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Philip Morris

Introduction to Hoechst Celanese Filter Products

Date: Sep 1989
Length: 216 pages
2058210963-2058211174
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2058210962/2058211175/Filter Products Division Hoechst Celanese Corporation
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Hoechst Celanese
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Celanese
Celanese Flavor Analysis Panel
Coresta, Coresta
Filtrona
Hauni Werke Korber
Hoechst Celanese
Hoechst Celanese Technical Fibers Group
Molins
Technical Service Team
American Hoechst
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Filter Products Division Hoechst Celanese Corporation
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N Introduction Cellulose acetate tow, the major cig- arette filter material in use today, has gained worldwide acceptance by significantly reducing the "tar" and nicotine delivery of smoke without adversely affecting smoker satisfac- tion. In addition to its filtration prop- erties, acetate tow is clean, odorless, and tasteless. It can be easily and economically converted into filters with precisely controlled physical and filtration properties. Because acetate tow is continuous, it can be drawn directly from the bale and processed into filters in a single high-speed operation. Hoechst Celanese Filter Products and three international affiliates of Hoechst Celanese Corporation are leading suppliers of acetate tow to cigarette manufacturers around the world. Let us introduce you to our facilities, our marketing and technical organizations, and the filter tow products and the processes devel- oped to assist you in making filters that satisfy the specialized demands of your cigarettes. 1
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International Scope of Operations Hoechst Celanese Corporation is a large international company based in the U.S. that operates its busi- nesses within the worldwide Hoechst organization. Formed in February 1987 by the merger of American Hoechst Corporation and Celanese Corporation, Hoechst Celanese manufactures and markets a broad spectrum of chemicals and interme- diates, engineering plastics, fibers and films, pharmaceuticals, advan- ced materials, and other high- technology products. The corpora- tion is one of the world's largest pro- ducers of manufactured fibers, including acetate filter tow. In the tradition of both companies, Hoechst Celanese is science-based and market-driven, dedicated to devel- oping, producing, and marketing new products and their applications. The Hoechst Celanese culture focuses on service to the customer and commitment to quality performance. The Filter Products Division of Hoechst Celanese's Technical Fibers Group is a major world supplier of cellulose acetate tow and tow plasti- cizers. Hoechst Celanese with its affiliates and its subsidiaries manufac- tures acetate tow in the U.S., Canada, Belgium, and Mexico. These pro- duction facilities are strategically located to serve a global market and create a dependable flow of products. Filter Products staff visually evaluates tow band for quality. Entry Into Filter Tow.Market The acetate filter tip emerged in the 1950's.. Smokers rapidly accepted the acetate filter, which today has become the standard. Manufacturers found that they realizecld the double benefits of greater consumer satis- faction and cost savings that accrued from the reduced amount of tobacco in each cigarette. Currently, about two-thirds of the world's cigarette production is filter- tipped, with many countries approaching 100%. The most signifi- cant growth in cigarette filters has been in tips manufactured from acetate fiber. From a marketing standpoint, acetate filters offer the advantages of improved taste, firmness, and appearance. From a manufacturing standpoint, acetate tow is easily and economically worked to produce fi1- ters with a wide range of filtration characteristics -filters that are suita- ble for processing on the most mod- ern high-speed tipping machinery. Hoechst Celanese entered the cigarette-filter market as a supplier of acetate tow in the mid- 1950's. 1 Investigation of existing processing equipment soon revealed the need for a more economical, more reliable method of making filters from tow. Hoechst Celanese launched an intensive development program that produced the Hoechst Celanese Threaded-Roll Tow-Opening Sys- tem, now licensed to major cigarette manufacturers in over 70 countries throughout the world. Hoechst Celanese also produces and markets a full line of plasticizers, trademarked Fiberset°, used in filter- rod manufacturing operations. Hoechst Celanese has commercial-scale equipment for rod- making evaluations.
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Total Marketing Concept Hoechst Celanese Corporation is geared to the "total marketing" con- cept, with sales, technical service, and product development staffs functioning as an integral team. Charlotte, North Carolina, is head- quarters for the Filter Products Divi- sion. Sales and technical service organizations are maintained in Charlotte and in Belgium, Canada, and Mexico. In all locations, our staff is technically trained and experi- enced in cigarette filtration technol- ogy to provide maximum assistance to filter manufacturers. Technical service is provided directly to cus- tomers in all parts of the world. This service takes many forms - from equipment installation and develop- ment assistance through perform- ance testing of the filters. The sales staff in each of the above locations is supported by a technical organization that generates the tech- nology required to use Hoechst Celanese fibers effectively. Our tech- nical staff, located at the Dreyfus Research Park in Charlotte, is devoted entirely to product and process development in the area of cigarette filter tow. This organization continually develops and monitors new con- cepts in filter tows, processing sys- tems, auxiliary equipment, filter design, testing equipment and methods, and other advances that keep our cus- tomers abreast of industry trends. Marketing and technical personnel are together committed to a contin- uing program designed to provide customers with a flow of up-to-date information through comprehensive technical presentations and technical literature, as well as through per- sonal contact. Our filter testing labo- ratories are well equipped for rod char- acterization and smoke analysis. 5
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Conclusion This introduction is a capsule view of Hoechst Celanese's involvement in the cigarette industry as a supplier of filter materials: our products, organization, services, and locations. Hoechst Celanese personnel are available to provide information and assistance from startup of rodmaking ' equipment to forecasting world mar- kets. This assistance includes train- ing of personnel for rodmaking and quality control. Highly skilled engi- neers are available to provide guid- ance in the design of acetate filters with the best balance of fjlter prop- erties for your cigarette products. This overall technical support and coordination of efforts is what we call "total marketing." T..... T-...._~ / +. • + . t - 9_ \ * • Is aa ~O Plasticizer dropletF up ;+y the tow hav; baffles and are tio c -,:,w beiny fed to `h, , ® Hoechst Celanese technical and market- ing personnel offer technical seminars on a variety of subjects to customers around the world. © Delivery Manifold ~ Positive Displacement , j f ~ Pumo (Zenith ) ~..
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Manufacturing and Research Hoechst Celanese Corporation is a leading producer of acetate fibers. The company operates two acetate fiber plants in the U.S. One plant located in Narrows, Virginia, produces acetate tow, the fiber product used in most cigarette filters, and cellulose acetate flake, the intermediate raw material for acetate fibers. The other plant in Rock Hill, South Carolina, also produces cellulose acetate flake as well as plasticizers for acetate .tow. Hoechst Celanese and its subsidi- aries' and affiliates' plants in Edmonton, Canada; Lanaken, Belgium; and Ocotlan, Mexico, are major suppliers of acetate filter tow. Filters of Hoechst Celanese acetate are found in ciga- rettes around the globe. Much effort has gone into a"multisourcing" sys- tem through which equivalent tow items can be supplied from more than one manufacturing location. This system assures that our custom- ers can depend on prompt delivery of consistent, high-quality products no matter where they are located. Exploratory research in filtration is conducted at the Dreyfus Research Park in Charlotte, North Carolina. Basic studies include physical and chemical phenomena involved in the mechanisms of filtration and the selective removal of smoke compo- nents. Research focuses on modify- ing cellulose acetate to meet the changing needs of the market, as. well as the search for new filter materials. Manufacturing operations are supported by laboratory and pilot- plant fiber-production units and product-evaluation facilities. Quality, defined as meeting customer _ requirements, is given first priority in every facet of the operation. Indi- vidual commitment to quality and a sincere dedication to our customers' welfare are expectations of everyone in the organization. Throughout the Filter Products Division, quality is a concept that translates into continu- ally improving products and services. Hoechst Celanese fil- ter tow can be easily processed on today's high-speed equipment. 4
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September 1989 To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate However, neither Hoechst Celanese Corporation nor any of its divi- sions or affiliates assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein Final determination of suitability of any material and whether there is any infringement of patents is the sole responsibility of the user. Users of any substance should satisfy themselves by independent investigation that the material can be used safely. We may have described certain hazards, but we cannot guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist. The Hoechst name and logo are registered trade- marks of Hoechst AG. Fibersetg' is a trademark of Hoechst Celanese Corporation, ©1989 Hoechst Celanese Corporation. All rights reserved. FPB-3 Filter Products Division Hoechst Celanese Corporation PO Box 32414 Charlotte, NC 28232 USA 704 554 2000 Telex 6719650 Hoechst Celanese, S.A. Avenue Louise, 251 BTE 4 B- 1050 Brussels Belgium 02 642 0811 Telex 22126 Hoechst Celanese Hoechst ®
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TECHNICAL SERVICE CAPABILITIES • INSTALLATION ASSISTANCE • PERSONNEL RODMAKING TRAINING • RODMAKING START - UP ASSISTANCE • REGULAR CUSTOMER VISITS • TOW ITEM SELECTION AND ECONOMICS • NEW FILTER DEVELOPMENT • NEW TEST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT
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SOME TOW.PRODUCERS: . Have factories in only one or two other countries. . Offer a less extensive product line. . Do not conduct as much research in the field of filter technology. . Do not provide as much new product development support. . Do not offer the rod manufacturer as much technical service as Celanese. 0 Do not produce their own acetate flake.
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Celanese Offers: • Five Tow Factories in Four Countries. • Over 100 Different Tow Items to Choose From. • Extensive Research Into New Products and Processes. • Highly Skilled Technical Service Team. • Extensive New Product Development Support.
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Past Involvement • Extensive Research Into New Products and Processes • Extensive New Product Development Support • Threaded Roll Opening Process • Digital Pressure Drop Tester • -Introduction of Fiberset® Plasticizers • Instrument/Rodmaking Development • Test Method Development
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Present Involvement • Customer-Related Assistance • New Filter Products • Laboratory Test Development • Extensive Filter Design Capabilities • Instruments/Rodmaking Development
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CIGARETTE TOW DEFINITIONS DENIER - A textile term representing the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of yarn. dpf - Denier per filament 3.3 dpf means that,9,000 meters of one filament weighs 3.3 grams. TOTAL CRIMPED DENIER - The denier of the entire tow band. 44,000 total denier means that 9,000 meters of tow cut under a 5-pound load would weigh 44,000 grams. TYPE F DULL - "Y" cross section, white (pigmented) tow. One tow band of 3.3F/44 contains approximately 13,500 filaments.
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CIGARETTE TOW 2058210975
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CELLULOSE ACETATE CIGARETTE TOW PRODUCTION Cellulose acetate, or secondary acetate, is an ester formed by the action of glacial acetic acid on cellulose derived from wood pulp. The main chemical reaction is called acetylation and forms a viscous intermediate product known as cellulose triacetate. The triacetate is converted into the secondary acetate by partial hydrolysis. Precipitation, washing and drying steps then convert the viscous secondary acetate into a dry flake form suitable for further processing into cigarette tow. Acetate tow is made by extruding an acetone solution of cellulose acetate through minute holes into a heated chamber where the volatile solvent is removed. The solution is pumped at a precisely controlled rate through a perforated disc called a spinnerette. The fine strand formed by each hole is a filament. Filaments emerging from the spinnerette pass through a column of hot air where the solvent evaporates and the filaments are hardened and stretched. A tow is formed by combining the output of a large number of spinnerettes and crimping this collection of filaments to form an integrated band of continuous fibers. The tow is then dried and baled.
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Celriver Factory at Rock Hill, South Carolina Lanaken, Belgium, Factory Celco Factory at Narrows, Virginia Celanese Factory at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
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CELLULOSE ACETATE CIGARETTE TOW PRODUCTION • MANUFACTURE OF ACETATE FLAKE • PRODUCTION OF CIGARETTE TOW
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O C ( H CELLULOSE TRIACETATE C- CELLULOSE _O~ /O'H DIACETATE C / \H H 1 C_ CHzOAC 0 OAC ACETYLATION PARTIAL HYDROLYSIS
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WATER SCRUBBER CELLULOSE ACETATE I I CYCLONE SEPARATOR MANUFACTURE vr.r lwru irs (PART 1) ~ A MIX A( --SULFURIC ACID SCALES SHREDDER TRANSPORT FAN PUMP ACETYLATOR VISCOSITY WATER / HYDROLYZER
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RETENTION TANK I DILUTE ACETIC ACID PRECIPITATOR Of HARDENER SHAKER SCREEN CELLULOSE ACETATE POLYMER STORAGE DILUTE ACETIC ACID 32% ACETIC ACID -0 CELLULOSE ACETATE MANUFACTURE SIMPLIFIED FLOW DIAGRAM (PART 2) SQUEEZE ROLLS WATER STEAM DRYER
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CELLULOSE ACETATE POLYMER WEIGHING HOPPER TITANIUM DIO i-- X IDE PIGMENT (For Dull Luster) CIGARETTE TOW MANUFACTURE (PART 1) ACETONE SOLUTION PREPARATION MIXERS d FILTERS STORAGE TANKS PUMP PUMP PUMP . CELLULOSE ACETATE SOLUTION 2058210982
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POLYMER SOLUTION FILTRATION
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CELLULOSE ACETATE SOLUTION' LTER CIGARETTE TOW MANUFACTURE (PART 2) ;4- 2. FI PREHEATER HOT WATER ~ ACETONE IN AIR TO RECOVERY i SPINNERETTE (JET) TOW GUIDE SYSTEM m STORAGE AND SHIPPING
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Cigarette tow extrusion machine Adjusting pressure on crimper Examining tow before baling Baling cigarette tow uO CO o, 0 r. N CO LO 0 N
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EXTRUSION OF FIBERS
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CIGARETTE TOW SPINNERETTES (JETS) RELATIVE SHAPES AND SIZES 0 0 0 x 0 30-100N AA HUMAN HAIR 85-95 N 40 - 60 p bod 30 -90N 25-60 N
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SPINNERETTE FORMING TOOL
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HUMAN HAIR WITH DRILLED HOLES ACETATE FILAMENT PASSING THROUGH HAIR oco ol 0 ~ N eo uj 0 N
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FLOOR LEVEL PORTION OF TOW EXTRUSION MACHINE
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TOW LINE FROM METIER CRIMPER AND TOW SPREADER
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CRIMPING s Tow AA A r u v v v v U,VV
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BALE OF ACETATE TOW READY FOR SHIPMENT
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t TOW CHARACTERIZATION tibb0iZ8SOZ
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Tow Characterization Tow Characterization is the Process of Determining the Lowest and Highest Attainable Filter-Rod Weights and Filter-Rod Pressure Drop Values for a Cigarette Tow Item.
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TENSION ON TOW TO PRODUCE MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM ROD WEIGHTS S - WRAP DELIVERY MINIMUM WEIGHT MAXIMUM WEIGHT
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TYPICAL TOW CHARACTERIZATION GRAPH Maximum • _Minimum Filter-Rod Weight, grams
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TYPICAL TOW CHARACTERIZATION GRAPH Filter-Rod Weight, grams
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The position and length of this characterization line depend on the following factors: • Tow item • Filter Dimensions • Opening Unit • Manufacturing Speed • Degree of Crimp Deregistration
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WEIGHT RANGE The length of the tow yield line expressed in grams. It is the weight of the maximum weight minus the minimum weight.
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WEIGHT RANGE Filter-Rod Weight, grams a = Weight range (grams)
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TOW YIELD Tow yield is the relationship between the weight of tow in a cigarette filter rod and the pressure drop across that rod: Filter-Rod Pressure Drop Tow Yield = Filter-Rod Weight
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EFFECT OF CROSS SECTION ON YIELD AT CONSTANT dpf AND TOTAL DENIER Rod Weight,
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EFFECT OF dpf ON YIELD AT CONSTANT TOTAL DENIER AND CROSS SECTION Rod Weight
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EFFECT OF TOTAL DENIER ON YIELD AT CONSTANT dpf AND CROSS SECTION 5.0/40M 5.0/38M 1 I I I Rod Weight .
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TOW PROCESSING 9oottzssoz
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TOW AS SUPPLIED THREADED•ROLL OPENED TOW
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DIFFERENTIAL GRIP DEREGISTRATION
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HAUNI AF-1 TOW OPENER Plasticizer Ratio Control Control Rod Weight Control 0 0 ~ ~ cli ~ 0 N
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ACTION OF THREADED ROLLS ON CRIMPED FILAMENTS IN TOW BAND (Hauni AF 1) Section of Grooved Roll Section of Pretension Roll ,::Total. Ni_p TOW
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AF-1 OPERATION Spreader D li e very Rolls KDF - 2 ~ Rolls AF-1 CONTROL PANEL Feed Stop PZ Dry PZ Delivery Feed Pressure PT Boom Stop m 1 2 3 I I I 4 5 1. Stop Button 2. Plasticizer tank level indicator lights 3. Push button for dry rods-stops PZ applicator 4. Plasticizer application level control 5. Delivery-roli PIV control-to adjust from min. to max. weight 6. Band width control-PIV control to adjust feed/delivery-roll ratio (usually 1.25 -1.4:1) I Air Gauges * h1 7 8 *O• 9 10 7. Feed-roll pressure regulator 8. Gauge for feed-roii pressure-usuaiiy 2.5-3.0bar 9. Gauge for Pretension-roii pressure-the most sensitive and important control on machine. Used to adjust opening-usually 0.8-1.6bar 10. Pretension-roil pressure regulator 11. Switch to lower or raise boom for thread up 12. Stop switch
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., Encapsulated Pressure Drop (mm of water) m Mb r. -9 2058211013
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13 in. , 12in. ~ BRAND "X" TARGET I I 10 in. ~ R.T.D. 9 in. SPECIFICATIONS Circumference - 24.45 mm Rod R.T.D. -11.65 inches of water Dry Rod Weight - 71.43 gms/100 Wet Rod Weight - 77.14 gms/100 % Piasticizer - 8% Dry Wgt. 68 69 70 71 I I R.T.D. Target 11.65 ± .82 inches Wgt. Target 71.43 + 1.7 grams 72 I 73 2058211014
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I. DECREASE PT. PRESSURE OR INCREASE SPEED OF PT. ROLL R.T.D. 1 BLOOM •/ 2 BLOOM / • •••'•/ ~ i • / • • i • i i R.T.D. + +WT. EFFECTS WEIGHT + R.T.D. + B/IND WIDTH + %PZ. + CIRC. + BLOOM -
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II. INCREASE PT. PRESSURE OR DECREASE SPEED OF PT. ROLL 1 BLOOM // 2 BLOOM / / EFFECTS WEIGHT - R.T.D. - BAND WIDTH - % PZ - CiRC. - BLOOM + R.T.D. L_ ++WT:
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IIi. DECREASE RATIO ROLL SPEED R.T.D.~ + +WT. 1 BLOOM I %~1.5 BLOOM i ~ EFFECTS SLIGHT WEIGHT - SLIGHT R.T.D. - SLIGHT BAND WIDTH - SLIGHT % PZ - SLIGHT CIRC. - SLIGHT BLOOM -
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IV. INCREASE RATIO ROLL SPEED 1 BLOOM i ,1.5 BLOOM, EFFECTS SLIGHT WEIGHT + SLIGHT R.T.D. + SLIGHT BAND WIDTH + SLIGHT % PZ + SLIGHT CIRC. + SLIGHT BLOOM +
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V. INCREASE DELIVERY ROLL SPEED EFFECTS WEIGHT + R.T.D. + BAND WIDTH 0 % PZ. 0 CIRC. + BLOOM 0 R.T.D.~ + +WT.' ON- WT.
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VI. DECREASE DELIVERY ROLL SPEED EFFECTS WEIGHT - R.T.D. - BAND WIDTH 0 % PZ 0 CIRC. - BLOOM 0 R.T.D.~ ++WT.
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360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 64 T 66 EFFECT OF PT PRESSURES ON AF-2 3.4 CH/46 T 68 T 70 .A PT 0 O 1.0 PT F~ 1.4 PT Good Opening( O 1.8 PT BALE - 419895 102 x 24.7 74 76 78 O 2.4 PT 80 Wt. gr/100 Rods
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WHICH ADJUSTMENT WOULD BE APPROPRIATE TO OBTAIN TARGET? MORE THAN ONE ADJUSTMENT MAY BE NECESSARY. TARGET Dry Rod Weight: 71.43 gms./100 Rods TARGET R.T.D.: 11.65 Inches of water TARGET Clrc.: , 24.45 mm. 1. EXAMPLE DRY ROD WT. 69.5 R.T.D. CIRC. BLOOM 10.7 24.45 Good (a) Decrease P.T. Roll Pressure (c) Increase Delivery Roll Speed (b) Increase Feed Roil Speed (d) Increase P.T. Roll Pressure 2. DRY ROD WT. R.T.D. CIRC. BLOOM 72.5 12.4 24.45 Under (a) Decrease P.T. Roll Pressure (c) Increase P.T. Roll Pressure (b) Decrease Delivery Roll Speed (d) Increase Delivery Roll Speed 3. DRY ROD WT. 72.5 R.T.D. 10.2 CIRC. 24.45 BLOOM Good (a) Increase Delivery Roll Speed (c) Increase Ratio Roll Speed (b) Decrease P.T. Roll Pressure (d) Increase Feed Roll Pressure 4. DRY ROD WT. 69.5 R.T.D. CIRC. BLOOM 12.8 24.45 Good (a) Decrease P.T. Roll Pressure (c) Decrease Feed Roll Speed (b) Decrease Deihrery Roll Speed (d) Increase Feed Roll Speed
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2058211023 AHISIMI3HO 3HOWS
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2058211024
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Theoretical Smoke Filtration • Cigarette Filter Model • Mechanisms for Smoke Filtration • Empirically Derived Model to Predict Smoke Removal Efficiency
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.MODEL OF A CIGARETTE FILTER 7.5mm-8.5mm
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COMPARATIVE SIZES OF SMOKE PARTICLE AND ACETATE FIBERS l G Smoke Particle 0.1 1 Y Approximately 100 p Acetate Fiber 30 - 100,u Acetate Fiber 30 - 100 N
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STREAMLINES OF SMOKE IN THE VICINITY OF A FILTER FIBER
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DIFFUSIONAL DEPOSITION
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DIRECT INTERCEPTION 0 Fiber
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INERTIAL IMPACTION Smoke Streamline
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THEORETICAL SINGLE-FIBER FILTRATION EFFICIENCY D a2 ~ 3 ( rp + 2.2093 ( ~ ) 2 104 MVa a2 Where: ei = Single fiber filtration efficiency 2 Cf p rp Z Vo cY''2 / = (unitless) 9p a (1-a "2) . Cf k T• 108 D = (/sec) ~Z 6 Trµrp M a';2 M = 1 (unitless) 1 + (1 +a) Ina 2(1-a) rp = Particle radius (microns) a = Effective fiber radius (microns) a = Fiber volume fraction (unitless) Vo = 'Linear flow rate (cm/sec) Cf = Cunningham slip flow correction factor (unitless) ,u = Gas viscosity (poise) k = Boltzman constant (dyne-cm/deg) T = Absolute temp (°K) p = Polymer density (g/cm3)
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PARTICLE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY EQUATION E= 1-(1 - ef) N x 100 Where: E = particle removal efficiency (%) e f= single fiber removal efficiency for tobacco smoke= k Z sin 0 (.04202 +.00245 k, +.67228 k3 +.00304 k, k,3 +.11471 k, k3 z + 3.2874 k2 k3z N = number of fibers encountered during passagethrough thefilter= 103 La'/2 sin0/2 a L = filter length (mm) k 1 = impaction parameter = k 2 = interception parameter = 2 C f V o pa'/2 9 a (1 -a'/2) k 3 = diffusion parameter = .29985 M a'/2 a D a2 MVO (Cos2 H+ 25 sin2 H) 0 = crimp angle (degrees)
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CORRELATION OF COMPUTED PARTICLE REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES WITH EXPERIMENTAL NICOTINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES 70 60 ~ 0 ~ ~ c 50 .~ ~ ~ W 40 ~ > O E 30 ~ ~ V 20 i ~ a 10 9 10 20 nwc 0 0 30 ox 40 50 60 Nicotine Removal Efficiency, % 70
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THEORETICAL PRESSURE-DROP EQUATION FOR ACETATE CIGARETTE FILTERS ,p = 2.419 x .104 Q L S a C2 d''2 b F(a,y) Where: A p = Encapsulated pressure drop (mm H.O) Q = Volumetric flow rate (cm3/sec) L = Filter length (mm) S = Fiber specific surface area (m2/g) :, W = Fiber volume fraction 4000 = CZ L (unitless) P W = Fiber weight (g) C = Filter circumference (mm) p = Polymer density (g/cm3) d = Fiber denier per fiiament (g/9x105 cm) b = Agglomeration factor (unitless) F (a,o) = (2a -1-Incx )+ (4cr-3a2-2-Irlcx) Cos H Cos 0 = TL/9x106 W, where 0 i.s the ave'rage crimp angle (deg) T = Fiber total denier (g/9x105 cm)
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OBSERVED VS CALCULATED PRESSURE DROP OF ACETATE FILTER RODS Length 84 mm - 120mm; Circumference 23.8 mm - 27.2 mm ; Denier 3- 8 600 0 N = 500 E E a 400 0 N. G i 300 ~ ~ ~ L a 200 w z ~ 100 .c 0 I L I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 Calculated Pressure Drop, mm H20
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SMOKE REMOVAL EQUATION loge (1 -E) =A•L+B•oP•C4+D•L/g 100 Where E = Removal efficiency (smoke, nicotine, or tar) L = Filter length in mm oP = Filter pressure drop in mm H20 at 17.5 cm3/sec flow C = Filter circumference in mm = Fiber denier per filament in g A, B, and D = Constants from table below A B D Smoke: -1.542 x 10-2 -9.602 x 10-9 -2.102 x 10-2 Nicotine: -3.822 x 10-3 -1.048 x 10'8 -1.824 X 10'2 Tar: -9.957 x 10-3 -8.517 x 10-9 -2.587 x 10-2
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Filter Dimensions a SMOKE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY • SRE • TRE • NRE Tow dpf Pressure Drop of Filter
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Summary • Smoke Particle Filtration Is Not Due To Sieving Action, but Instead To Diffusion, Direct Interception, and Inertial Impaction • Smoke Removal Efficiency Is Dependent On Amount of Fiber Surface Area and the Fiber Orientation With Respect To Flow • Smoke Removal Efficiency Can Be Predicted Based On Filter Dimensions, Pressure Drop, and Fiber DPF
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2058211040 NOI11/111N3A
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2058211041
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Venti lation Effects • Cigarette Pressure Drop • Particulate Filter Efficiency • Particulate Component Delivery • Gas Phase Delivery • Cigarette Uniformity • Smoker Subjective Responses
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Filter Performance Criteria • Length • Diameter • Pressure Drop • Acetate Tow Denier Per Filament - • Degree of Ventilation - Tip - Column
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EFFECT OF VENTILATION ON CIGARETTE PRESSURE DROP 2058211044 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cigarette Ventilation, %
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE VENTILATION ON TAR REMOVAL EFFICIENCY 100 80 W E 40 a, ~ ~ ca H 20 4.0 dpf 20 40 60 80 100 Cigarette Ventilation, %
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE VENTILATION ON NICOTINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY 100 0 2.5 dpf 4.0 dpf 0 z 20 20 40 60 80 100 Cigarette Ventiiation, %
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DELIVERED TAR (WNF) REDUCTION Vs CIGARETTE VENTILATION Cigarette Ventiiation, %
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DELIVERED NICOTINE REDUCTION VS CIGARETTE VENTILATION Cigarette Ventilation, %
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DELIVERED CARBON MONOXIDE REDUCTION Vs CIGARETTE VENTILATION / 20 40 60 80 100 Cigarette Ventilation, %
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Subjective Responses To Ventilated Cigarettes If a Person Normally Smokes a Ventilated Brand: • Increased Finger Staining • Puff-Volume Increase • Burn-Out Frequency Increase • Loose Tobacco and Coal Fall-Out
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SUMMARY OF BASIC VENTILATION EFFECTS • Ventilated cigarette physical properties differ from non-ven.t- ilated cigarettes. • The relative amounts of various smoke components delivered to the smoker change with ventilation. • Ventilated cigarettes evoke a comprehensive array of smoker subjective reactions.
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SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES TO VENTILATED CIGARETTES If a person normally smokes a non-ventilated brand: • Changed draw resistance • Harder to light • Air cooling on tongue • Mouth drying effect of diluting air • Reduced impact/taste ~ Tip stain pattern
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2058211053
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VENTILATION TECHNIQUES Porous Plug Wrap Perforated Tipping Paper
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! VENTiLAT1ON MATERIALS STUDY OBJECTIVE Determine ventilation as a function of tip materiais % Ventilation = f (tipping paper, tipping paper perme- ability, plugwrap porosity, and tip pressure drop)
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VENTILATION MATERIALS STUDY Variables • Tipping Papers Type Microlaser Macrolaser Electrical Mechanical • Plugwrap Porosity 1700 6500 26000 - Tow Item dpf Total Denier - Permeability Range (Phobos - Coresta) 550 to 2400 1600 to 3500 600 to 2400 1800 to 3200 Mid range Varied to give tip pressure drops of 90,110 and 130 mm of H2O
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VENTILATION MATERIALS STUDY Constants • Tip - Length - 27.5 mm Circumference - 25.0 mm (finished) • Tobacco Column - Same for all samples • Cigarette Paper - Relatively non-porous • Cigarette Length - 100 mm 9 Hole Location - 13 mm from mouth end
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1.0 0.9 0 t= 0.5 0.4 Tipping 0 Microlaser'm El Macrolaser A Electrical 0 li Mechanical TIP PRESSURE DROP RATIO = UNENCAPSULATED TIP PRESSURE DROP ENCAPSULATED TIP PRESSURE DROP 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PERCENT TIP VENTILATION 205g211058
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EFFECT OF Th F. a PAPER TYPE AND PERMEABILITIr JN VENTILATION 801 70 0 60 50 30 20 500 600 ® % Tip Ventilation = f (Tipping Permeability, Plugwrap Porosity) Paper Q Microlaser ® (] Macrolaser® O Electrical 0 Mechanical R2 0.994 0.970 0.993 0.972 Plugwrap Porosity 6500 1 1 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 Tipping Paper Permeability (Phobos-Coresta) 2056211059
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EFFECT OF TIPPING PAPER PERMEABILITY AND PLUGWRAP POROSITY ON VENTILATION 90 80 70 60 50 40 20 500 600 800 1000 2000 Tipping Paper Permeability (Phobos-Coresta) 26000 6500 1700 600 Plugwrap Porosity 0 0 ~ N co in 0 N
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EFFECT OF PLUGWRAP POROSITY ON TIP VENTILATION 70 60 50 c 0 .~ ~ 30 20 10 10 20 0 30 2058211061 Plugwrap Porosity x 10-3 (Phobos-Coresta)
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COMPARISON OF CIGARETTE AND TIP VENTILATION VARIABILITY cn 4.4 4.0 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 Standard Deviation of Tip Ventilation, % 4.0 4.4
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GIGAREfTE VENTILATION VARIABILITY ag 9 7 6 O Microiaser® O Macroiasere Q Electrical ~ Mechanical A A 0 0 0 . El 0 0 Mechanical Macraaser® 0A 0 A AP E) O EIA& El Electrical _,-L 0 Microiaser® ® 0 0 0 1 0 I I I 1 I I I I 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 Cigarette Ventilation, % 70 80 90 100 2058211063
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TIP VENTILATION VARIABILITY N A 0 O Microlaser® O Macrolaser® 0 Electrical A Mechanical Mechanical _ ~ Macrolaser® Q 0 Electrical ~ ~ Microlaser® E) 0 E) E) 0 6 1 0 I I I I I 1 1 1 I 10 20 E. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2058211064 Tip Ventilation, %
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VENTILATION MATERIALS STUDY Conclusions • Ventilation - Primarily a function of tipping paper, tipping paper permeability and plugwrap porosity. • Column ventilation can significantly contribute to overall cigarette dilution. • Ventilation affects cigarette pressure drop. • Cigarette and tip ventilattion variabilities are equivalent. • Ventilation variability is unaffected by ventilation level. • Constructions using "Micro" tippings,,appear to be less variable than those using "Macro' tippings. • Pressure drop measurements can be used to determine ventilation. • Smoke deliveries decrease with increasing ventilation. • Filter removal efficiencies increase with increasing ventilation.
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THE EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY AND PRE- PERFORATED TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE ON CIGARETTE VENTILATION AND SMOKE DELIVERY
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OBJECTIVES • Determine Effect of Cigarette Paper Porosity on Cigarette Ventilation and Smoke Delivery • Determine Effect of Pre-Perforated Tipping Paper Hole Size on Cigarette Ventilation and Smoke Delivery
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2058211068
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CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY STUDY CONSTANTS • Tow Item • Tip Length Circumference Encapsulated Pressure Drop 2.9Y/44,000 25mm 25.0mm (finished) 95mm H20 • Tobacco Column • Cigarette Length Same for all samples 84mm
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CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY STUDY VARIABLES • Plugwrap Porosity (CORESTA) 1700 9500 26000 • Tipping Paper Permeability (CORESTA) 930 1155" 3390 4400 • Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA) 25 35 70 110 200
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON CIGARETTE VENTILATION 100 20 20 60 40 Nominal Paper Porosities (CORESTA) O 25 Q 35 O 70 a 110 Q 200 80 100 Percent Tip Ventilation
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SLOPE AND INTERCEPT FOR EACH CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY VARIANT Cigarette Ventilation = m (Tip Ventilation) + b Nominal Actual Paper Paper Porosity Porosity r2 (CORESTA) (CORESTA) 25 30 0.956 4.40 .99 35 45 0.921 7.73 .99 70 70 0.879 12.26 .99 110 136 0.763 23.20 .99 200 205 0.660 32.80 .99 m = 1.016 e" '"2 (CIqM*ne Paper Porodty) b = 0.145 (Cigarette Paper Porosity) ~-°n Cigarette Ventilation = 1.016 e-.0°2 (CPP) (Tip Ventilation) + 0.145 (CPP) N ~ O ~. N co Cn 0 N
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON CIGARETTE UNENCAPSULATED PRESSURE DROP a 20 40 60 sa Percent Tip Ventilation
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON PUFF COUNT (0% Tip Ventilation) 7.0 6.0 50 100 150 200 Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA)
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TAR DELIVERY REDUCTION WITH INCREASING CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY (0% Tip Ventilation) 13 ~ 12 a V ~ a E 0 ~ 11 a ~ b 10 9 50 100 150 200 Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON VENTILATED TIP, TAR DELIVERY 13 12 11 10 4 3 2 1 m m Nominal Paper Porosities (CORESTA) ~ 25 35 O 70 A 110 Q 200 20 40 60 80 Percent Tip Ventilation 100
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NICOTINE DELIVERY REDUCTION WITH INCREASING CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY (0% Tip Ventilation) .85 .80 .. a ~ CI E .75 ~ e ~ 0 ~ z ~ .70 m ~ m b .65 50 100 150 200 Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON VENTILATED TIP NICOTINE DELIVERY .2 0.1 20 Nominal Paper Porosities (CORESTA) O 25 Q 35 0 70 p 110 Q 200 40 . 60 80 Percent Ti,p Ventilation 100 u7 O N
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CO DELIVERY REDUCTION WITH INCREASING CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY (0% Tip Ventilation) 16 14 ~ .9 12 a E 10 Lft m ' 8 ~ G 0 6 0 4 2 50 100 150 200 Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY ON VENTILATED TIP CO DELIVERY 16 14 --:, 12 4 2 20 40 Nominal Paper Porosities (CORESTA) 60 Percent Tip Ventilation 25 1135 O 70 110 200 80 100
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DELIVERY REDUCTION WITH INCREASING CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY (0% Tip Ventilation) 60 Co 50 Tar Nicotine 20 10 50 100 150 200 Cigarette Paper Porosity (CORESTA)
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CIGARETTE PAPER POROSITY STUDY CONCLUSIONS • Cigarette Ventilation, At A Given Tip Ventilation, In- creases With Increasing Paper Porosity • Increasing Cigarette Paper Porosity Slightly De- creases Puff Count • Cigarette Paper Porosity Does Not Affect Cigarette Unencapsulated Pressure Drop • Tar, Nicotine And Carbon Monoxide Deliveries De- crease With Increasing Cigarette Paper Porosity, Relative To The Effect Of Cigarette Paper Porosity On Cigarette Ventilation Levels • Cigarette Paper Porosity Offers A Mechanism For Targeting CO Delivery
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20`'a2110g3
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TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE STUDY CONSTANTS • Tow Item - 3.OY/48,000 • Tip Length - 27.0 mm Circumference - 24.9 mm Encapsulated Pressure Drop - 125 mm H20 Plugwrap, - 26,000 CORESTA • Tobacco Column - Same for all samples • Cigaratte Paper Porosity - 12.5 CORESTA • Cigarette Length - 84mm • Ventilation Hole Location - 13mm from mouth end • Ventilation Hole Perforation - Laser
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TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE STUDY VARIABLES • Tipping Paper Hole Size .0078 - .1100 mm2 • Ventilation Holes Per Inch 28 - 60 • Tipping Paper Permeability (CORESTA) 500 - 4000
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THE EFFECT OF TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE ON TIP VENTILATION (Plugwrap - 26000 CORESTA) 1000 2000 3000 4000 Tipping Paper Permeability (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE ON TAR DELIVERY 10 8 4 F'~ 28 Holes/Inch 0 60 Holes/Inch 1000 2000 '3000 4000 Tipping Paper Permeability (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE ON NICOTINE DELIVERY 0.80 0.60 0.40 F-1 28 Holea/Inch O 60 Holea/Inch 1000 2000 3000 4000 Tipping Paper Permeability (CORESTA)
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EFFECT OF TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE ON CARBON MONOXIDE DELIVERY 5.0 3.0 1.0 a 28 Hoies/Inch O 60 Holes/Inch 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 Tipping Paper Permeabiiity (CORESTA)
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TIPPING PAPER HOLE SIZE STUDY CONCLUSIONS • At Equal Tipping Paper Permeability, Small Laser Perfor- ations Yield Higher Ventilation Levels Than Large Laser Perforations • Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Deliveries De- crease With Decreasing Tipping Paper Hole Size, Relative To The Effect Of Hole Size On- Tip Ventilation Levels
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NEW DEVELOPMENTS I60tTZ8SOZ
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f* (1) 2058211p92
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Exploratory Research and Development  Theory of Specialty Fiber Development  Celgard° - Microporous Polypropylene  Cellulose Acetate Fiber Variant
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ti60ttiZ850Z sr 
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 Theory of Specialty Fiber Development • Objectives of Specialty Fibers for Tobacco Smoke Filtration • Elements of Removal/Addition Process • Fiber Modification Approaches • Cigarette Design Approaches
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Objectives of Specialty Fibers for Tobacco Smoke Filtration A Controlled Removal of Substances A Controlled Addition of Substances
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A Controlled Removal of Substances Selective Filtration Selective Rejection
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A Controlled Addition of Substances Flavor Augmentation Menthol Addition
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• Elements of Removal/Addition Process Molecular Mobility Accessibility Dwell Time Driving Force Specificity or Triggering Mechanism
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• Fiber Modification Approaches A Increased Surface Area A Altered Surface Chemistry A Combinations
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A Increased Surface Area • Accessible Pore Structure 0 Irregular Surface Configuration
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,&Altered Surface Chemistry Liq u id Su rface Add itive Chemical Reaction Irradiation Polymer Grafting
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A Combination • Increase Surface Area and Alter Surface Chemistry
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• Cigarette Design Approaches Increase Dwell Time Modify Smoke Chemistry
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o so .a r. 2058211105
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Celgard® Properties • High Pore Volume • High Surface Area 0 Hydrophobic/Oleophilic
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Celgard® Uses • Commercially Available in Film or Hollow Fiber • Current Industrial End Uses: Blood Oxygenators Battery Separators High Efficiency Filters Gas Flow Regulators
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Possible Uses in Tobacco Industry • Packaging • Additives to Filters (Reservoirs) Humectants Flavors Reacta nts
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Incorporation of Celgard® Hollow Fibers in Cigarette Filters 1.00 0.90 ;k\ YMM ~ (a oc .. 0 1 2 3 4 Number of Hollow Fibers Original Tip Pressure Drop 0.70 0.60 5 -M - -- 64 mm Water - 150 m m Water
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~ \V ~ ~ \V . \V ~ ~ \V Mi ~ O ~ VI ~ \V 2058211110
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Fiber Properties • Helical Crimp • High Surface Area 0 Hydrophilic
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Cellulose Acetate Fiber Variant Status • Available in Research Quantities Only 0 Not Effective as Particulate Filter in Present Form
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CA Fiber Variant Smoke Chemistry • Filter Rod Properties Length Circumference Weight Pressure Drop (Encapsulated) • Filter Tip Properties Length Circumference Pressure Drop (Encapsulated) 84 m m 24.8 mm 0.490 g m 96 mm Water 21 mm 24.7 mm 22 m m Water
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• Deliveries (mg/Cigarette)* Ta r Nicotine Water CO CO 2 46 Removal Efficiencies (%)* Ta r Nicotine Water *85 mm Cigarette *21 mm Filter x65 mm U.S. Blend Tobacco
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Possible End Uses in Tobacco Industry • High Surface Area Carrier Flavorants Reactant Chemicals • Inefficient Filter for High Ventilation Levels
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20gg2111y6
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N CO ~ a N
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C-100 An Effective Mechanical Means For Increasing The Commercially Usable Range Of Cellulose Acetate Tow
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CURRENT RODMAKER OPERATING SPEEDS Equipment Type Operating Speed (Meters/Min) Converted Cigarette Maker 60-120 Slow Speed Rodmaker 150-250 • Molins PM-4 • Hauni KDF-1 High Speed Rodmaker 300-400 • Molins PM-5 • Hauni KDF-2
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RANGE EXTENSION WITH C-100 Slow Speed/ Transport Jet Assisted Range High Speed Unassisted Range Rod Weightso
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EFFECT OF RODMAKER SPEEDS ON PRODUCT RANGE Slow Speed/ Transport Jet Assisted Range High Speed Unassisted Range Rod Weight -~1
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FILTER ROD VARIABILITY WITH AND WITHOUT.C-100 PROCESSING ® Variability Without C-100 Processing Variability With C-100 Processing Rod Weight -~
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C-100 APPARATUS • Transport Jet e 0 • Large Perforated Funnel • Idler Roll • Band Converging Ring (AF-1, 2)
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STANDARD C-100 EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS • Band Converging Ring Diameter 3.01nches • Idler Roll Length 4.0 Inches Diameter 1.0 Inch • Perforated Funnel Depth 3.5 Inches Entry Diameter 4.0 Inches Exit Diameter 1.25 Inches Shape Circular Perforations Exit End of Funnel
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C-100 COMPATIBILITY . WITH EXiSTING RODMAKING SYSTEMS Opening Systems • Transport Jets • Rodmaker Speeds
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COMPATIBILITY OF C-100 PROCESSING WITH VARIOUS COMMERCIAL OPENING SYSTEMS • Tow Items, Ranging in dpf From 1.8 to 8.0 and Total Denier From 30,000 to 48,000 Were Processed, With C-100, on the Following Opening Systems: AF-1 AF-2 E-60 103 • Weight and Pressure Drop Ranges Were Comparable on All Opening Systems • Shifts in Range Position and Variability Differences Noted in Commercial Production Were Also Apparent With C-100 Processing
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COMPATIBILITY OF C-100 PROCESSING WITH VARIOUS COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT JETS • Tow Items Ranging in dpf From 1.8 to 8.0 and Total Denier From 30,000 to 48,000 Were Processed, With C-100, Using the Following Commercial Transport Jets: Hauni Small Pipe Large Pipe Conical • Weight and Pressure Drop Ranges Were Comparable With All Transport Jets Evaluated • Variability Differences Noted Between Commercial Transport Jets Were Also Apparent With C-100 Processing
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THE EFFECT OF RODMAKER SPEEDS ON C-100 PROCESSING • Items Ranging in dpf From 1.8 to 8.0 and Total Denier From 30,000 to 48,000 Were Processed, With C-100, at Rodmaker Speeds Ranging From 150 to 400 Meters Per Minute. • Weight and Pressure Drop Ranges and Product Variability Did Not Significantly Change at Any Rodmaker Speed.
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COMPARISON OF CIGARETTES TIPPED WITH C-100 AND CONVENTIONALLY PROCESSED FILTERS • Smoke Chemistry • Smoke Taste
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EFFECT OF C-100 PROCESSING ON SMOKE CHEMISTRY • Evaluated Removal Efficiencies and Particulate and Gas Phase Deliveries at Various Points in C-100 Processed Item Ranges • Removal Efficiencies and Deliveries From Cigarettes Tipped With C-100 Processed Filters Did Not Differ Significantly From Cigarettes Tipped With Pressure Drop Matched, Conventionally Processed Filters
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EFFECT OF C-100 PROCESSING ON SMOKE TASTE • Paired Comparisons, Between C-100 Processed Filtered Cigarettes and Pressure Drop Matched, Conventionally Processed Filters, Were Performed By the Celanese Flavor Analysis Panel • Panel Results Indicated No Significant Differences Between the Smoke Taste of C-100 and Conventionally Processed Filters
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C-100 POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO FILTER MANUFACTURERS • Item Consolidation • Filter Weight and Plasticizer Reductions • Processing Performance
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TOW ITEM CONSOLIDATION WITH C-100 PROCESSING f Z / / / / 7el / i ---- C-100 Processing Conventional / Processing 70or / Rod Weight -0-
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EFFECT OF C-100 PROCESSING ON ROD WEIGHT f / / / / / 1Weightj Decrease F C-100 Processing Conventional Processing Rod Weight --10- 2058211134
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EFFECT OF C-100 PROCESSING ON FILTER FIRMNESS LEVELS • Production at Extended Points in a C-100 Processed Product Range Provides Filter Rods With Higher Crimp Angles Than Conventionally Processed Rods Processing Condition Crimp Angle (Degrees) Conventional Minimum 43.9 Conventional Maximum 50.5 C-100 Minimum 43.9 C-100 Maximum 57.3 • At a Given Pressure Drop, Increase in Crimp Angle Results in Improved Filter Firmness Levels. Therefore, Processing at Extended Points in the C-100 Range May Allow For Reductions in Plasticizer Addition to Achieve the Same Filter Firmness Levels.
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PROCESSING PERFORMANCE • No/Low Maintenance for C-100 Equipment • Greatly Increased Product Range Provides Enhanced Targeting Flexibility • Necessity of New Item Qualifications Significantly Reduced
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CONSIDERATIONS IN C-100 PROCESSING • Effect of dpf and Total Denier • Porous Plugwrap Processing • Mechanical Limitations
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EFFECT OF DENIER PER FILAMENT* AND TOTAL DENIER ON C-100 RANGE EXTENSION Conventional Processing Range *Denier Per Filament = dpf Rod Weight -~ • Maximum Point in Range Fixed By Item Total Denier
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EFFECT OF PLUGWRAP POROSITY ON C-100 RANGE EXTENSION • At a Constant Item Total Denier, Increasing Plugwrap Porosity Decreases Product Weight and Pressure Drop Range • At a Constant Plugwrap Porosity, Increasing Total Denier Decreases Product Weight and Pressure Drop Range
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PERCENT DECREASE IN PRODUCT WEIGHT RANGE AS COMPARED TO NONPOROUS PLUGWRAP PROCESSING (3.0 Denier Per Filament) Plugwrap Porosity (CORESTA) Total Denie r 25 3300 6500 26000 - - - 31,000 0 0 21 18 35,000 0 11 36 39 44,000 0 27 26 42
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MECHANICAL LIMITATIONS ENCOUNTERED WITH C-100 PROCESSING • At Extended Points in the C-100 Ranges of High Bulk Tow Items (> 40,000 Total Denier), the Following Mechanical Limitations May Be Encountered: 1. Frictional Heat Build-Up at Garniture Tongue and Short Folders 2. Garniture Tape Stretching 3. Loss of Circumference Control • Total Range Capability Provided by C-100 Processing Could Be Limited by the Output Speeds of Some Opening System PIVs. Gears/Pulleys May Be Changed in Order to Achieve Maximum Attainable Ranges. • Changing Opening System G.ears/Pulleys Could Allow Equipment to Operate Above Recommended PIV Ratings.
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SUMMARY • C-100 is a Mechanical Means of Extending Tow Weight and Pressure Drop Capabilities While Maintaining Commercial Variability Levels • C-100 Technology is Compatible With All Major Opening Systems and Transport Jets • C-100 Benefits Are Available at Any Rodmaker Speed • Filter Removal Efficiencies and Cigarette Deliveries Are Not Affected by C-100 Processing • C-100 Provides the Filter Manufacturer With Potential Cost Savings Through Item Consolidation and Reductions in Filter Weight and Plasticizer Addition • C-100 Provides Enhanced Targeting Flexibility and Reduces the Necessity of New Tow Item Qualifications • Increasing Plugwrap Porosity Limits Potential C-100 Weight and Pressure Drop Ranges • Mechanical (Rodmaker/Opening System) Constraints May Limit Potential C-100 Weight and Pressure Drop Ranges
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER ' GYIlYZBsOZ
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. PLASTICIZER CONTROL SYSTEM Concern has been growing in the cigarette industry about the control of plasticizer addition to acetate tow during filter rodmaking. Current production techniques tend to result in wide variations in plasticizer addition. Our studies show that about 60% of overall plasticizer variability is related to differences in operation among rodmakers and imprecise control of the rodmaking process over time. The wet/dry rod-weight test, commonly used to determine plasticizer add-on during produc- tion, produces waste and fails to provide continuous information about the plasticizing process. Further waste can result from dry-rod production that goes undetected until a routine cherx is made. Previous systems to measure plasticizer addition did not control application but merely measured and displayed the plasticizer flow rate. Although several such monitors are commercially available, none has gained wide acceptance. Celanese (USA) initiated and jointly developed with Hauni-Werke Korber & Co. KG a system that is designed to actually control rather than only monitor plasticizer addition during rodmaking. The system eliminates problems that arise from variable plasticizer application and improves the overall quality of the filter rods. In order that the cigarette industry may take full advantage of this new technology, Hauni-Werke Korber & Co. KG offers a plasticizer control system which can be retrofit- ted to existing AF-1 and AF-2 tow openers. The plasticizer control system is now standard equip- ment on new AF-2 units.
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER Positive Displacement Pump (Zenith) Brush U START: Positive displacement pump begins to supply plasticizer to the brush.
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER Tow Travel Positive Displacement Pump (Zenith) TRANSITION: Plasticizer droplets begin to spray up to the tow band.
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER L lli Positive Dispiacement Pump (Zenith) (M TRANSITION: Plasticizer droplets fill the spray booth. Droplets not taken up by the tow band begin to condense on the baffles inside the booth.
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER Tow Trave -I r • ' . . . . . . ~ 4 .. Positive Displacement Pump (Zenith) w v , . . : .\\lll///. - • EQUILIBRIUM: Plasticizer droplets not taken up by the tow have condensed on the baffles and are flowing to behind the brush. Plasticizer is now being fed to the brush by the positive displacement pump and the recycle flow.
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PUMP-DRIVE ARRANGEMENT Flow to Zenith Metering Pump-,, _ Spray Booth Drive System Extended Main Drive Shaft with Drive Gear Drive From Rodmaker
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER SPRAY BOOTH
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OPEN SPRAY BOOTH
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LOWER SECTION OF SPRAY BOOTH
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PLASTICIZER CONTROLLER FLOW SCHEMATIC Spray Booth Booth Level Detector Fail•Safe Flow Detector Zenith Metering Pump If Centrifugal Pump Plasticizer Tank
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PUMP-DRIVE AND FAIL-SAFE SYSTEM F v .r r ~
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2058211155
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TRIAL PLAN • Rod-weight equilibrium. • Band-width compensation • Individual rod variability. • Effect of add-on level on firmness.
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ROD WEIGHT EQUILIBRIUM 78 76 74 72 70 _ L i 681 1 1 1 1 1 i J 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time, min
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EFFECT OF BAND-WIDTH CHANGE 94 ~ ~ 0 T y 92 ~ ~ 0 L Q o, 90 "M ~ ~ ~ .~ ~ 88 ~ -a ~-Band Width Band Width- 0 cc I 10 inches (25 cm) 7 inches (18 cm) 86 I- 84 I I I I I ~ I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time, min
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INDIVIDUAL ROD VARIABILITY Coefficient of Variation, % * Individual Rod Parameter Band Width 10 inch (25 cm) Band Width 7 inch (18 cm) Weight 0.856 0.780 Pressure Drop 2.44 2.30 Circumference 0.185 0.155 % Plasticizer Add-on ** 3.70 5.0 * Determined during equilibrated machine conditions at 400 m/min ** CV on all individual rods taken during mini- production run
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ROD FIRMNESS VARIABILITY Plasticizer Applicator Filtrona Firmness (%) Standard Deviation (%) Plasticizer Controller (nominal 7% triacetin) 90.8 0.96 Conventional Brush/Dip Roll (nominal 7% triacetin) 91.0 0.97
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EFFECT OF PERCENT PLASTICIZER ON FIRMNESS lasticizer Add-On Filtrona Firmness (0/U) Standard Deviation (%) Nominal 7.5% Triacetin (n = 16) 91.1 0.85 Nominal 9.5% Triacetin (n = 16) 91.6 0.72
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PERCENT PLASTICIZER DISTRIBUTION 1 i n Current Target i ~ ~ i Projected Controller -~ I I "ictrihutinn 1 ~ Conventional Applicator Distribution Percent Plasticizer
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PERCENT PLASTICIZER DISTRIBUTION Projected Controller --,, Distribution ~ Conventional Applicator Distribution Percent Plasticizer
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Non-Wrapped Acetate • Process Description • Background • Process Development • Economics • Status
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Process Descri ption • Steam Injection Into Garniture • Rapid Cure of Acetate/Plasticizer
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Background • Filtrona LTD Development • Sold Finished Rods • Licenses Available in 1978 • Philip Morris/Celanese Mutual Development from 1979 • Process Development Near Completion
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Process Development • Yield Losses • Pressure Drop Measurement • Circumference Measurement • Garniture Tape Development
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2.5F/48 C..Apabilities NWA - AF-2 mm H20 in. H20 540 +21.26 520 -1- 20.47 500-t-19.7 ~ Target ,/e /.011 • 10 ~ ~ 360 t 14.17 ~ 340 -1-13.4 320 -t-12.6 ~ 41K / 671J ~ 643J • 308 K I I I I I I I 1 1 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 2058211169 Tow Weight - Grams/100 Rods
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Total Yield Losses 1 2 3 4 Tow Weight 1 Conventional Target 2 Steam Losses 3 Dimensional (Tipping) 4 Removal Efficiency Total = x 100
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NWA Economics Savi ngs • Hot Melt • PVA • Paper Additional Costs • License Fee • Capital Equipment • Yield Loss • Royalty
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Status • Process Now Commercial • High DPF - CO Reduction Investigations • Economics • Celanese Technical Support Available
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© Hoechst Celanese Corporation. All rights reserveo. To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither Hoechst Celanese Corporation nor any of its affiliates assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein. Final determination of suitabilitv and whether there is anv infringement of patents is the sole responsibility of the user. Users of any substance should satisfy themselves by independent investigation that the material can be used safelv. We mav have described certain hazards, but we cannot guarantee that these are the only hazards which exist,
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Filter Products Division Hoechst Celanese Corporation PO Box 32414 Charlotte, NC 28232 704 554 2000 Telex 575141 251 Avenue Louise B-1050 Brussels Belgium 02/6420 811 Telex 22126 Hoechst Celanese Hoechst d r` V4 ~ ~ N CO O N ®
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