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RJ Reynolds

William Barnes Vs. The American Tobacco Company. Seposition of W. Kip Viscusi.

Date: 25 Sep 1997
Length: 2599 pages
519540151-519542749
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Viscussi, W.K.
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07 Mar 2002
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yex40d00

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TOtal Indoor Smoking Ban en0 Smoker'Behavior D.v~u M. D.uaxinx. MS .' Cxxu.u E. Axo.[wa. M.D.. Cx.u[a P. O.cx.. PA-C. Ksx- D. P.ni. Px.D.. •xn Sn.xx[x ). R[xx.w. M.D. ro W-` '06° + i wm r.n..~ea::. w < w r w.~<..dea.... m.m. r..W r. A..anq[wb.w. nwh°'r"` °m u w w a s..e erwm.w.r :1- row.e.e uscr. w.mu.r r.x..~ .~.<..u...wr.,.~ a. r ~ ,., ,<~°o .r"w k° x~:.: un~ i ~ z ~ i wrra..~..~.. um e we.e< u. nvva..w•e w .mw xawr~m.uw'w~ IMHODUCTIDN A<cordiry so Previous swdks. amokint rewictien r<tlutt ciPrus< use a she vorksiir (I-a). Tlx <nm~ ro rhicL soW hMwr amokin{ h.ns improve [mokiny .nE Wluenc<eiher smoker beM1.rlon. hn.<r<r, ewuns une<r n~xueumH.nd Prolmh ro roune. apdsc.n. d<cr<au In smekm5 as<vlon srs t ye.r Ner. -king Doliry ws INSiu<d. In comn<i. Blcner rr <(. (3) ducued no tliRCrtnces in I~Yw 4uis wes huwun two hosPlW s, one withous mokin[ r<atnctimu end eee vith eewly imDlwxuN amokin¢ rexrie4 m. More cee0y, ttockleg er aL (e) suygruce Wu amokua h.xs. bY en.Liiny amoken so w artes<r <omroi ever Ncir ciµrene .edini.. mwy reault in incrca<sd long- [e In ~his nvesti[ Lon~wes<a.mined iAe wlY.od bng-lerm iNiue~xe of. sm[i ineoorsmokinea.naninaumtionasmok/n{ccaauionnscs..aweil.aonamok<r Eeh.vior end wmfon in. hospiW s<ttin{. Aher she smoking Wn o's imDl<~ emN, the aurvey x'u DertomW tvYS, i Yw <pin, w detem~ihe loe®tWinY .rtau er..moki.e x.x oe .mok<r xn..;m w a.u rn<,.
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au . W/,LTFA i. iA6E. J. t Ic ibe No, utiom ud HmkinS emploYws a+ll !Sn b psppk viN h bq Wu srcury rill Irc+usintlY Rtxd smo4int w T`Tnhe. SnE tla Sckoefic ovmw~miry vyl ua.esutlY rtEVO ii w.YGCtive wb nuemelY wxly b wiery. Peaoi wumvs Srt Na mMicJ nw npce0iwes SnE pnEucuri7 bu emoet SccYen eoa Awe]ieeos slwe lo S50 lillian pee yw (XO, 19f5). Soont inunu.e p.DpSOY EeSItrcO b ban.r qe • umEel ol Fm.em snnten mouvwE b puii. nuple0 viN few cessSeoo - vEidi nsluEl phHmeculoYiW he1C fm WiUdn.Y symqavu, euY k S soluuon rtbrt IitelY b h aceepuE, DsNi<uIHIY b be RoS9iW woint. REFfEENtES wN. Ma.y rmWy u qe bpW. n. alaan m!~ peps. Mn, W]~. SYL>. .NnD.En.vH ~xww.T>eoDU9.rvnu..Wk+e/..wdars•w.>M. s.ne~c~T ImnTar,w.e<se.n®..•.ryrww.o..a.~.wx.wwlq.p.w, M', Eee.v,~. F.,~vn.ce. x. SSYm, L. MbTm. L. ta. f. . oW, F. s.®SUl . h ie0u Naptin• OYSU. D~.]JweW ya. ew>,.Twm.+vo-+o]. ~rcN.~! ]i ~bry MwW, x S. F. b/. F]S. GI. Wc.ypW Euw. _PraeRn> >'Rambuesm®MfS.mntaeavu.4 eY Ca.wauoee ApI~Jr fua a Y., IS N 30, w), p SM9 (]TT). ]~.aw.iX DMe,cL..ahpW.].A.ow6yEnoalomuv Nie.uwarY+rywMnp .>Kww,. x]L lalw. A D..Scd.D.r~T~..~lFYY.T M./IFA)~'WTyemHlceres.HipNmYiy.taN.vr .]. D. /~9N1. OuN a meWj YM.iv Yb . apW W W.nme. NrN em.i.En II~Nm.mtu/•*aHen.ywaMYnsxaaYYae.ywmr..SwWfm rW.ltl. ]I~~M. fubTm.AnsNm.JmdaJhA.marx.4YAmc Xo.A uw, TfN]Dl, HW->Oro~m D..1X~Te rEy H. EwaeF.b.tme. D~A,rt Oe ~. D. E.. Mpuu, C. 5,.. D'NU.. .Jh Awncw M./rY Aus/..aw. C. r. 119M1. Tee .mrvm H Pllbua .m Solwut !<mie.eo a ~~K~MU] sNl.lcwltl HWr[SSWFxMbSr. lw',», ]u-TM. Mwe. T. wW. waemN./.110n1. (sTrwv mtiry I~.a.. dwW. ~wdyEHwl+.'w •I n'.w/w.mlm.u-r. w. Ee~ar.. R. N./~w]I. Wvwie waiel mnum Mm.e. Ee... W nmm.eaum. Maa SF~roT/rwa~m EvN, MO F Y Tll M16 Gr, Iw ... Mu.wW. D./19151_ iv.4el rtryYeau i!t rsylv'. N wa...l.nww].l%fl. .. fas..l4. A.~ Nn:>. <.1]wel. ErY~mn H. mMy poNxem p4Y b e bJb ~... ao~W.l F.NV x.JM,1xu, bM-bb. M. o. r`~" :, o... xen. a. M. amy Em.. H rtp~a emf,y. een;H=v= e.Y,ro~ a e u..~ myy. A.W. ylw~ wauw, Ylf1, 61AM1. ~N. G... ].ml. M. f(IYUy Tm w.v H r.LL:S r~ml.vY ryep® .. frvem a uues npb®t. lMM~YOp.Y. MY1M. w. E./19i61 Svotiw.ib.vY ryqmw b we..S. a Y+moean. IqA.Y+~~~Ir, w. ]5-%. fWpr,N..]xyYY,t.fNJ.fupe.S16.3YA.D.we4yp.Di..w161. wmEYm..Ee..MT.W.]Cbllwfl~ ~ rl. E.. w.iu. T. T.. Erm. E... Epm. F.! /wwl. G.+M Lnst ay..v ..eYy s Y T pmm.v] /.rvm aetiua. Awrnea IsW yFNar+ubp.l]E. IT-Sf. TNVW,E.<p9u.T~ 1^L.mYenri.maeT>bNw.Y.4nNWJCw.F L TK//w ~.wie.L AvW yc.rn.T. i.~.• a SxMYS. E. Ilwll. W u.m N pWw xetiY
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Impact of a Restrictive Work Site Smoking Policy on Smoking Behavior, Attitudes, tmd Norms oms..: NeU H. WtUieb. PAD: Mlehaei P. }Y1bBn.5eD: CG4 Y. IDeato. PLD; Rile P. WevuteM. MSSW: ®Q Lw+een<e W. Gtesn, DtPH Ee eW «u me.m.. Y. wt a..ewt.n m..u m q.d u~..e.vu~..e ®ot ~.uve .. Nu4 . u. e..- .m.u.r .p.mw a .mot.n. ud .dWU nrymrly n- t...d u u1.u. uw u wrt`• ..artr~mY.wu~ nw..,.On.k..oa «o K~. dWN.nTd r• We. nr~be a.nu•.n~ e. tlwt m.Yer ud. e>rr..,o.dbr.WUw.. W W.aemet~ W . .~ .as.un u ..N.ou..W .at.em mem.r .N.Iy~np.rw 4 b%N dm.nm sua~ wmpW« M. ~®awa nu~y."~ou.r w..n Yr..ntw% a.u nmpw« eu.n.W b pW...r1.u. pne.1la..a...fw srM1.e. N mpYW.~~ ~ ~Mh a roun« bny e..e im~ metl.rpYn r.un~ID.MauaW~nvo.tbr um>p.ne r...nm..W neWnmu` aM1O. vr.duN.,b. ud weo.e...uywwuwww.wtnu we..f. u•..Wd~h N tW l.p.uW. W Ivn Mrv. u u.e.d m..e., n.b n m we.n at...mr ..w~.un. o...u.......«ww......~o~. ~e mwa~awwanesma,m,vmk.~cmnmsne~ 51959 1825
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~xooon s.onixc e.w 6]I MEfHODS lnisul Jurvry Onc yw +M1er sM .nnoun<em[m of [ rew taW inaoor amotlN Fan +nd J Nt tollowini its impkm[nuuoa I,OB) AospiW emDloyus wem m~ey[a in + Univ[ni,Y of Ncbnska Inssim~iond Review Bo>M approved smdy Id). 2Fe joriI y etNC aurv<y wu cenducnd by Mving AospiW acpanmcnu cvcuWe e uVcom4iam, anony....... [.pag< 4un,unndn. TM yu4.donndn, wu<F a[vu<m[m npr<unw en[ Wlr u<ompnl<d br a i[ncr ar mppon fram- Md+rcwm aa4css u Ne bnsnm. Buauac um[ cnqMyen oigla M.t kh W<nm<d StM1<y provid[d a ncpiire ricw o( oRcW FospiW poY<Y or rtponW de<nssea work Droductiri,y, no id<mJying iMOrma,ian (au<A u[{[, un. occu. p+,iond i<.<n wu <onecr[a In [M hopf of [nmurnpN hon[a, anonrmws ro ponnt. APDronimar[ y on<-miro or m4 wn,f nnndm w4n ntum4a, Du[ so tM . nrm. un<e~ienwn. m[ nwm nm tmm..[ha[P.nmem wu uNmoWnin.pw<seunwn mdud<d . a[[rion wn[n ,n< n[pona[ms <o,da « ob ther namc [nd Phonc nnmxr umcy w[n wnunc,ox r«onun[a. Tno[[ wAO provid<4 id[mifYiN inform>,ion reDnum<A a wide nn{< of <mP1oYn <a1. [s. TFeae includ<d PFYti<ians. nu v. oru[na worken, pdnun, puil m d[rkt. labon~ory ~4cAni[igns, W mvtism~en. amcurics, nseucA<n, anE woik[n. Isolaua employen Oppron <30) wM bdiru4d n tMredid no, <ompleu Nc depasmcm-0inribuua nurveY f- were du pnvqca wnF 4u<suonndr[t. ror ia[cm[ nonsmox[r[, omr on< vn«~ron w„ nsk<a: ••no ron inpron m[ sobacwtr« poli<y?" Easmokers Aad one nadidond Qvuppn: ~wn<dkn ro amr.. rn<ir niwnx m mi, q~aeon w., „w ,o anw,,,iM pnpoA<r d wF ni[t M«Dnna<nn w[n <onim<rte 4n-amok<n ir naa x~o~.e: ncm tor >s monms Drwr ro,A< iniiid .nnoun«m<m M shf moxmeban.'fF<pdm:rrawerPOw~sonm<ma[amot<rnPOnaenu who wcre curt<nt smokers wACn,Fe ban wa gnnounc<d. piDC and eipv svwken oMy IN e]) [ntl inairiduds wFe w<re in,Fe proc<n ef puissing 1<J monN[ of abvrin<nc[I a~ announc[mcm tim[ wcrc noi incWdcd tor andYSls. Bgny4v quit- acfinca by scKnporua aFrdmrc[ a.) mmNS. TM,wo irWiviauk [ of <S momM u N[ )ryear tollow-up were ucnnucsed >3 onm~ rromte>i.nm cnuaN te ennmin[ imoune suw:. )n,M ]-m-M1 M1is~us buwun policy gnnoun«mem.na.uusl implem mokine Esn, 6sA< AospiW iniliat<a an w-0ouu mrdia - toiotorm mokns .FOUi sh< viun ol sA[ smoking baq the A4dsA bexfn af .nd sh< avdleFJi~y pl hnspWpromafd smokiN ccsusion proy.ms and so O•c sNen,iont on Fow so.vii. DunN sh[ ]-mon,F period, iAerc werc IB mploye< buli<,ins and ) n<wdnun sFn provia<d iMOmuuoo urentlea w M)p smok[n prcpar< tor tA[ >an. A lbmcmbcr Smoknfiu Gmpus Tuk iorc<, rtpnscming.very FoapiW deparsmem eM compoud of amok[n, ponsmoken, mokers. wu [AUged wisF 0evdopin/ policks to dd tM uwk<n' Vux k<.n<c cn.iromn<m. rn[ no,P~W m<o ort<na to [.btiaiu p.nimr m, w~ aor :[v<W iomr avwabm amokin[ -- Pro.ram,. To 4an<+i<
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a1. v,LLTERF.6ME~Y. b pc mdy. 2/% of ft emploYw+ "m amrnl ®okm. Sim,,u kvek nf .mokin{ me np~ by R~ (FSmncu, NelBa+oo. WDbau, filLmm. Cwo. ! MiutfaN. 1998) ud Rouu~ock (Ra:euock, Sue{mGia. l N..vey. 1986) Mu. b amey. of mndY vDi¢<oWr smplqaa. BweG .makiv{ a~u nf 22% Y+d M%. rtapav'vely. Oe1Y .u P~~ of tlr aoployae ves .Dk m we the oppceuNry ef de .mJdn{ D.o m 9uit. ni ti vu d wmfeiD{ m fmd fDY Ber pYdripued b ft Bne axucoe pm. p.m. (Nm 504 of ~mokm. loveva. rtpmed . demue fe mul nookin{ Htlun fhe fin, ~ mtlu of ds E.n. Th mue adv.dee .va .096. Fqeam a J. (1988) mk Raemuct u J. (1986) DdD fouod'm tleu mWe. o! aookm nweyed r 2 m~.moeJu J~ee Ne iJO.DOn ef rakaiY mvieuant fbu 29% a9end deneub8 awunqiao. In Pe~eno a J.'. ~udY iDm ru . 32% lducam tod ie Rmmoat a Y.'t SD%. Tro mGa ~paifiullY tld^+~ fbe raJU of.mctin{ bw a rrmkriou b hospiub. Aodrtv~ ()991) .mvFyd 965 bwpiW aJ5 aemDm 2U moedu J1a t6F am of . a- .mokinj pallry. Ne faund ihu 26% ef Dariau mwkm htl 9J, dmioe tlut penud~'IL'uty-tbee paam uf amaY ueukm nporod aSY.tiee ie ft unouo ImokM. Ro.nva, ft a9ee mc oo hk WauamJu .%u oely 72%, ni~b8 dx Diliry tlw t6we rbo did ea 9At a rt0uz- w6vapumeE b ft umpk. Bkcka u J. (I989) foum tlu~ ku N.o 2% of ®otm a ft 2oEm 8opkim GLildrtm Csnta n.d 9Wi .motioe ova . i-rur K^^{ Dsrm .od Na. wnkm{ Du Jmw{D Nm ... . SO% Muctioo .moo8 dwe empbys, apa6n8 tumkio8 dmie8 ft .oR d.y. KTiie tlrae w~Em db ed muFme eWeea b.mokiee W18ti hfas a.fnt vak. ft M d.u tbe rvmys numDa of ei{.rtoea avoked d'b em Wqe ta Re poup u. vbk w8guu Nu aimpen.YUry .mokiv{ m.y bve aken plax. ' In de pmxm .mdy.. m.jmip uf aoukm (!T%) aqne! Wu Wey ..ert Dk m a- dus evmu d{n.ve oeuump~ion .ifDCUt eD.npnt meo- d~Of Ymkb{ p.9nn. YLe a- mJOen. Doveva. aiuw~na. modea.nm~m) orampesuay tamlie8.7ti~ pteam:ow mort IikJr m ks ucu fo dmu empbyeu apoNo{ mae.itbdnrJ qmpoou. W TMr fmdic{~ mry k< u kui FmIY e.pWeeA by tbe lrpadteai~ ef KoJaw.ki W Remno (19N). Tbey rv{ew )DU .metlee ksW ~ b amuee.a a+luh pYc6~iJ .oa Dioloyui futun rNCD pbY vyiry mk. b mJnubb{ .mokb8& ptycDmxiJ prtaewu uo mdus umkm m mCVa ri{mee mvumptbe atll )Dey pau tDe Damd- .ry u rhice bJOpral hnm akud m timdee dependencr ~ fmfha ~oe vay uuumlmupk. Smaka. r6u. WWi 6ipeod. B+bWily ro pukp~tl 4ctm vRl Nve GWe mom m advx ri{ue9e amsuvydw bda< tapvieocie{ rit6hf.J rympomt. iFue ~mokm m.Y De mus tikely m roeye b eompeeumry .molin{ b u.eemp m DaoY tlsrt ticauec kvel ud .void uvpku.et vfWm.vJ ryoipomt. Smokm vGE wSAMwJ rympam. vm ma< tikely m,ue IDe tuctio{ 6u'u Nv in{ . ece.uv. Mm m a9ecu of wk PaBmuex ud udwde mrud fDe Jub (~s TNIe 21. R>.eva. )De myaeiry ef teWm apafed tlok impn of IbF Me af fhk m- un. iD'u rtsWi k umilm m 0u of Roavettt a J, f19B6J. vho fao0 du adr 2.1% of .mokin{ empkYm b. Sedtbs.n amv8 auWkird d'my.ued wvk pMam.ra .M d. iazurvriw d. mokiv{ pmW~ifim pMky. Wit aYUd u.iR4t.vJ rympnm~. av acdn uF m.ium vidt ft 6ediup uf SNrtm.n ud luvit (1916), bo aWkO tmdio{ wiWtr.rJ trwL b Yhmic tmokm, TDeY famd thu .moo{ Da6 6uvy YN S{W .moka.. Vsueeea .yopm Rrtiwmd tleweDm, fDe ks8m nf fheb mby, vYh ft qapnm a( a..iy bLy tiBeJ edY hieen .mm8 mu p.roJ(y .bunFw (m,a sDO,.dumd aawmpu„ Dr m.va.{e w 6D%). Fa f6ou mWly Jiovem. arvio{ hu nead'Jr ra fhe. fim 9 e.y, m. k.d e! Iry W.o D.If " of 0ac udy pariJ1Y J+aimf. BAveove. IDm w w eiRUeoee b m.int bwmc Do.T ud uW .mokm.
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Dnrtiw m<tiuvams. Fnr <aunDi<Atn< navY smakm' nWhual us< wtwn or rouN1Y, es per workin¢ Dour Dnor to tM1e imok<-[ne poYCY m.y Dav< becom. e<nir<m,<gra,<d N now rn<y <opte wiah work siwauons. From. DioiopW suntlpoim.,Mr<is ridmu WI DuvY smoken, cnmpave so DN, smoters, ve merc r<sponsiv<,o tluun<s iv Dbea niwiin<I<v<is I]) ana <n more IikeN to taperienu ,oDa<w wiNanwil symDioms /g). For som< D<avY mnt<n, ta,wa<e absuMn« trom clgar<n<s mar u:m, fn mDacw wi,Danw.1 ms iet. wm<h <.n po,w~iauy mnrr<n wrn wwt xrrorm>n«. <nh<r ai. er, u.n <mpiar« rt<it <,mp<uta io wa <D<work.r<.,e.mw<, nP ro rpeculan on M1ow huvY amok<n r<duc<iM'v cyar<ut ust at p<. <rNps thcy campcnsau tor rceucee opwnuNti<s ro gmokt Dy ev puRVOlum<s. rh<rtbY smoking ~D<v wguctns mnn cEc1<nJy. If ay,~ <au.th<<motk.grta b<nWu(91wNchmiNtD<np<ckakom lowerw~nii<oiin<..nawion nno>ra<apesuvwybeminimit<a.ThngmJi swqe otbtavY smot<n io,NS nuay did no, apptar to compenu,e for Nc41ov es by in<reasin8 N<ir rus~omvy ameking avring nmwM han, su¢gerv ¢ tM1a,t smekvs may De >bie to adaN bioloDnOY or wpti,ivcly ,e usvivcd smoking. ' ' CONCWSION Among manY smek<n.,M w W inaonr smekm¢ banwas> v<ryumithe istut. Somt r<gara<e tM1C ban as a viola,ion of tMlr perwnat freeaom: mwy mar< inainme ma~ aotan ont Ynawr. weLv<ntiisa. aaima,ta amek;ngarta anema ia<e. on the om<r hana. m<poL<r waa ov<rwntimmglr nvmna by mm mek<rs. some o! whom <aprcssed trtm<Moos r<IiH be<auu kwoWd notbngv M1avc ~e work or e., in. smokt-Gllce wvironmrnt WDVhcr moking ban M1<IDS peoDi< yui~ or r<auce is an in<idenW bctufn to • kefree policy. Mur aIL ,M1e b>ns werc no~ aeveloped u a mvti smoking or rMUCUw i<cM1ri W<. Da n,ha as a muns of ree,ong M< hulN nsks ol passive smoking>, tM worksite. ln summary. tDe prcun, stu0y wp<gu w0rksiu smoking E>n is >saociv<d witD> atausc In wortsiu smoking. Dv, may no, W<c, ov<rall puit -<s. Smokp wmfen witb tDt amotlng Dan tnnas ,o mv<as< wi,M1 rim<, HEFERENCES .on.r.c..aotiw e.n.~ <wr~u ~. iva- nw. u a- <necr o. <mrawi ~ . suse.v <mwnr en e m.. w -sme.w u.r<epreN -
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: R.... eff tDH6 u niul.tYBe~th everW a.M.tm M.v W ~N.a n. ~ea,oaJ Wu~tl N. nalvm W mx typof.metied roYey. iv.11 w... m0 qBVy~t2..m 1N w1vu. ! uval. tc meYea N.a y ... nneca u~ metly n morJVBUa.N.. n.yu'. auny moewy ua .~~r.nm .uvwY~ ~w~v. at m•yvuey ury e..e npeeve. u u. vumN.etumn tp. •roYUOv np..J .am4Ut erlry u m. m .nfleu. W BmaM.dY S..o 1j Ay. rYJav vntnm.~ W. L[bvwi .M.v o..p.m.~ ua lf..a dun.• . !•IR . ••eC.Mee .4v ry MRelw.muo~.wpeaMt'w.bYV.wo wmJ.nU(~oRl<p...ae.huedurthu Nt! (6~R) mm~.a tea te.Y mm- tl f.w. ZOS. nmq.ua •.eeutlJ!" u miaR eomN na'e.v.: i LnM.MPoIq. m.um1 r.uwe., p.aun~.. rmwv. muw ua 1.up1v ~.vwy. mre .emNly te aN W~L.Myam6.nmfl.ua m wp.cmuUl ivum.l el tkvuy.0wu1 MM/GM/Yqum. Jf M. t/i.m.ry tfiG 1y
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Yae.m Vnr.neen M...un ~ar /mnNm CL..... . suvm.ey ew. m..u. R.r Jm Ju 1 umo~Jf. K.e.u. a..W Jneum M>uw e We.pJ). T ua u.y.. y.10.e.rt..a nuua. - ro~ue~ b Wr ~u.. ua J. rt.~ti.srtely te.m b J. w.Yy Aem Auly J. Le. AmJ.r: By?T.b Jnuyy Cwu, ey nW T.rov.. N.. Sa.R M:O.T.lvuumv B.v.:IW]et. .Je*n,a ei oo.l1>.e,o.i r..aba..na,JJ 1200 . v.rn0.n 1ow n
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aa2. ua aa.v% u te. wen owrv.uo. wa (t.. e¢.vR b v6.oR~ r~mea. uaiw..a aut b( iYt 1 ~~). m.yw etww.n.ao.tl mt)rua ~um. (Iwvs~~a/ aot), ua .e.u br..e<~.e (nm, u rot). .. rewu uweeu.. .~te .e. umen.v s. n ~Nv), evNYw N.uwu.ae..a.ymana r u <eu..¢o. u ~aa~lua ~um.lwvav~u~v.¢tae.P< oo~ltueb.u urnea~.e.u.m tw.Yta: u....tv¢: oo~e. Tn a...ro uuu 30 nA%u tuNb. m N.v% Y me..a.n.. ~te.n..)r.(mvi.m.vu.w.(x >¢IISa¢.suP< b t.aN e..eebi bu..Nbv nls.e v.metYWV.bv te. wN.w.u.~oo. • mvbt..f uol.n b Y. ¢wt-pYeY wr.Y. eve,P m~tlYipe w(..n e .ywem.Yaian..a«vm p.ea.w r......+ eom W+fva .vJ.vs: Y..ba: u. v.NV) u.by (v.a Yta . va: • sM)w uwµ b arw.a m uy u motW y.Yemmw.wf.u.ONv mNy... ...p+.u ub mT.ebemauww~•wu w~eaWe.e.rw. ..oryr.efw r.~. wnpa-youq... v.~..N b.ew.~u wmomt. Cov.umWU H e W..... u.ea rr..a b..11.v..~te aw h'w NYVUw.. ro.a.Y.n..ntteaa...a pn o~nmw..nwwnbu.wun...ar•. Imp.p M Wart 6M SmeY/~q PWCY/[i¢RiM a tl 51954 1829
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UneMOEUafsncea ut /.om uta.m wttu. ixm tnt4u O/nney J. WastMao.O, p..eat Jeumal ol Occupal onet MeGi<ine/VOWme 33 No. t/FeE/ufry 1991 167
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A Total Ban on Workplace Smoking Is Acceptable and Effective &uce Nockmg. MBBS: Ron Botland. PhD: NevNeOwen. PhD; ond Gooftreq Kemp aa eui.,.~ u..n nt'Repo r..y'rc. "iquuwqaw m.W. ev.ulne~y u 61b.. puMn(ounCmtlecl/o.fetl.ana avly ru'6.dWWiwmur mq.me~euns .utn W1Iqa. rr uLmW~ eumpu3..u.u uu<InmqN o'I ~N. P>Yry.muC I6mtUy mnro~a m. ..una 3en~ eni a! / e~a.m~. a.m.nen .Oeu. m..rtuu nl wwy wnnme.mea- <icee. ru..., n<roe- rtrn.wu<s... e..wa er n. m..m..n.r ~o nlume 33 No.3/Febwary f991 163 a
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n, w:e~e ,...nnw >. n....p... nw b. m~ro xm~. °°W% w 1e% 1 ~oeYx >at. w 10%. Po aa. r .meti.f•rr .e.m~«. b aYa m.f o b.e.. •~tp~ metyn v..nlnW.u roeeya..r...r.ewnwn mm... urt~W ~Bw ..pnM W nauely W/q.1Lt°mY u YvpxV p. lvaly aY !~~ u meme.~b..ex uw u0 4.w1r.e`.eu w eromuty uw (e..nlonue° u .meu°e u . L.L.a YY.br ua f°. wtla m ~1. e.wee..au W ruY .wvWa xrw. u wn.... .vN..r.me...e.+Yx.°. Ye u> e. u Maue .e.° .e .m°M.e u Yle.x w.ex xw n.o~°oeu°°raep..m.. vu.uauv utl b~x Mww~ .meua puelx Wvs..e W`KUw y tK~t ef BMa.. utl w11..rvx^ b nny..a °ixnx wW v°..Ie1.. e... ee poun .x...eeY°°..N"y tlY~. . pfer~° pue>uaWa•wrnaue. vr~ON>.n.rwYOaoiot•.. mp.n ot..nneuv..mett°ee punr r me.n. ~ u...x.a>mnn y ~mpMef Mpk BM BmetMB FWIy/GaRMC e' el 51954 1831
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6mok<n aEOUS N< nalurt o( Nne a o smokine Propams. vuious 4<n<Y and ~ resenuoves werc previded wirp tulFU<Y aptce omaid< N< M1oapiW cafcttei<.rev £ollo+.up Suney A ae<ond fo1l-p avrv<Y wv cnndvv<d I Y<u las<r, or 2 Y<an followiN Ih< niual .nnounc<m<m ofN< amakint ban. OnIY 88 of IM oripnallY sarveYed pved In NetoOew.op avrv<y. Fony<ith, R6G)amw<rcd Nc6rss om1Y and Ncs cemd na bc rc<ennnm. 11 (5%) wcn nu lone<f mpi r~J n fi< hoaplW. 8/<%) mtllwm In N< fo4w aorv<r Nn N<Y dit nm so b< rcwnucvd. 312A/ <Ma< nm so p<nicipal< in Ne aaontl imerview, ce2 29 (16%1 did ws r<spond for unknewn rcuons. d To <valuat<N«R<cl nrcqar<ue wnaumpsion on nvdY puam<Rn. furveY<d mok<rs w<n wbdivld<d inm rhre< Br9ups <ccordine so pnpan citanuc os< dunnt work daYS. "MavY" smok<n la3pci8uvr<a per daY/. "modcm<" amek~ n(10-29 ciev<nv p<r daYl, and "ABM1i" amoken 1<IO cyv<nca p<r daY). FisMr'a nur s<si wv ortd so analYr<uleeorical dan tnd Swd<m'a r<cat for us dau . Companwn ralu<a an <qPnsuA v m<aos = aunaW <nm er m. q~. RESULTS of SurvrY FiMinBs 2n3upperrlo<ban. As <.PCCI<d, wpWn fm <son1 iMaor ban on amokin8 wu s klnt anrus.16 Uv<NI, 322 of 599 unsmokcn (89%1.2~5 af 28/se<YSmeken186%) mok ln t. <M I) of bamy<ar Wisl<n /81%) aupPOn<d N<han.2n shvp roninst. oaly !2 of I81 smoker ncpondems (cf%) aupponcd fh< pc4cy. mo k<n.6oN Eailr clqanll<ronsomplion prior lo tM 6an tnd d<sir< so ; moMOCnuO N<v asusud< rowud Nc polky. (hJY 6 uf ll huvY amoken (2]%I.comVV<LwilENOfl3lighlsmek<n(66%).favor<dlh<smokinePelky(P <0.05)_ TW<mY~su of 33 amokcn (l<A) wM1O wam<d m aiup amokiny'1bs;'va oNY 8 ef 53 (IS%) who Ndiuud shcy did nel wisn lo quit, auppmtcd N< pae (P 4.001). Fony<ieLr of N< surv<Y<d amok<n (26%) ww<r<d sh< questiamairt IYOf rhose who did, oNr e M<8 11)%) rvppon<d N< amokioR M1an ~in rut, )a of IJ3 amokcn /M%) (P <0.0011 wM1e Nenlif<d N<mselv<aindiul<A wppon for rh< amokint poli<YpwlY. N< nsulu maY har< bcm ak<wW u faror or aopPOmn N< kan. u m< surv<Y r«pond<nu w<.< nor pemtilad Ne n or <omplmioe m< q„<sripna.~wnrmwnrEgm a.3mnun8 C<r,nrlon nm clro«n<com.mvrmn 2rurineNC 1 Y<umlbuieeN<.mo~mcemem.]909A)ufN<wrv<Y<damoF n9on<dly Incd so yoil. 22 cnroSCd'm a vopsmokint propvn, anG 31 usnd a nonproenm pprwch. Of th< 22 qo8nm cmollees.l(J2%) rcponed absfin<nc<
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ass Crrvlnt in our swEy wu e<LrM u in+ued unokint .feer work. ibu bu bsn n. poneE !y aNer inveetituen wbn .mNea ebeunena eympoms (SCMeIGer G fervik. w8a). xuwxrc., we eln foune Nu envint rn relueE b incesuoJ.entint afiu rpi. esP~iJIY emnry Nors bavint eM NPMSS eECiNan Karte, e fmGnt m qeHOUSIy n;. p~neE m nuEies of Nnn.um, smotini NYMnWtl. Ae In moei emEin an wNCb .urveYe Ye emplnyd m p<rcwe mnu.pective Gey, our qucetiorvuue meOwE ie nd wiilwm iu 4mlueou. We etY 1 rtepanEenu m rtpon on euqccuve in/omuuon rNcb rtuY brve Ken WWenmd by e number ef feaon. pusr uwn8 ~ese nuY Nr< been Yw unGencY for rontlnuut .moken m ecatterue Jrcv rt. pone of riOWnWJ v-0 cnvint beuu.e of rbeb 2ieaWafaetlnn NN Me inconreNences posea by Ne Wn. )n.Eliann, Ne nnnemoken my Nve eutterud Nc pmiuve effau of Ne .motin{ bro an tliar own wort perfamwce. Xovevp, eymq>ms of.mokiy eESUnencs lure beeo cmuieunoy rt9oeW by qWnm ud ue rerykqY rtpmuE an nuE. . of emnllnt axeenn. eo x u nod smpnsin{ Wu eur mnuoulnt .moten bW wme pmbkms in Nis w. NovemnYen, on ehe oNer Wad. Wn mmhunOY supponW wort. siu unokmt msottnan. w u u na wryridnt so eee tome posidue ehcu on job wir /ecuon. 96c queanmv,un NO nu.uemp m quaacfY 6rt b.n•s ertect on b.wok rmetlnt. J~us mrtMt ii llffcuh b iouryrtt rM itjfi- of w/Ntlrewtl .Ymqoms yM qe mea- s of job sWefecricn enE woh Nbiu. We usuad Wu qe opponutiees b eWnufo pn-0en emo" nWiu wne si9Nficmar ea+eeW, bue ebe au{nim0e nr Nie u unknowo enC mey buve ruied from one wat au u eod)wr. in .ELtion. mM beluviue cluntn 6nteE m rAe .matint b.n. .ucb u tlw uoCeory of emoten m faI mort oomp¢uous smotint oo brtaks or tisiot up effiGWn{ witb nommotint usocieus u luncb. wae om nnuumC vd m.y Nre ban .i~eev fennn b de¢rminivt job uusfaceoo. 2Ae seurecY of infmm.uoo pevidd by emoken bes been ..ubjeu of ennsiEerWk ar. Mon uuEiu W" foeuseC on puticipanu ot usumeot emEiee in whicb Nsrt 'maY be eonsiEerabk pmuurt u Wsely rspnn ebseocnce. Ofyon enE solleetuee fGlyno. GruCCr, A Ie1eN1, 1986), in Weir rt.iew ot rbe 4uruurt eo ebis bpic. eenciuGeE Jw Geu on fdse repd9nt of ebsunence emoot et.oaent pWeipmu Nve b¢o quiu evi- aEle ub Ne resWU iofluenceC by eltoV .os Ent{o flews- tn om pojeu (Jtbuuyh is vu en Wstixxe mdY). tlreo ebe nrAer law meen wmbc emnkd pn E.Y. q u pnul. ble tlw smuken unOcrtspotuE rh .coW .meunt .mnteC. Deepiu rhne possible biuea. u 1(e.ik enE M..LVL (1988) poim om. menY laolion of eolotinl oewuoo uo6cneten a meNCet eeolnis brve mpmed e bit)i reu of epameee betweee eeV~repous vA objncure neOwL'u rhe teeeasmem ar wotio{.1M fen rbu ebe queatlomairte were tlminuureG erooyowusly e)w pnri0e. eume uswwu af the sa.vecy of Cs 0eu. 9)ie feodivfe of IEU eeE otbn uuNes .utteu 0u she mhoduceon of wohare smotiut w.uov peutrwos NcWE be areNUY pleoad. WEen mul bms ert insuwud .1rA Lde prtpuerlun. e~ortm emutrn meY expeekns ebcoeae .ympome ent EeneuM monk. $ort< of eheee eRecu maY be kmpereE by suP an moluh eh 6@ue of emoim ud voni inrsneuee for Acm u enempe qWniot. eoa mps mreb Wo.i qn e meJOrin of .moken ecmelly bet feroMly oo wmt.ei¢ muueo peoP•ms. b ehe xopklnr enky (BCCktt e1 W. 1999). Eowe.er. ehe eumbcr nf bab emokint eeE eoo-smotint enyt)oym svpponint ebe b.o Aeeie+uE by bJf oom sbe bu wn toitlueE. We wttesi eber perioNe moklry xaunen pmpwe be mbc a.eil.ble b empkYee..iwne mutlv.doo u quil m.Y mc-c oolY everw koin periad of eos (Petenea a tl., 198fl). 7MSe pnpems ebmYO oosber Ne uee of phumeco)epW yeou ueb u e)onitine nr nieoune rym an eWUOe wirAG.rl ympsome. A mcrt eanvwenh) WumWre b. tora ben, wpm.UY u rhe bapW .emnt, woulC be povbion of rav w wus wbert .aWioy 4 dfowW, t u 4tely eWi Nu wJi be ku ecapuble w meu Ivemeaee.
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1= :.~,. ~~Y~
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r
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ymr bi oo« .wo. w„ N<p Vrim<ry a<n~mw,r a ms <may.<dwk. omy ] ot SS IiN~ ,mok<rs uG). <empsrN wiN 10 of ]3 Awy am0k<n /c6%), indi. un ~ e amokcfre< poticY d<crwN Ncv wrt producsivi,Y (P < 0.001). £ello vy Survey (T.ro Yran pon Poli<y Awunrrmr.r/ ~ 'IM muew-up aurv<y d<u aaR<ss N<s amok<rs dIE .diuss aem<wM1n m N< mokiu b<n. PbnYrNm amok<n uYk) nponW Nu N<smokwa bsn wu eas e obs<rv<dmin. Ne ,<cond po4cy Yur.Or Noac wno compln<d boN yu<s- (aM mum.irtm Ne'v miPw De<i,io e suppen rcr N< em Foun<m OS%) cnw<a Neir posision trom nov np,dmeuppon,dm elo ,uppon br N< moues wr<y. . s IX Nc LL imek<n in Ne foUew~uD <urv<Y. M (.IR) rtpen<dly sn<d <e pvit dunuNCa«ondyearofN<bcn.6<v<oofNe6BUeokcnlB%)w<urcponcNy ~ k<.tne tor LL kus ) maeNa, < pertenup v<ry aimJV sa AaN prtbn cod banyrv m,usutiow puis OI6LUfi610N TAi, nedy co<r , Dnviou: <.Id<xe w, amouoa r<,u;mio<, v<uwcimw wim c,iyw<.m dr<rcn<b <i6u<n<wnsumpYOe, n< <rt<m of N<se s<aavio ' r Dm.miu<d muioc .»rkdaY<.marP moduu< m nnvy ciwru 9y9r< ~m~o3km. LigA amok<n d<wus.d wpka rNck r riata µ uae br kn fluo ou<~ AaY.ef<ciYV<u<pcrd.Y..,m.LL.EUSai~unt,decliee. - NNeu6A Nc d<u<n conskunt wilA Npse of prcvuus studies, N<ttsvis m<y n iMUCOC<d by W u,iona M aludy design. Lrcompl<s<.nd um<sumr4 l yurauonnurnmuYMveiMraducetl<fcluYOnbiu.VUioussmakin{,ubpouDS 1. u AravY or tiNl smokn. nuY Mve been over~ or mMencprcumW in Ne 8 dY popul<lioo. PcrmiNni Yucssiowsins w be 6oswncd uwnymouslY IOr</Y <nASnc<d N< crtdibiNY of sA< inival aurv<Y. bus biM<nd bnD-serm feilewxD LLNe3<vid<ntt wu touM m suppnn N<cons<otlon Nu amokin; bens wi6 rtauls ' mekiny c<audon nses. OeFY II ot ]0) curvcyM ,mok<n (t IR) ,. <nrullcd in p<nlalr subaidixd ,moY'nf caurlen prop.ma. <M Nr instiWSlow _ puis nna durini Ns ban yur w<rc ros subsWtNly dilf<rcnslrom Nou of N< year immeAias<IY Dr<ndinD or N< Yru (ollowiy N< pelicy r«r. Wlilk N<u- ~ vl~socui, n<a cpp<ared wm<ww bltA 0 N< s r«n tollowiu N< sn s ot N< bn. N< m<nll wtlNUOw aoil nsn rtmtinW nl<tivc)Y di,Wri,r auyuu Ns. nxvicu.<amoWUa Doli<r. by iu<u. ia proo- .ny l - suL<i<ns so nuble moss amotrn se uAti<v<ausuined absGn<vu. - 2ME>u<kvlybdi<u<wsAnvramokm<xp<n<naNCks<sntdriculry 'e wisA <mw bdoor smeNOE b<n. TA< myori,r of AuvY amek<r. dld nol swPO<s N<A<n<ndrcponW-rycomptYiuiwiNNCpolicy.Pony¢'uDCrcrnsofN< A 13 6nvY rmokers aurvryW nponM < droD'm wark pmducsivi,Y. WDU<nYy bwuuo(N<'vsuedtoluv<NCworkuuueN<rsosmok<.OO<M1nvysmeku ' naed Nu aA< lon Aer Jrility u wnuevue Jter I M of ciyaretu bsYneou. Th< disp<my b<swe<n N< comfon kv<la of 4qh1 .nd b<avy amokcn undcr nuncs<d amokiu wMiuona m.y b<du<so <combu.uon et qycAObpw.nJ
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U.Praau'c t..loe w.k; m.ne. u Lly.rteeteC Oy tpu- temploYm, tM nn .na ue rommunlty~ N~Ik.Y nuaY ef wala tYroM ~ ~..a ~: ...,.....o '.0 o.~s. :..11.1 wel .~ ie....o<v .m w .K....e b..am..t ee .mp~o.. bem. .mm.. eneeme~.awa au.9e~r.aeu.emedkei"k ATOLI Bw w Wafiy~ece BmoMinYlBneklnY <t el
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p, P evpavH/e V LjPws 9a9kwo.~n uo u.9 i9to1 y Pst naP w PNna. ap;" '.v3'aWiwaeuRStaavu. a m~w0 u>. SPtw Q / tput'aaall.P»uCw+yyyRlvO'uNaV1RV O»aay un qaLa ns .au.m,"Y» i+en P+"la>.s P..1 .witwL L1.>f•u.m'~uw wf Iw py. Po. uw Vw9'> M(I<'ll ~+) uN vva )e rvewqe~P».Ma.'m p~n 1+. wq.w 59 W. ~uel u»"~m ~'W V uw,•. CL'u ffi9[R pa n.'m ~+VtP»ntp < w i~o/v, ftN,ul/ln•IOv (..xRSt+a~ L<)Iln u.:(w.aR 48) LN a.aVa/a 9P9 annallw u96 •v vauo9PU•..w.~nle•»n.a. eya uy Y~afl. ~w~µ+„ wui~wo N,meWiP Pn.MN i.uVa le .mw' IaM1m mou » vwVt~ '^589 w+yP`'~~ Rww wai.m. RV LRe.ady ~Rar. n.g(,)aa.wa.lVU. p."waa.Rtfvw,..a~p>"~wGC• nvvPVOCw)e ffitB .v Y '<1 nGV.) .Ga~. n paRavn . ao3+:< au( .P.evw naa(TM9'~.. a n~IpVM"f.P.p.YPa,..y01 vNN~P.v.~, N(Lawmw Rw..e) ea ..as .+aVa Ww awa+aC 1•. ~S[ Pu.'na+ t. aista~n NaPnmPwiN" u~yt9p <~,iun. yfvem9[ +Vt ty'Pnwm>Iamt %w pa. vm'.a: ~ou m:h=~ww~:.>a «a~t'..: µM1etR+wy /nM ,R .. RtP•w.°° Pn+"Pwa.Ran.n..uva va w.N 'VUn
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1nn.msnlmunq<menbuenol9mexM99an. MeT.Vs r:aM Tn<t<.e~eia a T.Le<m w.<nM.no. tn... bbl .nawnw Lw. tp. ~m.TpeN..ma<ua<cbvrn wbb, tp. y.n.wN nipr~ Nnn moN<ma~e~o<um<... ~ xl`n..-D w%~utr ilrie. ro9<Y .<M.n pr tl. vr: ni w~t>e~ ~t.:e.w ro>rtvl«. .rt raa~lm P~~~1in b ravi~o-..~er~lei u~Dploai.a .nne a u.::ro.~ ~.•>w<a. nlwrt irot. wbl Mn lur< ~ i 1` ~yt<dAwllro~ln~ n«I<nn<r m<u(A tW wip.v.~npnn <uttenfui. nuaypwlaent/4eaDwm</.obntpamylnl..kro m. TM nat Imperl.nt ef .rtor`NaLmenl.uenuD w<wter. m<)or rolnn w MDeowIOe.M a< Jocmal DI OccupsNenel Metlicine/VDWme iJ ND.=/Depwry t991 f69
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-TY m.Y.e,eve, b..e. a. ~e~. ...Y..n.e Y .~~., .1 I:...t..mmW _aeW.,.W.Y.. ..m.e.n ucom.tl. Yl.ov~a e. eYwuxuM u..W Ootu, ~m- m:, .,.~nx., .e..,. Y T::;= ' ~'TYxaW.u,,.xtN...p•..eo~a.l.mopa WkY ® YW w1~ey~ meWw w. .vy. meuy p ..~..a`. - vsek.a•ewu..xl.bKx.e.<m.en.bne.x.IN.nvt•..lunb. Y.yaCxa.v vloy.ntu.~.mee.C.a.e•e.te.n.x 1 w,oCW b reotw,bYUi.y..wlx.W W. ~ .:.w e. waw.. ~ aW m wy .aw nxu et arY, u.o . xm. ma.... w. u. mwnn .m,Y.~ mts.n ~. a`~a.Y w"nw:ue e.memr~.ma~.. w ~ .1eum.~e/Gecap.eenaMWie/n./VWam.i,Ne.1/J.rw.rylMe 31
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I cl [mD~m<.a eFn IM,<n<G Tn<y xrrrBoin<,< B.Srme«/nuortpkc<Snrmia9tJ6t ,mpo<e.,ncerMin,roeuniono/rMnw•smokinlDelnc. kimorn nn r.aidtper< olrnpen t<n.~l tM fi rr •un.r nErc.re0 tM .M1earMa pu~ R<punlon m Nr.n Rnp/e.pM P.nkul.re Concemrnien. n u tM rime o/ the feltov-up aur.x.-. t~c MO ner +•Wn.ne moMY fer 6 montM..nO JR M1.p nel ameMC /er.3<.r. en m<.n r<w r.b. , ` u"` m Dr`amnu e.u normP te <m^m3"`..M k,np~r<nnc~ensrOnl~hep.elenee relisr<,Eeer ler<ewpensereesmokiP n,en viimfn.nr • refell~ eu`loe n e r.Dunnltn a a r 6 1 k 1 urmh ofcoura<s r<o(f reO.sMr<fee<.tn<s<Oaur<kr nv<iom~nme.nnp.rWru<u•re,ea. eupefNpretnr M'TimrTef/un [mplo.resmokir<e.urionEr(ona AtinnutMeonprelr.m.n^sw<etfeilev~uD.lJC<of fiP= a< ^ e e( .motinP <nanion in tne Quir .mokini. t 6 menrAS. N~i MO Jmr ur,ntrn<pre.nCponw<srnnion trnennsmoneye.rfotlw•upe.e.3Rr<pen^arM,,el e. 60<r .m t<r.. Ob.er..pb r((<rc ~ A /unMe m.ks. tem.ks. <.<Ffel/evup iee,ne~<uouie<u,0ovneroursmoki .rrnm•rr.Mlv.en tn,of~unr. TeMS' in :00 oto(Pnme/vnov~ereamoler~ai~aneme~•LUr~<,aDerofO Dinr.rierunpr<r<nt~pr.b Ib~ f M.mplo.ee moki WDUl.ne n. nl n. ,n eunn Bth<p,.r sTh<pnttlln{pmlr.r.s.nbu<UenrMpn..kru<ef ~.<in~sru~o ~omp,rn~~c L.enu io a sun.r nnman MnB ,t nr,eu. peima in rm<.np m ner uk< imo .n~< svkR ~nnJ'~o(rePUhramoken.rremDrrenop MDur.rionofsmetinlm<.Iion.Ceminueu.9ml l.oM ll .n Pe.pir.Ale SuapenEerl P.nirulae le~aa Ltrm'1. Prr.np PwrBmot/n{ R..rrkriom . vFi<A me..ure.ne knltn ef tim<. Wnon m.inram motin[ tt .u{!e•r rh tL6 ~ ef prolr•m p.niciWms.r<puir.n.r 6 we<W..I ~ m.inrnn Ru~irle~.3..rtin{.uruafor6mentM,M).SR.re.Flere T.bi. DI Smotinl Cwrlpn R.rn.r PI. N'..k 5/. Memh. .n! On. Y,.r ieNe.~up Of [mple,<en WM Pe{kLrN (er Snokin/ Ceuaion Ceurm . Seprember/Onobnl9tk ' Jil 18q5 51954
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BFST COPY Rwu anqM..~aunm'xp.rle Twav .~IIGHLempbves65~pn en0em ~M1elGHC<m IMnr<spon0<nl~ w•<re cun<n~itmok<nBm OnY~ii.nsr.' iiyUe bw<n IB wr unil <nC nursn rM nipnn~ (11 w~ penln • an'CIXm 'r•ave ~pYr<Arx pseelnit oeebr<<imW<mrnpne/~M1<smot~ y ~aniR.ehr5la E.en <menBSmolen. e nnm<nne iwrc<mEUeinSU^ ~ e J ~ erv m A~o1M1 <Dpronl nns utrc eHA, ce n.in spe[u Y i eimplem µ< Emp erv Group r n abeu e ponnenn eve NIrNe m . .r< ofusOnlr M per «m atrM1e.mNen, <mmpw<E ~o s6 .ein W ir~on~emr. Morlov<r, mr JI imNn~ un0ern<M u<a<erien n wouei~.mwbe Wo inr.o<.eh. u te. <mek<~rn poliry N! no r<pene workwrrommn<enf]Swr«ntorSMn< nn~ eee<v<e ma i Fmoroven tM1<oua ~ <mwm wr«nam<rm~<n.w<a rm. e<i.r. Amm~e <mnn<n.= w< nr rn<ir <>«nn:<n.xnmrce nn Np..w.n,wn. w.>a mn. ~ 51959 1853
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11 xm+ Aee. J~r emok< efn~herr bdhee .w 1n aAe u. f<~nrabb wid /nu pole.-f~r IAJ e?19/Ho.aAu J.e poi~n~rlune<d .w cef.e9 .+' 6aA m .nd r.~~.ide fhe m.~n..wn?,In Mo+murh ~..Me whry. Aelpr<ywn.wk? ~ 4u .rn wp..d mne w .. ~w•n.J v tr ymJnlr amR..a m~..n„w d - m<w n.r+a J..rmrmr. R[a.•ln In JI, Nm u m nbW~ud: fAe m/rW onlM br(me plky ImDlemrn~lwe. Ne emnd ~. monlh<Ner pulxy Impkmeetrlion:.nd Ihe IMk. Ner dn poilry bad been In eBeef !ur ene ae In Jrc peepoNeY buebna uud. d..SOO dielnb u edempb<aequenronw~aa.Gwl.6p<rtenll.v<n umed. In de xaand a.e.ey. 1.60g (]6 pemml ' Jmed.bwfurrAeU,ud<mdy. vvafl<r Ddhy /mCkmevWron. only 66i fl6 pemnel0ueae/om W m v.em <ompkled, pe rhaDa Dn. rlblY adieninR eeaN .e<eqantt d rhe Prognm. Thi< kaar b.er mpome ms MIAe moal rce<m kmm~lrwenW Nemk~~efaepolnybnng .vlredfAebepleronon~Pr.rtp,~keh~g W~IAeYAad RmeCephD Thert .v e ngel6exl rcduenm a IAe emeking bbuaafenemDluYeeamr>eveNeelmDlemenution eflAe ew<mekuR pe4ey. Thu., au memA, bef<n eM alwr drt pobry .v anueud. £S md 2u peeeene. <erp«unly. d our empbfeer aainled IAai they am ked, but eRn J~e na rhn .+r redJM by xu a l. peeeenl fin etl empbleea (A~~ 11.9; llo.om! Theu dw, k<s.n, kikd lo eha. .n ~mp.n br s<nder of We emda<e lLbk 1? Mml iaumoken .en JM<e Jw we d 15 lean 161 reeml anaalmnlewrbW.dem<kenl6lpemn0 <rt >5 xna an2 JWee; but d Neee, mure ekkr adniduJr neyped emekM- TAe<e dna fnnher a~ diraad IAn cwnen rert mme likely Ihan mee e<be amnken in Dee.em d<moken.en wmen} s!k t_p.„g.eo6;..n¢yyc.~.q.<r'a.<eyswwP.Yxe.yu<R4Y Y [.eFn w » s ro ~a n.Yl 1 o.mv
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...u. .~... .,a..~n,...wNw _..........~~~. ~wvwl.ert~M.w~~~w a wN bY..w~~sM'm ~-ok.b. vee.w•wv.mere.nY•Mn M .-./N • mf) CWr.u-.,wla.-b W.~val (u. roit 11 NFw rDPx si- )oVRNa ot a1>»[MC/.uu,rtT i/ls 51954 1856
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DacrsvD~ `~M °r m nap ~on 6. ss.n ' ii e _ r<n P.M oi ~ ,,me nremerm<.P<tar: e or m< mv~o. .~ com...... >er ~~xn~, .•nw~ mn m< << , ( $e mpno< dcre pu ~inP ° .n,nn e= ieri ` < s -n c. D . Id ,wrw~ n ie _ _ *^ ~ , el ,m w!« e o ~iem r n 9<n rmetinB en< enb ~ zhs... nt`. mek~`W 1.n e,n,.1, ~oeitnm<Mnn~nn.ot ei:m e; :~ in nimeMnron °r mw<<enwmr m<e.nn ,nrsn, e~ er.:e.ini...~.;.nm>... c.... mo.............. ~ ..!<n< nrtmn mMawiln.~m.nwr<p,onrmotw, w. zlmr.mot<ine<,itnwm.nw o..nne ,ndn°~w ac.odmnt<met<nnwr«v<m,~mm.ensn Jn build~nr} .xntJnan rvuem Tle 9A5 Sur!<en Gtn<r<D< reDen ton<luded ~~w im-olunun-,motmP n, t °r ek<w<~nd m<wmpk «p.rw~on enm°.<.,,nd nrD,wm..ndunDmdau ~ e`r~on.,moan~otmnenm<n. t~ee.~:e.n;et:1'o" noTM,ypw or probkm«Me.ee.x,n bt<y,e M men. n<Bewrnm<m nw,nnenn.m tM ~mtnnen ro b,n .maln~cn.nDubr Rninr<mm~<,ttp,roida~mn<a S<nltty ~n1 ba,nuu~n1.19B9.TN.de<n~onulil,ffin _ n<our,< t lhl lf nunuou, one . t 9v Ahro Nleeum ~n v e e < r ~ . k<Ip motmn o. e ^d nf .m q mD ° ~ nel> °ratrtm ou9n m . I( efl0luum n~ ~or~ enpe0,o e `roPr~ ~ot3t° ru<n.,mwb nD peO mnrefm< M neneo° F,n!<~n,me\nl rt of ,M t<. T~ne dernnw in o( . nv~i.x.~: ~.".~.:. e...,.... x..aw unun...~°...n veY,rtP tnwiMpWter~ ~Oy~iuiae. u i~~G. sBD,n ...... ~ma.eD~troeetrVna:a ~f. mn :~~Iu ~ nnii°nAa,°wwx..nn~w.. . i.~. Dvildint,~moter ~,ne non.m terr t<,/neru room, TM i~unue in empoa«<<o <meke m rM1e <,(ntn,. ir u art no~ vemdn<e,e o<,Inn. e/ ,e D<D<nen/non,ni~ee/f<w~.o1.DU~dintivenel.ienrr unennmmed peepornon el ~ewl rupiwbk pmkuktw n<e , +tn tn vadmtn TnY wum< Ynevn tnu ~'w~ m D- .m< knib ~udY `b ' tM m,prYY of mel,en, in~,eb.c<o rmet<.n preunt in ,bewn,m <rnt^<e. d<ntnued rmetinB,n< ~n,~eoninom~tnt`tne<,meutoln<ouuidt.IMrt,lr<e0Y un<u< u, it.~w+ )t] C.a,dbnlourn,lotPuWltHUUM1 954 1896
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.na Naf.r. f~Beio p. v •I.n~J.n v1986..n ~no~DOM m -km v~ef~MVOnpuceeue~ aPnn<d .<If A./D ,m t nr m. Tne~p .i'T~m ,o0un .ne'Bm 61, <<.e<rm m, m m. etP o P oeD D P. .makmP• en~ne~.on, , a/iNFTHODSmenunon. Ilf H<. ~<I/.rt .It op l e o m oeen mt a p m<n~ mnl ,fr~ue, ~mP le tA< nso/ .n ortDl.a, <mpleyn aD~~= el,m mD~Dm of spet(ee A Ot D>~ .mok<in1. empleyeu<,vevb .~ ~pon.,~ap n. ~.p.~eint .metr m tn< u puiOeliM. uPUaFnp s rtDl.e nueeune.. mokiry v.knt ~o quo van ~o..rtl ~M eff.. Y,ef be Mv enfdenii.li. Y at a m~un n<a~ tnr ~.mnlora v t~ Penont~ TM ruponu rue D}ry~n iAr Br,m. Mree urvn.na ]Op SJq in,M /ollowuD.urveY w, . e mr .meun n cr~mtAa.~°one.int tM e ~~er tint ..poMY vere monim..erDY ~kpnon. fotloup.n6 vY<1.6 monlA,..nE u IM <na Df ent Ytu. Tne .<lepnone lellov.up v.. roneun.e by ea.op n<J~n rma.M, .m wrrt <mDl.Ym Br mr erP.rtmrn~ ro. m<k nn xu.on~inveu. m. Tnc Dr~................. w mr . en< ror p<nea. tn, nnn!<m nn..,. m.we<a w . tn,n,en ler e men~n,. tM NB C.n.el.n/wrnuerPUeurH..Hn Dro.o-nt<er.met~nr n„n,en n D x<.t.. e meNm,nc >.~i.l .~ en.~e~n~e~a~x.~o .o rEi moa~i i ooaa,•mDt<o IPT:e emnrn wr.e ..ta to .mlDkr~ .o inex ~. D<~ere a 1} up.nu bn~~pnt en we 11eor, oi .IUrHU~mnre0utµoeef~Mnw.Pmotmluurrc~~oNeBo~n .relullruliDnua.neuuetoNO~NI. u. P~ Tncuer.P.e(~M ainryvuvt1aLP.rot .~rk,e4xsrte.prn,<ein netnw pcr wlit mnu,pP m!I. Te b. esuN,M~ n Yme. ternei~iwu.poa mruur<ment. v<r. m.a< unet. , Ine<P<ne<Mnmpk.neWiue..mpl.txenika,an~t .un,.~nrtnt m~s~.•~,:mr ~tnt.osk,a.n..nam RFSt'tTS Pou.Bmek/nt Rnulnbn Burr.y T.DIe I Dreunu uknee m0it.wn ol ~nt imD.t~ ef worYpla<.motint mvk~ion. I> memM aur.n< inina e<. Eun e/ tM inein~ou .uPPnu . navttion m m. rv <onmetine.na.motinrrrl,vsproekm, ptM expenee. tn. D<u.myt of emDloyee. vno ~M~nua ,nu ~ne,v rtrt'DO,MUe' q.moke m v.nem verkDUCe ~"+l.attre.ueinalrn~ine.e.teP~m../ner~urF~p li. in mu mm~t..mpml.r aiuuHfanen mtnnra en.nn ,M ~we.umy periee.. EaA of tAe wort.ire wmp.rnon, pnvetn.urnYDrriee. wusuiiuinllr,ilnific.N. ADOV~ i.Dkl amaw fnainron or mnmp.n er NertDl.n SmW In{ RntriMOn. .qbm .nN 51954 1844
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I .,~..e.a..~....~,_..~., h..~ a..~ ~..m„ lto~ ~ ,.VV~,..Mb. dyYfera.nr.. ~a6imunsroyf.~m ~y '.~ ' M n E~n+.Ve..Y.vwme l.MUy Iw1.vW.el.w I
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or D< mtar oren3o me.rr~no e~e.e p<mm~or35:1or «0e <uEmDler<m<xe .tut.a i( rnn lnoutni 1M pelitr oula nav<, pwirir-< eff<n on vM1e M1<Win of tiinn 38 pernnir ('eno( 3501r,t «C~ <omp,~eavxDn<l9 nr (HJ of a953 ef nenvmoker. TMee per«m ot rne ,moYnv .na It i of fM nonvmoYen rM Do 5 o~~cenauc< < D rn .D. DLLtu.apn smek(nt p r. Tn< poli<Y aia norv n.v<<. m.rt<a tnorrrnrmt elfen on n. Durint tne p.epolkY Weioa. i~kW rv 9Wr; t.t p< {~n> perwoim rkarioa. smount o~•a oa acclnea frem 33.3 So ]).6 pt y rn< ]S Orcp po3poricY Wrioa, TM ]-momn peopeli<YrKrba ve Dten Seo .non w anerMnt rM f Mof rn WMY o n. If vne 9.. Mn nrp<~.<oitor ~mo~.~.x.ome n..~p~~ e~ mt mt rro ror .IS<r tD< Wlity. TnD 1, un4k<is..v mpn pr rn< <fr<a mepw oc<m .nornY .Inr <n.am<m o! rM1e peliry. Ho. m.n .mok r. 9ulr aurin{ rne rrDOli<k p<rioa /n .nrliiWlion<ofrM rnrrinlom Iv nor ne.n. Tnn< ve ne rompkri.on an. nn tinl Dr<v.l<n« for o3n<r {reup, ot xork<rt In Conuni<ul; Mxnsr, Irem 1913 to 198~.,mekint a.amn in rn<snn anMea rrom ir min<p<r.~n~u.9s. pxrh.p SM Dw m..wrt rt SM tff<ciivmnv of SM poliry wv h. efrtn Dn N{.rnm m~vumptien. /.r np3ea DreviowlY. aurin{ (n< Dr<policY Wrioa amnn pernn~an pr ,mok<m m~nna m a<. uea t umpripn. Nowun, aur3N Yn< penW3lryop<rioa, li rMU . .Wnonv a<nt.ne <onwmpren n innts<a n ~e ann emtlort< wn<yv .nm.rMl m. 9mmn npsqnl n pnttm or .mot<n .n<.motmt 1<n ]0 momM IVn ..mokin{ poli<y mu Implem<m<a a01. In . DnRn mtlmtmm~ ornninfwn, x9 ot .mok<n Ma anrtu<a cenwmprlon , en M.Rn .<emD1n< D.n on wrttlt< tmokin{ r/!1. RevW3v of rn u<aM .orrcy m n De n~ yraea ri1D <tulion u oolr 13 Wrnm pf IM1Ou .mpmysu .me~a .ne enry q nnoten sr< um0ta nwht 1naiun IM/ tDOU • ,mek<a nnvllY .M wrt men ISte3r tp a.vtleD .av<n< .
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i ~ ursc~ssro,: c<mr,rkmmn«rna rmumokrnm.rni,<oDw,iaon inBWli<r<ttAnefndmevau66nffpn,mok wn Liepnt imone tAm<, wdr .If,tt <d Er < DakY. Ai~ ouBppmi,ivr,<tifudntow<Nnon,mokinBDOli<imm.y ~.~<~ttwrurveent~{ aamok<r, e,~ty,e„~Nh peli<iu niMr fbn luve fp<mmpnY. <s u,om<timsf tmwn.unn w1A tN timini,hine u<ia <meq<tl1irY or,menne.,mRk<nwrr aamn<a.rwrm.monnE Pnf<r<ble u<,kine fbeir mwmkm fm p<rni»fian to ,mek<. MWU aiwunimuthn Wmae,mok<r, <Mut Wr d<ne<n a,rmndbna,mok<rtuy tunh<r N<rHS<,mo k<r: .+Wnen<n to 4mn fA<tr ,mok'vre in PopUC vea,. smok<m m~mmw am wep<.tm <trmN ormnr.mek~ ine, patb rm ih<mu>ru <rd tm iN nonamokm.round <p m, v<n mmt aupyonW<ot nommokiM Poli<irs. a mtliuta in nipo nmm~,u.o <nDwrt m<, mm~e<r wr n,b<tiN,Mn pohlbpine,nrownt YniN m+7oritY otib<sr,mok<n <otl r<um namokm <Er<W iba qui,~ ane,mDkme.<nw b<ud<r u iMr <ouw rr«,mok<<t .ork, smokn: PnmWmr a m< mmty or mn<mewne po6eiammpurumnpermypan<dbyro< ro,di~ wt.w„toi<:tmoN.nDDOrdr<aron,m<unewtia<a.nn fpmr mmr mnr<afm ina.imnE <~ tbm<m«f .~........».....-,.~~....,.....i........... .,....,........s,. <ndpernivenmil.rnfiwdn<mon6iMirmworL MEm.kMqU,ulbn• n~WNr.mdinNr<.peindi<nedtMtBOAmrrarra , .mDioyed,mek<nrvDmnrutriniomon,mokiNr'"r'tn 6..<0, 6.<kiv a<0.<hi,nndr<IVOind~unstnnmppentmmmmokinE b,,,wrnmyi .mups~wkngt.nMrwv' ~rrreurM~usnswrv~r/<Ht 6MM e.wrs f b.r r<rr ~<o.ooDr . o.omr < Spur ~ .nwmrr..pn )nNUAAY Ifff/NEw YORF 6rntE 1WRNA1 M NFDI[IM r,
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Dx,VM tifi lo ffl Ivaa+>a LL :wawuwHw %+o.. Il.+ano ,Vr D>no+dun Rayoa a41 tVtnoV, IttL l0 2N uW+aa 62 ',aAOwf Iw.m fuawY'+aaaux aD.w e wf Wwaa ol .o!Ipa wf pxua. li[9slp iff) fu»ua it'I uwinu> lu r»11> >.yllfoa Ilu>.p w p.V Ra!loa w/ pa.xi -aq I2A9 lo Ital w»+>a OG ~WApw. ,>n>u pry 'P>Aawf f>n>u ViVVO4~ „oV~/o fa lo »prMa»Y pf 1 ,sal qWryfla».w~f>pn, Vs p+.^a al9a+o.,. ,nAOwu.3 'U19r, »,1 p>LOm +a w p.y xoV, pu. »>lowf w »n»9 Rif.»f p>ull!p .IMpa twMwf w luoy. »pnrWY aV, W,AOwf m P>wo1P a9 DInoV+ 1,VI*VfnaVf lifL /0 20L1 w.»tl OB IA+on a .t9 wl+olweanp ma9 1We.V pauoa»flbaLa+lo„fi/ lu f+aicw. lu n A+a.x u..o ,~+>A4wa Wt W sAODU+m Danq ~,9 ploo4, »AOUn . L4, IVfnPV, 16A91o Aill w»+aa dl '1 raelwoaf!p waw Dxnw ON aAOwr xu+.[!aorryf p!.f ([Bf lo LHI w»»a AL'WAewf +wu 1" aV.w afeVl AwwV 'Raloa HWApwf aw of +ouC s.». L d+i>VS ul p>Aawf p.V 'say»w>Vf tmpniw/ 'uaf+M w fwi r. Vs W..f IA61'1 lo Lf0'II Iwa+,a H9 ',wapueasa+ ..>um iuowY'<wpa fp-low wa Irro9. Wm1uY uwf »n „al wAew. w»+x [e •.<w +aa ,aam ,ww ~r D>AOw, cpna,.ora ey.• afoVl lo'vpea ,m w wl DaAOwf .ywPla,m w.. xovl »,. »ap w tVAy r,ew xoVl •po!»a Ixloaxaaow,,/WInO /afi l0 011 fWAOwf n V p>,n»W aV a»,a f'C aVf ,. Lt'IrHt)ofLllup!rawn,uoaD>s.a»>p+r+>AOw~ o »»a fs'/+yaa >ys »r1Y 'p».>»ap /lo[ la Oal »+aa f I>i!V~'/10C !o LO up!lawmuoa Dx.»a u. A wf lo w,a 11 'Sagpa ,,.ey9 (Rrp +aaa,Aa.a LH'0 qi uov.w>w>lawl w f Iwa,aa tC Dwll»p , u>V1 'Iftbl »9w» ,Q ul 66'0 pu. fAdi nur( ul R.p +aa ,A,ra f6'01 Ra!loa ,VS ,rolaq >I9.x pwnw» »,Aew +ol uqqwmuea xu+rfra RI!.p wl'>M'+rf a, panunupa oV+. a,oyr ,ol+uppawnwaa ,+r>nf!a »np» plp RaVOa ,Vl 'weu,a tab lo n vuparwa w IfdA lo r/ Rxioaara ,VI wyeP aSaw. o+ u.fp uaAaw+uou la w,a 1 u .a~ 'IrAL le rLl w •H tu x pouaaVR~laarsoa >Vr au!+np a,+aAOw, tOL lp rL) w ' lo ».a WI'DO!„a R>iloLa»aMi.>.t-rl saV 'IwL'1 )o fpLi a» U'i2 0+ Px.»»p »ualv.xa 1wAewf 'Dar»a Rayaarsoa Wuow-[ ,Vt fuynd -ILOL'1 lo a82/ ,a 9 t[ or ICOC'1 lo tO[) w»»a 2-ft worl p, .>»ap > n,+a & > 'poxao .UVOO,+a .<•1 , »nti ' >ualr~» a S ~ 11 L+'IwAaus+auu irpuu.V+~ 1[f2/ w>+»a !L Du.:+uAOws »w,ol f. IL691 w»»G Bf '+ra.fow, ,anixwryr p,r/!s,ya ILfD w OL'1 » I+a re~nows lorx,a~.w P. wr9Lp.+. »,q R4v/4, c+ nol'sl »»a fbur.x .b<9 pxxa we(] m .b'iw.•o• V+.;'1 , ba , R .o','uq+ow> .ewaa L~fVNVI. r Du. of e.xv. 'laP*< +aa6'I+u wo69'(p u •raro. MtHlo'OL» atiq~It+C~!" ~r .0 9o aAe9We o + 2- p ourva0 r» ao Ltua W o'OLitl 's LCI'L >Vr l IOC l+ u». ,,.. . or ,~D a puna+6Aare
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Employee Smoking Behavior Changes end Attitudes Following e RestrictNe Policy on Worksite Smoking fn a t.arge Company EvIE R PETERSEx.MD STEVEx D. HELGERSOx, MD, MPH UROL M. G~BBONS. MS KcTNERrxE N CtnCH O MP~HH KAREN C. PITCHFORD, MPH TArre menrN Nnr, rM eorM1°n 6ue,u0 rmoqiN A.M1rviP• rM1antn ane amrv6n of e vrnpN J r.}lo rmpreYn,. x.e rmm of rA..rerol. ~ Ar wrwY rAOwed rA°ae rrw rrcY ~ Jhn rrM1wrne .rev,.e ~'nrarr ro en ~a i on wM1O /ienrrwre r° rmerr, rM1ar iwAe pmbrub nrrekrR m rlrry ro rcevn re e~e rn rrdrtplrz !w frrllnP .AOVr rAr polinDr Fmolm. enly :Pp.mnr I,meArnrneipemm /nenrmok. en wrmee a wrk,lrc ,nrokint eoti<,r r4minerr6. Durint rAr 1•Ywr GrcpWir, pr.iae, , Iint prrwkntt dnrcnre fmn )),} prmnr o0}l.6 prrnnr J,Ar wmpH. Drrrint r r!-menrA rpoerr pnme, rmecm6 Pmmrm.emmwre ro i)A wrrrm. DrrnN ror prrp°lirY prie4 re ump6en em nor rennry dmU entl,r Nem o.PP m aPJ pear pr aerl one frn' ,me4m brrnmre nr Prrnnrl or ermwrn ru arnnn ronrvmc n. DrHN rM1e pwrPOliry prrioe. rovumprlon 6nrraxe eY!} pmnt ro a6> purtr prr deY, rne 1} r/mo w manY nn°Arn drrnwre Nr prmrul w/nme,re ns wmnr~ <on n. Of rM1Ox wno.mwre er x.rr rw perA,ra~ mr. Pi prmm .......................... ,mekrd Nu J~n rAe po/Iry. Ament nonrmokrn, EMOw............ )0 w rAOOtAr r6r Po/kY Aee e paiew A Cennrnmur m omprnrreoprre a rnWrn en ree wrk m.ironmrnr. romp,rcd porr,v pronrerr~N r rot r r o# werA anu. ruAlvprmnr°f,meRrn. Crc. onnenre m t. wni ir,ir m< Po,tlwr arntu er wr MrrA rnE b,.bl rbrylMNk6 an°b bn me1<n, Mt rwuu6 i r m e. ,°.od,rybi1 °nm n u brarn Paemr rnrwn w rmoM1ins In m..'re,karn n.o, orlrtM1n6 br rM PeEl~c N M1 Servin•r rrrl<{ianien rrluhrn rmo\{N /n cA< workNrn Objenio r to, r e Nrrien Inirirriv<i U,}). TM In Si or morr Ann. TArn na<nt wrvry, in6inrr rncre nt r rren<u er rM A,rIrM1 ren,eyurn<n IN rMr 11 IO l6 Pnnnr pf 4urinnu, hrv< rntrrr6
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Assessing Trends In Mortality In 121 U.S. Cities, 1970-79, from All Causes and from Pneumonia and Influenza ROY C. B4RON. MD, MGH RlCHARD C. DrCKER, MD. MSC KELLY f.BU55Ell, MM., JOYI HERNDON.MS SynoP[4 .................................... TFr Gnrrr, Jor Di,rmr Comrol rcreivn rrruy rmoru o/ m r rl.r , nuv, eM m pnevmome rnd nlyrurn.e Jrenrl I}) rnro nne FoF Dr.Dn rnr~[. Em m[.,~ .r[, nr cn[arn[[ [ne 1-,a v k mr as, rm nia,mi r[nD+.in 0i .~ M loc[+inr Sure[~kvr1[rin[1 w.iirr en[ ae ~or ermmr .os.ek [ [I levrl-tMi i,, Irom ,M N[rbnrl Crn sr .`ioXe.IrX kninir, (NCHii-lor .r k[R SU momN .kn rDr [Im[ of /M a[u yev. Evrn d rs !n r r Unirrd Aprm. to aue .p~e.~riwnnr Fppprrpnlrry oJ rF r dn•, ~ rcnm ol morM1 roro emre on ao e[empilre br M c.nar, for a,m,r conrrory morrrn,y rrvnrr. /q i,r,rrm ICOC-MRSI Jrom ID>0 ,FrovrF 1D)D rn,nvr.re nare rrrnm eonve lrom npron,/ rc ronipliQ D,v rM Nvrlww/ Cm- .~lor~AralrFl~Drnrorn wCHS/. M Irnrrc% COhMRS Irrndi M deaF ra lrom an romu pnQ fwni pnrmupnro.ne lMurmn faln.rd pprurn, urnllpr ro rnmr ND.n !Y mwrua4' , k, fm r rp.. CDC-MRS eprn •.. vn.nr.mrl,M,r~nrm, o rnn.<r pur, v In rM m,ionnJer rprr oJ drprF J nm Pmupne brMmtp arwy rM rWrly populawn. Hn~tvrr, Err[nn 7 MrFrr drarF n rcsitlrnn 0J IM CDC-MRS rcpan/y ra s.o ln ndQlrlon ro aFn mrrrrpwnrnr Dwq CDC-MRS drme rno-Jr=m on [nusm pne Jrnm WWmonio [ne IMurnm-roruiumny rmrerA NcHS rrrm lm rM np an. -Mnrrovrr. Jor enrF otr movP, rcnQ, W,etl on COC-.NRS rNrnra en uMrrori- e pJ rM1 re eJ Qrrlinr /n morraliry eD,rrvr1 a[cordiN lo Ntll2 Qpu !r 4 ronduQM or dNPlrr ir, R e CDC-MRS Dro ~Adn maronrr e•r.p. . ewM1 nmrb .ne mrl•I Jor rvidrmmro:irM1y~romm. . XCHS Dro,1[VOnn m r en., WDlanra mmr me Dsra o.'+iV Drn'em W mDk or ar.m amr .rm, m um .vJXeiwfe. i-. n.. sum en.n umir rnr wtuuw[ or mr a.r. DrrM1nP,ainl tk rimr+y CnM1w of [[m[ [mnrn in mr +n[mrw er ainnewien or au.,r[ [r De[hM1 «le[u. Mn Wn o( Y. n. oWl NMrw [urwil6w <f(en, ,M Cevn[ rw Di[r[u Conrrol ICDC) Ll'l_Y':.v'zS
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t.N.a_[/(.ndMes..=I~~rM:v..CAe:vdM.WA Nem.e~ fn kwr M Ue po4t~'. 20 percenl n.xtn Cau 3,a,~ >~~Ha ~n~~a.f. Inlheeur.enymndunndP~rto.mplemenmriun~d Un pnlrcy. bwb nmpbyeen.nd ptient, v.en uked w s~ss~ v.iulenemtbremoknafahenbwhnedfhemafhm er.o n~ai ' ~roe6n.of6lemedkJm Iwn.Tbrm m~ey-, ut emplyeee NdlntM IMI elhe .motn of ~xhen bwhend them. Uf fhe.e indnvdoJ. SS penem k f d N M b k dt ieu t l t e emo n o m.or .n mN fhem e+ ei . m in •• 11e.• . . n n r.ea deal: f1 permm rerponded Jul tM1n.moke o! uh<n did nol bdber ahem. Of Uorn .iw i.dKnfed n/rt^~90 pu..m of emplwm. e ak.. myw/ry. N.I fhr nmcke d ahen hnd .n .d,eru Jkn. !6 .ored thr ~w mukne p.h e. IM. n~ .muken Nliem n pan n n f~,led on vw ~ fnr imPl n u~~Ain~ihe ne.rlv Ihin ngv dentiuld e-paqee noHenri~n n (Fe krl au momA, dthe.nJV ic Ihi.lkwrnble atitode 1} In , ththn e e6e.4 we a,ed nenrlY 1U pertenu8e poim. brween Ni. .mau..n b*unon .pd pro.R'Jiop 0f Jnu, p,ob~~d~kianr~. y./p<0.0011. k gh.udheaduJn. olin eolam.Jbeil~.iJ~.nkei.JY n^•mnk,.anK9.e dinte xirfAepo ble .mJl .ub,.mpkrof 115 palknl. of .hom 4o w~e chmP M tM wnem pl nmu~~nrvhJe mplq e mokenlMl.henukedFoWthinpoli.-.rw)d3ea+ ,wrk.InboNru.wy.. nndlPmonehrJter rhen (.m.. ehdn of n medkJ fu-0iH. 6'+ pueenf mpkmenun0n0fthepnliry..pywimnelyone faurfh indKaled J~u tM1ev ~Id be 4a.11kly eu uu. "vo- of nmoknn mdicued Juf Urcv .. kneer smnk<d moWnefa.il/ry in J.e /u~urr (Lble PI In Wrcr ai nn r. rk.Haux.er,.ppndmaelY.Uperanl .nrdr. tAe m.)u+h d pniknu..bnnmuked iidlnud d ~mokenlMdfeusd N bah the n~~ .ed IAmomh len inJmvncu m uu . heillA e.re fxllsry Iha rwn Ihnl thnb alp.nne aomumpllon nm.ined prohibited.mcl.'neHaver.ofrhoreptl<nuwho unehanead.fferk.iegahemedieJlldl+ryellheend ~..Pre-POliey O 6 Montlu m t Yesr Post-Polley (39Tnal-PO)ley 100 (B9s) (807) 99 t800) 90 N9ae) It60e) 0~ed 0 82 '~'~::?' 88 80 77 76 IIIIIIIIIIIIII ~~ ' ; um a 70 d 60 A 60 b QO u Z 30 ;? a 20 10 , Employees P9tients sissa laao
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#The social epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy among Mexican women Cn.ac A. MotcAnau, sxo, mex: RASAEi L.xuDO-Weoalx, Mo:JOxx P. Etu¢4>xu, wvx; CAxL De Moox, MPx ..npa.a. e. w m n M w wmwy. Mluwrw NuCi.. aoWnoi.rv+ Iu.nronnnmt~~.~naxwe.TMp.wMnuryn . u..rywmm.a ewe n.uw..raww.ryv...w~«r.~ wn.t nMw. M..we. L....wnan wnqMNa pa1M sawMe..NlN. M.~o^ni a~.a..pww+eani.m y«w+..ex~u.....mo......a »... ww~m..n. ne.avetp. rn p.n..wLe....~w~..Mh npnv p w pwn r.mo.w m.~e.n. an.R ~..fx a w.~ KM~w~ ~M~+nIVSeOii.x ...m w v~ep weM.b i.w.e a w ny~u .m+m Vo%..p.nwwwxW Vea/...rap.rau..a.v.wnn .4<q ww~~Nmea mM.,wa xwl..panW pq~ wu aq.nM M.nn w 1.o PwN; .w'wx, w •Mw.M a .wFx. .rw. wln.n .M uewM .m .mMM....pnew.Mp NpM. V 5 O.WS.M I S OAI. mwmnrylew.mx~ ~.eM.~pmw um~w~ro.wa. ~/~pw~we.pp IRS-w~ AVpmlm.uyweOiNM.llvomsnin.E.UnRMSwu N cM14b+m.i.{. w~ntt' .M._.«mdin{ w US {aam ~mnsn v~wl Eex~ii{qe{v^ry TEw{bw~N ekai~ w.n.n...J.bk W~.uw.wmhn.rc littly w M kvWMY M1/xEw YORY 6l/.T[ quRxu. oi xEUIC1xE V
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'Employett tonliEering etJ«I<tive nroking Goli~les shoul0 in5rlture nev. pollaes BroCuony une avph tmpmye< inpur. s t5. fl. 5 m! Mric4s wuMn rAc w'IU<A<rMeli wer4wettm [rOnyYr.n nnm .mekm{ em «. irre`,n t. u~. D F<+rM1e ~ neen D aint < mDltm . pelic! tr ptr 1"li ~•' nmin ~Conn<t,riNr x.a imrcen<hnu.ompt 1986. q a kR k.wr<v« fwm. TM1~apudr a und<r«t<n re dn<rmine emDlq,< r<M smekm! e<n..ior cMnFta I memM B.<kvroDm Ter <o a 3.5)> W mowr.~ .am'mentlea .n <.domte rn wd. In 19 6 Min pe liona orrrM ca[«ria. In 5995. Dsmekin9 twu WeM1ibueJ in rrr< «f<r«i<. < TM luur teW /n e.~ m; mA.. .~e nieMt~.~ ~ nown tn ttl•iao Y s< need rA emmtormulu<e .na ImpN< nUd tM policr Fe mTAe la n policr wu .n <mDbSm <. t9ns. m <r.r<e ro.ena ..:<~o r[e<n..Dm.m~ MI b<n<fnncoua tM <mDleSx<.bun«a, ro reau« omDlalW mek<. <M u li(e Inau«n« eomptnY.a« Drel<u . poairive MaAA mye. r or m< Wes«m, Smek<« wtrt ono<a sso tw <r rnr m nolen or iarl .mokint n aoriM mr Dtriee stpr<mb<r Sv9s y w9a c:o <n ml<el. n bpeaY i <BAOU{n utmokin{ emDbS,u vealunmeereabreDDroviee c DuM m qoDno amoYen r<9ueudk/t M <dx•, Wetnw <nJ r av em<x pMittn DITM [m~oy«J.e~'nen.~[o emM.in<.bom rAt x peucyi•em Wafhn. U PDFU imoRad<m eayn«m tmot et5«~n, a Mr rn<n tM tmwina peM. wmmotinF <mMo«<a temqalna W u. pesurt m[i{<r«« tmok< rrom . SmokiM IouMe tauta owtiae tne main uf«<eic c.ir. Nemmok. <ra ao oemain xnkn smolinl x'ts lu<enromp ed .now A<•mt re a<e mort ein. r tanbinLi MeSnoat telr.romDlerta, .non•meus puea~ienncire infermubn eD Wrwntl eemetrtDnit cM1U. ou ~ ~iM NuWf.o• riruen tbow ~nSF<m r. Ov« r< amfbulee uokW WN m< en Mutn 36, rr9W ro [mple.rin{ tM c p.ne c r«'Jiue 9uitk « ~rruqion of u<url ctrMriea,uto n<a Ou toll<trea 4 tM n/<«riul<.1« na a~tM<<a rn< .e)«eM <m kin! Ieun9e, a emDloy«< tneN fooa.n neDiacuuiem m btror< rn<<.~ •meim<a rn ewn .mDei<5« .na n mok<n . re rka. ro nc ~ . hcru«nfooa a ne tMr<ra r lot<riomit bi tM vmm<e'ar<<vitiniO~rTMae tnoeJM re <e<mple« tne 9uenionntlre Yrn eouM r[rurn Ir rMeu9n tM comWrmnron on t.llv ery<nn<eomumprVen a.a e<«a u«loi«.11` Jn O.S.prh.WrAU' Ineeeu fer tM D<rues pf 1<nuu5 r985, 1 y[ pefw<rAt /mDUmtmuion or tA< pel'uv; D<temb« I915, 1 monrA De/er< tne policy:.na M<«n 1986, 5 memM1a .!r« rM1< polit5. Btc<uae au eentumpn b« w« inL t cil.rurr ompr r« m<~m m b< a<I«. rronr'Id e«M: mtr<fen.k~n< { rM mldpelnr 0 et e Nai««a romumDrion cu<te«'. Smok'mF b<Nv'ror ncM< av a<;«minte fw tM 1 Wriee btro« tn< {mpl<mm«rion pr rn< polity by comprrint rA< «<ponan lor 1<nu<r5' <M Du<mb<r t9as, .na an«minm mr m< 5-monrn D<aoe .n« an< Im 1<m<n«rwn br <omDtrm{ r<t Rt<mEer t995.na M<«A 19/6. Be<.u~< tr«r~e umDnbn aru x <oll««d tu< ictMY. nk<a k~<mw m5 Dta,FWr ety .ewe S.a nte m wir tma1M in wxr te e< ~
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Effect of a Total Work•Site Smoking Ban on Employee Smoking and Attitudes ~~ .neBmoniNM ay.f++ ~'Y..A.V n. .emim.e . % .ec.r ` aao .n ii w s aa .. .,,. ,... ..m> . A.~. a... s~...,. a.....~....... ,..m,.~....a n o....n ~.. ~.:~;~ wu er me~ ..y.... as..mm.w .en m e..mm. m ws w sew raro mn.m a n ~ l ....r ~ w~... a.. am...w w~wM.n<.... ,.M...o~..r......a~.......... ~cipe uaapm.oa'.e. a .. o a~a~: s .........m,.m~..onw. ..r Ell.et o19mMkp S.a an Empioyse SmoYhq - ~IINUW t(91tre . J.Cksen 5195A 1869 ,
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p H ma"-.yl ^.Y b reYdeP pY <PpYd~ b-mwDUS~mel speciatreport One-Vear Longitudinal Study of a No-Smokinp PoliDy In a Medical Inatltutlon• 4onc.d c. aed:,mhi. Ph.D.: aM llwv.d D. FnUUh,.u.D., F.C.C.P md A .ruY. uMrmd ro . e.Nh .. x:m ~nlr .m nm+pae- ~mie..mmd.. ~ei~.mok,r«. .rt MY+Id.w .d .ek.+ aen nae..d plirc. a m.Hw~p.'~a~eu,alemPMn....P bn•~• mplmen.M brbn.nd.Mr x./mpkmen. m .nn+d.Arroluym.mPlq.r •MOpen.Med eue.xan .hv u~wken[ wn ebirdb>.nm~n~nn K+Mdelro w.a. Wd.dminim., a~t nawln w~. w nd iAeb+rinxee'+enn'n .~rt eL.SwYemyhqeew.edrt93 n.rt yA..iel.v. Dw ,.eswn<a.nw«.R.~b»:rb merr....x MwAO. xnd.• .mplmns.na .,n. Nw..nar,.ma.:.marorwA.~mw<nerA.n W Wlwfry u enn olkuWe: +m+D. rye w.wk ~ ef rYe+ vnbkm, miYdnF W ne~.r.A.. M~mnrb w pmm d..rl.s+.+..d 4nW rAe yd'q b4w b bnynow ud.m. ylm.r IemumYf 4wM x dwsA rM n.r .xn w ~0AY10sm.eW aeuDeew .0.ampknu..nY wPdddOUkeu.mFkwrNYnp4q.b Me 6W nr..r. t. praeer et n+POeJnn b2ienrd Yx +mnke.llprnw.mdMlnmrM~na{MdVn Rr 4 SAxpWr.d.naen.rMbeee6.e/.nnb+lam m`ebq yell.y b. r.xk nu. vM1rb. «raee mu >....AdmW .Pem.Y w wke nnrean +.rwrlr mr m.a:uw Yw .mpq.e. Puken, W+ue w1ro,n.. +ma.r~d.m+n.mrd. /cArn saw,We.w.uPaf nw fhe brn +,uwiul +line pol vv - when d.eud in 1BH. 11 penxnl d.du4+ B.d ki .nd dd<r mdrcued rheY.'.n+mokm. in 1Poi, rhe L'S Olfiee on smeking+nd neJa natlonJ+mrey indKned thn rAe o.enli.motine nu m the Unxed sufe+ dmeued t.om 96.1 a.i0.. penem (SRA ro or edileriJ wmmenf na p•s. lwi st.l mdhon.dulr+)tnm Iwsto IBBS. Mlhwshthe+e d.u +uggeu.+hvP dee6ne In .mubrg, fbey dn od ind~e.u rha rAe W6en smwnR +egm<m ol Jw mokin0 pcpuhtion x peopk undn ti ie.n d.0e. o.er Qe pul4u yean, rAr hWY, nmuqueue+d moWne Mw m+Wlzedw rhu, d Pn+ent+moking mm~dend Jn m.)or prcnnuble duu d de.N m.p. Lnd "ubihry fn Nu mumry. - n+k pennuEk Lenr fo~ ae~om.y Ae.n due.d,.nd Iln m.pr use MemPAYUw.lenp awnr,.nd dber (wm+o! s.. rc+uil of Ihu dr.m.ne.u.uea AeJ~ en uni~if.:~i.~l, r[bn.WnxrrtMnr prwlden wlueteer AeJY~.genae5 Pnme emploY~ .nd hdrrJ. +uu..nd kW so.ernmem+ Aws en+Wxhed +mob.s nNknen. Jmed.o Plmxl nen~ moken tmm eapmun m roW.eu, Tbne rcNk~lon+ .nd Jungn Nen ue p.rueduly b+W Pn evMend +uppcning the pu+l.e +mokiry upmsnt xdumok nnpo+edmmb+n +moke.bmrb.vuurydm+k Wuknu Nx .&n Ae+Fh n b vLLv4ed M rhe sore.on De~nW'+ aeped oe'Ibe aeJlh Conwpuend+dlnwlunuey Smding,1w6.' The QAmn MedaJ in+nmtlee+ (Ne. Orkan. lalh..ebeen. pnmeAeJlheve qwMnr Wwcdias N4 AeJlh ri+k dsr+xue oM dom founder.. dlun Ocbmsr, 6n1 rtponed rAe.mf.aoeef+nnldnyud lens wnen p k0%.~ Mme nnnty, re A..e a+ub IuAN ow d We 6m AeJfA we wnfunw poFeu. Wf edomd. wmPlsAm+hs nmpuwsde +neka fm mwmnmeet IsewLpup.mluNon fhe.ewe qysbYUy Npnent wYl by pby+kYn .ppmJ.l h aos•tionnWe wu med ie oswue rtun.de. Mp~ /mykmenuvior. d Jn~m meHn{wpo4ry. A+pvl d U. ow+mnlwre..+Pn16W1Y..kN ew klbWn[: 11954 1838
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r Yeu.n~m~ WIV ef eMY4Neluc. v P.ex elE m.nlr nr..nmb. y..... . Pwr el! y e~.pHtp.ekblun.tMwul.w ry. bnele .. ro. m uun .xe. el evmm~m..M.. l. nen ree m.r 41. ~i.l s.mrn mm.. !9D Ell.clo/6/nnMin99PnonEln9Urle9mokiny.nE~IIIIUOet/6Ur.{JttkPen
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.. equ,.. a tb <mokiM b.n bv bdh u.B .nd . E.<Fmn<IUdedfM1.,.m.amnkmgpoluyc.n b. ~,md<m<m<a J a i• n,n pknnea .na .vpwn<d bf snH Our Rnd~ne• u• in um.d++tA tM• mneluwuA JI bnynvdinal .urv<Y. a uvdyl bd~ng. mpe.edb.f pos.ibiFrytAn roikd k<f mar Am inAu<,,..d tAe n.nin. rvdi: .e9ve m.yM1..ev trtedemplw~ p,~a v.n< ~n~nR. n. thi. „h.,<,nxu. ~rdmn.~op,tte wynu rm< nnM„or.n .n.v«n.<atn<pnu<r O„r oing P6ye roldwm d~.+dval,fF npk.e makirya nA. e<been „nA<rfut ngfoA<th.mn8v< «d<mDim.. ntud<.nth<. fhan poli<• uelf Sfill.mthe.fxf .Yb<the ,wiv/ trcnd.1n mva. poned br .Ae form .anC<n<.J.Rn ugpiMafA<my runonal e uf-nt.Dk de.A.nd dlubiinv moking parciu and J~u. e.m.ng pr<v.kme ,ro.kDl.~e .nd In h<.IJ, c n 8:aihne ui.r. m..b•'< dramuk mnsryueme.. Th<y rc.J tn~...ledge a h JJ, .Ws .bout g<d in smok rq u .e beh..wr. Drohibuwn of.mok/,µ m.y A<Ip Zs ..duuh<D<er mok<u,d,aon n<Ir. ocnl •u rllorr mokin{ .mokng ~pnF<u eovld, n faN. tAe . <f . mnk<~ on .naioeM<„<eJlreivr<x< mokne pniw. npidir emer8in8Smn e.adrcn<d ud impkmentrd our. JI FWth <.n (.nAUes in uv. rommumry h.a impkm<nt.d.imitu h<n< Smnk<n .ompv<nJr .n p<mfnng iitk eMi« in finding beild, <.rt pmnA<n wAo Dnmu mok,ng +nhm wr rommuniry Thx b 6<eomi..g . owne.nd n.tionJ nma. ® S mokmg pu, icf <. m.Y A..<aA<r .1gnlRmi 6<M 6u b<rond m< n<If n.m-frt< potm < d,r«ay imp.nsun emdm<n by a...<.nne tA. <.at,~ unm <mdnn<• whn.mot<++m.<.De<t m seaindit« ..bom.Dnnfer rns<d heilfF ure utiiu.nen .nd AigAe. heJtA Imur.m< nlCi<.riy, no .mok<n .nd .umok<n mry b< « v<n<a <n k.or .ma;,u .<..nn,nnn n nwfn. n> .A.nge m beh..rvwr.nd aeen thelenefik d i<duttd AWd, n.ts Opinions of.moken.n npM<d to b< ku fawr.bk tw.A. rc•tru<M poliry Jut, tfurythmg. 4 imm~.eni<nt. Smnkm m.Y.RVe tluf th<r lu•< rk leul to eun kcm . irr.moline Dauy ~nd ther v< rJu<a <mplo>«s .he .ho.W nn b< mm (mmedWJi.p„ t,epaiay.5mokn8uu,undeur 22611,11 wd. myo.pmentabk eav.. <f d.nF and :.na wH ~...g<~ a~<n alDk qtdke+ .u .moke.nano mnk.cro)toWbr Na•<~m< v.d awlur p<.io.mn.« JOwN .~< un.Gm.«aiy .vDDO.r nonsmobq <~n. U ai. <nd... Drv•'id< .nJrem.b<go.<h<.mok<.-.nog.du_m.in<.mpos u, e°h<rt Uw.<wDO.n,nk<um m~t J,<n«a nf tAUrd<peMen<y-wAn. a th<..m<nm. ne <mph..macng <...nwn .nd .mokiq tn.tm<nt punt ineiudmg grovD <cun.eLng .nd niaanne r<- m M Jnnry. In ronNurbn. v,e .tmigy .dweu< th.1 medf W Nnifmfons .Iwvid uk< Ne kk u r<.pon.ibk Dro- pon<nta a.a+omeduJ Daftr by urnn[.n <r.mpk 8or /he Wbii<u u rckte. so F<Jd, prt L.u<. Ni h..< tenN ..w.mobne po4ty and fwnd x to b< de.fnbk k. r ediW mantunon uW for the rwn.mobr.nd.mok<rJik<. F[.[n[xcu wum•mHpnmuw.%!:r<nwJ•a..im mxa/opnn ~m Om,.wmn. sa cea.we.~ Mmn M.n. ren.Mr Iw geuksAen.. [mpF..•.wbr.adn Wv.,r Iw n.n+•,tx•.vyc[wwms<maiv ie.•e,an,l..-LD feed. u e u.w< xn. xm .[. c~lon <. iryw C[. uupn ..C.1tr •em~ ~ur auJ~N W .n.~hn~kelw~dm M~. Iw.~, Nwmn d..Wry p.Mxnv. pJ.y w. n`o.[.r,n [c, ouro ag k,.na o~c.d..R Dc, Mqwcl Ikr..u~d..ws.Rw <a.dmw. MNn D Yryn.cW..uk1.c..p..ud.nN. RnAnMilPmn. nnk n,n...M.wt. rq..uxd x NYMn g. kM,~ 1n.nms w. M.Ia...,nw+M 51 2
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The effects of excise taxes and , regulations -on cigarette smoking lercrqw.::er,n,n•• Willsra G. Menning Aoseph P. Ncwhousc lohn D. Winkier mrm.n~e. r Tne .csvn. nem o.<. rA.a e¢.aa onnsarcn en ~n. n.a~~n cenrryuarce. nparnte .mokinp h.re be.n . nishinl. kaarng . former suey<en Gen..,N N iA. Vn~~W S~nes io ron9We Nei unok~nl ~r'tAe chid, finlh
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o..m.r+a aw.nvs m'.c.a ~~ . =u~m 311 a ~n m-:m onlops~icrcp<ssionaiWSes. muople krytis rcpeu:m .n.y+'o ind~u~e ma~ smok~<~g ¢ .<W^^e {o4ryrss <NCrve N reautty rtp-nv<apuurc~os ~FwwY~rtY m<v~a~ro>r mo~sam ~wqppu ~ Fmp~oyen 4.v<i~ a< amok<n rli.mmpamy's~iry nM.yT•paFellsan~ma.Jilqp~n wtiM1ryqun<nwkFOdue drt pl+y~ brtl W up mpersm a upRe W<~ nwagen, 9 Rn<m ol Y»'v K+tl iwna~:~u:R ma~wn<s.<nro In <ad~nm.ll] aJxs Px Rxrtn9 Jia weyr.duvdNe wmlera2y Ne p~<Y. rciq~w~+a~~m.w.n JB pe~sni el eeponanu mrtsi.+dsmYVN Rss.MN.~ m.naLymok mbwum.ukwkqq~Rea~uK TYU t-teq.n W~.4..'MWRV Cnx~.'.m<.1TCwLY.YN. w Mnyi` ~~ ~ Mtr~av/N . ~ nM+rMV./OM.M . RACO xM~.q01Y DIS.L1p xapp 1Dq urunN'Mfao~~ mN! <¢ Dicuninn w0+dwauv<vMwsue rtn a Jx RRm wn m ~U<°~n e man<M M1 W n a<. u< <.Rrca pw.~n~ wM1 n~< a: rt s p,~. pee~...^N.dtli[an.<x RRmIN Weyo4a.Ctasam WN.'uM1NtnnusapYR1- rcmnW<na. um<awnehp<Ri..d .v qutiry. M nx rmn RrvnRiFg F R Mnrery~NawsmdiF<be. empby<na kM re~vwRene mM~~du< :nM1wmRRmJwnq+c~.n M1~n n~yNacmea. bi mm <nM w. pon W 8] R~m .p«mm b.t.n.n rt- otlauwVinewwm>unW W bngibdwl «wrda.~~ wusumuu ef uroYNO R,uiien.u x.w a.eu.n. v ~anc«.+m~~~. .mpur:.~m~r em.mparoY. <eau~cn Yu«vn..M' x Rwrn~ n.W.<smFrc.ann<p. pby~wnn<dkna<emp•mann mWngnuaw M1bn vu WgM1<~ wn F uuWeM1N wn~ .fN<N'.uenw~mm~p<mo. ~mmnwluvssdnwwwd 6om p:pJn'~bu~~<~ lMU Nd'mFd'dw Nm<utin n. p~u htm nudks F trL F ort «ninp, .I:cM1 YwM cu uMion<kp !<wnn mwYNO W46<t W <ns<ds'. FWVgs un<ui•pmyn+.ppyb nMr utti~p;u/W<nhhLOa<u~m~ck0µ ud m.cei a< wJwdrt yaup ma<iuiskluNbWryc ~~I< 0 ~Rp~Y, ~ wqa<d M mm<nm<m .ro vmnw+Fd M Rw uiond.m. ~~~y~ qy«a. O MlmnnlMpnm4 _ eae w wd~i e~kT .~<mrade~Y- i r Fw.y.w~.va.m.xw.x r+<eobvwanarcxe.uxm
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.qM. VNUme ]5. «omper R. i<!w<ry 1993 Ser Promoting Smoking Cessation at the Workplace Results of a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study Glnrfen Borensen, PhD, MPH Marry Lentlo, PhD Terry F. Pechecek, PhD W ` T~x,pnn urti ~mmin{ innn.mpf fmnnimrapuson <ROro. FirlO~ry <na Piurehiv' m m«ea W. 65.SR of wwt .irn witM1 ni, Dnrr• y,e,rm, rr,no,l•n-'n n prdrmrnn.f,Aar.rrrm xo.k.n,r mrer. nudeornrrdor,rnokrngre„mrnn.Thelmonrhrnrenrmionlnrludrd rmvhqrronln. rniDiorrr, on rhe qdoqion 9/a nommokingDOlicYrraining f. mohen pro.idr qni,rnnrr io ,moko, o,+rmqin< ro qvir ond nn rlc„r,f •,mokrr,. fiaAr xo•krirnJnm Blwmrngron. Minnr,aa mired m rhr ,ruEr and randomlr a„ignrd ra qn inrervnuion nr r+rmpar ~on rondirron urrr. a Aa,r/inr runeY lall emD/o,~rrx To anv Ue ~r o/Ne inrrnrnrron. amokrr, were rumyed 1 ond d mwrh, hr. rhe omDle+rd Ar rM 1monrAfoilaw~uD. Ne ovr•pil s iYprarPe n rher n+menu'on g.ouy xar l1%rompa•ed ro S% fn rAr romral <.05). Ar Nr 1 mon+1 /ollo+~uy. lIR o/,mokr•r in 1he imemruiw grouy Do•+rdqvinine. ~omDa.ed ro 9%in rAr ronrrdgrouD(P<.051Cowrkrr o•+I • qrorring xo, hi8her rn rhe in+mmrinn PovD cnmyarrAlo Ihe ° mg•ovDCrs,minnwq,hfgherrowmllnmong+mokrnwhmrro xn•ker,/.rqurmlla,krd rhem na ro rmokr pnd omong tAmr xke xrorked x-rrA a M1igA p•ayonion I non,moker,. TAe,e resulrr indirqir rhur p rAwr~ mvlrJ rrred +moking nr,o+lon prog•om implemmred In xn.k rlnr r~ on.n ,mnking rr„nrron .mr, m xrn m me xmx.riu ro.m, qmer ,mokmg rumwimm.r °° ,.roc°" ,~« a ~ s f ~ na ~ wn.a.«rm~r=«a«. .u Epkw_.K Cwnq, ; wo ~ a «ow'wnow.rA enxmnmr.m «nM> ,< e, •m•„r. i 50 n mort empiqen Na en or ra.reoun mommion.m.. ry. Th mun, or N<ir turveY indi- uua W, rmokiry nw n qo- < f<irlr mmmon <niNtY ~e N[ss work u«r. wiN 55.6f rt portin{ Wr Uey oReretl wme,>ye of mrokin{ a«vuon or <mokinl mmrot woNm rtnn, meuwrWSSU n• < '~30ronvolleanuainofwor4wermotiMna.uonqoP<m4<na load Un Uuse pro{nmsnn ne [ifwnous' SmoWn< n„nbn prc -~ me m.Y elw wnar mrc re:.mnmv arromi~Nn nch rmpm>x[ x5w <mnkn oon, Ms n Mr rmDloyrr 5960 qr Yu. in n~ nmmm. . m[rtrni Tnrnnrnorimrr.<naon[r. rorn m<r nr <nn,nna wnm umm mulunmuAYn iMi.iao<It Vouq, <ed eu woetm[ envnonmrn,, Nu. qo.idiry multipk mpperu for be- bNON cMn{r.'a Clun{n In tM wwkrn.iro urMOU{AtMim- wrmrnm~oi:~.nrmnuuwr . m<y 1un nsk dimr7. <ucn .. ny rtao~n{ npnurt ,o <nriwnmmul tobvm.moke"d rommokin{ Dd~ irr m.r <kn pro.;de mamnmmm urppore,o Mdnidwlr wcmqfn{ w cbµr Ma1U mYW neMNon." kolm enwuairtnea n inairiautl ne W.ion<eA N[wqkm.iwnmem<n ~w mnrt rknr w inm[nn N<w~u r nvran{ . qnirni<r neuN beNVior. lni. qpn deerrihs. prtlimin<ry Nmanm inmrrrnuon uudr .imN wiwm{ < wprom.r mw;mnm[m rer.moknn m wir. Nmn{n qomm
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1
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Effects of a Worksite Nonsmoking Policy: Evidence for Increased Cessation .:3lAI8.6T<RNC-T ..up<x®vMon wunsymm~w.n<r.emmotine PoiaY `w* md<mmW u s;,~ae Tav^¢< cao' ~w~< ux<r e<ve .wY~ m< r4e.y n"`.e qw~ ~4; a mmm a qwi. uN ~ papp>~tiot~ ~peu~<vW Uze rro npc ~e u puotlp<aon u Mur ymwi.m~'~m~ 4i+BPx' Qmr oe on. W+ 1 NsLr Neauntwl.e).m:-xu) Glman $wsxum m . MYN. Narcy Rjgmr( MD. AnyFar<.. pAp, )y~n M+ry, eMkqR31<, MD Iwdumon .+w<m ~e rws.~ . .n <e.p<e we<~rw~~~<e°<hm nwnw w w~ By~paii<~ nn.Mwnnw w ~~nW nau¢. ~ onsrJSu u ke.+e<~~Iw~ymumotintpoeou Nuu~etinenw mMi~6 ul me¢ finamg ~o a Mr ton~Gmp~, wEiG <mpl~q<Y wrwm+ueiWwY n xM smdvW. &NUVfK 5<p<mx< .u n<nneA o, mNer. YurmuuW¢svina ~iu <M 4uyes. On Mum 1. r466, smoLLywu ym TnW F<Owa4 mcl~Wy v6silu~oQ.e~ SmoL urps wur.quvnd Im IB rMmqtM1eOOYd.Frt<r<omik ~ .vq <W<+mn« <ne4me wu.r ¢~ <n~.no4m4 e<r Es+¢ V< me qu<fry. MnhN< E.nqoy«. w n<y<n m No YAI. TM ¢bnpr.innurcd vmmmP<ny.utl ymous wmy wu Eisulpuua mwN w < w.ulu0 ~uJmm s<n. pkM ).SW <mN^1¢s.'v.4d'nY MSmm µ<n/<Jpmeud~¢Mwiw, W xa vnnsnN<krf ¢1.uQ). <u (Ll Frmnl p+n k.N m.n.een. W l))/...9 p<nnq oyp<r ~e.<I m<ueen. T)u o..r<E mpw.e nu wu t.3 perv ¢m(N.1~911~Pb¢m ~ mm kwl m.p vµn ~I4~ruyoreeswpn<n. e .~aev~<Wql~ynysoeemlueio w <uqo~<e.mn<n~M ~.ms~.o~ p<m a<m~ww<nuwso.~u<a x.emmn~:. pd-¢<~eawtlsmet'm{aO+mm wen ee. 4¢durM<wmsrtmW<nwua Yur rou t.unu .~n N ue pcury m d<e~Nm< smctini <'Bne~~. <nmmury<rs.K.nvw..~aMmm qw¢. mpcnxnu w«<utm sNn w qusuy~nwmt va ~wnm4 uun. 1)u~nrul~ ¢qn<n qjep vu~r <.er <~ ~m%ie<r<u<e rt p4 Nem~uy pbp+n!¢am~o 4)~e a: ~<e~.)nn w<n <.n~ ~i TAT. u<>my.mSYb i ~ wnx<a~~¢«~n<¢~nd<.nvn. amTMki.qerWAa)¢aon nsr«¢w<w w<nww<n wMn ~My mx x¢irF'¢<ao. w4 NiF< ~ mn bY~Bq~unu 15 m„tin,e<n.is~or y<mn~ m nN<4<n.M s: pemrv m ~<rx <~A.n<nn(m~wwn.es.a .o)LUrvuvs.BOnmmqummM• I)LIBRr¢mNlqui~IwnkwNUe n<mobni<uwM ye<+uNn<vexws<4<weblsRar reo~.4vi4~p•aen~ wsia.w~.ew&s ~snmi's~iln.¢i<~nmw M.Mm~¢eu aaue~ W.wm)nrvnn<x s~nMas~unsuw Wt3vy~~ epaay.s<N.axGwemn ~N.m'eUn IvmY i.uu<pq Iwt`. ~w ~rn<¢ u =r<ebwneras.kp<ne.+B.)wo. 51954 1860 iw+nv)x).Ya<),Ne.t
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Implementing nonsmoking policies in the private sector and assessing their effects Gl.oalwn Soxetvsen, pno. npx; T[xnY F. Pecx.eEa. Dxo rq penex..n ewp nnN<m.m.a <~..rvqlYln.o:<.n<..creuln.<emn.Y.TN.nw-s.e. ron<eah:np Nmmf~en. Ew'ny< M np poncu. «<n .m<ry aupvon ~ ~^^^rmot%p penex<..<.<p<qary n~pn <mep .mplpeltllx.y~ npMwpMpn~..w.rlwppenraMe:c u<Ixn<n<mpu. w.wmen a won<nwx... %'wlma n,rvpmtxrowrotbq«MM~1M rxr sxx d <rw..n, n:«-ta/ Pubu< wuan pmmmme non<moMne m.. x<n A<.aa<a wasmMatl.fumn. WiUtMrvrpem6rn<nl'<tla- I<r<tion a tb< 6«I o( < rmok>!ne rMnr AY tM y«r xooo.~.nd.im mopmMp <on«rn.bwnb<rmi~w m<. s or smeklnt «s<nicn nmm .ImM u tb< i:Wmid. r, Ponq atwn<Jnr m•<r«<i.<a M«mr,ne awn. on. in ,ddition te r.dunng nommoken' «psuee w ucaneMntl smokc. Wblic nen.mokiry Pelici« <r<lik<ly un8e mntion bY diminirbing tM,e<ia.ewpt<bilky `f,mokin8 and <nA.n<ind Wbiic <oPPOn lor nom < Qu,it< /or tA< impl<mcnutlon of,ucA policim b rA< .«tpla«, M«II r<unJy wmkpxv polide w<ixLL <«cd primarilY to Ilmn d,n~er to ptWU«s and eqvip ~• Empoy< lizing «h<r.a.,nuBU M m<nm kin`<po^iei<s~<irw~01n8 <nA,n«mem ef tAe wmTMnYbWdA i lon aB<:,cml-fru;~«bvuGtbrih Yer<mp1eY<cs.AO.e -4<rr,ntlueed«• wm« <amW so Bba<nt«um. diubility,.nd A<~hb «n tan'rl~u L~tion from tna<N Id</ rviu rvDWrtin6 vonsmo g . .bwebi<su<wr<Aewminy m<ry «. rm <aoW« a nonsmomu Daia« 4in m< reo<nt NNierut Svrvry af WmWiu klohh Prommivn AttIMf :W<cfvunNOl.erWit<srithf0ormvn<mmy<ecr<po (A ~ <tom•<InownokivSPo4p.Tts wiN <pairy In<1un N qtot«lion of ~ons. R<BS rel<u af t romqnY', m«natien to impkBmem ive<mok:S, 'liey' W«oNYVmwdeMr9bYr«ui<t.na xb.~nnt nut~ ioitay~ro~wp«mqor« aJrwm TGU preu.uctionn nudY mminM <motcn•.nd re mot<n' alirpd« wnrtl wrksit< nonsmoking 0 liria .nd rb<r<I<tiaublR of M<w mtiwda to «ci<I rw bout,motin`<Mte<metint«n,ticn.WeAypetbwized tba wwk<n mwl Mwmtatl <mett M wiuMB <M rn<a.mm m<bul~e mk, er nt <+ome e~ o,«nitay to t...r.«trh<nommouny poua>.,~w, pwP«m mu arai.inp rt<.ert <nmr«:mmt., wo-« ~ uwvi twkoeamouw.r ~ily.n.. b°Qeype~e<. <uW tba<moYlnpow<JOnrwlabepe.irrar nlaW ro .upPen ror.«mn oemmouns Dora«. SMUP~tln<MpuC.F<m m< Tb.a.u. r ml.<mMaWa4muT in ~ntYm ~ r~um urly l« w W Nu J~n~pr~~prN~n ~~ iameN<.wnurW vwn Wo 1}W <n11mm.<kN. W <mNoY<u.m.wu <n k<u~ u°w urN am<mwc PNnms. w W ell<M sM+n< ~p~vnY 4 r~4ew smwv. h ue snwk W.u1u a,tl mVloy®,t J< w~.nn~Fi<MS~m<tamq«w np.Ma wuYa.. n. u T.eJU.d~ia.~ire a<vaafrJ<W/nmmouwaWmok'w< ~wr:'rx^n~a Tenmsebl~<V4: ~wmPels.wn~~uV~aP~ekur. ir°P~ nwrr.: mr,wawlu.".:'.aaw~ wm~.a<n<n.,wwkarrma<nwa..d nn..wmm.am°m'0~°°"rWO°bN vuxwm"~°xw.'ew~: IB«vMr Im/xFa rotl 6kAtd rWRx/.k oI YpnicMF rl
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BmvtrqGyyepi Aamwswer<[.cenm w.°Ne mWeyu ~w nne Ont w Uvn..mpkyn eiet)en u.d..rvu of Ue pqley pbyn nwqwl.u.°I.e. pwnlemeEVt U~ °Uo MrpWi ~ pkmenuuvnatbN.d- ktw. ef.moh°t iw..aua.n~ntwn~tww6wooUGp.e•kd b Un nn~ty tl.din~ Gnkrw°inn ~lewt.ntylel've~. ~fntpo°Ifey.Greondmoma~ ¢.~e u•.nGw.°u~ m uns xn :br..ro. +mo•,a n°~i.uen °f..m°uN n.n. M.¢end.no nwn~.m wwam°°~°r°n. ro~.nt¢mutnmpu.tnk.wt.m.ma rol p m.y M.. en.1M . mnieu u Ue PMinl mnpwt a mewtn°te.e.u~ibYnly .4mnnnt Owttef.v.reeM.mewyM°e°.mNUt ILlud.vmbeeteU..np° Npbdnrdie.yAtlMJebw P~N~n~• LTIMne'. Gnk.,. t>% t~ .ur.evM e e Impl m.nuuen e! ..meu~4 n. 888 ffi.ctplBmpYN48annn8mqpY.d8meh4paMA1NU0e./84wtJpcYppn ~ 51954 1813
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wk. MEUniaM N tM .eVmponM mWa~ntw.u..Drtm <omdunn.,m rn.m ~ .e.~w~ m... mowr.r,..rn.,nme.nt.a~lY~r .ne u.<rk..re eD.<r..a m w.m _ ~'hnpleme on.WMindk.W Wt b. .',. t;n:.;rt d W.mewnY poCry. A devement N tDe nvmber d uaa..+n. WfubWiunvNeN<rJeuri. r.eom ~ numberdelp.retu..mekMeuDd.y .. /.,,, Dkm mvw. AMr W wunien v w r:w t oY.,au: a~w e:e:e~e mm.. ~ •• OD..n.flon. W 6mexinp T.DIe Y.mwve. Nµe.nnpe dup' by.Wft.M vuibn~ u pDueivrt W fWOwu~p A [ ~Md dd. m.eilal)'. h Nd Ne AiPAeet .eVnponH.moMinP prtvJ<nn bvN9r6n t~Wexur W ub Y.2a u lollw--upA rlunnpRni~.n. M Mest nLLnparW .mokH me'~pudu ve4~utt. ndnNU~x Ne wWnumberdpeepieDnuMintDeu veudur'vqNe6monW JurNe .meke-(nepe4ey.Tlnelrett.heverer. Am-tiM,.nd W numMndlm mw.enw p.W W e'.k~ns. w r. tumedteD..etinsknh I yeuNer W weke-M1ee peliry w wti.W. 'Ifie of.ul(.ed wltw. wNY W wt PP.nu rtm.ivd emuunl n td~ ClquluMmnMpouM..M NoapMlflm TDk] amwufu.Ne.nntebiN riy.rttu Dvtt rounu M1em.Ntny..t d rq.ntu..mokM Dn bY uid u dmw bDbie.. bunp ud k DY hb uuryry. TLe mwDer d .. A radvttien tl BJ.f4 M W nYUnu.mokedperbydemuedNtWmwuwebarredNNebbby JtemplewepnuD.durWpviiryw .vMnu.nduttiend%p4w mrnW.Be(onNrpotiry,rvpmeDrerndinUe.+ninpwudurinPNe ~n o w<nnissane„.un.m¢fv ' rw.morsneWWentw amoMm.Mrw.mw.-c.<wlia. urdla'u% WnumDevrdeiY.ntu.perdqWN. Miiw.urari.fiwmwdMNW T.EIe l.umm.rve. W uW eumber L.Yen numberdtlY.ntu..mek<d a munber M rlryetu. eatmPW.AK .
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Srury Danems ma....a ~ ~'(. < M), Bre4~d.man[ ~uxea r lf~) e..Wn[.1. tML.~m.Ne[ wtnn ^e(.n .ne rakY([). asruu ~eaeG ot 0'.~Re.'tceDe v.MtyeGmva.ci e! Nw~.J deue .mo..n ae~umpecn~'1n~mn...nw.n4 eGeewumr`enoe~`ne An I,umD4 e.e% w t^e cunent .m.Yen araaB a.cmv.na .1 e N.aR .pnran. ~Y aas~.. *mnr.... v.*nw .r.m...n N u,. u aka d.nr.emw+w .nu [au .r.m...,... aoc.r.n...n ~~`dw. r•`w.ue uiwi ev. ew.w«mm .mv.»a am.asA ~aAS.•w 4.~y w p.~ ..m.Yma n...a.. a.rm[ m. ..m. um. nmw...:j asa n wrr ~b.~n . Iwwerryy 1.a6.a foxlf tob.6.a 1a.6ae.a .a.ta>0 9.fx6. iwma o/ OccupNiana M.ElokrtryqBm.lf Ne. a/AuOkN 1.1 !aT
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mor< m.~n,n nen..ni~e, rm,nr..i~n rne <aRo- m ~.mm~ inomee. ronne aoDl. ur~ re+me,n. maKira aopl,+mob, inr m,n mer..no,ra nm mar.~ a ..:. n~.. ane m.em. damr~,o-. 1*mene e o mib+a M1< Dr~a ana in+emarel.rn<i~rtsnen a yaanbY''Y<araGru nln ~F. of pr~e ebnames. ~~a ean be ,ttomDlisnee utine rF+ W~levmy ~•0~•B:•rear, fIl s rn< Drux .~anAnY of anm,na. Bi i, rna Ioe~Dmm ~ulfs4ni. ,na y„n n. Io4iDnc/ • yaar ea.Rurtn~. iM in+ome e1,tlintY tan bt <omPUie4 r-f0,•0.•nael•maome 1 IL
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122 v.d<avsuneesoamotenmtmp[pint .eanvm.;diee<motmwN wn A<mmoni aun[ w cvn mMA, <mouM <t<[ahq m,EigAr mmqnin wert nn- tomY asrened so int<n<nrion ,nd u1riA sgoRereE so me<~~.~- aind tn'n iac cyotsa<ial sup moting a o g d smo M work- or <motm n e~nd l.[M1e~numberersucnsrfulpuinm. tAis W ,nalyxs xrbr<om .. oe~'~nm .moN <mr or ~~rmtenoe ,na <omw'+. MethoEe 51, SeiecYa' anC Data COile[4on T[n work sius from a Minnqi'olis rviu0 ro Wninq[< dY. TAis w>urb. BloomineonnM~nnesou..as alw an in[er.enrY fer [Ae Minnmu n Nul[Ae1Prognm rMHHPI" nfi[r a Aauline <urny olYl <mpbr- <iN' of [M 10 <omqnm wert nndomlY ,ssrB*ed [e Wu<nien ,nd <omqnwn condnwnv Twe wmk PwmpaN.m,t~'w ~....a.n d N. wmtp~.q..m.n.m.[.~ drovqa. uwr b<a+r< vr o,n m[ame,motm <en[mame m qter<meune.mpa<maer<eqNexanmmqnla JurMHHPprap<mx, [oputinqu.Th<dNN u Tn<~BM1I WtiaqriM eomqnia purthaM q anceMr Nlutl<ACkn>IaboRinawella hrM<cmqnYmohiNinadeuti< fanory cM maMimry warten. lT< mUUCtion in w wort forw from ))5 buehne <A,r.c< w ef im<rv<rv w)3 nnaeym..ed N[ romqnY wo k uu[ art prt- ndud<0 from Nt fql wraYxn[NV T,Melai.lTt in[crnn[ien tManal/.espwxnudAm(Wmpu.M ploy~l.) wertm, riculaely on Ne I~momA fdlm-u0 <o[nW<riwn ti l.47 9i Ne c<c dau. rM1ert dau from all eiNr werk anae er wmqri»n ma w mort dunertdDY[wlh A or rmqnd~u f~ndiAMbmenN f Iw.' p'd,un ~ smWm.imlWin{)9R k<udinxnnsius. oremaoym ie N<intervmtion u[n [mW w,s m,d[ <e ~kn .ne)Iainwromw~rmma,Tht r.maamr,nqu[ror.cowm anuBe er wektn werkiN in ni~tions of [otinin<, [ m<ubo4u of eiu<seM ourwum[ w ekesnta,xrn[.rrdrouow.ppd+u M[ M1iN[r wn m qmp+uren werk vtiWbk tm on1Y 5lR b,eeline w n. Wrcr demqnpAk .M osv~ m.okcn fo0oxd; w nspoex n[< Wrional cM1,rx<[ritlics of w umpk GiE ne[EiRnly W 1 mntliuon. M1,eetnnduenbLBn.ieuilY" BenuxofN<lowmponxnu.dau int mxnm wry[r ordl <mplor w[n nm.qlnm. qiMUCUd arow 9 mpnw T'll InferraUCnPr betoninr<rventian.TNStWge,[ttril7- u1[rtdwrnywaNrtW,eM[o Tht inu siort i ludtd Nrm all[maoy<aNeou{AqmWnYmul. mmpmmuF tmokin{«<[aYOn •ha w bassliW masunmmk Ne rt oRerM emtl[< anE qm eieM w nneomfaed w unN W Nn< LM1Om xreimn. rh[ ~.~e<o~nvamndl[iom.A [Iaa.vNe-Whmd-PwMam Ymon[Arin von pre{nm wv aRerMbYNeMNHP."IrwauugA[ a<ud ie wM or Ne Inurnnuon Dyv.inM Ma1NS0rrn[on.,e0 Wow w fa11 W 19g/. sidW b<Iu.ioN <kJH fm mu[ion On[ ie monN[P<r[lammple[bner ,Mmumm,na.Wqtrnwsrt.n ' ' nndem umple af uvelyr[rnri[WwpviicipneNmuN moten w mnn;<w<d br momouom wr <mvhai:m N<xm wxrne I [ett9kaqwMen9rYnmWOroxfrd <ruorwlNNnNmweNe<ifks naMm<m.[umWS[o9ui[ oramekin{.0e<NLB)%ef,mekm moYiM-TM1<6monN folbwup sun frem N[ss feu[ vort sha [n<M[E v<Y ,dmm[nerW bY ukpSOn< [A<9uirsmoNM<4sus([t<T[W<)). wMSne Cn,ranaisrss a easnme iYM<rnurn.r. {.,p.<na t~~
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f 124 uem nM1 i~":<o a:~° mewe, p,p,w~ ~,~ o Emine,M1tLmenN nue, tmqortn ea of~ M i<am W n nv niMOmlyku wnta ~M~ Nry +~ Nc ume of ~n Gryel~nt< sm unm 9 befon n.USin ntl~~iOuJrn~IM1<no ttolmalysif hd tR ~I~woerc,enn .mDloyKt ~~olt nge rw .gwnk .~am emh biDltlo~jr~u ~a s usm n~iD.nturcnt rtln o~iimo or tni+l wDron r+non m uotsmo4. ns0om eeiN~c irolling for IreatmmZu0 u wcll u moNDM1ic n. BMDP nhw,n wn usta in corv wsuW intMa<uge nti6cnion oveWsshneromW r+bili~ y of,M,rtatmm, ak mmrol a Norm+lly. . .n,if<a woow b<,,,<a ie wh . at- gnYbecvuu i, usuallr WoNpn mon rterm.wp<e. Nowever.~inM1insunm su[M1 n ,M1is, whrrc only a ftw uniu wsrc kui{nm conpilion, N< lou ef mw n,gm, or nnmm m t mir e oula morc th+noRUl ny n a„t trnwa no- .na w N< ~,~~riw. .irJ~fb.nomr morc powtrlul. ee us< "IM -i6m ~inm .naly.n woape un- e,tw ~tnman or I~n w~mtm <r. r<n.wt [bmt,nt unnnnr~m,wlYti< Eepuu of iu yn,er wwtr. Resul4 int o~nar rcs nrt n< n,ht bul~ne survey wu EOR /N • 3,360), <na n~em from 69R to 93R ,noss " . One momM1 ,Oe~ Nt rompk~wn of ,he unrnn,ion 3)b .,em<uM6mokIn9C....,nnaN. W<rkni.p.eonn..naJ E,sJiru <mo4en sn nnaomly ttkm<e .~ w~;twm M1y nkDM1Dn, m mmary.m,wn,ow,m w++,ioe mokin{ TM mpcnsslnu ,otNU wrvry was g9R. The 6moaN follow.uD wrvry induamNJlsmok<nwniinum{ro te p by tIU wmwnin, 9pR of elqi4k wo,trn Oom,he sesn rt- ninlwwk,i,nromDk,<aNesur v<Y lnnK.91.1%-9g.]%). TM1eu <L. nswnatnu rtprtstnud 66R o! Dw.~w~«ortt<+onm a..pu<Leto ye. Eea. <ro ENplan• - ini,ulry wr.tym +t Eneliw. rt nwmm~.mutmwa...o~. " hW, 3 Dnunu . tomwnwn be - [ mw~~.iMm•rom~n•bimm~tw.,e- ran,/ eonn+ nlnm to wcul cwn ro, tnnuon, wn,rarn{ ror .ne m.alk.. •t Nown in s ulk, oruror4<r wppan Im Drcempu wu JMifpmly niNere ,wnvovDtnan wmwnin. Nougnirr,m mlieR- wtn rouna m w <r aiwowutmtm or 9w, .~ u, frt9utnry or [oworkn rt <mott, ma rowpk<r mokin{ nolT<Dnnk~of9wl,u<mpu was gwr n n,q h;Na in Nt immtmion inNanJrc<omwnwnmm~ a snowe m nwt.. comwl. G ng for vK, sn,,M mupuon, 33. S R of bssslint ,moken in Nt im<Mrv on)~s Mnetn hvulin<~am NeM1fo~ low•uo w omwrttl w only 19M ef smoken N tM <onud uP. Tht rwr hiehm 9. rcmw In Ntimtnsn,ion wm~ smo4ing mnuom m~ wrn Jw nign<r in mt imtrv<.aen twnwnin man m Nt wmwriton romwnip n Nown ;n hEk 3. M Ju DmonN follow D. Ne ovenll 9un nte in Ne ~numnnon VouD'ns ILER wm. Wm to S.l%In tlu romt01 youD. wlens ror aK..n..na ~. Tnnt tnn nnea wnJa<nelr ouN<J,nmanW[ivllYin<M1e wmwnin 4 wln<nJy MNn in )h<ia<mm~o ~ IM1an m Ju w,rol si n. Tht dinri0mion <ormponas , ofwnidw,ion m tmuFinY steua~me cw,<t gnrtmm m t<w< x, ,np mw. In1n Ju wiat nri,Diliry ofassa,l0n tlmi Wh EroypKOS, m,ulYtw h;rdsN,hottautmwing w 9mune mlr of,bess w[nnPonr ;mNng Nd nm wniriwtt in th o4in{ nsuuon p,rcs. al N< 6 mo h fdiwv.uD. 13.0% of smo4m uux Pnnwus n F,don kiAU<ivq Cnwnoon. <duqkpfw /.9e.6<a. <M EO+poon ti~ ku«..; en Cenet+ g.aNrc.m. nno.pn.n,nbn 0. e.~w..KOm.~nap..nsyn ak xn gao rrs MS.M.pduM.
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n ( , xt nsa uma . lo ta Iu. n. a,.an p>'x,a.n,Pl ptV 1• p>uP,oV nSd ayt lo um%an >y~ ,ay Wn a:!w,xaP o~ ,awo ~P~.~sa 4a~~ puna .nt,P xa.w +putq al!wb:'I:B61/ anpJ W. u+u~ aw.a!lol'~x u,:'Iad 4Jra,Plpw!w,x>p nw nua xw.tu tn»oqnj .o ~ap..q atl +Vl'~,oCV pa61 f,>wnxul P>apol aVt wP,J n.P axd tw+n p o»S "+M1ad f[i psY 'f961 v! pa+n p,~yt aV+ pu. ',xnl~ n ~uo,l iv pq,u pouaa >uu n4t auunp ,ta[ ua+il . n 4t~id )o aV+ Vanty~ln +n5d fit FHltunxo,66s paumuaaa+'1161 41na4~1wal pxn puaax >V+:anSd ilt Wwnuo>'iaa,n+ 0[61 aV+ w Dxn ss yAV.•'+x iuV .yl'atw r vP pxsaol van anSd IP +~a+ v,V~ lo Van'V~~n wiaV Pl yntllPl n nuaWOan, IrnDu~pu! o+naua x~xrau P>u3ins >.H +nsa ,!,y+lo no!wae ann a41 aw„xa,a >ilVn iaa xt0 ay+w+LnO~~~pu!n na,a xwrln uam. oi ,n Da1V.va~.yi Un+SHJN VI!n p>y>n,+t^ ~uau~aauu,a ut ryvsxx+!yt lanvuo> o+'+nyy x RxlnluapJUe>,% ndn xn xN^d aiHN Sy+ ue +n5d a4 +aPOav +snS V~IraH ,o1,a.uaJisuP!+rN aVt',w.naH Oaw~u,xap aq oi Papa>u InSd ,o'PUn emidwt I aenp!.!pw >V+'nua xwea~a Ce,G6r u. V+un i.npi.~Puau.~ luYl o+ uP,o w~cllrnJ!>NS x wo~l papnl>ta >,a. ry.tn..~Dw auVllP uepaul .+Dnn1>/r+ fuirVuaPluo> SNJN o~ anD',a.anoX Ittbl Dus [L61 av!pnHSa1fA61 Wt O[6/ uaa.niaV pauailoa xa. xyeV rwAOwt,!ay+ put+lenDNlPw Ltq'[pI ua .np'I!s v! ~fB61 u~ '(96! '0961 'b[61 'A[61 'LL61 'D<61 YLb/ 'p[61 +, >Vlw paA+. auw,ourVaO lwlou,+ o~fuuax+uenu^b peuad uV~uauunld fa61 0l oL6! u axuV Duxnwwpt +x +anb !nuawalaan+ awVOwa u aV~ N ua wal nr0 Pxn uap v.u+~41 {I[5611 weVUwV>i .a ulvap apwn 61HN a4t vo q!naP Iruan~DDr ,ol] (aHJNI nu+vni VIISaH +al ,xuaJ IWO+nN aVt 11 Fllsnuur Wn^PUOa uP~l.ln6od Daayruounuxu! ry+lP Fa.,naltut!i.v r +!SINN a41-!a1HNIF>•>ni .x.,xul VIIeaH IsuanN a41 wal aw . 1 u ,n u! Pxn nrD >V+ lo iso{.!
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<<br,kilr a d<m.nE. B, if fM in<em«orlDa<nt B. if r.,M in<eme ir,v<wP</amilY ixeme. ,n Prrtt ,nE m<emekrcmriw M hm,nd. wl<ulauE usinP ep.lcl in taLle I. ler wcn of rne ye.rs iruludeE in tM1. dw. ur,+ w<II w(or 1968,re .nown in :. Tne preEinronr for 198I .rc cwwpolnlion+ peYOM In< wnK ef rM m M nnd indiwriem er<vrr<m <4nitlrief. elrno an~ m. p nr<i.m<irr M1.f M<om< m<xwin9lr n<{niw e.w rim<. ,ma pr'w <Imr<ar<r .w le. m<emwrupn m pr<.ion+wrims,<a" Us~n{ rM 1985 enim,¢. J tM priw a( ciPwnn w<r<;nww+<e er la.. mekiny wonld dwewu ffN ef !y 2I:: er rou{Irly . , <rl+rerlu per d,l+ifs.. alow /er urlderreporrin~'+ Tne <snm.r« m f<n.ntc hem pesitiv<-+o nKliv< ovcr mOrwnnP rn+t<<rKUm<t'm.Y new y<,n inkrior Iood. Hewever, wirA rhere.«pnem et 1910.n< 1914 rM <frim.uE <Lflinrk+ ar< nol fu+ifrrully
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je .ryiYyow.~r . Wev,aav.va .. ~» w wwM• mr, ,. rr y"»1 .Pavtsu ,»s v wnx D. 411naH lolw ,maa,vsn7 i, ~ ai.war .~ e~~,nv »ow, o, x.n,/.nD!+! W! I,ou, .r,+q.w» ro,or..Vao ivnowf .m „vppe or wura ,_, IuaauaC iaod . W. 4a.eaxu . 4raV wwf . r.ey>v )w.yo ..aovaar vo erop ;'( xnPo. W a, Yux.oCau>DUn :y Dx-ay. ay Dlnaw bauuuri slaW w >.xw!I<rVnw xn»aV'»nava/y 'p .o+EO. aV WueEauapun n uprbwn,uea II. r.41 Dawn,,. >n,+l xuoJ alVel!.n. lo IViy v.W verbwnfuw .uVr r+ a.apun /a Ix en Iux.oOwaDUn Vr4^ er ev a>Vr uovvoww.a/ur wHYta~woa.:.>Wn »au» o vorawpww wr+oe» n o 'PU.w>D xu+a» tvu.wi»a w ,nyl .'lu/.,•w r aw<wn,uw Lnra. p tD+rylro , aua nw f[61 v uet»/pauoGU re41 P>TOV. IBL61/ +> rim4ow, Ic+ >a. >yr le xn.aaq Pauaau»DUn ,! SIHN a4+ ,. Van, .rwe1+a.pi 1 o.dwn,VOauiu.a»ley+uf»1n++.4r»v>p.a>nn.nuaCln>»yyn, arrrrroluxyv~ /'I ,>aq n'u.P »uC aV+ Yfnw4, PxPrwW a+>w ,uu5 N! »eID a IynO m tu!eow. Imu»not ,vow.inaa. xu, uo ».D payx.w a.w .D slxN nr yru pqnw »a. ulV>uu .aP.o9 Dv. fw!,E aVr ,xiv w,olv!•ivn.fn .a0+ay DV. aa!b i»!wap! av, Drv nyl ,nsa vMr ,»I r. an41 ,! uvt 'v .v!yww >w.P.e ,>p.oVNa,e anpwn oi P/ e> nsa ov uvt upnn~.www o!nv!.w on sxorv :a w,oerw • lo rl wo+l Da»ww!la a+ uuyo e,ntd av+len!(pl {lar.w!~wGdY,'A.ew or avnnwww n'»unfu! .o/ ~V. +o aV ai!Vn .u. ary,d~,awol . ur txru./r> u,ryl,nE »Vpux Dauuyuw o LrwuaC . yxyw ry va • YVdlryiooq lerrue/ur lo tlq!yinoC .ol wpo»r el W,n .xanf.n NV>uu uP+o9 Wl -o u lo aniw . aro.x.a ~aD,ov. ayl x!.,wrP avo lo ann~ . Daven. ,.. nsa VI 1 a19n+u ~ap,oV, . uaYt'ex. Da?.J~,anol .le al!w pl urVr!+. ,..n
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fGE Ending Smoking at The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions An Evaluation of Smoking Prevalence and Indoor Air Pollution ~ a~Etl~D~aeeMBac...Y.D.ROUnT.Bwe:w..rnADOnxaHSruNe.PnD. Nemm,o~uoses rn~ S:anro~Glan:z PW.~ Rsnerowern:v.n.PnD dmpemokinpxelerYeuroenrmaluramer DefenmdNertMpc.ic0lmplememeerronoepoMrc~OeprospettmconOnneckirqMemplMSS Uen.Jbe4.y< r IXpviulnt cnenmmesmamoknpbeMr»r,anwmnmenullees.smpkvipn4Hd efursMpe4e~juMdae arunu ~1e elfopacwpo~nWqne.pawn.e25%awrwseinsmploy~ ~rl:en(elnsmekingeumam nn e rnolr uOqDrereunu was 1 IBf.>ti vs s621t W1on n.Mr pdky psfmPattsne. rmpMmen q ~~N~TneDei/ynumurdcparonasrepdLdlyamNed MAtERlelisNDMETM008 emokinv enG nn snx numew smckea x wpM1 aapwne vacMlqnxateponesErmevenpeaPSx.sipmftam- NdB81.0uBwNMfiusunMiM wnam pudrcsmoksnpaMm..movnlolclp.rone ~yyH kiluHwpiWwuaweXm. ons decressea sqnirunDY N xl .nes bnB w MJUIY l, IPoB, N w ~ms.TS~mDnqssvOCesuMtvubleemokirper4mvirnmrn u xUehayiWeompia.NirohMe cco smoke eapoeun un De meneCN aecnneE DY InslMirp s pd' y ~poldirys N e IYquve~Dloek vea. eemmeorqsrnotnp:nalsrpemedulcsnnr. 1Tepnvbuspo4ryJb.:demopinrln uwv.. uwwr.rwswr cke denMUa ertu af JI Neunu, eut'vr{ enu. bmyes. mal ptient v~ wh usu, eed xRCes. eanpt N 'ITe CNWren1 Gnten Bmoknt xw SDASeeme.fetTn.M1OwNeerteeu etimiruu4.makiryeminyfmmHreb penuWwonyMelten,puienu.eM m~ .~..D.a ew.e ~i b.emd.nen. pnmi..e~ wrtNnmaxer+ua.n.annlrrr,eW ' mokne Despiu . vrtM towaq.motl.q n- Ne Wtisvtiw. (. ewnnt nmmnee melegiduaionNWD4cpl ,Nenuekv Nrepnsenutivwofellmn .m,nmN ~~~`"Pnmene"".nncw. aumwmv~ n:;`unaxmprum ~r~wtm.nuwrermedwNrFb. ot etlr~ul ina 1TinYbw smolont e eaen d.uch nsiriem ke/neenvinnmem.]M rcrlegul; ua emeknq " on bAmr xr pveNy w amelir:~ petiry waa:eletly redmJmvon nl ~tu q I Dxtitka. 4Nxor••, Reviev.y. rua ~/. IMk, W w follwed Dy. m 908NTl~uni.ennY+aditLensuh.dtMluesPluee~NTU ni.ebNemelmNi.vddunturv meM1d W~w:ieWlvns nperud tlut JoNU Noptim Hediol BuYtutiene el cmrpeien. Te Mprt for Ne pnliry implemenud wme Bxtimert, Hal emaMne poliry, dwpe, e Weeseak erd can> rpe rnannwno::. r:p.mbka .ondvereawarNtMCwdrsn\Gn. x.ene.klwrienWnmpxentA.em pn..r,.d w ea.m erp..rr+.meNf~e uinle .N:rM prn' Hu x. e.4eptenb.a sne w,.e~ xu~ rnwane et ea.x.mr erwe pr..wre. bMa Hepkrv HupuY en emetin{ eeDon mmmide, mnpuuNed MJtM1 OeNvim wd mvwmnnW wLaew siekeppruW,uqomrireeNiewev4e meorvre. A praepeaiw eeRxt W ri.kwewmrns som:wlin[wen d- 'ror~NYwepulemply.nwea.rNnM mmWDefenimplem~enutbnu~idwn [MCp&~r.eputNerMro~Fmmrnetx /kss
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,~„a~>y>o> Da+>al>, w. ,alnm,.n nua wnu,~m .ov, r w. D me.a ~>pou~+nuV Dan,/uau>i a4, we+/,~Inu+>Vz uix+AOa a41 A»v> os +x.u. wi. I>DO'w u.CUa >VL'uu>nyu, +>~nY a+efn n) Du ut>D >V, lo n auD >4s W 4a.> n Iu~A s ryll+V u>yw aw4x 1>Ww utt<.z >yi 'u» w u uu Ilna.o Ve uuWnu upL.wE lapom nrvli DazVauu>t aVl'4inoyliYU• >l l Go +•00 0~~1 '[• '>Aawx o~ 11>A4 uv.G +p4t >,nn; uy inQ'Dannw 4+ooE v uq >vl ol >nD >a ~co s.w, ,~leDa D>'neD> :I>ooa ia ufuPi~.4> iy ~sAOax ot Suxu>Ge+E Dxtvw~, aVt'nu>H -si>DOU, Du.w>D >V- ~...v>a nle>+ta +oi ,>„em ,. >..>, i.ur v41 >o~,.v>q eolAe W, n~e>,ta
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vin{ rooma, Dublic wortu,n. Dnr.l< work,~u...M b~Mf Dubli< Dba, Ic1. )arY ropmt nYlv .na vuira. pellin{ Dl,nt .ntl prunnal. AaOirion.IlY. u'r a<lewinea -,n<r l.n .ert n<tl IMI rc,uaaa Ine ul. ar duuipulion ern{.r<Ma ,e minon m11.Paea IM1e,< d.u in,o. r<FUlaen ina<a. vryich c.v .wil,~ ,o on< iXa in ,M Sur[<nn Gnar,l'v 1986 reDnn (US. Dep.nmenla Hutln drHum.n s<.xin, 1198N1)Tn< US. DHHS ind<a ia n upaautl ,na oaifad ve pr .n iMr. a<r<loxe by W er / I9811. Surea an ePulau vmet nP in . Lrpe nu r or pl.c<, .na er pl.m .her< people n pf ,xeir t~ ivea MPn<r .corca ,Mn vu,n ,ha kin/ in n.ndful o! rc nrmpon,nl Dl.nv le.{_ n~u~,.,.a r<nri~~<e,mokin{ In Dn~~. ~YWerkm<a.IMn r: rr<rir<a, <. b«,uar p<eDlunna mer< um<.I work rn plMr pua m<. s,.rra ,M Mlm.mpkin{ in rcn.~. ~;. bm nnr rn i.m . uorelao.ls. in ,m< anm lo rc,lna .mokm{ ,nd m u bul impoutl n <a . vicnr< W 0.y0. 11 mekin{ inr.a InaWfomrprner PuGi< Dla.......... Sr.us Ixa Ma xetrnn om .na thm pf rMae rctai.<I,v minor r<uncuon, <a n.s..m nn<..rnn M r<e,tson, m ol,« r<airce , ,n.< or:~o~ sDair ,wn ,<m;mw:m ,MI mia un~ne •.,,PPropn„<. l1. DrDrnarnr aner.<Olanarolr rnra er CiFarnm <p aurM in nf D.<k. Dn tl.y. . vmDeon u o. P.dv p<r e,Y <9ual tne repOr ed frn{,enu„mok<tl D<,a.Y vivketl bY=O nnTx~r.e I.~w a<n.F< <9nsom .x m.nr or m< u nDlmnory rqxkv. 6oln r9uaicna. mr m In Dri«. r<9a>uon. qc « <. r,masKn ma y<,r r.Ma<a. Pa,l vom.. n,nw mn~<ntt,meune Mn.r;or. n,m mr .nP~ e~~a IM ~<IPw.~ on <.w.<. nnim n., n<.<r M<n m<a in , m„Ilrq< er<, rn<~,e.enm maw<a .,n w.,ri.bn, a<rnin{ binx <oMna. 111. ,I.ai<, or <;Darnm x Dmm .ne h.r< Imm<tl nar,o ~,le~iueaa .m ein{ r ubq n, < (H,o 119131) . Conon nrua<a <oma cumra fm aemmrmuH. «pomrs a<wlu.m.,D«ua.me:inD-rpre..mq<. r<.veePOpuLnIY unp Wprb War II ,na mr rarm aa~<~MOr a nrnne ,m. ,mokmE me.emrnl IMI tl<.<Inp<a m -- 11 ,M .ar<ru nnlrh <If«u
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rerd.bk wW< or d<nn in em w.;.rr.na m. mnn imwmm weh<A<nre ' n< a onr rim. [vs D<wnm.nr or xmre .na Hnmm xrr~n, u9ea). onrna, .rr bkmw mr orcr 190.000 D¢m.mrc dulN .nnu.IlYnAi<X rronwr +<embmro lon er.DDW.fmurlY kur nafien y.an er hk [v.i. , DrWrrmsnr or Hea/N .nd Human Servius 11919A Rmer, (or Diwu Cnmro1119911]' ' TAr rnn kkrn br dnanr .mekint An uimm.nd Nc drvaopmmr +na mpkmmurion o rrmb.r or pofrdu ro nel .m m~~s rn n . n wnr .u<n Deii<;n: n<r.< r..n .na nrvkdoW mrin9 <i9.rnr< 3m wbr,<Dkw. <iwurrn h.r< bnn nva br N. mdan/ wrcrrrm.m mr e.rr lao rc,e~/,na hr .n nnn mr m.r ¢o ywn. r.sm.rron. umnNS,moemr m DoE~a pha..erc nourry r.r< v^or m 19ron xoxree Nr srerN of N,u nsukiion, durinl rlu 19>0. „. impu,.ir.. A, or 19f0 onlr u n,rn A.d k.. in pl>a rA,r limired .mokin/. By 1986. .1 u d rAe Di.rnn nf Cdumb'u.n, r w, .evemint .motint in Dkwr [u5. Dewrrm<nr e/ HukA•n0 Hum,n servia, H91WQ. AINOUBA m.nY n.rn lurc kr, thn renrin .mokinL Nr kx, .rr nor nf y. ~n 4c4 rAr m of rM1 emku,W),uros ,uus. For u.mDle.Sou X C.rWlw rnuicu .mokinere uhoot bu.n e vXilr Florid., hiinmon. Hrbr.,k...nd Wnhin9wn mokinl in IJ rYW, nf public plaut iWludinl eorA publi<.na WirA Ne WeeDrion nf Ne unm .mok;nl b,n on domcvrie.irD4 W Ili/Art. no lyd<r,l lel;,kricn M, bnn p.n<d thu mrncu.mnkiry in public pl.cn /alrXOU9h r,BuLtieW A.r, b«n <n.<red ro rnui<t ,mokint im m~ kdenl buildinis/.,nd la,/ iirinirn nf.nY ennu9uenu dia nor m.urialiu umil Ne ar/Yro mid.198UV. A„ ra44 rAr ntulnioW N.r Ni, W wr e..minn .rc nnW raY n Ne fuu krel. i &1nrN <ipuur tl.m.nd nodin E,rimner.of tAr Drin rl.u;cirY a d<m.nd for cipmrn v.rY <omid.r.bly. (nr <..mpk.lrwir .M C W u H9/3/, in Uuir r<vvw a UnirN Surn nWin emDlncd .ina 1970. nwn4 urima,n N,r nn8c rrem -Ob ro -I-YD E.nm t rAe in of acm.nd indi<aw ,Aa e;8,rerrr, .< ,rr. o m< m rrn ri ndm.rrc r,npni kpm oue ro osA. r .......... >e<ro. <~~D~~rn .rn in< r a.nmrr nrim.rn .Dx.n ,o b< ,urrbnubk ro edr<nnm in bnm a.u ,rw uummm~ rmnNVnn_ w,ny
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,nN , <l a < «a nr ,n w or <.m . no~,<naa .., <„uue i, rn:~,,,oe.i.~e<o,,,< m<<aemmMr onm i~;e ~; n<aorolr <e.ukua w a.rMU nruek< urr<.v . Dr .Y b. mok,ry Mbiu. wni<A .r< known re .Rttr «nap< <mokinR beM~ielr IHin<nm.n <I .L 119w1. Srmr ,ne Ak,kY /19B}/). s<.<m oln« <:my<, uua m mnea w~AI <;nunr e<m.na w<u o0 .n,lr,ir or r«an .mokinP i«memc u/ ni.m <ennu. e.< r, n e( rA< van.Pe aa, (19)6-19804,na 13/ Dnnyear.ne ,u.,tain e« ro rM n.rrow rime <p.n. K Mbtlw in e e9u.r~onw.n ,w,uror vari.Dl< /or )M Dr<u«< ol a Lw in <aeA u b re,ieenu tl,u r<nraua ,ne uk or 0inanuuen of c g.erluv~ro minor,. .9. Tn< '6o.pe,y<e6/rm' . j Inrorma/ nootlryrin8 0l citar<rr<, m r rna A.v lo nrk<e-ng.uvrqh<ESn Cilfeunn«<irynP.u,u Drie<, n<rw«n n<ipnno.in9.ru. i, mall. M b.erq.ina .n. if ro k i~n rA.~.re./er<.om<cD~nurrc„eelwerk.renearion.m<r. cem<yum~ry, uD.uu moa,l< w<rt <vimnw o,ine m,II er m< nu,..n eia nor nortl<r o n low<r nR.ren< '`' Bec.<vu ineluemp rM neN<r <.u, in'rM r.nar,i..ear ,Y„<m„ie o rA< Dn« r,ri,bk. xAicn in ,u.n bia,n ,n<e„im,ue IY m<n«aoro<. mmr. ro..amr.,• r.m<e«i,mo.,)owni<nurerr<,mui. <anp .n a m< «u, nr ion m<.eo.eom<. er,rPumenu ean ne m.e< eirMr waYTa b< ,u <naPerv /mu<r IenF»< in ai k.u ,o n, af neal<BFinF C<cauu n nr d.c<v rMY ,rc .nl< m ari« Mplnenp .v ,r< 11 0. n rM DrMr naw. NNANEB II a,u incba< u<ny<r, nmween rM1e etev o! 1: ,ne o~em, rw <«p< u,pone<nu . omm, ,o enr< no.Pn ro .. n. .r o~ rcr oi<na< w eaaamn,nY, u<o,r<n r< r<..~ DDOOnumn<, Io w.<nu<<ipau msM1in rew<r.D.,«a .ua, < rnn LL< rca Frounes, w <rnaP< r<n<r.ru<e lin<ar mea<~,<<rn m~oa rna rn< <«mcum, m<mew io r.iMlnmeem
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~, ..._.., ~. r..k„weu. N orn.rm.w. ~ ..e mn..Nw.xwewtmMl~>>r ~.xximrte.in~Hp ' r..rme.xl yww.lNJt...e~.a m N mm.mr am~.w. Isp~wvrvum I w.~mn. N vrro~ wN.rwa mnm..yr.p.[.uwr~x.aw mr r ®. NS~Pwr n.ei N xuuer n.~xwwn4nm3R~ W~rAx.JewNNUmrwun _... .._. elrne n nwnr r wuehnwa rw.3n.va. 19.N. SM_W .M n.uu' A mwmi.urw f a w n rM.nume! o.em~/n .. na e nrm Rapn p a.n w lptis uaa Apque
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n~ /rem ss a. TMU <+ rr lo. in n~pe.~<d cn mr rl~ru~u.e..ni~n~lD~ e.bir.'r.ie~uelw~o mr~me~,~..a~~ nudr - d+u IM~ rAm IM an.n{ine d<mo p.phia o( eunne m.eYn< 6.<-- aapreWUienu< numxr or peor .na W r<d.uud.aopk.mef<rn <J. Ln rl 7•rpulrrlam en rilarrru hmend Tnr o~h<r Wliry r.ri.pk ot inureu ia tM rrlul,~ien in<ra. Tniv in0« had . d<prerainl <rtea en <i{auue <omumD'ion .<rWV .ILpcciriWl/om in uplr .nG rn maPni'ud< ef IM <Ike~ . robun re the .n e! eo du0ed in vM epu.rian Tn< aramye eM1anle in W<k+.mot<G duea o an n In< rcNkcion iM n h eomWUd Win! IM1< nnmaud <oelfurcn~ /rom +nr full madel(ubla 1. <91a17,v lellow+: P<ran~ <Mn{<in packv+mok<d.(c-'e"•-17a IOp. 111 rclulalion ind<a valuo lr kpi+lalor+ W+ud , kr IM1a~ would k m< ~ndr<npm on ro 1- rDr u.mDl< er in<r<+<in! ~M .rnne<n<r elcrhe kw. in pl+a from n+u¢vin{ .metin, in , Mnd(ul er minoe Dlatta 1.8- wai~inl rooma. Iipr.rie+. <v./ te rp+npinl.me4in! ar Privar< rorka~uv - rMn ovual/ a' <.Diu +mokinP woulE d,nn+e br 3.9', Te .<nuve m< aranuK nCUClien vMOUfn + ~induttd W <ur~ m Dna IX wWreu<+ woultl Mve vo imttav bY ,DDroaimaulY )1'~+~ ne ~<. 1.rn ly drm.ndl • rYer Taplc l.M1e.+ rM rcwlu from'rM anenlv<d lilu.r model fer Ittnaen. pepk .ne .r.o
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~ n+9 >w. y+I!au. uomub. x,u1e! iusn ,nivu>ar W. ,nnp. ml w~.W n+ a,a. mar.nw Nmax Y!.ee ,wo neeu aau~ ;Y pw !a,w Ppow . uo P>,.a nrra,ap ,o~ pu.waP >4, lo PPOw uq.o~r . wr.wnn > u,,.1>DOw ,.wy w>!rtnrraa av, a,qwp>,p Do. w,~luea Yrov o1 P Ww muq pmp,wa ,V,,. Hpow ay, or ni>, nl. ,. -uo ~nrvp> D~o,. a1 onnm unl vNV9!a. iwnuaD +a rpow >w p,r.wrl~, nnaq lapaw ayr wo+l u.w>+D,nua+alm>4r,eu,ar.wrru urawuq WI uaL. »4,!w Dlnpv>'+a,anaV'nVl',NU,.aralo,iaaC leuoruul+oi Dx.aile r! nn>V lapew uanrod m,t . uro,l N.YaP Wuw!,n aw la w WL modovna+a w, », m+>+,. P,!vl~, n N4.pu mapv>GaP aVt V>!4"• v! mrow u.!,n,a>,~mp n~~.ao! !~~ecr unol ,wal4aC ri, ,Dro,aaDOw lp uo. ,14r lo mn >Vr arrvaH u uod lp > .,aiow+ w y, lo va snl/. w<rpn,•. rvNVaJ p a; Wr'Wwas p n>Y eviun M lo +o laa, uwn!ea.+n 0 Pu. ulG.r,.n lu>puq>Wr 1loalwo uawouu,a+YO l lo ,or>a, . amay uwnlea yan Vu-. '+u X lo a .r'px~.aol uuol ryr lo o a.a v ' pu. r awo u paAOUrt,A»E lo wnpa ay, n^u »>V" •'..~/".p~+~~~) u puV>N um+,vaa, ,npwp aww m moaolq. ,~ew Au,w u! N In„~~ ,vo,am Y, ,ol >,. ,r, rngl»d, up+wdropnaq ay, Pune/ ah uw panaA+>VI Yun paurpwoa o+a> vorpu,nrvea p upuaun,f 14 f Ilaw fu,pP. rev+pp u+.nG. I,n! p,-V1 w9 al.mdo!lp +N,n . 4enmV, xu.>u!Ewa p>uuuuoa nrN +e. ,mpp. u. v.v, ,avn, e!y,r,enm. !wo!r,mo,a ,o a.!rnrla!rlnw • DauaC.> a. uunl Du.waO xuw V,!.w a, >V, ,r ou5 e!rnYDrNP up Nod!aw ro ue rns.npa .>r,>an. vw <rvanw a.>. u , aV9 We unw aVa Paiow, ,M>q /o VaGwnuHry ,.v~ wm,a, u.P aY, p N,x!q. <,.wwrl>m .a!• ura>a oi we+, ~!aa,a+ ,ol v>ro,aa. 9u!oww (,.w!,a >vr n Pa,»n, ,.. sio o 'IStol -pu.w.P.rl.+ao avg>pow ,N rlo >weni»a „ r ,a,m~ „ a ,rV, .!ryM -anlluysa, n,qO~I,.N'paoVau~ u.9vun T(Ba!/.>pHH Du.49.IinyW pue 1(<6!! u,nY,appa,h pv. ,>Dia!1 rFV W,u/tn, atl(t >4t p lapow ,nwi P>a!iu>u>i . pm.wnu a,M . I un/p>!,nvwp'p'( xrvoe~!W!w!x a>pew,vlw,Naxr,n,x>R . a D>man snnl >Y re44n n>ap> anYl ewiowue
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,r ,.w..,.,e~. .~.r,.d..._.~...,,..~._ r ~,..~,.. enirwnr <nm o emDrien ,ne a a m< M,iBn 1• 'nnDerniv<IY u •• Oi.<n rn unl,rE rmor of 0.J91no1 sXOVnI nE . 9J•;mionfqmtt im<rva -oJO . :.o? rv< . wnnm m< MU mn rM orna xm.m k ialr r<i<n eim nrr<n rpw mm m< wmr ¢ Mc-Dn (or meJ. Mo.<v<r. mersinruR< p Etller~r uRXVmnUy from k<wir n.I:c 119811 rnmt< pr a el.umr> arim.rn of -1.19/er sM Geci,ien m<moke .nG -LM for rX<pu.mirY.m9k<0. tn romnsr so pnu cXtya. ,nriamokinp nluksions ,pR<r m Mrc . 'Myr~.e .nG crnirriwlly silnifmnr /DCD.0J1 <Ikn am m~umprien. Sp«iliwli,r, if rM rtNl,tmn inGn w .reG (rom DSJ w 1. rnn.u umDUDn .eulE Jetlin< bl <r!;, <rrMou'<r<r. ena w< eonrul (or erM1er r<fuluwm. Ib< tlummY v ri.bl<intlinrinP r r rMr< k. Lv o n rM mpon0enf< sul< Porerniuk IM uk a nP,rnrn ral/yimilnif<onl. roTttnue cuntl< rovumDrion is neNrir</Y nlueG ro bqh hmilr in< <nE Wr<nul <eunrion. &wu,e rXne v.riMks.rc.ko n<urivelr nluetlmo
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a.'!T<numMrNM «~u..mnm.ws.~e. .., parr lor ~ ~.n_. GinB :era we~r. rMn W.r°•'°cenr `~ Ju13' In~398F. tMu {~ JWy 3~19~9,kNe ~ r)x af . v a«W no-.mo nP 4c)'. v ~pn.. V TvEk~ numr~wvea Ne <IUnBea in nper.pn.a, r~.e o. ETB. Th<le.el a~fE'f5k11pyto ~otweNenWm.g- x elfittn. el<nton bbbk., mr OvuRlounin. Wd- 'ITerET~OaenN N6enm<. rertnota tu,e.llYVierJfiunt. BmoY Inp Cawn GumMp X•u. beiwuu .wr.r a.memv.ue rtP°.'VM Bai~b ~w, .r~iwk<tlf R.er>ewamoNMkwr uNevetu. perby. •mpk•d kn•tw•k. . tlk bue4M rM mnt'v.wG .m`kev/urNe 4eyavko.ueve. «~.na~maiousp3+xnw m:.m<at •B. b«b /. w n•n) wn ~ uYkeY yuevupvmo~~nu M mokM a b.ve4ro. bTTne MN ro p- tik<bu~qWtcGrMn, Jwp•n-um• v~ Wl.time wh •utu.. W type oI fittl.rcmnno~tuvauW MNputtYnf. •rlf.yrc~taeL.makelnM0fuA1wnB99 m~dnivl iuuuHOrwnmxrtiinw. " bempmy.e3ye•rYU aniYN.nim~iperm~t•nlueaa~merYH aa6eftM•erttumMtM•eronE perd.Y•tMaelve.IP<.WOI,R..IM) NYYkidinf • tWw.up n.po~ue W.EU«wd knl IP•.DOB, R• u•m~ rtmwin[ prtpoliey nmo4. -.1 6) nmiM mOepeMem pM1 .Tu«v.nponetl•u•wr.C unNTUttinermpnriobkMrN•na ~ n~Nen.penJenum~N~ nwntMlmWUpkR•.£.P<.00011 Ipvusl Nuwe.er. u Ne m eOxxfHf ed.~e.NxNletNe T1b.uM1Ut ~tutP•'~Nx1M ~P<mpkr~mrvnP«denub Mpkmenution . mokshaeMVi. nPnJnun~.onunueEamolvif. T1uJOM HopknNaDiW Ne~pWttNe vuuW M)O.li mM~n N rtdurinf eapww b * tTe <:nuuon d Dnpo4ey ETSWinnduciryN.enMpm.- MNU~rtporWnewmoknP km6vmutiry•mmtemDlqaa.,TAe 9 monN. modntb •Iket w•.en men Mnuue N•n B~~ kQnu. ~ !)8~Y4383ABBlf~OR)le ~ IB3/N6 HWriim Nv monitw.0 •nu IN Ne beep~uL Iou~nJUMMkvNetimitefbteetien. '. .vyyeatMBWttltJeaneuno4lry«. . s~nexK i~`eNinr::.y.ne wiwn .. N ad ui.IW~ dee~'vs, Yty~e~IwWW. Rnkwomaa n Ne ~rduMh'PRaMee~hMwldm mY.xE w. It veau Nu nxrmm. vs NNN«knfb.enupoehBryBy.mo1. :Lmw Jl ie.mr.k`u.~ndrt.uwmae~ tM.~MwncNkm'MMbPr•te. k kin{'v. veu.Mrt eya,mWd M.atinrykMG in Mn4<u. rnair~t • trtvur 3rt rkk Nu Nae e.UnPUi.AeL M. W a a roon vwEev lpmlGeO Nu Y rkert mtmom elryetuMURe[tinryYMdi Rm.v .mdm«.. D«W/nn ~' .mewv .v. •ie~BVnhr e..+...va ~ wA•nMw.«DUruEnnmtint I ptien rm •11 NNe «euptron•1 . evuwk...ww.pA v.r.ma...ZM ', f~ b wuide.WI4U' bu. h''. qwiuuuvebbeMmkilNi'. dWmle.l.'PpodN.mpla).n•. '. H ~e roro~meM me•euna J «- '', 4tyMNe.n.imnmentdem'',, wV•xd•nurkMredanien.Mdid~ 'nWiu! fWt~ Yt Mulpeat ''. ml'vrfc.eh.Chb/WWperv3; fvFpt~urpn.mnaVw-&+mvnnV ', 519$4
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PA SMOKE BACK UP BOOK #2 FOR DEPOSITION OF PROF. W. KIP VISCUSI (2 OF 2) V-4 p
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J.x.rrnw..nLLtbqen.dwww..r....wwd..o...n....e.. « < Mercver «k Mewrcr rRey v:nv~r Addilion,lly. d<fpiu /M1e .i{niriunmmPlive .@<, nf rR, u{n4lian Wea uutl M b«h ,h..CUb anye demantl modeb, we o iwi aumiu 1h peuibi4iy ,M~ , p.ef~m,r nun n{w.uenf m.r en,w iu pepmson:.nu.finewn{ «rc. toa« .nd nm ume lewer romump~ien nere.«. u.botlr diuwua. IT< u,. et m,uo a.uto ss,m.u su.uu. a.m.na ma;n,u .ronm m~ pouiDiX~Y. ~ le adilien lo r.du~n{ <pponunhies ~e .mek,, «nyenl rz Deum ~c e me fm n ei. or h<r DeR,ner i. .«;«ir .n o.npume. md me~~ er w.r « X,n w<wX« ~ u-rei.nu rcprdiny fXe ,vcial d«iubiliry af ew «tiom. Imcrcu. wiM r,{ulwit<ien mtl,s Ru iu,tron{eN imWn en Inna{srf. Me m.Y D. w!ww otMrs vkw tRfif btMViet ffian adnt4. A On« buet~m.ffec at<tlrrnA the rqulaerY.pprw,M1 u fh« il conumiumlY e/kn n prwe.ven .F,inn p.niv< fm kin{ wTife Ireqwn1in{ ,TOu p1,af wher<,mokin{ if <ithn rsitn«<d er prohibiua. .~...oa.uwi....u~~~i..wuon m~.euuMmeum~aYeo-e . wmu ~ u..we• MiGw nam. ~iiv.m weLLU. wt•~w«)~wn.vuna Mp...enM eimulaw~
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JOM.VWUm<55.NUm0aR,febu<ry1pgY onvouDd,artpwtea e6.BLi ro1 Voup;<onvolbng 4~ «...ee. MWuniion.tnisdilferenniawu>- ..i{IifinmlP~.05) mW~ u«of0'~o ~u t~<nMtenl~~Y n or n<, mow~m~. « <mvopD e n~s ea a«~wt~o . o~ Tiyr x<awrcwxm.mx, n~r~M ~m tn p erlwc n~Mudip4 rtV<uion,rulyse~-WUUO io ass<ss owcW t~ncrms~MN< g for ie T,n4 6<txsuon eu high3 r1w . d<Wm niN p~eponionkof o,<ork<~ wppon.na <wwork<r otsignirwnlirrn 4«0 Bo <iMr pu~rnm«mpn or am. uon laau no~ shown). qscugginn Tn«< mmn inei<x< m,t . wo~x ,r<atm Ym.d,Wtne ind ~idu,l smek< nwwell u tne wmYSi« <nWronm<vt, qn ro .«onc.i1 ,w<mq<.w .maYmk«<„n . nwNmi.a<. nmin,ry xudy DrenaN only, sM1M. tm int . ng,inom mrt<r. ,ne <o qn,on <omqnia noN x ne o-rtmmn <roum.rw~< Q„ii irov Inn wn W mokrn pa quaqn rM 9un r aP<niiipat°ion in wmiion d,ues - ~n~fw,nm<mrz<rcm< m<nw,non mq m tn< m,ulY mna anno><:twmn~cwqmt ,M hlfortlwss sum<ssNtly9uiwwq dil oncl,s« Tn<«mvlu<uMu xuf Ne memwon uss h,Nry e4 fttu4<yona thex x<n < yn~qn~ mucn v W pw~nletrt.; nx Nr nl. AI<houN W <nn- nepolimm~,alit. ~~<i~moki.ne<tmm<«roran. in bditbn te Nrc wtil<~wek promaion<m w<pro nnv«e wppon kr l Vtnroulnom W wwk N<sUnfonun,t<Ir.nwsnotponlbk portiY om th pacnu,l imD,<. or ssindiriduYCempenenu. rnCOwrY<r suppon for4uittinewu tiYevi.e «I,«d w tnatmmt <nmi~ rn. comqrrd w W<omrY e*w~p. smok<nwlL<int<nmtlonVOUDm ponN m rvppcn ef empu Cwvrork<r n tmok< <omnwtw w ~nor«w, .nam< o~ow o.ornon:mokine<owwk<n uas poun.<Ir nln<a to niVxr ntn or smokiM nsutien <1t<mpu TM <rtenir<ncu of worYSite smekby ,rae Mn.merprom ~~~.tori-,n<normt supwni.< o! ni m~YMg' " s«d wulnVmcm rwYSmok<n b setl oulorormY nsulien vYLL •~x.<nl nwu mwt n< nw<e in ennll qrinn~ of.+~i,nn vp11nW q'tn<wcut f,eon InYnbd In T<bk 6wnnw dien' W m,lniwe<DfU<« rtNtionthiq Illwmntn< eeed fw n<~mr ~narn«mm~k or W r«wn 11, Wt mieM vpl,in W..NEi4~y in am «mq w gmoung nwaion ~&aur<MtM lou pf vw mm. qny from Ide bmonN rollmvup. i~ vw pwiN< w roneun YI,nL. ~, fl u mulu /e inu W~Ne nYnm in tn<«.<, n wMrt bmomn folbw.up nrc,nll,Ek,.ndbmonJ~om. M eood .< m< Lmontn tiwwrm smokin5 vat~onntJ Mssa «14npoiu; YthouN ~ xumq n w<~wll<n«rr,rnrnumq .n.y«s t ,nY)ais o! N< bu. Nevend<Im nnv eWdeva wpews W1'~m'm1<n<ntiov triW 'om wMCh In inaiWdwl w krn is oimY, rnpondenu Mn tiNe mo pon smotln< su tiwan~W~M<wnhtn wss m, „mt a nnmwinson, <nYn<: nnaen<e mMk W iMiridum ~ u« pnn a,nnni< Fwir. wt wper wx<w,ew.<a m. wmmonitr ' tW .irh Y« Minn<scu Nvn HuM9uey.rsuNm.ynmtrum ivbk to worY Ytn in nmmuni- ~ n o1f<riry kss wppon ror vo~umok~ ~plv id<x W Y Yn dv «v<rN wn n6tlu. Rnpon« w U< sum srydW TNSnudYU«a.nnaom- i<m -Iml<warey taP, Wnkes in so<ul wrmt n<qeeo ia- v,rW enmqrison work fnn. Ww on pro.iemwppwtror dd.i mwrn wi,nme to dpn. whil< aw npiumg, wwonin <n.;. mlwwn. ne.SOCnwp. pon wu f«ilimW NrouN <onwtun smeWnl Dvli<ies, u1JCn Yw WuvtM toD m,n,e<m<m <dom N< W fw smo4ne <onnol <rtwu, WouN<ro<k rikwih pwmodow nf Wok<nbpredd< pWnwk~ nk~Vyintwuuh w in n<IUYov.tn<«rtsnminaint< WI . mon.mn. mulrOmw tmoY. in{wwk Yt<s nn,l~~'t <mokiN aer n well u tne wwk.Yt< Iwms.boul YmokinF Tnn wuaY wv utwl M,eenuinf moNimt<a <4 fom Ym<d mt anlY Yt iMivNu,l
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AEI Occasional Papers . American Enrerprisc Inscivuce for Public Poficy Rescarch Washingron, D.C. FFF£Ct5 0. .NE '+OBACCO PROGRAY: nN ANAtY5I5 OF DEIt£EtMTiOY ' Juliana`Ia 0.tscon ~ n n 5'.059 1913
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F.FFECfS OF TNE TOBntCO PROGRA4: AN ANALTBSS OF DEBEGDLATION Daniel A. Sumner and .reiiae y. uacea e .unor: a cei.=:~, a roreasor i rne Deoar[meoc ofEco and Bus rotina and gxiculcural Economis[ae[ [Sevfc[orca Deoarcmen[ afiAgricul[ure, Melbourn , uscralia.
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El~m.nacaon of tne Tooacco iro9 sm ue EEtecta , Fentuckr, xortn cerol.na, an0 Snutn carallne m
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E-IT il -,~ - 1-1
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.1 e ~~ces ana iaaes an tne Unstea Sta[es, 5-a e Econemetrac snalrs~s or C 9are[[e 5-6 Inp r Est e[te 5-i oCacco t.porta for s-1p a a ve nr oe.,~atet,.cs~su..
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j
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<o ,nW.,,...~.u.,m..~.d..,..~.,....r.n.,.v.,n<..n....<„< aam m< r.o,p,r~ mned. +<,a<nrnr,• nAl<. inbinrn mu prin <n.nY, d+ B+n,<,r m<n on m< a<o,~on re xmm< umo4<..+rn« m.n on /M< <iYr<r rMr n< M1u cAo, neE ~io~+IlY• ~ne rowl Dru< <Lnuirrtunmun from rM rvp~p.n Imepel ,r< Iize0linur moC<I efomun. Tnuf. rne Drin ,L,rinrr pc r~nununw re me ,unurca muhoe Wep ro mpb<I nHren< a<TMere inen o sricallY filnifi<,nr </kn nn rM umMr o/~ng.uirn ,m n<re<nuen ro , Hrruc / n nP ,mpk nt4 in «f m,r<.~bu . aon,.mpnon simp~r er rmonB oppDnvx,ie, le < mvoa< 4n< <n<rn d Wxn ,M r<e~~,~~em o~ ~«ro,e .moi~;,Bn em<nommrr. a,m«nlr .ilntt..n~ rnea m r d rn mae<Y, p f rn. .ryul.nan in <n<b . mnuenn in re9rr Ier tlu Cronanitir,r d n<ine . .~fn~r nnt amn~onn .9anron. ~m> n me mni,r oDDwn< m .o D.n moe.r .< inbn ., onb amRnm 1n +n conbiponaf <o o*•hB<canu m+a M tnt <rRar<nn ,moY<b amonl u<naE<rs~n ~n IM 6ttnionoto tmMt. mB. 4n ,nm. annevEA f.v,.nb uµb+ions +nrtinin{ okrrry m Dublrc+p< r aE<cr .bufri !a<iciens to conrrme +o me4e. W Y tA<numbe+ of «4oHiioro .pau to A..<an rmpon,m inM1w+rce on u<n.9<rti 6ec~sens to sun unokinl. S. IT,< u~on Ou+.n.lr,n of adulr <i9areru e<m.M ,uPlnn tnu rA< prin cl.uinrY ef ,nb n low. Moreewr. IN u of IN e.m,ne for n{.nrrn n ant~nl owr rim<.,, IN uaininl/Yr,iYnifnni pnaTear,ne in<omt-ynr ,. Tne po , or m< au. 9..borr h.r< !on< 1- ~006nm r1990 ro -Olr in r19U. TM„ <mmun u< lor m romwri.on n Howar<r. it ,novle n< n r,M 9Y: <oMb<ru. ,II<rorrrM 1985 <f -b..6 oa0001.. nne< r p+su, uverH ef rne nrYUr+esum. e, [ct- l<wn ,nb Ce,u Il9El). .mtr 119111. a.'irr ne Pau /1911). Yevnl /196r17N <,f. prppli m+y p< leu mponfir< ro <yare u Drrce Manln rnan prcrwv,/YrnoutM. IAeiriom e N onR ,mo4rnj m puAli< pl.m Mw , u/lnifinni un eneYr~w <Ra<tton <iYtene E<m,ne. Tn< r n.e< finetin! mmu ,nRe<a ma u<n.Yn m,r ner e< u
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008S-Z99 (ZOZ) 9EOOZ 'J'0 'uoaevxyseM saaai5 yavaaauanas 0511 yaaeasay RaFiod aFT4^d a~ i a,asul as,i raau3 ueaxi wp .1 'I3V ;o saa~snra io saa>F33o 'siaued Ra Fnpe '33eas ayi ;o s n a4a aaai;ar RTFaessaaau aou op pue s o a ay~ ; asoy~ aae sua >eaFlqndFS, n~PSUI aya uF passaadxa snaFA sanss£ ieuoF~euaaiuF pe iauoiaeu ;o sFS[{aue anF»aGqo BuFPFinad Sq >ttq^d aya pVa 'ssaad a a uawon pue uew seauFS^q • aeioyas 'saa ew RaFiod ~ e a F aodrnd sa1 'a9aei a aFT4^d aVasFUe •suoFieaodaoa 's o ie ^ol Ryspaaaoddns uoFaeaTUe9aa teuaFie>npa pue yaaeasar iF3aaduou 'u s e uou e sF 'Ery6) u paysF{qaasa •yaaeasay S>FTOd aFlq^d ao; aanaiasuI a Fa aaau? u F wy a4. a n~fasul aya io aoyane aya ;o uo , ad ay, ya)n ~daaxa paauFrdaa ao pa>onbFaq s u p{noys pue suoFaaaFiq^d I3Vao u n RTTawou uo >ua e{eFaoaFPa pwe IeaFlFia a4a PanFa>ai aneV a u SemasaaEed asayy F{eaFdoa as a pauaaauoa sa ssF a4i atFV~ saaVao Pue sr aF{od oa seapF <y>aonaaau 9uFaq oa pauBFSap aaa saaded teuoFSaaaO I3tl Vaaeasay Sat{ad aFT9^d ao3 aaaaFasul asirdiaau3 -1- ay> 11 1161 ~
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qaz.a+ag e a.4ot Paa 9-CL -[-LT m.a ozd o a+4ot >QS aol svo}a¢t>¢o~ ZT 9-it - i-[[ ao{).[efazoa la ++»ezd >Qt Ti L-aT - [qT +,a+.t eaFi„z.R oa>+4ot Ot 6-b - L-6 amaauaa P aFS az+3 6 G-a - c-: +a>.dmx naaiaa a 4et rn 3 >¢t : ++M P ....... avp v.avi +{ad aa.f l~ 6)iti4vxz.b L )>taa.zaa J a>I33 SL-9 - t-9 sntdava aF oaS p [)i)¢.op • aFZd >42 t,t-s - t-s e> +qa2 'S'a zo3 e a>¢L S 6-t - t-t +voFiFPno~ [tddeS 9 6-6 - t-f d}Q~:av>0 .aavp o>a.4ot moal >m av[ E 6-i - t-L m.z9ezd o>.0.e2 S'a a4i lo vo.s ,+.0 T aaid.q> zd p •)oep o qot 3 I poa+a, o aa3~>IdmFS Y E ' i i sia>m P , a¢~>Y E aa{a.tv9aaaa Se .<.6t+aY vY .+z/ d a.4o2 >4) So aaa333 , i SZVdLW'1 ~ ZIeV2
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„Iqni y.iPnn v no le mvry>v m mg 'anP of PWnl4b P w>P .,<m lo,qpnn o„I W Ir m nawm!w! .. a w>w»e» „w^a ra >,~.nw v~p .>pnl>u! o>,nVa >y, nVl ania. ua.> vlne> >up o we+/ Re „mLaw vW! uouaniv pu. vuG ayl Y~py fu!,.N >19tu.. w „ly^i . M uwnwo W! Vfu rt!y aly.uu Pa»we ue wal.>Un, Ii ~w,aVq. u wpnlw! mv p»ywea n.'qlwnwweJ w.w>v au>,riN Nvew m n umq v.v uw ,m n.p u. Rlnmu+ wa~ p>Pnuu u»p ,ry n>, o~~yney!P e~u»unu>. >gqnG vn.aay vuawoH 'u e. w. aw4ow. we,~ iun. e nmaa mx', nlntm ~wiu»n » i ~W+W n IwAew, ~surtlr ~u>w!luv nlqnC s4. PIW 144w!>powx>ly»naiC uaw ym a.au anv,e,v.IG a!lynv w twAaw, funxn,a. ,e<I mav> el uaniniry ~n ,nuw!n!w. W, mvanuvl <pA!Pw !p+>AOw. m uo!,Nap,a.npwPw <u. mwou. Int'vo!ulniv,o vW ,W»>+M 1!u W Dinew toq rvm.^G> anr.+»qe le ,rvn ryf ^ ! >w '+ ~:I.ow wul Fnovafopv> aq Ila+ R.w wuE pu. IN p:,rt,lnlv 'v lo , na4! » R~9ml.m > . W. P ny! v p>opirvva>q oq. WryvO %noa>ly<uu muJ WI'n.ovv%'fnowiov n 1! D»e>» ury >.. mv4a mawfepua Pvapuue> R!,a0em n n Wi~w >w u.aEG. >Neua vpu! u».Iniv W, Vfnetw>nxi,r ',IaPOU,+uy~uw.lmoitqn/mlouomwoa4,otmDDnw•EnD>n~q >q R.w fqnn, t»Pn» .»V.+ W,'fuepanfv pu. vwE uv..uq uau.N+,va .»~wG Wf uvip aapu! ueqqnDm WI M v unNw ,n ol p»nqu»s >y DoeV!i>A!1 Il. w uv nlpnu ,>41o m punol fa ~a4t!4 >V~ Dv. n i~uwa> vuC m a•.,; mw+aylD >Vt•p»~a ~^Vt 'Rllninw.,p P>i<ap>L+aAOwf R9 PWevn n»riN lo +,q u.aNn+a ivyew, vaAewrvaV ,ol o>: imm,Y v pu~ ,~A^W. Ry D>AOw. nw,tlN le »qwnv -ap P~rtw!n> ay~ vep.nh> »+w ayl n/ nu>uyaoa mu<>4t Iryt punel >w'uen J!mt. ».aJ Du. n.» a4t npw uprtlnfm >yl p>Pp. >+ uW. •,u>.oH ',nPnli on, >4110 »In,a+ WI v! ,>!>u.E>av~Pl^ n,ne, . rt!no pa!n. ,q Dlne> lwpaa ,e/pur Rnv> n.P u! uoua ,efrw nw fupt„PU! •npw~. RlfwAVi, v>. i W ~»u„„yv> p>wnqo a,h 'ninD. +el /21611 »<oJ Pyi n+.>-1 Rq p puewaP aw »n44v et p»Cw>n. Pu. n.P SIHN 9[61 p,u'>.n ~, nnme!I V, . W»etlu asow woa aivauP ,ynv. ,ne RV+ Pu»mapun +>»aq el wo»y >y.,v >V I.V, vu~f'p>Aew, im le ,aqwna +V, uW,++>9 t+ iaAew. r,wvW o, veinvp ! ml.uvl ivOw,! a19.mPUVm. ~.p• e ~n,luoa ul '+au. aq iw.Aaw, Y.uv~ ry ei n%C. mqv mlqnJym fu!AOws iwNU,o+ ,ne!.>,a ,. ,av.v> >we e~ >.uaeen. ~. ,.•.,„.,~~....•,..~.•..•.w...~..., ..b...m...~.v»..:...
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ya va<-f1f 0 1 ca«s a[ diale<alem m~d d.ncnpxfev if y c< yv <ad yrodec[ien :e.xra<tanaa .<r< .ua;natm .ma<nly or atD .<gmnc.n[ v u[f<a mncert.a y 2[ tabacco dece6vlaxlon .ere xo be ivvleveated, 1 xmevx ceats coafd D< cmnc<d by < c]e.r. de[in/te. .nd lradva3 poiizy cb<nt<. yob<cco na< Da<n i«< <ncn<aanf xa.n aa.< <e.mnltl<. ia .<ba<.fnt an a aom tb< feaara «n.<o<>, Dnt e.<r <n< >e.r. u n.< b«a .rol< tm n.< tbe 0.5. c pe ctfv< <dvant<{e ia nian qv<lit> tabccco to mcln[.iv ta< y{ b<v<fita ./thovx f v x reatz/ctiov< or ezport anDaidfna. Sae pzea<arn< ot in[ezvaion<i c p ttivenea .nd teaez.l Dvd{at 1<m1t<tiona aevnr<.y re<erict t e potevti<1 foz [!v iob<cco yrice . yy t ud q <ys em te centivn< to eap.ace vncem<n ot q tc Doldex<. 13ea< .r< tDe a pr a<nrea <rperieviced Dy otaer [.rv covmodity Drograma.
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<„tt«ar;w «+uvon yrk.rsporu ,'°«",n<e~~`e~e,onnm,`nre~~.ert<r eo`~~,nWnk..na <mrm<n~ . bcprwind«<,.urnm<ror.mot<n.w<w:o tenn<v<rrwemdmcmoatmamot<.ul.4mm :~immtxmeol~e.me~ jme,~`r.`ao-es`.kosif~id+si vmo+matl m<yhinllu<nudAYln<rkA.rim+`ov+i IndceOe+b<s< fndiN,+uBYnt tbn tA<vorblu `wlmehd by c wvk W tim of wdal nmvu ibn <ntbieAlY <^n<InW ri,b +uppon /m novmckiN policin.SuDWrtlorrork<iuruukliovef+moWNVr. id <igniAwnJY M<'mtriu. TR suoN<u wppon kr motin6 P?li<iu w« elurved <men9 <upmatnu wborortdpr~m,rilyritbnon,mo4er,,rbo,<mrerkm equcnd iM1em m ta,meW, <ne rbe r<pend wppen fmm w+aetn, fm,bur.u<mDU a uunien. Tb<tlvg ef I pn<ror6iu <fi.r.at Ntin b<a <Iw kan emd „ain nwm bem+m++mer, rbm rc twd.ynlY, iu ailfnmccs In rb<yrev,l<nm a! mrmkp moking, motery'inuiminquiviN.p<rwivdmvortw al,wvragemen~ or Prior nnmpu to quil, tM ,moten' M«ire io.e<t (eimal nsln+nn in /mur<numW topvit. 'orksik mean v~u<, ~f duiee te+mtlo~m<olrb~lp~d ai<rA~~.nimrmrt.~~.um.im~~+~ xme k<m<mo Dwronn p~ sbn ucb rmluit<u iu om ••wmmunny" NiA dpnin nermrl~ rbo<nmm<nait<Iy m b<amr<a .ort<iu pekciu m promc+<nm,moWnt ~TA+ npimr mmg m<ramm et •omin non,meWN ennn ma<mn<ub<impon.nn or wnrnnd rwroA <,<,Ae <r/nu orNer<POnrin ane 1k tnu4rwu orn B raryln<mYN+i <Iby~ mimPkm<mm<m.Awrv<Yhom .beurauefAff<InufounatNike%oftom- y<ni<+,urr<rtanurennYb<rc.non<meWnapoli<Y.<d n.aaiuena xx~.rcq.nnink <politrorA<.<en<unen cm,iamsw. s<r<ral nmm~ inaicn< mu nowmount pollc~<< ~ rfe<r<lo`I, <'<a ky reponN rdo ~Ilytb< o~+ RaurcM1 mnAds ef maN<nudia m a<u Aa el<Rep<niTCquationoltM1CUlniovAiDOrun+mot. lici<+wawtien.n ~n DeeDiu tE< 1<ct of eridena, R h ofirn tunmN tNt motin8 ruvinion, wnui W u to incruua mm ion <na`rduud tob<ue wvumytion. Tk <nuu of aom +mounp poA<io on +moWN b<A.rior, roule iauny b< a„w in..momi<d+main m rnlon inc n-d r.a , iM+inllu<nu auuion wuM k wnudkQ Ya IAt (uvibiliryof,ucfi+waiui,limlidtirenlbcaiff<uRiwef r<naomiJnt+i~n m policy .ne nmm~cY wndlfiow In .eud ik im ~ non mokin =aolre tr n,d ming emundmnird +itu fer mmpviwn m< <`yusorw+<,wein or rmWirn inal <eopt nm,meNny poncin, Rwb nudin wule,aarn+<nrinr Mlmpauv inmiew. tw,motm rde= m< nnmxr or einrmn mokd rbm ..mk+ue Iwn+moWne wlitr i, bvom«a. or eo mcY mmP<wn<n bem< mr rwnma +maint n vmn Ueomrrmome inlf<lu Nv<u<umt<m m~ir<. Viin:n~pla~r~~i`e`<m~bi<r n W~hvttlsoa Vl ~ ik pdiry 4 ewnM^ pau W<potlry r<GUa tb<+xl<I ~<t<pubwtY a,moWOt.w tbmby bn<v<w,.am . bntn,inu n.vu<. De pdine bnc alnmmntl mwv qn W<,moWnt kcb<vbn or,<rHnt +utgroup,. wcb v Ueu nouKa bl u<m cucw+iN! Te <aaru< ik+<wutiew,nuei<s<nn«a,a bnevlA<ImPa„or vittir<.nayreaaJr< wn<p<rled. tmont ai<~cru ~ Pci:orken. iw rd v r<n en mb<r <nm, e/ n n. Inroreuuen b n<M 6rly M<petd b <<wvomi~l°m`pam ef vmuvw~Wng ! pdkin, bdudiN pu+lbl< «auttiorv in ivunna m oulnwtnutwu InaaEitiod Imprm<mev+bciryu<14 tY,c twlMmanymn+mokfnt Wlici<+,m+Ynethrwany < Alevd by <moLnt ruvictiow ri@aut prop<r wvil<. Uw. N,wint rveb wn+<qu<nm of ncnrmotiN po4cin Mtl k vufui to mmpnin IA<t .n pknninB peli<y `tr'm °.nm,ir<w,+er r<mmm<wsow Im impl<m<nl. bkwwmetlngmlAntlwwib«nn<min<a<e<- ;widY `n~~!a(rtulakdinnu /m imDiem<etin8„ewmok- ,mNi w Rwomm<nE.+ions t<n<r<IIY rimlutl< vp<w+d'MI top m<ntt<msnt+uppen rm novmokipg pordu, to .nw po1mU<i emplorn mr•t<rn+.bam . ydicy, b LwoMrnpbywin 0u! pw.bom W<wwr< of W<potlrycnd iu<nfmum<m•.rd+emmmuniut«na aforo<tA<percr Tb<.ppliubilny ormn<r<mmmcneaYm` m<y vvy E<pabiry en mmP<q W ncmutits Forevmpk,mPMwwmml4mm<Ynbb<tA<mmt 0.ppropnn<.+rermromne<mqN<>m.m.nbnJnm,'.. bicA<mvler,uA,unWlnumbu,orvorkmwJOm . .,iEn Fm m.nr mmoknurine r. ihc n. `n ~pfdo- tludiw Ib<smk dintini+An Jrc /vJMnir i o kub .rry mm~ ik rmt mrien. Tm wnurm or art<n' ed Ybm tbmt W, <ol<af tolkctiv< Wrt<iNnt b<b. <dopion of <emumotint Dolity mun br indudd in Ik id<mirv(wn or Jumativ< nmcgi<+ rm poliry imp1 n unlovnd rorksitu. Tbw, tb< praeu of e f/rcurct pdiry {mpkmmu+iee /n diven< wrk uniM, wd+Nnber evpliutim. In mmlu,ion, ik incr<++iM qml<nu of rwtrit+ moWN policin 4 timkiN+motine during+uht<n' i am<p<~;om rm em.be nnmb<n or rmtm. Tb< nnainN ol iW, u WY poiv te+k 6ewinB ttt<pu G EtY o f tu b poxelu «m <mone .meWr+. smotrn r<pm tA. vitfimn m,moWnPn u wkaY r wmw,ie « J~< mar.n<mpu u wRruen<<POlitim tl+e twarv~rKK rcm Nrmnftmi<Inomutkiwppon . NemmokiN petida rcp«<m c pokm~nlq Impn<n yu~ lic k<W b mol timd ct meeJYtN Ik wwunmmt a uvo(innueuinginaivbu,IkMvui.Tedne,mm .a io tb< <moua m.+Jm n<la An rem+<a o ` m.nnt.mwr~ MAiHdu<I tA<rtl+~ne<:`erikiAingiliyln{tEuua`s' f<eu.lmm~v<~ st,<umiNiM<ffecuMnonsmokinkrol ny d<prpr`qo+cbuwi myM rkwicr`en.ns`irt<ndi`m.n erii n Rar ro.a nnrc .oogr... m.swclvsnnnu.nr Im 51959 1858
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ai4 , ovD oaaa¢oy )e azav.o oi ao,s svadvea p. a lfaa{mFt. eazeazd la 9.vFf aY> za aaava ailip iv.asod.F iaos a4f lvory n:zozd oaa ¢ f Y> af.vFaite oi p .... .... d F Fza. 4f aa.fa¢ i. Faaaaza13F4 'i S11-ezta[
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9 A<tnna.agm<at. , wamy tr..aa. mna «iiea • 1n th. Uepaftment vf Ecemem,ca saa %acxaeaa at ' woztE Csmd mm 8[ate Uai.excln sna else.>ese hs. p aa.a aceial <o.mentc anE , .xs„[anoe aar . h< «v« nf [b1z xeamaxm. i< .caia likx tc ihaat ia , p zzcalaz B. Bzaal<Y. D. 9oovez. P. Johveov, w. Lo.alakl. B. L<ya, C. waaa. ~ 8.rwillez, 8. Pezziv. C. Pveh. l. Seatxavez. B. Steszt, ava ~. Tavsaafvt. 8 TEz CL g.aa D. Azthvz Sp.zzo. .ezs qofte Lely[vl zeaeacL aaa/atan[c to ' thfa pzoJect. Bxace 6azavex sva Thomax yohvaoa at the A.eficam Eatezyzfaa I Inatltote ~aae thlz ycblfeatfoa p st/b1e. 8e ebmnk them ama thslx a[att fnx azci.[aaee. pox eaiting ana nmavsczlpt ycsyazaton. •.pDzecfae the .ozk of ", Ezin Fe.[oo. . p fazmea taz beyona tbe call ot salazy o fob 0a[ xiDtiom.
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nrd.v n: mpl.p.e. ..Ao smArO .rpM1r:ed smukine Irrc~Mxf15 Penen: mn4M m rr Jree +,rk bnn re IFe pd~n . rben~ Th,nr ~M mdinnd W: rMY ,mnLea mrM}tmuynr.:Mueenn:P.had ~ i.a r~ o-n m mn.r l,.n..na nrrc.nmrn. rllhslandme Ar teneoine (r:nlraiint rr- .al:n .rlMrc mdrrrc rn tMrnomMenu(rmP4.re.•Menificn, ,m,aed (.M IS .:M:Wac,v mdi. ~ndW~ih~~ krdfew safnr wrA ~M prn ri dan. TAo, Bl nwof sm.:kee ,riMwe e leu Ih.n eiThl . das r. TMU dan p.nbl ~iiM1 IFr n nal fi~ine WI a¢nibcan ~mArn ,J,mn4rn haa eimn yuii :uin¢ r~oMry., m ~nd rhr nomMr ef eiyernra• TM,e vn:mal r.rnds run yNlel ~o rhe bnl,urwY wkrn anr n+. earhee whem m~n rAan one f.w.lA J smdrn ITB mdica~ed Ih I rAr. m r d d ro n p amoNM Jw imdrmdrdiaP~d~n.r,diArmn 1~mnua tM: meu nAo raprn,ea rMr nh.an Pndlndnmlndrrd.uymr mPl,nrn .ewned Wi Ihn PhY,ka11Y med ro smoFn¢ M Ihe nme ,drM sixmnmh pwrpoliry a:ud.. andTl prrcrnl rcwrndtM~ iMrbdpAyrieally nre m mokne ..nn mr pohn beyun. kNrNerm rn aM IT mnmA,, anl. ao perce ru! ,moke. indinted th.t Wr m,Arere m~~nrpmmrwl,x tAr me~ rv nf wr rmPln.nsrnponrd rhr ro amokin¢ polin Aad Mlped Ih<m bY dnrruins imwhile a ork. n mplm< indkand ehm amok: • r~ Prd rMir . nrn.rry bomiM u, pnmbirm,, mu¢h.rh<adeahr and rhr oBrnai.r,mokiusmeil.IntMfirWaerny.>rpneenl ed,camd W. iM1e pdin Md helped Wm:.M d rMSr, mon Wn Sp pemm Indin~ed rM11Ae wlky Aad Aelped a pn~ deil TAw. ] perrent demPlqee ,mokrn indirnrd My Md nopped amobnk di- re.vlr Enaun M ou moline wlxy. ,nd x percrnl drmployeer be6r~ed rMi Wo wo.k perfomunn Md imP•^'*d u wll of rFls poliay. wMnu 69 perttm beiv.ed ir Md:w eBnl M JI. D:rcuss~ox TMnwluofNian npro+,d,Wmo ~lin. TMYlindiure W16Wi emPlyeeu:`d pk~ nMlmindv fawred W nnnnian J unodM J our MJJ, eue mmrotion. kl moM M argnrd W~ W bwrr nsponsr N< o the NiN •dmini¢mnon ofthe ce.481 nrur:nd, drcs m~ ruPwn •.w. ~lu ~wn WI Ue wLcy wu widery.nxped. Wide , aorxlWed bnN en onr..MlminPlr ~enble n m¢s a~ bxh We finl a rws monW Mfnrc ena rM rmnd.emy ai. mrmW efin poLn imDkmrmuinn. Thi. avncimion iv Jw basM on no .r:bal nrdrmonnravd opwainnn Ind,i,wWr.narh- Mpeyip ,vxrde.JieerMk:we pon. paT~ larhbasrd en rmpl:nee„erbJubq 14y had nM W y,rcmmmaln ¢wi.< brhn ana had w nd Wir,qn n TAU.rudY 1, rvnmyani.ntA ,mekm8 n nnds in mN ao n rAal indka ¢nlfin imhrrofMim~,Vrn infaw nf..nd w~ni~rE rn nnp ameLm¢. Mmm:newr.roor n.oha indiran rMr .1 rhur who had avminoM m amde, rhe maj,rlry rcdw.rd tlxir d¢dr rlBertlte mn,ump rh10ur findinP. anyrn IhJ e m.rm:aiM poliry m.y mnine if anuali ePrmWr rhwe whe in d d m,:kl B so Mir smekmi AIr tFaMh wnal dJa indmte that m•Inwnirg nr,alion hom nat Lin¢ may mwhe moltiplr atnmpte a:ro,mokinb pdinmeYPlayaqwW roleM,NoriM W frrqoemy nf smeNn¢. main W nIM naration, and Impro.ir:q ba6 rAeMJlAOfamokenand nansmdenJike. TM1r,e naalls an Jw ¢imh. a W bndinµ d4M I amnkiM aur.eY rond.w4<d bY ~+IIUP! We fnund Ihar&5 pemnt d nonamoken >e penenl M fmm~r smnken ard 64 penenr af rmeken apaed thn rmokrn.hwdd mr •mokr nev n¢amoken This nna narnenn. W r•n lr nno„ mn..r e nawn, wr weheme e ¢mokH.r.¢ emironmenr. Ind:nWl etodirr ha.e arnssrd emplonr armodr n PlenxM and InpkmemM Wo- o.n rmokng Pdi¢iea. qa;fic TeL:pAenr .nd Tem Lu4rvmenk ~o.pma.:m an 4w M mam WI M.r undrw4rn ofienpiwnsmnN ~indi>renna.mKWlelgM amrke of aAenMi ~ mwt amoken 4wr rmoke-frn polky.' A6hwgA Wre arvdin aunq.d empbree.onyomelk.PrendiMpoliryimplemensinn4 rMY wmidr roppwr fin ebena k esnhWhmg emokrTmwork emironmrm. em Mempbyers hu Ju bren oMenakrn m hrdrA e~ne nniMS' Theu ¢1udk, auppon nnb h,MM rmokr renrkeu:y polia:er:.na IM ony rmylern ¢nwP WI hu ml •nepnd W poEry b W rmplnyrr w1w ¢moLet' In en rrudY, Ngpu ud nmed WI JNouTA ony 35 peiawol ef moken ppwldWbmubanLne YurNer 4 lememuvm ef. roamebM pe1kT W4 sopp¢ Md in rra,ed 1e61 penent PaeubeY Ndw~ed im14. rnnd, whrn bmqul:wamoYiry polMrr wen und .nd WI rbe .ew4n mlrW nlomnea d m nishrd wiN time Tw nnm rmdire me aoMutted n Mayo Cllnk ¢nd W:xMr n rM On9m MNa &kaxa Uolnr nry. Mrt reryned en Wk meUwds for dercloplM Wa rmukrfrn poikiea•'~ Sia m¢nW ¢fnr Implr me Im¢ , wlicy, eacA Inmrv4bn poned Wde
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Lower Levels of Cigarette Consumptiori.Found in Smoke-Free Workplaces in California T«y J uecd.up. >hD, HPM: BredW+brooF, M5: jcAn Pin«. PAD: Sanw.t Glunm pnD cvned Cx rtI>tiwlup b<n"><n Wmk. Wnp poltuu.nd.makm9 p'c•aex.+nd nt Gli~< 1990>Gh/nm.u Tebuu Snn<yY Alk.~xr.den~u(t)~M):mve,eele nvhcr«e __ p<>eo.dayrwwe.<ukd .a.g ,uw,r wofxpk«,meMn[ p^Yh, d<:ntl s-.+okin5 }ywry. Logu' x{ru lin}dP E ~u,. +«w t:-.f fe•!e [ r • eo!«gul« unJY u~k« u ~M1>nr ~n J+e.mwJ~ n en. (:3.1Y n lO.aY ~PCO01). C>numm~q rcg. .n(r« MeJkWe ng.erkPkus m(196 nN)P<JaP<rYm.P<.OOt).Nn . nmwW ing pdklu w<x v,uuud vW~.mekm meu likdy m eon.mpW Quliw}(P•.el~). n.ly.l.u«F. pl nfmu4uG«we'YUCesla.e +lo.e wntN«'+IexeW..m>ng<e mp .ork,mo m.dimu<miuumP~wn Jan;>dr-.duaL- .g lwMx ,meiun[ u pnmm>d W< u.v.arc ng>r<:u mon{cmplay<• adaenY!lYb>b.~F.« QN«<v.rt nu,melnn[ rumnioru m Gtifami. w>rk~ pLu,.F ,}.<ncen.V.QGWemnwelryb<u~exm.>4+. k«. <q:r<n< <enrvr>punn.mon9++ndoY<n wome b< x beu.. yu~ v Jsx wsrt w werkp6«.mok;ng r,. rv.,9pc>+'c+xly.5506 r.illlen,niud lav m ,yu indue:ry.T4unudyrvpponaJuhy- pe~:+e.u uu~mekel«e ~.efyuu pai.au <x>n.Q« ~ v<publle he.iv5 mevurt (ard<mv~~,aekmg prc.~ ynx<:m vg.rt~u <muump~ien .n~on6 «namm~{ Nxi.lnxm N<d 1905:153:1/g5)}95) T p ~nn.amerrv+tuba«e (Exs) %r9rt, =m'- nnok<n lu+kd w. pw~ ingnumb<rdpetievmJx .arkpk«Jm yurvvu er «,eiu,m>M[.' sn~«n..< w~k<a m~e lw~g m.<m.m nv~rwb>mnwP~ewemtona'~+w+<~ m ke.Th.Fai+•enmen~yPmxc uaAgnYIEPN}asa<u~ktlFSV.G~oup A (pmw+eum>n) umne[m.• Nw~ <ryorv« <o Ei5 br rorvmo4"r~r~w xmn[~W>h{mlA~rklvc wnud4 rmalun < P vof >neQe m«Aedbekcusmg d~•9w kas.<>p>mswEismThV<pc;- „+!.!M•>_..•___ ~nbewmxgiwunn@ym LWUanr rcp„a.,.,~,. m.tne[ ~wx wpk.~<nw «. wnYe Je pury«< d rtm;<w[ la....,wD•nr.<). ,mnlcngm5<'w'bkaenpwucwwk~ <n tmm,A<wxllu m ETg. nuC<, o( Irv ' Hduil wr4 tl~u Iv.<d.wm Jw,u<h pelf au>4o nwi in 4u+making.> IvxIJ~ bm<fi~ w,mek<n. Nmr uudlu 4so•.iAn ubr.tiLLnier<Mingmukmgmwnrk. quu xduu yx w<il numWr e/ <;g.~ mek<d by <enunu;ng sme4• ~»n t.e eu,<r,warc. aia ~m tw , a« <>,<m rom up,mm <onrvmpmn w~ aia nna> a«r<+r+;n Jrc P•x<n«[< e! sme4<n M> meked v wX nrM s arA+<in m<m.nm ef anrc~«o.ek>a u wM" Ir u lm> <4ar whaner peYra Su Ne<FoL on nm p.S< µpwx+n n.Nnt+.lm
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.+aeir<+ ...... : . pm 8v{DZZ9 aqi ila.aadre •ivo,3aiti+vF pv+ razaP»oad 9v,iaizrv va 4oi ai +aesvq> eso. o .6zi.npaF eyi Je voFiz oiaz eqi /a iaaJJa a. a. afa.q Dtno. axi aq+ao¢. qi r ad»za •Dv.dz. ai a F zaiva p¢> > I> 9 3 Jo ezi+ aQi aat <>a.psai e43 ', 9vzqa :, o¢ i¢q •JO aoizznviaacz + o vo, vzdz> ea 4oi zo, v Jo s.>z. i aseavF t+so++ad pm [zzvi[vaF:9. taei sF si+H e o .aizaHtm ptnoz ¢aiznnPozd ea 9 i y>FQ+ moat i ii ea a+aqa <tlrFaad+v •diq+zaawe +awL ci atq+iaqtzaz+ >moav} Jo raeFi+odozd qtiy qsF aFlaaa> ¢F amo vi Ir¢a++ad triaa Fo xze{ . e + F + atad }zi+aoa e43 v} Pema_ev[I '+++zeaa[9 z si >43 ¢F e+av aizzi¢eavaa oi P 3 ptne. voFieapoad oaarqoi <atzvg a»az »»L raev! +aq Fq eezq <tt.>S>oz.Fq i.qi .az> aqz aav, i zo,. qaoq Jo voii>¢POZd aqi J>m + Jo voF+v>ot>z o .<aFttqvi+aF <zo3rtvBaa Jo po}+ad sv.aaz aqa oi Fizt» 6Fi , ad.a iiFt4ri+>s >va F+a pazd +e »FZd Jo z¢et4czd zc(ev ev 3¢q 'pui d 0g6F oi OL6I aqi oi pvzrd.oa <3SFi4>F++. e>SZd oa qos Fasz ¢F a.zezavF <teyFt + o ~ .<ay.vpvt voFi>apezd oaazqoi •5•p >93 oi aavaaaz taioi aqi vi azw ae iwazad p9 ei LS Jo ........ + e .iveazad GUI ai OL <4 ¢oF+>¢pozd aaa+qea Jaet 'S'g la v F rdxa Fta+as0 ¢z ' e o>a.qaa 'S'0 te .fiia .n6 eqi F avv zo ivaazad OOS ei dn Ja az.a: ,. a »razaaF zaa>ze I pa+ e>S+d a} Ft+i zveez d 8 e raazaa+tFO •S'g zul e .H¢F+¢larlv¢am >33az+8Sa vi +ivd , qa ma:J <rwz vo,i iFi*qaT a¢oz o • a aa a a. a v+ o a z a.+ + v .[¢et 9 axodnF S a 9oi F aaa9 F o.z i.a qa i= aFitaf}. . a FF-+Frde¢<H I ' I
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ranvuiu e. wamnn Peun ~r ryeu er mn tyrpan a. Thue .bo r0and ro molang vtwc(c{, rmOMes rW wrbe lus eduant, FuPam<, ana anlel. ao.c ven cenam<d Jur ule rt~ d bnw wrkni makmi palrry iY bt~an r af rAu wi iemm. ma, r.~~ otrhaeir,a L ninp Ilnu ant .me4~nio a lo- gunc .<g.usion sWU p<rformca rhu incivded rhere xoiapiit v.r:.bla and v!c r1Pe ol snokin6 poluy nmg bt:~u uu od4 - oa I•a- ee le{ ~rh~mi,u yol:u.a an tamOnn6 sntu a cvteC.ng megn>hn v.n.bha. iM rype errerkqlate k n8 Poliry W u.WI aigvirundY u,ouu.d wrh Ecmg . aneke: .ir<r ad)uurni fer d.magnpMC W'orke : N Werkplam wrh eniy .ork no n- x t~5 umn mere Rkely re bc umkers w•orktd m a tmekefr<c .arkqlut (P<.051-~u veder kuer wrrictiom or m«- vr l.i ri n Itkely ae be mak rsarA mre4.~rr<c r•erkplut V<.051. icutr rts~nctlou in Jrc werkplatt .en rwt o~re.n~t~~n N rr.wem~ mt ~ e~ie. I<n<r r<><nctmm nwit.n m.r~~. omyrchtnsrve poluau vtn urxund .irA .orken m~~a nr..an m<een. n~o m~ri,v.~ ,~a .r re..e n,rnaiom. Tht t,m,.hd.<rm~d,t~ a r,. u rlur P°plPPrenu ~rJOm.m resllkrlye be +en Jun .en Jur< verkmg in vcOks.h<r Wetk. n .rnr .ccounung br dcmegnphn wn. (ovcdmg nvbles. Tn yxanv. e! nmting mvn6ev Y uceeoud wrh Imn teW agart vumpoon tor rll Tht pen<eugt er emakers Y le.er mwkeMc srkyl.cu. (lla-6 sv+x.kpbcta`Tha~i.voRwxam a wrA a wruW nduc In ugan couurePu n. TA< roW number ef patkt ef ty.eusa ,.,n~ <.rn,{m,k.aaonrer.<,;.erenw,~ Pn.~wnveM ww~ioi.u {mau.o~Mitr a n I maair,vtRmMniea, S~eeunp Yelry P[envWln/ lar OtntepaOeY YuubN~a u.x ,v v.rron~un wnrn w~,r ea v.am.xan .mun d ss cYwr in d(oronvo dir..owkucm'r~waa (g) amka.hn wmkybn fx all werkp4cu nM Q) rw n. w atl .orkPluo. aM thx qojnmer nrc mmpartJr.ivS av rwmpbn. In tNe ct4v4- med Yut nc~n wu no eel(-.dunen ef nrmokens mek<.frte +wr ru beyend rlur urxcW wro d,e demognpAn lancn &acuu<d ~mb on..nn., ,~mer ~u.hud.mi n~. .., rtti ap:an by nnly
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rkDlac empr< c rrala <mob.p had n5ni(umly<b+< rtlvlu dnf n .han .o.kplc«a w sh Icra<r o (pl~unl). Only 3).15 a( pecplr in ami.<~frnc.er43 pl>cu w<n rt{ulu mvkcn comp>ud ~/J 20.dx iw ~erkpl.<u w~A w ru v tP<,ppl). thus. Ju of r<lulrr .mek<n .~ .m war4pla uicwu lJS leu •+ih ne rzw.r4yw. ~wnt Dm4<w -u.< na au~r. .LA low<r acuioncl rvuWanf n~u Gulna werz srz.k<.(ra. P<Niu mekea mo4<d n!gni/innJy /ewu n5.eeun pu ynr ~ wvrkma)~ ufv6rw~ry1>cu m9leycdrin ke frapwo~kpla<u mvunsd 396rpcpv e/ np.- ny<ry< n>f)p - eful>e moken employ< w V<.dpiL s Y dirtuvxr b<pvWUnok<r n'~;mD~~.s. werpl<aumear.e pe[<:<. ,.<:< ai{er. ,n„ay .,.«;na wm a m.cr o<,~ ,,,wb<: or <,p.. neket by ocuriena amokua x ve~kpl.cu kerr<e (Panvn <on<I>avn. y,40]3). :hce <wv eu~nnu .u«aud w~ih meo.g <omrob in ~h< workplaa<-dec:eau m ~< nvnbe: el rtrvur en u~d d«r<u< v. nnnue corwm9ueo anenp >ud w nC.LL~ c Sarr wvR^vn io~h iiNlru<tumdv2mihew a deu ruyonu Wuu v: ~h< m..< r<w:.<:..e ~he mnnng palur, ih<lewer n. perc<nnq< ef .maLen and number p( 9raDs ~~ Ou: d>u >Iav indicau ~h« ihr Drr<>nutr pI empu~ive a,u:ump >•n {mur vanyl.ce moknf na+n <mk~ w~b n v. Smoken~ ingn< rmPr r e<kl.w •SR>mwnnk<oR<lvanahe+ed.M uvvN9 ba.<m mon <enpNuv~n wor4PYn po0~ .ea m< rk<weed er>rnrepw~{ re wk v. olo. mnw,rkPl>«a wrh . mur< <pmP.<bwln yer<y. mo4<n were <onumPl.on6 euf~mt <^w^ 1a d>), e( beng.aked and le~.<r m.okm.xa iu~ aAir~t~ Ieg .bovr puiuinp n .Il nd fermer ame4<u srr u4<tl cbew ktng hab~u l yr>: b<bn du aunry. pnpan~ d<w wM we< xcnevl ameken 3 y<ar .pv .rrt <valYa<d up<nuly (rom .hea< w rcNla. mekrn t ye>r sfe. Mon cemprtAe:ui.<rwrkpba Pou und ..A rtm>wng rn wevl r>Na hu Prag<sMg re r<gularapwku.l a.m.a).o/me..Aeh.aba,er.,, .memrt 1 y e, llx h<d b<cvn< «IVI.w mlek<n in m~o4<Irer wckpH<u Dw J]Y A.d Levmr regW.r r4p1>cu uf n endm >~ulrt.m ~1 Ynr >gerAowcG > vMy<be mprthmnn ktng Pehcu+ nd b<m{ . fmm~e «unmul rme4<ru.A< Gm< ef.AC rvr- ucy (hAUgl. A rcprnu uWyw uf ncpo96mu whe rtNin mwken 1 yer µo d~d roi >heW . relaevMp hnwcm werk9icce Wticur uW .<hanpe In amoNng cnw R>bk 3). Cempnhw w r4ylace kK pohciu edv< n 1«<I, nhnne~y. >nd f<:d<~. prthrnnn wakD~i« p sm wer4m Whe hu'c mon eduuuon ..d..ah rwn~ raotpnw uxµcu~nr
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P wPa+ x »+l-a,ow> . u >Vr ->' - r{ma a m a,4fa~paaEe,d au.ucEwl >»>>,aV~>pw>aa ra3 rn »rya a3;+q rtr. tt alryMU 4lncryf iwaoun 1u.ia,noaxD ,of x>4J. fv 2.'!~i iNSU,µaG a9 qnon uol»waCwaa p>C[, urp »V»Vm'a f_+uoa>qr»~p a41 ue f>an uruau »Vir4 N r»ya Nr +e/ d pa.. aV UNa ununau an >waaw. a4+ m faiueVa p.wf ll>nuav~v r N. Idap>I Ii. Io u f..! Il•d. e.ol w aa nscpa aanua9 pury+ayro ayf u0'+ayow, F4rineoN,lo »V~ annue-fr. ea ~t:w u.iu ue rvvJ. n»VI vw .ooE e lo uo >i,i vaa<un.uoa u u»p a w Rlvof9 >PVx a n.upPmdaa Dntaum d D.N'alidwu Ilt. dauG•u41rY'f aun imivap auyl lo rNfl w tnVl'.(Vrl.a. aV+ u.Vl »nrya aar10 o+>n~wop>u awG >y> a.41 u.aE61 u'n>ya u »r# wxwv.ay, u..9 "anouoW 'RfwN ,no w a16oaC~D>a.anprss>1 9ua wm' qs 4aw Pd>uo>n vau>wourya . iuww»9 µtuns>uw u aW9am> a~nM vw x.4 >+ >Y 'u .>411y p aauanba>uoa Irvwrn9ur.~p m, mvcnnu mn , mtu.iu y+rw par.ue>n Rrlna~ylP pue»f Y 'Cf61li/ I. u iwuuryfl final an iu>»yrD .rhDee n,'enm>u nan tuu.;+ai >ry.uel»+ wauy~D Du.'ix >9 Dlnou> ae+ ry.4n,rya » ynal »u>+d aY, of fn >pni'a>nl»waVr N Du. ul roo oD ailnf>. +mn'wnxe+>n'Rn>r»nwn. rvlyewf nnpn m a> >.a~a as m>vqum ryn .t.w rl irya p»iin. fuauau +al DuewaO au>.1>w Ala.'nu A3 :m R pV.w>P )e R n.r w+'>,r aaiu.4a aa >nim m ar~mvYUUanl+aw» mry a. »>t0oa6 7»ilN >au rDef+F mm ~)o i>+n >•>WO>Cd. w> imu}w,nay n uorW'umuufa>nw~ +. m.c mum an»i~ iwm 4>w. wfwoa. w>w,w ra>ud >v+ m.v„a unpo>d em.6at ,ryao pu. n4>a.fu lo uoun9!+rnP N+.Pnm»+W w twfwraauuoa fvuy Ic roi;~n>.w Imu.ul m un.a,Vr ¢vQ Y'a>!'~+ wrµ. p>;aw. yaa91 n4ty i»nq.IDOr uo >iwawr Rw Eq~ v.maN,moa Vun IYin.y u,q a.ry iw;Dau> IdanCa. +ol nnndwC im rlpDmn W et nalDnN >u >aal.>lawa . urv~ Fnwa ,ne iu~w+olfu.n ay :c.e e. rynf »Vf u »itard» ue >nPU iw>owa m>mRe in nV ua9 pu. n w a41 ana0> %w.n >i ~pu. i-a.xnw le mrtl» a.orD%iv a atyl~.»pw> ualiwt :g aa n amy> »V> wl >Vl -pnwvxp tl vauyu~u > ah.naaaP m s-.>~ w>wy> [µ.am»uaa. 9u. » u>ya /ulEyl>"aDa e nufo>u d v.vudwl , 11 vµnv+ auVi le >u . nqOw, R>IIOE >V+ 9u drfa u( . rvmonldw!/xled CD 'a a.+pavau0 p>»umw>Yr rn »r9 n9ru.. W~+rwa >V+ nn0u p/naV> ~*>F+.a,9rai>. aVl'>'0 S>eW ao o> laul >ya iu.uedwl n aw+u» +~a~.~.~>++^~+w Mr>N, nl.nary4a.<» a~~~a~.,.x r »
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<n<)ul> l9~ ..CrtI «~riLOM udPn et N< <Mkm<m bn N p<W Nnpome smw~.a v<rv rm' rtN.< uyWm .m .t<N<W Y~TU.'n wur4 PF.d Uu~° JM'vnl.niw q~N)a.if Wid.y.p<ryvama.aNiaor- bmM mrv ~otY.a .e~Nn NeWm~nk. N p<lu aw• brtM ewY M okwsa. d.'0etrmu/aNe q< )o d~T4•n ~M d.h Fu yo~did muke .bw wd q o.~6 (tH,_~~W tln+a.aw4ea p~ pe. J.n.psYem. yu: NnYUmN°m.uu:.l~b<k6<wna<v~`u.. rs (t)'~<M<F ol ~F. b2.wn{ bm dneN« ryu<.m~ plorc. mokiµ p°ilq kro mr p.Nk m m61 x{ poun ter°um~ m~w<t<myb~ wr~~h n. .rr.r k1 •e.~ .Oe-d N my.~m..' U) '.Mwa m°wm<.<u..' er kl lllo.a N A uw' R.< weimiue.m°va i<N 'u. wuFm tlm~6.d Nw rn<.1 m. (11 meu~F.. wwpW. W.m°iant m +w<I'.0.) wrt w _ T~wui<~m. ~~~ >r ~aaa~.uaa.wsu ~~o~ w.<, r.,~rm~.rt om.mt aw<a m w~°°m< N s<.wn w~ur°w~<~w .•a..°.emecaa" ,ml:.rtomrmn<wn...mvnnam,...°<i<ck<°.m (.wT®°lontuu°. vsvupWmnenw Juf3<dub.n+x<awu'J.e<.re<urv.eto•w mll)rtNb.mebu4eme.ne~b Ne!uM.queuoe(eanpuJUnwv.Peu<yJ°.Ye4or nrc~W~kvN.euamwmmdd'. w.IwmWa.b.wJav..Nntnruw5vu aii.~<~::<~`mw.na.b.mam.nWam..<m.n w~:i~w.{Wa.r n v q mmrd. sin{mubatin.h<wer4pbm Wdw.d<muein mcNnB Dre..ka¢. Yrenl IPrtwp.nn taund . aem.+e J. DxrY<M<o[nm'uy md.n Nue++e In meFxt imPkm efpolbu nnt kntr:e N<wrvpl..c 5°menudu.lwna u Ju pma<n« el moivnt ut^^.M Nur no(PeYon WitintmwWn4•.~u..nqq,.,. u uf.IGc~0. ~e mcssws m A<a b<ov.< d wlNe aau ue u.m tee d°<e w Vu dau e/ peti<y unPl<m<woert Uun wa<qmu r°uw-ev Pmw dkr In< wq<mrw. ae(~F<pcilry.°rUCw<d.me4Ntrtmim mYq P~mwnwa..nim m°rF... °.mlw. mm<. °m tMSe pub4<Fciq benNU.Y° v.ml.u W° uv. mp foe <N empley<r. Sma4ry N N< wmkplr. u p~wve !qr Ne <mPlm<r becu.e e( .ueu.ut .bssm<e- d<m.eed DwduorveY. muPrtlmW InImP~. TAUwI .ndlont.km.Fmi~F<aw.w'wnr4pl.c.pe1- wm uu<n°vc mwNnB cnbnuiu <mpby<c W nn-
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oop<:ai«.. rh< m.t: per pamd or .to 5•,d.+nl,eralm m,t. ma pnt.ntl.3 m..<. en ,a<. a<t.m1n< tD< tma r<¢a1r<a m n.iax.ln tD< coop<z.xi.< .fehoot . 6n+fic.nt federa sob idy. 3Le.e oesta h.v< be<ome .vbstantl.l bec.a.e 3.re< ¢nutltl<. o[ tobacee .e e yla<ed mdez lou. .nd becwse tL. m.rbet p ce r<¢vtr<d to .ell tbe toba<co te tb. «.de i. lo.er eD.n tDe lo.v vote. ]Le 1983 md 3980 a.e...cnt. .ar< not av[fici<nt to caver expen.es ef 4De at.bilis.efoa cen y r pomd. op<ralov. 'Ro 3983 { er ...e..a<at far tlne-cnred f. 25 md fox bnrley, 30 o<nta yez poma. Ia th< ayrlar of 1985 a 6 <.tvoaa .ere vvder ..y to n.e Szo.er aaa<.ament to ivdace <f6.rette fi.m. to Day tob.mo .mr<a md<: lo.n.
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.Fap aa sa6 d4 Peav6ead av. 9aF4a 't86T aa4maa6a8 'YUSH '. zv8 ;aa.a+a8 aFVa oa3 '898 ' N aiie[SaH v Fi :olvl Ivanitn>}afV .~'aoFa.[x{8ri z•3 S86L zol PavazB;>.g : aa.4oy~ nF PaaFVinoa s5 aoisse>+}P ai p_ i_6a ny oaa 4oi Pazv>-av}j acj mzfazd a43 Je SmasFi n4i a SF.iap azom sapF.oz6
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rNNo. •eVGe. ab!uro[~w<u4•n Nro a<u+unr. fe.e JOY In<:a< rn [F[ odd, ef bemL a tmok<r <em[nd wrF wr!unL m a ame.elr« vor4pks. tc.N wtwl [wa~u [:< n<ed<d [o wnebanu rFUe pnd- ac'Y<b[n <o..dunedvan nd.6 Tn[[Ca ToWceo Jun<p ef oppmtunry aaudYlrF< pu4uen. bued IenCr. nal rv .w+W [DOv ~yeoenn. afc.pr< vDeue![uLu[ b .. mnv[[. ~~ serm<.'rrmar +n[<+ <rv[I e 6 rur[ centumDr[an are cen Ou[ vr wrF [h ( crFn W Cr__-ai awuur oi ndr.;dve! .o:'x o eiuLLUr rF.q unL peue.up!o ndve,S ~ pe:<e.u{. N.~ro ~ - el <¢ar< - k<a. w„x ar mf. , „~s .n. .~rt~n~- x<:k<[ .. i ~r~<r,~eL w~ie<r{.n[[r«~~ D o± r.er<<~ - and c. - mPlarm6 e [c[a [meWnL p.nc¢ ,nd n ~y~.~,..r~~mP<=a m[ n,oen<mp mu~~~>~sq :<r[<w< P<r mr nae<mL tme4m{ n a ~vkohr. w•orkpl.<e.b 1/ vor4p~au[ in Lh(emia u.n amek<Ine, w•[ en h.c: puu of apnuea per yu: voulO be [movsa Uun mtl[: <vrzmr ceeNwru. Sv<L vunL<.ould prowd<Mpenmr FnW bm<I[u fer .orken and w•cu!d ncnamr t,1{n!M1nnr anp [o- wrd [ne pub4c Fcil[F {o.l ef . sme4eAree <en<ry. Wq 0< a[mb +o<kWU amek.nL WI. rn 4LLIen +. [Fe wb[e emqnlu 5301 m;u~ee p<[ r<>, m<ea[ i d wF nk, It me4n6 [um<vonsaln verkpk<u In 4ilfem<~G v[n rMr ST.BS ef +mekm mek[ PFWp ma bnna e:V r<uu N rhe .e<kp!an (.1.IY v< uuTcw), tldy na[umu a B)t8 millwn bonml bu [c iEtlie ko.v au~< R.Dk +f. 1t all ef rF<.mkylavs in CalJemu .en moke.b.e, [Iu uD.em <em. p•nru.ovld lo,<an .dL[wn.l SlqJ mi0ien ~n awvY u, bmCn[ Vu m~[I bu u BW6 wYVn ermoY!Y wmwr[a .,~ w,ar dww b[ <:p[a[a B m[[[ w'[n cn<e m< ~~eUr ~see~ nrT[F a Jomu tur<W!tuorur ena'[4e.FCn w nw Jvm. .umem ef.mv4nlrc< .ror4D1+« kLUlxun A«rqeJfe. p.B!uwiw 0[m4e. B, lpG2 ,uPle.r<d BY rM GRarau u W:+ k... .ru•hMy'Je3w[ajCd~Je.wu:.eub+d•'2ooa«a WIuuJ Oi[tu< Ru•rch Iry.vm ef[h< Ver.<nn. ef G~. qwr~m m-n.d 1e151o1 end BY <ew~mu dp.pTtlrzham u,[ tobuvGV.Nbr<un Cd~ma Ceqnnmr o(K[. W Jn. w,eenp h,w. £e.r.[w.+hpl~ bm ey [,[ y[. ad.~kl. rw~. TFU. w[ nrNumobvnn<rur. BJrhSm fs J[vsv y du~msvn Nun A,a<w V<. o.. le w[mh[!L.lppl eu,~ en .equeure5[roNo/~+l[='rrne.Be:a1lr,Va- .nnq qGifanw.5an t.eneuu, U NteJ O: GbnrU.
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1_, (n Lm to .m<n . toe.nro alosmrat nr qnet. a.. e<ea ;,,i{n.a ..y be .ola or r.nt.d. n< nnnr or ren[<r .<q¢irea ene tvbavc q . g a a„ec.aed .atD tbe Lvd. (2) ToD,cc q v mey e lee,ed d:zectly by qm . omez. to gro eza rpo a.D xo pzodoce ana maztat tob.cco. Qnotv mzy D. lea,ed to { toD.cco only in tne s,n< co¢nty .c ihe ezigfn.] aliotment. (D) ITe No Net Coat Tebacc¢ pzo{x.n of 1982 • o.. <Dv diz<e[ s.le of [Ine-cvzed tob{<ee q .. Indleldnala m.y zell [e a<tfae [eDacco p dnc<za their z g . to { ud ..ztet tobacce. D¢t oaly .itnin <o ty ovad.zies. Noef.zm c [iona and certaie otbez - ansiz<nt.oar rez< r<qn xad to ,ell thefz tebacne qnotaa Defeze De<emDVr 1986, S.1< of q a aepsra[< from tne 1.nd te .hfeb it la aa ag d n.a net been allovvJ foz inafeid¢al, ovnlne b¢zley tobacce q a, Dvt sncti<at.ena mn,t aell [heir bnzlvy qvo a. Re 3983 leg eistava inclvde p av,aon foz elzefnetioa eL rfthiv-covvty leaa< and travrfez oL qn •. Thia p v.r.on aa a<hed¢Ied to take e[te<t .ftez [De 39g6 e p ye.z. The 1.. .o¢!d zzqn e e y q ,¢voez not leg.lly .n .ct ve tob.cce y odnnez elther te seli ni, q • to yrad¢eer lv the v{me com y z becoae a xeb.cco pzodeeez Dy ,hazin6 1•t le.at ao v pzodnctfon ri.t. OtD<z ze,tzic[t¢¢a oo the ezch.vBe of 9 • rfgDt, eai,t. ]ea.ea mey not z g ln ta< fall ¢t tav y z, azza {<nt, y ot be m.de thz nth { ta nsed evclv,ively Lor th a pnzyv,e: and n more tDan So p<rcent of tbe titlable c oplend nn avy fazm may be naed t{ r toDacco. Ihe Iea,v ef Cvota n¢at De zegia[ezva .itn tae 1oce1 ASC9 ef[iee. 11 additiov- tbe 1989
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}o +a¢?uedozd >v+ ea) LI¢Bvez aF a aai ipFZaz9 av .a v ni )¢9?: ¢e> ¢.?t .:v. era.oa9 vaaaao) e.Fiaa aaa. oqv atdoa6 •P aepezivF +a. wz9asd +Fai v 4B oaa 9) So ai+>za> Svno{i.v [ aoi ¢a 6It>aw> PasFl ez )L ?:9Y 30 <t>)a:>ap >pa va+6. fqa vi vv).n. avvma [[ ae.aza t ,i v. qaF aa eqoi xo} PeP?eea6 +>. tazi¢oa Ltddo+ '+a,i?POwoa sv¢a i>w zol +vaxBead a;itvp fdoza qa zoJ >FP ii +> <>iiod ioddn+ va?a3 eQi iv>m>[da? o) oaaaaoi 2[a+ yc+ ••Lnry, i pasFZOa)n+ ++. (JJJ) ¢oFi+sodiv~ aiwxJ GaFpoomo~ >at +a +y s d awwaaee9 ++ L[[aiiv»+a pevo?)oav} +v>eT »aqy 'Llq>illoz6 Pio. v¢ Ptnoa it [.i wa.yoi aw v?pt¢Q ...... 9Qi o)aazaivl Pv4z.Qa ivvvvaao [ zap>I a¢y (~aaizd itoddn+ qs i+ ivevL.dax a>oi ao} pa+v aa 6+v LiFP ea vaa 4.9 xo3 avo +F wol •~ noaex¢o4• Y) 'tvea[ )ieddn. aQa a n9 za.(na v)az{xd a sosJ ea{zd > 9v?zq oa pvTisJ edoaa efo4z »aaaPe:d e+ee) o) Saa[F>s. apav >za. +a.et iwwx9evf aaa¢ea.m x oa»aoi }e >dy a>aa ao3 >apad i:eaa¢+ a4.:>e> va tol pep{sazd .BL +?a) 'Oadi Pv> 6f6T vF Pvpv n> Y'Hfdt I^ a Y anaw+vfPY [azniL . Y aqi . F S aF +¢ afazd oa a i)vaxava aQt •[aaoFiniil veaw ao a[a+;xo ve Panead +eva¢a+ }e ,+ I 4a ftvla+aaav+ )ov axa. zase.oy •+OE6I-P:v a4s F vo?i>tae» oaa+qoi aa +)dm»iY 'aOfdT vaa . v+9>9 Fieapoad m 3'S'H le va?aft 9z aea+avard 6ioi.Fg P>P/>oad .F nztead oa 9 i ei l0 6xoi+?4 )e?aa a i)avd+za6 vF <aiiod ivatm> aqi aaa[d o) i r?I ioH 'YHdi 3 Paa a4i lo ++ 6a{[od ea >aoa 'H'p ¢i }o +vana. } tchm >ei Se v?tin n. : aaoa a>aaa4 +?¢L ioad o a+qvy 'S'0 >qi Je v FidFZa+ad i a>id.q~ T-T
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:+6aa aezqa le aae ¢! pv4nv4a.a a9 6ma +iq4Fa vfovD o»v9ei laaPF•Fpvi aqT :ao+va+ +ao.•ezd >4a i oif vosaa.Pa¢ v -aa•o :01 P>i afp• •aoab alavQ .41 . aioab •Ftzalla aQT, +ea+ve+ r»•! v. +v aa/ viovb ++saza a9f ai t aa. dam .4 '.a6 dvv F,oeD >F9 a+4t +>t >tt>+ za.aaB . IT z.a6 <aa aF iioo6 „a•Ffaa41>.. sF4 lo ia»iad 0![ as dn tt>v 6.v a>woa4 IvaP{•{pvx daa •r.a6 oi z.>6 voal +ptaF6 ¢F +vo,i . s aoT • t[ oy aee< zad savaaad Ot va4t +aa[ oa efo¢D t iot . LaanPvz izvFt s>taz a4a •Peaepozd .F ii rve6 a4a vF +vda4 f>;zav ef P[o+ sF dii•aavaY oaa>QOt pae IvFPai4 d!f>, ia fav { azzd fxoddva 41 aA.:as. vo f.91 0+ Pai .p. >4 oa . aaD aqy eaixd azodda+ 4, soq. 6L19 .i 9 iii 6s{an•nD f 4f aol Sz6 iv;zvv 4, ee.za•. vo i.qi Fi eivF >4i 4ii >x iia FaeY Ta [avaaaaog 4i 69 a>[ 4ava fav >F oeaa4ot lo aQ6i Ra•v lo f¢navv vfo¢0 tvvoFte¢ [afoy Uamed qav> >za paxd •>a oi patv>o[t> +i aoa L .f v la a4aavaaaa ttvm Y) pofaed >sa4 a4t . Tv.xav vaa•4ot !•¢o.t+¢ lo aaa 9 aFa4i va pa+.4 >sa. sz>a6 fvaaDa+9a+ v{ vo{faapox6 t+aeti+v lo s>za4s [+vp.•Lp¢F Saq), addi vmv+ >4a )o aa.+4of ..... d oi >.i ea o> f48t> 4i . aa>. v0£dt aqi , va 4oi ...... zd e9a +z>mz>,{ ao_fa p d aaaaQoi Jo vzaii+a t Fzot .Q v av Da+>4 >>. ni'99F9 6ta•Fi{4i9oad v Tvidvd fvoQiia •oa 9 1 ltae ef +aq4FZ ato¢b fanpie[PVT •+ivnmfotta a4+aaav se+4 6[zvazma +ed6i P>i t¢8aa : FM +vioaD ae.paaod ).voFi•v aa+xada+ 6q Datteaavoa aa. Paia;z•v pm> uaae a>a+qa, P n>_antl D <at q I +a{iFfa.aD >4c to , vd [tadag I 6 ' ' I I I +z f,i dmo L o,i ¢aa> F)e f>Qi oi paz.dmo> a>tlal ao¢ +aq doaa Sp eqi )o SM >4i a+qi ia.>v q aaaodmi ao +x>azodza aa4le lo .a, azzaa ¢f i>•Ftai>x z+ttoP •S'LL >4i )o vvtv. q4lq .9i •a>.>.oe •av.aol SiFxvd aF..4 aqi d4 PaF! F q wvq GI m i•4t da-Li P-[
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1-] aa.ma .<r .ea .. c> nw .a tne n t. yn. l.. r q ,.«f.«ndm ot tob.<a nroen«r. s.py:o¢< n al<fpaim in t p p .nd to <on.iaar . l <n.nr . tn ene p:ee:m.i ln [n< ]s<oa, f.mar n n.c,.<a .«a e.m[w for bn y aad ane-<n:<d tob.coo. ona<z mat«ct vat < ccc, tne <ooy<rai.n[ v<ze aatLOr.zm o"ynxcn.ae" (« tne avpy rt pzf<e) aay teba<ce vet Lon{bt ev the .vctloa nark<<. ]Tey alae m ged tLe a, { md anb qn<at ..l<s ot tobs<co t.ken avder <De «.bitiaaioa Dlav. ~ Ia eDe lae 3910a avd aE v an 1960, cn {<s .<re aad< lv tbe calc¢1.[toa o[ tne pp p ve faz tobacco. Par/ty y ces .ez y ated .nd modtfled to allo. la<IVaiov of pxiees of addi[ioaal iayvta. 'Ibe 1960 la. «t avbaeqnen[ y ves ov a 1959 bae .ad . nov i ....... ot tne aational Ivdea yzic<s y d by t.rmera. Ibia cDan{e vaa desi6aed t ale. tbe ysica ot tebacco to .ncreaa< ]ess zapidly tnav mdvr [n< praviova p.zitY fozaola. 13e cb.a6e raa av evDOV[e to poteatlal declivea lv erport aales of flne-cnred teLaccu p«enc<d by tbe ivdnatzy in tb< late 1950a, «.ell .a to tne yr ssvre p, nyov tb< nrn{zm by Di6n sto<n levels. lv tne 1960s .ad eaxly 19'lOS, sevez.l c avles ¢erc mad< ln a pyly coatrol provlalons. In 1963 Intzaeomty le<se and travsf<z of tne allataeat[ ef t3ne-anred tobacco vaa antnerired. Ia 1965 y { qvotaa .ere anati[n[ed ia plaee af a<r { al)ommte faz tlo<-vnr<d taDaeeo « tbe effe<[lve qv nt y «.<zictioa. Aor bnzley tebaecu, tne w.eaevt to aatzaeemty le«e aad [rmafezs occvrzea 1¢ 1971. Alae tv 1971. bm y avppll <oatrol ¢as cbm{ed fzoa .ar {e a3lntmeat te pomdaye qvata. 'Inia cn.aEe vas ypzeved by rro.<ra !v a 19]d znfere.dm.
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1-3 Tp< lataz 39to. a.. ao majoz edjnaav<axa 4v [De tobacc p aran, altn { .ome cL«gea ln m.zkativg yzceedarea .ez< allo.atl foz Datn , bncley .nd fine-enred, For [lae-cared [obaece, zeatriotiova .<z y ced on [De .<zeponaea nsed tor .nctvon. Alao. g:.de «tad«da .<ze cb«ged [oz flae-cazed xob.«o [o anco¢zag 1<aa Pzodvetaoa of Ie.<z aa.lt Ie.[, eed otpez znlea .er< antzoanced xo lncreaa pnallty.l- ~ Tbe hzrent Tn4a«o Pzogzam - In 19g1 f<der.t 1{ ialon z pnlred [nat tLe O.S. tob.cco pzopr.m n<eene ea.eatlaly aeif-anppoaivg. Tb< No Net Coat Tobacce Pzegtu Act of 198i provided Sot aeveia] enangea 1v <ob.eco yolley [a redvice fed<ral badget eestr of t e pzogrem. Fnrtber c g iv tbe yreBru veze instltnted fa 1983. Tbe cvrrent tobacco Proazam fa [p< 9nlted S[ates (v tp.tas t8ese cnanget. It covt.ine a fe. aajoz y viaiovs avd maay nin z yrovi.4ovs <on<era g tne yzodvctiev aad marketing of b¢rley. [lva-enzvd, .vd .e.ezal atp<r type. o[ tobecco. 12is «ctivv <onsidexs [b< a 1 Drovia4ova relatia{ te bvtley end itve-mxed tob.cco « tpey ateed ia afd 3989. Yvze detef)ed da«vssien of [ v karley nd flne-cnrad p p and coaa.Aeratfom o t v afvor tob.cco types y< fonad ia ae.er.l etD z peper. .nd r<yorta.3 Svyyort Prleaa. Iv 1S6o, a<DUge lv [D< toDac e pzlce aayy tt tornnla .at tpe aational . g[ed evez g pp tt yrice .croas g dea o[ [obe¢co (.itnln eacb val z tyye, bvrley er flve-<ized tobeccvl by c pazlty fozvn3e b.aed ma tn< 1959 Svae a yp t pzfee .nd . tbre<-year matng ave ev of tne aetloval rndea [ pzices Pald by [.rmeza. SLis fornnla .as naed Lrom 196o nvtfl 39g3 evd mnld nav< ylvid<d aa ave { anpyozt p ca of 11.89 pez ynnnd foz flam-cved ent ~1.96 pat Povsd f<t Svley yoz 1983. 8ovevar,
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NOZES TO W18WUCr10N 1. Amoag [be .vy st¢dv<s sa.mivlae tob.cco <asatioa ead tva evoldaace ase ly B<heviox: An dpplicatiov te the C18erette D.A. Smvez. 'Meeanrement of ...... Iadusizy."• J t Pol1t c.l Ecavomv 66. 5(ectober 199I): 1o10-1D; D.A. S¢mner. • ce ette E neeliae•" pvpar yresen<ad a th< aan¢.3 meetlne o[ tbe Amecac.a dgricnlt¢zal Ecvvomacc Aa.ocaetlov. Laeea• DT• A¢8 [ 198t: D.A. S¢mez cnd Yichael I. io e ant• "AV Ecov¢mic Analysis of [he 1989 2vcre..e .v tte F.deza S.x on .g. ettv..' Eco omice 8esvazeA 8<pert Nv. ,1/, Nortb Csaolivc Stv1e iinlvezsity, AVril 1983: Enevav M. levf[" •2be aaterstcte Y.rka tor 5 g9 d 8 ettas• vap<z yr sevted a the .nan.l .vet B of the Am<zicaa Ecoaomlc Aaocl.a.oa. Ne. Soct, M, December ]9e3: ead E¢gsvv Y. Lavit. Done]as Coatv• avd Yichezl Gxossmga, •Rbv £ffvc[s of 6ovcrvmav[ Heenle[ioa ov T<ence< Smokine•"• Jo¢zael of Lv. evd Ezoaonfes 3{, 5 iDezembvz 198]1: SAS-69. Sea<rai stndiee bsve covsrdered the effe<[s of haglth tafozmatrov ov e et[e coas¢mptiev. Thege inctnde 3laherd A. lppolite• H. Dem1s M¢rpLy. avd Dovald 3.vt. '9teff 8epozt ee Coegmez Ees9oHHeg to ate Bealth I¢LOrnetioa." Bvreav of Ecovo.ics. Fvdezel Tibv Camisslon, A¢8¢at 391Y: Gidcov Derev. Th 8 ti P ' Pv ]' 8 1 h Civarette Ivdnstzv (C.mbrlEgr. NA. Abt Boat.. 1S]9): Lyave Schnvidax. Bea,ivmin Lleia. .ad [evia Y. Ynryhy, •'D¢.ermea[a] 8esn3.[ioa of Cieazatte Heelth tvfozmc<ion,'• Tbe ]ouval ¢! Le. ad Bzonomicc 3! (DC¢embez ]Ye]): 5]f-612; Lc¢neth E. Yaznez. •5tet¢ Iseialetiov ov Svotiae aad 8eelth: A Compazfgo¢ of 1. Poli<iea." Policv Sci e 13 (]9811: 339-53: .nd Them.s Y. Hlcine gvd Mlzhevl H. 8cvd. •'£videvcv of the Ezfec[s of vhe Smot ve-He.1tL Coa[reve s a Cfearettv Dem.nd,'• ia Farzall Del.av, ed. t I.sms fv Tob.cco Economecs. ecomoml p p g ce vt thc Tobacco loxkers' Covfcrevice (Nam Tork: Tehecco Yerch.ata 1.aoeiatiav of the D.S., l.vnary 1985). yp.21-33.
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11-1-11 hr np~ ps.numvle elJull,Ueu yluuff = xwtlk^pva<.,,wm nyW ern mc .µme . obumrd bY aiwb~p [MNduw~oaNYU-nNu.e n.Wi:Dknt b. ~h. mul nwok. e/ rrhnm ebumuaw. Skrta..iW, f.m. Mr _wm.e n.t w^...e.m.n n .em.l t k.w4rm.b:Rrmi~tPWewi. DioY..,, bui p<Y r<on.ni a n{nif~nm <em w wb.ua cnp,nu kavu NeY L<d m. nduvwn M Wn,M ie-<.Dw~m. w<.,em fwa,n Wwx.a m«rt«m erM. aiM~ umlapDdicuanNeWntnumeWy<lu.. u of Mdmdu.l unp~oyru. N Wu rtpan.rt nK.uu levr tlltlercw ~ypu ei.eNpLC cvelun{ pelicw (.mebefne varkphcc w.t.rc. rumcno~u, lev<r m - w..M no muunoml .nd M•m{.u ho.. Uu .r.o1M{ ciun<tenwo uwu~N wT tipctnt .mok- mbMwm.mme, wmaAapnubpvnm~.uwnwowY~ q~uuaue.. x~ubin dtl m eon~Xbwr np..r~. on~b w v~~in[ oratwt vuw. G .M a~M~n wen feuMmw~w een~iMUU n[rv~uanJa ~~u4abin. W M1waY w rmeu~uro.1.~~Mn n.^~u.wna. uw). u fWen'. w.i.N.o lo...muk.`/•1.4Na for. wnpW. wh ~..t .o W . we4phn.4h Lu.e wrtDLu U..c«Rmemu.z.u/v4p.uA .e t„tdw<wip~a.simi.<up<%:i wnm w.xmro~.avna...,l.a]Y=n]. d~~+ni "~f/=m..m~a.rna]<.nerme.n.n bib.x i3T.lY1fY.]b.Y.O Y Js .upende.u kJ 4.. 3.n11~ .net.avauen;i]v.l.l}uv.]e.vwYwr ss h.d ]l n.n .f .auuwe: Il pYAYikrawrdm~ CM ll m]f r<.nateaumimn' ~mP.e•in~Na~xmrt ryv<^Vumn m~wnM1.d Ne iNenn.a 1 uayembe pnefea l.rr<1intUu .A. a.uruul <araoew w ~Y b~tirv.Y e W.eea e/ ir,ve.e<py mn. pnh.ro .er~ aDC>pV~mA<~uerwmarlmvm m<a m. men wmem.. d muet ~a. ]~u sr .mdwm ..ma.ma wn ern~w,nmrabpmn ~E. dN..xe k.wm.uA ~yp<•auYrtplu~ poYey W~A .erkylm wE m~nwoem We mM.w weawon) x iA<tlN.nvu bv..m uri~ Y..1 el.d.ouen ..~u, W. Jue Sl lnn sl <IVaupn (r!u Nrrtw wn 6a. ef Nu. <mYV m wkw ~wwmW~Tk,h pa n wmYVw ~ rye Mt poil<1n.rt lw<nh«a w U,< pepuhUon b+<I M G4 Jami. The <upcmn ]wn Jm 1p>0 GWemu Tebssw ue u.N w<nm~ne Jm pvb~k AeIM kmfiu. ~~ aym<am,rcn«MM<nwm<.etrMet<n.a br na af Ju Iwv rryu el wrkpl.c. wmLin{poircn. trAV,mien{ dassv]wn wmMm by oahDtm<>ww Mt PeYry' imsmdd,nelmn +~e., en [vlwnt.nd Ju <]mi~K M tmotint.mw wa: Ne Wt yeu. .
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ib< ~so n<t <oa ion.« n g .u<.<e tb. ... g.mnvo:[ v r.. m D< vet b<lo. tno.e implied by tn< 1960 y.r/ty lormv].. Dvd<z t p rmvvemt y vistana of [D< 3983 tam. [D< formo a pzi« may be +dJas[ed do+nv<rd Dy t3< 5<cz<tary f g calzorr to Sncorp ae it littl< .a 65 D<r«nt of tb< iacr<.ae .a cne inze -y r movta9 vvzege of [b< y ce. Daid lnd<r. iv 1Y83, tegialaicv t y czily Srva< tb< mv< 8 evppozt arice 1v momivml trzms mme even aio.ed rednctao< of vomaaml y oe for <ome { ec fns tb< 1983 epromgb 3985 c p gv<ra. TD< + igbi<d as<zaf< .mpy t 9cfc< tor eacb typv vt tebacmo ie vet by ]eglaaiom. +Dereas [ne zel<tfve Dzic< af aPeniflc e ees .a .<[ by .dm.aaaratcve actian. ]f tn< DSDA eo<a mot dnyllcmt< tb< r<latlve yr fezueea of [on<cco p s+stD tb<se r<lafve gr Pxleec, bmyera ill dgelfae [ p y D< .vpyort p c< foz certafa gr<dea and tb<v< grctlea .ili .ecamlae zn p a[1v< a[o g. Im vom p rc. 1o+sr grm er bca< D«n o ryrtccd zelctive to bigb<r g e<a. ]bis 1, aot c aece.g y ........... ef tbe pxoe . Lo.ever. For c u91<, 1993 D1gSer 1z.ee. of flm<-cared tobmcco .es< relgtively o y ree aad tDms +<r< more til<ly tv b< n<]d ov<r vvd<r leem. 12< p c< ceD9or[ for tob.cco it imyl<mut<d Dy ib< aoar«oars< 1o<n <ad tb< c p etvr< stoxvg f<aturgs of 16a yrogzam. ivbmcco not vold to prfvat< Dvy<rs it p c< aDOV< [D< aapport p cv wct b< tak<m by cn aotnorizeA lob<cco < v mtlve o+v<d vmd apgrmt<d by tvbmcvv grem<ra. 3Dg ABZSCn1tar<1 St.balazataom .nd fua<ervaaon See+1« (ASCS) <emivi.teza tLg pric< avpp r p B <nd r<gnlct<a [D< gro+rr cooperativ<g. Prodaceza cr p d tne . py p e< atn . noveconxa< lo.a, .DicD u.na tDmi mmy lor«a oz {anc ov tobcc<n tmk<v udez lo.n mz< mDSOZbed by tbe gro+<rop<zmt<d
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~- iT-_.
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9-9 yl. p.nzeciield ana yTOny.en. '1]e tl.ztet Soz Flne-Ctred SeD.cco Poot. ta Sontb <.roiin.." 11. elcb.xd Y. B.ricDelle. "Anayziny an 1{ziepltnz.3 Yazk<tlpa Pooza.^ . Dniver.ity oi Hritiab Colembia. 1984
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w<a,gr<KU rimcscia NY <e umm~< trm<M mndb. w x~ne enMr m< M,ien ee fM ruu. Fee u.mR,8>b,p~,nd Lennrl1966/fDOOka n .na v b<Iwe<n 1961 ,oa 1980 re~ ryu It6a m,na m~. Tber u,MwW .n ewn D~ e~ivulY e('-r01^ .na, w:lLborin{ fuu Dun q.nlici,Y o( 0.p@ D.yi (19801 vud ~imr x, dau .nd <i0A< rcPasien runniw<s .na revda pik< ,nd in or _on .na o1:. <r U98q vua .e9M,u<u u, am Srom w>t lo 1918 ~e obuinv.nnuum,r<O Dri« el,-Y o/ aenm.n0 er -0.5]. On1Y . Mndrvl or uvaiu F m<a m ro d,u w nl,r<n< d<m<na mad<b. U,in{ d,u rrom ,M H<.bn E<.mm.uon Svevu-. Lewii n ,L 119811 e.<miwd rvo meuur<, er uen.{<,motin6 beNvior. wnnMr ,M m,Aer ,mok<a ~na, it <o. IM pwa,i,Y ,mat<tl R. OaYtM eximu<a !wb Ne smokini W ~on Wwtion.,M tM 9u.n2 ok<1d<<pwrlion we qrle li.<, 1u19ana -LNI in rcluion w,bou feurd n aMr uuaiu U,ine 0u, (rem fM 19/6 Xul,b lmmi<w Svrv<Y, b<wil ,nd Cw- 119821 <nimu<a Drue .N iuomc ew,zirk, or,dub <iA,une a<mand-tM elf<r . wlN~ nlum<m to ,u9Rn ,b. w,bm winA da~, o .~e~,l, a Dukoa< m~n. or v,le{ n.r<, , f er eM<r.nio~ m< 6nn .DOrw<b Droaucu < . ,Mr .< bin<d .y 5(rom ><ro. TAU bu, r<fvlu kem fM13,<, tbu1 uakf fiµrn rWUb o n Daid 611 ro ,0e9w,<IY relk<I u,va c.n.umplien. !e<.u,< ,M m9wlme er beea<ume erde..<rm rtem lew ro men<m a,e te <nm~nu< fM Da<nua mr moducim m,<a <nlm,¢,. t<wi~ .ne Cwrir ,nalY,i, <atlua<0 inaividwN wM livetl in wMr< tM Dr~u of n9,r<Ilu uc«aW ,neNer R'v< revna w4M1in , 2onm4 wye bM oontl ~MV Dl,a o( rui0<wc TM ,<lra,/on urima,u obuin<d (eom rbi, rcud umqe' iMicaua .n ew,Y Drla Wui<ib o-o~: .ntl .. e <la,~iei~Y N JoB. in Fin,IIY,<.er.I r«<m nvaio b,v< a9Dlka -iena a0iuion moa<I ro ~e d<m,M. tbu mndelin{ aDRO,<b m.inuim ,ha rbK< ur< impon~ <mpoul Iink.BU'i ny,cen< ro,umD,ion tM1U .bould b ~~~m w n a<m,w e <rten<neKka < n. n9w1 w<e c~Krtne uk,raau /rom 1935 ~brov46 3965 to <.limu< e ciKr<w a<mana moaA m,<a en , nliewl ,aalnien o.m<won. tMir r.,mu inai<am Iw, la. Rrm,nw~ in n m< Dri« or eKrnk, ubw<a oAK<ne .mD~mn br m< m 1M<.nen <.n .w is•. m,M wn! .w. usmp . .wlyr rr.work. ennovvk. n99D3 ievnd rm~ m<n ma . ione. r e( -0.66 wNk wom<n w<re unrnpenive w<y,ruK Dnb.nK,1 ~rli<r. Mu11MY /19811 esimued sev<ra epar<n< hm>n0 oa<b tN~ u n¢0 br Rn <a umpion. .N found ~M~ tM Dri¢ <. -1«e,.<r,p<a -o.a. m
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are le<aed n¢t. 1D1. .<conata tox tDe ritht. tv <lavet 15 percev[ ef , prodnctioa. Anotb<: t6 y rcev[ ¢f the omerabip ¢nit. (tH percen[ of yrodvctionl are rented at8 [be f<rvlead t¢ .bicb th< aoata 1a aaagved. dDOVt , 15 p<rcevt of tbe omezaLip nnltr (24 par<ent f prodnctlon) .z g m by tLe .' qvot< omex, ~!. Dia[zib¢tiov ot qnota by oc<¢yatiov of qvot. o.aez ia 1981, [¢r . acvyie ol ~.. q a em<ra. fa ah¢m ia trble 3. Faznera. retar<d fcrnera <nd tarv adv.a cey atat ve<z huf tho« a¢ a ome<a <ba 1«a< a¢ rent ont [Le1¢ p: dactiov ~ riahta. sk<t y infornaioo 1a ..al.Di< on oth<r ¢h.r.<t.:iai<. ¢f aae[a o.n.rt, n¢ r«ent :en[n<.r .n: y prosn<a inton.[1on oa .He• a«npa[i<a ind ' re<idence of bazley a •¢na<ra.l Not aorptiaingiy, tbose 1«aing o t teaded ~ tc De oidez tLan thoae lea<1ng ia. 1DOnt on<-thiad of tL. 1.mr. ..x. a..r
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I Y
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yru
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x-z D<t.<m tn,< .[ a<na am tn< m.r.<t <1<. a arim tPx-1¢q) .onld D< q . reva yieldfvt ota fndva y ncen< t q a p sma<d Dy tbe .z<. PxanMt . Cnrrently. tob.cc qvote is trvvsf<z<bl< .itbla Dot not Det.een cemtrea ae costa .re msvrmrzed .itnin bva aot am [ omt3ea. TDe ..r{Ina aoct of yzedvc nB ab.<co .itbin y o y dependr ov tb< tetal q ta !er tb<t co y nd ov tDe <o<t eorve for [bat cemty. Panei ]p zeprea<vta tne tobaceo n.zke< la .<omty tDat 6aa r<Iatively lc. c a(YCD) of Pzoao<iv6 ita qvcaa qvan[f[y (t1D), .Dezc s paae] lc zepreamta a convty tna Dca relatfaety n;yD <eata IYCC) of Froanc;ae its qoota Snmtity (0<). 1"ve zvPD19 /marpinsi coat) evrve< an tbe t.e cemt.e. ar< SbSb' nd S<S<' ln tne abaeace cf qaotaa tbe t.o cemtzea .ca1d prodne< 6b' aad 4c• a ta< toD.c<a nzlce Pl tbat f. tivca ex g nmay [o y y.z[fcalar com[y. ISat t., pat .evfa b< uallez fa tnt g r mat co y bnt larter in tbe lo.er coat comty. Tb< qneta r<ata in tbe a.o comtlec <ze P2-ECb .od Px YCC. Tetai q ta {acone ;n tbe t.o nomti<a la f pr«mted by Le .re.a PxdetlCb aad Pxf{MCC. Th< am of tbec< qvota rvnts s. ail com[i<a presenta [otal Sndvatry lacone t yaota em<rabip tDat .enla b< mat pnn nian.um or aa a<. ne .nomt ia a.al<r tban tb< mtnl ma<r anr«t:rntea tranaf<fab;l;tr ef q. Denaoae coaa m< mt .rni.faea { emtl<.. TD< Effe<t. ef Pzfee SvPyertc 9nae preaevt 3<v, f<d<zally detetmaacd a yy y c<a .et . floor to tDe p c< for <.c g de of teDacco. Aa ovtlrned m Ca<pter 1, mt1l ze<eatly, tb< [ tea .ve g sayport pzice .cc ant by tozvvlc, 3Wepvadeat or wtnal mvaftlena ta tba cob.cce .artet. Ibe qmtrs cre s<t cceb Taz ta..ra matbc Dafoze pl.a;ng, ata tee ti. tbct tne .ei{bted av< [.vDDOrt prics 3c
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.°e'rbok~ ~~apmem<~~ vr~ilira ~a/~e wh r<vr oi+c« wrl: rw n+maev enkmok~rF~r v+mpk. '.N385Jae0pwpkver:r{ .na er iioi.ase <e6vl+r • m ] o 9naar rYOixY xvw« <me~.,°,~<r r~,a .ur:me4a , ma.r'el Nl +nd 39a p.c Wbol a<Pna<.< pc yeu. wpr<v.'r1Y. l:nan Js <ur:mx nwmn, rtN~r <meken unae< no W o[ J01 wllten p•cb ef 4e~ .,Sp.~ ..veY(0 ]06.38s5 a60uN1.301 wlllonl. rtfWu smo4n una<r no rnm<:i0v aere re k in Me.fr« ~'eeke6<e, re urvme O,a<eNy 33.Y5 of a.IJ b< r.pukr •meL<n 16.951m) •nd wi <ny<wu1G rmeka . r..ur a( 396 D•<b e/ dp- ar pc Y<c:. . 1 ef li n p+eks1Ce cia8+er<rr<a Der ya. co~i,-.38ss.eo.39e.lia mnli,a. Tnaa r<•,•m. w5<Mr ..utl ror eco.:ena vmoku <h. e<warc na ru~:unau< en <mekn{ x rhau +nd Il:h<+mean{ wnenc<ar+ll ..o<kerr v<cF.e: rh.< e( WwYen m aw rvrvay uM1e aa «O n on fo~ ru' r4 i<oole Wpioy<ta.cLea um ault lsva'oem i0! m01io.: p+<W i eque:ru m;590 (F:Nrc ll ,nd riu .mow: <on< n<:prc:e•'m 4Ylama wvid'rarc 4a eSGJ mID o~ (Feb(. a) cam.parza wrl: lr60 mdlun In uu- .::«<d cc:vI ulu, e lax aiC«aa<a. N<am,a.dy. i( atl w•ork nu, w< raake-fna ve Ne.mainn{ upe. a:n<:. ~<em r a~~e naa<m ,m„i;.u« ., ~i,M <s•~•~ ~~+~mpr -e~la e+ a (aa ul `liee wm er o:p cm n 39po >ea rn evv eyn<andprtue<i CWifemu.vuidA.,<b<mf5ly mJLen th. orlmcud <Ilen or m:D4~eeotine muYe. .vrkplxu •creu •e.~ery (aempu<d wtl: b.+n{ 'aM rewa be .o navu rlu wroumprWn <r <au< iMeen Er !IC e0e :e rheby -~Ym%a -eS.e on belw. y~~00~6ve u by mobnemlfi<~ ohDlxc (T>Dk a). T•lun{ nm +«vunr Ju ryu<wrrc vnd<n<penme au. avwd •bo.'<.:MU nvmban wuie b<mu Jtira Wy<r. itxs..a uum+« rtw du t99u k.al er ruma. M 4litem6 duli{c<a .e Drmm nemmo4m +n Na Werhpk<e (mm [TS <evle ha.< <Irndy had ina nd< rRu< e/ rcduan[ m<il aPrzu< <onrvaprrcn Dy p<epk .mpmrae we iix ~ p>cu ei <iprtua.. <a c whev iu. V<I .oM1ylas< in 41. urwm. •:.iy.mokr.b« .vula dreP>naAar 1.6 w14<n DuW er cip~ <15 telu. vhx 4 wwld Me bem wriwm :u. :hu ruuL k wvuum wrir riu drep m uW a.{+r<u< <on•umpron obxnad N rha p0u<tl Dy Slll:vn m«al" N rluir kn(uvawl +mGy er Wn« ~ nan<a .na:r •.mo9<.rRa wd<vr.<a w m. md x Tn< lehm nepxm+ xam<,1 kna«,r,rv. B•lumert. Na. rny •rc u:a.•u Jur rh<rc .an <.68 mun,,,em~hr:eY<n ~ 4rrem• m l90o ma rr~: S.eS o( Yr<+e .oh<a n mdam wr4 •1v, wrulde Na hema. We •he uvrtuu <hn Ouu W<rc < wul er 3.a1 bNlon p+Cu ol <ipunas .oW m 411Iemh in 1990. T.u •nn{< p•rc< f« Dwi. aa<Nams <n •uu >ne 4daN rvu, m 4Wemu rrom J~ly 1. 3990, rhreu{n juru W. 1993, .v IJS.p «nu!' Thuu ve we Yv< 53.91 billbn w• .pmr m dq<r<r<a fi 44reM+ N 1590. Thb ae:lm•u u•beu< a95 e( <lu Wu fyuru rtferud by mb•w <empmkt vhlen i• W<h pr<WUdy publ4n<d d•u rv{{a<w{ W.~ n r<mh •ea ryn<m.omy ,mao-. by .bevl ona :ura.u Tnm. e°r <mryuuc<wn web>by nenlcewY und«<wm>« rba artxu er.ermk« .molwe *<rcn<norv mr mW >P. no< a.rmr vw° ma mma<e ma:ney xla.. arc revw <Men w<mert <amprtl:<rvl« •mulvnc pel. fi m<.or'~ml•ca en>«a wrn • a«. uu.{ae/paopkMe>rt<mden•ea•de mu in Uu evmbar e/ ipmu. •mo1<d Kr <en<tlxunf OneYar. W Wa k b ee<pewDie w dmumuu > cvul rcl•vemn•p
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1 bitllca p de ot fla<-evred q a, tbe to[a] <ayllcit am )ayli<it 1a<enc accza 6[o [loe-cozed q e pez ye.x .cotd be .DOVt 100 nilliov 1983 dol)asa. For 1994 1<et tDaa 900 sS11fOn poaadc Of y a aeze asil.bl<, Dat leas< satea .exe b)9hex. 13. qaaatl[y of qaat. ud sbe re.) pxtee ot qaota La•e .ar)ed. Dot sL< ftuze of j100 a13t1va 1. zepseanatatlve. Fez 3985 sSe 1e..s zete. 6a.e declfa<d Dee.a.e af aa Sn<saated {re.ex aaaecanent and yot<at)a] eIIaayes in tLe pr { • l.eae detailed ivform<tfav ie avallable ev qocte leaae zatea fez bazley tob.cco. Ia eDe aid-19]0e. Isaae saea aaza{ed aboat RO so RS p<re<at Of tbe n.zk t pz1<e, .nd tD< a.exate lceae xa< fa reyoztad to be Sa sbe aue r{ aa tDet foz tlve-earsd. Y.Sdeaee lrve tLe [vatae y avtay Dy
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peeivioa ef tDe aapplp fmrxiont 13e ms [Dit q atiea !. relev.at to erti.arav tbe cf[esta ot elimlaains p ce .opyozta aad ¢ aa oa pricea .ad q trtxva. It saeec 11ke3y [Dat my tma etfects en costt o1 pzedmctloa .ea1d De ema11 c er ed ta tbe d.z<ct tffvetg ef eltaiaain{ tDe direct coata ot tLe q ta .atl tDn xndizecx coaa atzlDateDis t s p eai li.lta oa trcncfetabflity. ]n ectiutlnv tbe affecta oa pzice. end q mtitiae, tivtefnze. .e do ao[ y eltly ad,/nat foz any ..... Die effecta ef cbmgav Sa varl.Diiity. IDe Sa.oea of pfice aad qnmtlty .ariatility and mcertainty arv tze.[ed 1a more detac) ia Cn.yter 'I. 12e YgrlaDlaa of Iatazeat ud tLe [ay Paruetmzt lDia atody i e mc y comarned zitD tbe etfeeta of ytlcv .nyyoric aad q .a aa [De y and p ce e( U.E. toDacce anL izcoavs e[ qmta emexa. l4eae v.rlaDle. .ett identified acDem.[ic.lly Sn flyorc 1. It fa vaetal tc eatliae . at.plv saai]iDrfm dlcyl.eeneat eodcl to Sdeatify elgeDrmically tD< v.ra.bles .ad key y w<taza. Eqa.[foa /1/ reDreaaata the teDecco aappl> fmntfon iba .m p evaal .a tbe tDavnce o[ tDe tobccro ptoez.m. mz ry adin6 to SS' fa figozv 1. aad eqaetion (2) rapz taata tbe toDacee demcnd fmction, cex poadtag to DD'. Eanatiea (l) z p .eata tbe . y bet.evn mer{Iea cortx (aet of q e leeael ud price. (z.1) d1aQt - aJlaya (1.3) <lnan - qnlapn (S.3) d1aPd • (3-p)d1aPe r polap .Dare aa - ¢a.nut> ep led. Pr tbe toDacca priee aet et qnot. leeav er, m v yrecisely. [D. antam u:a na caat ef pzadncia{ tbe mtal amt. ¢amt ty a<q sa tlmr. 14.
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xli{nny bein. in< ..< { a:rnt <1<.r { pr n.. ro .nni.e< tni. a. ¢ <. pxsdictia{ {azk<t cleatta{ y cns and ¢a{atit/ea-bi kr{6ea-mnicb tary xaademly nec.nac yl<16a. ¢n.lity. aad dewnd a{zy zan6ealy. ]a pz.vtice, .ovpor[ prleea .xe Di{n<x tnav mazk<t ele.zlaa yzicer tor .oae ¢naixlea .nd pr<dea: tnezefore aoae tobacco k s iato atocra Deld by tn< a[abilivatioa covporaion. Tn{a is ne<{na< it la lapoasibla te predict snpply aod deaand lavd [n<zefore Price) yerfectly by {rades, ev<n vv6ex ¢votaa. In tbe 1{ r tezm tne .vtDorttl<s <aannt•eontro] d<mand [nzea{D stez p end tnezerere t ep .nnot lndep<n6<ntly f{x betb prfcea and ynaatities. Iv [ne P st tne ..er{k< snpyoct prize .aa mos<]y yzed<texm{ved so tnat. [o avoid .ccmm~l.[ion ot a<rm<n< stoeks. ¢ ts n<d to be adJnated. Nore racen[ly. Itb de<]loina [<s1 deaand foz 0.5. tebacco, tns saypoxt pric<s nav< d<paft<d fzom tn< p y fexmnia aa6 tn<r< Dena Dnen r<dn<tioas ra botD sopper[ yzices and qnotax. In tnka eentext botb aapvnrt pric<s .nd qvot.a ae< cboi« a.riabies and eftbnz oz botn mf{Dt bn adJnas<J ln <syonae to a Eemead abift. Fiknze 1 1s a nod/fied vezaron If pan<1 le ln flaar< l. Ia tnls aaalyais, for <imDlicity, .e .La[z{ct fxom nneeztalnty {nd aa.me tDe aoDDOrt yzice .. <¢n to tb< mezr<t Dz1e<. ]be tntal 4 a is 1aitlally Q, a d sbe anppoxt P{ce .a inltial3y 1, Ne. snppoz< d.mavd ablfts de.n ftnm p,D1' to 13< p.znmen[ mipn[ z..ponL <ltner by xedaelak tb< ¢n m to 0.1 and eafateiaiap P3, by zedncina t< pp y ce te Py and nalatataink P~. z Dy sndoein6 b tn tne pztce and qn ity Is.S. to Pp aad G3). 'xne ear.< EE' xeD seata tEn p aey ezpoa.e tmvctioa a al ted by S- aad lenl{eaaa< to zepreseat tne annndnle of pollcy-6etemiaed Dzle<s .a6 ¢aaatitiea tn{t wmld b< tzmee6 omt rn xeapene< tn i..end abfdba.l ' /
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3-e Nmu So ®AP S 3 3. Danf<3 A. Svmer .m r.<n..] [. 1¢nIa<vvt. "Etfacv of .¢ xnate.aa i¢ tne Eed<ral Erna.< r<: on .e <it.., r A.< e 6], i (aay 1983): 135-fI. 1. ]Li< tyy af artv<nt f. v.dc Dy aichae3 T. 8elvvela Sv . related coatezt. e hta •'Ayzicnltara Pzi<e SuDpvztc aad tva[ vf Pzodvct;ov: Coueat." ~gq,Fj9A8 lon:nal ef A.ricvt<v a 65 lAn{nat 3983): 63D-33, Iatiaa a, Al.tov .vga ta tbs qn cee av¢< e reanlt 1n tbi< typ< of eff.c[ Dy r.aclcttng tne z¢y of vatpvt vaziaDility: "A Ncte vv tbc EfTecta of Nvn-tzua[sz.Dle Qvv[aa vn Pp > Fm<tfave," c< (DecemDer 3983): 189-9). 3. Ovr ea y r is, i p t, .v apdafae ot tbc vaysit iv G.zvett L. hze2fvcd ud ].nea F. Tbeayaov, "Inpact of Ab¢11eb3ng the rvbeevo Pz<ce nyyozt e¢d Snpply Cavtrvl Pzv6zu," in 1. F:.nt 8vzde.oz. lz. .e6 aaaaell 8. Bzamen. eda., E e 5<o e ilerineton, [entncny: Paiv, of [entncky, Febznezy 19T2), yP~ 1]3-93. It elac celatea clvaely tv Pcul F. 3vhncva'a cnalycia. "Impact oa [hs Ecvnovy vf . peclfae la the Dea.vd fer T¢Dac<n.•' ia Bozdeav aaa 8zavnoa. vde., Tbeae eaaaya, cheyteza in a Yai[e vavfal <eatezence .ulv<, cv.<z easeatiaxly the .v g md ee tbe p... ev[ zepoc[ .rtb rteiiat anaiyaea ud coaclaalvnc. Theiz Per y<tve ic tDa vf the eacly ]S'/oa: tbey did aot fvrezee acne vf tne cbant<a tha D.ve occvzred 6viag tb< paat d«ed<. Cbar]<a E. Pvgb Pzovidea • cvvcla. <lecr, .¢d <vtzect .¢.1yae of tob.ccv dez<yalatfvv b.<ed ea the ritnatlva ia the b d-]9]Da in hr. 'RZVeialova vf tne Tobac<v Pregzav. Caaseqnev<se of Tbefz 8lfefaatfea antl Alternaivea," DePt. of Ecvavalca aad
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l-3 .az y- ave. .hiie tDe 3<„aea .eze wre lately to D< fa tDe leaa-tD.v-tift> <{ raa9<. 0f tboae le.aipt oat ¢ao a. .DOpt epe-[hizd .ere zcilxed, 60 D<roent i.d am[<zm oc yaiona. .ad 1<aa than 3U percept meie pzivarily fanwra. Of tho,e leain6 in. clo.e to D<lf .nze Dria.ril> fazaesa <nd 13 pezcevt .er< retir<d. y9o.a .ho 6s . only haaz o q ..er< De[.<ev she ieaeea avd i<„er, in mpa eha.<t<si.ur.. -.n<r<.. toD.<m qnoa i< <m<enireeed in <Da septhe.,t. :.aid..<e of qneta aad alotwnt e.ner. t. not q < ao conoeptiated: homevez. a 3980 ,n: ey o! a zaadom . p ef ponpredv<ivt tiae-cved qnet. emer. in ine cemties iv xha co.a. p in If NortD Casaliva famd th<t o.er 90 y cm[ llved iv iha comty If th<iz qpet..3 Yoat af the otDez 10 p<cc<at Iiv<d in veezDy ipr,1 comtie<. Far th< ymtncky batl<y , y .DOat 10 y rcmt If ahoa< laaaiv{ oot laved en tha 1<vd <1tb qp ta. Ah<at 20 p e<at If the [antncby qvat, Do36<za D<d .al t 6xva.ea ensside tbe co y ef th<ii ¢wta. TDe "no aet ce,t•' la. aiowd dizect <,le, ef the flae-enred qaot< beaipvina ia 3961, bnt ]/ttle iaformaien ef the iaflmence on qwta omer,Dip a, yet .aal.ble. Pzelinivary <vidence [som Sovih Caxollp{ ,hona tDat ip 1983 aad 1984. seliera If flae-carad qm , entambexed hayera by abeat tbre< to eae. 8o.<v<z, throaah the anovz If 1984 1.17 ahopt 3 p cvat If Saath C{rotina tobuc q a 6<d Deen .o3d. Th< pzie< ef Qanta yLa leaaa sat< for the r 3 to {zo. avd a<11 a Domd If tobacco dep<vaa en the rD ted yr « If tha typa of toDa<cc to <Dach thv qw aDDli<,. .pd ov the erDacted ..raiva cea ef piodactiw (vet o[ qa a zental) for Ihv { vra. Owt< {evezally aay De 3saaaE enly <itbin comty 60vnd<f1ea. nvd <oata of Dzt•dactioa .<sy iyalfiewtly u a eavtle{. Tob«oe Driwa for {
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4>+. +e>vpaz il{q+ aF4a pvr azaa[ iv.aez vF [pi s f<tt?al veeq esaq +awb Se >aFl{awn4 .4i i>zld noeai arr.t L[zaeL e4a aw{i aa1 ns.e w4a z>moi 4aam aF afaab lo aata. [+iFdw e4t Sa4i i>eivna xaotarl lo zaqwa I zzea.e rawC ai mrz9os6 >ioeb i¢azma aqi /o aatrv tatFdm aqi zel azvfF3 41, L[qvves.nzw a+ aF sfqa zavaaeg oFI[fq 9Lj So vataa trs?dva e>9teF6 ineaaM S(L++[ lo aiai i¢aoaa!p r a+ :+ad zed ?tt}v OOHi 'aim+z> :od sioab aaa.qoi vf qi[ram aQi a:vxaav oi Pnztirifd+a a9 L[?wn 9inoa >awat aawb os1 .o[l ave>vF v4a 'p wqaw v{avaz oiPnaavdze .zaa xaolad pav rirea taez . ti>pw wr aa.ezel >wii oa oi paiae6xa eze. w:+ozd oaarqoa aqi lt 6F4raev.o rie¢p ei eT4ala4FZazq qatw~ pw aw>aT '>86L lo pva aqi lr peoi> ti >+ va1>d> t avoa L[dd¢r eaarqei aQt maxl dFqszaue >ionb oa LI vo _ vqa d[4 a ai +F4L 6'(xaattop 28fiTI ne?i[}s 008j lo aivrz e91 ¢F at[xl 6fe;FI ezaa w. oFi[Fq L= wqi +xat sF ++vT ivavzoita zo +ioaS vozl amo vf [+vv¢. L loi eQi ir41 61>;i[ zf ii 'tfazvsp Lt>a{soetaF pa,p i+ aaaq t v as.9 oaav9oa la .adLi a 4a /v i.av so1 .wafazd ivam oif >e.asa. qa P ivetzv , aaF qaev aav aie •Dema_avs •Pem>_eaFl 'aad6i ...... i P i+tneaz z 4a0 >H62 lo pan aqi ir voS[[!v OOEj irov m+q i9v}v dFQ>ssv.o +aonb vizaq oi >voav{ taiw +¢qS 't>iaa paava_evTl e4a lo savasvd py moq+ divo aaeq ra4 vaovb L>tzeq ivaoa a9a LttavxoN 'E86L v{ +pvaad ve![tta J59 iueq> Llvo oi p>aap.x >aa aFQi i 9 Pvaod wFit!v tae So aanb aaFaaalls a>. ax.9t L86i vI '0H6L Pw 6L6t vF aptaFd .ei ai p a8aat d[Iamze<9a +am TH6[ a{ aionb 6.tza4 aeFia>SSe >QL H~Pwod aad siv. Op aasa ixvf '[B6T a? pv. Danod a _i aa SE i o9 za. 086T af az>sar6 aivz a+rat 6;anaaad i qi aaodax o>ta izellv4H p PzolCVa3 'FSaviarLH L'2H6L vF L;aeiaa~ xo1 +iva OS ieeqa le +aa+z »vat a8+zae. salaaF9nF '[ t> iia1la43
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' £S6L 6S6I5 '1f-Utf ~1696i L.XI L 'L9 'lea • V „ +zeaap i¢aaoiLV oa u a II So ai+II a41 paa +avaao[tV >ae>4oS So +aniad PasFLziFda~„ »a.zf>aS 'Y +auf a» i '[ybt »qmaid.y •Li?»aaFVp >3aa4 +vFtesr~ ¢aaeN S pazy-aa[i 'LY 'oN i od>R 4.a+aH +?vovaa3 .. pe6i-SL6t v aofLY ...... a, zoi+asvL vi +vmiay, •au?LtF1 'H Pesd P sas.ze.ay •Y aavaf OS aii9 +OL6T-D!v v> P»aq Pm aaFzg L4 pasadasd +»IPnq pa4+F24ad '9L62 qazaR ' »Fas>S 4azve+aH °}m°ve°g asaitaaFZfY I° iv>mii d°H •y•p : a°aq°i LelsaQ z°g +aFPVi+ ia1Pa4 4s?v »vvvi°IL+ Dem°_enLl +i4aza3aa»i +, za 296i 'ateTlo> >i+i8 a iiu*> 4»oN '. veag taznat»FZ1V Jv aaavassdeH '68 'oN s.s>9 n Fisvso3°f •;'Y „ ivaaieiiY o>a.QOS at9aaaS+v>~S Jo +avelJ2 °Fvv¢oab~ 'ivfaaaaoS 'H'1 Pn PzotPaav "['9 So ;s°. LtzvE- 'TS62 s>4va°0 'C99-S&i ' a. zay Qazv>+aE afmon°ag YOSp .. l+o~ co, »ap°zd °°+4e1 paza>_vaL3. ' F S'N z za~ vt aaeddf o»a4oa p°ana_aa[J soJ +i>BpvH »FSd i»zm e¢a v°sl +z.°np°sd suFa?IS> Lt4+a»aaz ae3 +is°a iFav_sad a4a ev}iaazi4v+ Pna +i>fPn4 v Sia¢POZd i° i+oa lviafuza L4 Pa¢S»4e aq a+[v Lam iv>vae[[ z° »o¢b 3° avi a t»va: i?e{t6v? a4y •6 ••p. •avtap a? .. aavFSd >+•ri sio^0.°i mazfozd ° >+402 GeLSaH °4i le °¢tsA >4s F4ni'L. 'isalJnqS n°itFR '0 Pv 'PZ°JPag '~ sia a.8 •tta.4aaH aFUtvX 8 „ ao.+a1 paa +»»a~ J° »Si . »aaaq~„ • [ i iivl3°qS '4 '6L6I L>R '684 a?ivttaH veFi»S iv ?s>dzg [.zaa[ ? Y>s+aaval ie L[F z. p„ io¢p ° a.4oS 6a[anH 1 aal asS Linavaaaiat e,ii,uad Je aa.dei aFV°v»y, •ze LvJ •V aam¢f Pv+ aaiiaE 'H ¢saT °+t. ea+ .vv}iaq?ai+?P 9 a_e¢[S e4i °a s+t?vF+ +. veSSnqFZa+?p L>[za4 a4s,i+4i +s+aefn+ tnq f¢°a>f> +. izodes UY9 1¢a v. P. ivoa .»»p,s oa°.qoi LetsaQ aqt az>¢ De»va.FP ia4i Qi?v iaai , v¢a F a+43 B-C
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]-6 • the eiaatlefty af svpyly, Od qnent y devndod (Ws by as•aeptlon), Pa t-e tabaveo yzice, a the elaatlcity ot denud, 8~ t v pric< ycdg<: t-e differ•are b<twea tEe a•nc~[ yrtee fot the qnot• q atlty and the narginc] co•t (PZ YCq) in - flavre 1•), aad D° tbe Price nedae •• a•bate of tbe pitce If tobacco (g/Pa). ITn•. eqnafons .ae l3 1- loa aluereaslal os yerce.tye abwan tew• ~tEat f•. d1n2 • 42/;). By eqoatlna (1) and (2), wsatity 1• elimiaaled •. ne •olve foc t-e petcvatage c-tnge in tbe tobaczo y ce as a fwctfen If tbe eis•tieitivs If sayPly - aenand, tle cvrreat pricv yedae, and ebe p<rc<atat< cbaage It tbe price yedae. Elialaatlva wo c• aoe3a rednce t-e .edge by 200 p<xeent, ae ne anbatitnte a1nE •-100. The resalt te eyaatloa (],•). (].t) a3aPa . p• z dln¢. D)n - a Substitntiag t-i• (3.4) intn (3.2) yfelds tLe y cea 6 c-wge ia p t. (2.3) dintld - a z d3vR. (1-Dla - • 4nota rents ere key aata ne ncv to Ideatlfy (1) fnnwe aad vealth •s•ocfated eith qwta omerahip .ad (1f) u g va3 nvata of pzedvvina cnzrent yn .'fe tiscoyer the avivted .qn1116ziw yrlce and qwatity (Pi •ad Q3 in figaze 1) to •dditfoa to t-v cwrevt prlce (P1) ud azgia•i coats (YC ) ud thos tbe pc3ce vedge. ne reqvfxe estrvetea of t-e atasttcitlea of •apyly vnd deeaad.3
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f-6 oaty t.ovid lacz<..e wre ihm •cre•te. To .appozt tD<te ..aertioa., table S <m.• tieaaa in tae.« yzeda<tmn +a ta< oai[.e.stau m: u< i.ai tni« a«.eu. Pla.-<azed tob.«e uz y< n.a fal.a in .n +r yai.r pat<rn .. y td. have r.aav and qnan[ity d<a.aded •t the snpyozt price naa S.1]<v. sarl<> .<t y p t<raa a... ro«a nor< ..:nrol< .na .anirou a y:[,eal.r tr<aa fa tn< l.at t.. > y sa or .o. ' ra <na..n< fartner tn< CetantlLL Daiffeva to •zp•aa+ea of nae-ur<a .<r.•t< +a Vzia< z<{ aa, waaimr tLe Eelle.+at exuyl.•. p+ti cemiT .n Moe[h avol+a. s. ea< of ta. wat fin<-ca:.d ........... { na in tn< tamity ana. amay aen <.ztain snetn c•tolin. umei... n.a .. { a< lnwa p da<t1m ma. fez flae-cm<d tobacco. Accordin6 m th< cenua of Ayrivaltm<. in 1981, tobacco naed nvly SV.UU4 0[ 351,000 a<zea ot harvestea czopl•~ ia Pitt Coan[y. Ia she bnile> z<63on, Yadiaoa Cemty. Sentacky• h•racaea 5.440 .czea et tob.cce o[ f0.000 mt.l •ei.. ot c p.n0 ~ 1E<a< eamp s coala be zeye•[ed fos ali tae prls f1v<-emea aad Lailey tabacce comtze.. Beint a n+{h zevenae-p t-acze csop, tonaeco .evla atz.ci ih< beat tobecw l.nd ia th< loeaat eeat eyioas •ftnevt f<c+a{ n 1 1•nd wpyly li.c[aion•, tDvv6 ws .ove.eat iaso vere aar{+aa] laada wala Se11o• from asp vaion o[ tne fadnazy. Sappl> ot 8xyartl•e. Altboe6h aut deaavdia{ a<z<aye, yro.3ay tobuco <neceaafall> i q ea a yooa daa oS •y ciiic kna.leaye and •yecla3fae0 expez.eaee. ]Taa, . poteatiall> Leltin{ fa<tor viaht De th< amber eS q]uiea fa:a<ra t{ n she < y in tn< lo..n wn .ru•. 0.<r Lh• l.a no d•a.d.•. ...•:.i te<ha+ul enua.• nav. •1{vlflomtly reaawa te. 3.DOr ae.ua. far { o.ina. n•t•••tfay, am <mi>t lee.<w. ID• mm~et uf <ct3ve fla<-<m<! tcbac<o fanera baa fal.a •aeaafl> wd
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n, <nrr<n y azm, by 1lvitfaa ponnda psodn«d. i.ylloa tha[ t\s <aat os y.uty raav< to qn tts s redo«d. Im th. vnitea St.tea po.eo de aon st np to covpet< ia tDs uske[ tox lo. cot[. Iw qoallty tobac<0. F<t eaavple. . tob.c<o fasmr .DO pzyt 60 cant[ pes yomd f0z ths [1{Dt to pzodmcs camnot pznfit Dy r<111n{ taba<cc for ZD.00 a pomM. pitk mu qnott, O.S. yrodnceza .on3d llksly sotex tbia <rywdim{ aepemt nf tbe .cz1d tobaczo vazket. Tas demand acd sayply of tobacco e a<t a anltttads of cloaely iniszre3stsd d<sanda and swpllsr fos diff<zeat .ar[<tica am {vWCa .ithin .ar.eti... e p a[/<alaz [oba«c yiazs. for Imata/ca. .111 p[odmee diff<zevt y. i[y tlns-enzed t<bae<o that .on1d mozs z<cdily z<ylatt imyosta avd \aa 1<a rtrink<nt s q <neata tcr prodnctimn cnoditfoma. A yxopoztlaazily as<atar fzil in yxics a a a<r lncrsaa in ov pn< thnt vay ccoz fos lc.e[ {sadea. tLe <ozr<o y azam, by 1lvitlma poonda psodnc<d. inyli<a thzt t\s zoa as y ality relctlv< to qn ttp s redocad. Im the Vnited St.<ea {zo.eza de aot st npt to covpet< ia ths uske[ tox lo. cot[. lo. qoallty tobac<o. F<t ezasple. s tobc<cu f<rmr .DC F.ys 60 canta pes yaamd for tkc >i{D[ to yrota<c
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aI of tae f.<n.r. u[a ¢nr.ar<ea.e .¢...<a< m ih. ritau .ae .al sob.rro, ac.n<utt¢a .oaia ivyl> ta.a teb«an v ev<[ma ronle . a a< ta eh< Io.ea r¢.[ proanctfvn r kc c. The nazt af eLs evez<vt vai[ cncts of pz dnrtcov .[[zab¢t.bls t¢ tDe yzasran v y be ectrv<t<a aa the v.rket ra yad tv lea.< 9¢o[c in eDe ceva[aea ai[b iD< lo.<at costa o! Dxodvatfea fe tivea valty e.<la, tha is, thvae camtie. vitD [bs hicheat le..e zctea. Fvr b¢riey inb.<co. ib< Blneeraac ... n ln Ysvtncky hss lo. <oata cad 618h t<ac< rate.. Bozl<y ]sa.e ra[< eata .<r< e iv Black.ell <[ ai., and aov. <.ce<ncs fxoa zeilez and Cvlrer, fzov tbe GA0 s[¢Jy, ue frov faxm Dnd9<ta. snsa<ata [Dat batiey leaae rtte- bcv< hb a x e civilaz [o tk¢ae la in. a¢z< .y<t<atu«Ily it¢m<d noe-r¢red aarzeb.l pas2, and.uns ta< .o:k of PoeD .nd Hevver .nd Bvveer aad Sadvnlv., abo.a tha fl¢<-vvred lea< zass bave bsev a<t iv e.atera .aE to¢thsaat<zv NortD Cuol/aa.I IDe <zets declsaa[ve Coasaal Pt.iv (ar<. Nit) avd Pee Be<-Levh<z Hivez (trec N16) of Nortb avd 5¢nth Caz¢liv. by Oric< anclvee tas lo.<at coat, hl8hest 1e.a< [ate conntiea for fln<-cnrsd tvtaccv.3 12ey ar< alce u s ahe ceavtcsa that c¢rrently prvdvice tbe avst tabacco and ar< ahe aaat tvbacce-intenclve. In tac y<cta bet.ven 39'IY ud 1981. tae 1<aas xs[ec Iv .v<[ vf [Dece covntisa noved oaiy a1ieatly 1. z<a1 [<rea tad t<nafa<d ovez 30 y zcevl of th< cv< v< Dzice cf flve-c¢ted tobacce. Sa<refoxe tAelz c0<ta net uf qa ta .exe <t Iet<t 30 n<zcevt bsle. tas varket yzics. For 1983 ud 1984, rep z[c vf reva<1 rsaea abov< 3U n<r¢ent of yrice nea of accecaceata .<z< v0avov av fl¢<-cared azeta. Hvvsvaz, ia ta<te yeaza [aere .exe 30 n<tesat c¢t< ia [he ynaa[i[y of ¢v ta >v vva connttea. .itain • t<atoa. faxn<xc ith sabat<n[ial fired coa[a for e9oiyvent. balk barns. etc. y n.y h18h 3<ta< ¢st.a tv vain¢aa . a o¢tpnt 1ave1 beataa. th<ir 8 nd
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/-8 eatavete faz tpe effe<x of . y<rcmx.ga cbm{e iv qnoia ov [De zeaxa za< uy pe naed to g .n ivdicaion of tpv comD<ti[lve .oyply elaazcfty. .. Fzov o<in{ .n ..<r.d< .n.r. nT n o.xi am ..e s< ie.a< ra< nf ¢- SU <ent.. the 9on.er-Pn{b p u.c.r m d8/(d0/0). .hieb ... -co. i.~yli.. xha . - (-yr(30Jf(-xOJ -..i. Fnzther pr<limin.ry evldevee mm<. fton f zazeaaoa of tbe leg o[ zsa m t a.t <oa., (.hi<b i. m<.anred .. tb< lo{ 0f (Pi - Hi)) m tbe log of relalve effective qv .. S< ma.d 110 eDS<r+atim. fiom <he tveatTt.o L166 ie..e z.xe eomtfe. for t>e yv.z. 19]]-81 (DO1dln8 cova.n p.vtf.l ena .Daftezal. Tb. <ovfficim[ fa th< reaz<..i0a zepzeaavt. 3/< aad ..a 0.13 itb . .taod.rd erzoz af 0.09. ]4c inplied <l.atieity ... [bezefore <ppzozimaaly 4.0. lbia eatanae i. eLO ovly a z oTb imdic.ter uf tbe eomy<[itlv< aayply <l.eticity. 1Le 3 6- elaaieity ia ezDe<t<d te b. 1<r6et tbza the.e eat..aea (D..ed ov ye.z-to-ye.z cD g 1v qm a) .evld fvdlca.. Iv tDe aport zm of . ye.r ax t.o, zpmaon aT toD.e p Evction .oe1E D. limited by ..<1.Dility o[ ap fai<vE eqaiyvent ef otber iapnt.. Al.o vv<estanty as.ociaed .ith re{alaury chm{< zonid dv1.y .dJn.imeat.._ Aftez SDe snpply indnatrfe. D.d esponded .md Ipe lvdnatzy had zelocated. ho.evez. m. {.I eva. e[ toD.c<o yradnctivv .ovtd decline t py ozfutely <vreat ae .a m cva. net of qv . rmta ia tD< loveat <oat ze{ton.. Ie ... .py azvaaon xbe .vpy1y el.ai<ity o[ b<t..<0 5 .4 ]0 ratbvr [Dev tbe ivfivite ampply e1.ai<ity ivplied Dy .oa.t<ax mazfiva eoat. ]Di, mem. tba . donDlin{ 0[ O.S. teb.cce mtpnt .evld patal e 10 to 10 pu<ent lm<r.u< ia mss .o.ta z.en.r tb.n an <b.ns..
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yser 3 tb< Dev.nd for U.S. Tobacco SDe dev.nd for U.S, tobac<o ia dezived frev tD< ¢ae ef teDacce by daneatlc sad [oz g.<ao[actazeza o! coaamer loD.cco pcodv<[., p taily c.... ttea. Dvr+n6 re«n y za .bevt Dal[ [b< domsatic flne-<¢red to>ac<o c oy and Ibre<-qv<rt<ca of the Dvzl<y tob<cco crop Dave bcen ¢and 1v ttc 9.E. +g<re[[s lndvatry. ]Le r<at Daa be<a eapozted, Mevt 1f p<zcevt of ehe crurettea v<de rn eh< Doited Statea azs ted At tLe .ue tivs. <boct 30 p csat of the [oDacco aas y he•O.S, c g re[le ivdn<szy baa besv lape[sed. ]Lia <o<rlat<vice cf C.S. f y ta ead <rportr ia dvs to diffst<nn<a {n Qoe3lty, yzic<. .vd [ype of toD<cco yrodo<ed. Cvdez tDe toD.cco yzo{cu. the llnited Staea h.a . c vy •t+va Wv t{ a yrodvcifov ef Digber Qo.llty. high<r yr ced tobecco, vDezeaa voat3y lov<z Qaality, lvsr pzlced tob.«o ia ivpozted. The Cnited St.tea alau i p t. erisvtal tebccco. .81<6 ia not grom in tL< Uni[ed S[<tea. - The z p aa< of devand toz tobacco prodnc<d iv tEe Oni[cd St<t<a te s t.11 rv rta prlne thva lvvo1vea several <onyon.n[a: I1) :ncreaaed devavd by U.S. <1{vre[t< vaavfart¢z<r. hec<nce o[ .nbati<atfen of U.S. tebscco foz i p teA lob<ceo cad othez tvpata ¢{eE iv g e[v< yrodncttov; (3) Svorecaed denaad by U.S. e g ette n.vvtaetvrera dn< to 1n<ze<aed denavL foz U.S. e g <s[<a ia tb< Cai[ed States ud for <zpozt: (3) lvcre<ved ent<c<o zy tt. he<uae ot snDatrtvtion of D.S. tobacco (for tb<t yzaAviced ent.fde the Cnited Ssa[ea) avd p r<cp aaes by torel{v ci{ar<tts suvfcctvrera.
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.-, ibexe .re fexur teb.cw { e s yctentialy villia{ [o uv< bwt in[e tbe y, eapsc;al3y fez [lve-cnzvd tob.c<o (ae< s.b]< 6). 6one incze..e ia { a cost .ovld p b.bly be nee<.a.ry e eovp<a..t yz dvicera dr..a from etber ;ndoaxxi<. .m tc refle<t some entzy e( Dr dv<vr. ]es. effi<ient tbaa tbe moat et[icieat of tboa< cexzently in [Ye ;ndvitry. Itvfdinoe fsem tb. patezv e( I.v.6e 2a.a. Psana.vtzic ztadf<. of z<{vla<d iadnazics tLat va< vaYet pxice .ad Qnaat;ty da. eazna< pol;ey z<zpon.v fnnctien. 6re anly ladfrectly rela<d to vnderlyin6 c 6t cendltlona. Fnr u.nple, tbv cL.a{e. iv ¢natft;e. .vd yr;c<a in tbe l.a t;fty yes- ot tob.cco 4- cos peae mc.tly te tbe cbm6e. in pz;cv .vpyert.~ .1lotment oz ¢v t. 1<v<1. cbo.en by pellcy n.Yes.. { va tb< 1e6.1 s¢v enenta ef tbc 4ro{r.m. So iave.tiy.te p<atcal anpyly cevdit;ena in tbe of . pznbru. .e voat ezuiae beb.a;or ef tb< tob.c e prodncvra zabvr tb.a ef [b< pelicy advini<isaoxa. SmD evidvnce i. .v.fl.ble ia tbe ]ev<la ot tb< ]<.ae sa< fos toD.cco ¢vo[aa. Svuaez .ad fobt{en.nt .Ye. tYa in le{ dlffezenti.] term th. <onyatitiv< le..e sate for ¢ ota 1. <evnty 1 a.y bc .r;tlw aa dlnpy • (3/a1) dlvy - lli-nl)/ail(ll.l d1a4i. .b<rv P i. tbe pz;cv ef tob.eeo. 01 f. th. ¢n.a[ity of ¢v .. ai i. tb< caa .b.r< o[ 4vet.. .ne .;. th. mlaatcity of .apFly. 1Le (;na tern (3/.) 21a01 i. tbe nDU{e ia uze a.1 noa. irev . cD.aie ia vtpot.6 pv6b .vd 6uo.vs caayvted r.6 ..<ona of le.<v rasv. ea ¢not.. fer Nortb Carol;aa connti<. for tDe y.z. 1p6,-6p .ad 1p,y-,D.6 11ey r{ ..vd Ic..e z.[e. 1n se.l 1p,8 wnsc per ponnd .{ a laled Yi ce, .v Sader ef . 6 . 6 .ffectlve yield iadez, .a indez o! tob.cco noaeentzaiea ia tbe eovaty .nd th. ¢vot. in tLe cvnnty .a . p.teeat ot be.1c ¢ . 1a 1966. Sbe y.rtes
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5-3 e to[al z<ap nae !. <be am aS tbe.< tbres c.p ent<. yDcrefeze, mdei aone .[antlezd < mylf[91a6 asaovry ona. +e va9 de[lve . total el.aticlty ot denand fer U.S. tob.c<o va. 15.1) n a tdicnc a(1-td>az tobae<e. .beze q [be tetal v.n-pr:c< elaatlcity of devead for U.S. a~ D.S. nenaf.c[nr<ra' ¢tyat mnatavt om-yric< elaat:city ot denmd faz D,S. tobacco /. aeaa¢re of th+ denud reapea.e d¢< to anbatitvtion b<t.een U.S. tobec<o. oth<t tob.<co. <iPr<tt. axod¢<[sna). .nd ntt<x i ..... ia U.S. . tbe o.o-yxice eiaaticit9 at deund at .LOI<caie taa cipxeua< pr nced ia the Unaetl Staea 1. ah.xe-.ei6bted-.ezcte of d¢aeatic antl ctport dmaad eiaatlci[iea !oz D,S- c 6 ettea), td th< fzectien of U.S. tobacco p odnctioa eaeL domeatt<ally ae tbat 1-1tl i{ [be ftactfon ezp xted, tLe +b¢i<c.le coat abare et U.S. teba<ca iv U.S. es{ezette.. .nd t,r tLe o.n-p ce elaatici[9 of ezaort Aemand Ler U.S. tobmco. Tbe fizat tezn in eq atsoa ($.i) naaamea tbe avbathatien Sfect Sa U.S. cstzxette p d¢ctton, the ae- aeaanzea tk< n[pot sSfsct ia tbe Eoneat:c uzket. aad tbe tbiid v<a{ar<a both avDatitetlov aaJ ontavt etfecta ln csy [ deamE foz U.S. tob{cce. Dant enr o.n e<evon<trSe te.vlta, s<eaee{tzic reselta fxon y vlo¢. aedia. sae etber ieaa fezval evsdvece ef the aatme ef denand f¢c D.S. toCaccc, +e .f11 ezm.ne eacb of th<cs ca p nen[a ia txn .nd eaamate [h< lilely aa{nltade of <acb teapome. d fina1 zeapeaac to de p.[foa. . chan{e fa the r<ietfve p ce of tliLLezeat D.S. { es aa4 q alitfea aad tb< te.vlt.vt ek.a{e in denandc hy eharacteriatic ef lbe leaf
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[t.(pd/id)~Q + F•(pd/FdJ?~97(QCq/s•-) ~ Ppv •atdv>za zed zaizvFVO<ap r91 aF i¢61ne le 3Fw xad v,a tnd¢} >4i P3Fe paa mxo3 ieaa a»a6• nF Pezaiva ao}Saa »FSLiaa¢F aqi 4yFm +z>sam.zad v9t So +,i aa3 a.a .t .aa >ati}aFi+a[a paana9 aqy aef im4i i seadsaiaS ai t[w}il?D vz. ta4 osaz ozJ aaaaefliP Stiamoif}afF, aza TT >t9 s? D>ixodoz +at vFi e>4L 'Lam zapw +i >F9LL9aa eze. a wti •si[naaz zoi maai taS+e ni »saPtfvoa zne ei rPP> ,LeaQe vo,laeflyaaaz >+a4i Jo Ly}aFi?sa>sa? eqj si{e»s a? +a>n zaJiFp Swaiitv9Fa oa aPaa .e 6?aP>ei >eFi+a»! L4 wFiavFi+a poy .zozs. ............ p_3 zFJ evi.e[t. •,f+Li+v. 6zaa,z,i d¢J 096T >. szme6 eai ei »aF a4i BvFa>?zi»a Mtp +> v» .i a JaFyvorJ CazF[+zov>9 aPi oi a>IFVFa a»aaii>a 6yi>Fa+vtv pe9i>i6 mai+6s aaF»w3 z,oa L st vqy - sx»6 ,naS»a zel P>taodaa az. 4af4v 'az»se 9a.pmy> pv9 »SiFaiy»ta ...... »ndvoa ai p aa aaa. sai. ,y a zaivv»id aQy veiaaya+a DeeqF[>[Ft wv}na ,aanPO d+S4i " Fidau.a 63F[>miea x>PW »z.e6 t. [ PazFi+»a.9 8 F L86[ ei OL6T m a3 3+P {anvva oy iF3 +vm noi3anCe x+zt a4i 9aFDataza •m9isG+ p p x>ai ('vo?yrnEe aa.9, aa aD¢taze i,nv e. 9o(+aa» a4i xoil ao,i vJe t[ e4t icipa[aza 6Q +me[qoxd ivav»n++aa >ve>.pFOSa paa i+exaivF Jo ss>tawz.d qi Jo IS >t.mFt+a a. as zee6 Lta.Famtas asa oaaaqai wqi xaQia ,iv , e aiaP >¢l, 'Pa.+neai :aa Pwoa s• xa.o w r¢•43 >+>t vosl >zo¢ l»t Prizaan? /o qizaan> >([4a »siax ,e Oar,¢o41 :aa ,9anea rc oi rz xa.e oxl w{Tmy >aa o 4 i an»mw Je a qv t»ai, 'L >5491 af ve4, aza asi>»iFy aad ,an5+ iad¢F aaa 4 t>9as Y sOL6L-p!¢ a4i aaa?+ a,+.q inq +.a6 >e[S-<ivaa iszil a4i zoi t SJ 6tae?i+[rz ... oaaa9oi 9eizodvi saJ az.a, 3>oz aQi +m»e4. •vaital »P o ev9oi oFi+amop xo/ L-9 i' r r I ' if
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pv. ,.xa ? s oa p i ali.eveD aF av.¢ .>Fad eqa m aep 6 pv. 8,.L4.2 mFi sa.e efes aisz.fiv eF Ve.v »ndaF a.qie aa avFi.T.z 'eaa.pea lo .as:a IT .i non naaz. at9»v».x av0 dfeienai» m,»..i ...9n.Qa lo v ¢ ?i F ia.ai¢a i vpo a a.9iv Pv, d£i aaaT?3 le va£» vPVazv} .4y v£poL>vF ' v?t..P •.¢i aeJ .}3 ..td.. pa?inQFaivoa t.:sv, az. saqy •m. .,ud caa{4s asa.mf£. s>a D... ... e».¢ea .zev i.vez> 09 6La.aN 'd[ivaava .P od OL't P ez. i/S6t-OS6t oL .pavod OL'L vnz3 n>Lta f.Q .vazaz.f}a Ooe't zad e».qoi fe ivn0n a4i a.4/ ..eV. L>t4,2 .ivdvF L.aFd.a pv. ao¢a soJ o>a.¢oi paFiviFifQn. .aaioev{ Qv}4n afaas. e».qvi lo »a.z tei »i.aa , iFVZea d.v ».xd za.vt .•dtfvo?eqo a.e•t ,afiaz. , , aa.Qea ei .a.F3FPP• p» iz>atiJ lv .voiazedozd aqa aen.4a oi .} <.. fno£a9v d[zF.f Y essai d¢.. .;•i ¢» veFavatiaq¢. •sae .og neF»apaza ........ d IT oav.4» ,ol v»ai£a.QV. atq£••vd .al >a. a a4i i.41 vvef d.. zl veF»vpezd e iva.fFJ aL fi ant m4ae xol eaa.4ej /o ve£iv3Fie4n1 vo.3v¢DV,a 296T le av» aad SL ,o •fDwod veF[L£v 002 ive¢. lo v.i npoxd eaa.¢oa •g'p v{ ..aaani v. (£ava Ptve. oza.QO3 6 SzvQ yv. pama-avtl p.ixvdmF xel .}i..vop iv vo£i a?i.¢n3 fvFp»t4 .vl (.ai,.5 paiF.O >Qa vF azf diivasma avv} .ova.9oi PexFi.Fiad. aaqlo zo (.iveFao 9 ozl LvF.v itn.>z Dtve. fv? . sz az.¢ izvd.F Svaazad SL ei OL a41, •i.at diit.ab z>.ot 'sava ,a.at aol ia4svv e4i vF »»mF 9i?. dtavaxiD faFa vva Pz..oi aam ai .zaavpexd aFy,e.ep zvf <avap»i aqa ve.. a xa dtt.?>.d.v q ptno. .<4L •/•>L p Saodv< v¢i za4a.x a.a.>vep >.n P[ne. .zesvia 3.v zzd atQ».Qmva dt¢f..x . a. S1qa £ £ f»x >qy »a.9va at3 .vap lo v, IIa IT 1- zv»zad SZ • va.£f 'dt>AFL .... pi.o. L.L >Fi.aveD ivvaaa o6 ea Sp ineq. ei 11.1 a .1F vY l.at .}i.cvoP lo vaiad oq3 e.q3 .... .aa oi a?xa . a. P»,emF I•at qFnm aa.ot a i.=. i»a:. oc ........ /-s '
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av>4a So .aai+a esia: i•s•a >F tt9r +•an+a pt¢a. a¢aazed sx in¢a. le »FZd e>a>4ei ¢F tF>3 + I[ '>t4etF+e. av¢ aF (zD) pa>veP So 61t>Fa»Ls +Fqi e aaaap?ee va»ip 4fao4i 'PVpvimaP 6itav+¢D ut a+aa+ vF t>aotazvdazd 4i >fz+t a afamoa¢a [[Fm 6ia;i[ +viivzafia S'6 lo ., >Qa aF a.+a: P ltam+ V Fsimno> za91e 6¢as ? Pe>epoad .asaa+.fSe 4yTm aaadaoa vy +viye+a?a +v pez6 »y.+9 pvi?ap aqa ya;+am [.no?y>vsaivF eqi v[ aoFidw+voa ati+emeP so3 oaaa9ea Sv .Paaed maF[[Fv Ot ivoqe lo a{iaaP¢a6 vF >+.azz , ¢. ii ? +FQS 'Paysa?aF[a ez>a a ?za »od6v+ pa. >io¢b ¢aa.9oa IF iveaz>d t yveq> 64 e Fa oi paaaadz> aq 6.v .aaaaz.fia Sv +at++ a,a vmvp •avq2 f'f'0- i¢a9i Io (P>4) sa;+>¢ aFa+avop >41 ¢F +asaas .+03 paaaep le 6a}aFafate a?+6 >I++a[a4a a a+a99v+ eztt faFpna+ +, azd saFi+. sa.a.4a +>va+voa +aqle +o v?LOOqa. xe3 tazivoa iev oy aao,i eDa aaaqa ivq •payaa?taa 6fia¢+¢ +F v>4i sa.ot +. 61FaFi++ta a¢oaaF aqy 'aiqt+vatd Ii+ as> +aa .a a+afava+>d a+aQy qy9aa[ aaaaz+f?> ¢. >++a:>at 41Fin av+aasaep 109 adti +asIFF Jo .+v q> qyFa >a+ae+a F P>vn+ava aaiiaz }a S¢ :v4ma¢ at av >Ft?vfF+ LII+a?i+{ia+ lo¢ +F iva ['0 +F 6yta3i»[> vnoa¢t aqy aei3+9va Ltiva>SIFa9t+ LL9aaza. +F P¢e '6L'0- +i 6sF>Fi..ta »FSQ-m.a vQS .a za.e ............... asaz 1 vF +etmq +vi san>aaa oa ae[9vFS . ea qiFm p y¢amfn. .y ilia.da pa>.a0 fol->[4nvp pz+P y+ aaa .F ae.i nDV .34L +vii.zafF> tao[ >zazv Je > a v+ad . ~IpIy')d pa+ '+z>it?I 4aFm +»yaz>flz ta (e¢et fv?pvtot>) >fasv>a+va . gyL1Ii+Jd Id] 4a 6a paPFsFP +aiie»fFa Se aaFZd »+>to9a aqi >d •tdJ <4 pap?e?9 amv F ....... d >t4a+ea+Fp >aFa+a zad . I +viiax>tta lo voFiamv+voa itnp+ zad . ] »aqz (»vzze Pz>p i»a av Qsvaz+d vF +v+n+Fl) Lt-f I a I , r N
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i-1 caa<t[e n«a x<laf,< t< Snfl.ucn. O,e: the 21 y a 4e. 1s51 te lsez. ibe a.e te pzice of O.S. [ob.cco roa< ia vvalval t<zma by abvvt 310 pezceat. Ov<r tDe s.me ta e pexiod, ib< .DOiaaale yric< o[ cttazettea D<r ya<k zoee y 1]5 p eeat. TDe eoaavmex price lnaes zo.e [zom y),6 to abovt 289.1 or 2>0 perceat v,ez thi+ Dezz<d. Baaed ov 1982 eaaditioaa, . ivifiz.nt tal ia tLe yzi<e af toDaccv, beldfa{ [D< yrice per y.zk o[ c taiettea a tDa eaxzeat lev<3. .ovid lesve tbe pr!<e ot tvD.c<o z<L[lve tv ci{ar<[tea Iv.ez tpaa it ..a 1. 1951. yD1a .en1d evcoaza{ raDSt/evtiov of toDacc< tor o[Dez iaDVta, .n facreaae in tbe uonnt of tob.cco y ci{are[t<. Siv<e 1982 tbazc baa be<v s enlficaat f<al inczeaae fa cfaarrtte tuee and yzicaa avd a fall lv tDe zeal p c. vf domeatic toD.c<o. 1Lia haa ravexasA tLe tremd of tellint relative { ettv prl«/ i e 1960. avd 3990a. It ia toe aaziy to teil. bvt ehez< .r< indicaioaa of a mvveeaat a.ay fzom tDe lea8 tezm tzevd o! 1<aa tobae<o zn tbe l.a[ te. y<.za to.ard aow.het wra tebe<co paz citaxettc. Ecovcmetric Yvidea<a ot Baba[ltatien 8ttov[a. Thie ae<tiov d<v<lopa and re rts t8e z<aalta e( oar eeovome[r1c avalyata of an ovtpvt-coaatani tDree- cap ayat<m of demaad <yaatioaa satimetad foz the 0.8. Cltazette ivdvatry. 1e hcld eatyvt coaa[mvt, atafstSC.lly, by aaLaB a coat lvnctfvn [zue.ozI iv .DicD aveza8a coata yez yack of U.S. ciaat<tt< yzedantica (TC/Y) depevd ev the y ce of li.S. teb.cco (Pd), the yrice ot Smported tobacco (Pi), a pzlce ind<r for <tber 1aPata (Pk) naed ra cftare[te yrodvctlon, aad tbe total oo P o[ c t ette. (Y). Tae mafa reamlta .re obtafaedva {<he { eral/ved leontfef [mc[ioval fota, .b1<D doe. vvt zestxi<t el.ctieftia. ef avDatltatioa aad cvataav. tbe tlved y P ztiov. tozm aa a apeciel eaae. 1Le t aezelized Leeatlef enet tavctiov .na a.aociatad aya[ea ot factoz dem.vd eyvatieas i. a. fel3o.a:
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~ b 1a d i p t f-1 wtea < elli coaD.ae c.mot a cov. vre v etal ba .113 b. Delo., ibea . .' tbe comp mt. ia[o .v .ai.ae ef thv ever.ll eieeticity e[ demcad. Snbati[a[Lo. Syt.cta iv U.S. Ymefeetnrfaa 12ere ae [.o claa.e. of inp a for .hicD .vD.xftntaoa mat be eon..dered. rvp zted tobacvic eaa otDei nea-tob.cco iapvtr. p1ta. ee elli p aent eobe fafo.aetlea mbont ibe zecent Dietozy af pticea aad ynaatitie. o[ ee<D ef thece Saynt c.[a8oz:ec and dia<naa potnat/a3 zelati.e ytice .emafiietty, tDev .e vill yiv.eat avd fnterprct .ome r<.alt. o[ nalnatisi a thx<e- yvt .yctem ef deacad Lpoa saDalsmtio.. Ocet the l..t thlroy peva- aaneatic tebacco nae La U.S. mprettca Laa finen avevifioavtly. cithaneD rly.:etu yioanoilan hma snczeecea mad tetc3 pemda o( tobacco hms temaiaed to¢{hly covatant. 2.61< 1 aho.. thece treade. Tetci deecatic lvcf nan fe11 frva cb0nt one billlov ponvde to mbo¢t 800 m131fon panada iv the eezly 1980- Maavfnct¢reza have ¢aed leaa tODecco pez c.a ette md heve viced wx< faxefya-{re.v leaf ead icaa d0mvatic leet. Amnv{ thn neJoi teb.cco typee. tbe n.lor cb.aSea ha.e beea a y[rom 0.5. ilne-cmed tebacw wd toaerd lmpotted tebccco. Alona .1tb thia aaDStit¢tfov, .e ha.c observed .a ivcreeeed relaive pzice of deeeatlc toDwco .vp tDe development ot additlv ., tllterc, .vd [echneiefy to ale. tbe ¢ae of che.yvr (10amt qvelity) toDecco 1n U.S. c e ettec. IDe movemeat te lo.-tcr cad lo.-afcoteae c{ mlao hca cwtribated. •ah e price tcll to .erld ncrtet ln.ela. U.S. toDacce monld b<cone v y wapetttivv ith iaperted tebccce. Si{nifieut reverael of the tzevd to.mzd n.e of i.ported tobmcco mo¢1E thev be elyected. Cnzzevt3y cbcat 70 petceat of tbs teDecco aand ia 0.8. ci{erettea ia {rem in tLe Oaited Stctve. of tbe
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a
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5-30 1 ceat y P n vf 30 c r ett... Ecevonetzie c[vdi<a ef zr.pona af ¢t{.r<st pri<.t tn t.i<. n.. rani<a<d tba u. <s{.rett. mdoai9, atnov{n in.ol.ine only . n. i-.r.., n.. .no.n u..vtial9 c p.titi.< n<b..for /¢ fu y t Dzicine Poli<ie..l tL¢a, it f. rs..oa.bl< to eipe<t .nnletae Dricea of eat.r.tt<i to zefiect tn< la.ex pzica o[ dvmeaic tobaceo 1[ tn. l..f ivdvary .ets dez<B •ind. TEi. m.v. tEe pzic. of dem<alc ci{.rsttv. nenld b. .bovt 3 p cent iv.ez. 2ni. .ect/vn aeanz<c tne e[fect ot .vvn . ei{.rette Dzice d«t.... na .n<. o[ o.s. ciyr.ot<. in tne an«air .m .:po:e ..rx<e. .ae tn¢. on sn. n.< of O.S. tob.ocn by V.S. aavfactnren. Sb. n y p.r.v.tex of ivt<r<.t ia tn< o..z.n piic. aaati<ity af den.vd ivz 0.5. c ..... t.. (y< qvaion 5.1). 12i. pa.vntex 1. ..n.re-.agntsd .anz.e o! tbs <1..tic y of M1vv<at.< d.n.nd fer D.S. ci{.rnttea (pcd) a~ tL< et..ticity af <zpatt d<v.nd tcr U.S. oi8.r<tt<a (1<r): (5.3) 7 c - 1<d acd * ll-ked)¢ci .n.zs tcd i. sbe fr.ctien of G.S. <St.zette pzedvetiea conavm<d doee.ticaly. zecently .zamd BS Pezc.nt. TLe fvllo.iae dvve.tic dev.nd eqn.tivn fvz D.S. c g <tt<. .t .bola..le ... eat>vaed ¢aiat .vev.1 Aa- fzee 1916 te 1983. 1n< estfvae. .eza obtav.d by t<r.lired 1n..t aq.. <.. eozrectia8 foz firat- .ad .<covd-otd.r .¢socazxelaloa .vvnt z .idnaa. la C. -5.85 . 0.11 1v 3- 0.39 ln Pc ~ 0.30 fa PC1F11.tEe (U.961 (0.116) (0.068) 14.063) 0.59 Sv PCSLONG (o.id81 fl ~ U.88 990 ~-0.61 SliO ~ V.11 3 (0.16) (b.16)
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5-9 yexcent. aa it sa tor .oai of iDv 1960a. YD<ae zesDOaae. asn. tov lax{e [er .o reaaoaa. Firat. . laz{a Dmrt of ibe redoctfea in tebmcco yez <f{ara«e .ad eou .paze of V,S. topac<o p.a becn dne to tpa de.elopment ot additi.ea, to f'alu:a. .ad to shn aplft, io.aed 1or<r t.r and lomrr nf<otln<. It .e..a Iikely tpa Lcto<a etDer tp.n zelaiae px ce. of toba<<c .nd non-top.ceo iapota. denand factor., h..e beev tpe m.)er eavava ef tpeu vD.naes. Avd it aeema mlikviy tDat a 13 y cent dvereaae in the D+i<v mf teDaeo rovld c.vae a tota reaeneal of tDn <hangea in <i{atittt aDaiaetvzfau<a tbat ha.e taken Yla<e evnz t< paat t.e y yeaza. Sceoaa, evea if . teta fev<tavl vvr< te occvz eventamlly. it fa nnlfhely tDmt it moo3d oe<vr e..r tbe five-yeef ad}vasmeat peziod thet me a[e alle.fng ia avr vamlyafa. 1ei{Dte{ tbe vvidencn, aad prefnrring < err on tSe aiEe of ronuraatfan, re .111 .aaamn a valvv ef -1 for the otp conatant ernyrice vlaaticity (y.) fer tpe yrvaent. lavr, .v .111 vae m r.va o[ valaea ef tps oavrall devaad eieaticlty ivcorperalin6 nore er leaa eonavraative vaosa ef the ovtyat eon.tmnt eiesi3city. Ae a1.aticity of -1 .onld iPo1y tFat m 2$ percvnt 2mernmae it tDe pricv of ll,5. LoDacco moeld ean.< an Sncznmae fzem 1.]3 te 1.8] p mda ef total tebaeco pvr tpu<aand c a vtte.. av 6 ye ceat iac+ncae, baek [e the invel o[ the nid-Ip10a, Inatvamad Claarmtte fcaavpsien: Ilv OvtVOt Effvct Tnv domvatae ei6arnete ma/tet en1d aat [emm.n mehav{ in tht finee of a 25 p.nnt p ie t pxiee af a ipertevt iapnt. ihrrutly. doneatic tob.eeo n4ea p boai ln percnnt of [hv .DOlesale eaat e[ <igarmttee. ILV fall ln tha yiice af lonvatie tobviceo thn. .evld redncv the ceat of pe ceat a tYe .boleaale prodaetion of domatic ei{azettea Dy .bovt 3 it 1ave1. 6t 1983 pricva tbi. uomta te vboat fff cav a pvz thoaaavd or mlaaat
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I I az 4>+o> aq{se{I>S eav4 a3adaF zeQae pva fixodv? le v»{zd e4a atf4a wFa s>ev aav) aa [LxF>I peafvvez +.II evavqe) le ea?zd atasavop taez eq,L •oi stqva v. Pav?zawaa >z. »i++?)+s aqi ai Va+a vxvY za3 »F)xta»r 6rvmwr xQt oFi»FSF[d+F+ >»>a>Fadezdd. oft+ va. tasal 4)aspvf >Q) ir a»?zd +ao¢efesv •azapmaep paa +zn?Lddaa ¢9FazoS 41tm aoF)Faedmea a4) par m.z(oad eea.qoi a43 Se aas>eeH •>I4+movevx av.nr soFev4a9 aaF;va-naird • el »q}, iaizvv +S4i v{ +z.:aa»Iwev a,i emop a4) oi aof)Fppv v? +afaadmoa f,az¢dze {azaea> »+ az>4a •z>sa.¢8 i.;s>v ovaa4o) •S'4 >4i le »avaeF)Fiadmoa e4i )o >?paa+ av»» ea vavq azvq >aaQ{, L~vo?)vvFxozdda >L4RO+vaz . eq 6vv fa?e?zd aaaasv9fa aets{iadmoa iv41 pvv L»raa >sisavl3v vv I zo?s.4a4 >t)ifi +ifq?Qia 6xiraVaF x4a iv4a vi+a9ln+ ¢ ez{{ag pav ravwS ¢? a>vap?sa ta av; aoov>9oxe a. + a}z6 IL )aaxi Pav a Fn.ie sea +> 6z)+apvF >s)aav9Fa aQi )aazi a9 >»FZd lo +m4a?xvfv{ So +aoFiaan3 >sv av(4v?xes [ae).a>tdza aQL fivda? oanv4ea oa) >4a ael ao?avuba xx.Q+ )+ee xo)av/ pav seFivvLa »oa {aiei le aQ)IZV9e[ v rvpviavF a 3+6r e{ xi .q{, 9 a Fi+a oalv F nvi+6+ >.oa Boi+ava2 + o{i+aFl?aad+ so ;aaqa . aY +»avqmi+fp 9aoa> +aaF)>tazsoa +aoawaodmaiaoa aeJ )avoaaa o) +axan6+ )vrat p>xi{»av.B xra yvx zzaawvza6 vo +)v{azi+vo> 6at{>eps »Fiao4a_.aeaa aqi avadvF vv> xa aei+d. .+v Be{)w?i» [9 [rnvamdr pav '.(aa+ vi axniex ivv)fvea •xafxd v{ [iF>a>love4 le + o{i Flirxx {»Fierex4) >qn +xFSaFi» vai+[+ +F4a 'pe?Itaadv rY vavdvf Se »{)?)ava6 »ovap .~L a0.a pvv »»am.zrd >x. , a xa4> ?d);{q . L.(;d/pd)Tp0. S.IFd/;d)~fq. S.(?d/pd)fpq . . (1/FL) S.(pd/;d);p6 . J•(pd/fd){pq . ppq . (S/pI) F,(;d?d)~t4L + B.(idpd)ip¢L s p,(?dpd)fp4i . ;d~q a ?d??4 . pdppq . oq ~ /L/J1) (L'G) 9-S
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Tn• +t.aa,ra <rre:a of tn< <iaau<.u.. .r< aai.r fm<um, ef tb< v.r..<r<r r.Di< 31 v,•at+ en= iepii<a a<n=ne <1.,ti<st1.+ atn «.m.ra .r:or, in y.r.atn<a.,. 3n= a.an<it> ai {,t.,t 1nt<:<a i+ en< on po[ <onatmt o l« a.,t1<uy of 4 .... 6 far 0.6. sob,cco. <,taut<d u,tant -z.3 iv 3981. 2T< r<,alx+ gn{5<a . snifi<,at .nbati[ntlon yo.,iblli[i., b•t.=<n 0.5. tob,ccv .nd aen-tob,cca ivpvt. lo U.S. c1a,r<[[< yreen<ti<n. y< ,tz gly r=1 cx tn< hypotbe,is oi fiz<d yreyortiova (tne 4ovtief c<as). 12< cro ,-y c• ei.+ti<ity of e<n.vd Svz iryez[ed teDacao .LtD eayect io tp• yriee of 0,5. zcb,«e ia <,tica•a +a{{•at [na .I1{ntiy iaa. tb•v n•lf of ivy t. .ov3d n< x p c•a by U.S. [obzcco 1. z<apavae to s]3 yercevt 1.11 1. th< O.S, teDacce yzice. ib< om-yric. ,nd <zo. -pric< .1•+ticitisa of de..ad foa U.S. tobzcce avcre..ed ov<r tzve. Iv p,z[, that 1a dne te tne de.n.,rd treve iv the <ea1 gk,r= ef U.S. ton,c=o. Bvt alav, aa s nypotn«lzed eazller, tne rvaeltg sv{6<+t ,n anczeaae ia anbatitntebllity D<twav U.S. {obacco, import<d tob,eao, ane nov-tvbac<c i p + cvez tlr- yni., .e ,n{{s.t, cm be attribvt<d to [he erveloya=nta <f filtera avd ,deitl.e, tnat r<dnce tn< attlvaevcy oi z<ynfrenevtz faz tom<ce cn<ncterlatloa avd ,11e• nar< flezibility in tne <i{s<tt. DI<ad. .lo a y =m+[me e.n-yri<. eluticlty of d<mavd af -1.3 a~ .<roa.-p <e ei.+is<iq oi i.e .onla iryly tbat , xs p.:c.nt reen<tion in tn< yaee uf o.s, mD.«o .onle 1<•d to . 30 per<mt iv ehe tota3 ;vantiq of teD.<co p ciyaratt<-tn•[ 1.. u lncre<.< Izov .boet 3.]0 yome. per tnemand b,ct to tbe eaziy 1960a lev<1 et 1.y3 pvmds per thoa+<vd. At LF< ,u< tlr, 1he aoat +n,re of U.S. teb,e=e .oald ivcrnaae by v<arly $0 yeresvt, to abent 13 uI
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...a»aT a+ o».aei •S'p To .at.. .F ..a=e.r t...z e pg . ei y..t PIDe. »F,a oaaaaei •S'0 e4t vF veiaavPez ave»a6 SL • z+Ra ..FtdvF <iF>FZ,ata .F4i 'E't- +F o>a+pei 'S'0 =o) 9..9 To 6zraFF+.)v tt.zaee eqi '(T'S) aoFi.nie ar (t'o ivvaa Ot To .aizaz ,'S'0 vF a,.q+ i,oa oa a a S'0 izodxa oa 9oi 4i. .i. .i,ae + Pv. '(P'0• P;) ivaaasd eY lo ...... a. i v,v,ave> 9_ . Y Ta +isodza eaa.qot •S'6 =eT ya.v>y Io 6tt»tsaa .aFZd_ue v. Pv. •<~0_ . ) ......... » ,»taz. , 'S'0 zeT ...... )o iF Fi i F,e_uo 4 To oa a i•S'0 =o) pn.vap ,.svi>.)..+a ~S•p )o ciFart,.iv .aFZe_v.o Pe¢F.zz.vov ivdivo a. pai.aYfv. as.R af Pa..aa To tivF~.a3 tT+s.eU •qS .eta9 z s.T .Fpz ap.t>vF iev op a. •aFaftF.e. .F vavePFea oa pm >z6t.a. at iteat)TFp •t pv9v.v.p aaa.QOi eqt To voFiF.oevoa a4i »v. S iv;i. i9a F aadaea oi p ii aaa 6a¢i IF +aa.ea 5 p 69 o a.4aa .S4z Te ,at., ia ai)taYT, sa>dza oi al9+ne,+a. +F i. P iatdaoa vaaa a..4 Pa.v>P oa 9oi )o .vF9ni. aFaoP 4 tnlaz+a av at4aA .a oa asii{.va. 6zae ,za6oQ Q)i. ia;= sii,i amo> . o i. , it iai P dxa n. a»a »q oaa.aet nrbnn_=a.Pt ........ .fr»a) p F»...y a4> aioa nE e».9ot veaF=a :a.ai ie2 i>2=.. .qi ataa ien ny aiv posd 3'0 i.4t .aFtevt~<aFio6 iv»rna 4i To vmi.a) +FRy •a»iS P xrvp apz aF oaa.QOZ czFi.v4_.ot f,avpoad )o »>a a,za qz .iavb )o i+ea e4z ........ ¢L 'pte. ,F eaa.9oi Pva)zd.4fFR :a PaaFae~a; zv4saq. Pa.¢ .F .iov0 asFav.esa To pvvo6 vvp aQ<i 4a.a To o>a.9oi peaFZa =a¢fF9 • i.r•ne = a.a »n9o,a ot .:. n9> e:eT •.i a. PF =a ea a i p ...... P.. cataap Q..p , et(aa. i.ai a.<s aeas a 9 ad aQt 6za, a9 P(vo. .aiiaa.IF> Iv ,.>F=d 9t.o. e4t v, it.) Fztn, ,n.>.4 ,=aedn, F p ,aen> 5'6 ) aa.i a. Ft EL_E ' 1 r r ~
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Y'+ +avy Piae. )¢ iavez>d IT peizedte p iveazad it peaapesd +siai6 PeiF¢p >41 •aaqivfea .... qoi ita I¢?»¢d +iaodza ptxo. >41 )o i¢eaz>d fi Pedd?q+ pva zndvoo ptze. 3a ivaazad 11 PvavPOxd +aaYiS Paiwp vqi •oaa.qei latzo4 soi ea Q a pama_aaii +•ptzo. eqi )e iv»zvd fL 9>»vdxa pa> ivaazad Et ...... Zd +ai+a5 P aivp a4l ESDT aF '6I at4Yi ¢i vaeqa +Q •laiww + ze; v+FZ w lav aiaoda> Pv+ zvzedv{ o+ ?idw>aoa zv ,i wzd i zvqiFa aavviF»4n+ savlzad iev aa aea+4oy )e +vivFtaaD pv+ +adli 1aazaii:p e».4oa lv zz>izodzv pv+ •»»zodvF •»>anpesd »>fza aQa lvoaY va.Q + q +aiYiS p>aF¢p >QI etiqa •+aa»odxv ze(.v zaqie aqi io aaFZd efax>sa aqi asoqY itea vaaq >aQ waa4oi 'S'0 le », izodzv aqy I lei v41 le ivaazad OY '. e>aa4oi /atzeq aQi le zatzaaD . iw4a Paa doa> Pvzv>_antl >4a lt+q savqa ao3 psiaoe>a. a>.q ltiaaava >aaeda3 veF +va.Fp saezelFS ei peT .+q ).at •6 ¢ i aaoizd za.ot ei >aaod+az ai >iz>3zv va>Yqei p+eza¢, ao) tYSivayod >q{ laFa»aa(y pa+vaq izodz; aQi w. nn o>a4o1 So +ysedi; P»+vzaa) 'L'0- •>U io lsi+vpvi e»axaYFa qp v4y +vt>a) ...... l0 51?>F»>ta >ia»twa ttas>.o ¢a lida? L9'0 )o >z+Q> Sa;z>a aFi vvop t 9 'E- ia /»aFi++ta P¢ aap ixodz> •6~p. . peU lo laF>ii++te ...... _i avop .(E'6) no.v.o6v v) eaa>qei 'f'6 ael Pv+v>P .~ a+iaw¢ >Fy+aaop 3o Qi.ozf aq1 , viat3 . +a ,+dz. »;x> v»ez.tF> (Ot So z>sa.) > 1Ql qyF+ vvv aivtt?4F+ ad aeFt iiv>4a> avdvi aa>aF3Fnf?a aqi >aQj •+Pwv6 ¢eFLtFa 06 in 4+ Jo o+>ez>aF w>pLaFl vofidav+¢oa a»+avap P»Yazav} >i +FQi LviDpY p od o?tt?a et vaeqY io +aiY> w>Yq>t 'S'6 lo v F adzv vY ey .>ai I+zi >?qi 'paizodza +, sadvoe a» zatFa 'S'0 le i¢a>zad )T 6t91aoz »qi a zaI '(6- ine4. .'S'0 >4t a} psaapvzd +>siaza ,a soi SifaFi+ata paavaP iaedza De?tdvt a4v) ivaas.d Ot vwQa vq i4 , ivta.. izodza vQi F e,s.dza •iwazad f i£ LT-S
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0 «<nt r<y ta. m.<ra.. am. inu . ' s r.n.a .. Daa en< na<-<ar<d .na<. aran:ficut oavat o: mr<isn-srom nazlny tobaceo .aa a«a in o.S. oiaa:<ss.a aw s ae..ce. 01 ie, C.S. bazl<y ootp . ' pox . 1.[a< pria. <n.n!<, lonrrnn ,nae . r.et n:vaaa:aa aooid be _ axua<. nae tbia ,oala a<a<nd to aoa< er[nat en zaaaien of sxaa< b<rri« 'c by'iayorifa6 <oaatr.<a. Z<nle 31 inaic<t<a tbo aajoz nazaeta 1- U.S. tobac<o , Pe[ta. Nav9 0[ tne ,erle'a na)or efaaxette eannlactaxin6 <omt[lea do vot bay a ynlrlcant q elt<a If D.S. tobaccb.TD1a a.y b< du< to trae< I zea[ric[ieva oz [o tb< 9o11<Tindn<ea DS{h pzlce If ll,S. laaf. T<Dle 3. _  n aDo.a tn<t lara< qautitl<a If ivpozta ar< tak<a by ac.< aark<ta <r<a ,rt / <i{nlficavt [ariff Dazzlaxt. / ' ]nna-ter. tre,tL If tebacco xy ts .eaid alse depead en aoe< O.S. pz viceza S nnlna to ona<t< aix<ct1y in tD< eaztat rer lo,<z qaatisy ,.. sob<cco. Tabl< 1! liet. tbe aa7or tobacce-yzoaacinacemtrisa ia tDe orld. '. Som< If tDi[ prodaction conpetea directly ,Stn O.S. fla<-cvea ava karl<y ia .erld aaxketa, Otnex toEacco syyca are aot <loan aaDatavtna for 0.5. , a otpat . / If eltniaaien o[ tob.c<e qnota .ere tn redvice tDe avera{< yrice ef ! U.S. [obacco <rporta by 3! pnzcevt~ a pzice <laaticity If ezport deaana . If -/.0 layliea av puaien o1 azy «a If anoat 100 p<zceat. 1. zec.v t ' year[ tn< Dnited S[atea n<a nzp<orted aboat 8oU villiea pomda If toLecco . . • oa . f.zv ..fant b<afa. A fairl9 cenaervatlv< eatlaate ls tDa an .dditiona l 800 e1111on y da coald b< ap sea. a,<n <liniaatlaa nf qaotaa and prlce I aaPporta. Tne ezanrt deaand e1a<ti[lt9 z<tlecta aoatly aab<titatioa of '~, 0.5. lea! fer foreian-arem 1«S ia tD< wzld uzt<s. Ne lazte <n.nae 1a .otld alµn<tt< eonamPtien ,aala be <aw<Na a. .<en.<q.ente If ~ ~ I'
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i-]6 of nor< tLan i bi331oa p ad p<z yeaz. tTic iavreaa< .ovla'b< va:al> dva te ,acrca«d tobc<co <zpvrtc (800 milliov povnd<). <nd lmport replacosat (304 .,v,on naaneo. .ae r<1.<.• ><m<11 ie<:<...< a<. to ia<x<.a<e soe.«o v: {<[z< aa.< (io n:llma y vadc). Oo a ra«nt <•aty< Daa< of cevnt 2 billien pcvada ar dvme<tic tolc<co yrcaa<t:vn, a emnaiev te ev<z 3 bililov yonea. i< .<on.<r•s,.e eatrmts<. la <aenla n< ..yn.ar.e .{<im, ao.<.<:. tha .a<a . Ilynr< i. bzr<a va aa: yolaien or :vns ctfuN< tad pzi<e rav6 vvcside recevt y aeace. ~ Cle.rly, ta< aalor tc<tvr foz { eh of th{ U.S. toba<w -ttzy 1r <a[eznataonai tz.ee. Nc1tMr dvmestic aez .orld c1{arvtte ra1« .evld <zp ad in . naJox .ay from reenctivv ef toea«o yx,<e<. Flor<vez. ezport< of dom<{tic cnb<titatloa [er forei{a 1caf. avd leaf <zYOrta. all bav< p evtaai for e y asion, { an 0.5. <harea ia wtld .artet< tad ta< lat{o pzlce ad•.ata6< cvzzently h<le by fvrsi8n yrodvoarc. , IL< aoz[ impvxtcat <onevaea[. of the ov<ra11 dvnzad <larticlty et< tae toDaccv eryort devand <1<at:city (9r) and tae oatyv <oattzaint e.a-prics elaati<ay (.<). Sor tbe<e el<ctlc;tlaa. .e havc vaod ceaa<rvatlvely lo. v( -< .aa -3 to vbtaiv .a o•erall d<maad alastielty. ]hor tae v.1ve of -2.3 for ta< o.etcll d<maad ela{ticity <lze ia <eaeereatlv<1y lo.. Ia the a<zt cD<pter, mcDt<z 6, .e vill ayply tF< eqaiiibzim di{pl<eavent aod<3 developed ia OaDtex 2. Ia taa aaaly<i. .< all aae a { ef vv<r.ll de..nd frem -2 tn -3. Thi, zaaia .no.a . zua oi <:e t aemam <1.rumsinr fram -< [o -IO .aa . r.ma or eo.<a1< ae..na <1<atlatie. t}o. -U.5 ac -2.0.
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CA.yt<r 6 SDS Pzfc<. 4omtity. +vd Ecmoni< 5mplna Etfecta of Uezs{nlction ln C1 p z 3 p aevt<d a+iapl< ecoaomxc mde] af tbe e/fe<ta ef elivlvatlvt yn .. .a P c< anppoxta iv tAe II.S, tob.cc< .erk<t. te solved fo< yerc<atc{< cDavt<+ lv pz+cea and qvan[atica of 0.5. toDtcco aa foactima of (1) tbe .edte Det.eea urd/val ceat o[ cmzevt p tnd tAe Dtice o[ tobt«o, IS) tbe ela+[ieity of demaad fox p.1. tobacco, rvd (3) tbe elaatici[y of t6< mr 6 eted tob.cco pply [metiea. la tbe f+t Da*t ef tbta <bzpt<z, s n.e tDat mdei .ad <be eattu[es of tboee ea{aftode. tre. CD.ytese < ud ! to e+tav.[e tDe effectt v p<ea cad q mtle/er. 1e aimlcte aves a r 6 to allo. for som< mcez[. a y abvat tbe corze<[ aaaea fot tDe y am<teza. Ia tbe .eccnd y t e! tDia <Daptez. .< p cify z eoxe detaled qviltbzim di.pl.cmeat mdel tbct .«omta zp citly Sez tDe ditSaran<es Det.eca V.S. end imported toD.ccv. ve aw ae6r<t e qeutity zeapoaaea Svto evyofta evd domeatlc oae <f U.S. [obacco end O[S. lvporta.l 'hit m<e detzeled an y a q ea vore dctzfled .... ffi<atloa ef ptrzmtara. io y y p ustera, ne nee tbe ze+nlta ftom etrliez cD<Dteza ud aove vild Wditlove3 saamptiom. Ia tb< tAfrd prt of tbe Aaytex. .e v+e tbe eatfaz<e• of sffacta en yricea aad qnaatltie+ to coaynt< tbe e[fee[. on covamez evd prodvaex a y. vettw<a of sconamzc .elfaze. Pzlve. Gaavsity .nd 4venne 51[e<ta Oa1nt iDe A{trsaafv. kbde1 lEe mrk la pzeviovs cbapter+ antE ta coaaervatf.ely tD+t n3lvination of pri<e .vpy t. aaa avDDly coatrol for U.S. teDac<o vnnld be likely tu lead to e fvlf lv the 0.5. tobtcco Dzfee Dy aDOat ZS yer<ent evd u imcze.ae ia D.S. oatynt of .oDecce by SU pezeeat or .ore. yDese mzerata of pzi<e .vd qaaatity znd t5e
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6.5) diayd _ (1-p)E1aYa . pAia6 (llarh<t <laaringl (6.9) dlaX • r~1aPd (Imyvzta! ' .D<xe the evdo{ ona variables aze. p • C.S. teb.<co o p[. a• O.S. Drv6ncera yr.rt (varginil <oatl of [obacce. Pd • D.S, domeata p ce e( teDacca (aaamid te eqail the eiport px/ae), 2 ^ D.S. tobacco eay [.. D damestic covanvp oa of O.S. [ab.ecv. v • D.s. tob.«o i.y ... ~ rb< y.r.m<t<r . .. Yd dom<aur ae.xa ci D.s. envy t m/p). et n t ah.xe (vp . 3-ed). e • D.S. svDD19 eiaa[>cit9• t eap t denand elaaticity, domeatic demaad eiaativity, m• import demcnd elcaticity ath reapect to domea[lc pzfca, p [ha yrica .ed{< W aa a fract/oa ef the doaeaSC yzi<e (p • 8/P). Tns <a { ona ah1[t doa te eliaiamtion of tL< p g ia xaDreaevted Dy e3lminatloa vf the pz u cedgr Llad --3. lDi. +adel <vn16 be ezteaded to .S1o. fer <ado{caava piiam. of otbet tob.cco [ypva, te iv<1nJa meze typea of teb.cce. to iaclada miyll<it eqnc[foaa fvx fvzciaa pyl) nd dcmcai rabar thaa . ve[ iy t demaad, oz te a11o. <avt<avv. .hifta vf ether eq itivna. The mvdel la ralatf.ely amyle aa it r. specified. zeSlacting vvz .Se. [hat Svpertad [aDaceo prieaa .ze eao{sneaa to ihe Dni[ed Stat<a evar tha leagth e! im vf iatcreat .h11e eaptnxta{ the
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6-3 rie Pzice iedae. Bared <o <De .<ri an p x 3. .e ea..<t< [De yr.ce .ed8e .a aDOat 90 vezceat of tD< marie[ Pzi<e. IDat ia. ipe .az{ a coat e! nnre{alat<a pcodnctlon e[ cvrzeat tob.cce ov y aa eatrmated t< be aboot 70 p<zceat o[ tne tob.cco yzlce. Ela<tlcity ot Snyply. Tn< e<tfma< <f a 35 ye cent pzlce fall dae to a.x.enl.uon t.ata on . ni{els a.ai< .nvvir t~<ima. onr r..aeai.{. b..<e on e<nae..< tneory .na faai<.una< or ai{n1s <1..[i< f.nmt anPp1P w[b< tnbacco i~natzy, •{{ ta tnat tn< zelav<nt cqpply eiarti<fty fer D.S. tcbacco la iadc<d .<zy lac{e. Onr <mpizic<1 .azk .Stb Qaot< z<nta anypecta itia al<m. Ovec cb<x[ez time pezioda. 6e.evez. tne a yply <l.ati<ity .i11 De am.llex. fi<¢cv, t0 e<aoostrr[< ta< <ftecta eret tfu, avd te elier 1cr tne pnaaibility of vtaez crosea If leaa elatic anpyly, me co¢cidez anypiy alactlciti<a ot fi.<, ten. and iaffnity. Elaatlctty If De.<nd. SDe otnez aaJoz paru<t<r ia [De elazticitr af denand foz D.S. tob<ccc leef. Daaezlyina tDla <1<aieity aze mazk<t abaf<a. tae <laatlcitiea If desead fez D.S. <zyoct. If tobac« end ci{<rettes, tne elaaticlty If .vDatitntion betm«n D.S. toD{c<o ua p zted top.<co in D.S, ciD<zett< pzodn<tiea. ue tbe vlaaticity ef U.S. deaand foz c<{v <ttva. Ib. evezall dem.ne elraticlty feci¢t tn< D.S. tubacac ivenatzy, iaylled by onz co¢sezvaive accaep iunr. <. <bo¢t -3 aloaa{ a tbree- te fovt-year adJvat.e¢t y<tivd. yafa can Ds rsprarevtad sa a aD<ce-+ef{btee a.erat< ef av <1<aticity of <zp t eeaand tuz tabacco ]vaf pr0da<ve i¢ ta< Ucited Stat<a cf -.1, and aa elati<ity et aena¢e by 0.5. ¢<vvfactnrera for tobacco pzoenced ia tD< Ovited State. If -0.'I. r !
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>iivxa F ael Pa>meP So <iiaii+ai¢ eaFxLVO v4s aF Y eaeq. >Y9S a P~Y ( S/pS)- - P% (tt'9) >F ?ad eFS a p oi laad+>a 4aFm +iaodm? lo p 6iFaFi+ala [+iea +Qi '6i?aFir+[o noF+v+dx. L,aifae + 9 Filiadmoa + .... »F aFa evoP »i v, atmqa a oa iesd,ea qaF. oaa+4oa aiaramop paa psased.F So 9 eP Se +aF,FaFi+a[a veii¢aFi+qv, e4i az PPY . paY Pa> aeaiaa>1?a •g~p v, aa>4ea p izodmi Yva afirasoy Se +vs,4> aroa ar+ aS pma PS eaeQ. >s.9 am a[dm„a za3 'saod¢F oea+qai-aaa so3 aoFiviFirQ¢r o¢ roita a. SI 'P+aaL>a 6[i+aFaaaqa[a+ a:+ oaa+9oi •5'p le »Fad >4a_ F e9mqa e ei aavdrax 9aF+ +indvF ao} pvamop Sa zv{aFaFi++ta eQL .zd oaa,4ai '4'6 a4a ea »vdaax qi?. rizo F ze3 ...... So +>.i. ,i +i> s>pzat L[dm} '1¢aa+vea + vfqi z Ri +>.i. ...... ...... vFi+vaaP aata+l eaa+qoa paixodaS a 3 ......... qv+ vqi +? 6iFaFi++t+ Pa ap /asamoP >4a vF6[aaPVp 'taia¢ra a{ i>;z v ixodia v4i 'aF+fP '(iaaaaad ppt ^ Pp[) +taodza aS ara>»vF a as>6 eaaaat + pv. (ia»za6 p, oi ti) aav FI aaeP a, aa,axaaF aia¢aaaad aatiamr + aatasef PL indivo v? a»»av, vav.aaad Ra+ z+qi +F Lt >[q+a m? aoFa>maoSmF La»FiiPP >92 in»aM poi oi OS /a iadaoo F.>aa F: pa. ivvezed LL aa SL 3o F o»aqai ~S'p +9a , naFiavpaz ..a_ vi [- aae9a er3 ?iLa?i+rta pa+.ap i[+zeno So etPas > Pv pi l0 6aFaii++ta [Lddnr QiF, 9[ >t9+i aF Yeizodaz >+oqa qi?a zv»a/zaoa aza G[ at4+a aF +zto+a, >9S ([ .t4a aF P i,ed.a ,,. +vo.z+i¢mF+ >+v4i lo aitn>va aQy B- pva >- So (aY] +.i. Far.ta P m.P iaodxa 6-9
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I >1 i p.5. a9 culture (in<ludvoq coeecco~ ia .davniacarad Dv tne iqrieulturel SteDllizatzon snd C etfen Service. rtee staoility ott<n ia clai.ea aa pvrect evipennetrea tDe perfod Defore reyulatfen ie not relsvset to discu or >npuatrtes tnat nave Dec ereyulate , reee .vdelv Iluctustfny end tnere is 9 acion, Bo.eve ,>t .ay not Ee appreprlete eo eatrepevate tron
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~ aoawot •a L¢td 9aa ~.,rn9>a o+fasd o e Qot vai le ve> tatooS.• • os+ N pv> ¢oavqot f„mttotd o eaaol, sal lo >.eJ !.ae4 v~, • v>vaaf •a Iv.d 'E 'II L¢>d 9va ~. z¢9aII matte+d o>aael >QS lo a.oJ LaS>o5•. ' oaaoN Pva vo>¢Qef 'L 586t an M •attaiaa •»SataS 9atavaaII tarn3iva}atp .vtto+.J 4a+oN •ti> 'oN ¢.s>tiv8 .• iaaa 6satned ael +la;aaN SavoiaavaataI vi ta}ied I n+[¢+}afy voma J, is. vaveJ a.edem; aQt le ai>ali] vQL• ' esalY 'M va(tnf t „ iiltaf}> vo xat. a.}»3 f>t>9ei a4+ aS avv+avf ¢a le aatib~ 'ava¢ 9iavl pva +awnS Pv. ~SITC2d6{ a~ • o naar •a tn>a .a. t p tavo»a .P an. a.i. a Ri}aSa>ata aa SS lo vdEt vfQt lo voS> ¢ I v+ Q>+n/ Pa. ai x> aoi '[ 9 SdidY® OS 53WN LI-9
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tne denenE far anventory cEeny s. an ancrevae 1. any or tEe slopes, nold q atorage on t~e verta y of Dr~ces EepenEa oe Uoth t~e .esiaevlaty ot sto sqe denene and cne elaacveity o[ atoreye demand. tt seens rnasonecie to acvnose
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I ooi imza33?P i•q+a o• axa aaav[da¢a Se >¢aFy•>ztfa av0 •iama_aatl tvv( v qi qi s o.a•4ai '9'6 tLa pva ivaaaad OL m4i ae4i• iveased SL lo P . • P P Pv 6tdda. lo aa,i,aFtiata aa3 +a¢1•> ata•[ 6[vs?y.taa P»v .... .... a• vaav>za22?P aF•a >4= E•¢o+¢qo[ 3 a oqy oi at4•s•dvoa aa• zztv+» av0 •vtdavi , a vpetd m4i :eQiaa •a[daaa , am.ava az. ? aQy Sv aaav a}ysat> df>s!i•[az •f dtddv aqi v. aag •aavfiatel da pado(va >a ptvo. vafaxd >4i Fo vo{t+v?v?la uaz3 ..... .v[dz¢. aqi S?•Q dia•av po. ••zam•voa . aol ea3 iatdav >a•zyzv oy •ya• mzlozd vaa aoi eqL •tevmava pv az»vFOaO ai ? qi qy vya»f a Pfao> •zavo »vve oi +av o[ qi ? i•4I a•:eozd oa 4vy a4i So vaFyviuF[a lv »vaa~»vov •.. v{ •, ovoza a•at PL a. a»aS Pvt?vp aIIi a[o9+ ••. a•qt ai»<9vF OL >ta i i iiv a: qy '6[ •i4•i . [a . s So safv q a•tvaaxa! dt».i z.o+ pv +taeat a4i pm (9['P) 41aoz4i (EL'9) •,t vb> F .... »a. 0L a14•a a? t I 1 0 I a I I I I a
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..v.. r.r.c, c, t.vn. .n nr=n,eues .. mn.o=o m..=.. ..a..trv. .c l,.nn r,l,na.n ., s c.rf=u of.~=n.ao, er tc. toc.==e s.r..c aev.,tfone er .ecua .ucyut rra, 4f...=a eotVU , ln .n un= q.tna toe.=oo =n,.c„ .. ol,..w o~cc~c, rnn,=c,e .nc.lv f. =n .q f. n=r,w,. 1. tn. auE,c,ntf.l ror .oat .jor .qr.=ultur.3 =o..oa.ta,s, Du proauc,r. .na ocnnr
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' I a<•.<uo., r<o. <:o=<c<e 1..<x. or tn< ...>.m<, .oc<a a<,laoas rro. .«o,t,P •n«e r,<a o<e<. .ot. v<,..< ro«<.,c, s..o ..<> ...,x.< .,>o~ rlae or o <e,< cn.e ro< <or++ or <ore«., ..a x<u tn<. roc cotten ..e m aes rowrx.<.<.~<ac<.aror<or to<+s>o rorocorlor/r <xnman.v<nc<...eoo.+a..c :.o« no.. . eoot+< e<o<.< <rr«c,.<. xn«<ror< cn< xeo-xr.<ec c...e .oa<1 u<oc.. e«..< <rr.<uv< ,..e c.ro.< cn<.. «.<lu, coe.«o rana w.,..o< .ooom cn< loc-l,o..~ c~<.a n<. e... .eo.c a.os. xc n.. e«. . uccr< xo..~ ro< n.<-««a .m . xlcn< n,sn<r ror a.<1<v- a, acn aooeyol.oo., v1<lea tn<n tn< ocn<e r<9. o<, sne aven 1<ee tnee .11 ta0aeca. Bo.<vet, tn<
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6-6 xn< .nnp >.m e<mane moa<1< .:< n„<a ,n t<:e- o:.a<af<1ti<. .na n «n a <n s .n tn< <ndop.ao;< prlc< or U.S. toro<c<o ,na tn< en ....... q tatae< of U.S. teb,eee predactien ,nd <zpotta, plna 9.5. n,nnt.<tox<r< aoa< p oa of doncaf< and imported tob<cca. SLe .ys[<m ef <npply .ad d<e<na q .oas .t <ioc<d by ro n.rk<t-ei<ar 6 e<atltte<. ]nea r< eo]« foz yer<eat<{< cn,n6« la ine <ade,enna, <,x1<ble< la re.ponae to ellm/natton ot z pr c< . ge da< to tn< tobacco pre6rv. ]ns Yoda. Tne medel cemyri<aa <ia eqo<tion. in loS atftezevtl.l form. ILe f/rtt five <qn [zon< t pz seat tbe nazket tor U.S. tob,cco. (6.<) tn< U.S. teb.cce pnly .. , fmct.en ef tne pradacer<' p c< af teb,ece, (6.5) erpazt e<mand toz U.S.-prodnced tobacca, (6.6) U.S. 6em<ad fex O.S.-pzedvc<a [an.cco, 16.]/ . v.r1<t-cle.x i 9 tlty ideatfty: t< per<e {c cbu{< iv U.S. nn pn q 1< tn< m,r<-- s t<a <om of p<r«nt,{< cs,aw< fa doma,t/c con„ep nn ,ne p t<, ,m (6.e) .rrt<. lmacity: in< p s«at.v <n.a6< 1a tn< U.S. toba<co Drics .qn,l. bn< .nan.-eci{ntsa .v er p«ats= <n { < p ea«., p« Im,rstaa ,a<t) ,na a< p« r<as<. tn«< q fna< .r f nuy <n s oe< in tn< pr c<. m<r{ta,l <a,t ,ae emtpoc of ean.n<a .m 1t. .Iln<.aion b<t.«n anm<,t1< nd <.po,t n,rk<t<- xn< ttaa .qna.nn. < mp)etln{ tn< .oa<l. ;t (s.p) U.S. tnpozt ean,na fon tob,cao „< fmnctinn af :n< 11.5. tob<eco Dztca. Sface .< za« a,ram<d <r .<nana pz1a., nr teb.c<o tmpo<t,, it felm.< tbat tn< U.S. .ab« n « i< p«a <aeg<aoe,ly tn (6.~) 1- - adlap. (U.S. <nnpiy) (6.!) dlny r Lzelmpd (0.6. ..... t,) (6.6) dl- . qedlapa (Dom<,tic <em<mptica) (6.7) e1a0 _ Cadlni/ . Yid1,Z )YV2<t cle.zfa{)
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7-1 .all vexy xte cnan9 s~n tee v.5. Goller-for<iqn eurrepev esceevge rate ana vs qro.n tnrougnov[ ene xorla, anu ea5or perers afte y oe ttctle cooseco. e tor ocner gooes. Tee polrcaeel tur.oft vumouveinq ZsnOSeee Eex eeen fevor.ple far v.S. copacc p oeucers puc .es not a es5or feec , pereas tpe eneerg on 9reao a.porta ep cee Y550. ln 197, psa are.etxc effeece on v.5. 9rean 0 oavicen. ipe .a5or aavree of vaneealacv .oulE !e exepanqe r.ce .ovenencs, ana teese ven Ce vvr[uslly elswaeetea Ev uxin9 farear0 .arkete for foreign
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++ e[jiFi f> L4 a+++zavF L 3F 'v»azavF tj,eenfFqa,ae ..... ene.>az 6si,¢vvi qfnoqitY >vaaza6 00[ oy Of LLaiFt j ev i d OSt oa de avaazvd L, vexi .etza +F ladivo ~S'0 at f¢++>r>¢i a[4}sso6 Je alv.a e4i 'Dw4 a Yi aQi v0 svaax>6 9L leoQ. Lia;it a,ea avaaaad ef P+ i[ e.a.a a 3o t,>I saezx,¢ LSZS>J >F +afa•4n aaizd jo afmz >Qy fzalavfz•d La; aqa zoj +ant>s lo efvaz >9Fe 6aee a lvife vzfazd oa .aoa >qa )o v ,sFta lo aaelie So efms Lt>iFj eqi eyyalPaF 9t atq>y aF ,aet•a aaL >te>ij3 jo efaaf a4t '9[ at4ai vF ~ 4 z> fai•¢ti+o a>a9y [ozive> L,ddns P•>izeddm ?ad )o t>sevaa jo » naaa9 o a•4oi 'S'0 jv L'lFin+ai• P aeFxd a4i aF s>fv+Ya eY•avaarad a43 Je aai>vllfa ant>¢i pi>FL (f- 'Y- 'E- 't-) Pv>a.p So aaFi?>?a,aie >[QFf>a6 rvel pve Liddm lo +aFilaFi,+ta >L9F,fo6 a>zqa >¢1, 'p- oa L- 1 9 mozj f.ipaSi,>Le pa•vaPtt+za.o Jo afmr 6[>iSt •+i+v99n, indim '9'6 lo ivaazad Oy Jv sar,9s tredza avazrt> Y>Fa f aFaFl*,Sa jo ,af¢•z a+aQa f¢, ,qmo~ oaafaoi p ysodvF Pa+ aFa++aep va>.iaa LaF,?4+iviFifavf Se >9mz oP. • ,aPVia¢F S't- oi 90'e- je afvez + pv, 'iv>m>a,[daz azo , aF L>F.Faaata p v>P aya+aveP sF43 Se eazmf zo(,v aQt oaaaqea xoj yv+v.p , aa sa+jnv+a 'S'6 Jo ,>i ,i a a.o mo paf •f- je +aiias _ 9aanpazd_'S'6 zol ...... laedza Jo 6aFaFi+•La asii+>awvea +•9aav,p aasaz.fta Se aai F3 > vao rno a Paiseddva p[t fai>yS 9eiFap e91 vF fa»asaTla zol Pv,map a4a Se va yF e ........ ¢e Daf+a fF 4•0- )e ani•e >qy a>saaa+sF> 's'0 a^j P. e r zeJ 9v >ja aueP at ¢e. dz, pa. •,and¢? aa4ia xni me.aai /a ¢?i iii a 'J,•, 9naandd? i 6a?aSta•t> pv ...... ma.3eQ veFaei?i•avf jo ia>lla a4a +aPnt>aF ... pn v.y aia >moy aqa vo ami.z iFt >4a vF v?i.mzol .+>t ? raat .9a+z aqi Je y¢a .o} aqa vo Pa++4 ' aFa sze.noa az. .az 9?1 aae +nQt ?aiFt +v. + 0!_ os f- Se afvz a4i vtQiF. a¢t•> Y'6it>?isaa pv,ma9 azodz> a4t /n p iF¢ +. >¢i anoa+ aani.z,a?t >4a nF oF ¢ iv a .... +eq > ax >-9 r
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x ~ ~ ~ sDDp,v ... D..... =t.ate,t.a. <..p, r,..a .oeD.,.ta. t.a r.eae.. te ,aD t ..te~t, a~.at,e .pppt. l~eDt~D. for r..e.r.. p D r, a.oeaat, , sae,.. I M I I f.rtpr,~ r.r t~. ..~o e,. ereD, .r ..tto.. p,.a,pa ,tor.D, e.,ta ra~a,.e !or eze.pte, .re Ie cE< renue of .OOUt 9.60 Dar CuoOre0.e,9.z Da veer, Dlua
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~
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F+om Lb< d<.cvssion ia CD<p z 5. .< D.ve en 6 fa[erma<ea io coaaidez < r n{ of v.lnea [oz <Sd d thaa to n.< p atl<n 6.9 te c mp e yezceai.{e <Dan3 in import. dne to corxeapovdi¢a cIl.are[ in tIIe O,S. [oD.cc p The ce« aDars o[ doneatfc [ob.<co D.. x<cently beea .bont 0.06. .ftD inporis at .DOVi bat tbct 1evel. i< haa< take n De ab0et tb< co pn ef[ecv ia oaly -0.0.. For th< o p ceaatan[ ovn-pzi<e aaa[fefty of dem.nd (ot dom<atic toD.<co, ne bev< naed < raa{c o[ aclnes czoonA -1.0. In tabl< 38, tben. .< vae .alne< ot -.3. -3.G. .¢d -1.3 foz qd, tbe domeatic [otal el.atlcfty liaclvdia6 eatpnt e[t<ct). Foc Lb< fmpozt elaatfvity, D~, e o<e vaaes of 0.9. ].9. avd 3.9. IDc r<apona< If f p t denevi t0 <limi¢aiov of the tobacce pto{ram .oald d p d mcinly on the clma[lcity ef d<m<nd for teb.cc< import< nltb zeap t tO.tDe U.S. teFac o pzice. Ia ear ffz[t enalysis. n. hypotheaixe th<t muat lihely. tmc-thixdc If teb.cca iupoztc nonld be zeplacad 1a z<rpoaae to. c y, a 3$ percent 1- la tbe U.S. teDacco pz[ce. ]hit vavld ]eave p ta n<,n y f or.enaa tyP .hf<D .:< not <la.e rnbatant<a to+ D.S. toDac<oa. ]De <conovesric evidenca >¢ CD~ptez 5 an{s<ata a valae aznnnd t.o [0r tbe ci0ac elacticity (pm). Aaccmia9 ao anbatftat[nn for nea-tobacco inpnis 1n p<t e pzodoctioa. .veD en alarticity la <eaaiatea itD an onn y r<s elasticity If D.S. demanE foz D.S. teba<ce If aDeat -I. Abent a 30 [0 60 Percent rednc[foa /¢ impozta aa irylled Dy ths<e elaatieity .ane.. .ltb . a pply elasticity If ]0, aa .bem 1a teble 18. Smeazy n[ Pr1ce a¢d Qmut[ty 8[fe<ta. eax aimnlatleaa av{{ t a raaaoaable zan6e ane moet likely .ala<c faz tba maloz Price .ad youtity +aaPOVCas fa D.S. toD.e<o .arteta in rs.pen.e [o elimiaatlo¢ o[ the tob.< o pzo{iu.
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r~
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a-13 ]D< r<.nlt. .:< .ma.r,rna 1< t.bi< SD. tne.< xs.nit. moy m. mt<rna.ona u.a< .on3a mn:nu. sn< < v.<a to ali.:nslon or en< tob.<< n{rw. O[ an inczn..< in n y of 1.1 b,lli n pema. p.r y r, a<.z T me billiov pomd. .on1d be diapo«d of .. iacrs.aed toD.<co eapcrt. avd ne.r y.)1 ef tnn zesidoal .On3a be zeDl.c ar oD.cco iayo[ts. Sh< alitn< imre.ae in sot.l YI.S. tob.cca n.< (domeaic Dlv. inyozt.). .DOVt 30 allion p d. p<x y s. wonid De ..a y tor lmreaed elt.rats <[p zt.. SLere .aoid D< . dr.na5c cn.ags in ins U.S. net toD.cce.tz.de Deaision. Snmain{ tne cbu6 < in inpozt. .ad .rpo ta. tne 0.5. .ovla Daeoee ..<t s3pozt<r of .ome 1.5 Di3lton p vnda D r ye.z conp.z<a [e recsat .aa<- of .boct 300 aillien pomd. yez ys.z, . f/ae-f<1a lacta.a< fa U.S. n<t szy t. of t>D.cco. In tn< a.rt .«tion .< mneia<: sh. <n..{.. m.m.ml. .<if.x. .ue<,asa .itb tn..< ean< .na anmusy n.as . Itemo.ic ~<u.vn SSr.<t. elianaion af tn< tob.mo aretr.n .onla asr.<t3y .rf.<t tnn .mnmr< .af.re er a naltlsnd< ef D.onl. imel..a ia tn< sob.«o imn.ir>: { e:.. c t. e.nera .m otn<r iavnt ..an11<r., n onl< ia.o1.<d ia srm.bort. .ml<.n e. pzoce.aia6 • { tt. a.nnf.ctmia{, vP to fia.] cm.nvza of citar<tt.. ud otDez tob.cco Dzodvcta, B.<.a.e tob.c<o .ad lt. Pzedvcta aze tz.dea lntstaaionaly, thu- di..ct .ff.ct. .en1d net b. coafined tu the O.:ted Sta<.. STa. .aald .1.o b. furtn.r ladlzect sffa<t. oa «oaomic slf.rs, p tvcn3.zly ia tob.c<o-Drcdnclar ret n. ia tns Unit.a Stae.. In th:. .<ctioa . tlut< .a.e Of tnt diz.ct <ff<cta on econou< .elf.ra. le n.k. tne mnvmtivna .zDltz.ry diaaoa of scoaoaic .nzylo. /ato pzodncnr.' .vyln. ua conaa.ra arpiaa. Tb. .t.nd.rd e.vea. t0 tne v.- nf tL..- r..nte aDply. Ia th. Dzn..nt -- .pvl3lbzim 1. d.f:and 1
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an-anC aut cnarqez. For comcca, cna co ver.ele ag e zz s ooc 9.ss par p eenx oF recenc eerket prvicez ot 96 ver nunaree•evqnt per vear vor ca0scco EtFYerenc q ai~tv sctraootes cLen tkase vn tne prevvoua rear. Fer eiqeretees, Tee Likeiv 8ateet oy terie0v11ev. Sopplv en0 aenena For comcce are llkelv •qu3J m ra[tecceE .ore in qusntaty eEluzteeoea /eoJ eoee at invevtoeY ttev ee
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6-5 y can[ or by as mn<D a< t5 yerceat. TD<s< ce<olt< deriv< dire<tly frnm t-e p aa<t<za na<a. ]T< <ff«t nn prc<c< vs damiuatad bY tD< 3 s aRei> <lasti<iti<a. w east ot t-< DnzLw af t-< ad)ewmwt 1n tb< indaatzp [o . y<-.n1< mn<t o<w: ln ta< q.ntu> z.<h<r te.n p<. ai..naaon. tn<r<ainl tn< wpDly al..u<iq tsoa i w lntinity. f<n ..ana for [ 6amaad <laa[icity~ doet not g•tll aff«t t-s qnwtity oz pric< z<ayoaaes. 2Da ran5 at qaentlty wd xevwne <ffv<ta 6ezivea aain3y [rom tb< z f af valnaa toc tae a<nand el<sticities, tivea < ptitt effact 61ct<t<d saiaiy by te< PD y sissti<ity. A llozs pstzilsd Yede] I. it, Ptavions sectt v, it. <ompea<at< of deman6 fazia{ t-e U.S. tobacco inao<iry .ar< e.ent. y <1n{3< <au<{<e< damana aati<1sy ln ozao:aia{ o< effects of ezpoz[ acaand respoas< w6 domnwic maaoiw[nreza' fROtv wb<titntioa <nd ontpvt fesywce< to <nw{ea ia t-e pzicn If U.S. tobacee. ]2at apycc<ca has tbe batntaa< of tlRVitity wa ia a 1e{itimat<-laae<d <oar<ationa3-approac- tc agzicnitnzal pollcy aaalyata. Sot it do<s fvvolve a loss af lnfozmativv aDeot tDe covpenent p aaea. ln this «ctvnn n<zyllcitl> lacotyozat< sepazat< <q atioaa fez srport wd dovestvc aw<n! toz U.S. tcbwco and D.S. ivport dwwd foz teDwce. Sei< 6> af{zeg<tioa p aita ns te wslyze [onally it. maia r y aes diccnaaed va aetavl I. 6aptaz 5. Aa < con«wion to da a ProDlems, .< do act Ir<g<ta o.s. tnba<w an2 imyort<d snb.«o )atn typas wE c< ac vot diuflr<tat< t-s e y t demwd lnto itt mdsrlyiaf compoa<nta It fnrei{n anppvy <nd forcigv damavd by typaa. A lay assmR oa ia tbtt tb< tklte6 States is a<u13" ow y I. tzada I. von-D.S. tnDaceo se teat iryvrt yrf<sa • it,.. ezo{saooaly to t-e Daite6 Statea aW tbns te tb< walyal<.
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~ ~ A ~ I a a I I I I I I I .o,E= to rP,Ea , .rv>e. . rr5-51, eo0 F../. nvers enE C.Y. wunge, Tne Reletive Cantr.CUtrans ef SuVC1v ana Denane to IneteOrlrtv rn tEa 0.5. Carn xarket,• Mort~ c r 1 ero~o.,o: s lD.~:.e:r ~su/~ sxz n. I
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6-33 ef . p.ralel avpaly •hlfa dvv [v q a., bvt .. [sehvdcaly w e cazrwa. By .a ae bat .,,mptiva. .v m,y meaavze tbe cL. S.v Dredacar,' ,n[Plvs (===lndins qwt• ,=a[) a, th,[ aa,o=[at=d a[h tn= :a=rv•e ia p t(c~ tn tl )•3vay [h= w evlated avpyly fvnction. Iv pwe3 C of fi6nzc 3 aze•a d•ad D r n .wa cn . in=o.= wd=r sn. atesx.m. dr=. c r.nre,=nt• nz nee[ •n:nla• oa [he ppoiam atb =a apn ot[m•tv vq aal wat fnactiea '•lr~. dfYez zvwv:vt tbe q aa land [he x=atxlction, ov S~pstrg mobilityl qao[a incene 6=[v xezc • p dvicez ,vzplna becomc, B r<~ D r E. ]11a cbaa6= :e • p s 9 e DP z•c•ted aa. (6.3]) PS ~ P4 (3 r ll/2)d1v4) /p r d1nP). .h=r= P aad D•re [he =nrrcat ([e6v1aedl yzic< and qe,ntity pt teb.cco w p, the D c= • e= a• • fzactiev c/ th= natkvt price (3G y cev[ :3 .31 ~t eaz v v at.ev,). IDe =b n[e 3a qwt. tvat .aa catln•ted ==rlinz ,• i6oo v:3lioa P t y [. ]3= tnta =hant= :n =nn•me:, .arpla, tcs) i. eqaa m th= avn of ebe =b ns • sn doma,tz= =ea,o.=z, nxpln• tcsdl .vd mr=isa wn•nwr• .n[vln, (CS3), .b.cb uv zePte•vv[=d bY are•a C aed H i P vel, (e) ud (b) et fiyvze 3. ih=,= aze=, m.y bv compv[ed aa. /s.lb) cs ^ PD(d3nP) (1-(3/3)d3n4) (s.is) csd ~ PD(dinP) (3-tl/1)d1uD) (6.16) C5f a PI(dlap) (i-(1/S)d3n3) .here D zapzn.aat, dv.vati= con,vmp aea v! D.S. tob==co ud 3 ia D.S. tebaeco p[,. hcc,oae the ll.S. i, tzeat=d aa a.v11 coontzy'• tvb.cco : p tez. thez= ,z= n= acvvev.c •nrylna nffec[• in m•zkett fpt aon-D.S. tpb•cco. If [hi. u,vsP[SVa .eze re1=zed, tber= vi{ht be a le,• et fexei{3 D[oda=cr,' vrplva fa aen-D.S, tobacco pxodvetipv. 12e ==tfute• et meltate af[ecta
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ne[ lesa of reqaovs) vecane eue to leae o wluetiov ef teWeeo ee0 eny 3ossea of qvo[e vecvne co resa0entz of tne qf e.b Cuerentlv tleve eqiove peo0 leas ov toESCCO es e ee1or Ieco.e enC enploy.ent apurce tnev Ee tne coDeeev- antensave reqvoes eaacvaaeE nave, nut eqevv >nOavi0ml feniliea s3qEt suf! ,
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OenenCarz anO eav De a Denefi[ tn soee etrcunvicencez. lt can De pro0len [o vervaDalrtv. .aea Dnce verleDtlvtv is ceuae0 Dv aD1f[s of 0.5. auDplr. eDe eemaaC, tae veraaDility etg t Denefat 0.8. p eucerz overell vf tney uzea Bffaots ef Ouotaa aaC trice supperce en yerfeDillty puocae aaC Drfoe evpporta Eo eat eli.lne[e var1aD133tv tre. tee conacce eerkec. vnOer t0e curreat yuo e syete., eilozance ia ee0e tor eaauat ov<r or unCeraupDtv es .er srise 1ro. vve1L varveDiti[y. ]e eEe coaceat of our eoOet, one ay 4ank of tee yuoee syz ea as op et1Dq to re0ute eEa atfee[ave suD03y et.etaeftv to aero. It [Dere zere ve otEer etfects of yvo[se, tEe verte0fli[v ef prleee eovlE tEerefere Da DSCDer, e Cecresae SD anv s1oDe or eleettcity
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In[uatavelv, cnare .aule aeva to Ee .ore acoDe rer varaeevlvtv vn en oe zervous co p ed to inec sn .anr ot~er eDraculcural inGUStri<a 1n t~e OnviceO negulaeaen az not tne o lv ey to ope .a[~ vsr1eE111[y. lereaeel fluceuataon. eiso, an seny aodustraea lauc~ ea ;raannl Eeva re3etavelY varaaorlaty, ese neaging n cEese oerkete fa .n asce011sEed Drectlce. e>elencee cena3derstaen ef uneertelnty snE varveEiti[y evat convere cna pa [acular3y staule reqvlatery pastory. sle-ye tnere Eeve Geen several wever sagn tacent ceenyes in fedarel Dollcaea affect g oeacco are 1SMely co occur. Eeve occurred. Per.erz and -- Eave .ede wsior edlvetweeea ie tEe fece af
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6cono..c Lp.cc. er e.c.aclay otarcounty Te or Bu<tev Toeecco Ouotes." a. we,.n ce ceeeeco r.~. ..onsr ..e ..<..csev n<., ..e co coa.<.. .ork.~: I
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yoot+, il.oat eelf tee o.nera ss D3eC .erc OS ar older. .v teta gr p. Oeivs Oae to p sfov of Toeeeea Prodvuttoe. O.erell, tEe CoEacce fe0uatry e esploy.evt sve sora total .aule e pen0 .]tn derequlatioe. reia .e+ns .. For tee soat teeecco fetevalre erema, lova of q s lveo.os for rurel tooaece vnuvstry. For tEe tve+c p dveiv9 9 vs ss a.COle, 9 osa secame qeeeretee ey tve+eca sovld inrreeae ey PO to 100 >e cevt pr seev if tee offset ey vncrevseE revevves to D odueta.e ivput svppl.ers, lneludfo9 fer.ers eovin loae a y a o.oera eov3E e.ve pvrt of tGe leas offest ey 9eiva ie teeir ezpena.ov of too+eco p eUVetton sovld eesv s redvetiov uf reaouroes vasC for otner crops Ie tee srevs eost vuvt+ele for teEeceo. tee aJar rrops eraps, so ea a 9 ffe.nt eevoq svuld Ue ssp tve 1e tESir pnees or
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I 4 I I I I I N I I I I I N I ,. .os~f~o~~.~~~.~.a fn Xcrt. <.r.lin.. ,n t>t. .ute .pprpa..aay 4p,p n131foe in puate feewe 1s rececved per y<ar ~uesnq 983 deta and .aeunieq puo e Seeae retes evereqe SS p eenc pt tne .erxet prfc< of 9t.80 per pounal. percent of totel state peraonel sncoea 1f a31 oeners <t X<rc. Carolln< pvoce Cou<ty, Xortn Cereliaa. pu [e focoee loaa tro. de equl<csan nou3d Le aEOUt 3.55 per Go eEevt 35 elllian p nds, ar eDOV[ 9t9 eillion if a.oere of fitt 1 survey ef [entveNY pu Ce o.eera in t983 fadicaad teet 6 p cant ef puote ennera CEat leeeed out. pv e llved op tne leod.t aoou[ x0 percent ot tee <.rplf<. ,<.ql... .nd ..r.rd. feead tNa .eat 35 per<eet pf tXefr a..pl.
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otner lntluatry, aneiuOieq cz9arette eenufaccur q vJ toeacco .arx<tfnq. The So.e toca eress .out0 ioze toenec Droauctann, .nereea othsrs .oultl ezperieoce es}or pe saon. . a a o- er. trenG o! flue-curea toeaeco eov q outh avC east .na Ealtn< fo resuse. Stueaea >y 0oover .nC toOOUloa ee aell se Reller enE Culver sbo.ap they euq9oat to tne coestal Dlefv aee tnner bl qraza atill aeee likely. R1th elvnlvetaov of the mcfonn qu a, aove ezperf.eecetiev ath te0eceo DraOuetfon outsade traCittovel eraes eou1E elao ba ea eccaE. 6zpevefon of tobneco vnto Bo.ev , qa en ine ierqe iocatz nveaceene an hu.en cepaeel, fera af tbe Ilue-oureE qeo.ieq eree 4ave a coac .EV.n q relecfve te tbe xorcE cerollnn Co.ece3 -- ibfs in vot aapyo tet eftbar Cy -9- or by la.ea
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vo...i.a.c.o. m.c .r.,c i . vn. c,rr<ec ooe.v<. orsr.•. . erosr.. e.rre.r. e. cee.etsa.cae. .•oir v<.a. ...<r,mn. tor nv.-r<r.a me.oom cn. uvou .v a.o n. ema co ~
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0 furtner, copeeco productlee ie .ecp .ore ivtenaive fe i[a uae Of tetal ivputa p enre faspeelellY l.eor avd aens9eaevtl tpan apY otesr field erep. alae, inpucs ante tovacce era norc ap c1a111ed ead t0ua eore llkalv Co pe predoeed ip tpe locel eerke[. TGUS, local velue . eoold fecreeae froa e psctea increesea in toEeceo end reduc[Sena 1v core or sovCeen ecrsaye in Tpase .po .oulv 9eiv ip 9ross revevov aev na[ revenue rroe tpe expa saon or topeeee proeoeciov efter dare9uletion leende so.e fsrners, ipput suppliers, ana .arketin9 nrna tnet ae91d .arp pi9nar i.ponaa rree topaete cpan rro. si[ernatfve cropa. ipe aaount of ne 9- to tpea q oeCs fa refleeted av epe .ree Cec.eeo tne aarke priee end c.e aopClr eurve. epepter 6 pea considered tpeae [ssuea av da[eil. Iv round tl9urea, assuee s sopplY elaatieicv ot .fo.o and en pansian Of fo percenc or 3,000 allfon poueEa esE a corrent tnet Of 9uace reotnll price t 9reaere Sa tpe leset eoa[ly 9roaio9 re9lons Of St.oO/poveE. Tpe pr aucer aurpl e aeasure ef 9- froa uereqolatien ia eade up Of tao y rts. Tpe firo[ ia tpe sucplua Of ieco.e over cosca of tpe aJdit>oeal eotpu[, apou[ St00 ai11v n per Year. Tpe second Ss epe ineresse or prsce <nec or ee ta nvar euaca Of current ovtput, a furcner $vod allion per rear. Tpe tec.1 ,a $lpo aali n p Ye•r. Tpis .av pe e apared to potu lena or apou ieoeae Of elea- to $eon eflli pa Yeer. xnta. .n tpev tpa lr .upplY aere cuepletelY aaatie, ror ip:dpa, wer. aovld ce ee pr meer svrploa yaie. lf [Ee eopplr elaa[s [v .re 10 eot o cpu[ lncreesed Ey oniY s0 perneat / dee [e . le..r d...ed .1.alaitYf, tpa 9- ao93d pe e y,,,e ellliep
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,I I I I I .D,D= rD D..P,iX . t. Deniel s. Sunner, isrs Proy na ann Scruccu............ .n 9r.re Csrener, ier.iny Inauscrv. XPi 0.e0arc Xo. 30] t4esE~n9 n. v.t.. Xe[faeal Plenn.ny 1
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1-1 ai9nt effeee. Tnree outatena np ectan.0oututenecee ler. +tructure .re. Itl SSae eeC.eenn5 enes; lDDect eslf tne te0sccafterasntn tFe f]ueaevreJCeelte+.ereacnet eve 9 etae eea qro.v soee even es vnUUStry outDUt naa fal3ev ~see Ca03e 5 vn CnsOCer al. <tl Buriey fer.a raesie as33 relattve co [st.a in otner en..oEtt>ea .na otner roqfone, nui aust flue-eure0 fana eave qross selea qu3te Ceroline, alice DtoEUVee oniy flve-cure0 tenacco, t4e topscco Ier.e .<re .ucn lar9er tEav tb g e3e fer.a. s0ouc qU Dercevt eI tne toeacco Ier.a eaceaJVE Btnn,OUn te selea av tseq eo Daren tn .nvut > Dareeet of tne SI 9 vn fera. tn tencucBy tne qrasv laraa .ere ler9er cnen tna Ste tveecco far.a aven tneuqn tooacco 1s DroOVeeO ov al.oat naif tBa 9reiv fera+ (tenle Tal. EuHeq cne 1910. ave aerlv t5B0a. TEa Efverqenc Detterna ef far. ou.0ers .eC ' ' ' I '
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osners v coun[r. Por etesvle, sn the Coset or Merth Caroltne eovntfes everege eEOVt 5q0 to 600 proLUCe s pe coun y, neraas ie [he ToOecco proCVCera ere eiao repvireE ta heve ather eroC acreeqe eqosl to [Easr taoecea ee eeqe. qosav r, faee toEeeeo eereeqe per fer— ta eeall coadereJ [o thet a! oteer cropa evee on iaew thet qe erste relet[ e3Y 1 9e Por EurteY topaeco, 1t as no 1 9 1 9 to .m qe for iesaiaq qva e in Bosever, these rea[rictions ere aot ef[ectfve siee Earefers. iei] tesafnq [voctioaee ea tasureaee tor Evrlev qroaera sho etehea to .erket eore CeEeceo than [hev heO erren9eE queta far 4.11.9 te ap .a9. qastrtetteq the tieteq ot iease actlvitY qoee not reatriet the [e[et a.ov [ p CviceE. TGe lesaln9
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I eESn9es ve tonacca farevnq are not eua tm cne pro9rae avd tnet tnere are vo atyni!(cene Cerriera te cDav9 im ter. taze ae epa evrrent prp9 .. In ceva Tne effeet ot e Lo.er Price ov 9alee 0.eveeue. /e dvacuased ateve, one reault ot end>np tne cobacco prm9rs ae s atgnihcenc fall an tne vr1<e per povnd. epue to cne tell Sv prace. Delesa mr uvcal tnere aa a ne5or aapenevmn in .n farm sise es eeeavree Dy onncc 9 aa aetea revenue. In cnapter 6, .e nave calcu3ete0 tE1s vnput co De eEOUt IS pe eept. tapact e! Qunlity CD 9 a. 1no[nar amplicetioe of pro9r n eliainetien aevld Da tnis Sa leaer aetes ravevue. Bo.ever, coDecco qypiyjy i percvcularlv ae5or li.at 9 eaovrcea on fers. / fereer env extend Eia oan pervasioo and toneeeo. Tnerafore, $g5es;a. gqr~p, tpoae feraera ano enoeae pr duce toae -eunllty, loeer-prleed toneoco rov1E Ee eapectad te neve wre eersa aed eore mutVV cEav tGev ouid uvder tEe avrrent 9uletivve. I i
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.., r~w~<. ..<.<a .o« <o:ur ca oo«.c< ,.e i,<, .cc<,on.< co .,~.<c o rn<On.m.<......u s=... n..< .on n....com.a cnoco.smr. ,<
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sffecte o0 91fe af CEe Loae of puote Telua, all tooacco p Oucers .ou3C Oe aqo facen[ .eeitn. Tnes. fectora Geve oppoafte infl.encea on t4e avze of qre.eea ef 4otn nurvey ene fiue-curea teoeee to leaas or reet eueE af [ee queta Lo.er eosta per p9un .een [net a q sr nea 1o.er sawenE for creeit [o for p el. TLerefere, ra0ucfnq cea[s per p nE Dy 26 perceet .oul0 +Ile. s1q afveen q e. t~fa .oule [enO te offset Ue eapensven effec[a o! lo.er coata Eec+use tDefr eupply funetv e for cepital .oulE >e aelfteE E.ck. Lo.er .ceitn f.plies lesa eel3eteral fac leens enE lvas eevf fanencvnq. In tee paet, i[ fe eleer tpe[ <3fNnatioe of euo e.eel[n .eule v pvy efqnvficen[ cE..qea le leoE q prectlces for toLeceo. TCe evalaaioe of teeecco ioe.e .euv0 .ere cvoeely follo. tEe p teen ef otCer erop .
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r...: .r u.....v r.... c. e>....>rv. rn„ ss ,.vu«c i.w. r.... e.e =sc..n..o ..uo,. ,m. s.cn.. crenc< ro. .o.o..ur ..c~c. .r x.<xr < . v .....•. *n. a.e.<c~r .me .ccr.ec ..a .<use . a...r: .uu.y o >nnn..c< >. ueuct>un. .erwu v. ..a etn.v a.<lo6e... ID<: s.... .oma r-.< .. -a<. co w. nnssr ....o<rsa ,xsn<. rn< ..e r«mc r nm- a>oo..s.. ..r c. .....n..e c.a<nn rn. eee.eee n..a... ... .ec >... ...,,.1 r..e.. s.n..ems u. ,e..ec.c, or .>cn.- e..s<r >c .o<o. e~. n r.r.:. o<.o.cvos .ema e..< :e.<ra ..<e.esos o~ s.aso«r. s.rr.<.«: .. :o.< :». ....... u...v u< >rte. ..m<c>.. ..e u. en.es .. r pooa..<.< er asrr.c<ec oe...au.sncso. n... ...n><n>.v a..m... rer oer.<w~<. n. -or ..ea« s. en. er..a so
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1-1 .amc,o..vvpr.oe •.rf.o.utr ,ce proyr.. .li.i..ue.. cn. .rr..c L.rla eoc a or e.oo n,a rlaoc..oaa ,a cho .cplr .r y.ec- f. thar oo..ae- n.. aeirt.a- sar..a, n,ynar ve.r te va.r pr.o. n..caaioea ..v .eL ..or..a. <ee riax raa...t tn l..y-r.. 1.•..c...e a.r...... Yea .oura. or o~or ma... i. . .o.r ,mrc .. ch. .... l.•al or pr.r... Yei. a. o..c cnr ..rt .r ri.. tna p e..era mr. ..e.r . yo .r....t pr.yro that . vp. p,p.- mo.e eamtieri.. ih,ra, pr>« .aa...a c. ...o or.mL .or, rp ai.e ..e cn.. iourtE, price veriseilfCY apeeur.y.a aiveraifieaiop fnto otear vpfv priaea CEa asve lo. covarlaroo ate coe.eco. D.reyul.tioo .fyhL f.vor alvereifiva
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I I too.u.a or cae c p aod s[r.ocyaa. / laro eody oT e.feeae, Froa F.p. e~dq.u .aE tna paLLara o e.vv retav ...... t, cee[ LvEecco prveacvavv vula .ova p.ed.ont areea ~v tne Oid end NfEEIe Belte aovld lvae yroEUCtaov te c!v coea[al pleln eelta. For pvtn tvpe , Fecv afae fa lerqe fn tM nqievt tEet aoulu qaiv tve.ecv Faraa 1v lancuvYV ppoEUeea over nve em ., anile ovlv oout s parcaat ~nvar avU [vLar.oESace eiueqnaa reqiov .voreq.d qvar afL aeraa ave cna noa [-u rara< e.ar. . el.oac a..ouy e.r.,, ansla ele telc F.oa: ..ar.qee ouclvvvq ereaa avvlC te repleceE artE Cv.<, lecqer Faras fn cee pr..d lo.-coac evn ezpansfovs uy Feeea el.eedv Sv tLe couvev. The f>rat tvv faetora .oule eneall auoscential r-C Iavsatsevc foc vetup eed .Sqratlvn. Tbeae Fized evatv ..p1v tEet tne F.r.e lavoiveJ aould Ee relatlvalv larqe iv ecUer to prvad tee .vveat.evt over .ore p ductive. Iv aey ivdvscry, Eoaevar, vaa Firas oftea ater[ a.e11 abfle tee F1rs ecqui ve tne apeecFic IvtervsLSea oT eapitel to
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anfeA tne ea}or euyera eee repreaentea. ¢vyera c pete vo foreal euetfone sten p i e Da cerns or otne p ctaeea enat euyehnave eaerevsaa e euy nq carcel or .itn aeaeqvietaon tne rove for aDeev{ec.ve Av, oq for ato y.ne lecer sate cavta etpena, ipe nv.Cer of evyera in cna urvete vve>ers av tGe taentiee at leaat. It aill Ae evqqeaceC Celoe tAet tve avwver of apo[ earkee selea potnts ev aale. alao. [or.erE eoetr.etin9 aou3E etle. aellera soee tfee te cAOOSe CAevq.a fe tEe Asrkettnq 9Yece. l.ovq CAe aervicen anU ieat3tveteve clac .eY c0en9e atA en elfaseecfon of eyste.. .nacn 39o evolve to Snclvee tarserL centract 9, otner vertacel
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reo.ooo e.rk.ts.p t,eoea arsce. +a tna eote.ua .arke oo er or cemooo eovar:. rm. :a... .In e. x.rk.c ro..r of ree.oea buv.r. .n. o. s o+y .na fee.:crr +. mp Ir co.ee.tra.e ..a at sa ere.e ......e tnet cna ol+e. eoaa+e.r.me .o.oeelr aoa.r o. c > t.f ee... ttr.. .. coo.cca euvers. eo.e.ec, teere .r. .e.ersl reaaonz to re}eet exle vD.te.eiz. F+rzt. Svnner an0 .ore reeewtir, Salvvea zeo.eE lfttle evlEeace nf c.rtel refrC, Eerepulation .ou1E slle. sev.rel .arketlnp lnaova+ana eeet .au1E reOUCe Bote Su.ner ..a Sull+vae ezaw+eeE tee Pr+cinp of eip ettea ovec ci.e .nE Ln OifPerent .arkecs ae t.. ratez +.rfe0. Su.oer . rcau+ta i.EfeaeE little erlEeme af . ceecel C.ca.,. tee i y e Or ee to ..rpfe,l eoet ret+o e.e aea.
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Snfnrsa report, qqeat tnat .Stnc qb tt pr,ne sapp rte are tieE to USU, qr aea, aen..rt.al beyera bae fe.ar eaeqbr.ea net aleaely relatea ta tbe qspe q ea. xarkzt prires .re paartfvely correlaee to aoppo t prvicea. partly xevertnele a, nare ia conalEervble vsrvetvan Ev qraps in [Ee q op cion of levf not caken by tbe conaercval buyera enJ an tGe Elfference bateeen .ar%a[ In atber eountrves, se fin0 feeer qrsEea .nE q Oes tfaU nore cios<ly to Eevelepev eo Culekly enE ebeeplY aeasv tne eveaveel eo p sftvon af txe feef. Seqer avn viceteve levele ere leportnat So buyera svv so.e teevnfvue ..y eoon
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xoTE3 TO C91PT6P tq D.C.. YSDa g culturel xarxet nq erv)ce, aDrfl s9ee~. a. Eleer E. neezse end J- Pezton Xe s a 1, TEe c q , eGt of aqrleul[ural eeonanice. Ez[ens)on D1vvs)on, Pirgc ze P Iy eennie Inetltute OnO Stete Oeiveraf[y. NareX 5. 0.eseerea et xartn Carotzne Stete Gniverslty Eaa daveloqed Meer ie[re-red zat0 zo.e success ao .areXOnsez at tEe pofnt n! Vte.
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...... ... ... ......... . 11- -.1 .... . .... ..... -ld F-ij, 11 -ld -..-d tl.t th. 1--, T11.
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e.rket,ng nntlit,.na Tnaa eeqq t, tpe f<.e,Dal> y.f .,tper .,anana,nq nr ke. n.rketinq lnatttqt,pn.. Tne earrent .gnt,nn ..rk,t .ntl .arenoeae ,y,tew .ne ntDer fnr., nf ..rtara ant.qr ti,n. .nr.a arr.aq.nent. linki q e,ler, tn pvy<ra .r. feene an n.nr .q ieultura tnev,tri.a .nC ,n tcD.erc ..rketaaq an tr.e,nq ,n tnp.<cn. ann Eaoect Gaivery te puy.raprec..ainq f.cilfti., .11 0sinq t9'/9 aata, Menzae anE varaM1eli state tpat the Cane0len flue-eureE svetea <nergez oee c<nc pe Do na tor eerketvoq aervicee. Car tne vnitee Stsces, tneY esta.ate flua-cureU energeo et e ovt tevs eeete D DovnC enE tpe o.rtev cnerg a et sveuc seven cevts pe pounE. Nanv epservers peva suggaata0 cvet tne v.s. syxtes pes .are auctaons entl a leas .ell orqanvsetl vales srstea er purers enE ,ellers - aatnou 9 aog tprov9 en euction. Por wenv far. o p cesainq t.c>lacaes. pricea are usvally eoet qevt v0on q,vvivg, ana cootrac[a, eacper fonat or aeforasl, ere atao co.won. There Sa voveitlerspl< p uletiov thet iv the epaevn< of the Dreqren, toeacco pv.ere .oulE <ake EVevice evetra<ta fee toDacov. ipe iveevtivea tor tms .rvanq ent .ovla D. tn r.mc. Drie. ane Gna t tr riak, ane tn aDenirr in
Page 1761: yex40d00
vacn iaflaacn raea uf .ruvnC 5 tc 5 Gerecat. tnae Clen aaulG ;nnly a ' orace of pu te .ev1E fe11 until eventvally puot. .ovlC Ce .ort~less, [~e • ' ' ' oe rcpuSreE eit~ar f r gjgpl.gn ISCS atora9 or for oLtrer te0viceaenta to Ouyera
Page 1762: yex40d00
a..eee part>e.l.r relc.r.l pr.et.ra, In ,p.. na.. tp, ara ap p..a ...e aer.,, te rramt .na ateer i>p >erkete .,tzppt uqpuicept mreci .aa,atapoe en tpp>pep <enp.piea. F.an ir rer.al ana ins>r el rpr,era rpetrart q eevelopea ror to0acca, pi, re.sonvn9 uqqe,ts cnet ep asrkeca ,ovta exisc aa Futures narkecz ao net a,vzt ror CoOeccv, Euc qvven t e ~ee v!y requlec<a ivauscrv vn e13 e~o .erketz, evs.>a not surprisvnq.T zvcEOVC s u.5. prosree, tne vixelinooa er a ruturea .arket epp er g va 9 eter, Cuc proele.a eenavn. Tnese vvcluee re. na~or processor toEecco ena lack oF a ,t.naar p avet qitn re. .ejpr evqerette aeker,, tne pocanua rvr e p> vea ..rzet npvementa ia aiqnuie.ac. Tni, prvnven va nn< prunieicive nut .akea tC. e.rke< eo.a.ea 1.:, likelr. ai o, rer,.m eo.cnoca e.n ee eaea ,. . mnner or unata. IDo.pc qv.lrty m.rem.s ea>p tnet ,t xa aurxaulu en p ticuter type >v g Ee - ia vot e perreet aunattcute For eeotnar. aa votee aipql -- y erv v ua pereeet. TEie ec>vaerataetivp proplea sovla ..ke
Page 1763: yex40d00
MCTES TO CHSetE0. ~~ i. 1n. tne cancest oE tne dearv Grogrem. Peul e. nacs oy, ed., [e9erel a ~. efcer estensv.e eg tvataon end loeeyvng, tne UEUS vs eeduevn9 tne
Page 1764: yex40d00
I I
Page 1765: yex40d00
(see -ex: C. --3) ,u e 2. Altern e price iwpor and Qiota ~sponses to Demand Shifis Pri~p of ToDacco "antity of Tubacco
Page 1766: yex40d00
consumers ~n tna on~cea sta.es ene aerosa, rFrtazn potenc~ai coeacco rarners eza p, tDC avera9e 0.5. znoker ner pay approz~.acelv 48 ezcrs per year eecavse or cne coDacco progren. Tne sane p ex a eayl anoxer payz anovc yv]0 vn t0e avantlty pr proqra.-aponaoraU acora9e. veaess.encs eave Deceae larye,
Page 1767: yex40d00
I enqr.. tor t~e StuEr a[ ot~er CouoertY Poiiclae tnree E.aac ror.a o! prace p... t pro9rn.. is 111uatrate0 in Iqure /.
Page 1768: yex40d00
(see .ex. c. Fioure c. Tnree General Price .1ooo : Poti-s I OZ Quan[1tY Go(io„ 12 -.v (`G.
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' 0 0 I
Page 1770: yex40d00
,c, ,m..amnte aivr.,nat.cn of pr,ca s ppcrta enE prauaef ei,mannt>on pf IaaeOfate 811ateetieo ot tCe Proqrea aa5vatnanta. conausera, suppivers of vopv e ca toeeeco p Ovctvon, en0 tepeeco qroaaea s~o ao nac oan q a. tne sere rap1E t~e aeraqufetfon, c e 9reecec aoule ea tee neneflte. ine sooner y aneoae cen ee eapavre0. tee ~zqner t>e ilzeE °
Page 1771: yex40d00
5,9,54 2046 (a) Ftlluenp (9) F4f7uend ~p ,'U 0 QO 40 ._. o A}uno) lso]-yfi~~~ '~~ ~l~no) ~zo)-na~ '9l F~~snpui 'el d +d 0~]eqol slanal ~1uso~ pue ayvGaa66V ay4 ;e Ratt~~pu; o»e4o1 ayl uo seaonD 6u~ieuiw~l3 Ip 4aad}3 '~ a~nbyd aas) (l_Z -d )xa, An m w ! w w lw. -WJC ! 0 0!" t 1w ! .* M•~ •r
Page 1772: yex40d00
ine us~or e[teets e! elt.vnataon of yrsee srDPOrts .nd [oG.ceo sop0ir
Page 1773: yex40d00
4rep. atton o( cne revort an0 ezan[nat.on of our ftnEZnqa auqqeat !ur[~er
Page 1774: yex40d00
s e text P. e-i,) fiyure 3. Socfal Welfare ttreaS of flur-cured /nhncco Prn~ram P' (a) Uomestic demand only 1nl forri,,n iuarket Source: Johnsnn and tbrton, '.SOi:inl ('ua" ~LVgt zetti 0 0 0 El~lE!_0 t`w i0 a 0 I1..
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t ))-~96~ /ave.'a9ei ;y~ __.__9 ...........................................
Page 1776: yex40d00
c:ee eesc v3-2 ~ occuoec~ons ot Cvoce O.ners ~n t98t ---------------------------- ------------------------- ------- --------- ---------------- -------------------------------------------------- R 4 ~
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~aee tezc n-]-h pastrzousson aE Tooacco .roauetaon P~9n[a or s[ece !or ~yes _____________________ppRLEY E .----________........__.....____ )aa.ana ~p,ses +a,tsi p p ocnen s,3o3 i+.pss° "9 sis ioTaL 3~3,6 0 Sat,653 ~6a,f)o 163,e)l _____________________________________-_-______.___.__-__._...___..__.___.__ inose y ez are Oasea en Orvllevmsrr Sn(orme[zon.
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51954 2055 11 A " m I 1 l
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~aee cext p-`+'3~ to Ci9a cce __._~.. __.. ._ _.._ . . ...__ . . .._ II ..... _ xu. em or ioaa ioo.cco e p --_ SavnC[E u5ua y~r, 5 ptemcer ~saa ana earl~er vear..
Page 1780: yex40d00
(see text p. A-]) x~neer ot toeacco xarns ana xuneer a( Rtt Farns for t95s-j95x RY xc Mc SC OS [Y N[ SC 05 _____________________curee------------------ .____...___..._..___....__ t9~B 'rR 6 )3 5 te9 tOx e3 3f 3358 --------------- ----- ----------- -------------------------- G~I t.,..:J t L-~° lL
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isee aea o 3-2r Quoza r earnan9,EEagracr3turalaECOnomacakePorcmxa.Na]n, n50a ~~aars,9n Flue4ef^e' ioea co_ M. 4rzae eae oeen t. 5 9 s, BurleY ieeeeco iarm g naractar3scscz an0 •',
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1 vee tert G.5-i 1 ceo~e~.cr.e .~,cv.., or ng,~.cce ~~c~ oem,~a Le((a~~i (Z-Y ~l
Page 1783: yex40d00
-< ce.x o5-12 ~ 23 33 16 11 ~o\lo..j lZ-~ l~
Page 1784: yex40d00
isee [eax p. 5•41 TaBL6 8 0 5~[ aaea, tne feaerel caa .as S.oe uncxl Januarr [99J enen G[t(o.iD /z-~' [~
Page 1785: yex40d00
-------------------------- ----------------- ------------ i._ . (z- r & I i
Page 1786: yex40d00
ke• _•_~ v s-~o) _____..______.._._...__..__..___.._____...___..____._ .__.____.__..____.____.____..__ ..............._____..... ~ll~~~
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C ~see tezc e-6-9~ i1sLS ~) e~t'acts o~ Decegulac. a Dfapasal ot 0.5. iooecco ----------------------------------------------------------- ----------- ----------- 21. oeacent ot tne 0.5. taoaceo oc~ce, supolv alastvcay ~E/ ls lo, eoaestlc
Page 1788: yex40d00
~ see cexc o.5-10 tieta t5 .Iz-r c",
Page 1789: yex40d00
, se. c.:c p6-13 inceresc crouo ~Se~ayiaon per yearl ________ _______________________________________________________ Gvltow) i ~ _ r v7
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t:.~ c<ac p.5-W *ae.eco 111- vn en. on.aea suus, ast-tse. S/le. ~ 5/to. s 5/Je. r5/Je. 0. 6 D.596 aa5 - 3s5.] -¢.6 ZSt.s 1x.J - -tJ.B 3JS.t -
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~ ~ r ~see eeac o6-lU ___------------------ ____------------------- __ ---------------------------------- ------------------------ o z s, ao,~e ,e ee -,a --so e,,,e M „°I 4 ~
Page 1792: yex40d00
, see cett o-6-C 1 ttasf[cacr [t - [v g_s. ;o e o e Inftn[[r - 3 cn ge a. tonacco orace ~ E o >S - E S cnenge :n teeaeco outDet Q,].£f O.3S - f Se .e out0ut ~ t£ eXS 9 an D aeel aetSgcnan9e an oecnutll lZ- 8' ~L-1
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--- --------- - - - - -- ---`---------- --- ------------ e~.~~,~. (fI " » , Z-rs C
Page 1794: yex40d00
laee cezc o5-11 t~stcal~a S.tt/kilo 0 JJ.11t 6,5 3 in.aa~E 60 3.966 8,59J ~3,559 or 5~.53/e~lo, .Facnever ~x ~~9MC. F~Iio.l. f2- b` ~~
Page 1795: yex40d00
(sem cmz p 9-2 + ta9ts v _______________________-------------------------------- ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ xumea. or Farms sz,sz9 zs,sz5 J,oa+ +o,s+s 3.t9o ],099 er p J+ ++_ F tz. a J. 9 e. R ++. Se (COJJSrs1 acco aalea +0.500 >6,6 0 5J, o0 1o,JOO 1s,RDO x9,9o ~ a5.z ------------------ ------- ------------------------ -------------- i52C1 c farms mre inea< inst Eerive ovmr SoOaCE o. 5. Deparcmenc or Com.rorc . Cen u 19 ;clto. " - ~ (-/
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I- ~:ee cexc v. 9-3 ~ ~.eu a ------------------------ -------------------------------------------- ------------------------ zic oe r. „ r ------------------------------------------------------ +o,ooo s.sss w.+ v.+ +..s +s.. u.s u.z .o,aao-ss.sss s.z +s.+ zs.z +..o +.s s.s 3, 7 ---------------------------- ------------------------------ ------------ c~s:vr.e.ue. ~sm~ c x.~e cn.>. cn.c a.r.•e t 2- S, i7( 47n.`+ ,i
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Journal of • arketi A wartetly Gublica9on oltha Arnarican Marketing Aasociatlon ReyvnCihe Many Faces of Price: An 1 segra ~on vf Pn g Strategies ie Orienlalions fvr tFe Cvntluct of Mar ng Pesearch: An Analysis of tne Acaaemic/Practit~one. Dist~nctivn ve BeM1avior'. A Framework lvr vlnv Selling mP ENectiveness Saleafoece Svcfalleation ng lie.: Surro6at a Marke ng Cha~n a etv Ratlio Atlvertising ean. q6tly vfa ntl iFa Cigaretre Intluslry ~agai Dev oam nra m Mark mg Mark g Llterawre Pewew Svvk Reviews nbex. Volume 50, 1996 135 C. Whan P k. Barnartl J. Jawo ski, & DebvrahaJ. Maclnnis 1E6 Gerartl J. Tehis 16, DaviG BrinOerg & ElieabetM1 C. Hirschman 114 Sartvn A. Wenz, Hansh Sujan, & Mita Suje Dubinsky, Rov D. Nvwe Thomas N.Ingram, & Oanny N'Seltenger 106 MiMaeIR.Sdvmon x19 Susan L. Hviak & Srlnlvas K. R tly / zza xae SSJ
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a roMM I,I.,,a.,
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_
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Vincem J.Tarascio Mawging Ediror
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Susan L. Holak & Srinivas K. Reddy Effects of a Television and Radio Advertising Ban: A Study of the Cigarette Industry Bv ung a ci9arene in ed f 197U as e ral" axpenmen4 the authora axplare mene. si [aietl eflects ofdsuch en atlve nisin0 "ahock' thouBeh price antl eEVertising elasticties as w II as braintl purchase inertia. flesults indicate subatantialCiHerences in the eles[ICity and Inerus veluea bean pre- antl pos~-ban periotls. In en env-nment wi[h retluced 10vanisin8 opliona, product demanE re prlca zensrtiva. Dementl also bacomes more ineiastic wiih respect to advettisinB fNCtuetions if - anE redio ca onger be usetl as metlie vehiclez. arentl purchase ineetla iz sl9n1ticantty higherafier the ban a a e of and -.ri brantla. The stuGy hea MIT- [ mplicationa forb and manaBement inre re0uiatory sel[nB enE e0tltezseatbe possibility ofen advart a n0 an's potentiel to act es a berrierto entry,
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4;_~ ~ 4," iagRed oncycer.ana c rroidfM1e bss ofonc tlegrec otfrcetlom 0uero drelagFCd dependrnrvariabl..»e obr.in coganne ronsumqion lswn Taborra Suvurion. U.S. Rpanmeni ofAgruulmrc. w o nds) (ar 195}e0is ob)aincd trom Zobmro 5frrwrran. U.i Ucpenmcm otAgnculruref~nd WWlarion figuresfin Nausanaslfor195}e0ve obrain<d trom of5rarisrirs eaa Cu..enrPopvtorion Frpons. U.S. B . wnn~ai tlau from1950)0 1980 (ora/lremaining variables werc FrxiouslymppliedbY B y~rv The)vrechni9uc reFrassirmreso/rs of c9uarronll)are rcWnedinTaolc L TM1elaBgcd depencapeu<iFar<pe s I-3, ma per<capim ci areu erabatto OcmaM
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f36LS is awid<a iM nca1N scare 1us a aigoificam n<pa~irc eHea an aemanJ. BuMemwi<. N< xBa~i.c cRC<~ o! ~M1e neal~n scare is genemllY larger in tM model for <ig.rctl< cigarc I of Jrt Mal~ ~n~M1ecigarelieaemanaenw&Ibccnaumcw~cop<rcigarcnrcns0eclln dcansiaersely &oifican~ ngalive /=ol Nc h<a1~M1 scau on cigarelu. 4mmJ apPeacs ~o hc 9oi~e r,nl« f<.a n ia:<mi~be. a n.<.a lom~ ae ~ntlaeiz a mJ,<mma:.~i~n.gpr<ea~<aa~..m a pop,mn .e<a<mana g r u<m. a~ Jrc io p<r<m~ lou o.~Gancral's 19 cigam1c smokinp M1as n a ne 1Y foundna~kM1~snfoimsioo M1atl no sigmficam <Re<I neforaR~¢arzltes.<E nihougnionaccosmoking/sadai<live.onewulaexpeci ~ofnc ercforc rtauc and tl M1a~ ~he 196i W cL k' Oc ceosca ~M1<aemana loe U.B< c g i< h. <onacco lo Iall al lean .va~iM~~a~aKova+ Ref<reoces +e~T+vm
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I I I se taund py 6-Y. TM pn<e ~legged alfice aslh<ve signs n'auppon he Fa messD«~nne ntavMNCpfimadus~atlvenninF ban grnerally hatl «fl<c~ capiu maMlfor and <igarz cco). N o BJt"s resulu.~e 196a M1eahh acarc appean ~a M1ave M1ad a o~TMsso s of aA Dueb'mil5/hus~ rc6Thus ~aTaplcl!•Exc lagged<o MUrciecandazd ppr<c v Mrepon ~n Taybklan I~Eiha ~M 196a M1esl~h scarz Aes had. sign fican~ n<Eauve eflepon coniumcr demand. TM1 eperttnuE< ulaiM using Kennedyi I~ll me~pod. For~M ~~ Mal~ mantl due ~o iM h scarc is IE.1 pcrceni B Y ^ This hcmclusion d< r n<BYa TMresulisofwAis analysiauppmaome olour-odobgical<riinams o( &Y'awork.
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nd run <r ,nd e.eagi a mpiill /~r~tl l~ adie<s ~na ~.o aedi~iona-l neatl h 1171 /in5nto~maywn snrcks be idn N< ~96n neslN roan ~9t0 N< Faimess sclT'sd etltl=m OrSinai9)~COn~saklus on h) MpoiMSiud Na~ me ne[<rtai o/Nis woutd+lso h elimiv~=d. T bmpons I~obtcro s[M 0<penh N=cdema ~ fun on sboua ry ot c~i . ne!•Tne nioban iotcigart iabac< ~o,Tnu:.NeoeRec~nor[M 196aaneaN marb<aoe<ma~a'em,9van~yolaigaaml, ieusGNylac<ofN qanriYOr ieamm Th=+ ogp=a~s ~M~ Nc (oROw g ane Fun<imn may M m appropia~< Nan B Y s eq e on l<lon a ~a4."= a a, n, o_ nUP.o,In,+M.o,n„ osom vo+oa,+o,InP.'_i+< ~yi P," =percapiu alei= amqion , rand c+pna umqian >, _ ~m<to~bMCpnn raMapnce~nxwmemtm M1< Dnce o( a Pound ofcigarn~<~oWCCa<wMn~i<='~ ~' or = <aDi~aai+powi<ia<am<. qD' = p<r cap. aO.enising e+perdi~ur<s. ~M1e Falrr,ess Docv:ae AcmJOmmY an'+EI</=1 irm 1968-]0.0 Ferwisel. D~ = Ne broa&asi adven sin& ban dummy ariable i=1 !or 1911-80.0 oNewiul
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TAXATION, REGULATION, AND ADDICTION:, A DEMANO FUNCTION FOR CIGARETTES BASED ON TIME-SERIES EVIDENCE Theodore E. Keeler, Teh-Nei Hu, and Paul G. Barnett Su1y, k991 ' Cigarettc-smoking hea edverae health censequencee, and, for some years, public policy-mekers heve attempted to reduce it. Much more controversial than the healtT effecta of smoking i8 the qvestion as to what public policies are moat effective in reducing it. A substantial body Of research by health economists, built up over more then two decades, suggests that large texee on cigarettes can have a potent effect in reducing cigarette conaumption. Empirical analyses have suggested that a 10 per cent increase in the price of cigarettes can reduce the consumption uf ciqarettea by 5 to 8 per cent, or even more. in the 1990's, this basic result has been chailenged or at least mcdified by twc developments. First, there is reaaon to believe that anti-amoking regulations could piay e Strong role in reducing cigarette consumption. Zndeed, one study' has found, using highly disaggregated cross-section data for the United States, that Once differences in regulation among states are 1987. 'FOr a survey of evidence on this, see, for example, Hartis, 'Wasserman, Manning, Newhouse, and Hinkler, 1991.
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distributed lag on past and future pricea: N o+£ b;P~; a c P,.~ With adaptive expectations, the ea:paeted future price functions as a distributed lag on past valuea of price: M £ ~a0 (1) (2) Select N large enougb so that it is greater than or equal to M, with the appropriate ... and b•s egual to zero. Then, combining (1) and (2), we have N C, ® o+ E a;P~,+ N £ c C;P~ (~) 3 0 im0 or, coilecting terms,. N ~~ = a + £ [a;+ c b~IP.; i=1 (a) A further refinement would be to allow multiple (L) independent variables. In this case, think of the desired lavel of consumption as a response to many variables, including price. Than the desired lavel is
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UMVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKECEY Deparfinent of Economics Berkeley, Califomia 94720 Working Paper No. 91•173 Taxation, Regulation, and Addiction: A Demand Function for CigareBes Based on TimeSeries Evidence Theodore E. Keeler. Teh-wei Hu and PaW G. Barnett* Universlty of Califomia Berkeley, CA 94720 Preliminary,luly 1991 Kcy words: Clgarcnes. Taxarion. Addhbn JEL Classifcation: 324, 913 ' The amhors are, respectively. Professof of Economics. Professor of Heairh [conomics, and Ph,D. srudenr in Economics ac ihe t;'niversiry of California at Berkeley. They acknowledge the suppon of ~he Callfomia-fobaccoRClatcd Disease Project through thz Insrir- of Business and Economic Research et the Universiry of Califomia. as well as the helpful commems of Willard M anning and Hai-Yen Sung on rhis research. They also acknowledge ~he help of ihe U.S. Buresu of Labor Siaisrics and Direcmr. lanet NorwOOd, in providing unpubiished dara -he Consomer Price mdex for oigarenes m Cahlomia.
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controlled for, the ef[ects of price differences bacome qulte small, vith price elasticities of 0 to -.28. The second group ef researchers, eecker, Grossman, and Murphy (1991) has applied the model of rational addictlon of to ciga[ette conaumption, and has found the theory conflrmed.' Very briefly stated, this thecry suggests the hypothesis that current cigarette consumption is a function of both past and future cigerette prices, and that, es a[esult, acNrete estimates of the effacts of price changes on deman9 must take accmunt of £uture and lagged prices, as ve11 ae current ones. Both sets of hypotheses from these recent studies are contxoversial, and it is the aim of the present study to develop them in a nev light and to test them vith a data aet affording a unique opportunity to understand the determinants of the demand for cigarettes. california votere approved a measure vhich dramatically increased the tax o cigarettes, which increased the price substantially, by 25 ~cents par pack, on January 1, 1989. Barlier in the 198o•s on the other hand, various cities, coanties, and communitiea enacted anti-smcking regulations of varying severity. In this paper, ve develop a model of the demand for cigarettes incorporating pricea, regulatory policies, and rational addiction, and ve test hypotheses relating to each theoretical argument, using monthly time seraes data for the period 1980 through 1990 (by using monthly time series data over 'Be<ker, Grossman, and nurphy (1991) and Chaloupka (1991).
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a relatively short period of time, we should largaly avoid the often-cited problem that over the longer tern, tastes change, and those changes in taste meke such ttme-series modeling unreasonable). In the next section, the model of rational addiction is integrated With a diatribvted 1ag model, and it is ahown that With adaptive expectiona, it is imposaible to distinguish between rational addiction (vherein consumption is based on past and future pricea) and myopic sddiction (wAerein consumption i® based on past prices alone). Although retionel addiction is still tested for under the assumption of perfect foresight, thia theoretical pezspective on retional addiction muat be kept in mind when the results are interpreted. In the second section, data and sources are diacusaed. The third section presents a discussion of estimation procedures end the fourth reports results. The final section aummarizes our conclusions and their implications for the literature on the demand for cigarettea. I. A DEMAMD FUNCTION WITH RATIONAL ADDICTION AND ADAPTIVE E%PECTATIONS In this section, we develop a simple model of the demand for cigarettes With price as independent variable and With addicCive behavior incorporated by way of a finite diatributed lag. with rational addiction, current consumption is a
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~,-._....~ .... _ ~. Kac d V. '(YLw W^Y Snikl1a-tt ~t,wmis 1fkv1 11 Ard i4we 5q('t) Cigarette "Health Scare," Excise Taxes, and Advertising Ban: Comment` f. mo-m-ao„ nia Ju~mal, aisyop .ne voc U. Mr<a0<r 6.vI <mpin<any <vmum<a m< ~g -M.:Ih uar<° a< us. < giupply 1Tney mlic i<aaprevious1s~oa <s fo,~ig,wrng Modassictl ma/.n Mory wlM1en e nf tlemantl ena supply. Mir a,<<o a~n ronclus~ons .. 1M, ,M ncal,n x.r< M1as nae nnle <R«. E n<aem.ntl 13,101 surprising fo ns. Firs 39 pcrcm~ rmm h: peak IN 970 pouqs in 1q6Jcmp6,87 'yowas iv 19g0 II?56<1'Se<onal, e nal<vin/11aMPOn<r1111rccen~/yfouMiM,emismokingpu6li<iry m<R<~~onus.<i ~:<a<ma.,a.'~q:.r•<orc..<m<m.,<v<auaqghlow«o aeai<R ,<a,< a~ I<aa, rm~r<a m< <qmb<r or „<. amOn<r, .,a am aa<mnrca,o.<o~a sam<am< -or pr ~iou, «a<arsn. ,., n<MW ~nal e<ry < <o„<w:iom arc ~M r<.<I, or a mi.,p«i. ~r r, g o. ,nal ~n< Iqs< n<ahn a<ar< ugma< r, r rm- m< am,~a for n. mdnoaaoglcal co~aac.,ro„s cs Faaggrcg or lMe.S.c mah<l u BY < u kr cpcriaa 19 gel<u~aquarnIJ5L51<uiima,ronne<An„qv.xiM1Ww~ocortdu n~<dom<,onsThcYemmtlrlha, saposi~ivefun nofchep,ic< rcigar< l ~ Inpmco by Cong.csa In I9~rKErz . .,o rounaslM1a~ aematiM a poai~m< r~ aar .en< rcs~ Tne~1461 neah'n scu hatl a negniive Eu~ nsgnificani <Rec, o mcnsum<rtltlemnna~ h ~hismetnotlobgy. Flrsi. supqy f cusyaacfin< rt ficn ,e pntt rs I I'ei s5 <<I9 6 siaa fi,ms a«oun~ca !a olmos, all U S g,< selcs ana ~ne ~wo ges fimrs Mve h.a a 710 51954 2083
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C* ° C (X" X~.....Xi). . (5) With ratronal addiction, one can think cf actual consumption in time T as a distributed 1ag on desired consumption frcro previous periods (because hebits change s1ov1y), and on desired consumption one period into the future. ' Therefoze, vith [ational addiction N = i=e c where it is ressonable to impose the restziction that (6) N E a c a 3. ('/) 1=0 ~ With adaptive expecticna, the expected amount for future desieed consumption is M = E b~C~~ (8) C", j-0 where, again, it is reasonable to impose the restriction that tt £ b~e 1. 9) j= 0
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Eguation (6) can once again be estimated vith distributed lags on values of the independent variables (here again, ve define N as a sufficiently long period to incorporete both lags). C, - E a;C"; + c i=0 C*- (10) N N E a;C ~; + i 0 c ( E b;C',.;j ia0 (11) N E (a;+ c b,7C;., 0 i=o (iz It can be shovn that testricting the distributed lag coefficients to add to one causes ectual and desired consumption 1evels to converge in a long-run steady state. In such a steady state, Ca = Co, for all perlods. Hence, C, = N N E a;C ".; + c [ E (1)) 1 0 i=0 N £ aCo N c(£ b, Ca7 (14) i=0 i 0 N £ a,CO + c a (15) i=0 (because the sum of the b's i 1) = Co (16) (because the sum of the a, plus c ls one)

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