Delineates proposed research in support of a project whose objectives are: 1) the development of a low tar cigarette with a "taste level of a Kent Golden Light" and 2) the development of an 8mg tar delivery cigarette with the "taste level of a Marlboro." Notes that technology developed in this project will be applied to improvements of other brands marketed "by the company." Discusses the technical and organizational difficulties involved in finding successful ways in which nicotine delivery relative to tar can be increased "so the new products would have an appealing impact to the smoker."
- Low-yield cigarettes
Modification of low yield products to assure that adequate levels of nicotine delivery are maintained, and effects of yield changes on toxicity and dependence.
- Use of filters, paper, and ventilation
Modification of tobacco products through use of filters, paper, and ventilation, and measuring effects on dependence, behavior, and toxicity.
- Flavor/ Taste (Attribute measure)
- Impact (Throat grab)
- Low delivery (Reduced delivery)
- Tar/Nicotine ratio (Nicotine/Tar Ratio or T/N ratio)
- Design Component
- KGL blend (Kent Golden Light blend)
Lorillard blend, c. 1970s-1990s
- Reconstituted leaf (RL)
PM @reconstituted_tobacco, c. 1970s-1980s
- Golden Lights
- Kent (Lorillard)
- Marlboro (PM)
- Blends (Design)
- Reconstituted Tobacco (Design)
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RL Enrichment Project
This project proposal is the 'fifth 'in a series of
Research'Department projects-in support of a project of
large'scope being developed by the company. The primary
objective of the corporate'project-is to develop a cig-
arette of 2 mg tar delivery which has the 'taste 'level of
a Kent Golden Light. ~A second corporate objective is to
develop a cigarette-of 8 mg tar delivery having the taste
level of a Marlboro. It is anticipated that the techno-
logy attained in achieving these goals will be broadly
applied to the improvements of other brands marketed by
The problems posed by the corporate project have
been attacked from-several sides by the Sections of
Departments assigned to develop the project. The Product
Development Department has concentrated on developing the
new product mainly by formulating new blends of tobacco,
by modifying cigarette and filter construction, and by
testing and evaluating new flavor compositions. The .
Research Department, assisted by the Engineering Depart- _
ment, has supported the corporate project by investigating
novel ways in which the amount of nicotine delivered
relative to tar could be increased so the new products
would have an appealing impact to the smoker.
During the earlier projects the Research Department
explored approximately twenty ideas intended to completely
or partially achieve the objectives of the corporate
project. This work led to some useful information, but
no breakthroughs resulted. Instead, a general apprecia-
tion of the difficulty of the project was realized. It
became evident that if the Research Department were to
accomplish its mission, process innovations would have
to be confined to the RL manufacturing facility in Danville.
PRESENT STATUS OF THE PROBLEM
The present problem before the Research Department
is to determine a timely process which can be implemented
at Danville to produce an enriched RL sheet useful for in-
corporation into the'2 mg product. This sheet should
produce flavorful smoke'with the needed impact,. yet at the
Page 2: fqr31e00
- same time not produce a tar yield significantly above
the sheet presently produced.
The Research'Departmentand the Engineering Depart-
ment have jointly conducted'experiments in Danville
during `-the- pa-s~ t "'fout7Poh-ths''°to'p-roduce` sampies-_ o-f 7RL- --
sheet containing supplemental-n.icotine:.-These-'sampYes
have,been evaluated.by Product Development to determine
whether the sheet produced would be useful to the'2 mg
'project by providing added impact. -It was decided that
the 'sheet with 'suppleaiental-'nicotine could not be used
since'it did not result in-a fully balanced product in
'this- particular Case.
The limited work at Danville has brought several
problems into focus. One longstanding major problem is
the poor flavor of the,.RL sheet presently produced, a
flavor which has been characterized as papery and acrid.
It has been found that increasing the nicotine content of
the RL further increases the acrid qualities of the''
smoke. This-Tcind of problem has been worked-around in
the past by compensating these RL negatives with positive
contributions from other components of -the blend. It
_ . . - . .,.
may not be possible to compensate flavor in nicotine
augmented RL for use in a 2 mg product because of other
limitations. Therefore, even if a process is devised
to produce RL with increased nicotine content to provide
°impact, it may not be 'useable - until the' `flavor'-' problems
associated with the present RL are solved.- But, as an
interim measure it has.been decided that the solution of
the flavor pro~Tem a'ssociated w itYi
not an immediate`concern of the Research Department. `
The immediate problem is to'devise a~process to'iricrease
'the nicotine content of the RL, even though-'flavor pro-
'blems"-`could preclude~its ` ~immediate usle ~irr -aiiy product.
: ~ le:aq- _.
^~ Another problem resulting from'the'DanvilTe work
7is' thee realization -that -the" Research` Department has rio
F.._ ~ , r.n --;,, ; rrE::,^1,` ';::
~acilities, ` equi.pmen't,"'or -epa~e tb ~Z~l~oate' the ;eXisting- -
RL process at the Research Center. Limited test samples
have been prepared by breaking into the manufacturing
line at Danville. Similarly, there is no equipment at
Danville to carry out certain innovative experiments,
such as pursuing the proposal to produce blackwater from
special by-product mixes so that it may substitute for
city make up water and thereby produce an enriched RL.
An attempt at the latter experiment.was carried out at
the plant in May by modification of the process and
required 24 hours to ruri. -- It-°caused°`a- heavy strain 'both
on the plant supervisory personnel and the research
personnel. The RL plant also lost 3 days production as
Page 3: fqr31e00
a-result of the experiment. 'Indeed,.it was only by the
extraordinary cooperation and effort of the Danville
personnel that the experiment succeeded to the extent it-
did. This particular experiment clearly demonstrated
it would be futile 'to consider makeshift arrangements
of production ma.chinery on a protracted basis for exper-
imental purposes. *
In summary then, :the problem before the Research 'De-'
partmerit has escalated in difficulty and has a number
of unusual aspects. Two barriers for further progress
are recognized as organizational and.technical. The
technical barrier has always existed, but the organiza-
tional problems haveassumed prominance_since it was
decided to focus the technical effort on the existing
. OrganizatIonal' Probl'em -
The organizational problem exists because'of the
short time period the Marketing Department has allocated
for the solution of what has become a complex technical
problem. A conventional approach toe the solution of the
problem is unlikely to give timely results. At the
present the Research'Department is severely hampered
in the development of an enrichment process until it
has proper facilities for the necessary experimentation.
The Engineering Department is unable to suggest and
provide facilities until a workable process has been
decided upon. Product Development can not commit to
an enriched RL material until the material produced is
representative of a production process.. Yet neither
Research nor Engineering want to propose an.expensive
process or manufacturing facility unless Product Develop-
ment can assure that the product produced can be used.
There is an organizational problem because the
project stands at the proverbial fork in the road.. Pro-
gress can not be made until a determination has been made
on future direction. There appears to be two ways to
proceed. The first would be a conventional approach
with a minimum monetary risk for technological expendi-
tures, but one which may not achieve the projects ob-
jectives in accordance with the marketing plan. This
approach would involve a small scale duplication of the
RL operation with the intended modifications until
technical problems could be'solved, at which time'plans -
for a full scale operation could be initiated.
Page 4: fqr31e00
~ y 4The-second "appro.ach' ;--which appears- more favorable-
and is advanced for consideration in this report, is
unconventional becauseit proposes` construction of-the
pilot process to produce enriched RL on a scale sufficierit
l,arge - ,n .S4ze, ~. ~o_,su port a successful brand. '. If it turns
a significant monetary loss-.- '_The technical approach
suggested in this report would resolve.=theorganization
problems that have surfaced because"it would involve a
management commitment to a specific manufacturing process.
Once the:commitment has been made the technical depart-
merits involved in the p-ro j ect `wi11---have definite and. specif ic
technical problenis to solve, and each will have a clear
cut role to play in theresolution of these problems.
The immediate technical problem is to devise a pro-
cess to manufacture an RL sheet having 3% nicotine content,.'
a maximum level judged necessary to deliver the proper
impact in the resulting smoke while maintaining current ~
tar levels. Once this objective is achieved,.further
effort will be directed toward obtaining a balanced flavor
in the enzichedRRL sheet: It is anticipated that needed
flavor enrichment materials will be bbtained from the same
process which provides thenicotine-enrichment. -
It is.anticipated that the~techriical`ob'jective-of
-the project will be attained_.by a-process represented
s,chematically b,y Figure I. The processinust be-designed,
bui,and.:.;tested to produce enriched RL sheet -at:.a
capacity sufficient to "-support a `cdfti~cie'rcially°~successful
,brand. A further technical objective is to have"the
process mechanically operational by March 1,-=1978i-and
capable,-of ducina_a useful RL sheet by September 1,. ,1978.
n e ~ .
-.,~ - ._.~ .....~_-,- _. ._. . .. 4~_..: .. ~- _.. . . ._..
.. - .
. _ ..
DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL APPROACH-'
---- From a theoretical point-of-view;' the process re-
presented schematically in Figure I contains-all the
elements necessary'to produce an-enriched RL product.
-Enough is presently known about the individual steps in
,-the process to.indicate-each is-feasible.- In the event
that a given;pcess pathway;does not i~ive a satisfactory
Page 5: fqr31e00
product in practice,,thexe'is- usually an alternative
pathway available. Itis conceivable that .fewez than the
indicated number of process steps represented in Figure
I would ga.ve'a satisfactorily enriched RL, but this result
would be fortuitous.. If technical problems are'encountered
which 'indicate 'that ~additional process steps are 'riecessary,
it is-unlikely that theresulting-process would beeconomi-
cally advantageous to the 'company.
The technical approach proposed is based on the
assumption that all the processes indicated in Figure I
will be necessary to optimize changes of success, and from
the outset planning will be such to assure that each unit
in the process interfaces properly with"every other unit.
This approach avoids the alternative of a piecemeal
approach where individual units of a process are tacked
on to one another haphazardly. Similarly, overail planning
must take into account integrating the total proposed
-process with the thin RL process under development in
the Product Development Department. The proposed approach
should also permit a better estimation of the ultimate
cost of the project from the outset and provide a mech-
anism to reveal barriers to success that are not readily .,,
apparent by a piecemeal approach.
This proposal suggests that a commitment be made to
the process illustrated in Figure I. It requires advanced
planning so each unit in the process will be compatable
with related units. The planning will require the selec-
tion and sizing of individual pieces of equipment, and
the preparation of cost estimates for the purchase and
installation of the equipment. It will require a deci-
sion whether individual units should be operated on a
continuous or batch mode. Projections of operating costs
of the completed process can also be made.
Once planning has been completed for the entire
process and a decision has been reached to continue, the
implementation of the plan can be carried out and re-
viewed in several stages to control costs. In Figure I,
the enriched RL line is the existing RL manufacturing
line in Danville. The nicotine metering system can be
installed at once, both to the slurry and to the dryers,
so the effect of purchased nicotine incorporated into
the RL by different methods can be evaluated. The black-
water production line is a critical element and should
be installed as soon as possible so the effect of sub-
stituting special by-product blackwater for citye
up water can beevaluated. If the blackwater produc-
Page 6: fqr31e00
tion line is constructed to operate by the batch mode
rather than a continuous process~,, it'may not be necessary
to install full production capacity before evaluations
steam distillation unit required for nicotine production
meet the requirements for feeding the. high pressure
Theoutput of the concentrated blackwater unit should
- immediately following the blackwater production line.-.
., - It is -.most -hikely -that -concentrated -blackHtater- will
be 'required for a successful :product;-: and :construction
of this process unit should be'scheduled for completion
The-evaluation of the enriched RL resulting from
the operation of the concentrated blackwater unit will
be a critical step in the evolution of the whole process.
If the substitution of concentrated blackwater for city
make up water in the enriched RL`-line-results-=in-a sat-
isfactory product, it may be possible to avoid the in-
stallation of the subsequent units for the process.~`
As the evaluation of the enriched RL produced from
concentrated blackwater is carried out, plans for the
nicotine production units can be finalized.-- It is an-.
.ticipated that at this stage of development, a multitude
of technical problems will have been identified, no
doubt-many of them unanticipated and serious problems.
There-will:be.an opportunity at this point to--decide.---
whether_=or not=to=-proceed with--the,~constr.uction of the
nicotine production and flavor fraction,process,'or
whether-..there:.-are..other-alternatives..-~ e1-:u-~~_.._-_.~u, ~._.:.
the process has been operated.
and water will be based upon the identification of a
technical problem which precludes the direct use of
concentrated blackwater. -The solution-for this tech-
nical problem cannot be determined until the problem
has--n been identif ied, - and this =can not-=be : done. _until:;~:-;
blackwater into its component parts, nicotine,.flavor,
at this point. The-decision to fractionate concentrated
Plans for the flavor fraction are very nebulous
~;-r=Planning for.: the nicotine production unit; which
will also produce an uncharacterized flavor fraction
will'present--difficulties which-cannot be fully_.eval--_
uated at :this- point. -.The unit will- have- to be some-
what near the concentrated blackwater production unit
which supplies it, but separate-in the sense so-that
theC-safety~'-and-'operating=prbbiemsC inherent in".the.,unit'--
will -be contained.
Page 7: fqr31e00
METHOD OF PROCEDURE .
steps which are 'to be taken .to initiate 'the project and
bring ;Lt approximately to the iaid-point of completion.
It is difficult to forecast.procedures beyond this point
until the anticipated techriical problems are identified.
The following is -a list pf both 'general and speci.fic
complete system based on the information that is
presently available from Marketing, Research,'
and Product Development.
1. High management must make 'a commitment to con-
struct a pilot installation in Danville that is
capable'of producing an enriched RL sheet in
sufficient quantity to support a successful new
brand. 'As a starting point, this would be a
commitment to develop the process shown schema-
tically in Figure I.
2. Upon a decision to proceed with the preliminary
plan, Engineering should immediately begin more
detailed planning for the installation of the
of liquids, tanks and pipes,.and drier temper-
3. In addition to the above, Engineering will pre-
pare a descriptive manual for the present RL
manufacturing operation in Danville for the
use of those associated with the project who are
not intimately familiar with the existing opera-
tion. The manual should be in a convenient and
portable format, and contain written and sche-
matic representations of the process. Data
showing normal processing parameters should be
included, such as flows, pressures, temperatures
It is intended the model be maintained in the
equipment is added as the result of this project.
4. Engineering should construct a simplified scale
model of the Danville operation, including pro-
visions to expand the model as pilot process
. Research Center.
. because nicotine is becoming more difficult to f
adequate supplies are on hand. It appears advise-
able to keep larger than normal supplies on hand ='
make a determination of nicotine requirement for
research purposes in the months ahead to insure :
5. The Analytical Development Group in Research will
obtain on a timely basis.
Page 8: fqr31e00
6..The Analytical Development Section will develop
a plan to produce RL samples for evaluation
which contain supplemental nicotine, buffered
to given pH levels. 'The nicotine can be added
tothe slurry or sprayed on the"dried RL sheet.-
; The effect-- of -a variety' of nicotine sal_ts --on -:-a
_ --smoke 'quality should be `evaluated further. ;
. The'Organio Chemistry Section of Researchwill
continue`to determinethe nature and cause of
the chemical degradations of nicotine in theRL
process blackwater, and to determine methods
to prevent- the -degradation. -: =The Biochemistry .
Section of Research will assist in this task
wherever it can. -
8. The Analytical Development, Organic Chemistry,
and the Biochemistry Sections of-the-Research
Department will proceed immediately to decide
what information is necessary and desireable
to form a data base to support both-the immediate
and long range objectives of the project. It
is envisioned that the data base could consist
of information related to the chemical composi- ,
tion of materials in the various production
stages, the RL sheet, and the resulting-~smoke.
It would be desirable to identify"the chemical
or biological basis=~for chemical transforma= _
tions -occi%rring Jduring -process_ing.--
9. Formal plans =should -be--drawn up -based on the-4-
results of the preliminary planning in Step 2.
Engineering.should specify"--equipment requirements
by manufacturer, model and size, delivery--times
for -equipment;---space"--requir-emen-ts r--necessaXy -
safety equipment, capital and installation costs.
This should be broken down for each of the five
= process -nriits described -ear-l-ier -in . this -report.
Estf~iates =s`h nii1cT ='aElsa 1~ ~+iadc CA01i the-'-lrabor
requirements and other'-expenses required to
operate the installation so cost projections
for enriched RL may be"determined: Planning in
this stage should also be coordinated with R&D
to determine the status of any additional pro-
jects that may effect the Danville RL operation.
10. After f he--formal engineering-plans have been
completed and cost estimates prepared, the =
whole "project :~shouTd =be reViewed witht input from
Engineering, -Niarketirig, -Research,' P-roduct Develop-
ment, Finance,--°and Manufacturing. On the basis of
this review, engineering plans may be revised. ==°
Page 9: fqr31e00
11. Bids should beIet on the final constr.uction
12.' Construction should begin on this proj*ect, be-
. ginning with '.the nicotine metering system, the '
blackwater production line,'.and may simultaneously
include the installation of machinery to pro-
duce *conceritrated bl'ackwater. By this time it
may bepossible'to make a determination regarding
the 'installation of the high'pressure steam dis-
tillation equipment for nicotine production.
13. While Engineering is proceeding -through steps 2-4,
9-11 the Research Department will prepare samples
of enriched RL sheet at Danville. The initial
samples of RL sheet will have to be manually en-
riched with pure nicotine since there are no
facilities in existance at the Danville plant to
provide an extraneous source of blackwater from
the special by-product mix which has been formu=
lated and selected for the enrichment project.
Therefore the initial samples may seem harsh to
the taste panel and out of balance since full
flavor enhancement will not have been achieved.
However, production of RL sheet enriched with
only the nicotine component of the special by-
product mix will permit a study of the effect
of this component on taste, and allow a stepwise
study of the effect.added components have on
the enriched RL production line.
14. The Research Department will be responsible for
the scheduling, production, and chemical analysis
of all samples of the enriched RL produced.
Research will monitor the various operating para-
meters during the production of enriched RL for
the purpose of identifying problems which may
occur. -Research will have the responsibility to
offer solutions for chemical problems, while
Engineering will have the responsibility for
solving mechanical problems.
15. A Research-Product Development project team will
be formed to determine how the enriched RL pro-
duct will be flavored. The initial efforts will
be directed toward determining if the blackwater
or concentrated blackwater resulting from the
special by-product mix extraction process will
Page 10: fqr31e00
give the proper balance of flavor and impact
without significantly increasing the-tar
delivery of the enriched RL.
16. All samples-of eYiriched RL sheet produced will
be- 'fully evaluated by the Product -Development
' _ . L...... .--.-5.:?y
Department, which'will?also have"the"responsi-
bility for sample'cigarette preparation:' -Product
Development will supply-~-Research with complete
and timely reports on each'evaluation, together
withrecommendations to correct any deficiencies
that may have been observed. It is recommended
that Product Development expand their expert
taste panel to accomodate the increased sample
load. = : -
17. Manufacturing in=a11 branches, and the Leaf
Department -will--have to -supply -the Research
Department with timely reports, forecasts,-.and
samples of all by-products and waste tobaccos
produced. The formulation of the special by-
product mix intended for enriched RL production
is very dependant upon this information. Also,
no=signi,ficant amount of tobacco waste should
be sent to the dump without knowledge of the
_- . _.. _..~. '..:...._ ..._- ..,.... lil~._~_ ..-.,..v_- v._ .....a_..._..-_
WLi_L hu' t:te