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Philip Morris

Flue-Cured Tobacco Information 940000

Date: 1994 (est.)
Length: 78 pages
2060454065-2060454142
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CONSERVING OUR FUTURE What We Can Dol The future of North Carolina's agriculture depends on our ability to protect and eflicienlly utilize our soil and water resources. Here's what we can do: To Protect Soil Resources • Use lillage methods that reduce erosion and conserve moisture. ' Match crops to capabilities of individual fields. • Maintain soil productivily by proper use of drainage and nutrients. To Protect Water Resources ' Match nutrient and pesticide applications to crop needs. ' Use conservation practices (for example, water ways, field borders, contours, and cover crops) to reduce runofl of surface water. ' Plan irrigations to meet crop needs and reduce runoll. 1211W copms o/ Ih,s puDLc documenl wem nnnlae al a cost ol 1/4 ,25q or f/ 19 per copy. 2060454nR,~ PubbsGM by ^mqraln 6lentlon 9.rv1<e rnv P and nmc'In 1V11 FmPInV/.:°nI Mni1 FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Information 1694 /
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r Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who Irse agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with eurrent regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your counly Cooperative Extension Service agent. This publication is supported in pan by a grant from the Nonh Carolina Tobacco Foundation, Inc. The Foundation receives contributions and provides funds to supplement public appropriations for quality reseatch and extension programs at North Carolina State University for the benefit of the entire tobacco industry. For nmrc information, write to Mr. Keith Oakky, Executive Director, North Carolina Tobacco Foundation, Inc., Raleigh, NC 27695-7645 or call 919-515-2000. CONTENTS 1. TOBACCO SITUATION AND OUTLOOK ............... I AnOverview .................................. 1 The 1994 Tohacco Budget .......................... 2 2. NORTIf CAROLINA FARM LABOR REGULATIONS ...... 6 3. PROTECTING WATER QUALITY AND REDUCING PESTICIDE EXPOSURE ......................... to 4. VARIETY INFORMATION ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 15 NewVarietiesfor1994 ........................... 15 Managing Nonllowering Varieties . . ................... 16 5. TRANSPLANT PRODUCTION ...................... 21 Transplant Produqism in Plant Beds . . .................. 21 Transplarrl Production in Greenhouses . ......... ........ 27 Seedling Root Removal ......... . ................... 28 Tnnsplant Water Fertilize... . . . . . . .. . ............... 29 6. ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS FOR TOBACCO TRANSPLANT GREENHOUSES .................... 32 Protecting Against Smrm Damage . ..................... 32 '/.FERTILIZATION ............................... 34 Soil Tesling .................................. . 34 Primary Nulrienls ...................... '. . ....... 34 Secondary Nutrimts ................ . ............. 45 Minor Nutrients (Micronutrients) .......... . . . ......... 47 Other Economic Consideralions ........ . .............. 48 Tinre and Method of Application ... .... : .............. 49 Ripping (Suhsoiling) .............................. So Fertilicainn Summary ............................. SI g.WEED MANAGEMENT .......................... 53 Problem Weeds ............ '_ .. . ............... 53 Cullivafiu n .... . ............... . ................55 North Carolina Cmrperalive E.Iension Service Nerhicide Selection and Applicamm .................... 56 Sprayer Calihmion ....... , ...................... 61 9. TOPPING AND SUCKER MANAGEMENT .............. 66 Tnpping Benefits .......................... . . ... 66 Chemical Su.ker Control . . . ....................... . 67 Maximixing Sucker Cnntrul and Rcducing Residues with MN .... 70 Topping and Chemical Sueker Contrnl Programs ........ . . . . 75 1993 On Farm Text Rcsultx ...... , ....... , , , , ... , , 79
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10. I1SE OF COLORING CIIEBIICALS ............. . ..... 82 1. ihc Field . . . . .......... . ..................... 82 In rhe B.m . . . . . ...... . .... . ................... 83 11. DISEASE MANAGEMENT ........................ 84 TheTohacco DiseaseSfWatiun ....................... 84 Disua'c Management PndGccs ....................... 86 Managing the Major Diseases .......... ' . ............. 92 Condensed Management Guide for Planl Beds .............. 94 Condensed Managemen/ Guide for Field Diseaus ............ 96 Some Tips on Planning Disease ManagemeM Strategies ........ 109 12. INSECT MANAGEMENT .........................110 Pruleaing Plant Beda ............................. 110 Protecting Seedlings in Greenhouses . ................... 111 Protecting Tobacco in the Field. ...................... 113 Protecting Slored Tobacco ...................... . . . . 129 13. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ..........................131 Sustainable Agriculture ............................ 131 Inlegralad Pesl Management ......................... 132 Summary .................................... 136 14. NO-TILL FLUE-CIJRED TOBACCO PRODUCTION ....... 137 15. MODERNIZED WEATIIER AND CLIMATE INFORMATION ............................... 140 Weather ForecasLS ............................... 140 Basic Weather Principles ................... . ....... 142 Micruclimate Monitoring .......... . ................ 146 Climale Data .... . ............................. 141 TV PROGRAM SCIIEDULE ..................... 20, 52, 148 Prepared by W. David Smith. Gerald F. Pealin, .nd Fre.l ll. Velvertom Crop Science Exlension SpaidisLs; Thomas A. Mellnn, Plant Pathology Exlension Specialist; P. Sterling Southern. Entonxdugy Extension Specialisl; A. Blake Brown and William D. Eickhoff, E.tension Economists; A. Douglas Worshum, Professor of Crop Science; Michael D. Boyelle, Agricultural Engineering Ealension SpecialiG; 1. Paul Mueller and 11. Michael Linker, i Crop Science Ealen.don Specialisls; and Kalharine B. Perry, Agricululural Meleralogy Extension Specialisl. 2060454067 EXTENSION PERSONNEL WORKING Wf7T1 TOBACCO Tobacco growers in North CGrnlinr are fortunate to have an Exicnsion agent with tobacco responsibililies in each lobauo-producing counly. Thexe agents ve supported by resurch and extension facuhy from seversd departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences al North Cvoliru State Universily. The following are the county Cooperative Erlension Service pnsunnel with tobacco responsibilities as of November I, 1993. If a varancy exists, the county Exlen.sion direaor's name is provided: C4RD!Y Ne~e TfIFPti904 Alanunce Roger Cobb 919-5706740 Alexander Dan Smith 910b32-M51 Ansvn Russell Sikes 910-694-2415 Beaufan Henry Riddick 919-946-0111 Benie James Peale 919-794.5317 Blden H.rvey Morris 910-862-4591 Bnmswick David Nash 910-253-M25 CGldwell Gene Gray 704-757-1290 Carteret Rry Hams 919-728-8421 C.swell Ricky Williuro 910-6944150 Chatham Richard Bradley 919-542-8202 Chowan Mike Williams 919-482-8431 Columbus Michael Shaw 91ofi42-5700 Cr.ven Billy Dunham 919~633-1477 Cumberland Mike Carroll Rick Morns 910-084-7156 Davidsnn Bill Hulvmann 910-242-2081 Davie Ronnie Thompson 910-634-6297 Duplin Cunis Fountain 910-296-2143 Durham Mary 1. Whilmore919-560-0525 Edgecombe An Bradley, Jr. 919fi41-7818 Forsyth Mark Tucker 910-767-8213 Franklin Cedric lones 919d96-3344 Granville Tommy Brooks 919fi9L8806 Greene Inuie lohnson 919-747-5831 Guilfurd Wrck WiakOffe 910-375.5876 ILLGr Douglas Phdlrps 919583-5161 Nameu Bobby Bowers 910-893-7530 Ifertford Byrnn Sinronds 919-358-7822 /lnke Gary Warten 910-875-3461 1rulcll Lyle Cassell 9108730507
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E7iTENS1ON PERSONNEI. WORKING WITII TOBACCO (Continued) aunl Name elc hn e Johnston Kennelh Bateman 919-909-5380 Jones Mrnlon Small 919348-9621 Lee David Dycus 919-775-5624 Leaoir Alan Harper, Jr. 919-527-2191 Marlio Mark Keene Larco Reddick 919-792-1621 Monlgomery Bdl Reece 910-576fi011 Moore Charles Namntond 910-947-3188 Nash JimSlephenson 919-459-9810 Northampton Craig Ellison 919-534-2711 Onslow Danny Shaw - 910i55-5873 Onnge Fletcher Barber, Jr. 919-732-9361 ParNico Fred May 919-745-4121 Pender Sandn Maddox 910-259-1235 Person Derek Day 910-599-1195 Pill Mitch Smith 919-757-2800 Randolph Gwynn Riddlck 910-318fi005 Richmond Ben McC.llum 910-997-8255 Rnbeson Everette Davis 910-671-3276 Rockingham Scott Shoulars 910-342-8230 Sampson Bill Ellers 910-592-7161 ScMland David Mntrison 910-277-2422 Stokes Jeff Boyles 910-593-8179 Surry Tim Ilambrick 910-386-9274 Vance Donald Cobb 919-438-8188 Wake Wayne Barmn 919250-1107 Warren Phdip hlcMdlan 919-257-3640 Washingmn Frank C- Wrnslow 919-793-2163 Wayne Bryan Page 919-731-1520 Wilkes Matl Miller 910-651A331 Wilsnn Juhn Weaver 919Q37-0111 N) O O A GY A O Q7 Y.dkm Jack twmdumilk 910b79-2061 co 1. FLUE-CURED TOBACCO SITUATION AND OUTLOOK A. Blake Brown Extension Ecunomist An Overview 7fn 1993 Crop The October I estimate of North Carolina flue-cured mheccu productioo was just over 551 million poundi, down from about 592 million pounds in 1992. U.S. production was down from abou/ 906 million pounds in 1992. at 841 million pounds. The October I estimate of acrrm harvested was 399,500 acrn, down 2,000.cres from 1992. Lower production in 1993 waa mainly the result of droughl conditions in much of the flue-cured growing u.ra. Average yield for U.S. Ruecmed tobacco was estimated to be 2,106 pounds per acm, down 151 pounds from 1992. Quality was also adversely affected by the drought. Even with hither price svpporLs, prices for 1993 were down from 1992. The low quality nf the 1993 crop, ao anticipated increase in the fedenl e.cise lex on cigam0es, and large world supplies of Bue-cured Iohecco adversely affected the price of U.S. Bue<ured tobacco for the 1993 arasoo. As of October 21, 1993, the season avenge price for all the belts was $1-6g5 per pound. The season avenge for 1992 was $1.726. As of October 21, 1993, the old and middle belt season average pnce per pound was about $1.69, whilc the eastern belt suson avenge was $1.70. The season avcnges for the border and Georgia-Florida belts were 81-67 aAd 51.65, respectively, as of l3ctoFcr 21, 1993. Tobacco production and consumption data fur Ihe past 10 yean are presented in Table I-1. 7he Tobacco Progmms The 1993 effective One<ured tobacco quota (or all the Oue•cured-producing rlales was 890 million pounds, down 9 millioa pounds fmm 1993. The 1993 hasic quota was 892 million pounds- unchanged from 1992. The 1993 effective qunu for Nonh Carolina was 585 million pounds, unchanged from 1992. As of October 21, 1993, U.S. Ouecured producers had sold over 879 million pounds or abnul 93 percenl of the effective quota. The 1993 average suppnrl price for Oue<ured tubacco wa. S 1.577 pet pound. Srabiliznrion Siluarion About 21 percent of Ihe 1993 Ourcured crop w.t purchased by the Flue- cured Tobacco Gwpcrauve Smhdruhnn Corporatmn, up from 9 percent tn 1993. The large receiMs by ShhVbrminn will likely result in a lower 1994 quota.
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Outlook Disappearance of Buecured tobacco for 1992 totaled 929 million pounds. up 54 million pounds fmm 1991. Bmh domestic use and eaports of umunuhcmred tobacco were up. Imports of Buecurm tobacco also increaved. Imporls of Bue-cured tobacco were 217 million pounds in 1992, up from 138 rrullion pounds in 1991. fsgisletion was passed u a part of the Budget Rccoociliation Act of 1993 tn hmit the use of imported tobacco in cigarettes ounufactmed in the U.S. The regulations require that, beginning January 1, 1994, the tob.cco eonleot of all cigarettes nonufactured in Ihe U.S. be at leasl 75 percent U.S.-grown mbaeco. The intentoflhe legislation is to increase the use of domestic Iohaccn. I1 is unclear whether or nol producers will benefit from the new legrshlion. The legislation could Iessen the adverse impact of large world supplies of Bue-cured tobacco or the adverse impact of an increase in Ihe federal excise tax on cig.mnes. Benefita fram the legislation art likely to be short run in nature. However, benefrcid effects from the legislaian could he offset by movement of production of cigarettes for foreign nmrkns from the U.S. to other cotmtnes. Because of large world supplies of flue-cured lobecco, quality problems with the U.S. crop, and possible trade retaliation as a resatt of the domeslic content Isw, eaports of unmmufacmred tobacco will likely be lower for 1993. Continued declines in U.S. consumption of cigarettes plus the negative effects of an increase in the federal excin:tax on cigareltes on cigardte consumption could lead to lower cigarette production in the U.S. 'Ihfs combined with lower exports of unm.nufacwred tobacco and large receipts of tobacco by the Flue<ured Tobacco Cooperative Sbbilintion Corpomtion nuy lead to declining quolas for the nexl severd yurs. Declines in quot, might be avoided if changes in the tobacco program occur to nuke U.S. Bue<ured tobacco mon: competitive an the world market The 1994 Tobacco Budget The budget in Table 1-2 (page 5) represents costs and setums that are achieved by many growers. h is nat an average budget in any sense and should nol he eonstmed as representing average cost of pnduc4on. It does. hnwever. give you samelhrng by whtch you can cheak your own costs and see where you may be dning better than thls budget or where you may find room for improvement. w ., N M N_ V, ry P P m P m P Q< P y e ~ 0= N w Fy C e L ~ ul!?y~ o m a ' g m V m O 5 a L Y P 2 3
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OLOtr9b090Z Table I-1, continued Avenge Price Market Support Subiliatioo Reeeipts Actea U.S. Cigar ette Ycar Pnce Rate (f/lb) ($/lb) (Mil.lb) (% of Crop) Harvested (1,000) Yield Outpu (IblA) (billio t ns) 1984 1.81 1.699 ISo 18 392 2,206 661 1985 1.72 1.649 132 17 357 2.241 665 1986 1.53 1.438 55 8 308 2.091 662 1987 1.59 1.435 25 4 325 2.129 667 1988 1.61 1.442 15 2 366 2.219 703 1989 1.68 1.468 28 3 391 2,069 695. 1990 1.67 1.488 74 8 417 2,253 685 1991 1.72 1.528 50 6 403 2,265 706 1992 1.73 1.56 81 9 401 2,257 684 1993 1.68' 1.577 177' 21 399 2,106 702 Suurce: Vanous tables tn 7o an.n 5tmanort and O W eport, Seplem 1993, A, oovc Research Service. Most of the d.ta for 1993 are eetinules, - 'As of October 21, 1993, as reported tn the'Daily Market News Summvy,' USDA. Agricultunl Marketing Serrtce- y-, s.z ! ~3 H €~:s i ~e= ~9 ~ y n Cp 28 C' - n S s ~ $ L g 6C i C L 3 a, z" 4 n ~ ~ L g 3 $ y j 3 S } N c ~ ~ $3 a:z ««. -G ~ ~ G i ~ 8g R e e o o 5889 Q 3 3 a a ~ ~ u y $V- 630° a~s= i•~ss>EF«>«'~sooc~,C~~:snF:?~k9e aaaaa S a-a--' -a- - Mxw>s»~a;s~se~sseass»sac.e-s»= 111 ~ I I I I I
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2. NORTII CAROLINA FARM LABOR RECULATIONS William D. Eickhoff Extension Ecanomisl Fermen sre faced wilb a barrage of mles and regulalions pertaining lo fssm lehor, iocluding immigntion law, various employment laxes, and migrmt housing requirements. This chapter briefly outlines the major mles and mguLGons dfectmg farm lab.n. Immigration The Immigration Reform rmd Conlrol Act of 1986 (IRCA) states that employ- en must hire only American citizens snd aliens who are authorized to work in the United Slates. Form 1-9 was developed to verify tlul pessons sre eligible to work in the United Sonra. The law requima m employer to do the following: (I) have ell employees fill oul their part of Form 1-9 when they begin work; (2) check documents establishing each employee i identity and eligibility 1o work; (3) properly complete Fano 1-9; (4) relaia the form for at least 3 yeass; and (5) show the form to officials if requesled. Form 1-9 must be completed within 3 business d.ys of the hiring date. If the persou is employed for less than 3 days, an employer must complete Form 1-9 before Ihe end of the employue's first working day. Retain the 169 for 3 yurs afler the date Ihe persau begins work or I year after the person's employment is terminated, whichever is later. Form 1-9 is available from Ihe Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Empbymenl Discrimination IRCA also prohibits discriminalion against citizens and work-mlhorind non- citirens. Employers may not refuse to consider all qualified persons with work aulhorirsian, whether ciliven or nonciliren. Employers musl accept my document listed in the INS Handbook for Employers and msy not ubitrarily specify an INS documml or require additional documents. Employers may not mfum to him a qualified worker whose emplnynwnt authorization expires at a laler dam. Employers rtuy be pcnelired and msy also be forced to pay back wages if they conmril rmmignhm-relaleJ employment discrimrnstion. Social Seeurily Fanner-employers must withhold and pay social security taxes if they employ one or mnre agricultural workers, mcludmg parenls, childm 19 years or older, or spmses. They also must mcet either of these two N) O requimmems: (1) Pay the employee $150 or more in cash wages during the year; or (2) pay cash wages of $2,500 or more during the year m all employees. Farmers sre exempt from withholding and paying socisl security taxes on the following wages: (1) wages paid to aliens lawfully admitted lo Ihe United States under the H-2A program, (2) wages paid the fnnei s cbild(ren) under Ig years of age, md (3) wsges paid i0 farm commodities. Income Tax Wilhhofding Farmers ne required lo withhold federal income taxes from agriculmnl wsgea if the wqea are subject to FICA (sociel securily) las withholding. A Farm Wd (Employee. Withholding Allowmm Certificate) should be completed by each emplnyee, and a copy should be retained by she employer. Unenploymenl Tax Farmertmployen must pay s1a1e and fedenl unemploymeut tsx (FUTA) if they oerA either of the following two teals: (1) they paid cash wages of f20,000 or mose lo farm workers in my one calendar quarter during the current or preceding year or (2) they employed 10 or more farm worken fos aome part of at IesY I day during each of 20 different weeks in the current or preceding year. These rules do not apply to the employa's spouse, puente, or childreo under 21. The unemployment t.s is imposed only on the employer; it must not be collecled or deducted from the wages of the employee. For more infomutioo, contact the Norlh Carolina Employment Security Commission. Worker's Cornpenvlion Any farmer who regularly employs 10 or more full-time, naoseaond emp(oyees must purchase worker's conpen.vtion coverage from a privale insurer to cover employees should they sustain m injury on the job or contract an occupational disease. Worker's eompeosation insurance pays for an employee's job injury medical expenses, lost wages, rehabilitation, permanent disability, and death benefits. Earned Income Credit The esmed income credit in 1993 is available to qualified persons with adjusted gross incomes of $23,050 or less. To qualify for the credit, individuals must have s quslified child living with them for orore than 6 months of the year and have a ouin home in the United Ststes- Farmers are required to notify each employee who worked for them at my lirrc during the year and from whom they did not withhold my tax above the earned income credih Employees who hsve claimed exempuon frnm withholding on Form 0) 6 0 7 4~:o U1 I ~ ~ ~
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W-4 do not have to be notified. Farmers generally are required to mske advance dmcd income credit payments to employces who have requested them by filmg a Form W-5 with the farmer. Minimmn Wage If a fas.mer employed less than 500 man-days of .gricullunl labor in any quarter of the preceding calendar year, be or she is exempt from the minimum wage for the entire following calendar year. A'mao-day' is defined ss any day during which an employee performs agrieulmn) labor for ane hour or mom. If rnvered under the Fair Iabor Standards Acl, a fsrmer must pay a minimum wage of $4.75 per hour to sll employeea. Alsss, pay of employees paid on a picce-nlc basis must be equal to 16e minimum wage or higher. Overfune Federal and st.te requimments for paying oveAime wages do nol apply Io agriculture. Child Labor Provisions Sixteen years is the minimum age for working in agriculmn if Ihe job is considered dangerous or performed during school houn. Fourteen years is the minimum age for working in agricultural jobs if the job is performed outside school hours and not considered hazardous. Twelve- snd ahirteen- yearolds snay be employed with wrilten puental consent. Minose of my age nuy be employed by their prtents at any time in any occupaien on e farm owned or operated by their parents. Joint &ssploymenl N The lerm joinr empfoymem denotes a situation in which an individual is considered an employee of two or more persons at the seme time. Joint employment questions often arise as to whether individuals employed by a /arm labor cnntraclor are also employed by the fammr. Factors used to determsne if a joint employment relationship exists include the following: (1) the nature and degree of control of workers; (2) the degree of supervision of the work; (3) the power to determine pay rtles ur methods of payments; (4) the right to hire, fire, or nraldy the employment condstsons of the workers; and (5) preparation of payroll and the payment of wages. If a joint enqdoysnent reltlionship existed and the crew leader was unable to pay what wis owed to the workers or to the govemmenl, the farmer could be held liable for wages snd wnhheld Iaxes, ~ ~ C) 0 A U'I A O v N Vehicle Innurastce Farmers who transport farm workers and sre subject lo the Migranl and Seasonal Agriculmnl Worker Proteclion Act (MSPA) are required to have vehiete insurance of $1.500.000 for my vehicle used to transport up to 15 pusengers and 55,000,000 for any vehicle used to traosport more than 15 purmgers. Farmera suhjecllo the MSPA sro those who employed 500 man- d.ys of labor during any quarter of the previous calendar year. Farm Labor Conlraors A farm labor contractor is a person who, for mooey or other valuable canrideratiom, perfortm my fum labor motracting sctivity. As an employer, a fum labor conlnctor would recruit, solicit, hire, employ, fsmirh, or transport my migrant or susnmd egricullural worker. A fum labor contractor msul obtain a certificate of mgistnlion suthoriang his or her eclivities. This cenifiwte can be obtained from any office of the Wage and Hour Division, the Department of Labor, cr my North Caroliea Employment Security Office. Mignnt Housing If fermer-employers prov'sde housing Io one or mom migrants employed in egrirn)[urt on a seasonal basis, they sm covered by the Migrant Housing Act. If they own housing used by migranls or make amogements to use sottseone else's pmperty to house their migrsm employees, it is their sespoosibilily to make are that the housing meets certain specified standards srd that the labor department is notified before the mignnts move in. Farmers must notify the Dep.rtrnent of Labor or the local health dcpartmenl at lersl 45 days before they expect migrant help to arrive. Employers my pick up uotificalion forms at the county Cooperative Extension Service center, the locd health depanment, or the local Employment Security Commission office, or they may write dire<dy to the North Carolina Department of Labor. North Carol{n. Field Sndlalion Standard Farmers musl provide: (1) one field toilet per 20 workers or fnction thereof; (2)hsnd washing facililies; and (3) suitable cool, potable drinking water if they employ 11 or rmsre wnrkers on any given day. The same standards apply if a f.mser provides housing for one or more migrant workers. For sddiGond infonrution. obtain a copy of Extension Scrvice publicaiion AGJ4/, North Cnro/ina Fann Labor Rules and Regu7arionq from your county Extension Cenrcr. 9
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]. PROTECTING WATER QUALITY AND REDUCING PESfICIDEEXPOSURE Fred Yelvcrton - Cmp Science Estension Specialist (foh.eeo) Protection of our mvironmenl is receivillg much nalionel attention, and a great deal ofrhhis concem ia related to sgri<ulmm. In the future, mviraomental issnn will be an integral pan of extension educational programs and sgricultuol pollcy. Nonh Carolina agriculture and tobacco pmducliou will not be immune to these cooc<ms. Everyone involved in the agrieullunl induslry, including producers, agribusiness, and educational organintions, Irtust be conccmcd with the protection of our oamrd resources. One of the mosl important of these resourcea is our water supply. Protecting both surface water and groundwater frmm aturienls and pesticide residues should be s goal for every farm in North Carolina. Reducing pesticide exposure to humans and wildlife is also impmbnt in roday'a farming openuons. The following sections describe snme sonsurea that tubacco producers and professional spplinlors can take to minimire the threat lo wstcr quality and reduce pesticide exposure to hum.ns aod wildlife. 1lfinimii< Pesticide and Fertilizer Ilse Where Possible Pesticide use should be only one part of an overall pest mansgemenl program for insecu, diseases, suckers and words. Such factors as crop rotation, early 1Wk and rool deslruclion, the use of thresholds where avai6hle, promotint a healthy and vigorous crop with good cultural pncliees, and proper fertilinlioa are very basic principles that nul only protect the environment but alsn reduce pesticide and fertilizer inputs; therefore, they make good economic smse. Refer lolhe sections on iosect, disease, and weed nsansgemenl; on integrated pesl mmagemenl; and on sucker control for proper msnagemml of Ihese pesls. Fertilinr use alsn affecta both pesl problems and water quality. A careful soil testing program followed by application of only those nmrienls recommrnded is a part of a sound tobacco fertilization program. Refer to chapter 6. 'Fertililalion,' for guidelines. Select a Pesticide Carefully While cultural practices are ImpurWl parls of a sound pest nunagemenl program, often pestlctdes must still he used When thls rs the case, wre must be taken to match Ihe pesli<ide with the peg. This involves proper idemrficalmn uf the pesl and then selecunn of a pcsucide, rase, and sppliution method that is nwst effective for control. The selection proceas dwuld also include consideolioo of po/enlisl effects on water and safety to humans and wildlife (sm balow). Apply Peslicides CvefuRy E.rrume ure musl be taken to make sure the peshcrde is applied only 101he tobacco crop. This is especially important where aerid application is used. Field bordcrs consist of ditches, hedge rows, and woods, which am all vital h.bilat for wildlife. Imprecise application can be detrimenW to Ihheu areas snd cout.min.led water in ddches m.y find its way into larger bodies of wNer, such u ponds. lakes, and nvers. Pre.ent Soil Movanmt As soil particles bccome dislodged, they csrry peslicidm and nutrients that msy eventually find their way into s water source. Therefore, sotnd soil conservalion praaicea, such as Ihe use nf cover crops, waterwsys, strip cropping, and avoidance of unnecessary disking and cullivatioos must be practiced to minimire contaminuion of our waler resources. Consull your local Soil Consarvalion Service and Eatenslon agent for proper conservation practices. Pesticides comruonly used on tobacco differ in their potential to conlaminsle surface water and groundwater. Predicting which pesticides smy reach groundwatu and on which soils this is musl likely Io oceur is very difficult (because of such faclors as differences in soil chemical and physical characteristics and waler table depth). As a general mle, rolling soils in the piednrnnthave more potenlid for surface water contartunalion, whereas the highly leachable soils of the sandhills and coastal plain nray be more susceptible to groundwater conlaouoatian. However, sur6ce water conl.minalion can uccur on slightly sloping soils found in the coastal plain. The Soil Conservslion Service san help you determine Ihe leaching and ruonR polmlids for your helds. We can also use some general guidelines that help determine which pesticides vuy he at highM risk for environmental mntamination. These guidelines ve based on knowledge of the chemical characlerislics of different pesticides and are summarirul in Tshle J-1. This list includes most of the commonly used tobacco pesticides. Two guidelines for pesticda are surfncr lorsparenriof and fenching pmmnriaf Surface loss potential indicates the tendency of the palicide to move with sedimenl in runofL A large rating means the pesticide has a high tendency to move with sWrmenl, whde a small rating tsswns the pesticide has a Iow potential to move with sediment. Luchmg potential indicales Ihe tendency of a pesucide to ntove in solullon with water and le.ch belnw Ihe lo
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p M 0 A Cn ~ p 4 N Table 3-1. Water Contamitution Potential and Mammdian Toairity or Commonly Uud Tob.tzo Pesticides Surface Lcss Leechmy LDa' Common Nsme Trade Namefsl' Potential` PdeotW' Oral Denoal acephate Onhene Small Sm.ll 966' 10.250' aidiarb Temik Small Large 2.25 >2,000 urbaryl Sevm XLR Plus Medium Small 725 > 2.000 urbofuran Furadan Small Large II 10.200 chlompmnn Chlor-08ic 100 Small Large 250 - chlorphynfas Lorsbm Large Small 96-270 2.000 chlmwene Command Medium ].arge 1,406 >2-000 duzmon Diaanon Medium Large 300-400• 3.600- dmhloropmpene Telone 11. Telone C-17' Medium Luge 224 333 disulfomn DbSyston Medium small 2-IO- 6-20- endomlfan Thiodan. Endocide +• Large small 30 359 ethephon Ethrel Medium Total Uae 4,400 >6,500 ethephan Prep Medium Total Use 3.540 1,745 ethopmp Mocap Medium Luge 46.7 369 feoamiphos Netnsur Medium Medium 5' It0• ferbam Carbam.te Medium Medium > 17,000 - 1lumeu.lia Pnme+ Large small 3,100 - fonofoe Dvfonate larYe Medium g-17.5 25' Table 3-I. Waler Contamination Potential and Mammalian Texitity of Comtnaedy Used Toba® Pestitides lcontinuedl Surf~ce Loss [.e.chin LD~ Cotnmon Name Trade Name(s)' Potential' PotentiaF Oral Dermal isopmpalin P..rlan Large Very >5,000 - small mslathion Cylhian, M.Iathion Small small I,000 4,100 maleic hydra5de Sevenl Small Large 3.900 -- rneulaxyl Ridomil Small Medium 669• >3,100• tnclhomyl Lum.te Small Medium 17 5,990 methyl p.nthmn Petmcap-M Medium Total Use 20 491 napropamtde Devrlnol Large Medium 4,640 - oxamyl Vydale Small Large 5.4' 2.960 penlhton Sevenl Medium Small 2 73 pebulam Tillam ' ' Medium Medium 921-1,900 4,640 pendimethalin Prowl Large Small 2,679 >2,2fA tnchlorfon D los Pmeel SmeI1 Lu 250' >Z 1W mt comnon t e tumu; o n mry in uee as vrc . 'Surface loss and leachmg poleuti.ls by Soil Conservuion Servirm. 1Dp: The dase (quantny) of a substance Ihat will be lethal to 50 pemeet of the organisms in a spcific teat simation. It is expressed m•YSight of the chemical (m`) per uolt of body weight (kg). TLo lower the number - the mere toxic the chemical. Oral refen to tuxtctty, thmuyh ingesslon. vkile dermal refen m toxicity by sf:in conuct. Value. an: from the F nn Chorrirnla Hmdhook '92 •nd the Herbinde Hondbaok, 6th edition. eielone C-17 a xo contama c oropterm. 'Endocide + also contstns panthian. Techmc.l matenal. Technical material may be more or lews loxlc than the formulated m.terial.
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uvu mne_ The uting of large, medium, srmll, and luul use deeenbes the plenlul for lesching. A rating of hrge means the pesticide has a high pNCmid for leaching. The onsl use nlrng means the pesticide nhaald nul leach with pereolningater- These are general gmdeliaes and should be interpreted as such. Certainly they muir be inlerprded in relation to hcal sod chanctensncs. An LD,s ie used to measure pesticide toxicity to humsur and other mamrruls. An ID,r is m.mouol of s substance that will cause death in 50 percent of e target pnpulnion. The lower the number the more .cutely (shorl-Ierm) loric the subsunce is. An LDn can be us<d only to tneeaute shurl-tenn toxicity and is not a rncasure of chronic (loug-teem) toxicity, such u We ability In cause diseases wch ac cancer. Care should be taken lo minimire exposure of humsos and wtldlife to all pesocides. However, extreme csutioo should be taken with peslicrdes that have low LDn's, such as Temfk, Di-Sysloo, Netoscur, and Paraduon. A msjoruy of pesticide exposure occurs in one of three ways: (1) exposure In skm (derwl), (2) ingestion (otel). ar (3) inhdalion (breathing vapos). Pmmative clothing should always be wom when handling petlicides. Rubber gloves, boou, and goggles or face shuld should always be wom when mixing pesticides. A resprntar should also he used when handling peslicides that have a strang od.n and are easily detected by smcll. This is especidly true with fumtgsnu such as Tclooe C-17 or Chloropicrin. The potenliJ for pesticide exposure is always greater when handling cancentratdt pessicides (not mrxrd with water) as opposed to a diluted solution (rnixed with water in s sprayer). Also, pesticides should not be dded in a spny tank by lifting the pesticide container above one's head to pour into the lank. Coosult your county Exlension agent for additional informalion on how to reduce pesticide exposure from mixing and applying pesticides. If a pesticide poisoning is suspected, swutsct the Duke Poison Control Center al 1-BOOfi72-1697. The center provides 24-hour consultant service for the diagnosis and treatment of human illness resulting from toxic substances. 4. VARIETY INFORMATION GerJd F. Peedm Ceop Science Extenaun Specialist (falucco) New Varieties for 1994 Based on dealer seed sales, couoty Cooperative Extension Semce agents estimated the following plantings of Ruecured veneticc in Norlh Cuolin. in 1993: K-326 (61 pereeoq; K-346 (14 percent); K-149 and K-394 (4 percent each); Speight G-28, K-399, NC 37NF, NC 27NF, C-371G, and NC-729 (2 percent each); and all others (15 percent). Norlhrup King's K-326 has been the must widely plraud vanety in Norsh Carolina sioce 1984 .nd wu thc most popular variety in all brJU io 1993, ranging from 65 percent of the scresge in the eastern belt to 51 percenl in the border belt. K-346 was the second must popular variety in the bnrder, esstem, and middle belts, whde K-394 wu the second onst popular verndy in the old belt. Results of the 1997 Officisl Variety Tests are shown io Table 4-I. Nole thet the black shank and Gr.nvilk will disease raisl.nce ratings have been modified to include a ntmericrl rafing in addition to the verbrd rating (low, moMrate, high) previously rsud. LOWER NUMBERS INDICATE HICHER RESISTANCE TO THESE DISEASES. Four oew varietiec that passed minimum standards in December 1992 eud sm avuleble for plmting in 1994 are listed below. Two of the new variesies. K-730 aud Speight G-126, .re resiu.nt 1o r.ees one and duee of Ihe sotrlhem roa-knot oerwtode and none ere resicual to tobacco mussie vims (TMV). Leaf spacing on the sulk ws s'irtsilar (about 2 inchas) for sll oew vanelies but uaded to be wider for K-730 and closer for Oxford 940. K-730 was developed from e cross between McNarr 926 (K326) and the breediog line 80241. It was released io 1989 bw na/ commercially promoted by Northntp King uoul 1994. K-730 has low rcustaau lo black shsnk and high resistance in Grroville will. 11 prorluced high yrclds and good quality in 1993 tests. Leaf number per plmt was slightly lower and deys to flowering was slightly higher than the averages of other vsridies m the tcsts. Osfurd 940 was developed by Dr. Vemc Srsvm (USDA) from a cross belween Speight G-28 md Coker 347. It has excellent resistance In black shank and moderau rrsixtaoce to Grmville wilt. Oxford 940 prolucal shghtly lower Wan average yields of average qualily in 1993 msts. Flowermg date was nomul, while plant height and leaf number per plsrtl were shghlly below the aversge of other vanelics in the tests. t5
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Reums MI was developed Irom a cross between Speight G-28 and Reams 158. It has moderate resistance m both black ehank and Granville will. Reams M I produced avenge yields of`average qualily in 1993 Ieats. Flowering date and plant height wer< normal compared to other varieties in the tests, while Inf number per plant was slightly higher than evenge. Spright G-126 was developed from e cross betweeo K-326 and Speight G-96. 11 has moderate resistancc ro both black shank and Gruville wilt. Speight G-126 produced average yields of slightly leaa than average quality in 1993 testc. It Oowered about 3 days later than avenge and produced an avenge fuf number on a plant of avenge heighl. Growers ve enmuraged to plant onlyy limited.veage of.ny new ..rtidy until mon informelion.nd upeiere betmre available from  wider range of soil and dim.tic mndifime. Managing Nonllowering VviNies When aunaged properly, nnnflowming vaneties produce good yields and quality and have the following advantagn over convmtionJ varieties: • Less Pranalure Flowering. Although wme early flowering may occur with nonflowering variclica, the crops usually avenge 20 or mom leaves per planl compared 0 14 l0 17 leav<a pet plant for some conventional vaneties; therefore, nonflowering varidies ean be managed normelly, while caovration.l varieYn requim mon labor for early lopping and tumingoul suckers. • k.ess Labor for Topping and Suckering. Because these varieties flower 4 to S weeks later than conventional varimies, they are physically easier m top and hrve few, if any, suckers 1n mmnve at lopping if the plants are lopped as soon as they have Ihe desired leaf number. Usually, all of the plants can be topped fo one or two passes over the field. Also, the suakers remain small untd mpping arnl an easter to control with contacts before lopping or wilh systermcs after loppmg. • k.ess Priming (Pf Gr.des. 11. amount of P-gnde tobacco can be reduced substantially by drxardmg or not harvestrng 3 to 4 lower leaves and topping 3 to 4 leaves higher. However. recent tests indreate that removing (01 nm harvesung) miue lhan 4 lower leaves and rnoreasing ropprng hcrght to nurntarn leal number per acre may reduce yrcld and acre value, even when up tn 30 pounds of extra nrlrugcn pr acre rs addcd. 16 09~ ZZFtBR$Sa x`- Q yYY -.j' op r~~u n p r e r.l - e ,-~ H n v.p~ p 1~rS rV ~ rV N N N N.wi tl~ N w n P N N I' n~ a a a a a a~y a a a~ a a>> H N N N N N N N N N N V9 H ^ R H R R R G N~» i i~rr N G' i ~~ x,~ xp Iy~.a C,r~..r .+ x,., f xp E FV, s~ n^ S IV N~r-, N„~i ,P-, r1 n rV N N rV r9 J x E J x~ x..1 J J J=$ J fp J.. v°,2 $ `3'm ~ i .~ ~„^ ~ n P 3 ,°n',B2 '9 0 6'm m /Y 3 6,~.~$:: Cr~ po _ - -r`, r^. R $ - - r= - - 3 ~ - .'r. Z 2 P 9 r ~ r E E e V U Y Y Y Y X Y Z i Z v~ ogr is K 17
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Dcleycd flowering and higher leaf numbers, whlch nuike the ebuve adv.n- Lilea possible, can elw cnntnbule to lower profi4 nnlesr nonflowering v.ridies are fertiliud pruperly tnd lopped Y1 the proper nme and leaf nurobeL 2 1 ~ 6 no Yl N N N N N In In N i G G a[ f f i S~ ~ S f J f~ x f J Fi ~ Ri n r~ ~"i rS ~r ~ g °o g . - a o $ .°-' u u ti ci u~ le 3 .~_a c~Y ToppLq Height, Lower!<q/Remoral, and Nirrogen Rale The following men.Qemwl slaenlenls are based on several years of field rorarch m North Carolina and other Iluecured lobtcco-produc{nj tWes: • Topping at 24 leaves per plant and ramoving 4 lower leavea per plaol did eo1 siroifian0y improve yield and value per Ycne compved to lopping el 20 leaves per plant aod not lelaovini any lower leaves. Topping higher Yud removing more lower le.vet Yi(nificeully reduced yield.nd vdue per Ycre, even whw etln Ylilropm was used. Therefore, 6ilure 1o increse yield and value plus the additional cosl of lower leaf remnvel meka Ihrt preclice uneconomlal given the currenl market demand for lower-sldk loh.cco. • N'hen the jrowing srason wu relrlivcly dry (that is, imptron was not used), utiog normd nilrogeo and lopping tl 20 Icevea per plenl meximired yield and value per .cre. • Wheo the prowmQ wson wts relatively wel (1hr1 it, irriiauon was used u eaeded). using 15 pounds of exlra nitrogen per acre and topping el 21 leaves per plenl m.aimiwl yield and value per scre. (Ifie normel oilro9en tale in these lesls was 55 to 60 pounds per ecre; tce page 37 to estimate rwrvlYl oilroym ratcs based on topsoil depth.) ' Bawd on research in plonda. delryinf topping nnre than I week dief Ihe desireJ Ie.f number was obt.uned sryndtcendy reduced yidd and velue per .cre, .nd the ralucuons were `reLLer for upper leaves Ouo they were for lower leeves. Other costly effects of lopping non0owcnng vtneucs too hleh.re: • Extra Costs of halVe]4ng and Cunnb Cxtn le]vcr Ihal au< nul offsel by higher yrelds or yuady. • Poaable eaemmn of Ihe h.rveat wrwn, p.nrculady d uoa lulrogen Is uXd. • LonSer peuod needed lor budworm mnbal • Draclue rrJu.nun in maulme levels, even when exlra nitrogen is urA. 19
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Saaler Coerrof/or Noqpowedng Varieties Smce wckars remain small untd the plants are topped, proper .pplrcuion of conucu before topping emlHor Pnme+ within eeverJ days after bppm`, depeodmt on site of upper Ieaves, will provide eseellmi sucker control. Geoerally, the fint contact (4 percenl) should be applied 3 to S days before topping and Ihe eecand contacl (S percrnQ just before topping; appl y MH .ud/m Psime+ as .oou after uppm8 u dte upper le.ves ue lv8e enoneh tu be sprayed without cutsms disswtion (10 b 12 iochn Im8). If it is 10o dry for MH after toppin8, apply a third conlacl (S pescrat) os Prime+ aud delay MH applicution until moistwe condilioaa improve. Late seoue sucken, if .oy, can be controlkd with a 5 perceat conbet or a I perceat Prime+ eppliralion 3 to 4 weeks after MH appliusion. CAUIION: Usn aJy une Psimc+ appliutimr p> wasws. 5. TRANSPLANT PRODUCTION W- Davrd Smith Crop Scrcoc< Extcnsron Specialist (Tobacco) The production af qudny tnnspl.nts n an imporlaet step in the production of a tmiform crop in the field. Sound praWchon practicev have to be followed for nu:cessful Ir.osplsns production m plant beds or Breenhouses. Labor u a major concem, and technology has been developed that rnduces labor require- ments in Ir.nrylam productioo. For er.mple, clrppia8 and undercutting wheo ured together in plant beds reduce pulling requiremenls by u much as 50 perrmt, and a mechanical trwpleat digger is naw available. Greenhouse psoduclion quemc eccountrd for 46 perceot of the seedliot production ia 1993. TransplW Production in PIuY Beds TOBACCO INFORMATION TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR 19Bi WNCT - TV Greenvdlc, NC 1. a 7-9 ..m. WRAL - TV Raleigh. NC lan. 8 6-7 e.m. N O WITN -TV WECT - TV Washtn8ton, NC WdmmBmn, NC lan. a lur. 8 7-e e.m. 7-8 c.m. iT CD ~ W%II-TV Wrnston-S.Icm,NC J.n.B 7-ee.m. ~ 4~- 0 20 "4 The riagle mua importaot management factor in the coasistqq production of hnhhy, tr.usplanu ia the .bilny to control and moismre iu the plant bed. The selection of well-0r.ined sirec and proper plant bed prepu.tion ue critical, pnicululy in wd lessms. Successful rocbai[Nroo of seedin8, clipprn;, u.deacutlin8, and pullin8 operaions are dependent on locating beds io well- doinad oeat, which will sllow tracton to be used uound the plant beds. litigation continues to be a critical factor for good seed `ermination and smdlin( growth, particularly when plant beds are moved from pomly draiued .r'ae b belter-drained locations in acconmulam mccbanitatioo. It is also beneficial to select locabous with a sorrthem eaposure and wind protection to the uorsh and west. Soils that are well dratned and protected from cold winds are warmer than exposed sirea, so mrdlih8 growth is nwre predictable. fnbor-Sortnf PrarNrrs Transplrm production onder perforaled plasnc m field bcds n rtare ecanomiul thm mher production methods. However, the labor required to manage covers and to pull transplants rs . cnncem fur many powers. There ue several aptrons available that can rcducc the amnunt of Ivbor ruymral. These pncoces include the use of wovcn cuvcn, prccrsiuo sesdm8. clipptne, undercuuin8, and mechunual n.n..pluu diegmg. Wu.en Covers. The use of wovcn coven such as Rrxmzy allow. Oesrbthry rn cover management, since h~t buildup is mn as g~r as under perforated plasnc. About one-thtrd of Uw planl beds arc covcred with , woven covcr, I I percent for the eoure plantbed seuon and 26 pcrcem for e pommn of the swoa Transpl.nts .re ublstnW rn nvul.r mnc. whco perfurated pluu. 21 co
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rs uwd done aod when a combmatmn uf perforaled plastic (early) snd Rcemay (aftm We reedlmgs are aboul (be srm of e quarter) tc used. However, produclro.n Itme may be I to 3 weeks longer for plant beds covered with wovco covers al seedmg, as compared m the productton /ime for perfor.led plastic alone or in combnattm with Reemay. The aoil m plant beds covered with woveo covers drses faster Ihen the snil under pcrforeted plm4c, an additional imgatioo is usually necessery. Adequate dnmage is also awceessry because runfall passes Ihrough wuvea covels. Pvirion Seeding. Rell seeden, .uch u the Slanbry, have been used by commemial er.osplmt producers m sow pellered reed for seveN yean. Receslly, the increased avaflabdily of pellesed seed hm ruuhnd iu coosidenble ioterep emong tobacco growem in the me of bell smders on their plant bede In 1993, county egenla estimeted that 16 percenl of the pl.W beds were precisioo smded. Mm1 powr+s would have difficully justifying the purchase of e seeder. However, aeeding is available w a cuamm basis from mvcnl fum mpply dealen. On-farm leals in Nonh CGrolina indicate a slithl increese to pulling speed in pracirion-srerfed bcds ea compa.ed m couventiaod brodcW-seoded beds. fe generd, mwjemeol nr seeding methods Ihal promote good, uaforns slands increme pulfiogg speed. Clipping is necessary lu ge.l maximum uniformity, end undercutting increases pulling efficiency for all seeding methods. Irrigation at seeding is advised m soflea or split the seed-pellclmg nutenal lur proper seed germinrhon. Clipping. Planl-bed dipping has become an acceplcd pnctice (used on 88 perceut of plant beds in 1993) and is esreolid if growen enpecl to increase pulling effrcirxy by conventional pulling or with undercultmg and tnrcbaaical digging. Clipping plant beds two m Ihree lirsses beginning when the seedlings me dwut 4 ioches b the bud increases seedling umformity enough m make smceavcr pulling (after undercutting or by mechanical digging) practical. Many growers bave used modrfied high-sucuon lawnmowerx to clip planl- bedc. However, tractor-mounlcd ralary smwers save labor and un be adapted to clip plant beds by adding gauge wheels to the front or back of the mower. Traclor-muunted mowers work very well on nanow plant beds that are wsed and 11.1 across Ihc top. Growers luve also suacessfully used tracmr-motmled muwers on wide beds by running one sel of tr¢Inr wheels down 1he cenrer of rhe bnl. Planl bals with a hrstory of tobacco moaaic should mu be rmwnl. Distnfecl rrcswers wnb a 1-to-I (50 percent) mrsmre of chlorme bleach and waler helore each ruowing. Ilndereutling. Adapted hnm Zimbabwe and Canada, underculung is used lo h.rden Iranept.nts Reusrnh in Noah Carulura uulrnres Ihal undercuslmg mmrrdmely helorc pulling can mereue the number of planrs pulled per hour. 22 On-ferm Icsts caoductcd al two locations m 1990 oo pledmoos wds resulted in a 20 l0 30 percent locreese m Ihe number of plants pulled per hour when trodercutliag wu compared to not uodercunmg m a clipped planl bed. Approximately 11 percent of the plant beds in North f:n.lrna were undercut In 1993. Undercutting is accomplsshed by pulling a bl.de just below the root system of the Itursplants. This loosem the soil around the roon, making transplanl pullm8 ea.ror and faster. Undmcmnng rs most dvmsqnnus m beds with e high percentage of uoiform, usable plsnts; therefore, clipping at Irst twu tu three times is nocessary before undercutting. On-farm Iesls conducted iu 1981-1989 showed IhN cured leaf yield and quality from undemut plants were similw to those fram plams lhas were nd undercut. Undercutting does not work well on we1 or hud toils. Howeru, n is a practice that c.e bemfil many 8rowers snd should be considered by those who continue b produce Iruuplants in plant beds. Mechanical Truuplant Digger. A device that undercuts and hfls seedlints from 1he plam bed that was devdoped at North Carolina Slale Ursiversily and is oow commercially available from Headneks and Dail. To dau, a msb.msm for amusmlrc boeing of rhe seedlings after lifting has not been developed. The seedlin8s se left ou Ibe snil surface mn m.mer In facilitate euy pickup and boxing by hand. As with tmdercu11iu8, clippmg will be nncesmry to.ssure maimum uoiformily for Ihis uncebver operalion. rRnenlYR F70Yenn( 11. major cause of prem.mre Howcnng ss mmposure of seedlings lo unfavorable gsowing conditions either luem in the plant bed or shonly after hmsplmtmg. Exposure m cool temperatures afler the young seedlings have 5 or vmre leaves reems to be the mnsl important factor. Vanelir. euch as NC-82 and Coker 37111old ue sensslive Io cool lempenmrea and will often flower prematurely after exposure. Other varieoet such aa McNair 944 and Speig6t 6-28 ue relatively umffectod, while K-326 and Coker 319 are Imderalely swsilive. NC-37NF appears to be moderately sensilive even though r1 is mferred to as nonflowering. However, NC-37NF will mu.lly produce .t le61 18 to 20 harveslable leaves before Oowemrg prematurely, and il should then be managed ss a norrrsal-Oowenng variety. Practices that reduce exposure toeoollemperWures In the late planrbul seawm or soon afser transplanling hclp reduce premamrc Oowering. For example: I. Locale plant beds on warm suils Ihal are wclldramrd and proleclal Irom north and wcal wrnds. 23
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2. Seed plmt beds sbom 2 weeks later Ihen normal so that rw8iu8s are less likely m be exposed in cold temperatures. 3. Cover plene bedn on cuol ot8hts. Sensitive veric0es should be covered rf ni8ht ampcrsmrer ue 45'F or less umd Ir.usplerdin8 rs compleled. 4. Trenaplmi seosslive venclirs last on undier-leelured, well-0ralned soils. Euly flowering usually /ooks worse than it actually is. Uoku a least 15 perceol of the pl.al. Bower ealy, do .olhiog bul follow nwmd practices beeauee yseld will not be redrsced substantially. If it does oceur, do no1 replw without conerrltiuj your Extension qeal. Replsnlins should be the Ls1 oqion m consider because it adds ta pruduaioo aroMs .nd iocreasrs thc ch.nce of e lower yield. ToppmB low ud bsmini nu1 a sucker is usually the moa practical option, but be mre to follow suggested pr.clicea to redsre the spred of nunsic. MreA7f Brumdde and AfrenraHve Flsr.igan0 Melbyl bromide will be available for plent-bed fumigation this year. However, the production of ine1AYl bmmide will probably be suspended en Jenuery, 1, 2000, because of po/wtisl damage to Ihc araoepheric omne layer. Melhyl bronude is a very effeclive safl fumi8ent; howcva, other sod fumipnts no available. Buemid eod'Vapm are registered for rse in tobacco plant beds. Both of these producls breylc down to the ame ecnve ingredient end should perform similarly. Studias were conducted with Bs.mid by North Carolina Srate Universny personnel between 1986 and 1988. Wnal control and plant sbnds were similar to Woce obtained with methyl bromrde wheo Besamrd wes applied in the WI (Table 5-1). Fall fumi8etion as critical with Bsamid, .nd p1.sOc covers should be removed 7 en 10 days hefore seeding lo ellow pmper sereuon. Reduced tobacco emer8ence was observed whcn Btvmd was applied in the spring or when beAs were seedrJ the srme day the cover was remuvW (sce 1987 Radsville IacaGon, Table 5-U. RrJuced sWds were dsn observed to scvcrsl oo-fam dcmonslrslwn, in 1993. In thuu locenuns. Bssenud was applied in the lae fell or early inler and <uver ¢muvd 7 ta 14 dsys befurc seedmp did nu/ prov{de suffiaem eerat,on. Sod> that lend lo sal will oeed shallow Idlsfe (above the dcpth of Bssssm,d mcurponmun) in the spnng to aourc proper eennon before seedm8. A nnple Bernuneoon test for residual sod 1unu8enl is recumnwndeJ; dciads .re pruvrdal by Ihe manufaclmer. Basemid ra e 8rmuhr maeriel end can be epplred wnh e drop spplrcator. It must be incorporated by diskin8 or irri8e6on before covering the bed with plastic. Vepem rs e Iryuld that ran be inJected or epplied m wetcr as a sail dreach. For bettl results with all furmpnb tbe suA elrouM be mnia but not eacaeively wU, and Ihe soil tempenmr< should be ebove SO'F. Table S-1. Elfecl of Fall Application af Melhyl Bromide and Bsamid on Wad CorwrA and TrerapWnt Density in Tabe¢o Plane Beds, 1f8fr1988 Location Year Uotrealcd Mubyl Bromide B.umfd (number of weeds pu square yard) Whileeville 1986 58 3 27 Cleywo 1987 79 2 1 Clayton . 1988 492 5 2 Kinston 1988 113 2 2 Oaford 1988 683 406 363 Reidsville 1988 169 1 2 (number of Irensplsnta pa squsre yard) Whiteville 1986 0-• 135 156 Clayton 1987 0 306 350 Oxford 1987 0, 328 362 Reidsville 1987 0 280 U8• Clayton 1988 0 105 145 Kiorton 1988 8 223 272 Reidsvdle 1988 72 4i9 449 Tests c ucl by . . rner and A. D. ur- m. 'Reduced stand because covers were not rcrrswed unnl day of sudinr. Supplrmrnml Gross Control Pust herbiude is IaMaul fnr uso on mb.uu pl.m bed. (but not ror fidd use sher trauplemrng). When applied poatemeryame. it u highly effecuve in eaosrolhn8.11 type., uf grv>se., bur ullcr., no mmrul nl heovdleave. or scJycs. 25 24
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r- Peas1 should be apphed 1. actively growing grusea at a nle of 1.0 prnl per acre (0.33 ounce per 100 squ.re yards). A ooophytomate oil cuncealnw should always be added to the spray tsnk at e nle of 2.0 pinls per acre (0.6T ounce per 100 square yards). The od must be either a pelroleum or vegetablc oil. Highly ¢fmrd vegetable oils are preferred over unrefined vegetable oils. Poal should be applied with ground equipment su Ihat thorough spny cover- age of grass foliage is obtamed. Holbw cone or Ral Isn Iruules ahoald be used. Flood on whirl chamber noule, should no1 be used. Total spray volume should be belweeu 5.nd 20 gdlons pee .ere with a miofmum pteswre of 40 pounds per square inch and a murmum of 60 pounds per aquue inch a the novle. 11 is secommended that plant beds be left uncovered uoYl the spray solution no the plrnts has dried. H is possible 1ha1 reedlieg injury could oecur (probably hom the oil) if plant beds am premsturely covered, particularly with plastic. It is also recommr.ndW that Poaslnol be applied to tobacco seedliugs that ue very small because the research wo conducted ooty on seedlings greater than I inch in diameter. Seedlings sroaller than I inch in diameter could be injured by the crop oil, particularly if the tobacco plants are succulent or the lemperature is high. Ceneruf Plunr-6ed Monagemenr Technology aucb as clipping, underculling, and precision seeding can help increase the efficiency of seedling production. However, these praclicu do not assure a good stand of Iransplanls. Good management and sound produclion practices .re oecess.ry 10 asmre a good stand, which is uecessary before clipping and underculljng can be beneficial. Most of the problems usociaed with plant beds under perforated plaslic are caused by lon much ferldixr, om enough water, hesl damage, and estly seeding. Although all steps are importsnt, particular attention should be given to these management praclrces. 1. Seed 80 1. 100 syuare yards ofplvnl bed for och acre oftobacco to be transplanted. 2. Prepare v grnd, well-0ram.:d secJ bcd 3. Apply no mnrc than 50 pouod> of 12L-6 wb.cco plant bed fer 4h+er per 100 syu.re y.rds wheo incorpunUng with a rdc and no tmne Ihan 75 pounds per 100 square yards when mcurv pnyhng with a duk harrow ur when uvng Reemay. Topdresa 26 when plan6 arc dry with 3 to 5 pounds of 16-0-0 feniheer per 100 syuare yards if plants become nitrogen de6crenl. 4. Fumig.m with methyl bromide, R.vnud, or Vy,.m when sml moisNre is good for culnvalton end the sud lempernure is at least 50°F. S. Perforate the plastic wilh 0.25-inch holes, 2 inches apan, before removing it from the bed at ading. 6. Seed the bed 65 days before the normal transplanting date using I ounce of seed per 600 to 800 square yards. 7. Provct against blue mold, slem ro1s, and other diseases. S. Apply a layer Of fumigaled wheal or clun pine slnw for cover suppan. 9. Thomughly weq the soil by irrigation irrmr.dialely after saeding and before covering with the plastic. 10. Covu the bed wdh perforated pl 1ic or other plmt bed covers immedialely after irrigation. I l. Check beds daily and treat for inseas or gr.ss wheo necessary. 12. If Ihe air temperaNre reachea 75°F for 2 conseculive deys, remove the plastic cover to avoid heat d.mage, but replace it if the temperature is e.pecled to drop below 45°F. Do nol let the lemper.mre under the cnver eaceed 95' to 100°F. Transplant Production in Greenhouses Tobacco growers in Nonh Carolina commue to show a greri deal Of interest in Ihe use of grcenhrutses la produce Iransplsnla- The ntutivalton for owst of the interest is the lack of a suilable labor furce tu mvnage plam bede arul lo pull lransplanls. Nearly all of the grecnhuus< systems uwl for flue-cured transplant prnduclirur involve ducut seedmg tn Ooa or overAead-walered syslerru. A few growers unlnt plug-and-larnefer Oua syslcros. A rc<enl survcy Of counly Eslensinn agenu indtcatwl that 46 percent of the Iransplanls in North Carollna were producvJ in greenhouses (fable 5-2). 27
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Table 5.2. Transplant Production in Grexrthmsses, f"8-1993 Bell 1990 1991 1992 1993 Border 4 9' (peruesiQ 9 24 Eastem 24 28 39 56 Middle g 14 19 28 Old 10 27 38 65 Slsle (weighted avg.) Ig 24 35 46 were cundualed m 1993 to ohserve Ihe elfe.:ls ul renwving thesa rutls un lohw:cu growth and yield. Earl y season growlh, yicW, and quality wem nul dleelcd by Irealment ITable 5-3). Rased an Ihene daa, d wuuld he an inelhetent uu of labor resuurces lo remuve rnats belore tranaplannn8. Table 5-3. Effecl of Seedling Rord Removal on Growth in Ihe Fidd, Yield, and Grade Indea at Two Loulions, 1993 Bu/ NciyIn YwiJ Gradc IrWea Nr.n Remwvel Cuwcll 4.rYrs Cuwcll Su,kn Ceuwcll Sukc. 'm/plux- -11/A- -G k- A new seties of fsct sheets entided Prndarind Tobacro 2Yansplaur in Nuiw 15b 146r J730, 2916. 51. 5rw Gneenhourer is being prepared. The following titles will be available from 2 waka 13 6e 143. 3626r 2916. 48e 59. cwmty Estmsioo Cmten beginning u Jmuary 1994: Gnenhnuse Synems, publication AGJgB-1 (Dsscusses Ror1 and ove.hc.d-wNered syslems plus bdurc Is.nrphpg. I wnt . 3.L i 7. 98e _9J6a 5. 3e production in oulduor waerbeds) Produninn Guiddineq publication AGi88-2 lak„e Inmplnlg At 41. 43. 737. 41104, 8e 4a (Discusses seleclion of Ir.ys and media, Iny filling, water lit l i i f Innsp4ug qua y, emperamre, gsnon, n endintion, clippmg, and disease and pW mmagemenl) Traruphmt Water Ferlilirers Wa+er Qualiry, publication AGi88-3 (Di.scusses water wurcu, Iesliug, md con<ctiuu of water quality problems) Hratrng and Venrilarion Syrrems, pubhcalinn AG-488-4 (Dseusses selectioq sir1ny, conlrol syslems, energy conservation, and msmtenance of heatrng end vmdilalrng syslem.s.) Seedlirtg Ruul Rmsuval N 0 0 11 ts norma) in Oos1 systems for the naNS of tobaceu uedlings to grow oul the bollom of the lrsy into the waterbed. ThesC roots sCrve . critical funclion in nulncnt and waler uptake fmm the waterbed. Ilowever, a considerable portion of this roul syslem ts lusl or danuged during Iransplanliog, and it is doubtful that Ihu pornon of Ihe nnn system cuntnbules to transplanl survtvel. These ruols conmm sumc gruwen, snd e/ew greenhuuse suppliers have Wvrcatd 11m rcmnval ol lhe>e nnr6lwlure Irwplanlmg. Two nm/.rm Ieats A 28 CJ1 A O 07 N The appli,aliun of fedilruts in the Iramrlan/ waer has been discuumged bernuae of the Isck af crop ne7vxs-e and Ihe paennal for crop injury frorn tcrtiliur svlls. Iluwnver, early-seawm growth uf groenhnu'e tnsroplunu is uua'imuBy sl.wer Uun Ou/ from planllwd plants. This sh.r gnrvnh has rrsuloal in remval interest in transplant weler lendimrs. Nuw rm-I.nn tcsls wcre annlnmul wnh xvcrnl temhur Imrlmenis Irom 1991 Ihrough 1993. The 1993 rcaulls ure summnnurl in T+ble 5-4. The following surnmary slalanrnls can hc r.n.le cnn,:enung the 3-year mwll.l ol th: study: - Ilrgh-plx,.plnmearan.plant waler Iruhtw.nL atunulalud udy seawxt growth in aeven ul nme lucsnom- - Gnnvtb ddleren.as anumg treetmam usudly duappurr J by Iluwerirg. Ilnvn:ver, highph,..plumu Irrantms ra,vllal in eyrher Ihrwenng dun m Ihc cheek p1uL.' tn 1997. - Ymld'uul qmbty w.:rc n,n allat.il by bun.plant wemr Irulnuns a1 any liaan,n. 29
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~SDf~~7D~OZ Table 5<. E1fst of Se'e+al Fertllian Applicd in Trusplant W'atc an GroaU4 Ydd. and Gnde andz at Thre< lartiom 1993 Bud HaBht Yield G:ade ludex Tmweat Pns~n Vme Wryve Paroo Vmee Wayae Ptteon Vavice Wryne -cmi laol- ------ lb/A- L- '~ p . Qxek 4.3e 7.9b 8.2d 2948. 3116. 1809a 60a 41a 32. 8-31-4 6.3d 9.7ab I2.Oc 3278, 2975, 222Qt 62c 41a 29, 2 qU100 gal 8-31d 6.9. 9.teb 14.2bc 3091, 2646. 20D1a 59a 41. 38a 0 4 qu100 gai 8-32-5 7.7bc 9.8.b 15.8ab 3209a 2829. 2022a 67a 41. 34. 4 qtf ll%1 gal 12-48-8 7Ard 11.62 14.8sb 341h 2854a 17YL 63s 41t 34a 5 Ib/100 gal 12-48-8 8.0b 11.2. 16.1ab 3M 2741. 1922x 66a 4la 36a 7.9 Ib1100 e.l 15-0-15 6.3d 6.9b 15.5ab 3351. 3048a 2004¢ 74a 41s 38. 6.7 Ib1100 gal 20-10-20 6.7d 8.2b 17.7. 3113, 2874a 1734a 63a 41a 36. 5 Ib/100 gal y..ni u-ue. . - y avs oe* .ere. 'T > r
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L. ENGINEERUIG CONSIDERATIONS FOR TOBACCO TRANSPLANT GREENUOUSES Mtchael D. Boyette Extension Agricultural Engjneering Specialist Provtding close control of mmperalurc and adequate ventilation arc very imponenl to success in greenhouse productiun of transplants. In eddition, the design, operation, aod vuintenmce of heeting and venlilatioo systems can have a sizable effect on production coats. A new 4et shed fo the series Praducing 7abacnu IFeuphuns in Greenwausu is tmw available. It providn detailed informalion on healing aod veMiWion sysleme for transplant greeo6ousea, including system selectiou, sfzieg, coolrol sysrems. energy enservation, and msinteosnce. Ask yeast county Extension agent for a copy of publication AGJgSJ. Henring and Veruifarion Jyrrenu. Other 6c1 sMe1s in the scries arc listed in chapter 5. Protecting Against Slorm Dunage Transplant greenhouses are suscepGhle m slorm dam.ge. paniculsrly high winds and huvy soows. During the severe winler narm of March 1993, as meny as 200 tobaccn transplant greenhouses in North Carolina sustained physical demage. Types of demage ranged from lum and lusl covers and moderate fome dtsplacement to complele deslmclion. The cost of the damage m sgriculturo-mlatnd structures exceeded $5 million in North Carolina. Although a greenhouse huilt to withstand the severest qorms would not be economically feasible, therc rte several steps growers may take to Icssear the likelihood or severity of drouge: Provide an Allerna0ve Electrical Power Saurce. Most covers tom or destroyed in high wind ue the result of loss of electrical power m the inflation fans. UnieBaled covere bave 6 tu 10 timrs thc wind resistunce of fully inNted covera. Even oew, coverc cannot continually withstand raprd flexing m cold lempenturu. A smdl eleclnul gcnerelor (5 to 10 kilowatts) can easdy provide enough electrical power to operate the inflation fans and the gas heamrs. For u(ny, an auuBisry generrtor MLIST be connc<ted through sn approved transfer switch. Pruvide nt Adeyuate Foundation. Ihgh wind vclocrlies can gencnte trcrn:ndous side loads both on the front (wiadward) side and lifting forces on Ihe b.ek (Ieaward) stdc of a greenhnuse. Most granhouse structural d.ouge thst occurs either frum wind or snow can be truced to immdequate foundnlons. Tuhes or srde wall post shuuld be sunk at Ie..t 4 feet below grade and well snchured in concrete sufficient to ressn bruh heudmg and pullout. Provide Addiuonel Structunl Bracing. Innullmg horizontal cables or tubes provides additional strength to resist snow loads. Knee-bncee and gussets rin also substantially decreszc the likelihood of danuge from both wind .od ®ow loads. However, hon.untal cables or tube br.ces provide only a owdest improvement in recistanee m wind loads. Previde Adequate Spat3ng Belwmt GreerrMuses and Adjacent Stnrclures. 7bere is sume eridcace that wrndbruks provided by Irees or orhet slructures may intensify instead of lessea the daweging effccts of the wlad. Where possible, sdjacent greenhmnes should be positioned at least 30 fed sput m reduce the'multiplying effect' of the upwind structure. I3 32
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7. FERTILIZATION Gerald F. Pcedtu Crop Science Extension Specialist (Tobacco) The efficient use of nulrienis, including those already in the soil naturally or as a result of prevtons (enlhr.tron and m.n.gement practices, can help reduce fenilimr costs and envirumneot.l coocems without reducing yield or quality. This requires a well-planncd feniliz.uon program based on soit tesing, wise seleelioo of nutrsent sourcu based on needs and cosu, and proper application of fenilimrs. O.MrsliEraGon is expensive, wastes natural resuurrrs, and increases Ihe potential for conWnin.tion of water resostrces. Soil Testing Soil tesling is the first step in planning an economical and eavironmentdly rarod fenilrndon program avd is provided as a free service by the Agronomic Division of the North Caraliea Departmenl of Agriculture. Soil anslyree arc performed on each sample to determine pH and the available levels of most m.jor nutrients such as phosphorus (PrOd, potassium (KrO), edcium (G), and magnesium (Mg). Suil levels of reveral micruuutricnts such n mvoganeae (Mn), copper (Cu), and ync (Zn) sre also delermisscd. TLe sail Iest report suggests apphntion ralrs for lime and each nutrieol that should mers crop needs uodc, good growing condilions. The nutrient rates suggested in the wil test repan relle<I only what is found m the sample. Therefore, each umple should be taken properly so it adequately represents the fwld where the crop is to be grown. Samples should be taken every 3 years (coasql plain) ar 4 years (piedmnnl) from fields tended regularly by the seme gruwer. Unfamiliar fields or thnse out of tobacco production for several years should be sampled several monlhs before the first tubacco crop. Samples suhmilled in the fall nlher than winler or spring will enable you to receive wil test reports quicker and allow mare time for planning ferliliaation programs. Soil boxes and imlruclions for taking samples can be obtained at yotv county Extension Center. The infornntmn bclow- along with your experrence and a soil tesl, wdl help dctcrmine reasonable applicatmn rates for mosl nutnents. Primary Nulrients Nirrogen (N) Nnrogen has a greater effcct nn mlwc<o peld md quality than any olher 34 nutrient. Tou little nitrogen will reduce yteld and result in pale, shck cmed lesf. Too much nitrogen may mcruue yicld slightly but may also make mech.nir.l harvestiog and curing mort difficult, delay maturity, extend curing time, and result io oare unripc cured leaf. Excessive oitrogen also slimulssee wckcr growth, which can lead to csecisive use of maletc bydrsnde (MH) and iocresse problems with homworms .nd aphids. Nitrogen is also very leachable, and overapplicution may ronlrihule to braundwater contamination in arras with deep, sandy wiks. Soil analysis is nat used to eetimale the nitrogen nle needed for • sprrifie tobacco ftdd in North Carolina. Rather, the 50- l0 80-pound- per-acre range showu oo the soil test repon is based on information from nunserous field trsts conducled across Ihe state. In lhrse lests, a base nitrogen rne of 50 m 30 pounds per .cre has given consistently good results on snost.oils in most ¢asons. This is the total amuuut of nitrogen supplied by normal applications of the urixed fertilizer and the aidedresacr but does not include additional nitrogen sometimes needed for leaching adJminsents. The lowa portion of the range is suggested for fsneiexlrrred, ferlile wils, especially where legume crops such s soybean< or peanuts were grown the preeiors year. The higher portion of the range is suggested for evusa~lealured wif5 with lopsrols dceprr than 15 inches to day. Suggested nitrogen rates for several average Iopwil dcplhs are shown in Table 7-1. Yaur pnrtroo of the nilrogen rate range should he determined primarily by topwil depth, or depth to clay. Fields with deeper, ssndier topsoila usually are mure leschable and contain less nitrogen as hurnic matrer than Ihare with shallower, h4vier-texmred topsoils. Geneolly, the nitrogen rNes shown should be reduced about 5 to 10 pounds per acre if the previous crop was a legume or the variety m be planted is known to maure late or cstre poorly when overfertilirod with nilrogen. Even greater nitrogen rale reductions my be needed on dark mils witli I percent or mure humic matter. Alau, when Iobacco follaws a heavily fertilized but poor corD crop (less than 75 bushels per acre), the amount of residual nitrogen availahle for the tobacco crop rmy be as high ss that left by soybeans or peanuts. Tabk 7-1. Rase Nitrogen Rates for Tobacco in Relaliun to Topsal Depth Topwil Depth Nitrogen Rae• (nchea) (Ib/A) 5 50 10 60 IS 70 20 t s0 oe5 not rnc u t eac mg a Imlmcnb. 35
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Only 15 pvunds of eatra nnrogea may reduce leaf quahty, peniculady go a dry srawn like 1993. Both drought and excas nitrogco delay mamrity and increuca, dse amount of unrrpe tobacco, which dccrcaws support pnce and inerearrc StabiM1x.uun receipts. The first dep to inereasiog the ammmt of ripe tobacco is m use a rrsonable base nitrogen rue (penicululy if irrigatioe ir oot rvulable and mechanical harvesling is used), depending on toprod depth, previous crop, variety to be grown, and experience. Also, be nutious and coaservuive with le.chmg adjustments for niuogen. (See next secliao.) The secand step ts to delay lurvat, if necea.ury. and make four primings w 1Wt each primiug will have a high perernt.ge of ripe lava. The rae of ripening Ls primuily dependent on unount and distribution of water, nitrogen r+le, soil type, and variety, so hanesg rate should also be based on lhse faclurs, not on the calendar dale or how fast your tsujhbor4 lobaao is being harvested. The nornsal ripenirq p*m'ass ia caused by partial nitrogen sluvaCton, which should begin about topping lime. This mraot IWa nitrogen in the soil should be oeu depldion by that lime. Overapplicalion of nitrogen or extended drought like we experienced in 1993 dso extends nitrogen upuke beyond topping time and therefore delays ripening because the crop is still ahsorbing uilrogen. 1.<ava harvesled when they are high in nitrogen ere more difficult to cure and oheu mm dark at the end of yellowing and into /he leaf drying stage. This was a problem for meny growers m 1993, often complrcated by high temperatures that caused the leaves to appear ripa than they really were. Therefom, the ioabHity, to cure the 1993 crap wn diredly rdatcd to drought in Juoe and July, which delayed nitrogen uptake into August and September when much of the crop was being harvated. Leaching. (saching is the movement of certain nulrieuls below normal ronling depth due lo excessive wuter moving (percolating) through the rnol rune of deep, undy soils. Yield and quality are more likely to be rrduced by leaching of nitrogen; although losses of sulfur, magnaium, and potassium nmelima occur, the effects on yield and quality are relaively small. Mora than 501o 80 pounds of nitrogen per acre may be needed if leachmg occurs, but deternunrng the correct amount m replace is one of the most difficult and risky LLsks in tobacco produc0un, llncovalW nitrugen deficiency will cause low yields of pale, thin-M,died tabacco, which has pror demand by domestic as well as erpon buyers. If ovcrcovected. excess oitrngen will delay maturity and reduce curability, which usually results in more tobacco m the lower qu.hty, unnpc, and rmmaure grades, as well as more su<ker growth and msml prohtems. A guner+l guole lor makmg luuhing adlu.tnwnu fur muugen rs nhuwn m Table 7.2 - lLe am.mnN uf moogcn go replace is eapressed as a pcrccntage af the suggaled base nle that was applied before leaching occvned. If excess nitrogen was used before leaching. the numba of excess pounds should be suubtracted from the number of rcpleccmem pounds nlculated. This guide is based on three major factors that m0uence the aowunt of Ieachmg: 1. topsoil depth to clay. 2. the age of the crop when leaching occurs, 3. the atirmted inches of waler that move through the feniliaed root ume. Topsoil depth is used in the gwde because water usually nwva more freely sod in luger quantitia through deepa topsoils. Since the mess of tobacco mda oormally occure in the upper 12 to 14 inches of soil. the deeper the clay below rndiog depth, the more likely nitrogen ir to leach below the roul msa. Crop age is included in the guide because more of the needed nulrienm ue ab.orbed as the plants get older, and the aowunts left in the aoil and subject to leaching become less as the crop grows. Too, as Ihe plants get larger. tbeir leava form a c.nopy thal .heds some of the water 1n the row rmddlrs, reducing the amnunt of water passing through the fenilind rnoe. A reasonable estimate of fhe unounl of water that enlas the suil and ultimady pwcnlatec thruugh the ruot mne Is necessary for the Table 7-2, Nitrogen AQjusNtenls for Leaching T l Estimated Water Percolamd Weeks after Trmsplanttng opsoi Depth Thmugh Soil 1-3 4-5 6-7 (iucha to clay) (rnchee) (16 of Applred N to Replam)• 4cs Ihan to 1 0 0 0 2 20 10 0 3 or more 30 20 0 101016 1 30 20 0 2 45 30 10 3 or murc 60 40 IS 17 or murc 1 50 25 IS 2 75 3'5 20 3 or mom 100 45 25 ~APp y a 1 poun u pmatswm (;0) ur esc po 0 ortroyeo useJ +r a lesching adlustment rf the lop.od depth ts greater than 10 u¢hes. 36 37
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I edjwtm(nl procedure esr be rcliable. Amount of ramlall alnne usually is not a good mdsutsoo of how much leu:hmg has oecurrrd_ Facrors such u rod reature md slopq crost forrmuon, annunt and durahon of r.in6rll, and the amouol of nputurc alrcady prescnt m the snil are also impureant. Unfonwamly, a pr.ctical method that includwlbese many percolation faclon has not been developed, but growers who have experienced similu rainfall conditions an their land in past years can make reasonable estimates. An invduable loul in making Inching a4jusbnents is an rp-to-dale rainfall record of both the amounls of daily rain and afimata of how much of each rain soaked into the soil. Sfnce phosphomc does nol lesch in eur soilr, il is useleu to use phosphonu- conlaining fernilirers such as 3-9-9 or 66-IB to make le.ching adjuslmmu. This is done, howccr, by same growers lo supply additional sulfur (S) or magnecium (Mg) along with nitrogen for adjuslurnts an dmp, sandy soile. These nulrients can be supplred at lower cop by mixing equal amounts of Sul-Po-Mag and aoe of the 1:0:0-ntio sidedressen. For example, an cqwl mixture of )6-0-0 ferlilizer and Sul-Po-Mag gives an 8-0-I1 NPK analysis, which elso contains 5 percent magnesium aod 11 percent sulfur. (If additional nitrngm is not nealed, ahom 100 10 150 pounds of Sul-Po-Mag per acre will supply .deqwte sulfur md magnesium in most caes). Another alternative is to use 11-0-14 or an 8-0-24 that gwrmlees sulfur and magnrsium, which is less expensive buljust as effective as using my phosphorw<on4inwg fertilirer for leaching adjtmmeols. Drowning. Distinguishing between drowning md leaching is somelinws confusing because excess water causes both problems, f.e.ching is usually rsm a serious problem on soilr thal have clay within 12 inches of the surface because percolation through the root rnne is restricted. If the sod becomes semrated, oxygen starvuion and then ro4 decay will begin unless the umrated mndilion is alleviated within about 24 hours. Uswlly, yellowing of plants is sccompanicd by partial or complete wilting- These are symptums of drowning and indicate that leaching losses are minimul because w.ler remuirn in the ruut wne rather than muving through it. Although sorne of the nitrogen may be moved duwn to clay- causing a temporary defruency, il will lK bsurbul later ac roru gmwlh resums. AJdmg ebml IO poundf ul euu nitrogen in these situ.uons rs somchmes benchcwl rf the cmp wu not ovnrferedir<d with ortrogen before drowning occurred. Ilowever, ucing Ihe leaching as(juibnrM pro[edure un a drowned crop often overa0mala Iha amount of nilrugen to replace and results in overapplicalinn of nitrogen. 38 Folirr Sprays to Supply Nitrogen. When excessive rain o<curs between Iry.by aad topping, u io 1992- the crop may mm yellow wben,the plants rte tou big m baod-apply dry fenihzers wrdr tnctor-mounled appliwmrs. Consequendy, aome growers consider wiog folier spoys or over-Ihe-mp sppheatioa of dry materials m supply extra nitrogen lo their cropt psn research has shown fulrar sprays on tobacco to be of questionable value becaux mnsl products conlain sn h01e nitrogen that several applications ue oesded m supply enough of this urrtnent to be beneficul (10 m 15 pounds per rse). Also, substantial le.f fnjury may occur un tender crops if high rstn, aro used as a meam of reducing Ihe number of appliulioos. Other disadveolages proposed for some folisr products uc (1) the eo.t ir high per rmit of outrimt .od (2) a major portion of the ohrogm may be in the anmooium form. 1, 16 on-fum leam that evalwtod a foliu spny product conmining 14 percent eitrogen and 4 perttm magnesium, rupplying 15 pounds of nilmgen per actee with lsvo fohar sprays or by bro.dcasling one application of dry 16-0-0 kniliru over the crop ae early topping produced similar yield and qudity. ihe 16-0-0 ferlilirer wav applied when the leaves were dry, and inJury was na observed. The cost of the nitrogen from the follar sprays was shuuut $50 per acre, while the cost of the snne amount of nitrngen from 16-0-0 femlimr was about S10 per scre. More complete informaion on these tests was giveo in 19p0 Tobacco informntion and can be obtained from your counly Extension Center. PAotphorur (P~(/r) and Polasstunt (7(tfl) Phosphorus is not very leachable, even in ssndy soils, and only about 15 pouods per .cre (as PrOr) are removed by a good tobacco crop. However, many times this amount has been applied annually nr biennially to most tnbsco fields over the yars, «suhrng in at least 'hrgh' levels of available phosphorus in about 85 percent of the fields used for tobaccu. Pnussium is leachable, especially in deep sandy soils, md a good crop will mmuve about 90 pounds per aare (as K,O). klowever, aboul 45 percent of our tobacco su0s conrain at least 'high' levcls of available potassium bcuuse of more abundmi suil suurces and exceesrve application. Ahu, subsoils in hthrcco fields often contain substmtr.l arrrounls of polasuum that ere seldom measured because only lopsoil aamplcs arc wwlly taken for sml resls. Unlike nitrogen, moderately e.ceaarve r.tes ul phosphums or polassmm wdl od dfecl lobeccu ywbly m yiclJ but wdl incrux pnducuan cosls. In addition, overappliration of Ihae nulrients increasn their polcntial for reaching ponds and strearru by soil and water movnncut. 39 r
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$electing Ibe Mixed Ferlilizu. Stsndard-grade tobacco fenilirnm are predominantly used in North Carolina. Most of these fertilizers consxin three hmes~ mom potxssium thm mrrugen but varying smounu of phosphorus relative to nitragen and potassium. This is called the N:P:K ratio (see Table 7-3). For esample, analyses such as 6fi-18 rod 8-8-24 ere 1:1:3 ratrm because they conrxin I pound of phosphorus .nd 3 pounds of potassium for each pound of nitrogen. An 8-0-24 anrlysis hu . 1:0:3 ratio because it does nol coutain phosphorus. So the prinury differeace among ralior is that they supply different amounts of phosphorus for e.ch pound of rutrogeo applied fmm the ferlili:cr. Therefore, with proper selection of the ferfilira n/io and rate, plmsphorus rala ery close to the soil lest suggestion can be obtained without allering the nla of nilrogen and potassium. A genenl rule of thumb fur Ruecured tobacco fer6lialion is that Ihe mixed fertiBrer should supply a11 of the suggesled pbapholvs and possibly potassium but no more than 40 pounds of nitrogen per aert. Therefore, the mnounl of plmsphorus suggested on the wd lesl report should delermine which ferlilirer ratio is selected from Table 7-3. Fm eaample, use 667 pounds of 6-6-18 or 500 pounds of l-8-24 fenilira per acre if a phosphorus rate between 0 and 40 pounds per scm is suggested. The highest snHysia available in a ratio will supply the nutrients at the lowest cost when used a1 the ntes suggerted in Table 7-3. For sonx sods, particularly in the coastal plain, available phosphorus is an high that rppliulion is oot suggested oo the soil leal report. to these innxnces, applying 500 pounds of 8-0-24 fertilizer per acre will provide 40 pounds of nitrogea, no phosphoms, and 120 pounds of pmasium per acre, plm some secondary nutrients. The rero phnsphoms suggestion hrs uused some conum xmong growess. However, the results from many field t vss conducted on snils with high an very high levels of soil test phosphorus do od reveal eny reduction in yield and quality when 1:0:3-ratio fevrilirers are used, (i.e., when no phosphorus is applied)- It should be remembered, however. that phosphorus mggesltun. are rwde on the sssumption that sud pH is nmintained in the dcsirrble 5.8 to 6.0 range. Therefore, failure to apply phosphorus an acid wils may reduce early growlh and delay malurily, particularly when early roul growth is reduced by unusually croul, wet cundiliom. Tlax unfarorable soil and wealher condiliom ve more likely to occur in the piedmunt than Ihc coastal plain. Some growers use msxed fenilrenrs ar mes higher than thuse shown in Table 7-3. Thrs is not recomrnendcd because costs are mcrexsed rml phosphonu and porassrum application ntes arc excessive. Also, numcrous field tests have huwn that uamg the mixed fcmbttr to supply mo® than 40 p.mnds of nitrogen per acre does not improve yield and quahty (ace Table 8 on page 41 of 1991 Tuborro Infomsmion). Additional nitrosen (and polassium if needed) can be obtained nmre economically from ridedress materials then fran mixed fertilizers. For esample, a pound of elYOgm from 6-6-18 fertilizer costs about 61.93, while a pound of nitrogen fmm 16-0-0 ferliliaes costs only about 69 ccros (based on avenge costs per too in Tables 7-3 and 7-5). Use of 3-9-9 fenihzcr daluml from 36 percent of the acreage in 1979 to 10 percent in 1993, while use of 66-18 fertilimr increased from 3 percent to 45 percent during the sxmc period (fable 7-4). Tbe combined use of 1:1:3 and 1:0:3 ntios increased from 5 percent of the acreage in 1979 10 54 percent in 1993. These clsurges occurred beouse many growers with high-plsnsphorus mH. rewgniaed the savings a.ailabk to Ilr.n by using low-plaosphoirm, high-arolysis fertilizers to meet wil /mt sugseslion for phosphorus and other ntdriesslsp the sxduclion in phmphorus application of approximately 35 percent since 1981 has also reduced the potential for mnvement into pondc and slsrann. Table 7-3. Selection of Slandard-Grade Mixed Fertilizer Ratio, Analysis, and Rate Based an Soil Test Suggestions for Phosphorus PrOs Suggested on Mixed Fen. SeletOnn Fert. Costsw" Soi1 Test (Ib/A) Ratio Anslysis' (Ib/A)" (ffluo) ($fA) Between 80 & 120 1:3:3 3-9-9 1,333 195 130 6-18-18 667 264 88 Beweeo 40 E& 80 1:2:3 4-e-12 1,000 200 100 6-12-18 • 667 243 81 8-16-24 500 269 67 Between 0& 40 1:1:3 6-6-18 667 231 77 8-8-24 500 272 68 None 1:0:3 8-0-24 500 247 62 x yses most comnwm y avat a e; ut er suua e ana yses a e appropriate ntio may he rvailahlt in some arns. " Each rate will supply 40 puunds ul mtmgcn md 120 pounds uf potassium per acre and the hrghest rate of phmphorvs listed to the left of each ratio. '•' Based on 1993 average coab of mr.ed femllv<rs from surveys conducted by 2S county Eslannon Service agents. 40 41
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1 Table 7A, Mixed Fertilinr Hse Estimated by Cuunly Agents, 1979-93 Fen'1 xer Percenute of Acres Ratio Andysic 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1990 1997 1:3:D 3-9-9 36 27 24 17 17 13 10 1:2:3 4-8-12 20 Il 4 1 B 6 5 1 6-12-18 28 23 18 14 11 13 14 e-16-24 5 6 4 5 4 8 6 1:1:3 6fi-18 3 14 23 32 39 41 45 8-e-24 2 12 12 16 B 8 7 1:0:3 8-0-24 0 0 <I 3 3 1 2 Various All Liquids - - - - 10 7 6 Vannus Others 6 5 5 5 2 4 6 Afler choosing the ferlilizer nlio ba.sed on the .mosmt of phnsphonsx rmedrd, the next step is to sdeel a high-snHysu gnde of that n1io. Although high-rnalysis gsWcs cost more per ton, they ae less expensivc per scre because much lower nles en oxded tu provide Ihe rame amouuts af nitrogen And pdaesium (Table 7J). And less fenilimr has 1. be hauled, suored, and applied. $orne growers have expeneoced turing prublems with high-analysis fenilirers because they used them a higher tbao suggested tslet. Thir oecurr because the fenihmr appliution aquipmenl is nul properly calibrrted or because the growcr feels Out such low rues of high-rnalysis feniliren will nul produce the same yield es much higher ntes nf the low- uulysis fenBirxr used pmviou.sly. The result is uvenppbc.rion of nitragen, which bmders ripenmg And reduces curability and quality unless the rate of eidedresa rritrogea is reduced eccordingly. Fertilizer calibration mfonnnion can be obtained from your coumy ExtensLon Center. „ Selecting the Sidednas Ftriili.er. The And test auggestion for polassium rs useful in selecting the proper nlio of Ihe sidcdresa material. When the soil /esl suggests less than 120 pounds of polacsmm per acre, r 1:0:0 nlio udcdresser such es 16-0-0(r,dah 15.5-0-0(crlcmm nilrate), or 34-0-0 (amn.rnium nitnte) should he used lu supply the nitrogen needc+l in uldrnun to the 40 pounds obuined from Ihe rmsed fenrhrcc If the soil Ies1 suggesuon ie greater than 120 pounds of polatnum per acre or sf severc ~ lexhrng occurs after Ihe nuxed yendix<r has been aplied, sonre puu¢sium, (M rn +dduium m nurogen, rrqy he needed in the suleJresser. In these mstances, a) 1:0 1 nnn ndnlressers such o 15-014 or 13-0-14 will supply all the estra 0 (~ 42 A O CD W pussium yredrA in addition to the 120 pounds obtained from the mised guyhnr. lu nn innances on deep, suldy smis, rvulable potuvum may le inw enough m require use of a L0:3-nuo sidedreaser .uch .s 8-0-24 or 134NHowevm, soil tcst results rnd Oeld luls indicale thal less than )p peram of 4he lobscco sods m North Carolina rre low coough in ppuaoum m«quin the 1:0:3 nlio as a sidedresser if 10010 120 pounds of putassium per sere an supplied by Ihe mixed fenrhxer. 7a cod, of revenl ridedreaera And thc rmounls required m supply 30 purodr of nitrogen per acre an shown in Table 7-5. At prerent, the leasl qpmrive source of tidedresr ml.oieo ia 34-0-0 feetilimr. However, ease au( 6e lappr lo apply rro mnre then h.lf as much 34-0-0 fnfiliur per rtre rompunl to 16-0-0 of 15.5-0-0. Excezsire mles of 34CA fe.tJ:re+ will dnslltally inrrexu nilrogen application usd reduce eunbilily and pYlity of syred leaves. Thc most expemive sidndrewer is 8-0-24 and should be stsed uuly when the roil test suggeslton for potassium cannol be mel with Ihe 1;0:1-nlio sidedressen. An xllernative and less expensive 1:0:3-ntio ridedressar ia 13-0-44 fenilfrer, which rhould be evarlrble a toost blend plants. Table 7-5. Aversqe Costs of Sidedress Feslilisen in 199.7 9ased on Slveeys by County Extension Agents Feniliur 1993 Rates and Costs (Qr3016N Kr0 Balro Aodysis Pnces (Utun) (Ib/A) (f/A) Applied (Ib/A) 1:0:0 16-0-0 221 188 21 0 15.5-0-0 222 194 22 0 3411-0 189 90 9 0 1:0:1 15-0-14 255 200 26 28 13-0-14 239 230 27 32 1:0:3 8-0-24 247 375 47 90 13-0i9 360 220 40 98 The evenge pe.famwue of the most conmvmly usW sidedressers m eight tesls conducted in 1991 through 1993 is s6uwn in Tablc 7-6. 11. mrfrce anils of five msls cool.ined medmm levels of avaulabie pou6smm, the svrface mils of two Irsls contained low Icvels of avad.blc pntasaum. end the surface md of one lesl contained e high level uf rvad.blc ptlasamm All plots m ea<h Ies1 recervul 670 pmnds per ure uf 6618 or 6-12-I8 fcrldvcr (120 41 r
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r- pounds nf putvssmm per acrc) handul 5 to 7 days after Irans'planOng. The udedsessen were banded about 2 wecka later as equal nses of nilrogen. Yield usd quality were similar for all sidedrrsws eren though rainfall was unusually high at musl siles in 1992. The results also indicate that rasing e phosphorusannlairsing fertiliaer, such as 8i-10, as the sidedren fertiliur did not improve yield and quality, eren under wet cunditiom, cnnp.red 10 using one of the less expensive sidedresser materials. Based on estimates by county Eatennon agenls, use of ndalre.cs uulerials (expressed ac e pucenuge of acreage) in 1993 was 16-0-0, 49 perccnl; 15-0-14, 23 perceoq 15_5-0-0, 7 perttnt; 8-0-24, 10 percent; 34-0-0, 2 pcrcenl; 13-0-14, 4 percent; eod vanoue olher andystes. 5 percent. Dry Versus Liquid Ferlilizers. Two tests were conducted In compare the same analyns (6J-10) of dry bleoded and liquid fertilirera nn toh.ceu yield and quality. Each fenilizer was applied broaduss, two deep brnds (about 5 inches deep and 3 In 4 inches lo each side of the mw), or two r6.llow bmds (aboul 1 inch deep and 3 to 4 inchee lo erch aide of the mw). Tbe broadcast applications were made eboul I week before plsnling and the band appliu- lione about I week after plmling. The application rern (670 pounds per acre) ws the sarne for both feniliren and each method of apphatiun, and ell plors received the ume nte of srdedresser about 3 weeks after planling. The type uf fenilizer (dry or liquid) did not affect yield, rrurket price, grade tndea, ar value per ere (fable 7-7) in either lesl. However, deep fertilizer placement produced higher yields than shallow placement for both ferUliIen in 1985 when little rainfall occurred during the fin16 weeks afler plmting. In 1984, when the early seasuu was unusually wet, broadcasl applicalion.educed merkel price, grade index, and value per acre because of e higher proportion of pale, snunamre tobacco. These results mdrwle that: • Fertilizer placanenl and time of application are mure important than whether the ferliliaer is dry ur liquid. • Dry and liquid ferlilizers should perform equally well if Ihey hure similar nutrient conlenLs and are applied al the same time and by the sasne method. • Deep band application (4 to 5 inchn) would bu expected so produce good yieldA and quality mure consistently Ilun broadcasl ur shullnw band applicalion (such as that obtained with rulling cultivators), regardless of the ferliliaer type u.ed. 49 Table 7-f. Agromnnic Performance of Sidedress Materials in Eight Tesls•, 1991 and 1992 Ssdedress Fen • Yield Pnce Grade psrio Analysis (Ib/A) (ftcwt) Indea 1:1:3 66-18 or 2,538 173 62 6-12-18 1:0:0 16-0-0 2,531 173 61 15.5-0-0 2,617 173 61 34-0-0 2.494 173 62 46-0-0 2,498 174 64 1:0:1 13-0-14 2,485 173 62 15-0-14 2,559 174 61 23-0-23 2,502 173 63 1:0:3 13-044 2,528 174 63 qe; IWI lesec were c uct m <x er, nveo, m «ene cuuoties; 1992 lests were conducted in Granville and Moore counties. • Inihahon fendieer wn 6701b/A, 6b-18 bmdcd 5 lu 7 days after transplanting; sidedresaers were burd,:d about 2 weeks later al equiv.len( mles of N; 23-0-23 is an equal mixture of 13-0i4.od 34-0-0 fertilirers. Table 7-7. Agronomic Characteristics of Tobacco FMilined with Dry or Liquid 6-410 Fertilixer in Two On-Farm Tests Feniltaer Yteld Pnce , Grade Value Type (Ib/A) (8/cwt) Index (S/A) Dry Blcnd 2,041 178 59.3 3,632 Liquid 2,043 178 58.6 3,633 Note: un ucr F. Paedin. in e o. in 1994 an y ayne aQen era Secondary Nulriurn. The secondary nutrienls ol concern ler tuhucco are e.lcium (C.), maguc.mm (Mg), and sulfur (S). The.c nutnents are called secondary because they are usually nerdal by rmosl crups m smater muunle than Ihc pmnary mm-cros. Ilowever, it is )uM ss rmpurtanl that they be available in sdequurn .maum if good yields and qualny arc to be uhtarned ' 45
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"broadcast" und'one band deep" melhods. These methmLs are also more ruviroomenl.lly snund because nulneol uptake efficicucy is improved and Iraching lossrs are reduced, compared lu prelrsnsplanl methods. The'broadcast' end'ooe band deep' methtsds my coulrihute to fenilir<r injury, parucularly on sandy soils in dry reasons. Also, beuuse the fenshmr with these methorfs is sameumu applied uvenl weeks before Ireusplenlwf. Were is more Ume for luching to occur. The 'two bands at tr.nsplmsiog' and 'bands within 10 days after Iransplanting' methods virbu0y eliminate fertilizer injury, resuhing in a umre uniform crop, and they may reduce leaching losses because the fertilizer is exposed b leaching canditions for a shorlu Iime early in the se..son when leaching is rrsosl likely lo accur. A pmblem with We'bruuL: within 10 days after Ir.nsplmliog' rnetbod is Iha prolonged raim after Irwsplsnting may delay fertilizer application for mme lhan 10 to 14 days. Becauve this delay my redum early growth and possibly yields, many growers apply the mixed fertilizer as soou u lhe plants rsand up or they apply wme nitrogen (and somelinw polasium) al trruplanting with equipment ('Sod.-Flo') attuhed to the reu of the transplanter. 'Soda-Flo' uny be especielly beneficial on poorly drained fields when the'bands wnhin 10 days after Irmsplrnting' melhod is used. However. the rate of regular sidedreas Isitrogen, if needed at all, should be reduced accordingly to prevent ripening and cuobil0y problems due lo excess nilrogen. On soils where leaching is oa1 a problem, some growers use 'Soda-Flo' as the only sidedrus application, regardless of how the mixed ferliliur is applied. This elirninaln • trip over the field ur reduces the time and labor egeded laler for normal cullivatioo. Ripping (Subsuiling) In some soils, particularly in the coastal plsin, a tillage pan (or hard pan) may form about 10 m IS inches deep. This pan my ressri<I deep ront developnwlt, which decrcascs uptake of water and nulrieuts from soil below the hard pan. The resubs of ripping on tobacco yleld rnd quality are shown in Table 7.8. Substantial yield resptmses were ohminwl in 13 of 30 tessss conducted in the 1981 Ihrough 1983 seasons. Generally, npprng improved yields when the early season was dry, bul the improvement was grealer and more consistent in the coastal plam, where s,n6 wirb hard pans .re mnre predomsnanl. Sods classified m the Nnrfulk, Wagram, Tomntley, and Marlboro series generally were msponauvc to ripprng; soils cluxfiul in thc Applmg and V.nce senes gave rmxlerme-myu.suonahlc yield increa,es; and s,nls claasiticd as GuldsOurn and Cecil did notrespund lo npping. 50 jupping lended lo improve leaf quality in 1981, pnmarily in the co.sul plain, pul ba4 no consislenl effect io 1982 or 1983. The improved quality and yreldt in 1981 prnb.bly occuned because plrnm ro subsoiled plols were wb)ecud to luu rnusslsue Nr<ss dunng dry penods, partrcularly an the bgbler-lestured coutal plain suils. At some test shcs, ripping was more effative in increasmg yields than was rdding more mtrogen, aod Ow yield rn<reese was not sssonalcd with quality rduction, which often occurs when excess nitrogen is used to increase yicld. Therefore, on some ripped soils with hardpsm, lutrogea nte my be reduced without rcducing yield, and le.f quality my be imprnved. Table 74. Effects of Ripping on Tobacco Yidd and Qualily Yield (lb/A) Grade Index• Bippcd Coastal Plain Piedmont Coastal Plain Piedmont No 2,457 2,332 41 37 Yes 2.609 2,426 42 37 ose: Avenges o 1 lests run uc in e costa p.m an l sesec conducsed in the piedmont, 19g1-1983. • Grade index is a 1-1 W reting based on governmeat grade; higher ntiogs rndlfAle beller qnalrly. Fertiliuslion Summary 1. Have a soil sample teslcd to determine nutrient and Irme needs. Use dolomitie lime, if needed, to adjust pHand supply magns.sium as well as calcium. Do swl overlime. 2. Use a base nitrogen rale of 50 to 80 pounds per acre (toul nnmgeo from mixed and ndrdrexs fertilizers); your portion of the nle rsngc will depend on topsoil depth and lesrure. prevrous crop grown, variety 1. be grown, and your experience. 3. Selna a highanalysis rabo of mused fcnd,aer that will suPplY rll Ihe phosphorus suggestcd by the sod test when used al e rate that wdl supply no more Ihan 40 pounds of nnrugen per ane. For many tobacco sruls m Nunh Can~lnu, Ihu ute of. 1:1t3 or 1.0:3 ratio ferllhrnr wdl also supply adeyuae poLLsswm. 4. Consider the need to apply 20 pp.unds of sulfur per acm and possibly chloride on decp, sandy suile. There are no surtable sod Ies1s sl /
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for thesc nutnents, and they am not eontrmed in sdequate uuomsts in some lenihrers S. Sela't e ndcdress mtrngen fcmbaer tlut contuns potsssium only if the nuxed fenilinr rn step 3 will not supply all the potassium suggested by the soil rat. Only nitmgeu from 1:0:0-ntio sidndrrssers will he sufficienl for many soils, but additional po4ssium, if nrded, csn be obsained ecanunually from 1:0:1-raio ridedressers. Pot.ssium levels in Nortb Carolina mbecco soils .re rarely low enough to require s 1:0:3-satin sidedresser if 100 to 120 pounds of poLLSSium per scre am applied from the mixed fenilirer. 6. Laching uljustmenl.s for nilrogen los.sa should be determined with csution and uude onty after leaching has occurred, na1 ou the •uumplion that it will occur. Using the le¢hing adjustment procedure on drowncd lobscm often results in overapplication of nitrogen. 7. Use s method of fertilizer .pplialion that msxiolius nutrient uptake efficieocy but mininuus fcnilrrer sslws injury and ar1Y-see.sun leaching los_sa, such s the 9wo bsnds at u.ns- plmting' or 'hsnds within 10 days s0er transplanting' methods. TOBACCO INFORMATION TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR 1994 WNCT-TV Grecnville, NC Jsn. 8 7-9..m. WRAI.-TV Raleigh, NC Jan. 8 6-7 s.m. WITN-TV Wrshingum, NC Jsn. 8 7-8 s.m. WECTTV W{Iminglan, NC Jan. g 7. 8..m. W%II.TV Wimmn-Saem.NC Jan.8 7-8s.m. 8. WEED MANAGEMENT ' Fred H. Yelvenon Crop Science Extension SpecislrN (Tobscco) Rerbicida am only p.rt of s total weed management program that rhorsld fnclude erop rotation, early stalk and rad dessnrctlon, and cultivation. Tdd relience on herbicides for weed control is costly, less effective, and is uruaund weed mus.gensent. A rapidly growing tobacco crop sids wxd con/rol by providing shade. Weod problems am much worse when crop growth is restricled because of dieease problems, ferrilirer injury. or chemicsl injury. Thcrefure, pnctices that promale hedthy tobacco root tyqems (crop rotation, disessse control, fenilit<r application during or within 10 days after trsnsplsnting, proper pesticide usage, snd liming) am integral pnte of a good weed msnsgement progrun. Some weeds, such s yellow and purple nutsedge, common ngweed. broad- leaf sigrlalgrsss, and Tnxa psnium, differ in susceptibility oo available herbicides (fsble 8-I). Therefore, enrrnd weed ideatifinlion is neceasery fnr sdeclioa of the proper herbicide. For the most psn, herbicidu labeled fm use u.u tobacco control wends by restricting growth during seed germinstion. They have little effect on weed .ceds that do no1 germ:nste (dormud reeds) or on weeds after they have amerged from the eail. Accunte field records of the types and numbers of weeds expected are neresssry for proper herbicide and nle selection. Many fields have been Irested with herbicida for several years while plsnted in tobacco utd other crops. 7Lis repeated usa of herbicida c.o eventually mduce grse populations to a level where lawcr labeled ates of snd- inrosponted herbicides orlhc use of Devrinol baded overlhe top plus nurmsl cultivation give acceptable weed control. A herbicide msy not be ncceassry in some fields after herbicides have been used extensively for several yars. The best approach ss m evslune each field separately m nee if Ihe weed populuion will allow the selection of an ovenop-spphed berbtcide, the use of s lower labeled nm of s pretrsnsplsnl.incorponled herbicide, or in some ta.sec no herbicide. Problem Weeds Common Ragweed 52 The presenre of cnmmnn r.gweed in tobacco ficlds is rel.sed to a higher inciden¢ of Grsnville wdl becsu.se populsuons of the diseae:rausing 6scterium csn survivc on the nwts of lhis wecd. Devrinol 50DF suppressr,< ngweed, but control ruersures in a rotational crop such as corn are more 53
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Table 8-1. Rehti.e Suwrpunnily of Weeds ta Tobarm Ilnbieides fr.ssn PivLe lYlt&l Tlu e i l ' m (!f Ap mm o BLmPrdZnu Ge Gc ae Ge e Bennud.gnr. p p P p PF Broadlerf upnalgnrr G G p C e Cnbgnr. e E e e e Crowfootgnu e e e e e Fall Panicum G G G c e Fonads e e e e e Goo.egnr4 e e G e e lohmm.`vr4lrcedlingr) G G o F G Ssndbur G G G Tew p.nicum a G p G Nuuodae P p G P P Bro.dlor Wceds Cocklebur P P P p F Commnn punlLnc e e G e F-G Gum ngw ccd P p p PF P F Hahy galinruZa P p P P F G limronweed P P p p G l-amhrquanm G G G G G Mumingglory p p P p P Pigwccd G e G 0 G G p pricklY ald. P p p p p Rag"'ecd! p P P F G Srcklcpnd p p p p p Sm.n.YrW P P F P P G !~I! Y/ M Ag/Y'Y Y / .(TKO 4nWr WLL, n[, A C York, A 0 Worsbam, snd p. H Yclvcnon, Crop Scrmcc DcP . e= eLCCllcnr, 90 pcrcem cunLral ur bamr, G= GnW. )6 rn 90 pcmcm comml, F= F.iq 50 to ~5 pcrccn oonunl, nd p= Rwq hcWw 50 pcrecn4 conlrol fwhrn ~PI'Led e4 6bdN rncs wdcr f.vonblc eondmun4l 54 aHective. Ragweed contml in e rotational cmp and eepecially in rkip-rowa rnd field bordm is necrasary in reduce the populNion of Ihis weed and the pusirleM soil-bmM bectcria that ause Cranville wilt. A new herbicide, Commend, offen good control of commnn ragweed. (See the section on CouLmaod on pege 68). Noruoellle HnrLrxLlle (or Bsll brier) is presrnl in tobacco fields througbout North Cuolina. This weed i.s hoatl fm tobacco mosaic viroa. None of the beabicidm labeled fm tobecco will cunlrol this deeprouted petenuid. Conlyd me.+une, in a rotational crop rnLch as con ue eHective and . reduce the pmratol for tobacco monic viw when mb.cco is plenbd in foBowing yesn. Nmredge Ye.llow .vd purple ouYCdge roem to be an incre+sing problem in maoy tobacan fields, eod Tillam 6E is the only herbicide labeled for tobacco lhea coalrola these two weeds. Fm bm1 Lmulle. Tillam 6E must be incorponted immedielely efter apnying. If grasw are dso expected in high numbern, an over-the-lop appliutiou of Devtinol at trwplanting m apPlicalioo of Uerrioal or Prowl 4E or 3.3E after the Ly-by cultivaion will be neressary to proride eueoo-long grss control. The uee of the Devrin441 and Tillam 6E Iroh mix is discounged because of possible ruut injury, which results in crop rwntine• eroodlrq/Signnfpnu - Bro.dle.f .igoJgnss hLa becume a problem fm many growen in Nor1h Carolioa. Thia wead is mon di/ficullln control than crabgran. Besl results have been obtained with a full, labeled ote of GLmnund 4EC before Ysnsplenliog. Io some fields, a lay-by applicelion of Prowl 3.3E nr 4E or Devrinol m.y also be helpful. Cultivation The uee of berbicides in lob.cco production c.n reduce the number af <uhivations needed to produce a profitable and highquJity croP. However, a few cullivuions including lay-0y an nxdrd tn lousen suil that p¢veats crusting of nme soil types and lo build a high row ridge necessary for proper drainage. Deep cultivation late in the season can spread tnWcm mosaic virus and injure ronl systemt, which Lncreases problerre with Granvdle wilt, black shank, and 55 r 2060454095
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wster snd nulrienl srptske. Grourrr are enrouraaed to we Iherbfridu ar ar addiriund rool ro m.uraf the rpread of direaru, partievlarly tobacco mu.aic sirur, by awidint rnnne.r.ary cv6itur/onr and kyint !he Rap by at tarfy m parribk Herbicide Selection .nd ApplirAlion Cerbin herbicides m.y be apphed before banspl.olint, al or wilhin 7 drys •Ru Ir.ospl.uliot, m at Ly.by. There.rn dvenlatr, and dts.dvsolqn 1u e¢h ume of application, bul each is witable for , tiven weed popuW ioe spf trower's ritueliou. Growen ue remindcd 16s/ proper ideatifuatjon of the weed is ermtial for proper herbicide aefeclian (f.ble t-1).od Iha1 emnty Eatmsian ymta esa belp identify problem weeds. Alm, red Ihe 1e6e1 before pun:hacint a herbicide lu eee if Ihe prohlem weed is coMrolled by the producl and b deAUmnte the proper r.m. Applied Ovcrlop Applied b SarllncorporNed .Var withio 7 D.ys Row Middles 9e(are Ira"enleol •e After T-mb.is At 1.v_ . Devrinoil 50DF Peulm 6E Prow11E @ ].)E Tillam 6E Command 4EC II R a  0 © Prrlmnsplanl-fwrorporafrd Hu6iddts Advaal.te. of pretnmsplml-incurponlad herbicides include laok roiaint wih other chemic.ls m nve ooe or mon trips acroa the field sod more cousipeut woed control than ovu.lhe-lop .pplicaliuns b.use there is ka depeadroce 0o rainfall for achratioo. 10 Wditiun, when puor field canditione ddsy "lentint, 4 pretnnsplat-incorporalevl herbicide will help prevent weed growth Iha1 mey sbrl in the freshly prepared sod. The musl impnlavl drsedvenl.te is possrMe rool injury, which mey uuse crop uwtmt. With Ihe eaceplioo of Comnund (see the eeciirn on Cnaurund), prclr.u.p6mmcurpor.trd hcrbrcides used m lob.eco c.n rndily nuse rool inlury. Smnlmt is mosl likely dunnt cuwl, wel sprrnts. Poor incarpnnboq high nies, nrd lank vusint of uvo or roore herbicides increase Ibe chmce of mot injury Reseuch bd obscnMlone Ntte.a the possibikly of .ddtunnd rool rnjury srd snmling when the full rne of Prsmc 1 wes sssed (nr rucker cunbul the Prevrrws year. Pruper crop rotation preclicu wdl yrevent this problem fmm ou.vrrint. If crop roUUOO is nol possible. Ihe Lyusrl.pu'.cre rste of Pnme + Awu1d be used in a recummeaded socku caelml protram. Refer to the sucku control section for recommaded Poprmr. If roal injury does occur, il is imporl.nl m remembu that slow plenl growth y due to s poor rool system rather Ihso a lack of nutrients. Addslioad spplicatioer of nitrogen will nol incrraae Ihe growth nie but will contribute n nnk growth, slow r:pedni, more mvipe tnhs. end lower prices at the wsreLou.e. Poor incorpunlioo u a kdint uuse of rool injury. Uoevm iornrpaaion k.dr m ness of tweceotrelad her6icide in Ihe toi1. Whm I mbecco plmt is hsmplwled into this area, rool growth is restricted, resulting u rool-bue mmu oBen fouod no aWOka of elunled plaou. T..cmr epetd, drsk shrpe, and disk sim ue all important for uoiform iocurporalioo of the chemical. Pinish- int or aandhint hurowa havint sm.ll rpbcsical-.b.ped disks incurponte rSemira6 mase unffarmly than Isrter, cu/lint h.nnws with cone-ds.pcd disks. Aln, fuutLint hxrows mwsponte the chemicd om-hdf n deep u Iha disk. ruq wherm the laqec h.rrosvs wiR iawrporale spproximncly twothirds r deep as the disks ere mn. Derp iocorpor•tiao iec- the probebllily lhet the herbicide will taetsct tab.cco raet syslws Wit c.uee roa injury. Tractor speed should be et In.1 4 to 6 miks per 6nrsr (mp6) and the field should be crosc-disked to provide a mwe eveo distribution of the chemical. Diakint ooc<.od bddmt Ihe mws will ool iarnrpnnts the hmbicide uniformly. Under no rircunmmnni rrly on rhr beddlnt operation alone ro brcorpo.me an herbicide. Doing n draslically increases the probability of crop injury vAsle decreoiot the effaclivnpns of the herbicide. Herbicidrs rhwld .lways be iorwpor+td wilh Ihe proper equipmenl before beddint. Root injury eun be reducad by applying PreJotrWfmt hcrbicide. e11he lowest labeled nte that fwld and weed conditions a11ow. iocorporatint the herbicide pruperly, nd aPPlyint only one pretraoryl.at-iocorponted herbicide. Stuntint of the crop from iaproper Wit incorpornliNw is nroat likely m occur wilh Tlllem 6E and Devnrrol rank-mi.ed, Ihea Tlllam 6E or Prowl, Ihm Purlm 6E, aad is lesst likely with Coosoumd. Devnrrol may luve «.srdoes Iha stum small tntn trowlh, as mdruted on the producl Ishel, especially when Wit incorpnnred. If the small tnm crop is used only ss a cover crnp, this is rsol coosidered a problem. The pdenuel for cerryovu can be reduced by buvl spplsutrous to the Wit mrfsce nlher than by sud rnenrpontioo or broulusr arface spplic.non. Check the Isbel for rulnclrons un rou4onal crups and Ihe usc of cover crops 1f Devriool s7 56
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is incorporated. usmg the lowu lebeled rele sod fall tillete aool with early Wlk end mo1 dwructroo reduce the chance of c.rryover b smdl gr.ioe. Comm.nd nuy .In cury over to ama11 jraias (see below). New prowl Formul.tion. In 1992, a vew Prowl formulstioo wu iotroducnl that cmtsioa 13 pounds of acuve lnitulrml per pllou. AI pr.amt, this formWMiou is .valeble ady in bulk contaoers. To convert the ratra to rhe Prowl 4E raee, the 3.3 formulatioo should be used sl a rete 1.2 timsa jreaer than that rewmmrnded for the 4E formulstim. (Eeemple: 1.2 piws per acre of 3.3E will Sive Ihe ume amouut of active ingredient per ecre a I pim of the AIE fornwlalioa). Conunud. Commsnd hesbicide, manufactured by FMC Catpornion, W s Special Local Need (SLN 24(c)) oetirr.fioo for m an tobacco in Norlh Carolina. At pressat, il is regislertd for ptNraaspl.ol-urcaporaed .pphcYios oaly. Command ia an e.celleat herbicide for cootml of mmy Mr.se, aome of which (broadleaf agnalpw, fur ioa.uce) .re difficult to control with cuneal herbicidu. Aleo. Comm.od offers rmtrnl of ineny broadlnf weeh found in North Carolina tnb.rcu fiAds, wrL as sommun r.jsvend, which is an atertvle hosl for Crmville wil1. Wrr bsoadlraves conwlMd that oe imponam in North Groliw ue jimeonweed, common Lmhpuarten, prickly sid., Pemylvania .mutweed, hary lidiwop, and commoa cocklebur (partial unlrol). Refer ru Table 6-1 for a more complete list of weede cuutrolkd. One we.kana of Commrnd is Iha1 it offecs n.ealidly w control of redroot pigsveed. Com,dnd shqdd be iosorponbd iatu.nil duriug appliation or sa soon ar possible Iheredw b rnduce vepor dafl (volwlintion). The potential for Cnmm.od to volstilire is greater than thn with other tobacco herbicidet. Precautions mual be laken b reduce off-ate moveroent of sprsy drib or vapors because foli.r whiteoiag or yellowing can oecur in nearby btoadleuf pl.ntn, iocludiop shrubbery. Bacause of thn, Comouod should ool be ueed neat to housee, aubdivisions, or ourseries. Comnmmf should .ol be ru/ w(tAi. 1,00p/eeloflo.ns, subd/s{tlons, nstde.res, cwnmerduf rerelabk pnaductlon (enepr sweet conr), eonnnercfnl frufl or nal produclios, eaw,nenfa/ wuneries, or greenhouses. Commend should he incorporacd by the s.me ptocedure as previously oWhned far Ihe prekuspl.oLiocorporaed herbicidu. Carryover m small gr.ins rs e curur.m for Comnund, especi.lly uo heavy soils. Do nd plaul soWl #r.ioa for grain production withrn 12 n.wlhs after the eppltcatioa of Conurund. Cover crops, however, ouy be plented urylime, but sWds ®.y be reduced. Do not yrvn or hervest for food or feed uwer crops pl.ated Irss 58 o.p 9 tmnthr after Cnouv.od Ireatment. peeerrch with Comm.nd bsa showa that toh.cco is sufficieolly tolerant to thts krbicide. UItk or no woting hrs Iweo ob.erved; m occasiond white leaf u plme hu been noted, bu1 planls recover with rw dvee.e effecls y yreld or quality. During the 1992 Srowtng ae+coo, severd growers saperisneed onre white plm1s than would oormrlly be etpected. This .es roor likely the resull of a coal, wd sprin/ in 1992, which caused the syeWtoms b be mwe pronounced. Hovrover, in tach of theee atrutions, Aetobaccorecovered and produced a ooroulerop. In 1993.touch ks wkitrniop fivm Command wo observed. Howevu, becwea of lhis +iiteoiop precsutino, should be Idcea to eoaure proper iacorpor.tiou and b preveel boom overlap during applicatioa. FvNt A..ilabflily of P..elan. fMwElaoco, Ihe Imufamuer of Purlsa, Yse decided not to p.r.ue reteti.wim of Pstho 6EC with the EPA. 7kesefore, only the P..rl.n currtatly in the dirtriba4on ch.mels will be available for the 1994 season. As long .e Paulm is .valabfe, it is legal p use. Herbicide AppHmHo. Al w FoRorln( 2yaaqlantlal Under Inw tn medium jnu preuure, band appRntiou of Devrind is mo¢ etanomicd Ihea broadnaliaj, flowever, if Ihe /rw population is hipb, s prdrnsrylant-incorpursted herbicide is recommeoded. Devrinol SUDF is the only tobacco herbicide that mey he epplied sl transplanting ur immndiately .f1er tr.osplmtia[. Application Y tr.naplantin9 is encourqed because it is mom likely b coutrol early-terminatin{ weed uad, and the moieture in freshly lalled eoil belps trnve the herbicide mto cootacl with wnnd .eed. Alw, applic.Gon .1 Innsplmliuff saves . trip over ibe field and provides iosunnce apiost early-susoo raus, which can pment reeatry iotu the field. Hubicides applied en the soil surface are dependent on water to move the chetoiuls iotu the .oil where weed seeds sermiNte_ Therefore, they fit well m irrigated situatious. If rainfdl does not occm wrtbin 3 to 5 d.ys, e light cvluvutoo ossy aid in scuvauq the herbictde. Lack of reinf.ll early in the seasoo ean resuh in reduced weed control when hcrMcrdes ue applied tu the wil wrfece. Reluced controldue to low sail moisture wac observed by enme Qrowers in recrnt yesrs. Herblclde AppHcasion at fay-by In fields where a hirb row ridge is used, previou.ly applied herbrndas are 59 r
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m.ved dang with treated soil from between the ruws nnln the row ridge. This makee ley-by applications of s hcrbicide to row middlas )uslifieble in fields with a hislnry of severe gr«a problema L.y-by .pplicaione ue helpful in eateadmg gress coutral when e shost-livtd herbicide such u Tdlem 6E ic used. A Ly-by application of Devrinol ar Prowl 4E or 3.3E following the earlier eoil.incorponled Tillem 6E will eatmd grw curolml, and crop injury will be lese dv.n when a tank mrs of Tillsm 6E and flevrinnl is used. A lay-by eppliulion of Prowl 4E or 3.3E ar Devriool my also he helpful with brorllesf signdgrsss conlrul. Sorrc growcca use drop nozzles W apply the herbicides W the row middles el Ly-by, fkvrinol cen cnnmct tobacco bud. without injury. Applicmatfoo of Prowl 4E or 3.)E to Wb.cco buds should be.voided W prevem injury. A. with over-the-top eppliulions, herbicides applied at lay-by are dependeot on rainfall to move lhem into the eoil and are .ctive an germineting weed sed. It is important that they be applied after a hy-by coltivetion, which is neresrary to rermve etisting wxds. Tbe une of a herbicide el ley-by usually incresaes wned conhol in wd .r.sroe. Yield is seldom incrr.sed unles, weed populations are he.vy, Therefore, the use of e lay-by application should be considered an . yeu-m-yeu bssts when the sesoo and wmd sinutinnjustify the Ireetmem. Pl.nt-bed Weed Contrul Poest is now labeled for control of grassy weeds in seedbeds only. Refer W the seclion on tr.osplwl production (page 24) for recommendelions on the use of Poist in seedba4 and other merfrods of controlling weods in .eedbeds. N O 0) O 60 P, C.TI ~ O IJ7 CO 0 Table 8-2. Wced Control .nd Crop Iry'ury fram V.riout flerbicide Treatments in Edgecanhe and Alsrnamce Counties, I992 Cantrol f %1I Gr.sst Redroot Pigweed Slunung' (%) Nonlreatnd check II 8 1 Prowl 4E 1 pt/A (PTI)' 86 90 9 Prowl 4E I qVA (PTI) 98 97 10 Prowl 3.3E 1.2 pt/A (PI7) 97 loo 8 Prowl 3.3E 1.2 qt/A (P87) 98 99 15 Tillant 6EC 213 gd/A (PT1) 80 70 9 Command 4E 1 qt/A (PTI) 100 63 3 Devrinol 50DP 4 lb/A (OT)' 100 73 1 Comm.nd 4E I qt1A + Prowl I pt/A (PTI) 100 95 6 = rm caotro , IOD s no pre9fAt (comp ete eoutro ) t gras qteeies were large cnbgraes and brondluf sign.lgress s 0= nn stunting, 100 = crop death ' PTI = prannspl.ntincoq.oreted ° OT - bend application over the top after Ir.uaplenling Spr.yv C.li6ration ' Proper sprayer calibration is essential W ga desired resulls from my pesticide and to minimim crop injury. Applying tuo mucb herbicide is e waste of money and my cause escessive root injury or pose 0 threat of curyover in the soil. Too little herbicide my give in.dequam wocd control. Before calibration of e field sprayer, ceNln equiprrcnt repeirs my be needed. Refer to the 1994 Nnnh Cmnlinn Agritulruro/ ChemicnLs Monunl for proper cleaning procedures, nozzle selection, and other steps W be taken before calibrating Ihe aprayer. 8roodm)s AppBcutions I. After wmpldfng the nenes.ury cleaning and repors, fill the tank with clean water and calculate your spued under field 61
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Maximizing Sucker Control and Minimiring Residues with MII M.Icic hydrazide (MII) is widely used for sucker control because it is usually effective, relalivdy inexpenslve, and e.sy to apply. To this point, no mnabk alternative lo MH has been developed, and sucker control prognnn wilhout this producl have not given consistently good results. Penodic droughts and adoptirn of improved varieti<a and cultural practices that esnphssixe yield estend the herve.st sesan and have teoded lu increase sucker prcasure. Unfortunarcly, this hu somelimes Ied W earrwsive Mfl rates initially or addition.l late-susas MH applications. Consequenlly. MH retidues on cured leaves have risen W levels that sre rapidly becaming nnacceplabte to domestic and foreign buyers. TLroe memkcrs of the Europe.n commmrity-It.ly, Germany, and Spain- have doplcd an 00 part-per-million (ppm) Wlerence on tobacco products. This Wlennce is likely to be established by other European eaunlries in Ihe ne.r future. 11 is possible that this tolerance caold be less than 80 ppm. The two m.jor competitors for Americ.n-slyle Rucuured Wbacco do nol um MH and could capture a significant sham of the U.S. export merket if MH residues .re not drastically rnlucrd below the levels found an recent crops. Allhough an official MII tolerance has not been established in the United States, dome.slic cigarette manufacturers and .11 members of the industry ero very concerned about poor puhlic perceplion af sny pesticide residues that could reduc< tobacco consumption both here and abroad. Although U.S. cigarette cansumptlon continues to decline, the overseas mrtkel for U.S. blended cigarelles has mnre than doubled since 1986, and its conlinued succe.ss will depend greatly on the domestic osenu6clurera' ability to pmvide cigsrelles that mect current or potential peslicide tolerances in those counlrie6. MH residues generally ere lower in years of good r.iofall and relatively high yidds. MN residues elsn very greatly by beh. Table 9-2 shows MN residues by bell for Ihe 1990,Ihrough 1993 crops. In the lasr couple of years some teaf purchasers may have changed iheir buying palterns away from areas that traditionally have high MH residues. It is anticipated that this shift wrH hecome mme comnwn in future years. Therefore, it is of utmosi importance for MII residues to declme, particularly in those sreas with Iraditionally high «.cidues- It is also evident that a vag majnnly of growers arc taking tha concerns over MII very seriously. Thcre is strong evidence that newer, mure effective sucker contrnl prognma that use only the labeled rate of M11 are being adopted. This is verified by the fact that MH residuea have gradually declined in Ihe lasl few yeus. This sends a very positive mnsage lo our customcrs that U.S. Huaeured growers ere taking thie issue seriouely and are responding in a positive wey. However, il is unfnrnmele that aeveral rrmplrs taken from the warehause Ooor in rec<nl yurs had residues of MH in escess of 500 puts per million. . ~„II 1~y•1 • 1 Table by n.u 11999 to 199J1 _~ @el 12'p 1991 12?2 19?2 Gmrgie-Florid. 196 200 119 139 S.C. border 214 183 143 131 N.C.border 163 210 138 148 N.C. eskro 168 1]8 136 141 Middle 109 103 124 105 N.C. old 85 74 43 45 Ve. old 28 76 39 49 Average 147 140 114 116 II is important Ihat the mtire induslry, including praduuss and 14111113 wPP1Y deders, have a grealer, eawareness of Ihe significeoce of the pesticide reeidue issue and its implicalions for the continued suc<ess of our tobacco prognm. No new and eHeclive sucker cuntrol cheoucels will be available in the immediate fuNm, so beller sucker control end lower MH residues musl and can be obtained in the shon Wrm with existing chemids and improved cuhural practices. Below ue sosoe suggeslioos that will help accomplish bdh objectives: I. Use a rersonable nitrogen nle. Exwsive oftrogea slimulate0 sucker growth and delays mamrity, which increases the probability of troublesome sucker rcgrowth in prolaoged harvest seasons. A base nitrogen rate of 50 W 80 pounds per ecre is suggestcd, plus adjuslmem for leaching, if nmded. The lower portion of the nte nnge is suggesu•d for fine-textured, fertile soils, es7wcielly if Icgume crops were grown in the field the previous year. The higher portion of thc nte rsnge is suggested for cosrse-textured soils with topsoil depths greaer than 15 inches to clay. See pges 35 and 36 for more mformauon on demrnumag nnrogen rates. 70 71
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gallons per nre : Only nne applicalion's permitted unless Ihe frrst application is wadred olf by rain. Even then, research indicates thai reapplicalinn of the full MH nte is needed only if a suhslanh.l nin occurs wuhrn 4 boun after Ihe first application. No reapplication is needed if nin occun more than 10 to 12 hours a0er rbe hrst appliutiun. Only a hdf-nle (0.75 gallon of MR per acre) is needed if rain occurs between 4 and 10 hours aflar the firit appliulrnn. Following Ihase important guidelines will enable you lo mamtafn good sucker cuntral wilh only minimalincreases in MH residues. MR is absorbed more effectively by youriga, upper Itavea thn by older, lower leaves. Thenfwe. MR should be applied to the upper third of the plant u.ing the three-oorlJe-per-row urangemenl. Some growers use drop noraJm. like spnying for aphids or Oer beetles, which will not substantially improve sucker contml but will increase MH revidues becau.e more of the spray gets on the undersidea of leaves where remord of nxidues by rainfall is more difficult. The ux of dr le f MR ppf I' stronzlv discoungcd. MN residues are often higher on lower leavu than on upper leaves bccause the lower lesves an harvested sooner a0er MR application. Thn MIf label slates that at least 7 days slmuld be dlowed hetwem IH11 applicilion and har.esl, with the anticipation that rainfall during Ihis period will wtsh off some residues. If lobacco is ready for MR application and harvest, e.ery allanpl should be made to harvat firsl, then apply MII. It will most likely be at least 7 days before the crop will be ready for another harvest. This will assure MH-free frrsl primings and minimA residues on the second primings. The data in Table 9-4 illustrate the importance of rainfall in reducing MR residues. At the Ccntnl Crops Reserrch Station in Cl.ylon. MR was applied followed 24 houn lalet by various amounts of irrigalion. After irrigation, the bottom le.ves were sampled for MR residue analysis. Even very hWe irrigation significantly reduced MR residues. - This nte is suitahle for the must popular formulatinns available io Nonh Carolina, which conmin 1.5 pounds of aclrve ingredient per gallon of prrdu<t; some products contain 2.25 pounds of active ingredient per gsllon and should be appbuf .1 1 0 galhm per acre for 6,000 plams per acre. Table 9.4. M11 Residues from Ratlom Leases after Various Urigation amounit at the Cenlral Crops Researc.h in 1 - f A untlinchesl MH R 'd fo )' None 0.005 001 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 149 95 85 39 45 33 27 S. • A111reatmwls received 13 gallonsflacre of MIS. Consider usin8 us alternative sucker control program. 7Lere .re seves.l sucker control progoms sha offer better sucker conlrol Ihao the standard treatment of two contact solution applications followed by MR. Refer tn Table 9-5 and the aection on result. of 1993 on-fum leste for sucker conlrof pmgrams that offer escellent, se.eon-long wcker comml witbnut u.ing mnre Oun tbe recommended nb of MH. Cunsideration and uae of Ihe above practirse will help to reduce MR reidues in 1994. Certainly MR has oved mauy, boua of labor since its introduction in the early 1950s, nd o yet rsn completely suitable substitute has been found m replace it. In addition m pnssible loss of both domestic md export market shares. overuae of this producl could result in greater use restrictions or enforcensent of restrictions dready on the label. Alsa, it should be mmembered that the ASCS certification sralemeat, which is signed wrually, shrea tlul dl pesticide products uxd in eqmection with Ruecured tobacco production will be used in accordance with label direclions. Topping and Chnnical Soclser Control Prograrrn Several topping and chemiul sucker control programs have been developed. Each program is based on application of the cm.ect me of nitrogen fertHimr (50 to 80 pounds per acre), depending upon soiltype plus adjustments for leaching. Excessive nitrogen availability promoles excessive ssrcker growth as well as lerf drop .nd breekege. Proper sprayer calibration is importanl. Refer to page 65 in the sprayer calibration sectiun on proper methods of calrhralrng a spray boom wrth multiple nanles per raw. 74 75
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Step 6. (Needed if sucker regrowth is anticipated late in the sessonY- Allemalire A Apply a 5 percent contact solution (2.5 gallons in 47.5 gallons) using the standard applicalion procedure for coni.ct spnys. This should be dooe 3 to 4 weeks after MH application when suckers are amdl and susceplibk ta conl.cl bum. Large suckers (greater dun I inch) should be removed by hand. Allernqtive B Apply 2 quans of Prime+ per scre using the standard application procedure far contacl (50 ptlona of tolal aolution per acre, Ihree nauks per row, low pressure, etc). This procees should be initiated 3 to 4 weeks after MH applintion. Luge suckers (gremer than I inch) should be removed by hand. This option should not be used if 2 quarts of Prime+ wat used earlier for sucker control. Allow I week between Prime+ application and harvest. Progmm If (Iland or Dropline Application) Allernative A Apply Prime + using the dropline method with 0.33 to 0.67 fluid ounce of solution per plant without using a contact solution: prepare the Prime+ solution by mising I gallon of Prime+ in 49 gallons of water (2.5 fluid ouncea of Prime + per gdlon of w.ter). Top and hand sucker when approximately 50 percent of the plants are in the elongabd-bud-to<arly- Bower stage. During topping or within a few hours, treal with Prime+. As the remainder of the plants reach this stage, they should he topped, lerge suckers should be removed, and the plants should be treated, Be careful not to treat any previously treated plants or use more soluuon than necessary to re.ch the honom of the smlk. Alternative B Apply . contact solutinn at the huuon stage .s in Step I of Prognm 1. Wlrcn 50 percent of the plavts re.ch the elnngatedhuuumtoarly-Bower stage, apply Pnme+, pre. fenhly wilh the drophne method as tn Altemsnvc A, A-z Program II, or use a power sprayer to apply at a nte of 50 gallons per acre a Pnme+ solution made by miaing 2 quarts of Prime+ with 49.5 gallons of water. The purpose of the initial contact is tn allow the amaller planta to become mme rruture before Prime+ application. However, spraying Prime+ may cause dishrtion of upper leaves on young plants. so you musl decide whether ro spray Prime+, use the dropline wilh Prime+, or use snother alternative in Program I lrsrd on the amount of unevenness in your crop. The Use of Surfaclanls with Prime+ ir dircauraged because little, if any, eenhanced control is obtained and many surfaclanls are phytotosic to tobscco. 199J On-Farm Test Results The avenge reaslts of tests conducted in five cmmlies ue sbown in Table 9-5. As you study the information, keep in mind that no sucken were removed by hand after the frrst application of a Iralmeot wo msde until sucker numbers and weights were secorded at the end of the harvest aason. As you interpret the results, rememher drat Ose higher the uumber of suckers and the weighl of the suckers, the poorrr the control. The bat Irealments have the lowest numbers of suckers and weights of sucken. All chemical applications were made with Irulor-mounted spnyers similar to Itmse used on many fnms. The following abservations are bssed oo the 1993 on-farm tests: L The standard treatnterrt involving the labeled rate of MH following Iwa conlact faty alcohol applications provided poor sucker control (see treatment 1). ' 2. The only non-MH treatment (treatment 4, Prime+ applied with dropline) slso provided poor sucker cantrol. As with all lrnlmmts thal do not include MH, e large numher of suckers may be nussed and therefore grow uninhihiled for the remainder of the season. The effectiveness of this treatmenl is totally dependent on proper appliulion. 3, The tank nux of 2 quarts of Prime r per acre with 1.5 gallons of MH per acre provided beuer sucker control than the standsrd of two contacrs followed by MH (compare trutrrcents I and 2). This t¢ament has been consistently good in recent years and is escellenl for eaending sucker control lete in the season. This Ireatmcnl has elso become very popular with growers. Refer lo the Pnme+ label for tanbOn sing mstmclmus and prccmtions- r 79 79
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N O ~ pntrnl On-Fann Tat Ra ,:4-1tr]\v-Y.1<.1! ~Ilt I1:\#,IL/if I.I:i1lS. Y Time of Annl'ution Sucken/Aene Cured-leaf vneld U1 A i O Treatment No. Button (1 staPPl. ) 3•5 days (2nd app(. ) 5-7 days (3rd appl.) 3-4 weeks (4th appl.) (No.) (Ib) (Ib/A) W I C (4%) C (5%) Ix MH 14.496 1.820 3,454 2 C (4%) C (5%) (lx MR + 1/2x P+)' - 258 60 3.432 3 C(4%) C(5%) Ix MR I/2x P+ 288 59 3,326 4 Prim+ (2%) - 2.028 775 3.277 ~ 5 C(4%) dropbnd C(5%) Ix FST-7 I2xP+ 0 0 3•387 6 C (4%) C (5%) (IxMH+1/2xP+)' C (5%) 0 0 3.385 7 C (4%) C (5%) (lx MH + 1/4x P+)' 1/4x P+ 180 50 3.401 8 C (4%) C (5%) 1a MR 1/41 P+ 336 E2 3.297 rntments 1• an 8: aot- oya MR. reatmCGt . ur 95. salmnti -. - A, Royal MR. Treatsnevts 2=3, 5. 6, 7. and g: P+ - Prime+. Ix MR - 1.5 yd/A RMH or Ix FST-7 - 3.0 SeUA. 1/2x P+ - 2 quarss/A of Pnme+. 1/4x P+ - I qt/A Prime+. '(Panstheses) indioates a tanl[ sux of MH and Pnme+ in n'attmeota 2, 6, and 7. 'Applied by dmplim, whieh involved tsatin5 individual plants m the elongated button stage with a 2% Pnrne+ solution (I talloo of Prim+ in 49 Sdlotu of wuer). Wbee MH was applied alone, application wa a fitm spny (40-50 psi• three aozilahow-TG-3. T0•3• TG-3). All fatty alcohols. Prtme+, FST-7, and tuiksnixes of MR aed Prim+ were applied as a couse spny (20 psi. thsee noxrles/row-TG-3, TG-S, TG-3). All .prey sPPlic+tions (both fine and couse) wem applied in SO Qal/ecn of ratal spray rolume. ~ S if ~'C R y~~ W E S M A 4- R~ . .. a~ a ~ ~~ R 8 p+ nA ~i M' M ~'og If ~„ n+ O q w ~ n G ~ LL O W N Y W 3. a b- ~/" ~'Q 4 ¢¢ ~ a S~ Y S r: 3_ ~ S "g1F.O q C p -~ S S i C°o S S w' Q; N e R ~,$ss.; ~Sa_a ~ ~ a ~~Sgc e^"~ 8 + S
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10. USE OF COLORING CIfEMICALS Gersld F. P«dm Crnp Science Ex/ensson Specialist (Tobearo) In the Field Elhephon (Prep or Ethrel) is the only rJrersiul approved for yellowing Inbaan in the fidd. To tase any uther type of dtensic.i for fhis purpose is illegal and could resull in considerable pmhlmu for osv industry and for you if un.ulhnriud chemicaLs art found in the cured haf- Only Prep is apecled to be available in 1994. Before spraying whole fields of lobscco, lesl ipmy sume planls uoifortdy wilh hand kits available from agriculmnl chemical dealers, or prepare your uwn tret spny by mixing I teaspoon of Prep in I quart of water. The purpose of test spraying is to dererrstine if the leaves are mature enough lo be induced b yellow if sprayed. Test-spnying a few represenlaiive pluln at several Inccaliom; in each field end observing them 2 to 3 days later will help you decide if the tobacco will yellow as deeired. This msy be especially importaut in fields planled n different times or to different varielies, fer6lired differently, topped at different heights, or otherwise managed differenlly. Ethephun will not work on immalure tobacco and should he used only if plants respond to test sprnying. Good spray coversge, espe<is0y of the leaf hulls and uppermosl leaves on the s41k, is essrntid lo achieve uniform yellowing. For ovcr-the-lop appliulioos, apply the chemical in 50 gallons of spmy per acre using s Ihree-noule ernngemeot st e pressure of 40 to 60 pounds per squ.re inch (psi). The ftner the sprry, the helter the chance of it dri0iog inward toward the sl.lk and covering the leaf bulls; consequendy, 60 psi mey give beuer cover.ge than 40 pounds psL Bc sure to adjust the noules lo ensure adequate coverage of ell renuining leaves. Elhephon works more enmislenlly when applied on warm, sunny days- Treat only Ihe acreage Ihal un he hanaled in I day, and guard againslled drop by nol allowing treated tobacco Io becmne oreryellow before hnrvevling. Remember that Ihr 14ep furnurlatiun is 3 times mure eanoentraled Ihan Ihe old Elhrel formululinn and should Im used at lower rates, that is, 1 113 to 2 2/3 pl/A. llse the Inwnr ole for rurrmal crops and the higher rate fur rank crops Or when lempcralores are Inwer than normal. In the Barn The results of 13 on-fann tests shown in Table 10-1 indicate that leaf quality or color wcre nvl comistcntly or substantially improved by using ethylene gas during yellowing. A few farmers reported that total curing time was occationally reduced, but this effect was incunsisteol and may not be realized tmiess bams am checked sevenl times daily in order to move to the kaf- dryiug soge as suon as yellowing is complete. A few fsrmcn ue oow, wwasting money by using both ethephou in We field md ethylene gas in the bam. Preliminary resulls of three teNS cooducled in 1991-92 rhow nu dvmlage to using ethylene gas on I.ob.cco already sprayed wilh eWephon in the field. NEITHER ETIIEPIION NOR EfT1YLENE GAS SHOULD BE USED INDISCRIMINATELY OR TO ACCELERATE HARVESTING OR CURING OF IMMATURE TOBACCO T.ble 10-1. Elfecls of Ethylene Gas Dur:ry Yellowing on Quality Indicators of Tohacro in 13 On-Ferm TesD. 1f86-19f] Priming Gss• 2-Year Grade (S/cwQ•' Indet Sale ({/cwt)•'• Lower No 159.77 62.6 168-73 Yes 160.24 1 65.0 168.21 Middle No 172.96 66.1 177.36 Yes 170.69 62.9 176.94 Upper Nu 177.54 65.6 179.89 Yes 117.53 67.0 179.62 Avcnees Weighled ITer Primines No 170.62 64.7 175.61 Yes 170.23 65.0 175-36 • Provided by Livmgsmn Chermcats, Ine. " Btsed on bellwide sucurm averages paid far specific grades. °' Actual aurbon salc pn.rs recervcd stihe warehouec 82 87
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funugennn. Tempenturm were above normal from May lhmugh lune, a factol that promoted growth utd reproducnon of the black slsnsk fuogm. From June through most of the rest of the sea.mn, soils were drier and hotur, dun r.ormal. These condinonc rlreunl many plants to the point that evm minor black sbank development in the roote waa lethal. Therefore the primary reesous for the high losset Usblack shsnk were ideal weather for disease development and the aMmdance of scres planted to vstietin with low levels of reostance. Diuase Msnagennst Practices An effactive disease ln.nsgcmmt program always inlegrs/ea a combinstion of teated and approved practices. The integntioo of severd prsc4cea is the bm method m reduce populations of disease causd ageula in the anil and in the environmrnt. It is Jways necessary to practice crop rotaim and atalk snd raol destruction (R-9-P), and these pnctices should be the b..is npun which disrasrw ue mwged. The use of resiet.nt varieties and chemicals is alsn helpful. However, no one practice can be relied upon by itself to manage diseases. Disease management musl be planned in advance of the crop year. Crop rv.nagemml decisioos should include the careful eonaideralion of the disease problemn present, the disease severily, and envirorsmenW impct. Only with s comhrnation of practices can gmwers effectively snsnsge diseases and sustain production. There ue several fund.ns-nW practices upon which s sustainable uunagemmi syslcm un be built. Crop Nomtlon Most of the important diseases thsl occur every year sre usumd by orgmisrns that persist in 1he sail and can reproduce ooly om tobacco and a few other planU. Without lobacco or one of the other hoN plants, populations of Ihe disease-causing organisnu: are reduced. Therefore, crop rotatioo is s culmrsl practice that must be errlphasissd in planning.oy dssesu; mansgenvnl program. Although there rNy be v.hd ressons why growers have difficulty in plammng and pramicing mlalion, the benefrls that com be derived in drswe control are sufficiently great to ncnl careful planning and consideratirm. Many North Carolina crops src good choices for rotation with tofmcco to help control diseases (Table 11-2). 1<rrgth of Rotatinn. Beuuse crop towion involves the abswce of s suiubla plant on which the pe.U can feed. the longer the rotatson, the more beneficirl i1 will be. Thus, a 4yc.r rotation (Ihrce dlemac crops betwem tobacco) is mnre c11c<Irve than a 2- nr 3-ye9r rotsnon. Srmilarly, a 3-year rntauonrs supcnnr Io . 2-yco ramnon Neverthelem, a Dyear mtulroo (one ailemate Table 11-3. The Value Selected D of Varinus Ro iuases tation Crops . in Helpin g to M.nage Tobacco Black BIKk Cranvlllc MOsan: Cmp Shsnk Root Rot Will Virus Rool-Knot com High High Mod. High Low Cotwn High Low Mod. High None Fracue High High High High High lespedev High Low High High High 'ROwaY Milo High High Mod. High Low Punuls High Low Low High None Pepper High High None None Nolse Pdab High High None Iligh Low (whitc) Sm. grain High fligh High High High Soybeans High Low High High Inw+ Swmtpotalo High High Mod. High Low^ Tomam High Mod- None None None Nole: These ntings ae besod on the assumption that wmds are well managed in these crops. Ratings ue: High = highly valuable ss a rotation crop for this dise.se. None = no value as a nnalion crop. mry be worse than contiuuous tobac<o. ' Rating may be high for cenain roctl-knot spttics or r.ces. r Rating is high if a rool-knol resistant variety of soybean or tomLLO is used- ' Rating is moderate if s rool-knot ressslant variety of sweerpotato is used. Bb 87
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crop between crop of Iobecco) provides rignificant disease reduction and is far superior h, conlinuom culture. Where tdvtco is growo continuously, farmcn uc 'focdms pnpulelions of pesls, thereby eonlribmiug to their bm'Idup and the probability of severe disease problems in the future. SInLf and Roo! Desl.mcflon (R-P-P) Roots and slalka from the previous year's crop must be deslroyed, regardless of wheWer dise.®a have le<a observed. To be effective, this proceae (fable 11-3) must be sccomplished u soun se possible s(1er harvnl is cumpleled. Efficient smd Ihorough completion of these tasks will reduce populationa of sever.l tob.ccn disases (Reduce 9 Pes1s), including black shank, Granvitk wilt, rool-kno1, mosaic, brown qiot, and vein baod{ng, o well sa certala in.ecls, grasses, and weeds. T.bk 11-3. Stalk and Root Dstruction (R-91-P) Slep Ikscription 1 CLI eWks in small pieces with a bush bog or similar equipment the day harvesl is complete. 2 Plow ou1 stubbla the day tl.lks sse cut. Be .um to remove the root system entirely from Ihe mil. 3 Retum to field about 2 weeks after Steps I and 2 am compleled and redisc or barrow the freld. This providea additional ront kill and exposa ddferentareas oflhe root m the drying action of sun and wind. 4 Seed cover crop where needed to prevent w.ler and wind erosion. This vccdmg should be postponed uolil root syslemr. ue covrplelely dead. When properly implementeJ, this program is highly effective because ausel agents that anack mbacco are adapted to survive best in ussnetslion with Irving mincco Ussue. A high proportion of Ihesc palhogcns will die if they are froe in the soil because they unnot enmpere mccessfully with the large range of other soil mrcroorgmsisms. In fact, the palhogens fdl prey to other microuganisms that reside in the stnl. Furlhcrmnre. the desrrw:uon of old lissue demu pesls living there protsiion from adverse envuonnwnW elenvnts. For e.soyde, mol-knd nem.udes ue very sensitive to drying; if root lisuve surrounding them deuys, they ve esposed to the drying action of the wind and sun. Mosaic virur particles lose Iheir ability to infect after they oe freed from lob.ceo tissue. TM V• esrryover may be reduced from 5 percent of plants lo less thao 0.1 percent. Oqher patlwgens mey reecl similarly. The objective of lhese pracliw is to promote rapid death and decay of all old plml tissue and debris. Uulas rapid death and decay occur, pathogw will Rourish. Fulare to follow Ihhese palias properly will eosure the survival and reproduc0on of the peas by allowing porlime of the plant to remain pbysiologically Jive from season to s uan. Resistanf Vmieks Varietal resistance is an effective and populsr lool for tobacco disme control in Nor1h Gruliw. The rai.lant variety is a necessuy pW of mnnagemenl programs for bolh black shaok and Granville wilt sod can be an important aspect of progr.ms designed m conlrol rool-kuot, mosaic, brown spot. and black root rot. flowever, rafslant vsrieain ue sometimm severely damsRnd by dise.ae, especially where roWioo, stilk.nd root destructian, sad other management luole are not ueed. Table 114 lists Rue-cured tobacco varieties currently popular in North Carolina and their resistance to black sh.nk and Granville wll. Fungicides, NenlaBr4les, and Multlpuryou Frunigants The use of peslicidu gives growers an ddiliond tool lo manage diseavs. Multipurpose fumiganls are available to help in managing black shank, black root ra, Grsnvitle wilt, .nd oeoutoda. More oarrow-spectmm chemicals are slso available m help control nemaodes, black sbank, and sonm other diseases. Pesticides should be used only when cultural practices elone aonot Wis6ctorily vuusge the dise.se. Their avironnsenbl impact must be are- fully considered. For optimum benefit, a knowledge of the disease and its sererity is essentiel. Also, il is impomnl to select the appropriale chemical for the disease problem. It is both useless and e.pasive to expect effective control of e disease from a materisl designed for a diffcrenl problem. Chemicals will aid in disease control only d used properly. For mil epplialioo, the sorl must be in good tillh-not too dry and not mo wel. Soil lempemmras must also be withtn a favorable range. Chermal effectiveness 89 8g
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'R Thete are many otha crop production prrchces that may inBuence disease development. Gmwen will he rewarded by conaidcring carefully the impact of each operation on possible dssease developmenl and operating in ways that favor the toMcco plsnt, thereby working to the dss.dvantage of diseiae- caussng sgenes. Managing the Major Diseases 7MntpfaM Diseaus General infomulion on the successful produclion of good Iobsceo transplants is given in Chaprer 5, 'Trannplant Produciiou.' T'hit section address only certain disease problems that snay ouur in plant beds and greeohousea in North CaruRna. Disnses in Greenhouses. The most cotnmon dise.see in greenbossvs ue caused by Rhizocrnnia and Sckrnrinia. BscteriJ sub mt (Erwinia) and Pyrhium species occur ocasionslly. Mosuc is rue bm devastating where it orcun. No tobuso product should be taken into the grceahouse. Weeda, especially borseneade, should nnl be allowed to grow in the greenhouse. Benuse aa disease msn.gement chemicals am cunenlly labeled for tobacco in greenhousea, growers rmW be especially diligent in their saniulion prrc- ticee Gnly media produred for lobacco srsnspl.nta should be used. All equipnient should be thoroughly wshcd and then sanitimd by dipping into in thoroughly spnying with 10 perceat household bleach (Clnms) solutfon ur appropriate concentntion of another dtslnfesrant, then air dswd. If more than • 10 percent bleach solution is uscd, thoroughly rinse and allow trays to dry. Because dipping tnys in 10 percent bleach will na dways totally disinfc 1 Ihem, trays known to have contained diseased plantr should be discardcd. An dleroalive to sanilivng with bleach is in fumigate Inys with melhyl bmmide. Fumigation of fioal lnya has not been thoroughly lested, especially in regard m aeration time and my polenhal phylolmtialy. However, preliminary lesls indicate furnigation is highly effecuve in eliminating Rhizononia on Rosl trays. Previously uaed Boar srsys should be thoroughly washed and allowed tu dry. Trays Iheo may be furnigared with nsrshyl bmmide st 1.5 to 3 paunds per thousand cubic feel. Do not fumigate inside a greenlususe. Trays may be stacked, crissKmssed, up Io 5 ft high, tarpW and saled on concrete or on a urp. then fumigsted. Sea the label fnr space fumigatrun. Allow at least 48 hnun of aenlinn Irefnre filhng wnh muli. Grnwen who know or susprct grecnhousc transplants were s.ource of mosnc should dip tnys in a 10 pemem bleach mduUOn m Wdiumt to fumigsuun. Allow trays to dry hekrre 92 rreding. Do not use nrore 0un 10 percent bleach as irjury to plants may necur. If trays ue soakrd, they should be rin.sod, which usry help to reduce my risk of plant injury from the drsmfrstanl. ' Dlher precautions should be taken to preveot introduction of soil-borne plhogens into the gren,houu. Walkwsyr and arrywaya should be of grevel, asphalt, concrese, or other materiJ that can be easily washed. Boots wnm outside the structure should not be worn inside unless they have been s.nitiud with 10 percrnt household bleach. Special u.e should be used in preventing field soil from cunlamiruting water beds in Bon eysleme Alsa. pond water used for inigation can be a source of diseue inoculum, and inoculum can be spread by recycling wster among beds. Eaw.ive .od sloppy watering, poor drainsge, plant injury, overcrowding, .nd eaceeaive humidity sre conditions must often leading to disease problems in green- bousa. Greudsousee should be fully ventilated wheoever temperatura ve not cold rmugh to damage the plants. Furlhenma, fam placed just above the plsnt c.mspy to circulate air around the slmcturc, polymba, or other power veatilston that remove humidity from the greenhouse will help reduce leaf maisture and mbsequat disease. Clming greenhouses during July or August to allow temperatures to r<ach 110°p for g houn per day for 7 days will help kill p.thogem. Heat-sensitive items should be removed. and adequate moistum should be maintained in the house. Tnhscco should not be grown for rny reason for a 3-mnnth period between October and Februvy to enswe thss blue mold, especially a Ridomil-resislant slraln, does not overwinrer. Field Distaces The following sections preseat generaf iuformtlion about some of the mosl common or recently discovered diseases that sffecttab.ccu in the field. Disesees ve listed in alphabetical order. A condensed disease management guide follows- Bfar4 SAanR 8fack Shank is caused by a soil-inMbiting fungus (PhyropMhora parasirica vsr. nirorlanae) which belongs to a group of the most dcstrudive fungi that attsek plents. ThGse fungi thrive io areas IWI ne high in rnmsture. The black shank fungus produces three types of spures, one of which, s swim- ming spore, initulcs infuc/ion on tobacco rooLs. Rarely are sbove-gmund parts of the planl infected, slthnugh some Ienf mfection can be ohserved r0er nms that splash spnc ontn the k.ves. 93
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-Vwq at fuq~ Caq~' Nemlm «' AJM. Jaaa We. T..w{/4f~om9~ Jo al~m a, rpu.q dlp •.f.Jm1 pqd JeJ tp.w ox.qm OW wn ne up •paq mqd Je me nmJJ pmi nmid aWdnd pa. m.mm dae-A M!A 'uapnq 9•q w.ld s.fpeoauoq InauooJ a!a>oW s:qel 'aftPJ Jo fuWp l•ae nweonqy) .ooH nnli. m LIm.M.B rPW dilJ mdg pinl •fmpr nyaq i.•wmu JMY! JY11. YMq fF.Z .oqry .1aw me mq swm n Iw pe. dM o.qlJaq7!V umuadmaf J! snfimnd n P< b. 001/ql 6 , •pp u.d"d (i4fnuwqy ff6 oP!-q AwW •np i•a!uPll••'w.a 1aMK NBMMIVJ IP" I fN "11ed P MoM) "MillawW W93IoO tizRxD (y0 fucdm.d .ma. '>Im•q5 am8 •mnm anue~a 'wuM•woIL) me-mU '~le5 pa-m- 'S3.SY8S7a ®i •1DJY7d aQ! 8m(1D ]Lffi1m'JVJJYNJ ams[IhlOJ r •JmM1 q~! S'O WM ~w Je q.JOd~osi •fo~M~ f!p. a YR` I ('dde .w.M1ll) Mqaq Mnf Jo w dldN at I!map!lf 'nt paamtpp" •mJan, ury.s DD SmdaQ (mn..+ 1!mepMJ --PW 335 MaW aryg 'lawu nJ a.oaaaJqm. -4) •a.•o.MUU Ilm.P!M IeYUd dlaq m mowa!Idd. Aamw.q Irp!m a.yf J.npJ ay Pmop!71 qrvw 14" OG afnlq m V/w I mmqm iio JNal 'fe~Y~ rJayn lw. m VI* I '.l.qoJ Ja (wvoqn tiodrwonJ) a~qsq snf Ja wAIddV 3Z PmnP!y lai4y,.q1m aAlmanlay app dqJ 61oW an19 •aa.. ..a.wf p.6u6 aq [...pxland 'dm.p p" IoPo n J.q,... n." apxfaN qR..f.woa Jw.. pf OOl/ql C (+aY!wedno+eJf qf.enqi .me!.. pmt Lm9t '.7nq ln ~wnnoaafPJ) 'u~eN m afa~ml RudC (ammFina) mlplaa fmGD wq~. mAfmanblJl aqe dnl MnR>•JVNY r^M11111,9J d.eS (" Lmt) 'II!YY IPW1 ap MWd PM P+M) »OMODIEWW mmmU INFRUNO ryq.J •Jn..3 mWwr3 wnau~ 6mroe Jnc./ uqooa •mmJnJm uom Xd SdSY8S7a ®8 ,LNYId 7IQ9 3ml1J .Ll!3MJVM'NI (135ADUN0:) 2060454115
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964tiGti090Z D'.ere CONDENSED MAWAGEMfNT GUIDE FOR FDrLD DISEASES For ean iofwmano.. coonet ynuc enuery Caqmnw Etle..uq C.aet. Ca1Wrd MuaBa-I (Ssok.Y (Read d Fnliew tYe IaMI) Cam..b Anpyc If diwes ic s.en. awid teihpot +orluu{ in fitlde rheo fo[iya u wt. (P.e.dmnnear lynnp) Bar. Rw (Erw... q.) 81.ck Roat Rm (Thie/enoput 6anm/c) Nooe Conud u nat uwn)lY n.e.urty. Harvut b6rco dry. .et mbarra, Nom nuo fane for 24 boun riN vcote epeo m dry tabaren be6eta tmn..u{ mmperamn. Rowc fCable-2). Mauotaio od pN aear 6.0. Blacb SL.nk Rome (fable -2). (Phyrap6rbra Uw numaot venauea (fable -4). Purnnna .v. Dntroy wlt+ and tuw CCable -3). mrma.arl Ptaa un hi{b, wide bad. CuRivue mfeWd fialda Int. M.n.p utmatcdet. ChlorO-pic t00 e[ Obieve 21daY r+mu{ peiwd 3 taUA betweo applratwo and Telooe C-17 aY trwplaaotm. 10.5 yl/A Rtdomll Y 24 qUA Bw6uw 0)• Tclan C-17 u 10.5 pUA (2)e ehweAFk 100 r 3 pUA (2)e Tcrr-0-0u 67 at 6-9 W/A (2) In fielda enth bnmrms of blact shank u, all eultunl pnenen. locludc Ridomil and e fumtyot for tlditiwd prwctiou. Obrtr.e a 21dy wi4u{ p.nd for (umi- {aou. Wbeo umo{ men thao 2 qt of Ridomil. apply 1-2 qt Y Itt culGvmon od/or lay-0y. Fumtpot rarr ue for m.vw appbcwtao.. • Cootrol nuua of I m 4: I n bea. Ranng u ubfcovc and b..M w dne ham A CONDtNSI;D MANAGB7.9.TIP GUIGE FOR FB'lW TMgv•SMr mai.ei fbmrr INce.n mW.{e•ert B)ue Mold Deeoy plm be7s r mi r (Perentpcce ud+atu) po.bN. Avoid plutiu{ in thad.d ner. Avoid elon p)tW q.em{y. Bro" Spot Avoid clor plam qccm{. N/te/Yr1/ e/l(//IOfO) cOOCVI ~Iet/n. Do mt .pply eace, oitro{ao. Manap smrod.c. Ur mlenot vtntpr. Uneoal Ra (MnouyAmnw pharedtw.) Avoid nvenpphcrtwn of coutad uek.r eMUr+le. Fai-- Vinm Tobevo Bmh Viruc Fuaarnu W0t Raau..-. (F.nnrt- acyspwr. Devoy euB:U ead roma (TabM -3). t. q. moen..ae) Avoid rem.vuodiull. Ur n.sent eanepy. M+uP rnaodr. 6osiedf (ReM ..d FNIem tYe LJd) Grem. RtdemB 211 at 1-2 qt/A Apply Ridemil )ua bafun o-.napl.u0o6- Hom IIYYeY Y nlleG Y IYCCYry, m in. InbaKo. Nam Nou Ran, but occun duno{ bm and dry perw7t. No cumrni evaiWlc. St`nificam problem only .ien rvmJknw u prerut.
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LbEm7090e CGNDkN3FD MANAG®1/FNT GUmR FOR p$D DLSFASFS, eaah.W D.tow. casw Ma+egmewt chowcob (Rsd W F.De. Me [.&eD GroriNe WiR (Fu.dcaoAar edawace.rrn) Raum (TWY.2). D.aoy eWka and tmm (I'WI. -J). Un ndum vanaw (yable 4). (AII .mfulr mry be .wnly damatd.) Avoid ma .vuadm6. Plavt m a 616L. wide bad. Mane6e aemmodes. Hollon Slal4 ~-AroW Nttlc{ .mI on 6aods oc (Bacunal oR ra) sulb Wtla toppie6 and nckerio6. (F,.we" q-) Nem.tnde. Rauts Mm feacue. (Aury4vAfur Rp.) PVY N.W-BanElap A.od tranqLnu from m.ae (Poeno Vf... Y) tnth W6h tsWoca of PVY. Chlor<YPk 100 m 3 [aVA (3)' Teboe C-17 g 10.5 pUA (3)• Tertp{).c 67 u 6A pl/A (3) 5.e label. for bwdras yplicatloe rmr. !bn Nom u.uBy nquind. S.e Table d. Noni Rioppal A.od ptobtem fiald.. Nonr Ros.rco Rio6.pot V W.) • Cmaol run6 of I u.: 1 u W. R.hu6 is wNb).cuve aW ert.d oe dam hos a.-Lro e.... (;GMDQVSFD MANAGp.®Vi GUmE FOR I~D Dlti'L~STS. e~Yw•.~ Dfrae Culmeff M..qaeat Clemkak (Resd mid FWnr tV IAbeil Root-Kmt (Mdoimas I+uaSnvie) (M. ..avir) (M. Je.a,.u) (M. Mpfo) Dc.uvy eWks aod tooR (Tabk 11-7). Ruwe (Table 11-2). Us ndsant venetir (T.bl. 11-4). T.lu and nbma fall nem.mde ..mplr. Fom mm.ucid, aM Table 116. Sore.his (Numco.u R.) Pull and hiedle plenu unfully in avoid aauodm6 or DNUn6. Noo. Wen S/m Rot (Sderon.ow miftt) Avotd .vuodto6 walt. Nooe TuRS Spl (pAVaaau. y.) Naevem bauom la.v.a r nn, r pt.ubM. Macwi neomm.add vno{s lawl.. Maimaie .nckrt .od wd eounol. Nee. Tobao_Cyet (Oebmo.'c cyn) (Glo6oder. ni.crn) RuuY (.vdd amnu ud pRper)- D.rmy tWu ad nw (f.ble 11-]). Newicur u 2 6WA T.mtlc at 20 IblA T.rtOOr 67 a 6 p1/A T.Ion C-17  10.5 yl/A De.uoy eW4s and rouu (Table -3). Ur all eulmnl pt.cur r/ a fumt6a.t (fall or Rtmi) vbert GffoWle.nll hee no.ndy, oeeurced. Obeerve 21-day v.mtto6 Penod for fumtpme. Not a ptcbkm ysac after year. No prxtiul eonuol. No rtmedial conteol. Csmrm Rotmioo u.ully nqulne 2 or mme )em+. Remm.m varteoa an teeumm ooly to rau I mwl 3 of M. teeo6mm. Other 4aCMn \pd IaCaa ale now commw in NaM Carelio.. Obcerv. a 21-0ry wmi6 period for fumgame. Plaot um 646h. nd, bed to provWe ad.quale drune6e. Avad plaem6 muopo too cba m sulk. Fyily eoafusd w4h bmw R^t
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organismc, 1 knowlodge of lheir biology md how plmts rrepood m them is nectasary for profitable nematode mansg<menL The key to nemstude conbol is to msintain populstiaus at nondeslrucnve levele. Allbough a single nemstode u rm1 hnsnful, high populations have s devssWioO effect. Root-knot nemaodes complete their life cycle, nnder favorable conditions, is only 3 weeks. Thus, in North Carolina they ean produce s msny u seven geoem/foN during ooe tobatto-growing M.son. Tbe most important nemslode on tobacco in North Cuulioa is Ihe ruol-faul nemamde. Mefoidogynt incognita. Ibwever, other Mt7nldo;yne epede. u< increasing in this qate, espec,ially M. arenaAa and M. javanica. Both of these laller speeies ue severely damaging. The spread of Iheee two species is 0 threat lo runt-knot control in the wm because of the Isek of ruia.oce in them and the possibility that eome noniumigmt oemuicidea may not effec- tivdy control them. Also, [<rlsio ractt of A/. imosniw thal esn attack rwl-knat-msis4ol varidies appear m be increasing in the sYte. Root exsminatiou and inil asvy are two methods that can sod should be u><d m determine the infestation level of toot-kaol nemalodes. A combination of these techniquee providca exttlknt insighl. Root exaurinal/on consists of obeerving the rods s/ random before or juq after fdl .Wk .od root destructioo (imosedidely after hsrvest). This may be accomplished by ealirrrslin0 the percmlage of root ue. galled using Ihe following index: 0 to 10 pertxnt of root area mvered wilh pIh-.vy low infesblion kxd; 11 tn 25 pmcent of roul vn Odled-fow, infWalion; 26 lo 50 pwnt of Ilse root .re. Odled-moderalt irrfesl.lfon ked; .nd 51 to 100 pertem of the ront are. OWed-hfOh infestation ked. Thue, Ihe higher the gdl index, the higher the iofeslalion level. Growers can /eern nmch sbout the ruol-knol population in each freld by systemxlically .ssessing snch indlccs. This information will pmve vdu.bk when making decisions reguding mil nemnicide treatments or the use of a root-knot ruisl.nl variety. To obtain aoil for nemnrde .ssaye, coil samples nwsl be Id.m and mailed to the Agrouomic Oivision, Nemstode Advisory Section, North Carolina Depsnmeol of Agnculmrn, Rdeigh, NC 27611. Comacl your county Exlension Service agent for help. These samples musl be taken in the fsll (hefore Docember 1) to Provide reliable mform.hon. No mnrc Ihsn 4 seres should be represenwl by one samplt, consisting of at least 20 cores ur subsamples from 6 lo g inchea deep. Samples musl nm be allowed in dry nr beat above 80"F. Table 11-5 can be rrscd to hclp interyrel «sults. The nem.tode numhcrs obteincd from samples taken in the spring are usually much Inwer and tbemforc mu ne.dy ss reliable. For such samples, tlw following sculc may he appmpnale: 0 to 2o-.ery low{ 21 m 100-low; 101 I lo 300--Nodente; and more than 301 per pint of sofl-high infestation ked. ds with other to6.uo diseases. control of rom-knol snd o0w nemsmdes musl be based on a combination of suiqble practices; no ooe .pproach esn be expected lo provide dequere, Ion1-Itrm cootrol. Recommendalions for .emuode control sre presrnmd in Table 11d. ra4et Spot Target sput (gMZUaronia) has been quite prevdmt in Norlh Carolina since 1981, especidly in plant beds and grvnhouxe. in 1909. iit caused greater Inu lhan evm before. The tause of this condition has only recently been determined. It is known that 11w Rhizonnnin fungsu, similar to the fungsrs dul causes soreshm, is Ihe cause of this W condtion. Symplumatically, urge+ epot is quire similar m the brown spot tuogue. With Lrgd spot, the center of the ksiom rapidly become very thln aod p.pery in mature and will sWtar if ooly digbt pre.sure is applied. The concenlric rings that chsracleriz< hrown spot lesions msy dsu be seen in Ihose r.used by target spot. Ilecwse target spot lesions ut so fragile, the neerotic u.fs 1aWly drup from the leaf, leiving s ngted appearance. TarOel spot msy occm on k.vcs e/ my plant position ud, where conditions favor 1he prohkm, considersbk des4uclion mey follow. Togel spot, like brown epol, is favored by frequent r.iufdl sod high humidities. The same culmral pnclices suggested for brown spot mauage- menl apply lo target .pot. Chemical control is generally nua feassible. Tobacco Mosatc This problem is caused by a virus and ie,the most conugious tobacco ditsevse thst growers encounter in North C.roliw. The virus that cwses tobacco mosaic is s luge, complex chemical molecule Out, like alf other vinsus, requires living fissue a multiply. Once a tobacco rrrus.ic particle is placed into the plant, it becomes a put of that plsnt and will persist uolil the plmt dits. The tohecco nursaic vims is spread in the sap of drseased Plsots. Anything that moves s.p ar julce from a drsttvrd to a healthy plml will move the virus. Esamplas are machinery used during cultiv.uon and the hsnds or clothing of workers. It is not spread through sir currems or by other umcrs vssawted with vxxl nlher d.sews- Mos.ic is nnt as sensiGvc In weather umdi4ons as most othcr mhscco 1 104 105
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drseaus- flnweveq it is nvAer for infection to Iske plsce when there is Imisturc on the plants and whcn plants ue succuleul wl growing rapidly. T.h1e 11-5. Recnlrunendation5 for Ront-Knut Nemabde Manage_ rluN in _ FlucClsred Tobacco (for Fall Sampling) Rrwt-Kna Puppulslion Ilsrard (Fall S.mple) Level Recommcndslions 0 10-200 Use of a resislanl variely or a nemtlicide trvtment with a nliug of at least 3 is recommended uoless ruul-knW danuge has been observed nn resistant lob.ccu in this Ecld in the past. If resistant variairs have been .ffecwd, a nenuticide with a nling of I or 2 is suggeslnd. Use of . resisWt variety and e oemslicide treatment with a rating o( al least 3 i1 recommended unlesa rooDknnl d.m.ge hu been observed nn resistmt lob.cco in this field in the psl. If resistant varieties have been affected, a nerrlalicide with a r.ting a( I or 2 ib suggesled. Use of a resisbnl varicty and a nenalidde treallrcnl with a rating of 1 or 2 is recom- mended. If damage by ronl-knuli nenukldes on reaisl]nl va(letien hss been san in Ihii 6eld in the past, reslsnnl varieties will not he e((ective- O Sourcc: Prepued by leck Imbnani. Direclor uf the Nenutode Advisory 0) 0 Servrcc, Agrononuc D.vlslon, North Cuohna Depanmcnt of Agncuhum. .P. 106 ~ ~ None No oelrlslodes detecled .nd a nemalicide is not recommended. Very low Root-knot nemslodes will nol cauae ecq nomic damage tl this level. but a rnol-koal- resistant variety ahould be considered 1o prevem the nswbere fmm increasing, rWrsc rool-knot d.m.ge lua beea observed on . roo/-knol-mein.at vsridy. If so, such varieales will be of rm value. Maanal• RMe/Acre Method of Appllntine Waiting Period Contml Rating' Telaoe C-17 7-1Q5 g.t Fumigsnl- 2L days 1• ()d+rdompKrinl Chlor-O-Pic 100 3 gal Row' 2. gWrnpkrinl Ten-O-Gas 67 4-9 gal 2. (,\krapicriu+nsa,yl b,amide) Telone 11 6 g.l 1• P]<kbloi'ropen<) Nemlcur 3lmamin.) 1 113-2 gal Broadcaslc 0 daya 2b TemRt ISG (•IS ne) 20Ib N' B.nd 0 ' 3b Moup 6EC (stbwrw) 1 1/3 gal Broadcast 14 daya 3c IoG go Ib ' • 3c Manp Plus hmwrap+d',.uu.rn„) 4+2EC igv 3c 10+5G g016 3c Furad.n 4F kr.beh,l.n) 1 1128.1 4d Iifinbsn 4E lrbkrpydfn.) 1 1l4 gal 4d Nenlasur 3, 1-2 gaf, Tank Mired wlth One of the FaBow(ng:' fnrab.n 4E 1f2 gs1 Brodcaa 14 days 2b Mocap 6EC 113 - 1 gal ~ 2b Fundan dF I- 1 1/2 gJ ' 2b Dyfuaale 4EC 1/4-1/2 gal ' ~ 2b Disysbn g I/2 gal ' 2b • Mo+,•.naeids.nnuv,ePLnd.m.teoaJerun.incwditiw.. Gr«dwusylodured pkna mry he mw. r.,ru.. n NiM rrya of injwl. Sas ,e<uon m prvnsti,y .aer pw.lilY. ` Tbe rumeric canuol nurV. rumn+ns Lo" etkerirdy nenaede.,WUCe ron-Ynn mm6en .nd wbrqu.n nwr d.m.ee. The nuN code i. fmn I u. riA I bevrt bnr. lbe knee pntion ..mn.,'ve. swrtud nlati.e TeW'u,cn..em vhen Ne.e plodncl. an ..ed in Ih. frt.ence of ndenn b hreb IVaI 1M nrmbde popnWio,Y. 71u nnN e^d• i.. b d~',Ih • beiry berl. WMK b/ab pqolNion..iW, n.mticid<..bh a e,niria M:ry of M learl 3 IhouW be or< n Ibe hi.M1ew kbekd sle.. ' Apply 6 n I i,x'Ec.deep bpply Nmip.uaaY vM1m.oil Inryenwrt I,.bo.,e 51F.M Ne .ail i. I,via 6n nu vn Form . hiF4 ~'de bW ,mmediaelY+lkr .pPlinuon_ • Nonlumigr,n ehenurar Y,wb M1e i,~ocyonud imrcA,eul> w. depN of ] l0 6 inhe. A M.h, ride b.d r6nolE Nen be ro,n+d immd+eely N a VruA.n 4deA n eonrol neu+l~+rr. n. 6eW vAen u,cE n rhe.r nur- un a diRenn prud„rr ibe rcn Yu . ]1u14d.YvntiMpeldi.rtNUdnwcclron,ol r Ur.IWx1I(JplofNenururvberz,eoulaAepoyuL,Wnkrel,artM.L SeeNe -bue<I Menermeru' n~eion .hen.elesLN unk ,ruee, 107 3 N ~.
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The sympbms of tobacco mosaic are well known (o mosl tobaccu produc<rc The most comnnn syrsspUtm ie leaf mottling, which is dtemsling ueae af light and duk green tisaue. This symptom ts espocully twted in the lop of the plant or m younger liesue. Dunng periods of high lempentures and high light mtensity, affected portiom of leevp my die, resulting in 'mwsaic bum-' Bouuse of its unique nature, control of tobacco mosue must be appnrched diffcrcntly from that of other discases. There ma no chemicals effective for mossic controf, although Ihc milk-dip treatment will be beneficial as workers ate performing t.aks within dre crop. . Tcnruto Sponed WBI Yfrvs Sympsnms on young srems are varishle but usually include dnlrened arru (which may appeu wrinkled ar aunken), deuy, or britdeoeu. These symproms ve sometimrs confused with sortshin. lasves often have emaIl (1/g- to IAinch-0iametet) spors, especially evidrnl on ded liseue. Most fmquenlly, dead sissue nutlines sectiom of m.jur Ie..f veim, which mnrsin green longcr than imerveinel ur.s. Symptums usually sppesr firsl in Ihe bud or ou young luvee, which are often distorted Diagnostic laboratory leits oflen must be conducted lo confirm mmam spotted wilt vitus on young plants. SYmptoms my occur at my lime during plent growth, and those that develop on ksee-bigh or lager tobacco ae usually diagnostic; Iherefore, larger plants do nul usuJly require laboratory trets. On ivger lobacco, symptoms may be systermc, usually affecting one side of the plant first, or localized, affecting ju.t one or two leaves. Systemically infected plants me usually distorted, especially in the bud. Le.f synyNnms re.cemble those in young planss. Brown lo black parallel streeks often run from infected leaves down on the outside of the stalk. Although no rdeqWm mansgement practices are available, vigorous effons are being made in several statex m develop m.n.gevrui straegics and uctics for mmeto spoued wilt virus on u,h¢co. prnm these efforts we hrve leamed thsl rouging (removing) mfeclcd plants, spuying fur Ihrips, and roltlmg are of Inlle, if eny, valuc- Vsnctics may ddfer m susceplihthty, but none is reFlStint. I Measner Fkek Wudser Beck is not an infrctious diseese. Rather, rt is an injury uusdl by Ihe conmmon ur pollutant, orone. Orme is heavy oxYgm (Or) and is produced by interwl combustion engines:.nd by certuo manufacturing procesrra. Durmg penods of cloudy, overcmt, or rainy weather, the mns~sntions of orane Ihat would oormally eacepe into the Yratosphere are held closer to ground levd. These are the conditions under which oruue damage (weather Neck) occurs. Some vuietite ere much less sensitrve to wnlher fleck than olhers, end growers who experirnce chronic difficulty should select one that is more lolennt. Some Tips on Planning kKssase hfan.gemeM Slnteqita No sme practice c.n be expected to provide prolnctiou from my dirr.ee. much lera to Ihe many differeol diseases that mighl attack tobacco during s growing se+sun. Tobacco growen urgently need to sssess the diseue problems within each field on their ferm and plan mwgemeal stntegies we11 in advance of Ihe crop year. A'tabscco disease tsvp' of each field is of great beoefil. To develop such a map, sketch the field and mark areas of disease iofnlation. This map should be updalad e«h time that tobacco ir in the field, noting my change in location and in level of infestation. Over s period of time, growers who maintain a direave hissory, on each field ean plan eontrol practices tIW should be of immeuse benefit as they develop ptoduction plnu from seasoo to season. For black rhsnk and Granville wilt, the average percenlage of plsnts disesed within a field gives a good iodicalion of the level of that diswe in the field. Other Refaasces . Publications available from your counly Cooperstive Extension Gnmre foBow: Tobacco Diwse lofortwioa Notes: Comrof of Tobacm Mosaic Virus on Ffue-cured Tobacco; CnanNlle Wilt: Braw. Spat; Blac! Shank; and Tnbamo Disener Monagenunr in Grendrouru. AG-335, Grunvil4 IYrk and fb Control and AG-336, Tubnttto Mosaic, lhe Quiet Diseme. Alsu available from the American Phytopalhological Society is the CompendLan of Tabacrn Direaser, 68 pp. ($25.00). Call 1-800-328-7560 to order. IOg 109
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12. RVSECT MANAGEMENT P. Sterling Southern Entomnlogy Ertuwon Spoculrsl Protrrting Pl.nl Bed.c Insecu can uuse zrinus damage m mbrrrn plent beds snd limit your ability b produce an adequate number of healthy tren.spl.nu. lasecle mey also be c.rried on benspLnU from the bod /u the field, where they ere more eapensive to caotrol. Fur these reumns, beds should be watched closely and ineecls controlled whea nereassry. Follow the sleps listed below. Step 1. Locete plenl bodv where they . be checked regularly. Check Ihe beds at 1.1 onrt a weck after plants emerge. S1ep 2. Be sure the uee vound the plant beds (1f10 feeA or emre) is free of plant Irsh and weeds that cus harbor overwinluing nphids. Reu beeUes, and other insecrs. Imporlanl weeds include dock, wild mustard, and horseaellle. Crops such .s garden grorns, end mm.toes should not be grown neu tabecco beds. Step 3. Use a systemic insecticide if desired. (Me product, Di-Sysbn 15G, cen be ured at seeding or jusl after plenu sre up for preventive control of .phids and ffea bstles (Table 12-I). Only Ihe gr.nulv rorm i9 rermmarnnded; the liquid funnuhuon may damage plsnls if applied to fofi.ge. Pleok can be succrasfully produced with or witbout the use of syslemic insecticides. Step 4. Check beds frequently for insecls and damage. If insecls threaten to reduce the supply of heehhy plants below your rleeds, insecticides nn be used u rescue treatments (Table 1LI)_ Remember, teader pl.ou.re easily injwed. Use only imeclicides recoounended for uve in plant beds uul red lebels coefully. If insects .re numerous shortly before nuuplenling. Irratmenl un reduce the risk of cerrying a pe.cl to Ihe field- Howcvcr, insecticides require s waiting period between treatment and reentry into Ihe plant bed. Step S. DcsUOy bels as smm u possible so they do not become e breeding ground for insecl psts and labecco disuarc. 110 fsble 12-1. Insecfrtides for Pf.nl ffed hvret Cuntrd ~r LueaticiJat A Fwrwl.unn Amwer prr IUU 9q Yd iyylt! Iki y,Jer ryrtrseirt mnd) dirvlfMn. (Oi~Sy+^^) 15G 9nt A51oa. .esyMy (Gµsrc) 155P 1 W9 0 1 1.1 uic6luAuo (UYIO., Pmad) Sf btir pA.ryl(srdn) 5x bail .erybue (OMen1 SSP 6. In-IE I ib9 u I pl ~w'r pr Nerlr. w wrntbk.u.il. uepM1.r. (OMSrc) '155P 1 W9 iu 1 e.l GnWepyera tcepMl.(Gnbsk) )SSP IW9w11d ..Lr Graeavmbank p,ar tricMafm(oyby Pmad)IUSp ,Ii.Gron Sow 10 1000 00a1 .aur In 11, 1. IUU pl SNp tM .rilr meubkbyG + tub.rylb.e hydnuC or tir.lab.G lime fdlo., kbtl 4 IL gemaAa and Preeamimu llrwd[t.l••l btfarc tyl,nj cr.hnnlY .fltr yW,u a,<,p. wxsr in. 4re tqnala I lb/.cre. Scmer baiu r Curk umN nrrli.. nf bW uJ in aps. qtcs.. To trw Wae ia•n. ao d n. btd d~uy o. pt••w. 4ae Wt pu.l. l Altsn- NLNWltlp/tsrt. Nou.w.,u.w,d 6W if Iwaiiok /pylyJrterh.irk R^^V^'.M"ipms's. Prulecling Seedlings in Greenhouser Growing seedlinge in & greenhousc does nol pru/ect Ihem from inred n demege. Io fact, some insect problems may be greaer in greeoborseee ths in crmventionel beda. 'ILe most covunno prublems heve been with crickels, agrleble weevils, and aphids, but sume growcrs have rcpursed probleme nlh snu, slugs, uW other pesls. Msnsging insal peslc in grernAoueeu requires a systcuutic epproech that surls with careful plsnning and close nbserve0on. The following ptulicrs are recomnsended-
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Sanilaion. Seoitation in and around grmnhouses is eseentid. Be sure Mnwet sre always kept free of my tr.sh, mpplies, equipment, or my other items that ue nor absolutely necessary- Inseca (and dher pecrs) un be tupponed nr protected by material. k0 io the greenhouse. The uta sunounding the greenhouse should be kept clear en well. A slnp of bere ground, s.nd, or gravel around the house my help prevent entry of ineed pn1s. Fallow Periods. Growing other plants, such u ornsmeotds or vegenbk reedlings, in the greeahouse when it is ml being umd for tabrco mey be sn allrsqive way m help recovcr the cost of the bouse. Remember, howcver, that tbese planls un introduce or ruatain insect posls. Some of these pests my be new to you and very diffmull 1o contro6 If possible, gmeahowes should be used only for lobscco production. If Ihey.re used br othet purposes, they should be kept empty whenever plrosiMe. A long fdfow period just before introdudion of O.becco is especidly important. Cold. Keeping the empty gtealbouse open during cold periods my help reduce populations of ins«ts wintering inside. Be sure nn m.teri.ls (such n trays) ue left in the house tu provide pests with insulation from the cold. SotaHsytion. Closing the grunhouse during the sumnuu and bringiug the temperature up lo I40'F (but not higher) for several days my also help reduce insect numbers. Agun, my inmhting material (such as trays) Wsl prolects the insects should be removed. Also remove my materials that can be damaged hy high temperatures. Inwcticides. Observe plants c.refully uW trest with ao insslicide if iosects threaten an adequate supply of hullhyplsnts. Remember, no insecticide must he epecifically labeled for use on lobsccu in a gretnhoure before it c.n Iw legally used there. Orthene 755P mey be used at I mblespoon of nuterisl in 3 gaflons of water for each 1,000 square feel. This is . brud-specbum material labeled for the amlrol of several pesk. An insecticidal soap, M-Pede, is .1so lebeled- but its effectiveness has nol yet been established. Severd other insecticides sre Lbeled for use eround the Outslde of structures or within the greenhouse on vops other than IoMr.co. CTeck with your emmly agent or the Abnh Carolina .(qricuhuraf Chrmicah Mnnual for spxrfic reurmrrcndations. If an insecticide is u.sed, unihum and Norough covenge is inqnrtanl- In a tesl conducted in 1992, use of flat fan and solid cone norzles provided better mmrul of aphids th.n did u>e of bollow cone novles. Conlrnl nJ SoU Insetts Wirewormc. Wireworuss are present in the soil st transplanting .nd dsmsge mbscco by luaoeling into the stalk below the soil svrface. This msY kill or qunt plants .nd can open even rnistenl vsrietiee lo snil-home diseases. gtunting and the need to resU plants rmults m.o uneven, difficult-to-nmage nop. Under ideal conditions, hrbsccu often recovers from coasidcnble wireworm damage with no yield loss. However. if cooditions ut len than idesf or urtsin diseases are prtsent, yield loss mey occur. Because remedid or reacue treatments are rot available, you must decide in dr.nce whether to use eoil-.pplied insecOcides (Table 12-2). If there is a Proteeting Tobacen in the Field Tehte 12-2. Soil-Applied Irscctitides for Wirtwmm Conlrol Insecticide and Formulation AuwuntfAcre Rem.rks Disriuou AG500 Divlnon 5oW Dyfanate IOG Dyfonste 9EC Fur.dsn 4F Innhsn 15G Lorsbsn 4E Mocap I0G Moap6EC browdeaat 2-3 qt 4 6 lb 10-201b 1-2 qt 1-rA gal Apply so soil surfsce. Disc in within 30 minuna. Most of these materials ve highly laeic. Use ure. l.iquid formulatimu ue genenlly more hanrdous tn handle. The Divinon label my soon change. Use only iflhe conluner nse+l lists wirewnrm ~ on lobec<a. l.orshsn also provides some I/3 ge1 cutworm control. Transplant Wnler Treatment Diannon SOW 1'h-3 or150 gal Control rnconsistent. Use higher nle< with mechenical setters. Use only if the Isbel hsts Ihts ore on lubecco, 112 113
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history nf wlreworms or the field was weedy, a preventive Iratment is juslified. Wireworm control is slso desirable in fieldc infested with dise.us such ss black shsnk and Grsnville wilt. in other avs, the decision is 1. obvions. Insunnce Iralments for wucworms do .dd to the cosls of production snd add pesticides to the avironmml. Whea selecling snil-spphed msaticida, slwsye consider the possihle effect on gmuodwster and surf.rc water. Refer to the cbspler on protecting water quality for mme informstion. Wireworm conlml depends on good spplieation techoique. Msterisls should be broadcast and IborougMy isrcoTorsted in the top 6 incba. It is elw imporl.ot to give the insecticide lirue to work before transplanting; spprnsimslely 2 weeks is reamrnended unlas the label ssys o1Ln.vire. Trsnspl.nt water tratrnrnb msy dso he used, bul sesulls ase not consislmt. Tbus, this Iralment is ruw recommcnded for heavy inferl.l(ons. If it is used, use enough wster to wG the suil to the surface. Culworms. Overill, cutworms ere only sn occasional problem; mont fields do not require Imlment. Since nescrse uutmeols ue available, pmveutive ehemlesl cumrol is not recomroaded. You c.o, however, redua the likelihood of cmworm prnhlems by preparing the soil 4 m 6 weeks before traneplsnting. Ficlds should be checked often during the fiat 3 b 4 weeks sBer tr.nsplsming and Imreed (fsble 12-6) if 5 percent or more of the plmtc srre d.m.ged. Treatments will be rmst eff ctive if mWe lste in the day. Fields mrt likely to be infeeted sre those that were weedy the previous fall and wmser, that are low lying, nd that have heavier suils Geneml Steps !n Monwling Leqf-Feeding /nnrrs The real gosl of insect m.nsgement is nul to kill irssects but m roesimire profits. Thus, it is nu1 only necessary to prorect the crop but slso to keep rhe cosrs of protection u low a possible. To this slrould be added the gosl of minimitang adverse effects on the avironment. Growers Nsnd the best chance of ineeting lheae goals if they combine a vuiety of souls in an efficient sysl<m. There sre four basic lypes af control t1u1 rmy be usul against insecd: (1) cultural control, (2) bidogial control, (3) prevartive chemi.l Irasmeols applied to the soil, md (4) imucticides spplied sfrer s prnklcm devclops (remedisl Iratmcnt). Nstual mmLldy is slso imporbnl and shuuld be allowed to control pems whenever possihle. Cnlturd Control PnNlces. Several production practices c.n reduce insect pmbfems. These prsclias work lo reduce the oumAers of an rnuct pest in a wide ara, mske individual fields less attractive 1n insecLL, or help the plant mleiste insma attack with less lose. Most of these practices (lisred below) are also lmporlsnt in good crop m.nsgement. I. Destroy overwinlering silrs sod hosls of aphids and Ra beetla nar plant beds. 2. Destroy plant beds as sooo in trsnsplsnting is complcJe. 3. Prepare fields u early as practical if cntwerms uc a regulv peel. 4. Choose s trsnsplsming time to minimire your moq importsnl (or dif6cult- tocontrol) insect pests. pirly plsnling seduuw the chsnce of homworm problem, early or late plmting helps Iruo.ge sphids, and late pl.miug reduc.a budworm numbers. (But remembu thn Iste-plsmed tubscco usually yields feee.) 5. To reducw the attractiveness of the crop to iv.ecU, use no mure uhen recommaded Na of nitrogm. 6. Practice early tuppin[ and gcod sucker control to reduce the sttrsctivaess of the crop and to deny pesu a soorce of food. 7. To reduce gr+*s6appn invasion, keep borders clem sod avoid hsyiug grssahopper-infested nradow strips neu tobsco. k. Grty oul eblk and toot datruclioo immedistely sRer harvest to deoy food snd ove.rwlntsring sites to pcsls. Tn be mat effective, this practice should be cerried out by all fssmers in an area. 9. Use good production prscticcs b ged the crop off m a good .tsrt, keep it healthy, and gd it out of the field (where it is etposed In pests) in a reawnuble time. Caswstion of Baselbiat Isoecls. The io>Qorl.nce of beneficial ioeects in caalrol of insecl pests is well known. To meke the mosl use of tbis free, mtursl control, follow three steps. 1. Minimim or svoid the uu of syctemic insaticida dut rn.y reduce the populations of beneficial ss well ss pest insecrs. Stilt bugs sre especially scinsilive to systemic insecticides. 2. Avoid unnece.sssry insecticide sprays after transplanting. Even a few fields IcR untrated an provide & refuge for beneficial insnets. 3. If sn insecticide is neeerwry, consider the effect on beneficial insecls in selecting nuterisls. (See the section 'Chnosing a Rernodisl Insecticide.') us 114
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Use of Soil-Applied Issteclicides for Pre.entiee Control. Several anil- epplied ineecticldes are avsilahle that act as syste.mics to control leaf-feedinj petu (fablea 12-3 and 12-5). lhere us several reaeont Ikeee mamvJr nughl be uaed: (1) they offer mme urcuraoce against lou to insecl pesu and a`afnst the need to apply rewcue Irealmeuta; Ihs can he impnrl.nt to hrmers with many araumd fields or Irmiled labor and equipmeal or lo those who have difhcullly controllinf insecu for any other reaenn; (2) they mey do other thinys besides control leaf-feedmg irwsu (they mey control nemalodes or wireworms, for example), and this msy increase yield or quJily eveo when luf-feeding insects n< absent. On the other hand, rherm ue alen T.bk 12-1. Rage of Uses for SoR-Incorporaud hnslkides Wire- Bud- Fln Nema- Matcrials worm Aphid worm ReeqC todeb Diarinoa Di-Syslon Dyfonsle .. Furedan Lorsban .. x X Moup .. x Mocap Plus Nemecor . x x Orthene (TPW) Temik Vydate .r x x Key: beN control; •= intermedhu cootrol; '= fair contrul or incwrsiskol; bladu indicare nntcriJ is in recommcuded. 'Ratings for Rea beetle control are for e.rly-suson populalions. 'X = labeled for nemalode control. See the chapter oo disease msn.genant for effectivenest ntin6s. 'Bmd neavrnt only. disadvanuges: (1) most offer protxlion agaiast only one or two pests; pro/ection is seldom rnason-long, and it mey nol be adequ.re to keep prsu fmm reaching damstinQ levels; (2) systerwce mry elso reducc the numbers of brneficisl in.seeu in the field, and this may actually increase pst preaemec; (3) if the pest does not «wr, the trutmeot may have been m unrKeded expeure; (4) trnp pesticidea pose at least rome risk in humsns aod the general environeneal ( froundwaler, for example); (5) under ceruin eondilions, sydemica crn reduce yield or qualily. Remember, Inf-feedin` in.ecu can be adequately Insnsged without the usc of rysumics. If s'yaumic inseclicide is used, averJ poinu ehould be meside.ed. It should be decided whsl types of control are mup needed. (it is beet in caoce.ntnte on only the one or two nsoat important pesu in the fieM. ) Practically every chemiul controla a slightly different act of leaf-feedinf iosects, and snme offer cootrol of wireworw ur nemalodes as well. Table 12-3 lisu (snd rala) aoil-incorpor.bd imxticides aod pWS for which Ihey ere recomsoended. Cnusider possible effsu on pmmdwaur and aurface w.ler qudily. (See the cL.pter uu protemio f water quality.) Be uulioos nboul eombinin f syqemiu. There is uo dvanupe in usinj two chemiculs lhat do similat jobs. Yoll will fd liltle or no eddilinnJ comrd for your exln expeqse, sod the likelihood of crop dsm.`e is increased. Be very caulious in combining soil-applied syrkmica or prsticides in transplant waur with eseeabouse-praducrd transplmu. Experience and teala indicate that these Ireosplents may be much more rnsitive tn injury by sysremic inseclicide.. Placement of the aystemic insecticide in relation to the roevs of the tr.osplsut is also important. Aldtcarb (Teutik), for exaoWle, can he broedcasl snd inwrporated, placed in a bsnd with the bed fosmed over the top of the Mnd, or banded into a prefornrd bed. In the laller ese, grmules should be placed in a narrow h.nd 5 inches below the lop of the bed and 4 to 5 ioches 1o eech aide of the row center (split application of half the rale to esch side). Remember, sysumics are not. gusranlee against pests; firJds should atill be checked reeularly. Delennining the Need for Rrmedial Cunlrul-Trutment Thretholds for fn5eltf. 11 is obvious that an In6eC1 like the bomwonL farl cost yon part. if nol JI, of your crop profit. h is Jao pnssible, however, to rcduce profits by applying inrecticides when they ue not needed. The point at which it will pay ro tral for a pest is ulled a rhrerhold. Action or Irealnx•nt thresholds have been used successfully by North Carolina frtmers for many yeus. Tnbacro 8udwornn: 8cfore flowering, treu when 10 peresnl or more of plants checked me mfesled with live budworrns of any size. Do not count
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plants tlul have darn.ge bu/ no hve worms. Budwornw will aut usually cause srguificent loss after buttouing.nd sre out counted sfter thsl time. Tnbacn. llo.nwomu: Tresiment is justified when the eyuivslrnl of one or morc Isrge worms (IVgb than I wch) without pssysite cocoou (Caresia) ue found per 10 plmb checked. Since worurs having psr.site cocoous est much less. they should be counled s 1/5 of . wonn (that is, five worms with cnertons is equal to one healthy wnrm). Fka Beerfu: Treat wheu smdl plants svenge four or mum beelles per plant. Treat large plsols when there ue 60 or rrore heetlm per plant or when the lower leaves begin ro look ngged or Lcy at the base (nnr the wlk). Aphids (Plans f.Ire): Treat when 10 prrrent or more of plants have u many in 50 aphids on sny upper leaf before lopping. Do not wait until hundreds of sphids.re presenl to count s plant in(akd. This threshold should be used urefully. Befnre lopping, populations can increase rapidly beyond 10 percent iofestsl/na. Do not delay beginning ue.tmeat. At or after lapping, treat when 20 percent ar more of plmts are infested. lapanerr Berrles, Looprrs, and Cxarrhoppers: No exact lhruholds have been established, bm u- role of lhumb, lremt when .nricip.ted damage is equsl to ar greater than thst caused by s 10 percent budwarm iofeststiun. Cwunrmr, Vegetable Wrrvilr, Mok Cnctetr, and Slugs: Trear when 5 perceal or mom of small plsn4 (within 3 wuks of b.mplanting) .re killed or injuted. If you suspect that s ficld msy soon reach the thrrxhold level for , pest (far ex.mple, if you find msay homwosms Ims than I inch long m msny planb with small aphid colonics), check the held yein in 2 to 3 dsys. It is better ro check .gsin tL.n to rresr helaw the threshold slnce beaeficid insects and we.ther tosy keep the pesl from reaching the lhnechold. Also keep in mind that these thresholds were developed ss guidelines for .venge conditions. 1. unusu.l situations (during drought mress or when multiple pcsrs ve present), u.se your judgmcnt in applying thrasholds. Delermining the Need fur Remedial Control-Scouting for Insats. To use thresholds, it is necessary tn know the pesllevel in each field- To get this in(ornutitnr, fields should be checked, or scouted, regularly. To ecoat s field, walk Owugh it (being sure la cover all ues.s) and stop at seversl I1g repscsddative locslions to check for insects. Mske 8 stops in s small field (I to 3 acres) and IO in an svemge-size field (1 in 6 acres). In larger fields, add two s4tps for each additional d acres ar spht the field into anWler fields. The exsct ptlr<m of tWpe ie not critical, but make one or mure in csch srea of the field. Check but do na concentrate on the field borders. Do not bi.s yaur asmple by atapping to counl when you see s damaged plant. Instead determine where you will stop befom you get Ihere. For example, ssy lo yourself. '1'11 stop 10 plsnls up this row.• At each stnp, check five plsnts in a mw, for ineects. Count the number of homwormr .nd budworm- and sphid-infetmd plants and eslimne the number of Oa bnedes per plant. Alea note my other insects m d.m.ge. When you leave the field, compue your remlts with the treatment thresholds. Avoid the temphlim to onke decisions on revera fields bued on information from only one or two. Insea levels msy ary greatly evm among eimilsr fields- If you c.onot check all your fielde on a regulu basis (and it is esy to Itl olher probleme distrsct you), ssign or hire someone ro do it for you. Even if you <sn .cnut on A regular bssis, it mry be 1 be0er us of your time to have this job done for you. Choosing a RenediJ Inuelicide. No ooe insecticide is hut fur all pests or even for a single pM under sll conditions. Choose an insxticide IWt fits the eanditions and your needs when the pest problem occurs. To make this ehoice, ask yourself the following 9uestions. What inrecr pert or pestr need ro be romrolkd? Obviously, to do a good job of conlrol, you must know what peaU you are dealing with. What are the nwsr effrnioe inseairides ro we agnirut she pest or pesn you are rrying to mnrrol? If two or more insecr.s ne doing damage bo field, the bw choice would be an insecticide providing good conuol of all these insects. Tlse effectiveness of ioseclkide spnys sgsiml four major les6 feeding inaects is shown in Table 124 urd grner.l recommcudstioos ue given in Table 12-6. Which insrniddes offer the longest-larting control? If pest preswres are expected in conlinue over several days, s pesticide with . longa-luling effect is s good choice. However, these m.lerids msy be nnrt delrirnenlsl to beocficisl insects and the environment and mey not be needed if the pest pressure will be bneC In an ondvrm test, Sevfo uid Orlhene provided the longe.sl lr.sting control of homwornss; Suprscidq Dipel, kannste, and Dylos provided control for an inlermediste period. Dylox provided rhe 119 r
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Table 12-0. EffecB.eness of Foliar InseMicides Against Insect Ptsls hfReCtlclde A`me, Biobil, Dipel, l.velln .H Lannste .. . Orlhene ... ... Sevio Supracide ... Golden Lraf, Phaser, Thlodlur • ... ' - best control, -' = good contral, '~ fair cunlrol. Bhnks indinte that the rmlesiel is rrol rewmnrnde.l, 'Aphid conlrol ratings based on meximum labeled ntes. `ILrae Bncillur thu.insienrir (B.r.) producle seem to be more effective against budworms es the seuon progresses. They provide etcelleant conlrol as bait placed in bud. shortest residual 4ill. Against sphids, Orthene and Thiod.n normelly bold populations in check for 2 wecYs. Aphids rosy rebound after treatment with Iannele within e few days. IPhat are the 7mrardr so Ate applicator and other .nrierr? Whea choosing pesticides, consider the huard preaenfed by each and also the ability of Ihc person doing the .ppliution. It is best to use lese lurardous msteriels when workers will be entering fields frequently. Labeling regulations require that all pesticides bear signal words m indicate relative harards of use. Pnducls besing the words'Denser-Poison' are highly hewdous, thare bearing 'Wuoing' are modentely hvirdous, and those he.ring '6ution' are slightly hsruduus to rdativcly har.rdluv_ Wlua are the hazards ro groundwmer and surface warer? Inseclicides vary in their potential for Icu:hing into groundwater or ruaWng offinm wrfece weter. If you (erm leachable soils or fields with high ruvoff polentWs, you should choose remaltal (and sorfepphed) chemrcels cirefuny. Check chapter 3 on prolecting water quality and reducing pesricide exposure. Insect Pesl Budworln Ilomwurm Fle. Beetle Aphid' What reuricrionr on field work will there he? Enforcement of new worker prolection st.nduds will begin in 199<- Theac st.nd+rds pralubn workcrs hom enl<ring treated areas lo do rouline field work for e period of time sfter treatment. The leagth of this period will depend on the ia+reticide used od will be given on the Isbel. Restricted entry penods sre expected to renge from 12 hours m several days. W11 um of the insecticide rerrria rime of harverr? Rcgulstions require a waiting period betwcen sPPlicatioo of ivseclicides .nd bervest. 7Le length of this period veries wilh imccticide and is given on the label. What effect will wriour Luenicider haw< on benefrcial inrear? Some ineecsddes oe mme durimen W to beoeficiel imects Uun otlwre. Re.e.rch at the O.ford Tobacw Reseuch Station has produced inform.tiaa oo the effects of insecticides on ILrrn important beneficial insecls. Avenging the effecla on these three, insxticidev rio be ehuecteriied as follows: Not delrimenul: Agree, Biobil, Dipel. yevelin Sornewhn detrimental: Dylox, Lnnste, Proxol Moderetely detrimental: Orthene, Sevin . Very detrimeaW: M.lethion, Suprsnide How mach doer the tnu/erfal corr? An inexpensive but poorly chosen ineedicide can ecluslly increase your pesl pmblelm snd costs. Is tAe necessary eqaipment and labor availab4? Available labor and equipment may limit you b certaio rruleriels (beit, spray, or `rsnules). Chuose a produp euiteble for your equipmeol, 4me, and epplicelnr experience. 120 121
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Table 12-5. Prepl.nl Syslrmir Insentirides far Insect Canlraf in Ibe Field Fk. beeuc. Iwec6.ine. A Fv.wulann un.yl (Vyd.lc L) Am~unl yer Aen p.l .ae. Inwpw.m. e di..l6wn (D.sy.un q (0i Sy.m /SG) A p.l 16 7 b (lAue.p pw. L3EO e.ebnfun (Fnna.nn4F) VAe.I 1k.1 INpI .eepbue (Onbene'l5sn Ib ApbiA..nd fln .Me.eb 1011 b beeae. (renak 15G) bud IOb bm.Ge.n AVMd. (wn pn.:nn nNyl sm.d<.w. lawdc.. or 60 or/1000 n.u. In 6.12 In. b.nd. I4is4 b.M- bo.dc.n. MW...1.13MIp.l yny. umnnma rubcr coed'Mion., nnkinry u( lu.n b..e. G. pnnuan Mreriry n,.y «ew Tnnyl.. wmr nuWSRM. flyhernl.. M.ylrynrypluu. Uw IOU1 p.IrxetlA. See.we Lbel fw.ae. nd.pplicaian Us b.n6 nc.Yn.. (nr Dc. 6«Ik. (10Ub) N/1iE. C.eeMau.epmd.e.du.nq4w m.y be inju~ed ir.el iiwo. cancmmr4 b.M o/ Temik .cepA.n OMerc l1Sn r.n.mipbu. IUe...eu.SF) Ib T.bfe 12.f. Remedisl Treatments for Inserl Control in the Field Lw<ticWe. t A.nnn. per Acn «..ry Ti~ Itemuk. In.n Fm.al..iau Aph'd' .cepMU NS.a+n.11Sn 1 Ib 1 Gaud cwenee rnlwlf.n (C.nben Is.l. rAS..n~od.n3F.Cl I lnq~ 1 ni.l. NOTE: Ta Emu .a:~due.. wc cndo..l(.n u.Ey befae mellwmrl (L.ewu LtL) Nn+.. 90511 (L.nra.l.6LV) !Y GRANULAII Appl.: 4ei1Lv J.wlelMV4 1 { kms...d. b.f (U'pel ]% . .n.nnr.l) (Upe11aG) !Y GIAVFD NAND- ..c/Y.e .t..apn.nr li Mmrm.d.b.N /Dp.l 1x + c«nn.+U (Dlpel IUG) I 91 ssb Ihp t}H b 100, 5-10 b 51011, !Y SP1tAYt]t: .cepba. (OM.s1153P ane+w.. w..:npnw (Akne) (ItukilFC) (piuba VIn (D'p 11%) Q..du WG) ue Aomyl (Lnn.w 9USn (iRwa I IL) (linnaa 2 4 LV) memid.mion S.pneNe lEC) 1 1 1 buucniry- 4a.1 cawW f.ir.n .nud.bulwmben n.y nbuuad p.ruy- Mu.epcnne ca.rn..l.d irclicM. (99 a 1). Apph b.. wer eup drw. Apply piM of b.ic n..cl. knd. ronlinu~d Tnnyl.nn rn.r ..eu n.e... N~kM. nu. m.y i.yun pbnl. us laa. pl vae./A. NaeMn..aLpyYWinecueide.e.ninjunpbix.wdernmecondir:m. G...Muu.- proEuceJ Inn91.n. m.y be mun .emnrve w Nu lype af injuq. 122 123 Ib ub Ip IAp. 1 91
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Table 124, continued ar.n,,,,e ~epn.u Nlne.hmm~- InMerc115% IM I ppllinHSOpI u:cAhrf rucr rym.dlOSP) 14W • uKbbrfun (Dyln., 10! • Avn:d prYnry b.i4 Po.d f 15 bun nn pluu. Apply In c.rb.rYl JOM)Ib • YrerRvmoon (Ser., St bei.) FW .ceDbne (anbexe 75Sp) 213 b I Spny enrirt pYn. baeJn neMmyl N"an 90Sp) 4.4f ro I Nruae 1 IL) I 7 yl n.snnra S tl.V) 1'A pr 1 mebiaeWien (Suynciae 2LCl lS pl 2 Do wr.s on uiun WMl pWu. (Serrn 1451 14 2416 • (SC.:nSOV/) 24R • (Serin.F) 1-2 yl nnu .rynns(qWCne7SSp) In-vllb I Ifponibk,.l.ou.n boppen wlWian .fevy.ra.beyond 5 ~E.pl FC I 'A pl • Me Fuld bnder. nh.ryl (Se.inpn5) M)Yb • Uummeunrmn (Serln SUw) 1 J Ib • pb,u. ISerin eF) 120 • xnn. ecrybus(Urwcnc7lSp) 213 R I If.ppraiaune ronru ceMryl wry aurine (Sev:n pUS) 14-2'A Ib • lurves, wLe a,em (Serin pow) 2 4ro • :nurcaiemy ener tserin aFt 13 p • nanr Wrnbe! merbumyl pnnenl. N"'n'c pOSTI 4-A Ib I Nnr'..: I pL) 1-2 p I (IInnere24LV) n-I4pl I mrmiJnbinn (Supnciae 2FL) 2 3 yl 2 IrnW uWnnp4vu (Apee) 1116 • IBmbu PC) 'A 1 , • Ima,a wpl u 'A lb • (D,pel l%) 4 % • (O,pel Iq 'A I pL • (I.renn wC) It u lb • coainunf 124 Table 12-6, continued I.p.rs•c baacr nN.ryl {Sevin SOW) ($erin t05) [Ser:. aF) 7~ M 14 2'A N 1-3 qr • • Uunuluconunll VI•nl. Imyen nanWU/ucineinu4 Guodcwrnp- (Atns) 2 k • epcunp of Iwrn (91ntYFL) 1'40 • Wrn.4rs..nv:.l (niobA W% 2 W • (Uye13%) I b • nevdin w(i) I R • 'o.wunyl Nr.we 9(Sh ts n I - Nmw 1.(p 1 qr (I~ro.u 3 eLV7 1'A p I .cqhne (raa,ers iSSP) 1 k I 'Miaannn Isrrvel (d.rJ frmn pplkn:nn nrea .ork<r ,uwy inn r IA. Rrewy lirrcr wr •wrq prlkian our cb.np in IM rcrr (uwrt: fdbr I.bel dinclion. •unlJ .pn1 der^•^ b'• ariea «au. ne, naled. Spretfie Steps In Managing Aphids and Badwormr Aphids. Aphid populations are capable of building ap very rapidly. The time needed for m.ctively growing population to double in size is only 2.2 days. Beuuse of Ibic Inil, aphids require very cloec .Ilenttlaa und • carefully pl.nned m.n.gemcal prognm. The following emps should be combined in a total msmgemeal progr.m. 1. Control aphldr in the plam bed. This proren begins with the dealruclion of any winter hnst plants ncu the beds (such as prden greens and wild muslard). If needed, bulh preventive and remedid iraecticides ue available (TLble 12-1). Such control may help reduce the qne.d or nansport of aphids into the field. Once tnnspllnling is complele, beds should be destroyed. 2. Considerplaruing early. Evidence from Virginia and North Carolina indicates that urly-plrnkd tnb.cco may escape nme aphid pressure. (Very-1.le-plvded Iolucco may also escape some danuge but typically yields less for ulher rearons.) If you plant over . lengthy lime peuod, anticipate that fields planted oeaf the nonrurl lime for your area will probably need The mnst attention and proleclron. 3. Do nor exceed rerommended nibugrn ratct. Overferrilinlion eocoungee aphid buildup. Sucker growth is also encour.ged, and suckea help 125
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olppon aphids in the second half of Ihe rson. <. Consider the ure of a roil-applied syttrmic imecsicide for pnvmlivc cnntrnl. Remember, hawcver, that systcmics dd b the cost of production and mey have other negative effects. Aplrids an be menagrd successfully wilhouttheir use. S. Do not wair ron long to begin rese.e ueatnlemr. Watch tobacco dasely md do nd wait until aphidc reach high oumben or until sooty mold and other dssmge ere evidenl before beginning Irutmmt. By tlus time, much d.m.ge will have been done, and the aphids will be mon difficult to bring below d.m.ging kvcls. Treat as soon u the Ihnehold (10 percent of plmis lightly iofesled) is reached. On-fsrro Iats conducted over sevend yess have demonstrated that this threshold will provide dcepule control and prevent loss in crop value. Use of a spny schedule msy keep aphid numben very low but oflen leevlls in more pesticide use (and eoN) without my increase in crop value when compared to use of a threshold approach (Table 12-7). 6. C7ma.re inrecticidel carefully. Ratiugs and recomineodatiws are presmted io Tables 12-4 and 12-6. 7. Use marinrum labeled ralet for tnuderale in Aeavy lnferntiunr. 8. Apply inrenicides carefiully. Good coverage of the underside of leaves is necessary. Use onzzln that produce s fine spray (hollnw cone or Imdl eolid eoue), sl least 60 psi, and .dequam wster (Y kast 25 pllom per acre). 11 may be beat 1. avoid spraying on very hot aflarnoons. 9. Wair a lean rhree days after Ireatosmt before dN •+•g whelher control hae bem .dequate. 10. tf control is poor, swirch to anolher nerommended inreuicid< before tlestiug again. If treatment is begun wheo aphid numbers ue low and the application is msde carefully, poor control could indicate the buildup of sesistsnce. Switching insndicides could reduce the chm<e of further buildup. 11. Continue ro watch rhe freld carefulfy. Aphids mey build up to the threshold level again (especially if conlrol is msrginal)- I2. Top and begin r.drer control as the 50 percent butron stage. Topping and sucker control speeds the decline of aphids and msy he imporlsnt in controlling a difficult population or preventing s low population hom reaching d.m.ging levels. 13. When rrtming for other pesn, consider r+ing other inseaicidrs (those eul most effective against aphlds). This may help avoid the development of reslslsnce in aphufs. 126 Table 12-7. EffetY on Aphid Infesl.fion and Crop Value of Scheduled Verstd Threshold Spnys, W.ysre County, 1p92 f.rts.)< cf Rsn. Inlsa W` TruurcM Wk 7 Wk . r W!, . e WI 10 Ne of yny. G.w.v.lu1 (=LVn) Tna,nser n aRd^ts 1.2 11.8 1.1 0.0 1 4.048 Tn.n e,'I, R 10 .u4.hr u.eryuo:, 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 1,077 Tlatmmts = I Ib/anre Orthme 75SP. Orlhme 755P, I Ibfacre, dsu applied m dl plols as a transplant water Imtmmt. 'plmts coneideed iufened if there we¢ 50 or mose sphids oa my nne leaf. 9iHereslae in gross value oa dgnificant st 0.05 level, ISD. The effecliveoees of combioing cultmal and other practices in ndoclag'Whid problems hn bem demnnstnted in on-fum teas. A combination of early plantiog (2 weeks before avenge for the arra), minimum recommended nitrogm, topping in 50 percenl early huttoo, and lossimum mcker caotrol compared b 1. careful productioo predi<es. In most lonliotu, this comhwsliao has rcduced aphid numben, evm the use of insecticides. This ladudioo nuy ad always be adequate 1o prevent the need for rescue lrcstlnmte hut is isnporbnt in a luW msnagemml pmgram. Bullwosms: Budworms (actually a complex of mbsccn bldworms and corn euwmm) are among our most difficult imaa pests to contnl because they spmd moN of their time in the tightly rolled leaves of Ihe bud. The following steps sre recammmdod for the management of these peste. 1. Avoid excessive oilrogm ferlilinuon. Escessive narogm mskn Ihe crop mme attractive m budworms and incnases the grawlh of sucken, which dso attract bndwotms. 2. Coosider your planting date. Euly-plsnmd tobacco is usudly roon awsctive to budwurms. Howerer, mrly-plmled lalrcco is oflm less heavily atl.ckcd by aphids and homworms. You must nlshe the choice of which prsls lo manage with this laclic. 3. Conserve beneficial insects by avoiding unnecessary use of pesticides sod by using one of Ihose le¢s harmful to beneficisl iosects. Predawn such u the still bug (which cao eat up to g0 budworm eggs in ils lifdime) and psruires like the Canpuleris wup (which msy kill 701a 110 peroeal of the budworvs in somc frelds) are very important in budwasm oumsgemml- 1T)
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4. Chock fields carefully and tmal with an insecticide when 10 percent or more of plmis are infated. Many fermers do rwl notice budworms in the crop until duuge ir easily seen. By this lime, fields may have been above threshold for several dsys. S. Apply ineeclicides carefully. Several insecticidea ue effective (Tables 12-4 and 12-6) if they ge1 lo the budworm. However, budworss oe o0m biddm in the bud and, u a reev8, spnya .re sometimes not very effeclive. It is very important to treat when the bud in mont open (usudly in the morniug or at night). Direct the sqmy into the bud and rrom the upper one-third of the plant and use a high volume (25 lo 50 gdloos per acm). The spmy nozzfea should be as low over the bud u practical. not more than 12 inchn above the bud. 6. Consider using a hand-appbed bul nther Ihan a eonvmuonsl spny. Tests have shewn Ilut Bacillus rhunngiemis bails applied by hsod provide very good control. OBen, b.its provide 90 l0 95 perneol control eomp.md to 60 to 70 percent control with spmys (Table 12-8). Baib provide better Table 12-8. Elfecl of Inseclicidet .nd Application on Budwonrr Contrnf in Two On-Furn Tes4, 1773 Average Percent Budworm Reducliou, 3-5 Days' Average D.m.ge R.tine TreatmenC Test I Test 2 Test 2 Ualrested 34.1 a' 21.2 e 1.70 e Lanmte LV, 1.5 pt, S 96.7 e 63.7 b 1.03 b Orlbene 755P, I lb. S 61.6 bc 62.5 b 1.17 b Agree WP, 0.75 Ib, 5" 74.2 d 53.7 b 1.23 b Agree WP. 1.51b, S' 70.8cd 46.2 b 1.40eb Riobil WP, 2 Ib, 5' 59.1 6 57 5 b 1.09 b ' Dipel 4L, I pt, S 52.5 6 1.30ab Dipel 2X. I Ib, 5' 70.8 cd 66.2 b 1.43 ab Dipel 100, 101b, bail 95.91, 96.2 c 0.50< 'S = applied as spray through three solid,cooe rwules per row. Bait = dropped by heod into bud of e.ch plant. 'Based on 30 budwormslplm ioitial infestation (rest 1) (Or 20/plat (Teal 2). Soov: plants artificislly infened. InfeMd plants lagged. 'Damage nled 04 on each 1.gged plant 10 days after Irctlment. 'Applied in nut with X-77 adjuvant at 0.5 p1/100 gal of spny; tea I only. 'Within mlumns, means followed by a mmnum letter are nol significantly differml; LSD, P < 0.05. Some trealmenLs not shuwn. 128 residud conlmi se well. Obviuuusly, hand application of baits requires an investment of lime ud labor. However, field triJs indicate Ibat workers should be sble to apply b.its in 0.5 acrc per hour. 7Lus, application costs may be reasonable (coneidering improved coolrol) if labor is available. 7. Top fields at 50 percent bu0on. Flowers attract egg-laying budworm moths and provide an excellent food eource to promote developoYnl of the neat generatino. 8. Do 0o1 treat after toppmg. excepl in very unusud casee. Budworms seldom uuse significant damage to maturing tobacco udeu they oe very numeroue (several per plant). The 10 percent threshold should be .wed only before flowering. 9. DesUoy sldks ud rools promptly aftm harvesf This practice roducu the ford supply for late-reasov bndworuu and grr+tly decreasee the number carrying over inm the oeat seuon. Protecling Stored Tobacco Tobacco stored un the farm ia subject lo d.mage by two peMs. Ihe tobacco moth md the cigue0e beetlc. Damage by ciguclle beetln resembles the smdl buim chewed by Bea beetla. They alno leave behind powdery wwe that can give tobacco an unple.senl flavor. Damage by tohrco rodhe nages From irregulv holes 10 luvu completely Yripped except fm myor veins. These pesls uyy slro reduce the grede o(lnbrso to NOO as a rvult of silk webbing, droppings, and insecta in the tobacco. Prennlfan Control of established infeebtiom is difficult,'n prevmlion is very imporl.nt. The first gtep is ssniration. Be(om tobacco is mmuved fmm the curing bun, a clean storage aree should be prepared. Clean om and hum all lobrco and refuse fmm the storage arn. Tobacco should na be held even Iemponrily in an uu whete trash mighl harbor insect peste. If the tobacco to be stored is the final huvest, it nuy be best lu leave it hanging in the curing bun. This area is heat sterilized during the cunng pnxrss. and most bulk b.ros are relatively light. Bulk bartu msy also be a good choice as a storage arm for sheeted tobacco but musr be clean uf tobacco Ir.sh if oew tobacco is nol muved in imn.rditlely afler curing. Tobr:co and slonge ums abould also be treated with Bncillur rhuringievis to help prevent tobacco mnth infestalion. Apply a fine spny to loose utbacca or it is being sheeled or to slicks es they are being sucked. This is an esy job at this point, but ir 129
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is difficult to open sheets and gel good coverage later. Ralee for trealrnent with Dipel src as follows: Tobacco: 2'h IeasMwns Dipel 2X per qu.rt wder per ItlO pounds of bbacco Storage are.: 6 teaspoons Dipel 2X per 2'h gallons water Use 'h gdlun per I,000 squue feet of sur6ce area CnNrol Once mb.uu is to storage, it should be checked periodically fnr igns of imncts and new dmage. Both pmb me active primarily from April through October. During this period, tubsccu should be checked every week or two. Puta may dsu be active during wum spella in the winter mmths, and tobacco should be checked at Ihuu times as well. If lobatto mollu ue found,tobtcco should be treated with Bacilfus rhuringiensb aa describnd above. Simply treating the mbide of buodles may help but will probably nd coulyd an est.blished iafestation. Bundlea should be opened and the tobacco treated as loose luves before restackinL If cigardre beellea oe found, the toh.cco may be fumigated. Fumigams are very harardous and must be handled carefully m be effeclive. Furthensuxe, regulations make it difficult for farmers m legally cury out fumigalim on their own. Thus, fumiplion should be done by a Professiona!- Remember thal fumigation controls mly imects dul are present; it ie nol s prevmlive trotment If 1he find curing is left hanging in a bulk harn, hestieg the bw b ICO` or 15B°F for I l0 2 hours will probably kill both pests. The tob.cco should be dried at low heat before advancing the tempenmre above 10V'F. Huling well-aepsnted sheets of mb.cco might be of some help but would require many hom.a of heM tn rune the temperature adequalely deep within the bundle. Furfher, it may be very difficull to bring sheered tobacco back into order after healing. Pesticidcs muel be used carefully to protecl against human injury and harm lo the mvironment. Dugnose your pesl problem and selocl the proper pesticide if one is neuied. Follow lahel use dirauons and obey all fcderd, sttle, and htcal pnsticide laws and mgulalions. 130 13. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT f. Paul Mueller and H- Mrchael Linker Crop Scicoce Extension Specialiw Sustainable Ajrlndlme There is worldwide concern about the impact of agriculture on the mvuoomcnl. Developing and developed countries .re beginning to assrss the mvisvomcnlal costs of food produclion. During the pat several years much discussim has takm place amoog farm and nonfum groups concerning the applicability of austinable agriculmre, dtemative agrimdmre, organic fuming, and low-input nsdaioabk egriculture pracliw aod principln m modem farming mlerpri.n.. This situaliou h.s provided an oppornmily for foeu.ing ongoing programa on wtain.bility iselsee aud to integrate the latest informalim and techoobgiea into eduutiooal pmgr.ma. Support for .uelaiuble agriculture concepts haa mme fmm non- agriculmral groups, including mvironmenl.lisls aod olher special interest grwps, aome of which have rallied public opinion to challenge current agricultural policy. At the same time agricultural groups•m Ylempting m a balance fong-term profitability with mvironmenW cmcerns. Although cooemsuc definition of nsslain.ble agriculture semains dusive, hrmers. mviromnenlalista. goveroment ageoeies, and ruwgnvemmmt.l organiu0ont are beginning to forus on oew approacha tn agriculmrd production that prdect Ihe mviruonumt and maintaio acecptable nd relum m farmers. Asflnitlon of Susm1na6/e Agr/cuhun Sualain.bilily impliea a long-mrm per.peclive. Farming aystems must be able b maintain Iheir sreduloewa m society :vdefjmtely. Ttsce inmrdepeadunt goals musl be sslisfied for a sustainable farming syetem: it must be ecotu.niully viable, socially atteplable, and m.irumnenlaBy prses.in` or enhancing. A sust.waMe agriculmre supports the notion that a farm is rrot just a production unit. It is a social unit in a rnmmrudty contesl. A farm can be thought of u being similu lo a biological orgaoum that is in constant interplay with the environment. It is recogmrod that in the fumre sustainable agricultural concep6 will in0uen<e farm policy, resulting in farming system changes. Sigoificanl reduclions in the amount of agricbetniuls used and a concomitmt increase in crop rotslions, land slawardship, and lung-nm ecomtmie and social praclices ue eaamples af this change. In 1988 Congrest appropriated $y.9 million for dmmNive agricultural productivity research under Sublrtle C of the Nauonal Agncultural Reacarch 131 r
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Eateosion and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1915. Later il became Imown o the (JSA Progrsm, (nw-lnpm Swtainable Agriculturc The Title h.s changed with the 1990 Fenn Bill. LISA has now become Swtaioable Agriculture. The lerm sustainable agrieuhurr is e,lmiuedly the l.tesl'buu word,' but it is importent tu rulire that the basic ideas that underlie this coocept sn things that few would reje4: eoviromneoW nsponsibility, loog-term satisfaction of bumen food end fiber needs, pre.ervetion of our oemr.l reeource base, reduced sgrichemical use. sustaining the economic viebilily of (etnung, eud ealuncing the qudity of life for farmers sad mrd commumlirs. Subtitle B of Ttlle XVI of the Food, Agriculture, Conservatm and Trade Act of 19% authorized the Sustainable Agriculture Reeurch md Eduution Pmgrw (SARE) as e replacement for LISA. In ddilion, Congreu defined susteinable agriculture as 'an irurgraed system of p7au and animal prodrrniun pracrires having sire.peeifec applicnrion that wiff, o.rr the foeg term, iai..fy hunan food and frber needr; enhance en.iron.nenrnf qnahry, and the natwaf resource bnsr upon which the agrituhurc emnomy drpends; make she reoar effrciem ure of nunrenrwabfe rernurrer and Lurgrare, where approprime, nntwnf binbgicnl r)rler and ronovfr; turtain the economic vlabifiry of farm/runch uperarionr; and enfianor the quality of tife far furtnerr/ranchert andrtorkry ar a whak.' (filk XVI. Subtitle A. Snction 1603) Although many ere frustnted wilh trying to establish e praise definition of susleineble .gricuhure, we should recogoire Ih.llhis issue has surfaced u" result of broad national concem for aur eaviromoent, our ruturd resource base, end our family ferms eod rural commuo/tirs. It is the desire for an ecological .pproech b agriculture. Them may be disagreement on specific pprosches or praclicrs, but the broad concept is one we should ell be able to wpport fully. The eppliulioo of sustainable egriculture will involve both production and peat management practices. Although Iherc ..e a limited number of ryeci6c pmducdon recomnreodetions, tobaceo gruwets ue faoulier with integrated pest mwgemeot (1PM) practices. 1PM progrems, ruch ss sleBe end root derlruclioo, scouting, and the use of economic thresholds, embody speclfic practices that ensure that pests ere controlled for the leisl cost and ue put of susleinable egriculture. Inle{truted Pest Munagrmenl Preventing losses to pests is a problem from pWt bed b hwest, and growen who fd tu pay careful attention to pesLS can pay with yield or quality reductions. Pesl mnugcment can be orgeni.nd and pest comral costs minimrud by developing e plan and wmg il. The uhjeclive of pest owugement plenning is m conlrol pesls for the least cost and with du: lowest amounl of pesticide possible. Pest muugearnl is e'pecluge' approach In pest control. That is, .11 methods of reducing pest oumben below ecoaoouc.lly dumging levels ue used. 6merdly, pect menagemenl mettwds can be clessified as cudmral, biological, and chamiul. Only by ming d1 three lecbniques can tobacco growen be essured they uc doing the bw job possible of comrolling pests and minimlring peuicide use. C,uUurnl Controls How a crop is grown is the most iroportsnt fector inBueocing pe.1s and coal of peat control. Managing & crop 1o eoolml pr+te is one of the olde.l and moN effective pest mnegemeat techniques evsilable. Rotation is the most impartmt cullurd practice to minimize perl problems. Shost (or no) robtiou cen eause oemNUde, inseU, and soil di.eue buildup that ean be controlled only by high rates of peaticidn. 6row'rn give many reunns for using short rotatiooe (sucb ae ir.igstion renrictioos or bdler lend), but these re.eons should be b.lraced sp:nsl im:rtesed pesticide requiremeals and meonsidered. (For mom specific information on the benefits of mtslioo, ree 1he ch.pten on dienee cootrol preclicee md fneect rmsgement). The importeuce of e good rolation for contmlling pestU cannol be overemplrasirad. Oatroyirq ronls.ud sURts as soun ae poswble eflrr huveet is s sigoific.nl put of pnt rnsnegemmt. This prac6ce deoies pew food aod shelrer, which Gmits thcr ability to overwinler, and pnvents pest buiWup between harvest .od cold weaher. Like rdstion, runt.ud sWt dearuction is very impornnl and should be e siaodud practice for aery grower. (See the dissuee mid inaecl management eheptae for rnon informNion on root and sWk dWnrction). " Wetd .nd divease m.pping in the fall will provide e record of which weeds and discasee ue likely 1n be s problem the neaf time loh.cco is powu. A sirople map of the field and the location of problem weeds and diseeesrx ie useful. Recording this mforuulioo for future use u fo betler than counting on remembering where problems accurrrd. If problem diseeses m weeds .re found io nnly pert of a field, pesticides for these pesls c.n be used in only that parl of the field In addrtion, dlernne crops c.n be grown in fields with problem weedt or diseasea. Variety selection is also impottaol. Most all vuielies selected by growen have resisuoce to some drsr+se, but variety selection mosl t.ke into sccmmt the ealeal of the disease problem, which disease or diseeses hsve been a problem, and variety charectcrisUCs. 132 133 206Q45413A
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Psroper fertili.ation can provide adequate nutrition to the plul without encouraging pest.. Certain insects sud disease peqs can be eocouraged by overfenilsntion. In ddition, nutrients in groundwater and surface water ue a problem in North Cuolina. Excessive ferlilitation ttat only wrstes rooney but can pore health risks and enviroomrntal problerm. Growers who apply excessive nitrogen,thca 'wssh itoul' with suppletoentalwater may produce quality bb.a:o but mey find themselves with environmenW prableox they would rather not face. Healthy transplants that grow off quickly will be les. susceptible to peste and better able to eompete with weeds. 8fofoglcaf Controf Biological control is a very important pael of pest maoagerumt in tobecco. Biological agents uve tobacco growers millioos of dollars each year by feeding oo tobsccn pesls. Beneficial imects are the mw1 obviow biological wntrol agents, but there ue organisnu in the .od which help control neoumdes .od soil insects. Growers can make masimum use of beneficial iuaeeta by using iuecticides only when needed (by rcomiug and using ecooomic thre.holds), wing the loweset rale to achieve the needed control, chooeing insecticides that ue easier on beneficial insects (see the ranking offn.ecticidu nu brneficid ineocb in the insect mauagemeot chapter), .nd avoiding systemic insecticides u much u possible. Being able to identify beoeficid insects is as irnportant ae identifying pest specieu. If a field h.s a few pest species but msny, beneficial spxiea, . grower can wait before spraying to sm if beneficial ioeects will provide free control. This can happen Iluoughoul the yw. There are ouny es.mples of beoefsciJ ioaects providing free pesl control to growers. The mnst e.sily recognized in paruitiratioo of hornworma by Apanrafes. The egg'disp•d eocoow attaehed to a homworm'e back ue a eumopn .ight in tobacco fields. Before the cooouns appear, the tiny p.ruims ue inside feeding on the homwono. Puasitimd homwormt typically have a short'ham.' AnMher important beneficial insect is the Camyuleri.r wuy. This tiny wasp puuitivs budworme and can provide very effective control. The edult is too small to be e.sily recognized, but the cocoon can be observed uound the bud area. Lady bird beetles, both adults and iuuwmres, are imporlent genenl feeders but are especially helpful with aphids euly in the year. Other insecb, such as stilt bugs, syrphsd Ries, and Tachinid Bies liorit insect pest numbers in tobacco aod should be preserved when possible. (For mure mfnrmHion on benefici.l insects, see the insa:t mrnagemenl chapter and the R/R FIue-Cured Tobacco Field Manuol). Chemfrd Control Despite ell efforts, wme chemical controls will have m be used to praect the crop. However, careful thought rhouM be put into each ebeoirsl decisioo to be nue the lowest amuunt of the least msic ovterid is used. Minimizing pesticides nn be accomplished by wiug some simple techniques. Crop urd pesl scouting hu been used for many years as a way b keep track of pertt in the field. Many growera feel they are in the field mough in know what is going on or can observe prete fsom their tractor aue. However, unlm a curcfirl chrde is ade wing a amnting method 16.t has hem carefully rtseuched. it is difficult tu dCtramine whm to heN. In addilion, r.ouling methndr recommendod in Exkasiua Service publications ue derigud In muimire the possibility of finding specific perls, eod pest eotuls ean be eoropued directly to rocommeaded eruoomic Ws.holds. Regular, synematic acoutiug is important because pnate can be found early, before damage occurs. Finding peeLL early allows time for careful identification od formulation of a control plan while there is time to consider dte.ostives. Etooumie Ouxsholdl are used u guidelinrs for deciding if pew have reached Ievela that justify application of e pesticide. The idea behind ecommic thresholds is simple, nemely, that it does rwt pay to trut for a pu1 tsnlil Ihe potential damage of the pen e.cmds the caM of trrelmeot Why spend $10 to rnntrol e pen tlw will casrse S5 worth of demege? 7)us concept bm helped growen prevent tuuwcrnary lrnlomta in crops for many years. Specific threshold, ue recommeoded in AG-J00, Sroming Tubacco in Abrrh Carolina, available al ere6 county Eateosion Cmter. Once a decision to we a pesticide h.s been mde. pesticide decision uuLirq becoora important and, if carefully eausidereJ, can result in significant pesticide savings. All pesticides hsve advantages and disadvantages for controlling a specific put. The characteristics of a pesticide with respect to the desired action should be determioed before use. Another copssdention that should be high oo a grower's list is the potential of tbe chemiul to nm off iom surface waw, or leech inro groundwser. (Generdly, the more soluble a pesticide is, the onre likely it is to leach into grouodwsler.) Specific considcntions when wing a pesticide ue: 1. Match the pesticide to the pest. Use the lowest rate possible. 2! Time rhe tre.tmem to ovtch the period wheo the peat it nnst vulncrable. 135 134
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1 3. Select m appliutton method that will assure maximum covenge of the pest. 4. Meke mre that appllution equipment is in good working order and properly calibnted_ 14. NO-TB.L FLUE-CURED TOBACCO PRODUCf10N A. Douglas Worslum Professor of Crop Science S. Consider dtcroslivu if the yrplictlion does not give the desired resvlts. This prtvents a rushed decision. Srunm.ry Tbere is no doubt that peslicidea will be an important part of tobacco production for the near future. But there is deo no doubt that the use of pesticidee will be carefully acrutinir<d and that eunse chnnga tn make tobacco productioa more suslainable will occur. The incorpnntion of aust.inable prscbcee will be rasier for those who ue ready b consider new appruacha and W opt the onee thst fit their productioo system The keys to pstiride reductions are: 1. Use long robtioos to pmveal buildup of hud-lornntrol pesta. 2. Dcatroy roots andd stalks as soon as possible.fler harvest. 3. Carefully identify all pcsls. If you cannot ideotify a problem, contact your county Extension agenl. 4. Match the pesticide and rae to the peet. Use the lowest effective rate passibk. Be sure the timing snd method of application ue correct. Calibrate your sprayer end rechcek it during the eea9on. 5. fram more about the biology and ewlogy of pest and beneficial species. Use insecticidea that .re the least harmful to beneficial inseets. 6, Swut on a regular basis usiog a prescribed method. Record the counts. 7. Use economic lhresh~JJs where availabk. NOTE: For Wditionrd fnformation on smuting for pests, contact your rouny Exleositm Service agem for a copy of AG-0OQ Smuring Tnbncro in Nonh Ca.olina. 136 Growing Duecu.ed tobacco by the no-till method ia nxammeoded where this would be the best option for a grower m mees consrsvation corrq.liaoce requirements. By 1994, this will affect sotne growera in the northwestem piedmont who have limited land for rowione. Other optioos for growers with limited rotational land are to buy more land, loae government tupporl proPams on the whole fum, or stop growing tobacco. Several yeara ago a few oo-farm trials with uo-till Buecured tobacco across the state were unrucceasfirl. TTe failurea were mainly due to very dry growing aeasons, lack of irrigatioo, .ud lack of sufficimt mulch. Since then, no-1i11 Bue<urd tobaaw has beea suocn.fully grown in e 3-.cre oo-f.rm test in C.enerel County for 3 years, in one fest of about 314 acre in Y.dkin County in 1992, several small ou-krm demonstration plots in 1993, aud in maeuch plds for aevcrd yeam. The quality of no-till mbacco h.s been equal to that of conventionally tilled tobacco, while yields have sometimes been eumewh.t lower and v.riable. The following a.e the recommeoded puuius for no-till production of flue- cured tobacco developed fa date: I. If pouible, eelect a field with low weed presmre. Do nd try no-lill production in fiefds with nutaedge, johmongreu. bermudagrss. or heavy infestations of perennial broadlcaf weeds such as horseaenle and Wmpel creeper. 2. Be prepared to irrigate. Irrigalion is a must for adequate yields and improved weed control in mort setsons. 3. Till the land and the plmt bed in the falt. Add.od incotporate lime phosphorus before beddtng if suggested by soil tests. Apply nuil pesticides for insect and disease control .ccording lo label directions based on knowledge of past insc<t and disease problems ud on oematode sssays. Do nm apply Ridooul in the fall. 4. Flatten or drag otf tops of beds to make a row bcd 10 ro 14 Inches wide at the 1op. 5. Sow a small grain cover crop. A good cover crop is essenlial for successful m.-tdl tobarco. Abnsm rye rs the hrst eover. Sow at a rate of 2 bushels per acre- Gad smndc can hc ohWned by adjusting 137
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a rolling cultivator to fit the sh.pe of the bed and incorporating seeds lightly. Apply fertdaer u for s sma11 grain crop b fet good cover crop (rowW. 6. About 2 weeks before trnnplsntin` time, spray with Gnmoxooe Extrs plus surfsclant to kill the cover crop. If Roundup is used, apply it 4 weeka before tnnsplanlin{. If rye Sete waisl high bcfore this lime, kill it earlier tu make plsntioll tasier. If Gnvnxone Extra is used e.rly, s second application m.y be needed before transplanting to kill rye rterowlh or eoa:rQed wetds. 7. If the snil is dry end hsrd, irrifete before transplanting. The cover crop will have depleted the suil moisnue, and tob.cco growth will be poor if the crop is not irrieald. Apply Ridomil before transplanting .ccordin f to label. Rainfall ur irrigation will be needed before or aRer IrY16plY111n` IU move the Ridomll into the rnll. g. Transplant as usual. Field-grown and greenhouse pl.ots have worked equally well. Normally, no~lill tobacco paws mom slowly Ihrn convmtiond plantings in early season. A commercially availsble transplanter with doublcdirc row opener with a coulter added in front baa done s good job of planting into a variely of mulchea. An altemative is to use a coulter followed by a etrai`In shank running 6 to 9 inches deep or a Ro-till b loosen a furrow. Thm a cu.nvmtioosl transplanter with a ewwrd opener uaually, worke. 9. Apply the «commended amouol of feAiliur in ome or two bands 4 b S inchu deep with a disc apr.e r Iba1 will cut thrmgh the mulch. Dieturb as liule soil as possible. Thir should be done .1 transplanting or inmredimely aher. The second choice medwd would be to hand Ihe ferlilimr m the soil surface sod irripate. 10. Apply Devrinol and irrigate to the wet mil 2 b 4 inches deep if it does not min within 5 days. Irrigation or rainfall is necessary lo wash the fkvfinol off the mulch and into the soil surface- 11. Since Devnnol is the only herbicide registered for use over the top of Irsnsplsnm, subsequent weedm` will have to be done by pulling up a<altered weede or mechsniully using s Iswm mnwer. power trimmer (Weed-Fmar), or s nurow sickle-6u nvrwer. Crowem have found these methods easier than hand hoeing anrvenlionaltnlusco. 12 Apply sidedre.cs nitrogen 3 to 4 inches deep with a disc opener applicaror; if that is not poscible, apply it an the surface beside the plants. Increase the raal nitro`eo rae by one-fourth 1o make up for the nitrogm that will be lied up by the mulch. 13. Handle insecl, disr.se, and eucker controllhe same ss for s <onvmlioaal crop. Vtrus diseases snd black rh.nk have beeu less of a problem in no-till tobacco. Potato weevils have bwm woree but esn be controlled by Orlhene. Slugs mey be a Pro6lem; apply s1uS bsit if needrd. Since ItreNer nutuieid .bilily Is needed in producing .ny no-ti11 vup. powess trying rro-tiR tobacco will base to be umnmitted to tan7hq out the necss.ry pr.c6aes if they ue to he s.ecasfd. PRECAVf7ONARY STATEMENT ON PESTICIDES Pesticides mut be used carefully to protect against humm injury and hsrm lu Ihe mvircomeot. Diatnose your pesl pmblem and aeleet Ihe proper peslicide if one is needed. Follow label use direc6ons and obey dl fedenl, .tate, and local pesticide Isws and resulations. 139 139
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15, MODERNIZED WEATHER AND CLIMATE INFORMATION Kstlunoe B- Perry Extnnsino Agriculturd Mcmorology Speciahsl Wolher is a rignifiunt frctor in lobrrn production sysmms. Access m weather and clsmsu informNion (or planniog and carrying ou/ daily opentiom is imWorwu (or growers. The lenns weather and dimarr are often usnl interchangeably but actually have umque m.raningr. Wealher refers to the cunenl wte of the almosphere-thal is, conditions mch s cloud cover, umper.ture, relalive humidily, wind speed and direclion, solrr radirtion, and dew point. Forecasu un made fnr future wea0ter. Climate mfers b Ihe average or 'normrJ' weather of a particular loulion for a specified period of 4me, usually 30 yeus. Wnlhrr Forecasts Today, our mass media provide ur with numerous sources of weaher information. A farmer can chouse me or mom sourca from which to obuin weaher information. The Netionel Weather Service (NWS) issues forecasls of air lempeotme, sky conditions, and procipiulion for 104 forecast sooea in North Carolina for the coming Ihree conssutive 12-hour perinds. For example, a forecast is issued at 4:30 a.m. for the periods 4:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m- (called rodcy), 4:30 p.m. to 4:30 a. m. (ronigN), and 4:30 s. mr to 4:30 p. m. the nezt day (rwrwvuw). W ind speed and wmd direction ve included for the first two periods but nol the third. These forecasu from the National Weather Service are updated every 6 houn. A 5-0ry outlook is issued twice r day. It predicu tempn.mres, sky condilions, and precipiurion probabilities on s regional basis. A 30-day oullook is produced twice a month, and a 90-0.y oullook is issued monthly by the Naional Weather Servicc. These 30- and 90-day oudooks presenl the information relalive to normsl-that is. the outlook will say that the lemperaures or precrpiution will he below, near, or above normal. Obvtously, you have to know whst normal is tro use these, producu. This is where the use of cbmzu data comrs toa (See the discussum of climate dau larer in Ilus chapler. ) Getting Timely Forerasts , Wrsther radio is a simple way to receive the N WS forecasts at your 140 convenience. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admitislnlion NOAA) of the U.S. fXputmeul of Commerce prov'sdea conlinuous brmldcasu of the Iatmt weather informaliou directly from NWS offices. Taped mess.jet are repeated every 4 to 6 minutea and ue routinely revised every I to 3 bours or more frequeotly if needed. Most stations opente 24 houts daily. NOAA Weather Rdio broadcasts are m.Jc on me of Wr« hijh+sod FM froqueucies-162.55 nu:gaherz (Mhz) (RdeighlDurham, Wilmingma, and Norfolk), 162.00 Mhz (Asheville, New Rem, and Winston-Salem), or 162.475 Mhz (Charlotte. Fayetuville, Rocky Mount, and Cape Hatteras). These frequencies ue nol found on the average home radio. A variety of rpecisl weather radios sre avulsble. NOAA Weather Radio brordcana wn usually be received as far as 40 miles frum the .nteona ale, somr.limet more. The effective rmg< depeoda ou many 4ctors, puucWarly the height of the brosdeasllug mtema, ter..in, quality of the receiver, and type o( receiviog antmn.. NWS foreusu .re also bro.dcasl by many commerCi.l Ifdia sWiom. Many commercial Ielevision andd radio wtioos have their osvn staff mermmlogisla who aerve as soaher source of weather informalion. Television prexnulion adds the benefit of visual producu (such u maps, rad.r srans, and satellite images). Many cable neswort. offu The Weather Chaonel, a 24-hour, wotherronly station. The information in lhcse bsoadca.Ws m.y differ from NWS foraasu, reflecting Ihe fact lheta forecaster hu numerom pieces of informuiou to integrsle ium the forecast. There is oftrn room for disagreenrenl in the ineaacl seience of weadser fosecasliug. However, it is important to nole that only the Nstional Weather Service may iraue wslchea and warnings for severe weather. The Norlh Carolina Agricultural Weather Program of the Cooperalive Eateusion Servire eoopenus with the Agricultural Weather Serviu Ceaur of the National Weather Service located in Auburn, Alabeme. It provides the following producu for North Carolina: a 4day forecap of hourly air temperamre, wet-hulb umpenlum, dewpoint, relative humidity, wud speed and direclioo, and sky conditions; a 4-0ay forecast of duration of certain low umperatures: and a 2-0ay forecaN of hours of aumhlue, toW solar radiation, dew dryoff lime, drying potcnGd, evaporation, and lowest relative humrdity. In 1994 the program will add precipiulion probabilities and atrrounu for 5 drys; . 6- to 10-0ry oullouk for maximum usd mimmum air umpentures and precipiulion; and a 5-Aty forecast of daily growing degree day values for numerous base lernperalures. The Agricultural Weather Progrw fmccsuu are curreutly mrle for 13 surionr in .od uur North Caroluu but by spnog 1994 should include 105 sulions in North Caruluu. These forecasls are delivered electronically every 141 2Q6o45413s
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dey 1o county Extension Centen:- Conon your co+nty Extensiun agenl for mnre snfurmatwn. Weather informelinn is considcred a very penshable pmducl. lusl like simn agncultural produce, it hu a short shelf life. To make escellenl weather- related decisions, cuostantly'restock the she1/' with fresh produce-IWI is, with updaed forecasts! Basic Weather Principles Underslavding bas7c weather principles (meteomlogy) will help you to beller use weather md climae informalion. Heat yYantfo Heat energy in a subslance is the energy of molioo of the tmleculea of that subetsoce. Hest msy be transferred fmm ane matuiJ 1n anu/her or from a« place lo enother by Ihree pmcesse.: conduction, convection, eod rdiation. Whu the ad of s meW md is wsrmed, Ibe pmcus of hut lrsosfcr along the rod is rondunion. The moleculee at the warm end of the rod are moving with high energy .nd colliding with nearby cuoler mnlecWcs, givmg them mure energy. Hul is Ihus lmsferred down the rod. Consenion is the tnnsfer of hest by the movement of snassn of healed liquid or ges. In the atmosphere, the lower sir is warmed by the soil surface through conduction. This air becomes Iesn dense, risu, and is replaced by cooler air from above. The convective mixing of these currents of wumer md cuoler air is how tlwus.nda of feel of the lower almsphere are warored. Nodiarion is the movement of hut uerp' from one object to another without a eormecling medium. This ie how we receive the suo's enpgy, and it is by radrenl hut Irarufer that solid objects, including plants, lose hu/ at night. Enerp Erchangr !n the Eanh-Aemosphert System During the dsy, the sun's radisnt energy wuttu the euil and other solid objectn-for esample, Planla. When Iheee oblecls become wermer th.n the air. they pass heal to 1he air by conduction aod sel up convective currtnU that warm the lower atmosphere. The surface and plants may Jso rWiate bul energy inlo spece. Water in the almosphcre, some of which can be sefn as clouds, and COt, which is mvishla, absmbs or re0ecls some of this encrgy, trapping it es heal nur the earth's surface. Thrs laat phenomcnon is known ss the greenhouse effen. , At night the sinulim seevcrsrs. There is no inooming he.t to warm the soil uxl pl.nu. They conlinue to hne hul tMough radiuion and conduction un1i1 they am urolcr lh.n the sanuundmg air. The air thu paves hul to the soil 142 and plants md the lower atmosphere cools. If no wemr is present in the atmnaphem to block the outgoing rediuion, the .oil, plants and ur will ooolinue in cool. On e clear night, the hut will continue to Miate oul into spece. Temperatures will drop rignifinntly sod caol sir will colfect at the surface. The lempenture profile in the lower snu in hundreds of feet of alomephere inverts-tbat is. the temperature increeau with Jtitude tn lhe top of the Jr layer. The rerm for this, imersion, comu from nmospheric conditions being inversn tu the normJ daylime condition in which air lempentum decrusu with height. Some growers musl be concerned with polealislly demsging low tempemurts. Although the tormm frost and frm.< .m often interchanged, they describe two distinct phenomena. An adnen(ve, or wlsdbome, frree oecun wheo s eold air suss movu into an aren, bringing froedng temperatures. Wind speeds are usually above 5 miles per boYr (mph) and ckwds m.y be present. The thicknus of the ¢old Jr Iayer rengu fmm 500 to 5,000 fed or more. Allempts /o pmsecl plants by modifying the eavironmenl ve very limited under these cundilious. A rudiasion f%rt occurs when a clnr sky and calm winds (ler. Ihen 5 mph) Jlow an inversion to develop, and temper.turo tresr the wrfau drop below freeang. The thickness of the invemion layer varies fmm 30 to 200 feU. Frost forms on solid objects when the water vapor in the atmosphere changes from its vapor phase to smJl ice crystals. Frosl is not frozen dewl There ve methalc in protact plants in e radiation frost. For further ioformation conlact your county Cooperative Exlesuion Cmlcr end .rk for Horticulture loformation fuBel No. 705-A, Frosr/Freqe Prmrnion for Honisvlrural Crops. Also cooash the references listed at the urnd of this chepter. Mieroelimate Misroclimar, is the climute of a small ues. Facross that J4r the incoming soler nd'ution h.ve the smss obviom effecl on micruclimale, predominantly tempenlure. Theee can he umospheric faclors-for erample, clmufs, or topography factors, such as loulioo or upect relalive to the sun snd elevation. Wind also dfecls tricroclimsle. Windbreaks, either living or nonliving, increaac 1he rooislure u¢ efficiency of the arn downwind. Terrain <ootributu tu microclimalic differences by creating frost pockeLC or mld apds formed by culd .ir drainage. Cold, dense sir flows by gravity .nd collects in the luwest parts of an sm. This uuses Iempenturer lo differ in relalively srmll oess_ Soil color, moismre, and compechon can have s siguifi<anl eHe<I on tnicroclimate. A d.rk, rouist, compact soit will slare more bul during the day then a light, loosc, dry soil. Thus, it will have more hul in transfe In tlte plants rl nrghl. 143 2060454139
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The plants themselves have an effal. Surfsoec covered by plenls do not sbsnrb ss much solsr r.dierim during the day es those without plmu. Plants shade the soil under them and hy trsospiring keep thetraclvec and the suil beneath them rmler. Weather Mapf and FareearNn( WeWrer inform.Gon eumee to ur in several formr. We receive it by listening to commercisl radio stations, the ' Wealher R.dio' nelwork or telephone response systems. We c.n receive visusl informuioo by watching 4elevision or reeding tbe ncwrp.pcr. All Nese forms use s limited smmml of sp.ce ue time lo present s great deal of inforoution. It is often a ch.llenge to sbsorb all lhis information .ad apply it to (arm management decisioes. A good understanding of the terme and symholr used by weather forecasters will improve the understanding snd applicability of Ods informsUon. Nesarve Cmins. Both high- snd low-preeoue cmtcn sre predomio.nl - festures on 1he weather meps we eee on television and in prinkd form. Theee ue desigo.ted by a large L(tow) or H(high). The leuer is placed on the map at the center of the syelem. Air circulete in . clockwtre directiou wund s high-pressure center and counterclockwise vomsd e low-pressure center in the northcm hemisphere. (Thi Ilow is rever.ed in the sourbem bemfsphere.) Ilighs have generally fair weather eod light wiode. They ceo have wsro or cald tempernturee aod last for seversl dsys or evea longer. Laws generally bring cloudy weather with precipitation and rlroag winds Isobus. The solid linu o0en shown on weather msps are called isobart. They oe like lines on a contour map, escepl that they courwcllooetions that Wve tbe surm pressure instead of the ssme elevstion- Where isobsrs ue cluae logelhee- the pressure cLenges rapidly end wrnde are sbong. Where they are far epen, winde oe cumpartlively light. Fronls. A front is s boundary between different ur m.sses. Sometimeu the boundary does uol move rmd the froot becomea sulioosry, bul usually it does move u upper level winds push one sfr tnw iom snother. If culd eir pushes w.rm sir, il is . eold fronl I( cold eir retrurs, Ihc wum sir pushing over it m.hes s w..m frunt. FrnnW westher is usuJly unseWed or sl«my. Somc shu.ctenstks ue true for ronsl frnnts: (I) warm ur always slope. upwud over cold sir; (2) . front is found along a low-pressure trough, so pressure drops as the front spproeches snd then ri.es efter it psses; (3) wind neu the (round usually shifts clockwise (in the northern hemisphere) as the front passes; (4) s fronl always slopes upward over cold sit either ahead of or In the rur of its direction of dvutce; and (5) fronts .re ofren dividing Ilnet bclween wee0xr regimet drfferent in tnnperNure, mmslure, or wind but not ner.<seerdy all of these. 144 Jtl Shr4m. The jet rlream is a rmjor driving force for weelher. It is .n aru of very fast winds located 20,000 to 40,000 fecd dmve the esnh•s surfece. Jel atreams are an eoergy suurce for porm development and csn aid in the development of very etrong low-prcasvre rysteys .od severe weathcr hseocisted with slrong cold fronts. Probability of Preripilation. The percentage chmce of ineeeureble precipiretion (0.01 inch or mom) is the preciy0rarlan qobmhqiry. In the cue of a widespread r.in, the percentage will represent the probability of pmcipiwioo hom the weslher distmlroc< st eny one spot within We raoe. For ummer showas evd thunderstorms. Ihe value can be thought of u expected uee coverage .cron the rooe. Often it is a combioYion of both point probability and .rea coverage. Tible_IS-1. Pnrioiul'n Ternr - Term fye nfr,,., Rain Showen Thundentmme Drirsle Froevny nin R.inJ®ow Suow Snow nurriea Snow showcn SIee1 Steady liquid pecipile0on. Highly variable sporly r.inr Showers with Ihrmder. Mirty precipilslion. flein freenug on contact. Mixed nin and mow. Ste.dy fall of ice cryrWs. Spltered nsker of mow. Highly variable mow falls. Steady-fell of ice pelleU. T.ble 15-2. Preripil.lfon Tentn and 77teir Associated Probability ModiPers Percen .nd Area u ved Probebility Probability Ara Coverage Descnolio Modff !%1 (%) Isoleted 10 Irss thm IS Widely sutteral Slight ch.nr< 20 15 to 24 Scattered Chuse 30 - 50 25 to 54 Numerous, widespread Likely Good chenu No modifier 60 - 70 50 So - 100 More than 55 occesionel 145 2060454140
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_ __ _ a..w rwrn 1'ass Climate Data iI Defieii o0 Clear Mostly clear Partly cloudy Mostly cloudy Clnudy fncrening cloudiness ))acreeriog cloudieess Variable cloudiness Cle.ring Hsm Fog Im Ihm 10% oppue clouds 10 to 30% opaque clouds 30 to 70% opsque clouds 70 l0 90% oppue clouds Mom than 90% opaque clmsds Gradual increase in clouds Gradual decreue in clouds Widely varying dorsd cover Rapid decreeee in closds Visibihty less thm. miles Visibility Ier than I miln Forecasts usd Wartrirsjs. Ussderst.odiog weather forne.w is (nqaASnt. The Nsliood Weather Service divides North CArdioa ioto 10/ fasecast rone., each counly eanstimtiog a forocan zone with four exceptioos where counties .r< divided iolo Iwo men. 7Le weYher witbfe a rux is furly uoifosm; however, under some cooditious it can be quite variable hecause of microclimatn wilhio the rooe. 7Le forenn caenot consider all Weae microcliouta. Minimum lemperatursx provide a good example of Ihis. The forecsal rofoimum teoWenlum ie for 5 feet .bove ground ioaide s National Weather Serviee inslmmeot shelter. The di/fererrce between sir temperature in ach s shelter and temperature close m the ground can be 3 lo S degrees 0o a r.di.tioo frost oight. There cau aleo be differences between runl and urban lemper.luree. Thus, a gmwer muss sometimes modify the rnoe fosornt for a specific micraclimue within the rnue. Microcfimate Monitoring Although microclimates nuy vary scross a forecual none. the rel.tionship between the forecast and what actually occuss in the microclimex ssea is furly c,mistent. There(ore, it is very dvmtageous to record weather observations in the particular area of iorerest. tAe can observe and record actual and forecast temperature, cloud covu, and wind speed. In cloudy, breezy weather, observations are likely lo be very dose b forecast values, but ueder clear, calm cooditioo., observattonsssuy be differenl. Analysis of past obrervatioos can become m esseutial ingredient in predicting future conditions snd modifying 1he rase forecast for a particular farm. However, this does rwt hold true lor prediction of ruufall occurreoca and amount when the nin is predicted b be from thunderstorms. The first choice for chmae data (informstioo on weather that hms already occur.cd-thal is, observations, averages, and eatremes) should be the Swe Climete Offrce (SCO). The SCO is in the Depulmeat of Msrioe. Evlh, and Atmospheric Scieaces at North Camlioa State Uoiversity (NCSU). To coet.cl this office, call 919-515-3056 or write m the State Clim.tologisl, Box 8208, Rdeigh, NC 27695-8208. This office can pmvide daily maximum and ttinimnm lemperecuru and precipitation for 156 stalioos in the North Cwlioa Clima4 Observer sWwork, which is sdmwipned by Ihe Natiooal Weather Service. The deta ..e collected, quality eoetmlled, and published b the National Climnic Dala Center, Federal Building. Asheville, NC 28801; 706f-271-1800. 7he praceas of eollecsiog, cooboRiog, and publishing 1skes time, so it is 3 to 5 mootbs befor< data .re available from this synem. However, Ibe SCO bu access to a smaller number of ws(ona fmm which dala are available more quickly, although not u rigorously quality controlled Thesefore, if your daLL request is for a period in the mea recent 3 to 5 mooths, you will have fewer lontioos from which to choose. Data other Ihsn daily air temperature and precipitalion ue more limited. Wind speed, wind diroctlon, and reluive humidity data are available an a 3-hdsr interval fmm the SCO for Rateigh-Dmhem, Greensbmo, Aaheville, Charlo0e, WUmingmn, and Cape Hatteras. Data ou the daily ammnt of suoehioe in minutes is also available from Ihese staCsoos. Daily aoler radiatioe data ue available for Asheville, Chulolte, Cherry Point, and Raleigh-Dwham. Daily pan evaporation data uo be obtained from the SCO. It is obeerved e1 Ihe W. Kerr Scolt Reservoir, Chapel Hill, Hofineoo Foreet, and Auron. Estimated pan evaporation oormds (for 1951 through 1980) h.ve been developed for Asheville, Raleigh-Durham, Chulate, and Wilmiegtoo becau.ss not enough year. of actual dasm have been collected yet tu Produce so aclsral rsormd. In addition, NCSU has an automaed network of U Yaieos that collect hourly sir and soil temperature, buomdric prasure, sola rdiation, trear infrared radiation, photosyutbetically active rdiation, wind speed and directioq raiofsll, aod dewpoiol m relative humidity. The stalioos in this network ere Mcated at the experiment sutionr of NCSU and the North Carolius Depnlmeol of Agriculture (NCDA) in Castle Heyoq Clayroa, Climou, Fletcher, leckaoe Springs, Kiusbo, Lewicton, Oxford, Plymoutb, Raleigh, Rocky Mount, S.lisbury, Waynesville, and Whiteville. This data s<t c.o be accessed by coolaetiog the SCO. There are seveN published references for North C.rvlwe clloxcte dst.. It is conveuiwt lo have these references on hsnd to access climate data t(uickly. Refereuces avadablc from ihe NCSIJ Ikpartmeot of Agricultural Communications, Box 7603, R.Ieigh, NC 27695-7603 (919-515J17)) are: 146 147
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Weather and Climae in Nonh Carolina, publicatiao AG-375 (j2.50) Probabiliria af Lry Periad. in North Caro6'na, publidtiaa AG481 (S2.OD) Risk of Frort and FYeeze Damage for Nanh CaroNnn FraB CYap.r, publve.tiaa AG4t/3 ((rne) Lnw-Tanpmmare Probabiliry Dara for Abnh Carolina, pob{iutian AG-403S ($3.00) Growing Degree Days in Nanh Carolina, pub/iealioa AC-236 ($3.0D) TOBACCO INFORMATION TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR 1904 WNCT - TV Granville, NC Im, 8 7-9 a.m. WRAL - TV Rdeiyb,NC Jmta 6-7..m. Wt1N-7V WtsbinBmn,NC 1m.8 7-B..m. WECI" - TV Wilminema, NC ]m 8 7-8..m. WXII - TV Wiasma-SaIem, NC 1.n. 8 7-1 ..m. 148
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An Eennple. You wish to apply Devrinol SODF ./ e rate of 4.0 pouundr per treated rere sn . 16-inch hend on 48-inch rows. You follow the previomly descnhed r.libr.tlon prurldure (time the distance tu travel 88 feet, r~trh outpul from noufes, erc.) and obr.in the rvange gellons per minute (CPM) per nozzle uid (he trsckn speed (mph). Fill in the values in We fomtulr, except mbslimte the hrnd width for the wenge noule spacing (W). CPA = GPM t 5.94 0 mph x W GPA = 0.195 s 5.940 3 a 16 GPA = 24 (per treated acre) The rpnyer is puuing nm 24 gallons per treated .cre or, pW another way, the spnycr is putting out 24 gallons per .crn in the ueaed baod. Bullhir will cover nsorc rhrn I acre of tub.cco land because you ar< spnying only one-third of the land. To obWn the number of pllons per field acm, use the previously mentioned fonnule: CPA = Band width (inchest a CPA (per treated (per field acre) Row spacing (inches) acre) CPA = j¢ x 24 = 8 GPA (per field acre) (per field .cre) 48 77m spnyer is applying 8 gdlons per ane of fard. But for every 24 pllom of water added lo the raank, you add 4.0 pounds of Devunol 50DF. Suppose you add 150 g.llons nf w.rer to your t.nk. To figure the ¢resge of Iobacco this will cover: 150 eallons = 18.75 .cres 8 gdlans/acre To figure the uiwum of Devnnal SODF to add to rhe Wk; 8 u ersy m see how bend applications save money on berhicidee. In this ee.mple, you can spny 3 scres of bb.cco with the bend application method (or tbe wme cost u spr.yrng 1 rere with a broadcast applipuon, other c.libration methods are described in the 1994 Nonh Caraflna Agncu6ural ChemleaL. Manual. Cah6rW/ng a Sucker Control Soanr wLh 77rree Nozzles Per Ror 7Ee previous formule used to calibrate a broadcastl application can be used to cdibnte e euckcr control boom with snultiple norrles per row. The only dilfnence is that the rrutput from the rhrce nozzles fm a given row should be eombiaed and regarded es uue nurzle. Then convert the output from the guse nozzles into GPM and enler the rrsullt in Ow formula. An Exmtple. You have a faur-row boom with three oorzfer per rnw (2 TG- 5•. an the autside and a TC-5 in the center). Your rnw rpacing ie 48 inches rod you want to tnvel 3 mph, ao you adjust your speed 1o Invel 88 fcel in 20 eeconds. You catch the outpm from dl three noula on a p.Nieular raw. (Citch the output for each nozzle separately m make eure lhat efmil.r size mrrlee ve within 10 percent of each oWer). Tlum combine the autput for all three novJes far I ntiuute. Suppose it toulr 4,550 ml, or 154 ouoces. GPM = 4,550 Omi ar 154 odmin = 1.20 GPM 3795 ml/gallan 128 orlgd 11" enter that value in the formula: GPA = 1.70 5,940 = 49.5 3 a 48 If you want to apply a 4 percent contact salution, you would add 2 gallons of cunuct per 48 gallone of water. This will apply e 4 pereent cunt.ct at 49.5 gdlaas of total solution per scrc. Some Usefullnfurnrafiun for Calibrating a Sprayer 50 88 ft/minute = I mph I cup = 8 ounce.c 1 pallon= 24 galloaslscre = 6.25 s 4.0 pounds = 25 Pounds of I gallon = Devrinol 50DF per 150 = 128 ounces 4 quans I ounce = 29.6 nullditcrt I rmllihtcr (ml) = I cubic unumeter (cc) gallons of water = 8 pints = 16 cup. Gr for every 24 g.Ilans of w.uer Wded uW the t.nk, ad d 4.0 pnwds of _ ].7851itcr5 DevnnolSUDP. , r 64 65
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I I. DISEASE MANAGEMENT Thonrs A- Meltmt Plant Pathology Extensiun Specialisl David Porter and Kcirh Wood Agricultuol Research Technicians Although 23 tob.cw diseaus occuned in the Bue-cured urm of NoAh C.mline in 1993, black shsnk, Granville will, movic, browo rpd, and root- koot ao.ved over 85 percent of the disuse lueses. Other diseases may appear only during c<rtain seasoos, depending upnn eovirauusmid in0umces or other factors. Newer disciies, including looulo spollnd wi11. LrgN epu1, snd cyst ncmatrdes ux increising in irof.Mance. Almasl sny dieease ceo be highly deslructive, .od, ur group, dis ases .m costly to tobacco gruwers. The key tn managing Buecured to4.rcn diseases is b develop. krng-term implemmsed ruuugdnaN plan. Such a plan e.n he auccesafWly msde and only aher disuses de accuralely idmtifial and their d.msge properly rnessured. Therc ahould also be . thorough understanding of the uuse of each disease, its nsmre, and how it reletee to the tohv.cn plant. UndersWd- ing how the caussl ageor (pahogen) is spread, how i1 iofecr. the plsnt, where it overwinten:, .od how it nuy he affected by control techniques rte essrntirl for ossnsgercat prograrns. When growers understand such facts, they can make long-range plans to reduce discau losses. W ithout mch knowledge, cusst<ffative ounagemenl is not possiMe. This chapter Wdresses the most destructive drsesses that occur in North Carolim, slong with spproaches to disuse mansgement. The Tobacco Diuau Situation Disese losses increasal from abwt 5.4 to 7.6 percent between 1992 and 1991. Insses in 1993 were the greatest since 1989, when losms were 0.9 percnes Compering 1993 to 1992 end mose previarss years, only blsck shank and Gr.nville witl were a6norrnelly high. Other dise.ses caused average ro well-helow-nvenge losses. Black shank causcd the grearest loss of .ny disuse in 1993. In Iw:t, the 3.2 percent loss caused by black shank is the largest lasa it has cau.ud in uver 35 yurs and is the second largest Inss to any disease dunng that period. Losscs to black efunk were widespread in North CGrolins and in ulher sUtes. Weather was nor condunve lo tobwcu produdnm or black Ihank managemerrl dunng must of the season- Wd soils in early spnng and inlo rrsnsplanting were ideal fur sl•ne pmductmn of the blaak shank fungue and unsuitable for Disese phattn Diseau f.usset. 199 1992' Percent S fldd f.oses: Black ehsnk 1.000 10,974,408 Grenville will 1.252 13,744,553 Rod-knot neru. 0.553 6,071,053 Mosaic 0.573 6,287,598 Brown spot 0.497 5,455,190 Bse rot 0.354 3,883,412 Target spd 0.424 4,657,290 Smeahin 0.110 1,203,268 Weather fleck 0.119 1,308,955 Misc.leaf 0.052 568,961 Other oemaodw 0.057 621,514 Tomdo epd. wilt 0.106 1,168,761 South. stcm rot 0.053 582,525 Angular leafsp,x 0.078 858,931 Nnllow stalk 0.090 984,653 Furarium wilt 0,012 134,332 Misc. root dis. 0.023 251,314 Charcoal rut <0.001 166 Etch 0.011 122,100 Ringspot 0.011 121,536 Black root rrn 0.003 33,263 Vein-hamfing 0.007 72,994 Blue muld 0.000 0 Total 5.385 59,106,777 1993' Percent % of Tosd S Diseire luss 3.177 33,867,239 41.9 1.923 20,501,118 25.4 0.576 6,139,263 7.6 0.567 6,039,978 7.5 0.376 4.006,533 5.0 0.229 2,445,937 3.0 0.184 1,962,403 2.4 0.118 1,258,030 1.6 0,096 1,019,345 1.3 0.062 665,477 0.8 0.060 640,447 0,8 0.060 634.931 0.8 0.041 440,719 0.5 0.031 331,244 0.4 0.027 291.964 0.4 0.019 205,138 0.3 0.017 175,998 0.2 0,006 68,062 0.1 0.006 64,992 0.1 0.004 38,938 0.0 0,003 33,443 0.0 0.001 10,927 0.0 <0,001 3,086 0.0 7,593 80,845,052 PIaM Bed and Greenhouu Losses:e Damp{ngbff Anthrncnose & 0291 117,262 0.409 162,481 Target spor 0.171 . 68,670 0-144 57,191 ' Thc 1992 ($I,097,586,695) and 1993 ($I,066,146,734) crop vdues used were the October crop cstimstcs corrected for disease loss. ' The 1992 plant bed and gre<nhuuse value fnr 1992 was estimated ro be $40,267,00H and far 1993 was esnnuted to be 539,737,376. 94 85
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11e symptoms of black shank sre well known Io tobacco growers. Once infection occun, deatb usually follows quickly. The disease is characterized by rapid wilting of all the leaves and a black lesion that extends fram ground level up the stalk. Sympbms on the stJlu of highly resistant varieties ue usually confined to nur-gmund Ievel. When stalks sre split, the pith oflan appears blackened and separated into dixrete dises. Discing can occur beause of other 6cmts; lihewise, not .11 planu suffeting from this diseiu exhibit this symptom. Bfue Mold This disesse is caused by an airborne fungua (Perosorporn sabasina) sod aused widespread lossea in North Cuolini s lobecco crops during 1979 snd 1980. During those years, the diseue occurred in fields as well u in plsnt beds. Its occurrcuce bs bew sporadic since thm. Jones, I+aoir, Ooslow, and Beaufort Counties reported blue mnld in 199J. None of Ihese esses caused suy eeonomiul loss. The folisr infectiw is characterized by the development of sound, yellow eputs with gray or bluish gray mold on their underside that rapidly increax in number under a favonbfe mvirorwcn/ and coalesce tn killeutire Inves. Old spots will be lan to white. When systemic, the fungus penetrates the plant. interfering with nnrmd plant growth .od rrJVlting in stuming, distortiw, and eventual death. Either type of infeclion esn cause sevete losses to to6scco under cerYSn mvironmeaW conditions, usually high moisNre and cool tempentures. A National Blue Mold Warning System has been operating during the past 11 years in all lobscco-psoducing states. Reports of occurrence. spread, and predicled wcaher conditions should be valuable in determining disease wnlmi stntegies- Tobscco growers ue urged to keep in close contact with their wunty Extension personnel for curreal informnion on the generd blue mold situation. Because this fungus is dispersed by air currents, certain control practices used for other diseaus are oo1 effective for blue mold wuwl. Crop rotation, for example, cannot be depended upon to contrnl Ous problem. SWk and root destrudirn may help destroy spores in old crop refuse, although the uossl agent has never bcon demonslnled to overwinler, in North Grolins- This pracuce, then, will be much less effective on bluc muld than on other diseace5. Brown Spot I I I I z R Brown spot is uuscd by an airbome fungus (Abnnnriu species). It vuy be appropriatcly considered sn 'oppotumislic' disrase<.uaing agent- 11 does nul usually become a problem in v.neties Wlersnl to thts dtsesss if good 101
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conditions. It ic always mon accurate to calibrate a .pnyer undes field condnronr than on e herd wrfece. Never rely on e Irectur ipeedameler. Measure off 88 feel in the field, tnvel rhis drsunce, and record the Yme. Eighty<ight feet per mrnute equals I mph, n if you travel this distence in 15 aeconds, fnr esunple, you ue going 4 mph (20 seamds equals 3 mph.) 2. Using the desired pressure, catch the Output from each noale vrith the tractor engine gpeed in revolutions per minute (RPM) se1 for the =peed you traveled in the field; the tractor need not be in motiou b rrcisure the output. Catch Ihe outpul from esch uoule in jus (or ulher mileble contaivers) for I minute, messun 1he weter in fluid ounces or milliliten, and determine the average outpm ol sll noxzles. (If e nnule hes an Output that is 10 percent lowu or higher than the evenge, it should be repleced)- 3. Converl the average Output per nozzle into gallons per minute (GPM) per nunle using the following fommis. For essmple, if the svenge Output is 25 ounces per oozrle per miunte: GPM = 25 otJnovle/minurc = 0.195 GPM per noule. 128 or/gsl Theu, GPA (gtl/A) = QPM s 5940 mph x W where mph is the previously calculated speed and W is the a.erage noztfe sparing in intAer. An Example. You have e 10.nnule boom with s ou[rle specing of 18 rnches. You travel 88 feet in the held in 20 secouds: 60 seconds = 3, so you ue traveling 3 mph. 20 euoods With the tractor standing spill and the motor running at the eemc RPM that you Inveled in the field, you catch the output bom each noule et e derired pressure for I miuute. You find that the evenge uulput for sll 10 non3es rs 25 ouncea per nozzle, or if you are measuring in millihten, 739 ml per noruJe (3,785 nd = I galon/. Glculete GPM: 25 ounces = 0.195 GPM 128 ouous/gdlon or 739 tul = 0.195 GPM 3,785 ml/gellon Now that you have GPM and mph you nm calculate GPA: 0 CPA = GPM x 5.24 mphxW GPA = 0.195 s 5.940 7 s 18 GPA = 21.5 You want lo apply 1.5 pints of an herbicide per acre, and you want to mix 30D gsllons. To determine how much herbicide tn add ta 300 gsslom of water: 1 nded tcl f 11 ")_ (1 5 nll f300 nl) - 21 pinu GPA 21.5 GPA This 300 gs1lons will treat 14 acres of land. Therefon, you would sdd 21 piob of herbicide per 300 gelloos of wemr. 8and AppflcaNnns Rmd sppliutions of over-the-lap hesbicides provide sn excellent opportunity to tninimise casu without ucrificing weed control. C.libnlion for hsnd applications is quite simple, bm c.re must be thea to calibrate correclly to avoid exoessive application rates. To calibrate e spnyer for e bend spplicetion. use the previous GPA formula. However, instead of using the nozzle ryscing for W in the formule, simply substilute Ihe width of the bsnd you sre spnying. This will give you thc number of gsllooc per Urated acre, not per field scre. Once the number of gsllons per treated rtre is obtsined, it is necesnry m cunvetl it tn gallons per Held acre using the following formule: GPA =,@end w dth (inchesl s GPA (per Oeaed scm) (pet field ecre) Row spscing (snches) 62 63
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Cafdurn and Marnerlum (Obfomltric Lime) If soil pit is kept whhm the denunhle range (rnm 5.9 to 6.0 with dolomitie limeslane, the available levels of alcmm and magnesium wrll usudly be hsgh enaugh to nnet the needs of the crop. Otherwue, sbout 40 to 50 paunds ol calcium (G) .nd 15 to 20 pounds of magoaium (Mg) per ape sre nadad from the mixed fesriliser. Eveo with proper liming, mme msgneuum deficiency occurs ocrasinnally on deep, smdy sails (mom than 13 inchea m clay) under severe leaching conditioo:. In Ihese Iwt.nces, aPP1YUIg 15 to 20 pounds of mqnaium per acre 1a the fertilizer msy be desinble in the secand and third «asoec after lime appliaUon. However, usiug mixed fenilimrs conqining calcium and magnaium will not mbstitute for usiog dalomiuc lime if soil pli is too law. Crnwert should be especidly, aware of suil p11; Llesl state sull lesl sunmsuia sltow tlul 35 perceal af the tobacco fields in North Carolina had . pH of kd Ils.n 5.5 in 1993. Su(Jur (S) Sulfur deficiencia ue most likely to occur on deep, sandy soils (nver IS inches So clay) that are low in humic muter (leas lhsa 0.5 percent). Smce mlfur leacha, defrcicncia sre mnm likely on these wils following heavy rain611 in the winter and spring, especially if mlfur is omitted from the fertilizer of the oeal mbacco crop. Symptoms of mlfur deficiency are very eNm/ar to aod often misudem for those of nitroga deficiency. When a plant is low in nilroga. the lower luva are paler tAan the upper leaves and wi11 'bum up' premammly. However, sulfur deficiency begins as yellowing in the buds. Ihe leaves gradually pde from top m bouom, and the tower leaves do oot'bum up' premsmrely unless nitrogen is also deficiem. Since mlfur rs reyuircd for nitrogen utiliraGoo, the addition of high ntes of urtrugen to mifur-0e6co:nl crops will nol lum the crops green and caa be very delrimental So yuality. Thereforq accuat< diagnosis of the deficiency ia very important and ohen requires lissue nulysis. Soilfesls for sulfur rrre unreliable and are nul perfurmed roulinely in North Carolin.. Therefore, lo redu¢e the chance uf sulfur deficiency on s.ndy soi6, 10 10 30 puunds of sulfur IS) per arre should be supplied frorn the mixed fertilirer un a yearly brsis. Sulfur deficiency occurrmg before lay-by can be cnrrenul by banding 100 to 150 pounds of Sul-Po-Mag or polissiunt sul6lc (0-0-50) u s.wo as possible sher the deficiency is idenufied. Minor Nutrients (Micrunulrierds) The oil test report far tobacco will show a $ symbol in the 'Suggested Treamenl' block for copper (Cu) and ane (Zn), and a SPH symbol for msnganese (Mo) if the avail.bility index for one o/ these mtcronulriens is kw. The $ symbol indicates thst corrective treatment msy be beacficial, bul it is uncertain that Iobacco will resyood m appliatioo of cnpper nr rinc. tLe SpH symbol appears on t1w rqrort wheu wd pH is grater than 6.1 and the manganese availability index is less than 26 (low or very 1ow). The symbds alm a11 ntention tn So enclosed nom, also identified by . $ symbol, 16N provides informstian on suggrs+ed ntes, soureea, aad application methods for tbese three micronulrients. Cmps differ in their response tn rnicroomrimtc, and tobacco is considered k.s rasitive So low soil levels than crnps nrch u com, soybeans, .ad sm.ll grsins. Microuutrients.re also somewhal expensive, dcpending on the one required and its rource. Therefore, their application for tobsccu is not likely to he beneficial unless indicated by sail or tissue snslysa. When in doubt, tissue aoalysis or strip testing on several tows msy be neeled to wnfirm a micronYl(ient need. Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) Known deficiencies of copper or zinc sre extremely r.re for tohscco. Rata mggessed on the soil test report will be sufficient for sevenl yan, and the time and need for reapplication ihould be bued on soil 1esOng- Manjaneu (Mn) Mmgmese deficiency begins on the lower leaves as Oecks very siwlar to those auswl by high orune concentrations in the air (commonly alled weother fleck). While wathet Oeck cso occur anywhere in the stste, manganese deficiency accurs prinunly on low-mangaese, overlimnl suds in the enestvl plain. The ovumse of Itne uases soil pH to incrcasq which reduca mangancsc availabilny to plant mots. Most of the tobacco crops that develop confirmed aumgsnese defiueocy are grown on soils wilh a pH of 61 or higher and low levels of sod test manganesc (svadability index Ias than 26). Tobacco perfnrms well when soil pIi is kept in the range from 5.6 tn 6.0. Other major crops such as soybe.ns, com, and snull grams also perfonn well in this pH range if soil phosphom> is high and should not be hmed at rates higher than thm< suggesred by rhe sod test fm mbaceo. Tusuc roslysu of Ile<ked luves. along wnh a xnl test, is the best wry to dulmguuh between nunganesc deficrency and wuther Ileck. However, rt is rmponsnt to submit laf snd snd sampies as vwn as Oeckmg uccurs Mcause 46 47
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I Table 11-0. Resislure Ratings of Certain V.rielies to Black Shank d nv'll WiII Rl.ck Sh.nk Gnn.ille Will Variety R.nng' Vaftety Ralmg Verhal R.Gne Coter 371-6old 0 K 149 19 Orford 940 4 11 K 399 19 K 346 6 1 K 346 20 K 394 9 G Reuua 713 20 Speight G-70 12 11 RG 22 20 K 399 14 RG 11 22 RC 11 16 NC 729 21 K 149 IB K 730 23 Speight G-126 Ie Speight G-117 24 Virginia 116 19 K 359 25 Re.ow 713 20 M Reuos MI 25 Rc.ms M1 20 0 Speighl G-lo8 26 Speighl C-2g 21 D RC 13 27 Speighl G-II7 21 E Rurns 744 29 RG 22 22 R RG 8 28 SpeigM G-111 24 A Speighl G-28 29 K 358 25 T SpeightC-I11 29 RG 13 25 E Speighl 0-126 29 Speighl G-108 25 Coker 371{lold 30 K 730 27 Coker 176 31 RG g 28 O.ford 940 32 NC 37NF 29 K 394 37 Rcarns 744 31 L NC 37NF 39 NC 729 32 0 Sperghl G-70 39 K 326 33 W K 326 40 NC 27NF 35 Virginia 116 40 Coker 176` 42 NC 27NF 50 ' Ratings are average di: .c•e indices from sevenl tests over two ye.n. 0= mosl resisl.nt. Variebes not included in recent 1esU .re .wgned rsumated disease mdices hv.ed on prevma tc,Lt. r Tobacco mosuc nms rasinl.nl. u usuJly directly related In the ability of the matend to move freely in the suil. Thoa, poor unil preparation will lersen effectiveness. Also, the ebance of injury to mb.eeo becoars much greater when .nR or clim.tic conditions ue unfavorable. AddLfnnal NelpfW Cuhurol Pructfces There ue certaln openlions during the normal culture of tob.cco that can eeb.nce comrol of tobacco diseases. The ohjeclive of Wsye pnclius is m provide the plant with every possiMe advantage b enble it to withstand altack by distasecausing .grnls IhN mey be present in its envimonsenL If the tobacco plant is always favored at the expense of the causd .gent, it will often survive even if attacked by A particular microorg.nism. 7he following cultural practices may aid iu disease rmtrol. Formation of .}Bgh, Wide Bed (Row). The developmeat of a high and wide bed (ridge) in the field is important in providing soh.eco root syslems wilh proper cundi4ons for their development. This practice eonaerves niI moistun dnring dry periods and helps provide drainage for rod systems in Yeac or fields that tend lu become watcdogged. Most causal agcals that dfecl the raot .yNems of planls ve favored by poor dnwage or high moishue cnnlenl. Sp.cing. Tobacco plenle that ue .paced too closely often suffer disease Iossu greater than those that ue planted farther aput in the row. In particular, spacing inRuences .hove-ground diseases such u brown spot. target apd, blue oudd, and mosaic. Close spacing provides a deose eanopy so that moietun is retained on lower leaves, f.voring infection and disease developmeel Wider spacing provides for mun sudigbl, better aeration, and beller drying conditions for the foli.ge on the bottom Ir•rl of the plant. Balanced Fertili.atinn. Diseasetausing .gents ue generally favored by unbalanced fertilizer application. Some pests, such .+ roo/-knot nemalodcs. are favored by deficiencies of e<rwn nutrients such as polis.sium. On the other hand, some causal egents, including the black sb.nk fungus. are favored by e.cessive oilrugcn. Usually, a healthy crop is rute that has received bJanccd ferldinuon-neilhcr cxcessive nor deficient. Order of Cultivatiun WMn Disease Is Present. Should disease appear in only some fields or ceruin pans of a field, Ihese areas should be cultivated Ls1 1o reduce the ch.nce of spreWing the disease organrsms to 'clean' .res. After cullrvaooo, equipmenl should be washed with a dctergent at the s.me strength used to wash clolhes. I 91 90
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cuhursl practicra ue follow.& Ilowever, during periods of ealendel rain4ll late in the barvesl aeason, it un becorne dccVUcbve. Brown spol is a diseue of rnescenl (old) tissue. Fumriune W]b This diseaee, although not destructive in all puts of the alate, is signifsunl io certain ares. It is uused by s fwgua that lives m the soil (Frssarium o.rysporum f. sp. nicosiannr) and is well adapled to auvivd there. It csn live well an decaying organic outler in 11e soil and w form sporrm that ue very resistanl 1o adverse conditions. Fusarium will is not ss aggressive as some olher diseases such n Granville wilt or black sEaoh, but it mighl also be considered an 'opportunistic' diwx. If mb.ccn planb are strrw.ed in certtin ways, such ss by root wounding or nemslode infeetiun, significant disease msy develop. Although crop rmatiun and Yalk and rud dutmclioo ue beneficial to some extent, thrso praclicea do na drastically reduce furarium wilt development bec.use of ite ability b live oo organic mtlter and form ruistaot sporea. Gmnsiftr Wih Granville wih appe.rs ftrst as a willing on one side of the plant. As the di.ease progres.es. the entire plant wilts and dies. Whea plants survive they ate ususlly stunted and their lavee mey be 1wisled and distor4d. The xtalk usually becomes dark, especially at the ground level. At this st•ge, Cranville will sny be eesily confused with olher drseisea such ss black dunk. A diagnostic characteristic of Granville will is streaks that estead up the stalk just beneath the outer bark. Gnnville will is caused by a tiny bacterium (Presdamonas mlanasrurum) that inlubils the soil. These bacteria sre microscopic and can move microacopic dislsocts. Infection occurs through wounds or opeoings in the rool syGam. Hence, cultivation and nem.tode duoage can incre..u the incidence of this disease. Roots ouy 'wound themselves' w Ihey grow through the soi1. Therefore, Cranvillc wilt bactcris ususlly have no diHiculty lucating a suitable svenue for entry intn the plw. High p.pulsliom of the bacteria ue neceacary, around the root system of a plrnt for infoction Io ouur. Reuarch haa shown that little iofection will ouur d fewer Wen 250,000 butcris are presem. Iloweveq when populations ue high, infeclirm oc<urs readily. It ie impnnenl to remember that Grsnville wrll lucleris are sod inhabilors. In fact, anything Ihrl mnves e)il containing the bacleria will spread dhem frum place to pl¢e. This un happeo in nsany wsys by movement of soil no 102 machircry and other equipment, by water washing mil from one pars of the field in mother, by movmg Irsnapleols with infesled nil around the ruots, md by any osher mesns by which iofested eoll is moved. The uusJ agent is fsvored by relatively high soil temperatures and adequrte to high moisture levels in the soil. lo fsel, wd seuaoa greatly iocrase infection by these nrg.nisms. Infection may not be noticed imrnedutely becaiue willing symptoms msy not appear until plants undergo a oniMUre press. 'Ihus, i1 is ool uoosud to observe sympmms of Granville wilt several weefe sRer infection actually uccurs. The Grsnville will bacteria c.n infect tomatoe, while frotames• pepper• egR" plaot, snd peanuls. Ragweed, common to most of North Gralios, uo also be infected and should be controlled. Bufllcw Stalk (Soft Rnt) This disesee (nused by Ersvlnia species) usually .ppeats fira near lopping and suckering lime. 11 my begin at .ny slem wound and is oAm seeo in the pith u the break mde by tnppinR. Soon after infection, a rapid browoing of We pith develops, followed by gmenl soft rd and collapse of the lissue. Top lavd often will /nd the infeclion epreads downward; the luve, dmop rud hang down or fsll off, leaving the stalk bue. Diseased .mas mny appear ss black band& or stripes that mey girdle the stalk. Another phue of the disesen appean as s soft deay at Ihejunction where lesf puinlea..e sttached to the stalk. Gusd bacteria ne presenl rnasl o( Ihe time in soil and on plant surfaces. 7bey my slso be present on wahen' brnds u they lop. sucker. or b.rvesl the crop. They ve often uninynrtant unless conditions favoring their infectinn and subsequeul development occur. Such conditlons are periads of frequent rainfall and shower activity and high humidity. The use of sume coabct sucker control agents mry lead in an increase in hollow sldk. rapr.cially if Icaf nil tissue is dnnaged. Remember that if affected lesvec are h+rvesled when wel and carried in the hsm, they often develop ham rnt during curing. Infectian is rmat likely if ventilation is inadequate. Rnut-Knot Nenwtodes (and Other Nemalode Probkms) NcnWodes are microscopic roundwnrms that live ss obfigore Parasiteq which mnos that they require living plant lissue to survive snd complete their life cycle. Nemuudea that attack tobacco livc in the sod and ue sprrad whenever infeated soil is moved Because nematodec ve highly specialir<d Iol 20604541'19 '
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Addifions to Prime+ and Contact Labels. During the 1991 growing sewn, a change was made in the Prime+ Ishel dut allows for Ihe tank mixing of 2 qusrls of Prime+ per acre with the labeled nte of MH. The tank nsix should be applicd as a ravrse spray in 50 gallons of total apny mixture per acte at 20 In 25 psi at the rewmmended time of MR appliotion. Thir applicalioo method ie idcntical lu the method ueed for application of ihe contact mrterials. (See Table 9-5.) Resulls fmm oodarm leats and observa- tioer indrute Ihst this unknu. signifirandy itnprovea sucker cuntrol over the standard treatment of two contact solutioo applications followed by MH. Also during the 1991 growing seasnn, a Special Loul Need ISLN 24(cN rettisintion was added to the Prime+, Off-Shoot-T, Kleeo-Te 85. and Suaker Plucker labels that allow for the use of these products 3 to 4 weeks after MR application. A change on the federal label for Fair 05 also allows for its use 3 to 4 weeks het MH. During the aummer of 1992, this delayed appliutiou of Prime+ received a fedenl label. Research trids aod observations indicate that the application of these materials 3 to 4 weeks aBer MR signific.ntly improves sucker control am1, fur the mosl pan, provide se.aon-lortg control even with extended growing seasons. Refer to Table 9-3 for on-6rm 1.1 rrsults with these trutments. It is required that harvest not occur within 7 days aher Prime+ application if this late applintion is used. It is also recommended that Prime+ not he used in this manner if it was apphed earlier in the season. Progmm I Step 1. Apply an alcohol contact spny, usually at 4 percent eonceo- ttatiun (2 galluns of contact alcohol in 49 gallons water), before topping when about 50 l0 60 percent of the plants reach the button stage. The Boral parts help m intercept sprays to incma¢ sucker kill in the upper leaf asils. Step 2. Top plants that are ready hrrtopping as soon as possible a8er application of the contact solution, making sure to follow contact label inttructions regarding reentry into pesticide-treated fields. Slep 3. Make a second applicstinn of an alcohol contact sntmion at 4 to 5 percent concentration (2.5 gallons of eonmct alcohol in 47.5 gallons of water) 3 to 5 days after the first contact application. (Fmlds with irregular growth and flowering may need a third apphcalinn scveral days afler the second , apphcannn). ~) Step 4 Top any planK thal wrre nul tuppc.l dunng the 6rst lopping. O 0) O A U1 .P 76 Step 5. Alternative A Apply 1-5 gallons of MH pcr acre (for products cootaining 1.5 pounds per gallon active MH) about 5 to 7 days after the second or Ihird conracl alcohol applirsliun. ALLOW AT LEAST I WEEK BETWEEN MR APPLICATION AND f1ARVESF TO h11NIMIZE MR RESmUES. Altersuli.e B Apply a tankmix of 1.5 galloos of MR per acre (for products cunbirung 1.5 pounde pet gallon active of MH) and 2 quarts of Prime+ per acre tt Ihe oormd time for MR appliution. Application should be made as a co.rw spny, in 50 gallous of tatal .olution per scre as with con4et alcohol application (Ihrne rwuJra per row: TGJ. TG-5, TG-3, or equivslents). ALLOW AT LEAST I WEEK BETWEEN h111 APPLICATION AND IIARVESC TO MINIMIZE MR RESIDUES. Follow precautions snd restrictions on the Prime+ and MH labels. Allenutive C Apply 3 gallons of FST-7 per acre about S to 7 days after Ihe second or ehird conhcl. ALLOW AT LEAST I WEEK BETWEEN APPLICATION AND IfARVPST TO MDHMIZE MR RESIDUES. This product is a combinalion of a conbct alcohol and MH but contains I I percent less MR than other MH products, based on labeled rates. Allernalive D 1. place of the second or third (if applicable) conucl alcohol application, apply 2 quans of Prinre+ per acre ntixed in 49.5 gallons of water in the elongated-bu0on-1o- ertly-Oower stage. Applicstion can be by the dropline method or by toclor-mnuntcd sprayer. If applied by tnetor- nwunled sprayer, apply as a coarse spray with low pressure just as a cnntact applicarinn wnuld be made. About I week after Prnne+ apphcalion. apply the labeled rate of MH. ALLOW AT LEAST I WEEK BETIYEEN h111 APPLI- CATION ANf) IIARVEST TO MINIMIZE MH RESIDUES. 77 s O ~7!
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9. TOPPING AND SUCKER MANAGEMENT Fred H. Yelvennn Crop Scmnce Extension Specialisl(Tobacco) Topping Benefiks Topping lobscco in the buUOn stage, soon after the Ronl p.rt of the plrm begins to aPpur, compared to later lopping, iocrow yield and body if ralckers se controlled. Reseereh indicates that when tobeuu plsnls.re not topped for 3 weeks sher reaching Ihe butom stage, yields .m reduced 20 ro 25 pounds per scm per day, or about I percent per acm per day when normal yields sm in the 2.000- to 2,51q-pound-per-ecre rmge. Higher yields reduce Per-pound production coste for .crage-relaed inputs such as chemic.ls, fertiliurs, and snme labor expmeea. In addition lo improved yield and quality, early topping has other dventages: • It allows topping to be largely completed hefose harvest begins, helping to spread the work load away from the peak hsrvat period. • 11 reduces the possibiliiy of plants blowing over in a windstorm. It srimulates earlier ront development, which increases fertilimr efficiency, drought tolerance, and alkaloid production. • It helps to reduce buildup of certain insects baause eggs and lerva are mmoved with the floral parts. These signifiam advantages of early lopping far outweigh the disadvantage of earlier sucker growth, which can be controlltd with proper use of contmt chemicals. Alsu, sucker growth is oflen grealer as a resull Of improved varieties, fertility prognme, and oontrol Of rool diseases accomplished through the cultural Prsclices of crop rotation, early 11dk rnd rnnt destructinn, resistanl vsrietiex, and the use of soil-applied pestrcides. As a result of improved varieGes, hetler futihty, and root disease control pracstas, plants normally have a greater ability to.bsorb water and nutrients throughout the growing seaum. The result rs a greatcr potential for sucker growth, especiully on plants Iopped in the bmron suge. Cheoial Sucker Control Then are two primary types of chemicals currently available for sucker cootrol: (I) tbose referred to as cnntacts (4tty dcohols), which kill rmdl sucken by tuuching (boming) them, and (2) those referred to s sypemica, which restnct sucker growth physinlogiully without killing. Cuotsct alcohol chemials desiccate (bum) tender sucker tissue, while the rystemic chemicals retard sucker growth by inhibiting cell division. Prsme+ is somqime eslled s contact-local systemic because it musl louch the sucker an, be effoctive, although sucker growth is retarded by inhibition of cell division. Pnpn Slrengrh u/Conton Fotry Afrohof SOmyr 16e degree of aucker kill ou N.bac<o plants with contact dcohols is directly sela/ed tn the ratio Of chemial tu warer. Therefon, it is extremely iruporlaut lo mis s specific usluunt of conlact chemical with a epecific ummmt of water. 7Lis requiremenl is different from that of other chemials: for aample, with chemials used to control insects, w'ecds. and diseises, Ihe amount Of water used is not critical except as needed to uniformly distribute the chemical. The suggested ratio for initial applications of the contact alcohol products <urrently on Ihe market is 2.0 pllons in 48 gallom of water. This makes • 4 percent solulion. Thc mixmre should be strong enough to kill both of the tiny sucken n each leaf axil when the solution weu sucken less than I inch long. Using mom than the suggested amnunt of water will weaken the mixmn sn that good control is oot obtained. Using more than the suggeated nrrount of chemial will strengthen the miamm but ouy cause leaf bum oe tender crops. Sucker coutrol dsta (Table 9-1) show the grat difference io sucker growth at final h.rvest when thrce different rates of a contact alcohol solutfon were applieA. Suckers appeared to be under comml for several weeks but then Table 9-I. Sucker Growth with Three UiRerenl ConcentraGons Of Contact Alcohnl Sprays ae. t * Water C Percent $-k P A ontac (galluns) Conlact (No.) (Pwmds) I t 49 1.5 + 48.5 2+ 48 2 3 4• 29,900 15,600 7 800 6,256 4,794 1,950 omu suggcst erae u ga uns u conucl c em~ca m ga uns o 66 67
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The data in Table 9-3 dlustnle the imporlance of nitrogen n1e on sucker conuof When the recurrunondal nitrogen ore was exccedcd, control of suckcrs beume more difficull. Table 9d. Sucker Comml wilh Various Ratee of Nitrogen al IOnslon snd Reidsville in 1993 Nifroeen Rate Sucker Control f761• Recomrnended - 16 Ib/A 97 Recommended go Recomsornded + 16 Ih/A 66 Recommended 4 32 Ih/A 55 Note: All treatments received two fatly afcohol applicalioos fnllowM by 1.5 gallons of MH per acre. • Avenge of Iwo locations. 2. Slriee for a unifunn crop. Belter planl unfformily in the fidd improves the chmce for consideudy good chemical sucter cantrol. Thenfon, production and use of hnlthy, uniform transplants is essential. Also, maintain wit pH of fields in the nnge from 5,111. 6.0, use feAilixr application methods tha minimire n1t injury, and use only labeled rates and proper incorporation melhods for soibincorponled pesticides, especially herbicides. These practices will reduce early-seas.m ront injury wit improve crop undormily, which will allow the crop to nuture on a norm.l s<bcdule. This will reduce the length of time that good sucker control is needed, particularly if the nitrogen rate is not excessive. 3. Maximize early sucker sronlrol with avnlacl fally alcohols and Prime+. This is essential if good sucker comrol is to he maintained wOh the labeled rate of MH in une application. Because coulac/s must touch the suckers to be effcctive, unifonn row spacing and proper application speed, boom heighr, nuule size and arrngement, and pump presmre are all impomml for good sucker control. (Sce product lahels for mstructions.) Fur alcohol contacts, miaing concentrauon is particularly impormnl since the spray musl be strong enough lo bum out the tender primary and secondary sucken but nol sn slrong s In cause sohstauial leaf hura A 4 percent spray (2 gallons of product in 48 gallons of water per acre) will usually be sufficient for the first conlacl apphotion, while most crops can lolenle s 5 percem spray (2.5 gallons of product in 47.5 gallons wner) for the second spplioliou unless the crop is unusually tender. Timing of chemical application is alru ilrywrlaol since naee of the chenricals, including MH, will adequately control eucken longer than I inch. The first conl.cl applicdiou should be made when 50 to 60 percent of the plants have a visible bulton. C.ualacls usually am mun effeclive if applied 3 10 5 days apart when relative humidily is low snd luf sxils are fully esposed, Ihat is, generally between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. on sunny days, except when the plants are villed. Alao, neither Prime + nor cantsct alcohols shnuld be applied to plants wet with heavy dew or severely drought stresscd. 4. Apply /he labeled rate of M11 pmperfy. Unlike alcohol conlads and Prime+, MH is absorbed by (nves and moved within the plant ryatem 1o small eucker buds. Gond absorption and systemic move- meat depend on having good crop growing condilions. Therefore, MH should never be applied uu droughl-stressed crops orlhose wilted by too much rain or high IcmpenNres. If suil moisture is low, it is best to apply MH I to 3 daya after a good nin or irrigation. When irrigation is no1 avsilable, msoy growen ux Prime+ (2 quarts per acre) or one extra contact application so conlrol mcken unril enough nin comes for good MH absorption. This should he viewed as 'buying lirnc' unril ninfall occun. If soil moisture is adequate but aftesnoon tempentures will be high caough to uuse partial willing, MH should be applied only during the owming hours, staning when the leaves are jusl slightly wd with dew. Ahemoon spraying genenlly is not suggested except on cool, cloudy days when wit moisture ie good. It is extremcly difficult for growers with large aaruges and only one sprayer to take advantage of the best wearher conditions for MH application; buying another sprayer would be a good rnveament in many inStance5. The labeled rate of Mll on flue-cured tobacco is I quart per 1.000 plmu. Most tobacco in North Carolina is planted u approximaely 6,000 plants per acre. The correct rate for 6,000 plants is 1.5 72 73
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scveral days ue requtred In complete anslyses. If the problem is manganese deficrency, a correclive Irealmenl should be made as eonn as pos.crble. If it is weather fleck, only cooler, dner weather will help. Manganese defrciency un be wnecled by sod or foliar application from aever.l sourcu. Mmpaneu sulfale u a relatively soluble, inexpensive source that can be used for antl or (uliar veatmenl. The mom expensive chelated anurces gen«dly perform sa0sfaclorily as foliar sprays but src rwt superior to rul6trs whm applied in the nil. VJhm soil appliculions rm usa), mixing the manganese source with acid-forming fcrlilirers increases ils effeclivenep, and banding is usually beller than broadcasting. Brosdcast application uf m.og.nrse oo wils with a pH gruler Wm 6.1 ia not a good pncllce because the applied mangsnese will be converted to an unavulable form. For baod sppliution, special blends mey be required because premium ferlilirers usually do not conlain enough manganrse to correct a deficiency. General rocommeoJaions for manganese (Mn) appliwtion in North Camliua are about 3 pounds per scre banded, 10 pounds per scrc broadcast, or 0.5 pound per acre as a foliu spray. Foliar application of mangmese is an efficient way of conectiog an unexpected deficiency because lower ntea are ohen as effechve as much higher rales of soil-applied maagarkse. Chloride (Cl) There ia on sud.ble aoil lesl for chloride, but this nutrieut ie included in mou mised lobacco fertrlizers. Sufficient chlonde will be applied wheu mixed fenili}ers guuanleeing chloride arc used at tares suggested in Table 7-3. Suggested t.les of most furNganls also supply adequate smounts uf chloride; when Telone C-17 or Ch)ur-o-Pic is used, it is not necessary that the mfxed fertilirar com.in chlonde. . Olherwise, sufficient chlodde shuuld be included in the fertilizer in provide a muimum of 201o 30 pounds per acre. Higher rates will rm1 impmve yield but can reduce quality. Chlonde may not be included in some fertilirun, particularly blends or hquids, unless requested by the gruwer. Excesasvc ntvs or impruper ppliealion of sunw mrcronulrinls c.n causc Ioxicny. Contact your county Extension agent d you suspect you had a micmnutnenl problem in 1993 or if your suil test rndicstes that a problem might occur in 1994. Your agent can help you decide if Ueaiment Is advisable and which suurer', raee, and application methods are rmisl effeclrve. Glher Fwumwtir Cumiderulimu ' Prcnuum Iemhrcrs with >nsvll amounts of several mn:ronuomnts and 201o 48 30 percent water-in+oluble oitrogen usually cust $ 10 in 20 per lon more than ¢gulu-grade fertili,ers• but the yield or quality inereasu sometimu proposed for premium fertihrers cannot be confirmed in field IeNC. • Blmded ferultmrs generally cost sevcr.l dollars per too less than mmufremred fenilixrs of the same grade; they also perform as well as mmufacmred fenilimrs of similar nutnent contwt if properly blended. • Addiliuo.l saWngs of severd dollars per lon can be retltud if bu0c rather Ihan bagged fertilizem can be used. • Prescriplian blends and liquids prepared according to soil lest specifirations rre nfteo less e.pensive than dry, standard-grdc fenihmre, but they mey not be Ihe bea choice if broadsaU appliwiou in used (me 'Time and Melhad of Applicaliou' below and'Ury Versus Liquid FerUlinri nn page 44). Also, growers with deep, sandy soils should make sure that the liquid or blended krtiliaer puech.sed will supply sulfur and posstbly chloride at rstu suggesled above. Time.nd Melhod of Applinliun Proper placement and timing of lertilirer application provide muimum return fur each dollar spent un fertilizers. Ferldirers should he applied at the proper lime and with the proper mm:Wod lo mscimire nutrient ulilizalioa by the crop while mimmiang leaching loeses and fertilner 1Nls injury to rools. Four me.thods of fertilirer application were evdusled in ou-farm luls under a wide range of roil and climslic condninns. Results varied among locations, primvily beuuse of differences in safl moismm N.nd followmg transplanuog: • If mil moisture wvs adequate but not excaxsive, the 'bands al tnns- plauling' .vd 'b..akv within 10 dayssfmr Iranvplsoling' methods were moderately better than the other two methuds. • If nrly leaching occurred, best resulrs were ubinncd with the 'buvls withiu 10 days after transplvntrng' method, with 'bvuf& at transplanting' being s close second. .od the 'brovdcast' medual grvrng the pourest resulls. • When the sod was dry, whah cumtributcd W lenibrur m3ury, the 'banAi wnhin 10 d.ys after trans'planlmg' method gave the best results and the 'oue baod deep' method the poorest results. • Gverall, Ihe "band5 at Ir-aruplanling" and "bunds wilhin 10 days after Iramplanling' melhuds pmduced better yields more consistently ttun Ihe 49
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gmv rapidly as the harvest seasrm progressed, especially where the 2 it 3 percenl solutions were spplied- Weak contact solulions, those less than 4 percent, oftrn control only one of the two rocker buds found in each leaf axil. Often it appears that acceptable sucker control is achieved with weak contacl solulions; however, esperience has shown the su<kcrc grow rapully and become lon large In be controlled by the aocond application of coniacl solution. Thcn suckm growth on vigomudy growing tobacco cannot be controlled with the suggeskd nles of syslemic chemicals. Weak contact solulions (Iecs than 4 pnctrst) may be a mnlributing fsclor to lale-season appfiutinns of Mfl, which contribute sigrtifreardly to high M11 ressidues. A good mle of thumb is to apply a canlacl solulioo that chemically tops 5 to 10 percent of the small, late plants in a field. If no plmti, oe chemically topped during the first appliation, the solution is loo weak to provide nuuimum svcker control or the application occuved loo late. There is concern among growers aboul leaf drop with slrong conlacl akohol rolutions. This is not likely to be s pmblem unless the crop has been ovu- fertilized with nitrogen and the season is uousually wet for several days aher application. Generally, the benefits of increased sucker control from 4 percent contact applications far outweigh any negative effects of leaf drop. The use of a contact alcohol allows for tarlier lopping, which increases ymlds. Therefure, its purpose is to provide sucker control during the period between early lopping and the time the upper leaves are large enough in be spnyed with a systemic chemical withoul causing injury. A rru)nr advantage of contact alcohols, especially where two or Ihr<e applications are made, is that some of the period is reduced for the systemic chemical 1o cunlmi suckers after lopping. Systemic chemicals tend lo'give out,' and when tobacco rcmains in the field for as many weeks as if has in rocent years, sucker growth can be reinitialed. MH normally ressncts suckcr growth for about 6 weeks. Oken, tobacco renwins in the field 10 weeks or more after MH is applied Generally, aker 6 weeks sucker regrowlh begins. Pnme+, another syslemic-achng ehenucal. will control suckers longer than M11. Proper Use of PrJme * Prime i should be applied like a contact suluhun but out until Ihc plants are in the elongated hulrern-loeadyllnwcrsmge. This is a few days before applicauon if M I I or FST-] is suggea(ed. The uhjetlive is to apply this prrwluct like a conmct sulmi,m so that it were the small suckers Im-ause 68 prime+ is not mnved to svckcr buds thraugh the leaves like MH. The qlulion most first wet the euckers like a cootacl solulion, but then the action I. to stop cell division like a systemic. Because of the way Prtme+ muss be applied and works, it is refened to as a contacl-laul systemic. prime+ hsa no uerc eontscl activity, and Ihe cunlrolled surkens do not Nrn brown or black but rather have a yellow, deformed appearance. The first kw days after treatment they appear light green. Beuuse Pritne+ needs to mn dowo the slalk and wet the suckers, it should be applied with eontacl novles ffG-3, TG-5. TG-3 per row) at a low pump pressurc (20 to 25 pounds per square inch ipsr)). And beciuse it does not gn inside the leaf to be moved in the planl, its performsnce is beller than MH in dry weather. Application of Prime+ by hand methods (dowmWk application) increases the chance of welling the sucken conqroed on nrechmical rpnying (over the lop). but it requires more labor. Like other sucker control chemioals, Prime+ does not complelely oonlrol large suckers (larger than I inch), and they should be removed before application. Full-serson sucker conlrol can be expected on small suckers retled by this Prime+ tolution, but missed suckers will continue to grow and tbould be reowved by hand. Missed suckers are likely to oc<ur on leaning plmts whdher treated with Prime+ or fany al<ohol cnntacle. The use of MH in a sucker control program with Prime+ will minimire the impact of these missed suckers. This is why the most effective sucker control prugnms include the use of both MH and Prime+ (Table 9-5). Soil residues of Prime+ from the tobacco crop may contribute to sluntcd esrly-srasun growth of later crops, especially errull grams and com but also eonrataled tobacco, especially iflhe full labeled rate of Prime+ is used for sucker control. (See the Prime+ hbel for specific coomnents on urryovar residues and possible rotation crop injury). To rninimire possible injury to crops planted in the fall or following spring, follow labeled mixing inslmctionc it do not apply to the point of runoff. Also, after the lasl priming, follow stalk and root destruction practices, and 2 weeks later bury the stalks and ronts using a nuddboard pluw set at a depth of 5 to 6 tnches. Disk one or two times hefore planting a amall grain cover crop. In recent years. carryover of Pnme+ has not been observed where the 2-quart-per-acre rale of Prime + has been used. Current recommended a sucker control program rncludc Pnmc+ at 2 qsurts per acre From both sucker control and nnyover stnndpoint, growers are nlvised not to eaceed 2 quads of Prime 1 per acre per crop per year. 69

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