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RJ Reynolds

William Barnes Vs. The American Tobacco Company. Seposition of W. Kip Viscusi.

Date: 25 Sep 1997
Length: 2599 pages
519540151-519542749
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Viscussi, W.K.
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07 Mar 2002
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yex40d00

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Page 1296: yex40d00
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as cw...ree.or,m.a;xin<r,ueasmr<. e HPLS fo . vx ~ne~r p aeee. vF r~~ ~„x~ubex.<f~ite<~mm..a<~n<re<mtstw.r... ~V que wn i. m< bro~ rv.m ur me me4 v.¢ vhe pmiemions.'m . and ne reefve,rne ista.-Pe od (oe 0e fim (aren.1 3~She foeeeu eefrom vhe ePLS eqvuvivn are euen~~ell. unb~ased. xh~le be 01.6 foreeasre sre biseM dox'nx'eed. ae ot 015..hM1OUFn fo. bovh tne (oraea. nsnm inareaxa .p _ mm the eiaU pe.icd on. 9PLS.nd OIS equetions fo.
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JS Consuw<rDrmunaixebe ('nirMSlulm t\e eM1.Ilnax shox hox su<M1 .n 1. rEpvsuon Itx) uV~im<rea b, s 9 eo 9 e auvo- n omiwea vsri.ble <nd kukvud eentlueL /f x~. ........... lisl 1 P `•PImaNY.Yer P4m 6,x,- Piimqz,., ,- fa + dY)y,_, - D:,- k+ dAh,- . rti.ingeemion eoe/Reieeu otv.-.ana z~_, iv the va I er ~a regmmion of v~_„ [ne omi[mtl .ensbk, on y,,,. ;, eM z~. ~• arl~I9)ie eubw.<tea fr<m~tal, xv <bhin afurrmrt.neemen[ ppon eubeti<utionof(I9lfar u,inIlB/.tne trve m<aelbeoomee m.n~W.;m.[.e<re oa<buom ~m t~.eea.eim.w [xe rou ~'ea eq~.rae br ws[ ep..rm: m uei ma[ n, i•. «~: [[<m mum.w or e: ene asme i. e<[ w~. ror r, ymPw*imilY. /Yll un be xrivwn u ++AS _ + d•P4mr,_, +(a•YYyi-a + dM1x,_,+ <f. q on 1Y11 xi~ n<.be um. eavmioo mrmPUwe.YY u I2n) oNY ir nablwa:~, t .na z~,, n.ve n.eo omi[ua trom I211. .aeeresulv. p n.bltiv>'Gmivo(rneesumeuora•W iYYI Pnma, e a _ dA,n + d•An. v hepr[ielregremuna<fidenu<fY,-,iovhe"sutlGSry" s amitudvuubkaony,_„r. .,..ndv
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I'.odteme ojEa/imorion aM Prq<atiox fu sB-i 5 Sfdx'e .u m/SII fram rhe fo.vuning re ro. each T, xe.rcglelt wiU <M1e panrorthe nri.nee aue.o.ne erton u. This beokdoxn i. gi.en inT.ble 2.5. r gPLS,ro periedorn ndrfrom Peaod onofar LS~Tne"xeF ~i.~' <e •o o! an< n~ fourPoeioda mey be nrTweleon.n~~one o. .IIO[rhrcexre.wne-fll v;1-1 m /espe=a01~o~1ne OLS f~meaer.r. oe(3)anunuswlNex g smnalertorre<ma. nbl<2s P.<.enrs.n<Tnen u mr e.rn orm<imm~ax.l »mp.ax <,g<.i. LTne .m.< nevnrerunennr -m m<.ana.axw.na la a<enm.a 6 IP~- e~Yl`O P;+v~n; h<P.edi=aa.olne.nd e ia rn<.axa.etw. l• mwr re x<xeen eor.<.na<nm Pe mrme<.,r..nneoneaenoua<n< n~m a~~r,arc.. a< imwmna te.a...r,.r<.«y g.nn, m onn<sru mn<eav fo. onmb<r s..n<.aw. nr r..<r.u w<m.n~aPxne mv.~..lue. .re.01g9 .xd.OrM ke OlSSntl gPIS..espeni.d...Tn<iv.ge.
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10 Covumr. Demond tn rM1r L'ndedSrwra «Gzlohexperimen1s1wlinePhr lunefiv<a~.b e ryaeuon on tM Euia oftM1e?lonre Grb «s~u. Theeep.perimenze. d resulu are deweihed in the nezt wnion. IV. Mome Ca.lo Foreeasfing E pe.imeme M muewix3 moael nee Mea xr.a m tM afxm<Grb e.peameme. na per e.mpk. 5 mPka we« feoented ueinB. Gwui.n or. In a.dee to ehe the moiel eome eeonomlc 9.vor. he l'niud }:inp.dom~~ ch [or rne x wrwe Thuf wriw wss, of courw. fized in repwutl umpketl ~ The e ua6 the IJi/rozmwnoe r, s- ej ~c . jf4.med~11Ja1.EOVe,-M.''.. we xted The fi wmpln e« di.ra th< nr.t . of umPle. noNer pmvbke .o(a leiilmeondiWerr.vonf0.athciNtWv.le<. were vsed w esumsu c e ecefieiw0s.nth o (JYI ~ o ~ ~-~ ~ r-. ~rca(OLS).ntl heth«epuemeNOd19PIS).TM e'chen aved w fare af-a fiYee~re Mtx wn lesl .nd IB]0 ever xM1Uh tne edtus) p TMr're perfom~ed sr a-r.mr,x.i.nax_ueair..eeneea<ixxine model ro m.ke tM mcMcllauel3sitheTheeelim tuJ'e.elu< o! e( compuud feom rM p<riod. hsa been uwd for z in cne fieac (oeemeet wnae me~ nmw~ e.<Ihme.e~ r: eemp~tea wm tnr wmPk ie ~wa cMrc.rwr. of
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P+oNemvoJEaHma[iovandP.ojmrio. if E.perimem : Ho•'<v..r.e epof9for,hefirem(oree.n..aueaof mPmm.rxora~~9,a ~nm.P.~.mPrene r.ai.n .e.a rn.n.n<+. r e~mer;meoea~re.m<.<ma~r.iey~ma~~irhe.,im.,e.ann<.wr[w.i «wa< P~,~ fmm . rne f xne impuem rerex..n emn.P ome en.e.,.,~ee.,. nm<„a ~p me e..rt .~ee e axPe~ m mauddr<.~1.6_ p omWrred 9PL51[M1ree-Pw IenubNSm1 [h n.i[h Old lard .ere lesn epu.ree). .eep[ionoftnein hieAm wbe.~ ms~, M1< bivwe~evm for 018. aee em.11«T o( rn Nh<e o,Aer rawd ,o ....... no~ nTni. , .~h+ In. eeabk biu [heee•ime.eaiofeheflnureePt.•n Isted. t of aA n <TFe,.e.nmvaive o(?a.eo961foe tM OL6 .d1•.,i,A iu expened vJUe of :.98 (.a eynetion ~13~.be enaiho~gh [Aere is. do.n.'aN biu. Thu Arar ~a no do~b[ ox'ing to [nepreaenreof9~_~ spredie,or.
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Prodlema /be~imo/im aM Peyeuion 39 w:9.lfv,lal.gg o ana.o ~uurd(mn~_~lnlls).weMve Fefke+uqu.re.eea.im.aertof.ll he - nn~Sbo-ouldtMCOneie enr.e esprea- n involving Y,_r aod z,.r, oNy the eatimste otd u ooreuunr. t ean be a oxn tnee eM1 , , on (m fy., ie (Eel ,-, u,. ~Idrb+ a'd8m)Yi.a - dM,.z ie])eM1 mum .he e +4- o( Amk + dA/mete ofn u ndJ.re weRoient.ory,.,inme~s ar R~ne ..n.btr, omiuea rmm195u onoY,h•o,. ~ a.~r y~rne~x.Ylor-wik.. moou aru e:pe.ime.m baimre .Mt . eugm. tn mmwu.g m.< eM uree.p.m metn<d 1. u tor M uwn moael. evidrn o[lhe metFed poeee problem .nPt for nl periad re° Tne 9 mergm omtbe ie to mytfeeeume r, w M l totwy. Oro ipu ieallYzeeoin tne peojeeionperiotl. However.mymµmiotnewy tel6 t tnw i. mmaY e. ixermonri.u .m~mpuon xe.:,m tbe e.Peeua vslue oty.maumi„e E(x)- O.v - /R81 Elk/ ~ Idnm - drbn/61Y1 -dnElzl~ in genemldiRem Rom bi .ero= kv erkentox elre na'fA ~elWe.Irle.rumentMt:ukeeon Ie l mmpnre :.rear qYnr 1n tne p ie uperiad anoNi~lro vmpwee fmm e: /8) u tM1e r4)aWnd mofineWngNeprof JN,y u implicit ~~ uA he pwjeeiane x .Iwr nstivd.moreovee,there,eno y .ceumurele eaperienreotodr.x'upon.
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,fb Coneuma LemaW a~ iM C'naW &aiee N rermuel),e[~sesn,De+eeopw.ne:eeoVUio uc peogremmuup. 9uPwrentling(ormelly.eo~uitlerrhe foYO~iog expnssion~. /ael A.- -A,Y,-A-., e/ p~Wb~.' a( tbe menn. m<lu , m of nven esvim ~nng epo+uov~s obuioed. 3s Isel - ~av '~ J ..~..B. lihexumm.[ion efgns.od nha:ub.crlpu h.ve been dmpped for mnvenienn: ~.i e o! [he fim[.ix eyu.[icne es e/[her.n.ddition oe <xpeud nd pgiire e Narre value (or./e.peaifietltM1efin[uxeqoevionsan hnoneiovhengna+iouemlfiuante. .olved fa ee iv is I~liDle to tlefine : funeuoB(.). ArA. - A+Ae. vo find x eolmion far BI•1 . 0. UNaaunavely. [Ae tuns2wrol fom of B ~a botn oNmom sod nonli~nu, w[b.v sn immediam.olovbn of
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41 . PrE „em~ PCE 4r,rF PCF., Ow esper en'<e Ms ireen ~lu~ rhe projee ton. .d P tB~Sr~eabntorrerM1emroejdtluPan'e.1~~n~err<naneleert.r..'~Is
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uum w,e,pem.a. )b e ut ~ u m bc er.rmred. ru me. emp4eubk.s hsd io auN be inrthese easss tMr smaller roots 1ing the eo petibihly of tne aa and N afthei.arvowral ecert~eieme ue VI. App.oximare Va.im.re. and Cwarianres oJ fhe Svuetu.al Coe~eienn 5ina rslmeficie recU~. .nased 1 p olthefalkioreeofa)tsteties~M1isesnbedo~e.
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Pro6leme of Eai.mni.o. oM P.ojenbn aJ Olb es~imeta o! y iz redoced." IntleM it . Ae 015 ea imete. O w'M1OIe. vhen suntleM «rore ere, eon. eOt6ev me4rs tNntFOxof 2pL$xben neoanunuvcitequauoniere~evremateddircet~,rc h< foeeus~e (rom the veriovn upenments..l Iwteet this tabk shovs tNee i rcevlu. 111 ate foreun~e Irom rN v an ie:perimems f eM fl Nve e eomideuble upued biu: i31u even lerger opweM biee is evitlem I. tha SPLS tomate ef eaferimam e. thereb. imwmeg fn>e q~mv..eg a=eeoramg ro it. earmpwrie - i. ie-.I2i.N 2ecs t~remt. are.perime~a f.ra prerue.u. aebveau. he O15 foreueu of thia e:perimmt pwevee e bise of Im rhenh m[he Wsl period, e fwe e[ precludae o M1e 0IS eqve ov (oe proi n. ft ia eleee M1awev<r, rhs .e un covfine eeperim ovTNtforemk~y vsrisneufend mecn.equare errom (or eapenment 1 m 2sble 2A. TN 016 fareuna ere more <iFnmt an tFe wFOie ed3PIS foremm. bmh In terme ot rcrienu end of mun.pvsre error. TAe fPIS for<wte are more elROiens for tM1e firet two periotla, e reeult tASt o! penieoier ivtermt fin eM1On-te.m foremung, bm the 3Pt5 vsnsncev dovEk Ne Old vurianua in tAe Rnel (om periode. It eAOUId be verianm rovphlv dwbk frvm one yenod stfor Foth muM1Otle M.
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a_ Cm~a.me.DemanAi.rA<t-nirM.Srarea Then .e a.n ee•rzire eqvoriona I I a)/-II Nl>a „ ~m.rra.iCxpnainpb,in.t..rorreries erouM ir~frue value'd.. obrein r5./ 4,~A,+wlf.-3,)~- F oxa¢r,erma. umypmg mr mgher.oraer ,exma .~a ,.w~e d, o,.er me kn.n,~a .me. .< )sa) 6.-a.-~IA,-dr1IA, ~tolio..,ha, e.~mp,une.ny me •eeienn ot 6, n-m ee epproxi. s"CCCVA, -Ar11A,-AJ" "' : : . /3aleheEl6,•^E,116,-dJ=C_S_etA.-A.11~,-.i,)y~' 2.1. n,kv f.a.n nielaenv ea 4om e9us,~nv IIAI)-tt.u) equcpiions Ibil.nd Iv5) hovW be emphea iedeM t'these fmmulcs sre onlyetnetly .alid mp,or gF A ia nbisua e ie s lo (sr) m • nd tm thiavruson .eeM1eve rot _ rne se.M.ra enore o(,Fe avunurel eoeficims tor guidancerv VII. The Adding.up ProElem ~a wa1'ror~.+umyrion e:penaltv)rehreenner frhen Lupxbk 1inmme `TTe ea ap
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NATIONALECONOM7C RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Privileged and Confdenrial Prepared at Request ufCounsel To. Kip Viscusi (ec: Jeff Weil) From: Nick Nichols and Hilary Holbrook " Re: Cigarene Waming Labels Da~e: September12,1997 I. HISTORYOFCIGARETTE WARNINGLABELS 1955 - First FTC guidelines proposed, prohibiting claims in cigarette advenising or labeling that referted to the presence or absence ofany posinve physical effeets from tobaccu use. 196V-1n January. Surgeon GeneraFs Repon released. linking cigzrette smoking to lung 1965 -Cigarene waming label frst placed on cigerette packages (under the Trade Regulation Ruleson Cigarette Labeling end Advertising). The waming was: "Caution: Cigzrelte Smoking May Be Ilazardous to Your Health." 1969-Cigarene waming label changed to nrengthen the wzming's message (under the Publie Health Cigarene Smoking A<O. The waming was: "Waming: The Surgeon General Has Determincd Thal Cigareite Smnking Is Oangerous to Your Health." 19]2 -Cigarettc waming labels required on all cigarene adveniscments. Aiso, the Supreme Coun upheld rhe Public liealth Cigaretre Smoking Acr when it xxs challeaged by the tobaeco industry. 19g1 -FTC repon released. which concluded that the 1969 mandated cigareue waming label waz ineffective because i, waz too general and had low visibility on cigarene packeges. /984-COngres anJ-daquanerlyro tingse sofnewcigare mingiabels(on all cigarelte packages and advenisemenrs7r covering a variety of more specifc risks than the previous wamings. The wamings are. I. "SURGEDN GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Hean Disease, Emphysems, and May Compiieate Pregnancy."
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I
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Pxi r~~eccn n.'n Co.' eiac.ita~ Pa[enaso Ai Rept~csr oe Covnsee ?. "SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Quiuing Smoking NouGreatly R<duces Serious Risks to Your Heallh.'3. "SURGEON GF,NERAL'S WARNING: Smoking by Ptegnant Wonren May Resuh in Fetal Injury. Premature Binh. and Low Birth WeighE" 4. "SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Cigareue Smoking Contains Carbon Monoxidc" 11. EFFECTIVENESS OF WARNING LABELS IN PORTRAYING RISK Many smdies suggest that the health waming labels on cigareue packages are believable.andthatcigaretleadve isementswhhhealthwarningsarelessanacu.eandless persuasive than advenisemems svithout such varnings, However, swdies suggesl that fex' people view the wamings on biliboards on tasi cxbs, or in magaxines. Mzny studies also conclude Ihat thete has been an increased public perception of the risk of smoking. Yet, there ate any factors besides xaming labels thm aff- risk perceptions with respem t.... king, includ ng anti-smoking campaigns, media publichy, the release of health rep-elmed lo smoking. and public education. As a result, these swdies have nol been able to successfully isolale the effect of cigarette waming Isbels ftom lhese other influences. Many ssudies focus on study samples ofadolescents and/or young adults. Th... ge groups ate important because there is a general belief that they are most likely to be -emplsung smoking. or experimenting whh smoking, and ihus the most likely to be inRuenttd by waming labels. Some cnucs suggest that the methodology that is used io smdy the petceived believabihty of cigarette waming labels is mconcluswe hecause it does not 6mulate reahwosld experiences. The smdies consisi of fo¢ed exposnre to the labels, whereas real.wotw exposute is less mtease aM may result in lower levels of belief 111. EFFECTIVENESS OF WAR\'ING LABEES IN INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR There is much debate over the relative eRcctiveness of cigarnte wamin5labels in innuencin6 consumer behavior. In general, the assumptinn is lhat if the labels are effective and people helieve them, lhey will sltes their behavior zccordingly. Thus, we would ree a reduction in smoking among those who were more f iliar with the wamiug lebels. However, some
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oma..p«„° ~.. aQU.. r. Hw~hx.,n.na q ii]6mmM1graaeawrb<.r+noeueqmtM1SOwob. neYyibk P..,bp~e.,.rcliEWessu_ FoSdm, hwl dix,vt a~maan. b.Irro pM EnehDMeameen! f9/.SYI p.rvs~~phW rnrM1erro~ rv..npnim W n,r n.Jmu meuam r-s Piea ..NnpbF<LMxmoFbayu.:..<..+a+bkla< a in< a ,n•lna~u,.11,n~erv.+mvkmeuJM bOJt6elN/bae.cmpkvx.ulmrM1ebnEYUGn1 m i°~n~. o.kw«mr.<r.x,na> xm<..,nek..r<en<P DGC Op WARrvMG UlEL[ ON C~fiARFIIE PACIUt.ES AND MvEATlSFE/ENIY ~r6^+,•.~~kaV MaW<~ P.d,~.erooNamoF,n~u.Vedma f..mv,ahhelaM1Onw.Eak``in< ti„a, ~`~n. aa nN eiw<aMh,.nay W f INSNUnnf.BFNAVIOR GuNGE b,nqr,reix.~..mPk. ~ro.Me<ao a~.xxi .~n,~ aonrrmwea A,...e
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0 Do Cigarette Warning Labels Reduce Smoking? Pmudosicnl Effeets Among Adoiexenca e.hw maxno :•~afaPrnie~ou~64Nla.d.c- WM1UnwI crmey. ulJo.m.. v~ p.bl•. h•.h =Aaob in nor~hrrn .rg..w S<.mwmhum Y . -nM kvawkJye bb<b w p •~ yw•o.~il li.a p k.pmw g b edwMx w aa.rcmw Wy. WMWg.d g1.CebearyankadeMemenn (~ n~IOti.3~v;efwm~Im~mamwwilGiLx.Ox. me~~.-w.cua kw.,ss. n ogx.x~s). t~lwksu Sluble propo<uuw uf dul~en..mok<eny..WW aeemtminmA<ypnucwuo~yWed. KJ vYww~c.dwwoWavbeb ~~~~~pJV nv. o ~ ~ E~ .Wegl.beb iod(n' . gtlol n. UJmnv D. PNycG, uo C =~x.n1 u ne b IWbv.Ms~`~.okoe•Jla:•jPy.n.~ .g~ie w< owhµ mnE ~teean~ ilun ((nmpm.lens~r..~i .•FngEdonronAn af 19M. Nlllc Ww riHIF)' )xmc,a, Yuk s• Fmwn.bom J•N ettenlnmu. Pn.bu. uud nU F...Jav,wm~d nely cwdnn.. aweosa md k.n.LAg. ef <lyrtn<vvNO{y4Mbemq,wlWy mJ 0u..rt 4c w.l rmol•ins b.Miw.•m~ TM.Am dw.minglahekmcmo}- mlewpon.httaMUeiMee9W6N.duk Fm6<AmmwRNgwhmNrywsrt nen.pn mArmoA,4y•w•e.R.nlOyi fo~991 mroOJlgbJwssmwGSly wbcmu vlpsmoNSg TuN~ m W«.d Fely w bs<bIM<n «Echy wa<n ~ Y- . mWwhmc, xhooi{wd smp4 .Jolamu, w.. s.rmmed ~M kllo•ratlnv~ f I/ M¢m 4gMe~o4en.nd nwegm~.•uFm.wan.ed gnlne .gee. n!(3)~s~ewvpa..-- 4leb~umYrW~M<<bfsbuµo<In amnk ~.g an••oU m. w.mims.n </fsv<La.
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Psuviace~u sao Co~r'meS'rur, Pacrwacu wr Repvrsr or Counsca b-hey do sugg- that federal policy he based nn very specifc communication goais that an ongoing plan to measure how weil ihe goels are achieved is developeE, ). Maria Gcrardo. 1994. "Self-Reponed Awareness of the Preunce of Produn Waming Messages and Signs by Hispxnics in San Francisco" US Depanmenr oJNealth and i/uman Services Pu6//r Heahh R Ports. IU9(2): 215. This repon e s the a s of the pres e of waming m ssages mer products (e.g., cigarenes. alcoholic beserages, diet sodas, aspirin)amoag s Hispanics. The study was conducted iwice, with tweive moalhs between tbe two studies m determine the effecl of long.tersn exposure. The resuhs indicaled thal self-reponed s of cigatelte waming messages was higher than for any other produc Smok ng status affected Ihe a s of the waming messages in cigarene packages- mokers were more aware of therpreu e of the waming m ssage. The authors onciade thm it is possible that the higher exposurc rate to she cigarene waming message could be directly responsible for ihe heightened levels of awareness. 8. Schusrer. C.p., and C.P. Powell. 1987, "Comparison of Cigarene and Alcohol Advenising Conaoversies"Jouma/ afAdvertlsing 16(2): 26J3. Thispaperu stheimpiica nsgainedfromthehisotyofcigere eadve singend applies it w alcohol adveriising. The authors state that the cigarette wsming Ishcls were designed arM implemented in order to remind consumers about the negative aspecis of moking and, thus, reduce consumptiun or quis. However, cigarette consumption did not decline so any degrec afier ihe waming labels appeared in advcniuments in 1972. The authors say thal conxumers either did not see the labei, or they did nol pxy an it. Another expianation of the alleged ineflecriveness of waming labels is the theoty of perceptuai defenu, which stetes that consumers shut out or do not ertend to thou ssages that are contrary to Iheir beliefs. Fwther possibiliries include rcsearch on and forgening, which demonsvates that afler coreumers are familiar with a ssage, their zisenlion to it deciines. This Study stetes thm ihe decteeses in smoking s ed with times when the public received infonnation on bah sides of the at when cunsumers heard ahout the SloarvKettering repon, which linked cancer m rats io Isr fmm cigarene smoke. elong with cigarene edvenising).
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ad Mi a u~ ik,r~uaN. ~ .i hk ± nrmyk a n..anyr .qRS wnxyl4b11Mx awlNFe .ne .N~Fa m emaxing .nbemlbutlou w WM...eD..e iYUInuJ w M W Iiple Lpwb..pm-0on..v axd w wmioc ihe wEndJpdnRwO. ElpaapuluF. bbetm0er areMmpLMtnae.am ~~ ee IaDxhacx,unnmu.b. pp u6<4..m,nen md.+A. n~s:.0y ngnl0ml NFM. ompsnwL:ne(oD.E.EE:csY .as) TFkonl.qlnue~6nexFyin ~ ngamu RaaFe v.,Moxskmt nwlNgebdcxvucrosm.aNaOm e ./.DD.oaim.ulrt>9'.o.iheWJ~dm. m M~F oe vrk:.. h- n~ b D~ uqlolbwu F^W.nelrau m m Lx. i!. Mm,J r1.4 . wn ry iiniluJ ro Uwse ~wNbxv.~axv'n.~vai4nMn4YF naJ~J ~~nMwm~e ~kmhfwR csvsA~ W nW+...d~.~...amti.~)..~sp~mMnvuE .u +g.Mnaewrct~.6vMmenWteqW nAS. W~`MIU4Re4~ww.naap.Md. [km~p.phl.ul ~tr4re .u d.oar e~enmmui. menlM1N... rzpJa. ~be::A~nka~~wlmn euawtm >wm~e.WmmaJ~ .w .ur wmw.msm w,mm~rns~ekns. n~mws~ •rz ~•drv~~nnrm~mmene.aR mF h~l YvaWle~n.m) r~e4 LLmmc~ I. 1 vhF. tl(nNr In.meW.4 46u.ioe, dm .nnunpme M oIMCa.n~..l]ne~LL~bYtwdl..a.xmpfI fUIS/Ab, O.YS:pMU.o.bt.LN).ndm~vnnyoYeu/ vsl.l~.. ssGl.o.pulsnl. 4FeF on ai6emku~Da'N.y ....meken. TFIF
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Pxlvn,[c[ u.n'p Co,.'tso[.n.a~ Prtf.ewrt[o wr Rcpe[sr ov Cot~,.'sca This as o designed to eend Bdtra studv bv employing adolesc subjecis (gradesi through 12). Thes udy found that many of rhe adolescents surveyed indicated a htgh belief in , he validity of the health waming labels appeating on <igarene packs, wi~h believability scores ranging from 40 l0 50 (oa a scale of 10.50. with 50 beiog most believable) for all four labels combiaed. Rmngs of believability of the hcahh xaming labels, however. varied as a funceion ofcurtem smoking status. es one ould-pettgi- priorresearchdem tingnons mokers to he m eofboth the general and spec ifc heaith coa sequencers of smuking (Dawley el alfe198i. Murtay E Cracknell. 1980: Palmer. 19)0). However, the <ffect size wss small. The swdy speculates that. belief in ihe validity of the healtb wamings may not be insvumental in persuading adolescenls xho smoke to quit. This may be because Ihz con-t is aot unders~ood. is nol seen as personally relevam, or is ' wom oui' The heshh xxmings v also itibure to adolescems' decision to either nor initiate freque moking or w ain quitters. But, without funher dala, this of course, remains in tbeneealm of speculation. The suthors question ihe applicaSility of these resulls beceuse the -hodology'does not parallel real-ld imeractions with the labels which are encountered on cigareue packs and in advenisemems" 5. Engs. Ruth C. 1999 "DO Waming Labels on Alcoholic Beverages Deter Alcohol Abuse?" -irnal of5ehool Nealrh.59(3): 116-11 R. This smdy focused on waming labels on alcoholie beverages but ineluded a brief lite r . of cigarene xarning labels. lt states tha, a summation of various reponsappears w imply ihat media publicity, public educ , chnnges in public imde. antiamoking commercials, and the release of the U.S. Surgeon General's repon were primary facwrs in coatributing to the decreese in smoking in the United Siares. Waming labels, howevzr, do n t appear to be as e(<uve. 6. Kmgman. D. M., R. J. Fox, J.E. Fletcher.l.E. Rujas, and T. li. 1994. •'Do Adolescems send io Wamings in Cigareue Advenising? An Eye.Tracking Approach"lournal oJ Adverrising Research. 34(6): 39. This study uses tracking w examine how adolescenis react so cunently mandated SurSeon General Wamings, as well es to two new wamings. Two uf the currently mandated wamings and rwo new wamings were imhedded in magavx ads for two dgarette brands and premnted to 326 adolescems, aged 14 w I8. Analyses addressed the number of subjec who notced Ihe waming. their so frst fixa n within the xing on the w ming. Resuhs indicate Ihat mings ming. end ihe s esspenl fat ct the attention of more individusls. and they gain enemion in a shoner period of me than mandaled wamings. Eye.uacking measures were signifcamly related to maskcd recall of wamm t l sg w nt. The authors e that ordm, the m sage of<o tsel("The wamingmus,s1,21d attcntion sothat the v reads andcomprehends the m ssage. Thus, the authors mlude shat the n niugs Vresent some clear ad.antages over rhe existing mandaled wsmings. They do no~rtry to argue that the cew wamings tha, shey developed for the study are the answer,
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Pareawaa eanmCNry Amenp kaalxc.nH a Ne.184 Wam4q talal. an Ofpere84 Paob' be~.••V•u.m...u~AUww Xwt x.wm n. u.a. smpso. o<om.r. ssw.u oa..eues.N mnm,wetleu. m uee W. 4{ueue metlee 4 Ne abelq umnm avouW< nma of me.Y'. mNUY ~e Ne mwl.enms 9uhls bNq uoneam ef ort moe NsmDepwvm ef NWU.ne Numn 9evlm (USOxN56 IHx. 198N. 9H). m.Am eS m. c~. ermmr cmoti=s r~...u~ ~~ ror uxenN3oxNSl lew)uq~o m.lb®kB~.~n9~m.)cnc.4h:.f~ny 191M ud baWB rtm.wN Wb Gutl4 ma Hp [uuPem,1990: Lyn h~k Bowiq 199a: USDHN8,19D1). A mi.y of owi rb4 fiamn (<8• 9uu~ busuuu/ mhlevmw; mnn.an, O'M.neY. k BveLeE, .9Y9) xe Nmpenee.l.4t 4.~an (e.e...mob.8 bb.viwetpan. K.ne.4191e; (w. mirv, me (:M1Unn Prmwq Shnvw, kNU0m.,19B81iMUaemWelebis4enafmaku{,aeeofxlbL4l.c.ol ~ uxmtrsw<mw nox ua ~mr.nk,m~n~om.~HU.s.w.sns.a merw+ rv. . . Ar,pne.~+.a. mapoon oe0e sD•ciGs heam ~ .w.HmencqipU,k! rmmuy. hv.kh MtieM1 m.r aam l ,mweemotlnp. »o wa ceslml (wp•~imr of tls aY mv/y). e.eee.lU.v O'Byme. k Wilmu0.v4,19N: uwbrm4eudbtmeum dw.v.mertl{haym wrueyu.vp. uwaleuC wW . tbehveb, 1980: aemnY. B~+M1 Wme M1NfnP. wMml. nrrt 90A.en W PMm i9ei)Y.~as.:<e we e..a a ~.e. 9mm ra<wie{ e. m<.«. amo- lebelr vf Ih Ibe ewN.emmitla NN. hN.Ba~ mwa.Mwuw~n cm.olawirrDrme~w. . ni.e. mm9b1 w pem.m me roneWas: iq.mPwY rm~ (i'fC,t9t;1#DN)19,199.]. Tmnilnb.Mtaef Meu row Nouw Coeminr ee N.IW.ee ou 69.Nnmly. haeWear ~4ymwenmehb84Dm8awq Hs).pweMd ya tt rtPow ~~ wuPObebll'ua/n :uiwtiry onaasu.ae wus NS mmaamuAmeriw<..n. . mm. cD.cros.a.m.we mmaqw~noncw M~mlW c ~eDWUem.. ef motb emnaa w ssinee.a e. m.
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0 _ erceived Believability of Warning Label Information Presented in Cigarette Advertising Richard E Behramini v,uw^b w~ wrc+k•.>< w~ ~, k«..a, m ,.IPow h Pwn•^°~., raa „<wi.ti<m,<w,ti, mw ~,reairrm u<.:,w w,.aiw.m, .In„m~ala ,<mna.,<r a,.~a~'.. a~..e e~lk.eena,.r raa w. ml•q heJ;.•ra.a<m,• . ~ar .r,aWa,.bawarm...mn<.w;mwic<ne.,ar.<m~<.~am. t th< luu rds a amekuag we .mw<a (a pan.e e.~ ~,a« mg r•Cv<rm,a: agar<m. smoking MavsBe Havrdaus <o Your H<alth"1. Av c waa M c; aud..M as erch enWrs mokingt nassrds <omuwed to muluew vu aeapud in 191t 1"W e. The Sur mavG n<N Nu D<n,m n<d Thaa Cigar<a< Smoking ia Dang<rous ro Ywr HW<h"1. Hnuev<r rh< f<d<rJ Tnde Commus~aa conduded thrt Ne warning Iabe4 uud die liale ro i,a(«m che Public M rb<hwrda M,mokinp Iu.vaB IiNe m ro eRecr on the p~blici.rtuud<nrvard amokN¢ lahe<tlun,om<shVr m low<r ru and n~conM 6nrWe1. The C<mmhsion• therckrc, dcarmusd tlut (urtlaer prr ry In I95q, R d<v<oped a nrlv ruu<IW u xe d tou~ rnv,g labels wlncn conv<yM m <cikrWwmu n than th rz,ea Isx 0.icnardr 1981(a ~ mor«wnpien dv<wsbn otthe 4auo Ev<nrhoughaomeh,v< gued;hrzth<p„ reolwa uqlabJsu rhe rotacco iaWw rv f.om~c4lma ;< G;l<d ;o n adea~at<IV vbw; ch<dane a,rhege eralregulatmyvobi c v<sd.helourauw labe4 tl ovidercn(orma suln an <Rma Influe uudu on <M1e hu.Ns of anwk' grlBu, eu lP4<k, Ocmber 0. 19B11 Ahbough most comum<rs haae be<n <.poud to Jae ¢<neril d,nger<o( emekmg cv malnrs kl, tbet maPV w<rc ,.rawar< o( rhe spec;fic rbka ImnlvM. Th< policv m,kers cularly nond a lack Mawa entW van¢ adW; s whose atnmdes,bou; emokVy rNl,reuewlvv,ge~ s B-h Bavh, fmm<r Demrc m i:atl'uau nd Davld N<umex ure dvecmr o! <h<GWiNOn on Smoktr~g>nd H<ahh, nat<d receody rlut ~'There to belv.ve rnat a bene m(ormed vublk wi11 rmoke r ssificandvaless~~INa,.~ Yoh Timn.S<pnmber IO.r198/1. N<um<y<r bnreratN, "We n..< aom< <.,e<~« rrom sw<dm ,nm r«anr,g w,rP~ga 1„~<, ,m,<h mo« Igr•Jrcvn,<Reacerp«iallvvmongnmryer:•INewY kT;ma,octab<rt8,19&1 Wha< dm rdadonrhro bm.nn amwd<a and b<Ivviars hv ban d<bn<e m.R Fuhbem 1961: Aiuo and Fbfi6a~ I98%, Presmav,g youPe edulu wab .pe<V inram w them n thJr <ude formmon aban ,he dangers o( samok;n¢ ,n bc se ,.I imueb av au (aaw tr,flue smoking behrv;or. i(thu mfarmauon u prcunnd w conwm<rs who uqulrc ¢ Jw bel/<.e clw.a.le/AC.enWy Volume 11. Number 1. t9B& Pae<.1611
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' mok~npbefirv~orhadnoa;enuicamef- nreHeava(our,don~ne ' _ ;wtl bebe.ab~¢v d <i n<;•M behenbJrz. y ~ l i- nglab<I~o(ormanortFunh<r;n e!abe!uaformrtwn. a od ~~ <mr areWCw< dclwJ.vsB.n~wn° re JsD eumNetl (w vry pw<ey~ means aloBassdapon<rheilem~rhmp.oW<ab. d~d smeke-as "hehi' ik s~hsn oix pondenu' pemrv<e b:. 'k<II• and w med;om" Inuween x.vabiliryddxfi.ewcrranglan<h.!:o -aaa<~<n~~:of,. <e s..k~P a<a<amnau!a,w<raroew.n<wu. ~~r~~ ~n.« uermo Pa<ap w«q, enermwm(w~mm<~R;,r~~,;r,w„a, m~fou md!iro!oiiV Tp6LE3 hnidvil ana(~..o a va Me Wco~ BelievabJnv of Waenmg label infmmaaon <xfidr efi•re o d(oobie< anea<d m< u~p lab<I an.snew warnine V- ,f.vedu.d Co~<9.. xi.,',,.me,n<.<woea«ai m~axm<a• mt,.me~ee N<~ vlafde.moderaa.mfirmi ~ umM<d 95 0596 0)8 <a;, u. w < , p<ea<m nrmxk aw r<. rn . . etl beri~.b'dnv of ea<hdw+rninA kn`I irv<ra a ose u rn<s!J~~um belwabilvv scilei ss r~able. T ./ elos uaAeresu!udih<seanalvxs,dem~ mwhm<u fo, u o gl.beta~"Smokln® n d;nax<mpn„<m r.h e .a a .n a moa<.r a~a ° Q,:,. o < i.R<e.n.s<~aa~'...mvou~ geotlv r<Mcn s<n. e h mok!aen6 oow ~a ya,r nam-1 w~ ~M mr c<n•«, c<m.a+w..,,m.. awr<a<smek< lsw Lmf oa ~nf nh« mohiPk ciass~ficuian anah om+w Uebon Menmtle. o' <!ofmualvnnslvda mpwk<wnenltl Msubel!eadle.l~~ < R fi a n h d n, k a ~gn; wa upan c per<ei.e c < < c bebe•~+b;hf. ol ahe warn;ng labei ;rm~ Tabk 4 farmr~oc~. hur rhe m roup, aheo ahemod<nngra~p,.nd~M1enahevolEHecrMMuahin<uonBelievabflity aale grouP p<r<erved rh<warnNg Iabel f beF<vaNS. Tnne a wno~ ascfirm orleas musnylln cne;rp z.rdsof ng:TMSwpmncennilwDnnmi.N E o.4Bg LNa o.iN ng bek<.ea dFe •. ~ me m rwsm o~r . rlunA<o~herArouqdess1pondena i k601 J591 O.oiP fo cemn.~. moa wm;oa'~<arm a rol. . < emvm~+.a„d wy uJe k•<I d o+osnvess M rhev p< t'~A<rz <Prc mu~<v.~~ or ~n< mcaraa or amnking u by P- . 1.4A0 2857 0098 av.lnwramro a~a r<.<ar<n nrpo,e a~ e 1.~<e n W;~ i N. f•nm+mn r~u<LS<i,onfyi.rz,«ma .+ , e~r<r.~~xn<h<vanam « m, a.~ kmA smokme z ssn ssae omf ma b< ~e<e<sm a ou .Pinu h R.a~n. sn~ou. ~.~e ra~ a~<r<m< a<r~r<a ~ e~ f~om r < a. srm~eaad~hn.,e;mi:aaw<,owara s~n<e„c<ena'.w+r„NA:cv+n~<smok< . oeoz o.gzz o.Ns ~h<huardso(smoking, u;mG.eenMOnw;G. in a<nme ah<rh~cd nsear<h nspo<n~ <xs,~~ •.as (ound rhar a reaoor.den~i erka ~~ n d rnponses as Th< r<mwung demmBeapn;< n < ' ngnws ~ Vo.r k,l;h. ' rz n`okmA ~ Oa eec<n Nsw.mNfe~okmGu.. < +__S 0.)19 0.91 ~ o<e.~Fk.n Deme. EmpMUm. W w +v m n neril:Wean;n6.s ngb o 4.169 0.)14 09l P.<p~+e~wmm<eMavR<+Nrm FeWi r.e.c.,mngsmet~eA 1go1 o.g91 a9A 30
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Pnlvseceeo Pace.asn wt RepcrsT orCO"..-sce This smdy tested txo waming s~atemenis: the 1969 waming. and more specifc waming -"The Surgeon General Has Detennined That Cigarene SmoWing Produces C...... nd _hma" The smdy subjecis consisted If college studenis recruited from an ntroductory psychology class, who were exposed to a booklw ofanicles and print advenisements. swo If which were for cigare s. The study f nd iha~ changing the ming contem was as effect tt change 1 sll. in ihe absence If changing ihe format of Ihe waming. (The author speculated that the (rs few words oCihe ming niggered subjecis ~o fiil-in the rest of the message with the message shey are used to reading). The effect otchanging the waming is also found to be greater for advenisemenis that are less texmal (ie., more pictorial). The amhor notes thm consumer knowledge If smoking hazards is imponant. but Ihat "hefore Consumers leam Ihey must and rezd"The swdy concludes ihat manipulming both comem and format s muhaneously eMaMes nmiceabiliiy and anzntion. ~. Robinson. Thonsas N., and loel D. Killen. 199'/. 'Do Cigarene Waming Labels Reduce Smoking: Paradoxical Effecis Among Adolescenis"A.cA/ves o/Pedtarrics E AdoleseentMeClc~nz. 151(})~261.?92.Mareh. This smdy examined the azsociatlon bnxcen adoleseents' krwwledge If elgarette ming Iabeis and acsual smoking behavlor. (The study was condu- with ninth- gradcra). The study found that greater knowledge ofcigarene package waming Izbels s signlfcantly assncimed with higher levels of smoking. Knowledge If waming Iahels on magazine and billboard advenisemenis. however, did not differ signifcantly by level of smoking, Funhermore, greater knowledge of cigarene paekage waming . labels was associated with a natisti<ally significent higher risk If inereasing or uing smoking. Subgroup analysis revealed Ihat the elevmed risk was mustly limi~ed to ihose students who were slready experimenlal. monthly, or regular smokers at baseline. Among never smokrs- knowledge of pzckage wamiag Isbels was asseciated ~vh neilher a signl0cantly increased nor decreased risk of subsequenlly becoming a moker. Baseline advenisement waming Iabel knowledge was not associated with a significant change in smoking behavior, after controlling for other factors, in the full longitudnal sample, The nudy concludes that adolescents who are more likely to etheir mokingmeyalsobem relikelytoreadandre emberihe m ng labels~lt is also possible that some adolescents have acquired greater knowledge If cigarene package waming labels through exposure to friends or f ily emberx who smoke, potemially plscing them et greater risk If inesiag smoking. ln addhion, wsming labels are inteiMcd to reduce smuking behavior byfrightcning people wilh the health havrds of smoking. Hox , adolesc ere generaily not inFluenced by Interventions that focus only on mure dislal. heelth-releted ourcomes. Various arch shows ihat fear appeals must indude exphcll behavior change instruction or ihey will prove inelTective. In faa. there is evidence that high fear messages may acsually iMibit reducnons in smoking by decreasing a perso 's percewed ability to quit 4. Cecil. Heather. Richard 1. Evans. and Melinda A. Stanley. 1996. "Perceived Believability Among Adolescents If Health Waming Labels on Cigarette Packs." Jou.nalofAypliedSocialPsyrhologv.26(6)',50?-519.
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~I '9)e 'Rro9wq ..Nm4 .1 W.1 ya xw a9~'I['4 -at'L' 1 a-M s'rn-M m9n hP..+a 9n^9 ~v% a'~ ww 9x. •9W. e il'V.1910t'91i'.tw4n+npm. Iw4q 9awqa vvw nvya ..v pqu sow qql OIWv ..nmm.nm..,a wn.a amHi t.atmo .iwmpv<PnuuaRnl w~d wwx mk ron9Mmra hFl~, mn'mW.'IO!uw .M w~.® mnP•eRPmn~nav•+....ox M+v'^H6t'aivnem 9'A^w m~w Bvqm.mNPV.'486t ..vW N?vWamu po. ~aww.M~mvnumumN'oet mk•w ~P..Neh .y+ s~ypp. w'.w+.Y vmn+m~uuGNHrvnMAVm wa .nmlm9..a am aw .w.w.aa.9m a o.nw HqueEm c9. a paWmava ann .~nRnE N'•xaCU+Pp w.miu~ +a nw 9Rmm.9wnw m..1vP NPan.+avnn hAVm. M. (%K) aNma..Iw+R Pauaaw me•apmv.N M..vPVHnqMUUw..mRPw 1a811'G%t'a.mvLL B ILVmM>N v..vu.94lumW P ~Ran.Mw4a'(%l19P+ •nTn9~.)eaemswn.¢t 'Lmtlw' ~i.vv..v9w) ve au.'.q~mV x Rh+amV mfleV W ta.uma R',.4mwamR.xqeaam.wP.HaRam.nlimnwnw.n.<P.. vnm. v.a~yV'm,na~.onaJ awqn.y+.y Pnu+a} o.! euw saapEmoa YCm~4 aryqP wryry lv w9mnv (puw aq a ma 's w9a w owu..ue a.cuwam.k aMnwMmnan a..apH.v9 a9i. o.aa ncRrvav N8e(.m n. n9.9v. P+al .nlv w avm... aryi~yt aa.yv <19.9vM 9vu.ryy'lwal H8H)o m~pK..'uaMnw 9vi.ovn'vv rn as re +aam.:H a'rz ei _.__ . . . . --. N 4e,M3 Nniw+3 9n rvVV/v.aPNSewrow,y 3s 9n )ovrl+.o..oys w='s .vixvsau. cxrnv man BH
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TI Flle IJa DUSL0.YCODESTANES. A gandPablkRela~ions OESCRIPTORS: A s-lane~ing~L nelsk~PSy-chologinlaspeau ooES~l9nu Aamm.org<a<ml«oa p - a J~RR'159 pEeml59fromlilcee/ DIALOGIR1File aB.lcl 1991 Informasion Access Co. All na «s<rv. 5 (USEFORMAT'/OR9FORFULLTEXTI erbeM1aviw-0.<uercn:wamings-EValua~ioo.Akonotic beMvior--Srvdy and uatxing FILE SEGNEntI aAI Fae BB -ukln4 rcgime, reponin6 siac effens io ming l~ ma-ing haps~m ~ elogou akohol abcls lic po1~<y wnicn also was manawea gsMC(feniven<ssofine w > e~o~.Wirm~u~wlh.orme.I a=a~=.~ioa Pmgrama aaa pmid<r xeaa;. 1- wax p~nik.aoa ssara «ponto aimtoaa<ya< aor BASIGBe~eo cw reof snplat<eonci4aren<t< kag<z uimqlon Afler sa detrcase Im mokin6 wcun~ea~ In 19)I. tigare~u manfufactuers discloua... Ea~imaaa tov nrourow reques,<a is: SJDo r<ady m««m<.n aaman IY<:-nom<iv3 . Iw159 (II<ml59fromflk'.183 OGIR3file eeaAC BUSrNESS A P.T.S. o3A199'/ Informe~ion Acttss Co. All ns. reurv. P M9ER: Uta91'/15 (THIS IS THE FULL TEXT) ing hnelsO~ akoholic bereragesdner ekohol ebuse? EogsOR alor$tlwoll{<al~n.v59,n3.p116(l) ISSN„0023439i LANGUnGEEnglisn RECORDTYPE:FWI,- wORDCOUNT. .OG) LINF.COUNT:00_53
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influcu<c ;nnnded or< lik<Iv wJl~<suii. mrn<in[roau<nnnrm<r , of wa.n;ngrlgke x has pro okM<a rca~ deal of con[rovenr, bui linle s me Iab<IS art believed by ~currehn g adun xnwkms. Thls ivedb< ~wb0lry olc~rn<e war~~ng<k'cel inaudien PunFe~ e ~he`,udicu ward smok;ng mav be<som<wha[ u IJ< xug<, borh tneir en[ai foerertitude cnangv. and rb< ~ snev smoke IJ ar9 .ill be mmxunawueJ<v er(aa«tuxany unP on P< elved bdiev.bdi[x Background IabeB v rie v of Wcs r DaiF<re<m apn~< rx~ 1 o+esrudv on prcv<n ion oF pukagc anddlabeil des~An~Scnneidee 119t]I ouna [har warnoag kbela ac[uLLly arwn by cMldrcn [o rneuproducu 0.usro/19t]I (evsMtlur ers do uu umr uric<;nimma<V<JI and WUkk 119t91 found gnifian[ beFevi«al diR<rences nr<d bv rhe vu on of nacr8v conwmyr on kbehng on appluMes. "Cautlon: Cigarette Smoking May Be Hazardous to Yo>Sr Health^ Wuningiabel W«mauon.IVr wme <v mak<n have encouraeed ~ rwnki~Jorma pPfun ~Ile ucn drve g<d ¢oodxm.ndf n<aglrh<w PunNvallrnmuea «iulumavb<loundoin oudrugs.in<acFwe~rhe a er<h on rwninorol kbenng. '.~a p < w b«n o.cow wnrcnM< , m< nek m- o wl.n na rnka .na ana .~.. a aa.< n ana bcru6ud<h<Droduc.unom nn0. Buc ue9o31au 'ewdvofco~uume indk[mm~ofrne<Prad' n labelin for r de eRe<u ao r<naud goodvn(ound rna[ epaMc Nmg,oa ~.~ ~e n<eann a~ iorma[m~ ax.a<a P««Prmnx .na rhe marker<r IMorr;s, RuRner and prc(erenc<sol9ual;rv-DJVll9i61<onKllmberg 19BS. Untorwnarely, can- Judedrhurnebnaefiuofnuuicioni> mgfrmcanincreauv~Drud' bebne Wcre auku in 1 m e than a liabilltv surts nav< cnnu;bured ro b<hav;«J. becaoudM lo.okveb o! the rruw(urvr<ri urovision oI p.odn M h 1 be4 /ac bv ` nicil~u v,Wieme. Funkhou,<maodMa<cabvli9illna<d ~h un reMabJa ussd<a < s,eMvisuiluimunBorgMaaM Nbkea l19]]/ lound satisvul .um;nlessinfarmaciv<rlun"viNa,"« n aMrrecs m(«mn;orc and Sum on 119i]I simJarly n«ed [lut Miurivilcopy(«maulgm], fav,poMwere mr«mar;ve ttun acnW numer;e («mau. In <cn Busn <andnBusn /19861 raanm<M<d rn< ~ndvaion a nnmxr-ba,<a <npr n adver[isem<nu,NC<ruden iwoa.~cn <o n. worm,P« ah<r xa,~ei<"arM1:~<,hnwn rwr u ia beve w -ncw~< /nrh<r Am .wid) nkJ xnrd s in murkering cwnn, /nnaer.on and bbon Drneuc< gmra rerall on•niw~m ~eumv ana Lu<pNU 19ezL 9uJita;velvonented infmmnwn is orc beti<v.bk tlun 9wnuottselr~ uad Info<macion IBehaMN .M Ev wtru auch a.ra~u19B5ksu ved( rc a uhiar ;e e.u4inbeaerraJl rn.n , isrkilsinfarma[wn IDkk,m 198i1, aM numerkil ra[inP e n (<rr<d in manix farmu IMuikr 19851 9<a<man vnd Kekkvr (191i1 u<ommeMed rtu[ mbrmttion be Proemed o canxumen n fMmeu~nl~hrh<miplov th< asiese mf« madon u9u W tlon ' avaJabk[o[n<wkxnand. OchePSVi,e, a, Nourae and Mdnwn It9111 ro[<d. <oroumer, encouruering roo much infarmauon .rc likely [o ig Nnghbelinfoemarbnwkhou[ Ches rrwr ndSYberman/19R)fouM Wrlgnr/19i91resnaamelkcbdm ougn una<nunavag of m< rn. [nar <omum<n do noc wam n« un ru amg<, aaam w w<nnc~ •[~`,na <ommon kw rw~o-<m<nra ,wa. r on mrnrmasnn. and r<; t<n.P° "arm e aa'nrFa<mnw [w[.rg<a benefira rnuPUkegewam'v~g.berodi4fpund («WerywaenmgslUnic19851«d F,nnaf1191)Iwr<d- Prevw <searcM1 son o~ uud. m d;ubsur ~ nkF ~~~comb'med w'rh a visuJ taou.P'Wu< inkrma oan+ ~•i~sa~~e « <ral warn<u uuue P~u~na ~ n>~md,drm °`« <oMa<n n~nao: comp~`i~c<Junlw md<. Eunknoua<r 119B1~ E meawr<a Pnnnod- Eeemat. Pau n,<arcn ssag<,. na n<,r,rm. °tnn< r<,~,m prcncn,wn am uM<r. mely a<monxrnr<x rhn <an urylurlu~m<rctr<xqMuqrnc u~,amgof mr.<rcni«,xnla~nrmah.,. wa e Iaxl in w, ~ m n mr rv m.na av<Inwr< mnxagn <nd rm,na . nign i~rt,.r~ a~P<~e:°m I.~g<vart nn m< aav<r~u ~m.~ m nn~nar<,rroa,g <t. levelofx o"dJf<rc ,usd mnif«muandtnutnem onbuv ackeg subrk nr vailaba;~r o! in(ama w!- nMenc s uNess p<rFups, du m< uncedlormm ~ewil p 6cien ondsion eor in!«murian,n a m usfurmadnn u maa< m«e ab- mgrdexucM1amesuee. Schucker`n < ng/Bi<M1il an Clvkravarti 198z1. ous fWr;gFr 1919, p E684 aPrien;i n1119e51!«~na;naraa«wnnwarn~ng m<nm,m~nkatmg,x<w~r<a«r«n. n<omm<naahonrmtm<pr<r<rwnonr 11
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10.1Engs aC. iws S Dru6 abau hyr~nia: r 5 /v00'. 58(1/:2-8.)21COminevonoCOmm<rs<. .DC.u .19g8. DD 66'a-6 6gl;lCOm oa Com <: Con ranal USSenam.Aag 10~1988.IJIMC at.Finnegan um5cou5~M infofm onp s eedn4 Ex rx5aiery~2&Fennrue/ mIS0~0De1-B5~1310.ichmdsonP.emafRe.i<w f~h Reswrch e eRecn ofNeal~F Wamine_ Labels: A repon w ~M1e Uniu-0 erCan .I98Y.can ADM?81 86-OO03 fw -ional lnsanulorSakahol AEUxe aM AleMOI im. Md~670nin R er RE. S~okas RC: Evamazing she life e o'fa Prcduc~ wamiag 5 eJ:g(6):801~822.1]/HeimbacM1 /T~The growmg Imip.o~ of soalom Iabelloq. B of Ne Insurvu of FoodTtthnobgisu. s~is~xnaa:a~:m hamixiaga~o-iapnmmmm~ioa.cneal g6:31(]I:a61.a6;~r191DO..is AL. P~sweI11G: w.mingxam mDlicaaonr for iM desie_n ofproaan warnings.l Prad 6a.1107Mazi: Me. Monia LA. G«doa E: Pa~km ranll rabom v<perie iofoim u~NllMO rroeee es-w~ g arotsryxE leasl Produn Le6eling.nd ptt . R 6 Id SriogHarborLeborowry. 1980 'I~IMOrt,iskLA.OlinsNlU~iryof lnfkisfo~elaerlYCOnsumers.Am a.]+12y1n-I58 pilMyenMt.net SuRR<ponrn NaCigarenelAaveniumen~mveu;~~ion.wasnmg~onDC.F<aen/TSMe 951,II+IBanlnstirvu:TableofNalionalConaumqionof ar M1inBwh DC.lbe &n Ipsrime. gg.1157Enge RC,A,aalaon9DC U~ Weniy rrvdenu arinkNg p.n.mx.m qoblems:ExamningN sofre M1 Prhau ege.Pudic 10316):66]6]3~(I6I0.oseanaklMHis oriwlorieinsoltMlN `be kap ~.Ela):338335.11]IEnBS 0.CC foredwe Th cagn~~e md]n b<havionl evalua/on ola DrvBEtluc19]'/:22:39<e. (181HamrickMH.Anapaogh~JeSmuhJOL~MC Nvior 980;50(e):+SSaS&11911versonOC.POrmoyB:he RcassessmenUOfrlu 4nowledgc anicutla. behavim vutl. Hea1N Eaas 9]]:(NOVlDn):3131(20)Kiroy D: Se+ueliy educuion: A mme aealin'v~ u cRV.~s. J Sch HeaIN 1985;55(10/:<21- RI)Vinal 111 aI: anaflh ealNqou vebehrv olfem eeaokscen Of.12]IBrmMi AM: AIDS N huaaal ~s .e: Foolr Iessonslfmm~2Me A nory otsexaa/ly mnsminM m I Publlc Hea1N I98a:]&+T36w11.1'J7KVFy D: TheeRau of uhool eduv'nioaal progums: n reviev of Ne In<raxra.I 5ch HeaFh e0:5IX 10):559-561.12aIManigllo W. Mon (L: The impan of ux etlucaion rv Eam Dlann Pnspcn 19B6.IB(Cy Ilh 62. (251SOlomm MZ. Delon <ttoiu Wnv fore l ln AlDS M1esl h eaucmjon . HeaIN auc p t986a3{</.101-316. ( 61GOOtlsutli MS. CaleekalJaM K: AlwAOI eduwiion prog.unv for v eRenivennx. lm / Aaa/n aa0'ralAl ]IHao srofelcoholmaamg edu<a~~on. J Ak & Dxe EEUC9823](21:eImI1"1281Haning GB. LeaNa DS.
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ccea y skang fox .ne xrspanac reaiaeficbvno naa r.wec raca Y e3ebzacea
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i o ena aaulre.na a nG8lnW Papkk' R¢xow i. Hvng. ,.aoHeg m4 M.IN motleoe m clVk; finemen rvdNble awe af pvWlcEUlWeencemofeoltime eM t~ ~Iw. I~lmm W ®enSWleaVUle.ppm! HuMUO, m pne).Rn keweg VhV USDHNS,1991). ~.uie y of w~ruk (enen (e.S.~oeowtiN cwCkueln Pnuov, S6eevuo, ~ r~m. wea,nm tlem of wc rya11k MYN ricb uravtd.lm wotin5 (Bvw u ei, (9M:Bwe.xeeaaeoe,144kHaiuu.l9'g;hmucl9fY).Ho.e.v,wn beL<M1 wy eemo 1w;mp~.m wn Mw fwwn 1e prW ictl4 emokNg~M iW mpeu m ewomeu.eG waguVe e(qc Iul® eieb ewaYn! .iw.nekwg, nv mtle vmeNiw Mn kwe Mw PeLL me mgjplry e1 mmeepeclRCWlOawrywmalwo9L6 (0.5.. ouv of W wY cer6y), srm me4E N%' ue MeNIY.ven tlut ®okme meY nw a.vsa (0.rwy. FbimEw. ! o..1ey. 145:0'Remlm. ORymv,! WIWO-D.vn,14);Pelmn.191o).9emN,eompuNa Womn .eElnmot mweke mYU PobRnmwken W emiemn. CenwmauliYwlYmM.wveotevC m.eeepdegeosN.W qe>fia kwW M.M mekag (D.Wey m LL., 1995; Nuny 6 YVim4e~9gtr Nv~nY5w.c leEmw, 6 BeMey, 1491lo mepeee m w fioCiyt ea0emic uewagme (Ewu e et, 1915: Pu~Min roll: bvonynLL.14)leei OsPetleN PMeCemmWlV (FfG 19kt: Wumm, 149) nkTUW We oeed fm mae ryuiLc 6Wrh ruoieg lebele mdyn4 pvb fnuYN ov W mwsimnNiuepLy.iol4loelaBw4lneetlafewny e,e9oaeAleOmouliroe HeennemokFgleL4ewemooe'e 1WtltwM Iwe1, www rcw dmN~ We IYtM WweowMaoewnp.dMetlMmen u wwvEhplqDMYmkN6ruNnS~ INNVatiumenu.In191f,Wo u ep.we ~,ew roe Ika. m9ufnmUe ~Inlfb)EbPIbNnMawwunlNl.lellegY .eWmn4 N) 41ePhY we Malm vmi41WN h LLe 4mIfiW ebe en bi IlkcvN, m(e) qem we nunk wn:np miel poeu'y w elwevun.ueeem (PM,19k;U5DNH3,19YC). 1M nlduJw of5wlwon aecmu2 m 1951,.1,m JuCeegmboY 8a'u ~Co®IVeonHWYauEWeHevMemmwowneemqlnY.~Fle CipnnoSmoNVyDmge~SYaneHWM'(IwpoNOmeMlmM1neV 99~6, ~mwa 145„.BUNO.wII«tinnpmjeEpee.wSmoeiu,io W6eeW peWNMd by tlee PfC. eAe Cwdw eanumdM Wu Wu ' bh~elwopmqbryNCQUlivebwvwFwrwHCesNnlCWler v81oym clg~ ~Wke (U8D1W8, 199t).12e wwmiveeY.apan klw wv0.Ce4wMVemwYOedevdupwnne04~~F~m~ A~I' pulnofeoW em nleotlHCkocwMye pwlo:nHm tlu kumfiJ om~i4omcn ef mokmg. PwM~mmc We YMIe v.Wtl Mn w be eee:rydwEpmltleopdokdeclMnepokwHW WyveuWMmms B~•S~ COPY"
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~ s;o;,ea os
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rw~uscen,.rvn c~u+rmsN,,,a.. rRF.PAw:o,.r aFU~~E_a,o.co~~NSE~. r.we 9. SRntntery orsmmos Earntauxg Imr.m xrworkrm9. Rc.vimop. ore ciQa- cop9pwrrox ny Smoaa.. Sourr.e: NERACalcula~ionsbasMOnintlzaieJVUtli<s.Compki<reRv<ncesMOVi~kd~nn.rvNLOISeRtleviiROm199<(a~ucistl). 6c9i .`55ii
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~t ~~ a~~ ar n 8141 aw. ~4'/ E.e.~ 9es~ m. an~.~. waso.n so N.r. s.Wa..e~..^ .aius.ew,eis.e.t .w:~ofx..raA. "This collection of Gossage's jerem/eds is must read- ing fur everyone who earns his living in advenising" - David Ogilry Is There Any Hope for Advertising? Howard Luck Gossage Edifetl 6y Kim Rotmll, Jarlath Graham, and Barrows Mussey "GOSSage dazaled thc advenising worid in the 1960s and t9tOs wlth an irrepressible wit and an inevcrent athtude mwavl his own professlon. He founded a mall advenising agency in San Francisco whese he produced a series of inemorable campaigns, notabiy Insh whiskey and Eagle Shinmakea This book is a coilectiuo of spe echm antd anicles by Gossage over the years.... Rcmeded." - Libsary Jownal. Iilustrated. $19.95. o.Jer - I•ee ePo/eieJan. r/83erJOO. University of Illinois Press ® 54 E Gregory Drive, Champaign, IL 61820
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Pwvt[EC[o nn'o Co,.'r~o[n"nnr. PnEewuo ni R[9u[s'r or Cot~s[t. C. Referenees E, ans. William N.. Matthew C. Farrelly. and Edxard Montgomery. 1991. Du Workplace Smoking Bnnx Reduce Smoking? UnpublisM1ed paper. College Park. MD: University of Maryland.lune lo. Evanz. William N.. Matthew C. Farrelly, and Edward Momgomery. 1996. Da W'orkptoce ,Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking? Cambridge. MA: National Pureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 5567, May. Longo. Daniel el al. 1996. "Hospital Smoking Bans and Ernpioyee Behxvior Results of a National Survev "The Journol afAmerican Mediro( Auaeimiun. 215(April 2i): 1252- 1?Sl. Notc: Other reterences are listed in thc attacbed 1994 sRidavit by A. Nichnls.
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Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking? by William N. Evans Manhew C. Farrelly Edward Montgomery Depvvnem of Eco Cen er for Eco ic Research Depenm r of Eco aa Univ rsiry of Maryland ca Research Teiengle lns1tute Univ rsiry of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 3040 Curnwallis Rd. t College Park, MD 20742 (301) 405-3486 Research Trlangle Park, NC (301) 405-3498 ens@eco umd.edu (919) 541-6852 ontgome®e<on.umd.edo ProJecs 110PE and NBER mef@ni.nrg and NBER lune 10,199] wish to rhank Lynn Hueng, Mtlrew Lyon, Thomaa Schelling, RoCert Schweb, snd seminar panicipaots al Princeton University, the MIT/Harvard LaEOr Workshop, end the Sociery of Govemment Lcnnomists for a number of Aelpful rvggeelions. This work was supponed by grams from rhe Nalional Caocer msa- and mz Roben Wood lohaaon Poundaroo.
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"DO Workplece SmolJOg Beos Redott Smokiey?^ Abzttact In recem yeers Neee has bcen a heightend public conccm ov<r the pos<nsially harmful <Rttts of tobacco smoke (ETg). Ia re.ponsq zmoking has been bnned on menyjobs Using dau trovm otAe 1991 and 1993 Nalional Nea1N Imerview gurvey and smoking supplcments to th< geptember ' I992, Jnnuary 1111, aad May 1991 Currem PoDOlation Survey, we inves[igate whethcr N<se wprkplace policies reducc zmoking prevaleace and smoking inseasiry amoag workers. Our estima[<s sug%est tha~ workplace bans rcduce smoking Dr<valence by 5 percrnsage poinfs vM rvcrage daily consumption mongzmok<rsbylOpercent Thcimpacto(Neb»isgrcatcs/PorlhouwiNlongerworkwttks. Alsbovgh workers wiN b<tt<r AeahM1 hebits ar<more likely to work at esublishm<nts with workplace moking baa; essimncs Nom nvo-smgc Icast s9oare models sugg<st Ncae rewlts ar<na subject to an med variablcs bias. Th<npid incr<ase in workplace bans cen e.plain all of thc rec<ns shary drop in smoking emong worken relativ<to non-warkcrs. IEL Classi(cation Nomberx 128,118
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w„ or ~arormahoa r<br<a ro ~ Pm ae~n<r,~.~<aro~- e tFe Fed<kal Communi<aeions Commusion covld re a< broadro fir.d van o( v+eum:ng in. (ormation o sides o! che bealortthe<F<d<ral T+ade Commission to wue guidehvu r<lat~< w m< aarc e edlin tFenc<ommer<uls a+dntP~h< cohoF< b<.<ra subaidv< aat~ (IX ue oftusng il<onai eeaoon~ siblv.no+ban ad~ertium<~n an«+tan ~<haa "HaPPr Hoort'm nl<s ~fere ot•~P<cs,c il<onor~< xv<rae<.. nces Conclusmn Smce tAe eHec<s a( drunk driving wUl a a<,~<taFae aaa ot sn< wwi<. me i,. ,,. ~.n:<<o aotano<t il<ondi<xv. < aarc wui <no o n< rFaabann esadsT ce<be teHeave ilueo verforha~dlng ~n< Pron~<rc. TFeuavlya:r Pr<s a,at <onwm<+a _.a ~i h.rc ~oti<... mtarmation aaa a <har1< ythe a4onol bevea r~M1e gwm o„iaar~~.~<<o <aa~re mr+e,<a a, twm .e <a~t«Pmatma ~a<n,<<n:~ <w< ar<M1 on tFis is sral bnng gather<d. New congrcu:oail h<ar:nga ~eofrabauavdveumtgw•eu h<ia du~iag nugua of 1986, ao cooaid<e tFe Possibilitv o( t compku ban oadvertuing/131TMre(oe<. therzb c bew. indum eorilr'egolrzarvgnodu+,atd cgon' eed ao d cFang nahe ci ~PU i<c an«a,r<or~.rr<at+<a<a+<n<.amt g m<imva<t ana <H«a of aaonor< br. aFe de < adv<+nsine. h .dd,Pnon. .<+w Rua n Pasadas d< r v To.+um Compo.Y of P.e, m R<0/991.whlch uPF<Id Pueno R1riehr to vaoMMt adv<n~mg of e I galacnvitY,maY<Fengerh<rature o( tn< v +avm<a <emm<a<m nfarmztion or decuions wJiW<c<<h< rcsolut~on olche antuilconol'u tever.ge cad,. Nam am cw. chv~d c~H.. il l: P ea. nu.Han.lsei. e.<+~1 a•`iP:b~m+. ls. snwtf.rwtwvuaa&n. ne..nu1 N< .t).EA•w 1191, 1651
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NATIONAI. ECONOMIC RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Privileged and Confrdensisl Prepared at Requesr If Cuunsel To. Kp Viscusi (cc-lcff Wei1) From: Nick Nichols and Bemie Reddy Re: Impact If Workplare kesninons on Smoking Behavior Date: Sepemberl],199) Over Ne pasr decade, numerous companies and govemments have imposed restrictions on smoking in she workplace. Various nudies have anempted to cshmate how such restrictions aff- smoking behavior, both in te- of the prevalence If smoking (paallel to whal we discussed in another memo as the "pznicipation elast city" with respect Io price) and the number If cigarenes consumed per smoker (parallel to what we discussed as the "use elasticity" with respect to price). These smdies strongly suggest that. as with changes in the mo ey pnce If cigarertes, bmh effects occur. This evidence provides additional suppon for the argument that cigarette smokers respond to changes in the effeciive - If smoking in the same y that one would expect individuals to respond to changes in the cus If other goods or ecn.mes. some givc ...... piion If the good alrogether ard those xiso cominue. on average, se Iess If it. lt is no cons~s ent with the argumen s that some observ rs (e g., the Comm~ss~oner If Labor in Maryland when he issued regulahons in 1994 barm ng smoking in mos workplaces) have made, Uat smokers increase tAe number ofcigarenes smoked outside work to make up for any cigarenes missed during working huurs. This memo is divided in,o n.,o pans. Part A summanzes the resuhs If an analysis we did in 1994 in comieciion with regulaliorts in Maryland and in Washington.lTe affdavit from the Maryland case is attached (along with Ne anicles referenced in it). Pan B summarius our review If two more recen studies ihe, provide additional evidence that workplace restnenons reduce the prevalence of smoking. as well ..... sumprion per smoker.
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r- a f :
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Palvlt,[Gtn ab'o Co.~'rm[~"n,a. PIttPARLU aT RCOf [ST OF COf\SCL A. The Literature Prior 10 1994 Table I pr<sems Ihe summary mbie from Nick's 1994 afiidavir Is presents numerical esnmares from li swdies. ~ogesher wish rhe qualirative conciusions frum 5 other studies. These sludies sll were based on analyses of workplaces (ofien hospiuis) Ihat had resnicled smoking. The siudies included were ail of those reviewed in a O.S. EPA repon on The Casis and BeneAfs o/Smoking Resrricrions (Mudarr/ 1994. Appendix A-?),i as well as several additiosml relevant swdies thar v.e idenrified through other sources. On average, rhose smdies Ihat quantified results found that avemge consumprion of cigareaes by employees who smoked deciined by 13-14 per<enr Most ofthe srudies simply romputed the change in avemge overell consumpuun by smoker: However, several specifically investigated the breakdown of changes in consumption during arb omside of working hours; rhey found that redu<rions during working hours were offset unly in smail pan by increases omside of working hours. At the reques, of counsel, our analysis in 1994 focused un averag«onsumplion by smokers and did nor address tbe issue of quit rates in deuil. Our tenutive conclusion, however, was iba, workplace resuictions did reduce smoking prevalence: they Induced some peopie in quil smoking. We nore Ihat in the EPA beneft-cosr analysis ofsmoking resmcuons. Mudarti conciuded thll workpixce resmcuons merease quir rares. We also concluded howcver, thar the evidence for quining was nm as svong as for reduced consumpriort Problems included small samplesaack of adequaie conuol populations; and the possib{liq of self-selecsion bias (tendencb,s of smokers to choose in work for employers withour workpla<e bans, tendenmes of rron smokcrs lo choose to work for employers wiflh workpiace bans)_ rti (SOrtnsen anL Pa<hxcek 1989 antl Sorensen n al. 1993) were ed followin8 uBr~eevlieu~abe<auneMM1ev do na atlOress smokin6 bans m 1Ee p e, buI raNer ihe eflernvenessofvariausimmen~ionsCesigned~o«du<esmokingraies.
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.,.
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PnrvtEEGeo nno Co~FloE.~'n~a. -6- PREPAREDATREptI[STOLCOI'\SEl lanuan1993 CPS, ss-hi<h also mcluded similar infomuiion, k'ith rhese d-, thev estimaced any v m mns on three types of equations for people who work indoors and nrc nos self- employed, with the presence of e workplace ban as one of many explanamry Iariables: • Doestherespondenlsmoke? • How many <igarenes per day are smoked by respondenu who are smokers? • How many cigarenes per day are smoked by all respondents (necessaril) zero for non- smokers)? in ihe simpler versions of their analysis, a probit anelysis of whether the respondent xas a smoker yielded s range of estimmes that a wotkplace smoking ban reduced the prevalence of smoking by abnm 4.8 percenuge poims (CPS data 97,882 observa6ons) to 5.7 percentage poinzs (NHIS dala, 18,090 observaunas).s An ordinasy least square regressmn anatysis of the aserage deily (self-reponed) cigarene consumption by smokcrs yielded a range of estimates lhm a x-orkplace smuking ban reduced cousumptian by 2,0 (CPS data. 19.956 obxrvztions) to ?.5 (NHIS data, 3,679 observaiions) cigare es per dzy. A similar regression analysis of the average daily cigarene coasumption by ell smokers yielded a eeduction range of 1.4 (CPS dala. 93,367 observations) to 1 .7 (WHIS dau. 17,209 observations) per day a Tbese equations included z large number of additional explanatory variables- including one based on age, family sizc, sta~ cigarenc tax, income, region of ttrc coumry, educalion, ethnicay, rype of menopolitan area, marital stams, year, induslry, and occupation' This approach is fairly similar m that ~aken by several other suNars in trying lo esnmat<the pnce elasiicity of demand with large survey data scls ° Evans, Farteily, and Monlgomery estimate numerous related equations to check whether the resuits can be give... ausal imerprelation (i.e., bans esuse redunions in both n ess o~ erwiu su~ed, rcsuus v<uken hom tne 199] version ofine Evanx, iart<ny, and momgomerypaper. x shouitl Ce in regres u(<.g e~VfourUS u( ~ne umpie Imiavine zeropfmiaver ee da lyn<onaamq/an). A<M1esnmuN <Rtt~ eanno b< i r<ducnon in e erage dn y n umqion fm ) ose r<spondenu .vi posnve dmiy n ,meeuzonzeponalmonid<micalresunsLormoE<Is~M1a~nlso~n<IUdew¢efleesx. ma,rr.an EvansFarrelly.andMOmgan<ry norcponNUresnmatMeR<culmsur g ewes. ®
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Pwvsa[c [u anu f o..'rsor.+'riai Pnevan[n ar Rcpuesr or C-NSSe smoking prevalence and imensiryl or a self-selecuon one (i.e., people whn smoke mnd to quit v.orking for employecs with smoking bans). Mosi imponamly. rhey teSt rhis direcdy with two- srage least squares (or biven «prohit) models. The nouon is that the smoking ban variable is to xome extem chosen by the employee (the woeker can pethaps wmk foe an employet thm does nol have a workplace smoking ban). so ihe same unobservable facton that make someone more Iikely to smoke might also make the person more likely to choose a workplace xithaut a smoking ban. The authors use an indicamr variable for whether Ne place of employment has o.er 50 employees (md somaimes imerzctions berween that variable and Indicmors for industnes and occupations) es an instrumem fot the smoking han variable. This variable (and ns inrera<twns with indusvy and o<cupation variables) is hugely signif<am in an equetion esumated to predic, whetber a survey respondent s workplace has .... king ban. kesults with ewo-s~age leasr squares are essentially unchanged from the single equauon approach An ordinarv leasr aquares (as opposed to probit) version of their simple single equmion model applied m the NHIS dara yields an estimated reducuon of 5.4 pescemage poims in the smoking rme due to a workplace smoking ban; whh two-stage least squares, that estimate ineseases slighdy to the range uf6.3 to 6,5 percenuge points, depending on the instmments used. For the regression equation expleining average daily consumption for all respondents (no just smokers), the use of two-siage leart zquares changed the ertimeted reduction in daily consumption due o the smoking ban from 1 .7 cigare es to 1.5 or 1.6 cigare es. The authors did nm repon tesults with two-suge least squares fo eversge daily cunsumption by smokers. In summary, Evans. Fatrelly, and Momgomery provide srrong evidence of rhe following: • Workplace smoking bans reduce smoking prevalence. • Wotkplace smoking bans redu<e averege daily cigarene consumption by smokers. Observed differences in smoking ra es between workplaces with and without smoking bans are due in great pan to reduceons brought about by the smoking bans themselves, notj- by self-sele<tion on the pan of smokers and nomsmoken.
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w have thc gzeazesl -pec on both ETS and zmokiag bablrs becausc of the nvmber of hourz warkers ere subjecttozM1es<rcstri<tians. Th p nuslimporunceofworkplsusmokingyolicies'etrtttonamokiog M1abns un be seen by examining zM1e time series panernz of zrnoking paniciPotion rates for workers and aoaworkers. Ia Figure 1, we greph Ihe smokiag pvticiWtion ral<z for workers end nonworkers, aged 18- 55. for zhe Ceriod 19Y81hr0ugh 1993. Thcze numbers were gene- fiom the Ngtional HealrA Inlerview 5urvey (NHIS) smoking supplemems for Ne years 19]8-1980.1983.1965, 198)-199I' Thcse date indicatc thst between 1978 and 1985, there was no zystematic difference betweep imoking retes a ong w rkers and noawockers. 2erveen 1986 and 1993. the ume period aft<r the Surgeon Generel'z «pon on pessive smoke, smoking panicipalion rates emnng workcrs fell 2.6 pcrcenuge points (slznCmL ertoeof0010)morethanthedeclinefornon-xnr4ers? Thischangeeppearznazozimplyreflect changes /n Ihe relazive heallhinezs of workers corepared to nonworkers.a Llkewise, while there have beee changcs in thc demagraphlc mix of workers snd n0nworkers that may bc cortelezed wiN this decline in rela~ive smoking retes, we estimme thet only 0.9 percenuge poinzz of the drop can be explainedbychengingdemographics,lmvingat.ipercentegepoimdropunexplained.' Thezefgurcs ns(N~ w Os ve1113 3 IC,u.3ax,a.zg»,- 111111 6. puenu1y vu wem M m m. Pe. a aer i )un .ssuns /z Mas a es rar wo~een r.lei rve w nm.mtm u o 003 1 (o ot I ) mr . ery gmY'a~el Imt M1eahM1 wrvs enE o.wa (0.010) farMl9uwe 9 2
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in recem Years mere has be<n a h<igLrooed public awarevesa orNe potenfianr hafmfol afr a of sccond-hand or environm<nul iobecco smoke (ETS). This concern has been bulstered by Ne 1986 Suegeoa General's report and du 1986 National Academy of ScieneNNationaI Reuarch Council'z tazk force rcpon on passive smoke, wbich IinkW ETS io higher rafes ofeencer and hesrt d'seaze in nonsmok<rz. Aftersurveyingihescien~ificdauonfhehealtheffectsofpessiveamuke,the Environmenfel Profection Agency (EPA) decIared ETS a Class A cvcinngen' in reaponae fu fh<public'z growing coacem and intolerance 1. ETS, public and priveie gfoups hav<fricd to r-u <xposur<fo passive smoke. 5- and local govemmemz hve passed clean inloor a~r laws tha, resvicf smoking in e variery of puLlic placez, such as r<sfaurasu, el<vafors. poblic meesing rooms, and in ihe workplace! Simulmneously, many fims began volonurily edopling workplace smoking reztrictioox The impacf of,hese fecfors on exposuee tu workplace smokiog bans lus been dramafic. As we demonstraie bel0w, only 25 percent of wmkers io 1985 worked in <subliahmems that bnn<d smoking in work sreas. By 1993, ihis number iner<sud io'IU percem. The public rezponselo smnking in fhe wurkplaee reuhed its apex io March 1994 when fhe Oceupetional Neelth and SsRry Adminimmion (OSHA), es pan Of e larger ini~iafive on iMoOr air 9ualiry, propoud a eompleee ben on zmoking in over 6 million workplues.' in eddifion to rcducing exposure 1o ETS, thcze laws end reatriaions may efiect smoking behevior by reducing oppmmnifies ro smoke. Offheu policiu workpisce imoking renrietiona are likely <-mmm>"<am.moemr ea«a w:um<i<m <.am« from ii<puez in i992 Eu % 199<tew _, _ .. 9 )naerFUwnileanir~aP~rcemolwivaeucwr pabl(wa!(Snme<l<av.~n/~MnrtAC~6,199a,P~elwwmnnBOn~Pa1 ee~Mevv11, 1 11<p~B1)lT~ispropoue r
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Pxsvlkcc[oArvvCOn[to[nitAt Plt[PA0.f.p AT REQU[ST OF Co-[L former smokers) at a given point in tim<.' Simple comparisons showed that one.eaf aker the ban, rhe quit raho for the hospital cmployees was 0,066, compared utith 0,039 for tbe commun . unteryans" For employees whose hospitals had insowted a han at least five , ars before the survcy, the quit ratios averaged 0.506, compared with 0.3)) fur their cotresponding communmes. DifTerznces were smusucally signifcam. Longo et al. also estimated s Cox proponional haurds model, xith and xithout soc~oeconomtc and demogrophic charscteristics. for the sutvey respondents. The "relative risk" for the hospital employees .as 1 .7 when demographics were included and 2,0 s'nen thzy were not with both effects smusncally signifcant at a very high level; i.e., those subject to the ban xcre oughlytwiceaslikelytoquit. . The authors slso found (methodology na stated) diat continuiag smokers reduced their average cigarene consumption by 1.1 clgarenes pef day, which they concluded was statistically signifcant. This study appears to provide reasonably soong suppon for the view that xnrkplace bans reduce smoking prevslence by inducing some employees to quit smoking. lt does not entirely avoid the xltselecrion problem, however. In principle, some hospitai employees who ..ere smokers at thz time of the hospital smoking ban could have changed jobs shonly thereafier because they wanted to contiaue smoking without hindrance. Hecause they -ld not be included in the later survey of hospital employees. such behavior -ld increase the relative pfevalence uf hospital employees who mighl he willing to quit smuking efier the implemematioa ofthe ban; such an inerease -ld na appear in the cornparison gruup In pracnce, howe er, hospital employees wansing tu changejobs in order to avoid s workplace smoking ban -ld have to cbange industries, because (at Izast as of December 31, 1993) the workplace ban extended to othef hospimis. As a resul[ the theoretical pmblem of self-selection is Iikeiy to be less severe with this study than with other revospective studies. 2. Evans, Ferrelty, and Mantgomeey: Warkplece Smaking Oans Evans, Fanelly and Momgomety analyud two latge sources of survey data: the 1991 and 1993 National Heahh Intetview Surveys, which included infotmatlon oa smoking behaviof and workplace smoking restrictions; and she September 1992, May 1993, end (in one Study)
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sa5gest that there hes Men some exurasl factor that haz bcen differentially affecriag tFC amoking habits o(workers over sF<pasr 20 yearx. possible e p anauon for IFis phenomenon is Ne nu in workplace smoking bans over Nis time period. In tM1is paper wc examine wFaF<r workplett amoking Dolicies rcduce workmi Jcmead for ciparenes. Theexistingitudiesthat<xaminerFCimDactofworkDlacepolicicsoasmokingbeheviorhave producedconHittingresuhs. Thesesmdinereg<nerellylimiredtoesmelinamberoffrmsendworkers andsufierfromothcrmetfiodologi<alproblemzrhasar<diuusudbelow, Thisstudysdvaaccs[hc iiurasure in a numbcr of imponem ways. It iz Ne frst zmdy to uu a netionally rcpr<senulive Jem ur to exam~r~etheimpactofworkplacesmokingresttictioasonsmokiogbehrvior. Weuzedaufromthe1991 aad 1993 NHIS thm provid<a much Iarger aM richtt cross-secrion o(observarionz on the rclationship betwccn frm smoking Dolicics and smokiag omwmss than in prcvious acadies. PooIing dma across boN sa eysgeaeraresasampleof1g,090workers.5inglc-eqaationrtzulta(whcreworkplacesmokingbans are assamed to bc cxogenous) saggesllFat workplace Lsas IeaA to a 5 Y pcrcennge poim decline in zmokiag preralence and a deereau ia avnage cigarcnc conrvmption by smokers of 2.3 cigarenes pes day (about 10 pcrceas). These basic resulss are seplicetM asiag dma fmm ovcr 9>,00U iadoor workars wfio respoaded to che smoking rvpplemeats fiom she September 1992, Jsauary 1991, aad May 1993 Currcat Populalioa Survcy (Cp5). Wc slso uke xriously thc issue iFat these single~cqwtion enimncs mey be mbjecr to an omrnedvsrlablesLiaz. Wedo,however,geaemcelhrttutaofr<sultsthatsaggestecaasel r ry atroa FirsLwecontrolforenambcrofvviablcslhasmayzigaeltheundcrIyiagheeltFioezzof the iadividaal or frtn. Second, wc geacrse rezulls coasislent wisF s causel interyrHation. For exampie, we shozv thm che impa<t ofworkplece smokisg bans ia grensn for workers wisF Iongest work xxeks. m«I ~n seiak~n¢ l« workm rchareto nonworken mrwnn isas ree irsz i. hoaaa. ~~o oza~o~oozlF~o oiNjo.o o~.~ 3
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Pmvi[[ceo,.no Co+rio[sri.[ PR[VAR[U ar RCOU[ST UF CUf.95[L B. Moee Reeent Studles Two recenr swdies have addressed at least som<of these limitations. I.ongo e, al. (1996) analyred quit mtes for z reasonably large sample ofcurrent or fmmee smokem (1469 subject to workplace bans and 920 not). Evans. Farrelly, and Montgomery (1996. 199)) -mmed models Sased on large hexltb surveys (up 1119,090 ob-ions in same modelsl aod ffie Currem Populmioe Survey (CPS) from two or three momhs that included smoking questions (up 191,882 obscrvations in some models) 2 Both ofthese nudles have provided reasonably st ong evidence i suppon of ~e view rhas workplace smuking bans redure smoking prevalence. 1. Longo ct el.: Hospital Smoking Bans Longo et al. analyzed data from e survey of hospital workers and oNer workers m nearby I..ns, an accrediting orgamunon thxt attredi,s approxmately 80 percem of U.S. hospitals mandated that hospitals become smoke-(ree by December 31, 1993. They defined stmta for hospitalx and geog<aphic locations, based on hospital six, nmewide acres of tobacco cuhivauon. and Ievel of state mbacco taxauon. They then used sumified random sampliag methods to select 26 hospitals (in 21 smtes). Their telephonc survey inlerviexrd 1,469 current or fomer smokers aged i B or older who were full-time empioyees of these hospitsis. For a comparison group, their survey contacted people with phone numbers "similxr'tn those ofthe hospital employees, imerviewing 920 employed prople who were currens ar former smokers not subject m a workpiace smoking bans Thcy ressrictzd their analysis m respondents who were smokers at the time that the hospimi smoking ban was instimted.< They analyzed post-ban "quit mtios" for these people, defined as "the numher o( fonner smokers divided by the number ofever smokers (cunent arM ' One < et 1M1m g~, na. F y, a M g «y smay usea eFS aau from iwo momns, a la~<r v<rs~on aaa<ca~n ~a mon ' rn<y m. ma~ rook p aamn<r~ or m< ro.nn•1 <mpi~r<e. ana ramomy <aa<ffi<ia~~~ armw~n<. :«dm<naaaar<ro.xoapn.<~m~ om<m<aac<an<rm<m< ma~aa~<a aa°pSr a~ra~r<Im nna ramvsne
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larhkreaioaicohoi adverr~.ng<x 6 e er<d, in/ons 9BSa nsid osal bv h< Bu.<au a( Alcohol. Tobaco, and Firearms iBATF~ ro rnnici rlu use d n akoholic beverage atlverw,nrd nY us. Trea u<rv5ecrewryqmesBakeri11/J31. vma< a~romwhol s~~aw ar< p~ra~. our leeal aod legislarive ,olusocial en is ilso e w rn< cnai~Q<.o~ Emvanmenul Rerponu. AkoMl adas brwdwr<r, ar«on- n¢arsaubw[I~n< I<ghkow< roa I<pl ?I. The adverrisers are axare M;ne necd !or xllaegub[lon < ;v<wa<a,o~nrc eana do .,kmg «awmiwv aa .~ o!m<u.eo„<<arrui~rg r+mpaigm. The broM<ua<rs are also aware or rhev r<puusJ,JkY B.mdrveycuur.8rb;;1351 r<pm[cd rh<~ uAa, de~oF<drh< il<onoi .<laaa ~< aKr a radio apd ttkvu ons from J parcugh Seµemb<rsM 1994. 91 Dercen[ nd wM PSAs: 80 per<en; vred awre, ou b<al ~anoirc.ra o .r<am air.a n,n.ko~[nyp~a~rrc,x,n~ m ]o D<r«r.r had nro,a~sr .e~~'~al. o~;n<wq«r. n; rn< xo~a,< r<k<ommuN<enu~ suhumm;x<e ~ga a~r~g m<wrme on9ez. Ed. s rhe Prceiden[ M[M1e Na;io~ul an o(Bro.drssrers. made putr h<snuwran<e rnas rhe Nasonil Aaao o( Broadrv wal < makin¢ port (m ilcohol aWx putr uc<me.aulP3Aslaap ¢(Il1M~ ~om<r <rcv;ro~m<a,w w~r 6<'me a~,nlD 6<rwe<„ .a.~rnr~eae. aoa akonol n. RS.,We~~Serg aM a<a A a o.,wn~r af <..e.. ~n. <oa N [n< sarr ~<rw«~ <~9n aw ssa~.~d raorw rnx'sart.~~mg <x. <omw<nnav ;m<.ino.<re«; <v<i orro~i ma„srrv,aka. m a« ~n~ eara maaar< a arrooe ~g=;iw .<. oanlv b<<wee~ adverri,iog ana szka' 13]I. laa 1981 beer mak<rn wem s]SO mmim, mr aa~<r„ni~g. wmm~ wan 19.3 ve 993. a on dareuea 0.6 v<r«n~ w zb66 bdlwn gallonn iJil. WnBe W<mbrrps f3]I ,wdy wu a~ed (ar rh<Ad Bax Tuk Force ro nnM1euser Buxn .aher ;ndepend. awa;<a <orronorar<a nln findingsaReuarthrzudiesinboahCan. aud ;he Umred Suaen 13.6, i. EI. da 30. 33, found no ,ehnoruhi0 6<m il<MNk beverage d.zrns'v;g and consumv;ion. Some M;h<ae anMd[M1e unpact M beer ad- oNY. or mlY 6<er a.d win< w oNY du;aled,DViu.d. ngn Wikox. Vuk<c vnd FraNe ;'um uS. a/mnol vav<rming, <r. Fermon u Jconollc bev<.ag< ,~a rwr,a rh.~ ww<,d. mdi;u m have ased. on nss a<creued /uer Tabk 1~'Tural cansumv;ion peak<d N 1981 mdhusllQnrlydeclinWwnJeaotalad- ea hw< vp<rinad cowderabkfincr<aus hom 19]6 ougn 198P:' rh<Y ara[<IblW bcrgi I3]I «vorr ldenMed,everJ rea- whY d endi[urcs <r<a,ea lu We- aarva~~a f r mnano,a. adv< pendau o; high d~r2aa,nev~ mr~eyadnrt4lnQ <I~ a~< ro aar<m,me For oew<brarndxn Even rhougM1 r<aearcn dan ~wr wvic b<[w«o akonolk e.~ ,oa io ,<a orr1il<ohol abuae. IanmuuJlb<mgpropoxdwbanand/ erylare rne adverauing of Jconolk beveragn. Befor< more kp,laGOn u ovea. < ,.a„ b<rw«o [nr a<irMVS ovndJcoMl on~annWa be m o a~a wha, ao <a«r~r< ,N~rw„ m;gn<e~M Comparison and ImFwtioru Inma srh<a dalmnol,v aralleLtluan on~ln n abou; aI<onm abw<and me probl m< M druxk drivlaap [he pubhc " <mµin¢romvk[Aevdwrtismg o! alwholk beverago- Anrorr .11 d rM e larlonr Fm c~garena Dut (mtn i„ [heuTrade Reryla[im Ruka on Clgarce taxm,g am nd- na+ e.<o s„gg<x<a w rn< B-rc regarairc¢ ;n< a<onorr x«rae< i;wo,m. For 30
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mpiere<. a~ iman<r work:aes fa<e sa<n a nan. The pre.aien<e onneae poii<i<r oari<a a<roas inan,m ,na «cupation gmuvs wiN Nem bemg mnre <ommon m ineu,o-ies aucb u profesaiaul zervicea anJ pnmi<aam(niso-ason. ane m«<upatlon5 wch u Tofeseional ape<iaey ana.dm{nisn.dve mppon. AltnougM1 Nere are many way5lo chaeactttize workpl,<e smoking resviciions, we restri<t our anent~onioihecRCCtofworkareasmokingbansonsmokingb<navior. WemakeNisresM1iciionfor lM1ree reasons. First Nis policy is moss likely la impose rhe greatesi cosi on imakefs so it sbuld have - Ne greatest impact on zmoking behavlor. Second, poblic aree bnz appeae to be nearly a proper subset ofworkareasmokingbns. WefonndNei96percentallfmnsbanningimokia8inpablicareasalso banned smoking in work areaz. The converu, however, wss not trae. Finaly, Ne cere8ory for Nc ex~stence of anr policy a, all is roo vague so albw one so be c<nein whm iz being m<uurcd. RI. BalcReaults In «r work, we usc Ihree mea5ures of amoking. The frsi is a simple indicator fhat equalz I if a worker ia a current zmok<r. The second i......... f imoking intensiry Na[ equ,la avenge daily <onscmpiion in cigarencs per day. The tbird is a composite variable thel equels deily conmmption for ,IlSmokersendzerofornonsmokers' samviem,anirorme:emr<ev.riabi<,mpr<semeem<ommnz of Ne sop panel ofT,blc 3. In <olumns 3 and C, we pr<unt mean velues of Neu Nree variables for worker. wno are and ve iwz exposed to work,rea Smoking benR wbile in colamn 5, wc rspon Ne differcncc in means. Theu ss,iisircs show tbat workerz,rc 8 percenhge points lass Iikely to amoke in tlrms wnh e cmaking ban tnen thox in fim~z with no ban. The resutts fw cigarmes conmm<d per day zhows a simifar panem, wiN a drop in Ne evcrage namber ofcigarenes smokeA pez day ufe lizlle more Nan three cigercncs for smoken,nd l l cigar<nex ror Ne emire sample. In rhe fnsl column of the rable, we <srlmatc moltivariat<models Nat control for an extensive set - allzmokusrepanaayc me snmenumeerWutssnanonsr cg rnspe sy(:m ert nry{ISless g
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paDer we ~rv so address tFe issuex witM1 a variery of techniques. U. Dam aed Descriptivc Smsistica The yrimary daln for ...... lysis comes fiom Ihc NHIS. which if designd to providc national enimates of she disvibotioo of illness end Ne kinds of healN servitts people nceive. Fach ycer, the NNIS contains a sct ofcure questions plps specisl supplcmcnss that vary ffom yeae to year. Both rhe - Health Promai0n end Discase Prevcntion Supplemcnt to the 1991 NFDS end thc Vcv 2000Objectivss Supplemem so the 1953 NI-0S conlein qoestions eboet smoking and other heellh habin From tM1exe queslions, wc constrvct an indicalor for whclhcr e Derson ii a cumnt smokcr anA measores of average deilycigarencconsumVlion. BodM1 thc 1991 end 1993 NHIS asked workers detailed qoestiuns sbout workplace smoking pol'cics. Firs, orkcrswercaskedtodescfibetheirrypeofworkarce(e.g.,enclosedoRce,openarea. wtside). Ncxt,questlunsconccmingworkplaceam0kingpolicicswereonlyaskcdofworkerswhocauld potentially be subject m e smoking ban, i.e., workcrs who warkeE indo0rs d those who wcre not self- empluycd. These workers werc asked whelher their frm had e foemel pol/cy to rexhict smoking anL whcNer smoking is banned in some or all indoor public arces and in some or ell work aress. It shoold bc - Ihat the initisl questions ebout w0rk erea dlfRreJ in thc two surveys. 1n the 1993 sorvey, workcrs were asked whcther Ihey worked primuily indoofs os ouuide. 1n the ISSI survcy, workcrsweresskcdtoidenrifytheifryryeofworkareatromssptti(ielist, Somelypesofindoor xorkers, rvcA es indom workefs with no fxcd work arta or workers who hrted'bNer" as their work arce, were not esked the workplace smoking pOlicy qoeslion. This diffrence in sampling hed Ihe effM of IowcrinE fie ffaaion of workcrs fiom the 1991 survey that ware incloded in the finel sample. Of t/re 25,591 respondcnts in shc 1991 sorvey who werc cmploycd, 3.154 were dcletcd bccause they wcre self-employed and 12.211 were ellminased based on Neir enswer to thc work area qucsnon. In the 1993 6
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orcovanares. Weez~ime~emotlelsforfhe<urren~smokervarieblebyeDrobifm land~becigarenes pcrdaycquarionsbyOLS. Thccovarieresweedtltoihcsemodelsarcegeanditssquar<,femilysiz<, log incom<, an indicaeor variable for in<ome miising," Nrtt indicesor vuiabks for «gion (Midwes4 Nonh, aaC Wes~), foar for education (M1igM1 school drapou4 some colicge educafian, colkge graduaie. anA postgradua1c), s ree for uhnic rv(black, Hisp c, and wM1ite or oJ~u ce), nvo for the rype of m vopolinn area (live ia onc of thc 20 largcs[ mepopolirea areaz. livc in somc oNCr metropolima erea), " rom ror marimi -s (divorced, separatca, widowcd, aad ncver muried). Nc real cigarctsc ux (isn~e+ federal, in cenn),'° rvodigif iadostry and ouupa~i n effecu end e year eRen. 1 hc coeffcicnts an shc woekVlace smoking ban veriable in Ne probit model ue nortnalissd sbe a gmal eHtt~' or fhe chaage ia rhe probabiliryfhat an iaCividual smokes given the adnprion of a wmkplace smoking ban." Thesc resohs indicete that workplace smokiag bans reduttsmokingDaniciDa~ion-csby5.'/percenmgepoinfs. TopalsM1isresWSinperspective,wnsidcr ihe fact that the overall nationa/ smoking panicipation ratc fcll by 5 percensage poin6 fiom /9g5 w 1993 wfienmoscoftAeseworkplaceresrc~c~ioaswenfmtoeffecf. Alfem vely,c nsiderhowmuchofaa incrtase in cigarenc prices would bc nceded to genente a comparable rcduaion ia smoking prevalence. M- es~imaks of the clasticiry of demand for emoking suggen thai half of any demeatl drop geacratcd by a price M1ike is attributable to a Crop ia fhe smokiag prevaleacc, and half is anribumble ro e drop in esMCH51 oaeainepnmuy nmrysH maamuie..niN~s'an'ue~.e.d~R, ~apwaeraw(pmerveeee- ee~nimiy.t ello.ee ~: m,ae~hry mc swe otr<swnce ta~ ucn ineivwuei.n,ie mainu,nin¢me<°nnaen~ 9
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I. PreviousLiuremre Despire the fa<s that she vasx mejoriry of workers now repon lhat lhey work in an esmblisM1men~ wrth some form of workplace smoking ratriclion, tbere is no clear wnseasus aboes whetber thesc polici<s enuslly reduce smoking among workers. geverel srvdies fnd suppon for e eorreletion behveen xorkVlece smoking rcz[rictions or bans aud decress<d smoking (Bsile er ul(1991), Kinne el al. (19Y3), Pnersen es al. (19g8), Sor<nsen es al. (19911 Suve end lackson (19D1) aad WoodruRa aL (1993)), whileod~efsdonot(Beineretat (1989)andGOrtliebela/(1990)). These iecrosistens resuhz may skm from Ibe 6ct tbes all oftheu s~udies shar<oae common methodological problem. As Woodruff e~ el. (1953) noteQ, N<re iz a po[<misl "ulf~ulec[ion bias (e.g.. nonsmokers fmd work in smoke-free workplatts) )nd) Ne difference in the percenuge of smokers by workplacepoli<yisdue~oo~bertactors"Iftbemauhofsmokerssofirms~snolrandom, mplecross sechon estimeles or paired comperisons across work sius of the impacl ofamoking bans on smokieg prevalence mey be biased. This bias can be generatctl Ihmugh a aumber ofdiH<rcnt evenues. Fins, mnamoten (zmokers) may be anraned so fums with (withous) workplace smoking bsrs. In Ibis insance, zinglc-equation estimateswouldoversmutheimpaclofworkplecesmokingbsns. SxmM,fmisthateCOpw'orkVlace bans may place a greaur emphasis on thc haahh and safery of Iheif employees aM, therefore, policies 11.1 resttic~ or ban smoking may simply reflect osher progrems adopled by she f- Itf3rms with e workpla<e zmoking ban also oRer exer<iu programs, on.ziu exerciu fuilities, end smoking ceunion yrogmms, smokiag may be lower becau.c of[hese osher progmms, nm beceuze of the smokiag baa In this case, Ne singl>eGUation essimares would agaln oversut<the impact of th<ban. Third, firms with a high fractlon of nonzmokers may have soccezsfully yromoted We adoption ofworkplece smoking bans. Finally, it is also plauzibl<shst fums with she highesr levelz of ETS are mor<llkely u ban workplace smoking. In this cau, Ue ziagI-quasion mod<I may -rsute the benefts of the reztrictions. Ia Ihis 5
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E! ppaam'mwpuoax>yau! S~iNEb6!/Ibb!>ya+olEa!qeyww)n!nzv~!qwda!saqayaa>npwdxam '>i9us aNJO auy suq >ys u! 'S a!qay u! patuan+d>n z>s!vaxa asa4sio awos wo+l zynsa+a4), 'E a19a1 u!n!nsx ays8u!se!q File!tuatod(a+e)nseyi(s)a!qe!nn pau!v+oaN+ol!w+ooaos8u!tdwave a+e am xne>aq!eadde aus!nw~ say wnpaw+J s!ql 'suuy pue s+ay+om ay~JO, ssau!ys!eay„ 8v!F!+apun aya !ev8!s.<ew~eyasa, aapn!>u. ~ nysv!'soeq9mryows >eldry+omynm uuilw n8wmoys . wey>yyeay>8enneanoqe4s!mvayom~eysssaeens6ai9elu!uinsxa4l .......... sam+ o>)ovo+l!ppo ~8n!/owuo~ o svnpax+d sa!qeuen Iwu>w~u~sv! prepuess asn am ise~ -v ,i svdaaw! !esneae y!mtuass!suo> areseyisslnsa+a+e+aua8osadwaue am'puo>a5 'anoqe pau!ianose!q sa!qeuen pau,wolo saxnos nol aya 4ym > a+s ~eya s, e+e4>'v+U Cue spqe4 4zleay+ayao.ol lon o> am'>einwsred w',a>!~s!+aWweV> pan+as9o xow+oi lonuo> a.n'tsu,d 'sa+npa>wd aizaq aa+4a asn am se~q s>Iqeuen P>u~wo uelo ansz! ay+ssvppe ol 'uo!~elwm+o um~eme> IauB!s E alqsl w s~lnsv a4a nyuym ym pua wa!qo+d le9uawd s!y+se yool apewa~sFS vow e aalea am'zuo!~aas ~xav aw u! -sa!qeuenn4so as>4auos>edw~lesne> e aneV pino4s sueq~eyaan9+e ospaey s!p xne>aq se~q sa!ye~+en pau!wa vemnafqns F!y!zsod ve [ a!qelw synsx aya~sa88ns synsw xa4iyesoau!vayel awo4+~W+w+oiaanPayowseane4o~,(layya+owvepue'Va9ae>su>4a+eam os Flary!I a+ow are'poq nays a!es os Flary!1 ssa! am tv¢q 8wyows yu.+. swawys!!qqsa w v>ry+om ~eya aaou am smw an;!euu aqs ui 'a wd F!!nusitns pue y8!y auab s! a!qsuen wapuadap nya+ol veq ea+a y+om >ysJO iaaya!em8+ew ays aey~ aaou am'b a!9ello i mw u) avarz8!> e paalows+ana uouatl e+aypym ya!m pxe!aLaa aq aou pinoys sveq 8u!yows a>eld{+om •aano+o ~Z a8e ve e~ep SMN>4a w s+ary+om la wavad Sb+ano Pue ~EOZ a8e F9 ~u!MOws w8aq uaryows+ana lo wavod Ob ril+eau a>w5
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0 d2 040 0.38 036 E0.34 N 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26 Flgure t: Smoking Participation Rates Worksrs and Nonworkers ]8 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Years - Wurkers Non workers 29
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est~ma~ s again rvggesi ~M1at smoking is mucM1 lower in e"ablishmenu with workplnce amoking bans. rv. coemasonoran.mion~ The resulu in Ne previoos se<tion suggen, but da noI prove, ebn, sM1ere Is a causal relationship be~weenworkplecesmokingbansandreducedrmoking. qlihoughNesingle-equationmod<ISSeemto imply that smoking bans significantiy reduce smoking, ail of Nese models usomed Ne match ofa worker m a flrm with smoking renrictions is exogenoos. qs wc noted in Ne inrtodacllon, nemly el1 previoux xmdies on this topi< make this assumptiorv Hnwever, if a workei s unobscrveG propenxity io smoke is coerelatetl with the prescnce ofworkplace smoking rcsttiaions, IM1en Nese singlo-equation exnme~es will he subjec~ ~o an omitted variables bins. is thcrc rceson ~o be concemeL Ma~ soch types of biases eaisO The nw difhtencc In thc smoking rate betw<cn workers who work in esteblishmenu with nnG wiNOUt bans is wer g perc<ntege points. TAis difference shrinks 10 5.1 percemage points when we control for a long Iist olcoveriates. Sinec the work erca smoking ban indieetor is <otreWed wilh obserred charactaissics, it seema possible thai it is also <onelated with the unobserved propensiry for e workm to amoke. To see ifomincC vnriable bias is a panlcular <uncem in ihis contexi we rcVlace onr curren~ smoking indica~or wilh oiher heahh habits reponed in ihe NHIS thai should not dittctly be altered by workplace smoking bans such as whether respondent: never smuked cigarettes; elways edd saIt tn their rood; always wear e seat helt; rcpon excellenl or very good health; are 20 percem overweight; and have e smoke detecloc in their home. Sin<e all oumomes are diseeete we estlmate probit models ihat in<Inde the same set of covari-s used in Tebie 3. Th<basic mrvits of these models ere rcponetl in Teble 4. The sample mcans fot the healU habies nnd Ne normaliud marginal effeets from the probit models are rcponed in the final two colomns of Table 4. 12
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r.ael pia cnaraeunma 1991 and 199J NMS nself-emPloYeE endin0aorwah<n qllwork<rs 1991and1993 CPSroRSample Jl8 18.e )BJ 13.8 03 % Bleck Io.S 0.5 ° 0.]YO Mnnusfurvr ngd re6ud urvices l]9Y° ]0.3 i).o14 183 ]3.IA I>S Reuilvatle 133 I5.1 16.0 Fuance, msurentt, real esun 13.1 6.1 6.8 Consttunion Admmisnelrv suppon 35.5% I5.1'k I5.8% P~ofess~o~ x eiaqrceupenmx Sm~<e wPetis'oi,nc. « SA 71 IR9 an.r I5 .1 3J.0 ]31 30
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aa.<rn«m<rzn nrg<tm w.oum, a~a heaw dr;nkera and asned she wmmis- t al<onolm n<.. g<,ar<~ <~mvar ~na. im~xa arz <;w«a«i~sitin~ mphce af hepa sand avtiilco~hol adv<rt g ntroverx<s m.~[ p<w«t~w. arza A< g.rz CoroumerP<npecdve.UaNgthec.gnti il mhol ero~ps ~M1wld Pvu ve (or a n adverc.+Ng. The <IVnrwcwn of e aav<nisNg N A< broadcvt a,igrzu«nt [w~aiw, N A< ber damismok'mg P~bh< urvice nhRe uarch show< Aa nooeelanonship eauu betw<en advenNr.g <ap<ndiwrn aMrn<c«uvmpnorzdilcoFot Intacs A< rnlorilrohotic bew.ragssgf•om IPtb Amugn I98/ ar<aseocu«d w;Aa do- dNe N cosuvmptron t3h 3t, <0/'!n< ;a«a.itn <om~mp. <Kh<a~rzot a«m m b< A< wt.rdaavertiaNg.bvtmavweflbe ype d Nimtwnon avaaable [o [Fe o bfic Th<dewed.~AC[ uwM1evN¢ arebti~ nved m(mnu[bn on both mn w m< i, wh<rz <m, hntd .baut [hev5lwnKert<ring Re3 a,a .,. <~watrv. aa«rmNe. w n<rca~a abatt tn<s~rg<orz c<wrax R<. andvw<edwtm galm~gwA rze WvertuNe. Th< abunce o M< uf ci8aren<.dv<r[bing wiA Nfw vud . [F N reaud consumpion. Th ;<al d3ercnce u r<cm'ing informarlon andill ud<s af Ae bsve. -[otk )q or~¢vW l y) ly d<tcribed tne ma.ketplace d ideas" as ao emhona wn<r< Nform,[iwa,pa iana orz wn d,n ~aw<,nmam b< aa<~aa<a et ~ha[ p<opl< <rz~a m.k< mrorm<a ushingfor otrr ^ , rtnarz es«~a co s m<rnr d<inlormanon;i.e.. a ban of alconofs bevevge adv<nisN¢I. Indv,av Penpecrim AI<ondic bev- wa„« <,ea<ra „ow w.~`d<. io rnra ae~~ m~ m<o. iwi~ x««w Na~atrv ano-,m x a.,r< dvr a ban on broadua adver[i,use ia assible unlesa somahin¢ n dov< ro n ths <~rrenr an[;ilconol un~o~a of m< raaP b<[w«~,avnn<ine ,.,a ue f;g « 1) .n~,rzma~ - d a W a( t wFen av<~a mok'~rzg advercisem<nrs ape m tn<mmo rm [hat Per wpm rz d <;wrnr<, m n<a afin n<adve mrca. In liehor! rhis inlmmaHOn, A< ilcaFrzc< b<.~ra¢< ina~arrr <a<la <.plo[< ril il«rrunve,. rcQu opnon is (or rF<il<ohdu Mvg< ~n ot tn<~ur< O ss e~ottt.a~<r['~a<-im I.< ilwhocc bev<nges. Currcntly, Ae durJied pir v code Prohidu [h<"adv< g of lqv n rW;o adre Publiu on bearin Sun ~dsrel aM adve ou[doo mJm wl bar<" IItleThe<e r« A<t«al,NOna~~ c~ .rc ~n"a e rzt advenuN¢ Nrthe brwd- ~a'a , Aa[ m m< c~gar<[a< Ndv,rvv n+mPle, rnere u[lu paui- btl;ry du[ a bsn woWd be berrtfic'ui ra A< iMus us te ma d in and freeNg vp monr e~o Pendmn oth<r ar<u. Ar Ae very kasr mieht c a ba<rrc novAe ~<Aer<bv produc gopolurrc on.HOwever.ahu pl~w nsbvFCanflia 3wnMbwartlut pwnmit art<r< ~,[n o ov 181. Ther<ror< A< vnPlica atow er th~a pprw<h rz«a to n. <a«s,n. <aamm<a. .PwP,t.~ gvieai,~~ror d- ~1 < aa h.+iPe ncn <«,,. rzYtlutuxab.oaacu[advertu;nelor oladvenuing/dewt< ,ame of adve and cohol e.+pon,ibl<<manrsr~ Ananer ilwouldberoFvveAeindua aub;dve publlc e ad,r ar~rzk a<w a<r~<iopg~emPrcn<t~,iv< wwd `a«r r,° adveuuing. rdtlr<uNg wA iv~e. u A<uu d«lebri[s in ilcoholk bevvee ad«r[uive or [fie typ<o! Wver. <r rzg ~r«t<a [oware rwne p<wt<. thu apprmcM1 urovld be leneficul fo. m< im~arr: N,aw a~ad wwm <aa< or Ae public Pnv~u. (or <lunt~ngbrw4au advenu;ng IlAe wh <ufuL P~blic .Jicov ro Prcnforrgcvernmen rcguWion. Gw<enmem P<r,P<cdse Ftom, r<g v6mry pvirn d vuw, A< wve d ilcoFaFc beveraw .dv<nuNe u fauly .n 15 ........ omPlinad. Ce rrzNl y¢ u Pou;ble kr mmmae<n<r.vanA<F<dal Trade Commiv;on or F<deral pula.. a banm~a/<uhou< naaH~n rzn„~a,[N <N<rN~e<liwa to ar„«d wn<~~:a'ngat<oFdi<bevevge, WiAovt ondvs;vemdemeabourthere4[bnaF;P n<rv'«n aicoholic bev<nee adarza a<onm awr< uel, m< I<gl~iz~m, arc nu 16dy w«d«, ban wilcahol;cMeregeatls<rasinguA4 ~m<.xow<rcr,A<anti.,monoterm,as g Ae kgulnon ro ,omnnNgabauralcohelicbevnawed- n If[h< ilcobd bevenge Nav,nvdanrwa<vAapaDa;cvvfuU. e la['wntovru(y[Fepublicprasur< r<lated m alwnoirv beceraw advertu- th<Ndvrnywbl twt~n6<dw~[h on AerzWoadcxpand vlcanolNMvete aeea~XaS~ w, A< <«a<m d A< hduxrv. prn< regvlanons r«., orz <rzwrNe a b.laa,«a s3ss, isss
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af smakers is not driving our results. c. ISLSEztinrares q tM1irE way to deal wiN possibk omitted vanebl<x bias is m albw for the nomandom match of workers and itms. lo IM1is section, we present <ssim<tes of Iwo-stage leut-zqaare madcla in which we treat the wurkplace bans as a porentially eadogenous vaeiable " TooMain consiztmt estimetes ofNe workplac<xmokiag ban impact ia Ne 3SLS model. w<mut idemify some vuiabl<tlaz alterx smoking rat<sonlythroagbNepr<uaceofworkplacesmukiagbeas. Thechoiceo(aninstrum<ntis<omplieated by tM1< fact zhat the innrvmenr mast grnente e very Ivg<ahang<in workplace zmokiog bans i(we are to heve a<y hope of Anectiag a zuzlztically signifcaat 3SLS enimam. Our ealeuletions suggest that the given tAe siu of tM1<NFBS sample, th<insuvmem musf geaerete et Ieast a 20 percemage Poim change ia the probability ofobserviag a work area amoking ban to generate a stztistically vigniBCeat 2SLS cocfficient she magnitade of the single-equation estimates in Table 3. A aariable Nat we bclievc meets thne demmding rcqairemmtz is e measare of exteblishment z~ze. TheNIOSUkedworkerzwhethcrornotth<irworksit<hes50ormare<mployeex. Iathissamplc, ] 4 pcrceat uf indoor workerx work for <ztablizM1menu with 50 or morc work<rs. Bes<d on the descriytive sratisticv from Table 2, larger extablishmems are 23.t percenmge poims more likely to adopt w rkplacesmokiagbzasthaearexmallerftma ThiswggutzNatfirmsiumaygea<rateenoughofa chaage ia th<pr<unce ufworkplace smoking bans m prodace a zmtiztically signiflcem 2SLS eceffcient. In Tablc 8, we rcport Ne mergirml eRect from a probit modcl in wM1icM1 we model the probablliry wielN ener.gmw ad.araepmdimoEellAeg~ist/991). nsweaemonsuv.eelow,Nis~sslum<eauben.
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Jroe„d rorwo~kkpi,asmokNSg<.m<rmax. 1aed1993NHI5.-- y yp rworkplaze Typeor-kpl,<e workpla< vaoku,g rnekuon Indrorpubliaerea smokingban xm mgban Ho.] 467 6) J 1991 H23 33A ]3.4 B>' e ublishm<m sru. <SO,mployros 602 4U.] S0.l 1 73,0 y indusmes, Manar,< g BZ 3 J].3 61.9 Professionalandrekred < s H].o @3 18.6 PUbL< edministration 89.] 48.9 ]J.] nltoN<ru.duso-ks 'IJ.U 1. 0 0 . SB.J By mejor o«up<sbn: e,tn< x w 80.8 46.3 ' U.b ~ em ,em. hoksslonal,paMlry J 89 3 s9s se s
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smoking bna h'meaa<sl wiN ana wimoot N<umon auma ivdi<amr. m me me ra.l roar rows orNe mblc w«eaamer moaels wnere we r<ao-K~ boN s,mpmz to thoze peoplc wM1osc behavior Is most likely 1. be altered by smoking bans--ever smekcrs. In rows ) end 8, we repon thc marginal <ffut on zmoking prcvalence ror boN dav sourc<s antl tiod Nat smoking banz reduce smoking amoag wer smokers at rates close m tne cstimalez ror Ne PoII sample. Finzlly, xe futther restnct soning possibililies by lim ting the zample m ever smokers who have been at Ne cmrcnt jab for an extended period of ~ime (four or more years). Again, as sccn in zow 9 ofTable 5, zmoking bans nave a large and statislically signifcant effecl on imoking pr<valeace, ani Ne point eslimate is slighliy Iarg<r tM1an N<full sampic single-<quelion resulu~ d Resu/es <onzurem wirh a<ausal Impocs In Niz sectioa we providc somc direcl <vidence Nat smoking bana lead to e drop in zmoking by consia ring models in whicM1 Ne rervlts arc <onsislem wiN a ceusal interyreutioa. Ifthere if a ceusel link between bans and smoking, tbcn w<would crcpecl lhe impaa of lhe bana so be a funetion of txe cost Nat Ney impose on workcra. For example. Ne cozl of Ne bans sirould be relatW to the amount of time sp .n thc remicted emimnmem. eople who oaly wofk 10 nours per week may more easlly adjus to Ihe.vork area smoking ban by zhifiiag lhe timiag of Ihci... oking. 0- Ne olher hand, the cozl of Ne banzfioaldbegreaterforworkerswithIOngworkweeks. WelestNishypothesisusingdamfromthe poolcd CPS data sec In Nese modei; we add iadicators for the usual hours worked per week anE meere<I the work arca s'moking Dan variable wiN Nese wark week indi<ators. Estimat<s for the cmr<nt smoker probit aiW Ne <igareGes per day (ali workers) motlel are reponed in Table 6. In both models, the coeRcients on fie imoking baNnoars per week interactions ere nearly monwomc in M1wrs wor4<d per week. The largca impacts orNe amoking bans are fo. Nose workers who work 50 M1ours per we<k or more. In convast. the impsct of zmoking banz on smokiag panicipation
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su Yhowe.er, there were 12,393 warkers, of whicM1 1 501 werc relf-employed end 2.2]5 worked omdoors. Afurdelwingoburvanonswihm- gveluaforlAisaedothereariables,weerdupwieb 9,"I04 observe~ions from 1991 eed 8,386 (rom 993 for e fnal samylc of 18.090 observations. in Table I, we repon and compare dettriplive chuecurisrics for Wee samples of workers: the pooled 1991 and 1993 NtOS sample of indoor workers; all workcrs in Ibe 1991 end 1993 Nf05 sample; and all workcrs in the 1991 and 1993 Oergoing Rosacion Samples from rhe Cemnt Popelalion Surveys TM1Ca11-kerssamplesfromtM1eNHlSendCPSarcverysimiler. Thesempleofiedoor workersissligbllyyovngerandmorcedecatedthenN<sesamples. Whlleetflntblushthelowfrecrion of male xorkers in sbe res~riaed zample mry be striking. Nis resolrs frnm S. feet IAet workers m some mnie-dommared profcssions (e.g. construction workers or rrvck drivere) have been eliminaled. By res~n linglhesampleuindo0rworkees,wcincrcauthefrectionofworkeninsechindustriesasretail rrade end manufacsuring relative to lhe overall work fortt. Thc sample selection crireria elso increases Ihe fraction of workers ie occupalions rvch es administrative suppon, pro(essienal apecialiry occuparions, ead executives end adminisrrators. Table 3 prtsenu summary aratistics tM1ar descnbe rM1e rype and iteqeency of workplacc resnicuons es reponed by workers from be two NI-05 surveys. The reevlu tor the combined 1951/1993 dara ut slww Ihat ovcr 80 perunt of workers are subjecl to some rype of workplace policy tM1ar reslrlctz smoking, while 61 perwnf ar<zubjttt to e complere zmoking ban. In 1991, N.1 percent of ell worken are employcd in workplaccs that havc snme sype of formal policy so restrict smoking end 61.7 perunt ere mployed in fmms Ihal ban smoking in ail work areas. By 1993, the f2clion of wotkcrs subject lo work area smoking baeajemped to ]J <percent. TM1ere is e clear diRerence in Nc freqeency oftbese policiea in lerge and smell egablishments For example, in the combined 1991/1993 sample. 73 0 pcrcent of tmployees m csnLiishmentt wiN 50 or more mployecsareemployedbyf- tM1atbansemokinBinallworkereas,whileon1y50lpercrntof ]
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a number of quessions about whas ryyes of health programz werc provided by (he frm, inciuding whuher they M1atl eny w.inen policy rcznicting smoking in IM1<workplac<. For Ihe 3Rfmrz Uat enzwercd yes to Ihis question, <espondcros secorded an up to 120~characmr descripnon ofrhe firm'a polky. From (h<se shon d<scrip(iore, w<clessifieU frms as having work ar<a smoking bans or noc° Using the sampl< weighzs and measures of cst<blishmcnt size, we <akolere Ner abou( 38 percenr of all wmkers worked in frms with a policy Ihat restric(s smoking, but only 35 percent worked in firms (hn banned smokiog in work arcas. The resultz from Table 2 indiwt<thet by 19fl3,'/0 percem of indoor work<rs worked in est<blishmentz wirh work area zmoking bens, and elso from Ih< 1991 NHIS survey, we Wow Nat inCOOr andnonself-employedworker reprcaenttwothirdsofellworkers. /fworkareasmakingM1anircJUtt smoking paniciDa(ion Gy S l perc<ntage poinn, IM1<n d,eze numb<rs suggest ehat betwern 1985 and 199J, Cans zhould have reduced smoking parlicipuion ret<s <mong workcrs by (.)0-.25)'(i1.6'/)•(-5.'/)=-i.] percemagepoints. TMr<fore,nliof(heuncxp)eineddropinsmokingamongworkerseanb«xDlained by Ihe rise m workplacc smokiog bens. e z frtm u Iuring e wor4 vmsmoting pen 1!(1) vnatir,g wasMan<0 iMrors. v.d (i)zmoking wu 26
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un<ia . Is]E. coo<~~n<~ aao~oa. ~ m<mb<h o ~ d±a~mwvawohoomira,rF. ~<bne.rn .vdperccpm,iae fe~ or~da no m.~ ar< <«,~r.ar <o m :os<r.rr. a, :h< orh.r hand, reuanh on aaennoo ng dem s rha~ aher ram rneirar<emianmirdecho< 261.TMr finding s o~. o! rhe milor argumenn me n<JrF w,.rtioe iabla o0 <~r.e cr ;n~ co~m~v.g5mokng Eduurwn Act(M, 4]/ ' Wirh rc o the b wdca~ ban ago~ Tn<a mo~oeal. .~oa<..aio aarc r n:<m<ma rccmrm n<rm<m<w., ared ooce (m .r rou tt<am~<rtix Kr.axy<ar< w;m 16/On« rhe bm on c;¢a<.a.<_ o <x.cr rvnokine «ofrm aircd. smu brwd .auts norlongr had verrcetuneroa~nsmo mg(«cu It6/~ Overill,rhecigarea<induurYeairua rrm„ rh< proF;ba,o„ o„ aa.<rrdmg. One obiechve o! the ~obacca iM~sary aolvin the ery6n aha< ouldobr< welh bJn61161 Evenb<foretA<banwuWt oeK.«,rh<rc cuU~ion wnda ffi< ~a~n: ubcco y~ln 19L8,th<ReuarchDevarmxnt a smim, ear~<v .m comw<v r<ot aiul diu uip6 ~ne s gnifinnce o(t.... pmeible bn dadv<rtuine oo ukvisionand radio:' 1161 which mr<d tbr n<aZES mJhmadollanapem ea~IVOnadve ~a<r a~a ~m o eom has1 d<alned vmodestlv. There to b<. rwrtn«m«<, aom< K ror tn< <inr<a< ~olunuNy to dix dw arW ukviswn wmmecwts'k may <exn rhr vr.uures oo Con .~a<m ra.m m i-le, m~ m. gu•,<r mrtd, m rta d-~,a<. Qir~. oa~F<r ror or I141 o ion, or mcreau earn~nes .r rhe bn w<nr mto elkcr tne ved m er F<n~ae, deap ,.a~ad.er< <,p<pmm<,.,ai<~ wpwl m<r<aa<a r,~,miyna~a ~n, maoxrY xm n,a - , wF;ch ewbled Ir isrdh,o,aa~rm ve ax w <a<rlume ilmo~ Ia.Jne wnmrol d~hre merker. Toaav mb <onrrd,mou~u w v.<r 9p r o( the markn. W;Jwut auao,w .arcrtame~ ;r x<om<a r<rr aa fic~n ror nrw fir~ru io <nur sh<~urket 1011. n I98Er.ew ane ~abcco es<cunve es murcd dur dprne brm.G ruM ut SAO malion in adsertuing and a m rkn Il91mBY rr«i Bobtre< s~,ms d momY th< ban Jlowra <igar<n< matwruwrmmak<u w~uaMGv<r~i[y. AfiertM1ebtnw< o<fr<c~. <r <ma or <m, mo~ rm<k ,M«p„<a o~,m<ranlr ror m tn<malm <ie•r<a< ma~~rxmr<ra ou. &fore d<ctline to r<mwe all Jm nol advertisin¢ (rom tne broWwt m<dis, vohcymakera aM1oad compare rlu. ilcoholic beveeage and eiputu e;rur on. The nex. xu;on dtn<vmer de~ «ib<s ~h< h;rtory d ilcohol .enrmNe, whu<~n<ia,t r«a«a<ort: es rb awo siwtiow and makw r<cm<ndnlmas !or Jcoholic bewrage aan.r g Hlsmry of AI<ohol Adaxrris- ing Tnrm~gno~~ rn< b~t«r ortn<umaa Snu., rhe r<d<ril vnd suu gorcrn~ nu bv< rTiatm tn< ure d Jco na. n rt a m< <«atra o,<r m< We ol.konolic beveeages uercu<d by rh< wue, 35 araz<s naw nguhu il~ mMl:< b<v<r.ge adv<r-rsiog. k. IWE rhe Sovume Cwu in Vdemiw v. cFr<,~..a<a mi had m,r r,«,<w m< rv~x~on M deulegipral,aucA by ~ raa A vplim m o(~•v~<IY <ommer<W aAxr e~cna~g< am,doww ora<a < «n Fa~ brouebcour~c,nJkMaur<gdvtime d ilcohohc brveuee vdarti<ine ma meMment emuMr IIL. ~The anndcoholmov<m<nrpr<cio- mr<a ,om< d tn« <n.oe<a lwt o. rb<< a< nab«~t<( ,r<aar<rm~g moi'h e.itnrm<a <ldence or u , tne con n ebarrz ronoo< b.. ~aar<awimm<e m„m ilcohobr<6rW uJfi< (aunrd<s~ Swne d rh< graupa imdwd m tne ,noil- cohal movemenc v< Mornera A¢aiiut Drunk Driv<rs IMADDh S<ud<nu nx D- DrrvmgISADDA Ne Nvnorul Caunca on Akoholism, the Cenur ror Sciem.< N rhe PuMic Inu< ICSPIF Prqect SMART 1&ap Marker;n¢ olAkohd on Radq .M T<Ieriaionl.tM1eNariowlCmkrmced Par<nan ena T<ach<rr, drt Am<rlon CouncJ w Akahol Pd'uy, th<Uwed <thodix cnm<n. aoarhe Mamon CM1ur<h. Thex graups <onuM tM donmi< b<r<r,e<.arcrmag prppw<, il<ohol ab~s. and Frve wgg<u<d xv. <ril m<vurcs ro h<IV r<duc< vknFol abwe. Theu meuurea are very a'm•Jar o th< annciear<su adveraum¢ m<a,and indud< v anpku ban an d<ohol adv<mum<nu m th< broad- m<du, elwmuwn o! adv<rtu ~ imm ,~ huvy dnek<r vna voo p<oplq p4c<m<nr o( v heJrn wn;awe on bartkr d a'uNl<d spiriu, or <Wrvmn of ilcanol vdveniving upeM;u d<du<ribk bo, ms<IZ01 Thu xction dNe qp<r wo brwd er<u d aasueh ohol utinnes: IegJ .nd legieladn. L<¢vL Thirtv Y<an afi<r <h<CArwn<. I511 d.craon. <he Svpreme Coort or<a <omm<rcia w«cn •vomr und<r ~n< Pvu AmrnainrBielm..VirP•e14EY1n19]6. anertSupc<m< Caurc h<Id tbu <om- mercralsv<echwaenud< prau<van
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s muupHap o~ ne vweie i B(x~tv molJ)~ ~~la~~ (31 OL`ernlm Ismoxersonl> ).s>s 190 Its 1. oa 1"/.51 Uliwvetersl ~a) 1].x09 is ).I ~ Sa t.163) f~11-0) amotln6 ev. s v v~mingcu~(~1 +~(iNt) oe u (t) Lxl ~ (51 oLts)im. Cvrtenismoker 9l.eei oxa9 0.319 o.ili t-0,_' t yo'B lsmokncmly)aY I9.956 19x Ig0 xa.9 t,~o.9) t.ia.6) k<r~) evY 9x]et a.l JJ Ss t-3c.61 M13E)) catfirienuinuaun gp aknumaCaercn eiiiryo( P av40U>. t ~ e ~ ~. w aoe .o ~ en ~ ~ r h ~ .~ u r ~ b .n.~.:<a~mJ.9;+u,.mmvmmeenormeracoo:<. o <: '. . 4~ s= ~ ~ mryp~o m)s,~ too airteiuma.~.n ek:r b1m.)r~m s.m: y..r g 32
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resultx osing data fiom recenl special smoking supplemems ro the Cortens Populetion Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monshly survcy of ovcr 60,000 houscholds designM to providc extimatcs of imponant labor marka variables. Pen-cally the CPS has mcluded xopplemenul que uona eboul smoking. In Septembn 1992, January 1993. and May 1993, thc CPS incloded a IengNy smvey abool smoking haLlrs, xo p esmokingrestrictions,andanisudcslowardenvironmcmeltobaceoamoke.Weuudthese surv ys because ~e qu-ions <onccmiog workpiatt amoking reatrictionx werc nearly idcntical to those MOS. workera who work indoors or who are not cc1f.cmploycd werc esked whelhcr their frm had any policy lo ressricl smoking had any restriction on smuking in public areu, and whelhcr their fem benned smoking in all work areax. By pooling the Nree CPS sorveyx. Iherc are 9),882 observetions for workcrs who work indoors and wh0 are not self-employcd. The descriptlve statisticr reponed in the CPSar<verysimilsrtothoufoondintheswoNlOSdauanx(Table2). TheCPSindicatesthatthe frac~ion of w0rkers subjcct to wark erca smoking bns increased from 6e.2 percent in Seprembcr 1991 to 66.9 perttnl in January 1993 and 1. 69,1 pcrcent In May 1993- The number for lanuary ic roughiy the midpoim b- Ihe numbers reponcd f0r thc 1991and 1993 NFBS Eata reponed in Teble 2, while the number from nc~ May CPS ls alightly bwer Ihan she cslimates from Ne 1993 NMS. As Ne means in column 2 OfTable J indicatc, ihc smoking panicipation rates in thc CPS data are ocariy identicel to nombers reponcd in the NHIS. ln column 6 in thc lower panel of Tablc 3, wc pres<nl moltivariate resolts from the pookd CPS dala. TAecovariatcahavebecndefnedinesimilufeshiontorheonesoscdinthcNFOS. Althooghsbc qoalilafive nanre of Nc resolu erc inseosilive to the ch0icc of date -, the magnitudc ofthe cstimatcd effects uf the workplace ban are 15 to 20 pertent smallcr in Ihc CPS dw set then in Ihe NBf15. In tM1e CPS dau, smoking panicipation ix J 8 percenuge points lower emong workers exposcd so work area smoking bans. The coeffcicnts on work ar<a sm9king ban c0ctfcienlf in she sm0king lolenairy modcis from the CPS samplcs are also similar to the results from thc NFfIS. Overall, thcsc single-equation
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e4 RobuEstbn OiberH<alNHabitModels 1991 an61993 NNIS p-suns(<s N parenmeses) (1=~ s~omo) iab la Samplemeano[ L ~ g s Ne.crsmoke g es. 1991/JNNIS o ~9 o.049 (Sdg) A Y tlzaltto(ootl. 1991/3NMS 0.118 ~3.SJ) nl y earseaabelt" 1991nNH15 0193 (5.91) Excellentor ryg bealtb. 1991~ NHIb o.iJJ 30vaormoreoveveight? 1991NHi5 0.363 -O.U01 (0-13) Smoketlnectormbome. 199JNHI5 0961 0.036 (1.66) utleNOSe bsuWinTable3. Su faommeshomTaEle3 lortbecalculatiooofNe m tg alettecss.m 33
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indicatora ror omer Woxies onclalth namz rmm me Nw5 ro<II usw sart ua<, ud aer-r<ponm healrn zurca)." Ifthere iz an omined variebles bias in zhe buic singlc-<querion csrime~cs. then including th<se heahM1M1abit indicators.M1OUldgrcatlyrednceeheimpactofehewor4arcasmokingban. As.ercsubsin rox _ indicare, including these h<alth omcomes haa linle impct on the work area smoking ban co<(f<iena W<alsocxam~nedwh<tM1<rlh<workareazm<kingbaniscepruringthcbenefiuoforher tiem-sponsored bcalth promorion progremz. In row 3 we uae dau (rom the pool<d M115 sampl<s and aad indicamrs for wh<sher rhe fmn has on s~ie excrc z<proBnms or facilitiu. In uSe next line, we use daU rrom the 19911.M1US only and add en indicnor for wheUer [h<frm providef hcalth insurance." The resulrs from th<se Icazs show Ilnle cvid<nce of ipillovar bmclitz from tLC <xercise progrems and faciha<a- mnoneo(MCSpedfrtalionzwereme<o<tikf<nrrforex<rois<prognmsandnaLSea amnsrcany slBniflom. TM1is Is also trve wh<n we ada e covaaete rm empmnr-pmvla<a privatt M1eallb msuranc<from tnc 1991 N W S. TM1<re is oNy modesl evlaeM<(p-valu<=o.12) of epillovers fmm hea¢h ~nsura p r6on. Moztimpmranziy.rh<incluslonoflheuprogremsaoea~wt<Itertheworkarca amoking ban cocrlicienr. 1. rows 5 and 6, x<considcrtM1e implicationz of edding aaion saws as <wveriale. Union ztatus is unfonun.ucly, nat r<poned In Ihe NNIS dau, ana whaher ejob is covered by e union wnlract ia anly evailable for the oire-quaner of rhe.ample thar iz pen oftbe omgoin6 romtion sample In rhe CPS. Resviaing ehe data to Ihese epproximetely 24,000 observnions, th<marginal eHsct uf the workp1ace M %-1 ~ r lr b mB% la•)rr-eu~.w n o e pva'iv~.xl.air.n=ilo¢lixelinoaarannianizL x mlm1..B)1• eirtl,un~ e oroesma oi~tm ir,U~l.li.m(..011•z+ainh.mfql. wi~ws~wsvut enmiy r.-m;e•0 M e :a1.Wrh<m<lag N h mm ~~nR.l•I.anlv.l•u.~lnli.c.l• .e. l nw . ueiig - -9 (a~~<. m=..av ue.an<6leserc e=rmeek u. rawee emairomucauap~-au ~/Pey rc a xd/iF,1-iamy ic=ofe, e =nia ~ lrcaauaR 14
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OLS and Nonnal~u'd Pabn Enimaus. Wo mokingBanEque~ions /99~ and 199J 14NIS ~aaekd<4~ am (aeutivvi<sinpv<nN<v<v) OLS m m s) vmro~i:run<yrrvarsoo. o.:zi mor<am ass) ni5 ciin ~mnr.,r~<ee ss tss'sj n:JSi mvhss ' 009< 0060 (9.1a) (6.94) Omer <avaru~es mclud<a6ose N Table 3.
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have Nc largcst imp- on workers whn M1avc longer work wecks end Ne small<zt impac~ on part~time workers. Lazt, we fnd Nat eslimetes from simultamons-equation models arc quite close to Ne single- q ionesnmates.mdicnlingagainthatsM1ebasicrcsultsdcicribedaboveerenotzobj<cttoanominetl varmbles bias. In Ncse models, the primary insnumem for IM1e preun<e o(workplace bans was an indicalorforthesiuofenezublishmcne Asweillu5trateabove,Nereeppearsaobenocortelation ~ berveentheM1eahhhabitsofworker5ende5mblishmentsixe,sow<are«asonablyconlidemNStNe unobserved de~<rminanrs of smoking, given Ne observed chaneterislics of Ne worker; arc uncorr<Iatetl wiN oor measure of eslablishment size. We began thia paper by noling tha~ over the past IS years, Ibe smoking perticipalion rase for workershasfalienfasterNanNmfwnonworkers. WcsuggestedthatonecauseforthcIargereduclion m smoking among workers may M1ave been Ne innotluction of workplece amoking bans. The rervlu from Ihe previous uctions suggest Nal lhe large-scale edoption ofwork4lace smoking bans may indeed be lhe cause for the diflercnces in Ihe times-series for Ne two gmups._ USing lhe NfpS dau from Figau 1, we ealculare thal belwecn 1985 and 1993, the amoking p nicipation rales for workers fell 2.6 percennge points more tM1an lhe decline fof nonworker; end L] p emagepoimscannotbeenribuledtochangingoburv<dchaacterislica. HowmochofNis onexplained decline can be enribated to work ena zmoking bans? To answer Nis question, we neeJ so calcula~e Ihe eM1ange in exporvrc to work aua smoking bans between 1985 and 1991. Unfortonmely, ahere are no worker-based surveys from 1985 Nat have Ne rtquiud information, Inslead, we use data from Ne 101 W orkzite HeahM1 Promaion Survey, which is a Sorvey of 1.328 eslablishments designed m detesmine the types of M1eaIN ptomotion activities sponsorcd by emylo5crs° EsWblishments were asked
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tMs moael, ahe coeffldent on firm siza was nea0y metnical to rhe vdue reponed In Table 8, and she coefficirnt on she fieslth insomnce indicnor wes small and mtisticelly insignifcent Thus, she eseblisnmentsize variebieispicklog upeffcc6thatare ortM1Ogoneltoheelthinsoranceconsideretions. On<mlgM1S also be concemed tM1at becausc of <conomi<z of scale, largc frms mey be able to ~nvest'm policics-otM1ershanworkplac< baos-tM1atpromWe[fie heaiN ofthairworkas. Kenkeland Sapina(1992),torexample,demonstretetlatlargeresublishments weremorelikelytoadopteny ofthe mee mployer-initiatedfiealshprogremstM1eaotM1Oraconsidend. ThiseesultizslsofoaadintheNNIS data. LargecsteblishmentsertmoralikelyM1aveon-siteexercisefacilitiesandexerciseprogrems,and they ere more likely to provide healtfi insurance. ltesults presented above demonnnte thet tnese heeith policies havelittieimpactonsmokieg andthesthcirinciasioainthesmoking equatlons does notaltertfie tnis model, tne coefficient on firm size was nearly identical so sh<veWe reponed in Table 8, and she coeffcirnt on she fieslth iosomnce indicnor wes small and mtisticelly insignifcent Thus, she eseblisnmentsize variebieispicklog upeffcc6thatare ortM1Ogoneltoheelthinsoranceconsideretions. One mlgM1S also be concemed tM1at because of <conomlez of scale, large frms mey be able to invest'm poIicics-otM1erthanworkplace baos-tM1ZtpromWethe heaiN ofthairworkers. Kenkeland Sapina(1992),torexample,demonstratetlatlargeresublishments weremorelikelytoadopteny ofthe mee mployer-initietedfiealshprogremstM1eaotM1Oraconsidend. ThiseesultizslsofoaadintheNNIS deta. Large csteblishments art more likely M1ave on-site excrcise facilhies end exercise programs, and they ere more likely to provide healtfi insurance. ltesults presented above demonnnte thet tnese heeith policies havelittieimpactonsmokieg andthesthcirinciasioainthesmoking equatlons does notaltertfi< coelYicieat on workplacc resvktloes. Thos, she efreas of bans is orthugonal to wMtsver Factors may makelarge orsmellestablishmeatsmate orlesslikelytoadopttheaeotherhealN policies. For o.r mstrvment to Fe valid, it most be oncomlated wisfi a worker s unobserved propensity to
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EL >yt uaamlaq+oua ayi m oo!ae!auo> ayt'd vo (>~~s!tezi-t) wa!a~aoa ayt •!apow uqwd aae!+en!q ayt .'t>qun3 (6C'2~>!tsneist)stmoEaeetuavad~~.(q8u!yows}oa>ua!ena+daytsaanp>+veq8u!yowse teyt moyc synsx ays tvawrvtsu! ayt sa az!s wawys!!qnsa yl!m!apow aaryaws wwna ayt ul 'too p!p oys +o ay J! aryows.(ayt N!I!qeqo>G ayt pue sueq »e!dy+om a yt!m uuiJ a u! sysom ays+o ay J! saryows+ary+om a teN R+!1!qeqwd>yz uaa.waq »uxall!P a8vane ayt n ya!ym't>aya suauyew aewane ayt ale!n>!ea ueaam Jenba+aryowsryaunoayt}osasewVSapqwdazeueniqaytwoai 15661)qemV>gPuecueny Sq p>sn leyt ot xns> ts leauv>pi ua say pqwd anuan!q ayt'asea s!4t u! -z~qwd aaeuen~q a t woa s!ylv!!aPOwalauCO+dAeayy sa!qeuenueq8u!yows»eiAq+ompve»ryawsauwn>ayt}oa+nteu > x!p>4al>Wwxlt!>!idxaamy>!y... .IS( tenbasnoauetlnw!span J I M ts>t tw Jo ua!tenba ayt woy papnl>xa aq ue> ssuawnusu! ayt tayt s!saylod<y!!nv>yl t>afa touv» am •PaU!toapuano s! lapow >Vt>+aym sxe> a41 v! pue •saaew~ssa 5'10 a4t ot+el!w!s R+an sryooi atewVSa S1S2 a41'suonenba,(ep +a0saua+e8~>puetaryowstuauwaytytoq+oJ'soo!tea!{!a>tlsasayt}oy>eau!-swwvt vw»ipw onetlnaw Dus •(qsnpu! ayi yUm p>sauaw! az!s wawys!Iqnsa>yt xn am xaym si>pow asew!ISa am sn!d tvawwssw R!uo ayt s!+om!po! ms p>ynlqeaza aaym asn p»!lu>p! RD>exa>yt+o} s!apow atewitsa M (4tleaypoo8l.+an+osua!i»x>uodwDVa'z/1a9aexasns(e...!e}!espPeztamleFayt+a4lay.) s+ary+om>p}a yl!eay ayt a+nseaw layt sate!nno> ppe am'aiqes ayt}o smw o..s tsel ayt u! J ysa+8u!.C}nuaP!+>noJo~sa~aylJOSan!en-0y9iywetqoam'slapow - +no}Ilaui's Junba[ep}sau>me!apo¢uryowswaun>ays4loq+oJan!engypayotasol>.(»ns!~eys al J te>i}!u3is,(!!e>ps!Ialsealvaua8amxaH'sawnn , sealea~pv!azisloawys!Iqets>ayt ppe am'mw txao ayt u! 'tveayw8!so! .<Ilea!asuets a+e sxewnsa ayt tn9'Z mw v! synsv aya ot le>!wap! Rlnau an nlnsa+>yt'a+aH -swq 8v!yows a>elArytom+o} nvawvisu! se sap!!!>eJ pve swu8wd aa!>u>xa +oJS+ote>~pu!8u!snsxew~tzay-!SZUOdxam'6apa1JO5mwv!a~ wes ~awysyqnsa Ppe ah oa4m ana wp »eidry.om ytex P>lel > a+ ni9eu w I ea1J '8 ai9e1}o su 1 +.u
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s"54 -,C5 WORKING PAPER SERIES 00 WO0.RPWCe Sen~KiNG 9ANg R~~~B swnaR~N~, Wmkmg ptt 556I NATIONAL BUREAU Of ECONOMIC RESEARCH, INC. ~~ `
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`1954 :70] dLeIlR~T .rr~.r.m ., .. em~Nse.n ..ow.mw.r mtw pa~rtann.nmm.ein r r .umr. es .wrrc. urw wan ~n wiqlemsnuew ma s.vu.a,&r wM wlMrr„~s e...m vqvw..m s.rary~m ~n..a.s+s rmnrcr nuse v se vds.r .re.e anwuw n km• +b amat s~n.nr umne ~T~mw
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51554 1"/Oti .awwaw..e~..nnwwao~w..~crsn~nn~.~.e..eroeamaMUaene~~
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cha~ e frm M1as adoDl<d a work ar<e ban az a(unction of an esublisbmem s~u indicaior ar.d Ihe ather covanateslistedinTable3. Themarginaleffec[forthecstabiishmentsizeindicetarsuggeatsNatjob snes with 50 or morc employees have a 22.1 perccntage point higher probabiiity of edop[ing a work arca smokingban. Sincewewiiloltima[clybcuzing25L5,NeappeaPriatecomparizonwou106eNe weffciem on llre csublishm<n[ siu indice[or in a linear probabiliry modcl. In column 2, wc sre Ihat the linear probebiliry es[imntes ere nearly idemical [o Ne peobit mudN. Theu cstima[cs, and our variv,ce caI<ulationz, sugges thal if ihe 3SLS cce(fcient apPmachez Ne magnitide ofthe OLS eocRrcicnt. ihen thc 2SLS vaiue will hav<at bcs[ marginal sntis[icel signifcance. Thc rezults in Tatie 8 are consiztent wizh a number of other studics have also no[ed that larger es[zblishmenss arc mou likcly lo ins[imte smaking resvictions.'s Therc are as least [wo reasons why ge foms arc more likely to ban smoking. First, in amaller frms, diRerentts in prefenncez coaceming ETSCanbedeahwithonacaseby~case~basisdlaCoue, Insmallfrms,propetryrigh[stothe xvrkplace eir can po[entially be decided by penies wi[h min/mal vansaaion costs. In bigger establishmen[s,formalrulezaremoreoftenusedmhendlethsseypesofsituasions. Thishypothesisis bolstered by survey Ja[a that suggesl that anc uf Ihe m jor rcuons for edding workplacc smoking bans wastoreduc<workeri comPlaimseboo[ucondhandamoke(U.S.DIMS, 19g5,p.5g0). Seco~M,e nambee o( authors have noted - fhms havc adopted workplace smokin8 bans for fev of poasible liabiliry for illnesus causeE by second hand smoke (Fielding, 1982; Waish,1984). If big frms thet ellow smoking erc considered by pwential plainiifrs 1. havc dcep pockets, and Ncy are mort likely to bc zved by employecs because oftbeir nizc, Nen lergcr firms may be most likely so ban smoking in tbc workplace. A poten~Vai peoblem wnh [he uu of firm siu es an Insirvmen[ is th® sincc Brown end Medoff <us~ue~sarcre.,eweamuelsec5 8< cenm~sre,mcnraeHec/~acaveq.exe.yt.vdvvu.y
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>E Ay!qeq0+davau!lars(ppw(G)swo+u!saaewlsaayy s IemBaew N)ouo,ll !naN+olEa19e1 H nouuol»5'Ea19e1~pInlxNapnl . I. a NO (99'L ) s , HSO'0 u P»lows i>na SI!ENi661 (6) ((6'Y) Oto'0- p>qows+ana p y ss>•> SdJ C/L661 (e) SIHN E/1661 (G) 8 0 S [ !4vaqwawuolu[1 , o a e SdJE/2661 (9) (9 -) (ZI , I ' m,o9~nu SdJ Frt651 (S) 6S0'0. + w w~pm nid([)(a poyy oorvnilo+d>nwwpwsawl,uy al Ily SIHN1661 (>) SGO'0- (EZG-) (Efi 0) x!a+axa+01s+0uaiPU!mld(L)I>poW P amNa9 a 4 ) aea.P . I Ihl ! slly >l wesllN 5!HN E/166! (6) SIHN E/l66! (U tiNrtt/166i (I) ev!MOws Sa>~>alaNBnyy t o le o~OpDV SdJ E6616eIyPOa2661+a9wndaS '81- E661 1w 1661 enp3+aMewBwwnJ a!sywJ Pee 8myow5 ea a!ay>o e+apa:,.! ok smei
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~:954 1~09
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,i554 1"!06 Pleem stt the back pega nf this p.per for . Iitling nf eorrent wnrking paper lilles vW sobscriplion ordering infnrmriion. Wa'FM4f.w.p.nbE. oR Mz. bn i[ea T46 p.ye. Lu w uxae.euoe t4e re.kw .e.orded Mikla NPEP puWk.;bu; W WdP.W, M ku.a nqw.P...aofdo..ao... xfn,nm a m~...ow w neEP ..,...n
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M1adworkplacesmokingrcstrictions. wl~M1wgM1tM1elackofcortelationbemc<nesublishmenssizeendNe oNw healfi habiu does nos prove Ihal the unobserved propensiry lo smoke is noe cortelaud wiN esablishmen[ zue, Ne resolu are cons~rtent wi[F this hypoNezis. Th<2SLS cstimaus far the curtent smok<r and <igarattez per day (alI workers) modcls ar< «ponedlnTeble9. inNefrz[swocolamnsofNCUbkwereponNeinsnumentusedmtlenyoNer exogenous covaria[es used In Ihe analysis. In Ne next two columns, we rcport Ne 2SL5 cceffcienl an Ne work ar<e smoking ban variable es well as, wh<n appropriele, Ne pvaluc and degrees of freedom for Ne les[ oroveridemifying restriccionz. In she fnaI two columns, we repon analogauz resolu for the models where the omcome of imerert is cigarettez per day for all workers. To provide some buia of comparizon, in Nc frs[ row of Table 9 we repott OLS resullz ofthe w rkplace smoking ban m a linear probabiliry modc1 ter cnnem smoker and tM1e resulzz for the panmeler from Ihc cigarenes per day equalion from Table l. 1n row 2, we prezenl ez[ima[es using es[ablishment size as IM1e only insvumen[ for Ne workplace smoking ban. In Nis case, the resolu indicate thn work area smoking bans redoce amoking participa~ion by 63 percemage points (t-susis[ic=1.82) and dearease deily cigarene consnmp[ion by e sutiztically signflcant 1 6] cigerettea This urond resul[ is only abous 6 percenl smaller than Ne OLS ezsimates from Tabie 3. Here, we fnd no evidence thal oor single- equations estlmeies er<sobject so en omined variablez bias. Because esublishmznt aize. ocenpetion, and indussry erc so atrongiy correlated wilh the prezence of a work area smoking bnn, we genera[et an eddisional clssa af instruments by intencring <sublishmem size wiN tbe indumy mM ottopation indicalor variables. Rezulu using /hese addisional inshuments are rePotted in row 3 of Tahle 9. Thc addi[ional instrvmenu M1ave tremendous explenasory power. In a frst~ suge linear probabillry regreszion in whicF we inclode Ne esrabiishment size indicesor plus interactlons oresmblishmen~ sixe wiN indussry antl occupa~ion etYecu, we rejecl the null tba[ Ne addlspnal2J ~nleracnons arejointly uro with a Pvaloc of 5 6E-16. In bo1F Ne cunent smoker and cigarenes perday 21
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ud P bu entl Ol5 Estbne~a. . C- 5moker end Cigannes p<r Day Eq-onx 991 NHIS (~~sutinicsmparcn0eais) Cigermesp<~day (allworkers) vwpks<nt Mad<I(1) Mad<1(l) Motlel(1) b5od<1(2) O.o64 (9.36) onNs of ~mure x work areaxm O.OJ I ll.i6) (1.4g) a 04 -77 > areasmkn 66'+^ (E, 0) (-39]) IJS4 manNS of tenure a woik ae<a smokNg ban (-2n2) (-3.31) onNSO( rexwork -0.105 (d.b3) smoking pant~ur<x woh vea mmo0ell includ<NoulinW inteble3. Inmod<I2,fou<Indiatontwle4tM1Of¢nure rc atld<d m Ne models.5e<foomotev fiom Table J for Ne celcolatian ofNe marg'mal e(f<c~s e The fra<~ion of Ne sampl<Nat Maa6,1-12.13-24, 25<g, and>48 monNSOf t<nur<are 10.9 0.2p<rt<n~,13.]percentlp4p<rcen" and4g.3peecentreapeniv<IYTT u1lM1ypmhesisfor NetestNNeMalrowubleisNatco<ff~cknuonN<s<aurcNZnimennionsercequelioeuM1wher. The 9s p pertmnle: o(N<tl4) am i(a,_I meo-lpmiona.r<9.a9 md Is.. r<apecewi,. 36
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51554 illo
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tta aoc'ub~u obs s.limm<.. C- Smo andCigare- ayEqusons rs sr~ O.:uin e: ~ pv<nmevh) ev per a (all tntlependemvariabtes amoker wmk<yOlS oking ban x O.o29 wmk<e¢ono~rap<rw«k tz.9l) 1<w> okingbenx woskcdr2039hoursp<~week -O.OI] (J.58) (J.ib) smok'mgbaox -125 wmkcaJOJ9M eek O0<9 L56 wwkednoa9hounperw<ek (-10.6) (-Ib.B) smokNgbanx -x.ll woekedx50housp eek (e.521 (-Il.e) x'/fsu~uuc t03 11.5E OrM1ercovariaw.vkcl~dcvSov.liswdinTebte3, plos<dummyvonebkslaehounworketlperwe<k. g inTablel margimletten ecpmbifmodeLlMfszul uk {9~]v.k~0.E9 boun pe r wttk (e.]Y.), p urs p<rxweek(2E e%e), <OA9 haun puwuk (03.9°/.), x50M1OUnperweek (19 8Ye). lbe nuil insbefa nnpehouNOanin rcequvso <,<hah«.fm~nsurp<r«~cl<.orm~x'w3~apca-)e~. earo~r,r<9.a9mai9a:~~„«u.<y. 35
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PKA ~=_-
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i3959 1"/>2 ieuaww .••wm^s..M1.cw~e.c.~rmvaweim .Mni.a.«. [n~r«n u.muswcnr«.w nrr rv...vA.o.wvw`u~:e¢wrr~+.x~.w.are imcr..w. e.w uar'+~r«amtn ~~ ~nwuimemu.~eun••awwenw n~i a~zm m~ix.r. ..v~+m w ~~ s..us.««anwu.ermnot+a,vr..~r«ary
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se, ..vrkers /n large aad zmall <sublishmrnrs tliffer in observed charaserisvics. Emblishmem siu woold nov b<s valid inseumem If h is picking up unoAserved worker chareczeri.nics Ner eRal Nc tlcmand for cigarencs and are correlated wiN ezmbliahmcm zire ~ Unfarmnavely, we caanm explicltly test whethcr smokcrs are morc a kzs anreacd (0 krg« Yabliahmems. Wc should rrore Nar we do rm( m luge diRerencesieNemeanvofobservedworkacharacmristicsinourdauc' Forexampk,workersin esablizhmenrs wiN 50 or more emplDyees have only 0.15 mor<ycmz more education Nan workera in . vmsllerczublizhmenvs. WcelsonoreNarinTabk2,NedifkeenceinrMprcvelenceofworkplece zm0king bans by esrzblishmcm tize is 22,7 pcrcrnuge pointz Onca we eono-ol for Nc miried of covane s, vhiz differeace fails to 0aly 21.5 percenrnge poiM1U. An indirccl wey w ammin<rbis isrve is to aee if othcr healvh Ihabita uc correlevtd wivh eMablishmemsite. iflergcesublishmemasmaaDrhirelre.INierworkaz(n0nsmakers),Nenthey shouldelsohavefewerworkerswiNolher"Wd"hebirs. WcfndiinkevidenccofNis.lnprobi( modelz wherc x< Include Ne esvablishmenl sizc iadiutor insvead Df Nc wotkplacc zmoking Ean variabk m nc~ nevcr zmokc. selt, zeat belt healN vratuz, overwcight, end am0ke detecvor models, thc mergirsl ef(ecr (t-smtizvic) on ezublishmem size in thcse madels sre-0.0o4 (-6.42), 0.003 (0.51), U.005 (0069),- 0.012 (-1.45), 0,032 (3,84), end ~0001 (.D.29), uspecrively. None of the hebir.z Nsl werc e0nclated wIN the presence of workpisu bans arc wrrelated wiN eseblizhmcro siu. Funher, Ne 0nly varieble Nat is zwivinily signif v(20 percen p mme ovcrweighl) is vmc0rtckud wiN whpM Ne esleGli9nroM •rv(19941 NJeaenon.zvauE uumeawre.afhum.n wpwrl n.esment sua u d„ufancuu muar~ µENenv enuqW.. <emry H (subllsam.marM1a aercbmucnsmtllvesnNe 9 g!'<subrl'~n enumnvldn.ebyBrwmW(M aotp,nys sllesublrvhmmu 20
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.._s"SV i];3
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sissu .~oa a[ [ aa 1. F>t .! - >Pry.w! nnl+uo>nyi0 vrem!w S'i0are nl Moa u! qimsw>xy foD (!>z-) (>Z) (Zi'Z4 oww>M ~weu 4xw e v a um,weoaao +ofaw 990 !91 810 G90'b Pm'x>9w>stleS PwN+mW_+o. rOf»!S (0 (crr) (se'r) a,w~ww>wn>xxmv acr c9on weirww~x>s osM!s U) (Z) (oer) (n (w:-) =!y!!w e9o os!- !9o c9oo . > ~w.s >+>.y (9) (0 (ZZZ-) (0 (>vl-) B[0 OBZ- 110 9800 ! 'sw.Aodaaaur3 (S) (tZ) (564) (t2) (!50-) uoiwdo»oaotew 25'0 2t'i- ZI 9100. Ot s!S OWS+wWWrofew zOSa>!S (e) (>Z) (6EZ-) (IL) ((uZ-) >w>JN"o!w0o»°>°M1w vt0 /91- SIO S90"0- pwo<aunpwwfw.Ofans (t) (>ZZ ) Z9'1- (ZPI-) t900' 0Sn!S (Z) (!<t-) 0 HwF+~a,~+iaw e yom (!9-y)suwuw[u yx ueq8u!yows r n.tav.x~>was!> (m s-~j S!NN t6nl'Puv,i661 bo~¢luw ~mb3.cep+>Unw+e&~We+ JJ ~ !~s35'ISZWrS'10
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51559 i-1i8
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curtcro smoker and workplace smoking bae eqwzions, is 0 Onl (U 68), which iz susissicelly insignitlcam. Thcze results ue very similar m thc 2SLS estimmcs of Ihe workplacc smokingban ef(ect. As a fnal chcck on whcthtt the csublishmens sixe insnomenl is pcrfanning es it is Cesigned, wc eiso Innrument for wmkplace smoking bans wish ezublishmens sixe in m0dels o(werkers' decuiom ro never smoke, use salt, and wear seas behs. If the conelasion bmwcen Ihcsc healN habit end workplacc bens shar wc (0mM in Tabic 4 is zpurious, Ihcn the inaWmcnsal variabic coetiicienb on Nc wor4 uen . ban veriable shouW move sowerd aero. Thiv is euctly sM1e case. Thc 2gLS utimelcs (r-smrisric) o(the workplace smoking ban ccefficiem in the never smoke, salt use, and beh usc cquasions .140 1 "I (0,43). 0.014 (0.51), and .016 (OAg), respxsivcly. Thcse alimasfs show ihal once we conv0l for amincd variebles bias. zhe effect of the sm0king ben on thesc nther heallh messmes is elimiwed, V. Ceeclusioeseedlmplicvtioes Using deu from two Iarge nasionelly reprcsenurive asmples, we find thel smoking panicipnsion rascs are 4 so 6 percenuge poinzs lower in csublishmems zhn ban smoking in work meas. As witM1 0rher swdies thac have eaamined Ihis issuc, shere is reawn so bc concemcd that Nis eslimmc iz subject zo an omined variablcs bias. As we show above, sM1C m0zt Ilkaly zeucn fur cancem is thal workers wish geod heahh habits (one of shem being ea smoking) are generelly atrrected to "healthy" csuClishmenzs thel havc workplacc smoking bans es arc af Ihcir cM1are<seristics. In Ihis casq thc "healshinezi' o(the worker or Ibe establishment is en omined variable in e singiaequetion model. In rhe entl, howevee, moss of tlre cvideecewepreaentm censi.ens.hbmehypoNasnmas mplecrosnsecnanalessimesiprescnsWin TaGle3refleclthecaeulimpamo(bansonsmokin8Forexample,onceweconrtolforushenc~altlN habils of she worker or osher hev11M1 pfograms provided by Ne frm, IFc buic resohsare unchonged. Likcwisc,ifbanshaveacausalimpecsonsmukingzheimpecsonsmoking.houidbeproponicnalz0rhe cosu shcy impose on workers. Cunsiszrnl wish this hypoihesiz, wc fntl shm workplece smoking bens 24
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;J
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5".954 1"/:6 m~xH.~e<.w+ssrn.re<...<ia.rwn+r.....woe..w.a~+~<nssevarw.ooNx. Wwvnu.<u~n.urn.r+~+e<e~..enw.wew...r..namoen.n~r No< rc.m<~..w u...rc.mu...<a.<o.rqvt< ~.auwtnr.v.r ~ 1<.unv.wurnsvn<w.aer.nmr+aramawimriuqatiwuu<r.~< I~mtm.~.mwuu..w.n~µe.rv~o-nl=.aw.n.ewut<wewnanrlw.e.aio. wunrwrw.ndyim.o-.muotap.wa.wm<v.aarw<r.w..<ervew~mi neearc. a<wwximur.nuernvw.nnwnaydnm.wNro.wrc.wM1<.uliswe
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51554 - 20 riwa...a.wn...wai wwwwrwpra~ww~+.i~mu.w..' wnnira
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11914 I"/zE
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-54 I'/3G
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Bibliagnpb>' ."Insnumental Variables Enimmion of Average Treatm<at EReus in Economevics and Epidemiology." TecM1nical Working Peper q115, Na~ionel Burrau of Ewnomi< Reuarch.1991. Baile W'ener F. et of a Nospivl Smoking Ban. Cbanges In Tobacco Uu and EmployeeAnitutles," Add'c n,1991,jy(6),PpA19-026. Borland, Ron et al.. "EReccs of Workplace Smokiag Bans on Cigarena COnsumpsion"~gflCgp Jouma ofPOn-cH ~h 199o,$q(2),pp.l>g1g0. Brown. Charles and Medofi, James. "The Employn Six-Wage Efieci" loomal nf pnl'~ cal EysuYmy.l9g9.qj(5). P, 1031-1059. Evant W illiam N., end Schweb. Roben M., "FinisM1ing Hlgh Sebool end Svrtiag College: Do Cetholic Sehwls Mske a Di/ference," Gaart rlyJphm nf£con e•, NOVember 1995, 941-914 an4 Farzelly, Manbew C. "The Compenvting Behavior nf Smokers: Taxes, Ter end hicotiee" W oeFing PePCr, DePanm<nt 0f Economies, Univeesiry of Maryfaad, Uecember 1995. and Montgomery, EdweM. "Educalioa and Hea1N: Wberc There's Smoke M1ere's Ar. Insvum<a." Working Paper k4949, Nati0nal Bareau of Fsoaomlc Reuarch,1994. Fsnelly, Manhew C. and Evans, William N. "SUSe Clean Indoor Air Lws and Smoking Fsrticipation mong Workers" Working Pattr. Dcpanment of Ecoromics, Univerairy nfMazylaaE, Febmary 996. Grozsman,MichaeletaL."nkoholendCigerenaTaus'louma nfF~ n_gn m' P;_~g, 1993,2, PP 31I-222. IlumanResoorcesPolicyGroup. Smok'noPO'c -. (uapoblishedrep0n), 19g5. Kenkel, Donald. and Dylen Supina, "The Dnerminanls of Wosksite Heallh Promotion," Etg,pqpy9,5 )~B9J5,1993,9Q(3),pp.345-51. Kinn<, Suvn m al.. "WOek-site Smokiag Pulieies. Their Papuleti0a Jmpacl ia Wssbingon Svle"Amcican e• h,19Y3,g3,pp.1031J. Izwir, Eugene M.; Coate. Douglu and Grossmeo, Michael. "The ER css ofGovemmem Regulerions on TeenageSmoking.")p9mmnnn_S_=a~dF.con a19gI,24. pp.5i5-569. MOrbidiry and Murvliry Weekly Repon. "Mediul-Carc Expeaditures Anribuvble eo Cigarene Smdeing--Unikd 54ses 1993' July8.1994,97(26). Newey, Whimey K. "Genevlized MeNOds of Moments Specifcelion Tessing"Jyymylpf o c•, 11.1, jQ, pp.2]9-56. 27
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HB G R£STAURANT, INC., et el., PlsinURS, WILLIAM A. FOGLE, n al., Def<ndanfs. IN THE CIRCUIT COURT FOR TALBOT COUNTY Case No. CC 2<60 AFFIDAVIT OF ALBERT L. NICHOLS, PH.D. Albert L. Ni[hols. being du/y s.uom, deposes and says-. i. My name ia Albert L. Nichols. I am ¢ Vlee Presbent If Netionai Economic Ruearch As.oci-s (NERA). Iocared in its offce at One Main Streer. Cambridge, Mesiachuseus 02162. 2. 1 have been an ewn0misi and 9oliry analyst for mo« Nan 15 years. 1 eeceiveA an A.B. degrec wiN distinction aad bonors from SunforE Universiry in 1973, a master's degree in Poblic Policy from Harvard University In 1975, and a Ph.D. in Wblic Policy fram Harvard Univertity in 1981. 1 xas on Ne facuhy If the John F. KennWy School If Governmens, Harvard Univereiry from 19t] ro 1988, rising from inssrvaor to Assnciate Professoe, where I uuglu courses and conducsed «sear[A in mi[roeconomics, analyti[ meNOEf. beneM-rost analy.k. and natural «swrtts aeW Ne envvonmen~. Whik on kave from Harvard. J was Direcror of Ne Ecnnomic Anxlysis Divisio-~t uf the Offi[e If Pn/icy. Planning and Evaluati0n If Ne U.S. Env,rorvnenul Ptotettion Agency from 1983 to 1985. In ffiu wpaciry. I supervised a vuff of 30 professionxis, primarily ecr.nomists. vutually all of whom htl Ph.Ds or oN<r gradua~e degrees. My dlvlsion's responsibilhies included preparalion of xgency-wide guldelines for Cenefl-cun analyses, assessment If Ne e[mwmic
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Aydavira7AlhenL.Nichols e wnsumption declved by 4 0 during working bours, buf Nc overall net decline on working Eays was 3.3, suggeuing an Increase of 0> d-ng nonworking bours on working days. Cnmel « al. (1993) ryon Nv Ne avereqe number of clgarenes smoked per day dulined 5. 19 clgarenee lix weeks afier tbe ban, while reporuf cauumpeion dufing working bours declined by 9.1, auggesling lhal <igarene wnsumption mereased by about 2.5 cigarettes outside of working bours en working days. 14. Figure I wmmarves rhe disvibutlon of essimmW impacu on clgaretse consumption for Ne 13 amC/es from .Mich num<rlcal raluer wuld be calculased, Seven of Ne srvdies yieid an enimaied impzn In Ne range of 10 m 15 percent, ThKe were less Nen 10 percent, whiic swo were in sne range of 15 m 20 perttnt, and onc was greater Nan 20 percent. As ibown in Table 1, Ne mean end the median impacts are bods aligblly ovcr 13 percem, znd the ssandard deviatl0n is less Nan < perum. ~sc results are remarkably conslssent, especully considcring s/Ne range of sonings studkd and the different meNodelegies employed. 0 >IO Parunlpe/mpadonAVanBeCauumpYOn Figure l. Dissribution of Esfimated Impaeta of Smoking Restrictions en Cigarette Cons mption
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A1f+dw,t oJAlLere L. Nchots 9 IS. Thesc resulu appiy m empbyrd vMividuals who faa rcw resvlaons al work. To epply N<se rc:uhs to Ihe Maryland regula6ons, w< necd tu wnsider uverai factort: A. Some Maryland w e aiready sar rc work, so rMy will notbe atfeavA facebyce nc~ mll workpiau Iaspect If the Maryland regulations. B. The breadsh If MarylvW's regulufons mmans Nat afl workers (including rhose ailreaAy rcsvicuA a sheir places If empioymem) wlil face additinnal refvinbns in oNer seliingx, including restsurams, bars, and hotels. 'liwse resrrictions are rmally ce reduu cigarenCCOnsumption by workers, er anL above me erf¢ts If workpmce resvinions. C. Also because nf she breadN If ttrc Maryland regulasions, mokers who arc wt empbyed wili face restrittions Nat are likely so reduce cigaren< consumptlon. 16. Ox very eunservative approach to essimaling the Impael If Ne regulations on cigarene consumpsion i. ro ignore the secoM and Nird effecu listed above, boN If which would send to mnease rbe trnpan, ard m address only Ihe frst, which would decrease ir Under UNac wnservative spproach, let d be the proponwnxl decrease in cigume rqnsumption eslimaled for smukers newiy subjett ro tight amoking rcasriaions il wotk. Iet r be Ne fraction If workers Nat i. airexdy subject m equivaient resvinions, mN In o be Ne fracsion If Ne aJult population Nas is employed. TTe net impan If the resmcuons on soul cigarene consumptiun mzy ihen be written: Come..nnw <,n.a~< JM+ ~mn ef/_to
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640~ n lan omrookaqwo/R>F~~e a@ccllss) qmer Mea Asan FAR&DARS appy. Ali nz reserv 00096J56 COVYRIGNT qmenwn Mea~cal Assocatron 1996 Smokmg Banz an0 Employee SmWmg Benavior Rasulls of a Natqnal5urvey)ARTCLEI LINE COUNT.00669 EsUmateO costof output repuestea Is: s y reaaymreceivealloutput?(Ves/NWHeIp) fOGtR)FikaGiAMA Jouma6 td)199> Amer Mea Assn fARS/DARS appty-Ae Rs_ reserv. COPVFIGHT Ameriwn Mea- Azsocbtion 1996 Smokmg s ana Employee Smpkng BeMvior Results of a Nanpna fiurvey(ARTICLE) LONGO, DANIEL R.; BROWNSON. ROSS C.; JOHNSON, JANE C.', HEWETi. JOHN E.; KRUSE,ROBINI.;NOVOTNY,THOMASE.:LOGAN.ROBERTA. qMq. Tne Journal oflM Amer'ran MeClcal Aswaafron ADrit2<.t956;16'.trj1t52 L/NE COUNT:00569 6096T4BE ttofworkplace mokingbansons~mking benavorof empby es P nKipants--AlWalof1469currentorfprmer rs (inl on grouD) employetl in smoke~hee M1osptals aM 90 ror formee smokers (comparison grouD) amploye0 in rwn-smoke-lree workp:aces rveyeE m moki~g peM1evw. Design-Tnis is paR of a lergar~ongoing DrosDeGive stuCy. TBe ay tlesgn was 0 asi-axparrmental. We ran0omly sebde0 sibs consistiip nospitBl ana a Cnrreswnain9 w munlN- Furtnermore we rmepmry sebctetlsubjedahpmM1OSpttalsantllM1evwrteaporkmgwmmuntlies. Main Outcoma Measures-POStban g anE Drpgresspn along IM1e stagesaftM1ange cpntinuum MetM1OOS, The Cox propoNOnal tazarOS motlel o wmpare tM1e gosfban gurt retio betneen Ihe intlpven4on enE wmpa9'songmops. TnB GoGInM.tankl~Haensael analysis of varience usetl b compare groups on IM1e atageo-o/-cM1enge v riabks. Resutts-BeglnningwilM1N kNgbanaMwntinuitpfor5yeanatlar imDlementation, atsL'stiwlly sqnlficant tlifierenaes in Ne postban quil ratio were obaerve0 betwsen employees ofsmoksireefrosqtakwM1Owere smpkers a unteryarla In IM1e w muMry (P<,001). Despta preban aifkrencss ie smoki~g in neiy.llaoverallCiHmenceinpopbanpu'll ratios remairoC spniflcant evan aM1er mWtivariate atlrystment tor sonceconomec, aemogroDM1m. aM smoking Inbnairy v rieblea. Fw 1MSe
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AndmieoJAlde.rL.Niehals 3 feasibilhy of regulaions, and rcsearch oo rhe Eenefns of regulations. While at EPA. I receivW rwo agency-wide awards for coMUCling or directing regulmory aralyses. , Since 1989, 1 have been employcl by NfRA, W,ere I dwetl projects on a range of topics. typically involving Ne appliosion of berzfn-cosl ~ysis ard odl[r economi< ledmiques to regularory issues. As shoxm in my awched CLrricolum Vila. I have published a book and numerous zrnicies in professional journals and oNer volumcs. 3. 1 prepared Nis affidavil at Ne requcsr of fepresentasives of Pnilip Morris Companies. Inc., who asked me so estimase she extenl w whieh Ihe restrinions on smoking recentiy adopled by she Maryland Dtpanmenl of Llcensing and fiegulalion svould affecl clgareste sxles in the sute if implemented. In preparmlon for making such eslimates, coilaagues working under my direcriun and I hsve revie.W more Nan 20 studies Ihat Inv ssigated the efkcts of workpiace smoking ressricuons on cigarene consumplion. Incluted in our review wxre ali of Ihhe studies on the effecr of smoking resmaons on.moking rates O,m Ne U.S. Environmenral Prolection Agelrcy reviewed in ils reunt repon. ]hr Cosls ard Ben hrs o/Smnking Besrrinions (Mudarri 1994, Appendi. A-2),' as well as several additional relevanl studtes Nal we identified Wough oNer sources r The EPA ssudy esumales Na resvittions on smoking in Ne workplxtt similar to Ihose adopted to Maryland would rNua consumpsion by conlinuing smokers who are employed by IB to li percent (Mudarri 1994, 23). r.i (8wensen .na PaMUek 19es uW So~enseo <I .I. 19931 Wen r sbey~do ml alarcss smoYiee brns w W urortplc«, bul nlbu We e/(xlrveoeu oll venous ronrveonavic e lo rrEUx emakie8 n. 'CUpia of all of Nue enlclce rumlain Alu<Emem e of Wir afftlavil.
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'1100'>d)lenaluoyeanpa'(I00>tl)saeple!aos ryt00>dl xas '(I00>d) aseuolua,aN!p A!IUeayru8!s a,am ze!Owef ay~ l esapwesN!un o/sal.lar»ue,eyaaMwasaii a~%SOGWe'ana6uosuetlwwNlunw v /woaaw,o%49'e ,~Nle!61a lau oym saaFOlEwa IalrtlsoY ,q %6B aum eqe, as ,np slinssa asYaw lo saeals q pale!a, sem walqeuenlaVl+ollva,aµp Nlue~yv6!s a, /y,unwuwa a4eDUaa aV111wnle,K!euq!UDDe u a!qeuen eAOpwa en 6r,rNne, qn!Ppeasaw ro 6uVUn~e,fiueuo rolalpsaVsaseles ~ w suaE a!~unoa NlunYxumVWe faaAOpwa Kwsoy Yaarwaq DaK!xa aa aulp IyexnY6!s eawaum a ol wop sem sr41 a' uaeH-PluelyuuYaaO aVl fiulPoroilea ysalqe!nn6u!N!le,ilsleuqi6ppese paWUUr. a, m Arosalea qol pue 'Rnryuo!IPa~rDa'ss¢plenos'xse p Iq eu!mq/e al!vm say!unuwoa w lo suV!ee 1CSO 's!sAleuepuoaas ae w v:eE Vaamlap aVl,q luno»e q,mC N!unwwoa-Ifl!tlsoy aVl uo payve, K ary~usaaepy,om aa,l-aryqwz la SaaFqtlwa uaanyaq seaua,aN!P,q ry~avs q vaseqmsnnsyalsaWer,anlo sKNslie la ue{y-ua,yaop ve paAOlowa am pu!D,o a,am ¢lep asVeyayqusa8¢K a aa9 eyl,q rva,awD ~I~les~~s s »msafawesaNN~ruwm WeaRl~YIaV~ a laPenoa e apauuaPSemalqeueny'sa aVi,ol6urlunpoaesaUalor umaNwnwwaapuesaaAONwe le a,all!p awlueotyu6!s e sem a,aw,awsYm aVVUalap ol Upow spu¢eey IeuoryoEOM aVi u! papnKUi wam'(AeP,ab Dayows sqla,esn p,aqwnu a6e,ane u! Pa,nseaw/ lysualur Bwyqwa ueqe,E Wf'A+o6alea qol'lanal uw.leanpa 's xasseyans uie,enmalerMO,EEe's!sNeveKUa.)!DWu WrlCwnssee/s oCwElewisa@qapasnesem K poo6 y v:ed s eseaVl aq q upUUry WezeY auilaseq awlaun6ealou pp Pue N!Vmuwm P Ialydfoyelo6uyretlawDamopelapowsiVlPa VI'Aauns aYl lo awri aVl Rq l!n61W Pev pefqns e ll I la ql qaylpapmaa,am'6wryowsVnbUalqnsell fiu!yows ynb laaq s aw!ltl/6>/papow sry )V epaRqEUUamxo9e,UnbueqsoE stlna8 asaya.etlww xop pa:Arenz ot s q 2~n eursn sleualu awy aynabs le a!owes N!unwwqs aV1 Due zeaROywalw!asoY - eqlsoJ a ,ol p 1 qHseuwalnoaylw!we.aol pasn a,am s!siAlfueslo spWlaw aa 'I50~<aryeluuoun>II B Olsesl ielloaiamotl e V1m90p sn wes0a91 usNeue 6u!PasnaeamsUafqnsasarli'ue e Bwyows ru,8 uosue0woo aVl u! StL Due tlrw,6 uovuaualu: alvl ul! 9S /0 WRan/nsNle!liwa,am'NanpaaESa,-saa/opwa0Z6We69>t(vayowys , 0 6uns!sumi sCnw6 uo wa gZ irea!zte 9 a6ep
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A + - /Alb rL. choir ] 4. 9ecausc of IimheA rime. we havc Iwr been abk m conduct an eahausnve lilsrasure search, nor have we bcen able m uxss tM reliability nf the studies in greal deufl. How<rer, Ne rcmarkabk corsisu:nry of Nc resuhs arross Ne awdies 4zds mc m belicre that Ne basic cnndusions art unlikely ro be allered by a mure ea-d search or debilcd revlew. Morcover, virNally all of rhex papcrs have been puGlishM In pcer-xviewrd mW Iral, public healN, or economic jcurnzls, auch as Ihe laurnai oJ rhe Amrrir<n Medical .vsor/crion. Ihe Americnn Journol oJ Publir Heuhb, Ne Jnurnal oJOrcuyorional Medirine. and Nc loucnal oJHeaRh Ecnnomies. 5. Table I summarius tbe results of our rcview. All IS of Ne asudie. shown have used surveys lo asrersain irdividuals' smoking behaviot (including dgarene conaumption), and Nen have relawd dlffercnces in sha behavior so restrictions on smoking in the workplace. For each stWy, the rzhle shows rhe xning in wAich Ihe reslriaions applied (rypiczlly Ne rype of business), Ne melhod used so esumase Ne effecl of rhe restr~nions, and Ne resuhing eatimate of Ne impact of the reslricuons on cigarene consumption by wntinuing amokers. 6. In general, the studies have relied on one or more of Ne following major approaches: Befnrr md oher surv<ys. Thue amdles survey osu: group of employas boN beforc aiW afler Ne imposision of mzjor n oking in the workplaa. They rypicslly omparexl(- mokingreporeed .muking anivily af/er a ban wiN xlf- reporsed smoking acsiviry before e ban. B. R<rrosyenive survrys. 'Ibese asudies survey one group of employees afier Ne impositlon of m jor resniniom on smoking n Ne wurkplace. Thry tyPirally comparc selfaeporv4 moking activiry after e ban wiR, Ne subjecl's recollenion of smoking activiry hefore a ban.
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ss¢9 fioWna P. C pman 6. owen N. HInD.Eneasorworkplau kingeansondgaenewrsumpion.A t990:e0a)B-t00. 20 Borland R, Or.en N. Nockirp B. Changes m smoh ng behaviour a9er moking ean. Aust J Pudlk HaNtn. t991:15:130-f31. a to2t WWakefreld MA tMlson D.Owen N. Esterman 0. R L. W9rkptace king r reduwd cigarene on IJ O<cp Medvt992~3a;693L9). an co^22 B sDB.foIIiUMJDeant.A r a lM a ral Mzp/bl. Am J Pueln Nealth ekng policy gene ,192Vt95~ 9BIe6titlman eon tZ FA. 8acker DM, 6wank RT. et al Endmg snwkNg al Ne Jonns Hopkins MeOica/ Instilutions. an n of snWrng prcvakMe aM intloorairpWlution.JAMA.t990;26C:156S1569. 24. 6tYrman FA, HanWla DA, Swank R. Creatirg a amoke-Iree M1ospitar. smok'm9 cehaviora of wrses antl pbyskbns. Am J Hea1N Prcmotst99<s: t09-11a. 25. 6moking arW Heatth Inbrmatan Natqnal NealtM1 Intarview fiurveys, sekcted Y tssstsst. aknw, ca:cwtar.mrBiaaasecomrolara P a26.IfN o DE, Glovirw GA, Emont SL, et.1 . Trends in cigarene mokm9 among US plrysinans antl nurses. JAMA. t99a;3)1:12)3-12)5. ). Empbyme nC Eamingz. Washington. DC-. Bureau ol Labor Statrslics, US Dept pr Labw.1994at. 26 . Cook TD. Campbell DT. puasi-experimantelion; Desgn aM Ana/yNs I ttings. Chkegp 111: Rand McNally:l9)9. ssvZ9~oGOnieb NH. Enksen MP, LmabCT, WeinzteinRP, Grean LW. e km9 ' ing Dolk> n behavior.atlilutlesstananorms(JOC upsMed mok.lB9o:32;1623g~ 30. Borgalla EF. Evans RR. Smoking. Neahh, anU Behavior. thica9o : Altline PuGishing co:1g6B. 31. Hisn L Sorvey 3ampNng. New York, NY: John -ey 8 3ons Inc; 1965 32. Gowler FJ Jr 3oney ResearcM1 MelM1atls. 2M ee. Newbury Park, caut. 6age Pueliwlionz mc; 19s3. 33. Frey JN. Sarvey Research by TekDhorre. 2rW ed. Newbvry Fark. Calif. Sa9e Pubiications Ino 1989. sell T0. Mar4n DC, OieM1r PH. et al. Dala anarysis and samqe s orwmmooin-baaea n¢alm prompuprrand Wxaaa pevenUOnprog amsaa mixedmpdel arlalysis of vanance. J Cfin Epidemlol. 4:1oi-)13. 9935. GartnkN l, Ctellman SD. Cparene smoking among MYSkians. dentisls, antl nu5ea. CA Cancer J Chn. 198636 3fi. Hoghes PH, Cmak 6E, BaWwin OC Jr. 61orr CL, Sheenan DV. Resident pMarian s tarre ose m iM1e Unitetl Sroles. JA0.1A. 1991:265:2069-2073 . a 3). Wakibeq J. SamDling metllodz /or rantlom digil dkkng. J Am Srat 6,)3:a0i6. Ass,6. 19) SmWirp and Neallh. A Nalional $Wles Report bCOngress Rpckvitle. M9. U6 DeDt ol HeaXM1 antl Human 6ervices; 1990. Publsation CDC 8) 8396. 39. Redudng ihe HeaIN Cansepuences ol Smolting: 25 Tears ol
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nA9encY:t9 anEPw6005~9pNWA S6~Rea0reoryHp ofPasswe5moking:LUngCanceranE Otnar DisorOers. WashWt9t n~DG: EnvironmentalProtedwnwgenry:1993' on EPA 600I59BmO6F. PubSTat F m ETH. Correa P, ReynoNS P, e al. Environmenul and Wn9 c r in nonsmokin9 women: a multken4r aWOy. t>53-tT59ance JAMA 56.1Dais JR. Brawnson RC. A srory antl lassona IearnaU. SI Lou soVniv Public Law Rev. 1994:1J:]!&T63. Invdunlary Smoking: w Reportoi IbeSUrgeon Generac W r~9ton, DG. Of6 on SmokinB aM HealU. PublicHeatth Servee. USSDept o/ Heatlh antl Human Services: 1986. PuWrcatbn OHHS fiT~0398. ' 60 Barnas DE H P. BMtle J. Bero tA. Glant SA. Environmentat tobacco amoke. !he 8rown anJ V.M4amzon tlxuments. JAMA t995:2T4:3G&353. 6t. R e JL. R management o/passivesmokinBatworkaMat me. S! Loub Vniv euUNC Law Rev. 1994',13:TBJ->65. AH. Iz s aManswersmncemin9paasive 0 62. Rp JL, Lowrey kinB mtnce piSCa rebut4ng tobacco iMUStry argumentz ToDacco Conuol. t9 Oe3 63. P ce 2JP. Snanks TG, P uk M, e el. Do zmokirg rom emwnmenql bDaccosmokeatwoAi TobacmCOnVOId99a.3515~20rs 6a. U CO. WinLSOr R0. LowsJB, GoMenberg RL EvduatbnoilM ot Eissemina4on of smoking cessation metnoES onlhe low bNM1weieht rate atM evirgyear200oobjectiuesMrihe .r:6:1T1-iTT. at m lMetl 1992 65. Leoa NM. Asnley MJ, PeEerson LL, Keays JJ. Tne heatlh riaks ot passive moking: e growing c e ior control measures m IsnChest 1983:64890~95. 6. EYOpoulosaC, K J.PnanMKetaLHaVCwrcen4alionsd antl w in women antl Prev newDOrn inlan(s. JPMA. t99<',3>1'.621bT3nirre 67 . A emV oi PeOiatnce GommMee on Substence wbose. Ttlbaaco-rrec~e menL. a imceret~e ror menaalmorpmwrenana Is. Padzlrea. 1990s3:866-968. a0o66. Cotbn P. Smoking cigaretles may Eo Eevelopirg kNa rrwre harm n ingestin8 cocaine. some esOeRa say. JMAA. 1984:3T1:5T6-51>. 1na 69. Cnallingius S Fprman MR, BerenEes HW. GraoDarE Bt, Isolab L. EMed o! age, paMy, an0 smokmg on q¢gnanry oulcome. e populetiar.pasetl suEYAm J Obstet GYnecot 1993,168'.163t. 70 floyC RL, Rlmer BK Giovino GA, MMen PD, SultWan SE. A oking in pregruncy'. etteGS o Pregnanty o Ic4mesanUCessa4on nu Rev Public Heallh. 199J-~1<:3T9i11. 1. Cnattingius S. HagiunE B.Me'rrikO.Cigarehesmokingasriak iclw lo earry neonald Oeath. BMJ . 1988.29T. 258I61. 2Cnat4ngNa S. Ax on O. EklunC G, LinEmatk G.SmokAg. al s9e , antl kbl groxth. Obitel Gynewl. 1 965; 65:449451. ~IT]. Senon M, H el JR. A ' alol chenBe ln malemal ~. 1964: 251811-915. s antl ils eMe d on binh weiBM JPJAw T4~gROgen EM. Dirtusia+ ol Innovatbro. 3rE eU. New vork, NY. freepreaz:1983.
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Page 12 Progress n e ne Suryeon General E.ecutrve 5ummary WaM1mgto^. DC: Gtrice on 6mokng and Healtn. Ceme lor Cnremc Oisease Prevenaon an0 mobon. Centars br Diseau ConlroLt989. Publiwtron CDC 9 4~01. TM1e Healtn Bene9U ol5moking Cessa4on. Rockville, Me. OMCeon U6 Dept On arA Human Serrices: t999-.2529. 46 . O 9on CDL 90~8416. 1 Hea n4~Survey on tooacco Use, 199t: 6ummary Report Abanta. Ga: Genters br Diseau Conno:; 199t. 2. Emont SL. Zabniser SC. Marcus SE. e er Evatuarion o/UK rs lor psease Convo/ antl Preventlon Smoke-Free Pdsy. Am J 9:456<61 ee43. Brownson9RC, Jacksw-TM1OmpsonJ.WlkerwnJGDavisJft.Owens ¢r ED cemogapnm ane awaeconomic alnarencea In balbq about oking ~^ J Public Healq. 1992',02:99-103. Oa/Gen ry EMsI(alsbuk ED, NogetM GC. TM1e beM1avrorol risk txtor s.IL design,mibatls.andest~malesiromw IaleOata.Am J 5a:9.ta. e45.eRemirgton PL. SmiB+ MY, Nh mson DF, AndaRF, GentryEM. NogeAnra GC. Design. c antl us s o/ sNte-based sk factor surveaillance1 Public NeanM1 Repa19s0:103:366a>5. ena~o n RC. J J. N5lkerson JC. Kani F. eliadliry o~ Isormalion on cM1 ©nlc d~sea~seonsk /acbra wlbded In Me n Dana~oal R.sk sacmr servemartrR syatam . EpicemiowgY. ~99e" :64o-54s. J C, J In DE. Fonmann SP. TM1e fieM1aviorat Rlsk Fador Survey a on M1e Slanbrd Fve-Ciry ProIed Survey: a wmparison oi cardiovascular n beM1avior esbma45. Am J Puotic NeaM. t992;82:4t2lt6. sk 48 sbea S. SteN AD. Lanligua R. BascbGE. Rel/abiliryotlM1e benaviorat risk taclor surrey in a IrietM1nic population. Am J Epidemml. t99t t3340A50D. aNfleiscb JD, Prentiw RL. TM1e Statislicsl Analysis ol GaiWre vne Dala. New YoA. NY: Jot.n Wley 8 Sons /nc,1995. 50. Lsndis RJ, Neyman ER, KocM1 GG. Averaye partial asswiatron in Jway wnlingency lablas'. a revlew and Cisassion ofalternabve bsts. /nt Stal Rev. 19 8,46:I3]-251. 51. Rrowoun. RG, Mataon DM, Novotny TE NugM1es RG, ErArsen MP. Envvonmental entl pdzy o tobaao uu and prevent cardbvascular tliuase. H tM EducG41995,22:4]0<98. 52. MealVry People 2000: Netional HeaI1M1 Promotion ard Dlseau Prevenlion OCpctives. Hyatls:4le, Md: US Dept oi HeaIN ane Human Sen~rc.es. 19g1. PuNication?HS 91-SO213. 53 Davis RM. Boyd GM, Scnoenborn CF. Common wurlesy' and be ol passire smoking: re ol the 1901 N e w s SurveY JhMA. 1990,]63z2200-2210. CorrecUOn '. JAMA. B90',263.3025 4. Boaara R, R P, Bums DM. Gilpin E, JoM1nson M, 811 D. n aom e cco smoke m calrcornro: ma wse ror a e wurkplece. JAMA. 1992,260:]49152. ~55tH in Eneda ot Passlve Smolting AssessmentoiLUn9Cancer inFeuOS end RespnNOry Disorders In CM1ileren. Wasningron. DC'.
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ANdw.i oIAILne l. N:ehol. 9 fWuawn on.wrking days by Ne razlo of 260/365. tTis approacM1 sssumes Nal restricsions al work do nol affecr wnsumpsion on oNer daya. , 11. Some studim reporred earimaud Impacu Nar vxre ckafly inlrded to be avefages acrosi working mM nonw0rking days; Nose fesults arc reportcd direnly. ONCr atudies (Millar 1988; Palerun es al. 1988; and Rosensloek. SsergacM1is, and Heaney 1986) werc vnblguous as to wbcNer Nc cssimascd impacss werc roscnded so apply to working days or to all days. to be conservstive (i.e., to min'uw< Ne risk of overssa[ing Jre effea), xe veatW Nose estimatcs as if Ney appiieA on/y so wofking days. Nen convencd Nem so impxcts for ell dsys by mulriplying Nem by 260/J65. 12. In geiural, employees whose worksite restnnions on smoking makc Nem reduce cigarenc consumpsion during wofking bours do nor appear so make up fur Nat reduccd conaumprion by Intteasing c0naumptinn al aUer dmes of Ne day. Most smdies IookeC at impscu on conavmprioo on workdzys or on ali days. not just Impacts on consumption during working hours of workdaya. Thc resulss of Nose mMies implicitly zcmum for any posensial increase in consumption outside work hours to makc up for feduced <onsumption et work. A few smdies inrestigated impacss separately during wvrking hours of work days az well as dufing nonworking hours of work days. 'fbey ieMed tu fuW either rw effccts on cigarene rnnsumplion ourfide working hourx, or ar most a minor increase ourside working twura on workdays. 13. My Grtreae in cigarene wnwmption uuo'ide working hours of workdays generaliy was dwarfed by Ne -efron in cigafene consumption during w'orking hours. BoriarW el al. (1990) found Nas consumpsion decrcased '!.0 cigarenes during working huurs, but rose 1,93 during nonworking hoarf. wiN 1 net decline of 5.18. Sriliman el ai. (199D) found Nat cigarene
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ngin mary outcome meabvrestare tlrt posMan puR rd io anp Pro9rrezzontsalorg~t stagesoi-cnangcqntinvum bwaN 4 RM~ king/t4.t5/ m, blly ~ smokirg elbn. M1e 5 atages appliuEle by s aay br a=no~. acuon. a o~smmheta~dwas Pat imo Dla=e m tssa. wamm~m na~e. eegsn pukY ~rrrpam er. Tops a as Possima xing M olemqoyeeshomMeaeM1OSDitalsuDtoS years aReemDlamenta[ion o tne Dan. PrxDlace amokirg Cans geneally la&ed Poigrovps an eslqatetl re onry 1 perlctls.ln stN91YViFemapnryolworkpiacesmoking otvvaryingaavaliry. Gonven ance sampke ol srmao nut omDers ot empbyeesave ana sbeies Benerally lacxed companson groupz. We lovna only t d tlata from mullDle(5) IwsDllals', rw=omParison grouP was vaea rte/swM mw emepkons, =I=aay aernea smokirlg opiwmas ane :uw~. otna.'Insastyatorsromw re wcxme in . -sonea D ara : timpMmented. for e am{tle, percenksge 0euea es in smokirg Drevaknce am ng emDtoyees rargea hom g%b 26%./13-231 sbtly populat~ lor estigatbn T nosDRatllnav try iDt ¢Dfirs1 ana oNy inavs(ry k~ng Dan/t31 Conuary to sMatmigMDemrpe=lea, ampoye sosmoke at rates epvivaknt bglose IourMmlM ganerel I8,2a/ In kc[ 23%of nurses. Me laryest sirgb category ai pbyeea, a wmparetl vnM aDProurr•atery 23.5%of Me gene at /emale pDpviatbnmarM 25%oI Me general DopWation 125,26/ BoM muniryRa.e ratsea corrcerns regaraing tne o ep e enrsuan o/ n sbaies ofM1eaM ovtcornes. ospltals~w e1]8%to/empbyaesarewoman(compare0 k oi MeBeneral aaNt working poWlaRwi) ana 16 6%are Ahican aen (wnparea wRM1 8.2%o/!Re general aevRworMrg Dopvlation) 4]/ Am Finalry, smoking s Impau onlne FospiUf empbyee pDDNalion aWneis signi5cant Hospitals employ apWOZimakN 5 mlllion Amar'rcans, 4.2%0l t ryS workforce. AE sucM1. MeY =onsNWte a krgeandMal cpmponent of all US wo/cers./2]/ By mu1liPlyinB iRe amolDnp prevalence in emoloyee popvlation by Me eage lamky slte, we cakvNte st 3.] miliion Amencens are atteGed Dy Rospital emDioYees' moke. TRIS is e conaervative estimale, as 4 aoes ~siee~mo.eao=m isbe Me mmiiy wno may:lso De ananaa. METMODS SIVtlY Dasgn oar gDM was m eetarmma ma impact ane ena=t a oans on Dana.'loror mpbyea N. smoke-hee workpkus comDared wiM Mose emplayed oM1places WeanikipatedMatMeJCAHOSmoke-irae oNa cM1ange s lcues Mat s enta w renuaa~ okinB n Weva~enceG aTDe ast Oy degn Quas%xDanl merwauons rovna in re./te-3g/ TM1k rs ascrosssectrona suay aM n hart of a krger,Me otnga~ng prospecliva sbey. We ra:MOmty seiectetl M1osqtal5 aM Meir
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ceM1FO~~ oo rwold be rwea(t)Generai¢xbiNN aalro tan~e„rapr ' comDared Dopulatan cluracter flfia81in tling amokiy belravior eemograDM1rc c m me Belravicmt Risk facbr ew SurveylNHI51 antl nesgeneral pcpulatron mte~ we matcbea mre comp nsogn grtoupzbz uniry ramer IM1an by pb calegory. t1) Tnere may be a concem regardinq Inm ~reporletl amutmg tlala oowever, beceuse of IM1e .reDwt meawresr3e/ ana me nisn wsl or ztng~w ssays.(3)Arantlom'rzed mredatr wourd be memooorogmeiN~su ce panicipants ceurd nol randomry be asspnea b zmoko-hee kehee en rs. Idl tbe re maydeinfiuencedby dingo seek employment atwltwkplacea wtrere amokirq is pemtlneamTO our knowkage. mere ere norepons Itrat me/ate of empbyee bng bsns. It nolposside. clingabixrx-upstuaytnatrwNddresstM1rscsuent y are co Eunner re needetl a yrelapseaMbnger-IermlDasl ear) noacy ene<h on re 5 empnasisourstrmy h0n9baneH ot muchbroaderlssue sowledged as rekvant. tbeoimpactdsETS on srrokars ane onsmoken Inchcl, m kingbansorlgbstebecauseotmeconcern EoutEiS.TneimpaclofETS'mgerreralhasbeenwer/tlocumentea/53-60/as senectsin orkDlara/et£3/andonpregnanlwomen,kWSes, anEC en166-T3Mln¢w recognb.emeimponanceolmisissueou wdy ist/mibtllo a direcl bcus on me enecl of smoking baru on smokersr cleany. m eeposure b . ETS in ma workpraee end ils 2ialea n ana~u59:ragreamrmanmataocpmemeanere:ItrsnoDadmat sNay iprepMeE e~aa mosmpporWne time. Hospnahnave imDlementea me JCAHO's new smoke-iree alanazraz ana as suclrmay be eaay adaGters; conshtan[ wlm dilNSion at innovalion meory.nd/ H piWh rrayserveasmotlelsbrolM1erinausbiesconcerning tt) kn IedgesdlqwNdaalrywtleerungesmaybeacbieved.(2)rralueeaM e poleks.(3)typesolimplemenblionhswshcea md Id) e olvttre workprace b kingbeM1avroroutsWeMe workphce~ By atutlying tlre early natumlorristory of wofrcDlaw reslriGiorra kmg be n IlreM1OSpitalsectw,weM1aveBleanedmfomation apdied woApaces Ps Rogers/!dl zuggests. Potentie/ ~s Imay)too aINaaoptersroraa.icearwmmrmauonaboutme n. The earN adopter Is consberetl Cy many as ma InaNitlual b b belore usinganewqea'TlwrWeoseaayadopterisevery loglcal one lor M1ozDrlals lo play In an area sucM1 as smokNrg ceszaM1On. Basea on mese findwrga, we believe 1M1e wi0espreatlatloDtionol <ouW M1rve maWr tenefzlel M1ealtlr enecls. ltwe as ddiN eatl mwwuNrm king benavor, w neeaawnsvJerRmenentionssuUasworxqacabansMatmay eenedive waya to mokmg prevarerrw aM erlrrunale expozure lo workplace traiards, socn as ETS. .
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ANdarirofAlbenL.Nidrols 5 C. seporrvr.vnrveys. 'MSe awdkz survey nrc group of employeea Eerore and a dirferem group of employ«s aPer Ne imposnion of maior resuicdona on smoking in Jie xrorkplace, T1sey sypically comparc atlfneporud smoking aaivny for e group of employcs before a ban wiN self-reporvA smoking eaiviry for a differcnt group u! employees aner a ban. D. Fairrd sires. tbese swdics apply onc or more nf Ne preceding approaches to two sit<s, nne Nat Is imposing major resvicrionz on smoking and anorher, simllar aite Nat Is not. E. Gnn-ttntowl imrrvirws. Trcse swdies survey employecs in umber of differcnr wofkplecez wiN varying degrees of moking rcstrinions. The surveys typically uk respoMCnls aboul boN Nelr smuking actHiry end emoking rcsvittions al sheir piaces of employmem. The studies Nen compare smoking aaiviry acrozs workplaces wi~h differem rypes of restriniona. l. The exlem w mhich smoking was reznricred al worksites varied somesvbn from smdy ro irudy. None of Ne restriclion.c, however, was as far reaching m Nose Nat vrould xpply under Ne Maryland regulaiions. In mosl insuntts. smoking wu banned at ell uvrksutions afler a zmoking ban was msmuted. In many insunces, smoking was slill permirmA in amoking lounges and, kss orten, in designared cafeteria sectione. The iniliai condiiioos also varied fmm snby tu sady. In some mstances, smoking was essentially unressriesed before Ne ban. In oNers, smoking was pemuncA z~ some swrksiazlons (pankularly privaie afrlces) an0 public areas (e.8.. smoking settlons of cafererias) bui was banned in others (e.g., nurse stations. elevarors and hallways). 1.0 ese few cates in which alrcmatire values for diffefent changes in condiilons are presented in the original swdies, wc hzve used Ne valuez Ihai euimve Ne Impacl of going from the least reunnrve cuMisionz m Ne mosl rcilriclive. e. Mosi of Ihese audies have investig-d Iwo impacu of workplace runicrions on amoking acnviry. (a) Ne extent to wbicb amoking reamcnom reduce rnW cigarene wmumpdon by people who wnnnucrosmokeanE(b)tlrceamtiuxMich.mokingratrictionsrcducethenumberofamok.rs. Given
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nwang [ aher a nbng br eemo0rapnK ana an b:ex mere was no 59 [ant OtXeeer~ce mtnis ory(P?10) catCOMMENT M1ospitat empioyees. suopct tolne warkpkce smoking ning (measuretl by me postban Puh ratiot ana may e staqes-of<hange 0aittnrq wnlinuum onqrovPtno kin9ban. es Nrtne~ nsigM1t into a pol cy approach tolnecredw«Pn stu0 king Envuonmenla: inlerventans may lacililate cnange n ai~itluaicene wr.51/ Sincemost adull Ame s apeMSaignlficem king no vmrkpkce~woM1ykce benevior may a: tlecision m kng. We telieve merek1e01ssaeW l -Ih < wl be n arW emreaeee ao~re nens nabit w a avw0am mwooaao controi. nroxcea minoa m wOrkwa[a n aa n mma a. «anaona: ~~q [mmeaatwnorms.tn xeoma II me ob'ectives ol Healtny People 3000I5]/ reBarain9 amoklnB ere to be a rkpkce snaking bzns win pky a vita: ra:e. SucF bsru are pamw:any ~m workpkce ponant nm oray mr noanny :Hesryiox not aiso to da[.aase e inmrmt costa nom absenkaism aw w mwer eanM1 ana lik~ina s.G'rvennea:mcare'sescaktinBCOZt1o anbtying a kng-te apiegynsucn as [sr bener ~ coryoar te ew1iw mlcM1ealtneineamoking m0ioyee Maltn as we n Poikiea e~a[asaaa a a a p-ee a wmMenansna nb -besed in cetobaccoasage.atkasta mpngtM nosPaalbasea working pop~lslt~red Our study is M1e brgest and onty nanonal mvesligalion W dak 11 soppGrls tne Maings of some of~MUStrywiae s king b awk investiBetrons. Fr Iking st groap. alekpnones rvey of a o icy u omparison omry se cee samDie otempbyeesat]onrventty-atf'akdgeneral y cigaretle consumption byempkyees t rIrom r a smokNgnpdiry eecreasetl b0.5 alk mpkme ntion~/t2iN lne quilraliosaMnome smokinqrates were 'ta m 9rooPawleYear taler.Oneo/tnekwprospectivecMOd a 25%decrease in Poslbsn empioyee smoky preva:ence Overall preva:en[e aecreased from 21 ]%3 monlns Dekre pan impkmau t6.2°k1 pbVeeswM1Own4naedamokingreportsarsaug nomborof by 25%rhom 16 0 1J.l ugafe nes Pef day tM1e cigarettes smokeaat work erdppea M1om 1.8 to 38 per daV. However, mis t mparison group ana was coMOaeC at ony 1 b[s krgest sweks.mmpar ison eks. aata wme anaryaea 1rom a ranmm samwe o~ ss~ n amPioyees nom s nosawk a mbems aner am>xmq ban w wi :a nad si iarPOSromaoitre0os rlina I perpcenteolp tn,a qvn smoumq'a/ amebanamibulaemaif mction. FFlM-se en cercem of tnose wnD wnsnuee [kingreporte0ere cingmeirconsomptan.AXM1OUgnmuXip:eworkpWCes son grouD Taese prevbcs atoaiest loaowea by o estgation, Drovies s ong su rt krme eHearveness ol workDiace smoking b ns on nospna: amployee smoking
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A7ldwit of A3Aea L. Nichols 11 lilerature for Nose imDacts, pus I havc devcloped some illusvasive ffguresto eaamine Ne possible ntem of Ne undereslimale. 20. fet n Ce d,e impact of Ne Maryland resvicuons on cigarede consumprion during nonworkmg hours, eapressed as a fracsion of Ne impacl of Ne workplaa restfinions on urorkera during wucking pours on working days. Fur timpliclly, lel us assume Nat Nis paramerer is Ose aame _ for nonworking as for working adulrs; Nis almostceruinly undersuks Ne impan on nonxnrking fndividuals, If n= 20 percem, for eaampk, Nar Implks Naz tpe broadMSS of Ne resuiaions- going beyond indivlduzls' places of work ro include vesNUrants.bars, and oNer faclliries NatNey pao-onv.e-Increases d,e impaa on employed individuzls by 20 percent un working dzyf. Given d,e def ition ofn,thasunpaoialso apDlies on nonworking days, and appiiesto individual. svpo are not employed antl to workers alrtady covered by restrictions atxrork. 9Te adLitional impap canlhen be wrmen as. y d.r ~o .r.mrr~on.r o.uidr wa.kylxr nJIl63d/310/ (3) 21. The reasoning 6ehind Fqumion 3 Is zs folbws. We rceed w acak d back up by Ne facsor (365Ra0) bxause the rekvam measurc is Ne impan of xrorkplacc restrktions on Ne days so wplcp Ncy apply. Thus, our esbmak of 13 percenl for all days of Ne year sranslaes ro an evlimate of (13%N365/2<0) ® 19.8 peram on working dxys. We Ihen multiply by n beuuse Na ia aM Esily impao of rronworkplaa resvinians u a franion of Ne daily impaci of xrorkplace ruVittions. Note Nat, un/ike before, we do iw, have to adNSl d,e numenror for Ne frsctiun of workers alrexdy covcred or for d,e fractlon of aGUlts cmployed, because this ranworkplzce fanor applies to all
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tling c suqects om emDby Q~ t -~n.ere5letl ntl Compaas t on~Groups ~ ~atifetl arantlom sampk of Us tws1.11 was uutl to ensure me seTwolevelsofa etAralionnweress we tliv aetl uS slsltessnto 39raws Easatl on arm b roeacco m .. m. w¢mexkd r n seow -~< Brovps Oased onasue. usirg nu mMrofpeds es a proay. se am~s ons by rocarron am saepawed a mtai dt u slrsb. omly .¢kaetl hosDium rcom a usl orall jcnrw-aaredaed rocated in ]t sroks. We used Ihe ¢mnbymot ma /also caned me pmhaEnRy - voWrtionale m si samD/inBmrMmoa) es de Mk Ey KsnAt/aod PnwlerrovTn¢no.D.rmawereweisntedev nemhern p v bensor: e9ual DronaEixry ot ethod DrovHed e suffiraent sampk ce'si9n eXect A1,33/ We tletermined tltal wimm b Irav¢ samplea If amwoyees inal~apresemea ali st ¢mployeea 1n mewmparatrve ad¢d a oetam emplorae Imn ror at stt2nnM1O ed0s(shwnRhosDiW/s. x~d b atraraatvi e~e ~z~ we oel. ~:dW~:rs nom s noapwle mr a bta/ ol J6 hosplta/s. lists wer¢ obtainetl hom 3 rwspitah in slrata tt and 11 11,111 b empbye o Orovd¢ IMns ssary s mDk s e. ErwugM1 e hosDMelswere otyieltltn6ge brlheinterventiongrwp.definedas ult (age -greater man o~ es o>t0 years), tu hospllef D/oyeas wno w¢re a.¢rsrraw'kers Iwrrem w rorma~l t~okers) auho ame n m mat a workpkoa smokinB polcywouiE go inb eHett We ucle0vle4Dnoae svneYS o/ e rantlom sampm othosDital amployees irom I sts vmvwed Gy Ihe tasDrlsls. smce only Iuli.lima hosplai emaoyeeawere slutlietl. all Dhyslaana 0. PM1ysbians (wM are Berkralty metliwl slaXmemters antl not ees) ampbyed dy hospilals saovnt roronly 12% If Ihe total hosvikl ampoyees/3a/ TM1e exGUSbnolphysicianshomme t tly w asatlontllepraclirzlrealityolM1OSDltalemDwymentaswMaS t asli9ations tound mat pMsicuns dltbr hom Me Beneralpo srrakirq be xin9R6.J5,36/v We IM1 ma agerral, ItOdd DrotessionatG¢riwi Nuecotwr,skSed,en mpbyees.rtwst ad pES simtler b m marry olherUSworkDwces. TM1ese ale9ores ot empbyees we2 tlefi e0I accoNaiwewtimlMUSBUreauot laoor sbuavcann TM1e mmparison grwD .satetl o/ ever smokers empbyed in workpkces xetree DaKies wno n¢¢d m Ine same commonM ltlet¢mmnea uy ex.) as Ihe hospital emDWeesTM1k provldedadeBraeof ,bing avu dmg lo unrry soc mk tadors. Ttw cammuniy ongroupswaree omiyseleaetlbmughMeWaksberynrematllor stage c/usler samping.A]/ iirst. all Bdgit Dnmary sampling taleption¢ banks (me area code plus me fus15 digils o/me 4kphwre nvmber) were ed from me hospGl errployee lisls 6ecoM, idign rantlom numpers wer¢Ig¢neratetl antl bded to me Drimary samperg tekphone Oanks lo create
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A/fCmir oJAlberr L. Necholz 10 In Eyoaliun I, rhe numermor is Ne etnmated Impaa for employed workees (r) . nwltipllW by tlc franion sMO do not already faee « svia/ons (1 -.) aeW Ne fraaion If adults who uc empbyed (a). ibe derom'uwor aAjusb for Ne faa MN - sigarenc eonzumplion in Ne su¢ abody is redou4 by e.isting restrlaiom. but the numeruor is t6e eflen on an uvesvittW Cazeline. ')TOS, we need to scale the exisling baulin upwuES' The Maryland Depanmem uf Licensing and Regulation esrlmata Nal'appreaimately «enl If Marylanders xork in locnions sMere smoking is permitled in wmmon work and Wblic aress' (21 Marybnd Reglsrer 682). Thu ezlimate implies a value If r= 0.4. We were onable zu obtsin dau estimating what fre<tion If adolts (NOSe 18 and over) is employed. However, deu are avaitabte for ages 16 and over. /n 1992, 66.4 pcrcenl If Marylanders aged 16 and ulder were employed (U -S. Depanmenl uf Connerce 1993, 396), implying a B 0.664. Appiying tisose values to Eqoation I. along wllh Ne estimale from Ne literamre If C= I) percent, yields e highly wnscrvanve esnmate If the nel impael on sutewide cigarene sales: conx.w~i...,omoro/~re/~.po 13Y./1.o.4)(0660 s~~.. ~ II - (0-IJ)10,4)(4.6N)1 (3) 19. As noted earller, Nis is a very eonservative estimate benuse it ignorer the effea If the reiv~n~ons on wvhers oolslde If working hour. and ignores alsogeYrcr Ne impacl of Ne ressrictions on agareoe cormumptmn If inEividums who are nm employee. We do nor bve estimues fmm the 4or ~ u n, le~ C be consumpien wiVtoo moavpiioo.iN qau 'saok mm~daioos. tMtleAwsion in wosumpiioo wiN she regulsiau xill he J(IN•p(C). abxrv..C',eo'C: C-(I-d.e)C,orC-C'/D-en). iLO messimpioevnll IeINt~.bIC'/11-d.a)). E.pmrds.poportimof.vimummumpiioolc~).UteralucsiooxillbeR(I-rW/It
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ant 229]f Irom the Tobacw Conlrol Polky Prog~am of tne Roben Wood Jonnson Foundatmn. P , NJ. re 9rata/ul ro unih ' o panicDaletl n sNtlyctnatlCbbnew recgraleNlto wn Oran Mocxbee, An~ Merele, and Dele Smnn lor rlreir assistarrce M,Wapanng and edieng mis aNne. f C~garene smoking annputeble monaliry arW years ot potenlial st--Unned Sutez. 19 WR Mwb Monal Wkly Rep. 1993:42:6459a9 el3 M ociBarenesmoking-Unned States. 1993aMM.WR Morb'MOnaI Way ReD1g94;C3469dT2. 3. M rn DH. Tne Coss and Benefirs o/5mokirg ReslnLlwns: M Me Smoke.Free Envvonmenr Act o/ 1993 (H R. 343/). hingbn. OC: tn Fir DNlvon 0- ol Ak and Radial~. - EnvronmentalProtecldwnAger~cy:fg94. 4. Grovino GA, Schooley MW Zho BP el al. Surveitlance br selected Umted Sbtes. 19-999. MMWR CDC Sorveill Summ. t994<3(55-J):f<3o s 5. Cenrers /or Diseaae Control antl Prevention. Cigerette smoklrg s-1993. MMWR Morb Monal Wkly Rep. 1994 43 925-930. am6. M a JB. T - th Nrougn pranned ociopolilralcharrge: cnanenges iorresearcbandpdicy.SOCSd.Med t993;38:toAftt. >. Fieldin9 JE. Sucrossez of prevention. Milbank O. 19>8:58:P4J82. B. W~nen 0.A, King qC. P DG. Health Psycnobgy arW PobNc n A me9rarive Approach ~t8ostman , Masa. AINn fl Bacon 9ic t934 . He 9N y TE, 5nane P. Daynard RA, Lonnofly GN. Tobaceo uze as a ologcvoc rcirw9en: 1 Nr a pubric a oach. In: DeV man 5, Rosenber~g se SN, eds. Cancer Prevanrion. Pniladelpna. Pa: JBL1pD- . 1992:f-15. to. Chapman B 81xn M. Pre/ace. Tobaao Conrrd. +992:f:S2-S3. +. SMttman 5. Snumaker Sq Ab2msDB,eIaLMWelsoismaklnB ealth Psycnol. 1988 5(sup01);13-2). on /wcredilBlion ol Heattncare Oryanaatwns. n al /or HospWk. Oakbrook Terrece Join l l Cwnrnnsion on AccrediWnonao/ Nealn-re 019. n¢ations; 1992. 13 Longo OR, Brownson RC, Kruse kL. SmoFirg bans In US M1osDilak: s o/ a natbnal zurvey. JFMA 1995:I]4:488<91. 4. DiClemenle CC. Procnaska JO. FaVAUrat 5K Velicer WF. VelasOasx MM~ Roszl J e pocess ot amoking ce nahsisot emplatio MpreparanonstegesofchanBeJGOnwlt L/n PsY rwlH 891~59393-361.n15. OiClemenle CC. Proc/uska JO. Selichange and thsrapy change o/ lungbe o/processeso/<nangemcessatonand etaBe zvP1962;T:133~t42. 6nProchaska JO, DiClemmle CC. T ,.6AVproacb. Lrnzmg tTaditional6oandanaso/TberavrHomawood~0rarowJOneslrwin: sfi a JO, OlClamenle CC. Veer WF , Ginvil5. Narcross JCPredicing c ange in smokirq alaNSloraNieM1angars HddciBebav. 1985;t0:395<O6. e. Goldslein AO, W ook WR. N I RE,FlscnerPM.Hospilal eHOns in amoking conrrot. remaming barriers arW cM1allenges. J Fam Pract.
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loa6elsaayeuaw:ewa:ewsem(%BZL)saeAO;tlwa N:urvuw» uew IeieZl21 s»Aaewa;elMSW aVl{c a6e1U»+aC +ay8!y a a!dues N!unu.wv. aVl u: %p fL VUm Pa,etlwoa %S OE 'BwU!POOBu1¢;Owawoa Nsnw,as saaM;Ewa le(M»V e.oyy su!N!:+O o{ +o!M eBns enVe;dwa~uoaa.d AqtlweleWspVAUewaus~palaaExazeymsYl seaAOpwap!eedsWayllp %6tE VNm Da+eEw»'a8els anVe!Owalu»a,G a~p w a,am s»AP;Owa Nwnwwoa )o (%8901 /IeV Isow!tl I4W">d) w m e6Veyalosa6els aV uouo( aaP,ema.ay4MpassaBOMS»AO!UwaN;umuuwo veVl sa Ao!dwa ~!eNtlspV {o a6ewavaE ,aV6ry a~WI smoVS Z a.n8!j 'A {a adN pWO9uaw Alluan0ay Iz VI '(%91 s!spuEA4 Pu¢au((q,9 tl ~u) e8+eya {o eay,a (/%G'LI LB=u) es.+tl p»npe, e le wn8 WV»!u lo -.atlaYl'aaYqssseloaENDaYp~rvawApvanEaywow aw'1t%z'EVl 95>=u1 u su6rs 6wymusou to dwisoJ a suoya asayi {Wi puna am sieNtlsoV 9L+OO laays ol uo xa,p empapwes ~aB.el WI ul s4Wa6yqowsrou,!aw /a ued se saaFqdw s» 8upows Bw0!- PaDOdaz ApMS »p w Wal!dsoV 921aV1l0 (%50) om1-Aryami sanVnyu! aqmupVenueBro pale;a, lo+apwnu e Ap Pa:uedwowe v. sas» Au¢w w uep 6u:yows aae;dywm e IeVI paspa;mWSae s ItO=dl saNwee!a t-t A0 Paseaaap uoVtlwn~suoa Apepasvane'ay Ao.Gwa !slMSOy io e aM (toOWd'9 Z-9l /~ Y.SB'tL Mw.+ an e!a+l W awes eueqwaqaunlaVlBu!snpazNeueos!ea~Va.xoelep YI ~(tUO=d) Iueslw8!s peu!ewe, N u~p'/o LL'4'I~ %581 ['t ol -NIVB:s pap ;sp a aU1 'ANSUa(u! Bwrypws pu ~:Yausowap {oqWa e,a6w~un pm a:auaiapowswe!xay!asuwoeo9eZ sa!a:, pa,edw~ a,am aYaD ev!rPws mouem pve w!m s»a!dwP.w aove, u~o ueQlsoC WI uaVm pwrol os;¢ aam s»ua~ay!p;»!ISVe(S 152'9't'o %S61 02 W Bw,NIO01o ~su anVe;a, /(e,ana ue vNm (tp0">dl tlnwb uosuetlwoa N!urvu wl.aueylsaeAa;awa;e(bsoyavl.M,aWVSSem6u!yowsu awNleylale.rW:aleDa;PaNanepeBwsn;epow spexeV Is tlo,0 xo~ aiNwoy synsay ItoO=d) s»qtlM+o.x aaNaryowiwoy w 6wy o.~ aaa PaV Wm (900 0'9K 0'IJ %S6) sluapupdse, N!unww»+o/ GGfO v!!m pe.edwoa (9EStr5G>0~1~%S81 905'o sem We, uab Veq~sotl ayl'Aa .a.C sreaA S isaa! le pawawaidw: vam suep z:e1MSW a»ym s»Aqdwa oi (Lp"=d1 siuewuwmua eay-aypws~uou u~ 6v!WOm (ZS00-Si00 'IJ %S61 syed~awnoa Avw:wwm m{ 0E00o VI!m pe,edwoa'(LBO'0'p50'0'f;~l!ema~w »uep4vm %S6) 590 0 01 dn /o ope, 1!nE ueplsM ,eaA-t e aay-a,rowa e w aAopwa laudsoN ~za~ pu am&jl stlno,e uosyenw» Pueoua pu yuB!s sex. oye, ~:np ue sus8uw~l ~,np N!P !p /MSUryeaw peV la'4! saryeuen S a:N'pazNeue a.arn u: a6u!puy uaarqay s aieHPOaVlluasneaagsa uaV6!VVl~~ms»oy ~o +WBiY wim aso~p,o{+aV6!y~a,ara sa1e+ un ~UerNV~ 6s ~a.am tl sope sup~'ua eanpa Pue sse,a!e~»s o+pa(e!a AN i~ne W11%al!dsov u:lv,om Wm uawpm lo a8nuavad 6uw;avm+ano aw uar.B aN:p xas aVl [s+eaA g t):!ews Nan se y:u8is Fuaa ~svels ai!vm aouaaH-p a8e Wt (1. >dl uope 1. se!a Vo pue
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AKdcvir oJAlhe.r L MMdr 6 t~m< consrtamts, < bave concenm«d on Nc firzl. of Ihese sxo rypes of impacu. rW uced <igarene consvmpnan bY connnuing smakers. Wortplac< smoking restriaions probabh 11. fMuce smoking prevalence; LLie cu~hors ot mzny ofthe ztudies concludd Nat tbry de to. 1Te resWSS segarding prcvalmce are Iss cowslmt hoxever, shan sho« for « du<ed consumption by commuing xmokers The «sWU shoxn in II« lable oMeddreu reduced consumption by cominu'mg smo4 n. 9. Of Ne 18 smdies in Tabic 1, 13 p<orided iNOrmaYOn fiom whicb we could ca1<Wme numencal estimates of she percem reduction m averagc daity cigasene cansumpnon due (o stringent eeslri<oons on -kpta<e smoking. Four addnional sNdies (Mdrexx 1993, Hudxinski and FroNi<M 1990: Wasserman el al 1991: Sorersen et al. 1991) provide 9ualitedvic evidmce af «docsiorts in consumption, bul not Ne mfortnation needed to esnmale a numeri<al value. OnN One smdy (Gonlieb e~ a/ 1990) reponed na fmding s significml eHect it fuund reduced consumption al work, but nw 0.erall. Howev<r, +hal smdy's resuhs are <onuuenl x,lh s smal) bm nol stanslicellr sigru0cenl redunion in daily cigarene crosumption tunber. Ihat studv s design may w<II have mssked a larger eeduction in CaIN ugvenc wnsumPtioa' 10. Most of Ne nudies repon rMUaions in aveeagc cigarene consumption fos working days. For such amdie.c, we mnvenM Ne csnma«d impacl for working days lo an esnma«d impan for all deys by assuming tha a ful/-time xurkef Is al w9rk 240 day. pcr ywr: we mulliplied Ne pe<cen«ge 9mwd of.4ing Imple bow v.ey nteiam aeY mWal per dey. a W W fm dally c18.rcne cwsvmp-e efowbwme.o-cwia. I~e 5~14.ISm:4.a,wssorm~m. uamgu.mdpemuofw.ae~mgodea Iw3s.ie~rrvu.w ~n).;m+~mmkmw.,«gen~awewma.nbw,g«. dailY rz . PorIM iz inupeEk of 6el.c arztory. For zuppoze w nmking r.o p.ckc ef cipmrv. pe d.Y (d0 cig.rcates) rzduaa eonpmmpiim bY IU clC.raw per d.Y .s. resuli o/ sbe smoking bui. Sucb. rdun~on.ouM oa abow u0 ie rbe wrvey oe.ebicb tbe.rvdy iz based.
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AlflJar~~ o/AlA.vr L. NcFn6 19 ATTACHMENT A: CURRICULVM VITA OF ALBERT L. NICHOLS
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AX_d _v_u o/Afberl L. Nshofs...15 Table 2. impacs of Reductions in Clgsresse Safes on Euise T.f Revenues.nd Sales Rev R~nm ~t ~NEvcucTUez mtldlv 171 531.5 S96 fla< . flsso 5319 T19.3 30•i. f388 38. USing e more seilisiic estimase of10 percensinlaP 5stes.Ne srz~e w0uld have Iust51C million in eacise u~ ruenues xnd producers, di-busors, end setai1en xrould have lostplmos, 554 million 29. At the Iugh end oflhe plausible nnge, a 30 pcrtenireducn0n in siles woNd reduce Manlxnd s~nce excise v. colleclions b' ilmost5i2 mi11ion snd woWd reduce revenun nelnfeuise se..es br elmost $162 milliun for cigarcne producers. dinsibtnrs and sesulers.
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er.TnirC.t Wt(~grearertnanorepua~ m age/hwaseanbormy seiecteJ hom eacn housenmtl basm pn rpe nd0 antl tne tasr 4 tligns ol ihe kkptwne smDp ra asutf.tvigitiSRM1also9vesunlstetltelepnonetna y ut 2t /e of elI restlen ~al telepnorre numbera. an epua chanw o/ y s goai was to assess Ne impact ot workplace smoking aans o ing be omDaretl w uniyocompanson9roup.sucM1OanahwouMresWt/n kng~ rttin9 co ura2 m mOrM'aesuo: orkdaces witn sm eeM1Ddlcks (t)wouMae.pe ence a nigner postoan quit ratio tnanafull-ume empbyeesof kehee en and (37.woultl repon mwe progressaonwm atagesofcnargeco anfull-ameempbyeesol wo0utcome Measur¢ssmoxe iree environmenl. ne primary ou re quitlin8 banaviorerethe aloyane stages-olchangemntinuum.Tne mqunpra~tior/38,Jgi mmonlynuseEinlM1esmokingRtarature,Eeacripes stuOy.T bero/brmer ere(cueiren arMrormersrroken) makgivenwpo wlcNakO toan W¢ ra4onwh cn was tne qurt rexro e[ atpart wnlaW time aRer mongtnegroupofeverampkarswM1OwerecunentamckerswM1enine mqkmenteC. for the wmpar~ grou0, m n a enrg m <mpoints ba a on wne~ uKtbara,wasne 6mPkmena0 ntnewrrespontlin9communiry. s Tne stages angeconlinuumcenbe0etermine0lniM1einlenention ana w d DoW~atons by a to qmtsmokirg. m qmt. ane keai ot s~w~g aae.u o, m.o~¢n acecmc poasmns cWtlettl m tn ekDnone survey in n[ Bewuse of werall iqity of toibwcnemrallasting. we tlitl nol colntlucl cotin neaszays /3840Af/ws Surveay Instru nmt Opr u s atlapteE hpm ihe 8enaviwei Rlsk Fedor Surveinance Surveyu(BRFSS).aponsoreODytneCentenforpiseaseCOnVO1 na prevention./<2/ antl iromworkoflneNationaiHesM1,tun9, anEBloptl 3<5/ Tne questbnnake moOeieL on the BeM1av'wral Risk Facror s~nanw ce sprver nas ceen teatea ana roena reuabk a~w.aiio /as<e/ Semple Sus anC Power Malysis idbwing steDS vrere bken'. (t) Tne total sampk size br tne posDaai su so tnat tne e a population .aortCyat st3%.withawtnfMenrelevetpf95%. (2) Tna to a~ samDie sqe obf step f was tlrvitleE amonglhe 11 ta hom a saEtoestimaleNe woulObe propnNantfor tn 5 atottln esOmates ale/r tFe e mong all t2strata. (3) for Ine empbyee surveY. 1-1 sampk 1requrtetl1oest1maleapropoNOnwithatnrosta3% error was tliviCeO amw+glrre sharn pmponional to tne number ol empbyees
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AKdwil olAlben L. Nlchnls I3 If Ntt range is 26 percent. Figure 3 ihows rhe effcct nf ufing Nu value radler Nan 13 percent in su~naling Ne overzll impact on sales. As before. Ne impan depends on NNe impan of RNe resmcuons outside If work hours relative to Nal during work hoars. If rher- is no imFaa outslte If vvrk hoors. Ne enimaletl impaa is I I.l perceM, as compared to our more conservative estimate If 5 6 percent. If Ne Impaa oouide If work is 50 percent as greal as Nat during work hours. Ne esumated reduetion in cigareoe salcs riees above 30 percem using Nc EPA/MUdarri esrimarc. unl Redpailan In GlpneLLe 6alea pYa 1 L d~ 0 a0% 40% Dalty NanwoM1dau Impad RalnLLVe lo Nlkdace •wokqace OrnMr Figure 3. Esti ated Tutal impze on SvL. as a Funcsion If she Dai1y Nonworkplace Impars Aelative so thas in the Workplace. Uaing Mudnrrpa Eatimate of the Base Impact If W orkylace Restriaions 26. We are rot aware of studres Nxt v.nuld aliow ua W estimare n direPly. iluwever, time- anivisy swdies Nat record Ne seoings in wTich IMividuals.moke couId be used so make some rough <uimarcs, based on relasive consumplion as work and al other locarans likely to be xffecseE by Ne rcsvlaions. We have not bcen abk, hovrever, m investigam Nis possibiliry furNer in sime rn include resmss In Ne afndavh.
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A~rJmno~Amen4N¢hds zo ATTACHMENTB: ARTICLES REVIEWEOON IMPACT OF SMOKING RESTRICTIONS ON CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION
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A(fidavllofAlAertL.Nichola 14 25. In summary, in my jutlgmcm imDlememing Ne imoking tesvvnons edopsed by Nc Maryland Depanmens of Licenaing aW Regulvion xrould reduce dgarene sales among cominuing smokets sigrvficensly, almost cenainly by more Nen 5 percem, aM quire passibly by 15 percens m 26. These reducsions m x.les xill aRecl lhe revmues shal Nc 5urc of Mssylznd cnilecsz in - e..cise la.es on cigzrenes, a. xell as federel excise u. receipu. 'ITe produttrs, dissribulurs and relailers of cigvenes alao xill suRer r<venue lozsez, nes of cortespontling redudiom in excise w p.enn. Il. Table 2 fiows Ne imCiicasioru of xuch r<ducsiorsz in rcmis of rev<nue losses for f mu Ihes produ<e, dizsfibulc end seil cigvenes end for excise zu sece/pls for the Stase of Masyland, using dau from 1593. A1 she loxend, e eeducsion in sates of 5 pcrcem would heve reduced tolal <igven<sNea in 199) b.' a1moA S39 million Net slese cxcise sa~ rcvenues -ld heve feilcn by Sl million and federN e.nse za. revenues xoult have bcen reduced by 54.8 million, leaving e net rev<nue lozs of $2I million tor producers. dissribulnrs, end relJlers of cigvenex s •ryis® IMDepsn Ioffiwl5ervimofWeMCry1W IY /ss9<), xMicb w~lez~iba e.cb 1 per«d dallne w cie+ No ulu would re0uce une e.nue w C~i~s by SL1 eii4an. IM Dep.mimt sln enimeutl Nn ncb s pemnl dedine in ules xvuM redud m-eipts gaOp,Onp. Thi. dsursm w inAWM in Eahibii O of ILe PLimiNs"Memo~uWUm io by ppo of Compl.id <etl Mdron f 3 ~rve W Dxl.~ary Reliel' (led in sbis ceae.
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,4- AlbenL.Nicbois •Prworypiwl Trading PdicY Probrypia/ -ble Poliry: VOC Emissiow From 9oNenu and ReWicd Uxs; prepared for NO.NOC Task FOru and prmcnv4 ai NeWOrkrAOp on £Ie.iMe MecAan4nv, Monueal, Cansde.lorc 6l, 1990. 'Emissiors Trading: M Orerricw of Conups aM Experisncc: (.iM D. /larrixon). pr<pard (w ND.NOC issk Forrs arA Frettmed ar tbe WarkrlwG on FleiiMe MecMnbrv, Monvesi, Caiadx, Jwe 6'!, 1990. 'SOCioecoromic ImWCU of PropoteC RWe 431.1: (rn4~ D. Herrlson), prepare4 tor SooNCrn Giitorrva EGson aM prmcnvd b tM South Coas Air Quliry Maregemcnl Disviu, los Mgelu. Caifura, May 4, 1990. 'Reum Dcrdupmcnu in Caradian EmiroPmenal Policy: pusenrzd w Energy kcsearcb Groop. Wasbingion. D.C.. March 14, 1990. 'nwr miNing oo Clrar Nr: ng<Ma f« dte i99ps: pairei dl.euxsion er u,c Amcrlmn En~etpriu iredrvu's TAirVenih Mnual Poliry CoNerence. wastiingwn, D.C., Deumber 4, 1989. n,e,r,a
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NbcnL. Nicb0ls Lecrv arW alwn wurtts for a wWe rarye of audiencrs on risk ass:umena aM risk nagememrssues, Review parcl on surdards for dlsposal of drcmiwl waRare agenu, C<n¢rs for Diresse coao-d; Arulyses of reNiadnv ProWSCd by EPA, OSHA, aM odur s{encies; Srvdy of OSNA for U.S. Smus; aM CwnpOxr m0deling of uNversiry ard wllege budgeu. OvErcE Ov Aoralxlst0.AnvE SiumES, HAav.pp UmvEasrar 1914,1978 Consulrwr/nwrysr. DrvelaprdaMaPPliWbudgclsimoladanmadrls,prcWredreponon bWger pro- perfonnN arulyses aM ivrou seedov of Nar.nrd Fvwncial Aepon. l0xx F. KExx[ov ScxWL ov 00vEwucssxs, H.rtvr,xu Uxrv¢xznv 19t4-19)) TeaclwrgFrlbw. HelpMVSChanddevrinprdmaRrulsfurcuursulnawlyucmelhodsand MASSACxxs[i'fa IxSrtnrt[ oE TECxxOLWy 19)5-19)6 RrsearcX Asturanr, Drynnme r a/ Ermomin. Cailabara¢d on arelysis o( swekplling s a¢gies. HACV.vP gcxool. 0v Poe~lc NEAtTx 19)4 Rrarorch A..ruranr. Developed model ro aptimitt resouru alloradon in bypeneruion programs. Ss.xpuRO UmvEasm 19)3-19)5 RrsrareX Avtrrant. Wrde comP-r Prognms artl mrtlucu4 ezperimenn on cmliuon formation, HONURS AND PROSFSSIONAL ACTIVInES Haumui Meril Scboler. 1969. LiMUy Pertn Memoriai Awsrd in Amerian GOVerxrcm, SunfOrd Universiay, 19/0. Phi Bcu %appa, Sunfnrd Urvvcrsiry, 1973. Silver MMSI for aralysis of rrgWalmy opu0rs fm kzd in gasolirc, U.S. EPA, 1984. Silvcr Mrdel for uulysis of ceNlawry upd0m for abyleredibrnmide, U.S. FPA, 198i. &oauc Mcdil f0f xrork on risk marugrmrnl ard risk as¢ssment, U.S. EPA, 1984. HfCfr/8
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: Ndmir OfAlberr L. Niehols_ _ I b REFERENCES Mdsexs, J.L. 1963. "Reducing Smnling in Ne HospiW: M EHecdve Model Progrsm." CAes~ 84(2).206-209. 8aile, W.i.. M. Giberwti, F. Ulschak. 5. Snox'-Mne, and D. Ham. 1991. "Impam o! a NospiW SmoYing Ban: Changes'm Tabatto Use and Employee Animdes."Addmnve Hehovinrs 16419-426. Hiener. L. D.B. Abrams, M./. Follick end L. Dean. 1989. "A Comparative Eviluatiun of a Resmcsive Smo/ing po1iq in a General HovpiW."Amencan Jouem! oJPublicHealrh ]9(2):/93-195. Borland, R, S. CheCman. N. Oxen- and D. Hill. J990. "ERettc of Workplace Smoking Bans on Cigarene Comumpdon"AmerimnJOUem/ o/PublicH¢alrh 80(2):I18-180. Boeland, R, N. Owcn, D. Hill, and P. Schofield. 1991. "Predicling Anempu and Suxained Cesssdon of Smok/ng Afiu A< Immduchon of Workplsce 5mnking Bam." Hea1rM1 Psychology 10(5):336-342. Brenrrcr, HH and A. Mielck. 1992.'Ymokiog ProAibi6on in Ne Workplace and Smoking Cesssnun in she Federal Republic af Germam:"Prevemive Me-ine 21:252-261. BroLer, L, C. Pilger, vid P. Corey. 1993. "Environment end Well-being Before and Follow.ng Smoking Ban in OR- Buildingc" Canadmn Journa1 oJPubbc HeahM 84(4)354-258. Daughmrt D.M., C.E. Mdrews, C.P. Oran> K.D. Patil, and S.1. Remard. 1992.-'Twal lndoor Smoking Ban and Smoker Behavior"Prevenuve Medinne 21610-616. Gomel. M.. B. Oldenbmg.l. Lemon, N. Owm. snd F. Wurbrook. 1993. "Pilul Ssudy of she Elfects of a Workplace Smoking Ban 0n Indices ofSmoking, Cigvene Craving, Slress and ONer HealshBeheviours."PSycho/ogvandHeallh8:223-229. Gunlieb, N.H., M.P. Enksen, C Y. Lovmo. RP. Welnnein, end L W. Green. 1990. "Impazl of a ResWcsive Work Sile Smoking Policy on Smoking Behevior. Anizudes, and Nomu. Journal l04'eupunonalMed~cme 33(1)'.Ib-23. Hocking, B., R. Borlond. N. Owen, and G. Kemp. 1991. "A Toml 9an on Workplece Smoking is Acceplabk and EBCnive"JOUrnal ofOttupanarelMedecine 33(2):163-16), Hudzinski, L.G. and E D. Frohhch. 1990. "On- LongiNdinel Sludy of a No-Smoking Poliry in a Medical Inslizulinn" Cherr 91(5).1198-1202. Maryland Generil Azzembly, Depanmens of FisW Services. 1994. "FizW Nole, HB 523 " Much 3.
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Albenl. NmTOIs EDUCATION Hnavr.an Uxlv[asm PT.D. in WElic PolieY1981 loxx F. KExxEnr Scxooi or GovExw.fENr. 11- UxlvEasnv M.P.P. (Master of PuTlic Policy), 1915 Si.waoauUxlvEasm A.B. xiN Oisuncuon aM Tomn in Polidrsl gciena. 1973 PROFESSIONALEXPERIENCE N.noxru. Ecoxosnlc RESEAPCH Asso[raES, lxc. J989- rsP.rsNem. Dir<cuProkcssintheecorwmicsofregWauon.envirarvncnl,exrgy,arW oNCr arus. NnavnanUxsvExsm I9g8-1989 Dircno.nfAdmintzrmrivrPlanningaMPaliry. Mansgedgwpprovidingaralyticavppon lo Nc Vice Presidcm lor Admirvso-atlon eM w depanmcnts r<porting w Mer. 19]]-8 JOxn P KExx[or Scxco~ os CovEa.ursEM, l1ncvnqn UxlvEVSrtv wrP IscorojPU6lirPOliry. (irtsvucwr, 19]]-BI;AUisuruPrafessor, 1981•B3:on leave. 1983-g5.) A z of iruwcdon: Ewmmia, Aralyuc MmTads, De<iilon Aaulysis, Projca E.zluaconrRCgulation, Encrgy aM Emirommem. Vice cluirmea Docbral Programs; CTairman, Admissiom Commime for TvrvYeer Prognnu; Diruwr, nsrvard Facolry Pr jcn on Rcg~lauan; Dirccwr, Summcr Program for PuMic AdmiNSVawrs; Duamr, 5urnrner Progrun for Forcign Smdenu; PrTSCiryI Inveaugawr on RuurcT Gnnn. U.S. ExnaoxrnExru. Paoternox Acexcv, wnsxrxarox DC 1993-19g5 Dinnor.Ettrom'rAmlytbDis'vim. OffceofPaIicy,PlarvungaMEvaluaYOn. Marvged hr¢ ImrcMS-BCrcfis. F. rqmic Arelysis, and Sm¢gic Swdies-dul aralyzed Ne ws¢ aM Cercfic ofProp~ rWra, zp9mored 9rvversirY-MZe4 saurcA on mcUtods for ezcmadrq Trnrfis, utl perfomed swtin of Migarm enrvomrcnai issuu. Irtiualiy urveA as Special Assisum b Utc Assisom #dmirvso-sar. mECoxsUS.nxc 19]61989 Com]ul...... wide varicly of wpics, mcl~Ming: E.Pen wfmca on risk asuumrm ard risk marugcmcnl ianrcs (n SopcrfirM ou; Compznlivr risks mr siung or Tanrdous wasR Incinenwr; Livgauon wpporl Wr assessmenr o! rurvni rcuurre damagu in Suprrrond wu; neava
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n/e/r/a ALBERT L. NICHOLS BUSINf55AUUkF55 Nadowl Ecoromic AesurcM1 Associabs.lnr. One Main Sbeel, S Flow Cambridgc, MasxchuYrts @III (61])6i11NaG . Ik. NlcMls rereiveL an A.B. degrec v.iA dlatirsuon aMMmrs frwn SaNmd Uruversiry, where Ik.asamcmberofPNBUaI(alqe. HeeerredbisM.P.P.aMPh.D.degresinPublicPoliryfromHanard Urvversiry. NisxvrkalNERAf uc'esonenvlrorunenqlecormmicsaMpoliry,exrgy,ba~uporudon,aM rarvral resowtt damages. Prior mpirv~ NERA in 19g9, Dr. Nictwls wu an AswciaY Profesmr of Public PoIicY as Nc JoM i. Remedy School of Govenunem al Narvard UNverslry, wherc for over a decade he uugM coivses s, ber.efil-wsl arelysis, analydul m<dod<. aM ercrgy aM envirorvnenul policy. In adtlidon m vaMing aM reuarch, Irt was Direcmr ot Ne Harvard PacWry Prqem on RegNadon, wln¢ wsre @awn hom cvenl af Narv.rd's Orofessiorel actroola ircioding Buairos, Isw, MWicine arM Pubi~rHUIN es well as Ne Kevedy ScM1OOI. A-rwrd, Le alm wrved u Direcwr of AdMitisbauve Plavdn8 aM Policy. - Wttik on kave frorn Narvard, Dr NlcM1Ols eas Direcwr of We Ecommie Arelysis Division of tlce U.S. fnvirorurcnBl Prqeceon Agcnry trom 1963 m 1985, His resyorcibiliuu ineluded direcring srvdi<s uf dc rvs¢ aM bercfisor emirorvrcno/ mles, including a napr nWy of Ne Cosv wd Bm<Fn ofRedurNB Lead in Gasoline. Ne reaivW Wa mapr auards from Ihc Agcncy during his Nmrze. Dr.Nicklshssrnredb4orappuredas expenwibeuonewidev.rieryofiuues. Privat r clieexs luve'bclbdrG iMivM~W mmpar:u o-ede aavodadmss, bNverddu aM 4w firms. Public reclor ciicna Mvc induMd tl~c U.S. Envirorvrcaml Pmecuon Agemy, Deparmrcm of Inariw, Cenrers for Disux Comol, Olfiu orMaregememastl Budeer aM die U.S. 5enax. NI uf Wa wwk hzs been In wnnecrion wi~A regularory rWCmating nr lidgalion, murli of A involving enNromiem, ®mnl resourcu, or risk esxssmenl aM risk mavgemen~. Dr. Nidnls is tl~c audnr of SaBrrinB Erowmic fnrenrivralor Envirunmevat Pruttrlon as wsli in books aM Vrofessiovl jourreH, ineludin8 %s~e Amecimn Eronom/c Review, Fel( /ouma! ol Eronolmin, Ho.wN Environmeneal low Fevirw, ManBrmrib Sr(tnte. Pub/ir Irbentr aM ReBUlminn,
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d Alben L. Nicbnla Atsistanl PAixor, Publlr Poliry, 191g-g1. Member, American Economic Associetion. Member, As.oclaxlon ofEovirovnenW aM Rewurtt Ewnomisu. Membex, Soclery for Rifk Analyais. Member, Irad Sobrumminee, Nalbnal Advisory Council on Enviromnenui Policy and Techmlogy. 199). Referee fof proteuionat joumals. N'RITiEN TESTIMONY ANU CONSIILTING REPOATS Com~rrvxonEroromirConxaMBenrFrx fOSNA}AOpoxedRWrxonSmoMnginrhr WOrAylare, (wIN M. DreyfUS, B. ReAdy, and M. Berkman), preparM for Ne Occopaxional Sefay and HezBb Adminisualion, Aogest 1994. fommeur on EPAS Amlyrix f'Plv Cosrt nM Ben ~rs ofSmoung Restriniou,' (wiN M. Dfeyfus and B. RWdy), prepared fm xhe U.S. Enrironmenul Praenion Agemy, Au- 199s. Xry )xxuex In Ihe Dexign oJEmlxxion Dnding Pro&vn+to ReEUre Groun,i-Levef paonr, (wieb D. Harrisan), prWareW for Elecvic Puurer Research Inslirvre, fvly 1994. Ren hrx aM Coxn oj UMergeomd Converxlon oJOrerheaC Dlxrrlbuxfon 4nee fn New Yorl $rae. (with D. Hartison antl 1. Suvins), preparW for New York Elecui< Uxiliries, )oly 1990. EnNronrnemW Eaemal/ry Poliriex in New york Stme: Commenm on ahr )pDe Drafr Smrr Energy Plon IDrqF), (wixh D. Harriwn end M. Dfeyfoa), preparM for Ne New Ymk Power Ponl, Aprli 1994. DemoMSlde Mnmgrmrnf: Alaernmire ApProuChea ro Exrimnrln8 Partlclyavx'Bm hx.a, prepareC fur rhe U.S. Environmemal PrmeUion Agency Offce uf Palicy, Plaviing and Evaloaion, Energy Policy Branch, March 199<. Commrvr on RCGMagler, Ballly, )nr. ReNxeC De h Tak J Mnhodo/oglenl Feport, (wirb D. Hartiwn), preparai fer Empite Slale EleNlc Energy Research Conpany, MarM 1994. ]he Benejux oJRrducing Eminlou ofMrrogrn O+iAet UnCer TIRe )V oJtlu 199J aron Air Art Amndmaux, (wiN D. Harri.on, B. ReAdy, sM S. BMenbeqer-Aggarwap, pre4areA for the U.S. Emirovnenul Plmeplon Agency OHice of Policy. PlanniM ud Evalunion, Air Policy Branch, March 1994, n/e)r/a
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A-L. Nicnols EttroMr Inr<vlves ro Enroum8e Narardaur w¢srr MIn4Nwbn mN Su/e D'uposal, (uiN R. Jklrer), 2per m U.S. &wirovnenml Pfortcdon Agenry, WasNngun, D.C., November 1988. 1M vNur lAr9ulrb8l ~mmion Und<rSrnbn Bfa) lrhr T Ir guhsrmc<. Gvrol An: ADrruv+.-.wl~Nr.lPpmuh, (wiA L. Bodery D. Harriwn, .rd R. Tertell), rcpon q U.S. EnNromnenml Pro- Agency. Augusr 1981. , AJRLICATIONS 'DemarA-Sidr Mansgemcn~: Overmming Maf4m Bartlen or GDwuring Rwl Cmm?' foMwmin4 in En<rgy Pdiry. 'Conparing Risk Sadmds: M'SUperimiry ofa RerefilCosr ApproacA,' in Rrgulviw Fall 199t,85-9e. 'PO¢ntial C- Savings arA Enviraunewl Effccs of Uaing Emissioro Trading n Marege N0a in Onurio,' (wid, D. Haniwn), in R.E. Clemem (EG.) Air aMW 1<MaaB<mrnr Dirough rM1<9J}, Air ard Wasm Marogemen~ Assoeiauon, Onmrio, Camda, April 1951. 'MSrtrl-DUCd Apprmctcs (m Enworvrcnml Prarcdon; (wiN D. Harrison), in & Oenoy (Ed.)„~rrioJR ~m m GbEaJEnvimrm<rual4rvea,WazM1iWn, D.C.: Bnreau of Nadoml AHairs, 1990. 'The Perlls of Prudencc: How Cwuerntir< Assemmcm. Dinon Regulauon: (witA R, IeeLAauser), R<gubrion Nov/Dec 1985, 113L, ReWinxd in Regubrory Toairology vd Phmm~robgy 6(1999). 'tne Danqers of Cautlorc. Cmxernism in Asxsmenl ard rhe Mismamgemem of Risk: (wiVt R. Zeekfauser), in V.K. SmiVI (Ed.), Admnrra N Mirrorrmomics, JA1 Press, GreenwicM1 CT, 1986, PP. 5532. (Parf r version prercno-A al jofm scuion of Amerimn EcowmiC Associadon arA Aswciadon of Emironmenml aM Rewurce Economis¢, Dellas TX, December 198a). Cosra aM Brn«us oJ RrAUrbg L<aG N Gvo(in<: Fiml R<8ubfory Jmpun Arelyru, (rwuJ'or), EwromiC Arulysis DiNSion, U,S. Emi-nml Prorccuon Agenry, WasAingurn, D C., MarcM1 1985. 'TLe Cosm aM Bercfiss of the New U.S. PAaaduwn of lead in Gawliro,' in M, Baicr (Fd.). Energy md Erwonry Gloln! )nrcro<yeMrnri<s, Volume 9: JmP/imdons ot &rv4mmenullawcs,InlcrmdomlASSOCieuonafEnergyEcommiau,1985. Prcsenmdat IAEE Conference, Rom, Jon<3-5, 1985. n/erra
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ANdaui+oJAJbenL.NJChols l] Millar. K'.1. J98b. "E.sluen0n nf Nc Impscr af Smoking Reztncdona in e Govemmem WOrk Sening" Cormdmn Joumu! ofPubhc Nealeh >9(5 epromber/Oaober) 3'/9-383. Mudarri, Darid. 1994. "The Costs and Benefiu of Smo4iny Ratricuom: M Nxesimeni of the Smoke-Free Envirumnem Aci of 1993 (H.K 3434)" Washingian, D.C.: U.S. Enviromnenul Protection Agenm', /ndoor Air Division. Aprli. Pewrsen, L.R. S.D. Helgerson, C.M. GibbOns. C R Callwum KH Cucco, vnd K.C. Pitthford. 1988. "Employee Sm0l:ing Behavior Changa and Annudes Following a Revoiaive Polin on Worksire SmOking in a Lvge COmpenY"PUbbc HeofM Rayonz 103(2):115-120. Rigoni, N A. 1989. "Trends in Ne Adopion of Smoking Resmcdonv in Public Places and Workaites." Nru-YOrk Srore JOUmaJ oJMedicine Januvy:l9-26. RounsrucA. 11. A. SierBacNS, antl C. Hcancy. 1986. "Evilumion uf Smoking ProNbiiion Pulic In e Healih Maintenance Grganirstion"Amerman Jou.nal oJPubllc -h 16(8)'.1014-1015. Sorenzen, GG eM T.F. Pechacek. 1989. "Implememing Nommoking POhciez m Ne Pnvme Sectur and Azsezzing Theiz ERccu"New York SroieJOUrnal oJMedicine Januay.l 1-15. Sorensen, G., N. Rigoni, A. ROSen. J. Pimiq, and R Priblc. 1991. "ERecu of e Wosksire Norcmoking Poliry'. Eridentt for Increazed Cessaiion"Amer/canJOUnuI a/PubJicHealrh 81f3):203- 304 Sorenuo G., H. Lando, end T F. Pechace4. 1993. "Promovng Smoking Cessation u Ne Workplatt'. ResWU' ofa Randomiu5 ConrtollM Imerccmion SmtlY'JOUrna! ofOttupanonof Mediclne 35(2):121-126. Suve, GM. and G. W. Jackson. 1991. "ERcc~ of a Toul Work-Si+e gmoling Ben on Employte Smo{ing and Aslimdes"JOUrna! ofOmupcri0nal Medinne 33(8)'.864-890. Stillman F.A., D.M. Becker, AT. SwanA, D. Hanmla. H. Muses, S.A Giann, and H R Wamnch. 1990. "Ending SmOking ai The 1oMS Hopkim Medical hulitmions. M Evalumion nf Smuking Preealenu and Indoor Air P011minn" Jnurwl af rhe Americon MedicnJ AzsOCianon 364fI2yJ565-1569_ TnbattO Inslilulc. 1994. The Tac 8urdrn an Tobacro, v. 2819D3. Wavbing+on, DC: Tobac<o Jnsiinn., January. U.S. Deparurem of Commercc. 1993. Sronnical Absrracr o(rh. Un4rd Srorcs. Washln8rnn, DC: Burexu of rM Cenus. Wasecsman, l., W.G. Mannin8• 1.P. Newhausc, and I.D. Winkler. t991. "The Effecu of Euise Taxa arA ReNlazlonx on Cigarene Smnking.' Jourwl oJHrabh ErormrNU I0:4J-64. Woudruff, T./., B. Rosbrook, J. Pkrcc, and S.A. 01- 199J. "tawcr Lcveis of Cigarene Consumprion Found in Smoke-Free Workplaas in Cslifornia." Arrhlva oJlmemal Medicfne 153:1485-1493.
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-10- Alben L. Niclwls -Govcrrimem Camu m Nc Wml~lau: An Assessmsm Of OSHA; (wilh R. LckLeusu), fie Pubtir Irvrrcn 49(Fill 19>fl. Exsrys rcpin~ NB. Minu. OSKtc Hinory.lo., ud PMiry, 6wrau of Navo~ul ARairs. 1984. 'Srod~Ji~StnegiweMCane1Prlua; (v+i6R.ZecNUUSer),RN/loumn(ofEronorNCs 8(SprinB. 19l]). lEarlier vcrsion iuurd as PuMic PoIicY Diuussion Paper 4JD, ]ohn F. Remedy Scboo1 of Govemmem, Harvard Urvversiry, l- 19)6. Prelimirary srsion prettnietl e~ joim session of Ne Ameriun Erorumic Auociadon aM U.c Aswcisaon of Envirorvnenul Ecoromisu, Dallas. TX, Decembcr 19)5.) 'Op6ma1 Allocadun lor Ne Maregcmem of Hypemuaion tn a C-ry.' (wIM M. n aM W. Suson), in M. Weiwein aM W. Snson, Nypenenrlon: A Poliry P<nymivr, Harvafd Urvvcniry Prtss, Cambridge. MA, 1916. 'Invaducuan,' (wiJ~ R. 2eckluuur). Brnefir-COSt aM Po4<y Molyru Annwl, 19)i, Aldirc-ANCron.CbiwBa,IL.l9>5. DISCUSSION PAPERS -TbcRNeofAraIyslsinRegWaa.yDxisiwu:TbeCessofUadinGazolirc; prcWrWfor Harvard-EPRI WmksboponRiskMamgcmeol.Ocmbcr, 1985. -Benetir-Bassd Fle.ibiliry in Envlrommennl ReBUlauOn,' (rIRN D. HarrBOn), Discvuion Paper, ErcrV eM Emirorvnenu1 Folicy Cenur, IFR Scbool of Govemmenl Harvard Urvverairy,APril 1983. 'Th< Eudgct Process in rM Faculry of Aru arA Scientts.' OKCC Of Nulyuc SmUlev. Harvafd Urvversiry, 19)5. -A SimWauoo Model of dc Budgm of IM1C Harvard Facolry ar Ans mM Scierces,' Offitt of Aralyuc Svdies, Rcpon 11. HamN Uri.crsiry, May 19]5. Upda~es u.ing 6er Gu isaW in 19)6 as fepons 26a, b, c. A Compuvr-Asslsv4 Invadocuon m Ne Thcwy of Comperitivc Markeu; (wIN P. MemisM1iar,, T. SM1emo, aM R. Zcckluour), Taacbing aM Rexarch Maerials 14T, Jabn F. Kevcdy Scbool of GovernmenL Narvard Urvvarairy, Ssp¢mbcr 1975, RECENT PRESENPATIONS AND OAAL TFSIIMONY 'Emdsiun Trading tor NO.: An ArzlYbc Franwwork; fM+d~ D. Harriun), preecnvA m Me Elecvic Power ReuarrA Estimk, WasM1inBton, D.C., Jurc 15, 1994. 'Emisdun TndinB for NO.: Eaperimcc rilh RECLAIM; (wilh 0. W rriwn), pruenlcd w Fdlmn Elecv/c Im'd- Mecdng. Wasbinglon, D.C.. May 36, 1994- nrerna
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~Y AIM.n L Niclols •Bc~wfi~-Cast Arolysis of Enviromcenul RegWVtion: Caa Smdies of Haurtlow N PdWmns; (witl~D.HarriwnvMl.Naigh),HamrdEmlronmervdfnwReview8()9g<)r Targemg Erurwmir Incemives fo.Envieonnumal Prorerrbn, MIT Press, Cambrid8e, MA, 98<. 'Te RegWaoon of Airborrc 9even<: in T. SdellinB (PA). tnrrruives for Envieomm~val Prorrrtion, MIT Preas, CambriCge, MA, )963. (RCVision of repon aubmio.d n U.S. Envirorvnenul Proerunn Agency, 1981.) 'Tls Imlorunce o( Esposwc in Evalwtlng aM DcsigrcsR Environmenul Rcgulauow: A Cas< Sndy; A w Erowmlr RMtw. Papers aM Prouedings ]2(May I982). (Preanrcd as mcc ngs of tlx Msrinn Fiaromic Aaocuuan, WvxNnywn. D.C., Derember 1981.) 'Targcus~g Trvrafers ]brougM1 Resrcictiow on Recipienu,' (.riJ~ R. T<ckbauser), Ameeiwn Emnomir Rewew. Payers ned Peoreedin4s Te(May 1982). (PeeeemW as meeungs of Amen.an Ecorurnic Associauon, Wasbinglon, D.C., Deumbee 19g1.) •Legislative Cboiu of RegWamry Fomas: A Comn<m on f aiw." Publir CAoin 39(1982). (PUSemeO a~ Camegie~MCllon Cuohrenu on Politiwl Ecolwmy, Plluborgb, PA. Mvy 1981.) 'OSHA AFer a Dc®de: A Time (or Reason; (wid R. ZerNUmer), in L. Weisa ard M. Kiass (Eds.), fare Smdiea In Regvaainn, LINe, Rr- Campaary, 6oswn, 1981. (hwNg Regubrory Taegn.. md Ivammrnu, wuM1Applimriov ro Bera.m<. Pb.O. Thesis, HarvarL Urwusly, 1981. 'Opumai Rwowu Ailaauon in Commurcy Hyyenemion ProBrams,~ (wIN M. Weimmin), Mawgrmenr Sr/mrr (OCwber 1918). ReprinvA in N.K. Kwzt -l. (Pds.), Opemdav Rurnrrh: AYPlirwiwu in Hra1aA Cnrc Pbming. UNVersiy Prea of Ameriw. 1984. 'TAe Duvlvonrel Ssfey arA HuIU~ AEminsvaoon: M Oneview; (wiN R.1sct)uuxr), n]Te SeWj 7 Eederol Regubiion 1 rAe Semrr Comminee m Gnvemmenaat Af/uirz, Govemmem Prinung ORCC, 19]8. Eauryu reprinv-0 in B. Minu, OSIG: Hierory, lnw, uM Poiiry, Rurrou of NaGOru/ AHairs, 198<. •Lwoin (ram Ec Emromira of5sfey; (wiN R. Teckluu=er), In S. RoaeMerg (EE.), TFe £mwmia ~MWimf Maymnirr. Mkrlean EnRryria lmuroH, Wafiingnn, D.C., 1918. (Pmsened al Mnrion Erurpri. 1- CaJerenm on Medinl Malpracuce, WasM1ingaon, D.C., December 1976) •Caliuors sM learWng: ACVliwtiore ro a Simpk Gvme in Nc TeiaE,• Be/nvioral5rirntt 2)(NOVember )9]]). n/ert a
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AIhnL. NizFO1s 'NER,1's E@eriercc uitb En.varvronul Eammlides,' (xiB, D. Narrison aM P. loxkow), pruenvA w Ne Ncw Yofk Powsr Pool. Ncw York, New Yark. May 18, 1993. 'The Espmkre< wiN Ekcviciry DSM aM 1m Impliuions Im Gu IAP,' presenwA aa aFe NARUC/DOE Natloul CmJcrcire. on Naeval Gu Usc. New Orirarm, lmtisiare, April 26, 199]. 'Valua~ion of Air Pollution Damages in Nr SouN Cmsl Air Basin,' (wib M. Herml), prescned v tle. Gtifomu Ercrgy Commiuion EEM Harings in anociauon wiN Sourhern Gllfomia Ediwn Cmnpacy, Sacramrnb, Glirwrva, MarcA 22, 1993. 'ValwtionofAirPOlludonDamagu; presnuAbaworkaAOpsponbrWbyJUGlifomia Exrgy Commission on betuif of SouNCm Gli(omn Etison Company, gacumemo. Calitornia. MarcF 16, 1993. . 'Risk~Dased Prioriues aM Ewiroxnenul lurocc,' pruenW aa Raouraa for de Euwre Gmerfm Risk Mwgemenl CoNerens, Smi~y Naioml Emimvnrmal AioNlrs.2he £PA Ruk-d Paradl8m aM Jtr Atremarives, Anrepolis. Marylarq, NwemCer IS-I], 1932. 'Emi on Trading for Air Potiuun¢: An Economfc Iramumrm b Erwouragc PNlorion Prev ; prucno-d b Nc Onmrio Mirysvy orEwirummem 19D2 Tectualogy Trarsfcr Conference. Twonb, Grzda, November 6, 1992. 'Ernimnn Tnm" for NO. In Onmrlo'. Program Duign arJ Earimamd Savings; prcunv4 b IFe Advisory Group on Emission Trading, Taonlo, CamEa, JWy 14, 1992. 'Iavs in tle Design of Ecoromir Imuumenu fw Envirownenml Prderuon; presenW b WohrhoD IrAe Eronomir /ruarvmmu ColLaMmrlve, Glgvry, Greds, lorc 29, 1992. 'Emissian Trading fur NO. in Onurio: An Almrretive b Traditimaxl Souru SaMardx,' preparM for Air aM Wasm Maragemml Assamtlon Meetingx, Toronw. Gwda, April 2), 1992. 'PO1cntia1 Oabs ffom Uxing Emissimas Tradin w Maregc Emissqm of NOa ard OAer Ozorc Pr<rorsors,' pr<senmd aa Ne 1993 Spring Meering of Me Grudian Eluo-iul Assa4tion. Vaacouver, G~mda, April l, 1992. `Desgrvig TradaMe Pemun b 11milErrcsonu/COr,' pruenmE b tFC Meerinys of NoM Ameriun Ecommic aM iiiu~rce Associaaion, New Orluns, Louisiaim, lanuary 5, 1992. 'Pmvruc Imvwiens fnr Proxcai~ tlie Emirommmc leans Prom U<U.S. Eaperie prexnvA b WurkrAOP oc EronomR laulrumrvr mN Suaaoimbfr Orvefcpmrm, G~mdian Naaimml arA Pravirelal NourA TaCles on tAC Envirorvnrnl ard Ne Ecorqmy, Vancwver, C-, Hovrmber 23, 1991. n/ema
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~ SMOKING POLICY .~'o Smoki~g polirr of no+moki~g ~ea inru~ur<d in rll erru a( th< FosP~ul that.er< ooi +pecifi<zllY derienzted u mo4in6 eres. For paiirnir J~< po4<Y aiate+ that ne making i+ .Ilo.ad in the p.~i<nti moms (unl<++ orderr img mhrw rr ~mr n by tM1e Wiie phy+i<izn1.N rmo4ingi+rliwrdinbbbie+ publi< w<hzs<oHrr+hops.Forih<rmJJ.no moWngi+ nrdin e<h.. +mr+iJrronr<~r nanin6 tt wh<re n th< horpulrothn than de+ign'a eJ 1 unse~.nd z+pe<iR<ellv de+i8nn<d ef the o(<u . For mobng Jlv+ed on Reer. uith w nt+ er +nnoiFe~ .~uton gmoki~g Smoking i+Jl.d o.ly In prnfi<d er Pa~i <rlbw<dio molei~ iibun8e eito +me4< n e<hrfloor. The +i>H 1+ permtv o e d« u<d zre +e<h . +uR necihcei`r ~ ungr+ +i .+ ,moDe+enlr in Ihe au wt<a .rez6r+mo4inenezrth<Ibby . o<iPrrn<+ert Nld m the For9i~el, Jr<ha+pirill roRee+Fep or the gih+hoP Pu6li.iiy S/gnr n bbbier <i<w n, xd p utrdthe+mokn8peliry(Fiell.tAme nthr<ef<iero znd loung<z de+lgnz~ed the rmobng znd noo+mobng u(Pli P} Promin<nt be tmekine logm ~.xrc p6ad en th<fiont doon aftA<Ao+piW, A kttrr Aem thr pnzid<m end ihr dnenor of thr Ao+p/tJ d<tWiog thr AorpiWl rmo4ing pobry a giwn to /nrommg penenrc. A + of Wde+ wr nted in N<he+plull publiu +. Op<n m d a< M1o+pi<d +mR r,ew Arld te <ryl>i n thr po4.y rnd W g<t fe<dbd. gnfonnztion ebwt th< pel/<y of no .mowne nor nanaraPin nm m rer employe<+ md z ent<d u.n mplo benefit. Smokl.g Crrrcr/on Clinlu Srw.rzl krmzl Probrmr r<r<orPnized. One pm g..m kr+moking tt+vtinn w run by thr Ameriran Lung Anducud by uaB, du mrbe roezm rhr nrdiw <olzr ..... b' thr nu.+<•nd rtudrni nunn. Fdlem-up EvzlouioncftArrHrn+ofJxpoli<yunrceuvyon rcNlarW+u t+mirionrndro untlYbnngine th< r n ef buh edmi31.nd ruR thr pol/n.'+/ntmnun+,lt++o«r++r+nditrLllurcz.Ther< mnon.ed <Rrni.< Impirm<nizuon o( the policy.run Aczpzn In ear1Y 19T1, befen tFe iniiiation or 6~r poliry rrg<rding<mobng,zque+tionvircwmyki<dbv89P <~m[byrr+ rnd P urnt+ ri thr NnCn^lend Drz 3twp/W zhowed Uu PP prr« of tho+r rve.ed vsrc +mo4er+ (.1 percrnt ef the nur+r+, u prmnt ofthe phyzi<un+. ]] p<rani efth< eth<r rmploye<+, end ]6 pemnt N tFe q~knt+) IX Ihr gmyp, 8) perc<nt ver< <zamokrn (inter<+tinglY <mo4err}, 45 yp<rc<nttlud eevnprmo4ed.AI IX zmok ng horyiW rmpiqer+rnd m<did rt3qurnrd, kdg (1P pr.am/ uid thzl thrr wuld Ilkr th< ho+piW m <ponror . +mebne o<ezemn Vmgnm. fl<r+h<pdiW rtgvdine<moNnghrdhrnimPl<' mmld for PU momh+. orhrr wrrtronnelrz wz+ mmpl<t<d by gE5 hezpiul <mpioY«+ md m<dinl zWf. The %S znRm<mbe.r yrr ned reprtwnt.ppmr~
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d AI4en L. n,chol. EvLwNg rM Nn Brnefus dDSM Pro4rome Bared on Gm4rdlrl{emwlnn, Erah preparW for tltr U.S. Enviroomcnul Praection Agcncy Dffia If Poliry. PWnrting and Evalaauun. Erorgy Folicy 6ranch, lawary 1993. NowMUrA DvrgyBbDtMProgroma RrafN govr. Eryinrerin8 Enimwrr aW Frrr RNrm, drah prepazet for tlr U.S. Enworvrcnul Proucuan Agcxy Office of Poll<y, P-ng entl Evaluaeon, Ercrgy Policy Eronch. Dceember 1992. EmUrion SwdAg Pregrom jor Swiorory Sourcet ojNOa N Ovarfo, prepsrcd for Nc Atlvimry Grwp ml Emiasian TraNn{. Toronq, GnUrio. wiN auiru~rcs hom Goodfellwv Co~mulanu, lnc, ard Vno•HI<ru.~wo, Gcqbu IS92. NowWrll Do MaM1er £aiWrra Suppon ahr Needjor Demrvd Sbr MauBrmrvr, PrcWrctl foe Y,e U.S. Emiromncnul Proxcuon Aguey Office If Poliry. Planring aM Evalu.rion, Eargy Policy Efanch. Aagur 1993. YaGmr4m oJAirPOlWron DamnBrr. (wirh D. Hartimn, l. Evaro, aM ).D. Zora), INepereE for BouNCm CaliforNa Fdimn Company, March 1992. An EmromirAmt tR lrbr BEQAIM hadNg Pmgroml rrltr SouO Cnarr Air 8nrin, (xiN D. Hanison), preparrA fur nc~ Regulalory fleuCitiry Grwp arA Ne Califorrva Council for Envirmunenul aM Eroromlc 9alantt, Mareh 19ff1. TradaClr Prmlirr fnr Wvrr Vrr: An Ovrrvtrw 1 Conttpra oM Gprnen r, prtparr4 for TranAlu Utililica, lawary 1992. T lminnr lAbrmorrvrFuureAiryonSynrmrforrhrCRlra8oRr8Wa.IviithK.Cas<,D. Hurimn, aro E. Slaw), preparetl for se Ciry If ChioaEO Deparomnl of Aviauon. 3amury 1992. Irrurr In rhr Yobwion oJRrdorrARUkr oJiwaluy md Njvry. prrWreE fm Ne U.S. Deparoncn, of Tn-uon, Novcmlar 1991. Econom(r Impanr o/Abrmarivr Fumrr Airpan SpnmrJnr rhr Chhaga RrBlnn, (wIY, D. Harrl.wn), prcW rW for Ia Ciry If CAiugo Depsrmwm If Aviauoq Novcmber IS91. rhrea4 faWmn.firponad Chiwgo i Eroromi<FUrvre, (wiU D. Harri.ou), PreParcE for tls Lke Calumm Alryon Advimry Commitmc, Seprcmber 1991. UPdarrd Ernnom/r 4perv oJ Ahrmaivr Farvn Alryon Synrmr, (wiJ~ D. Haniwn), prepard fnr Nc Ciry of Chira6o Dcparm~enl If Avlauoo, Sep¢mbcr 1991. OrrwrW Forrwra fo. 0r CMmBO Arru, (rviY, D. Harrimn aM LMnm & Brovn), preWmd fm tlle Ciy of Chiugo Dcparrnenr If Avuvon, May 19D1. ]Ac Conq'D<layrvCAirngoO'Nararvemaiant Airpon, (wlrh M. Maubin), PrcparcO for UrcCiy If Chieago Depammem nf Aviation, May 6, 1991. n/ert a
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-tY Alhn L Nich00 -VaWi~ Arogramz m Fcdurc Risk m Lifr aM Hsa1N; presnv4 a semivr uiuS ufKculz fium Me Depa~m~cm of Trv~upomdnn aM ONCr agenci<s, WaNinglOn, D.C., Novcmbcr ta. 1991. Woqvhop on £sonomlr lutrvmrut. (wi. D. Harrimn), prePSrrd far Imperial Oil LW., TOrunw, Cavda, Ocmlicr i-1, 19D1. -KCy Ismes in Dulgvng Inccnuv<s b Marege Emissiov of COr,' prcparrA for G/oW! worming: )he Searrh for Cosr-Ejlrrrive Anion, Glgary, GvEa, May 2t-28, 1991. -Emizsion Trading fur N0. in Onurio,' prescmcd at Air aM WasV M vg mcm As~ocisaon Mretings, HamilbM1 Ccvda, Ayr1130, 1991. 'Uting Hercfil-COSi Maysiz w Nelp Sci Hvhh vM Envirovncnul Sundards; preun~cd a~ Making Srue oJSq(ery, Gm Ireuw¢ CoNCrc~. WasN~on, D.C., March 21-11, 1991. -Markcr-9zscd Apprmcbrs w Mavging Air Emissl0v in Albcru,' presrmnd n Nr Cwvcrrvng Bozrd, Gvdian Pavukum Associauun, Gigary, Gvds,lanuvry 23, I81. 'Emisvon Trstir; for N0% in Onnrio.' preunu4 w On¢rio Mirvsuy of Ne Envirorvvm, Tororco, Gvd., /anvry 11, 1991. 'Muke~-6avd ApprmCMS m Mareging Air EmizAOra in AlUeru,' pr<unv4 b legisladve Rcvew Pa~el: AlLera Emirorvrcnul Prolccuon aM Enlunccmem A<s, Edmomon, Careda, Novcmtcr 30, 1990, 'The MM Depmivon Prognm: EWlori~ Markes-Basd kcgulation.' Prrssmed as Ne Clrun nAmrMmrvr of19JqConfrrenrr, Arlingwn, Virgirva, Navember 16, 1990; Jamury 30, 1991; aM May 1, 199i. 'The U.S. Expencnce wiJN Ecummic Ivwmenn; prczen 4 M Semimr on Marker Fvrrvmrnrs, Omario MiNSVy of Ihe Enviromnem, TaOnw, Cavds, Ocmbcr 18, 1990. 'Emisslov Trading: Corccpts aM Eapcrience," presen'ed m sAe Eaviromnenul Advisory Pard of 0nurio Hydro, Toronw, Gvda, Srpxmber 13, 199(1. '1TC Eapcricnre WiN Mahes-BaeeA lrcenuvu; prcpared for Tne CoNcrcncc Dwrd of Cavda arA presenvd a~ Ne Srmlwr an Uzing Mahn £o.rrs ro Pro~ett rh<Environmenr, Twma, G~uda, lurc 19, 1990aM Edmonwq Alpcru, Ocwber 2, /990, -ECOromic lnccotlvu for Enviromncnnl Prmcctl0n: An Ovcrvlcw of Conaps vrd Eapcrivre; prcparcd for Jmperial Oil, LW. ard premnxd a~ Ne Srmimr on Erowmlr Jnrevivrz. Twnmo, Cavda, /urc 1<, 1990. 'Emisslom Tradirg: Cmeepu ar-0 Eapcricrcc,' (rvi18 D. Harrison), preparcd for TM Cvatlian Elcrviral Assocuuon aM preanW as tls Workskg on TrnGUMr Prrmlrz, To-a, Goada,lurc 13, 1990. nre/na
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Sropuy SMy For o Rrgianl vvOJiy-g Progmm, (widt D. Namson), prrparW (or Eleccic pnwer Resrzrch Intione, Eurgy Aaulyfis Prognm, FMmary 199<. AFmmmnkJo.RCErpinmlEwbwiaiaJFSrmafiryArWrrsjo.£lrnnr Uaitirirs Nrqfil, (wiN D. Hartiwn). preparr4 fm EI<caic Poxxr Resrarch Irsdm~c. In¢grav4 SYSems Dlvision,January 1994. The £nvironmrmal md Ecwwmic Rrn ~s ofCkaririry: Poaulve EvrmN4ira arW OrArr Jmporrr, (wiVt D. Harrinn, B. ReLdy. aM M. DreyfuQ, preparW (or FAeccic Power Rewrch Iruotum, InmgravA Sys¢ms Diviaf0c, DeccmLer 1993. EvrmalCom fG<nrrcVailiWy Rrs,wrte Srknbn in NoMrm Nrvoda, (wilA D. Narcison, M. Oreyfis, aM S. AggawaD, pupared for Siem Pacific Powcr Compny wiU, assisunu hom Sys¢mx Appliuuons l1emauoreLDeumber 1993. CovNrwnn fFnNrn+nmml EvrmaWlrs h Ncw york £Imrk UrIJiryDrr4iom, (wid D. Harrison. p, Jo4ow, - S. Aggarwe0, prcparrd for Ne Ncw Vork POwrr Pooi, OwoGer 199J. Rrvcn/cd Prrfrrrnu aM rM1r Nrr Brn fs ojEknrkiry DrmundSNr Managrmnu, draR prepareA for Mc U.S. Emiraunenal P.cuon Agerey OPoCe of Pulicy. Pkrvdng aaM Evaluauon, Eurgy Policy Branrh, Seplember 1993. Commmra on RCG/HO8/rr, Ra1t'. Jnr. Drafe Tar.t 3 MraAUdulo81m1 Rrpon, (wio D. Hamson), prepared for Emplre Sutt Elecaic Eurgy RettareM1 Coryoradoo. ApN 199J. Comriburiom 1 Mr CM1lrago Airpurt Sysarm ra rAc Chirago Regwra/ Eraromy, (wiN D. H-), prcpareA f0r the Ciry of CM1iugo Depsrrmem of Avution. March 1993, VoWasia. f.iJr PoRurion Dumagrs i7 aAr SourA Cmur J4vln, (vri1M1 M, Deming), aubmired oniwlWfofSOUtliem falilorraa Fdrm Company m the Snx of Csllfarrvs Eurgy Resomers Corcervatloa ard Developmcm Commission, Huring on Ruidual Emission Values for tlx SaN Coan Alr Bssin, Dukel No, 90.ER-93S, In preprauon of ahe 1992 E/ea.irlry Rrpon fER9Tl. March g, 1p93. hvrmafbarion fEa<mofvic~ jromElrnrlr IJritiry Gmcrarion In A6rna, (wiah D. Harrison, S, Ri ~-Aggarral, aM Rovu Environmenal Serviuq, drafi puparW for TnnMu Uutlurs Corporauon, MarcM1 199J. Doiinn ffrvw.wionaMrheOemvNJor£nrrgYSO.NgTrrMOlagira,(wiqB.RWdy). drsfi preparcG fm tlw U.S. EmirovunuI Pro¢edon Agcocy 0lfice of POlicy, Pbmdng ar4 Evaiwtiw, [rcrgy Policy Branch, March 1993. £zirrrut Casu of £Jrnnr VelJiry Rraou.u Sr/rnion N Nrvada, (wi0 D, Haniaon, S. BiaMrnkr-Aggsrwal, M. Br+lowry - Syatems App)vadons In~erreuorel), preparW for Nevada Power Compeny, March 1993. ae/r/a
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Albenl.. Nienois Markfr-Bared Approorhet ro Mnw8ic8 Air £murioru !n'AWrno, (viN D. Hanison), prepareE far Albena Eocrgy, Alberv Enviraomem aN UwEian Prbol<um Avrciaeon, Firel Repon. Fcbwry 25, 1991. M-BuMAyp.mlri mRebrcrO~e Con f C/em Air in Ca1iJomia'r Eourh Cowr 8aln. (.iN D. Nartison), prcparrA fw Glifmnu Couxil far Environmenul aM Emrorrve 6alancc, F~ial Repon, NovemLCr 28, 1990. 16r Impan w Ontario Hydro oJEmOxlor.r Trading Jor NYrogen O<Nrx: A Prrlim4mry Awfyrn, (vnN D. Han/xon), preWrrd fof Onnrio HyLro, November ], 1990. Usv~g Emuxlau TmdNe eo Redure GrovM~lrve10rp,r fn Canoda~ AFrar5lliry NnHru. (wiN D. Namron). Prepare,I fm Environmem Greda. November 3. 1990. lradaDlr Pnmirr md OMrr Eronomlc /nrenrivrr far Environmemal Proeerrion, (wiN D. Hsrtiwa), preparai fm Te GreNanF2ernirsl Aa~ociaeon ar4 pfrrenwd sr e WoN.rhnp on Tradrble Prrntiu, Juce 13, 1990. Addrrrxing Canadn'r Oeare Preblrm~ RrrommrMaiov for a Cor~~Egrrtive Srraegy far Canrrollin8 £muriov f Nirrngen OxNrr ad Volailr O.ganir CompovrW, (WN D. Hartiwn), prrpared rw TramAln Uuliura Coryofation and avbmined w Nr FWCraI/ROViaial lung Range Trampon of Air Polluumx Sirrring Commlree, April /U, 990. Brn hn f rhr 198p Air Quatlry MamBemrm Plan fnr ehr SourA Coarr Alr Bnrin: A Reauenmrru,l~++N D. Haeriwn). preparrd hr Ee Glifomia Council for Environmenui.ntl ECOnomieJklance,Mareh 199(). - ]M1e Eronomic Jrhwnr njlnrwivg a New Alryon In rhe Jd:r Glumrr Arra, (vi~ D. Hartison), PrepwN for Ne Ciry ofCXiueo Deparrmem of Avuuon,lamury 24, 1990. Suppkmmeury Ar,alyru o/tM1r Eabrrnrr ofn Pormrial 'A/ui<iparion Eff n"on Proprrry VaWer Fsom rhe Pr pwrd Clran Hartan Rwary Xld Iwinrmror, preparW for CW n Harbors,loc.,Jaruury II, 1990. Eraa+urgrryarv frAr CraaM1rrry IMUrrry in Manarhurcm, (viN D. Harrimn), prcWrrL fw The Cravbercy Luuruv:, Novrmt¢r 2>, i989. Pr~limbnry Ummemx on E[amMrAxxerrmrnr o/r,le Hral/h 6en hWfrom Imyravemew In A1. Qual4y m rJUSwM fiwrAlrBwN, (wiN D. Harrimn), Prcperrd fw CallrorNa Cowcll fw Evvironmevul aM Econwnic Belance, Augun 11. 1989. Polevb! /ryar~s o/dr Clron Harbon Propwed Rwary XIN /nNnemror on ArrrM1eeiri, R<crcarion.T rumardProyrrryVaWrr,/rviND.Hartison),prepsrWforCkanHarborr, Inc.,FirelRCpan,JUrc 1989. n/eJr/a
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special reaorl Reducing Smoking In the Hospltal• An Et/edive Modei Proerarn InuphL.Andmw,l<.M.D.,FC.C.P. n+d /ll.uu; x. Mnurxn{ 4+d+y+ nd.4nie e•id Mlp to~+mek.{ nuan+ A tolk•~.ry y,.uom.un {~.,n w . .~ae .a,mev<. ..a.,,,.<ne w 9ss <r g,YOO x.rpim.wr m<ms,.+ao p.d~µ.meti.,[ e^~MJUrNe.unettx,•meM<wlm,xowdNUD.~ mor.m waw .<;.< m.am ri m eu~ m euw.~° rexrcDlpum~a,~a.mugsp+r..r e _ h • -n.ex.aa-e w;nme. wa aY m mokenw<n.melin{M..An e.,n- • A Mt `fi<Y we nMDIUIMdepalky.,<.rtin{+molun{ . n M.pn.I;.N.xund. M1 d,meWµbyboixrtJf.ndpuk.u. CiR,eurmo4ingi; delyrcrogn edu <myor nlobk uuw of m,n,v dis,bling <nd kJ.•1 di+eu<., .Fich in rv hrv< in eu<d in eaidem yroporn s~ Iline rclated to moMng .<lud<~ mpxs >, bron<hnu .nd o n ot tbe lung. i,...., a.d 6l+dder, wFile diu.uttin whkA moking i. tnbu; Dtau n<lude m u.diu+iu.•dperipher,l.+x.dvdkeue ~Semndhand.mok<u otber u.heJiheR«u Duv etheadev re+dpubhn;ythniheumdother •• h,,, n~<~na .,n..,lry. w oumn<a u m/ll on A wli <mnke, •nd younger Amer{<ul/.~wunBw tobegin m~o4ec ihe ne ,hu >g pera ior,mal;~. m° V, , d milhon M.x 9m~,tintt~l9W.' Ot],20olw.pn•I. M tM UmndStaev,leuth,n5 .elyi wt.ed mokingeeoru,awdmB,o «bybnl di.• r of IF< n Gm<r~Sw • M,n dJtuen; n<hniQu<mnf.mokine <euuion<hyin b<en e.ilu,ud, with o in tM n e of only Ro io J9 perani Y'+Th<,e uzsuh hu<diuounged w medielur pnkuion.lafromiakAn`.n k< moMn<au prugnmr mm1M hospinls ;n M ,u•<ho<eiu I- •M1ow<d N• . wbeuu e6 Percem of the lU5 M1o.ptul.,urve>xd Md dez/gnrted .nti<mnk/ng eeNlccon[ <nd ]Y pemni ynblbited ntu d<ig.ntk., onlY BI p< r of hosplWs Md rulei pwhibiting,mekmg n meenngs, .nd enly 4o peraet Md ,moklog eczuiian pmgr<mv br P•n eeu •nd 35 penent for emPloyee<• Yer, u the un C•n<er5aekiY <uu,e., hmP/W, hn< , ue eppertunitY to InP~enn m,nY p<Mle N ehelr e,ch<bk momenu. For evnpk. Ihen wert SS mmet„ mwn< t•amo wa nso mmi.. outp.. w ho,DiW<in 19)1. the pxennJ ucns tor~hMpiW, o uke . Iwdice wk In p ting diseu N.dditiontothemdinon+lmlea(/e+nng Hsrom The Hew £ngi,M Deuunu, Hozp/W Y,1g9-0ed sPen,hy nf<m/ teuMng hosP/W in emwn Jfilund w/U H<mrd Mediml behool. In IeYt, < tmoklog poli<y mmminee r,v 6rmed with bc,pn,l-wWe np . mehdmg phni<i<n,, nune,, •dminktn.odab<rho.piW <mploY«[`•ttiu mmm9ke n.6imenlhly buk uM en,biuhed • mmpm Aemin pmgnm w,edun mwbng by hmplul <u4 tl nugonue <mekm. A,emm<rya/lhe wmm-.tees Initid pmgnm blkr.n: i ehwquLu&u.etlu pmenu,•nde,Ded.9Y < - •uDWnotth<m,ionM e /u Dnkm,. nd weou. lt.., dMa<d Hm a<m<r•11 ;
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4 IY. ~ i1 Y [ , ~1 nBedmda~..N aielr J6 Percent of ~A..oul of 4,]00 MvPiul suB' emben. OftFos ried.9 oflhe n o(.M1e.moken.ppm•edefthe moken..dgJpe e - p/ul'spvh.+a(rcslnc.cd smckine. gliBhtlr mwe N.nHUofshe~o~smoker..~de.eryvm.linumbero! vAe amolerv (awred mmPl- .limiv~ion of vmoking tmm vA< Avspiuli .nd emplqeei loungev. Non- mokni ngM1U weresupponed by & Penem oftbc moken .r~d, suryn.i.g1Y. by ]1 percem of/M1e moker v EipJtry- n Fm iut suR mcmbus ned (ffi of.Aose qv<ned Wro Aed been mokentA. veer/ Aed qv/t .moNng duringsvbe grsl PO rron HvtHt6e po4cY had be<nln eFe<. Fe.ofvhe sa/d tM1Si tH Fovpibli pohcy elone hed made.A<m qvi~smokng.bv.2a/2gperttm)vfiluBJ moken.M1ose smoking hebils Md sHng<d sud vHt J~e pol/cyhad played a maiorroleinlAlseM1enge.The JR9 e moken sur.eyed i{arc mvi~ipk re ns (or qvl~tin6indudneM1eahhnuons.PruvurchamhmIly u~d fnmds. Preuun frnm rnwmkers. .nd pub. Le/y.bom.F. den6<rs af smnNn6-T>es. nuenv mry Pro Me bnn inl<nsified by Ue hoaPileli nmPVP mo ng ng vAose RR] auH memberv svr.eycd.Fo aill mokc. W penenv Indinvd vFn.he M1ospiuli Wlivy hed no eHeel an Ihem; v Wrnm v:rc smoking leu. .nd a pc.eenlWe.<rmoking morc. Lnmpbnnn byPonenu ~ ereigns.wrcpl.rodinel/noumokingueuend eher tbe su8 bemme beue. on<nted w.he Wliry, pliantt by Wtlenb impmwd. One mnc~m Au Eeen Ilul Wueeti smelang hu mcrely becn morcd ~m Wud WI .he nmvmeknglop.nemNdbeing mckedouf nfvScureoflhc lovne<.;ho.enc m Jnce Wtienu' bunges in nowmoNng vcu pAe iutmvi.e rmcdie~ .ndcvbo flaou)oromPhcnn by Wb- hu Hen ea.ellee . Cumplinn.e bv g.aJf &pv..ion ofnon.mokine u.d vmobne erc++wcev rpnsinglr~+eilin Netvge u(euna bremployees. ~Te uur..r mmm..nd vH mnlenme rmm,: ho..moWngtim n bnnered n~ufi bvn c leckces md mdwiEvai nlXm ting wni d<nbte Inction bnween eonsmoken :~d rmok.re, CMVbn af No$mokrg Amm Inisiatlv m 19]], . peruen cflhs bbbr w pui: wned o6u . smekin6.n.. buv N.v bcliewd 6.1 v\iv g.ro une, en mo-y..n Im.ge mnvny b vhu nfe mokingbospiW'Mersewntn.nd.dm/nis, .e <Rnn., vhe m.in bbbr Ir nwr mmpluelr c moking.ne.gmukingbubeenwWly<Ilminusd on Ne urdielegy, puimon.ry. end Inunvire un wll fimn br.ae of~rs~plo^N I~Sw~ n~r."
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R< nsibihev7•O.gom81mp1<me~mno~ sefrhep <aken eefbv. <mber afU<<wn ~ing+dmr p.blic ionsg/pl.bhnrcv nd aiSVl. d phyv/. s.ndnunes(<duc ionl.Therotaleonofdl ienr, m<ludingfiamedcardbaardar+rem<nrsNUermoking poticY. ws ePPmumatJ>' g?CM. , Smobng C<..orlon P.og•o- L n morr«gtt ced+mlYnebhihof UemleB p<no d~ho,nd~,wdrU.Y ' swd,ndeflh wer50s+-hasM1o.edupforan nuodu<torymeenng.IX Ues<wgh[ fl.<qvu smoking. TM1e Ampir+ll admimsn d«/ded rAat <m[loy<el murl ,rttnd Ueve sessro~r on hn. o.,, nm . DrscvNrox E+chin wherh<rbs[iul,schwl.o /ndusry, h++ <iJ ehara< .nd m rl d<~ velop pmBPam reduce moV,nB,wv.dingly: howe <r,lan s,bomU<m ieg.edwnrs~of a.uace Wul progr+m migM.<II 6< apPb[d v.vh<rc: (1) U<re rr b< dlm n hom anaeem r(adml onl N m<d m uppoa n> Pr^g fi.edw moNnB', (5) Ue.e sl be n r onmy an xiahh ulauon fo. [ h<n pro8r,buteB« wlllow gul,. bui.rby. nrpou uchu mokngpoim rwiU r<prcs s ham JI diN<re or~in n:ca)u..< rlb<ro edvs rhN Dlen rh.mdo wrkv. dro r a~~~a lproblem u ean Ee gradu~ y Im ved.+ndU/ here nbevidespmdpr U,r JI memben of rM1e org+nivnon.ee rvnrt of boU Ue .ims+nd U< pmviswna of Ihe DroV+m m wdvtt mLeg~,ri alon< does ol he`p Imir nlu,d ~,1 ro pivs peni nr failow.UmvgM1 <n1i,16r+sva<ssfvl pmgr+m re rcdv« smeb ~~es A[r[n[xc[[ ~ ~ NS p r~ er ~JLLFeuemn +W e X~~ ~ p n ~LL [,YlNCelow.wa:w.m~ <TV[nnSAC[wWOwOiebA airtnai+lcnmdq.m ~, d.q.vr...~. ~. >W d s.N «ma w'~'w•'M.-aeww ~srw, .~AliAenJ wirw.rw.W ~.u~.,d.mabn~w.wl _ b~c,cmp<rex svwpe.wuw.Jbeu. wnn w.r~wNy<M'Buytli[j~,fln1[i~°[ wwr..nmluo.. Lee{6W1enC. tilb>wlbi^N.wm•ekv[mN+. Nur)wmv.mxWal[N:[ml lluwiey xlcerw.amtBesqwwv<nuw.prs.i+amoh µ vJ.Jaum.wur+..d/,dw:rlll rrmiqnv, vvMx t.JU en, g.wr. We.Nr.. iaetiq W kWA. MN.1NO. g,uuyn.. w Jam,kx[ usu. nT v~irl N<d Ig[N: u~Wl.lls n.r+rrr>'•ut w+rv w c.n.u Mw wn. o.~.rd xL)aNtl.Irtf u i.Iil,fu w.~nerp..+RJrCiwp.[m~kmieMrvw 1[ i•u wk~r4be.nl.m Sr•uW. Ulr 10W:rtlv:wOtUO~~ 6r Bapwh. aw[e'. pwn6..ur.n xapmh.l4H W deerpwYerMwi,[uwNn[. Ruadinp 51956 1.l85
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e<:aan pm,<n<. r eYrunYrw.~"„~en, E:~` •mu`N°•w< r ne..ankYeaaampm a° `~<e' w ~nu w~<mw w~m<ermmi..,;en m•y e<..<.k. 1Dm°nkumYOV~e aY. rvu<w w~..e.Nk mv..< uen v. . n<kmh ww<mi u a.n..<.a~<.eek,;en tiYe`.rtotine Qaw~k rteun:rn. N wn1iN pmvY<nn mW~Jaceue imenaMieN' alueiN mvYOm paih.uqrwpn~'0 Nrv<m~iek~. ~nN~ eomn iN o t`oY or. <m^<aAne aakiy. NGminatlons Invited tor SDiepelman qwarC In Meallh Stetlstles <e toe me 1%9 Sp~NYman Gole MeeY ~we. TM..nnuY.waN Y pven au Mmrin 1950 er hui wM N. mb<wlSUm:1 eonviMrvion le N<pneu« w NurY o( an le~m. may h obaiNE Gem Ma. Kivy. Sokey., ~.Me. m~SFttum~~SUen,N .wuMnpon.pCproS,.MmuMb BEST COPY .51954 1797 -
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ects of Workplace Smoking Bans on Cigarette Consumption Rov auuu.e. PxD, Swo. CnMU.. PeD. N..u.. OW- PM..xo D.ro N-. PyD 51959 I]99
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Ynk:`p ;`com ~ ua~rn;i; a ..~K~ of k,v .uR~n[p Ho. Wefm pnYQ~Ono~a<u~r.Smok r~.~ HL 'pecr ~u°.,'uY.a•nkofuwnion.o~.mwn~ m.. Hovxvsr.l~..nv1m eY: mrwNeu~ me a.Y. ~0 wmpenxiaY ,met~n, p, m.
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' A Comparative Evaluation of a Restrictive Smoking Potiey In a General Hospital Loi, Bi,.u. PxD. D- B. A...v,. PxD. Mrt..ux S. Fouit.. PxD...o L.u. Du.. BA .n<uunce0 br SuIY I.nd u4e <Cetr on 19Bfo h ~ ei. l Imr . rwa< w, +Nwd<a m Ji <mprorar p.r;°:e~n:~~tt.;~ie e~:M ~mer Ir~.n•iv<~ :I:e d°O<w~m.~° M.m +n m<..,r„ m,m~<t ...nr .m<r a,tt m.lin, ,. "oe°r:e o ne,ia%:n e,s~r n, r" 19as.,w~oi: r.<r a.dx ro`4~ .wnm J,<r•n<n. s..pW P.W. LiJa.ere ebinned of.11IuINime emptoyen olxF<Iwe nof,n. unWinp nnric`M ttlitylbnrpiul R me.ean•n.ilnarvupl,ctm<nlleme:anemWeYe iiia pwkr n. c=u<rr ~':ea i: mw,m, .hu tN rpo9cy cNn~ `TN inumionn.v, xo umpk 65 <mploy tn Ao,o me pened 1!'S!,mo4er, e iir:ntn. p~a`ir ~`%siMn„<exelm s,niori~henii nx. Tnt .mnionJ n<a i om ~M ::n;< IiJ or,ne.< <mrwd. le ImoI: .ddnwn m n'.lawx: `<Yn rod,. TNrr v...ubs mul am'~ion rrom IM .olwn he OEOr / .nd u pnlY" i<re<nrof~Mpolrcrho,q~,NCOLOn~M6lpneer<el~x ol xM <empanwn taMn tould N nImervxwed J t Rna nl p<riod. A nt pollry wEtn ncf,~<S!.m .motrn nutu69!pertt e.Md<r~t nJ/or` nNta.'untMl.'opupnbnr'..h6~f IeAIxN ,r m r< :m'mo4wra.~`~i nWin I°nd, rm ~~:`.I<. i:M n~<odno~ : °r`,n. `er,M: ei::pM`ie: ror~.r`eep,nih: nm:: mJr d.n „n .. TN,<Imr n n nttn m< I v.x ~Ni~~l.Y59J1n94x
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eru~,Trow o<. unwcnY~ nuam.w oacy n<e m,n m.~-.1<- k.nw<,. w ~xm ewiu<<a<nam<w ano-,d u<R.ue~iraeou.moM1<n..a.o~~.~ t:~~/<u,k~M1~:e x "°^<aa`,oii<nr<i~,n.un<it vrnua,n mwb<xe:'°<~ a~mn em:, n: e. e°e`r., mbe `,n< un~ v<c-« n.e e<nrwnwe., wom0~iw u<ix ~m °eN"n o,<.,m<m ww°, noo-m~ro<n.~ n.u nnk.~Mr.'<nEOU<n°er.mJ< u~ a m<Ir reM1pl.c. Fire pee ttm a m. n Ilom wi+rnwva ar nven<a kiw norkna <11 <omwne ~o «m.r m«omv.nwe omivsv<r .w1 amrm<em<n.~<:e,xxi.a.wn,.nn w< Ie. n.a ww,.<, m~ m< vrevenien a.wo- mokmbnhn! .rlor M~piWii It1 per «ni`.Mn~6 p<r eni). Nerv~ineken e,e Fd<.rc Wu~ m<y.ouN eo N,hY w'<n `•m nr. •e.on<r. „wa.,mJ. v.<.v=.n,.<n Eunb m m<.moxn-Im <..moi<, m<nneni~y un.n< ,m.k .,, nan<rwmr, an<r nw..n, .<n omw ., aam .~m r- ro~e:m w wann<e,k~.kr .v er+a.. s,,,am. r i<e~o ein<vd w~n .M`~'`nlr a~mN n/k~<q me kJA ~Mre~ Nr T.Nw°) ..,(n<w•.,linl«M1a n n~µn<wrM,<we,oume ye~ tJ< 0iE<ren<e N aryk'w m'et<nmmenmunipier ibi.iera,.nonpanedN qn<"<n.mo`Yenin~`elu"or kY nn,vki..e 11 per «ni n,k ises,xb.<nav~~Mn <aw~vnree<r<~+en.~`~n< v... u:`0m"o` n°,rk.,nr yn ., nv.n e'm .~`w.` m t'-95A 1795
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ou~p»C a4s u»mlaV xnsnoilio>~Vnw wenaV+ rtuann» ~ou pip voweH a seyu! aaueuen >Vtla Vaa4> uouG e uV'wl D»snfPa rt~sno>uninw~+ aa>m s»a , o> Daaap~sua>IR va4m s~ssleu. »euenpinwle+s!ns» a4asmoVS 2>!9e1 u.>~y~ua~ae>!1s~tess Vaeaa ainy suone!>oste ta~rtl >4s'ua4wn~+~iRwsoa e>PP'4HnoVVa'snlels R~!+ew ww pue u m 41oV auaw. psn >He V~m P»e!wsse asla >u 4no e>npa yo 1>n>I >414t!m P>sa» ~ ~ soDu ~~na si, b a4m uawam ye uawaCO+E >y~lu! aaua»ND we»JrvHR rt149iV Pu. >aty e VI!m Pa~e~:osse sem anl a m Sft +olirssx~ o+s.ows anrs3l~s.ao.w +ae~sro+s
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NICHD FunOs Two Peseereh Centers on Learning D/seollifles II:ICHD~N olUSM1r~ ~ u,n cemn+~o aomti.a.iM p~emeGic.LnA trN. oni ackMe+ DY Dr, B<n <~~ SMv n~LT~ ~n. o n<M M1e.letl 4Y D~OM.nn. BnOtee4n<t4~rLLl D. Suppon for mc rv mon fl million m loM1n+HOptin. ~y nl ~Dn.dlime<iwICLDi~tlwm M1~'euaeiknea er nc HawM1 R<+eucnnBa <n+on nc~i ,af 19af M4n 0 olEau 0 <num enC . ar/ollo.eE foe ~wo Y~rt ~en wn e oMem+u. reprn<nuo....mek e/eM1ilarm ukcue u ye F e m Cenur propo+n . maiiancipli~urY p o / M1 Ortn v p Y ~ ~r MRI~ q.n er finminvtl n Tn ~ eeuve/ra.c. en Tev loaebvrtB IW< 11, r>1959 1B00
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pBACT OF A HOSPITAL SMOKING BAN: CHANGES IN TOBACCO USE AhD EMPLOYEE AITITWES u.'.LLTER F. BM.E. MICHAF.L GI9ERTlM. FRAHCIS ULSCHAK. SHAROIi SNOW'-whRLE. W DANEifE HANN x w..maNSamn<xaa. ~eo»'.e.eu.«..m..ont<Mwo ~wmoem. Ov<e Nt pui )0 y<us, enou86 evidente hu u[umulaKd so Inve IiNe doubs Wi n8<motin8 cauus unous IuatN pmdemc Mm: rtccnYy. Mwcr<., Ne WwrIe68<of Ne~wtt o( .dvetu IrtYN [onuQUewct Ms 6an nunded b NOK rlb involununly m~ bak N[ [iyartne tmok< of w6ert, a pAtrqmtnen kmwa u patuK tmok/n{. For e<am. plt, tndi<t b<vt Yw.n an uxrteKd ouidence af luni [ancet unenl ^amtmok/n{ tpOUKt rtbu busbaMS tnwted IH4ayama. 1961: Tekhopoubt. 1(dukldl. Spartot. 4 M[NC- bon. 1981). incuetW rtsPkcbry pm61[ms in cNldn:n vhote puenu emoked ~Atmw. )9]8). vd decrtud eaertiu <M- N p>urou uiN an{Ne pasons e[poud m mott.flkd unbieni W(fyer. Weitt. Rotoer. t Sptiett. 1919). t Robkns riN pastive tmokin{ Nve Yb b«n tepotvA in N<.ohplut_ B.rad /19~91. in lut turvey af 10.000 roM1tn in offKet vEew tnbkin{ wu nm KtmcKd, /ourd Na~ SD4 comVlYnW of qmpbms embuud b ei{uKK tmok<. TIKK induded conryncuvY <nd nasY irtimica. [ou{bm8. tart 0- emrtin8. .ntl nteetbwon of pn<.nuy medicY pedltnu. Btewse of JuK pmblemt- eentmoken Nve 6Kn Incmub{ly vocY m de din{ .o.WiK [aoWnB .<taitdom. In a numbet of wuneAt. Ne couru luve tvppontd employK nehu m tmatef<K rotk envjmm.Knu (Slanka v. Nn JertnBNI. 1916; SmW r. Wesvm L/etmic Cn.. 1982 Po.odiu< r. MnL Sy<Knu P<outnon Bea.d. 1982) and bave cven dalart-0 Nu diuEilHict nsuldn8 hom K[ood-NM tmok< Ke ro" peouble uMet Wortm Comp<nuoon IaWt f8<not< r. TYA oM 46em M.nial, f.. r. Wwbnrn i Cwrp</uanen ApP.a6 9mrd 0 d.. 1916). TNS Nt rttu1KC m< dnmad[ Ircrtue u Ne oumb<r of compwet NK bart incdmvt <ame Kn uf rttmcuve [mokiol palicy. AmonB N wOmdom. IwtpiWt Nve been pu6tWCtly prtttuted b iuumK nosmot- in8 polkkt. In May of 1988. N< S.Bmn OeneN utl tIK Msdkue Admwmuor Kni knen b Jrt t.O00 pKdNyawi M<dicee bspiu4 ukin8 fot tWR ud eonc<mve roon b.tKd'ub <matrdr<t envwmrKmt M NNr fxilidtt. In Coepeu. tiWfiun Ni< pmblem wu tefle<u4 N 4e /neaducdon ef a Mll wNCb .ould Nve mquoN YI C~=[een a li.vv<e-Wee+.e~e O{e. n~T. T.mp~R l>6110i~W x T~ewua..WCWYCe.mp~ey.<NMMertw(.e.v4vnbN..mpemae.n<.w wu IU.we Is M.wuuu u P<w.+a.«r e. wuunP. 1 <IC 51954 5~8E
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a. Incluaion oftwubnorinr[ncsion ttrmv wirA imeking r[gNation ar[At workair< and anY ef tM1< wvnrutev odYlsdlo amali, rwnsignlfcam (P > 0.1) in rh<lik[lihootl ntio auristic. N[nc[, oniy mun [R<c~a w<rt k<ps in gA[ pecil[ models. tw'rM[r<wlis nunriallY [oNrmed ~M Rndines of bivariar[ analYSts. P[Mlision ofrmoking ar iht workpign w.vnsoci[red wirA a verY/ar8e r[ducrion er[on nu<d imoking among womrn IoEds nsio ~ 0.23, 95R CI, 0.09-4.5U) and. so m<d<gr«, Jso.mong men lodds nrb ~ 0.g0:95%CI, 9.u-IAS).lM prob aEilitY otsmoking cesniionirurnsetl suUS~amiallY witA ag< nMlcvtlof[ducamong MsA wom[n and men, tAan antl ir was mucA AigAer among mam<d emong n<r<r married m[n.1M nsuln oflM multivarias[ anelYUV aun ua y marMd un[Mng<d wAen <M sampk wn revtncnd m(ormn or cwunr
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Smoking Prehlbition in the Workplace end Smoking Cessation In the Federal Pepublio ot Germany' x •14+ n mm w., cnma.r. o w.k~ w_.laq...~. vaxn sr+r.m~ g.+.orcA INCwh. ~uNA'~afrmWm. ue wnr/.u W.md +vdin. u/rcwwp. ww>ro<AUr/eau /M imeN0.sveu. M smeam..ree vxxNe~ In w INTNODULTbN Findinev abou/ rh< negativ< heYlh conu9venus of passiv< amoking (1-IO/ v< led so slnn<r smotin8 reµlalionv in publit buildingv. Innapunallon sYSend in IM1< wakplaces in various counlries tlurini sM hsl t<w Yters. Wnik Ih s< meavuees a.<clnrlY designed so reduu <Aposur<so passlve amokin{, tMY mey YwM1elpaclivt smot<rs toqvis or r<EUCe smokln{. %evsible mechanismvtur ucb an <Re<I could bt intrcaxtl inconr<nimtt, uduc<d umPlYion tlue lo IM facl sN/ collca{u<r cennol smok< eith<r. ub a poumiY srYniry <flecs of <nforced vmok<-tree simt im<rvalv. TMU metMYSms tould bosb encounge woklo yuil an0 mak< an<mpls lo puil mou avcc<sYUI. mpof asudi<s rcumlY r<PnnW trom tM Unisetl Ssaus IIJ-JgJ, Canatla (JO), aM ~uuNis 131/, ahonn<rm eRe<sv Il3o monchY on amoting behavior of mroduceE Smotin8 bans a slse wohDla« have !e<n <valuaud bY aingle JYII, Jo, 31J. PoYimplrm<nution aurv<YS 113. N. Igl er, In mosl cavn tll, IJ. bY Iwo or 1M« crossaeuiovl wrvtYV b<fore a/b ahortlY Ner tM imro0uuion ot IM1e smMing ban. ln only Iwo v/udi<s was a prospe<lir< coMn aDDros<A uud Prtv<mne wMrtnu W EpMmw»Y.
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.~ wK1ilf.eMt-Y. Tnk 1. C.neYea. wn. et.~es e6p.pvs> wunb w/4~,M-viN l.anrt 4rae Ma }pv..u p..~y vA«tlb.W }o~n.m 1_m • qe~~ .Ir ~1 Lm J...en .n .n o+ '.n r.m ol r;~t,dnaa No) lud .Deriserod twoe ft 6m. ~.cE rympem wu aulfood . r.on of oM poini. .nd ,conc wert mcJM. Sran nnn{ed trum 0 m 6. 8e:.u,e of be ,imil.riry md n..r).D of tbe lu) tlove ,ympoms ud tl. .wll euabn ef empbyas hDmunt jumD~^eu (Nnc) .nd .E.kwcu Inro1. 0•re nic Nevu wue toaLixd wfiE qe rympnm Yf xrvomsu. EiSnry-Nre Dr+~m er mWinyeu wponad aoae ar ooty oa widGtwp ,Y.oF'om W 0ely 5% rtpor4d Oua a mpe. Cntiy wu r6e mne fnQomCy IDeo- aoeed ,ympom, foUCwd by m+ubW7 ~^m"or's^u,. A ma)1 Daznuys (1.6%) e- vonw a<vn„w mood. . TM rtujari:y a,aeken ts)%> hvisd e.DerisaeieP sitLdawa) rympom,. Amcne J~osr nw~^e ~YmProvu, me eumett ,u1© kom aoe m rom Pd - q. Cnriae. 6J. vasi hequeoi symDrom rtpond, wu omt EieTly wvrtlud wNh wierure .nd mmpeo- u~ory smutin8. As ml6t~ 6o e:parM. Ne wa meuue, e( oio,bee depeebeory vert .ho tugNy wrnWM (sx TWf. i). £6 n an wosk erdnirr. Smokm rund dr impa er tie amnlisf 6.v oo u~ml 6M o. or w.rt .m we.n.r « o., ~ me 6.d . m.pr or m(mr lmv.n eo a.,e w Nem' l}csc nsWO .n rtpo.ud'm TNIe 2. N oe h sae, for euM wetary ft m.jm- iry of.nwtsn (pesrer qu TO%) urd r6, .metiot 6tn u 6.Net tiak ot m)mp,a o0 OKV wek Qu.li7. W-ud...ridutiee. wE eommfm,m. Xewe.a. svptaym, e,DUL ncin8 w.~Ldr.wd .ymqom, w.. mws 61s(y ro sDOn . darzue ie votk 9o•^btl quliry (r • 391..nd Job,uur.ctioe /. w.SS). Hcvmnlin Drm>y.apAi< dau. Sev.ory-tirc peneot of rEe eouuqkm wert fem.k uW 31% wne nWe. The ..n.g, .ye wu )1.) yr+^ (SD • 1.61. FNyawu D~m wue murid. 2)% 6.E p,dwrc dcp«s. ss% 6.dYO+xe. beps,..od x7% ed meh redco) a,peu. lwpan oJ rM 6on an r6e wert em4onwnu. Th dimbu6on ef inefmokin{ so~pioY- nun;s or 1M 6uY iryut eo tlsir wpt orimomsu.eb perrmm,eoe wu 6iocEd; 7J% cr masmotm t,DonW rEU tEe b.n 6d ro effia oe r6etr nwo jo0 utlsfudm ub Dnromvae- vL'Je t)% rcponN rbu rEt Wo bd u etm:mely podbve eIIen m jo0 uosr.caae .od Dv{am,noe. Sury-rbree prnxm ef ex.motrn Novek rAe 6u 6d mme 6m ou , peat 6ea1 cf hsfir ru rbeb ew p6 pnrmm.ott .06 uusrrtion..ed 1% uov smD1eY«,1 rbou{M 6+ bn 6W . erpuv, impn 0e rbeo- jc6 pe,formrxx.
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m wamr.t,<¢a.~. borpiub puu<ip[mt ie RhN Hult6 hop[ms m[6opi nmsmokint po4<in (TeYS' sH. 1966). MUnotb r6e bW wu [veeoWly dereaud. [ImUU kpsleaoe m[y be inv< dooed M de Hma. WLile iodosoy 6u rtspeedeE m We deeuvd< or sw<mcben by wyuot uo<Qiyt rt svictlou (Orkus 6: SNPIeY. 1983: hmnen A MauenYip. 19s61, uve<J oujor bospi W< luv< rt«oJy moved m bro smcYint rompktelY. 7Lis m<y rellat e rtcopudoo 0 me [onv.di<doo bewao We miuioe ef bwpiW<m pnmae bum uq m< tlveru 6WVconsequ<oas of smotinYReandY. lute ud Pasctiem Imuwu , t6e M.Y` Medkel Ceomr ud Ne luhu Hopkvu HnspiW, mok sups m b<n <motiz coomk¢l; 'm ebe'v (a'Jides (Hun. Rerte. OHwd. lsoov6. Oerl[m, Rcnquin, & O'Hsn. 1989 Bater ci [I., 19691. DesPiu thi< cead. io 19ST oeiy 8% 0d bapiWe 6soad <makinj rowlr (TOtuYi 1988). Ra[m< of this smW 9um6n, oa much u keow9 [bout <he mcau a f[IWrt o Ueu poli<iu. lo pva[uW. it woWd 6e impwuet m tmw if smokiey 6uu indus [mot m 9vit. if rteY [Ren amnk [e6 [metla mwud dw ortuv[aoe. er H UsY auv Wv<rs< [luoie< u Yc smotinl hsDiu of aweni <moken. Io tbir rtierd. Meah [rc WJd (19TT) IeemC Nu tls amt< M muim9m smekiot <[ms u[ wmksit< vuted [eeoed Iny m whetber [mukio{ rtsvkdom wea [n!a<ed oe [ot. Eoploya< Wm eov1C eoe k.ve . rnm m<embly ua m[ow< m.moHet eao,umed ww mort dtw[oe<.n[r wok wr ~ Mey did dwio` t8e acr. To esplna rhse iuas fwhe, ve dui4d m[m.ry employas ol <h H. Is Mo1Ro C[rcer C<nm snd Reuxb Wtluu (WMCC). wMe [ mul bm oo emPloya smokioy hW beeu impkmeniN uveN enootW Pa<{o+slY. WEile mmloyw wert Ra m smoke oumh me NWdin[ dmiot me[I [00 [ebeduk6 Me[ks, [mekinS widun the buiidiot wo sei<uy Pm6iEiud. W< uted. Did the emetut 6[n wue cwum smokm so qWt a de• cn.. NeU fere of smotini" Nd dw potiry u{oJ utly [b<ot[ oNer snwkiet b.biu? Di0 smoters [a«kme si{oiliaol wi6ftwyi [ymptom< Emioi qe toma of <be wmt dey, Wbel .m u. imP.n or m[ [motl9t bm oe eeum,tu,+ww ..e ek ert«, er <ecb [ policy ne moW< sod smmde mwad dw wpe'vao9p M6TN006 nrmn[N TLx upwe 9uesumn[ius weee developed. I:cb ooUaud me folb~<'int t[omt io- form[uoo: demp[pbic dw, educeeooJ kveL [od depvmenW usi{wuu. Por [meae <melee<, ebe quadooo[irt mmum6 0l YI mWapksboia or Nanuuw<r 9uudau wbich eovereC tbe foHo.inj oeu: ([) Ae [vploYSS [meliat ddaY (oumhc or maF imB Ye.n. cmrtm 6ned of eit[rt9m- num6er ef eiprc9a [mukM per 0M. ad eW1Y <motiog bebiW: (b) um< or dry of muimY enviy la Ntueea: (1) eWnp ie dw <mptoYa : p.vem o/ dte[ee m< [iva <h <motin; bu wu Itid[mE: (d) Prtueee or rymqeme [eribuubk m oimeee wiIDelnr[I: [ed ([) Ae penxire6 impc< of t6[ <iry v< Wo 0o wok b[NU. rt TEe sseaod q9up'ooe.ir< [6drtutd wnmulns ud [over<0 <bae eeu: (s) Ibe p~ aived impe« oo sbe ew.tin{ 6[0 of dw empb)ee1 work bWiu: (D) r6e peai.d iad pn or roe ®otiol 6[0 or <+vaot [moken' we<t b[biu: [m (e) pne<euou 91 m[ [mployn's riSM m 6m emotiet 6m wok [eE ncowoh eavimome Th A'vd 9asu^oo[u[ qoeried <mpbYa[ wbo Etl qWt wotini [ina Me baWW. wide smotio[ b[o wu ia<deumd. 7bis eovn[d uw [imJV m rh Jorterceeiood rvo. 51954 1'IP')
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,<,.. tme. ar- nxmrm.w ,n,<d- .a,.rtw.<, EJj ri moking rowo.krrr. TM eznn, w which nonsmokers NougM Yul Ne ban impeo•ed smokeri job pc- v~d uushcyon tlepentled oo single vanable: Ne mokeri bclier. abaut Ne bvi , effeci on Neb own job peROnn,nce uM uti,facuon. Asnindicand by,l luu. nonsmokeri Ecnng beli<fs Nai Ne b,n produttd e bexfci,l <ffe<~ on Neir cwn job p<rfurmuce ,ntl uusfacuon were u ead wiN hiiher ed. - rt92) a 3.)0. p<.W <Mend higher estimeuoo If Ne degne ro which Ne ban impro•ed smokeri woh amibmes ettoss JI domuns usessed - qupiry If work. n911 a 3.]3. p<.W i): queliry If work. R9U) ~ t,31, p<.ppl: uusfacuon wiN work, r/901 ~ 3.86, p< Apl; commiunem w woh. R90) ~ 6.<b, p< qpI. Finelly. mokers ovenhetmingly ageeW Nat empluyen h.ve e rigln w b,n amokint on r8e worksix 193'k / and Nai empioyers do nn luve , right ro bu amekin8 off Ne worksiu f89'k/ pu~~rrrr. TM number If employeu whn had qui, since Ne smeking b<n wu Iniueud ~n ~ SI was ioo smill ,o subju. ,o suusucJ aeWysis, sCUES,ox 'fhcre is a ronunuellY pnwing mnd ww.rd limiun{ Ne <Hecss of pusive smokint in Ne .orkpl.n. i, wouid uem Iogic,l Nu hosplWS would be unong Ne f 1 w uke ec~ wvd Nis end. N eddiuon. yiven Ne healN ,isks ,w, oNy sn employeu bm ilso w p,~enu whuse bealN is W<ady cumpmmised. il ls nuovbl< dut she vwu uven m s pply in ,uese s This swdy sou8hl ,o snsweru•numbcr If quesunns rnncemint Ne eNect If e smoking ban on Ne ,muking b<hevia of curtem smokert and oo Ne utimdes of smokert ,od mokces slite toward ehek jebs. We wen inlensud in knawin{ if tM in<onvetience of Ne ben nsulted in my signif em number If empleyees quiting emokiny We tlw wundered wheNer Ne smnking ben caused ,ny chenge N cigsmn emoking bebevioe Uu, mlgM ednrsely ,ffen Nc empioyeei hWN. since smoking eould ottur nnly u sevenl brcak ,imu durin8 Ne Cay nuuide If Ne hospiW bulldinCb this n8ard. Suhs ttId bis cotlugues (H»i. SacAS. & Hdl. 1919: Sulu. Hall. & Htll, 19/8) found rbx epparentiy heahhy indlviduel, whc uroked Nrte tonsecudve eigueneE u. mun 6dWeuon rue If one per minu¢ deveiopcd , sigrufcam drop In enerir) o,y{en u,ureuon u well u e mild nspiutory eiketusis. 7MY poim out eM, while dsse changcs mey bc cliilully /n. signifcem in rwi,nJ indiNduis. Nos< wIN underlying esrdiopulmenuy diuue sould develop urious clinicJ probkms ,ueh u ceNiu artyNmiu.
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b>6 .~oxra+er a. b a..at.uuwntiymm 9. A~uyne.D.WF~1~alYntwMB~YPw~mfi.EUVMG.,AOppuM.N~p
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,, ~..~.~.~.~.. . ...~w.~:
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aa,oe.raa<woans,.kt.xnar<ontuccus..TOx 2J9 ased amokin¢ ouside wort IIJ. J5.11.11). In „ociny lik<rM FRG. wM1C« n;n or.r m< e.<..m<Imme b„ra<a or noot<nola work mcmmns <.nne cNbren <•'<n wncn AaA pnnerr work, w maY Aav< mucA kss opponunuy so comwnta« (or sn< r<duc,ion o( smoking ., work .od Mnc<auy Aave <M,«r cnanc<,o <ven,uallY Pive uD [mokine. Now<ver, a quil,int amotint enknroM,looF.«r u,cLNVRt,aP<totp«<om<mpkliooana<oo- <mpan I:gi. it it ro, . m~:mF ,na, awa<t or ahen-krm <rt<cu ot wodm< m<a io<oxti:mm r<amu. TA< m.<tnpama pr<. xs<e n~ e~s1~le nrvas~uCy iM1<~y,o r<fwc, bne«rm <n<c,. ot w«ksi« r<go. ci (w saf<,r r<asons in oraer ,o eomply wi,M1 kgY «eu ,iento•ern nPp<riMOf,im<. . wuck~slorv rmal smokinp «ssa,ion proFrams Nve nad romwrably li,lle sue<easinA<Ip to qui, <mokinRTA< ovewhelming majen,y of fe,mer smoken Aav< proFram 119. JOJ. A M, Iarg< proporuon o! mo^as maa< se eral ta~led n„<mps lo qui, amoking, bu, would nill be o r<auc<o, qui, smokir~g.lnd<ed. in our sam01<. elese,o SOSF af mak ana t wn<« amouo¢ it.now<a bm<.«a m.,,Mr woeld roraquio[mtoklnp.A eubA<Ip,MSCSmokrnindoing could<Mve, suns,antial Wnti<oAeal A impan 01), piven sM aeriouv iner<aud meking on many ais<at<s ,nd cn< wxlLe[unhsMtl nsk rWonion /plbw~ 1-111, on /):. JJk TM imwc, of A<Ipinf smok<Rto qui, may<v<nlin Mn<fcial eRects ' ot tM r<0- gV<ProAib~lioo(amokinEaa, arkplaccanoubb<.c n ctlaby w on programa IJ<l ,na sMUla M impl<~ n«d wi,AOU, Oitcarimma~nea,Pamsasmok<«, h<oulOltos ne a wn;cuhrly ,.<rt<a i<Ma <oTAis ppli<t mo tne Fetl<«I R<puAlk of (iermew wher< despi,e [,pQ~um Nliokme D«..kn« .moeg m<a V,roDOn~ion or,R .<ouma<t . ssl..oa ai krg<<omw«a a < wim mh<r Ql wnc,<tmokng i[~IIallow1edinanav<rxhelminemyeriiyofwortplac<a. PEiEaExGES l r.nx rmwma on ,ame wkueary
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x~~..eea.. .., ~y,x Queadonr~evxa werx diroibukd m emp)nyeu dunnr mWkrly arMduka 4pumKn. W ss.H mrenntc- TheY e.cb mok (D w IS minue1 u compkv vd ert ndmkd-d epprovimxte(Y ~ monNS .fsr Niriedon of Ne emekin{ Gn. pvring tlnt bn~ N. e h« mntine «muon propam hed b.<n e&n:d m empbysa. 76e qcaeoowxn rtcF'.cn over . Rnod af mveN aveks uM vert ueuelly en(kekd (mnkdiue)Y .frer ompki~on. A few departmenn rtrvmed Nein 4.1 in seeiM mvebpes. Rxaponses wm .nenymous md rod<tl on/y for dep.nmenW origin. AFSULTT Que+uov~aix+ wrn colkcied from N9 IiLAiCC tmp)oyee+. 7Tis repreunvE )Dk of ./1 hosp~W employee+. FighryWVee employ«+ wxrt emokini u Ne umr of ft eunsy. wNk 266 wrrt +wntmoken. Fer rlrc mon part. qurs ived aert due m rmp)oyee .bsancee « ve«uon+. 4)iu+. Nr a'ooking nv A 2<4 k pmbebiy rcWnrnuuve of [he entirc pepuieticn. S~oo4r+ prmn;.ophir Aaea. Sevenry-su yrrctm of Jtis poup wu 4mUe aM N4 wu mak. ])u avengr .yx wu N.8 yeus (SD . 6.B). Hilf ot the evbjaee wem mamr-0. Nine prrten~ hxd gWU.rt dcpres. 394 hb CeUeye 0eyoes. aM 32% bM bi{N er)wo) - grers The ennge wmle+ ef yeus emoted ru )e.3 ($D . 8.2) usd Je evmge cum cumWOn wu )3.) si{unes per+lsy (SD ~ ).1). Cmndu i. smolinB DNnvior. Flve empbY«s IW quit smatiny Beween d< timr thu Nr smokinP ben tonk ef(en end ft time of Wr aurvry. (X ft 67 emPioYxe+ who xwuin~ ucd so smote, 26 (31.7%) rtpend m dec+e++e ie Js numM of eijarevr+tmokrd wsre yr Ey,, u,d <3 (Se.2%) nporu4. dmeue u WU eilerxne srnaumpcion. q+Aose em• p~oYZS wlw duttued Nek wwkiny. Ne Mrcemete hcrtue finm prt.pan k«I+ nn`ed !mm 14 so 9D% with e mNien dxrzue of 10'k. 7hr rMner io sipeear eauumptlon mparkd by e mej«iry ef emokm ws teramp. nied by e xNM1 in rh Pukm of cituene u« uront Mr emoting pouP. A p{~«nt propertion ol mnke (13.8%) rcpened incrzuin( Nrk Nguemr me 4fert (2J e%) « ehrr (21.841 rek. Fa Noa emPiuyea wbo in.xuN amokin{ befort sonunt+o wmt. tlN< pxreenragx ixna¢ ovtt prt-bxe emotiot Yvek xvqed Aem 1 a 99% (M For emptoyxs aM IxmasW emokiny akr voR) ft pemsnkje inneue evex prt•Mn smoking kvrk xuiyed fmm 2 rn 99% (M ~ N%). ihrt vu . wong eomiuion be~ e<n Ne eowm en emploYre k'mucd amokini befde wort W tAx .moum of .M1er- work (nrnax (r ~ ,12). iwo meuurts o( eicoeoe depeMen<y wert erkkd te eWnyea in smokio{ hWvia. Nicotirs w)ereece wu ucearM by Ecumtirwt mW dulY ei{artae oonsumMion. n'unber of Yeus smotad, end uMruy w amoke .hn aiet.a N naamokint usu of Public luildings (Fe6envcm. 19'78). T.DIe 1.ummwes 0. ¢1NOWaps bew«n Nerz vui~ roks. lolerv,ce wu corsekud wiN ikrzun m tmetiny bah px/m vpk Ir ..73) end ehn woh U•.1)1. DepevdcxY wu tlw u«svG by utlnf .b«q qe prtsenn of viy oI rh fullowinl viNMwJ xym{aomr mv{nj (ot eil.mPeL itrlubi{Iry. drpnuion, ncrvq~sneu. Wtinxa, ud jumpb~cu. EmPbyss InNCUtd vbkA of Ne w rympsoms
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s~oasr.aswoa<sn<s.r'os.,o<~~ocus+nort zs) A.IrI. bol a<onvunum ww a Dani<ip+n~a oc<un<a m m<feimw.up. m mon ~ m<.main m<« .,a ~ im<mm <omrm powl+aon u I. ):. )a. )s. n-ml. .naR. m<«smn w<« <onni<sn¢'. An bm mu. orsM wuain u), u.m) fwm I~~n< o. n. <rt<a or amo.iae wna on smokme «awron ax-n, xn. nm mon a~~ein a.na som< rm„nron m m< a.mb<r. or nvm~n smwm p<r mr br R:n.M ~orm<amai<.w<r<nrr+<eomin. neaAa..ae~nnAni u ts6i6.161m. mneom<rvp<daloc<uwsionaiermpv a To ..~ mowlm6<, n n.mn on m< <rt<cH a proniniaion a kioAn, en«nceneun<aimn<B<nnalpopulaion.NSalon6-s<rm<@cka n oramauaA.~ m<.onDla« on amou~u nw.mr nv<~r pr<.iwsy e~.~~.u.wm. aaa no vweir, on mc <nm< a prm,iniaon o( +mokin¢ n m< tnertmpa<~ofsmoWnADmM1~bronaEM or~vsMnime~msmwuoninvtM iea<N R<p9Ulic or Gcrm.nr,. c o sm pulaiion o~a Sompl< smar ia bas<d on + nabon+l wrv<r wm<n was coNUam m sn< FRG m 'i] br sn<Minis~n' orYOUfM1. Family antl H<a1sM1 inmtl<r ~0 itlentJY qiomi«fer on.Tn<ur¢npwolasian owu<dofrcvdexsofG- ay above sne +g< a la Years. A sosal<or x.936 <)i¢ibl< n0uwndds ~eom~ir a<I<n<a in a~wo.na¢< samWmg pra<mr<. w mn nooc<nolaa, oN~Y me iMiviaual o( N< «vp<nivc +e< BrooD was 4wsu al raedom. ,4 • p.obaMli~ies of indiviau+ls wer< inven<ly propor- onil so sM<numn<r10f p<rsons anov< a6< la in ~nelr )sous<no)aa. r s~+.a+.ai:m m«r.i<wa wv< w,.<n u u< Dla« or nviarnu br vdaw m«r9 a¢ m<:.9sa wl<n<a nos<nou,, )aa(s.ascs <oma ao~ x<.num<a c<,p~«ar o<. <a an<mD~a. m Isa <a,<s (s.3a1, imm~i<wa <ome roa n< a<om- plisM1W b<c.u« of Ine p<rman<n~ abs<nce ar «vw< aickn<w pr tn< randomly a<mn<e m.unma m<mM.. m~mi<wr.m<r<mam msesaa<s as.Mxma nor n<a in a<.an ro xws. wnn. rmd nomMr a).9<I romvlaw mr<rvi<w<. rnDOns< r+« w.. as.I~. mr anon<.en zl so as wiw vrcre .<r.ar meaA<a m she workru+a rnnoEmA.pD«nncN for u)<asl mM ar w«k <M wlw wn«ilncr .r (o~m<r ee+rnw cmok<rs w<r<m<wa<a maivm.aa w<r<o.<vv,<a.W or rormer smokers if sMy iMicaaed cun<m or (enner nN)ar pr o<uonil cieanne smokin¢ in+dctail<d vmokin6 ins<rview IrePrdl<u atM <mounl of cigarn«s .mokea), ana dasvif<tl +s n<v<r vmokerv osM1<rwise. CiPr m pip< mokinl w+s very nr<in tM -dy ¢rouD aM was sMrcfm<nm consia<rr4 in tn< aulyvis.Ov<NLaJ9inaividua1s1100m<n.1J9women)melsMin<IUVionerLeru. Amonl tn<«, 30l persons wer< eurrenl +mokert (MI rcNlar tmok<n antl a) onJ amokers/, antl i)6 p<rcons w<rc formcr vmoken (10) former rc¢u)v .na 39 former mc<sional smok<ri). Curtem vmok<rv w<r<ask<d for <Fe avenge nump<r of eig+.n«v amoketl p<r day.
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35.7 PILOT STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF A WORKPLACE Ntl•kpl>.e SMOKINGBANONINDICESOFSMOKING,CIGARETTE t '~"r CRAVING, STRESS AND OTHER HEALTH BEHAVIOURS MKHELLE OOMEL', 9R/~N OLD[NFDRO'. J}M LEMOM. EvILLE Ow'EM eM iRED wEETeROOK• n al hrottr MuhA 1>;..vtry JSMUy. JOCt.vfwwrmae .eh Cu;.r, RuF/M. JOJf. Av,naxe u+rnoournoN ] co„ ne(e. .rn.. v,(Klviu~~iM,Ym, w nCen .M Fvpvh~1999: ~wut.1ntl }Lnhu setlpe,:obelJUNr~WVYi,umetib snfewtl ,metin[ ,bfellovi ~ reNUef n~1 n vs/Bemm, AEnnu.lielti t, uG Deu. Ipl9: P.ur.m. n~G epev~~[fi;MUn. G.m .M FuhfoN. 199[: Berl.na, Ch.pmu, m 19[64 FeNntl ., a (1990),fo,eump.,feu 4%b, «tniponAmilY mbin9wuuCUUGlYmert,len W.lufN n.R.tl rpfN uferv n,hmnweMJUiruOus p un ,e ni.e,me, ureen mene uf, tTh prvuppew, he.xver, Ib,
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35g aaruucawupwuc> aw+aa grvevPorvuno..ch.wa . .eF.xaluteroQ nru uwmr onplue (a) E>~smoktra,rc morc li4<IY to cnoo.<>mok<fr« workDlw<s tAan cutrtm >. xowtvtr, mmt or m< examo4tn maiMCa rna rnty quita ml.riv<Ir ahon time Mfor< Imt[n lime. 6 YnN. H is tner<for< v<ry uNik<IY tnat . r<I<proponion ot tn<m, if.nY. Aad <lungetl sM wetkDlac< tlue to tM1r amokine r<ea1D1 Eanmok<rs.uc«ssfullY fiBh~ /er tM imrodunion of wmksi~e rtgulatuns againsl amoki~. Howev<r, in tM FRG, in contrast so mn<r rountfic. sucn s tRt UnqedSu~<s. rnrnc~ive.mokin6 Dolicies snvt w<r<incai-nc<in 19g) Aatl Men subliaAea Dy tM tmploycra m.ny ycars Mfort Dam.rily (m ashty rcaaons or in ord<~ ~o comptY witn 1<Fal nBUlBtions. Ti.e puElic atiwtle in snia cwntry is ctill vcry tol<ram loward Daasiv< amoking. 11. informatan on amo4ini Mbn. wn Da.ed only on int<rvl<w r<.ppnsta ana <ould rot M valid^l.d DY niobgicN m>rkm. Similarly, iNormation on>mp4- ePUI>tions u ~Ae wmksi~e touW not ne validn<d ihir maY Mvt r<suhed in posedlY no^diRer<mial-misclassif nion .nd coula Nus Arve wb nant.a y w<>ktmd tR< oDserv<d ssociasion. ry<>DU< mtat rmirmron> nowtr<r. our r<imta wu<ar twt. in ddaion lu 4nown tlntrminams or qmping amo4Yne w<n s>ta..eq matlltl aurvs..na a d»a a:-xo. Droubison cr.mnk{n8 n m< wmkpl.c< B swAl<a witA aarw>mo4ine mawron. Itmn m<^ wa womw.rc mort nktlr to.utmDl m qvit, and wom<n'a.ttempts m quis.rc much mor<IikelY to M>ucnisfuh if IMY working a workpiaces wMr< amokin6 is proALi- vThc dirt<r<miN imwc~ on qaury In m,l<aiM f<m61< amok<n s avFF<sted bY our de~a is Dlaustle, tiv<^ tM penisring sca di(fcrcnces in lift omsidt rM woh~ tc: Fm c>amplc. womw oft<n tiv<up smoki^B durinB DrcgnancY a^tl brtsl- ft<di^e.nd m^y M 1<ss lik<Ir m rtavm< amokin6 wnen r<tuminy lo..mo4ctrc< wotkplac< ratMr ~Mn. workpl.« wMrt .mokinB is alow<d. Also. - or tne -dies on.Mntcim eRCns of a wotkslt<Dan etponed wm<rcaucrion orsmoW ~ng ~Mworksi~<(I),tSIg,IP3x.wbicRwasof~tnWnlYtomp<nsat<dforny
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r-?o.o., ntferri.i4e «R+N.II: 39) eC.tTefn~l.e~e..u{nsryene0u reui.mrl n~CSaun~NlorlO.lRe(Nenruns.TLe re st rtism nt(CnxntFSer) .O (er~ 6.bR of nr nroruou.eu nsel.ro mri.n ^t(FPSl7m~1a.l ~JI .aet (ifi.vl~ i4fCic.otll(aie.~uv. R•ele t4 mn.itnsom.n.nro .efen aelrm 4.CnnntF.w •o/ills+7-• WI).> awOprltnlion~/> EemurC,q.: v.ekr (F(1.117•16%.ICADI).
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tne f~na umvie a~u mr O eCp o`. uerMV+. i. (IS maw:..e f frmainl. Re n(SD• 1.~1 wp n.e me.n numper of ye.n p! n3uDr SSD IflaneNe.nn3enumxrefei3nn~n.moteaprra.yru MS(Sp ~.>L•LA.n.3ref10~na, wnJ~~ k w~ew nL Dun,y N NAfpmuw.MeM yr.ptTenrtwra Ifnm.. wre vaee ro sellen ~k~Sn.NarenwpMN~roNefoil we^ii ~k+l. {..auf1 prmta. frvi~ luia4 nn~ fooea (e,p.. ~l~.MfwAfrv . eE(n. wD~n nofra a<(COI.n n. COrw.r muaunG winp .n eanw.! CO n(Gre nedECSO.B.G nul. AJf r. Ar'~r0iuw.me tn praetteuu .pe pneo m fenm ewn tt................ N11.r l..urw.1>rhu a f.nen (Bxt.1~9151`A rwn r.a okulaup fpr uw Fap.rtin'v~rn e~q~rvtl w eArSte wn(nrm .aclueeG Gom F.fnpuuC mu urn ~nalrcrau ne Ne mn.un pnnp In~N v'rre
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iwoooa swo.~.c e.n </t6%/ we.e amoke-hu for nfkas~)menW~RCmarkadY Ih<oswa(oflbp ~~IninN<banYwwuvme- cmpio f119.)Iwnopuiffmok~ w tlump Nc pr<ntlln¢ ) Ywf. q N< 2& <anmekcn umDletl. 30 11%) natl a~opped fmokine aunn{ tn< prcviws Yw, a percens.Be eNY aliBMiY tow<r tn>n fne g% pui~ n~e (16 0! 20)) chievetl tlunnB N< Can yw INS, fwo- aiicd Firher'a <aan sesn. fo~al indoor smokini Oan war ur )) ctl¢va ysiBnJ 5 so <~2rc 0.3k P< O~o001'~workdays. IS 6p~ 0 gJk~a 1^ )= 0 69. P<0001'aand nonwerkdays.19.6 - ]~018.6=089.P<O.OLMOSSafshtlec9nem<umWamonelhemodvu< <: p<r e.rl wnp «e.rm m<a a>ur <ig.r<n< wn hom 2 I n'0.9),w U.) = 0 B0. P< 0.001. lilns <mokm /<ID ~ pcr day/ sMweo oNy a mJd decrw<in cigunte u>e (rom a.8 a 0.)9 ~ot<_Oaa.Pc0.05. Cho. •kdoy ollor ~ion Sevenwf~w< of 1]lfsmok<rrrspond<nu 1<3R)rtpen<d sb~~tM fmot<~/rc< policy+f(ecs<d wnere IF<Y v<sneir workaaY m<atf. Slmilar so our mncr hrdinp. <crtcn oftn<smoking nan on snis neh.vior wu moci k«NY f<If nY N<twvier n. giaseen of 32 n<avy amoken ())R), aompand wisn ody ta of 33 4ghc rs R6Y), rcpon<d IMt sn<Y cn<o8<dwor WY mulait<a, w~in¢cs kus eve ma, wae ,.y hom m< Iwanira io om<r ~o amok< Rpm< u. oi7rmn wnh epn .ne wo•k P•m.nro,ry F(hyswo of 1)5 smok<n I)0%) indkuN fta~ Ncy IouM N dilGcwt te churv< kc-fr<e pdicy. The majonty of nnvy amokert I55%1. va mdy tl)R o( 4¢n~ smok<rs..eponed Ihac sheY (ouM i~ dJficolt so comDly wilh tt<Uan. ewna~ lower p<r<cmag< of smokin{ mptoyeu indicued snm she amoking 4an had a negasive eRw an 1n<i1 work Drotluc~ivisY. EmploYee 6gv<1e ose pnm
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35< .4r,na<.+u.,sa« Fa,;.eln mmnnadon on >mnkine nrvlawn., N< woHai,< w.a Mxa on m< fonowin6 - °la N pe,m0,m b.mok< n your <un<m w«kphw,.• mn4«kr. y<slno)~ iM PWwi4 cov+enu,. wMCh luv< < w<14_n ssociadon wIN is /3bN1. w<n consia<r<a: 4<(m<BOn<s: il-J5, M-SO, and SL65 .r.)~ m ~ra auma wneoM1«: r. m<a, mm;<d, aaowm~aiv«c<e). ar~d eau<,rien 1<,nBOri<s: <9 Y<an,v10.1~1 y<an, >li Y<an; th<s< c>utori<s rcp <m tM sund,ra <0ucaion <aneoties in G<nn4YI DTn<.M mb, wMch I, e<rlua o m<mie or romur b<vo f.e_ <une« « mekcrs R51. was olcul>na f« <M1C btY stuay poDUlation >na nudy populnion <uberwpa fn oni-.M biv.rin<uWrn<. Th<wh mie ia.,imPl<ane wAely ua<d menw< of Ne <aimi pr >moki4 ccsu~ion .mo4 smok<r popul>- onlr <un- ar ferm<,>mok<n w<r<includ<e, III 9uit mi« <qual N< ponion of form<r smok<n amo4 P>ni<ipn4 in nw s,uay. In «der n simWUnlouYy a!'uu for Nc <R«ss of Ne qWicbr van<bks, muM1iv.nan <ndys<s w<r< «nka oul (npamciy (or MIb a<aesl usin6loeiatic wiN cunmI smoki4 subs s III d<D<nacnt vuubl<. (m<nction bnw«n smoki4 rcNlations >1tM wohsb<>na <a<h of sM covarin<s w sscd by Nc <hen{c in tM1< Ekcilhood mio a/nr lnclusion ur iidiviaual twu facbrim<racrion nrms fM) Finallr, N<mwn numtrn ofcipnu<s smnkcd D<r d,y wn< <omp,na by s<a <M smokiry rc{u/a,ions u th< werksn<.mone cumnt s TM analYSCS w<n urti<a om by usi4 <M1c SAS comput<r prognm f111. «<nftMa.mplinl metovenepnumatienofp<rwmrv;ng Amell houseM1Oldsl <ne incompin<snapons<>, fM nsuhs of Nis surv<r arc n« sanlY fullY r<Drn<Mativ< of <M1e 4rgn poWlation. ib<nfmc, wmPlin{ -. awam in ora« 1. m>k< N<wry<r np.<a<nunv<of N< wut poW~mim r<g.re.eainnbuaen brse..4<. <in orcommumsy.>ne FM<ra) wmp4> Pousw~irlution poced«e. w< na we u<a ow boN w<ieM<d . vngmm rri man«. m Nis r<pnn. Iww<ver. xx a«ia<a b prcnm uNr w<igm<e nmb,. Tba w., for mm r<asons: (al m<orm<w<iehu weuM also m Bu>ram<e fuil rcpns<mniv<n<ss wiN n8ard to imokinl Mbits. NI our pri, ry focus was on rclations wiNin N< atudy samDlc, Ic) .nd wcigMed .nd unw~igMed reauhs w<r< very 6mJar. RESULTS T>bl< I sM1Ows <he numbenof cu.ren~ aM fomur smok<rs,lb iM yuit ntios m smekine rcgul>,ions a~,M w«kPl>c<aM <n<eonea MIM covari>,es. f)vcrall,NC puit miowas>Mw )OR emon{boN m<n a~M wom<n. TMrc was no eift<rcnn in N<yuh ndu Mtw«n m<n whowen Wlowca and mcn who w<rt nm allow<d to smok< u tM workpl>ce. Howev<r, proM1ibi,ion ur smokinl ai N<
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'owrne :`m:` ~ eiwiM~mno ~ad> no~~ e.n`r`r drn i u~~n~ ~n m~~ae.~e 1er w(&iev te:8eru er.1..19W: 9va4 w uuar /xuyn.minva ~xuxv iweu <u rNnkn rn W. b Nrt ua e, a./C01 u.n k.K Ou M<e~ier«nealii nLTxr.xenNl(dire unn(AQ1roa.0oiarmnn,Hvm jFmn.ntlHxwue.r963)v°Heu ve.kin{a<y,. muNlen{er m.uh ssre~u xeun (Nntenc Nnivuwku.na Nin. 9rsl~onr„ee~.nimv.ir.arra<.mekmtaunn{ib.nouwr..N~u.rixwrkin{ wo .ut rtwn.anawkint sen.Keu.~xCO, ~`tSanu.llubn+aa a Wemu ~e r wrt in ,n. srana cwrain.~wn cmw. er m<H.. mnrx w.im .eim.e,' n. a _ ~c~~aMUio N M..wv~w er rI mr oi.I r;rt.e ~ aM:t.. rrnm.,,wk;;kie., r« taas) wrwt +n a~tM .- nn<.~etu« eie mowr<na~na<r o~N M .ro m 1 e(.nrCaoNlnuwnG(nree trN

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