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RJ Reynolds

Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center. A Prospectus From the Advocacy Institute.

Date: Jul 1987
Length: 55 pages
506817306-506817360
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PUBLISHED DOC
Attachment
7306 -7371
Site
R&D
Biochem Biobehavioral-Env Tob Smoke
Nystrom Cw
Sr Staff Chemist
Named Person
Scarc
Nfe Network
Okeefe, A.M.
Wilbur, P.
Schwartz, A.
Cohen, S.
Weyneuller, R.
Arnold, S.
Duster, T.
Childs, J.
Nci
Smoking Control Advocacy Resource, C.
Kaiser Family Foundation
Dept, O.F. Agriculture
Congress
Ti
Surgeon General
Acs
American Lung
Americah Heart Assn
Americans For Nonsmokers Rights
Koch
Dukakis
House
Waxman, H.
Senate
Hatch, O.
Bingaman, J.
Wilson, J.Q.
Nader, R.
Koop
Okie, S.
Wa Post
Liebling, A.J.
Cbs
Intelligence Gathering Network
Spark Plug Network
Intl Smoking Control Summit
Not Far Enough
Natl Medical Assn
Assn, O.F. Minority Health Professiona
Coalition, O.N. Smoking, O.R. Health
Congressional Black Caucus
Tobacco Free Young America Project
New Sounds
Hoffman, D.
Pertschuk, M.
Intl Union Against Cancer
Blum, A.
Baylor Univ
Doctors Ought, T.O. Care
Ernster, V.
Univ, O.F. Ca
Glantz, S.
Daynard, R.A.
Northeastern Univ
Tobacco Products Liability Project
Mahood, C.G.
Nonsmokers Rights Assn
Smoking & Health Action Foundation
Tye, J.
Stop Teenage Addiction, T.O. Tobacco
White, L.
American Council, O.N. Science & Healt
Intl Summit, O.F. Smoking Control Lead
Ftc
Univ, O.F. Md
Harvard
Weymeuller, R.
Cohen
Stevens, T.
Tobacco Free Young America
List, O.F. Cmoking Control Groups
List, O.F. Advisory Group Members
List, O.F. Advisory Group Member Affil
Request
Thomas
2rfp109
1rfp107
Referenced Document
the Smoking Control Advocate's Media Handbook. Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy. Guide to Voluntary Community Action Towards A Smoke-Free Indoors. The Smoking Control Advocate's Media Handbook. The Coalition Building Guide. Federal Cigarette Labeling
Date Loaded
26 Jul 2000
Named Organization
Advocacy Institute
Harvard Institute
Author (Organization)
Advocacy Institute
Box
Rjr4529
Brand
Virginia Slims
UCSF Legacy ID
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. B. Special Population Networks obiectives: To identify and support potential smoking .control leaders of the special populations that have been targeted by the tobacco industry as growth markets. To connect these leaders to special communications networks through which they can exchange information and jointly develop appropriate strategies to counteract tobacco industry efforts. 1) The "Not Far Enough" Women's Network Sub-objective: To design, implement and evaluate a model special population network for smoking control that draws on the major assets and advantages of the SCARC. The primary goal of the "Not Far Enough" (NFE) project is to involve and galvanize women's leaders (and, through them, women's organizations) in smoking control efforts aimed at women. The NFE network will organize women's leaders into a nationwide communications system through which advocates can share their information and coordinate their efforts. It will follow and report on the tobacco industry's special efforts to target women, and develop counterstrategies specifically to resist these efforts. It will also help women to maximize opportunities for advancing smoking control through the mass media. In addition, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a targeted women's smoking control program will also provide lessons and a model for smoking control programs targeted at other special populations, especially Blacks and Hispanics. (The NFE project is explained in detail below.) 2) outreach to Blacks Sub-obiective: To counsel and support special efforts at smoking control within the Black community. As noted, for the critical growth markets (women, Blacks, youth and Hispanics), the tobacco industry has adopted a tripartite strategy of: advertising which manipulates the central symbols appealing to such groups; promotion of highly visible and Yapular community events; and cooptive financial support for leadership groups. These strategies appear to have worked in creating a higher incidence of smoking (and smoking-related death and disease) among Blacks. Public health advocates have begun to challenge Black leaders to shun the embrace of the tobacco industry. Unfortunately, such challenges, emanating largely from white critics, have often evoked defensive and even hostile responses. 12
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. statists, collectivists, censors, racists and elitists. A.J. Liebling once commented wryly, "Freedom of the Press in this country is guaranteed to those who own one." Tobacco is the single most promoted product in America. Total promotional expenditures increased almost sevenfold (threefold after adjustment for inflation) between 1974 and 1984. The most recent estimate for annual tobacco advertising is $2.6 billion. (The promotion of all products now marketed by cigarette conglomerates accounts for more than half of all consumer product advertising in the U.S.) Dependence on advertising revenues has meant that the print media, especially magazines, substantially under-report the hazards of smoking. Ironically, this failure is most pronounced in the media that serve those very populations most at risk: women and minorities. Though no cigarette advertising is permitted on broadcast media, recent conglomerate mergers by cigarette manufacturers -- including the purchase of CBS -- have re-established the tobacco industry's influence over television and radio. This situation is exacerbated by the news media's low threshold for boredom with any subject, and by energetic and creative competition from other causes, events and issues for limited air time and space. This disadvantage is magnified further by the fact that smoking control leaders often fail to appreciate the power of the media because they have little pertinent training or experience in media advocacy. Their efforts to use the media in countercampaigns are scattered and short-lived, frequently restricted to traditional public service announcements that rely on limited concepts of health education. They know they will never be able to match the resources of the tobacco industry in paid media coverage, so these advocates often just give up or ignore media as a component of their programs. Fortunately, some smoking control advocates, aided by media specialists, have successfully evoked affirmative symbols in arguing for health-enhancing behaviors and policies. These efforts emphasize individual autonomy, physical strength and well being, freedom from harmful environmental influences, family welfare and social accountability for those who profit from marketing harmful products. These advocates have learned to breach the threshold of media indifference and hostility. Some have acquired great craft-learning in media advocacy, and have displayed great creativity in gaining access to the media for public education and policy formation. However, such sophistication is not widespread. Moreover, little has been done to capture and share the media advocacy 8
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g) reinforce the evolving social non-smoking norm. 2) Media Materials Development and Dissemination Objective: To create, adapt, reproduce and distribute smoking control media and media training materials. The Media Resource Center will collect and maintain a media library of smoking control materials. These will include materials from smoking control campaigns around the world. A centerpiece of this collection will be the approximately 100 highly sophisticated smoking control radio commercials produced by New Sounds, Inc. under the.direction of Tony Schwartz. Where appropriate, these materials will be adapted and distributed at cost to tobacco control advocates. The Media Resource Center library will also collect and distribute at cost a variety of media training materials. These will include Smoke Signals, the Advocacy Institute's smoking control media strategy guide scheduled for production and distribution in late 1987 at the Sixth World Conference on Smoking and Health in Tokyo. These will also include a series of media advocacy training video-cassettes now being developed by David Hoffman of Varied Directions, Inc. with the cooperation of the Advocacy Institute. The video-cassette series is being designed to capture and impart the insights of Tony Schwartz, Advocacy Institute Co-director Michael Pertschuk and other media advocacy specialists. 3) Media Research. Monitoring and Networking Objectives: To increase the responsiveness of tobacco control advocates to changes in media coverage of smoking related issues. To match media requests with advocates who have newsworthy information. The SCARC Media Resource Center will continuously monitor the mass media to detect changing trends in the coverage of smoking related issues. The information gleaned from this effort will be used to adjust training programs and specific counseling accordingly. It will also be incorporated into the Smoking Control Computer Bulletin Board information base and the periodic publications of SCARC (see below). More and more frequently, health editors, producers and reporters approach the Advocacy Institute for background information, general guidance and the identification of reliable information sources in the area of tobacco control. Over the years the Institute has developed an informal network of interested journalists, including investigative reporters, to whom organizations and citizen groups who have newsworthy 16
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. The Advocacy Institute recognizes that as a predominantly white institution, it should not presume to undertake the same kind df leadership role among Blacks that it has assumed in the NFE network. Rather, the Center will provide i::.portant support services to those Black leaders who have begun to insist that the health consequences of smoking and the tobacco industry's exploitation of Blacks should be high priority issues on the Black community's agenda. A first requirement in serving the Black community is the development of a symbolic framework for smoking control issues that resonates with the important values of Black leaders. For example, tobacco promotion to Blacks can be viewed as a form of exploitative colonialism (what cannot be sold to industrialized white communities is "dumped" on Blacks). It might also be effective to emphasize the racial implications of tobacco marketing strategies (to make up for the white middle-aged males who are quitting, young Blacks are targeted for tobacco addiction). The SCARC will develop such a framework in conjunction with its special consultants (see below). The Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center also proposes to serve the Black community by assessing its special needs and tailoring services to meet those needs. The Center will facilitate the organization of Black leaders against smoking, including the deans of Black colleges, the Association of Minority Health Professionals, the National Medical Association and its affiliated student organization. The SCARC will aid these leaders in seeking substitute support for the publications and events currently financed by tobacco money. Special attention will be given to increasing the salience of the health hazards of smoking within this population. The Center will provide consultation and other support services to smoking control efforts in Black communities. For example, plans are being made now with the Coalition on Smoking OR Health to co-sponsor a luncheon for the Congressional Black Caucus that will honor leaders of the "Richmond Quits Smoking" project. The community of Richmond, California has launched one of the first mass smoking control programs aimed at a predominantly Black population. Both the failures and the successes of the Richmond program can provide important lessons. 3) Outreach To Youth And To Hispanics Sub-obiective: To counsel and support special efforts 0 at smoking control among the nation's youth and 0 0) Hispanic communities. ~ .. To replace the tobacco consumers lost through death and voluntary attrition, the industry must add nearly 6,000 new _J W N W 13
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. X. LIST OF APPENDICES A. Bibliography Of Smoking Control Materials Developed By The Advocacy Institute B. Smoking Control Groups Counseled By The Advocacy Institute. C. Prospective Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center Advisory Group D. Michael Pertschuk's Smoking And Health Related Curriculum Vitae E. "Tobacco Use Control: Strategies for the 1990's." Charge to Forum participants at National Cancer Institute Plenary Meeting, April 27, 1987 F. Anne Marie O'Keefe's Curriculum Vita
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0 talents of the most skilled practitioners, to diffuse the most creative and effective media strategies for smoking control, and to ada~t for widespread distribution the most effective media materials, such as Tony Schwartz's powerful arsenal of radio countercommercials. Smoking control leaders have recently begun to recognize that the development of strong media skills and the implementation of good media strategies are requisites for successful smoking control advocacy. III. GOALS The goals of the programs proposed here are: a) to strengthen the disparate forces engaged in smoking control advocacy by enhancing cooperation among them; to develop and promote strategic planning, to share and diffuse successful initiatives, and to coordinate efforts at community mobilization among smoking control advocates; - b) to systematically track and dispassionately analyze the tobacco industry's organized resistance to public education about the hazards of smoking and to appropriate community mobilization against smoking as a priority public health issue; to assist smoking control advocates in responding in a timely and effective manner to this resistance; and c) to enable smoking control advocates to optimize opportunities for advancing smoking control initiatives through effective use of the mass media. IV. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS To accomplish these goals, the Advocacy Institute proposes a national Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center (SCARC). The SCARC will create and maintain a central coordinating structure and a series of communications networks to support and enhance existing smoking control efforts. It will track the tobacco industry, analyze its marketing and promotional trends, and develop effective countertactics. It will establish a resource base of smoking control information and strategies, and make those materials available to smoking control leaders via electronic communications, hard copy, audio and video tape. The Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center will also create a Media Resource Center to develop media strategy and materials, and to connect news sources with reporters. SCARC 9
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0 advocacy groups seeking counseling and assistance, as liaisons to connect the SCARC to centers of scientific research, government agencies, smoking control and nonsmokers' righ,`5 organizations across the country, and as expert spokespersons deployed by the Media Resource Center. B. SCARC Intelligence Gathering Network Persons who have or will be recruited to participate in the Intelligence Gathering Network include: Dr. Alan Blum, Professor of Medicine, Baylor University School of Medicine, Wayco, Texas. Founder of D.O.C. ("Doctors Ought to Care," a 3,000-member smoking control advocacy or- ganization for physicians); editor of special editions of both the Australian and New York State Medical Association Journals amassing extensive data on tobacco industry strategies and behavior; indefatigable chronicler of tobacco industry behavior, especially marketing and promotions targeted toward Blacks and other minorities. Dr. Virginia Ernster, Associate Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and International Health, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco. Leading authority on cigarette company advertising and promotion targeting women. Dr. Stanton Glantz, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco. Strategist and seminal leader of Californians for Non-smokers Rights; specialist in tracking tobacco industry resistance to the adoption of clean indoor air policies. Richard A. Daynard, Professor of Law, Northeastern University School of Law, Boston, Massachusetts. Co-chairman, Tobacco Products Liability Project; specialist in tracking tobacco industry resistance to product injury liability. Dr. C. Garfield Mahood, Executive Director, Non-smokers' Rights Association, Smoking and Health Action Foundation, Toronto, Canada. Extensive experience in monitoring and research on Canadian tobacco industry strategies. Dr. Joseph Tye, Founder and President of STAT (Stop Teenage Addiction to Tobacco), Palo Alto, California. Specializes in monitoring cigarette company advertising and marketing strategies. Lawrence White, Attorney, New York City. Frequent contributor to the American Council on Science and Health's News & Views; exhaustive researcher of the economic and political 26
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0 House Health Subcommittee Chairman Henry Waxman, Senate Health Subcommittee Chairman Orrin Hatch and preventive health advocate Senator Jeff Bingaman; e) attentive and responsive journalists and columnists, especially on the major metropolitan newspapers; f) several dozen geographically dispersed activist/leaders including highly motivated and determined physicians, scientists, teachers and lawyers as well as public health and consumer advocates with a missionary sense of public responsibility. These activists often operate independent of mainstream organizations and each other. Though heterogeneous and difficult to categorize, they have been important agents for change, serving to prod and stimulate to action less active leaders and organizations, inert elected representatives and public health officials and the media. They initiate, organize, energize and excite. They are perhaps best described in political scientist James Q. Wilson's term "public policy entrepreneurs," or in Ralph Nader's graphic phrases "public citizens" and "citizen spark plugs." Progress has been made in uniting these diverse groups and individuals who comprise what can only loosely be considered the "smoking control movement." However, for the most part these forces remain unconnected and uncoordinated. Individual smoking control leaders fall into several general categories: the academic researcher or analyst; the health care professionalt the government worker; the volunteer; the public policy professional; the media advocacy professional; and the citizen spark plug. To date there has been no systematic effort to forge a functioning leadership network among these persons. They do little coordinated strategic planning and enjoy little systematic sharing of successful advocacy initiatives. Citizen spark plugs are high energy change agents, but much of their energy is dissipated through their individualistic, uncoordinated and often provocative advocacy styles. They tend to distrust and in turn to be distrusted or ignored by mainstream groups and leaders. As a consequence, the rich harvest of their creativity and experience is not widely shared. Among the organizations active in smoking control advocacy there are widely disparate structures, leadership styles, social and political philosophies. These differences often produce competition for members and funding, and debilitating conflicts over strategies and even goals. There are a few smoking control leaders, such as Surgeon General Koop, who span these sectarian rivalries, and there are national and regional coalitions of 4
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0 structure of the tobacco industry. C. Advocacy institute Co-Director Michael Pertschuk Advocacy Institute Co-Director Michael Pertschuk has been a national and international smoking control strategist and leader for the past 25 years (see Appendix D.) As Chief Counsel and Staff Director of the Senate Commerce Committee, Mr. Pertschuk was the principal staff member responsible for developing the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965, and the amendments of 1969 that banned the television advertising of cigarettes. As Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission from 1977-1981, he was also responsible for developing the FTC's 1981 report and proposal to Congress to strengthen cigarette label and advertising warnings. This report formed the basis for Congressional enactment of the Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1984. More recently, Mr. Pertschuk planned, organized, coordinated and developed the strategic documents supporting the International Summit of Smoking Control Leaders held in Washington, D.C. in September 1985. He and has keynoted critical conferences including the National Cancer Institute's April 1987 conference that explored "Tobacco Use Control: Strategies for the 1990's" (see Appendix E). He has also authored numerous papers and articles on smoking control strategies and tactics. As Co-Director of the Advocacy Institute since 1984, Mr. Pertschuk has provided guidance and strategic counseling to virtually every significant organization involved in smoking control advocacy. He will devote 50 percent of his time to planning and directing the work of the Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center. D. SCARC Staff 1) Director Anne Marie O'Keefe Anne Marie O'Keefe is a lawyer and a clinical psychologist (see Appendix F.) A former health attorney for the Federal Trade Commission, Dr. o'Keefe is also an experienced community organizer and program developer. She has lectured and published widely on health and health policy. Dr. o'Keefe will direct and manage the Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center on a full-time basis. She will be responsible for the implementation of its major program initiatives, the creation of its communications network, the editing and production of its printed materials and the 27
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product liability information; d') national and international studies and reportstqn smoking control activities. D. Media Resource Center Obiective: To create and maintain a program that will teach the skills and provide the materials necessary for maximum effective use of the media in smoking control efforts. 1) Media Strategy Development Sub-Obiective: To develop effective strategies for accessing and using the mass media for public education. Smoking control media efforts are chronically underfinanced, considering the goals that are sought and the opposition that is faced. It will never be possible to match the financial investments that the tobacco industry makes in paid media coverage. Therefore, the challenge to smoking control advocates is to stimulate free media coverage. To strengthen the media advocacy skills of smoking control leaders at all levels, the SCARC Media Resource Center will collect, evaluate and develop effective strategies for accessing and using the media to: a) educate the public about the severity of the risks of smoking, the susceptibility of every smoker and the health benefits of quitting; b) educate the public about the health risks of involuntary or passive smokingt c) alert citizens and policy makers to the injurious public policies that sanction smoking, including unrestricted advertising and promotion of cigarettes and unrestrained smoking in public areas and the workplace; d) build support for corrective public policies; e) expose and critique the economic and political influence wielded by the tobacco industry to oppose corrective public health policies; f) respond to and correct the propaganda and disinformation campaigns of the tobacco industry; 15

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