Tobacco in Health Education
Date: Mar 1991
Length: 45 pages
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Length: 45 pages
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- REPT, REPORT, OTHER
- FOOT, FOOTNOTES
- LIST, LIST
- LEGAL DEPT/EEMA ARCHIVE
- Master ID
- 2501070290A-0293 Plaintiff Pensioner Pentti Kalevi Aho, Tampere, Represented As Before by Professor Erkki Aurejarvi and Attorney Juha Sivenius Defendants Suomen Tupakka Oy, Helsinki Represented As Before by Attorney Robert Liljestrim Oy Rettig Ab, Espoo, Represented As Before by Attorney Mikko Tulokas S 88/1623 Claim of Damage
- 2501070339-0391 Suomen Tupakka's Brief No. 11 the Tobacco and Health Controversy and Education
- 2501070392-0396 Affidavit of Bea J. Van Den Berg
- 2501070397-0400 Biographical Data: Barbara J. Van Den Berg
- 2501070401-0403 Affidavit of Rodger L. Bick
- 2501070404-0447 Curriculum Vitae Roger L Bick, Md, Facp
- 2501070448-0450 Affidavit of Jack Matthews Farris, M.D.
- 2501070451-0459 Curriculum Vitae Jack Matthews Farris, M.D.
- 2501070460-0461 Affidavit of Mariano F. La Via, M.D.
- 2501070462-0471 Curriculum Vitae Mariano F. La Via, M.D.
- 2501070472-0474 Affidavit of Raymond Harrison Rigdon, M.D.
- 2501070475-0495 Curriculum Vitae Raymond Harrison Rigdon, M.D.
- 2501070496-0497 Affidavit of Henry Rothschild, M.D., Ph.D.
- 2501070498-0508 Curriculum Vitae Henry Rothschild, M.D., Ph.D.
- 2501070509-0510 Affidavit of John Edmond Salvaggio, M.D.D.
- 2501070511-0527 Curriculum Vitae John Edmond Salvaggio
- 2501070528-0529 Affidavit of Gerhard N. Schrauzer, Ph.D.
- 2501070530-0535 Affidavit of Carl Seltzer, Ph.D.
- 2501070536-0545 Curriculum Vitae Carl Coleman Seltzer
- 2501070546-0549 Affidavit of Theodor D. Sterling, Ph.D.
- 2501070550-0574 Curriculum Vitae Theodor D. Sterling
- 2501070575-0669 Plaintiff's Brief in the Case of Pentti Kalevi Aho Vs. Suomen Tupakka Oy and Oy Rettig Ab the Twelfth Hearing of the Case 910321
- 2501070670 Aho / Suomen Tupakka and Rettig, Testimonies
- 2501070672 Pentti Aho / Suomen Tupakka Oy Ja Oy Rettig Ab
- 2501070674 Aho V. Suemen Tupakka Oy and Oy Rettig Ab
- 2501070675-0676 Exhibit 15 471 Aurejarvi Statement
- 2501070677 Exhibit 16 471 Tulokas Statement
- 2501070678-0682 Exhibit 16 823 Witness Jorma Johannes Gustafsson
- 2501070683-0690 Exhibit 17 471 Witness Keijo Olavi Valdemar Solman
- 2501070691-0695 Exhibit 18 471 Witness Mauri Hannu Kulo
- 2501070696-0700 Exhibit 19 471 Witness Olli Luukkanen
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Exhibit 1 * 471 Jyrki Mantere Tobacco in Health Education March 1991
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Table of Contents: 1. Introduction 3 2. Health Education in Various Sectors 5 2.1 Schools 5 2.2 Temperance Organizations 15 2.3 Public Health Organizations 27 i ~ 2.4 Athletic Organizations 31 I 2.5 Church 36 2.6 The Military ` 37 3. Conclusion 38 4. List of Exhibits . 42
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1. introduction At the request of the Law Offices Tulokas & Pinomaa I have studied substance abuse and health education as it relates to tobacco. My objective has been to research the contents as well as the extent of educational information on tobacco. For this purpose I have compiled material on tobacco and-studied its content. The study has been limited to the time before 1978 except for some special situations. With good reason this year can be considered a turning point in health education focused on tobacco. At that time the Tobacco Act (639/76) came into effect and resulted in a flood of information that must have reached all smokers as well as non- smokers. The Substance Abuse Education Committee came to the same conclusion in its report in 19801. One example of the information flood is the proliferation of articles on tobacco in the newspaper Aamulehti in 1976-78.2 Furthermore, after 1978 tobacco awareness was further advanced by various public bans on smoking as well as by labels attached to cigarette packaging which warned about  Substance Abuse Education Committee 1980:22, p. 4 (Exhibit 2)  Tobacco in the Press, 1989. N cn 0 ~ a V a N ~ a+ r
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4 the harmful health effects of tobacco. At the other end of the spectrum, the study has gone back in time as far as it has been possible to find archived material. In order to get a comprehensive picture, material has been sought from various health education sectors. Thus the study has covered much the same areas as the Substance Abuse Education Committee Report 1980: 22 which includes an extensive review of the history of substance abuse and health education. The committee did limit itself to discussing tobacco education only when it was contextually necessary.3 In spite of this limitation, there are a number of references to tobacco in the report. The actual survey material has been compiled at random. As an example, the magazine articles included in the study were found mainly by leafing through various publications. For this reason there is probably considerably more material on tobacco than what is included here. Thus this material can by no means be considered exhaustive. Yet it is justified to say that this compilation of material is extensive and comprehensive enough to render a thorough overview of the subject at hand.  Substance Abuse Education Committee 1980:22 p.4 (Exhibit 2) N Cn a H a V ~ N ~ V
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5 2. Health Education in Various Sectors Health education as it relates to tobacco has been discussed separately in the following sectors. 2.1 Schools The schools adopted a very strict attitude toward tobacco in earlier years. Until 1951 school students were unconditionally prohibited from smoking. This meant that if a teacher encountered a student who was smoking, not-only at school or on the way to or from school, but also during the student's free time, he was obligated to punish the student.4. 5 In 1951 the.prohibition was relaxed so that it no longer applied to the students' free time, only to schooi hours and travel to and from school.' Not until the 1970's was smoking permitted in some secondary schools in separately designated areas. The beginning of alcohol and substance abuse education dates back to the end of the last century. In 1890 a prominent organization, The Teachers' Health and Temperance Society, was founded for this purpose. The organization even published text books. Furthermore, at a vacation camp for elementary school teachers in 1894, a unanimous decision was reached to  Records of the Parliamentary Session, 1958, page 3637.  The 1941 Code of Regulations of Tampere City Vocational School, Annual Report p. 47.  Finance Committee Report # 5, 1961 (Exhibit 3). N cn 0 ~ 0 v 0 N 1E} 02
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6 request that all schools begin alcohol and substance abuse education. In a letter dated September 9, 1904, the Board of Education did mandate that it be included in science and'health education.7 This can be considered the official beginning of substance abuse education in schools. At the beginning substance abuse education concentrated on distributing information about the effects and risks of alcohol use. Soon also tobacco established itself as an inseparable part of the substance abuse education. Health and substance abuse textbooks published after the 1930's contain a section on stimulants which invariably include tobacco. In time substance abuse education expanded into other school subjects and was discussed whenever the occasion arose.8 Science was one such subject. For instance the Tampere City Elementary School Annual Report from the school year 1937-38 indicates that in regular elementary education science was taught 1-4 periods a week in 3rd through 6th grade. The textbook used was ElementarY School Science by K.E. Kivirikko, which contained a thorough discussion of both substance abuse and health L7l Commission on Substance Abuse Education, Report 1962 (Exhibit 1). [8J Finance Committee Report #5, 1961. I
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7 education,including a section on tobacco.9 According to the above mentioned Annual Report, in special education classes science, substance abuse and health education were combined in such a way that they were taught two periods a week in 3rd through 6th grade. The 1939 Secondary School Act required that substance abuse education be taught as a separate subject. In new regulations passed two years later, however, substance abuse education was combined with health education and divided into several classes, to be taught in connection with a variety of educational units. A 1948 letter from the Board of Education ordered that fifth grade have one period a week of health education which would also include substance use. In 1967 a subject called citizenship was established. It combined health and substance abuse education which had been rather scattered up till that time. In order to examine tobacco information distributed in schools, I have studied the following textbooks for this report: Artturi Salokannel: Health Book, 1929 K.E. Kivirikko: Elementary School Science, 1930  Elementary School Science, p. 421-422 (Exhibit 16).
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8 Salokannel-Vartia: Healthy Life, 1931 K. Kari-KL.U. Suomela: Secondary School Health, 1933, 1938, 1943 Salokannel-Vartia: Health Education, 1933 All above mentioned books have been used as Board of Education approved textbooks for health and substance abuse education. The only exception is the Health Book by Artturi Salokannel, M.D., which is mainly intended for use by voluntary organizations in their educational activities. All of these books contain a section on tobacco. The Health Book, published in 1929, discusses tobacco rather extensively. According to the book tobacco contains nicotine, a very strong toxin. The book has the following example of the effectiveness of the toxin: If a frog is placed under a glass dome into which tobacco smoke has been blown, it will become paralyzed and die soon. The book further states that tobacco has a detrimental effect on performance and reduces the ability to work. Furthermore, tobacco causes several health problems according to the book. For first time users it causes poisoning symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, vomiting, a feeling of pressure in the chest, and so on. Problems caused by long-term use are listed as follows: The smoker suffers from irregular heart beat N cn 0 ~ 0 V 0 tJ ~ ~
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9 and uncomfortable pressure in the chest. Smoking also promotes arteriosclerosis. In respiratory organs tobacco smoke causes smoker's cough and inflammations of mucous membranes. In digestive organs it causes gastritis. Problems of the nervous system are headache, general irritability, absentmindedness, and insomnia. Rare ailments of the nervous system are atrophy of the spinal cord, inflammation of the optic nerve, blindness, etc. The book contains a rather interesting chapter titled "Fight Against Tobacco" which relates how governments in different countries had taken up arms against the destructive effects of tobacco by adopting bans, threats and penalties. In Russia, for instance, the sale and smoking of tobacco was strictly prohibited in 1634. Whoever disobeyed the prohibition, had to have his nose cut off. He was also flogged, and in worst cases banished to Siberia. In Turkey a smoker's punishment was that his nose was pierced and a pipe stem was stuck through it. Thus decorated he was then paraded through the streets.lo Health Education, 1933, and Healthy Life, 1931, authored by Salokannel and Vartia, contain slightly shorter  Salokannel, Health Book, 1929, p. 189-195 (Exhibit 15). (~7 LI'1 0 1-Q ^.1 0 CO ~ ~
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10 sections on tobacco. Nevertheless, the list of health problems is almost identical to the one in the Health Book. The books note that the more serious health problems do not appear until later, perhaps even decades after smoking. Healthy Life exhorts its readers to seriously consider whether it makes sense to take up smoking. The following factors should be taken into the consideration in that decision: "1) Tobacco harms your health and shortens your life, 2) smoking tobacco spoils the air in your house, 3) smoking costs a lot of money, 4) smoking enslaves its user."il The 1933, 1938 and 1943 editions of Secondary School Health by Kaarina Kari and KL.U. Suomela contain similar sections on tobacco. The book states that tobacco contains a strong toxin called nicotine. A beginner will feel the toxic effects of smoking as nausea, dizziness and headache, but the body will gradually get used to it. According to this book the health effects of moderate smoking to an adult are not very great. The danger of smoking is the fact that moderation is an elusive concept and in most cases leads to excess. Excessive smoking then results in many health problems such as smoker's cough,  Salokannel-Vartia, Healthy Life, 1931 p. 84-87 (Exhibit 14). N cn 0 ~ 0 -s 0 w 0 w