes publico, son validas. La razonabilidad deriva de la proporcionalidad y adecuacion que debe existir entre los medios empleados y los fines perseguidos y de la existencia de vias alternativas adecuadas para la comunicacion. De no darse ambas circunstancias, nuevamente nos encontramos frente a disposiciones que en su apariencia constituyen regulaciones va`lidas del modo, tiempo y lugar pero que, en su esencia van mas alla de la potestad estatal y suprimen la libertad de expresion. TIMN 289507
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150 AUSENCIA DE EFICACIA E INEXISTENCIA DE PROPORCIONALIDAD. El tema de la constitucionalidad de las medidas propuestas ha sido antes analizado. Ahora cabe evaluar la efectividad y propor- cionalidad de los medios elegidos. La ley adopta los siguientes instrumentos: a) la prohibici6n de todo elemento publicitario adicional a la identificac,ion de la mercaderia que directa o indi- rectamente "incite" al consumo habitual u ocasional; la inclusion de una leyenda impresa en los envoltorios de los tabacos y en su publicidad grafica, donde se indique el "efecto nocivo" para la salud derivado del habito de fumar; !En que medida son suficientes y efectivos estos medios para pre- servar la salud de la poblaci6n? El objetivo es indudablemente trascendente y si se atiende al contenido del mensaje que acompana al proyecto de ley,donde se habla del "flagelo que se abate contra nuestra poblaci6n", s6lo puede considerarse como adecuada una prohibicion.total y genera- Iizada del habito de fumar ya que este seria el causante de los males enunciados en dicho mensaje. Si la magnitud del problema sanitario fuera tan considerable, seria muy razonable prohibir la conducta causante del dan`o y reprimir severamente•las infrac- ciones. Esto ultimo no puede conseguirse vigilando a cada even- tual infractor y, en cambio, se obtiene facilmente a traves de la prohibici6n de plantar tabaco y fabricar todo tipo de produc- tos tabacaleros. Esta es la unica solucion integral si se quiere evitar el supuesto mal. No hay nacion en el mundo que haya adoptado•una medida tan dras- tica. ~ TIMN 289508
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151 Esto sugiere, prima facie, que las medidas proyectadas serian insu- ficientes si se quiere realmente eliminar el supuesto mal. Es po- sible argumentar que ante la resistencia para instrumentar una prohi- bicion como la mencionada y la dificultad para impedir y reprimir las infracciones se prefirio instrumentar las soluciones interme- dias que ahora se.analizan. !Son estas efectivas? La experiencia de otras naciones, de distinto grado de desarrollo, parece indicar que los resultados alcanzados son muy pobres o inexistentes. i) Leyendas de advertencia al publico Las citas de importantes autoridades cientfficas que reproducimos en este trabajo, demuestran que el tema tabaco y salud se encuen- tra en estado de controversia y que no existen criterios un6nimes que justifiquen la imposici6n de leyendas condenatorias, como las que se consignan en el articulo 4 del Proyecto de Ley bajo an6lisis. Lo adecuado serta establecer cl6usulas de advertencia de caracter precautorio. • ii) Las restricciones a la publicidad. Durante muchos a'nos se ha insistido en que la publicidad de ci- garrillos tiene una extensa rinfluencia, estimulando~al p6blico a fumar. Consecuentemente, se ha sugerido que dicha publicidad de- berla ser restringida o aun prohibida a•fin de reducir la venta de cigarrillos. Estos argumentos no est5n respaldados por sobre el consumidor ni por la experiencia ninguna investigacion de aquellos palses que restringieron o prohibieron la publicidad. AdemSs, reflejan una erronea apreciacion sobre el papel y la influencia de la publici- dad en el mercado y sobre el consumidor. TIMN 289509
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152 Los sociologos y publicistas que analizaron el tema han concluido que la publicidad no crea deseos en los consumidores y, por lo tanto, el publicista actua no contra sino con los intereses y de- seos de los consumidores, quienes deciden que informacion .les,re- sulta util (ver: Nylen, D. Advertising: Planning, Implementation and Control, Cincinnati, Ohio, South-Western Publishing Co.1975). La International Advertising Association publico un informe ti- tulado "Tobacco and advertising: Five Arguments Against Censorship" donde analiza las restricciones a la publicidad: "Uno de los estudios mas concienzudos completados hasta ahora fue el realizado por el Metra Consulting Group, de Londres, Inglaterra, el que posteriormente fue aceptado por el Departamento de Salud y Seguri- dad Social del Reino Unido. En este estudio se aplico el analisis estadistico (utilizando los metodos mas recientes) a] compor- tamiento del mercado de cigarrillos del Reino Uni- do durante los a`nos comprendidos entre 1958 y 1978. El informe es muy tecnico y cualquier explicacion de metodos utilizados estaria fuera de lugar en este resumen. Lo m5s importante es exponer los hallazgos. A continuacion citamos directamente de dicho informe (pag.50): "Efecto de la publicidad de los cigarrillos: "Es estadisticamente ipsignificante, cualquiera que "sea la definici6n de la variable de publicidad y del "periodo elegido. "Efecto de la publicidad de los mensajes contra el. "habito de fumar: "En general es insignificante." !Que significan estos hallazgos en terminos de un profano? Significan que la publicidad total no ejerce un efecto real sobre las ventas totales. TIMN 289510
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153 Mientras el estudio Metra proporciona buenas prue- bas estadfsticas, cuando uno considera las pruebas empiricas la riqueza del material es casi abrumado- ra. Se dispone de las cifras de ventas de cigarrillos de practicamente todos los paises del mundo. Tam- bien se conocen las fechas en que fueron introduci- das las restricciones o prohibiciones a la publici- dad y la naturaleza de dichas prohibiciones. Muchos investigadores han trabajado en este campo, rela- cionando las ventas con las prohibiciones, para ver el efecto que han tenido estas ultimas. Otros investigadores han intentado resumir todos estos .informes en unas conclusiones sencillas respalda- das por este tremendo peso de lo datos empiricos. El profesor Reinhold Bergler, jefe del Instituto de Psicologla de la Universidad de Bonn, es uno de ellos. En un libro reciente -La Publicidad y el Habito de Fumar Cigarrillos: Un Estudio Psicol"ogico- ha estudiado este aspecto bajo tres encabezamientos principales: 1 Motivaci6n del habito de fumar cigarrillos. 2 Conceptos y variables de la eficacia de las comunicaciones masivas. 3 Publicidad y consumo de cigarrillos. En la tercera seccion, Bergler realizo un analisis de los estudios, concentr5ndose en dos ejemplos particularmente concienzudos. El es la fuente de la informacion que sigue. El primer estudio que examina Bergler lo llevo a cabo en los Estados Unidos J.L. Hamilton en .1975, quien investig6 los efectos de las prohibiciones a la publi- cidad en varios paises. La primera pregunta fue esta: TIMN 289511
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154 Que las campanas de publicidad contra el tabaco no ejercen ningun efecto. (Lo mismo que la publicidad no puede obligar a las personas a hacer algo, tampo- co puede obligarlas a no hacer algo). El Estudio Metra es uno de los m5s completos y sus conclusiones son precisas e inflexibles: 'No se han descubierto pruebas de que exista una asociacion significativa entre el nivel total de la publicidad en los medios de comunicacion y las ventas totales de cigarrillos'.. La mision fundamental de la publicidad es estimular .el cambio de marcas, y, como consecuencia, reforzar la competencia. No hay campanas que alienten a las personas a "fumar mas cigarrillos", las campanas solo dicen "fume nuestros cigarrillos, no los de ellos". No todo el mundo tiene fe en las estadisticas. Y•uno no debe confiar en ellas totalmente. Hay tambien prue- bas empiricas, aun.mas difTciles de negar por los que abogan por la censura. Pues si ellos tienen razon respecto a que la publicidad aumenta el consumo total entonces con dete ner la publicidad se reduciria el consumo total. 0, por lo menos, se retrasaria su cre- cimiento. La publicidad de_l tabaco ha sido parcial o to- talmente prohibida en muchos paises, especialmen- te en las economias "centralmente planificadas". -En algunos no se ha permitido en absoluto durante a`nos. Por consiguiente, lque diferencia hay entre los paises con prohibiciones y los otros en cuan- to a consumo de tabaco? Llas prohibiciones retra- san o invierten el crecimiento del h5bito de fu- mar? ilos paises con prohibiciones muestran dife- rentes pautas que aquellos en los que se permite la publicidad? Zcuales son las pruebas empiricas? TIMN 289512
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155 1 LLas prohibiciones publicitarias impuestas por los go- biernos han originado realmente una reduccion per ca- pita en el consumo de cigarrillos? En otras palabras, Lhan influido y modificado el com- portamiento real del publico en la forma en que di- chos gobiernos esperaban? Para responder a esta pre- gunta, el autor comparo las tendencias en el consu- mo de cigarrillos en los siguientes paises: Reino Unido, Francia, Alemania Occidental, Suiza, Nueva Ze-. landia, Australia, Italia, Suecia, Finlandia y Canada'. Los datos y cifras disponibles indican con plena cla- ridad que estas prohibiciones no lograron ninguna inversi.on significativa y duradera de la tendencia del consumo. Ademas, no fue posible descubrir nin- guna diferencia en el nivel de consumo entre estos paises y otros en los que la publicidad tal como la conocemos hoy nunca habia sido permitida. Bergler concluye basandose en el estudio de Hamilton: A fin de cuentas, por lo tanto, las prohibiciones a la publicidad resultaron ineficaces, y la teoria de que existe una correlacion positiva entre el volumen de publicidad y el volumen de consumo de ciga- rrillos debe por consiguiente rechazarse como falsa. Hamilton comparo tambien el consumo de cigarri- llos en los palses en que: a) Se habia prohibido la publicidad. b) No se habia prohibido la publicidad. c) Nunca se habla permitido la publicidad. De nuevo en este caso, no pudo descubrir ninguna diferencia entre los diversos paises en lo que se refiere al crecimiento del consumo per capita. TIMN 289513
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156 Bergler resume tambien los hallazgos del estudio de 1977 realizado por Eugene Levitt, director de psicologia de la Escuela de Medicina de la Univer- sidad de Indiana, en el que el autor"inform6 es- pecificamente del fracaso de las prohibiciones a la publicidad de cigarrillos en los Estados Uni- dos y otros paises". Levitt examina especialmente los efectos de ]a prohi- bicion a la publicidad en radio y television intro- ducida en los Estados Unidos en 1971. El consumo per capita estaba ya descendiendo en aquella naci6n y lo habia venido haciendo desde 1967. Los que creTan que la publicidad hace que la gente fume mas, debieron esperar que la prohibici6n a la publicidad acelerara esta disminucion. En ,rea]idad, ocurri6 lo contrario. El consumo empezo realmente a aumentar de nuevo en el mismo ano que se estableci6 la prohibicion y siguio aumentando hasta 1973. Desde entonces ha descendido ligeramente, aunque sigue a un nivel bastante superior al registrado cuando se introdujo la prohibicion. Una pauta similar se produce en los otros paises examinados por Levitt: el Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Irlanda, Holanda y Nueva Zelandia. Las prohibicio- nes, principalmente en radio y television, fueron impuestas en dichos paises entre 1960 y 1965. Sin embargo, al cabo de unos pocos anos, el consumo per capita aumento en el periodo comprendido en- tre 1965 y 1973 entre el 17 y el 25 0. Bergler Ilega a la siguiente conclusion: "Todos los datos disponibles apuntan a una conslu- sion, y solamente a una. La imposicion de la prohi- bicion a la publicidad de los cigarrillos, inde- pendientemente de los medios de comunicacion a los que se aplica e independientemente del tiempo_en TIMN 289514
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157 que entra en vigencia, no es un modo efectivo de reducir el aumento del consumo de cigarrillos, y mucho menos un medio de producir una disminuci6n del consumo." Todos los investigadores de este campo, por hosti- les que sean a la industria tabacalera, se ven o- bligados a sacar la misma conclusion. No se pueden discutir los hechos; lo uni-co que puede hacerse es ignorarlos, como constantemente hacen los grupos de presion contra-la publicidad. Ni siquiera la experiencia en algunos paises de Europa Oriental, donde la publicidad de los ciga- rrillos y de la mayoria de otros productos esta prohibida desde hace muchos anos, hara que los grupos de presion cejen en su insistencia sobre las prohibiciones a la publicidad. Incluso en algunos palses en los que la prohibicion es total, el consumo ha aumentado mas repidamente que en otros en los que est5 permitida la publicidad. Por ejemplo, durante el perrodo 1970-1973, el au- mento del h5bito de fumar cigarrillos en Hungria, Polonia y Bulgaria fue de tres a cinco veces superior al del Reino Unido o los Estados Unidos. El aumento en Alemania Occidental, donde la publicidad esta per- mitida, fue del 23 i desde 1965 a 1970, en compara- cion con el 28 % en Polonia y el 70 % en Bulgaria, don- de no lo esta. Por ultimo, un reciente informe del ZAW (Comite Cen- tral para la Industra de la Publicidad) de Bonn, publi- co estadisticas que mostraban el efecto (o la falta de el) de las prohibiciones a la publicidad en 14 paises. TIMN 289515
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158 Las estadisticas publicadas por el ZAW confirman los hallazgos de investigaciones anteriores. Las prohibi- cfiones en la television no ejercieron ningun efecto. Las prohibiciones totales en todas las formas de publi- cidad tampoco tuvieron ningun efecto. Y en los paises en que la publicidad tal como nosotros la conocemos, no ha sido permitida nunca, el consumo aumenta con- tinuamente a pesar de algunas intensivas campanas contra el habito de fumar. Estas importantes investigaciones empiricas socavan efectivamente uno de los dos principales argumentos de la causa contra la publicidad. La publicidad de marcas no aumenta el consumo total. Esto ha sido fehacientemente demostrado. No solamente los preten- didos censores han'fracasado en su intento de pre- sentar araumentos convincentes sobre esta cuestion. Los investigadores no han presentado ninguna prueba rotunda que relacione la actividad publicitaria to- tal con el consumo total de cigarrillos. A continuacion presentamos dos graficos y una Itabla que son suficientemente demostrativos de lo expuesto. TIMN 289516
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159 GrSfico 1: Evolucibn del consumo de cigarrillos en paises con restricciones a la publicidad en televisibn. Ano de la res- triccibn a la Consumo de Cigarrillos publicidad en televisibn An`os anterio. 2' 1 Restric. Anos poster. 1 2 Australia '76 - - - - Canad6 ' 72 Nva. Zelandia '62 Noruega '75 Reino Unido '65 - - - Estados Unidos '71 - - - - Alem. Occiden. '72 -+ 77771 - - " '~ 7 M Datos no disponibles. Fuente: La publicidad y el h6bito de fumar, Informaci6n para consumidores • Zentralausschub der Werbewirtschaft, Bonn, 1981. Gr6fico 2: Evolucibn del consumo de cigarrillos en pafses con restricciones totales a la publicidad. Ano de la restricci6n Consumo de Cigarrillos total Anos anteriores 4 3 2 1 Restr. Anos posteriores 1 2 3 4 Finlandia '78 Italia '62 ~ - '"-- ` Noruega ' 75 Tailandia '69 -__- (*) Datos no disponibles Fuente: La publicidad y el h6bito de fumar, Informacibn para consumidores. Zentralausschub der Werbewirtschaft, Bonn, 1981. TIMN 289517
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Tabla 1: Evoluci6n del consumo total y per c6pita de cigarrillos en pafses del bloque oriental con prohibici6n publicitaria. Consumo total anual de cigarrillos manufactu- Poblaci6n total (1) Consurno anual de cigarrillos rados. Miles de millones Mlllones. per c3pita. Millones. Pafs 1970 1975 1980 • 1981 Incremen- Eo '70/81 1970 1981 Incremen- to '70/81 ' 1970 1981 Incremen- to '70/St U.R.S.S. 365.2 419•5 409.2 429.2 +18% 242.8 267.9 +10% 1504 1602 + 7% Bulgaria 9.8 13.2 17.1 19.1 +95% 8.5 8.9 + 5% ' 1153 2146 , +86% Rep. Dem. Alemana 20.6 26.0 32.5 33.0 +60% 17.1 16,7 : 2% 1205 1976 +64$ Yugoeslavia 33.9 40.5 58.0 51.5 +52% 20.4 22.5 +10% 1662 2289 +38% Polonia 68.2 83.9 94.8 90.1 +32% 32.5 35.9. +10% 2098 2510 +20% Hungria 22.5 '25.8 28.0 28.5 +27% 10.3 - 10.7 + 42 2184 2664 +22% Checoslovaqula 20.5 23.0 24.0 22.3 + 9% 14.3 15.5 + 8% 1434 1439 +0.3% (2 Rumania 26.0 30.0 34,0 35.0 +35% 20.2 22.5 +11% 1287 1556 +21% Total 566.7 661.9 697.6 708.7 +25% 366.1 400.6 + 9% 1548 1769 +14$ l. Lus datus sobre poblacl6n han sido redondeados. tlo existen datos confiables dlsponibles sobre poblaci6n adulta 2. ludus los aumentos de porcentajes han sido redondeados al n6mero entero m3s pr6xlmo excepto cuando es menos de 1% Fuente: J.J.Boddewyn, Prohibiciones a la publicidad tabacalera y consumo de tabaco en 16• parses, International Advertising Association, EE.UU., 1983.
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161 ZPUEDE LA PUBLICIDAD.DE LOS CIGARRILLOS SER CAUSA DE QUE LOS ADULTOS 0 LOS JOVENES EMPIECEN A FUMAR? Tal como se ha visto anteriormente, no existen prue- bas concluyentes de que la publicidad aumente el consumo total ni de que las prohibiciones a la publi- cidad ejerzan efecto alguno sobre el consumo total. Por consiguiente, de-bemos examinar a continuacion el segundo argumento para prohibir la publicidad: que la publicidad del tabaco alienta a los adultos y es- pecialmente a los jovenes a empezar a fumar. Los hechos, como de costumbre, ofrecen un cuadro com- pletamente distinto. La industria tabacalera durante anos ha considerado a] habito de fumar como una cos- tumbre de adultos a la que dstos pueden optar a la luz de una libertad de eleccion madura, y sostiene que la publicidad no constituye un factor importante para inducir a nadie a empezar a fumar. Los hechos respaldan este punto de vista. A continuacion ofrecemos un resumen•de algunos de los estudios que se han hecho sobre los factores que in- fluyen en las personas jovenes para empezar a fumar: . El Instituto de Tabaco de Australia, en un memorandum a los Miembros Liberales del Gobierno del Estado de Victoria, cita dos estudios nacionales de los habitos de fumar de los escolares australianos. Estos estudios los realizo el Consejo Nacional de Salud e Investigaci6n Medica en 1967/1968 y en 1973. Los estudios concluyeron que entre los principales factores para la iniciacion en el habito figuran: TIIVIN 2 89519
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162 Habitos de fumar de los padres Habitos de fumar de los amigos Aptitudes escolares Los lugares donde los ninos pasan su tiempo libre Con quien salen normalmente los estudiantes La influencia del grupo de pares. Un estudio llevado a cabo por una organizacion antita- baco canadiense sobre los aspectos psico-sociales del habito de fumar cigarrillos, que se extendia a los anos 1972-76, cita numerosos estudios en los que se ha lle- gado a la conclusion de que el deseo de pertenecer a un grupo y los habitos de fumar de los amigos son los que mas influyen en los adolescentes. El Informe del Cirujano General de los EEUU correspon- diente a1 ano 1979 citaba un estudio sobre la publici- dad y los adolescentes en el que se concluyo que "el medio televisivo parece influir en la formacion de i- deas y act i tudes,'s i n emba rgo •no es l.a causa de que l os adolescentes compren un producto". Un estudio realizado en 1970 por Eugene Levitt comprobo que las actitudes de los jovenes hacia los anuncios de los cigarrillos tenian poco que ver con el hecho de que ellos empezasen a fumar y los datos "sugieren que la e- liminaci6n de los anuncios de cigarrillos en la tele- vision no influyen sustancialmente en el comportamiento fumador de la juventud''. El Dr. Sylvan Kaplan'reviso mas de 1- 60 libros, artTculos y estudios de investigacion sobre el habito de fumar y observo: "La verdad es que no existen suficientes•prueba-s psico- logicas para respaldar la afirmacion categorica de que 1a publicidad de los cigarrillos es un factor signifi- TIMN TIMN 289520
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163 cativo en la incitaci6n a los j6venes a fumar: Por el contrario, se dispone de multitud de pruebas que permi- ten Ilegar a la conclusion de que, de los factores estudiados, la publicidad es uno de los menos impor- tantes que se citan". E1 British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology inform6 sobre los resultados de un estudio hecho en 1978 que revelaba que las personas que no fuman creen que la publicidad tiene mas influencia en los fumadores de lo que 6stos creen que tiene. A pesar de su tono contrario al habito de fumar, un es- tudio de 1969 realizado por Ira-Goldenberg y Bernard Stoll para el que se utilizo una muestra de 5.200 estu- diantes de New Haven, EEUU, encontro "poco importante" la influencia de la publicidad sobre la iniciacion en el habito de fumar. Un estudio realizado por Gallup en 1977 con el objeto de investigar el hebito de fumar en los adolescentes nortea- mericanos, descubri6 tambien que la publicidad no se ha- Ilaba entre las razones dadas para empezar a fumar. En su estudio sobre los efectos de las prohibiciones a la publicidad, K.Waemberg, de Suecia, informo: r "Ninguna investigaci6n empirica ha podido demostrar que la publicidad global de marcas origine un mayor consumo de tabaco. Tampoco se ha descubierto nada que sugiera que la publicidad induzca a los no fumadores, en par- ticular a los jovenes a convertirse en fumadores. De esto se sigue, por consiguiente, que pueden no existir pruebas que demuestren que la prohibicion de la publi- cidad tenga por resultado una disminucion del consumo de tabaco y del numero de fumadores." -- - TIMN 289521
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164 s de 5.601 muchachos se determinaron cuatro factores im- portantes de influencia para la iniciacion al habito de,fumar. La publicidad no se hallaba entre ellos. Reinhold Bergler, en su libro "La Publicidad y el Ha- bito de Fumar Cigarrillos" citado anteriormente, dedi- ca 40 paginas a un estudio de la investigacion de la influencia de las variables psicol6gicas sobre el ha- bito de fumar cigarrillos. En su conclusion expresa: "Los obse'rvadores que afirman la existencia de una re- lacion directa entre estimulo y respuesta entre la pu- blicidad y el consumo no saben como explicar la inexis- tencia de consumidores de un producto determinado. Esta es tambien la razon de que la amplia literatura sobre la psicologia y motivacion del comportamiento del fumador (que comprende tanto el comienzo como la continuaci6n) haya practicamente ignorado la publicidad como determi- nante basico, y con razon. Los fundamentos aportados hasta ahora no han•producido ninguna hipotesis que val- ga la pena examinar ni ninguna base para atribuir a la publicidad un genuino papel justificativo". En terminos de un profano, la ultima frase podria ex- presarse tambien asi. La investigacion realizada hasta ahora (buena parte de d11a por organismos que se oponen a la industria tabacalera) no ha conseguido demostrar que exista una relacion significativa entre la activi- dad publicitaria y la iniciacion en el habito de fumar entre los j6venes. No existen pruebas concluyentes de que la publicidad tenga el poder de iniciar a las per- sonas en el habito de fumar. Las razones por las que ia gente empieza a fumar son complejas y en su mayor parte estan relacionadas con la psicologia del individuo, los antecedentes y el contexto TIMN 289522
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165 c ternos y externos que estan relacionados con la clase de persona que es, con el ejemplo de los padres y ami- gos y con las influencias sociales que ejercen los gru- pos de pares. Todo esto parece deducirse con claridad de la investigacion realizada. Tambien esta claro que la publicidad no desempena un papel significativo en la iniciaci6n al uso de produc- tos de tabaco. Tal es la conclusion razonable de inves- tigadores serios y responsables." Los efectos de la prohibicion de publicitar el producto alcanzan al mercado ya existente donde la competencia se ve desalentada, las po- siciones relativas de cada manufactura se congelan, las nuevas fir- mas son disuadidas de entrar por la dificultad para captar el gusto del consumidor y las nuevas tecnologias y metodos de produccion que podrian satisfacer mas adecuadamente al consumidor no se aplican. Basicamente el consumo total no se reduce; solo se'limita la compe- tencia y se priva al consumidor de su derecho a saber. iESTAMOS INTENTANDO COPIA R LEGISLACION DE OTROS PAISES, CUYOS RESULTA- DOS EN LA PRACTICA SABEMOS QUE FUERON INEFICACES? Finalmente, pueden hacerse dos comentarios sobre aspectos vinculados a la limitacion propuesta. En primer lugar, ella es rechazable ya que atenta contra la propia responsabilidad y la libertad del individuo y su derecho a elegir a traves de los medios de comunicaci6n. En se- gundo termino, existen motivos para analizar la aplicacion de dispo- siciones como la proyectada a una variedad de articulos, como el al- cohol, los sedantes, somniferos, alimentos con alto contenido de grasas, sal, golosinas, insecticidas y automoviles, que crearian un potencial riesgo para la salud y el ambiente humanos. Sin embargo, en ningun momento se estudio la posibilidad o necesidad de extender a esas actividades economicas una prohibicion amplia como da oara el tabaco. la proyecta- TIMN 289523
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166 En sintesis, las medidas proyectadas pueden juzgarse como total- mente insuficientes en atencibn a la magnitud que se atribuye a] mal social que se pretende combatir y, por l.o tanto, deberian ser reemplazadas por una prohibici6n general de cultivar tabaco, elabo- rar productos tabacaleros y consumirlos. Este camino, irrazonable y que no forma parte de ninguna legislacibn positiva, es el Gnico proporcional a la'importancia que el mensaje del proyecto de ley atribuye a] h6bito de fumar como peligro sanitario. FACULTADES DEL ESTADO NACIONAL 1) Jurisdiccion del Estado Nacional Si bien el poder de policia corresponde en principio a las pro- vincias, el Estado Nacional tiene en algunos casos facultades concurrentes con ellas o exclusivas en esta materia. Entre otros casos, el Estado Nacional esta facultado para re- glamentar los derechos individuales y proveer lo conducente a la seguridad, moralidad y salubridad publicas cuando la Cons- titucion Nacional concede a] Congreso en terminos expresos un exclusivo poder en este sentido. En este caso, tratandose de una restricci6n a la publicidad en general, cualquiera fuere el medio empleado, el Estado Federal parece estar facultado a ello en virtud de lo dispuesto por el articulo 67 inc'."12 de la Constitucion Nacional que le confiere el poder para reglar el comercio interprovincial. T6ngase en cuenta que la publicidad a traves de los medios de comunicacion y difusion masiva es considerada como parte integrante del comercio interprovincial. 2. Atribucion de competencias a las autoridades locales._ Pero debe distinguirse el hecho de que el Poder Legislativo 0 el Estado Federal pueda establecer determinadas restricciones, de la posibilidad que estos deleguen sus facultades. Si bien TIMN 289524
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167 se puede delegar al Poder Ejecutivo, o a las autoridades loca- les (provinciales o municipales) la reglamentacion de los por- menores y detalles, es preciso que ello se haga dentro de cier- tos limites y pautas pre-establecidas por la ley que efectua esa atribucion de competencia. Este criterio que surge de los fundamentos de nuestro orden constitucional es compartido por 1a gran mayoria de la doc- trina (Villegas Basavilbaso, Derecho Administrativo, T.5, pa"g. 187-193; Fiorini, Poder de Policia, pag. 139-140, Marien- hoff, Tratado de Derecho Administrativo, T.IV, pag.524-526;' Linares'Quintana, Tratado de la Ciencia del Derecho Cons- titucional Argentino y Comparado, T.3, pag.304-305). INSEGURIDAD JURIDICA Mas alla de defectos que adolece el actual proyecto de ley con relacion a la razonabilidad de los medios elegidos y a la falta de fijaci6n de pautas o limites a los efectos de su reglamentacion, caben formularse serios y graves reparos por la enorme inseguridad juridica que suscita el mencionado pro- yecto. ALGUNAS DE LAS DISPOSICIONES QUE PROVOCAN INSEGURIDAD JURIDICA Indefinicion del concepto de "publicidad" Con relacion a esta cuestion, cabe mencionar que la falta de definicion legal de lo que constituye "publicidad", juntamen- te con el articulo I que no hace distingo alguno en razon del medio publicitario empleado, aparejan un serio problema de de- terminacion de qu6 actividades o actitudes configuran "publi- cidad" sujeta a las disposiciones de la ley. Medios publicitarios La ley establece que.comprende la publicidad "sin distingos en cuanto a la forma y el medio empleado para realizarla", con lo cual comprende no solo cualquier tipo de publicidad a traves TIMN 289525
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168 de medios masivos (radio, television, diarios, etc.) sino tambiAn a las formas de promocion que se emplean normalmente (p.ej.: degustacion en ferias, auspicios de acontecimientos culturales, deportivos, etc.) Debe especificarse claramente la autoridad de aplicaci6n para evitar superposici6n de competencias e inseguridad juridica. Las facuitades concurrentes, nacionales y locales, que consa- gra, son excesivas porque los estados provinciales se han re- servado todo el poder no delegado al•gobierno central (art. 104 C.N. ) Aqui, el Ministerio de Salud y Accion Social de la Nacion que no interviene en el control de la fabricacion y comercializa- ci6n del producto; sin embargo tendra atribuciones regulato- rias de la publicidad de tales productos. Por lo demas, la autoridad sanitaria no tiene capacidad tdcni-• ca para juzgar conductas que son sustancialmente ajenas a su competencia. En ning6n pais del mundo se prohibe fumar y en la Republica Argentina existen disposiciones constitucionales que descali- fican normas como las que se comentan. En efecto: El art. 19 de la Constitucion establece que las acciones privadas de los hombres que no ofendan a] orden y a la moral pdblica o no per- judiquen a un tercero, estan solo reservadas a Dios y exentas r de la autoridad de los magistrados. Una opinion completa y fundada sobre el tema que autorice la aproba- ci6n del proyecto en cuestion, solo puede darse cuando se conozcan las precisiones que determinen el verdadero alcance de las restricciones. Sin perjuicio de ello, es prudente que la ley contenga pautas mas pre- cisas que eviten los futuros desbordes reglamentarios. TIMN 289526
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169 Ello es aconsejable sobre todo en aquellos casos de trascendencia pu- blica y nacional como este, en que la oportunidad de debate e inter- .cambio de ideas con los sectores interesados es mas intenso en opor- tunidad del estudio del proyecto de ley, quedando esta intervencion frecuentemente relegada en ocasion de su reglamentacion. INOPORTUNIDAD DEL PROYECTO. INTERES DE OTROS SECTORES El proyecto es inconveniente no solo por el discutible enfoque par- cial de sus fundamentos, por la manifiesta irrazonabilidad de sus disposiciones (y su eventual inconstitucionalidad), por la inefectividad factica de los instrumentos elegidos tal como surge de las experiencias de otras naciones y por la deficiente tecnica legislativa (lo que hace nacer muchas dudas sobre su aplicacion), sino tambien por la oportunidad de sancionar una ley regulatoria de aspectos tan variados de las libertades de expresion y de comercio y de la salud de la poblaci6n sin tener en cuenta las especiales circunstancias por las que atraviesa la Argentina. Una norma como la proyectada afecta directa o indirectamente muchas actividades economicas que son totalmente legales. Si el objetivo perseguido es disminuir el consumo global y este se obtiene, se ve- ran afectados: a) La industria manufacturera de cigarrillos, cigarros y taba- cos pa ra p-i pas ; • b) La industria proveedora de insumos para la elaboracion de ci- garrillos; c) Los proveedores de servicios a los sectores indicados en a) y b); d) Los productores tabacaleros de varias provincias; e) Los med i os de comun i cac i on; TIlVIN 289527
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170 •Todos los sectores mencionados desarrollan actividades licitas, emplean una significativa cantidad de personal y pagan impor- tantes montos en conceptos de impuestos nacionales y provincia- les, tasas municipales y contribuciones sociales. Es redundante destacar que cualquier disminucion del nivel de su actividad reducira la recaudacion impositiva y previsional y aumentara el desempleo. En atencion a los efectos que eventualmente la medida proyectada puede producir en muchos sectores economicos, incluyendo los fiscos nacional y provincial y las cajas de previsi6n social, parece pruden- te contar con la opini6n de todos aquellos afectados por la medida. INNECESIDAD DE LA CONSTITUCION DE LA COMISION NACIONAL PERMANENTE TABACO Y SALUD El proyecto de ley bajo an6lisis ya en su Trtulo I legisla minucio- samente todos los aspectos de la publicidad de los productos taba- caleros, por lo que es a todas luces innecesaria la constituci6n de una Comisi(Sn Permanente para que actue como una suerte de b'rgano •revisor y mejorador de las normas que se sancionen en esa materia. Por lo dem6s, en cuanto al contralor del cumplimiento de las dis- posiciones de la ley, la Direcci6n Nacional de Lealtad Comercial es el organismo natural competente para ejercerlo e iniciar los su- marios administrativos que pudiesen corresponder por violaciones a sus normas. Vemos asf que el proyecto ticas del Poder Ejecutivo to publico se refiere, al de ley contradice expresas y claras polf- Nacional en lo que a la reducci6n del gas- crear un nuevo organismo burocr6tico de car6cter permanente que es totalmente superfluo. TI1VIN 289528
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171 EL "FONDO ESPECIAL TABACO Y SALUD" El proyecto de ley asigna a esta Comisi6n Nacional recursos propios mediante la creaci6n de un "Fondo Especial Tabaco y Salud" (art. 13) que fundamentalmente obtendr6 sus recursos de una contribuci6n del 2% que abonar6 el consumidor de tabaco, cigarros y cigarrillos sobre el precio de venta•de cada paquete y de otro 2% a tributar por el fabricante de los mencionados productos sobre los importes declarados de venta (art. 14). El colosal importe que de esta manera se recaudarfa no guarda la m5s minima relaci6n con el destino que el proyecto asigna a tales fondos, lo que es evidente prueba de la irrazonabilidad del tributo que se pretende crear. Pero es m6s, el cigarrillo ya tributa un Impuesto Interno con una tasa nominal del 70%, a lo que debe agregars la contribuci6n al "Fondo Es- pecial del Tabaco" que representa otro 7,25% sobre el precio de venta al pGblico, m6s un adicional de $a 1,50 por paquete de cigarrillos vendidos (Ley 19.800 y sus modificatorias). A esto hay que agregar una contribuci6n del 2% sobre el precio de venta al publico destinada al Fondo de Asistencia en Medicamentos. Si ahora se agrega otro aporte para alimentar al "Fondo Especial Taba- co y Salud", nos encontrariamos con un caso unico en la legislaci6n universal de un mismo producto que solventar6 tres "Fondos Especiales": el del Tabaco, el de Asistencia en Medicamentos y el de Tabaco y Salud. 11 Con ello, el tributo en proyecto no solo serta irrazonable, sino tam- bien inconstitucional por confiscatorio. TjMN 289529
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172 DISCUSION A continuaci6n, anal izaremos algunos de los p6rrafos contenidos en los fundamentos que acompanan al Proyecto de Ley del Diputado Ma- glietti. "Un verdadero flagelo se abate contra nuestra poblaci6n, especialmente los m6s j6venes. Un fen6meno de manifestaci6n tan frecuente que muchas veces ni siquiera reparamos en 61: nos referimos al h6bito de fumar." Este proyecto no escapa a la generalidad de cometer una petici6n de principio al dar por absolutamente comprobada una acci6n patog6nica del tabaco. A trav6s de trabajos cuya autorfa corresponde a cientf- ficos de renombrado prestigio internacional, demostraremos en esta presentaci6n que el efecto nocivo que se imputa al h6bito de fumar dista mucho de ser un criterio un6nime de la comunidad m6dica y que es meramente materia opinable. "SegGn la Organizaci6n Mundial de la Salud, el h6bito de fumar es la causa principal de enfermedad y muerte en el mundo'de hoy." Debemos observar que dicha expresi6n es una transcripci6n incompleta referida a palses desarrollados,, expresada por un Comite de Expertos. En la publicaci6n de la OMS que la menciona, aparece impresa la si- guiente leyenda: "Este informe contiene las opiniones colectivas de un grupo internacional de expertos y no necesariamente representan ,., las decisiones o las polfticas establecidas en la Organizaci6n Mundial de la Salud". Por lo tanto, resulta incorrecto atribuir a la OMS esa definici6n de los efectos del h6bito de fumar. TIMN 289530
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173 "Seg6n otro documentado informe de la Liga Argentina de Lucha'Contra el Cancer, m6s de veinte mil personas mueren anualmente en nuestro pals debido, directa o indirecta- mente, al cigarrillo. 'Ni el sarampi6n, ni la poliomielitis, ni la tuberculosis, ni cualquier otra enfermedad infectocontagiosa, ni todas ellas sumadas, ocasionan ni han o- casionado en algbn ano de este siglo tant.as muertes como esta gravfsima enfermedad auto- infligida", apunta el informe." Esta argumentaci6n carece de rigor cientffico e incluso contiene vicios de informaci6n, dado que la esperanza de vida aument6 casi treinta anos desde las primeras d6cadas del siglo hasta ahora y que la gran mortali- dad se debfa precisamente a enfermedades transmisibles. Por otra parte, resulta de gravedad desde el punto de vista sanitario, ignorar o minimi- zar en su importancia problemas vergonzantes del subdesarrollo como la mortalidad infantil (hay provincias donde mueren mas de 100 ninos por e la que se calculan cada 1.000 nacidos) o la enfermedad de Chagas (d centena'res de miles de cardi6patas). Ambos problemas son absolutamente evitables. Por otra parte, en nuestro pais no existen registros que permitan concluir las'causas etiol6gicas de un sinnumero de muertes. Atribuir a un factor Gnico todos los c6nceres y todas las enfermedades cardiovasculares es no solamente inexacto, sino tambi6n peligroso, ya que significaria dejar la ~ etiologfa de esas enfermedades en el nivel de ignorancia que actualmente todos los m6dicos reconocen, desalentar las investigacione y anular medi- das de control sobre factores altamente involucrados tales como el estr6s, la contaminaci6n ambiental, las di6tesis familiares y los factores gen6- ticos. "Por otra parte, se ha comprobado que los indices de mortal idad en los fumadores son en un 80; superiores a los de aquellos que no fuman. Estas cifras est6n en proporci6n TIMN 289531
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174 directa con el tabaco consumido y el tiem- po de permanencia en el h6bito, siendo m6s serios los riesgos cuando m6s j6ven se co- mienza a fumar." S HERROLD Katherine McDermott, Dra., Directora M6dica, Servicio de Salud Publica de Estados Unidos, Washington, D.C. "De los 472 pacientes (del estudio Dorn) que eran 'fumadores actuales de cigarrillos' en el momento de su muerte y de los que habTa secciones histol6gicas disponibles para mi revisi6n, no encontr6 correlaci6n entre los distintos tipos histol6gicos de c6ncer de pulm6n y la cantidad de tabaco consumido." "Los descubrimientos de Pasey, al igual que los de Doll y Hill, eran casi id6nticos a los mfos: que la edad de diagn6stico del c6ncer de pul- m6n no est6 relacionada con la edad en la que el paciente comenz6 a fu- mar, el pertodo en el que fum6 o la cantidad de cigarrillos que fum6." "E1 h6bito de consumir tabaco est6 directa- mente relacionado con la aparici6n de c6ncer de pulm6n, laringe, asi como de vejiga, entre 15 y 30 veces cavidad bucal, es6fago, rin`6n y p6ncreas, siendo mayor el riesgo de c6ncer de pulm6n para fumadores que para quienes no lo son. Los hombres y mujeres que fuman son m6s propensos a padecer bronquitis, enfisema, sinusitis, dlcera gastroduodenal, arterioscle- rosis y enfermedades cardtacas. Fumar aumenta considerablemente las posibilidades de sufrir infartos, sfncopes cardiacos o muerte subita, asf como enfermedades vasculares perif6ricas." BUHLER Victor B., Dr., Pat6logo, Hospital Liberty,"Missouri. "... ningun estudio de inhalaci6n ha demostrado que la inhalaci6n del humo del tabaco causa c6ncer de pulm6n..." TIMN 289532
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175 "... (En 1969 testifiqub ante el Congreso) que mi conocimiento de la literatura.m6dica, mis propias investigaciones y mi experiencia en el laboratorio me hicieron formar una 'convicci6n firme de que no est6 demostrado que ni el fumar cigarrillos ni ningGn otro agente etiolb- gico sea la causa del c6ncer de pulm6n'. En estos trece a`nos no he visto ningGn informe de investigaci6n que cambie esta opini6n." MACDONALD Eleanor J., Profesora Em6rita de Epidemiologfa, Centro del Uncer de la Universidad de Texas, Hospital Anderson e Instituto del Tumor, Houston, Texas. "En un estudio de cbncer de pulm6n realizado en El Paso con mujeres de apellido espanol y de origen anglo, encontramos una mayor incidencia de la enfermedad en las mujeres de apellido espanol, el 64% de las cua- les eran fumadoras. Aunque entre las de origen anglo el porcentaje de fumadoras era e1 mismo, la tasa de c6ncer de pulm6n era Ia mitad que las de apellido espanol. ConcluTmos que debfamos descartar al h6bito de fumar como un factor significativo." SCHRAUZER Gerhard N., Profesor de Qufmica, Universidad de California, San Diego, California. "No se demostr6 que alg6n ingrediente o combinacibn de ingredientes, tal; como son encontrados en el humo del tabaco, cause c6ncer de pulm6n en e3, hombre." LANGSTON Hiram T., Dr., Profesor Clinico de Cirugfa (Embrito), Escuela De Medicina de Northwest, Presidente, Departamento de Cirugia, Hospital St. Joseph, Chicago. "... la hip6tesis del fumar est6 sobresimplificada. Por lo tanto, no puedo apoyar legislaci6n como estos proyectos de ley basados en hip6te- sis cuestionables". TIMN 289533
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176 FISHER H. Russell, Dr., Profesor Em6rito de Patologfa, Universidad de California del Sur, Consultor, Hospital Memorial, Glendale, Calif. "Se dice que la incidencia del c6ncer de pulm6n entre las mujeres est5 aumentando debido al incremento de los h3bitos de fumar registrados des- de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Sin embargo, los estudios indican que.el supuesto incremento se debe principalmente al aumento de adenocarcinoma, tipo de c6ncer generalmente no asociado con el fumar. Por ejemplo, el Dr. loachim del Departamento de Patologta del Dr. Sommers en el Lenox Hill Hospital (Nueva York), descubri6 que el adenocarcinoma representa alrededor de la mitad de los canceres en mujeres..." "Un estudio reciente publicado en el ejemplar de Abril 1979 del Boletfn del Instituto Nacional del C6ncer demuestra ampliamente que la controver- sia en torno al cigarrillo y el c6ncer de pulm6n continGa. Este estudio cuestiona el dogma que establece que el fumar es la causa principal del c6ncer de pulm6n. Utilizando datos de numerosos estudios sobre c6ncer de pulm6n, incluyendo el de la Sociedad Americana del C6ncer, Enstrom demos- tr6 que habfa un considerable aumento en la tasa de mortalidad por c6n- cer de pulm6n entre personas que nunca hablan fumado. En el caso de mu- jeres blancas que nunca habfan fumado, el aumento en la incidencia del c6ncer de pulm6n en las ultimas cuatro d6cadas es similar al registrado en ias que fumaban cigarrillos. Esto se opone a la aseveraci6n de la So- ciedad Americana del C6ncer de que el aumento del c6ncer de pulm6n entre las mujeres en ese perfodo se debe al fumar cigarriilos..." FARRIS Jack Mathews, Dr., Profesor Emerito de Cirugfa, Universidad de California, San Diego. "En 1965, entregu6 declaraciones a la C6mara de Diputados y al Senado en las que expresaba que no crefa que estuviera demostrado que el c6ncer de pulm6n era causado por el fumar cigarrillos, y que cualquier conclusi6n en contrario era injustificada. Mi opini6n hoy continGa siendo la misma. Creo que cuando sepamos c6mo y qu6 causa el c6ncer, cigarrillo tiene poco o nada que ver con la genesis pulm6n." encontraremos que el del carcinoma de TIMN 289534
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177 AVIADO Domindo M., Dr., Presidente, Atmospheric Health Sciences, Inc., Profesor Adjunto de Farmacologfa, Universidad de Medicina y Odontolo- gfa, Nueva Jersey. "Este autor cuestiona la 16gica de considerar al fumar cigarrillos como la 'causa principal' del enfisema pulmonar cuando se ha demostrado que los contaminante's primarios del aire causan efisema pulmonar en animales ..., de experimentaci6n y, con los mismos modelos, las pruebas no fueron exi- tosas utilizando al cigarrillo." "Un an6lisis cuidadoso del capTtulo (sobre enfermedad broncopulmonar no neopl6sica del Informe del Cirujano General de 1979) plantea dudas res- pecto a la validez de la aseveraci6n (que el 'fumar es la causa principal de las enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas cr6nicas como el enfisema) debido a la complejidad de la causalidad de las enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas cr6nicas en general y del enfisema pulmonar en particular. A pesar de que hay una gran cantidad de supues tos mecanismos pat6genos y de factores etiol6gicos, el Informe del Cirujano General solo se refie- re a los que est6n relacionados con el fumar cigarrillos, agregando una discusi6n incidental sobre poluci6n externa, poluci6n interna, infeccTo- nes y predisposici6n familiar y genetica. Los estudios epidemiol6gicos sugieren la existencia de una asociaci6n entre la enfermedad obstructiva cr6nica y varios factores de riesgo, tales como niveles de poluci6n ex- terna e interna, consumo de alcohol, infecciones previas, predisposici6n familiar y susceptibilidad genetica." f STERLING Theodor D., Dr., Profesor de lnvestigaci6n Universitaria, Uni- versidad Simon Fraser, Burnaby, Canad6. "Como humanos que vivimos en un mundo terriblemente complejo, nos aferra- mos con alivio a lo que parecen ser respuestas simples. M6s a6n, la cele- ridad con la que se acept6 la evidencia disponible que demuestra que el fumar cigarrillos es el principal antecedente de la enfermedad pulmonar es quiz6s el ejemplo m5s llamativo de nuestro deseo de mantener nuestro mundo simple y ordenado." TIMN 289535
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178 "A la naturaleza, por otra parte, no le interesa lo que nosotros creemos que causa las enfermedades, y el mundo real no siempre es simple. En el caso de Ia enfermedad pulmonar, en realidad, 1 a situaci6n es altamente compleja. El conocimiento real sobre los antecedentes de la 'enfermedad pulmonar continuar6 siendo complejo si seguimos ech6ndole l.a culpa sim- plfsticamente al cigarrillo y continuamos ignorando los posibles'efectos del lugar de trabajo para la salud de los trabajadores". FISHER Edwin R., Dr.,- Profesor de Patologfa, Universidad de Pittsburgh, Escuela de Medicina, Director de Laboratorios, Hospital Shadyside, Pitts- burgh, Pennsylvania. "No hay ningGn estudio farmacol6gico ni de otra clase que en mi opini6n tenga validez o aceptaci6n cientifica que indique que la nicotina afecta adversamente el flujo sangufneo coronario. M6s aun, la mayorfa de los es- tudios revelan que este agente en realidad acentGa y aumenta el flujo san- guineo coronario." "Un estudio con mellizos monocig6ticos demostr6 que la tasa de enferme- dad coronaria no es mayor en el mellizo que fuma comparada con la del mellizo no fumador." "Un estudio sobre enfermedades cardiovasculares.realizado en Suiza en 1979 demostr6 que la incidencia del h6bito de fumar entre las mujeres suizas aument6 en el 6ltimo cuarto de siglo; la tasa de enfermedades cardiovascu- lares para el mismo grupo disminuy6 significativamente durante ese perfo- ~ do." RUSSEK Henry I., D'r., Pr6ctica Privada de Cardiologla, Boca Raton, Florida. "Mis primeras investigaciones realizadas con pacientes coronarios j6venes y controles sanos, i ndicaron claramente que e 1 est._r6s emocional de origen ocupacional era mucho m6s importante estadisticamente que la dieta con gran cantidad de grasas, obesidad, falta de ejercicio o el h6bito de fumar respecto a la prevalencia de la enfermedad." I TIMN 289536
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179 "Mis estudios sobre estr6s emocional y mi experiencia clinica me lleva- ron a cuest-ionar la opini6n ampliamente aceptada de que el nivel eleva- do de colesterol, la elevada presi6n sanguinea y el fumar cigarrillos son los factores m6s importantes en la etiologia de la enfermedad coro- naria. El hecho es que estos factores de riesgo tradicionales con fre,- cuencia est6n ausentes en los nuevos casos de enfermedades del coraz6n que se ven en la pr6ctica clinica. M6s aun, creo que se puede cuestio- nar seriamente si las medidas preventivas dirigidas contra estas in- fluencias 'etioi6gicas' han tenido 6xito. Con respecto a esto, nuestro an6lisis de los datos sobre m6dicos norteamericanos durante veinte a- `nos demostraron que no se registr6 ningGn cambio significativo ni en la longevidad general ni en la edad promedio de muerte por enfermedad co- ronaria." "Result6 evidente para nosotros que debe haber otros factores de riesgo involucrados porque los medicos norteamericanos f uman muy poco y nin- gGn segmento de nuestra sociedad tiene mayor conciencia de los poten- ciales peligros de la hipercolesterolemia y la hipertensi6n." "En un estudio en forma de cuestionario que realizamos con 25.000 per"- sona- s de 20 categorias de ocupaci6n, encontramos una correlaci6n entre el estr6s producido por la ocupaci6n y que habia sido juzgado con ante- laci6n, y la frecuencia denunciada de enfermedades coronarias. M5s inte- resante aun fue observar que la frecuencia y la. intensidad del h5bito de fumar en los distintos grupos profesionales estaba relacionada directa- mente con el estr6s relativo a la actividad laboral. Por eso, no podemos decir si el fumar est6 asociado independientemente con la enfermedad co- ronaria o si est6 relacionado con lo que podria ser el verdadero culpa- ble: el estr6s emocional." "Se est6n dando a conocer descubrimientos consistentes y persuasivos que relacionan a la enfermedad coronaria con el estr6s emocional prolongado, las conductas propensas a la enfermedad, la movilidad socio-cultural y los eventos estresantes de la vida."
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180 SELTZER Carl C., Dr., Asociado en Investigaci6n Honoraria, Museo Pea- body, Universidad de Harvard. "LLa relaci6n es consistente? Dado que no se ha denunciado ninguna aso- ciaci6n estadistica entre el fumar y las enfermedades coronarias en Fin- landia, Pafses Bajos, Italia, Grecia, Yugoeslavia, Jap6n y Puerto Rico, es claramente incorrecto afirmar que la reiaci6n es consistente." "... en el Informe del Cirujano General de 1979 se concluy6 que 'la aso- ciaci6n del fumar como un factor de riesgo con la incidencia de la angi- na de pecho no es clara'. El estudio Framingham tambi6n observa que 'la relaci6n con la angina de pecho es modesta, si en realidad existe." "i.Puede considerarse que la relaci6n es consistente cuando el estudio Framingham denuncia la ausencia de una relaci6n entre el fumar y las en- fermedades coronarias entre las mujeres?" BURCH R.J., Dr., Profesor, Departamento de FPsica M6dica, Universidad de Leeds, Inglaterra. "..cuaiquier influencia causal del h6bito de fumar sobre el desenlace fatal de la enfermedad (coronaria) es pequena o nula. Los factores res- ponsables de la calda en las tasas de mortalidad en los Estados Unidos para ambos sexos no est6n relacionados con el fumar." HUTCHEON Duncan, Dr., Profesor de Farmacologfa y Medicina, Facultad de Medicina y Odontologia, Nueva Jersey. "...es imposible hacer una afirmaci6n contundente e inequivoca sobre la contribuci6n de un unico factor a la aparici6n del c6ncer y de la enfer- medad del coraz6n. Por esta raz6n, muchas de las afirmaciones contenidas en lds proyectos de ley de la C6mara de Diputado.s 4957 y de Senadores 1929 sobre las consecuencias sanitarias y econ6micas del h6bito de fumar son cientificamente inaceptables y parecen serun intento de ofrecer solu- ciones f3ciles a lo que en realidad son problemas multifaceticos y com- __.. plejos." TIMN 289538
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181 "...creemos que el Congreso tiene la responsabilidad de alentar la inves- tigaci6n intensa e imparcial sobre el espectro de factores de riesgo aso- ciados con estas enfermedades (c3ncer y enfermedad del coraz6n), en vez de limitar su consideraci6n a un solo aspecto. Por ejemplo Lpor qu6 la .legislaci6n propuesta no menciona los peligros ambientales?" ROBERTS Jay, Dr., Profesor y Presidente, Departamento de Farmacologfa, Facultad de Medicina de Pennsylvania, Filadelfia. "Una de las'numerosas preguntas cientificas sin respuesta' es Ia siguien- te: Ld6nde estan los datos que en forma concluyente prueban que un tercio de las muertes por enfermedades coronarias es atribufble al fumar?" "El fumar per se no es el Gni.co factor o caracterfstica de los fumadores que necesita ser analizado en los estudios. Por ejemplo, se conocen bien los efectos del estr6s sobre el sistema cardiovascular; por otra parte, 1a exposici6n a elevados niveles de estr6s durante largos perfodos puede te- ner un impacto importante sobre la salud de ciertas:personas. Otro aspec- to complicado y desconocido es la relaci6n entre el estres y el h6bi.to de .,. fumar. LPor que la gente fuma y que pasa con su intento de enfrentar al estres? Mi trabajo experimental con el sistema cardiovascular y la edad me ilev6 a concluir que los factores involucrados en el desarrollo de la en- fermedad cr6nica son complejos. A pesar de la intensa investigaci6n reali- zada en animales y del trabajo de observaci6n en seres humanos, existen muchas preguntas sin respuestas sobre porqu6 y c6mo las personas desarro- llan enfermedades del sistema cardiovascular. Las afirmaciones contenidas en estos proyectos de ley, tale's como 'un tercio de las muertes atribufbles a enfermedades coronarias est6 asociado con el fumar', parecerta implicar que las respuestas a las preguntas que yo planteo ya han sido contestadas y que no se harAn m6s investigaciones cientfficas sobre el tema." "...creo que a traves de nuevas investigaciones se podrfa y se deberfa ha- llar la respuesta a esos interrogantes."
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182 SACHS Bernice C., Dr., Psiguiatra, Plan Cooperativo, Seattle. "De1 material producido por las investigaciones respecto al'fumar, po- drTamos concluir que el mismo estr6s que estimula a fumar en grandes can- tidades puede ser el estr6s que precipita el complejo proceso del c6ncer o aporta las caracterTsticas del individuo propenso a contraer enfermeda- des coronarias. Est3 en la profesi6n medica reducir el estr6s de la pobla- ci6n - y no por intermedio de decretos o mandatos que dan lugar a la cul- pa, la ira y la resistencia -, esto crea m5s estr6s y puede promover las mismas enfermedades que se est6 tratando de prevenir." "Con respecto a los riesgos asociados a emba- razo, se ha determinado que los ni`nos nacidos de madres fumadoras tienen un promedio de 200 gramos menos que aquellos provenientes de no fumadoras, y su peso de nacimiento es sensi- blemente inferior al normal. Tambi6n retarda el desarrollo fetal y aumenta los riesgos de aborto. AsTmismo, los partos prematuros son m6s frecuentes entre las madres fumadoras y una gran proporci6n de muertes neonatales o- curren durante tales pertos prematuros. Las madres que consumen cigarrillos contribuyen de manera significativa al riesgo de 'muerte sGbita' del nin`o." , Departamento de Salud BROOKE Oliver Gilbert, Dr., Jefe de Neonatologfa Infantil, Escuela de Medicina, Hospital St. George, Universidad de Lon- dres, Inglaterra. "Mi interes sobre el h6bito de fumar y el crecimiento fetal data de prin- cipios de la d6cada del '70, cuando realic6 un estudio sobre factores et- nicos y tamano del reci6n nacido. Esto iJnplic6 una cuidadosa combinaci6n de mujeres embarazadas segGn factores tales como nivel social e ingresos, combinados con una evaluaci6n exacta de la gestaci6n. Esa informaci6n re- sulta dificil de obtener en estudios epidemiol6gicos._de gran escala, pero es muy importante para evaluar el resultado del embarazo. Cuando analiza- mos los resultados descubrimos que, luego de controlar la edad, altura, TIMN 289540
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183 gestaci6n, paridad, nivel socio-econ6mico y raza de la madre, y el sexo del reci6n nacido, la influencia del h6bito de fumar sobre el peso al na- cer y otros factores del crecimiento fetal era muy pequena o nula." "Las fumadoras pueden ser m5s propensas a tener•nin`os pequenos que las no fumadoras debido a su personalidad o a su predisposici6n gen6tica a responder desfavorablemente frente a situaciones de estr6s." HICKEY Richard J., Dr., Investigador Senior, Departamento de EstadTsti- cas, Escuela Wharton, Universidad de Pennsylvania, Filadelfia. "... el peso al nacer de hijos de futuras fumadoras tendfa a ser menor que el peso de ninos de mujeres que nunca fumaron. Ese descubrimiento apoya la hip6tesis constitucional y 'no la hip6tesis de la causalidad del hAbito de fumar'... Estos descubrimientos no han sido divulgados masivamente." "Las implicancias o denuncias relativas a la causalidad, tal como son expuestas en los Informes del Cirujano General, tambi6n son defectuosas porque•se basan en informes selectivos. Entre losv.,informes publicados que tratan el tema podemos mencionas: R.J. Hickey, R.C. Clelland y E.J." Bowers: "El h6bito de fumar materno, el peso al nacer,••l-a mortalidad in- fantil y el problema de la auto selecci6n", American Journal of Obstetrics and•Gynecology, Vol. 131, 805-811 (1978). Se senala el mal uso de las estadisticas junto con otros errores, incluyendo la desconsideraci6n o la denigraci6n subjetiva de las publicaciones del extinto Profesor J. Yerushalmy." RAO L.G.S., Dr., Bioquimico Senior, HospitalMaterno Bellshill, Grasgow, Escocia. "El hecho m6s conspicuo que surge"al analizar todos los estudios sobre cigarrillo y embarazo es que el llamado 'efecto' del h5bito de fumar solo se ve en las madres m6s pobres y menos privilegiadas._y no en las que tie- nen elevados ingresos familiares. Los bajos ingresos familiares pueden ocasionar deficiencias nutritivas que pueden causar retraso en el creci- miento fetal. Por lo tanto, el llamado 'efecto'-del h6bito de fumar ob- TIMN 289541
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184 servado solo en las madres mas pobres puede no deberse al fumar en si mismo, sino a deficiencias en la alimentaci6n de las madres durante el embarazo. De un estudio reciente sobre el consumo de protefnas durante el embarazo realizado en el Hospital Maternal de Bellshill, surge evi- dencia que demuestra que entre madres que consumen protetnas en canti- dades normales, no habfa diferencia en la proporci6n de ninos de bajo peso al nacer entre las fumadoras y las no fumadoras." "La asociaci6n estadfstica denunciada entre el h5bito de fumar de la madre y la mortalidad perinatal es mucho menos fuerte que la que existe con otros factores tales como antecedentes sobre perdida o nivel socio- econ6mico. Por ejemplo, en la clase social 5 (obreros no calificados) de Gran Bretana, se registra un exceso de mortalidad perinatal del 400% con respecto a la clase social 1. Este exceso es mas de 10 veces mayor que el asociado con el habito de fumar (35o aproximadamente). Esta asocia- ci6n estadfstica comparativamente debil no sustenta la hip6tesis de la causalidad." "Toda la evidencia disponible sugiere que la mayor incidencia de retra- so en el crecimiento fetal de ciertos grupos de madres que ya tienen una funci6n reproductiva poco satisfactoria, es un problema social respecto al cual el cigarrillo.no es la causa sino solo un sintoma. Tambi6n resul- ta obvio que la soluci6n a este grave problema social, es decir falta de nutrici6n apropiada, ser6 desatendida si se le presta excesiva atenci6n al habito de fumar." VAN DER BERG Bea J., Dr., Director, Estudios de Salud y Desarrollo Infan- til, Escuela de Salud Publica, Universidad de California, Berkeley. "Nuestros estudios no senalan un aumento del riesgo de aborto y nacimien- tos prematuros en embarazadas fumadoras ni apoyan los datos sobre incre- mento de riesgo de defectos al nacer." "... las mujeres que subsecuentemente comenzaron a fumar tambi6n regis- tran una incidencia mayor de ninos nacidos con menor peso durante el pe- rTodo anterior a que se iniciaran en el habito. Este descubrimiento no puede ser explicado por la teoria de la causalidad y acent6a la necesi- dad de realizar un estudio mayor que lo confirme o lo rechace." TIMN 289542
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185 "Nuestro estudio estadfstico, comparando cada semana de gestaci6n con el riesgo de muerte fetal en embarazadas no fumadoras y fumadoras, no esta- bleci6 diferencia alguna entre los dos grupos. Estos hallazgos, basados en el resultado del embarazo de 15.000 mujeres, no provee evidencias de que el fumar durante el embarazo aumenta el riesgo'de aborto espont6neo y nacimiento prematuro." "Estoy aqui para expresar mi preocupaci6n sobre las afirmaciones incluf- das en la "Ley de Educaci6n para la Prevenci6n del Tabaquismo, 1982" res- pecto a la existencia de un riesgo mayorde-aborto espont6neo, nacimiento ' y defectos de naci- prematuro, deficiencias en el peso del reci6n nacido miento en mujeres embarazadas que fuman." "Durante muchos anos me dedique a la investigaci6n sobre embarazo y na- cimientos,'y los resultados de la investigaci6n no sustentan estas afir- maciones." ,.. nuestros datos (sobre complicaciones durante el embarazo) no sus- " tentan las afirmaciones contenidas en el proyecto de ley propuesto." "Todo esto referido a los fumadores activos. Pero tambien debemos tener en cuenta lo que los cientificos llaman 'fumadores pasivos', que son aquellos que 'aspiran el humo' que proviene del tabaco que fuman los dem6s. Poco conocido es el peligro de esta exposi- w ci6n pasiva al humo. Para aclararlo basten niveles im- dos ejemplos: se han encontrado portantes de nicotina en sangre`y orina de los no fumadores expuestos al humo; adem6s si tenemos en cuenta que las reglamentacio- nes de higiene industrial determinan que 10.000 partfculas por metro cub'ico es el millones de veces superior al tolerado." m6ximo de concentraci6n de impurezas tole- rables, en el aire de quienes trabajan en e particu- la industria, la concentraci6n d las del humo de un solo cigarrillo es diez TIMN 289543
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186 HINDS W,C., FIRST M.W., New England Journal of Medicine, 1975 Concentracion de nicotina en el ambiente Promedio Equivalente Lugar nicotina cigarrillo medida con filtro (ug/m3)' por hora Tren suburbano 4.9 0.004 Omnibus suburbano 6.3 0.005 Sala de espera bmnibus 1.0 0.001 Sala de espera aeropuerto 3.1 0.003 Restaurante 5.2 0.004 Sa1Sn de fiestas 10.3 0.009 Sala de estudiantes 2.8 0.002 Concentracion maxima (salon de fiestas): un no fumador deberia permane- cer mas de 100 horas para inhalar el equivalente de un cigarrillo con filtro. STERLING Theodor y STERLING Elia, Humo del Tabaco en el Ambiente, Grupo de Trabajo, Universidad de Ginebra, Suiza, 1983. "Los datos disponibles no permiten concluir que los aumentos registrados en los sfntomas de la Enfermedad en Ambientes Cerrados est6n asociados con el h6bito de fumar. Los niveles de polucifin en los edificios sin res- tricciones al fumar no son mayores que los que se registran en edificios con restricciones o en edificios que no fueron estudiados por reclamos de enfermedad. En otras palabras; ni los niveles de polucibn ni las carac- terTsticas de los sintomas difieren entre los edificios que tienen res- tricciones al fumar y los que no las tienen." RYLANDER R., PETERSON Y., SNELLA M.C., Humo del Tabaco en el Ambiente, Grupo de Trabajo, Universidad de Ginebra, Suiza, 1983. Cap(tulo 5. Perpectivas del grupo de trabajo. Ragnar Rylander. (p. 143) "...En virtud de la inseguridad respecto a la exposicibn al humo del ta- TIMN 289544
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187 baco en el ambiente en la poblaci6n general, no pueden realizarse c61- culos sobre la presencia de enfermedades tales como c6ncer de puim6n en la poblaci6n no fumadora debido a la exposici6n al humo del tabaco en el ambiente haciendo referencia a los datos aportados por estudios epi- demiol6gicos.sobre la asociaci6n entre el fumar y el c3ncer de pulm6n." "En los estudios epidemiol6gicos sobre'c6ncer de pulm6n entre grupos de personas, la exposici6n al humo del tabaco en el ambiente fue caracteri- zada por los h6bitos de fumar de los esposos. Algunos estudios presenta- ron datos que sugieren un aumento del riesgo de contraer c6ncer de pul- m6n que est6 relacionado con la dosis y que es dos veces mayor entre no fumadores expuestos al humo del tabaco en el ambiente. Otros estudios han demostrado una tendencia no significativa y no relacionada con la dosis, en tanto un estudio demostr6 un riesgo menor. Una evaluaci6n ge- neral basada en los datos cientfficos disponibles lleva a la conclusi6n de que no se ha establecido la existencia de un riesgo mayor para los no fumadores por la exposici6n al humo del tabaco en el ambiente. Los futu- ros estudios deberfan incorporaruna descripci6n m6s precisa de la expo- sici6n al humo del tabaco en el ambiente en distintos grupos de la po- blaci6n general de no fumadores." "Respecto a los posibles efectos en ninos, actualmente hay m6s informa- ci6n disponible que en la reuni6n anterior. Se presentaron datos de ex- perimentos con animales que evaluaron los modelos para diferentes reac- ciones y de estudios de campo. Los resultados aun son contradictorios. No se dio una descripci6n adecuada de los niveles de dosis del humo del tabaco en el ambiente en una poblaci6n de ninos. Actualmente existen nue- niveles de dosis segun se inform6 durante la vas tecnicas para medir los " reuni6n y deberfan aplicarse en futuros estudios. Preferentemente, estos deberfan ser estudios prospectivos con un criterio bien definido respecto a la exposici6n y sus efectos." "Se ha confirmado una vez m6s la irrelevancia del mon6xido de carbono (CO). En este aspecto se coincidi6 con el descubrimiento de la reuni6n anterior de que el CO del humo del tabaco en el ambiente no es importante desde el punto de vista sanitario." TI1ViN 289545
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188 "La evidencia disponible demuestra que los posibles efectos del humo del tabaco en el ambiente sobre la salud no son significativos en comparaci6n con la multitud de problemas sanitarios que enfrenta la sociedad global- mente." HICKEY Richard J.,'Dr., Investigador Senior, Departamento de Estadfsticas, Escuela Wharton, Universidad de Pennsylvania, Filadelfia. "Una critica basica de las dos leyes propuestas es la suposici6n implf- cita de que los 'descubrimientos' usados para justificar las leyendas y las acciones propuestas son conocidos y han sido probados. Sin embargo, existen serias dudas sobre las bases cientfficas de las demandas de que el fumar cigarrillos causa las distintas condiciones estadfsticamente asociadas con el fumar, tales como cancer de pulm6n, enfermedades del coraz6n y poco peso al nacer." "A esta situaci6n, de por sf riesgosa, se suman otros datos que informan que el con- sumo de tabaco en el 6rea de los pafses pe- rif6ricos, a los cuales pertenece'la Argen- tina, est6 en constante aumento. En' nuestro 6s de cuatro mil adolescen- medio, cada dfa m tes pasan a engrosar la lista de los fumado- res. Estos nuevos consumidores aumentan la cifra aproximada de nueve millones de fuma- dores activos." En el parrafo anterior se hace mencion a cifras sobre la cantidad total de consumidores de cigarrillos y el ingreso diario de nuevos fumadores en nuestro pals. Errores de informacion de este tipo demuestran la endeble base con la que fundamenta un proyecto de ley de argumentos que conside- ramos mas emocionales que cientificos. Investigaciones desarrolladas por la industria a traves de sus areas es- pecializadas e instituciones de investigacion independientes estiman que. en lugar de los 9.000.000 de consumidores mencionados por el Dip.Maglie- tti, en nuestro pals el n6mero de fumadores asciende a 6.700.000; por o- tra parte. no son 4.000 los nuevos fumadores diarios sino aproximadamen- te 300.- TIMN 289546
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189 CONCLUSION .Lo que se ha expuesto y mostrado Ileva a concluir que en muchbs casos las opiniones ampliamente divulgadas sobre el efecto nocivo del h6bito de fumar se basan en interpretaciones prejuiciosas de estudios parcia- les. Por otra parte, ia insistencia de inculpar a un factor Gnico, vio- lenta y transgrede las bases mismas de la epidemiologfa. La generalizaci6n a toda la comunidad humana de las patologtas que solo experimenta una minorla de personas especialmente susceptibles, carece de valor por cuanto.son muchas las substancias (incluso alimentos) que no son toleradas por algunos.individuos sin que implique la necesidad .. de que sean prohibidas o limitadas a] resto de la poblaci6n. Los autores de informes tales como el Cirujano General de Estados Unidos, seleccionaron evidencia favorable para revisar e ignoraron los resultados de estudios contrarios a sus conclusiones. Se encontraron errores b6sicos en la me,todologia de estudios epidemiol6- gicos importantes que ponen en duda la precisi6n de las correlaciones entre el h6bito,de fumar y diversas enfermedades. Estudios recientes demostraron que hay otros factores que pueden jugar un papel importante en los mecanismos del c6ncer de pu,,lmo'n, enfermedades del coraz6n, enfisema y trastornos perinatales. Se necesita continuar investigando para conocer las causas reales de esas enfermedades. Si los gobiernos resolvieran la controversia m6dica en torno a] h6bito de fumar por medio de leyes, la causa de la ciencia y el avance del conoci- miento cientifico se verTan seriamente danados.
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190 PRESENTATIONS ~ : TO . ., N NATIONAL DELEGATES TO FAO AND OTHER UN AGENCIES Antonietta CORTI Director of Information Services INFOTAB
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191 AN ACTION PROGRAMME WITH ALLIES INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL COMBINED Antonietta Corti I should like to share with you an experience that we are carrying through on the international level. It is an action programme with delegates to FAO and other UN agencies, which subsequently was and still is combined with action on the national level. It has been running for four years now and was designed to: . Properly brief the national delegates to FAO on tobacco's beneficial impact on their countries' economy. . Demonstrate to them significant common interests in the tobacco area. Convince them that they have nothing to loose and all to gain by taking on a positive stance on tobacco issues at UN meetings or, at least, a neutral one. It all started in 1980, when the Director'General of the World Health Organisation stated at the World He alth Assembly that: "collaboration has been established with FAO to study the possibility of crop diversification in tobacco growing areas." The Infotab Board decided that i t was tim e for the industry to make sure that delegates to WHO of tobacco growing countries properly understood the interests they are- sharing with the industry and what was at stake if organisations like WHO began attacking tobacco. TIMN 289550
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192 Tactically, it was considered preferable to make a first move at Rome with delegates to the Food and Agriculture Organisation, who would necessarily be more sensitive to industry argumentation. With a little experience sought in these circles, it might be easier to find the right approach to representatives in Geneva. We were lucky in as far as our consultant had access to some Rome delegates through his own contacts. As a first step he took the newly published EIU study to informally introduce the matter to Rome. Once this preliminary step was taken, two of our member companies, Philip Morris and BAT agreed to set up a joint initiative. They both commissioned research, the main theme of which was the importance of agriculture and the role of the small farmer. In May 1983, a joint presentation was organised in Rome. Centrepiece was a speech on this theme by Orville Freeman, former US Agriculture Minister and Chairman of Business International. Featured also was back-up research sponsored by the companies: country -studies by Business International (Philip Morris), and a study on "The Role of Tobacco and Cash Crops in Rural Development in Low Incorrie Countries", by the Department of Agricultural Economics and Management at Reading University (BAT).
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193 Participants at this meeting came from: Argentina Bangladesh Cameroon Ghana Greece Guatemala India Indonesia Kenya Korea Malawi Malaysia Mexico Nigeria Philippines Tanzania Thailand Turkey Zambia Interest was so great that it was decided to make follow-up presentations in Rome, immediately prior ' to the FAO Conference. The difference .thpugh in theme would be that, whereas at this first meeting the approach had been general - the importance of cash crops generally to the small farmer (and tobacco . emerging naturally in a pre-eminent position) - this time the focus would be directly on tobacco. So just five months later, in the week of October 24, 1983 presentations were made to a selected group of permanent representatives in Rome. The delegates attending came from 11 countries: Argentina Cameroon Guatemala Indonesia India Malaysia r Mexico Philippines Tanzania Turkey Zambia TIMN 289552
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194 Four further countries had accepted, but were unable to come at the last minute: Brazil South Korea Ghana Thailand The presentations were part narrative, part slides and were in 5 sections. They included: 1. An introduction: reminder from the Orville Freeman speech and from the Reading University study. 2. Data on the benefits of tobacco production: employment, foreign exchange, domestic earnings and social categories. Examples were quoted from each of the main world tobacco producing countries and extensive use was made of the 1982 FA0 study: the Economic Significance of Tobacco. 3. A review of the governmental and non-governmental organizations, whose objectives are to destroy the, agricultural sector associated with tobacco, and a report on the methods employed by these organizations. 4. A short summary of the (then) still recent Winnipeg World Conference on Smoking and Health. 5. Our belief that the industry and producing countries have significant common interests that should be defended. And we ended with the question: what further steps should we now take, and what further contacts should we make? It was generally agreed that the presentations went extremely well and were very well received. And they had provoked a great deal of discussion. ; TIM:N 28 9 5.153
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195 The main outcome was: (1) The participants were most enthusiastic that similar presentations, tailored to the national situation and needs, should be made to their Ministers at the I , •,o-!;14P forthcoming FAO Conference in Rome. Additional governmental or quasi-governmental contacts •. were also suggested. (2) Most approved of the industry stating its case. A minority felt that the Ministers would defend tobacco in open international debate, but the majority view was, at this stage, that they would prefer to take a low profile on smoking and health issues. (3) The industry team were very surprised that a number of country representatives were not aware of certain basic publications and documents - such as the EIU studies and even, in one case, of the FAO's own Economic Significance Study. This situation was quickly righted! It was considered that the three main objectives were achieved, namely to convince the audience that: (1) common interests with the industry do exist; (2) developments must be clo•sely monitored; (3) a programme of periodic mutual briefings and shed. discussions should be establi The first stage of the operation could thus be considered a success. TIllPj 2,s9.554
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196 As a consequence of the suggestions, our consultant was back in Rome just two weeks later, during the FAO Conference to: follow up the presentations made to Permanent Representatives in October; contact the Ministers of Agriculture who were attending rnce to the FAO Confe te11them of the programmes carried out so far in Rome and the objectives of them; propose to them to make the presentations to them and their colleagues at their respective Ministries. Such contact was made with the Ministers of Agriculture of: Argentina South Korea Columbia Tanzania Indonesia Turkey Malaysia Zimbabwe Zambia All showed considerable interest and aske,, fo d,,,, r.p•resentations to be made to them in their own countries. At this stage, the project was presented at the INFOTAB internat ional and regional workshops. As a next step, presentations were made to the Minister of Agriculture in Indonesia, Zambia and Tanzania. The response ,was extremely positive. In November 1984, our Consultant went to Rome again to maintain the already established contacts and to make new ones, particularly with replacements of people who had moved on. (Two of those transferred are now in high '"level positions in ,. . their home countries). s TIMN 289555
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197 Visits were made to Representatives of: Argentina Indonesia Brazil Malaysia Cameroon Mexico Greece Turkey Tanzania For Argentina our consultant met the Ambassador who introduced him to the man in charge of tobacco in Argentina. He was very interested in the presentation and was willing to arrange for a presentation to be made to his colleague back home. He stressed that his interest was based on the important contribution tobacco makes to foreign currency and tax income, as well as the benefits to small farmers. The former Alternate Permanent Representative, whom our consultant also met, suggested a presentation be made to the Argentine Agricultural Attache in Brussels. For Brazil, the Alternate Permanent Representative expressed great interest in the documentation handed over to him and offered to introduce our consultant to the new Ambassador who was to arrive in Rome in December. As to Mexico, the Delegate to the Council, Minister and Permanent Representative to FAO suggested that a presentation be made to his colleague in Mexico. As I said in the beginning, one of the basic objectives of the original idea of properly briefing "the international bureaucrats" was that in the "one country one vote situation" the industry had all to gain and nothing to lose by ensuring that, when tobacco topics came to the vote in international gatherings, those we had contacted took a positive stance, or at least a neutral one, so that things would not go through "on the nod" for lack of proper awareness. TIMN 289556
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198 Since the approaches made to the FAO and to the Ministers of Agriculture had produced very positive results, it was decided to extend the programme to the country missions and their Ambassadors to the United Nations, in Geneva. Again, our consultant prepared the ground. He met the ambassadors of a selected number of developing countries accredited to the United Nations in Geneva. A preparatory call paid on the Philippines' Ambassador found him very receptive. He said he was very interested in a presentation and that he would like to invite his colleagues from Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. So far he has not been able to arrange a suitable date. Of all the presentations, the one to the Mexican Ambassador and staff was perhaps the most successful. The Ambassador strongly objects to the restrictions placed upon his smoking in public places and within the. UN Organization. As such, he was entirely sympathetic to the tobacco industry and the team had a ..... . very good and courteous reception. Dur'ng i this latest stage of this continuing progamme, the FAO in Rome has not been neglected, and in mid-June the Permanent Representative s and Ambassadors to the FAO were revisited, several of whom had been contacted as part of the original BAT-Philip Morris initiative. Our consultant took with him 'a rebuttal to the "WHO" article in CERES (September-October, 1984) entitled "Tobacco Economics Decried as Sham by Medical Experts", which was also sent to all NMAs and Lead Companies. He took several articles on the successes of afforestation by BAT in Kenya (it should be recalled that 1985 has been devoted to the world's forests). TIMN 289557
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199 This visit was timed to coincide with the Fourth Plenary Meeting of the FAO Council on June 18, 1985, thus maximizing the number of important contacts in the shortest possible time. The visits were very successful. This exercise shows or confirms a numb er of points: people in influential circles are not always as well informed as one would expect them to be (FAO delegates were not aware of FAO's paper "Economic Significance of Tobacco"); when approached with well-documented data and information, these people are generally willing to listen and are often .. .. looking for arguments which coincide with our own case; the industry is considered to be too timid and silent, and is encouraged to talk up; "critical mass is critical"; it is essential to create awareness; but once expectations are raised, they need to be satisifed with proper follow up. In this case, it means that, on both the national and international level, we need to maintain the momentum and provide these contacts with useful inform ation and, in the case of highly-motivated people, tae need to supply some proposals for a joint action to defend common interests. Let's discuss what we can jointly do to keep the momentum up. TIMN 289558
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TII'VLN 239559
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200 DISCUSSION GROUPS DAY 2 WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS, IN POLICY AND PRACTICAL TERMS, FOR FORMING OR STRENGTHENING AN NMA? Group I Mr. Mr. L. C. BATRES (Leader) JARDIM Mr. Dr. MR. K.H.L. LIGHT F. MORENO P.J. ROMBAUT Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. F. R. B. J. ROSA SEPULVEDA SIMPSON VIVES PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR THE COMING TWO YEARS (TARGET GROUPS, MESSAGE, ALLIES). Group II Mr. P. IHNEN (Leader) Dr. L. ALVEAR VERGARA Mr. J. BASSO DASTUGUE Mr. E. CORDERO Mr. H. CORNEJO Mr. R.L.O. ELY Mr. J. FERNANDEZ Mr. G. GONIBZ Mr. J.D. QUIROZ Mr. E. RODRIGUEZ Group III Mr. J. UGARTE (Leader) Mr. R. DREW-BEAR Mr. J. DYSON Ms. A. GONZALEZ Mr. A. MARCONI Mr. R.J. MARCOTULLIO Mr. G. MEIRELLES FREIRE Mr. R. SKOWRONSKI Mr. A.G. STOUTE Mr. A.L. WALKER
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201 Discussion Groups - Day 2 Discussion Group I - What are the requirements in policy and practical terms for forming or strengthening an NMA? We began by looking at the benefits to be derived from forming an NMA and came up with these findings. First we should have a centralization of information regarding the industry. Second, with the consolidation of efforts, legwork to be done by individual companies will be centralized by the NMA. Third, and most important would be a unified front on the problems that do affect the industry. Then we discussed how the membership should be looked at. Members should obviously be industry related and, in some cases, the inclusion of exporters is possible - which is the _... ,.tcase in our country. Representatives on the board of inember companies have control over policy making and decisions. Areas of actions to be undertaken would be on legislation regarding smoking issues, advertising; restrictions, taxation and all relevant information to be issued to journalists. Then we looked at what the profile of the head of the NMA should be. We discussed the prerogatives of the function and we found that we would prefer to find somebody with related background, a good communicator with a good commercial background. This should endow him with a capacity to develop TIMN 289561
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202 Group I (cont' d) good working contacts with journalists, industry as a whole, legislators and other opinion formers. When we looked at how to go about to strengthen an NMA, we found that obviously effectiveness is one of the ways. The capacity to cope w th the problems facing the industry is one .. i ... .. of the ways, and additional developments of the NMA could involve the inclusion of consulting bodies such as a PR specialist to develop specific areas of a ction.
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203 Day 2 Grou II - Priority actions for the coming two years (target groups, messages, allies) Our group really has defined two different scenarios of where this battle of smoking issues is going to be fought. One is on the economic and political front and the other one is on the medical and scientific front. Taking into account the first one, the economic and political front, we can see that it is necessary, as a first step, to identify targets, we mean to target special groups and also identify and develop the allied groups. We , can see as a very useful tool the image research for identification of these kinds of groups. Sometimes, this kind of research provides unexpected results. For example, in our company this year, we are finalizing an image research. We analyzed the means to communicate with our own personnel and asked about subjects they were interested in. The response was that, in future, they needed to know either through a house organ or a newsletter, the history of the industry in the first place and the history of tobacco in the second. With reference to the medical and scientific front, we identified as main tasks the preparation of--material and the finding of a doctor or a group of doctors who can discuss smoking issues with colleagues on a scientific level. A third point that we consider important in order to achieve the
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204 Group II (cont'd) objectives within both scenarios is to develop very close relations with the press, other media and journalists. Especially with the latter, as they really make decisions about subjects to be published, or not, in the press. Our group, on the other hand, stressed that the department responsible for smoking issues should maintain close contacts with mass media, and when possible sign a contract for advertising in such a way that we establish a direct link between persons who decide about the publication of articles on s r this objective within smoking and the P P eo le rePonsible fo .. . . the company. TIMN 289564
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205 Day 2 Discussion Group III - Priority actions for the coming Two years (target groups, messages, allies) Our group did more or less what the other group did, except t at we,spent a little more time discussi ng some other areas. , .. . We spent some time discussing the medical associations. We thought that what we needed in Latin America was a lot more scientists to come and talk to some of our medical associations in a practical way. We also discussed the subject of sponsorship. We thought there was a lot to do in that area, especially in some of the countries which have no TV or radio bans; that would be a good way to start picking up allies. Then we went into two areas which we thought were important. You should have an NMA. You should have cle ar concise objectives, approved by top management and get on with the job. The ones that have NMAs thought they should improve their credibility in as much as they were in the business for a couple of years and they should be more credible, especially in the circles I will now mention because if you go into the target groups - there are quite a few of them. There is the tobacco growers' association, the advertising agencies, the wholesalers, the retailers, the transportation companies, the radio, the TV, the press, the suppliers, the government bodies: ministries, senators, central government, municipalities. You can keep on. going and you cannot handle them all at the same kn
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206 Group III (cont'd) time, which of course points to the fact that you have to have a body, an NMA or whatever you want to call it, to work on these target groups, to set up a profile of your opponents, know who they are, so that you can tackle your main objectives on a one-to-one basis and not go off on a generalized basis as . . most of our countries are doing now. But the real emphasis in our the issues. We thought that group was on the medical aspect of tant that we could get it was impor the medical message across through medical associations, federations, etc. 289566
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207 OVERVIEWS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
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208 C O S T A R I C A T'IIaIh]'289568
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209 I INTRODUCTION The tobacco industry in Costa Rica faces a permanent threat in the form of governmental intervention, This encumbrance can be summarized in the following four issues: Interference with cigarette manufacturing companies. 2. Advertising restrictions. 3. Anti-smoking carnpaign, 4. Proposed legislation on cigarette and alcoholic beverages advertising ban for TV and radio stations. IIMN 289569
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210 1. I fVTERFEREfdCE W I TH C I GARETTE MAiVUFACTUR I PdG COP1PAfV I ES . In the past, the government has, and continues to attempt Anterfering with these companies. This meddling is obvious in such actions as demanding restricted and confidential corporate data; determining leaf prices to be paid to tobacco growers; proposing such extremist legislation that would turn over the manufacturers' shareholdings to cooperative groups. In 1956 a bill was passed by Congress and signed into Law 2072, known as the "law to regulate relations between the manufacturing companies and the leaf growers", having as its primary objective to provide a suitable structure that would serve as mediator of the economic interests of both parties and benefit national leaf production, To fulfil its purpose, Law 2072 created a regulatory body, the Junta de Defensa del Tabaco (Tobacco Defense Board), which functions as liaison/referee/administrator in all matters involving leaf growers and manufacturers, It has served the Costa Rican tobacco industry quite satisfactorily throughout the 29 years of its existence, Among its functions: recommend sale price of the diverse types and grades of leaf tobacco during each crop; determine annual tobacco production quotas; participate in assignment of contracts to insure equal distribution is granted by the manufacturing companies; foster harmony and rapport between producers and manufacturers; provides technical assistance to leaf farmers and many other tasks, Government officials and politicians have often proposed amendments to this law, introducing changes which would TIIVfP T 289570
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211 grant the government sufficient leverage to interfere and directly control management of the cigarette manufacturing companies. The most recent amendment seeking such changes was introduced in 1983, Its target was to replace the Tobacco Defense Board with a new government agency, the "TOBACCO OFFICE", backed by sufficient financial means that would allow it to purchase the tobacco industry shares at their nominal value. It also sought to empower the Office so that, using its own criteria, it would select among the leaf growers which ones would be allowed to sell their crops to the industry, and, finally, that tobacco exports' net profits should be distributed as follows: Tobacco Office 250 Producers 25% Expo rte rs 50 0 The industry and I"dCOTAB (the Costa Rican NMA) strongly opposed this bill and were successful in having Congress reject it during the late 1984 sessions, However, this project is far from total defeat -- just dormant at this time. There are many who would like to see it reintroduced and this is highly probable to happen when 'the new administration takes over in May 1986, 2, ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS A bill was introduced in Congress to modify the Consumer Pro- tection Law under study and during the course of the debates several congress.men proposed motions modifying two articles T 289571
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212 which would prohibit the advertising of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. These proposals were later changed granting the Ministry of Health authority to prohibit advertising of those products which, by its regulations, would be harmful to one's health. Faced by these serious threats, the industry and INCOTAB, through different ways of lobbying, were successful in achieving the elimination of any reference to advertising in the bill, This bill modifying the Consumer Protection Law project completed the two years of legislative procedures without a resulting resolution or action and wqs thus 'filed away'. However, there is evidence that this project will be re- introduced during the current legislature's sessions. 3, AIN1TI-SMOKING CAMPAIGN The Costa Rican Social Security Board (C.C.S,S.) maintains an ongoing program against smoking on the national TV network during which speculations are made on the effects of smoking on health. No action has been taken by INCOTAB regarding this campaign, 4. PROPOSED LEGISLATION ON`CIGARETTE AND ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES ADVERTISING BAN FOR RADIO AND TV STATIONS. There is a bill pending which would impose restrictive measures on the activities of TV and radio stations. Some legislators have clearly stated their intentions of availing theimselves of the convenient existence of this bill to establish limitations or even prohibitions of cigarette and alcoholic beverages' ad- vertising. TIMN 289572
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213 At the oportune time, INCOTAB should initiate intense lobbying and encourage the advertising agencies, publi- city services and the communications media to participate in an aggressive campaign to defeat the restraining ob- jectives of these legislators. 17-7-35 TIMN 289573 ry ih
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214 - H O N D U R A S 4 ~ TIMN 289574
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215 HONDURAS Situation Upcoming free constitutional presidential election in November 1985. It is expected that the party already in power will continue to rule. There have been some publications in a newspaper urging people to submit opinions pledging for governmental approval for •creating Honduran Institute for prevention of alcoholism and drug abuse, and the law that will regulate it. We consider that it will affect the tobacco industry as well. Objective Continue to keep low profile. Complying with self-imposed regulations in advertising. Activity Continue to contribute in specific community activities to enhance our social responsibility policy. Invitation to the four leading newspaper representatives in the country to tour the factory and enjoy a buffet lunch. Collaboration with public health authorities in the national vaccination campaign against polio. For several years now we have continued to help the public security force through its traffic authorities, by placing warning signs for drivers along the main roads nationwide before the summer season begins. TIMN 289575
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216 Target Groups Media circles, media, opinion leaders, government officials. Involvement of Third Parties None Results Very few anti-smoking activities. Further action planned Involvement with the now rising ecological groups. Continue to conduct company image opinion polls and smoking and health research activities. 00000
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217 J A M A I C A rV,ININ '239577
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218 REPORT ON DEVELOPMENTS OF SMOKI:NG : :.: . .IS'SUES'.ZN :J'AXATCA . . . . . . Since :givzng our report to the Latin American Workshop on Smoking Issues in Miami last year, there have been no dramatic change nor development of smoking issues in Jamaica. At that Workshop, I did report the intxoduct.ioa )ax.two life insurance companies of reduced premiums to custotttexs.who were determined by these companies to be.'no.n-smokers',-and their definition included individuals who had not smoked cigarettes for a minimum of one year , and also pipe and cigar smokers were not in their definition classified as smokers. During the past year, the two insurance companies inn question, Life of Jamaica Limited (LOJ) and American Life Insurance Company Limited (ALICO) have featured the 'non-smokers reduced premium' concept in a limited number of press advertisements, approximately six for the entire year. There has been no government legislation enacted to date regu9,ating the tobacco industry in-any form. The representative of the Ministry of Health in Jamaica Dr. Carmen Bowen-Wright who was somewhat vocal against the industry during last year, has been, in comparison,.very silent this year so far. There has been no,ma3or increase in, in public buildings, transportation by and large, 'No Smoking' areas or one relative to the risk of fire. 'No Smoking' requirements and similar places, and designations still remain The industry, similar to last year April, is once again the target for increased government revenue, and on April 2, 1985 the price of a 20s pack of cigarettes was increased from J$4.00 to J$5.50 per pack (note one US$ = J$5.58 at present rate of exchange). This recent increase has resulted in a further erosion of market volumes, and we anticipate a--overalll decline of between 10 to 12 percent in the industry. ,yIlyiN 289578
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219 , As evident, by the high percentage of the last price increase, the industry was unsuccessful in its lobby to government to be realistic in the quantum of revenue intake from.the industry. However, we will once again be pursuing a vigorous lobby in this area. Advertising restrictions that were implemented by the industry are still in effect, namely, a limited size advertisement in the press and no audio-visual advertisements at cinemas and on television.:,..Outdoor and radio - no limits. However, the Company did launch two new brands of cigarettes on the Jamaican market on November 8, 1984. One of these brands being the first Extra Mild cigarette to be introduced. During the period of that launch, we utilised.television advertising for a four- week period, and cinema advertising for a fourteen-week period. The reaction to these by the anti-smoking factions was NIL. However, there were a few negative responses from the public by way of Letters to the Editor of our newspapers and on some of our call-in radio programmes. In the area of sponsorship, the status quo remains, and we have in fact continued our programme of.sponsorship in our association with sporting activities. TIMN 289579
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220 M E X I C O ; TIMN 289580
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221 MEXICO Public General Law (June, 1984) The new law's section dealing with smoking and health is drafted in very loose terms, thus leaving a great deal of discretion to the officials interpreting it. These interpretations have up to now been favourable but this could change. The advertising restrictions contained in the law are also very ample. The regulations giving details of these restrictions have not yet been approved. The main restrictions are: (a) Information will be limited to characteristics, quality, and manufacturing techniques. : (b) Smoking products may not be presented as necessary for pleasure health or be associated with civic or religious celebrations. (c) The product will not be associated with ideas or images of success in the effective life or sexuality of the persons or with prestige, masculinity or feminity. TIMN 289581
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22? (d) The product will not be associated with creative, sporting, home or work activities, nor employ imperatives that lead to its consumption. (e)• images or sound of participation of adolescents or children cannot be included, nor addressed to them. (f) The communication may not include smoking scenes. The restrictions of the schedule on T.V. for cigarette advertising is still only after 9:00 pm. Towards the end of 1984 on the project of regulation of the public health law, officials of the health's department, tried t. to force the industry to place in all the new T.V., radio and printed media advertising, the following warning: 'This product can be harmful to health' The industry through the advertising agencies association and other media, managed to have this applied only to printed media. Nevertheless, it will. not be until the final regulations are issued.e that the real known. Smoking and Health Study restrictions are fully At the end of 1984 a market •,research based on the smoking and health was carried out. In general, the results obtained in this study are very similar to previous ones. The high awareness that smoking is harmful to health is maintained. Nicotine is still the most harmful substance, but there is an increase of mention of tar, chemical products and carbon-monoxide as well as other harmful'-substances in the cigarettes. TIMN 289582
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223 Development of Low Delivery Brands In spite of the above mentioned, the tendency of low delivery brands is still showing a slight downward tendency, presently representing 4% of the total market. This seems to demonstrate that despite the high awareness of the health hazard the consumer has not radically modified his habits. TIMN 289583
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224 T R I N I D A D A N D T O B A G O TIMN 289584
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225 , SUMMARY OF ISSUES - TRIVIDAD & TOBAGO 1 Our S&H research reveals that the awareness of the S&H issues is high, increasing and the public has an un- balanced impression of the issues involved. Most of t he awareness is through the publication of foreign releases in the press and documentary films from overseas. T he overall incidence of smoking is declining and the main reasons given for quitting is health and economic conditions. 2 T he Cancer Society is well organized and, we understand, is actively soliciting funds to launc h an aggressive ~.ri th the Tn$7 n ?mn haG i s he inc7 placed on discouraging young adults from taking up the habit. 3 Owing to the size of the Country, respected third parties are reluctant to speak or write publicly on the controversy of S&H issues. 4 T he Government Bureau of Standards is the regulatory body for determining and implementing legislation and controls for advertising and labelling of tobacco pro- ducts. Attached is a copy of the finalized standard for advertising. One for labelling is being prepared but this has low priority in the Bureau's work programme. 5 T he Ministry of Health and the Medical Association have so far adopted a-low profile on the S&f1 issues. 6 T he Company will continue to develop its reputation bot h to official bodies and the public in general as being responsible and concerned on S&H issues, whilst at the same time defending its right to pursue its iea-iti.mate interest as a viable and progressive industry 7 To use Factory Tours as' a communication base to inform influential groups of the issues involved and action being taken by t he Company. 8 To continue to publish articles on the S&H issues in t he Company's House Magazine, and to arrange for publi- cation of balanced articles in the daily press. 9 To continue to work closely with the Bureau of Standards and to achieve as much as possible through voluntary controls. ° TIMN 289585
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226 e n TI'S 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 1 , 0.1 These requirements were declared a Trinidad and Tobago Standard kvwth effect from 15 June, 1984 when the draft finalised by the Sectional Cornnittee on Labelling, Advertising, and Conditions of Sale was approved by the Standards Council. 0.2 This standard was prepared to reflect changing public 'attitudes towards smoking and to provide a basis for self- regulation of cigarette advertisements by the advertising industry. If self-:egulation is not effective, the Bureau will recorm)end ihat this standard become compuisory. 0.3 It provides for the inclusion in advertisements of a warning notice on the hazards of using cigarettes. 0.4 There is no intent in this standard to hamper advertisers in corrpeting for the attention of adult users of tobacco. Advertisements may continue: (a) to indicate so far as is truthful that cigarettes are enjoyed by people of many kinds; (b) to seek to persuade existing users of cigarettes and tobacco to change their brand or not to do so; and (c) in pursuit*of these objectives to enploy all such techniques of artistic presentation as are used by advertisers of other types of product or service and which are consistent with the spirit and the letter of the Trinidad and Tobago Code of Advert- ising Practice.* 0.5 rn preParinP this standard sissistance was derived from the following: (a) The British Advertising Code of Practice 79-04 Appendix H - Advertising of Cigarettes and the Conponents of Manufactured Cigarettes and of Hand-Rolling Tobacco; * Trinidad and Tobago Code of Advertising Practice, 1979 - Advertising Standards Authority TIMN 289586
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227 TTS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 2 (b) U K Independent-Broadcasting Authority Act, 1973 = Code of•Advertising Standards and Practice; (c) U K Tobacco Advisory Comnittee Labelling Code - Labelling of Cigarette Packs and related Advertisements; and (d) Advertising Standards Authority 'Irinidad and Tobago - General Giidelines-for Advertising - 1979. 1.0 9CbFE 1.1' This standard prescribes the c+ording of a tvarning notice and its presentation to eonsumers In advertisements for cigarettes on television, radio, press, posters and other 1.2 rre,dia of comrunication. It also covers the requirements for the advertising of other tobacco products. 1.3 Certain types of prorrotional msterial and advertisements 2.0 are excluded ( See 3.7 ). EEF IN ITICNS 2.1 For the purpose of this standard the following definitions apply: 2.1.1 Advertiseinents include any representation by any means whatever for the purpose of promoting the sale, disposal or use~of any goods, service, process or practice, and any notice or announcement concerning events, offers of employ- nmnt and L.ffnrc to b4yfii'y' goou3, s<s.rvlca'-., jiroC3ss or practice. • 2.1.2 Advertiser means a person who corrmissions,buys ors pays for an advertisement to be published. 2.1'.3 Advertising Agency includes a business preparing advert- isements as professional service. 2.1.4 Adult means a person over eighteeen years of age. 2.1.5 Cigarettes' mean cut tobacco in paper tubes, rolled by ms,chine or by hand, with or without other ingredients or additives, tips, or filters,.and includes the coaponents, ingredients and tobacco sold for rolling by hand. 2.1.6 Educational Programnes mean formal courses of study, instruction or training. ~
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.228 TTS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 3 2.1.7 Nicotine Average means the nicotine average assigned to a brand of.cigarettes in accordance with Appendix D. 2.1.8 Posters Include bills or placards intended to be posted in a public place. 2.1.9 Promotional Content means that type of information v.hich Is intended for the active pronntion of sale of inerchan- dise through advertising or other publicity. 2.1.10 Publications mean printed cormunications for distribution .to the general public. 2.1.11 Tar Group means the tar group assigned to a brand of cig- arettes in accordance with Appendix D. 2.1.12 Tobacco Products include loose tobacco, chewing tobacco, cigars, snuff and products not intended to be used for snnking, but exclude cigarettes as defined In 2.1.5. 2.1.13 Trade Literature means pri•nted material intended for, and limited in distribution to persons in business, trade, industry, science, or the professions, and not intended for the general public. 2.1.14 Warning Area means the area in a printed, painted, or visual advertisement.in which the warning notice Is to be placed. 3.0 F{IIQ4EREMaI5 3.1 General Requirements - Advertisements for cigarettes and for tobacco products shall comply with the requirements of TTS 21 20 500 Part.1-1977* and the requirementa of this Standard. 3.1.1 Advertisements for cigarettes shall Incorporate 'warning notice in the following mrds= ftYarning: The Minister of Health advises that Smok,ing can be DEkngerous to Health." 3.1.2 'The.c+arning notice shall be placed in the xnrning prescribed for the appropriate advertising medium. * Requirements for Advertising - General area . , , ; TIMN 289588
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229 TTS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 4 3.1.3 The warning area shall be framed or separated to avoid confusion with the rest of the advertisement. 3.1.4 Statements-on the tar group or nicotine average applicable to the brand of cigarettes advertised may be included In the vurning.area. 3.2 Zelevision and Cineme. A+dvertisemt:nts -'Ihere shall be a definite distinction between the prograrrme and the advert- isetnunt. The, advert-iscment shall be clearly distinguish- able as such, and recogni.zably separate frocn the pro- gramne. 3.2.1 Advertisenents for cigarettes or tobacco products nmy be included In cinecro shows of films rated or certified for exhibition only to adults. 3.2.2 No advertisements for cigarettes or tobacco products shall be Included in cinerra shows of films rated or certified for exhibition to general audiences, or to audiences including children or young persons under eighteen years of age. 3.2.3 Television advertising time for cigarettes shall not exceed six minutes per hour, averaged over the day's progra=es, wi.th a maximun of seven minutes in any single period of sixty minutes. - 3.2.4 There shall be no advertising of cigarettes or tobacco products in progranme breaks during the following: (a) children's prograrrmes and progranmes for schools; (b) religious services and devotional progranmes; (c) educational programres; (d) current affairs and aoeumentary programnes xfiieh are shown during hours designated for children's programning; or •(e) parliamentary broadcasts or any formal government broadcasts. 3.2.5 The mrning notice specified in 3.1.1 shall be clearly legible and displayed continuously for a period of at least four seconds at the end of an advertisesr-ent for cig- arettes on television or in cinemea shows. 11 ° r`:~~'.~_T9T 2 89 ~89
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230 e TTS 21 2,0 500 Part 3 Page 5 3.2.6 The final two seconds of the presentation of the varning notice and the advertisement shall be static ( that is, no movements shall be shown ) and no additibnal-pietorial or written rratter shall,be presented in that time: 3.2.7 The warning area shall occupy at least twenty per cent of the area of the television or cinem.a- screen and shall be placed in the upper part of the lowest third of the screen ( see Appendix A ).- 3.2.8 It is recomnended that the warning notice be presented in one-of the type-faces y;elior Bold Condensed Capitals, hSelior Bold Condensed upper case and lower case, Gill Bold 'upper case and lower case, or any similar type face of corrparable clarity ( see Appendix A ). 3.2.9 Statements on tar group or nicotine average, If included in the advertisement, shall be in the same type-face and size of letters as the warning notice, and shall be placed below the warning notice In the warning area ( See Appen- dix. A ). 3.3 Radio Advertisements - There shall be a definite distinc- tion between the program-ne and the advertisemen"t. The ad- vertisement shall be clearly distinguishable as such and recognizably separate from the programne. 3.3.1 Radio advertising time for cigarettes shall not exceed nine minutes in any period of sixty minutes. 3.3.2 There shall be no advertising df cigarettes or tobacco products in programne breaks during the following: (a) children's programres and programnes for schools; (b) religious services and devotional programnes; (c) educational prograrrrres; (d) current affairs and documentary programnes which are. shown during hours designated for children's program-ning; or (e) parliamentary broadcasts or any formal government broadcasts. i TIMN 289590 ~
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231 TTS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 6 3.3.4 ht is•recocnnended. that Men a radio advertisement cigarettes includes the warning notices (a) it shall be clearly audible without interference by the sounds of the advertisement; (b) it shall be read•over a period of at 1'east four seconds irrespe:^tive of the length of the conmercial: and (c) no further copy items shall be added to the for comnercial onc,e-the warning notice has been voiced. * NOTE: While the Specification C'.o{rmittee.felt that In * principle the warning notice should be included * in the advertising of cigarettes In all media, ~ the audio warnin ld * . F9D~LiCt with audio -gd.vertising appeal ~wu and t~wuld also present some * practical problems. For these reasons it Is not * a requirement of this standard to include the * warning notice In radio advertisements. 3.4 Press Advectise~ents - All advertiseirents for cigarettes in newspapers, 'magazines, suppl.ements, journals and per- lodicals printed or issued by publishers in Trinidad and Tobago shall incorporate the warning notice specified in 3.1.1. 3.4.1 The warning area shall occupy not less than six per cent of the area of the advertisement and shall be placed across the whole width of the base of the advertisement, clearly separated from the remainder of the advertisement by a dividing line or boundary. 3.4.2 The warning notice shall be centred in the warning area, and shall be clearly legible and printed in a colour contrasting with the background. 3.4.3 It is recomnended that the warning notice be printed in the type-face Times New Roman upper case and lower case or a similar type-face of corrparable clarity. (S.ee Appendix B ). 3.4.4 The height of.the letters in the warning notice shall be related to the size of the advertisement. The heights of letters in relation to the sizes of advertisements set out in Appendix B may be used as guidelines. TIMN 289591 '
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TTS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 7 3.4.5 Statements on tar group or nicotine average, If Included in the'warning area; should be in the same type-face and size of letters as,the warning notice. 3.5 Posters, Indoor and Outdoor Advertisements - All posters and indoor and outdoor advertisements for cigarettes shall incorporate the warning notice specified in 3.1.1. 3.5.1 The warning notice shall occupy not less than six per cent of the area of the advertisement and shall be placed across the whoia width of the base of the advertise;ment, clearly separated from the renainder of the advertisement by a dividing line or boundary. 3.5.2 '1he war.ning notice shall be centred in the warning area, and shall be clearly legible and printed in a colour contrasting with the background. 3.5.3 It is reconmertded that the warning notice be printed or presented in one of the type-faces Mellor Bold Condensed Capitals, Melior Bold Condensed upper case and lower case, Gill Bold upper case and lower case, or a similar type- face of corrparable clarity ( See Appendices B and C). 3.5.4 The height of the letters In the warning notice shall be related to the size of the advertisement. The heights of capital letters and the sizes of advertisements set out in Appendices B and C may be used as guidelines. _ 3.5.5 Statements on tar group or nicotine average, If included in the warning area, should be in the same type-face and size of letters as the warning notice. 3.6 Prorrntional Material for,Cigarettes and Tobacco Products - The warning notice specified in 3.1.1 shall be Included In a prominent position In all leaflets, brochures, consumer catalogues and circular letters Issued with a procrotional content. It nny be omitted from trade literature and busi- ness correspondence. 3.6.1 All promotional material and offers shall be directed to adults only and shall be consistent with the intent of this standard and of TTS 21 20 500 Part 1, and of any Trinidad and Tobago Code of Advertising Practice Issued by the Advertising Standards Authority. TIMN 289592
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233 'ITS 21 20 500 Part 3 Page 8 3.6.2 Advertisements for free sarrples of cigarettes shall appear only-in the trade press. 3.6.4 Packets of cigarettes shall not contain coupons or trading s tarrps . 3.7 Exmeptions - Advertisements that refer only to a corrpany, as distinct from its brands of cigarettes, shall not be required to incorporate the warning notice. 3.7.1 A display of a cocrnany's nFime or a eigare*.te brand name in Isolation, and without prorrntional intent, shail not be required to incorporate the Karning notice. 3.7.2 Posters, and indoor and outdoor advertisements for cigar- ettes shall not be required to incorporate the xarning notice where either the width or the length is less than 55 rrm. 4.0 QWLIENCE AND REGCLAZGFZY ACI'ICfi 4.1 Corr,pliance with the requirements of this standard shall be the responsibility of one or nbre of the following: (a) the advertiser; (b) the advertising agent who creates the advertisement;_ (c) the agent who places the advertisement in the medium used; (d) the publisher; te) the owner, manager or` person in charge of the m.cdium used; .(f) the contractor vft publishes or distributes the advertisement; and (g) the cinenm owner who shows film advertisements; unless anyone of these persons can show that non-conpli- anc.e did not result from any of his actions. 4.2 Advertisers, advertising agencies and media carrying advertisements may set up self-disciplinary bodies which may be reeognised by the Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards as corrpetent to regulate advertisements at the professional level. Such bodies should mrk with this standard and may introduce other provisions not inconsis- <.. _ _ his stal^.derd.
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TIMN 289594
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23 5 URUGUAY industry's Image A more active position has been taken in an attempt to improve the general situation and to project a better image of the industry's importance in several fields. Particular attention has been given to transmitting information of various kinds to the media, especially anythirg connected to tobacco and health issues. Through the internal organization, a stand as objective as possible is maintained, so as to avoid any controversy. The results have so far been good. last to the end of this year. bulletin on the tobacco industry distributed. Both these actions whole communication action. This program is scheduled to In the meantime, the first will be completed and widely are being considered to be a We have published a booklet on the Uruguayan tobacco industry. The main purpose is to highlight the positive traits of the tobacco industry, in an attempt to contribute to a more balanced public opinion, which is affected by the worldwide flow of one-sided information. TIMN 289595
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236 Tobacco and Health As a consequence of the government's change, the Advisory Committee of the Public Health Ministry has gone into recess until the members will be ratified by the new authorities. We know that there are some attempts to put this Committee in action again, hence, we may expect difficulties in the immediate future, above all from the delegate of the Ministry for Education and Culture, who is a well known oncologist and strong anti-tobacco activist. However, difficulties arising will be dealt with, as our PHM has serious problems to tackle which are much more urgent than the tobacco/health issue. Other The sector has been affected by many problems that have required much attention. One of the main problems has been related to trade unions (which were banned for several years in Uruguay) that are being re-organized and, subsequently, to the recent change of authorities. It is felt that for the time being relatibns will continue to be positive, and that the general climate regarding trade union/employers relations will gradually soften, avoiding extreme situations prevalent:in other sectors. TIMN 289596 :.
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237 Taxation On July 15, 1985, the taxes on cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco have been reduced following an anti-contraband media campaign by the NMA and a submission to Government. The tax on cigarettes has fallen from 62 to 60% and that on roll-your-own tobacco from 62 to 35% and in areas bordering Brasil from 50 to 25%. It should be noted that official sales of the roll-your-own had fallen by 20% due to smuggling. A temporary reduction in tobacco taxes was granted for the period September 1983 - March, 1984, when a similar situation had been faced, but this reduction was not extended. The present tax decrease is illimited in time. The NMA's action was directed towards the Ministry of Economics and Finance, the General Tax Directorate and the Ministry of Industry, to which presentations were made. A press campaign was carried out on the effects of contraband on tobacco manufacture and sales, as well as employment and tax revenue. TIMN 289597
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V E N E Z U E L A TIMN 289598
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239 INDUSTRY ACTION WITH GOVERNMENT VENEZUELA Venezuela's current economic situation is not very different from most of the Latinamerican countries, where there exist serious economical problems, as a result of the foreign debts, inflation rates, exchange rates, unemployment and low incomes, making their economical recovery very difficult. Due to its business dimensions, the cigarettes industry offers to the nation an income which is surpassed by very few industries. In Venezuela, 50% of the cigarettes price to the public is paid to the internal revenue according to the industries production which is officially supervised by the Government. As a consequence of the aforementioned, and as a result of the Government's need to increase tax revenues from the commercialization of our products, prices significantly during the to the consumer were allowed to rise past 8 months making it possible for the tobacco industry to reach reasonable levels of profitability. Since October 1984 and up to now, the Government has granted an increase of 100% to the Low segment, approx. 60% of the market, and 55% to the Medium segment, 40% of the market. This equals to a weighted average of Bs. 2.80 (U.S.$ 0.20) per cigarette package. This year cigarette industries total tax contribution reaches Bs. 2.7 billion, 1.5% of the budget of the nation, which is Bs. 188 billion. TIMN 289599
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240 In view of the cigarette price increases, we have had a few problems with the tobacco growers, in as much as they want to receive a proportional increase for the price of their crops, and have tried to use the Government as a vehicle to reach their goals. Nevertheless, up to now, an official response has not been given and we expect to reach shortly a satisfactory agreement with the tobacco growers. Caracas, 3uly 23, 1985 TIMN 289600

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