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RJ Reynolds

Annual Research Report. Chemical Engineering 1959 (590000).

Date: 15 Jan 1960
Length: 65 pages
504708665-504708729
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Type
LETTER
ARR
Alias
RDM59 5
RDM59 60
RDM59 18
RDM58 42
RDM59 17
RDM59 52
MRRE59 11
RDM58 97
Copied
Library
Harwood, E.H.
Hoover, K.H.
Jones, S.O.
Named Person
Marathon
Hanes, S.B. Jr
Hoover, K.H.
Rjr
Schweitzer Paper
Burns, P.J.
Eastman
Celanese
Kimberly
Us Filter
Bunzl
Quaker Oats
Jones, J.L. Sr
Hauni
Fta
Gurley
Greiner
Ecusta
Schur, M.O.
Peter, J. Schweitzer Div
Bollore
Sandy Hill Iron & Brass Works
Selectro
Proctor & Schwartz
Peter, J. Schweitzer
Dexter Paper
Midget Fourdrinier
Ch Dexter & Sons
Central States Paper & Bag
Adt
Schlumberger Well Surveying
Cotton, J.
Moisture Register
Simplex Press
Du Pont
Olin
Avisco
Swb
Msad
Molins
Accuray
Industrial Nucleonics
Am&F
Union Carbide
Enjay
Mcm
Hermetite
Hertvy
Scottish Cork Bobbins
Natl Cork
Micropake
Nekoosa Edwards
Legg
Reynolds Metal
Cardwell
Concave
Winnower
Va Folding Box
Container
Union Bagcamp
Riegel Paper
East, T.X. Pulp & Paper
Woodward
Tiernan
Champion
Kalamazoo
Mead Paper
Watervliet
Arlin Manufacturing
Continental Can
Archer
Natl Folding Box
Recipient
Hoover, K.H.
Date Loaded
27 Feb 1998
Request
1rfp80
1rfp4
1rfp61
1rfp62
Minnesota
1rfp79
Texas
Initial
Disclosure
Castano
1rfp8
Barnes
1rfp9
Fahey
2rfp24
Box
Rjr3456
Author
Hoover, K.H.
Jones, S.O.
Chemical Engineering
Site
R&D
Characteristic
Marginalia
Brand
Camel
Camel Non Filter 70
Cavalier
Chesterfield
Kent
Kool
Marlboro
Old Gold
Parliament
Salem
Salem Menthol 85
Viceroy
Winston
Winston 85
Winston Box 80
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ijx55d00

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Page 1: ijx55d00
Authori S. 0. Jones A1tR-E, 1959 Chemical Enbinsering Tot Nr. Kenneth H. Hoover January 15, 1960 Director of Rsssarch Re I AMN[TAL RESEARCH RYPORT Period COVersd= Ch+emical Enfiassrie+g JaWWart 1, 1939 to 1959 Dsa.bsr 31, 1959 A. FI1Tdt TIPS I I. arison of 3. -66 000 Y tron 7iltsrs sAd foMw ts.r P sr Filters (lDM, 1959, No. S) This test was .wds prisriiy to dst.radas ssobrs' prsisvswes as to paper filters and Estron tilttrs bwias approximately the saos dsgra of effective filtration. Tests wers ssds using 3j•66;000 filters sad Schweitssr paper tilt.rs oa tobacco rods ssde wUgtlrs Flavoritg Gmsp•s a lsed No. llb2-0 tobacco. Ths 17 .sn. 3.3-66,000 tilters dad an avfsrays draft :+ssistawos of 3.35 inches of water and rs.ov~sd 42.7 percent aicotine aad 38.3 percent total solids from the cigarette ssbir. T!w 17 .a. plugs vhioh ++sxs sysds from &dftitsU 1-laob width paper had an average draft rrsi staews of 1.0 ietich of wtsr and rsoorsd 49.0 per- cent nicotins and 47.2 percent total solids from the cipristte s.oks. in a ssatosrs' tsst, 18 a.oksrs oiwss the Estron-tippsd ciprstta and 11 s.robsrs chose the papar-tippsd cigarettes. YlMe chist basis of choice of Estron-tipped cigarettes over papsr-tipp.d cigarettes was flavor. II. Evaluation of Filter Pl JtEW from t Toas Usi Special Air Flultiat J.ts ~..~ -, ~.._ a._ ~ itig ~,,, ,lf:t~aids~ ~ial '!ow ~itig~,,,,lf:t~ Courariaon .t R_ajula: Tl aids tsi~ _-~70j000 Y.ad (rtl !!6' 1+0lt_3_3 7Q,000 Y_ Tow !!6'1+0l t+0lt Test t lios. 1138 seid 1139) Tennessee Eastman dswlop.d a special air fluffing nsthod for use in ualcind filter plugs from low daaiec tows. This rt6od differed from the regular method in that the tow vss fluffed by special air jsts instead of by pulling the tow mechanically. It was decided to mske tests using this method and b-70,000 and 3.3-70,000 tow. The results are suamarised bslov. Sevsntesn stilliost.r plugs praparld from 8-70,000 tow by the spscial method as cooipsrod with the sfsaular method bad a hiSAtr draft resistance (1.22 versus 1.00 inches of vatar), veislMd more (0.176 versus 0.162 gram), aad wes+a such firmer (3.26 versus 6.56 p.astrwmster).
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2 Seventeen millimeter plugs prepared from 3.3-70,000 tow by the s,pecial fluffing method as compared with the regular fluffing method had a higher draft resistance (2.48 versus 2.12 inches of water), weighed more (0.173 versus 0.160 gram), and were much firmer (3.3 versus 6.7 Penstroaster). Analysis of s.oke from 68 sm. WINSTON tobacco rods to which the various types of filter plugs had been attached showed the following. The special fluffed 8-70,000 tow filters removed more nicotine (26.3 versus 22.8 percent) and more total solids (l3.3 versus 20.3 percent) from smwlos. Tttie special fluffed 3.3-70,000 filters resnr.d .ore nicotine (43.3 versus 41.1 percent) and .ore total solids (39.9 versus 39.1 percxnt) froo the cigarette a.oke. No s.akars' tests were made on c i8srcttes t ipps+d with f i l ters prepared from the special fluffed tow. Tio las8s paAel s.okars' tests wre msde to co.pari MIiiSTON cigarettes tipped with rs8,ular fluffed 8-70,000 md regular fluffed 3.3-70,000 filters. In the first test, 57 smokers chose WI1fSTONS t ipped vi tb the 3. 3-70,000 f i 1 ters, 44 ssfokars chose WINBTON controls, 19 wabeurs reported so difterenoe, and 6 wploara reported that they liked neither cigarette. In the second ssblosrs• teat, 51 ssoksrs chose MINSTdrS tipped with the 3.3-70,000 filturs, 51 smokers chose WLNS'r0H controls, 18 smokers reported eo difference, and 11 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. b._ Lhraluation of Filter_Pluas_Prepar.d fra. 3 3+66,000 Y and - ?.S-70iS00 CL Tow& Sinae previous ttats had indicated bigh effective filtration for both 3.3-66,000 and Z.S-70,S00 filters, it was decided to sala a co.- parison of those two tows. Seventeen millimeter plugs prepared from the 3.3-66,000 tow had an averaoe draft resistance of 2.67 inchas of water, wighid 0.176 sram, and had a Penstsoster f ir.nsas of 3.69.' Seventeen •i 11 ister plugs prepared from the 2.5-70,500 CL tow had an awrage draft resist- ance of 2.64 inches of Moster, weighed 0.186 arau, and had a Penetrowster firati+ess of 5.07. Smoke analysis of WINSTON tobacco rods tipped with the special 17 ssa. plugs showed the following. The 3.3-66,000 filters reduced nicotine 45.77 percent and total solids 43.08 percent. The 17 me. 2.5-70,500 CL filters reduced nicotine 48.76 percent and total solids 46.64 percent. The above values for nicotine and total sol ids removal frsm ssbles are the highest which have been obtained for plugs prepared from 3.3- 66,000 Y and 2.5-70,500 CL tows.
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3 c._ evaluation of Filter Plu&s-Prepared from 2_1 41 - , - - 000, 2_1~ - - - - 44t00U~ 2.1-46:()O0a and 2.1-48~004 C' Tows On January 26, 1959, in a meeting held in Room 111, it was pointed out by Mr. P. J. Burns of Eastman Chemical Products, Inc., that theoretically the highest degree of effective filtration relative to pressure drop should be obtained with filter plugs prepared from tows having the lowest single denier filaments. Since 2.1 is the lowest denier of filaments made for filter tips, he suggested that we obtain sauple bales of Eastman tows having 2.1-41,000, 2.1-44,000, 2.1-46,000, and 2.1-48,000 tows for evaluation. Filter rods were prepared from each of the tows using the special air jet fluffing method. Evaluation of 17 eim. plugs showed the following values for draft resistance in inches of water and percent nicotine and total solids reductions 2.1-41,000 - 1.87, 41.44, and 42.4; 2.1-44,000 - 2.15, 44.2, and 42.0; 2.1-4a,000 - 2.20, 44.75, and 42. . 80; and 2.1-48, 000 - 2.24, 41.b4, and 42.!!0. Since plugs made from this tow ware harder to make on the machine, more costly, and not significantly more effective in filtration than plugs prepared from 3.3-66,000 tow at coaparative draft resistances, it was decided to continue our wdrk on 3.3-66,000 tow. III. Evaluation of Filter Plugs Prepared from 2.1-41.000 CL Tow y Usine an Air Stuffim Jet At the suggestion of Eastman Chemical Products, Inc., tests were made to evaluate filter plugs cut from rods prepared using a special air stuffing jet on low single denier tows. Theoretically, this air stuffing jet forces the towinto the rod as it is made and leaves a greater degree of crimp in the tow. Our tests indicated that this air stuffing jet actually fl.uffed the tow wore than the air fluffing jet but did not force more tow into the rod. Tests were made using 2.1-41,000 tow with the stuffing jet in the fully opened and fully closed positions. In the fully opened position, there was a clearance of 0.015 inch as compared to 0.005 inch in the fully closed position. Seventeen millimeter plugs prepared with the fully opened jet had an average draft resistance of 2.1 inches of water, weighed 0.139 gram and had a Penetrometer firmness of 8.76. Seventeen millimeter plugs prepared with the fully closed jet had an average draft resistance of 1.88 inches of water, weighed 0.138 gram, and had a Penetrometer firmness of 8.0. Seventeen millimeter plugs prepared from the same tow using the air fluffing jet had a draft resistance of 1.87 inches of water, weighed 0.147 gram, and had a Penetrometer firmness of 6.54. Ssrx>ke analysis of WINS1'Ml tobacco rods tipped with 17 mtn. plugs pre- pared using the variously treated tows showed the following. Plugs prepared with the jet fully opened removed 46.91 pe rcent nicotine and 44.02 percent total solids from smoke.
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4 Plugs prepared with the jet fully closed renoved 42.78 percent nicotine and 42.08 percent total solids from smoke. Plugs prepared using the air fluffing jet removed 41.44 percent nico- tine and 42.40 percent total solids from smoke. I'V. Cosparison of SALF~IS TipQed with 3.3-70R000 8stron Filters and ~ SAT-F?IS Tipped with Re,jular 8-70,000 Estron Filters (SAT.EM Test No. 1146) ~~ Since previous tests had indicated a aaiokers' preference for 3.3-70,000 filters when used on WINSTON cigarettes in place of the regular 8-70,000 filters, it was decided to evaluate the use of the 3.3-70,000 filters on SALF?M cigarettes. 'I'ha 17 ws. 3.3-70,000 filters used in this test avrurapd Z.Z inches of water in draft resistance as co.pared to 1.05 inches of water for the regular 8-70,000 filters. The SALEM cig,arsttei4 tipped with 3.3-70,000 filters averaged 3.98 inches of water as compared to 2.8 inches of water for SAI.EMS tipped with the regular 8-70,000 filters. Tttie 17 sso. 3.3-70,000 filters resoved 41.8 percent nicotine and 41.4 percent total solids from the cigarette asoke as coapared to 22.6 percent nicotine and 22.7 percent total solids for the regular 8-70,000 filter plugs. In a large pansl s.okers• teat, 63 smokers chose the 3.3-70,000 filter- tipped SALFMS, 47 sawkers chose the regular 8-70,000-tipped SALEKS, 17 asokers reported no difference, and 4 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. The chief basis of preference for 3.3-70,000 filter- tipped SAZ.EMS over regular 8-70,000-tipped SA1,F?SS was mildness. V. C,oeQarison of Filter TiPs Nade flrom 3.3-66,000 and 3.3-70L,000 .... .~ ,... Estron Tows (trR-Q, 1959, No. 76) This tsst was made to obtain a large scale comparison of the physical qualities of WINSTON cigarettes msde using 3.3-66,000 and 3.3-70,000 Estron tow filters. The 3.3-66,000 filter plugs averaged 1.79 as compared to 2.17 inches of water in draft resistance for the 3.3-70,000 filter plugs. The 3.3-66,000- tipped cigarettes averaged 3.63 inches of water in draft resistance and 3 percent of the cigarettes tested 4.1 inches of water or above. The 3.3- 70,000-tipped cigarettes averaged 4.1 inches of water in draft resistance and 35.5 percent of the cigarettes tested 4.1 inches of water or above. VI. Evaluation of Filter Plugs Prepared frosi 1.6-37,000 Estron Tow At the suggestion of 7Cenrtisssee Eastsun, filter plugs were made from 1.6-3X7,000 Estron tow and evaluated. It was necessary to use special air fluffing and stuffing jets in sakin,g the filter rods. Considerable difficulty was experienced in making rods from this tow.
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5 'I'ne 17 nzn. filter plugs varied in draft resistance from 1.8 to 2.3 end bveraged 2.0 inches of water, weighed 0.128 gram end had a Penetrometer firmness of 11.6 with a plug circumference of 25.1 am. The 17 am. plugs reduced nicotine 52.6 percent and total solids 47.1 percent in the smoke of WINSTON tobacco rods. This was the highest degree of filtration obtained with any Estron filter plugs having a draft resistance of 2.0 inches of water or less. Additional work was done to determine if the operating characteristics of this tow could be iaproved, but without success. _VII. Coagparison of WINSTON Cigarettes Tipped with 3.3-66,000 Estron - Filters and WINSTON Ci,~arette~f with 8-70,000 Estron Filters. WINSTON Test No. 1158 (RDM, 1959, No. 60) WINSTON Test No. 1158 was made to prepare cigaxettes for a large panel smokera+' test and to obtain additional filtration data on 3.3-66,000-tipped cigarettes. The 17 un. filter plug draft resistance in inches of water was 1.82 for the 3.3-66,000 plugs and 1.06 for the 8-70,000 plugs. The 3.3-66,000-tipped cigarettes had a draft resistance of 3.60 inches of water as compared to 2.76 for the 8-70,000-tipped cigarettes. The 3.3-66,000 filters revoved 40.4 percent nicotirre and 39.1 percentt total solids from the cigarette aaoke. The 8-70,000 filters rssoved 22.4 percent nicotine and 25.6 percent total. solids from the cigarette smoke. In a large panel smokers' test, 53 serakera chose the 8-70,000-tipped WINSTONS, 46 smokers chose the 3.3-66,000-tipped WINSTONS, 21 smokers reporteA no difference, and 8 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. VIII. Celanese Tow for Filter Plugs Celanese Corporation was licensed by Eastman Chemical Products, Inc., to manufacture 8-70,000 Y tow and we purchased ten bales of this tow from Celanesw. The addition of triacetin caused this Celanese tow to develop an off-odor. Assistance was given Celanese representatives in evaluating various samples of tow in order to find the causo of the off-odor. However, no satisfactory tow was received from Celanese. IX^~ Tests on Special Filters e._ Schweltser_Paper Filters_Recsived Uecesaber.._19, 1958 ~ (RDM, 1958, No. 97) A eample box of 102 mai. paper filter rods was submitted for evaluation by Schweitser Paper Company with the claim that these filters had been improved as compared to previously submitted samples.
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6 Tests showed that 17 oxn. plugs cut from these rods had an average draft resistance of 1.87 inches of water, w^.ighed 0.142 and had a Penetrometer firmness of 9.45. Smoke analyses showed that the plugs removed 60.6 psrcent nicotine and 59.2 percent total solids from ciga- rette snqka. These filters were no better than previously submitted filtara with respect to filtration efficiency versus draft resistance. b._ L\raluation of Filttrs Made From Ri.bsrly-Clark-PaporNo. SO xo-sas ' ` - One roll of paper labsll..d 80 RD-SdS was r+sceiwd from Ki.berly- Clark Corporation on Septsb.r 21, 1959. It was claimed that this paper had baon treated so as to rsduc.e or •liMinate the characteristic sharpnsss ef taste ecpsriescad in smoking cigarettes tipped with paper filters. Sewntosn+sillimster filter plugs were made using the RJR corrusatinj plug mAksr and attachsd to WWTOiC cigarettes for evaluation. Tlo special 17 ..n. paper filter plugs reduced nicotine 60.0 perosnt and total solids 59.2 percent. A limited panel smokers' tsst of cigarettes tipped with tha paper filters indicat.d that the characteristic sharpness sxperisnseed in the smoking of ciparsttes tipped with paper filters bad not been eliainsted. c._ Evaluation of Kiaberiy_C1ark Nicropors Celluloae SEorts* Filtera (RDM, 1959, No. 16) , om January 26, 1959, approximately fifty 1i2-ssr. oicropore cellu- lose sponp filter rods wrie sub.ittid by the 1Cisrbsrly-C1ark Corporation. Seventeen •i 11 iretsr plugs were cut from the rods and attached by hand to 68 .m. WINSTON tobacco rods for testing. The 17 sm. plugs had an average draft resistance of 0.61 inch of water and r+snoved 34.8 percent nicotine and 29.1 percent total solids from the smoke. whSn cigarettes tipped with these sp.cial filters msr. saebked, it vas observed that s.nke channel.d to sas extent through the filter, but not to as jrsat an extent as the previously submitted cellulosic spon,ge f i 1 tars (RDM, 1958, No. 42). The character of the smlos was similar to that obtained in the sookin,p of papsr-tippsd cigarettes. d._ EValuation of Paer Filtara Subnitt*d by_U. S. Filter Corporation on January 28, 1959 (RDN, 1959, No. 17) On January 28, 1959, Mr. aunsi of U. S. Filter Corporation sub- mitted thra sasples of paper filter rods for our evaluation. The cut-off appearance of these paper rods more nearly approximated that of' regular Estron rods than any paper filtera Mhich we haw ase.
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7 The draft resistaitice in inches of water and percent nicotine anc' total solids removal vulues (from 68 am. ~'IP'GTOP' tobacco rods) for 17 atin. plugs cut from each of the types of ruds were as followst R119M - 2.06, 63.7, and 63.1; 1121M - 1.64, 56.9, and 55.6; and R122M - 1.74, 61.3, and 58.1. e._ E\raluation_of Payer t'ilters Submi.tted by4U. SaFilter ~ Corpo/ration on June 22i 1959 On June 22, 1959, a sataple of filter rods 24.7 sm. in circuiafer- ence and 102 am. length waa subotitted by U. S. rilter Corporation. It wcas claimed that these filters had been iaQroved from the standpoint of effect on taste of cigarette smoke. Seventeen millimeter plugs were cut frow the rods and attached to 68 am. wINSTON tobacco rods for evaluation. The 17 m. plugs had an average draft resistance of 1.13 inches of water, Weighed 0.155 gram, and had a Penetrometer f inor.ess of 6.1. Smoke analyses showd that the filters reduced nicotine 45.6 percent and totall solids 44.2 percent. A limited panel sarokers' test showed that these paper filters were similar to previously tested paper filters with regard to effect on taste of smoke. f._ E<raluation_of Filters Substitted by_t.he Quaker Oats Company (RDM, 1959, No. 52) i - _ - - - i ~ - On April 17, 1959, two 3-1/2-inch filter rods 27 s:a. in circumfer- ence were submitted for evaluation by the Quaker Oats Company. Correapond- ence indicated that these filters had been prepared by iwpregnation of the fibers with a furfural condensation product (U.S. Patent No. 2,834,354). Sarventeen .ai 11 imeter plugs were cut from the rods and attached by hand to 68 utn. WINSTON tobacco rods for evaluation. The 17 am. filter plugs had an average draft resistance of 1.6 inchea of water, weighed 0.181 gram and had a Penetrometer fir'mness of 8.0. The filters resaov+ad 47.5 percent nicotine and 46.6 percent total solids from smoke. In a limited smokers' test of cigarettes tipped with these special filters, it was noted that the plugs removed most of the tobacco taste from the smoke. There was no off-taste apparent. g.~ <tia1_uation_of Filters Prepared From Cellulose MethYlene CarboxYlic_Acid and Cellulose Eth~ylene_Carboxylie Acid On August 10, 1959, 15 am. filter plugs made of wadded cellulose methylene carboxylic acid and filter rods made from cellulose ethylene carboxylic acid were submitted by J. :_. Jones, Sr., Ph.D., 1070 Glen Oaks Blvd., Pasadena 2, California.
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8 The 15 sm. cellulose swthylens carboxylic acid filters varied in draft resistance from 0.8 to 3.8 and averaSed 1.8 inches of water. They reduced nicotinet in sewke 34.9 percent and total solids 31.1 percent. The 15 sra. filters cut troei the celiutoss ethylene carboxylic acid rods varied ia draft resistance ts+m. 1.3 to 6.0 and averaged 2.1 iachss of wtur. Z'Ioas filters reduced nicotine in sswks 44.0 pero.nt and total aolids 41.8 percent. Thsss tiltsrs vere iw bettsr than tstroe filters with respect to nicotine and total solids rorwval from atplos at oo.paratiw draft rosistanaes. h._ Brralwtion ot 0-10 Ttiter llyes- .. .. Tilter plvsa vrrs prepared from a S0-S0 .ixtuxo of two types of G-10 (shraddsd stea shost swterial) in t!y foflowieg wsmar. C-10A was prepared troo tlw•Qur.d atar by ths regular 0-7 process using as additives and 1wd the spp•araaes oi burley tobacco. 0-108 was prspaswd ttvm flue-cured sto.w similar to G-1M with the exceptieR that 33.3 percent of Iron ocids Yellow No. 2087 was iaoorporated isito the shist. This ps+rdutt had an appearancv so.ewhat siwilar to tlw-cursd strips. ~ A 50-50 nixture of the two types of 0-10 was blended, cut, dried, sprayed with the regular s.ount of filter tip flavor plus 8 percent Slyceriti, and nsde into rods on the "ialry" Hauei cigarette stiskiet: m+.chies. Seraatosn sxilli.ster lensths wre cut on the Kft filter tip attacking trsebisr aal attached to the r*Vulsr 68 sir. ler4th cigarettes. The 17 ss. filters varied In draft resista+tiat from 0.5 to 1.9 inches of .~rtor aad averaged 1.12 inohes of wtar. lirmnasa varied from 4.3 to 9.5 ssd ameraSed 6.t. Wsig%t varied from 0.241 to 0.386 and artrysd 0.323 grw. Sise varied from 24.1 to 24.8 ard averaged 24.3 sir. Tosta showed that these filters reduced nicotine iR the amoloe 16.5- 17.7 percent awd total solids 16.l-17.7 percent. A lioitod pansl swkars* test on aiZarettes tipped with these .lfeeial filters indicated that the ssoks was soasvlut harsher than that of regular wINSTON cigarettes tipped vith 3.3-66,000 or 8-70,000 fi lters.
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9 X. F,eceused F'i 1 ter Ci,garettes a._ Coa~arison of ~eciel KJk kecessed`filter Cigarettes F:ith ____ -------- ----- --- -- 80 mm5 and`85 tra~. Parl~amentiCig~rettes Tests were made to evaluate recessed filter cigarettes prepared using WINSTON tobacco and 12 fcm. filters prepared from 2.5-70,500 and 3.3-70,000 Estron tows and from Kimberly-Clark paper. These values were co.pared with results of tests made on 80 and 85 mm. Parliament cigarettes. The special filter plugs wr. made using a modified F.T.A. machine which was installed on the top floor of Factory No. 1 Ext. The ciga- rettes were assenbled on a Hauni MAX in Factory No. 1-4. The values obtained for draft resistance of plugs and total solids resoval from ssqke differed materially from the values expected on the basis of previous tests made on 17 ma. plugs. These differences resulted from the squeezing of the filter plug from 24.7 to 23.6 mm. when the plugs w re attached to the cigarettes using the stiff mouthpiece paper. The 2.5-70,500 plugs were 35 percent higher in draft resistance (2.68 versus 1.98 inches of water) and removed 12 percent less total solids fran ssioke (28.6 versus 32.5 percent) than the calculated values. The 3.3-70,000 E:atron plugs fluffed by the regular mthod averaged 65 percent higher in draft resistance (2.44 versus 1.48 inches of water) and removed 5 percent less total solids from smoke (27.4 versus 28.8 percent) than the calculated values. The 3.3-70,000 air jet fluffed Estron plugs averaged 65 percent higher in draft resistance (2.91 versus 1.76 inches of water) and reaawed 28.5 percent more total solids (37.8 versus 29.4 percent) than the calculated values. The paper plugs were 6 percent higher in draft resistance (1.96 versus 1.85 inches of water) and rewoved 2 percent less total solids fran smoke (44.8 versus 45.8 percent) than the calculated values. Eighty millimeter Parliament cigarettes had an average plug length of 9.81 un., the plug draft resistance averaged 2.23 inches of water, .md eHs plug removed 37.3 percent total solids from smoke. Eighty-five millimeter Parliament cigarettes had an average plug length of 15.05 mm., the plug draft resistance averaged 2.15 inches of water, and the plug removed 40.5 percent total solids from smoke.
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10 The paper-tipped cigarettes contained in the smoke epproxi=tely 13.3 n. of total solids and was the only special cigarette which con- tained approximately the same quantity of total solids in the smoke ns the Pnrliament cigarettes (12.2 mg. for the 80 aoi. and 13.6 mg. for the 85 am. cigarettes). b._ Recessed f'llter Tip Clgarettea kade on the Hsuni KfR Hachine fiecessed filter tip cigarettes were made using the regular WINSTON blend of tobacco with a 15 s+m. 3.3-66,000 Estron filter and a 5 ants. recess for experimental purposes. The filter rods were made using the Heun! KFR recess plug maker. Filter plugs were attached on the regular WINSTON making machine using regular Ecusta No. 556 paper (26.4 seconds porosity). The 15 ssn. filter plugs had an average sise of 24.8 ma. and an average draft resistance of 2.36 inches of water. the cigarettes averaged 25.07 s.n. in circumference, weishsd 1.180 grams and had an average draft resistance of 4.27 inches of water. The high draft resistance of the 15 sw. filter plag as cos~pared to that of a regular 17 am. plug used !n WINSTON production resulted from the smaller sice of the plug, with greater than usual coapression of the filter tow. Smoke analyses of the tipped cigarettes showed a 40.0 percent reduction in nicotine (1.65 to 0.99 mg.) and 42.5 percent reduction irk total solids (23.6 to 13.6 sS.) by the 15 maa. 3.3-66,000 Estron filter. B. HIGH POROSITY CIGARETTE PAPEfi On January 6, 1959, the idea was conceived of preparing a highly porous cigarette paper which would have the property of diluting cigarette smoke and thereby reducing nicotine and total solids contents. The porosity of cigarette paper is measured by instruments in the number of seconds required for the forcing of a specified volume of air through some fixed area of the paper under definite conditions. The Gurley densosaeter is the accepted standard instrument for measuring the porosity or air resistance of paper and the results are reported as the average number of seconds required for the displacement of 100 cubic centimeters of air through an araa of 1.0 square lnch. Results of porosity tests made on the formerly used Greiner inatrucaent were reported as the average number of seconds required for the displacement of 100 cubic centimeters of air through a circular area one inch in diameter. Greiner values are actually approxieaately three-fourths of Gurley values in testing paper of the same porosity. On the basis of tests made in our Research Department since its beginning and extensive tests made on both American-made and French-made cigarette paper during the past year, the porosity of cigarette paper has varied from 40 to over 100 seconds Gurl!sy. Calculations showed that the porosity of cigarette paper would have to be less than 30 seconds Gurley !n order to have any significant diluting effect on cigarette amoke. These calculations
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11 were lFtter borne out by actunl tests. '7uring January and the first two weeks of February, intensive efforts were made in our laboratories to produce cigarette papers of various porosities in order to actually measure the effect of porosity on the nicotine and total solids contents of cigarette smoke. In our experiments, we made a sample of paper which had a Curley porosity reading of 0.79 seconds. When this paper was used for making 68 mm. cigarettes, it was found that the cigarettes could be smoked only with great difficulty by an individual smoker because of the high porosity of the paper. When an atte+apt was made to ssoke these cigarettes on our smoking machine it was observed that when the smoking machine putfed, no s~oke was pulled into the collection apparatus until the cigarettes had burned approximately 40-50 mn. On the basis of these results, it was decided that paper more porous than this could not be used for cigarettes. The least porous paper made and tested measured 26.1 seconds Gurley. When this spacial paper was used with CAME? tobacco for making 68 sam. cigarettes antl the .cigarettes sawked, there was 12.9 percent reduction in nicotine and 18.1 percent reduction in total solids as coupared to cigarettes mnde using Ecusta No. 543 paper having a porosity of 78.1 seconds Curley. This data indicated that the normal paper porosity (40-100 seconds Gurley) had to be more than doubled (air resistance halved) in order to obtain a marked reduction in nicotine and total solids contents of cigarette smoke. Also, as previously stated, theoretical cal- culations showed that the cigarette paper porosity had to be inereased to approximately a value of 25 seconds in order to obtain a significant dilution of the smoke. Papers were made with various porosities and used in making CAMEL and WINSTON cigarettes for smoke analyaes. Values are shown in the tables following. TABLE I SMOKE ANAl.YSES OF CAMEt_ CIGARETT'ES MADE LIcING PAPERF OF DIFFERENT POROSI'TIES Curley Porosity TYpE~of Paper Sec./100 sil./a,d. in. Ecusta 543 78.1 75852 T 26.1 75871 T 8.4 75867 T 4.5 hicotine . ci t. Nicotine Reduction lotal Solids mg./ci$t. Total Solids Reduction 2.09 --- 27.6 1.82 12.97. 22.6 18.1% 1.65 21.0 16.3 40.9 0.85 59.3 14.1 48.9
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12 ', I'. B'. E I I SMOKE At1l.i,Y: ES OF_ VIt:.:~TON CIGARL•TIES M:'ti')Ii L'SIh1G PF.PEFS OF DIFFERENT POROSITIES AND 8-70,000 Y k:STRON FI-TERS Type of Paper Gurley Porosity Sec./100 ml.s. in. Nicotine . ci t. Nicotine Reduction Total Solids . ci t. Total Solids Reduction Ecusta 543 75852 T 66.0 22.7 1.47 1.37 --- 6.8'ti 21.1 18.7 11.47. 75866 T 4.5 1.25 15.0 15.0 28.9 The theoretical relationship between porosity (seconds Gurley) of cigarette paper and air dilution (percent) of sanke was calculated to be the following for the smoking of a 68 mm. cigarette 25.6 am. in sizes 57.2 seconds - 3.79 percent; 25 seconds - 8.08 percent; 10 seconds - 18.11 percent; 5 seconds - 30.75 percent; and 2 seconds - 52.87 percent. In most instances, the experi- mental values for nicotine and total solids reduction were higher than calcu- lated values. This was expected since nicotine and total solids in smoke were reducee n+ot only by dilution with air but also as the result of more complete oxidation through greater access of air. Both the calculated and experimental resulte; showed that the porosity of the papex had to be definitely increased beyond the range of that of consnercially produced cigarette paper in order to have arty marked effect on nicotine and total solids in smoke. Or, the basis of the above data, a special report was prepared on February 13, 1959, and submitted to give information needed in filing a patent application on highly porous cigarette paper. Ir, April, 1959, Mr. Kenneth H. Hoover requested Mr. M. 0. Schur of the Ecusta Paper Division to prepare samples of special high porosity cigarette paper on a coaimercial basis. As a result of this and subsequent requests, 19 samples of special high porosity cigarette paper were received from F.custa Paper Division and evaluated. Five samples of high porosity cigarette paper were received from the Peter J. Schweitzer Division of the Kimberly-Clark Corporation and evaluated. Samples of three types of porous paper were received from Bollore and evaluated. The results of tests on these samples of paper and cigarettes made using these samples are shown in the followinE. Tests showed that increasing the porosity of cigarette paper has the following effects on cigarettess (1) draft resistance is decreased, especially after the cigarette is lighted; (2) the burning rate is increased and nusnber of puffs per cigarette is decreased; (3) nicotine and total solids content of the smoke are reduced; and (4) it gives a milder smoke aa indicated by panel tests. These effects are discussed in more detail in the following.
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13 1f:ffect of PEq!er Porosity on Draft f.eaist.ance of~Cii;arette!+ In the table below are shown the results of tescs rau+dc: to determine the draft resistance of 70 am. CAPSl,L cigarettes mndc wich paperc having different porosities. It will be noted that the draft resistance differences are much greater after the cigarettes are lighted. This is to be expected since the air rercistance of an unlighted end of a cigarette is much less than that of the paper. When the cigarette is lighted and the end thus sealed, the paper porosity has a correspondingly greater effect on draft resistance. A similar effect has been noted with filter-tipped cigarettes. TABLE III EFFECT OF PAPER POROSITY ON WNFT LESISTANCE ~ ! OF CAMEL CIGARETTES s_ ypQ Ci$arette Paper " TOD-811 TOD-794F 1. Porosity, sec., Curley 62.50 28.50 12.00 2. Draft Resistance, In. of Waters Unlighted 2.41 2.38 2.17 After Ist Puff 2.93 2.82 2.60 2nd " 3.10 2.79 2.60 3rd " 2.94 2.77 2.54 4th " 2.96 2.72 2.46 5th " 2.88 2.71 2.41 6th " 2.82 2.55 2.28 7th " 2.74 2.58 2.33 8th " 2.82 2.52 2.30 Note:t Manoareter readings were taken while the cigarettes were being ~~ smoked on our standard smoking machine. II. Effect o_f Cigarette PayQr~T~ie and Ponbsit.y _on~8urnin~ ltete and ~- Puffs per Cigarette T ~ In the following table are shown the results of tests on burning rates of CAME!..S, wINSTOhS and SALEMS made in papers having different porosities with and without fast-burning additive. The results show that (1) increasing the porosity incrQases the burning rate and (2) increasing the additive con- tent increases the burning rate.
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14 TABLE IV EFFECT OF PAPER POROSITY AND ADDITIVE CONTGNT ON BURNING RATES Burni Rates CAM$LS WIMSTON SALOMS CiJ,arette Paper % x x TYpe Poroatty - nin. Incr+sas,_e ..~in. ncss g.•in. Increase "A" 53-72 37.0-46.2 543 (.77)a+* 70 47.5-48.5 47.1-52.0 45.6-51.2 Ecusta TOD No.t 778 25.9 54.1 53.7 781 13 53.7 45.0 58.4-50.3 20.0 58.4-61.3 24.3-31. 787 6.0 60.5 16.1 788 6.0 63.9 22.8 79" (.76)*** 13.3 57.5 18.5 a (.56) 11.2 56.1 15.8 C (.35) 12.0 55.6 14.9 D (.21) 13.6 53.5 11.3 R (.10) 12.8 52.3 7.8 F(0.0) 10.8 56.7 22.5 54.8 12.9 811 28 5 53 5 20 0 6 8 I 8 1 . . . r . . 812 (.50)*** 30.5 55:0 23.5 32.6 10.0 552 13 58.2 22.3 553 13 55.4 53.4-59.3 14.1•17.i 824 (.49)*** 24.6 59.3 35.0 825 29.5 57.4 31.0 833 30 46.9 17.5 555 29 55.1 17.0 51.5 6.2 556 (.58)a** 31 55.8 14.5 55.45 ScM+eitur: "17 Seconds" 20.4 60.0 43.5 •"15 Seconds" 34.3 55.1 31.7 aPercent Increase as co.parrd to CAMELS made using "All paper. e*Percent Increase as coopared to WINSTONS or SALE?1S oada using 543 paper. ***Total citrate content calculated as citric acid percent (in parentheses). In the following table are shown the effects of paper porosity on puffs per cigarette for CAMELS, i.'INSTONS and SALF!!S. The results show that (1) increasins the paper porosity decreases the average nisober of puffs per cigarette, and (2) increasin,8 the citrate additiwt decreases the average nueber of puffs per cigarette. cn m v
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15 TABLE V EF'FECT OF PAPER POROSITY AND ADDITIVE COI3TENT ON PUFFS PER CIGARETTE: Puffs r Ci rstte CAMELS'a 1iINSTON SAL!?!S*a i tta Pa,p tr x % 7, Tm Poros t Awrap Decrease Avsraas Decrease Awrap Decrease "A" 33.72 9.1-10.9 543 (.77)*** 70 9.5 9.3-10.0 9.7-10.1 Ecusta TOD No. 3 778 25.9 9.5 0.0 9.1-9.6 0.0 781 13 8.5 9.6 8.5-9.4 5.0 8.8 12.0 787 6.0 9.1 • 9.0 788 6.0 V.2 8.0 794A (.76)*** 13.3 9.6 6.0 8 (.56) 11.2 9.6 6.0 C (.35) 12.0 9.7 5.0 D (.21) 13.6 9.9 3.0 E (.10) 12.8 10.0 2.0 F(0.0) 10.8 9.5 8.6 9.9 3.0 811 28.5 10.2 5.4 812 (.50)*** 30.5 9.7 10.0 552 13 8.9 9.0 553 13 9.6 2.0 9.3 9.4 824( .49)**+ 24.6 9.6 7.5 825 (.46) 29.5 9.8 6.0 833 30 9.3 8.0 555 29 9.7 4.0 9.1 7.1 556 (.58)*** 31 8.9 8.5 9.6 Sch.reitsers "17 Seconds" 20.4 9.8 10.9 "2 5 Seconds" 34.5 9.7 11.0 •Asresnt Dacr+.ase as co.parad to CAMELS wads, using "A" paper. **Peresnt Dacraass as owparod to WjNST~plIS or SALEMS aade using 543 paper. "*'Tots1 citrate contsnt calculated as citric acid psrcant (in parentheses). Comparison of the values for increase In burning rats with values for decrsas In puffs shows that the psrc,ant docrsasa In nuabar of puffs per cigarette is alwys such smaller than the percent incrsasa in burning rate. For .xsmpla, CAMELS mad. In TOD-811 paper burn 20 percent faster than CAMEtS made In •'A" paper, but the percent decrease in puffs is only 5.4 percent. This can be sxplalnsd by the fact that during puffins the TOD-811 paper CAMEt.S, there is lssa pull on the burning and baoawe of air drawn through the porous paper and a shortsr length of cigarette i• burned. However, In tra burning (no puffing) the porous paper cigarette burns faster. Ln 0 z v v ~ P v K:
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16 III. Effect of Cip~arette Paper Porosit~r on the `moke Composition In the following table are shown average values for increase in nicotine and total solids removal from the smoke of cigarettes resulting from in- creasing the porosity of cigarette paper. Figures shown for CAME1. cigarettes are coapared with values obtained for CAME1L cigarettes made using "A" paperl figures shown for other cigarettes are cospared with values obtained for the other cigarettes made using 543 paper. The results show (1) the effect in reducing nicotine and total solids on CAMEL cigarettes by any particular paper is much greater than the effect on WINSfONS or SALEMS since WINSTONS and SAL@1S are made with 543 paper which reduces nicotine and solids in asoke 8-10 percent as coapared with "A" paper; (2) nicotine and total solids reduction for unt! 85 mta. cigarettes by any particular paper is greater than the reduction for tipped WINSTONS or SAL@IS because the paper area for an 85 maa. untlpped cigarette is a~uch greater than that of a 68 mm. WINSTON or SALFM tobacco rod, and the dilution is correspondingly greater for each puffz (3) for tilter-tipped cigarettes, when the filter efficiency is increased, the effect of the paper porosity is slightly lesss this can be explained by the fact that when a cigarette is ssaked through a filter of higher draft resistance, there is less auction on the tobacco rod itself during a puff and correspondingly less air pulled through the paper to dilute the sawke. TABLE VI EFFE:CT OF PAPER POROSITY ON NICOTINE AND TOTAI. SOLIDS CONTENT OF SMOKE Paper Untipped CAMEE:LS 85 isa. WINSTONS T~i ee,d Withs SALEHF Tip ed With s Code Porosity 70 mm. Cigarettes 8-70 3.3-66 3.3-70 ~ ~ , 8-70 3.3-66 3.3-7C TOD-778 26 18.0 3.4 2.7 2.5 TOD-781 12 21.7 23.4 11.0 10.0 9.8 15.0 13.0 12.8 ToD-787* 6 20.7 14.3 TOD-788 6 33.3 17.7 TOD-794r* 12 16.6 23.4 TOD-811 28.5 8.7 3.0 TOD-812 30.5 14.9 6.6 TOD-824 24.6 15.3 TOD-825 29.5 14.7 TOD-833 30 14.1 No. 552 11 16.6 14.3 No. 553** 13 12.1 9.2 No. 555 29 3.3 ~+ No. 556 31 7.1 ~° Schweitiars "17 S:conds" 0.4 4.6 v U ~ "2 5 Seconds', 34.5 22.1 a~ 0 *Sasipie Nos. TOD-787 and TOD-794F contained no citrate additive. a*Saaple No. 553 contained 75 percent of the normal asount of citrate additive.
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17 IV. Senokers• Tests on Ciaarettes Made With liiAh Porosity Papar s._ CAMEL Tests Three CAMEL tests have been osde to obtain ssoksrs• test results on high porosity cigarette paper. The results Showed (1) saokers preferred CAMELS o.de in r4sular "A" paper over CAMELS sads In TOD- 781 paper which had a high porosity and also contained tast-burning additive, (2) asoksrs sbrwd oaly a very slight preference for CAMELS msde In "A" paper over CAM=L8 ssde In TOD-7f41 paper vkioL had a high porosity but contained aa tut-bwsnias additiw, aerd (3) asnkers showd a preference for CAMtLB iads In TOD-811 paper which ws of intermediate porosity and contained ne tast-burnieu additive over CAMdLS sade In regular "A" paper. These rssults are shown !n detail in the following table. The results of moke oowposition tests haw also bess includ.d. T~/IiI~.BYII © RESULTS OF SMOKERS • TBStS ON CAlIELw CIGARETTES MADE osi11G PORM PAPER 1. CAMEL Test No. 1149s 1149-A ("A" Paper) 1149-8 (TOD-781 Paper) Nicotine Total Solids in 8aploe w./Cijt,: In E.oks rs• Tests ltesults mlCi~at. , ,Smo1_oe , 2.28 27.6 60 el+ose 1149-A 1.80 21.3 42 choae 1149-s 16 Ib Di f fennce 3 NsitNer Note: The tobacco used in theN cigarettes tested 2.35 psrcent nicotine and 11.07 percent total sugar. 2. CAMEL Test No. 1160s Juns i Testt 1160-A ("A" Paper) 2.07 26.5 64 chose 1160-A . 1160-d (TOD-794F Paper) 1.71 22.3 55 cbase 1160-8 9 No Differsnce 14 Neither Juns 10 Tests 56 chose 1160-A 54 chose 1160-B 18 No Difference 11 Neither Notes The tobacco used in thsse cigarettes tested 2.30 percent nicotine and 11.43 percent total sugar.
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18 TABLE VII (Cont'd) Nicotine in Swoke s. Ci t. Total Solids in Smoke sM./Ciet. Smohers• Testa Results 3. CAMEr. Test No. 1166I June 30 Tests 1166-A ("A" Paper) 2.22 26.0 66 cAose 1166-n 1166-s (TOD-811 Paper) 2.03 23.7 51 chose 1166-A 1166-C (TOD-812 Paper) 1.86 22.5 16 No Differsnce 8 Ne i thtr as~d Notes The tobacoo used in tlwlse cigarettes tested 2.18 percent nicotine 11.52 percent total su`ar. b. WIpSTCl1 Tests 0 Three NINS'M tests have been made to obtain sswiosrs• tests results on high porosity cigarette paper. Tbe results sAoa.d (1) in Test No. 1148 s.okara ahowsd a preference for ci8arsttss sade using TOD-781. paper and 3.3-66,000 filters over WINSDOM msds using $43 paper and 8-70,000 filters; (2) in Test No. 1154 (repeat of Test No. 1148) smokers asaia sMwd a sli8ht preference for the cigarettes sade using TOD-781 paper &W 3.3-66,000 filters= and (3) in Test No. 1167 s.okers showd a slight prefazeetice for cigarettes .ade using TOD-81Z paper ard 3. 3-66, 000 f i l ters over c i psv ttes nsde using 50 paper and 3. 3-66, 000 filters. These results are shown in dstail in the table below. The results of s.oke opeposition tests have also been included. TABLE V111 BUOLTS Of sHOKW• TESTS ON WINSTON r._...._.. _ ~._ ~.. ~.~..~ CIGARETTES MADE tnING !~0ltOVS tAPBR _._..~....... ~..._... ~..... _....__ Nicotine in lDnake s+gs./Cist. Total Solids in firsios s&s./Cigt. Smokers• Tests Results 1. WINSTON Test No. 11481 April 15 Tests 1148-A (543 • 8-70) 1.59 20.6 53 chose 1148-B 1148-D (781 • 3.3-66) 1.17 12.4 47 chose 1148-A 17 No Difference 5 Neither May 5 Testt 17 chose 1148-E S chose 1148-A S No Difference 3 Ne i thur Notes The tobacco used in tbese cigarettes tested 2.19 percent nicotine 10.88 percent total sugar. and
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19 TABLE VIII (Cont'd) Nicotine Total Solids in Smoke in Smoke oea.JCiAt. s%s./Ciat. Smoicers• Tests Results 2. WINSTON Test No. 1154 - Repeat of Test No. 11488 1154-A (543 + 8-70) 1.66 1154-E (781 + 3.3-66) 1.16 lrotes The tobacco used in these cigarettes 20.9 49 tbwse 1154-8 14.3 44 oiws. 1154-A 16 No Difference 5 Neithsr tested 2.28 percent nicotine and 10.33 percent total sugar. 3. WINSTON Test No. 1167: . 1167-A (543 + 3.3-66) 1.29 17.2 58 chose 1167-C 1167.a (811 + 3.3-66) 1.22 16.5 57 chose 1167-A 1167-C (812 + 3.3-66) 1.17 15.1 13 No Di f ference Notes The tobacco used in thsse cigarettes 10.61 peroent total sugar. 3 lMithsr tested 2.08 percent nicotine and c._ SALEM Tests Five SALEM t.ests have been .ade to obtain s.wlosrs' tests results on high porosity cigarette paper. The results slwwrd (1) In Test No. 1153 sookers preferred SALDi.S•oade using TOD-781 paper and 3.3-66,000 filters over SALEMS nade using 543 papsr atW 8-70,000 flltsra= (2) in Test No. 1157 s.rotosrs preferred SALEMS msde using TOD-781 paper and 8-70,000 filters over SALEMS made using 543 paper s+nd 8-70,000 tilters= (3) in Test No. 1163 sookers showed a slight preference for 8J1t.ENS made using No. 553 paper and 8-70,000 filters over SAI.BNS o.de using No. 353 paper and 3.3-66,000 filteraj and (4) in Test No. 1174 easkers showed a decided preference for SALEMS sade using No. 553 paper and 3.3-66,000 fii.ters over SAt.Etcs made using No. 556 paper and 3.3-66,000 filtera= and (5) in Test No. 1176 sawkers showed a,o preference as to SALRMS made using No. 553 paper and tipped .+ith 8-70,000 filters vhsn co.psrrd with SALF!!S made using TOD-794F paper and 8-70,000 filters. '='base results are shown in detail in the table rhich follows. The results of steioR co.position tests have also been included. m m W
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20 TABL.E IX RE:SUI.TS OF SMOI:ERS' TEF7S O!ti SAI.F.M CIGARETTES Kr',DC UGING POROUS PAPER Nicotine i n Smoke mss./CiBt, Total Solids i n Smoke oss./Ci,jt. .. . Smokers• Tests Results . 1. SAI_Qt Test No. 1153: 1153-A (543 + 8-70) 1.86 20.9 60 chose 1153-B 1153-8 (781 + 3.3-66) 1.15 13.2 41 chose 1153-A 17 No Difference 12 Neither Notes The tobacco used in these cigarettes tested 2.41 percent nicotine and 11.15 percent total auaar. . 2. SALEM Test No. 1157s 1157-A (543 + 8-70) 1.63 20.5 40 chose 1157-A 1157-C (781 + 8-70) 1.35 16.4 53 chose 1157-C Notet The tobacco used in 11.93 percent total 7 No Difference these cigarettes tested 2.27 percent nicotine and sugar. 3. SAi F7N Test No. 11631 June 10 Test: 1163-A (553 + 8-70) 1.24 15.3 54 chose 1163-A 1163-B (553 + 3.3-66) 0.96 11.4 50 chose 1163-8 16 No Difference Note: The tobacco used in 11.60 percent total 3 Neither June 26 Tests 58 chose 1163-A 53 chose 1163-a 17 No Difference 1 Idei ther these cigarettes tested 2.10 percent nicotine sugar. and 4. SALF?t Test No. 11741 1174-A (553 + 3.3-66) 1.00 12.5 53 chose 1174-A 1174-B (556 + 3.3-66) 1.08 13.8 28 chose 1174-5 15 No Difference Note: The tobacco used in 13.99 percent total 3 Neither these cigarettes tested 2.08 percent nicotine and sugar. 5. SA1.EH Test No. 1176s 1176-A (553 + 8-70) 1.23 24.6 40 chose 1176-A 1176-B (794F + 8-70) 1.28 21.4 43 chose 1176-B 20 No Difference 2 Neither Notes The tobacco used in these cigarettes tested 2.12 percent nicotine and 14.09 percent total sugar.
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21 V. Effect of Paper Porosity Charaes and Other Changes on C1 arg ette Svoke Composition as Indicated by Competitive Brand Tests In the tables which follow are auarnarised the results of stroke analyses on competitive brand saaples of CAMEi.9 WINSTOI+t. and SALEM cigarettes for 1959. ChsnBes in paper types, filters, bleetds, and tobacco rod veights which influence amoke composition have been listed. TABLE X EFFECT OF CW-NCES MADE IN 1959 ON CAMEL SMWCE COlIPOSiTION ~ Tobacco Smoke Analyses Paptr Mnalx„M• Total Tob. Rod Month T T e Porosity Burne Neoti~ $uzss Nicotine Solids January A 46.0 1.85 11.67 February A 47.5 1.94 11.67 2.09 27.7 Tobacco weight 1arch reduced 1% at~ A 47.6 2.00 11.90 No. 97 and A ril 0.5% at No. 1 p A 56.1 1.99 11.45 2.27 28.0 May A 47.3 2.14 11.41 June A 74.1 47.2 1.98 11.56 2.11 26.0 July A 71.1 47.5 2.05 11.63 August A 78.7 42.4 2.16 11.20 2.14 27.9 September A 76.3 48.2 2.00 11.95 K-4 reduced 2% October C-9 increased > A 59.9 47.2 2.03 12.70 2.24 27.6 2% Noveaiber A 37 . 6 48.4 2.05 12 .63 NAN - 555 > D*c*vber* 555 27.7 56. 0 2.12 12.85 1. 68 eSpecial sample. LM 0 ~ 0 rn rn
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TABLIt XI L'FFECT QF CAANGLS IIADS Ilt 1959 ON W riS?A/ SIM OdM!'OS1TI0P Tob.tco 9.eb Anal Filter cis. 'od Tobacco Nod. R.d. Dra t Draft Paper dutnitg AarlM r IOiootins by Total Solids by Chanse lbnth Z t Rer Ittsist. _TW late lli~ St~r tJnti Zi Fiittr IIati d Tipped Filter Jaeaia:y 8-70 2.52 5443 51.4 1.69 10.e0 1.53 1.46 20.2 25.0 19.9 20.4 Februart « 0.93 2.Aiti « 53.3 1.72 10.91 1.47 19.6 Tobacco wlisttt ~ w 1.01 2.74 " 45.4 1.79 10.71 1.65 1.42 23.2 24.7 19.7 20.3 r.dao.d 1% at ~ Ao. 1 amd O.S'~ ~ri1 w 0.l8 2.70 " 47.1 1.90 1o.77 1.60 19.4 at lio. 64 iF r.duc.d 1% " w w ~ C-7X in- « 0.94 2.35 0.8 1.91 10.67 2.21 1.70 23.1 27.2 21.3 21.7 ~ crossed 1 /3; 8-70 to 3.3- J~ 3.3-66 1.93 3.44 " 50.2 1.79 10.87 1.15 14.5 66 Filter July ~ 1.59 3.31 " 4$.7 ' 1.88 10.56 1.97 1.24 37.1 25.3 15.5 38.7 . Auguat « 1.75 3.34 " 51.2 1.66 9.79 1.17 14.9 543 to V15"l.p.r~ « 2.00 3.45 556 38.0 1.00 11.28 1.7S 1.1! 37.1 25.6 15.6 39.1 Tobacos aiI& redue.d O.,AZ .. . at Ito. 1 sal Oeteb.r « .69 3.24 55:4 .76 0.76 .13 5.2 1x at No. 64 Nova.bar « 1.88 3.41 " 59.4 1.75 1.73 1.10 36.4 24.3 14.9 38.7 Dsceaber No ooapatiti.e brand . a"l*. 9999 OLaOS
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TA3LE XII E!'FBCT OF CRANCES MADS I!1 1959 ON SAi.M SMKE 00[~lPOSITIOII Tobacco S.ob Analyses Filter Cis. ,9od Tobacco Rad. Rod. Oraft Draft Paper Burnie4 . M.l~ Aioetisr by Total Solida by Nmth MM R"iat_ RosR iat. MM late t1lCotivis SWr aati Ti fi it or Odti ri Filter _ _ Jaauasy 8-70 2.52 543 53.9 1.78 11.37 r.bruarlr N 0.97 2.50 " 50.6 1.77 11.59 1.47 18.6 . i.,--0 March " 1.01 2.63 " 52.3 1.83 11.47 1.90 1.48 22.1 24.2 16.7 22.7 Tobacco neisht ~ redviced 0.3% April " 0.99 2.47 N 49.2 1.86 11.67 1.56 19.0 N {.1 ~ may N 0.94 2.48 " 484.7 1.96 11.59 2.03 1.60 21.2 25.0 19.8 20.8 543 to 553 Paper> N Juae 1.01 2.51 553 60.0 1.75 11.42 1.30 15.9 July N 1.04 2.68 " 59.7 1.92 11.56 1.70 1.30 23.5 21 3 16.7 21 6 *8-70 to 3.3- , . . ~ 66 Filtts wWu.t 3.3-66 1.85 3.06 N ~,s 1.87 11.11 * 1.06 12.5 Septa.ber 8-70 1.09 2.75 a 61.9 1.97 12.14 1.70 1.29 24.1 22.5 17.4 22.6 October 3.3-66 1.79 3.17 61.6 1.9e 11.54 1.0! 13.1 553 to 533 11ova.ber 8-70 1.05 2.65 " 62.7 1.94 1.80 1.38 23.3 23.4 18.5 20.9 Paper ~ 8-70 to 3.3• Deceebes+ 3.3-66 1.76 3.40 555 51.0 2.09 13.30 1.43 16.5 66 Filttr *Special S..ple. L898 CLhOS /
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24 C. G-7 PRODUCTS AND PROC6SSiNG I. Special G-7 Tests a.- Tsst No.-90•9 G-7X This tut was stads to prspan a special G•7X product using 40 percent tlw-awr+sd scrap and 60 psrosat lluw-cursd star as raw aaterials. In a sslosra• tast oosparisoa .t ciyAMttss .rrde usinj 100 psr- cost ot the Tost 11o. 90-f G-7X with regular 0-7X ct4.rsttas, e sslosrs chose special, f s.obsrs chose rsgular, and 4 s.aksrs s+spostod no d i itaracs . b.- Tast llo. !Q•10 G+7X Test No. 90•10 G-7X was msis to pwepal+s a,spscial product !or .xpariasatal vas in the rswloprnt of a blend to be used in MZMSTON ciganttss .~port.d to Rogiand. The special 0-7X oo.position was as tollowt flue-cured scrap - 17 psraat, buarisy scrap - 4 psreust, Turkisb asrap - 15 psrosRt, ilw-orrM sts.s - 40 psro.nt, and burley st.ws - 20 percent. No additives .t aoqr kind wsi used !n sskieS this product. c.-Tut Nsa. ------ t0.11 aad_ Vl~ - 2-2 Test Ns. 90-I1 0-7X was prepared using ths regular 0•S stsm blaod as tobaoos raw .atarial. Test No. 90-it 0-7 vss prsparsd isom a blood oo.possd of 36 percent barlhr stes, K percent flue-cured stm.s, 4 percent burley scrap, and 6 pssastt s iut-osrsd scrap. These tMS test G-7 products vara ,sds for oo.partaon with regular 0-3 in the !iIllsZOlt blswd. 1. NIIIS'W TtST t/D. 1151 WLNSM Test No. 1151 was .aM to dat.r+.ins the effect oi aadiwp oach of the following products to the regular H=RS'1+Oq bloadt (1) S percent regular O-S, (2) 3 percent spscfal Test No. 90-11 0-7 prepared from regular p-3 stM blsad, (3) 3 percent special Test Ho. 90•12 G-7, aad (4) 3 percent regular 0-S. The cigarettes vsre evaluated as to s.olcsrs,, pxrisrwtias, cost per 1000 cigarettes and s.aks oo.position. Tha rssults of ssoksrsl tasts iMicatsd (1) a pnisrsccs for bl.eds containing the G•7 product over the bl•nds containing G-S, (2) a prrt.r.nos for the ciaarsttss oostainin4 tb. 90-12 O-7 owr the cigarettes containing tb. W11 G-7, and (3) no difference in prrtarrncs for the control cigarettes and cigarettes containing S C' percent No. 90-1Z 0-7. ~ .. o m a, cc cD
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25 Calculations to determine savings per 1000 cigarettes as compared with the control blend (based on cigarettes of equal firmness and size) were made by personnel of the Coaptroller's Department with the following resultsi WINSTON blend with 5 percent No. 90-12 G-7 added -$0.1009; WINSTON blend with 5 per- cent No. 90-11 C-7 added - $0.0720= WINSTON blend with 5 percent G-5 added -$0.0621; and WINSTON blend with 3 percent G-5 added - $0.0471. Nicotine (1.61 mg. per cigarette) and total solids (19.5 aS. per cigarette) usre lower in the WINSTON blend vith 5 percent No. 90-12 C-7 added than in any of the other blends. 2. WINSTON TEST NO. 1169 WINSTON Test No. 1169 ws osde to compare (1) WINSTON ciga- rettes made from the regular blend plus 3' percent No. 90-12 C-7, (2) WINSTON cigarettes made fr+osi the regular blend plus 3 percent G-5, and (3) WINSTON controls. The cigarettes prepared from the regular blend plus 3 percent No. 90-12 G-7 were preferred over either of the other two ciga- rettes on the basis of tobacco filling capacity, lowest fines con- tent, less loose-end tobacco, and a lighter weight cigarette. One largs panel smokers' test ws ade to oospare the cig,a- rsttes made using the regular blend plus 3 percent No. 90-12 G-7 and the cigarettes made using the regular blend plus 3 percent G-S. The results showad that 37 smokers chose the cigarettes with 3 percent C-S added, 33 smokers chose the ci6,arettes with 3 percent No. 90-12 G-7 added, 13 s.okers reported no difference, and 4 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. One large panel awioera' teat was made to coepare the 1169-8 ciZarettes (3 percent C-5 added) with the controls. The results showed that 52 smokers preferred the 1169-8 cigarettes, 43 smokers pre ferred the contro 1s, 12 s+.wkers reported no d i f fereetce, and 5 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. d. Test No. 90-14 Test No. 90-14 was arade to determine the effect of Increased water temperature on the extraction efficiency and recovery of alcohol soluble materials at No. 90 Processing. In normal operation, the water temperature entering the G-7 extractor at No. 90 is 90• F. During Teat No. 90-14 the water was heated to 110-115• F. Samples were taken during the teat for materials balance and extraction efficiency calculations. Results of this teat showed no d i f fe rence . e.- Test-Nos. 90-15 and 90-16 Test No. 90-15 was made to determine the effect of increasing the flue-cured stem content of G-7X from 51 to 52 percent and reducing the
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26 plug burley stem content from 8 to 6 percent and the regular burley stem content from 10 to 1 percent. Test No. 90-16 was made to determine the effect of reducing the flue-cured stem content from 41 to 33 percent, the plug burley stem content from 8 to 6 percent and increasing the regular burley stem content from 10 to 20 percent. In a sawkera' test vhich was made to coapare Test No. 90-15 G-7X with Test No. 90-16 C-7X, 11 ssokers chose Test No. 90-15 C-7X, 8 smokers chose No. 90-16 G-7X, and 2 smokers reported no difference. In a smokers' test made to cospare Test No. 90-15 G-7X with regular G-7x, 13 sswkess chose No. 90-15 C-7X, 7 smokers chose regular, and 2 smokers reported no difference. Additional tests will be asda to determine if it is advisable to increase the flus-cured stem content of C=7X* f. Test No. 92-77 During 1959, the quality of the tobacco dust blend used in the manufacture of G-9 extract changed considerably. Sand content decreased with a reaulting increase in tobacco content and tobacco flavor. In order to take advantage of this increased flavor content, tests were made in increasing ttwe quantity of stews added to tlrs stew washer per 100 pounds of basic G-7X blend at No. 92 Processins. Test No. 92-77 was s+sde to determine the effect of increasing the quantity of atems fed through the stem washer from 15 to 20 pounds per 100 pounds of basic blend. When this test product was cospared with regular No. 90 G-7X, 16 smokers chose Test No. 92-77 G-7X, and 6 smokers chose No. 90 C-7X. When the test product was compared with re4ppular No: 92 C-7X, 7 smokers chose No. 92-77 G-7X, 8 smokers chose regular No. 92 C-7X, and 2 smokers reported no difference. It was recoswended to and approved by the Manufacturing Departwent that the Tobacco Processing Division Increase the quantity of stems fed through the stem washer from 15 to 20 pounds per 100 pounds of basic blend. It was estimated that there would result a savings of approximately 310,000 pounds of tobacco leaf scrap per year. g._ Test No. 202_10 C-7X A special blend of tobacco raw materials was worked out on the basis of using only so-called "free scrap" in the manufacture of G-7X and the manufacture of a quantity of G-7X sufficient to maintain the same stem content in our cigarette blends but with reduced G-7X con- tent. The present G-7X basic blend contains approximately 37 percent leaf scrap, while the special blend would contain approximately 27 per- cent leaf scrap. The test product was made at No. 202 (Test No. 202- 10) and evaluated in the following manner. For coeparison with regular G-7X, a blend was made containing 87 percent of 202-10 G-7X, 8 percent CF strips and 5 percent KF strips. The strips were cut and
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27 made into cigarettes by the reXular ostbod. Theoretically, the special cigarettes contain the sass atam coatont as regular G-7X ci`arsttss. In a sooksrs• test, 14 ss~okers chose the special 202-10 blend and 6 sniokers chose No. 90 G-7X. In aaotler tost, a 100Q-prao satple of the 202-10 G-7X was sprayed using the oxtract trs. 15 posrvds of t3-9 dwt bload per 100 pouads ot ' basic blend required !w the swotaoturs of the 0-7X. At tAis rats ot usada, G-9 could be used on G-7X snowtaotus.M at both Nos. 90 awd !t Processing. in a arslairs' t.st, 14 tmoLera ohoss the 20Q•10 0-fX with 0-9 added and 6 asb.rs olwse No. 90 a-7X. In ordor to e" alwte the No. 20Q•10 a-7X In the NINi?O!t blad, a special blsad was sds up using 17 percent 20Q•10 0.7X, plus 2 psr- cent C7 strips, plus 1 percent !cF strips to replace 20 percent rofular G-7X In the W171=M blend. Tlrst .isanttas hsw bam srde and ara nwv betsg evaluated. • Ii. 0-7 Msg~ss`IN s a._ Rototos.~s Iastail~tie£ In aa .ftort to ispsWs sbsat torrtloa, product quality and yield, a XotofonMr was lnstalled !n Mo. 4 srstiias at No. 90 psrosasias. The bototesoar, whioh is .rwtaotur" by tlr taaiy Mill Ina aad Xsass Works, srplaess the sapwlar oyliaditr .oia. After tht+r days of testing and adjwWwts, the ssdkint was plaood lato regular prsduotiow. It aas syad i ly .pparswt that the Aotofot+.ar .abm a.ab more tini tosi. sheet than the osawwtioasl cylinder said. Zbis tnies it possible to spread the tobacco extract ea the sbost snrs un!los+sly and this should result In a better smoking product. Tests 6ars bosa plaened to dttor.ioe the affect on felt li[o, product yi.ld, quslitr, etc. b. Water OsatieY &Stp tor ftit tlawrs at lb :90 and No: 12 - ~ tsgs.rsl,,,,~ a U order to maintain cleaner felta on the wt srehiass, it was decided to work oot ssos srath.d tor Matlnf slsyws water. 'lUis would be useful espocially durieg wintor oottbs Mban water !s relatively much colder. A study rsa srd& to d•t.toiws it it would be possiblo to bsat water for the felt sbowtrs by pu"ia6 city water through the pulp coolera, th.w throv@ls the vac+wm pusps aad tb;.n through the cooling tower. lart or all of the dryer ox'hawt could be conducted through the cooling tower for adding tbe necessary quantity of beat to the shover water. Tests were sdo with a sarubbie= tower baving a arsss- sectionsl area of 6 x` inches and 66 inahss high to determine how wuch h.at could be recovered from the dryer rxhaust at #b. 90 Processing. Water was sprayod into the tower for direct contact with the hot exh.wt air. Rosults showd that water could be heated to 1200 T. by this
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28 method. Calculations showed that 9 million atu par hour could be recovered from the dryer exhaust at No. 90 which will be sufficient for hsatin,S ths felt shower water. This work will be continued. c._ Matarial Salanos StadiCs A material balance study sMs at No. 92 showed that a larp amount of solid sttarial was bsiw,R rs.orid from the .iwd extract by the vibatiap scrsm in the ti-9 bltnri and sWbMqwatlp iMt bscame all of it could swt be hsndlod in the 0-9 spstsrr. This loss s.ouatN to ayrosi.rt.ly 16,000 pounds of tolaaos urteurials per wesk. ia the old screening psooa1UTa, Via6d extract lrsm the alcohol recovery oait was scrssewd by the folaetre soam saW the retained solids returned half to 0-7 extractor sni hslt aisoraorpl to the sewer. In the new procedure, .ixN extract is aorawirt by a 30-iach Swoo scrsa and the solids ted back iwto the G-9 aysts.. This change resulted ia the r.oovarlr of apps+sniaat+slp`13,000 pouWs of tobsooo .aterials per wsk or 650,000 poonds per year. Aiso, as the r.sult of materials balance studies at No. 92 procsssiws, it ws found that by screening the G-9 dust fed on a 30- s+eah scrssn instaad of a Z3-.esh sarwm the operating efficiency was i.prov.d. The centrifuges wrs more efficient in the extraction process aeW there ws less fiber loss !a the swidws discbarMd troo the systea. This change in scresninj resulted in the recovery of an additional s.ount ot scrap at the rate of approxiostslr 1 million pounds par year. 'Tbs 1 ni 11 ion pounds of scrap wi l i be used in the O-7 process rlrsros 80 percent of the materisi can be recovered instead of in the 0-9 process •hare 40 percent would be recovered. ?hus, a nat sarinjs equivalent to 400,000 pounds ptr year of loaf material has rssoltedt d._ Alcoh_ol ttacowry UCit at_!b. 92 lroosssieyS - - - -- - The alcohol rscosrp unit at ib. 92 Processing bss bsen in operation for sewral years with the oolrn bsin6 used as a aorral oolti.n with the feod entering on the sixth plate and riliwc on the top plata. Since the feed is oospossd of a.ixturi of three diffesw+t pctraats hsvinS different alcohol contents, it ws decided to disooatiiws the uN of rafiux and fesd the strong G-9 alcohol extract on to the top plate .ore or less like reflux. The C•9 water extract (intermediate in alcohol content) uas than fed to tha sixth plate and the O-7 extract (lowest in alcohol content) to the fifth plate. Tha following isprovsmenta in the opsration were obtained as a result of the changes.
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29 1. The steam requireosnt was reduced by approxi- mately $2000.00 psr yrar. 2. The pressure drop through the coluaan was re- duced, thus allowing a lower bottoas temperatuare to be maintained. 3. Bottous alcohol content was reduced with a resulting savings in alcohol of approxi•ately $5000.00 per ysar. o._ Alcohol "Qowr,r aait for tro_ 20 Procua_iv% Ths pr.li.insry design for an alcohol recovery unit at No. 90 Processing ws cosipleted. lla+o slwts wortit prapasrd. Spscifications for all ita.s of .quipmswt were written and qustatioas on oquipsisnt will be obtaiusd as soon as possible. III. G-7X Blend Chaegsa 0 a._ Ths Use of CC-i and rii_Z Tobocos-Str~s It ws decided to discontiaw the .onufacturs of CASl3 VALUE c!ew- ing tobacco. Sincs thars rssinsd approximately 200,000 ponnds of rit-7 strips and approximately 55,000 pouerds of CC-1 strips, it was decided to make tests to determine if these tob.ccos could be used in the manufacture of G-7X. Clrssical analyses and a.okieg tests indicated that the quality of both tobacco saaples was good. It ws s~soo.sndad and approwd on January 9, 1939, that the Tobacoo Processing Division be authorised to use 2 percent of either CC-1 or.1tW-2 strips, or a blend thereof, to replace I percent of fiw-cwndd scrap in the G-7X basic blad. b. Ci~aretto tcarao and W.T. Stes W4kW On March 23, 1959, it ws rsoo.rndad and apprawed that tbe ci8,a- ratte scrap contained in the G•7X basic blend be inarsas.d from 12 to 14 percent, the W.T. star be increased from 5 to 6 parosat, flus-cured scrap reduced from 18 to 16 percent, and regular burlay stwws be re- duced fro. 10 to 9 percent. Thsas chan,f as v.rs made to bring usa8t of cigarette scrap and W.To st.s wors in line with ;ha production rate of each material. c. t1" of Tobacoo Dust Stovjd at Plant No_ Z0_0 In order to use tobacco dust stored at Plant No. 2009 the G-9 dust blend was chanyad as follows on May 7, 19S9s cigarette dust - 36 to 10 percent, No. 11 dust - 8.4 to 25 percent, and mixed dust - 40 to 35 percent. d._ Usa~e of SALtM/ Cift"IttA_Dust On May 7, 1959, it was rscown~dsd and approved that SALEM cip- rette dust be used in the sanufactusa of G-9 extract in suah ratio that the weight of the SAt.BM dust erot oxcasd 4 percent of the sun total weight of all types of dusts used in the manufacture of C-9 extract.
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30 This recosimendation was necessitated by the increased production rate of c:~j FM. cigarettes. e._ Uaage of Plug Burle~y_Stems and Cigerette_Scrap On September 16, 1959, it was recomnsnded and approved that the usage of plug burley stems in the G-7X basic blend be decreased from 9 to 8 percent, K-stems increased froaa 9 to 10 percent, cigarette scrap increased froaa 14 to 16 percent, and flue-cured scrap decreased from 16 to 14 percent. This change was recoaaosnded in order to bring the usage of plug burley stems in line with current production rates and also to permit the use of old cigarette scrap froan leaf storage. f._ Usae_ of Cip,rstte Dust and No_ 11 Dust On September 22, 1959, It was recoa~eended that the G-9 dust blend be changed as folloast cigarette dust - 10 to 13 percent, No. 11 dust - 25 to 35 percent, S-dust - 30 to 17 percent, and mixed dust - 35 to 35 percent. This recos.nendation was wadis to bring the twSe of cigarette dust more in line with its production rate and the inventory of No. 11 dust sore in line with that of S-dust. of SAt.EK Cigarette Dwt g._ Usae On September 22, 1959, it was recowsasded that the usage of SALEN cigarette dust in the G-9 dust blend be increased from 4 to 6 percent of the weight of the total dust blend. This change was necessitated by the Increased production rate of SALBN cigarettes. h._ Usage of BurleLr and Flue-Currd Scrova On Novamber 10, 1959, it was recommanded that the usage of burley scrap in the basic G-7X blend be increased from S to 7 percent and flue-cured scrap be decreased from 14 to 12 percent. The purpose of these changes was to keep production and inventories of scraps in balance during the period that one G-7 unit was not operating. i._ ChaWe in Blend at No. 92 PY+ocessing Test No. 92-77 was srsde to determine the effect of Increasing the quantity of stems fed through the stem washer fros~ 15 to 20 pounds per 100 pounds of basic blend. When this test product was ot"red with regular No. 90 C-7X, 16 smokers chose Test No. 92-77 C-7X, and 6 smokers chose No. 90 G-7X. When the test product was co.pared with regular No. 92 C-7X, 7 smokers chose No. 92-77 C-7X, 8 smokers chose regular No. 92 C-7X, and 2 smokers reported no difference. It was recommended to and approved by the Manufacturing Department that the Tobacco Processing Division Increase the quantity of stems fed through the stem washer from 15 to 20 pounds per 100 pounds of basic blend. It was estimated that there would result a savings of approximately 310,000 pounds of tobacco leaf scrap per year.
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31 'j.- Usage of`Plu$ 3urley_Ftems On December 21, 1959, it was recotunended that the usage of plug burley stems In the G-7X basic blend be decreased from 8 to 5 percent and burley stems be increased from 10 to 13 percent. This change was necessitated by depletion of our stock of plug burley stems and the operation of four production units. IV. NeW G-7X Production Unit Chemical Engineering Division personnel cooperated with members of the Engineering and Manufacturing Departments in details of process design, equipment installation, and start-up of the new G-7 production unit at No. 90 Processing. This unit was placed into production during August. D. CIGARETTE PILOT PLAM I. Tobacco Processing • During 1959, the following work was done in the tobacco processing Pilot Plant for the groups as shown. a._ Bioches+ical Research Divislon Two lots of strips were cut, one lot of burley strips dried, one lot of strips dried and reordered, and two lots of strips processed for cigarette making. b._ Chemical Research Division TWo lots of strips were cut. c.._ Flavoring Croup Thirty-one lots of strips were processed for cigarette making. d._ Chemical Engineering Division Four lots of C-TX, one lot of G-5, two lots of G-10 filter plug material, and 25 lots of strips were processed for cigarette making. II. "Baby" Hauni Cigarette Making Machine - During 1959, 470 lots of cigarettes were made for the Agricultural Research Division, 62 lots for the Biochemical Research Division, three lots for the Chemical Research Division, 100 lots for the Flavoring Group, and 108 lots for the Chemical Engineering Division. III. KF2 Tipping Machine During 1959, ten lots of cigarettes were tipped for the Biochemical Research Division, 33 lots for the Flavoring Oroup, and 60 lots for the Chemical Engineering Division.
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32 E. . NICnTINF. REDL'C7IOt: Ih 'I oBACCO PkoaUC i S During 1958, an extensive study of the reduction in nicotine content of our tobacco products was begun. Particular emphasis was given to the denicotinisation of burley strips by (1) extraction by water with and without ion exchange resaval of nicotine from the water extract, (2) simple heat treatasnt, and (3) treatment with chemicals such as propylene oxide. The results of this work indicated that the best method developed at that time was extraction by water with ion exchange removal of nicotine from the water extract. During 1959, denicotinisation of burley strips by water extraction with ion exchange removal of nicotine was extensively studied on a larger scale than had been possible in 1958. Also, nicotine removal by (1) treatment with hydrogen peroxide and (2) treatment with aiawonia and ateao were exten- sively studied. "the results of this work are discussed in the following. I. Reduction of Nicotine Content in Cig,arette Tobaccos by Water Extraction with Ion Exchan,ee Nicotine Removal a._ Burlly_Strlpt Tests were made to evaluate the removal of nicotine from burley strips by (1) water extraction of the strips with discarding of the extract; and (2) water extraction of the strips by ion exchange nico- tine removal from the extract and reincorporation of the denicotiniced extract to the extracted burley strips. A large sa.ple of KF strips was divided into three lots and processed as follows. t.ot No. 1 was held for use in a control WINSTON blend. Lot No. 2 was deniootinised by soaking the strips in five parts of water for each part of strips for two hours, pressing out the extract, and drying the strips. Lot No. 3 was deniootinised by soaking the strips in nicotine-free extract and reooving the nicotine from the extract by passing through an ion exchange bed. This wsthod has the advantage over simple water extraction in that there is no appreciable material loss except that of nicotine. Each of the above lots of burley strips was used in making a WINSTON blend, the blends made into cigarettes and the cigarettes tested for nicotine in the tobacco and ss+oke and also as to smiokers• pre fer+ence . The Lot No. 1 WINSTON cigarettes were msde from control burley strips vhich contained 3.44 percent nicotine. The finished blend con- tained 1.92 percent nicotine and the cigarette smoke contained 1.47 mg. per cigarette.
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33 The Lot No. 2 cigarettes were prepared using the burley strips in which nicotine had been reduced to 1.60 percent by water extraction. The finished blend contained 1.65 peresnt nicotine and the cigarette saoke 1.35 mg. per cigarette. The Lot No. 3 cisarettu were wsds using the burley strips in which the nicotine had besa s+sdwcsd to 1.18 percent by waterextraction plus ion oxcbaup. The fiaished blend oontaiasd 1.40 percent nicotine and the cigarette swsks 1.19 ag. per cigarette. In a smbsars' test ossparissa of the Lot No. 1(Control) cigarettes and Lot 14s. 3(wter extraction plus lon sacahsnps) WIieSTON ei8srsttes, 12 aooksrs olqas the Lot No. 3 ciprsttes, il smkers class the Lot No. 1 ciprettos, and 2 ssoksrs fousri no differseiae. In a swoiosrs' test cospasison of the lot No. 2(wtor extraction) clSarettes with the iat No. 3(rster oxtssctiow plus ioa smh~s) ciswettos, 13 ssbksrs ebnse the Let No. trcie"ettss and 11 aosksrs chose the Lot No. 3 cigarettes. b. nw_Aund Etri Osing a procedure siwilar to that described above for burley strips, nicotine we Nesoro~sd from fiw-cmnd stripa by extraction With dsaico- tiwisM flus-cusea tobecoo oxtract which had been treated with ion excbwys resin. The niootias content of the tobsooo was reduced from 1.92 to 0.89 percent and that of the cigarettes from 3.42 to 1.12 a&. per cigarette. Tlisrs was as •ffoot on total solids in sosks. In a ssolosrs' test, 16 sWslOan preferred the control flue-cured cisarsttos and 3 sroiosrs psrlosrsd t4s*dsnicctieised cigas+sttes. Work on the denicotinisation of the cigarette tobacoos by water extnac- tion and ion sxd=W niootine sesoval from the extract was discontinued because of the dovelopusnt of the simplar and more satisfactory wsthod which consisted in treating tobacco with as•onia and stoan. He Niootins tESducti In 1 Sts a ids ~tsent Earples of 9-4 end lcF strips were treated with lpdrs8sa peroxide in order to reduce the nicotine content of the stripa., The nicotine content of t-4 strips was reduced 46.7 percent by trssting the strips with 10 pous-ds of 35 percent 6yisn8sn pes+oxids aad 100 pounds of water per 100 pounda of strips, allowing the strips to stsnd owswisht, aad hoat treating 30 oiewtes at 27510 F. The nicotine content of ssnLir of cigarettes wAds from the treated strips was 42.5 percent loss than that of the inolas of control K•4 cigarettes. The nicotine content of [t strips we reduced 16.1 percent by similar ts+sstsent, using S povads of 35 percent hydroSen paraxids per 100 pounts of strips, and the nicotine content of the asoke of cigarettes pre- parsd from the treated strips was 33.4 percent -loss than that of control 1U' cigarettes.
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34 The study of this method for nicotine reduction in burley strips was also discontinued because of ths development of the steam plus aomonia method. III. Nicotine Removal fro. Cigarstte Tobaccos by Trsatwent with .._ ~ ... .~ ..~ AMmenia aW Staam a._ Nicotine Sauml_ts+ow awrl*y Strivs ky _Tnataftt vitb Am.onia and stos. 1. LAS01tA'1'OitY ti0Rx A method was developed in the laboratory fou swV+rin= nico- tina from burley strips by traatsNe+t of the strips with a oixture of 01000016 astid atoa. and tban with st.am only for sOMonrit+S the excess a..onia. Initial tests showed that by wisg time perioda varying frar 32 to 90 sdrA&tos, from 47 td 81 percent of the nico- tine could be rs.awd. Stoao raquis+smsnts Nrs frsp. t to 3 pounds per pound of strips snd ammoaia requits.aats wt+a from 0.72 to 1.51 pounds per pound of nicotine sr.ow~sd. It ws found that by kespins the moisture content of the atrips rslativwiy low during the treatment tbsrs was little darkening of the strips or deterioration of flavwr. ' 2. Z7ClERIMbN'!: IN THE tR0CT0R 6 SCMAAY'Z TSAY DRYL1l In order to determine the best conditions for s+eduucieg the nicotine content of burley strips using equipsssat to imulate that Msich was available in the plant, a sarios of test runs were asds in the lsoctor b Scbwwrts tray drlrsr. Using 3-potied batches of tobacco, it was found that sp to 75 percent of the aicotii+t could be removed wheR the strips wana treated for 30 stiewtss with amwonia and st.am and tbsn for an additional 30 minutes with ateam only. Using tbsas bwtlop strips abicb bad besek reduced in nicotine content frow 3.57 to 0.89 porcsnt, a special W=NSTOtt blend was prepared for cbs.ical and si.olrsrs• tests. Fir oosparisen, a control WINSTON blerd was also prepared. Micotie+rs 'coestants of the control and special WI!lSTON blends wrs 1.78 and 1.39 percent, respectively. The oootrrl ciSsvettes contained 1.35 .4j. of Aiootins in the ssaks as Qe+opared to 1.05 .e* of nicotine for the special wINSTONS. Thus, the raroval of 75 percent of the nicotine from burley strips resulted in a reduction of 22 percent nicotine in the wItiSTON tobacco and 22 percent nicotine in the WINSTON cigarette s.oks. A repeat test was made to confirm the above results. Nicotine in the strips was reduced fro. 3.18 to 0.64 psrqnt, in the WINSTON blend from 1.90 to 1.34 perca.t, and in the swks of the cigarettes
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35 from 1.28 to 0.84 m,8. per cigarette. Thus, the rewval of 80 percent of the nicotine from burley strips resulted in a reduction of 29.5 percent of the nicotine in the WINSTON blend and 34.3 percent in the cigarette saoke. Two ssobrs' tasts were wsde to eaosipars tbs special and control WINS'h01f cigarettes. In the first tst, 8 smokers chose the special WDNSTONB, 9 sscksrs chose the contxol WINSTOtzS, and 3 ssnksrs :+sported syo difference. In the secand t.st, 12 sss,ksrs chasa the special WINSTONS, 6 s.biosrs choss the WiNS'rOti oontrols, and one s.plosr reported no di f ference. A S-pouewt sampl• of K-4 burley strips vas dsniootinised by the abovs proo.lurs and the treated strips nads into a CNMIEL blend. Nicotine ws rsduc.d in the K-4 strips fna. 3.37 to 0.94 percent, in the fiwishsd CAMEL OlaNt- froa 2.1! to 1.43 percent, and in the s.ebs fros 2.12 to 1.40 sg. per cigarette. In a ssoksra' tost coapariaf the special and control CAMEL cis.rettes, 14 s.olars chose the special CJIMBLS and 5 siwlosrs chose the control CM16LS. 3. TESTS USING TilB PKOCTOR 6 SCHWAxTZ DftYBR AT NO. 64 CIGAKZTTE TACDORY In order to further dewlop the sm.onia•st.as s~sthod for dsnicotinisation of btiariey strips, it was decided to siaks tests using the ls+octor 6 SaMrarts dryer at No. 64 Ciaarstt. Factory. The dryer was modified by installing s pipe for the introduction of live stem. in the fifth drying ssction, awsonia gas was piped to the third drying section and high pressure stom was piped to the ordering ssction. The apron dryer was sodifisd so that various tirs of travel throwyh the drytr could be obtained. While teats wsrs being s+sds, only the exlsswt fan in the front of the dryer wess wsd, although sowt stoaw vented its.lf out of the ordering section with the exhaust far off. i. Osniootinisation of K-4 avwrihr Strips and the Effect on CAMEL Cigarette Propsrties Seven test lots of 1c-4 strips were run in order to dstem.ins optiwNSi procedures for treatment. In a typical tast, using a 4000•pound per laur tobacco feed rate with a total treating tisr of 40 uinutes, nicotine content was reduced from 3.34 to 1.48 percent in the strips: Tobacco pH was reduced from 5.98 to 5.67 and somicnia content was increased from 0.22 to 0.47 percent. Approximately 0.0265 pounds of a..onia .nd 5.0 pounds of atssw vers used per pou.rd of tobaooo treated.
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36 Using the denicotinized K-4 strips, two test CAMF1. blends were made along with a control blend. Test No. 1180-A was prepared using denicotinised K-4 to replace all of the regular K-4 in the blend. Test No. 1180-B was prepared using one-half denicotinised K-4 and one-half regular K-4 in the blend. Test No. 1180-C was prepared as a control. Results of evaluation of these cigarettes were the following. TABLE XIII EFFECT OF DENICOTINIZED K-4 STRIPS ON CAMEL CIGARETTE PROPERTIF.:' _.._ ~ _... Test No. 1180-A (All K-4 denicotinised) Test No. • 1180-B (Half K-4 denicotinised) Test No. 1180-C Control 1. Cigarette Lrning Rate, mgs./min. 47.3 47.2 45.1 2. Ash Appearance No Difference 3. Tobacco Analyseso a. Nicotine, x 1.70 1.91 2.23 b. Total Sugar, x 12.14 12.39 11.98 4. Cigarette Smoke Anslysess a. Nicotine, slgs./cigt. 1.58 1.68 2.04 b. Total Solids, s4p./cigt. 28.1 28.2 28.2 In a smokers' test coeparin= the Test Nos. 1180-A ciga- rettes (tASde using denicotinisad burley) and 1180-C (control CMMS), 19 smokers chose the control cigarettes and 15 smokers chose the 1180-A cigarettes. In a sawkers• test co.paring the Test No. 1180-B ciga- rettes (half treated and half regular buyley) with CJIMET. controls, 18 smokers chose the control cigarettes, 12 sonokers chose the 1180-B cigarettes, and 6 smokers reported no difference. Two large panel smokers' tests were made to compare the Test No. 1180-B cigarettes with CAMEL controls. In the first test, 57 smokers chose the special CAMELS, 37 smokers chose CAWEIL controls, 14 smokers reported no difference, and 5 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. In the
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37 second test, 49 amokers chose G1MF.!. controls, 40 sawkers chose the special CAME'.`, 14 nnokers reported no difference, and 5 smokers reported that they liked neither cigarette. Of 101 smokers who participated in both tests, 63 (61.4 per- cent) switched from a choice of one cigarette to the other or to no difference or neither, or vice versa. ii. Nicotine Reduction in Saaples of 1954 Crop of Burley Strips At the request of 14r. S. B. Hanes, Jr., considerable work has been dons in nicotine raaoval from sawples of the 1954 crop of burley tobacco strips. The results of laboratory and plant tests were discussed in detail in KRR-E, 1959, No. 11. CAMEL Test No. 1188 and SALF11 Test No. 1189 were made to evaluate the 1954 crop of burley strips using both the denicotinized and untreated strips. The results of these tests are discussed in the following. CAMEL Teat No. 1188 CAKE1 Test No. 1188-A was arade using a burley blend coaposed of 80 percent regular K-4 strips and 20 percent "fully treated" 1954 crop burley strips. Test No. 1188-B was sisde using a burley blend coaposed of 80 percent regular IC-4 burley strips and 20 percent "partially treated" 1954 crop burley strips. Test No. 1188-C was made as a control. The "fully treated" 1954 crop of burley strips was co.posed of 36 percent a3F in which the nicotine content bad bsn reduced from 4.95 to 1.93 percent and 64 percent C4F in which the nicotine content had been reduced from 4.03 to 1.67 percent. The "partially treated" 1954 crop of burley strips was com- posed of 36 percent a3F in which the nicotine content had been reduced from 5.19 to 2.43 percent and 64 percent C4F in which the nicotine content had besn reduced from 3.89 to 2.26 percent. Results of this test were the following. The Test No. 1188-A cigarettes contained 2.03 per- osnt nicotine in the tobacco and 2.42 mg. per cigarette in the saqke. The Teat No. 1188-B cigarettes contained 2.00 percent nicotine in the tobacco and 2.30 mg. per cigarette in the sawks. The Tsst No. 1188-C cigarettes contained 1.98 percent nicotine in the tobacco and 2.20 mg. per cigarette in the swke.
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38 In a large panel smokers' test which was ariade to coupare the Test No. 1188-A CAMI:' S and CkFtEI. controls, 47 smokers chose the CAMEt controls, 44 smokers chose the special CAMELS, 16 smokers reported no difference, and one smoker reported that he liked neither cigarette. SA 1, EM Te s t Ato. 1189 SALEM Test Ivo. 1189-A was Msde using a blend of burley strips composed of 80 percent KM and 20 percent untreated 1954 crop burley strips (36 percent B3F and 64 percent C4F) and in which 2 percent of the burley blend had been replaced by 2 percent G-7X. ?est No. 1189-B was made using a burley blend composed of 80 percent regular KN strips and 20 percent "fully treated" 1954 crop burley strips. The "fully treated„ 1954 crop burley strips were composed of 96 percent 83F in which the nicotine content had bien reduced from 4.95 to 1.93 percent and 64 percent C4F in which the nicotine content had been reduced from 4.03 to 1.67 percent. Results of tests were the following. The Teat No. 1189-A cigarettes contained 1.98 per- cent nicotine in the tobacco and 1.39 sig. per cigarette in the smoke. The Test No. 1189-B cigarettes oontained 1.92 percent nicotine in the tobacco and 1.26 s&. per cigarette in the snwke. One large panel smokers' test has been made to compare the 1189-A and 1189-B cigarettes. Results of the ssnkers• test showd that 49 saokera chose the -1189-B cigarettes, 39 smoksra chose the 1189-A cigarettes, 23 smokers reported no difference, and one smoker re- ported that he liked neither cigarette. b._ Nicotine_ftemoval froa~ - Flue-Cured_Strips by Treatment-with ~ Aemionia and Steam Tests were sade to determine if nicotine could be reoaved from flue-cured strips by saQwnia and steam treatment without deleterious effect on the tobacco. It was found that temperature of treatment must be kept below 160• F. during the treatment in order to avoid darkening and other harmful effects to the tobacco. As a result of the neceas:ty of operating at lower teaperatures (than in the case of burley strips) and also the lower pH of flue-cured tobacco, a longer period of treating time was required for flue-cured strips. Tests were made in the Proctor b Schwartz tray dryer using a temperature of 160• F. with varying amounts of astnonia and periods of treatment to determine the effect on 5-pound batches of Cf strips. The results showed that nicotine was reduced 50 percent by a 30-minute treatment and 67 percent by a 60-minute treatment. Both treatments
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39 raised the pH of the tobacco from 5.2 to approximately 6.2. Armnia content was increased from zero to approximately 0.45 percent. In a smokers' test comparing cigarettes prepared from the treated strips (67 percent removal) with control cigarettes, 10 snokers chose the special cigarettes, 7 smokers chose the controls, and two smokers reported no difference. Tests were also made to determine the optimum treatsent for "green" flue-cured tobacco. It was found that at a teaQerature of 160• F., 60 minutes were required for reducing the nicotine content from 2.55 to 0.81 percent (68 percent removal). Work on removing nicotine from burley and flut-cured strips by treat- ment with aawwnia and steam will be continued. F. PREPARATION OF A CIGARETTE WRAPPER USIPIG TOBACCO STFMS AND SCRAP Tests were made to determine if a tobacco-like cigarette wrapper could bs made from tobacco stesus and scrap with and without the use of added paper pulp. Products were made in our Pilot Plant and also by the Peter J. Schweitzer Company and the Dexter Paper Company. These products are discussed below. I. Products Made in the RJR Pilot Plant Three types of products were made in our Pilot Plant. These are discussed below. A tobacco sheet was made from regular G-7 pulp and extract. This product had a tensile strength of 4.4 pounds per inch but was too brittle to be run satisfactorily on the cigarette making machine. A sheet was made using 50 percent regular C-7 pulp and 50 percent No. 7768 Cellate pulp. This sheet had a tensile strength of 12.7 pounds per inch and could be run on the "Baby" Haunt cigarette making machine with no breakage. Cigarette wrappers were prepared from flue-cured stems using two different methods of treatment in preparing the pulp as described below. Rolled flue-cured stems were extracted with a 10 percent isopropanol- water solution, refined, made into a sheet and the extract sprayed back on the sheet. This sheet had a tensile strength of 5.3 pounds per inch in the machine direction. The finished sheet weight was 4 graa per square foot. This product could be run satisfactorily on the "Baby" Haunt cigarette making machine in making cigarettes.
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40 1. second method used in making a cigarette wrapper from flue-cured stems was as follows: rolled CF stems were extracted with water and then with a dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The extracted fibrous material was thoroughly washed, refined into a pulp, made into a sheet on the Midget Fourdrinier paper making machine and sprayed with alcoholic G-9 extract, using an asbunt sufficient for coloring the wrapper. This sheet weighed 3.5 grams per square foot and had a tensile strength of 5.5 pounds per inch in the machine direction. This wrapper could be run with no trouble on the "Baby" Hauni cigarette making machine. II. Schweitzer Cinerette Wrapper At the request of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, a cigarette wrapper was made from a blend coaposed of 60 percent flue-cured stems and 40 percent flue-cured scrap by the Peter J. Schweitzer Company. Examination of the wrapper indicated that 30-45 percent of the fibrous material was non-tobacco fibrous. In performance tests on this special trrapper on the regular cigarette making machine, the wrapper did not guide properly and could not be sealed at full machine speed. However, it is believed that these difficulties could be overcbes by the addition of more guide rollers and changes in the cigarette paste. The tensile strength (4.85 pounds) in the wrapper was sufficient to avoid breakage. III. Dexter Cigarette Wrapper As the result of conferences between personnel of C. H. Dexter and Sons. Inc., and R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, sample bobbins of cigarette wrapper were prepared from flue-cured stems and scrap by the Dexter Company. On February 11, 1959, 1500 pounds of a blend of ST-1 and ST-2 steass (in the ratio of two pounds of ST-2 stess to one pound of ST-1) and 800 pounds of 20X scrap were shipped to C. H. Dexter and Sons, Inc., Windsor Locks, Connecticut. On April 8, 1959, three samples of cigarette wrapper were received from C. H. Dexter and Sons, Inc. Sample No. 447-34 was prepared fraa a mixture of 60 percent stems and 40 percent scrap, sample No. 447-35 was prepared from stems without the use of scrap and saeple No. 447-36 was prepared from stems without the use of scrap but with aaded filler. A small percentage of hesp fibers was used in all the products (7-10 percent). Approximately 2 percent titanium dioxide was added as filler to sample No. 447-36. Results of tests on these products are shown as follows. For comparison, the results of tests on the cigarette wrapper prepared by Peter J. Schweitzer Division of the Kiaiberly-Clark Corporation from flue-cured stems and scrap submitted by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company are also included.
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41 T..BI,g XIV PROPF.R; IES OF DBXTEF. HND SCMr78ITZER CIGaRBTTE 1+11tAPP6RS ._.. ..._,. ~`~•.... ~.-...-.... .r..._~..-.- Dextar le#Ioa. Schweitzer 447• (60% Stems- 40X ScrR) 447-35 ( S tems • (Stems F i 11 e Cigt. Wrapper + (607. Stems- r 40% S crap ) 1. Thickness, mm. 0.043 0.053 0.05 8 0.132 2. Tensile Strength, lbs./29 am. width 6.0 4.7 5.0 4.85 3. Porosity, sec./ ' 100 al./sq. in. 1290 790 167 1505. 4• Width, am. 29.1 29.0 29.0 28.8 5. weight, g./sq. meter 27.2 31.6 29.7 59.2 6. Chemical M.lyses: a. Nicotine, x 0.48 0.47 0.68 0.90 b. Total suger, % 2.93 4.33 1.39 0.18 c. Total ritrogen, % 1.22 1.19 1.59 1.26 d. Potash. Z 2.67 2.33 3.40 3.53 e. Alcohol Solubles, X 16.71 20.73 18.5.5 21.04 G. HOISTURE CONTROI GROUP I. RQutins Moisture Control .. .. _.,...•. a. In cooperatioa with the Lsaf Processing Depsrtsret, moisture testing has b•an supervisad at !'actory Ilos. 11 end 66, Whitaker Park Stasasry and 1tMdryina Plart, slyd 113, mW Brook Cove 5temasry. Produation control data used for fi"ring Stssensry yields and process control have been reported during the year. Also, moisture oven calibration checks have been made for the Itxington, Kentucky, Stespary. b. The calibrations of plant moisture meters and ovMs have been checked daily and corrective action taken when necessary. II. S.pecial Moisture Testing a.__ Ci$arette Division Tests 1. Films for cigarette package overwrap have been tested. Moisture and aromatic barrier properties were determined and compared with cellophane. The high density poly- ethylene and the polypropylene were equal to cellophane
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42 as a moisture barrier but inferior as a barrier for uromatics. This work will be continued in 1960. 1 heater to handle polyethylene has been developed for the Scandia cellophane wrapping machine. As soon as this equipment is installed, sstall scale production tests for mechanical operation and moisture loss will be conducted. Results were as followss TABLE XV VAPOR TRANSMISSiON RATES OF VARIOUS F1LMS Film Typei ThiC1crres• . Vapor Transmission Rates* Water AroMStics Union Carbide - VCA22 8N (polyethylene __._....,_..._... with light aaran coat) .0010 0.212(8)** 0.638(8) Union Carbide - VCA2298 (aaran coated polyethylene) .0015 0.153(8) 0.565(8) Union Carbide - VCAZ29H (heavy saran coat) .0015 0.145(8) 0.361(8) Enjay Co. (polypropylene) .0010 0.171(10) 1.017(10) Eastman Chem. Products (polypropylene) .0010 0.200(3) 1.740(3) du Pont Cellophane .0010 0.202(10) 0.005(10) *Grams water (or aromstica lost/100 sq. in./24 hrs.). **Number of tests. The various suppliers were given our test procedure for determining vapor transmission rates. It was suggested that oil of le.ac>n, which has about the same aromatic transmission rate as our flavoring oils, be used for this type of test. 2. Subssrsion tests coapsrin,g Central States Paper and Bag Company asphalt water-proof bap with regular Submerso- Pak bags indicated that theae asphalt bags were un- satisfactory. No tobacco damage was evident in the case of the Sulsssrso-Pak bags.
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43 3. N,icromax controls for .`.dt dryers at factory No. 4 for SALEM cut tobacco and at No. 97 for I.egg cut tobacco have been calibrated. Also, longer plates were installed in all of thb slow conveyors feeding the Adt dryers. This change made it possible to indicate the moisture content of a larger sample of cut tobacco and average out rapid fluctuations. Greater use of automatic control resulted. 4. Schluaiberger Well Surveying Corp. representative, Mr. Jim Cotton, discussed some of the results of recent tests using their Nuclear Magnetic Resonance I`nalyzer for moisture testing. The tobacco sawple size has been increased so that now 10 to 20 trams of tobacco can be tested. A copy of the test results, .rhen completed, will be submitted to us. 0 5. Tests were conducted to determine if the C-7X moisture contsnt varied more than the other blend components. The moisture variation (standard deviation) of the G-7X was less than that of the burley and flue-cured tobacco components of the blend. TABLE XVI MOISTURE VARIATION OF VARIOUS STRIPS ~. ...._..~.. Brand Blend Com~+onent x moisture No. Tests Standard Deviation ` CAMEi. TBMX 16.00 206 0.44 K-4 11.45 214 0.94 C-9, C-3 17.03 224 0.75 WINSTON (fl-B) TBF 15.72 110 0.52 (#1-B) xF 10.58 103 0.81 (*1-B) CF 17.42 107 0.66 (*1-A) TBF 15.38 84 0.37 KF 11.51 90 0.66 (~i-A) CF 17.16 84 0.40 SAI EM TBt*; 16.36 121 0.63 !tM 10.35 117 0.83 CM 16.98 119 1.02 6. Some NC K-4 strips wsre processed in a steaming druca to avoid the expense of cleaning the casing drum and strip dryer. Results ieodicated that the steaming drum reduced the nicotine about as much but did not dry the strips as did the strip dryer.
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44 TABLE XVII MOISTVRE Ct;cl:, IN STRIPS Caasr and r Stsadi Dsu 4s ort Ater f~,re 3e _ tes _ Moisturt, x 16.28 10.94 16.26 17.28 Nicotine, x 3.41 3.28 3.62 3.50 7. The liauni oontinuous moisture teater, Mhick losibinss the beat principlos of the conductivity and dielectric mathods for moisture dsterminations, has been tested. The accuracy was satisfactory and.its purchase was reconwsndsd. It bas bsn rooos.serdod that this mster be tried at other locations in the psoosas aed that the possibility of adapting this srter to control in addi- tion to indicating moisture content be inwstigatsd. 8. A cooling drusr, suppliird with cool conditioned air inst.ad of rosa air, was tested to determine bew such additional oooliug of the M!t dried tobacco could be realised. The cooled cut tobacco, after steraas in saratosas, ws about 2• F. lower and s118htly wors unifori in moisture than "Regular" tobacco. Additional tssts will be conducted. b._ Tobacco Procsssins Division Tests 1. A press weter was calibrated for Nb. 90-3 Tobacco Processing Plant. A eww chart was aNde and placrd !n uae. 2. The Moisture Register Cospany•a Model GSL Moisture Mster was evaluated for use with G-S "before" and "aftor" drying at No. 64 Procsssins. Results ieklicated that the accuracy of our moisture oven arid the GSL Moisture Register usra equal. It was decided to oontinw using ths moisture owns. 3. Tbs moisture variation of G-7x from Factory Noa. 90-3 and 92-2, on all shifta, was studied. Factory No. 92-2 delivered G-7X to No. 91, on the average, sbout 0.68 percent hi8her in moisture than No. 90-3. Ths weekly averap differences betwen the tw factories varied from • 1.39 percent to • 0.12 percent. This could causs large moisture variations during subsequent blending stages at No. 91. It was rtco.reneMd that moisture limits be established for the two factories.
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45 c._ Plug Division 'tests 1. Aluminum foil overwrap, rolled by Archer Altsninun, was used on DAYS WORK plugs. Results ahowtd that this foil overwYap was slightly better than cellophane, but the mechanical operation of the foil was unsatisfactory. TABLE XVIII MQISTURE IASS AND MVT RATES OF PLUG FIU{S __..- ._..~ ..._ ....._. 30-Dslr Moisture Loss, % s .001 unsealed Aluminu+a foil 1.40 Regular cellophane (heat soalin=) 1.69 tfiiT Rates+ .0010 Foil .050 .0015 Foil .038 Cellophane, 300 MD .300 +Gms. water/100 sq. in./24. hra. 2. The moisture loss of DAYS NORX plugs (1) in the condi- tioning room, (2) before Sisiplex Press prizing, (3) after pot mills, (4) after storage in chests, and (5) after cellophane wrapping has been deteswin.d. A loss of only 0.25 percent moisture fros the conditioning room to the cellopham wrapping machine occurred. This loss was from the wrappers and some shattering of the wrappers was noticed. Soas areas of the Plug Factory had a low relative humidity and it was decided to install vapor pots in the Priss Room to help correct this condition. 3. Moisture tests have been made on Nos. 8, 13 and 36 chew- ing tobacco strips entering the sanding drus and at the scales in No. S C&D. Additional ateas coils in the sanding drum increased the strip moisture loss from 0.80 to about 3.3 percent. This isproved ths casing absorption in subsequent operations. Considerable moisture variation was found. It was recoaaeetided that the moisture program be expanided and that additional stea~ coils be added to the sanding drua to tala care of strip drying when extreasly high moisture conditions existed. A new moisture oven was built for the Plug Division.
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46 d._ Saekina Division Tests 1. PRINCE ALBERT strips were spray cased and-dried at Factory No. 1 and subsequently processed at No. 9. The "Special" P.A. had more finsa and a higher moisture content than "Regular" P.A. Other qualities were equal. e._ i.eaf trocessin,a Division Tests 1. A moisture oven was calibrated for teating cored sanQles of tobacco from Factory No. 10. 2. inaide of the drus. Moisture tests were made on. K-4 and C strips and scrap after steaming and leavirql the sanding drum at No. 60 !llendins. Both K-4 and C strips and the flue-cured scrap were satisfactory, but the buarlV scrap moisture content was too high. This required special treatment to avoid spoilage. Closer control of the stsaain8 drus operation reduced the moisture content of the burley scrap about three percent, but it vas still too high. Steps have been taken to eliminate the ateaA condensation on the III. Thirty-Da Moisture Ioss Tests Monthly chscks have been made on cellophane seals and moisture losses for all cigarette brands. Each month, du Pont, Olin, and Avisco cellophanes were compared. This information was reported to the Cigarette Division for action when necessary. ?b* se tests indicated that CAVAI.IER saisture loss was excessive and a switch to heat sealina cellophane showed an isprove.rnt. Some fluctuations in quality of packaSo sealing wrs found and corrected. Other 30-day moisture loss tests have been conducted on the followings a. CGllophane 1. Heat sealing du Pont versus Olin on DAYS WqRK lost 1.35 percent versus 1.72 percent, respectively. 2. Cigarette packages vrapped on etiew CM' versus old CM' lost 1.31 percent versus 1.19 percent, respectively. 3. du Pont K-type film for pouch tobacco box over- wrap savs sli$htly better moisture protection and did not rupture after a8in8. 4. Cellosolve application by special wicks ( Sui pa t ion 58-12 87 ) showed no iaprove.Nnt. 5. SWD stairper-vrapper-boxer versus regular CKT cellophane wrapped WINSTON 20's lost 1.60 percent versus 1.13 percent, respectively.
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47 6. Special polysthylens, foil and paper wrapped (no staop), WINSTON 20•a lost 3.91 pqrcont versus 1.55 percent for same package excspt cellophane overvrapped. b. PRINCE ALBERT watt paper c. Pouch Materisls 1. Ovtrl acqusvsd loat 1.34 percent vsrws 1.82 peuwpnt for regular. 2. 300 MSAD cellophane, foil and polyethylene pouch sttrial lost 1.50 percent. H. QUALITY CONTROL AND PLAM' TBSTINC O1OQlS . ~.~-.....-..- 0 I. Ci,prstta Making Macbins Auta.atic Ieulator .~ r ~.~.~. r ..~...~ a.- Psrfor.ancs Cbecka Spot perfor.rncae chscks haw been trds on the llol in. Mark II and AccWtay instailationt in all factories. Unsatisfactory *trfor.atroe rssults (standard deviation of 90 wis hts greater than 0.'S prw) have bea, reported to the Cigarette Division for oorr.etiw action. b._ MacuRaz Auto.atic Cootrollsrn and lroctss Malxstr Industrial Nucloonics had to build a n.a proa.pliflar for the C-4 AccuRay controller so that their "Proosss Analysor" would give suproduaible results. This isprwrd controller (C-S) was evaluated. Results of two teats shovsd that tbs Model C•S ws, at loast, equal in perforaance to that of the Model C-4. The accuracy of the "Procosa Aaalysor" ws checked by oa"rins the lustrurnt reading for the varianoo of the cigarette wsigAts with that da.% insd from the actual cigarette wights. Cigarette arplos wrs .+siStrd during thb tast period of two .wrks. Aptsonbrtaly 68 perosnt of the "Process Matyser" roNis,p wso vitblw 4-S percent of the calculated variancae. Since Mol.iaas would probably be based on the awrap of tsn variancs rsadings, w believe that the accuracy of this «Process Ar.lyser" would be adaqwto for factory use. The "Process Analyssr" would be usable in isprovod nsintaetiancs of sischinsa having a greater than average variation and in observing the effect of siachins changes vith lsas effort than is required for laboratory testing. c. A.M.6F^ Individual Cixarstte b/.ijht Controller --- - - An A.M.6F individual cigarette wig4t controllar was evaluated at Factory Noa. 1 and 97. Several desips changes w*rMt sodt during the test period to eliminate chola-ups. In the btat d.sign, the tobacco
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48 fines from the feeder hopper were pneuunetically conveyed to a small chute located just above the tobacco belt at the compression section. A dielectric scanning unit signal was used to control the feed rate of these fines onto the tobacco belt. This system wws used in con- junction with the Molins Mark II controller on the Molins Mark VI making machine. The A.M.6J'. controller slightly inproved the cigarette 90 weights and greatly reduced the spread in the individual cigarette weights. CAMEi.L cigarettes produced on specially equippsd wker were firmer than "Regular•' CAMEL cigarettes. It has bson -snded that one A.M.&F. individual weight controller be purchased so that additional, more extensive, tests can be conducted. TABLE XIX PERFORMANCE OF A.M.bF. CIGARETTE WSIGHT CONT~ ROLT..~ER Fac tory 97 1 1 ~..M.l~F. Attachment With without ..•......,... With Std. Dev. of 909s 0.7796 1.1282 1.0089 Std. Dev. of 1's 0.0357 0.0505 0.0372 Indiv. Wt., Spts. •-. 1.0248 1.0237 Draft Resistance, In. of Water 2.07 2.08 Fi rmnsss 11.72 11.31 Size, asea. circuaa. 25.4 25.4 Moistur+s, % ... 11.94 12.09 Loose Ends, % 0.252 0.231 d._ A.M.&F. Standard Deviation Mster An A.M.6F. standard deviation sntsr has been evaluated. This portable instruaASnt .rsasured the standard deviation of the individual cigarette weights by the use of a dielectric scarining unit. it is mounted on a small bracket between the Molins scanning unit and the "cut-off" on the Mark VI sakers. It cannot be used on a Molins Mark VIII maker. Several design changes wtre wde, after which good agree- ment between oeter readings and casputed standard deviations was obtained. It has been recoauended that the new design standard deviation meter be obtained for additional testing on a factory scale. e._ Molins Process Anayser The iMolins "Process Analyzer" was designed to measure the variation of the individual cisarstte weights produced on a maker equipped with the Molins Mark II M controller as suirplied with their Mark VIII makers. This instrumsnt divides the cigarette weights into five groups (oorrect, heavy, light, extra heavy, and extra light). The light and heavy valuss
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49 gire plotted on special graph paper to obtain the standard deviation of the individual cigarettes. This evaluation has not been completed. Fesults to date indicated that the Molins "Process Analyser" readings varied slightly fraen the actual calculated values, but the average of a group of readings would be satisfactory for factory use. The use of the percent of weights in the correct group (a 2 percent about the center) also is being investigated. This would eliminate the need to graph values to determine the standard deviation. So far, in the range of standard deviations of 0.0230 to 0.0300 grao, this method is aaore precise than the two-group method. For standard deviations above 0.0300 gram it is not very accurate. More testievtr+ill be required. II. Molins Mark VIII MakinR Machine The Molina Mark VIII making machines wwre installed in Factory No. 97-1. Preliatinary performance checks indicated that these mskers were not producing as high quality cigarettes as was made on the orisfnal machine. Molins sent its representative, who had been with the detwesstrator, to help adjust these makers. This ieiproved the performance. The Mark VIII askers were tauch better than our Mark VI makers, but not quite as good as the des>Dnstrator Mark VIII. Moisture loas during making was about 0.2 percent and the Mark VIII-made cigarettes were firmer than the "Resular•" CAMEL cigarettes. TABLE XX PERFORMMiCE OF MDLINS CONTROLLERS Std. Dsv. of 1's Regular Molins Mark VI .048 Mark VIII, demonstrator .024 Mark VIII, Av. for first five machines .029 Additional perfor.tance checks were made to evaluate .orechanical changes such as lovered comb bara and modified rails. No consistent isprovement was found. Then after finding that l;.C.M. No. 12 gave very good performance and No. 13 gave poor performance, our mechanics set No. 13 as near like No. 12 as possible. This substantially iaproved the performance of No. 13. Several other tests were conducted on poorly performing makers after being set up like No. 12. In every case, cigarette weight uniformity iaproved. This was true at making speeds of 1000, 1300, and 1500 cigarettes per minute. Cigarette weight uniformity was not improved by the reduction in making speed and that produced at 1500 cigarettes per minute Was satisfactory.
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50 TABLE XXI EFFECT OF MACKINE CONDITIONt 014 PERFO[iMANCE M.C.M. No. MakinB S esd Condition Std. Wrv. i's Std. Dsv. 90'a _ 12 1300 Test No. 1 0.0267 0.5764 12 1300 Test No. 2 0.0279 0.5457 13 1300 Before settins like No. 12 0.0392 1.0134 13 1300 After setting like No. 12 0.0285 0.5648 15 1300 sstore setting like Mo. 12 0.0370 0.8890 15 ~1530 After setting like No. 12 0.0303 0.66s4 23 1300 asfora setting like Mo. 12 9.0321 0.6629 23 1005 Before setting like !b. U --- 0.0361 0.7801 23 1005 After setting like No. 12 0.0294 0.7141 Ibl ins Mark VIII srk•rs, Hos. 11•19, wers set like No. 12; 40 percent recirculated tobacco and the Individual ci;arstte wai8ht standard deviation of 0.0Q88 8. was obtained. When the percent recirculated tobacco was re- duced to 25 percent, the indiridusl cigarette waisht spread wess increased (std. dsv. 0.0343). Lsas tobacco bs+sakap occurred at the 25 percent re- circulation rate. Belt life and choioa•ups ara the win prel,rlws. Psrfori.ance checks have basn sadie on Mark VIII .rchinsa with and with- out auxiliary hydraulic pressure controls. The Mark VIII .riars, equipped with the HPC (Hydraulic Pressure Control), produced arore unitorm 90 wiahta, but no difference was found In the Individual cigaretts Msig%t unifoYrity. To date, the extra expense of the !I'PC, in our opinion, has not been justified. 2AaLB XXII EFFECT OF llYDitA[JLIC tRBSS[1RE OONTROL ON MACHINE PERlORMMtCE N.C.M. Nbs. 26 snd 27 16, 21 and 22 Hydraulic Pressure Control Yes No Std. Dsv. 90'a 0.5047 0.6515 1'a 0.0285 0.0289 l.oose Ends, % 0.21 0.21 Fironaas l.66 9.22 r
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51 III. Tests on Filter-Tipped Citarettea a._ Draft Reaistance Tasts on Competitive Brands Monthiy draft resistance, fisonsss, and wsisht checks have been .ads on some of the ftlter tip brands throughout the entire year. Our bsands ware consistently fis-ar than the other braads tosted. On the avarapp, the tobacco rod density of our brands bas been higher than the co.petitiw brands. After changing to the 3.3•66,000 fiitar for WtNiTON and t,ALBM ci8arettes, the draft resistance of the 17 sw. length filter plus increased from 1.00 inch to about 1.75 inc.bes. 11s total cigarette draft resistance ieticreasod froir about 2.6 inches to 3.4 laaliss. b.- wIMSTON Cijarstte Cork ?WgLQwiit,7 Checb Routieis quality chscks rbich includsd short mechanical opMration tests have been conducted on all shipsrnts of Ecusta, iNs.rtito, Nsrtvy, and Archer Alumiewr cork tippings as received. fatistactory schaaical operation has been obtainod ia all cases. Soms variation in appearance was noted and reported for corrective action. Hsrtwy cork tipping did not match our staAdssd and !.t was suggested that this sapplisr be dropped. aValustion tests han been conducted on aaaplos of Scottish Cork sobbins, Ltd., and National Cork Ce. tippiNs. Both ran satisfactorily on the asas.bler but did not match the appearance standard. If the price was co.petitiw and additional suppliers .»rs wanted, it was sugg.atad that additional sarples be obtained for testing. These Msrs to ss~rn nsarly match our standard appearance. Archer Aluoinu. was assistad in the development of a satisfactory cork tipping. Dasa papers frow Mskoosa-Sdvards. Ralsrsss, Port lApron, National Cork Co., and 8dasitser vsrs tastad. The dohMSitsar bass paper was the only satisfactory ons and it ws appi+erwd for production. I+sitially, the Archer cork tipping laclosd contrast, was streaked, had a mottled appsaraews, and was poorly +nautid on the bobbins. Thsss faults wrs gradually corrected during the year and, at the end of 1959, the Aschsr cork tipping cosiparsd favorably with co.petitiwt tippinso c._ gualitY Cl~scks on WINSTOti Cijanttas _ _ Quality checks hsve been ssda on 80 and 85 .r+. WINSTOl1 cissrettes. Good quality cigarettes have been produced throu8hout the year. The atew content increasad markedly during the year. Some sisjor chan,ps in WINSTON cigarettes wrs aMMs during 1959. On March 12-13, 1959, the tobacco wisht of WINSTOl1 cigarettes pro- duaod at No. 1 was reduosd 1.0 percent and on March 16-17, 1959, that at No. 64 was reduced 1/2 perc.qt. Thsn on Septo.bss 9, 1939, weight reductions of 0.6 percent and 1.0 percent for Nbs. 1 and di, rsspoe• tivsly, wre approved. These changes atre oade at No. 1 on Esptest+sr
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52 17 and 18, 1959, and at No. 64 on September 15 and 16, 1959. Starting on Ptay 18, 1959, No. 1-4 began to use 3.3-66,000 filters and by June 3, 1959, all WINSTON production was using 3.3-66,000 filters. On Septeaeber 8, 1959, all WINSTON production was using Ref. No. 556 ciga- rette paper. These changes resulted in a reduction in the nicotine and total solids in the cigarette smoke and an annual tobacco savings of approximately 1,600,000 pounds (based on 1959 production). d._ WINSTOIv Cigarette Sise Reduction The quality of WINSTON cigarettes made at a size of 25.0 mm., instead of the standard 25.4 sa. circumference, has been determined. A 3 percent tobacco weight reduction was ussd for the smaller cigarette and Ref. Nos. 555 and 556 cigarette papera were co.pared. The smaller cigarette quality was equal to that of the standard sise WINSTON ciga- rette except for a higher draft resistance (about 0.4"). The smaller WINSTON cigarette with 556 cigarette paperr had about the same burning rate, but less nicotine and total solids in the emoka than the standard size WINSTON cigarette with 556 paper. The smaller WINS'hON cigarette with 555 paper had a slower burning rate and about the sans sswunt of nicotine and total solids in the smoke as the standard size WINSTON cigarette with 556 paper. Additional tests on size reduction are planned using 3.3-64,000 filters for the smaller cigsrette in order to reduce ths draft resistance. e. MolinaPA 6 Assembler The quality of WINSTON cigarettes produced on the lblina Mark VIII maker and the Molins PA 6 asaeaibler has been oaspared with those pro- duced on the lblins liark VI maker and the Hauni MAX assembler. Results of two tests indicated that the Mark VIII maker and PA 6 asseabler made a superior cigarette. It was more uniform in weight and it was assembled better than "Regular". No air pocket cigarettes were found. Additional tests are planned to evaluate a making speed of 1500 ciga- rettes per minute. f._ Hauni Rod Compensator on WIliSTON Maker The Hauni Rod Compensator increased the spread in individual cigarette weights and, as suggested, a Hauni representative was called in. No significant improvemsnt was oode until a bridge extension, designed by our Cigarette Mechanical Division, was tried. On a second visit, the Hauni representative modified the bridge extension and the cigarette weight uniformity was ia>proved. A tobacco belt speed of 352 feet per minute and a tube belt speed of 292 feet per minute was found to be best. These changes resulted in a substantial improvewsnt in cigarette weight uniformity and firsiness. The "Special" cigarettes wsre more uniform in weight and firmer than Regular WINSTON cigarettes. It has been recommended that the makers in No. 1-3 be equipped with the Hauni Rod Cotapensators and the modified (FrenCh-type) bridge extension.
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53 $.^ Estron Tow for 1'i l ter Plugs As filter plug production was changed from 8-70,000 to 3.3-66,000 Estron tow, the Quality Control Group assisted the Cigarette Division in setting up a weight checking system for the plug making machines. h._ qualitY Checks on SALEM Cigarette White Tippin$ Routine quality checks have been made during 1959 on all approved white tipping. Satisfactory performance has been obtained. Early in 1959, Hermstite 3202-B white tipping was approved. National Cork Co. white tipping was tested and after several adju,itsisnts, results indicated that their tipping was satisfactory for testing on a larger scale. This has been suggested. In August, 1959, it was found that a less porous white tipping was necessary to eliainate the dropping of live ashes when the SALFM cigarette was allowed to burn into the tipping. Tentative specifications for white tippinS were drawn up and subwitted to our suppliers. Ecusta adjusted the porosity of their tipping and liermstite is in the process of submitting saaples for approval. Just prior to the porosity chanse in white tipping, Archer Aluminum submitted saaples of their white tipping using Bcusta and Schweitzer base papers. The Archer tipping using Schweitssr*s "Micropake T" base paper was satisfactory. because of the porosity chattgs, Archer was asked to apply an extra heavy coating of ink on the white tipping to use up the stock on hand and to obtain a bast paper with the correct porosity (1000 sec., Gurley). Schweitzer offered a base paper with adjusted porosity (Nicropake TR) which was satisfactory, but its price, 39-1/2 cents per pound, was thought to be too high. Decause of this, Schweitzer subaaitted several cheaper grades of base paper. These lacked opacity and some had a yellow-white color. Opacity and color adjustments have been made and some iaoprovemtnt was evident; hoMSVer, this base paper was not satisfactory. Schwitser was asked to further inQrove the opacity and whiteness of this base paper. In the msan- time, Archer Alueinu+n decided to use the more expensive, approved paper "Micropalas TR" so that production could be started. Additional testing on less expensive base papers will be continued in 1960. i._ Qual itY, ClMcks on SAI EN Ci~arettQs Periodic quality checks have been made on SALEM cigarettes. Results showed that a good quality cigarette was being produced. The stem content increased as shown by the September results. rn V .d v
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54 TABLE XXIII S.P.D. STEM OONfENT OF SALEMS Factory No. 1-5 4-1 Average % Stems 12.00 11.36 x Stqs Range of Previous Tests 7.8-10.3 7.95-10.59 l3ates of rrsvious Tests Apr. 20-Juns 23 Apr. 30-July 16 Winnower stew kick-out rate inorsass was Sried but only a 0.4 per- cent reduction in cigarette stM content resulted. After installing 1GSA Millicutters at Factory Na. 4, the cisarstte quality itproved. The tobacco Miot ws reduced 1/2 percent on March 26 and 27, 1959, at No. 4 and !b. 1, respectively. 'ibs+ on Atgust 3, 1959,!ths-use of 3.3-~6,000 8sts~ tow vas started in eio. 4.1 and on Nowaber 18, 1959, al1 other SAL®M dsptcrtssatts started using this tow. SALEM cigarette paper was chaey.d from 543 to 553 on Juns 17, 1159, and on Novr.b.r 17, 1959, all 553 papsr wiss used up ani subssqussst SALEM production used 555 cigarette papsr. The filter chsW reduced the aeount of nicotine and total solids in the aaoks and the cbsw to 355 cis .rstte paper reduced the cigarette burning rate. T'M tobacco weight reduction will result in an amual savings of about 296,000 pounds of tobacco (based on 1959 production). 9Wks analyses viera wade on SALEN cigarettes ss.plei each M..k starting in the latter part of Novembsr. ThsN rrsults ws" ooaparsd with those of SAL!?1 cigarettes having the 8-70,000 filter aad the 553 cigarette paper.
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ss TAbLE XXIV SALEM CIGARETTE PROPERTIES Estron Type Cigarttte Paper Type Porosity, a.c., Ch<sley 8-70,000 553 14.2 3.3-66,000 SSS 26.Z-31.3 Cspr.tte tit., a. (aeiacted) 1.190 1.180 CiB,arette Draft brsistanca, In. of Water 2.43 3.34-3.50 Ciaarette eurnies ltate, .ss./sia. 58.5 S0.S-S2.S . Swo1os Analysess Nicotiers, wp./ci8t. 1.43 1.95-1.47 Total Solids, sp./cij*t. 17.2 15.7-17.1 Tobacco Mslysess llicotins, x 2.08 2.03-2.10 SuSar, Z 13.09 12.93-13.95 Mesthoi, % --- 0.Z84-0.319 1._ saLft cii.rsttZ bsozi-sx-LivM /lshe-8 lkcavse of an Increase In the casplaints about SJlLBM cijarsttq dx+oppin8 liv. ashs, tests wx~ oaaduat.d to detesariM the asuse. Cisarettes vsra spoksd on a rack Mhich bu.ped them enrssy aiauta. ltesults lndicat.d that a hi8h. steo content would liktly increua the live ash fall-out.
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56 TABLE XXV LIVE ASH FALL-OlJT OF VARIOUS CIGARET'TES `... .~ .._......-... ~....._..,~~ Livs Aabaa/60 C Wttex Stationary at ~bprnl .pies Min. ~ SAT.EH wanufacturrd April 1956 0 10 25% SALE4 aggre8ate stews plus 75% SALFlt cut tobacco 2 9 50X SAL@M aggregate stews plus 50% SALEM cut tobacco 7 16 0 lcent 0 2 Viceroy 0 3 Old Gold 0 10 Kool 0 8 Marlboro -- 0 Chesterfield -- 7 k._ SALEM Tobacco Cold tuttigR Tests vsrs conducted on SALE?I cigarettes ps+oducod fsv.a cold cut tobacco. The cold cutting of Lagg Millicutttr tobacoo lowered the a+aount of lamiasted tobacco after F-1S .pplication, but sfter imakiny saaples showed about the saeme anunt aa "regular" SA1.Q1 ciytrrttes. No significant differences were found in tobacco filling capacity, loose ends, and cigarette fir.ews. On the basis of thesa results, no significant iaprovemant was gained from cold cutting the tobacco. 1. Fluidiser _Coriwevvr for SALBM Cut Tobacco In cooperation with the Engineering Dcpastawst, the "•Fluidiser" conveyor (pneua.tic) for SALEM cut tobacco at lb. 1-6 Ms been evaluated. Ecctpt for a 41.9,percent increase in finta, no particular differences wre found in SALEM cigarettes rMde froo "Fluidis+sr•' conveyed tobacco as compared to hand-feedins. m._ RaYnolds Metals Co_ Aluminun Coated Cijsretto paEer and Alusina Additive~ ~ CAlsEI and WINSTON cigarettes were msde with regular and the aluminum coated cigarette paper using the regular blend and 8 percent less tobacco with 25 percent by weight of the additive. Y'!* use of the alumirao coated cigarette paper increased the burning rate 28.7 percent for CAMEL cigarettes and 8.9 percent for WINSZ'qt cigarettes. This pap$r reduced the nicotine in the s~oke by about 7 percent. The addition of the aluuina incraased the burning rate approxieately 5.0
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57 percent and reduced the nicotine and total solids in the smoks by about 20,0 psrcent. The cigarettes containing the alumina burned unevenly and they dmpped hot particles from the ash. IV. CAMEL Cisaretts ?ests a._ guslitlr Clwcks on CAMEL Cij~arsttes CAMEiL cigarette quality has bsso ofsclNd throughout the year. Factory Ib. 1 produced a firmer cigarette tbaa No. 97 until the IAft cutters .e:+s installed at ft. 97. The ws of 1s" cut tobacco at lb. 97 isaprowd the ci0arstte fierwss awd a cigarette wisbt reduction of i percent was wads. 'i'his cli.w Was started on Msrch 3, 1959, and co.pl.tsd on March 24. 1939. A 1/2 percent reduction in tobacco weight at factory No. I was ssds on March t3, 1939. Aa".i ssviegs aoaunt to appromisistaly 1,300,000 pounds of tQbac©o (based on 1939 production). After tbsss chayss. No. 97-CAqBL cigarettes were still fisasr than tliosa produced at 11o. 1. to AuStist, it was foued that the st.r content had increased to ovw 14.0 percent, but In Ssptembsr it 1wd droppst back to 13.2 to 13.9 percent. rosts revealed that at the saxisxs viaeawr thro.r-out rato, the cigarette stem content ws lowered 0.a percent (frow 14.38 to 13.35 peroint). During DoossLer, results sbo~wd the percent laoinatod tobsooo at !b. 1 to be biosr than usual. This was rsport.d for oorrwctiv+s action. CAMEL cigarette production was 100 percent on Rsf. No. 555 oij*arstta paper on Dsn - A r S, 1959. b._ Adt DrYsr 9"" A+:e*s Z'bs Adt dryer speed ws increased from 17•1/2 to 20 r.p.m. to avbid choks•iipa, qb significant differ+smos aiaa noted In lawinatod tobacco and cip~a~etta quality. This cAsNs was rscoi.re~lsd. c. CAMEL Cizosette Ws,1at Cbsck at FactasY tb_ 97 At ti.rs the factory uses snre tebaoco than nor.al. In an atts.pt to help avoid this situation, a systsw bs bsw worked out for the Cigarette Division. The tobacco Z.itwid or lost during each production day can be calculated from the asking rr+obins check edtarta. This systm will be tested in January, 1960. d._ Nsatiu,s G1M Cut Zbbacco Durie,yg „Cut_storap, A&i„~,S CAMEL cut tobacco ws aged for 96 hours at ts.psratures of 100, 120, and 140• F. No change in nicotine content was found and the aroes of the tobacco was not as Oood as "Asjular". The hsated tobacco darks+nsd in proportion to the ts.*sraturs used. Smaksrs• teata wsr. 8-0 for control. On the basis of thsas swalts, the hsatins of CAMEL cut tobacco during cut storage aging to nnt beneficial.
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58 e. CAME! Blend Tests 3lend uniformity tests were made to compare the strip blending line at Factory No. 60 with the redried stemning line (old process) which supplies strips to Factory No. 1. ftn iuproveadent had been made in strip blending which also was evident in the finished cigarette. The G-7 was more uniformly distributed. f._ CAMEi. Ci$arette Sise Reduction A CAME[L cigarette test (No. 1190) has been made to evaluate the quality of CAMEL cigarettes having a sise of 25.2 aa. circuiaference and a 3.09 percent weight reduction. The smaller sise and lighter weight CAMEI. cigarette was firmer, burned slower, had slightly wrore nicotine and less total solids in the smoke than Regular (25.6 si..) CAMEt cigarettes. Additional tests will be made in 1960. . V. CAVALIER Cigarette Tests a._ _qualitZr Checks on 80`sru. CAVi+t.1ER Ci$arettes Quality checks on CAVALIER cigarettes shoved that a good quality cigarette was produced. One test revealed that the cigarettes we" heavier than usual and not as firm. This condition was caused, at least partially, by the higher moisture content tobacco being used at that time. It was noted that the stem content increased in August. b._ 27 ssn._1954 Cigarette Paper for CFWAL.IER Cigarettes The possibility of using some 27 ara. width Ecusta cigarette paper, purchased in 1954, on CAVALIER cigarettes was investigated. The 27 ssa. width paper reduced the CAVAt.IER cigarette burning rate and the paper did not burn satisfactorily in a forced draft. The use of this old paper increased the chances of the cigarette going out. It was suggested that this paper be used for winter production of CAVAtIER cigarettes. VI. Steasosry Tests a._ Production Control_for Gre.n Stemaing In cooperation with the i.eaf Processing Department, the Quality Control Group has continued to assist in the supervision of the pro- duction control program. Process control information has been obtained daily for plant use and repo!'tad on a weekly basis to the :Leaf Processing Department main office. Moisture and stem contents and sieve analyses of will strips, tips, and the final blend of burley, Naryland, and flue-cured tobacco have been determined. Also, stem length aneasurenrents have been msde for control purposes.
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59 The green steaming of burley tobacco was finished on Februf.iry 19, 1959. A comparison of 1958 stemming versus 1957 stemming showed that the blend leaving the dryer had a slightly lower stem content and slightly higher fines. This reduction in stem content was the result of a slightly shorter tip cut. The =ill strips for the two years were about equal. TAbL.E XXVI COMPARISON OF 1957 AND 1958 CROPS OF 81StLEY TOBACCOS _.. _.._ ~_....~_ x Mill Strips, x r nlend Lv. Dryer, x Crop Tips Moist. Finss Stgs , Moist. Fines Stesis 1958 28.2 21.0 13.1 2.3 12.2 10.4 5.2 1957 30.1 20.7 13.6 2.4 12.1 9.8 5.8 Maryland tobacco green stsming was completed on July 22, 1959. A comparison of the 1959 and 1958 results showed a 2.3 percent decrease in the tip cut. The steim content was 1.3 percent louwr and the Snes were 2.1 percent higher. TABLE XXV I I COMPARISON OF 1958 MID 1959 CROPS OF !{AARYIAND TOBACCOS ~ .......~ .-.. .__....._..~.. Stesming Input Rate x Mill Strips, 3, alserd LV. Dryer, Z Season Cbs./Nr. Tipa lbiat. Fines Stes~s Mo~lsL Tines Stem 1959 14,666 27.6 23.6 16.0 2.2 12.5 12.4 4.3 1958 18,440 29.9 22.8 16.8 2.3 12.1 10.3 5.6 A comparison of the 1958 and 1959 flue-cured tobacco starning results showed that the fines had increased and th* stem content was about the same.
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60 TABLE XXVIII COMPARISON OF 1958 AND 1959 FLUE-CURED TOBACCOS .~ _.__ _-....~..... Crop Final Dlend lv. Dryert 1958 1959 Moisture, Z 103 11.T Finss, Z 7.2 10.3 Steas, % 4.1 4.1 b._ Leaf-Stem Ratio Study Special .wisturs tasta and stm, content dataralastions have been aade to establish the iwf-stea ratio of the various grades of bundie tobacco. The 1958 burley tobacco crop bundle length was loeesr and the stem content waa higher than in 1957. Yhs 1959 flue-cured tobacco crop had a longer leaf and a slightly higher stem content tban in 1958. As in previous years, the shorter tobacco has a lower stes* oontent. TABLB XXIX BUNDLB LEIOCTNS AND ST@! CONTF'M'S ~_ ...~._ ...__ Crop Bundle Le%th, in. Sted Content, 1958 Burley 20.3 29.1 1957 Burley 18.9 27.7 1959 Flus-Cured 18.9 26.3 1958 Flue-Cured 18.4 25.8 c._ Tobacco Dusta Density and sand content esasuresents have been wade on various tobacco dusts during green stei.ain8 at Whitaker lark and Brook Cove. All No. 11 dw t and Maryland tobacco dust were satisfactory and they have been stored for future use. Tests showed that the S-dust from the 1954 crop of grade 6 P S.C. flue-cured tobacco contained too sxsch sand. By separating the sander and collector dust, we were able to salvage the collector dust which was stored for future use. All satisfactory S-dust froo fbe-cured steatain8 was saved. A large mount of the sander dust contained too .ruch saM and it wss discarded.
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61 d._ A.M.&F. 434 f4Parator Evaluation An A.M.&F. 434 separator was connected to a Cardwell first cut mill and installed on the second floor of S.P.D. No. 2 at Whitaker Park. Separator efficiency as well as concaves, mill speeds and knife spacing for the first cut taill have been evaluated. A susmnary of test results obtained on flus-cured tobacco indicated that the 434 separator efficiency was unaffected by the iry>ut rate between 2500 and 4500 pounds per hour. Also, it appears that the 434 separator is twice as efficient as the 427 separator (our standard equipment) on light grades and about 1.5 times as efficient on heavy grades. Additional tests are being conducted on burley tobacco. e.- Concave Studies --------- The Lexington, Ky., Stemmsry was viaited.for the purpose of assisting the Quality Control personnel in production control testing methods. While there, several tests were msde to cospare 136, 128, and 120 point concaves in the first cut mill. The 136 point modified concave was replaced by the 128 point modified concave. This change reduced the fines. Additional concave tests wsre made at Whitaker Park and lirook Cove. The 128 point saoditiad concave was found to be best for leafy gradesi wltiereas, the 120 point modified concave was satisfactory for light grades. Results shoved that the fines had been reduced. Also, It was evident that lahitak~r Park has the smallest amount of leaf recovered by reseparation, Lexington is second, and Brook Cove is the most efficient. VII. Pl!M Division Tests a._ Plug Tare ~eights The semiannual weight check on all new style tare weights used at Factory No. 8 Machine and Hand-Rollinj Rooms was msde in January. All weights .ure correct. It has been suggested that these weights be checked annually instead of semiannually because no incorrect weights have been found during the past two years. MICKY TWIST tare weights and balances wwre checked in July. The weights were heavy and they were adjusted. The balances were correct. VIII. Tobacco Process_ing Division Tests a.- W. T. StemProcessin$ at No. 60 Periodic chscks have been made on the product quality and yield at the Winnower Aggregate Recovery Plant. Results showd that the product stem content was too high and the necessary change was made in the 419 thresher-separator. This resulted in a lower product yield.
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62 TABLE XXX EFFECT OF THRESHER CHNMIGES ON WINlVOwER AGGREGATE CAMEL WINSTON 419 Adjusted Betbre A fteir ra A~t er _ _ ___ Yield, % product 32.2 23.25 44.4 36.5 sarap 7.5 5.82 8.2 7.7 Tobacco in Tailings, x 5.46 6.01 13.8 25.5 Stems in Product, x 35.52 21.30 12.5 5.5 . Additional production capacity is rd.ded for viemower atem proa- sssins. Tests wrs made in which first and ssoond run yields Wwre deterained. if the second run Mare ent msde, the product yield would be reduced from 23.3 to 18.4 percent. A 33 percent incs+aast in the first run feeding rate: .rss evaluatad. This reduced the cut filler product yield by 6.8 percent and increased the percent la.insted tobacco. The over-all capacity was incrsased by 315 pounds per hour. In our opinion, it would be bstter to maintain the highest possible cut filler quality. It was suggested that the second run be eliminated to increase production or, if a par.anant solution was raquirad, the straight line process could be used. Work on this problem vill be continued in 1960. b. G•7 Tests The effect on blend uniformity of using G-7X cut into two-inch squarss versus regular hss.+er wi11 bsok.n G-7X has been determined. At all stages of processina, the blend containing the special cut G-7X had less finss than the re8ular blend. The TBF and the cosplets iIINSTON blend containing the squara cut G-7X was sare unifoswi than resulsr. This !yr_row t-wr_s-not fo~.+ on- t.~:e-a ni!hcsgnFitti iai -R1d additional tests vill be aade when the new Molins Mark VIII nakins machine is available. IX. Ssaki nj_Divi s ion Tes ts ... .- S._ Granulotor Break*le of PRINCE ALBERT Tobacco PRINCE ALBERT tobacco breakage tests have been awsde to determine the effects of a granulator overhsul. Ths fines were reduced a,pproxi- sately 16 percent by an overhaul and the Smoking Division gradually fixed the lina of Branulators.
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63 b. PF.INCE ALBERT Pocket Tin N,etal PRINCE A:.BERT pocket tins made up using 65ti 706. and 75-pound body metal were given travel and drop tests. The 65-pound attal tins were damaged slightly more than the other weight body metal pocket tins. However, in our opinion, the damage was slight and the 65-pound metal was believed to be satisfactory. • Also, travel and drop tests were msde on PRINCE ALBERT pocket tins with and without revenue staaops. Results indicated that the revenue stamp was of little value for keeping the topa closed. It was suggested that a tighter closing top be used. c._ Pouch Sswking Tobacco A revised saapling plan for pouch tobaccps was approved. lioisture, weight, and sieve tests vere msde to establish control limits for the three brands. Currently, pouch tobacco sawples are collected daily by the operator. These samples are evaluated weekly. Results indicated that all three brands are being controlled on the heavy side and vork has been started on a proposed weight control system. X. Wrap,pi!% Material Testing a._ Routine Testing Routine wrapping material testing of preshipsi.ant sasples submitted by our suppliers has been conducted throughout the year. The quality of all incosaing material has been checked. This udrk iacluded tests on cartons, wrappers, tipping, crush-proof boxes, tesr tape, foil s»unting paper, cigarette paper, and shipping cases. During 1959, the routine testing procedures have caught wrapping material troubles before this material was used in production. Several times cosments were made on Archer Alumintias produced wrapping aiaterial. Rub resistance of red and black ink on WINSTON cartons nseded to be improved, the color variation of the SALEM sreen ink needed to be i.proved, and the contrast and sottled appearance of the cork tipping needed to be isiproved. Corrections vnre made. Top lacquer was found on glue flaps of Archer, Virginia Folding Box, and Container cartons which had to be rejected. Subsequsnt shipmsnts vere satisfactory. Some off-odor CAFtEIL cartons from Container Corp. were found in December and reported for corrective action. Variation in 555 and 556 cigarette paper porosity was noted and reported for corrective action. b._ Carton Tests Numerous special tests have been made on cigarette cartons and carton board during 1959. Cereal-style cartons from all suppliers were checked and Container Corp. and National Folding Box Co. were qualified as suppliers of CAMEL cereal-style cartons. Carton board
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64 samples have been tested in an effort to obtain additional suppliers for Archer Aluminum. Union Bag-Camp and F.iegel Paper Corp. sulfate boards have been found to be satisfactory on the basis of small lot tests. It has been rscommsnded that these boards be tested on a larger scale. Marathon sulfate board was satisfactory for CAMF.i, carton tests. East Texas Pulp and Paper Co. board was unsatisfactory and it was suggested that better gluing properties be incorporated in the next board sasple. Chriatmss cartons produced by Archer Aluminum were tested as they were produced. All cases of top lacquer on the glue flaps were reported by telephone to Archer Aluminum for immsdiats action. The Cigarette Division was furnished a list of pallet nuwbers indicating where top lacquer trouble was found. SALEM cartons were perforated deeper than the other cartons. Poor ink registration and soeus ink smaring was found. . Samples of Archer Aluwinuw CAMEL cartons with no top lacquer were evaluated. These cartons had sufficient rub resistance, good appear- ance and satisfactory mechanical operation. It was suggested that a ten-pallet sample of these cartons be submitted for additional tests in 1960. Estimated annual savings of about $150,000 can be realized by this change. c._ wrvEer Tests , Special tests on printed wrappers and various wrapper paper saeaples have been mads. Woodward and Tiernan improved the cutting quality of the CA.MEt_ wrapper as well as the appearance. Archer AluDtinum wrappers have been given special attention through- out the year. Various base papers and ink systems were evaluated. The Kalamazoo paper with an IPI ink systea and the Champion paper with a Comeaercial ink systes were satisfactory. Other bass papers that, on a preliminary baais, looked proaising included Minnesota and Ontario's " "Special CIS", West Virginia's "Sterling Litho CIS", Marathon's base paper, and Msad Paper Co.'s base paper. Watervliet base paper had a pine odor and Minnesota and Ontario's "Mirricote'* were unsatisfactory. d., TearTa._pe_ ?ests Samples of tear tape from Arlin Manufacturing Co. and Continental Can Co. were tested. Both companies wsre approved as tear tape suppliers. Comparative opening qualities of 600-and 450-gsuge tear tape were determined. The 450-gauge tear tape gave a 24.6 percent greater yield, but this tape broke easier than the 600-gauge tape. We believe that the quality of our package would be lowered by the use of this thinner tape and its use was not t~econosndedo e.! Cigarette Pack Foil Yield of foil, square inches per pound, and type of laminating adhesive, starch or silicate, were determined on samples for every
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65 packing department in August, 1959. Considerable variation in yield was found (8789 sq. in./lb. in No. 97-1 versus 9724 sq. in./lb. in No. 94-4). Different weight papers were being used and the type of adhesive also affected the yield. It was suggested that the paper weisht be standardized and that the foil be labeled as to which type adhesive had been used. Distributions Mr. Kenneth H. Hoover Mr. E. H. Harwood Dr. S. O. Jones Ly ibrary Submitteds January 15, 1960 Coapletedt January 28, 1960 Farom wsnuscript:vr Approvedt K. U. N. MAR 7 'tA . p. Jon.s '

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