Jump to:

NYSA Indexed

India Advertising Anti-Smoking Activities

Date: Oct 1976
Length: 160 pages

Jump To Images
nysa_ti_s1 TI53810003-TI53810162

Abstract

Sources in Hong Kong state a group of local businessmen are planning to go into cigar manufacturing in Macao on a joint venture arrangement with a group of tobacxo people in the Portuguese colony.

Fields

Notes

Tobacco legislation in India from the 1970's.

Indexer Comment
countries
Box
0010
Type
File Folder
Report
Articles
Magazine
Report-Scientific
Report-Marketing
Memorandum
Author
Kloepfer, William
Brown, H.C.
Recipient
[none mentioned]
Named Person
Abdulla, Mohammed
Adair, Sidney T., Jr.
Agron, Martin
Austin, Clyde B.
Ayers, Walter C.
Banzhaf, John F., III (Exec. Dir. Action of Smoking & Health (ASH))
Executive Director of Action on Smoking and Health (ASH).Professor of Law at Georgetown. Banzhaf succeeded in using the Fairness Doctrine to get cigarette commercials off television in 1968. See Banzhaf FCC, 405 F, 2d 1082 (D.C. Cir. 1968) (affirming FCC ruling that radio and television stations must devote a significant amount of broadcast time to case against smoking). His telephone number is (202) 659-4310. The big focus in past years has been to force OSHA to enforce smoking bans, per Matt Bars. ASH publishes Smoking and Health Review bulletins. "A leading anti-smoking activist" (Chic. Sun-Times 6/23/93). Action on Smoking and Health is located at 2013 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. (Castano Expert List) See Action on Smoking a Health, TTLA Almanac - Names.
Beach, William B.
Beaumont, Ernest
Berry, Harry
Bond, Fred G (Flue-Cured Tobacco Coop. Gen. Manager)
Testified before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee (S.1418).
Boone, Charles M.
Brown, Frank A., Jr.
Chalmers, Andrew
Cotton, Bessie C.
Delano, Robert B.
Dennis, Henry A.
Fern, George
Freeman, Orville
Gladstone, Walter E.
Godfrey, Horace D.
Gregory, Bruce
Griffin, Stuart
Gust, Earl R.
Haley, William L.
Hilton, Conrad
Johnson, Robert R. (B&W Chemist from 1964-1988)
Robert Johnson was a B&W Chemist from 1964-1988. (Source: NM Tobacco Companies Personnel List)
Kiser, Robert E.
Kloepfer, William J., Jr. (TI Public Affairs VP, c. 1988)
Senior Vice President of Public Affairs Relations for the Tobacco Institute
Ladas, George S.
Lozzi, Carlo
Martin, D.R.
Defense
Maxwell, Alexander H.
Maxwell, John ("Jack") C., Jr. (Analyzes tobacco company market share)
Plaintiff
Morea, Philip
Munro, John
Posse, Jorge
Roll, Norman L.
Romano, Rocco
Schreuder, Lee
Seligman, Robert B. (PM VP of R&D c. 1976-82)
Vice President of Research and Development at Philip Morris Richmond, VA 1976-1982. Reported to Senior Vice President of Operations. In 1982 transferred to tobacco technology group. Wanted to share ammonia and other tobacco technology with PM International companies.
Sineath, James B.
Smith, Richard E. (Lorillard exec)
Marketing Development
Spence, George B.
Taylor, Gordon S.
Tso, T.C., Ph.D. (PM Tobacco Working Group)
Defense
Turner, Claude
Villasis, Oscar
Walter, Henry G.
Watson, Walter W.
Weeks, Lloyd T.
Weissman, George (PM Chairman & CEO '79-84)
Vice President of Philip Morris from 1954 to 1956. Vice President and Assistant to the President in 1957. Vice President of Marketing from 1958-59. Executive Vice President of Marketing in 1960. Exec. VP Overseas in 1961, Exec. VP PM International 1962-66. President from 1967 to 1972. President and Chief Operating Officer in 1973. Vice Chairman from 1974-78. Chair and CEO from '79-84 and on the Board of Directors from 1959-84.
Wheeler, Harold
Named Organization
Acme
United States Department of Agriculture (Agency responsible for tobacco price support program)
American Tobacco Company
British-American Tobacco Co Ltd (British-American Tobacco Co. Ltd.)
British-American Tobacco Company Limited was a operating group under B.A.T. Industries P.L.C. in 1985.
Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation (B&W)
Subsidiary of BAT U.S., located in Louisville, KY.
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Campbell-Johnson Limited (British PR firm, worked for BAT)
Chamber of Commerce
Commerce Department
Conference Board
United States Department of State
Duke University
EEC (European Economic Community)
European Economic Community
Farm Bureau
Federal Communications Commission (U.S. government agency regulating TV, radio)
Enforced the Fairness Doctrine against the tobacco companies; required time be provided on TV, radio for anti-smoking commercials.
Federal Communications Commission (U.S. government agency regulating TV, radio)
Enforced the Fairness Doctrine against the tobacco companies; required time be provided on TV, radio for anti-smoking commercials.
Filtrona (Manufacutre Reynold's Filters)
General Counsel
Grand Metropolitan PLC (Parent company of the Liggett Group 1980-86)
Parent of The Liggett Group and Liggett & Myers Inc. from 1980 to 1986
Imperial Tobacco Co. (Determined optimum nicotine levels for cigarettes)
Did testing pre-1972? of U.K. smokers and concluded that the optimum nicotine delivery for the cigarette, and that stepwise reductions in delivery caused progressive rejection by consumers (see Project Wheat)
Imperial Tobacco Company of India
ITC (India Tobacco Company)
India Tobacco Company
Kimberly-Clark Corp. (Specializes in the tobacco reconstitution process)
Specializes in the tobacco reconstitution process and in helping the tobacco companies control their nicotine
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Liggett Group Inc. (American cigarette manufacturer)
American cigarette manufacturer, was the first to start selling discount brands (GPC)
Ministry of Health (Located in Singapore)
National Tobacco Company
New York Times
New York University
North Carolina State University
Papeteries de Mauduit (supplier of tobacco papers)
Philip Morris & Co. Ltd. (Cigarette manufacturer, incorporated in U.S. in 1902)
Philip Morris & Co. Ltd.., was incorporated in New York in April of 1902; half the shares were held by the parent company in London, and the balance by its U.S. distributor and his American associate. Its overall sales in 1903, its first full year of U.S. operation, were a modest seven million cigarettes. Among the brand offered, besides Philip Morris, were Blues, Cambridge, Derby, and a ladies favorite name for the London street where the home companies factory was located - Marlborough.
Presbyterian College
Research Council
United States Securities and Exchange Commission
United States Senate
STC
Svenska Tobaks AB (Swedish tobacco company)
Swedish Tobacco
Tobacco Associates Inc.
Tobacco Chemists Research Conference (Formerly known as the Tobacco Science Research Conference)
Tobacco Exporters
Tobacco Institute (Industry Trade Association)
The purpose of the Institute was to defeat legislation unfavorable to the industry, put a positive spin on the tobacco industry, bolster the industry's credibility with legislators and the public, and help maintain the controversy over "the primary issue" (the health issue).
Tobacco Research Institute (Rustenburg, South Africa)
Tobacco Warehouse Association
U.S. Department of Agriculture
United States Tobacco Company (Producers of Copenhagen/Skoal chewing tobacco)
Producers of chewing tobacco
University of Kentucky
University of Tennessee
Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company
Virginia Polytechnic Institute (commonly known as Virginia Tech)
World Health Organization (Concerned with global public health)
International organization concered with public health worldwide
Thesaurus Term
international trade
advertising
India
legislation
adverse effects
health effects
demographics
non-smokers
anti-smoking advocacy
Corporate strategy
court
distribution
health care
exports
imports

Document Images

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size:

Page 1: TI53810003
INDIA ADVERTISING ANTI-SMOKING ACTIVITIES PRODUCTION REGULATIONS/LEGISLATION (includes proposed reEulation) SALES TOBACCO AND HEALTH TOBACCO TRADE T!53810003
Page 2: TI53810004
---
Page 3: TI53810005
/- MANUFACTURL OUTLOOK TOBACCO REPORTER APRi L 1976 70, ;'9 Reports on cigar factories Soviet article on llgnin Package plant for cigarettes india's ~abe| now is law ...- Production in Canada Mergers ~.. I Tob,~,ccG Relx)~ler I Sources in Hong Kong state a group of local businessmen are planning to go into cigar manufacturing in Macao on a joint venture arrangement with a group of tobacxo people in the Portuguese colony. Details were not divulged but a participant said *'all particulars will be announced as soon as "all papers have been signed:' Meanwhile, • Japanese .businessman belied reports surfacing in some Aslan dries that he was leading a group of Asian business tycoons planning to set up a cigarette and cigar factory in Singapore. Yoshio Kimura said in Malaysia that ":here is no truth to the reports," He said the company he heads in Tokyo is eng~.ged in the production of packaging materials for tobacco products, bl,t it does not plan to expand to matmfact~u:ing tobacco items like cigars and cigarettes. "Concerning lignin in tobacco" is the name of an article in a recent :.ssue of a Soviet Union technical publication. Lignin is a substance which has been little researched, and it contains a number of typical pleasant and aromatic ingredients. Soviet research chemists are at present investigatk~g the development of aromatic products in connection with lignin pyrolisis in tobacco. This has shown that .an additive of lignin in tobacco has a favorable effect on its aroma. (A translation of this paper is obtainable from Technische Ubersetzungen W. Weken, Sprutzmoor 33, Hamburg 73, Germany. Quote order number 10,822.) A cardboard package industry is currently under construction at Peshawar in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province to provide packing material for ciga- rettes as well as match boxes, pharmaceutical and other such items. Printing of a health warning on every packet of cigarettes will be mandatory start- ing April 1, according to an axmouncement made by Union minister of Health Karatl Singh in Parliament. He added that there is no proposal under consideration by the government that will require the listing of the pack's tar and nicotine content along with the warning. Cigarette productiotx in Canada during the first nine months of 1975 was listed at 42.4 billion pieces with closing inventories down slightly to 4.2 billion cigarettes. Cigar production during the same January-3eptember period was pu~ at 341 million units with the closing inventory cut in half to 25.2 million pieces. Cut tobacco production in the first nine months was listed as 11.5 million pounds while *'other manufactured" production was put at 0.8 million pounds. Kimberly-Clark Corp., a US-based international manufacturer of cigarette paper, has taken full control of Papeteries de Mauduit in Qulmperle, France. Previously, owner- ship of the cigarette paper manufacturer was at 51 per cent. As z result of this move, Kimberiy-Clark increased its indirect ownership of Papeteries de Malaucene, a owned subsidiary of de Mauduit. which produces cigarette tipping paper. A US spokesman said that a $I 5.4 million expansion involving the purchase of a new dgarette paper machine is now underway at de Mauduit. With ~ ca. pacity of 7,000 metric tons, the new unit is scheduled for starmp this year. At the same time, Kimberly-Clark reports it has sold its 40 per cent interest in Papeteries Bollore, but the ownership association will be continued through association with Le Tabac Reconstitue in Paris which is 60 per cent owned by, the [YS firm, 20 per cent by Bollore and 20 per cent by Seita, the French national tobacco induwcy, l~liore is a m.~er of reconstituted tobacco. In another international acquisition, UOP Fragrances of the United States has been taken over by Naarden International of Naarden, FIoIIand. The US organization has facilities throughout Europe, North Africa and South America. The purchase price was nor dLsclosed and the transaction will be finan~x-d tbrtmgh a tong term debt. and contrary to earlier rumors, there is no third pa~¢ invokcement. TI53810005
Page 4: TI53810006
CAMPBELL-JOHNSON 16 Bolt~ Street, Londo., W1Y SHX LIMITED 01--499 5511 8356 8358 SMOKING A~) }~ALTH Syno.p..a~.s of Press~ Radio and Television Coverage Received Wednesday20c__t.ober lhth1970 Kashmir .- cigarette w_ar_n~l, to ma~~///et~ Provinciml presses have reported that a Bill of he~.l~h hazard warnings in cigarette advertisements compulsory will be brought by.the Kashmiri Governm~.nt before the state legislature. Cancer risk and filters ~cal cuverage is given tb a report in the latest issue of tl~ Jourual of the American ~dical Association, based on a study of 350 lung cancer patients in New York. This says that the risk of cigarette smokersdeveloping lung caucer has decreased amon~ those who swiT~hed to, end continued to smoke, filter cigarettes for 10 years ur more. Thia decreas~ is held attributable to a lo~er tar content aud it is also noted that four years after giving up the risk decliues, and 13 years after, approaches the level of non-smokers. • 'People are realising dangers of .smoking' In a r.e~ort forming part of a review of Hertfordshire County Council's health and welfare ser%~ces during 1969, Dr. ~. MacDonsld, chest " physician of North Herts Division, says that there is agrowing realisation - although slow - of the dangers associated ~ith cigarette smoking, and natients now more readily accept advice to give up %h~ habit. He adds that the oost-war increase in smoking among la~men is now be~innin~ to be reflected in a higher death rate from br@nchial carcinoma. (Letchw~rth & B~ldock Gazette, October 1) Yoar.ly check-up for smokers The second of a series entitled "Hospitals and you - by a doctor" discussing cancer diagnosis, advises cigarette smokers to have a chest ~-ray every year. (Glas~Evening Times, October 6) C: P?~DIO A TEL.~ISION D: _~ERIO~ICf~LS Role of Myocardi~m in the modern_~.idemic of ischacsdc heart-disease T.W. Amderson finds that a compmrison of male and female mortality tre~ds in O~tario over the past few decades provides stro~j additional evidence for the belief that the present high death-rate frc~ ischmm~ic hear~isease in middle-~.~yd men constitutes a "~dern TI53810006
Page 5: TI53810007
8359 epidemic". He notes that it has been suggested that this rise has been due to an increased tendency of the myocardium to infarction, rath~ than to an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis, or to an ir~reas~d tendency to intravascular thrombosis. Discussing ~xplanations for this, he suggests that "one or more f-~ctors in our ~Ddcrn way of life incr~sethe vulnerability of the ~ocardial cells to the metabolic disturbances associated with stenotic coronary arteries". He gives ~ns an o~m~olc the possibility that, in cigarette smokers, nicotine (~or some other constituent of the smoke) m~6nt affect the ~iability of the ~Vocardisl cell either through a direct action on the cell membrane~ or indirectly throu6n neural or hormonal mechanisms. (Lanoet, October ~ O) E: CO~O}~'~ILTH AND F~EIGN France-- cigarettes and ulcers An article discussing the role of smoking in ulcer cases claims that, ~ile it is certainlyharmfulwhere an ulcer is established, it doubtful whether it can actually cause on~ since no relationship has b~en found between the degree of tobacco poisoning and risk of~lceration Two ~erican studies ere quoted, the first of which by R.R. Monson, surveyod 9000 doctors in Massachusetts and ~as emtitled "Cigarette smoking and body form in peptic ulcer". It~as found that that sufferers from gastric and duodenal ulcers tended to be smokers and to havo started smoking young, and that both smokers and ulcer sufferers tended to a body type ~.~hich was long and thin or small, these tendencies not bein~ apparent at the age of 21. The second study, quoted, J.H. Thsmson's "Effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke on gastric secretion iu rats gastric fistulas", found that tobacco smoke and nicotine injected in equivalent doses depressed the secretory vol~me and the acid flo~ in basic conditions, and the pepsic flou in cases of hyperstim~lation, and that, though the mechanism of this inhibition was not certain, it was known that nicotine liberated intestinal serotonin which depresses the gastric secretion. It is also possible that nicotine has a central action. (Le Concotu~s Medical, September 19) TI53810007
Page 6: TI53810008
India's Andhra surplus to move through $6 million in barter deals Ba~t~r deals valued at six million dollars have been sanctioned by the Foreign Trade Ministry of the Indian Government to dispose of the accum- ulated stocks of flue-cured Virginia "tobacco in Andhra, Pradesh. According m latest estimates, the stock-pile consists of eight million ki/ograms of pre-1969 crop and 14 miLl/on kilograms from this year's crop. Of the pre-1969 stock, only half a million kilograms are of exportable standards with "Agmark" seal of the government The rest is not of a quality that can find a ready marker. Of the 1969 uadlsposed crop, one million kilograms are of high quality. Four million kilogra/ns are of medium variety and 9 million kilog~.ms are of low grade. Of hte, India is finding many diffi- culties in selling its low grade crop. As one measure to boost exports, the floor price has been reduced by 25 per cent for the low grades. Still, not much impa~t has been visible. Barter deals are another way by which the government hopes to meet the situation. One of the eight barter deals now approved is meant exclu- sively for export of lower grades tobacco worth $2 million. In the test of the deals, export of lower medium grades of pte-1969 crops and 1969 crops have been allowed in the proportion of three to one, The barter deals are not yet ia full swing. One reason for this is that r~ government is taking a long time to decide the items that should be allowed to be imported in exchange fo~ to- The growers and traders have been urging that the State Trading Corpora- tioa should buy up the accumulated stocks. But the STC has hoe agreed to this. Its contention is that the need of the hour is to locate foreign markets and mere purchase by STC will help dispose of the stocks. On the other hand it will only lead to the corporation incurring loss. The STC is, however, helping in organizing barter deals. INTERNATIONAL SMOKING AND HEALTH . . . India taking close look at warning label Will India follow the U. S. example and insist on a "health hazard" warning hbel on eve/y cigarette pack? And what about the voluntary advertising ban in broadcasting in the U. S.? The warning hbel question is being hotly discussed in ladi~ now. The Ministry of Health has so far maintained that there is nn need to follow the American example. But ir cannot resist for leng the pressure from health experts and social workers for legislation to ins~.t, that every cigarette packer should car~ a '~ealth hazard wami~ There are indi- cations that in the ensuing session of Parliament a bill may be proposed by an opposition pa~/member. The govern- meat will then have to make up its mind. So far, the health ministry's contention has bern that steps have been taken to discourage smoking through edu- cative posters and propaganda by the extension offices of the Health Education Burea~ Further, there is a ban in many states oa smoking in cinem~ houses. Health ¢xpem and socisl workers point out that these steps have not made much impact on smoking habits. They base their contention ou the increase in cigarette sales and incidence of cancer cases. Although there are no precise data available on the number of smokers, the production and sale of cigarettes give a rough indication. Sixty billion pieces were p~oduced /a 1~67 and most of these have b~en consumed indigenously m exports being negligible. A decade earlier the production was 28 billion. The annual race of increase in production is 15 per cen~ cases had • different story to tell A study made in ~ainlmti Distr~ct neat Agra (where the famo~ Taj Mahal is located) has sho~n • strong co~htioa between p~caleace of It also rewmled that smokiag by itseff does not add to A,~,ust / 1~69 the risk of oral cancer. In sharp contrast to the significant association observed in relation to the age at which tobacco chewing is started, little difference was noted in the risk in rehtion to the age at which tobacco-smoking began. But, when smoking and chewing are combined, the former appeared to accderate the effect of the latter. The highest risk was observed ha persons wh0"had all of three habits chewing, smoking and drinking. The study, conducted by a team of experts of the Sarojini Naidu l~edical College in Agra, was sponsored by the World Health Organization. It cov~ed an area of 5000 ~uate kilometers and a population of one million. Dr. P. N. Wzhi, who led the investigating team, aad who is now head of the Indian Council of Medical seatv.h, has ,eported that the incidence tare of oral and otopharyngeal cancer obtained from this study is 21.4 pet one lakh (100,00) population This, he says, is higher than corresponding rates in other countries. The pzevalence rate of oz~l cancer was found to be higher in males than in females and this was attributed to wider use of tobacco by males. The study has revealed several interesting features. The prevalence rate for oral cancer was ten times higher in tobacco chewers who acquired the habit before the age 15 than in non-chewers. This was said to be indicative of a dose-effect zelationship in the sense that the duration of the habit over the years influences the level of occurrence of oral cancer. ~t was also indica~-d that the habit of sleep- ing with ~ tobacco quid in the mouth incre~_sed the risk of As ~ result of this study Dr. Wahi has recommended a from that used in other phc~ k is ~ mixture of tobacco ~5 Ti53810008
Page 7: TI53810009
INDIA'S SURPLUS Co~e~ from pr~b~g ~ ~ k~ (~ ~ ~e ~t fl~ of ~lys~ ~d 1~ to a d~er id~ of ~e m~a~ of ~ p~on ~t ~ to ~ ~ia~ wi~ ~e of ~g ~is to~ccu. The ~di~ ~ried ont ar ~e Tam Memorial ~c~ H~iml in Botany ~ave, howev~, ~own ~-~o~g is r~ponsible for certain ~ of ~ncer. ~ ~dhm Pr~h ~ where flue~r~ mba~o is grin ~ m~y women ~e found to have c~ of ~e ~ate b~me ~ey s~ke I~1 miM ci~s wi~ ~e lightC ~d inside ~e m~. Oa the basis of several sur~ k is esdmated that one o~t of e.ety 4300 pemom in India suffem fz~n cancer. K. Kastur/R~gan E More International Health E SVENSKA TOBAKS AB, the Swedish Tobacco Com- pany, has just issued its nicotine and "tar" fignzes for January-@ril, 1969. Some 40,000 copies of the lisdng, which is distributed to outlets selling c~garettes in Sweden, are published ~_me times a yea~ by the firm. The current listing showed Philip Morris Filter with highest nicotine and "'tar" ~ about 35 rag. Lowest "tar" contents were regisetted by Lark (17), Marvels (11), and Savoy (19). Most brands were down from the September-December, 1968, Iisting. TRADING THE PRODUCT . . . Monopolies Commission gives Cigarette Components "All Clear" The British Monopolies Commission issued its report on cigarette filter rods July 24. It found Cigarette Compo- nents, the filter-making subsidiary of Bunzl Pulp and Paper, to have a monopoly both in home and export marke~. However, the 97-page report found' no grounds for serious criticism of the company's actions or policies or of its monopoly positions in either home or export markets." (See To- bacco Reporter, July, page 62.) The report concludes that despite its monopoly Bunzl is exposed to "excep- tional risks." It notes, "Of the two customers whose business now ac- counts for nearly all the company's home trade, Gallaher has given notice of its intention to manufacture in- creasingly for itself, while Imperial keeps the possibility of self-manufac- ture under continuous review." On Prices and Profits Cigarette Components aims at a 20 per cent return on sales, according to the report, achieving a return on capital of mound 40 to 50 per cent. The Commission approves that level, pointing to the risk element and that Cigarette Components must keep corn- FILTER CIE ARETTES The brand name SPACE will get continuing free publicity on radio, television, and other media. No other cigarette brand name can get such publicity. This will be important when cigarette adver- tising is discontinued on radio and television. for FRANCHISE ARRANGEMENT contach CouP, and D. Fe~J~Sen, Pres. SPACE, Inc. 715 National Pres~ Bldg. Phone: 202428.7713 pedtive prices because its customers employ expert buyers and could enter production on their own. Last March the Commission hshed into Co~taulds, British supplier of tow, for being unduly slow ia respond- ing to demand and expanding out'pot. The current report indicates that in starting Ectona, a tow manufacturing firm of its own, "Courtaulds, hitherto the monopoly producer of tow in this country, has now to face competition from another producer. Courtaulds, for its part, is entering upon produc- tion of filter rods with the effect that Cigarette Components in turn may lose its monopoly of the home market and have to face additional competition abroad." Cigarette Components discovered it ~ had been given the all clear to continue with its admitted monopoly on ciga- rette filter rods just after 9 a.m. on the morning of July 24. (In 1967 Ciga- rette Components was responsible for 83 per cent of total U. K. production). A messenger from the Board of Trade arrived with two complimentary copies of the report. (The Monopolies Com- mission Report on the Supply and Ex- aI~rts of Cigarette Filter rods is avail- le for 9s 6d--$t.14-.U..&y Although the company has waited some two years for the board to complete the report, and heaved a clear sigh of relief when it arrived, Ernest Beaumont, chairman of Cigarette Components since filters started to expand in the mid-1950's, was quick to point out '~We have always had a dear con- science." A reply to the report by Cigarette Components points out that the Com- mission has agreed that a substitution of imported flake from Canada for imported tow, which is more expen- sive, can he expected to benefit the bahnce of payments. Effect on balance of payments was a major issue ia the report, which was the first to he made by the commissi~ since it inA_k:amd Tobacco Reporter TI53810009
Page 8: TI53810010
WILLIAM KLOIr'PFERo JR. V~¢ PR¢SIDEN'r-- PUI¢I¢ RI:LATIONS THE TOBACCO INSTITUTE, INC. 177(~ K .-.C:~TREET~ NORTHWEST WASHINGTON, D. C. 20006 November 18, 1969 INFORMATIONAL MEMORANDUM TO: GENERAL COUNSEL FROM: William Kloepfer, Jr.~ Indian Poiitical Development I am advised through Piul Smith that a member of the Indian Parliament introduced a bill last May 29 to require a health warning in all cigarette advertising in India. He based his action in part on a belief that a similar law existed in the U. S. He was assured to the contrary in August by the chairman of the Imperial Tobacco Company in India. It is not expected that his bill will come up in Parliament this year. njp. T!53810010
Page 9: TI53810011
This problem has never really come to th~ limelight In India so far although there have been sporadic efforts to bring it up at question time in Parliament on odd • occasions, It is reliably learnt that Government wish to keep out Hr, George Fern~nd~s' proposed bill from the. current session in Parliament aud are expected to be successful in this, As will be seen from the ~inutes~ the purpose of bringing this subject up at the meeting was to try and be prepsred in cs~e circumstsnces warranted ~. that the %ssoclation should find it necessary to ~abmit a representation in .this matter ~t a later date, Reduction in clerical work involved in the oresent Sslf Removal Procedure : This is an internal problem encountered in ~he .... factories which has already been submitted to the Customs aud Excise Advisory Council of the Bombsy Chamber of Commerce and turned down as not fes~ible, In a modified form Hr, Scott proposes to place his recommendations at the next Cigarette ~an~facturers' Association Eeetlng for .. TI53810011
Page 10: TI53810012
T!53,810012
Page 11: TI53810013
---
Page 12: TI53810014
Nr: George Fern~udcs~ ~P. .214~ North Avenue~ Dear l.ir. Chowringhee Calcutta 28th AU~ust, 1969. le~er of 19th At~ust. 2[ appreciate Thank you for your "~ " your gesture in sending ~.e a copy of your Bill (I quote) "to provide for the .advertisement o%" the haz~ involved in ~oki~ cig~ettes:'. You musZ be ~7ere %hag %he legislation in ~ited ' ~ of ~e~ie~ ~,hich provide~ for all ciz~otte p~ckeZs Zor s uat~en ~ or distribution within the U,S.A. to bell- the ~ "Caution Cig~ette Szokins ~.-~ be Haz~us to Yo~~ Heath" ~ecific~ly reserved for Co~ress the right ~ rule on clg~ette advertisi~ without in fact_,.._~moo~~__-.~ ~ny restrictions. The sedation clause expired on 80th J~ne 2969 ~d the whole question Is currently the sub~oct of much controversy in "~%at country. ~ this connection the views of the ~eric~u ~.~edic~ Association e~ressed ~ the Feder~ Trade Cow,mission prior to the intro- duction of that lezxsla~o~, m~y be of interest : ~' With respect to cig~ettes~ ~au~ion~y l~elling ' c~not "be ~uticipated to se~e the public interest with ~y p~ticulsr dez~ee of success. The hes!th .- haz~ of excessive smoking have been well publicised for moze th~n ten yesrs ~d ~e- co,on ~owle~o.... ". We~ not believe the~ the ~swer ~ the cigarette problem lies in caution~v l~olli~ requirements. ~.. it is Our 0pini6n that the ~swer ~n~ch will do most tQ pro'o&ct th~ public health lies not In l~elli~ (which Is likely to b~ iL~or~) but In rese~ch ..... Consee~ently on the Amoric~ legislation serious consi- deration w~ given in m~j -,, ~,- o c~uD_~e~ to ~nacting similar legislation with reference to both cig~ette packets ~d . advertislr4. ~_th~bg~t ofj~7 hnowle~e .no. othe~, c0untr2~as adopted-such legisla'hi~~g~i~.-~--~crtaln countri6s$ not~ the bhi~ed Kingdo:~ volunt~2~. ~-estrictions on ~dvertislns been entered into by the tobacco Industrieh~ Th5 industries' prim~ objective in t~:inc ~a voluntary action was to give efZect to their dec!~ed desire not to cncour~e chil~u ~ Ti53,810014
Page 13: TI53810015
.... ".......: ".,.. .- - .j
Page 14: TI53810016
9 !.00 I, gggl_L
Page 15: TI53810017
15 years and wi~h fine which may no~ o~ceod ton thousand rupees for every ac~ of dofa=lz on his p~rt. ~2) ~ny or, o w~o" accepts ~. ~dvor~some~ from in Section 3 ~f this Ac~ shal~ b¢'punfshabl~ wi~h imprisonment ~hich ~y .ex~end ~o three years a~d ~ith fin~ M~ich may nor exceed ~en thousand rupees for every act of default. -. .. : .- • one contained i~ clause 3(I) of this Bill. -~. S~.oki.ng of ctgaretZes h.~s been on the increase Jn India, and ll_~d_~J]bt~_e~l~_ it is tnkino its toll on the health and life o£ those ~5R5: P:~ile the stubbor~ may be left.zo their fazg, those • ~o may ~nt to learn £ro~ the ezpezten~ o£ ot~ers and who would not li~:e to endanger t~elr Real~h by s~kin~ should be consznntly wa~ed of the don~ers involved in smoki~, 2~is is t~ p~port of th~s Bill. , WEW DE~]I. 2~th Uay 1969. GEORGE FERal NDES T!53810017
Page 16: TI53810018
The Bill confers rule-making po'.,#ers for the onforcemen~ of the provisions of ~]ds Act O. %h~ Cen~al Government. ~e delegation of -- su¢~ po~'er Js of no~mal character, Ti53810018
Page 17: TI53810019
TI53810019
Page 18: TI53810020
tdhletes in the ~enly contcsied seuior port cm ]}age 6) ......... ~udi Ar~bia'3 ~ada[-Kuz:~et- the outcome rub cease-fire. .rended Sta,e, t, when he re~oluEonx dvanee. the Security d wRhdrow ctober 22 or else ~tion wl~ repor~ .~]gn Minister, au • intex~'iew ~vspaper~ Cot- warned popsitlon o~ its ~]e~ by Israeli mo ve~ set'i- was ~lot com- ~ page col 4) Cent turn party NO tVORSE FOR ,,.~:~ p~riy NOT SMOKING ip~siti°: Th~ " ~y A Staff ~teporfer in on Th~ Chief E~e(.tltiw Coum.illor o~ T. • ~ ~- ~ ~, t veitcrda " - " I I'tfiOll he was i~ot a £etlce or virtues had nothli~ to do with Slllukil~g as was Initd~ [retaw o I Jla6 the deiermination lo do,uP apw • o". [ Pre~idea.~ " . is :o pr-: Five-Day l'la;t To StOp S.~k" [~ie:h Jog'" orb:toiled by the Nati,;imll.,ba6 0~" }]aiiOy ~o~d. Tire Plan Is being conducted b~ for ,tha Dr C. IL Collier, I'hy:dolo~i~t, The Vellora Christiau 3IedicaI col, na,k ]eg~ ~de 5Lr Raman, who cama for th~ ~atur~ opening over 75 minttte~ late, day pathI p~. spoke for about 25 minutes on the . ~moking all the tinte comp!L menting the prineip;4 speaker for his "interesting" talk al. Minist~ though he h:¢4 not spoken. When meanwhB • the Chic[ ~ecutive Coulleillor the end entered lhe attditorium, Mr 1~. K. ~ion Petc~on, Secretary of the beglnni~ ~'atiotta[ Temperance Society, was speaking and he t~k him for Dr Collier. made t:" and off) TI53810020
Page 19: TI53810021
Indian StatesinBitterFightOverDream Ci~yTheyShare T!53810021
Page 20: TI53810022
T!53810022
Page 21: TI53810023
India's tobacco: i,ntemationally, demand remains static India's tobacco crop was the second largest ever, but the increase in production could result in larger stock buildup. I ndia~s tobacco ~'armers are STC received only 200 ap- being off, red much lower plications from tobacco growers' prices for Virginia flue-cured cooperatives in answer to its leaf whiCh is affecting purchases press ad. The selection of the and causing delays in sales to growers: cooperatives . and syndicates by government agen- cies such as the S.tate Trading Corp. of India. Despite efforts of the Union commerce •ministry to help growers get better prices for their tobacco crop, an all out competition is cracking the market. The purchases Which should have started at the end of January and ~nded in April, only started in April. _ The State Trading Corpora- • tion (STC)/started purchasing ~ farm gradedtobaccb directly from the growers through twelve-cen~exs which were .open between~ February 27 a.nd :March 3, but the lower: than expected prices offer:ed affected sales. ST~ ~!aimed it was just cooperatives is entrusted to the government of Andhra Pradesh by the Union commerce in- dustry. Though the season is coming to a close, the coopera- •tives for the allotment of quotas have yet to be selected. A quantity of 5 million kgs. has to be purchased by STC from small dealers and packers. STC will call for applications from these dealers and packers, through press ads, in the near future. Growers in need of money d~spose of tobacco stocks quickly :and may not have tobacco left for the traders who buy only on the orders of the STC. Export prospects In addition, export prospects are not tool bright. Japan, the U.K. and one or two other coun~ following instructions from New. Delhi. It is ~through these tries' which import Indian centers that STC has to put= " tobacco are buying less tobacco. chase 5 million: kgs. oftoba.cco, than they purchased in 1978: STC has yet. to prepare itself. The tobacco import require- for the purchase of'5 million ments of the U.S.S.R. appear kgs. from the growers' coopera- tives, t~rocedures adopted by the S TC, under the directiuns of the commerce ministry~ are con- sidered :time consuming, cum- hersome~, unr_ealistic and. um commercial by representatives of :setle~s of t~b~cco. STC has become enmeshed in "bureau- cratic red tape" it seems; their newspaper ads invite purchas- ing appIScations and e~plain purchasing metl~ds, etc. This caused a delay in STC~s ent~ into the market which pr~ved to bea disadvantage to the farmers and an advantage to trade. uncertain, and China's pur- chases may also be affected after the Vietnam war, The :import/export segment of the industry and other trade organizations are not over en- thusiastic in making competi- tive pvxchases. Growers' repre- sentatives feel they are dictat- ing prices to the farmers, prices which are lower than 1978 prices and much lower than prices of- feted in 1977. Tobacco growers ave not happy over t~his existing situation at all. However, if the Union gov- ernment activates STC and the Tobacco Board, allowing ~bem (~1~ to offer better prices for the tobacco and to immediately start purchasing the remaining 10 million kgs., then the original aim of the government to achieve economic objectives could be reached to a ~eat ex- tent. If they removed some of the bureaucratic red tape it would also help. At the time of this writing, according to reliable sou.rces, the Russians are expected in India to inspect stocks. Delegates from W. Germany, Indonesia and Benelux coun- tries also may visit Guntur. News of these pending visits, the tobacco industry £eels, is the silver lining in the dark cloud. The export earnings for unmanufactured Virginia flue- cured tobacco for India, during I977-78, have reached over Rs. I billion, an encouraging note for the future. However, despite an increase of 8.8 percent in the world exports of VFC tobacco during 1972-76, Indian exports declined by about 6.7 percent. Production has shifted away from heavy to light soils in order to promote the growing of VFC • tobacco, but the export picture remains static for Indian tobac- co. Smoking has been declared injurious to health and so domestic consumption has dropped. As a result of this drop in domestic consumption and a drop in exports, the stock pile of tobaCco is increasing. According to tobacco board sources, during 1976-77, India exported 80,134 metric tons of VFC tobacco valued at approx- imately Rs. 96.61, the unit value being Rs. 12.06. During 1977-78, although the quantity of ex- ports fell to 75,399 metric tons, the value increased to Rs. 110.62 and, consequently, the unit value increased to Rs. 14.67. Tobacco, worth 1~ 200 mil- lion, was lost in the recent cyclone in Andhra Pradesh, ac- cording to the vice chairman of the Tobacco Board, S. Samba- siva Rao. This loss will affect exports since the areas affected grow tobacco for export to the U.K. No'~mber. 1979~TR 47" : TI53810023
Page 22: TI53810024
of tobacco. T!53810024
Page 23: TI53810025
rain brand~ They are hopeful the long-term solution is the constr~-~don of a modern manufacturing plant that is expected to be in operation by 1979. Inthe shifts to expand production. Domestic pred~=~ion during the current year is expected to be in the upper ~79-billion-piece interval estimate. ~d~R~e_ "rsmg a recent dawntrend, India in- ~'d~e~/~rette production by 7.5 billion pieces dur- /- l~ 1976. Production in 1976 totaled 67.2 billion ~-~ cigarettes, a 13 percent gain over that of 1975. All of .-~x the increase was in the filtered category, which \ jumped 29 percent from 16 billion to 22.5 billion ~x,~ pieces last year. Output in the current year is expected to remain at the 1976 level or about in the middle of the 62-81- billion-piece interval estimate. CAN#tDK Cigarette production in 1976 rose to 61.6 billion pieces, more than 5 percent above that of 1975. Sales, up 5 percent to 61.9 billion pieces, paralleled the higher output. This marks at least a temporary return to the average annual sales growth rate of 5.25 percent between 1949 and 1974. However, the 1976 increase may be somewhat misleading because it fol- lows a 2.3-percent sales drop in 1975 when higher SOtFFH KO~P_A. Total o~t.put of cigarettes in 1976 reached 55.1 billion, 5 percent above that of 1975. The roee 7 percent and ontlm¢ ofplain cigarettes dropped 5 percent. There was a very slight increase in stocks, as 1976 sales totaled 54.2 billion pieces~slightly less than production. The Korean Office of Monopoly pro- duces two high quality cigarettes that contain about 40 percent U.S. leaf. The sales of these two brands totaled 5.5 billion in 1976 up from 1.3 billion in 1975, and reportedly, production has not kept pace with demand. The Korean economy is booming and with in- creased consumer buying power, cigarette sales are expected to continue to expand in the foreseeable future. The Monopoly's production plan for 1977 calls for 58.1 billion pieces, 47.4 billion (82 percent) of which are to be filter-tipped. TURKEY. Cigarette production showed only a slight increase in 1976 with a total of 53.0 billion pieces. The supply of filter-tipped cigarettes has lagged behind demand for several years and during the second half of 1976, additional machines were in- stalled to increase production capacity. However, the increased capacity did little to improve the situation, Federal and Provincial taxes were imposed. Although the percentage of smokers is decreasing, the smoking population is consuming more cigarettes per person. A 1972 Government survey revealed that the average smoker consumed 17.8 cigarettes per day in 1965 and 23.7 in 1972. The 1978 forecast is about 26 pieces per smoker per day. More female s'moktrs and the trend for young smokers to increase con- sumption as they get older are two additional factors responsible for increased cigarette sales. Apparently, the voluntary advertising code adopted by the four major Canadian cigarette companies has had little effect on consumption. The 1977 outlook, is for another increase in both production and sales. Output could reach the upper portion of the 60-65-billion-piece interval estimate. Ib~ONES~ The petroleum-based economic up- turn fostered an 11 percent increase in cigarette pro- duction during 1976, jumping from 54.6 billion in 1975 to 61.6 billion. Sharply higher demand for the "kretek" (clove) cigarettes offset lower "white" cigarette production. "Kretek" output, which ac- counts for over 60 percent of total production, was up by almost one-fourth because of strong domestic and export demand. as power shortages prevented any appreciable in- crease in output last year. Turkey recently signed an agreement with Yugo- slavia for the manufacture of Turkish filter ciga-, rettes in Yugoslavia. Turkey will ship 600 kilograms of leaf tobacco to Yugoslavia for every ton of ciga- rettes sent to Turkey. Turkey hopes to reduce its bur- densome leaf stocks and at the same time overcome the shortage of filter cigarettes. PH|L|PP~NlffiS. Cigarette production, up margi- nally to 51 billion pieces during 1976, approached the record 1973 production of 51.2 billion. Native cigarette production, which accounts for about one- fourth of total output, was about the same as in 1975 while that of American-blend cigarettes was up 5 percent to 39 billion pieces. Two-thirds of the American-blend cigarettes were mentholated and almost all of them were filter-tipped. In contrast, only one native brand is tipped and none is mentholated. Cigarette sales in the Philippines during 1976 were up 7 percent to 50 billion pieces as American and native types rose 8 percent and 3 percent, respec- tively. Manufacturers continued to use increasing quan- tities of U.S. leaf to produce severa] U.S. brands 1977 TI53,810025
Page 24: TI53810026
The importance of bidi to India The /,/g~ or i,~ous strong poddon in India. The ~ sm~ ~ aff~ ic wh~ ~ can a~d m buy and smo~ ci~e~ but ~ef~ bidi for ~i~ r~o~, includ~g ~at of in~vid~ ~t~ ~e bidi s~tains ~e toil~ ~ the flew ~d worhhop ~ ~ ~ and ru~ ~ ~d ~ hazy ~ ~ a !~. It enjoys nationwide lari~ ~id~ constimd~ an cottage hd~ providi~ remunera- tive work for the nnderemploy~ hrme~ ~ weR as agri~ hbor~s. Na~lly enough, among the vario~ ~ of to~cco ~own in the diff~t Stat~ of ~e co~, b~di toba~o ~pi~ a uniquely impomnt ~sition. Bidi wbac~ is ~own on ab~t 100~000. h~r~ and i~ ou~ut . amoan~ m 1~ mi~ioa ~, It ~r~ fbr the national ~ch~u~ 250 ~ion mpe~ ¢~$32.7 miRiod) aanua~y 3~ per ~nt o~ revenue ~n~ from ~pes o~ u~ufac~d to'co. Although the ci~re~e h~ ~ea ~ini~ ~ouM and ~eplaci~ ~e bidi ~ong smokers- who~ incomes have in~, bidi h~ ~pt ~e wi~ ~e. ci~reue. ~ug the co~ptioa of bid/ tobacco wm of the order of 52 millloa kg. in 1950-51. It increased m 70 milE~a kg, in 1960.6I, ~o 84 million kg. in 1970-71 and, fiLrther, m 85 kg. during 1972-73. It is a dear trend of progressive in- creases in conformity with popuhdon increase and general industrial and economic progress. Bid/tobacco is also exported and the national planners have provided for incrt~ase in its production in the fifth five-year plan of development. It is estimated that 110 million kg. of bidi tobacco would be needed by the end of 1978-79 as against the base level production of 100 million kg. during 1973-74. Bidi tobacco is grown principally in two States, Gujarat and Karnatak. As the land for cultivation of tobacco is restricted in favor of food crops, it is proposed to increase per unit yield by 10 per cen~ Gujarat, next to Andhta Pradesh, is the hrgest tobacco-growing state in India. In this state, tobacco is culti- vated in 83,000 hectares which ac- counts for 19 per cent of the land under tobacco crop in the country. The production of tobacco in such land is more than 100 million kg. or 27 per cent of the total for the coun- try. This crop earns for the farmer ~a one',an1 income of 350 millkm rupees (US~5.8 million). It also pcovid~ employment m agciculmral besides the coatn'budon to the state r~venue of which tobacco is the most important sourc~ It is est/mat~d that in C.~xjacam state, bidi tobacco accounts for more than 80 per cent of the total crop including various types of- tobacco. Gujarat, incidentially, has tecorded great progress in the field of researck in improvement of production not merely in bid/ tobacco but in oth~" types of tobacco also. Under a special scheme, effoct has been made since 1966-67 to raise virginia flue-outed tobacco in light soil in the State. During 1973-76, an area of. 1,000 hectares of hnd has been brought under cultivation of VFC tobacco. ".Che success achieved by Gujarat could be gauged from the fact that the yield of tobacco in this state has gone up bT about 73 per cent during the last 20 yea~_s, as against only nine per cent all-India. From 1970, the research station established in 1946 has been mkeaz over by the Gujarar Agricultural Uni- versity. It is the main center for bid/ tobacco research besides being the headquarters of the All-India Coordi- nated Research Project on Tobacco. for c garette and filter produchon. For details contact: SGIILATTEllER K6 Maschinenbandweberei D 7922 Herbrechtingen, Germany P.O. Box 44 Tel: 2045/46 - Telex: 07-14834 T!53810026
Page 25: TI53810027
World demand should cure Indm tobacco problems BY DR. M. S. PATEL Chairman India Tobacco Export Promotion Council DIRECTION OF INDIAN EXPORTS (Quantity In millions of kg,--Value in Crores Rs.) 1961.62 I962~3 1963-64 1964~65 Z965-66 1966-67 UK & Western Europe 24. 11 23 11 20 11 21 11 19 10 19 12 Eastern Europe 11 1 30 6 33 8 42 10 26 7 8 3 Middle East 4 1 3 -- 4 1 5 -- 5 1 4 1 So~th-East Asia 3 1 3 1 4 1 6 2 4 I 4 2 African countries 2 -- 1 -- 2 -- 4 1 3 1 3 1 Total Including others 44 14 60 18 63 21 78 24 57 20 37 19 XN~X, which is curently ranked third in totat world to- bacco production, contributes about nine per cent of the totat world output and occupies an equally prominent position in exports= India is, once agsin,-the wo-rld's third largest exporter of Virginia Rue-cured tobacco, a position that situates her only behind the United States and mainland C~inao Reliance on flue-cured Virginia Despite the fact that, having been third in the exports of unmanufactured tobacco in 1963 and 1964, India slipped tofifth place in 196,5, and ~ollowed the United States, Turkey, Creeee, Rhodesia and Brazil in 1966, she has main- rained her position as the third largest exporter of Virginia flue-cured tobacco, with this variety constituting 86 per cent of her total tubaeeo exports. [See the, table below for aN appreclation of the fiends in tobacco exports in the major exporting cmm~rie~.] " India owes her position in the world tobacco export trade to the introduction and development of flue-cured Virginia tobacco since her advent into the field o£ exports during the 199.0"s. Compared to her exports o[ one crete o[ rapee~. during the 1930s, the introduction and development of flue-cured Virginia tobacco resulted in the graduaI stepping up of exports over the years, amounting to a tutaI of 24 crows of r-upee~ in 1964-65, though there was a subsequent drop to ab~ut 20 crores of rupees in 1965-66, and nearly ~19 crores of rupee~ in 1966-67. [The ~lear-wise expor~ of unmanufactured tobacco since the beginning of the Third Floe-Year Plan can be seen t~ the table on page 26,] As previously' mentioned, Virginia tobacco constitutes the bulk of India's total tobacco exports. Flue-cured's share in the total exports of unmanu[aebared tobacco increased from nearly 72"per cent in the period 1961-6~. to 84 per cent in 1905-66,°and nearly 77 pe-r cent in 1966-67. There has been a significant decline in India's exports of sun-cured ~'irginia tobacco in recent years, while there has been an increase in the export of sun-cured country ~natu" tobacco. On the other hand, ex¢orts o[ chewing, hookah and bidi to.baccos have increased'during recent years. Exports of e:~ar tobacco, however, have registered a.coosiderable de- clh,e in the last two years. Direction of expor~ One of the salient features of India's exports during the flr~t .~ears o[ the present dec~de has been the signi~cant off-take of Indian tobacco by the East European countries. The sudden spurt that was evidenced in their off-take of Indian tobacco in 1962 was primarily due to their tobacco crops having suffered an attack o[ blue-mold. From 30 million kilograms in 1962-63, their purchases rose to 4°. million kilograms in 1965-66, which was exactly twice the amount purchased b~ the United Kingdom and the West European countries during that year. This, however, could not be maintained during the last two years due to the fall registered in Indian.production and to the recover£_ of many of the countries tram the blue-mold affliction, and to the re-mnergence o[ a few as producers of tobacco. The quantum of yearlypurehases of Indian tobacco made by countries of the Middle East was maintained without any wide fluctuations. This was also the case with ship- ments of Indian tobacco made to South-East Asian and African countries. Traditional buyers of Indian tobacco • Though India exports her tobacco to more than 50 eoun- ~es of the world, the most prominent among the ~purehasers ~re the 15 countries listed in the table on pa~e 17. O[ these, the United Kingdom continues to maintain'her position as the leading purchaser of Indian tobacco. The United King- dora s preponderant dependence on Indian tobacco for part of her purchases stems from the fact that India,has been able to offer her choice types of flue-cured Virgiuia tobacco, thereby catering to her chan~ng consumer tastes over the years. The United Kingdom's accent is now on riper, orange WORLD'S MAJOR TOBACCO EXPORTERS (qua.tlty In Millions of Pounds} Country Average 1955-59 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 U.SA. 500 469 505 514 468 551 Rhodesia, Zambia & Malawi 149 216 213 253 304 115 Turkey 146 200 98 126 151 188 India 92 143 150 158 136 78 Greece 128 105 135 158 157 178 Brazil 6~ 92 80 133 122 101 C~nada 37 49 39 52 42 38 Yugoslavia 40 34 35 50 51 46 Ti53810027
Page 26: TI53810028
INDIA UNMANUFACTURED ~S t~mtily in mi$1ions of kg.,--vzh~e i~ Crm'es ~ Repees) Year q~ta_ ~ r~Jty_ Value 1961-62 44.4 14.0 1962-63 60.2 18.0 1963-64 63.4 21.0 1964-65 78.1 24.2 1965-66 56.6 19.5 1966-57 37.4 i8.6 INDIAN PRODUCTION AND VALUE BY VARIETIES .Vapory Quantity (million kg.) _Value.(L__akhs of Rupees) 64-65 65-66 66-67 64-65 65-66 66-67 F.C.V. 66.7 47.6 28.8 2188 1738 1630 S.C.V. 4.9 1.4 1.1 102 48 ,38 S.C.C. 1.2 1.9 1.8 25 60 84 Chewin8 " 3.7 4.0 3.8 69 74 73 Hookah 0.03 0.05 0.06 1.0 1.9 3.1 Bidi 0.05 0.7 0.4 1.5 20.8 9.5 Cigar 0.1 u ~ 0.5 0.2 0.2 Others 1.6 1.0 1.5 38.7 16.3 20.3 Total 78,1 56.6 37.4 24.2 19.6 18.6 tobaccos as against her earlier de~nands for neutral, co]ory cigarette tobacco. lu view of the chan.ging cousumer demand, the United Kingdom% requirem~al~ are no~ eat~e~trated oa grades ;3 to ~'r~- t~ ~[km-eltred V'lr~ia tobact~o, as ag~l; previ~s p-de~r~ee for grades 1 to 4. Tl-,e United Kiagdt~m, "s purchases o£ Indian tobacco in terms of qtmnt-am as we~l_ as in vahm have been stable thrtmghout the last few d~*e~les. Next in the order of importance, as regards markets for Indian tobacco, comes the rssm Though the quanbam of purd~ases of Indian tobacco made by the So~qet Union generally exceeds that of the United ~Cingdom, i,n terms of value, it stands sec~ond to the United Kingdoms. This is because the Russian purdmses over the years h_ave been main|y confined to medium and low grades of Indian flue- cured V~rgmm tobacco, as agmust t~e Umted Kingdom purchases of high grades of Indian flue-cured Virginia to- bacco. IIowever, there appears to be a perceptible ehan~e in tlxe Soviet Union's purchases during recent years, evidenced by her preference now for more o~ the high grades of flue- cured Virginia tobacco. The Soviet Union's purchases during 1966-67 diminished considerably due to the prevalence of a short-crop condition in India during that season. ~ Japan has, of late, been turning more of her attention towards purchases of Indian tobacco. Whereas this country was pnrchasing medium grades of Indian tobacco durin~ the earlier y_ears only with a view to use it as fillers not for blendin~ uurposes. Now she has come to recognize Indian tobacea~a~ that which can be utilized as an integral part of blenc~ used in "the manufacture of their own ciga- rette brands. ]aban's purchases of blgh grades of flue-cured Virginia tol3a~ce h~ve increased ~onsiderably both in terms of BUYERS PACKERS EXPORTERS INDIAN FLUECURED: SUNCURED; BURLEY TOBACCOS Messrs. POLISETTY SOMASUNDARAM .... Tobacco Exporters "POST BOX 99--GUNTUR (S. INDIA) CABLES: "$UNDARAM GUNTUR" n| TI53810028
Page 27: TI53810029
ize ra]" ~ia o~ Qty. Vat. qty, VaL Qty. YaL U.K. , 17.5 1002 15.4 936 15.7 1127 Belgium 1.7 37 1.6 44- 1.8 72 Netherlands 1.2 23 1.3 29 0.7 19 Sweden 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1 3 U.S.S.R. 36.8 862 23.0 579 4.5 187 G.D.R. 1.7 58 1.7 57 2.0 91 Yugoslavia 2.0 47 0.5 12 Hungary 1.0 13 0.5 7 -0.6 10 Aden 4.2 71 4.5 76 4.1 74 Japan 3.5 118 0.9 39 1.4 89 Nepal 1.2 36 1.0 15 0.9 18 Singapore 0.8 32 " 0.4 23 U.A.R. 1.2 27 1.7 39 0.7 19 Ivory Coast .1.0 8 0.2 2 0.3 4 Senegal Republic 1.0 "9 0.5 5 0.5 1 quantity and of value. , " The United Arab Republics purchases since the early years of the present deea-de have-been punctuated by ~vid~ fluctuations. Their off-take had a sudden upward spart from 17,693 kg., valued at Rs. 31,542 in 1961-62, to 187,- 812 kg., valued at Rs. 7.98 lakhs,in 1962-63, with nothing at all in 1963-64. This eountry s later purchases, which were sizable, may be noted from the figures ~ven in the table above. It is si~t to note that the UJ~R. ~ shor'dy vm _tgdng to l~rd~ase high grade~ of Indian to~eco. Her ptndmse~ for ~ l~anonth period commen~i~g from March_ 1967 on, are expected to touch tim 2.5 Crete; of Rupees m_~ which will surpass her entire purchases ~of Indian tobacco made during the present decade up until prospects for India's tobacco industry A_s for the present world situation, the increased demand coupled with the ban on Rhodesian tobacco imports augur well for larger exports of Indian tobacco. With the advance- ment that India is making in the field of tobacco research, technology and development programs, quali~y is bound to improve, leadin~o to an even ]ar~er,~ share of foreign ex- change through exports. [] FIItrona India L~d., Cigarette Com~nents Ltd., of London, has plans for enlarging Bombay (above) facllit;es, Increasing production area threefold. Filtrona India produces filters for the Indian market. .f MADD1 VENKA TARA TNAM and Company Private Limited Tabacco Redryers, De lers, Exporters P.O. Box No. 2.. CHILAICALURPET Guntur District, S. INDIA \"~,mher 17, 1967 Cables: Evergreen Chilakalurpet TI~e M~ Lrse!~tl Paper--TOl~A~:g--17 T!53810029
Page 28: TI53810030
---
Page 29: TI53810031
New brands in Rhodesia TOBACCO REPORTER FEBRUARY 1976 Th¢ initial slump in dgarct~ sales in 1Lhodcsia took place as expected during January following the demise of 70 intematioaal alga- ream brands in the country (see page 57), The international brands ~ dropped January 1 became of the import needs in maintaining lmmditds set for the production of these l~aads. But 14 replacement brands have entered the market, all packaged in materials produced in Rhodesia. These new brands aie being jointly manufactured by Rothnums and BAT. Sales are eipected to pick up and stand near normal levels by the end of the first quar- ter (more on new brands on page 57). " Cimpai~n to A "minor" campaign is taking place in the Philippines to have smokers roll their roll your own. own cigarettes "to save on taxes." Another alternative on ov.ercoming the cigarette tax, ~ according to retxirts, is the suggestion to switch m cigar smoking. Different brindl There are more than 200 different cigarette brands manufactured in Indo- in Indormtia nesia, but only about 25 are well known to the average smoker. Limited pro- duction and lack of advertising are blamed for this difference. Of the advertised ~ brands, 20 arc filter tipped. Bidi imokinI The Bangladesh government has ordered smoking of bidi made fro~ leaf punish- with firm able with a fine of up to 50 rupees (US$5.65) or seven days in jail at hard 1obor. The order is aimed at stopping smuggling of bidi leaf from India, Smoking of bidi made of llapei ~,a~xlrted from Japan is allowed. . . .$moking/u~ ,¢'~ ~ smoking hi lcthmd is reported on the increase desptte a valorous m k~hdil ,~..~ ~,~-'~.'. ~ng campaignwtled oft tdevbimi ~ in print. The five millioa kronour • ,x i (U$$30,000) campaign agaimt ~ is financed through money from the sale ;~f.~:~:.i~ld:: '-t**~t.. Suprer~ ~iulltil in Iadia states that tobacco "being a health hazard L...~..,..iiil~,l~~ luxurg" ~ a license fee must. be imposed for its sale and stocking. Dinh~ lllel + :.;i, ;f~'-,?":~_.s,.~ I~ Delhi~k ot ~ have declined roughly seven per • ,lial .lad toha lm 114 per c, ttt Bodmm IUff'o:.. ;;"~!~':'.'".E".<:~:mdmtnm .19odmm lUff mth, No. 1 impm~"pil~ tobaeco b .r~l. in the ~/~/'! a llday I trip i gcandlnavia it $2,!3& The catalogs have Ipettt !tl telail in 1974 -- the last year for which figures were available ~ $6.7 b-;tt<-'on~ieas retailers' Federal, state and local 'razes took $~:~1t billion. Nearly'a quarter of fi billion dol- S~tce ~nS, A Casper, Wyomi~ ~aa/d~t bos-d,~lot~l ~ ~e ttrms a compact air-tight padl alr-tigllt polch for muff ~ amt# t~ "~ ~~ ~ ~ hilmrs, pouchel, Norman L. Roll mid his "invention" is made of pliable htyers of plastic material Dined together by a flanlle i channel armigement at tt~ top. Ragal ~ Two Scmtish ~ are now o.ir#ag f-all wra~-arotLM adverti~,netfik for a W. 15. on Om bulal & H. O. Wills cigarette brand uiing the theme "Emba~ Regal ~ Scotland's N0, I clgi- rette." The lmies olxrate oa routes in Glalgow. AccoMing to a ~ the Ida will laty tm abe buzes for aboat a year. T!53810031
Page 30: TI53810032
ST. JOSEPH, MO. NEWS-t~RESS D. 44,713 -- S. $1,293 ST, JOSEPH METROPOLITAN AREA :' No Smoking at All Word ft'om New Delhi is to the effect that the government ~f Indi.a is studying legisla- tion to outlaw smoking ih the country. The announeernent was made in reply to the Tuberculosis Association o[ India and the Indian Association for Chest Disease. Which presented Deputy Health Minister A. K. Kiski ~th a resolution against smoking, and ask- ing a legal ban on the habit. "The proposal is already under consid- eration by the govdrnment of India in con- sulatation with the state governments," he said. This would be the first ban on s~.oking on such large scale and would make our own "Surgeon General's Warning" seem mild in comparison. It may be many years b~fore s~eh a ban is sought in this country, but there will be such an attempt. Mark our word. TI5381003
Page 31: TI53810033
CHICAGO, ILL. TRIBUNE D. 745,210-S. 993.865 CHICAGO MI"[ROPOLI]~.N AI~EA India studies national prohibition on smoking. NEW DELIll, India, April 23 lAP I -- The govermnent today announced it is s~udying legislation Io outlaw smok- ing in India. Deputy Health Minister A. K. Kisku told Parliament the Tuberculosis Association of India and the Indian Association for Chest Diseases had passed a resotutim~ against sm._.o_ki._n_g and requested a legal ban on the habit liE SAID the proposal is all'early under cm~sideration of the government of India in consuhation wilh the state governments. He did not say how such a pr~)hibition wouM hc enforced. Ti53810033
Page 32: TI53810034
Ti53810034
Page 33: TI53810035
ll 'FSRNATIONAI. NEWS British firm offers $415 million for Liggett Grand Metropolitan Ltd., the large British hotel, restaurant, liquor and gambling company, offered to pay $50 a share, or $415 million in cash, for the 90.5 percent of the Liggett Group Inc. that it does not now own. Grand Metropolitan already owns 802,000 shares of Liggett's common stock--about 9.5 percent of the outstanding common, which" it acquired through market pur- chases from June 19?9-March 1980 at a cost of about $30.5 million. Liggett, a consumer products company whose best-known ciga- rette brands are Chesterfield an'd L & M, declined to comment on the anticipated move, but reportedly' considers the offer unfriendly. In March, Liggett officials said Met- ropolitan's attempt to acquire the stock could be "seriously detrimen- tal" to Liggett shareholders and began a vigorous legal assault to stop the takeover move. Wall Street experts are busily trying to find a company which Liggett would prefer over Metro- politan, to make a competing offer. Any competing offer, while not impossible, would be difficult, partly because of the high cost of funds, but also because of historic ties between Grand Metropolitan and Liggett, according to the :New York Times. The most significant of these is J & B Scotch Whisky which Grand Met produces and licences to Liggett's Padington Corp. under an agreement which expires in 1990. Grand Met has already in- formed Liggett that it is "unlikely" that it will renew the license, thereby making it difficult for any other potential purchaser to outbid Grand Met~ Grand Metropolitan said it had filed the necessary documents with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the states of New Jersey, where Liggett has its bead- quarters, and North Carolina, where it has major tobacco opera- tions. The official offer, scheduled to begin April 21, could be delayed be- cause of a preliminary injunction in North Carolina which Liggett ob- tained to block any takeover pend- ing the filing. CANADA: Flue-cured sales total 146.4 million lbso Negotiations between Ontario flue-cured tobacco producers and buyers on the price and conditions for the 1980 crop began in April. The target production level for 1980 could be 250 million pounds, 20 million pounds more than the original production target for 1979. The 1979 flue-cured tobacco crop selling season ended February 29. Sales totaled 146.4 million pounds, and prices averaged C$1.35 per pound, well above the guaranteed minimum of C$1.16. In addition, about 2.8 million pounds of special factor and non-descript tobacco were sold. The crop had been severely reduced by blue- mold disease. The Canadian government, after close examination of product and residue tolerances, has approved the chemical, Ridomil, for field use in controlling blue-mold. FRANCE: Tobacco production increased 4 percent France's tobacco area decreased percent from 1978, because of rainy spring weather. However, produc- tion in 1979 increased 4 percent over 1978 to 52,000 tons, as a result of yield increases in dark air-cured types. New flue-cured varieties are be- ing tested at several locations in the tobacco producing regions as a result of the shift in consumer preferences from dark to light to- bacco. Production of flue-cured to- bacco in commercial quantities, however, is at least two years away. French imports of unmanufac- tured tobacco totaled 50,000 tons in 1979, down 32 percent from pre- vious years. The reduced imports were the result of large carryin stocks and lower consumption dur- ing 1979. A 2.3 percent drop in overall tobacco consumption is at- .tribute~l t.o the French antismok- ~ pmgn . INDIA: Tobacco consumption on downward trend India has the lowest consumption rate of cigarettes and other tobacco goods, according to the latest re- port of the World Health Organiza- tion (WHO) expert committee on smoking control. While the cigarette consumption rate in Pakistan is 760 per adult, per year, 480 in Ghana and 230 in Indonesia, the rate in India is only 170. The consumption rate of all to- bacco goods is also lower in India, only 0.6 kg. per adult per annum, while in Pakistan it is 1.7 kg., 0.8 in Indonesia, 2.9 kg. in Singapore, and 2.5 kg. in Hong Kong. The rate of consumption of all tobacco goods is steadily declining. In 1935 and 1950, it was 0.9 kg. and in 1965, it was 0.8 kg.. again in 1979, continuing a down- -Buyers delinquent turn that began in 1976 and Ls ex- in payments pected to continue in I980. French Many tobacco companies in An- growers were able to plant only dhra Pradesh have allegedly not 19,500 hectares in 1979, down 4 paid the agriculturalists for to- TI53810035
Page 34: TI53810036
India ns tap filter c=garets to reve decline i,n sales BoMBAY--The Indian go~ern- ment has perennially reaped the bountiful harvest of sales revenue generated by its 24,000,000 smok- ing countrymen. Every year, it seems, more people ~ke up the habit and the state duly hikes the excise tax on cigarets. But ~ven with its income being increasingly cropped by taxation, the cigaret in- dustry annually records abOt~t a 7% growth. This pattern may now have come to an end. Though official figures are not yet ~va~ble fbr calendar year 1979, ~nost industry ob~erve~ fear a drop in sales growth to 3%. Total cigaret (and other tobacco product) sales for the last year are estimated at Rupees 8 billion ($1.01 billion) and for this figure to ex- pand, cigaret marketers will have to deal ever more effectively with the problems their market presents. Foremost among these difficul- ties is the immensity of the market: some 80% of the 600,000,000 Indian population lives in rural areas. A great percentage of them is illiter- ate and economically hard- pressed, which makes it difficult ~o mount a single, effective ad cam- paign. Distribution is made diffi- cult by the marked economic and geographic variations. Moreover, 70% of cigaret sales are in "sticks," Indian vernacular for single units. • One plan of operation is to stimu- late sales by broadening the c igaret categories, namely bringing to ma- turity the filter sector already in full bloom. Currently the two lead- . ing filter brands, Wills and Bristol. are tied for fifth Iflace in total mar- ket share, with 4% each. (Cavender Magnum, a nonfilter brand, also claims 4%.) BothWills and Bristol are marke- ted by India Tobacco Co. Ltd. (ITC), which is 40% owned by British-American Tobacco Ltd. . ITC, whose 449o share of total ci- garet sales makes it India's largest marketer, has become adept at dealing with the ctmllenges of the Indian market. The company, which has a huge field force working with distribu- tors, derives nearly 25% of its sales from the rural sector, and 1Lke a tea company, ITC h~ ~ven developed products especially for this mar- ket. Or~e of the most ~ssful ru- rat ~ is Guinea Gold, one of ITC's stable of 4~. There are nearly I00 brands on the market_at any give~ time, but I0 of them monopolize nearly two- thirds of that market. Tobacco- nists, srnatl-time busines=men who work out of kiosks, sell cig'arets by the 10 or ~0-1mck or aa individual sticks. • • The far-reaching popularity achieved by American brands dur- ing World War H altered the course of Indian preferences in two ways: 1) the acceptance of the stronger cured tobacco and 2) the crush- able pack of 20, which brought about the death of elegant metal~ci- garet cases and the cumbersome tins of 50s. Charminar, a nonfilter brand whose 18% market share makes it No. I in India, profited from the rise in popularity of the stronger dark, air-cured, natural tobacco, compared to the flue-cured Vir- ginia variety. In the early '70s. when many brands tried to cash in on thi~ l~enome~on, Charminar's marketer, Vazir Sultan Tobacco Co. Ltd. (VST), decided advertising for the brm~d needed ul~rading. Both copy hnd graphics had to be altered to produce a sharper, more distinctive image that would at the same time be more modern. Agency Clarion Advertising created the headline, "Relax! Have a Charminar." Coincidingwith this new platform was a cleanup job on the pack, which retained its dis- tinctive symbol and lettering. • Research had shown that Char- minar had high acceptance at all socio-economic levels, despite its price, packaging and down-market bias of the past. This created a problem in illustrating the print ads, since India has no universally accepted symbol of masculinity such as the cowboy in Marlboro ad~. The solution was to feature a series of husky types, usually workers or athletes. The brand took off and has never lookedback. Vazir Sultan now has a 22% market share. Another brand that has over- come the peoblem of"commodity type" cigaret ~ds is ITC's Wills Fil- RECEIVED .IAN I 4 1980 Leading Brands Market Brand Share Charminar (VST) ........... 18% Scissors (tiC) ............. 13 Panama (GTC) ............ 7 Cavender Magnum (GP) ..... 4 Wills (F)(ITC) .............. 4 Br~'to~ (F)(rrc) ............. 4 Red &White (F)(GP) ........ 2 Golden Gold Flake (F)(GTC).. 2 Berkeley (ITC) ............. 2 Five Leading Tobacco Manufacturers India Tobacco Co. Ltd. 44% Vazir Sultan Tobacco Co. Ltd. 22 Golden Tobacco Co.15 Godfrey Philips 10 National Tobacco Co. 8 ter. The cigaret was launched in July 1963, a time when four exist- ing filter brands could barely scrape together a combined 2% share of market. Wills' advertising claims hovered between taste and satisfaction, taking a somewhat apologetic attitude toward the fil- ter. Then Hindustan Thompson As. sociates, Wills" ad agency, came up with the "made for each other" theme. The new mis po~rayed the compatibility of the filter and the tobacco. Artwork never varied from a stylish couple enjoying an intimate moment together. Over 15 years, the theme has been used with only minor changes, usually concessions to fashioh trends. The result has been leadership in .the filter segment. "Made for ea~=h ¢~I~* th~r~, devel- oped by I-lim~u=~n Tnomp~n Associ- ates, li~d ~ imo a m of the top TI53810036
Page 35: TI53810037
RECEIVED JAN I 19B0 • VST noted with concern the search findings that Ch~rmfrmr v~slos~ng franchise to filters in the younger ~e groups, which seemed to be as concerned with trendiness as with safer smoking. The answer was Charminar Gold Filter, whose positioning was devised skillfully to attract newcomers as much as to catch the outflow from the nonffl- ter brand. Growth of f~ter brands is mainly a phenomenon of the '70s, caused as much by considerations bf mo- dernity as by fear of health hazards. Currently representing nearly 25% of the market, with a stick growth rate of 15% ~s. 2% for plain, filters will surely double in unit sales in the next five years, clearly making this segment the battleground of the '80s. Mentholated brands, presently a highly competitive segment in the U.S., constitute barely 1% of the In- dian market; and the factors of tar content and filter construction have yet to become features of ci- garet ads here. # Charminar, India's No. 1 brand, under- went a complete advertising facelift in the early '70s. Agency is Clarion Adver- tising. Charminar is VST's only brand amm~ th~ top 10, ~ =tccou~ for Ti53810037
Page 36: TI53810038
typ~ of coffee (Colombian mikls, other mik~ emrashed Arabicas, ~ R~) ~ ~ ~ p~ ~ 38.67, 39.67, ~ ~.67 ~n~ f~ ~ ~o~ ~ ~ ~t, s~d, ~ ~ qu~ ~~. ~ ~ ~m~ ~ of ~e f~ ~ f~ b~ow 36.67 ~, ~ucfi~ of 2 mglion ba~ in ~ quo~ cuts w~ ~ made. ~ (. !n~!~igareae Consumption Ri~s Sales of cigarettes in India are estimated to have increased to a record 60 billion pieces in calendar 1968, 6 billion more than in 1967. This increase, which boosted per capita con- sumption of cigarettes from 106 in 1967 to 114 in 1968, occurred despite the increased cigarette grices from higher government taxes. Smokers in India can now choose from among 128 brands of cigarettes, both plain and filter-tipped, m~inufaetured by the indigenous cigarette industry. Iranian Pistachio Crop Down Iran's 1969 pistachio crop, a cyclical crop, is forecast at 7,500 short tons in-shell basis, 56 percent below 1968% record 17,000 tons. Better quality is expected this year because of timely pest control and reduced fruit production. Exporters are currently quoting f.o.b, prices ranging between 63.5-65.8 cents per pound, compared with 56.%59.0 cents per pound in 1968. During the first 7 months of the 1968-69 marketing season, exports of unshelled and shelled pistachios totaled 6,433 and 96 short tons respectivdy. This compares to the 1967-68 season totals of 3,503 and 86 tons respectively. The United States is Iran's biggest pistachio customer. IRAN'S PISTACHIO SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION [In-shell basisJ Item 1965-66 1966-67 196%68 1968-69 1,000 ~hort tons Beginning stocks (Sept. 23) 0 Production .............. 8.3 Total supply ........... 8.3 Exports ................. 6.6 Domestic disappearance ... 1.7 Ending stocks (Sept. 22) .. 0 Total distribution ...... 8.3 1,000 1,000 1,000 short ~hort abort tOl~ tOl~ tOll$ 0 3.3 1.1 16.5 4.4 17.0 16.5 7.7 18.1 9.8 3.6 9.4 3.4 3.0 3.7 3.3 1. I 5.0 16.5 7.7 18.1 French Prune Pack Up Indications are that the 1969-70 French prune pack will set another record--21,000 short tons, 31 percent above last year's record 16,000. Quality is expected to only be fair, with fruit primarily in smaller sizes. This is France's fourth straight record prune pack, the result of recent plantings coming into production. The trade believes output could reach 27,000 tons in the near future. Poor Potato Crop in Sweden. According to a recent report from the Agricultural Attach6 in Stockholm, L~e Swedish potato crop will be the lowest of reco~ since World War H. The 1969 crop has been o~icialiy estimated at 84~,000 tons compared with an average of about 1o8 milliou tons. October ~, 19~9 are amicipated became consumption is not expected to decline. Trade opportunities for U.S. potatoes are possible if heroic conditions warrant and if U.S. fresh potatoes can meet the rigid Swedish plant quarantine requirements. Sweden will accept State certificates, so interested growers should check with State plant quarantine officials to see if their potatoes could meet Swedish requirements. Processed po- tatoes can be imported freely. Smaller Greek Dried Fruit Pack The 1969 Greek pack of dried fruit is down from the 1968 level, owing to lower production of sultana raisins. The raisin crop is now estimated at 86,000 short tons compared with 105,000 tons in 1968. Smaller fruit size due to hot weather in May is blamed for much of the reduction. The currant harvest is estimated at 99,000 tons, almost the same as last year's 101,000-ton output. Fig production rose from 26,400 tons in 1968 to 28,000 this year, but the quality of this year's figs was greatly reduced by late rains in production areas. 1968-69 exports of Greek raisins are now estimated at a record 90,000 short tons--an increase of 29 percent from the February forecast and 57 percent above 1967-68 sales. The sharp increase was reportedly due to the poor Australian harvest and expectation of higher prices resuRing from smaller Mediterranean crops this year. Currant exports in 1968-69 are estimated at 58,000 tons, about 3,500 tons less than in 196%68. Fig exports totaled 11,600 tons--up 47 per- cent from the 7,900 tons shipped in 196%68. Exports from the 1969 fig crop to the United States are expected to be less than 1,000 tons because of the low quality. This would represent a sharp drop from the nearly 1,900 tons shipped in 1968-69. Small Potato Crop in England Prospects for main-crop potatoes in England and Wales are not promising. Yields are forecast at 9.8 long tons per acre. This is ~ ton per acre lower than last year and ~ ton lower than the 1966-68 average. Total potato acreage is down 11~ percent from 1968, the smallest since Ix~fore World War H. Because of the reduced acreage and lower yields, there are some fears of a potato shortage in 1970. Canada Expects Increased Oilseed Crops Flaxseed production in Canada is currently estimated at 32.8 million bushels, 67 percent higher than the 1968 outturn of 19.7 million, and second only to the record 1956 harvest of 35.0 million bushels. Acreage increased 60 percent over last year and yields per acre 4 percent. Estimated rapeseed production soared to 37.6 million bushels, 46 percent above the previous record crop of 25.8 million in 1966. The rapeseed area totaled 2.01 million acres, an increase of 91 percent over last year's 1.05 milh'on. Yidds per acre in 1969 are expected to average 18.7 bushels com- pared with 18.4 bushels a year ago. TI53810038
Page 37: TI53810039
U.S. DEP, I~T~4~'~I" OF AGRICUI_TURE WASI'~IN~TON. D. C.~ 282~0 OFFICIAL POSTAGE • FL=F.S PAJD or TYPE ~he new sddres~, iaclud~ ZIP CODE~ =rid re/~n/he whole sheet to: Foreign Agrlculhn~l Service, Rm, S915 U~. Depmdment of AgrlcuR/re W~o~ D,C. 20~S0 Production estimates released by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics on September 5 were based on yields indicated as of August 15. CANADA'S FLAXSEED AND RAPESEED ACREAGE Flaxseed Rapeseed Year Area Yield Produc- Area Yield Produc- tion -tion Bushels Bushels 1,000 per 1,000 1,000 per 1,000 Average acres acre ' bushels acres acre ' bushels 1962-66... 1,867 11.6 21,732 920 16.5 15,170 Annual: 1967 ..... 1,023 9.2 9,378 1,620 15.2 24,700 1968 ..... 1,524 12,9 19,666 1,052 18.4 19,400 t969 ' .... 2,440 13.4 32,796 2,012 18.7 37,600 ~ Bushels of 56 lb. ' Bushels of 50 lb. ' Estimate as of Sept. 5, 1969. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Brazil Raises Oilseed Prices The Brazilian Government, in an effort to encourage in- creased production, has raised support prices in the central and southern regions for a number of 1969-70 crops, including castorseed, soybeans, peanuts, and cottonseed. The decree establishing the new minimum prices was published August 7, 1969. (See also Foreign Agriculture, Aug. 25, 1969.) SUPPORT PRICES FOR BRAZIL'S OILBEARING CROPS Support prices Percentage Commodity Unit 1968-69 1969-70 increase Kilograms NCr $ NCr $ Percent Castorseed . .. 60 9.28 17.46 88.1 Soybeans .... 60 9.9/ 13,00 30.4 Peanuts ...... 25 6.30 8.00 27.0 Cottonseed . .. 15 7.00 8.70 24.3 Brazil Expects Record Soybean Crop Brazil's soybean plantings for harvest in 1970 are expected to increase by about 20 percent--to possibly 2.7 million acres, on the basis of growers" planting intentions. Should the aver- age yield approximate the 1969 indicated yield, the 1970 harvest (March-June) could attain a record 40 million bushels of soybeans. The 1969 crop is now estimated, unofficially, at 33.8 million bushels. Plantings in Paran~, which now acemmt~ for about one- .~xth of total production, arc expected to increase by about one-third, primarily because of 2 factors: f~xst, soybeans arc one of the crops which will be planted between rows of coffee trees damaged by July frost; and second, there is an increasing interest in wheat not only in Paran~ but also in Rio Grande do Sul, the source of about three-fourths of the total soybean crop. Soybeans and wheat complement each other in these two States, but lack of combines has been a limiting factor for soybean production. Now, the government's program to pro- mote wheat production will also benefit soybeans, as most of the machinery can be used for both crops. Practically all soybean farms in the State of Silo Paulo, the third largest producing State, are fully mechanized. Soybean exports during 1969 are expected to reach a record 12 to 13 million bushels, most o[ which has already been sold and shipped. Exports were only 2 million in 1968 and 11 million in 1967. There is concern that some of the soybeans contracted for export but not shipped may be delivered instead for domestic crushing where the current market price is now above the export price. Soybean meal exports during January-June 1969 totaled 71,035 tons compared with 54,433 tons during the same period a year earlier. At the end of Iuly the government announced the new minimum prices for 1970 crop soybeans. They average about 30 percent above the corresponding prices for the 1969 crop but are considerably below the current and expected farm prices. The major importance of the minimum price is as a base for production financing from government and private banks. Crops and Markets Index Fats, Oi1~ and Oilseeds 16 Brazil Expect~ Record Soybean Crop 16 Brazil Raises Oilseed Prices 15 Canada Expects Increased Oilseed Crops Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts 15 French Prune Pack Up 15 Iranian Pistachio Crop Down 15 Poor Potato Crop in Sweden 15 Smaller Greek Dried Fruit Pack 15 Small Potato Crop in England Grai~, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds 14 July Grain Stocks Up 14 Major Canadian Wheat Sale to Philippines 14 Weekly Report on Rotterdam Grain Prices 14 World Production of Barley, Oats Rises Sugar, Fiber~, ami Tropical Products 14 Action to Bolster Sugar Pricv~ 14 Coffee Quota~ Set Tobacco 15 Indian Cigarette Consumpdon RL~s TI53810039
Page 38: TI53810040
~--SUN'DAy NEWS, ~Y 25. tlndiaWeighs gut- ate PaCk Of Cigs for U.S. By PRAKASH JAIN New Delhi, July 24--The In- dian govez~ment Js considering an invasion of the American cigaret market, it, was disclosed today. Research is vnder way in New York City on how to pop- ularize the cheap, mild~ Indian bidi. The bidi is a hand-made dgaret : with .a tobacco leaf wrapper, little shorter than regular sizel and larger at one end than the[ other. Twenty o£ them cost about 4 cents he]'e. A "Woodsy" Taste The better bidis are enjoyed l~y many foreign visitors who de- scribe the mild smoke ~arious]y as "woodsy," and "like incense." The big problem is how to I~oP- ularize the odd-looking eigaret with Americans. That task was placed in the hands of a New, York marketing ~'esearch whose first recommendation was that bidis be distributed to air- lines and to clubs and gatherings in the states. The ~irm reported it found the eigarets appeal more to American women than to men, and ~ndicated that they might catch on. India's Tobacco Export Promotion Ccxm- eil is stud,x, ing the ~'eport. Indians smoke more than 150 ~illion bidis a year, consuming 1[i0 million p~unds of native- grown leaf for the wrappers. T!53810040
Page 39: TI53810041
---
Page 40: TI53810042
Ti53810042
Page 41: TI53810043
TI53810043
Page 42: TI53810044
---
Page 43: TI53810045
SCIENCE NEWS ~INE Nov. 18, 1967 page 495. ~o~ ~A Oral Cancer A tasty and expensive mixture of chewing tobacco ~rown in northern section of India has the dubious dis- finction of causing more cancer of th4 mouth than any other tobacco. It is found in Mainpuri, near Agra. In the United States, tobacco chew- lug is a dying habit and few studies have been made of its effects, but in Southeast Asia, the World Health Or- ganization has been promoting a four- year study to find out why the rate of oral cancer is so high, especially in the Mainpuri district. Mainpuri tobacco is mixed with lime, :finely cut betel nuts and other ingredients that cause the mixture to be particularly dangerous. Other tobaccos are considerably less potent in increas- ing the cancer risk among chewers. The incidence of mouth cancer in Mainpuri i~ 21.4 per 100,000, the world's highest figure. TJae WHO-study has been conducted by Prof. P. N. Wahi and his associates in the cancer research unit of the de- partment of pathology at the Medical College, Agra. The 9rearer the amount of tobacco in the quid chewed, the higher the cancer rate becomes. The risk is higher if the quid is kept in the mouth during sleep, a fairly common custom. If the patient smokes and drinks, in addition to chewing tobacco, the risk grows. Since the illiterate poor cannot bu~ the expensive mixture, there is more mouth cancer among the educated. K. ~. Nayar Ti53810045
Page 44: TI53810046
PITTSBURGH, PA. PRESS D. :345,762 _ $. 739,431 PITT.SBU~GH METROPOLITAN AREA .....• --': ; 1,,~7 lCancer Linked Tolndian'Chew' Press Science Service .&C-~&, ~d~.~ -- A ~a.~ty and expensive m~twe of chewing ~bacco ~own ~ a northern secLjon of ~dia has been blamed for causing ~ore ~ncer b~ the ~outh than a~ o~er ~ In ~e~, tobacco ~ew- ~g is a ~y~g h~bit and Jew studies have been made o[ i~ ~ecL, but in ~u~east Asia, the World Health Organi~- ~ion has ~en promoting a iour-y~r stay ~ f~d out why the ra~ o~ oral cancer is so h~h, expecially ~ nor~- ern ]ndia. The tobacco is m~ed wi~ lime, be~[ nu~ and ~gredi- en~ that ca~e the m~t~e ~ ~ be particularly dangerous.[ ~ther tobaccos are less ~ ~o~nt in increas~g ~e~ ~an~ .risk. ~ T!5381004.6
Page 45: TI53810047
A~,[i~IO TATI 0 H$ -ti~z L._tl~12LI'£ from hosph~I: mauy mothers commem~d on the anxiety of f~st ~ ~espo~-~ibility fu~ the chikl at home and the apparent lack of guidance at that time. The research committee's recommendations are, for the most part, unexceptionable and uaremarkable. They would have well-designed clinics, no stinting of ouday on their stuff or premises, and effective appointment systems; more advertisement of antenatal instruction and more evening classes; encouragement of husbandly interest in the pregnancy and participation in classes; close liaison between those giving antenatal instruction and those conducting labour; and mote support for the mother newly discharged home. The committee pleads, too, for more sex education in schools--but this more, apparently, on account of preconceptions than of any of their findings. The report rather suggests that, provided instruction is forthcoming when it is relevant, it need not be given before. OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER IN INDIA MA.x~" of the poorer people in India chew tobacco, alone or mixed with lime, with betel leaf, or with nut and llme. As has long been known, oral and oropharyngeal cancer is common in that part of the world,1 and from 34 to 47% of patients attending special cancer hospitals have tumours in this region. In Agra,~ ~ oropharyngeal cancer is exceeded in frequency only by female genital cancer; and breast and gastrointestinal cancer are rela- tively rare. Wahl et at.= report their findings in 1916 patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer. 52% arose on the buccal mucosa and 27% on the tongue, the anterior two-thirds of which was involved four times as often as the posterior third (this distribution is at variance with findings in other parts of India ~ where these cancers are common). The male/female ratio was 2-3/1, and the peak age in both sexes was 50-54 years. The disease was oftcn palulcss for some time, and, though most patients sought advice within six months of onset, 70% were in stage Ill or IV when first seen, and the prognosis was extremely poor because of early involvement of lymph- nodes on one or both sides of the neck. 0vcr 98% of these cancers wcrc squamous cancers, and the degree of differentiation decreased progressively from lips to tonsil. Compared with other countries, the frequency of other oral tumours, especially tumours of the minor salivary glands, was also greater. But such salivary-gland tumours in the mouth arc also familiar in other tropical countries where oral cpidcrmoid canccrs are not excessively common. The frequency of oropharyngcal cancer in India and the variations in the primary sites suggest local differences in environmental factors. In Agra, oral lenkoplakia was found chiefly in the buccal mucosa and less often on the tongue. In patients with such leukoplakia the serum-vitamin-A levels were below those of normal controls, and patients with oral cancer had stiIl lower levels of vitamin A. The consumption neither of alcoholnor of highly spiced foodstuffs seemed significant as a likely cause of oropharyngeal cancer; and syphilis did not seem relevant. The important influence in the 821 patients closely studied by Wahi ctal. was tobacco, either chewed 1. Orr, I. M. 7..~ac~t, 19~ ih 575. 2. Wahi, P. N., Lahiri, B.o Xehar, U., Aroca, S. Br. y. Ca~r, 19~5, IS, . W=hi. P. N., Kehar, U., Lahiri, B. t~'d. p. 642. . Ktta~etka~, V. IL Ceu-~r R~. 1944, 4, 313. o~ smoked. Tobacco-chewing was a habit of 86% of rinse with 1~ and of "/3% of those with oral cancer, but only I$% of the control series used tobacco. All women with lip cancer chewed tobacco. In those who d/d not use tobacco the anterior region of the tongue was more often affected, and the buccal mucosa was rarely involved. Those who chewed tobacco usually smoked it too, and the quid was often held in the check for long periods. Dental hygiene in the populations was poor. The question is whether tobacco is directly responsible, as a factor in persons with poor dental hygiene and vita- mln-A deficiency, which may increase keratiuisation of the oral mucosa. Certainly the case implicating tobacco- chewing as the chief cause of oropharyngeal cancer is strong. Curiously enough, however, Wahl ct aL have not considered the role of betel or of lime, which have been investigated elsewheres • as possiblcco-carcinogens. Itmay bcimpossiblc to identify the effects of these separate factors in retrospective studies, since individuals vary in their habits during their life. Yet further evidence must be sought, for it would bc hard to deny the Indian peasant the solace of tobacco-chewing if it could be rnadc a safe habit. Hirayama7 has now rcvicwcd the situation concerning oropharyngeal cancer in Central and South East Asia. Hc makes a strong case against tobacco-chewing, noting especially the close association between the site of the cancer and the place where the quid was usually lodged in the mouth. But hc also pointcd to the vcry high frequency in areas where tobacco was chewed with shell lime; to the comparative rarity of the disease in Kabull (Afganistan) and in Nigeria, where tobacco is chewed without lime; and to the high frequency in New Guinea, where betel and lime are chewed without tobacco. Very strong suspicion therefore attaches to lime as a cocarcino- gem The World Health Organisatlon now has a research project under way in the Mainpuri district of India to examine "this possibility. APATHETICS ANONYMOUS THI~ delay in building the new Chelsea group of special hospitals ~ is not unparalleled elsewhere, but it is particu- larly hard to accept for several reasons. The uncertainty about whether and when the site for the first phase will be available would have been resolved long ago had it not been for the lack of dynamism, amounting to apathy, of the Ministry of Health; the project team has produced a plan which has been generally accepted; the old hospitals which the new arc to replace in the first phase of the plan are notably dilapidated and inconvenient; and these new hospitals are essential if London is to remain a centre for instruction and research in the more recondite clinical specialties. It now seems that the site may not be fully cleared until 1971-72. Phase 1 is to include St. Mark's Hospital (diseases of the rectum), St. John's (skin), and the three small urological hospitals clustered round Covent Garden --namely, St. Peter's, St. Paul's, and St. Philip's. At the existing St. John's a 50-minute journey separates the inpatient from the outpatient department; and the three urological hospitals have, between them, only two X-ray departments, but a putative sixteen boilers with seven ~5. M.ult', C S., Kirk, R. B~-. y. CaKe:-, 19~0, 14, 597. ~ H i.~ayama,. T. B~II. IFId Hl~z Or~. 1966, S4# 41. $eeLamce¢, ]~z. 22. 1966, p. 189. TI53810047
Page 46: TI53810048
.642 F&CTORS INFLUF~OING ORAL AND OROPHARYNGEAL CANCERS P. N. W~, US~ ~ ~ B. ~I F~ t~ Ca~r ~ U~it, D~me~ of P~y, E~ini ~a~u M~ Uo~e, Agra, I~ Received for publication Juno 21, 1965 TI~ oral and oropharyngeal cancers predominate in cancer morbidity figures in India. The social customs, habits, nutritional state, and the climatic conditions 'vary remarkably in different parts of the globe, and even in different sectors of a big country like India. Due to the variability of these environmental factors with their direct or indirect carcinogenic influence on the human body, oral and ore- pharyngeal cancers emerge as a problem of geographical pathology. The wide • difference of their frequency in different parts of India (Fig. 1) demonstrates the Ti53810048
Page 47: TI53810049
BEAUMONT, TEX. ENTERPRISE D. 65,754 S. 75,176 ]Smoking Is Held ~Im"p6f1~t Factor In Mouth Cancer NEW DELH---~, India, Oct. 1~ (AP)--An expe~t group report- led Tu~ay smo~g Is an ~- ]~ant fac~r in ~uth cancer 'but worse still is an habi~al 'chewing of a m~ture of ~bac~ land ~e in s~me pa~ of A~a, The ~pe~s, from Ceylon, Denmark, India, Russia and ~uth Africa. said habitual chewing in InSa a~ other ~uth Asian co~ies is res~nsib]e for a ~ incidence of oral cancer, exce~ing cancer In other parts of the b~y. ~:In And~a state, InCa. many women who smoked cigars ~th he b~ing end inside the mouth suffered from or~ cancer, they ai~ T!5381004.9
Page 48: TI53810050
0 ~ 0 T153810050
Page 49: TI53810051
CC~TRIBUTI06S l~OM CENTRAL TOBACGO P~S~CH INSTITUTE ~ REGIONA~ ST:~TIONS,1967 - 1971, COml~led by D,(~h.Raja Rao, CI~I"RAL TOBACCO RESE~,RCH 1NSTITb'T~, -RAJAHblb'NDR Y- 1, :INDIA. Hatch, 1973. TI53810051
Page 50: TI53810052
Research ~orkers o~ ~he Ins~itu~e ~d ~eg~on~ S~a~ions du~n~ the yeats ~g49-~g66 were comp~led ~ brought out In M~ch 1968, as a ~meo~h~ ~bllcatlon ~- fled '~ontri~tlons. fr~ Central Tobacco Rese~ ~- tute ~ Reg£onal S~a~ons~ 1949-1966". The present, one cont~ns ~he abstracts of the artlcles ~blished by the st~f during 1967-19~1. March,1973. D,Ch.Rajarao Assls~ant Librarian. TI53810052
Page 51: TI53810053
C(~I.B~I0~S ~OM C~b TOBACCO R~SEARCB AND R~I0~L ST:~ONS.1967 - 1971. CONTEN..~S Central Tobacco Research ~Inst~ute,Ra~ahm~ndry. A~ronomy ..... I-3 Cytogenetlcs. .. ,. ~l~t Breeding ..... I0-II Entomology ..... 12-14 ~l~t ~athology.. . ~, ., 15-~ Agricu~tur~ Che~s~ry~ .. 17-21 ~echnoloEy ..... 22-23 Statistics, ., ., 24 Tobacco Rese~ch St~tlon,Guntu~ ., 27 Tobacco Research Station, Vedas~dur, .. 28-29 Tobacco Research Station, ~usa. .. 30-31 Tob~,cco Rese~ch Station, .Dinhata, ., 32-34 Tobacco Research Station, ~tlnsur, .. 35-36 Author ~ndex. ,. ,, 37-38 TI53810053
Page 52: TI53810054
~nd quality o.£ flue-c~ed tobacco ~n ~ndh~ Indi~ J ~Ic sol 37 202~ 196~ E~m~sa~ the ~en~r~ To~cc~ Research ~tut~ Raja~ry f~ four seasons (1961~5) ~o s~y th~ effec~ of ~r~g~ion ~d .-~ various ~ur~al treatments ~ ~he y~el~ ~ual~ty of f~ue-cure~ tobacco in ~hra ~esh~ sh~ tha~ (I).~ the p~uc~i~ o~ quality. ~gba~o~ ..t~e gr~th per~ should ~ fr~a from ra~ gati~ ~ days ~ter tr~spl~tlnE ~nc~as~ the ~ by about 20~ of ~g~Ic ~res~neh ~ f~y~d ~ure ~ f~l~er-~ess cake ~he ra~e of 7,5 to~e~ ~r ha ~ ~o~nu~ c~e to supp!y 20 ~ N ~ ~g ~.th 30 kg ~ ~ ~a in co~blna~on ~th ~20~ ~d '~20 a¢ k~ ~a~e ~ 1~ ~ per ha c~" ~n~easeEhe ¢ur~ le~ ~eld b~ abou¢.30 ~-¢enC, ~d (5) a~l~ea~ ~ 7,5 to~ f>~ ~r ha ~1on~ with ~ ~ N per ~ ~11 be b~Iclal for the ~, ~ t~s ~Ii Indi~ J agron ~ 57~3 1968 F1~e cur~ ~obacco (v~ety ~ V~rglnla Gold) wn8 g~v~ d~ffer~nt 8re~-~ure treat~ts f~ three ye~s ~er a ba~a~ dressing of ~ ~ ~20~/~ ~h or ~hou~ d~fer~t rates of N ~d ~. Higher ~e~ ~e~ds were .obt~n~ from p~o,ghlng-i~ fresh of ~h~eo~us ~ri~obus ~ort~ from elsewhere th~ where ~t was gro~a~ plough~ ~ ~he s~e p~ot. Applying ~ '~ N p~s P205/~ to green-~ur~ plots Incveas~ ~h8 ~e~d ~d quality cur~ le~; ~ kg N~ha decre~ed ~eld ~d quali~y. P~dy ~ Tobacco c~ ~ tqgether. ~ndi~ f~ng ~ (6) 27-8 1968 Results of ~ agrono~ca~ e~eri~nt ca~i~ o~ f~ thre~ at the Central Tobacco Research lns~te Fa~, Kaja~nd~y than by gr~Ing a crop ~ dry p~dy ~" s~rlps during the Kh~if 8e-as~ in the heavy b~k cott~ so~is of ~dhra ~r~h fo~ by flue-cured Vlrg~n~a Tobacco ~n the rabl seas~ fa~ers no~ 6nly earn Rs,2~/- e~ra ~r ha. bu~ a~so enh~ce ~he pr~uc~ion ~ p~dy by at[east ~ ~ons per year. Optimum fertilization of flue.ccured tobacco grown on black cotton soils. NARAY~A ~L WALUNJKA~ WG AND SU~A~Y.~/~ M Indi~ j ~IC sol 38 302-9 1968 T15.'38100,54
Page 53: TI53810055
The optimum eco~omtc ~equ~rements of It and P205 f~ the t~ ~1~ ~z. ~D~C~ ~d ~irgin~a Gold~ ~e de~~ using ~l~ple. re~st~ t~que ~ ~of~t ~~g f~ctl~s. They ~a 30:~ ~d ~:~ ~ ~r ha res~ctively for ~he tot~ qu~ty re- turns. The ~c~pat~ yields ~e 712 ~d ~5 ~ b~ght grits ha respectively for Del~es~ ~d Virginia Gold. Y~elds for quali~y reties of T~ ~so i~ica~d a si~l~ Ti53810055
Page 54: TI53810056
Ti53810056
Page 55: TI53810057
=~ ~ g~et c~o~ %0 782-7 1968 " A n~ tRs~ci~Ic hybrid w~ s~theslz~ by ~oss~ng ~e ~Phl- The FI hyb~ds ~re ~Iform f~ :thOr =p~1oglcal f~ta=es ~d chr~oso~ n~b~ (~I). ~otl~ng. ~lch~clne .t=ea~ent~ phologlc~ V~mts ~re ob~n~ ~=h were dlplold. In so~ c0~Is~e ~d ~.at polyplold pl~ts were oblong. The phologlcal devi~s were a~trlbut~ ~o the m~I= action of the cologne pl~ ~ t~ initial cells of suc~r I0o Enlargemen~ of genus nlcotlana. I. Establishment of stable amphlp~olds, KRISHNAMURTHY KV AND C~INATH DM Jap ~ gee ~4 139-47 1969 Through innerspecific hybr~disatton, ~wo new amph~ploids w~th high chromosome numbers were obtained in the crosses No~Velut~n'a (n=16) x No" ,am~ertcaulis (n=18) ~nd N. o¢cidentalis (nffi21) x No ample~tcaulis ( =~8)0 They wer~ grown through five generatio~s and found to be extremely ~table~ u~mpletely fe~ti~e and mos~ vigorous ~n growth. ~. nulli-a=phiploid in the cross N_. occ~dentalis x N. amplextcaulis wi~h chromosome number 2nffi76 ~ derived through a loss of pv/r of ~hromosomes from the fuI~ vmp~tploid. ~as also established as a s~able hybrid. Chromosome pa~ring in the hybrids was regular and vompleteo ~n ~he first cross ~he chromosome configuration was 34 bivatentso ~n ~he secon~ ~he configuVation was 39 bivalents ~n the amphiploid and•38 in ~he nulli-amph~ploid~ 11. A no~e on nhe =ytogene~ie status of N~co~ana ,a~le~tcaults Burb~dEe. GO~L~ATH DM KR~SHN~L~TH¥ KV ~D EX~SHHAM~THY AS ~ close geno~ypic homology between ~his species and ~. gosse/ was revealed ~n th~s s~udy and high levels of c~o~oso~e--pa~ring and fertility were obtv/ned in crosses with No e~celsior and N. alata0 ~. amplextcau~is appears no have a cytogenettc place between N. e~elsior and N. ~osse~ and to have a chroffiosome homology par~ial~y derived from N. elate. TI53810057
Page 56: TI53810058
Recent progress ~n breeding of f!ue-cured tobacco at the Central Tobncco Research Institute, RaJabanmlz~ (Im~lla), Proce~gs of ~ fourth ~nati~ ~b~co sci~Iflc c~ess W~ ~ ~ eo ~e~ ~o~la~e recomblna~ ~eS~ s~x'f~ue~r~ V~rg~ tobaccos wore cro~s~ ~nEst .t1~eZves ~d ~er ~e1~- n~y .~ses~t ~n ~ se~eEh~ng ~pUZ~on 11 .n~ selec~s ~soln~. The p~ts ~n~Iv~ ~z,~ Deicrest, Biss@ttes, D.B. 101~ v~r~etles ~d the selections were H,~. ~2-i ~o H.K. The n~ selections were ~ ~n ~ repliCa~ ~rlal ~o~ether ~h DelcEest ~d V~rglnla ~id In ~ loce~o~s for ~ee ye~s 1962 to 1965 ~ assess~ for ~eld ~ v~ou8 qua1~ny The resu!~ i~ca~ S~ ~ends i~ ~eh ~he 1oc~ions, and 9 ~re ~1~ngly #gperi~r Sn ~be ~e~ le~-~eld gr~e ~uc~i~s...H.R~ 62-7 ~u~ s~f~c~ly hlgher.~gh~ gr~e~ ~ T,B,L,E. ~.~se to topping also w~ st~f~c~ ~d the ~n~aracti~n. for ~et~es ~d plies for ~een, ~r~ bright T.B.L.E. le~ ~uc~on was slgnlft~t at ~ 1~vel. ~o~. these s~ud~es It ~uld appe~ ~t ~ho v~e~y Del~es~ h~ ~ potenti~ity ~o be a desirable p~ent ~n the ~e~n8 of rec~b~nat~on types. ,~ ~ ~ene ~on. ~n flue-~ tobacco. ~ " ~ph~ica 16 ~3~ 1967 .:... . .... a stud~ was ~ on ~he qu~ita~ve Inherlt~ce of sev~ vlz. flowing ti~, pl~t.helght, le~ l~gthm le~ ~dth, nhmber of ~ra~le l~4s, ~een w~ght ~ ~@~ weE~ht for t~ crosses of flue-~r~ ~bnc~, Chat~ x Deftest ~d ~a R Hicks, Six gentile populations PI, P2~ ~1~ F2~ BI ~d B~ were obse~ In e~h ~oss. Sins11 ~d si~Iflc~t values of he~os~s were obse~ all t~ ch~ers for the ~wo ~osse~. Si~Iflc~t ever~e dinE d~pr?ssi~ was f~d f~ ~i the Ch~acters In ~h the ~osses. Si~Iflc~t ~dltlve' ~d d~nant ~fec~s were fo~d for the v~ious eh~aeters In t~ cross Cha~h~ x Delcrest in which the dominance 8ene ~fects ~e ~Eh.. While In ~2 x Hi~s ~oss~ ~d~tlve gene effects contri~ much In controlling the characters Signlf~c~~ epls~c effects were fo~ for le~ length ~ number of leaves In the ~s Chath~ x Delc~st, f~owerlnE ti~ ~d a s~C~c @pro~h in pi~nlng for such e~l~tatlon ~uld be ~sslble ~ further ~v~tlgati~s. ~abillty ~ h~i~billty.of ~eld ~ other ~tltatlve ch~nc- tars in na~ toba~o. TI53810058
Page 57: TI53810059
-6 - 15. Genetic ~va~l~ .~i~y C~es coII~ fr~ ~he d~f~e~n~ a~ ~ South ~a~ for ~he i~o~t ~t~t~e e~ac~ f~r~ng t~ p~t height~ numb~ of ~s. per p~t, ~e~ lens~ ~ ~th~ ~ "~d cur~ ch~acteEs~ p1~ height, .number of ~es ~r pl~t, ~e~-~d cur~-l@~. ~a~ds, H~ita~i~Ity es~i~es ~ ~Eh.fo~ all Genetic impr~vement o~ tobacco. GO~INATH DM .-. In~lan J Eenet" 28A 101-6 1968" The bree~£n~ objectives for flue-cured t,o, bacco in ~ndla are listed. Pro~es~ .made .in In=rea~i~g ~he yleld's and's~oklng quality" while redacln~, the ni~o~ne, con~ent and chlorine uptake of plan~s is ~lewed. A.spon~.aneous tma~mo~h! ~ut .a~t which has .been" isolated p~oduces upt~...50 leaves and has' been. crossed with other va%'leties in breeding 16, Breeding for disease, resistanceo~ l~i~ J g~e~ ~A 297-9 1968 The Jap~ese ~r-c~r~ ~bac~ v~£e~y d~igna~ Ku~, W~ch, resist~t ~o ~@sivhe .~cho~u,m. h~ b~n ~oss~ ~d isola~. . K~o~-~ ~"s 'also being cross~ with locat The rasts~v~ .of ~he flue-cur~ ~i~y q~ • " vies ~s been .tr~s.fe~ by hy~i~izatidn to ~ I~ ~¢~r'~ v~le~y, D£~£~1 Chef, t, was fou~ t~t .to ~bar.mos~ The v~e~y O~or;. ~h~ah ~s toierc~ .bf'Cer~o~pora 17..S~udy"oh Rhe qu~Ritati~ v~iability, in ,flue-cured tobacco. curable le~ number~ p1~ height~ le~ l~gth ~ le~ ~dth crosses ~ flue-~r~ Rob~co~ eCha~h~ x ~Del~esR~ ~d ~ ~2 " illicit, W~ s~di~. HerltabiliRy ~ti~tes~" ~op~tidn of v~a~ ~ the tot~l v~iatlon, ~sts ~ :~Iv~ce ~d~ selecti~ ~he number o~ ~ec~ve £~e co~s~ the gene~Ic this s~dy. ~ ~dlum to ~gh h~Its~l!ty esthetes were f~nd ch~t~s ~ the ~ TI53810059
Page 58: TI53810060
20. IRib~nt * A dom~nan~ laminar ~;ts.tlon in ~nd£a lan~ tobacco To6 ~ 1~ 31-3 1970 • A sp~eous te~ ~t~ion in ~ I~i~ Tobacco v~le~y D~.I is report~. ~ mu~a~on ~fect~ t~ l~na .~ le~ which w~ duc~ ~o fil~ous ri~'. T~ e~c~r w~ f~ ~o b~ d~t~n~ by a single d~n~t g~e ~ w~ ~si~ the gene Ti538100~
Page 59: TI53810061
21. -8- VarleCal elassi£1catlo~ ~d selection in hurley tob.~cco. I~d~a. ~ E~t~ pl~ ~a~ 30 ~2~30. 1970 Elev~ ~le~tobnc~ v~et~eS ~re ~ses~ for~ their g~etlc dlvers~ty ~y ~l~iv~te ~i~. Usln~ D~ s~tlstlc. The c~- r~ct~rs ~ns~d~ fo~ 6~s. study ~Eafl~rlng ti~, pl~= ~ght~ The ~ v~etles £all ~to 5 clusters ~ve~Ing consld~ble gene~c divergences ~ng ~hem. T~ v~le=les H~r~ Vel~t~ Ky-~ ~rel~us ~nd 2~te ~rley sh~ si~ifi~ divergence from a~l the varia~les ~ h~ce ~ch for~ a dif~er~ cluster. The v~ie~es ~s~Ik, Burle~-l, H~mony ~ Ky-~ ~ ~us~E~ ~d Ky-~ of clus~. ~V ~e re~l po~enti~ ~elders h~ng desirable eh~cters ~d these ~ ~e =t~is~ ns donets for The groupinE of t~e v~etle~ ~nto d~fer~n~ c~usters. ~ the pro- spects for future ~d~ng w~k ~e ~ ~omlslng to~co v~atles. , D~scr~p~" o£ t~ae ~ue-~ur~ tobacco se~actlons~ ~z. H.R. 62-3 (~l~est x B~sa~es)~ H~, 62-~ (Deftest x ~B I0~) ~d H.R. 62-7 (Del~st x DB I01)~ n~ly evolved nt the Central Tobacco Research ~nsti~ut'e, R~J~d~ w~ g~ven. A note ~ the ~sses~,t of '~aw ~=~4s of flue-cur~ Virginia Tobacco evo1~d at £h~ G~tr~ To~6co Rese~ch R a J ~ndry, ~roce~ings 5th ~n~er." ~ob~co Sol. Confess, H~8. 1970 At ~o locanlons in" ~ndia~ 22~ cu~tlV~ ~esult!ng fro~ ~e~Ing the progeny o~ I~ ~ossas of 'tr~i~i~na[ ~u~-~red v~i~tlos~ gr~ ~der condZtlons Qf tolerative ~r~s fo~ 3 "years. ~n order to assess £helr ~aptlvlty. ~r d~£fer~t ~ro-cl~=~c • =nd t~r eapaclty ~o p~b~de h~gh ~bhceo ~y~elds h~ a ch~ic~.l =ompos~tlon ~d qua~ty~wh~eh ~et the @eq~re~n~s 0f the The Author 'd~nstrated ststls~Ically the s~If~t varieties x s~ons lot a~ono~ ~d ch~ca~ prop~ties at both locations of 24. Growth s~udies" of flue-cured Virginia tobacco. S~ST~:~ AB G~N/~H DM ~ SUBgAHM~YAM M - Sabro News letter 5(2) 83-7 ~71 Relati~ ~h rates i~" ~l~t h~Eht~ [e~ l~ngth ~ 18~ bre~l~h Go~d) ~ ~ne selec~d ~es (H.~,62-~ to H.K.6Z4) ~re co~ut~ T!53810061
Page 60: TI53810062
25. by £$tti~ a logistic e~.tlo~ ~o ~he data c~co~led weekly ~ ~he 39~h day ~ plying. ~e~h cu~ ob~n~ fitt~ the dat~. E~Iy f1~erlng ~ns g~er~ly h~ gr~h rates th~ late flying ones. ~e ti~ at w~dch ~f the m~ ~t~t~al was att~n~ a~t 63 days ~ter plating, c~es- po~ to t~ fleeing Crlnk1~ le~ ~tgt~on-a case of ~c~lete gene ~netr~ce Nicoti~a ta~ L. Curt S~ ~ ~9~0 1971 A s~nt~eous ~t~t ~th ~nkled ~e~ ~U~ace w~ stopp~ the ~la~on ~ ~ ~v~ ~e~ng ilne H.R. 65-29 ~ flue- cur~ tob~eo. ~ ~I ~¢s~oIo8~I ~ g~e~cal did no~ give clue ~ ~ ~ d~¢~ na~e ~ t~ 8~e ~ b~ on ~he dlffer~tial segrega~i~g ~an~e~. of ¢~ ~t ~nto n0rnal ~d ~t~ lI~ p1~¢s in ¢~ ~bsequ~ly self~ ~ ~oss~ penetr~ce. " T~tat~vely t~ b~c 8ena ~s ~s~ the s~1 ~ntern~e pattern ~n flue-~r~ ~A R~ C Indi~ ~ a~Ic S~ 41 373-7 1971 The i~e patte~S'~ 28 v~le~les ~ flue-~Ur~ tobncco (Nicoti~ tab~m L.) ~te ~al~ ~ the ~deo~h tec~ique bas~ ~ w~ch.~ patter~ ~re dlst~ng~sh~, ~z. ret~d~, re~at~ ~ce; ~l~at~ ret~d~ ~ u~fo~ ~d s1~8htly ~eleret~ .~d ~o~, T~:,v~i~tles were ~so ~i~ ~ I~, ~lum~ ~ ~ghvsu~rlng ~s, V~ieCles ~th ac~lera~, ~if~ ~d ret~ ~h were go~ ~elders ~d .deslra~le ch~s, ~z. high ~rable le~ humor ~d I~ s~ckeri~ ~ablt,.resultinE ~ ~Eh ~eld. T153810062
Page 61: TI53810063
28. Influence~ ~i]~erelltc A~Id. o~ Germination ~ Tob~co ~ a~ Set ~ C~n 3~ I~-7 1968- E~r£~ co~uc~ a~ the Cen~ra~ Tobacco Rese~ch sh~ that gibb~ell~c ~id c~ ~Ing ab~t ~ ge~n~ ~ ~obacco se~ ~ ~t bIEh ~ra~ure li~ 35~ ~ ~ such ~uld m~y f~nd ~tlc~ application ~n tob~co n~serles wh~n sc~ty ge~na~ion~ a~rlbu~ to the ~ava~ce of ~gh during s~ing ti~, Is 'often To obt~n a ~ ~ ~tter ~e~ati~aso~ng tob~co lnflu~ce ~ gi~ellle ~Id ~ the develo~t of ~II~9 buds, 8T~h ~ ~at~y of s~ ~n ~b~ ~e~llngs. ~ NL ~ ~ RJ Proc lnterDat s~o pl~t ~h subst~ces. ~: SM SirC~ '~7~0, 1968 ~ i~ort~t obse~etlon ~c~d~ Is the developer of buds st~tIn8 from t~ cotyl~y ~s into ~hes ~der the of Inter ~d active 8p~dal bud ~n tob~co s~dl~. ~tlve gr~h ~ cQtyl~y ~Is h~ so f~ be~ re,ted onl~ capltat~ s~lings. The a~e o~se~ati~ d~ns~.ate~ the con- tr~Ict~y i~lu~ce of GA to the ph~n~ o£ epi~l d~n~ce requlr~, furt~ ~tggations. The oth~ ~o~t~t effect of recorded w~ t~t ~pllcatlon ~-GA on the ~ps of. the" m~If~ed the ~th ~blt .~ In~6~s~ the c~biel acti~ty w~ch result~ ~ a ~k~ .in~e ~ the ~uc~on of ~lem p~enchy~ a~ ph~lem tissues ~d a decrease In the c6rtex ~d pith ~Issues. 29. Cattle-dung cake ash for tobacco nurseries. Indi~ f~ ~9(5) 39 1969 ' E~~S conduct~ at the Ca-tr~ Toh~co Rese~ch Znsti~ute~ RaJ~dry ~o find out 'the e~ily ~v~lable sources f~ phosphorus, sh~ that burn~ c~le~unE ~h w~ch is ~lable ~ a w~te ~o- duc~ ~h ~st of ~he cuI~iva~ors~ c~ ~e u~ilIs~ ~ a 8our~ of phosp~rus for too~o n~s~r~es f~ obt~n~nE ~her ~rc~t~e ~ tr~spl~ts. ~ng th~ different combinations ~ ~h ~d nltros~ tri~ t~ ~m n~er ~!~spl~ ~re obt~n~ ~th the hIEhest level of ~h (31.25 tonneslha) ~ the seco~ le~l of nltro~ Sen (~ kS ~I~). T15.'.3810063
Page 62: TI53810064
30. Soron toxicity iu flue-cure~ Sc~ & Cult 36 I~9 ~970 ~o~clty of ~on on ~he ~eld ~nd quality of f~-~r~ ~o5~co 31," To~ a~o~ds ~n tobacco - A s~le ~d rap~d ~th~ of ~ rap~d ~d aeeuTsta met~ for the dete~nat~on 6f n~eotlna • tobacco le~ s~le was deve~o[~d at the Gentrel Tob~eo Res~eh ~nsti~te. ~ou~] tob~eo le~ s~l~ w~ e~rac~ s-~It~eously bo~l~nE s1~y for five ~nutes, ~d f~t~ under suction. soEb~=e of the filtrate was ~ur~ a~ ~6~ 259 ~ 282 ultr~ ~olet reE~ ~ Unlc~-~ s~ctopho~me~r. Nie~t~ns tent was caleul~ by absorbance.at D~9 ~ter ~ng the neeess~y cor~ctl~ f~ bnck~d using D~5 ~D~2 ~d-utlllzing 34.3 a eonst~t f~ ~re nlcot~ne. Results by t~s ~thod have far, ably ~th those o5~ned by the ~en£gonal ste~ dls~illa~l~ pro~dure. T153810064
Page 63: TI53810065
E~TOHOL~GY 32. S~ud£es on an .~feedlng properties of trlphenyltln acetate the tobacco caterpillar, ~roden~ litura F. JOSHI BG RAMA~'AD G ~/fl) NARAY~(A CL IndSan J Eat 29 18-20-1967 .... - Laboratory tests' showed that trlphanyltln acetate (Erestan 60~ W .~. effectively prevented the different Instars of the tobacco caterpl- llar, Prodenla llt,ra F..from feed@,g on the tobacco le~es. The percent~e of leaf portion consumed by the larva ranged fromtO.15 to 12.10 In the treated leaves "end 55.70 to I00 in control. Hortallny of the larv~' w~s observed in the .treated leaves upto fourth ~n the 5th ~nstar~ no mortality was observed. 33. Studies on different ~ypes of packing to protect wrapper tobacco from storage pests. JOSH~ B~ ~AL~N~AR WG AND RAO R~N ~dlan J eat .29 200-~ 1967 E~per~mants were conducted at the Tobacco ~esearch Stat~on~ ~est Bens~l, to find ou~ a suitable pac~/nE m~thod wb/ch cnn protec~ wrapper tobacco from insect ~nfestatlon in storaSeo" On the of these e~qperlments it is recommended that to keep the tobacco free fr6m Infe~tatlon in storage,, it should 5e packed in gunny bag traated with Dieldrin I~. E.~. (stitched) and ~olythene O.004" thick. When to be despatched for Ions distances, ~he tobacco after pressing, be packed in treated gunny bag (stitched) and polythene and sent in dealwoo<~. box treated with dleldrl=K. 34. ~ongam~a cake c~, control tobacco beetle, Indian Farming 18(7) 33 1968 P.o.nRem~a ~labra (Lesu~nosae) which Is kn~ for its insecticidal and pls~dal properties, was test~ In the form of cake for contro- lling the groun~ ~etles attac~ng tob~co ere? In the field ~d found to be very ~f~tlve. ~ qu~tlty ~ low ~ 1 g~pl~t w~ also to~c to beetles. 35. Demobrotls Sp. (Tine~dae: Le~do~e[a): A new pest of stor~ ~aQ~r tobacco. JOSHI BG W~~ WG td,D RAO ~l ~ci C~lt 34 ~5~ ~968 DemobroCls Sp (Tineldao: Li~idoptera), was found Co be a new pes~ of stor~ ~per tob~co, dur~ the co~rse of ~nvestiEations carr~'~ out at the Wra~?er ~d H~h To~cco ~ese~ch Station, to protect ~apper tobacco from ~nseet pests ~n sterne. 36. Laboratory studies on the preference of fresh and snored ~L~nka' tobacco for the development m~! egg-laying of clgaret=e beetle (Ladloderma serr~corne ~abr.) in comparlslon to flue~cured tobacco. JOSHI BG Indian J agrlc Sol 38 4~I-4 1968 Ti53810065
Page 64: TI53810066
38. Studies ware undertaken during ~963-65 at the Central Tobacco ~nstitute~ Raja~m,/ndry. to f~ o~t the ~fect of ~L~ fresh as well ~ stor~ f~ 15 months~ on the d~elop~t ~nE of the ~E~ette ~etle ~n co~ison to the ~ ~r~nia Gold~, a v~lety of flue-cur~ toba~o, 5y uslnE the res- pective tbb~cos ~ fo~. The ~~ for ~E.[a~nE w~ ~so s~di~, The $tud~es ~ ~hat tL~~ ~ob~co citer fTesh E5 m~t~ old w~ not ~ fav~sble to ~8~et~ eur~ tob~co f~ d~elop~t ~d the beetles 2ref~r~ the la~er ~or eEE-layinE, There was not ~ch d~ff~ce ei~r in t~ rate of deve~op~t ~ in the numbir of e~s l~d in differ~t of ~' ~becco ~t was ~ mon~ Efficacy of different Insecticides against tobacco ground beetles in the f~eld. ~ndlan J ~ne SO 249-~" i~68 ~elat~ve ~flcacy of Dieldrin ~ B.~., ~sobenz~ I~ E,C., 5~ ~.~ sg~nst Tobacco ~o~d 6eetles in the field, for four se~ons. The inseetieides ~re ~pli~ ~ough.~s~ planting wat4r at ~he ~ of pl~tlng ~he se~llngs, T~ showed that Dieldrin S~ W.~. and ~% E.C. ~d Isobenz~ are ~re effective in ~nt~olllng the beetles, Residues of some hommon insecticides on flue.-cured tobacco. JOSH~ BG :~D R.-~A~IASAD G ~estlcldes 3(9) 17-18 1969 Thi ~esldues of some commonly used insect/c~des~ vlz. ~ endrSn fiemhton-s-methyl, ~hlometon an:~. dlmethoa.te om flue-cured toha~c:~ (vat, V~rE~nla Gold) were studied. No advezse ~ffect was observ~: either on Ereen or cured liar with any of the insecticides even w~en sprayed 6" times with fortnightly Intez'vals. The results clearly indicate that residues of endrln ?erslst while those of demeton-s-methyl, t~h~ometon and dlmethoate decom~.gose in the flue-curg.nS process. Based on the aSove results, the mumSer of sprays that could be safely Eiven with a for~iEht's ~nterva~ and the safety ~nterv.~/s necessary between last spray and pr~m~nE could be fixed for d~ffe- rent insecticides as follows: ~ndr~n: ¢ sprays - 23 4ays In~erva~ 5 sprays - 3~ 4ays ~nterval; 6 spra~s - More than ¢2 days interval. Demeton-s~methy~,: 5 sprays - 8 d~ys Interval; 6 sprays - ~6 days in- terval o Thlometon~ 6 sp~ays - 8 days interval. Dimethoate: 6 sprays - 8 days interval. T153610066
Page 65: TI53810067
Observ~t=t.~s o~ biology of" demobrotls lnd~ J ~ 31 ~5-7 ~69 Life ~story of D~otls sp.~ a n~ ~st on s~ ~a~ tob~co. was s~d@~ durln~ I~5~6. Egg ~d ~u~t perils ~re of sh~t" durat~on~ whereas la~a~ ~r~ was the-longest. ~n~ ~ta~ty w~ obse~ du~ ~he i~ per~. The to~ l~fe sp~ r~g~ baleen 72-94 days ~h The f~le ~th could lay ~e~ 6~ egg~ found to be 61 males ~o 39 females. Occurrence of ~he white grub, Holotric~a serrate F., as n new pest of tobacco. JOSHI BG RAMA/RASAD G ~ ~ KSN ~nd~ J Ent 31 285 1969 The ~i~e Gru~ Holotrichia S~rata, F, was fo~d to be a n~ pest on ~o~ac~o pl~ts~ ~n fle~ds ~ Centra~ Tobacco Rese~ch tute F~, Ka=eru ~n t~ 1968 season. ~s~ptlon of Is glven. 41. ~tn~rol of Aphids (M_~_~£ ~ersl, cae 861z. ) on flue-cured tobacco with systemic insecticides. JOS~ BG ta~ 3a~.SS:,~.'~:~; ~::~:, . Indl~ T~b ~II 3"12 1971 ~esults of the e~erlments u~e~aken during I~6~3 at ~he Cen~r~l Tobacco Res~ch ~nsti~ute ~o s~udy the relative ~ficacy of sys~c insecticides on ~he control of Ap~ds (~ ~~ Sttlz) show~ ~ dep~d~ng upon the ~ailabillty~ T~ometon 2~ E.~. ~6 oz,/1~ gls, ~ water/acre, Sulpho~de of' D~eton-~hyl ~ E.C. of water/acre~ ~h~dr~n 2~ E.C. @ ~ oz.fl~ g~s. of wa~er/a~e~ ma~ be us~ for ~fec~ive~y controlling the aphids. 42. Effect of fentln acetate as an ~ntifeedant against tobacco cater- ,pillar £rodenia ~ F. JOSHX BG RAI~RASAD G AND SU~IaHMANY~H H Indian 3 agric scl 41 II~0-I~ 1971 • The antlfeedin8 effect of different concentrations of fentin acetate " ~nd the persistence of the optimum concentration was studi~,l agalnst the tobacco caterpillar Prodenis litura Fabr. in 1966-68 at the Cen- tral Tobacco Kegearch InstiEute, Ka~ahmu~dry. All the concentratl,::-~s tested, vlz. O,15,. O,O75, 0°056 and 0,038 ~e~ cent effectlvely duced the feedlnE on tobacco leaves (Nicotiena tabacum Linn. ) different instars of the caterpillar. Fenti~ acetate O.75 percer:t was optimum and its antlfsedlng effect persiste~. till 13 and for third and fourth Instar larvae respectlvely. TI53810067
Page 66: TI53810068
PATHOLOGY 43. Relative efficacy of some c6pper funglci~e~ for the contTol of damping off in tobacco. PILLAI SN K~D MURTY NS Indian Phytopath 20 381-3 1967 Results indicate that Kirtlaopper W,P. 50 was the most effectlv~ one in connroll~ng the disease amenE the fungicides tested. Per- centaga of damped-off seedlings was found to be sIgnlflcannly less with the application of Kirtlcopper WoP.50 as compared to Kirtico~per 44° The host range of root knot nematode Meloldo~yne ~avanlca in tobacco nurseries nt Ra~a~undry~ Andhra Pradesh. CH~qDWANI GH ~D REDDY TSN ~ndlan Phytopa~h 20 383-4 1967 In order to select non-host crop plan~s which may be used ultimately in the rotation programme for controlllng th~s dlsease~ ~8 plant species were tested for su~ceptlbility to tobacco root-knot nematode (M.~av~nlca) in pots con~alnlng soil collected from heavily Infes~e~ tobacco nurseries of Hukumpet. M~sce~mtqd. ~Oots of the Infest~~, tobacco seedlings were also uniformly incorporated in the sell as additlonni inoculum before so~Ing oE pl~." tln8 the" test plant species. Out of the ~8 plant s.pec/es test~ only eight vlz. Arachls Capsicum annum~ Go~syp~um h~rsutum~ Sesamum indicum~ Ca~anus ~ sp., _Euph.o.r.51~ hirt____~a and Phyllan~hus medras2atensls were found non-e~sdeptible to tobacco root-knot nematode. Out of the eight, s~x are co~non.ly .~ltlvat~d crops vlz. Groundnut~ Chililes~ Cotton~ Til, Tur and Marigold and all of them.ere quite s~Itable, for. the soi~s of Hukum.~et. These crops provide an adequate: choice ~o the nurserymen for- preparing an economic vattcrn of rota- tio.n crops for the control of root-knot in the tobacco nurseries in this region. ~5: ~ontrol of orobanche by allyl .nlcohol, PIL~ SN /~D MU?.TY BS ~ndlan J a~rlc Scl 38 216-20 1968 The effect of allyl alcohol ~n-three c~ncentratlons 1 : 5,000 and I ! 10,OOO) and four tlminEs of application (at plantlnE t~me, ~wo weeks after plantlns~ four weeks after p~antlnE and spraylnE on emerEed Orobcnche)in controlllnE Orobanche was • st~d&ed in an em~erimen~ at the Central Tobacco Research Instltute~ Ra]ahmundry, dur~n~ ].960-64. The results show thst soll tion of the chemical, two and four weeks after plant~n~ suppressed the emergence of Orobanche better than ~ppllcatlon at plantlnE time. ~ost-emerEence s~raylnE effectively k~.lle~, the parasite. ~llyl alcohol in all the concentrations was effective either in the suppression or the kill~nE of Orobanche~ but I : ~OOO concentration Eave the best Qerformance~ closely followed by 1 : 5~OO0. The mortality at the post.emerEence treatment was the hIEhest at the early st~e compared to other sta~es. T153810068
Page 67: TI53810069
46, Control of root-knot disease of tobaccO in seedbeds. KEDDY'TSN "AND CHANDWAN~ GH ~ndlan ~hytopath 22 260-1 1969 • Experiments" were carri~ out for five years (1961-65) at the Central Tobacco Research ~nstltute, Rajahmundry =o find out the efficacy of elg~t nematocldes in controlling the ~oot~.knot disease in tobacio seed beds, " D.D.~ Vapam, EDB and DEDB were found to be quite effective In redu- clng considerably the incidence of root-knot. Rabblng the seedbeds was found to be equally effective" as the above four soll fumigants, 47. On the hos~rrange of Root-knot Nematode (Melo~do~yne in t~bacco nurseries at ~ajahmundry~ Andhra Pradesh. OHANDWAN~ GH AND t~EDDY TSN Sel & Gulf 37 199 ~971 • he results of the present study,~hmw that ~esldes 8 plant species re reported e~rller, six more plants~ ~ ornamental and 2 eultlvated crops vlz, Jeera (Cumlnum eym~num L.) and. Italian millet found non- host to "M_. ~avanlca ~re available to nursery men for preparln~ en • eoonomle pattern of rotation crops for the control of root-knot nematodes in ~he tobacco nurseries in th~s region. 48.. Occurronce of tobacco-dlstortlng virus in. lndla. CHI~DWA~I GH ;~ND REDDY TS~ Indian ~ ~rlc sci 41 27~5 ~971 The ~nce of,the ~obacco d~s~ortlng v£rus (N~cot~a ~rus A~ns~rth & S~th~ was f~rst reported on 'natu' tobqcco In K~imnagar an4 W~Ea~ districts of ~dhra ~r~ssh, ~ndla. The vies ced necrotic local [eslons on 'White Burley' tobacco (Nicotlana tabaeum L.)~ Nicotine Elut~nosa L., ~. rep~da WilL, N~ " amara~icolor Coste & ~e~, ~ ~ ~a~a escul~a (i.) Schott, It has a the~a[ Inactivation ~oln~ 95° ~d 97° C. dilution e~- ?oint be~een i : 3,5~ ~d 1 ~ 4~.. It resists storage between ' 159 ~d 174 days at room temperature (22,2-2~.7~.). TI53810069
Page 68: TI53810070
'49. Eff~c of forms ~nd level.s of nltro~n on the .~,_p~ske of chloride by ~ "£1ue-~ured ~obacco from a sallne soil. ,..G~C-~Z N(~ ~AMAMERTHY CH AND H~H~RAO A • Zndtan j ~la~, Eh~io% I-I 27-37 1~8 " -Fl~-cur~ ~b~o ~ on s~tne soils s~ ~gh :UpZ~ ~-~Is ~i~ ~o i~s s~ng quality.. S~di~ couduc~ ~ i~es~igate ~ nltraRe h~ ~y ~t~o~s~Ic ~feeR on upR~e o~ chloride ~d If ~o~si~, In cosblnstion ~th ni~a~ ~acel f~m ~ ni~ at in~e~ l~s~ cram ~e the quality of tob~co ~ In saline soils by r~u~ ~ of c~o~de or by ~" ~ ~-~, ~ r~ts point out to the ~. S~dy into t~ c~s~ go= ~sh chl~id~ u~ ~ ~b~o In ~ ~ying J lndlan Soc Soll Sol ~ 3~ 1968 ~n a se~ of e~~ts c~ed ~o find out t~ r~ foe chlo~de upt~e by fl~ Vlrgi~a tobacco ~ on a 1ow-l~ng soll of E~t G~av~i D~s~~~a ~h~ ~ wateT was found to be Tich ~ c~o~d~ ~ total Soluble The'~Water ~t~ng t~e e~des ~d total solubie s~ts ~a- dh~y rises to the soi~ s~e ~d conseq~tly ge~ absurd by . t~e pl~t~ Fesultln~ in the ~gh chloride upta~ by t~ Ti53810070
Page 69: TI53810071
seedl~i~s of'flue-.cured tobacco ~ariety Delcrest.- ~ ~he sol1 was leached wl.t..h, w~ter: c6nt~inlng .5~..p,'~, chloride until .the chloride Treatment (c) increased cured-leaf yi~l~" to' 99,6" g/plan~, decreased leaf chlorlde content to 2..3~. and up.tak~ of chlo~Idz to 2,9¢ 8/plan~, compared with 92 g, 2.~ and 3.01 g~" respec~ivel~,;:for (b) 9~.7 ~.2~ and 5.2S g for (a) and 90,.8 g, ~,3¢~ :and 5,05 ~ for Harvest your tobacco by Tes~-paper Technique. " SASTRY ~S ~0~~Y NC /~'D S~BB~RI%O D ~ndlan Farming 19(4) 32 1969 A Tes'~-~aper te'chnlque by which the m~tured, leaves only can. be harvested, was de~eloped at the CentTal TobacCo Research Rajahmundry, ~ndla, 54. 2hysical and chemical changes that. or.cur during the storage of • .fermen~ed lanka tobacco. "~: . ".. • "~ SASERY ~'~ .GO~M~RI NC ~D M~TY ~R .. . ~mdi~ J ~rlc Sci ~ 145-54 1970 "J ~ Ph~Ical ~ che~cal c~ges ~hat ~r during st~e of L~ tobacco of ~, ~t~ ~d ~c~ ~ w~e The chokes in f~R~ L~ ~o ~re ~ch in "~.~Q~~'The ~~e Ii to 15 ~ cent i, the first I ~ 2 months of s~orage i~ fe~t~ tobacco pare9 with abou~ 9 per cent during the first y~ of st~e in Se@~. ~o ~ per ~nt of the totai nitrogen w~ los~ d~rlng ~he e~ly st~es ~ sterne ~nly o~ng ~to volatilization of ~onla and nicotine. Si~en ~o 24 ~ ~nt of t~e n~ine In these -leaves w~ lost durin8 the f~rst 2~ months of stor~e~ng to volatiliza~on ~d conv&{~ into ot~r co~s. ~ rose by 0.7 to 1.5 units at t~' end of 60~ da~ of sterne ~d th~ .,. The threes ~hat ta~ place during th~ first 2 ~nt~ of storage were a .~ntlnuation of the f~tatlon pro~ss. WeanE of the ~drlb s~ ~uld fore.on occurr~ at the ~d of 5~'mOnths of stor~Ee in the ~CH~ ~r~e ~d at the e~ o~ 1 of storn~e in B~U ~nd ~~ ~s. T~se factors ~f~d ~ s~table ~iter~a f~ determine the ~e of L~k~ 55. Im~ed ~h~ for the dete~natlon of 3~ ~ pl~t Intern~t .5 Appl R~lat. Zsoto~s 2~ ~3-4 1970 " Mac~zle ~ Dean's ~t~d for the de~r~natlon ~ 3~ In pl~t ~I.~ be~ ~if!~' u~ing r~ioaa~i~ ~oba~o I~ s~les from a r~io ~acer e~e~nt. T~ ~v~t~es ~ mod~i~ me~. ~e (I) it does d6~ rdquire the sp~al fli~a~ion setups (2) It Is qulc~, ~ (3) ~t Is ~ TI53810071
Page 70: TI53810072
.~o Effect of maturi-~y of ~ a't 1~z'~s~ on some physical e~d che~c~ properties of cured lea~ of *Dele~eet~ flu~cut~d tabacum L.) . GO~ALAGH~X NG SASTRY ~S AND SUBB~t~0 D ~ndlan ~ agr{e ed/ ~O 901-~ 1970 The physical a~d chemical chnracterlst/c~ ~ c~ !e~ of flue- studl~ during The ~uil~b~ ~is~e ~ntent decre~ ~d the ~e volu~ In~eas~ ~ ~turlty ~o~ess~. T~ elo~a~on Z ~d e~ensl- " b~llty ~n~eas~ upto the ~ture st~e ~ de~eas~ in ~he ~e~- mature leaves, The per centre ~ total b~Ight le~ ~Ivalent was the 1~st in the i~ture 1~ves, The differences be~een the mature ~d ~e~ture leaves were non-slgnlflcmt. TM n~er of pa1~s~e ~11s ~ ~2 w~ less In the ~ture ~d ~e~-~re t~ ~n the Imtu~e leaves in ~966~7 but not £n ~96~5, H~tlng of mature leaves r~ult~ in t~nner leaves th~ ture ~ ~e~-~ture leaves~ ~he total n~tro~en ~ b~ the ~e~s d~e~s~ ~th ~ ~n~e~se ~re leaves ~ de~s~ ~n the ~-~ture leaves. ~ the ~ost ~esi~le phTsie~l ~ e~c~l e~ct~s~es~ it is ~s~- t~e~ to h~est tob~o lesves ~t the ~8ht st~e B~estfn~ sl~shtl~ ~e~-~tu~e leaves ~s ~tt~ t~ ~estin8 pre~ture l~ves, ~hosphorus requirement o£ tobacco In'soils of varying svnilable phosphorus status. GI~'AI, ACI-.IARI NC ~D NAGAR,~ G ~roceed Syrup R~lat ~nd R~iolsotopes Sol1 S~d ~d P1~t Nutri~on 283-90 ~970 Requirement of phosphorus by toba~o ~n soils of v~,8 av~lable phosphorus stntus were studi~ uslnE ~2 labelled supe~hosphn~e ~n 8 pot ~Iture e~eE~nt, Six soils, ~o each of the I~) ~dlum and ~gh.av~lable phosph~s status~ were suppl~ ~th ~) ~ ~ I~ ~ ~20~ha. T~ tot~ fertillzer, phosph0~ ~d the/p~ cent phosphorus rec~ery by the pl~t Inc~eas~ ~ the ~7~lable phos- phors status of t~ soll de~e~. High~ levels of app1~ed phosph~s In~e~ the f~tilise~ phosphorus In the p1~t, but decre~ ~ the ~er~nt phospho~ rec~ery by t~ p1~t. 58. Effi=teney ~f SU~erphosphate, ~mophos .~d Suphela ~ ~h~p~tte so~s ~o "~lue-~r~ tobacco G~~I NC NAG~ G ~ S~~TY CH J Indl~ Soc Soil S~ ~ 55-7 ~71 Sup~h~pha£e,~ ~hos ~d 8uph8la were c~ ~ phospha~a T!53810072
Page 71: TI53810073
T!53810073
Page 72: TI53810074
T!53810074
Page 73: TI53810075
65. Compositions of the volatile oils obtained from different varieties of tobacco. CHAKRABORTY MK Indian J Tech 6 281-2 1968 The volatile oll contents of some important varieties of tobacco used in cigarette manufaehure have been compared. Nith respect to oll content, a/r-cured tobnccos are richer thon sun-c~red tobaccos and the latter are superior to flue-cured tobaccos. Carbonyls are particularly high in ~/r-cured tobaccos. On the basis of volatile oil composition, Nat___~u tobacco, an indigenously grown elf-cured type is phrtlcularly sulteble for preparlnE cigarette tobacco blends. 66, Effect of aEeing on some physico-chemical properties of Flue-cured tobacco. CHAk~ABORTYMKR~ICH~UDU BS AND NARASAYYAKL IndianJ a~ric Scl 39 21b~20 1969 TI53,8100;
Page 74: TI53810076
- " " A~elng ~ro~ess decreases the equilibrium moisture content~ total reducinE sugars, nicot.~ne. ~i~.d 4~etr.oleum-ether ex~ra~tlves of flue cured tobacco. Sugar: ni~d~ne .ratio and the-content of total ' :.~:.. vo~.at/le acid, ,however, .~nqrc-3se upon..aEelngo Tobacco ages better -. ~hder amb$.~.ent :6ondltlon than under c61d s~orage. The optimum pe- riod of a~elnE may be taken as ~2 monthS, "by which time beneflc/al ch~ges In stored leaf are completed. C6~tlnued ageing deterlorstes many physical "~pertles .Qf fl.ue-cured: tobacco, ~ 6.7. Effect of hydrose, pero~de on selected qualities of flue-~tlred +:"+~ +:+.~ :Bo~ smelting and manuf~ctur+~ quali~tes o~ flue-+ured tobacco • : "~ ....:: :.'~:.w.eI+e ~,mproved,.by treating tobacco shreds with ~ilure solution of hydrogen parox~de~ which in6r~ases suEar: nfco~in4 +'~tio+ filling .val.ue and the total acids but decreases the total" Volatile carbonyls 68. ArP+ifictal fermentation of" sun-cure~ Natu tobacco. .. : .¢H~<R~BORTY HI( R/~I~H~,~PJDU BS AND N/~AS~YY,% KL £roc, 5~h Intern Sct To6 Co~Eress~ Hamburg "1~70 .- ~rP+iftctal fermenl;~tion resulted in several physico-chemtcal modi- : " ~icatlons ~n sun-c~red.-indigenous t~bacco (Na__t~ type) Impr.~ing the usability characteristics of leaf, Amens. the various f.a~ntatlon conditions ~nvest~ted ~oose-pack fer~.entat~on at 45°G when it occurred by self-heatSn8 WMs ~found to be .~he.most desIE~ble condition. Compared to natural fermentation (a~Ins)~ th~ pro'~es~:¢a~sed a pro- found chanSe.in physics/properties and a relatively m~nor chanse chemical con~tltuen~s. ~nder extreme:ferment~n8 cond.~t~on' chemical ~ " ' ~' ::chanEe~ were ;~ore conspicuous but sev.eral..~hyslca~ properties were 68. a'~;<~ote on factors affect~,g nlt/:ate ~ontent of tobacco (Nicot~ana CHA,KRABORTY Expe~iments were c~rried out at Cen£ral Tobacco Research -+.. Ra~ahmundry to s.tudy the effect of agronomic practices and post- curing operations 5n the n~tr~td" c6~tent of tobacco. :'~ The flnalyt/cal data showed 'that the nitrate content ~s mostly Influ- enced by tobacco type mgd much less bY ~ar~etles wl~h.ln a type. Some of the practices +llke S+d~ :type, s6ason, rotation ~nd irrigation ". "' "iT~flhenee ~the n~:trate:-conten.~ .of tobacco. Amer .~c .an tobacco ~ypes have" h~gher n~trate content, than Indian tobacco types. ~ost-curlns ~)peratlons h~ve llttie ~nflu.en~e. on the nltra~e content, in tobacco, TI53810076
Page 75: TI53810077
TI5381OO77
Page 76: TI53810078
- R~~~~ -~d~a, mlnat~on of toba~o Central Tob~ Rese~ch Znstltute~ Ra~~"~a. R~ 1968. A Rre~ report b~ oD the s~ey pu~Is~ d~ing 19~6~ on the v~ious factors i~e~ng the ger~natlon of- tobacco" Selected refer~ces on qu~tltatlve'~en~ti~s of ~obacco. 7~.~ = ..... R~AO D~. - ladle, ~ • (~ abstr..) d~s!lel crosses co'related characters (7). 75 Contributions from Central Tobacco Research Institute ",~...d its sub- s=ations. 1949 -. L966, R AJARbJ) DCH, "Dod, Listt p.76- 1968. "' A compilation of summaries of p'apers describing work cazTied out at the Central Institute and its reE/onal stations since 1949, This publication includes 212 s~mmaries of the Central Inst,~tute' s work divided into the follo~rlng categories: a~ronomy (24); cytogenetles (29); plant breeding (15); physiology (18); a~rlcultural chemistry (~O); technology (3); entomology (20); plant pathology (5) s.tatis- tics (13); extension (L2); general (33); there are also su~narles of the work carried out at the specialized Sub-statlons; cigarette tobacco at Guntur (3); eig-_r and cheroot tobacco at Vedasandur (32) hookah and chewing tobacco at ~usa (12); wrapper and hookah tobacco at Dinhata (20); Hunsur (i) and on bidi tobacco at Anand (7). The publication includes a llst of 54 technical leaflets sent out by the Institute and e~ds with an author index .~nd subject index. 76 Note on the curing of cigarette tobacco by gas, KRIh~AMU~THY S Indian J aEr£c Scl 39 8 770-3 1969. TO examine the feasibility of using Butane gas as fuel in 'ViEglnla' tobacco curing, a trial was conducted at the farm of the Cen~al Ti53810078
Page 77: TI53810079
Ti53810079
Page 78: TI53810080
---
Page 79: TI53810081
81. nation of cv, Karuvazho/ and 3.57~ hut the highest salt ~oneentra- tlon slightly de~reased the germination of ~o Ooslkappal In 2 tests. Control of Orobanche under natural and a~tSflclally InfesEed con- ditions o KRISHNAMO~RTH~ T AND KRISHNAN ~S Indlan J AEron 12 2?7-82 1967 On a site with fairly tualform nat~ra~ £nfestatlo" by Orobanche, . a replicated experiment was conducted for 8 year-, to find out the effect: of systematic hand-weeding of Orobanche uhder nature/ .condl- of Orobanche see~ a~ O, 1 gram per plant. O~gb~anche was weeded out every week and counts were kep~. of. the numbers tailored. These results indicated that for substantlal eradlcat'.ton of Orob~nche waedlh~ in systematic manner ~s required at least for 2 s .e~isons. In t:he third seaso.n~ the menace of ~he parasite wo~ld not be as se- rlous~ as It was~ when eradl.c~on started~ but still the weeding m~,st be metlculous to avoid bu~id u~ of t.he seed in the soil. The cosR of hand~weedlnE ~s ~s,32/., per acre per season~ These results" have been obtained under Irt:i~ated cond~t~ons~ but when ~here is no irrigation, hand-weedlng will probably be more effective, The number of years required for complete eradlcat:Ion is more than eight as the data re~eal~ but that aspect is not: so ~mportant as the emergences b~come negllglble after the f~f~h year. 82. Breaking of seed dormancy in l:obaceo (Nicot:iano. ~:abacum L.). KKISHNAMOORTHI T AND LAWRENCE ~0SES JS , X.ndlan J AErie sol 39 i098-IIO~ 1969. For breakin~ dormancy of tobacco seed, pre-treating the dormant seed, for 60 hr with a seed extract of a non-dormmat variety (pre- psr.ed by making 8 pulp of the seed of boa-dormant variety in the proportion of ~ gram of seed ~o lO mt of ~a1:er} was useful. Ger- mination of the dormant varle~y increased from 5.6 to 42.5 peg cent. Tl53810081
Page 80: TI53810082
83. Non-dot=ant seed> ~hen store~ ~th capsules sho~ed sisntf$cantly h~gher ger~nation (~3.5 per c~_nt), than crushed seed kept in pap~r.p'e~.kets. For dor:aant seed chafe ~as no differ~te between the 2 me~hods o~ storage. 84. Tobacco seed bed investi~atlOnSolI: Surface lawyers. .-x,D SOI~SW~aA~AO M. ~t~ 3 ~o 1~ ~85-8 ~97o tn the f~st ~t~'c~e.. on ~he su~Jec~"op~ p~tt¢~ ze~8~ f~ tobacco nurseries In M~ur~ ~ ~9o~atore 4istrlcts ~nelud~ tion of f~yard ~ure ~ a layer at 4.5 kg/m2 bef~e s~ng ~ cove- rerg the bed %~th a t~tl of baJrz straw for 20 tO ~ da~ ~t~ sowing. The tov~ w~.hogtly ~ ~me c6nsu~ng ait~t~Eh it ensur~ a go~ nur- -seryt Xn the pres~ e~r~ment condu~ to eli~nate the cover, it W~ found £h~t ai:%ay~ of the aquatic we~ Pot~set~ sp. ~at O~ kglm2 of ~r dry m~terial s~e~ on %he b~ ~n ~" uniformly t~S~ mass ~er -the'f~myazd ~gre layer-~d pressed ~_th the h~d~ could d~spens~ w~th the thatt~" of 5a~ra straw In the e~[y =owlnss. T~s treatm~,t Eave 28 per .c~ ~d &O pet cent ~nerease o~ ~r~spl~t~e se~ilnEs in the t~ 8e~ns. Xn.the la~er so~nEs however the ~se of the the poto layer ~ncre~ed t~e number of ~r~s?iamts h.y ~ per cent in f~rst ye~T ~d 60 FeE cent in the ss~d year. In o~her ~rds, -cover o~ 5ajra straw Zs nq~ necess~y ~n the e~ly so~n88 but could be us~ ~th advocates In ~he later'so~n~8.~ 'Note on the metht,~ of a~l~cat~.on of s~perpholp~t4"~o ~{Ear tobaezo ~xinE cf s~p@rpkosQh~{e ~h f~myard ~ure is ~ effective method ~ncreas~n~ the ~v~i~Jil~ty of phosphor,,s ~u calcareous so~Is ~th a h~gh pH~ ~;h~ the usual m~.thods of bronchi appii~ ~t~on or plac~ent of sup e~hosp.hata, alode fa~1. The o~tima~ l~rzel of ~ ~d further ~leatXon of the m~zhod Will. ~v~ to be wo~:ked out. The e~ra cost of appl~catlon of su?~rphosphate by t~s meth~ is },s.15 per ~, ~d is not prohlb~£i~i Co ~option ~ e large scale~ ,. ....30 TI53810082
Page 81: TI53810083
85. Barley tobacco a boon ~o. Bihar farmers. SRLRAMAM~tTY G - Indian Farming 17(6} 37-8 1967 Burley ~obacco, whleh ~anbe harvested In llO to ~2C. days after plantlngt was found to be a 8ood alternative to chewing tobamco for farmer~ of North Biharo He~rosls 8nd combining abil~_ty, in tobacco (Nicotlana Taba~un L.). ~A S~A R~ ~B ,~ SRIR~ ~TY Indi~ J" ~ic sol 38 221-9 I~8. SEudies on the utilization of hy~d ~g~r In ~ew~.ng ~obacco ~. ~b~) w~e c~duct~ at the Tob~co Rese~ch S~a~on, Pusa. ,(Bi~) d~ng i~O~3. " In g~er~ ~ ~or~ce of ~ F% hy ~N.~.35~ (~ f~e) pro~ b~er p~en~ ~ ~em l~s~ed foz fu~e ~n~ ~oErs~s ~ on ~he eolian8 ab~y values of the d~fferen~ 87. FuT~her studies on heterosls and combining ability ~n dlallel ~rosses in Tobacco (Nicotia~..s Tabacu~ L, ) . SR~TY G AND~ ~ANNA $IMF~RAO GSB Indian 8 agrlc sol 38 864-9 1968 : : Studies on the utilization of hybrid viggur' in chewing tobacco (~ t.ab.a&R~n~ .L.) were co,~ducted at the Tobacco Re~sarch Sta- tlon~ ~usat Bihar, during 1965-66. Among ~he ~arents used, ~Borl Mali~r Thahara~ , ,~or.i Narhwa Sararan~an'..and eD.P.,~e, while not dlffem~Ing veT~: much amongst them'selves~ ~oved better than other parents from the yleld point of view, Among crosses • " ('D.~,4~E' x.~T.lT'), 'Hp i~l~~ (~Borl Nar1~a ~araran~an~) X ~Type B') and 'H~, ~-2' ('D.P.40~' ~.'Bori Narhwa Ssrsra~.~a.r+~) e.~hib.ited high heterosls effects. ~ro~slng parents for fu~'e "breeding programmes were listed, based on their combln~nE ah~l~ty values. 88. Effec~ of mulehln8 on ~he 8rc~th and "yleld of tobacco crop,in laRon to soll temper&ture ~d moisture. ln~i~ J ~lu scl 29 7~2~ 1969 The effect of ~ehing on the ~:d ~ tobacco ~d the yle~d ~d ~t~ri~y wlth p~ticllar referen~ ~o soll te~r~t~re ~d ~isture were studied a~ the Tobacco Rese~eh Station, t~ee ye~s. The res~i~s sh~ that: (~) in the ~ea~ments where the so£~ w~ c~er~ ~th black ~l~t~e film, t~ ~eld~ ~re ~gher in all t~ 3 ~s ~ comp~ to other ~ea~ts, (ll) ~he l~gth ~d • bre~h of the le~ ~d the height of the pl~t were more In treat- ~mehh recelvi~ a ~lch of biack a1~h~e film th~ ~n the con~ol~ (Ill} puck~&m~ ~ sp~giIn~ were ~re ~o~nt ~ the le~s of ~ pl~ts~ ~ (Iv) the soll tem~a~ure r~e:[ in T153810083
Page 82: TI53810084
the u~Iched Sta~[stical an~lysls s~ ~ ~~s~p ~e~ween soll ~st~e bergen soll t~para~ure ~d ~e~d ~-notlc~. This t~ Indlcate3 that.~soi.l .t~phz~e .fath~ ~ .s~l ~istu~.e Is the ~i~t~ TI53810084
Page 83: TI53810085
indian J Agron 12 389-96 1967 An e~periment w~6h N. rustic& and N..tabacum plant ]~ds was con- ducted at thh Wrapper and Hookah Tobacco Research Station, Dinhata~ West Bengal" during "19.61 to 1963 nursery seasons. o£ three F.Y~M. levels i.~e. O, iO and 20 tonnes/ha~ .three P205 lewals i.eo O, "~ and 112 kg/h~ and three K20 levels i,eo .0, 56 and ~12 kg/ha were tried.. The following conclusions are drawn:- I. For ra~slng a successful tobacco nursery' in West Bengal appli- cation of F.YoM,. is essential and a dose of 10 tonnes/ha was found to be optimum. This treatment produced, 27,2~ an~ 68.7.2~ more transplants of.N° z~stlca and N. tahacum respectlvely~ a~ compared to Ino Manuret appllcatlon; Seedlings were also healthier in this treatment. ~ • 2° Similarly with increasing levels of P205 number of transplan- table seedllngs increased progressively a~d in N. tabacum nursery 35°6..p~r cent mor~ transplants were produced wlt'~112 kg B2~5/ha~ whi'~e in _~. run,ice nursery a dose of 56 kg BiOslha produced 35,7 per cent more transplants as compared to gno 3..K20 dressings did not have any beneficial effzct on the number of transplants produced. 90, G~owlng Mot~arl tobacco the improved way, Ind~ ~g 18(~) ~-~ 1968 In ~7 tri~l~ during 5 years, tobacco ~. Ho~ih~ was ~(~ by ~ ~m~ me~hod which incl~d~ I~ da~ b~ore ~r~splan~Ing# I~2 kg N/h~ ~t transpl~Ing, sp~cing at 60 x 72 ~ .~60 x 45 cm le~ s~e, and (b) by' fa~rs~ methods uhlch inc~ the applica- tion of 25 t~nnes F.Y.M.[~ 14 days before tr~spl~t~ng,~spa~ng e~ 69 x 69 ~ ~d topping at the 6-to 7-1~f stage. Method (e) gave averse yields of ~31 ~ ~red-le~[ha, co~ared ~th 893 ~ for (b) le~ quality ~ a~so hlgh~ w~h (a) 91. Cigar filler tobacco finds a new home in N. Bengal. Ind~ F~ 18(6) 20-2 1~68 E~oratory tr~a~e to ~ntr~uc~ f~1ler tobacco (5 ~.) ~nto CoouhBeh~ dlstr~ct~ W. ~nga!~ ~re carr~ out at ~ lo=atlons In ~he fa~ers~ -f~elds.. Cv. ~-2~ KV-I~ Sw~r Hibshm~ (from USA), Olor (~A) ~ Hav~a-381 (Cuba) ga~ everage ~elds of ~7, i~ ~O11~ 987 ~d 939 ~ ieaves/ha~ res~ctlvely, However) ~e~ quality WaS ~st for ~. Hav~a-38~, foll~ 5y Olor ~d Sw~r ~bs~; T153810085
Page 84: TI53810086
• ,.-Nu~.-~-~Yo "" " " "~'' , =:~: " " - -, " .. .~:: z.~ J~~.~ ~.i~,~ ~68 . ,~ . ; . . we=e ob=~n~" from app1>Ini 25-5¢ ~ P~O~ha ~lone. ~ ~th. ~ ~h~ ~%~e~ ~£ higher rates of PgOb, :,ere. =oT~ ~feetlve th~ ~ave the" highest numbnr of tr~spl~s ~d of tct~ se~llngs. Fresh weight" of I~ .;z.~9:~.~. was. Ehd hlg-h~s~,.. 2~..~, w~ere 920 In ~rlals ~th Jatl i~icoti~na Tabacum) ~obacco "daring 2 years leaves to l~A.~ and o: ~Irs~-g~e :~ees ~o ~6 ~ha~ cv~er~ ~th ~02 ~ 2~ ~, ~esp~ctively~ cn plota g~on no F.Y.H. was .'a possitive ~espons~ In ~eld ~o ~e agp:£c:.cion o: N up I00 ~ha; N at. 150 ~ha gave further increases :u yield in a year, but decreased yi4-1ds .in a dry yea':, .%ppllcatlon of P2Ob~ha increased ~elds signlflc~ntly ove~ those obtained appl~ng I00 ~ P~5~ha In a dry year only: Tobacco showed no response to I~-200 ~ KzO/ha. 94. Comp~atlve perfo~anees of ~o varieties of eIZ.~-~apper tobacco grown at raring nltro~en ~d spae~ levels, und.~r shoe ~d :in the opem. Xndi~ J a~ric sc£ 39 353-AO 1969 Shrine the tops of pl~ts of 2 c',. of c~.Ee, r-~aDper tobacco i month length ~nd 9re~th of leaves and ~eld of !z.t-.g~a le~, with unsh~ed c~trols. ShYing de~as~l t.,=al y£eld of ~red- le~ by 3% in ~. Di~e Shc!e and inc~ease~ It by 5~% in ~. Sumatra, yields of unsh'~ed crops being ~563 and AB.% kc.'lm: respectively. W~th Inhere .f.n rate of N from 75 to 125 %/ba~ t"t~l )~elds ~eld ~ Is~-g~e le~ D~.x/.e ghe]e incre~=~ mar~dly~ elaily ~der ~h,~e, but there.w~s ~ s~li Increase ~n yields of Higher ~elds ,:,ere given by Di~e ShOe ~o~ at a spacing of 99 x 45 ~ than &~ ~O x 60 or 60 x 45 ~ hut ~eld= of S~tra were highest at 60 ~ 45 ~. 95. Superphosphate for tobacco nurseries.. T153810086
Page 85: TI53810087
nu~se~es g£~n 30 ~ ~ ~ 80 ~ ~5 ~ 70 ~ K~/~ 8a~. ~h ~, 19,~8 ~r~spl~s,~h ~ ~ 11,982 ~ro= ~e~~ duc~.35~l~ tr~dpl~ts ~ m¢~ c~p~ ~th'5~656.~spl~s .... N t~:~lha.. ~C W~ :~n¢lud~ C~t Che b~sC .ge~tlon ~d .... espee~ally ~, " : .. ~'~. 96. ~,ne~,~opping peCeern for H~C~ ~ngal. : .". " "' ,By ~op~tng ~he triple-cropping pe~e~ ~ 8ro~.~ ~ p~dy~ p~dy-Ho~ih~ ~obec~, ~ec?~d~ by ~he Tobacco ~e~ch D£nhaCa, o~e ehe double-~o~ping, pe~ern o~. gro~ ~'~ • . JuCe fo11~ by Mo~h~i tobacco which Is :Cbe ~ust~..~acC~ce~ " f~rs of Notch ~n8~I would geC ~ ~d1CIonal ~n~l~" ~d could Tt53810087
Page 86: TI53810088
TI53810088
Page 87: TI53810089
N&~:~ on effects of nema~icldes and hea~ ~re~men~ on the roo~-~o~ n~t~e in ~o~o nurseries. Indi~ J ~rlc s~ 39 ~3-5 ~969 "" "" Root-~ot n~t~es ~n toba~ n~ser~es were ~ec~vely with ~abb~ng~ ~ ~ V~ ~rea~nts~ w~ch res~l.~d In rap~d se~- Wh£gh ~Id no~~pr~e the gr~h of. ehe T!53810089
Page 88: TI53810090
4° I0o 12o 15o ].6° 17o 20° 22° 23, 2~o 25° 27° 28° 29. 30, 31o 32° AUTHOR INDEX Krlshnamurthy KV: 10, II, 16, 20, 21, 22., 25 Krishnamurthy S: 76 Krishnan AS : 81 "'" Lakshminar@yana R: "i3, "'i7, "~I, "25 Mangareddy MC: 59 ~ 60 Moses L.IS: 82 Moses ]~: 64 .. .: Murky GSR: "54 "" " Murty KSN: 51, 61 Marry NS: 43, 45 NagaraJ G: 55, 57, "5~, ~'2 " Nagendragupta TB~: 71 Narasayya KL: 52, 66, 68 Narasimhamurthy YCH: 30, 3.1 Narayana.CL: 4, 13, 17, 32, 59~ 70~ 89. Ojha-RJ : -28 ..... ~a~e 37 T153810090
Page 89: TI53810091
33, 34. 35. 36. "~7o 38. 39° 40. 4].. 42. 43. 44, 4_5. 46. 47° 48~ 49. 52, 55, $8o Pal NL: 27~, Pandey RG: 96 • ~ann:l.kar S~I: 89.95 ~rasanna Simha F.ao Ra~arao ~H: 72-7~, 78. R~h~drudu ~:" 63, "64, 6~8 • R~pras~G: 32~ ~8,'~, 42. Rao RS~: 33-3S, 37, 39-41 ~Reddy TSN: Sajn~i ~: 90-95 : S~ma CB: 67 S~t~adh~i T: 96 Somesw~ Rao M: 83~ 84 Sr~r~urthy CH: 49~ 55~ ~" 62a Sr~r~urthy G: 85-88 Subbarao D: 50~ 53,' Subrah~y~ M: 4~" 24~ ~2~ 69, 70 Tr~path~ SN : Um~aheswar~ao M: 88 Venkatarao C: 26 eage 38 Vlswanadham S: 79 ": " Walun~kar WG: I, 2, 4-7, 8a~ 33; 35, 89-~2, 94i 95 : Ti53810091
Page 90: TI53810092
T!53810092
Page 91: TI53810093
ACHIEVEMENTS OF TOBACCO Kanakap~bha DROBL~S of practical importance ~. have been tackled at the Central Tobacco Kesearch Institute, Rajahmundry, and at the Tobadco Research Stations, Dhthata, Guntux, Hunsur, Pusa and Vedasandur in sewral short-term and long-term pro- jects owr the past two decades on cigarette, natu, fan, a, hookah, chcwlng, cheroot, cigar-filler and cigar- wrap- per tobaccos and the salient findings are presented below. Details pertaining to the selectlon of nursery site, lay-ou~, manuring, seed-rate, method of sowing, care of nursery be& after sowing, top- dressh~, etc., have b~n worked out after inteasive, research over a number of years. Farmers who in the past were obtaining their scedl- ings from far off places for planting thwart in their fiel& are now confi- own seed beds. In addition, a number of commercial nur~erles have cropped up in Andhra Pradesh after acqnizing the know-how ~om RESEARCH N,C. GOPALACHARI Officiating Director, Central Tobscco Research Institute, Rajahmundp/, Andhra Pradszh clean seed oi" improved st~alns of flue-cured Virginia, /anka, na~u and hurley tobaccos approved for culti- vation and tested for its viability, is distributed by the Central Insti- tute and its l~egional Station at" Guntur through the Extension paxtment of the State Agricultural Department, Andhra Pxadesh. The op~mum time of sowing the nursery is found to be the second i'ortnight of August and seed rate of ~-3 kg per hectare is found to be sufficient. The following improved practices have been recommended for raising succes~l'ul nu~ery:-- (t) Presoaking of the seed in 50 ppm gibbexelHc acld solution for 48 hours for hnproving the g~mlnation and transplant- able seedlings even under unfavourable seasonal condi- tions i.e., prevalenc~ of high temperature during the nut- (~) Sp~ tobacco • t the r~e d 5 over the be& for protecting - the s~ed be~ agaimt scorch- ing sun and beating rains. (3) Application of a basal dress- ing of 50 kg ammonium sul- phatc, 3oo kg of superphos- phate and xoo kg of dolo- mite and a top dressing of zoo kg of calcium ammo- ninm nltrat¢ per hectare of nursery. The beneficial effects of super- phosphate were clearly demons- trated especially in black soll nurser- Application of left over ash of cattle dung cake at 35 tonn~s/h~c- tare, because of its richness in phos- phorus and potash, was found to bc equally effective. Studies pertaining to the various field opez-~tlons resulted in a packa- ge of practices mo~t suitable for getting the maximum benefit in terms of yiel~ and quality of leaf. With a viewtolncrea~ingtheyidd the monctm-y rcturm o£ the farmer~ Ti53810093
Page 92: TI53810094
been found to be most suitable for Krlstma, East-and West Godavari districts. SimiIarly growing ~ingcly in the kharif followed by tobacco in the mbi is most suitable for Guntur " and Ongole districts. Vigorous propaganda is being made through Press, Radio talks in the Villagerd Prograrnme and through the Extemlon Staff regard- ing the use of only approved p~ti- cides at the recommended doses for tobacco. The pesticides that are not to be used on tobacco under any circumstances are: x) Endrln, a) Lindane, $), Toxaphen, 4) Aldrin, 5) Dioldrin, 6) D.D.T., 7) Parathion dust, ex-Folldol dust, Paramer dust, etc., "8) I-Ieptachlor and 9) Chlor- dane which are all cklorlnated hydro- carbo- compound~. About a5 per cent of the cost of production of F.C.V. tobacco is due to the curing process, so essential for obtaining bright leaf. Efficient utilimtion of the heat from the fuel may lead to an .economy in the curing process. For this purpose an improved barn with more efficient .arrangement oi'flues, bottom ventila- tors and top ventilators was deslgned, constructed and advocated to the farmers. An improved .curing schedule which ~aves time and reduces the cost of curing was also formulated and the farmers "formed of its advantages. It was ~ecently foun~ at the Central Instio tute that paddy huslt may be used as fuel in barr~ for which a snlmble furnace is designed. In locatiom where paddy husk i~ available in large quantities at prices not exceed- ing 57 pai~e per bag the farmers will be profited by u~ing it in plac~ of coal or wood, with pmctlcally no difference in cured leaf and bright 8Tade returns 6~om the ~ame qua~tlty Cigar ('Vellavazhai') tobaccocmp Detailed investigations on the: ob- jective assessmeJlt ofqualiW in tobacco resulted in arriving at certain chemical ratios such Sclmauk Nmnber, Kovalenko Coeffi- clent and reduc'mg sugar~/nicotlne as reliable yardsticim for measure- merit of ~moking quality. Physical quality characters which determine the manufacturing economy arc found to bc assoclatcd with filling value, porosity, equilibrium molsmrc content, leaf strength, leaf-clasticlty and shatterability. For both chendo cal and physical quality charac- ters, acceptable ranges for their values have been determined and quality of tobacco produced is being assessed. These measures arc also being applied in a~essing the quality of Indian flue-cured tobacco in comparison with American and P~hodeslan tobaccos for cffccting further improvement through genetic and cultural techniques. On the basis of the cxtcnslve work done at the Central Institute., grading the cured leaf according to its position on the plant i~ advocated. O_.uality wm found to be influenced by tbe stage of maturity of leaf at harvest and leaf harvested at the correct stage of maturity gaw the best quality leaf. A test paper tech- nique which is quite simple and.can be followed easily by farmers h.as been developed. Dark green ~des of tobacco which are practically Worthless could be improved to light medium green grades by heat treatment under humid conditions whereby the value is enhanced six times in terms of price. Lo.w nicotine cigarettes could be made from tobaccos treated with hydrogen peroxide since it involves chemical oxidation of the alkaloid as well as increase in the specific volume of the tobacco .~hre~. Tobacco produced in lowiying and saline areas deteriorates in quality during storage,, becomes muddy brown in colour on storage and does not bum properly. After a detailed survey and study of the soll and plant samples the reason was found to be the high chloride content of the soil as in saline area~ or of the ground- in high dfloride uptal~ by the plant. T153810094
Page 93: TI53810095
Chewing ('Monnai') tobacco crop While an intensive propaganda was made to discourage farmc~ from growing tobacco in low-lying and saline arc~ art elcctrofitrlmetric method for determination of chloe ride content of leRf was developed and demonstrated to the Marketing Department, and it is now widely adopted by the Agricultural Markcto ing Department to dcanarcate 'saline' tobacco. Pesticide residues have bccn re- cognised as a potential problem by the tobacco industry all over the world in view of their impact on the health of tbe smoker. Continuous quality surveillance for timely detec- tion of.pesticide rcddues beyond tolerance limits is essential for prompt action and promotion of the export potential oflndian tobacco. Scttlng .up of a Pesticide Reddue Laboratory at the Central Institute is being finalized and work is going to be initiated shortly on this important problem. DetaUcd studlcs on the water-re- quirement of the tobacco crop are initiated in the light soil areas and thc~c may help in evolving depend- able irrigation ~bedule foe the ero_l~ In vicw of the indiscriminate irrigation of tobacco crop in juna Sagar areas by the farmcn, scheme has been initiated to study the effect of h'Hgafion in soils of different text/u~ elates in these areas on the quality of the leaf. With the increased awarene~ of the association of cigarette smoldng and lung cancer, it is necessary to determine the cardnogenic potentia- lities of Indian flue-cured tobacco ~s information on this aspect is lack- ing. The three major mca~ rcduclng the carcinogenic properties vlz., tobacco selection, chemical additives and physical processing techniques will be exploited. In view of the demand for low nicotine tobacco by the importing countries thh aim will bc achieved by combining the genetic and agro- nomlcal factors conducive to lower nicotine content in the leaf. A package of practices involving the inherently low nicotine produdng vm-letics, snitablc plant population, manuringschcdulcs, level of toplMng, etc., will be evolved. In the fidch of pc~t m~d disca~ control, te~ting of cagily available varletle~ rcslstant to various diseases and pests and ~ ~ to~ ~ ~ ~r ~e ~dd~e of ~om p~ ~d ~ ~d ~tent ~ ~e d~agc ~med some of ~c ~c~am F~bl~ en~ ~c at~fion of ~e O~ ~ of ~a~s Tobacco. ~tu tobacco in ~a Prad~h in ~ area of a~ut 59,o9o h~cs ~mp~ a ~up of loc~ ~efi~ of M. and ~ ~ p~dp~y ~ I~M che~ ~d ~p c~tt~. tobacco ~ ~o ~ ~ a ~all ~tent as snu~ pi~e, ~e~ ~d tobac~. ~ong ~, one which ~ ~ bla~ clay~ so~ of G~, M~a~b~, Nalgonda and K~ nod ~cm ~d~ r~ed con~- fiom ~d ~e o~ ~o~ ~ ~dy lo~ ~ ~, W~t Goda- v~ ~d ~~ ~c~ ~d~ ~gafion ~d h~ f~afio~ The fo~, ~ ~ about hcc~, h reed ~ ~ and cheap ci~zett~ and ~e latter, ~o~ ~ a~ut xS,OOO hccmr~, ~cd for ~oom ~d snuff. Work done at ~¢ Tobacco R~h fion, G~t~, p~ o~y to fo~er. Jati (topp.ed) tobacco crop TI53810095
Page 94: TI53810096
about 50 per cem more yidd in the dhtrict trials and ~ bc rclea.~d shortiy to the cuItlvators. Planting ~rom the middle of October to first week of Nove~nbcr at 9o Cn'A ×9° cm spacing, application of 4o kg N~a as groundnut cake, topping the plant at flower head instead of about 14 leaves as farmers do and harvesting thc leaf by priming instcad of thc stalk-cut method prac- tised by the farmers improved the yield and leaf quality substantially so as to give a ]dgher net income of about Rs 425 per hectare. C[~root Tobo~co. /.~rRa tobacco, another distinct type of tobacco, grown on the idands and bank~ of the r~vers Godavarl and I~hhna is reed exc.ludvdy for cheroots (C~t- t~). A selection DR.1 i~olat~d for its higher yield and superior quality over the existing varieties was given to thc cultivators and has almost saturated 'the whole /~d~a tobacco growing area of Andhra Pmdesh. The major problem in ration ~s the severe aphid incldencc. The aphicldes- recommended for F.C.V. tobacco work well on tobacco also, but more number of sprayings arc rcqulred as the aphid incidence h high. Recently, the granular type systen~c aphlcides such as Solvlrex and Phoratew ere u-led and found io give excellent control for a much longer duration. In Tamil Nadu the principal variety of cheroot tobacco grown in about 800 hectares, is Oo~pp,,l. The selection~ evolved in (local) at the Vedasandur l~.escarch Station arc OK-x (broad leaf type) and 1-737 (narrow leaf type). Further improvement in 1-737, by crc~ing it wlth Olor-zo has been ~ed at the Station. G'~ar Filbr Tobacco. Cigar filler tobacco occupies hardly x~ ha in l~dux'ai and 'l'iruchiralpalll At Vedasandur, superior selections have be~n evolved from the local ~d~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~e ~d KV-x, 1-45~ ~d 1-46e later. ~e sd~om ~ve most ~ the cigar ~ ~- fion for ac~g Pu~ri~ Cigar ~er v~eW Olor ~d ~vo1~ a sup~or Olor-xo, out of it. va~eW Havana-x4~ ~ ~ been found su~or. A pac~ge of prac- fic~ ~mp~ing appH~fion of 75 kg N+5o kg P~Os~, @a~g of 75 ~X75 ~ ~d topp~g at l~v~ for 1~ v~cfi~ ~d ~8-~o for Olor w~ re~mmended for adop~on. Work done at ~ ~a~ Sw~ ~bs~, 1-45~, Have- ~ct. Spa~ of 9o ~5o cm pl~g in ~d-Octo~ w xs~ w~ ofNov~b~, ~pping at x~-x5 l~v~ (for Olor x8-2o l~v~), appH~fion kg KsO/~ w~e r¢~d~ for adoption. ~e ci~ ~er tobacco produced ~ &v above a~ ~ fo~d to be g~ q~H~ and ~ ha~ go~ ~rt pot~ b~ed on ~ favor-. able op~o~ ~pr~ed b~ some for~ ~. In~ d~ ~o f~t ~cr¢~g for ~ tobac~ ~d i~ a~gv may ~cr~v de~bly ~ ~e n~t few ~ng ~ ad~on~ ~v for bl~ to~ ~ s~ at D~ata Tch~co 6 ~ec~ ~ ~-Behar ~ct of W~t ~ pmv~ ~at ~d q~HW ~r ~pp~ Wbac~ ~ p~u~ ~ ~at ~ct. Int~ of 75 cm×45 cm p~antlng from m~d-October to ~t ~ of No~- ber, appH~fion of x~5 ~ N, H~ ~ P,O~ ~d ~4 ~ ~O~a h~t- ~ ~ 4-5 ~ a~ ~g ~ K~ ~, b~ and ~ ~r~g to ~¢ of 1~ w~v ~- ~ded for adoption. ~ ~ an ~por~t ~h c~p of B~, Uttar Prad~h~ ~t Be~al and T~ Nadu. Work car~ed out at Ved~dur R~earch T~ Nadu, ~ted in ~c m~dafion of ~c foHo~g v~ $~mble to ~e ~¢rent tmc~ of ~¢ region :-- Area Varie~ x. Mormai 1-64 ~. Smoke-cured area PV-7 3- Vedaranyam VR-2 4." Meenampalayam I-xx5 5. Vattakappal VTK-~ 6. Vadam.ugam VD-x 7. Sivapuri A spacing of 75 cm × 75 cm., planting in November to Deccmber is a staggered system, topping at the level of 7-9 leaves, application of 25 toanes of F.Y.M., ,oo kg N and 5° kg P,Os/ha arc in the package of practices evolved at Vedasandur Research Station for Chewing to- bacco of Tamll Nadu. At Pure Research Station, thrcc hybrid selections vlz., HP 6-xx, HP. 648 and HP.6-so were found superior to the cxisting DP. cvolvcd earlier, in trials conducted at the Station as we/1 as in the d~- trlcts and arc likd7 to rcplacc the existing one in the coming years. Application of x68 kg. Nfna ammonium sulphate and mustard cake, spacing of 50 cm×6o cm planting by the end of September topping at ~4 leaves, piercing the stem afer topping, adopting a multi- plc cropping pattern of maize in Ti53810096
Page 95: TI53810097
~d net return c~" Rs 4oo" per hectare. Hookah Tobacco. TobaCco grown for Hookah belongs to the species ru~Eca and ./~'. t~bucam. Among th~ fo~, Mol~ad. (w=t Bengal), Fil~'ati (Bihar), Cal~Ea {Uttar Pradesh and Punjab) and (Punjab) are the types grown com- monly. The types grown under the latter species are called des/in Bihar and ~a~i in West Bengal. The package og pmctlces evolved at the Dinhata Research Station for Motihari 0fariety Hemti) recom- mend application of z~.5 tormes of F.Y.M./ha a formight prior to transplanting, plu~ application of ammonium sulphate at t z 2 kg N/ha before transplantlng in the first week of November at 6o cm ×45 cm spacing, topping at 8 leaves, priming, sun-drying for 8-zo hours, bundling, air-curing in l~utcha barns for 4-5 wee~ preparing hands bulking and grading. A new intemive cropping pattern with Aus paddy~Aman paddy Motihari tobacco rotation was esta- blished by the Diahata tLesearch Station, giving an additional net income of Rs 2,7oo per hectare over Aus paddy~Mo~ihari Tobacco rotation followed by the farmers of West Bengal For ~7ati tobacco, varieties Chama (late maturing) or PodaE (early maturing) can be grown with Ioo kg N/ha, planting from middle to end of October at 9o cm × 0o cm spacing, topping at 8 leaves, priming ~-4 times and adopth,.g procedures similar to that of Mo~ihad for curing and grading, with the exception of soaking the petioles and l~avcs in water during preparation of Sdections T-~7, 3t-37 and in Mo~il~ari and sdections DD-4~3, DD-4~4, DD-4t5 and DD-4z7 in ,Station and in district trials at six to b~ rel~d for cuhivatioa by the farmers. Bidi Toba¢~. Rr~carch on varlous aspects of b~d~ tobacco production ~ being carried out at the Bid~ Tobacco Research Station, Anand. The re- search work so far undertakea has resulted in evolving 3 improved varieties, vlz. Anand-2, Anand-~3 and Anand xtg rlelding 3t%, ~% and 26% lfighcr yield respecdvely over K-~o. The optimum require- ment o~" N ~or the tobacco was found to be i~o kg per hectare applied wholly as oHcake or partly as oil- ca~e and partly as chemical fertilizer and th~ together with planning at o. 88 mX o.88 m and topping at about t t leaves produced good quality and higher return to the farmer. For the cor~trol of nemato- des in the nursery, Nemagon at 50 litres~na and Shell DD at 560 lhres/ha were found to be quite effective. From the point of cost, Nemagon at 1~ ~o~ ha was chea- per than ShdlDD at P~ ~,Soo~ha. Coord~na/ed Project on ~obacco Under the ProjeCt, initiated in the year t97o, work on exportable types of tobacco viz. cigarette, na~u, Burley, cigar filler, wrapper and ~idi tobacco is being carried out at the main centres Rajahmundry, Pusa and the Agricultural University, Bangalore and the Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand and at th~ sub- centres Guntur, Hunsur; Din.hata and Nipani. The work so far carried out has given valuable information .on the applicabillty of the various research findings og the Central Institute and the l~.esearch Stations on a wide range of representative tobacco growing tracts of India. The search continues for finding out the most suitable varieties for the variou~ agro-climatic tobacco growing tracts and their optimum requirement of fertilizes and cul- tural practices, und~ constant sur- query fi~om th~ C~tral In~tur~ ~d ~e V~and~, ~a, D~am ~d Hu~ m put und~ ~ h ~ "f~' fi~& to ~ out ~ large~c~e u~W ~d adoptab~. Na~onM Demo~on t~ to show ~e supcdod~ of ~ddy ~ s~tobacco ~tadon over Fal- low~Toba~o pmcth~ by fa~e~ is conducted at four ]o~o~ ~ the nor~n to~c~ ~o~g of ~dhm Prad~h. Similarly ~ota- tion THals ~th G~cly-Tobacco rom~on ~ comparhon ~ Tob~co ~ ~ing conducted at four loca~o~ ~ ~e sou~ern ~cts Anna Pmd~h. Advanced bree~ng Hn~ prov~ sup~ori~ ~ver the stand~d vade6~ ~ q~ ~d yi~d ~e put under lo~6on ~ for 3 co~ecu6vc y~" b~ore ~ Co~ttee. ~ at pr~t imp~ved selectlo~ are put ~der lo~6on ~ at fo~ lo~o~. S~ly, ~e newly ~olv~d ~ vad¢~ DG-~ ~d DG-4 o~ G~mr K~ca~h Sta~on~ ~proved ~r-fiHer and Che~g seI~6o~ of Vcd~d~ Kesearch Sm6on and improved ~ and Mo~ s~cc- tio~ of Di~am ~ese~ Sta~on ~c under l~a~oa ~ials. B~id~ the pa~age of pmcfic~ avolved at ~e C~tr~ I~fitute for Cig~ette t~ bac~ arc under Dh~ct ~on at the Cen~ I~mt¢ ~ one D~o~on ~sh~t who wor~g ~ ~ ~o~6on ~ • ~ Tobac~ ~t~on ~mff of ~ ~ ~d~h A~c~t~ D~ p~ent ~c~ly ~ ~ out damo~tmfion ~ on c~' fi~. Ad~o~ se~ce to ~¢ ~bac- ~ba~o p~cfio~ pub~dW ~d p~~ ~ ~ pub~on T!53810097
Page 96: TI53810098
the farme~ and taking the re~:ar~ findh~ to m~ ~&out Und~ Toba~o • D~elopm~t many develo~t sch~ ~cfio~. ~ong por~t one p~ucEon and ~t~bufion of p~e ~ and s~n~ f~cfio~g at Raj~~, Ved~d~, H~ ~d D~am. ~e Imfiute is annu~- ly p~u~ng ~d ~bufi~ about The ot~er development ~heme~ functioning at Dinhata ar~: (i) Scheme for t.rainlng in the improved method~ of tobacco cultivation, ]~ar= vesting and handling of the cured leaf and ~2) Scheme for exploratory trials on cigar filler tobacco. Beside~" the above mentioned development schemes a centrally sponsored scheme for extending cultl- vation of C~gar Wrapper tobacco in farmers' ~ed~ is in operation at Dinhata. T!53810098
Page 97: TI53810099
THE INTERNATIONAL WEEKLY UBRARY 60P'Y ANNUAL INDIA NUMBER • . • P. 13 The mark of quality in India PACKING HOUSES IN CLAGETT, BRACHI CO. LTD RADLEY HOUSE, BROCKHAMPTON LANE, HAVANT, HANTS, ENGLAND. Cables: CLA6EI-I', HAVANT India Thailand Philippines Cyprus TOBACCO MERCHANTS SINCE 1709 ~ ,~ Tl5381009{,
Page 98: TI53810100
Unive rsal- your cmnldete source ~r worM-wide to~cco requirements In today's complex marketing, there is a need for tobacco from just about every comer of the globe. UNIVERSAL'S service fills that need. For instance, through our companies you can get tobacco from Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Malawl, Zambia, Tanzania, Angola, S. Africa, Italy, Greece, and Germany, as well as the United States. It's all a part of UNIVERSAL'S complete service, Next time instead of searching throughout the world1 use UNIVERSAL. Univers a,1. ~e..a_f..~ob acc o ~. EXPORTERS * IMPORTERS Rk:hrnond, Yirginla 23214 - U.S.A. • TI53810100
Page 99: TI53810101
111i IrlillNATIONll WlIKLY OF INDUSTRY AND $CIF.NCE-.-Eil'ABLISHED 1816 PUBLISHER John A. Camph EDITOR G. Espinosa MANAGING EDITOR Charles M. Boone" FIELD EDITORS T. N. Sandifer Henry A. Dennis Jack L Scism George E. Nettum George W. Bmgdon Basil Thassitis Robert Moreli Richard Smith Fawky Abdallah R. J. M. Appelboom George B. Spence Oscar Villasis Harry Berry David S. Bergel L. J. Lockie V. Moots Akin Umur P. R. Parthasarathy Kune Georgievski B. L. Vonderheide J. Strangwayes-Booth CORRESPONDENTS Washington North Corn#inn Virginia Wisconsin Connecticut Greece Georgia-Florida United Kingdom U.A.R. Brazil (South) Maryland Philippines Rhodesia Spain - Australia South Carolina Turkey India Yugoslavia Louisville I.us~ka Chandrakant Kakodkar India (Bombay) Carlo Lozzi Italy Jorge Posse Jovito B. EscanlGn Juanito V. Jabot Ban Eddington Stuart Griffin Javier Saldafla PRODUCTION MANAGER Rocco Romano CIRCULATION MANAGER L Greenbaum Florida Nicaragua The Oflent Richmond T o ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES N~dhnest Representation: Robe~ M. Lockwood and Georg, E. Lockwood. Jr. SOl FI~ Ave.. New Yo~, N.Y. 1~17: ~uthern'R~rssentative: W. (wren Skln~. Jr.. Cktisti~n~ St. WIlli~mston, N.C. 2~: Mid-West Reme~ent~tl~l: H. K. Vln- cra~ E Co., c/o La Pa~ter;e, $ Rue Par;s S; Germany. He~ert Morqenbesser~ Ko~J- galen 3 2 Hamburq 13 Phone: ~?-~3; N~her- lands, I;Igium. Austrla:'W. J: M. ~nder;, ~hn A~crafP & Co., H~engracht 3~, Amsterdam-C. Holland. Phone: ~: U.K.: Rag lufler. Stafford Hour, No~olk St. Strand ~ndon W.C. I"OI^CCO VOLUME liT. No. 22. Estab||slm¢l ;n IN& end published ~- Friday by ~e ~kw~d Tr~e Journal Company Inc. ~1 Fi~ Ave.. New Yor~ New York 1~17 U~A. ~cond clnss p~t pl~d it ~ S~dsb~rg. Ft., ~bl[~tion Offico at ~o~ Trad~ Journal Inc.. ~ N~ ~4l S~l~, ~st S~udsbu~. [r*oor;ck ~ ~klw. ~F~si~h L YOLIIME li1. NO. 22 NOVIMIIR 29, SECTIONS Trade Winds ....................................... 4 Editor's Forum: "india 1968--Clouds With a Silver Lining?" .. T • People in the Hews " 56 Tobacco Science ....................................57 HEWS OF THE WEEK Court Upholds FCC on Anti-Smoking Ad Rule .............. 9 Stabilization Announces Two Staff Promotions ............ 9 Winston Continues in Lead, Hew Brand Ranking Shows ....... 11 U.S. Market Report .................................44 T~bacco Research Council Reports on Progress ............ 45 Liggett & Hyers Says Indusby isn't in Jeopardy ........... 46 Philippines: Leaf Export Outloet Dimmed by EEC Ran ........ 47 Canada: Prices Climb Steadily at gntario Auctions ........... 48 1968 INDIA NUMBER India Strains to Recoup Lust Ground ........................ 13 Tobacco Research Buoyed by Leaf Quality Improvement ......... 17 Leaf Indusby Hop~ to Expand World Trade .................... 21 Rising Lking Standards May Mean More Tobaccoland ........... 25 Grading System Will Move to Accmmodate Markets ............. 31 Industry's Fult Potential to Be Tapped in Hext Decade ............ 35 Indian-Hade Machinery Saves Foreign Exchange ................ 39 Directory of india Leaf Suppliers ........................... 41 DATES TO REMEMBER: DECEMBER $.8, 1968: Annual JoTnt Moating, Cigar Institute of America and Cigar Manufacturers Assoc;atTon, Claridge Hotel. Arian. tic City, N. J.; FEBRUARY 5-6, 19~9: Research SomTnar, Cigar Manuf=durers Association, Hartford, Conn.; MARCH 22.26, 1~69, Annual Convent;on, National A~ociat;o. of Tobacco Distributors, Conrad Hilton Hotel, Chicago, IlL; SEFTEM- BER 21-24o Annull Meeting, Netional Tobacco Tax Association, National Motor Inn, Des Moines, Iowa. I ~ ¢¢1 Fff~ Aye.. N. Y. N. Y~ 1~17 I ~ U~IO.I U~,i Cl.IdiI MI~I O $lO.l All ~lr Col+~ili l All oth~ coy.tries B ~ ~o i~-- ~ $15~ one year I I Him ........................................................................... ~ .................................. ~~ ....................... • Ti53810101
Page 100: TI53810102
BY LOU SCHN~ Eyeing Federal budget Standiag pat o. the franc Speculation on extension of surtax Foreign investors in U.S. stocks Lowering the boom on mergers Economic dip in store for early "697 PRESIDENT-ELECT NIX0N is personally going over the Federal budget with an electronic eye searching for WAYS TO ECONOMIZE. To let the international money traders know he means to strength- en the U.S. dollar via reduced spendlnE, one of the first big percentage cuts w~ll be Washlngton's costly FOREIGN-BASED CI- VILIANESTABLISH~ENT. ~hat means the economy will fall heavily on the Department of State and some 20 federal agencies. There are now some 200,000 OVERSEAS EMPLOYES on a U,S. $2-billlonan- nual cost. "Temporary" overseas assignments will be axed. Numer- ous other of such sweet jobs will be eliminated ... THERE WAS NO SUNRISE, in New York international money circles when President de Gaulle of ~rance refused to DEVALUE THE FRANC. Washington didn't devalue last year during a worldwihe run on the U.S. dollar when the fiscal situation was bad. The French flseal situation now is no worse. But IT MAYWORSENearlF in 1969. BUSINESS LEADERS are currently rounding out plans for their 1989 programs. Their major problem is: Will the surtax be ex- tended past its scheduled expiration date of $une 50? Trust- worthy advices indicate that the surtax WILL BE EXTENDED. It may not be the full 10 per cent, but even e five per cent tax would stunt the Wall Street taken-for-granted upsurge in the second half of 1989. Rap. Byrnes. top-ranking Republican of the power- ful House Ways and Means Committee, says the tax WILL HAVE T0 BE CONTINUED if there is no quick end to the Vlet Federal spending isn't slashed. Ways and Means Chairman Mills has made it clear that he will NOT ENTERTAIN any moves to cut taxes if elimination would mean an increased Federal deficit. Rap. Mills is Mr. Tax, and his view is as good as law. FOREIG~ INVESTORS Qontlnue to pour money into American stocks. It may r~/1 to the tune of US~2-billion %hls year. Not only is it helping U,S. BALANCE-OF-PAYM~NTS position but also helps to support %he stock market on price dips. Two reasons are given for %he inflow of foreign cash: 9URKENCY JITTERS in European countries, especially France; and, the Inflationary movement in the U.S. elves the European wealthy an opport~Inlty %0 try for quick SPECULATIVE PROFITS . , . Aristotle 0nassis iS being topped by India's Ravl Tikk6o for shipping honors. Tikkoo's newest tanker wei~hs in at 2aS,000 tons and his company is building a 450,000-former in Great Britain. That one will be TWICE THE TONNAGE of any in the 0nassls fleet'... There appears to be AN~N~GER BOOM on in the conglomerates. Of late %here are as many "no deal" news reports as deals belnE completed. The Securities & Exchange Commission is taking a look-see into these situations. WHOEVER IS NAMED by P~esident-elect Nixon as Secretary of Agriculture will drive in one direction: To limit to under US$25,000 a year the total amount of FEDERAL SUBSIDIES any one farmer can receive. Some farm operations collect more than US- $1-million annually . . . Commercial bankers don't agree with brokerage firm financial analysts that we may see an ECONOMIC DIP in the first half of 1969 with a boom in the second half. ~-credit isn't restrained, 1969 will start off inflationary and ZOOM SKY-HIGH all year. It is noted that corporate planned spending for NEW PLANTS and equipment for 1969, despite the surtax, w~ll show an INCREASE over that of 1968. Also, if Mr. Nixon does start a giant anti-ballistic missile network, it will add fuel to the fires of fiscal inflation. TI53810102
Page 101: TI53810103
Leaf Tobaccos BRIGHT-BURLEY MARYLAND-DARK Leaf- Strips- Scrap - Stems Y. Carring~'on & Michaux Tobacco Company.:f.P~.) Ltd. Posf O~L~e Box 3421 Salisbury; Rhodesia Cable: "MITOB'AC" SALISBURY Carrlngton & M~chaux Tobacco Company (Pvt.) Ltd. Post Office Box 1277 Lusaka, Zambia Cable: "CARTOBAC" LUSAKA Carrington & Michaux, Inc. 12th & Gordon Ave. P. O. Box 4087 Richmond, Virginia Cable: "CARMIC" RICHMOND Lexington Leaf Processing Corp. 1247 Versailles Road P. O. Box 160 Lexington, Kentucky All types of Rhodesia, Zambia, and Malawi tobaccos Leaf- Strips- Scrap Ti53810103
Page 102: TI53810104
For details, please write to: @Tt)1|~¢¢1) K~PI)lt'r "World Trade Centre", 123, Mount Road, Madras 6, India, Name your requirements-- ~, India has a variety of quality leaf tobacco and tobacco products. India is in a position to meet orders of any size-- large or small--on time. Leaf Tobacco: Flue-cured Virginia, Sun-cured Virginia, Sun-cured 'Natu' (country) Sumcured Burley used in the manufacture of Cigarettes; Cigar Tobacco, Chewing Tobacco, Bidi Tobacco, Hookah and Pipe Tobaccos. Tobacco Manufactures: Cigarettes.King Size, Regular, Mentholated, Aromatic, Filter or Plain- Cigar, Bidi, Chewing Tobacco, Hookah Tobacco, Snuff etc. TI53810104
Page 103: TI53810105
India I968---Olouds wilh a silver lining? The bright hopes of 1967 somewhat dampened by the vagaries in international trade, and domestic production difficulties brought on by the capriciousness of the elements, the Indian leaf industry once again faces a new year with heightening---if guarded ---optimism. For the virginia flue-cured industry--bellwether of the Indian tobacco economy--the year 1967 closed on the highest notes of optimism. The leaf situation in the world markets could not have been more favorable to India, ranking as it does among the first four major producers and exporters of flue-cured: again forming the most convenient backdrop was the trade embargo on Rhodesia. With that African country's flue-cured stocks still off-limits to the United Kingdom--India's principal customer m a huge vacuum seemed to yawn. Here apparently was an opportunity for Indian flue.cured leaf to penetrate in ever greater bulk. The elements, however, and the rigid demands of the market coupled by develop- ments in other leaf-producing areas, intervened. India's 1968 flue-cured crop was badly affected by weather conditions which "overtook it shortly after transplanting had begun, in October and November of 1967. Heavy rains in the last month of that year put the finishing touches, and the crop resulted in a poorer yield of the bright grades. While a corresponding higher yield of the medium and lower grades produced an increase which accounted for 30 per cent of the total crop, the bright grades slipped by 10 per cent. This was most significant, since it reduced the United King- dom's off-take by some 5-million kilos from the previous years, and will undoubtedly affect the country's foreign exchange earnings. To make matters worse, there has as yet not been any appreciable penetration of other marketsmthough India has made some progress along these lines, upping its shipments to Japan. This latter country increased purchases slightly during the year and, again, there is optimism that this business could grow. Indian indus- try officials toured Japan earlier this year, attempting to ascertain Japanese leaf-quality preferences. In the past the Japanese have voiced a lack of complete satisfaction with Indian leaf quality, but this has apparently been overcome. Indeed, if there is reason for optimism in the Indian tobacco industry, this optimism should be based in the rapid progress the production sector has made in upgrading; leaf quality. This has placed Indian leaf on a better footing in the world marketplace and made it more competitive. Another plus mark has been the development of a machine manufacturing base to serve the tobacco industry [see page 39], which, starting from scratch and in less than a decade, has leapt from the production of spare parts, to complete machines and to the first tentative steps in the direction of exports in this field. As the lead article [page 13] to this 1968 edition of TOBACCO's Annual Indian Number points o~, there is a silver lining in the cloudy Indian tobacco picture. N,evember ~9, Ti53810105
Page 104: TI53810106
Greenville, North Carolina, U.S.A. Cable Address:--"CAROCO" Trade Mark of Service ÷o "the World Tobacco Trade BUYERS PACKERS EXPORTERS ~--I~A~.O~T~e laternatiorml l~'eelc~y SPECIALIZING IN BRIGHT VIRGINIA AND BURLEY TOBACCOS T!53810106
Page 105: TI53810107
W~'EK OF NO~E~ 29, 19~8 THE INTERNATIONAL WEEKLY removals gain third time in nine months .~mv soar,, ~.,~-For the third time irt the first nine months of 1968, t~x- able removals of cigarettes were up, compared to the corresponding month of 1967, a~eording to the Tobacco Mer- chants Association of the U.S. The gain in September was only seven-tenths of one per cent, but was not based on any dit~rence in work- ing days, as was the previous rise in July. The total in September was 4'1.1- billion, up from 43.8-btlllon in Septem- ber, 1968. As in" May, July and August, tax- exempt removals were up snbstantiaIIy. A rise in commercial exports was again the dominate factor; these were up, according to the censtt% from 1.8- billion in September, 1967, to 3.3- billion in September, 1968. The modest gain in September, brought the cumdatlve total to 397.1- billion, down 1.2 per cent from the 402-billion in Jan.-Sept., 1967. The average rate for the third uarter was 532-billion, up more than 2q0-billion from the second quarter; aver- age for nine months was 525-billion. Taxable removals of cigars a~.d cigarillos totalled 66L1 million in September, 7.4 per cent less than in the 1967 months. Frank A. Brown, Jr., dies; headed warehouse group xlxcs'rr~s, s.c.-Frank A. Brown Jr., 47, president of the South Carolina To- bacco Warehouse Association, died here Nov. 16. A native of Stoneville, N.C., Mr. Brown was president of the Kings- tree Tobacco Board o~ Trade and co- owner and operator of Carolina Tobacco Warehouse here. He also was a member of the board of directors of the South Carolina Tobacco Association. Burial was in Williamsburg Ceme- tery. He is survived by his widow, his pa~ents, at daughter and a Mrs. Bessie C. Cotton dies; Hall & Cotton chairman LOLrISVILLE, x~r.--Funeral serviees for *lrs. Bessie C. Cotton, board chairman of Hail and Cotton, Inc., leaf tobacco dealers, were hdd here November 16. Her death followed a protracted illness. Mrs. Cotton, wido~ of Mama.co R. Cotton, co-founder of the firm, had suraed the chairmanship upon h/x death in 1944. ~'ovrmbcr :.~3, 196~ irS: Court upholds rule requ! time for anti-smokinE comnermls wxstm~ro~, n.c.-& ruling by the Federal Communications Commission that radio and television stations whleh carry cigarette advertising mast devote a significant anaount of broadcast time to presenting the ease against cigarette smoking was upheld by the U.S. Cir- cuit Court of Appeals here last week. Summarizing its support of the decision said: "Cigarette advertising inherently promotes cigarette smoking as a very desirable habit. Very substantial medl- cal and solentifie authority regard .the habit as l~ighly dangerous to health and therefore undesirable. In view of the volume of cigarette advertising, existing sources were inadequate .to inform the public of the nature and .extent of the danger." The ease dates back to December, 1966, when a citizen, John F. Banzhaf 3rd asked wc~s-~v, New York, to provide free time in which anti- smokers might respond to the pro- smoking views he said were implicit continued on page. 49 Stdckman-filter cigaretles lead in Canadian tests ox'rAw~, C~.~AD^.--BesuIts of the first of a planned semiannual series of studiesby the Canadian government to determine the "tar" and nicotiue con- tent of cigarettes sold in this country have been released by Health ,Minister John Munro. The report, based ou laboratory tests b~¢ a University of Waterloo (Ont.) chemistry professor, shelved the two brands using the Strickrnan filter ranked lo~vest in nicotine and were among the three lowest in "tar" content. These were the king-sized ~Cmv~o.x'D, mantffaetured by the Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada, and the brand made by Rothmans Pall Mall Canada, Ltd. Two other brands listed as low in "tar" were the vtscov.~r kings and the xascoo~"r filter menthols. Imperial and Rothmans are the only cigarette manufacturers licensed to use th~ Striekman filter. Sineath and Wheeler elevated in staff promotions announced by Stabilization rmm~v.nsot¢, ~r.c. -- Appointment of James B. Sineath as assistant general manager of the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation, and his assistant in the corporation's leaf department, Harold Wheeler, was promotbd to manager of the depart- ment, succeeding Mr. Sineath. Announcement of the promotions was made at the wcekend by Fred G. Bond, Stabfl~zatmn sgeneral manager, effective immediately. Mr. Bond, who had been assistant general manager, recently was named to succeed Lloyd T. Weeks as general manager following the latter's death. Mr. Bond left Friday with a group appointed by Agriculture Secretary Or- ville Freeman on a three-week tottr of the Orient to promote tobacco exports in the Pacific area. Eight persons in all are on the mission, which is headed by Claude Turner. chairman of the polic~." staff. Horace D. Godfrey and John I. .Mortem, of the Agricultural Stabiliza- tion and Conservation Service of ~SVA, did not make the trip, as previoasly planned. The announcement said Mr. Sineath will continue as executive vlee president of Stabilization's subsidiary', Tobacco Growers Service, Inc., which owns ant/ operates processing and storage facili- ties at Fuquay-Varina. Mr. Sineath, 46, is a native of Tim- monsville, S.C., where he attended high school, later going to Presbyterian Col- lege and the University of Sonth Caro- lina. He joined Stabilizatioa's staff dur- ing its second season in 1947. Mr. Wheeler, 43, earned a degree in agriculture at N.C. State University in 1950. Stabilization, a grower cooperative, administers the tobacco price support program. It has 660,000 members in five fl,ae-eured producing states. At present, it is holding about 785 million pounda of tobacco frxma seven crops from 1961 to 1968.--~t~m The Me,It TI53810107
Page 106: TI53810108
/llklll the world's leading designers and manufacturers of machinery for the tobacco industry MOLINS MACHINE COMPANY LIMITED- LONDON T!53810108
Page 107: TI53810109
Department o~ Agr~ltm-e n~ ~t no ~r a~on F~eraI m~ke~g p~ [~ ~u~ ~d to~. ~ proi~tM, such a pin,am would set up a m~ke~ a~m~t ~d o~er f~ ~ of to p~vide for orderly s~ of ~ue- Sou~ C~na, ~r~s ~d ~odda. Under d~on el ~e ~, h~- ings w~e held l~t Feb~a~ ~d M~eh, at which ~e s~e m~bers o£ ~e toba~ ind~ ~ntend~ ~at a m~ke~ From ~d v~t ~e ~o6e m~ke~g ~n~fio~" ~t prev~l~ d~g much el ~e 1967 aue~on se~on. At that free, sales ho~days ~ ~led on some ~I~ to agow pr~s~g p]an~ to catch up ~th tobac~ market flow. ~e depa~ent said adjus~ by ~e -gov~ent ~d ~d~ r~t~ ~ a more orderly m~kefi~ situa6on ~s y~, e~inat- ing the ne~ lot ~r~er a~on. At ~e h~ .by ~, grower sen~ent w~ ~ded ~ to ~- abi~ ~ ne~ for government inte~ venffon. The Fh~C~ Toba~ M~ke~g Co~itt~ ga~ed fl~er ~n~ol over tensions d~ng ~e 1968 se~$g s~on. A short emp, due l~ely to unfavorable w~er con~- ~ons d~g ~e a £aetor ~o ~ ~tte~ent o~ market- ing Lorillard, Loew's merger approved by stockholders m~w Yo~, ~'.Y.-Stodcholders of the Lorillard Corporation and ~ew's ~ters, ~c., voted in [avor o[ a ~m- bina~on of the ~o ~mpa~ a.t spe~al meet~n~ here November 26. U~der ~s of ~e merger merit, ~dllard b~mes a wholly o~ed subsi~ el Loew2. Lauren~ ~ Tis~, chai~an el the beam el ~e~s, and P~ston R. T~ch, chai~an of Loew2 ~ecufive committ~, ~11 join ~aM~ ~ard. ~w% ~ard ~11 ~ enl~ged to in- dude M~ud YeHen, ~fil~d's ~rd chai~an; j. Edgar ~nnett, p~ident; ~Vi~m A. Jo~a~ ~ve ~ pr~i- d~t-sales, and Pet~ G. ~th~, ~ p~t~~g. ~. y~ ~ ~n~ue ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ief ~u~ve o~r el ~ and be vi~ ch~i~an el l~ev~mbcr 25, ~ Compe,ny Domes~c Exp<~ Tot~! M~rket R. J. R~I~ I~.79 17.~ 1~.~ ~1 ~e~n To~ 11~ ~ 121.~ ~ B~ & ~l~mson ~.86 ~ ~36 15.1 ~ilip Mo~s 72.01 8.70 80.71 13.6 P. ~Hlla~ ~.47 ~ ~47 10.1 LJgge~ & Mye~ ~.41 8.~ ~41 7.2 NI o~em .80 .20 1.~ 0.1 T~I 5~.~ ~.70 ~.~ .1~ ~ Maxwell cigarette survey . . . Winston continues to lead in market, according to annual ranking of brands ~,~w Yoea~ ~,y. --Although cigarette sales at the manufacturers" level ~1 be do~ O~ per cent for ~e ye~, ~e toba~ ~ is s~g to a 1.3 ~er cent g~n ia domestic ~ns~p~on t~s year, ~ ~e opinion el John C. Maxwel~ ]% m~ager el m~ke~g s~c~ at the inves~ent fl~ el Op- ~e~er ~d Company, whose "nual cigarette su~ey w~ pub~hed cen@ in Mar~ng/Co~mun~a~ mag~ne. ~cipa~on o[ ~e yea~s g~ b~ed on ~e ~troduction el new bran~ ~d m~ke~g tec~qu~ in ~e £ace rising ~x~ ~d a ~owing c~pM~, Mr. Maxwell se~. , In pub~g Mr. Maxwe~s data, Mar~etlng/C~manicatio~ described • e mi~cule drop ~ cigarette in ~e hce el ~ the cigarette propa- ~d~' ~ a %onsiderable victo~ the ind~." • Lead widened-~ ~v brand com- ~oeU~on lot shares o~ markets the s~vey ~d, R. ]. Reynolds Tobacco Com- panfs w~ is widening its place lead wi~ 15.9 ~r cent el ~e total domestic m~ket, comp~ed 12.7 per cent £or second-~lacv ~L, a product el ~e ~erican To- bacco Company. pla~ th~ year wi~ 8.4 per ~t el m~ket, ~ging out yet ~o~er ~c~- oI~ brand, cAumL, w~ch Mr. M~ell e~mates now hoI~ a 7.7 per cent P~p Mor~" ~Z~LSO~O had a s~ng ye~, hol~g ~ pla~ ~th a 7.4 cent share. Bro~ and WiHiamson T~ ba~ Corpom~o~s ~L moved ~p to s~$ ph~ ~th a 6.I per ce~t share ~at put it ahead o[ ~filla~ s ~h ~ e~ated 5.7 per ~t el d~c m~t. ~d T~ b~ ~d ~th and n~$ pla~ th~ y~ ~th 4.2 ~d 4.1 William.son's v~c~noY moved up to a closer tenth place with a 3.8 per cent share of market. • Filters galn-In consumer pr~er- euce by type of cigarette, the Maxwell study shows that plain filters have creased their share of the total market this year to 47.4 from 46.3 per cent in 1967. Charcoal filters are holding steady at 6.2 per cent and mentholated filters have increased the/r market share slight- ly to 20.8 from oO per cent last year. Regular-length plain-end cigarettes su~ered another d~op in their market share this year, slipping to 12.2 ~rom 13.3 per cent in 1967. MAXWELL~S RANKINGS (Billions of Units) '67 Rank Rmnd 1968 1967 1. Winston ~..32 81JO 2. t~all Moll 67J30 6~.50 ~. Salem ~.52 ~.10 3. Camel ~0~5 ~.~ 5. Ma¢l~ra ~9.27 ~7 7. K~I ~.45 2~.15 8. Lucky Strike ~.10 ~.81 9. Tareyton 21.70 20~ 10. Viceroy 20.24 19~9 II. L&M 18.~ 19.25 12. Ra~elgh 17.~ ~8.0B 14. ~nson & Hedges 13~9 12.~5 13. Chesterfield 12~5 14.~ 17. True 9.26 8~4 16. ~latr 8.~ 8.75 15. ~adlament B.85 8.~ 18. Lark 7.80 8.05 20. ~ore 7J6 7.75 19. Ph~]Ip ~c~s6.73 7.76 21. Old Gold 5.~ $~7 5iIv~ Th;ns 2.~ .~ 23.op~S ~ . I.~ 1.10 ~. coa~o,, .~ .~ 27. HoIF & Half .65 30 26. ~ntclair .~ ~9 2A. Tempo .~0 .~ 28. BU~ ~ham .30 ~ 31. Ki~ Sono .~ .~ 31. M~vels .30 .~ ~. ~m1~ A6 .~6 TI53810109
Page 108: TI53810110
0 l. l.O ~Sll se!~!l!Oe-~ 5u!A'po~l lind S~131~lOdX:l_ • S~i~DIDVd
Page 109: TI53810111
PUTTING 1968 BEHIND, INDIA STRAINS TO RECOUP LOST GROUND BY P, R. PARTHASARATHY, India Editor Tim ~z~ 1968 has been one of disappointment for the Indian leaE tobacco industry, particularly, after early hopes oE a good ezop and increased exert prospects. The ),ear 196T ended ap in a tone oE buoyant optimism and the leaf industry had just reason to be ~roud of its achievements, having set up an all-time record for foreign exchange earn- ings o£ over P,s.830-million. With this backgroun~i of its achievement the/ndustry hoped to repeat, if not better, its Performance in 1968. Dm'ing the season, though ther~ was an increase in the area planted under Rue-cured virginig tobacco by 15 per cent over that of 1967 (the estimated area being acres) there was only an increase of Eve per cent in the yield ow~r that of 1987. Drought conditidns immediately after transplanting during Oetobec and November, 1967, bllowecl by ~ntimety heavy ra/ns in December, 1967, ad- vm-sely aff~,cted the quality of the crop ia 1968. This has resulted Ln poorer vidd of bright grades and a correspond- ing higher yield i~ medim~ and ~ grades. In 1968 the bright grades accounted only for 40 per cent of the total crop as against 50 per cent in 1987. On the other hand, there was an increase in medium and low grade~ in 19(38, each of which accounts for 80 per cent of the total crop. U.K. manufacturers off-take dips The poorer out-turn of bright grades resulted in a de- crease in the off-take of Indian tobacco by United Kingdom manuhcturers. As aga/nst 2~-million kilos of Indian to- bacco exported in 1987 to the United Kingdom, the total exports this year to that country will hardly touch 0.O-million kilos. This will naturally result in a considerable reduction in the foreign exchange'eamings. The only silver lining to the otherwise gloomy export picture/s a sl/ght increase in the off-take of Indian tobacco by Japan. As against the 9~.7-miilion kilos off-talc~ by the Jal~mesa Monopoly Corporation from India in 1967, it purchased 3.3-million kilos in 196~L There has not been any appreciable off-take o~ hd/an tobacco by the other traditional buyers. The Soviet Unicm Tl,..e Mes~ ~se[~ P~per~TC~*t.CCO~I3 T!53810111
Page 110: TI53810112
BUYERS PACKERS EXPORTERS INDIAN FLUECURED: SUNCURED; BURLEY TOBACCOS Messrs. POLISETTY SOMASUNDARAM Tobacco Exporters POST BOX 99-GUNTUR (S. INDIA) CABLES: "SUNDARAM GUHTUR" Leoni Dent LIMITED . . . For all types of Indian Tobaccos 8 THE CRESCENT • LONDON Telephone: 01-480 6006 Cables: LEOZA, London, E.G.3. E.C.3 T|53810112
Page 111: TI53810113
United Arab B~epub]~c, which coa~ itself ~ to b~t ~nd ~di~ ~ ~d ~d not ~ ~e ~ ~ ~ ye~, E~t e~e~ ~t ~ ~e top ~d~ of ~ ba~ ~ck~ ~ e~. In~n~ian ~et ~s; W. Germa.y a possibil~ ~ on~ new com~ to the ~dian to~a~o mark~ yea~ is Indones~ w~ch h~ ente~ t~ m~kvt a~tcr a lapse v~ ten y~s. ~ aga~t ~0,~ ~os o~ ~ to~a~ that I.don~ p~ed htv 1967, ~t h~ so £~ p~c~ than a miHi~ ~.panically the bw ~des. The onT bo~en~k s~s *o ~e the ~.~o~ d ~vs~a~ili~ ~ ~ ~do~esis to ~y large ~.~tities o~ 1.di~n leaf. Still the 19~8 ~op ~e ~ly to ~c expo~ted d~g the r~in~ ~vo mo~&~ o~ the Gvrm~ Republic (West Ge~v), ~ ~ ~iat shi~men~ 1ndia~ tobaccos has ~een m~e ~r th~ ~t ~e~v is now in the m~rket abo~t l~-millio~ k~os ~ue-c~d ~g~in tobacco, mo~ly cons~t~ o~ the medi~ and low grades. It ~ £elt by the trade that ~ ~esent mini- m~ ~rices ~ ~y the ~over~ent ~or ~ese grades a~e ac~a]l~ ~ric~g out this tobacco ~om ~e woHd markets, where ~he~e may be a demand ~o~ th~ ~ade~, The merit o~ India ]s alive to ~is and w~ probably reuse m~.m 9rices ~ there is a substan~al demand £or ~ese low grades. This acc~ulati~n d ]ow ~ad~. which is mos~y ~ith ~e m~ch~ts, ~1 hat.ally ~ave an adverse on the ~pe~atio~ o~ the coming season ~d it is ho~ed t~at the bulk o~ it w~l be Jib.dated bdo~e the commcacemcnt O~er var~ increase expo~ The othe~ ~o main va~eties o~ ex~o~ ]~e sun~ed Count~ and s~-c~ed v~g~i~ h~ve ~o~ marg~ ~po~t o~ ~e s~ed Co.nt~ ~ s~n-c~ed v~ia varieties ~oth to ~e ~ene]~ co~ies and the U~ted K~gdom, and it is hoped ,~at this ~ncrease wi)1 be main- ta~ed in the com~g season. One notably achievement dur~g this year ]s that the Indian cigare~o ~d~y ~ ~n ~b]e toput ~ne d ~mnds o~ ~iga~ette markets d,tho world. A ~rand c~led Indi~ Kings-m~u~ac~ed ~y the ~eda1 Tobacco Company o~ India L~,, wo~ the Gold ~edal at the Sd~tio~ £or Tobacco Fr~.c~ d the Wvfld, at this ~ear. ~ ~ a ~reakth~ough d Indian cigarettes ~ ~ofl~ ~a&ets an~ it is ho~d that the m~n.hc~g ~ a~so will ea~ substantial ~v~e~ exch~.ge, which ~adly needed ~y Prospects for new season Th~nks to ~ s~nctio~ aghast ~odesi~, I~dis ~ now the ~o~1d's s~ond ~rge~ e~o~ter o~ toba~o, disphc~g Cents1 Africa. It is now t~e ~ the ~diau le~ to~a~o ~d~y to ~e stock o~ the ~ent ~si~on ~d ~ s~a~ and ~crease ex~ to ~ world It ~ a~o a ~ when ~e ~dus~ mu~ ~k o~ ~s~vts ~o~ the ~ming se~on. ~s~g ~t the Rh~ esian sanc~ons ~I ~nt~ue one ~ be o~t~is~c of an ~e ]~ ~e exert o~ ~ndian to~a~s to the United ~gdom. w~h even t~ay hvl~ ~st ph~ £o~ With the ~g ~mp~on o~ ci~ettes ~ Indi~ can e~ ~ inc~ ~-t~v by ~e Ia~ ~o- no~]y Co~ra~on £or the ~g ~son. ~e t~e top grades and even though there ~ bee~ a s~hstanOal reduetlon in ~e to~t q~ d ~o ~ by ~ the l~t ~o ~s, ~e ~t ~he of the to~ ~ ~at ~ h~ reg~e~ an ~e, ~ ~ere ~ a ~gher per~'o~ ~ ~des in ~ off-take. - India ~no~ ~ord to be ~mpIa~t only about ~e po~ of b~ght ~a~s, for ~hich ~ere ~ a %kly ~ mand in the world lardy; but the bottl~e& seems ~ b~ in the expo~ of medium and low ~ades for which there an onset ~ Indon~ia and the W~t African ~ountdes. The stumbl~g-hloek seems to be the present minimum gxed hy the Goven~ment of Indi~ which would only price- out these ~ades ~'om the wm'Id market. These prices come for revision evet~ year and it is ho~ that a substan~al adjustment will ~e" m~de in l~SD, in order to make them more ate'active in ~hose countries. Planting of ~he new crop for the 108~ scion is welt ~der way and about 70 per cent of th~ ~owhg are~ h~ already been planted. After a severe period of drought from to end of Aught t~ veer, there were welcome ra~ September which have ~elped the preparation and planting of new crop. ~ this issu~ goes ~o press, tim xveather c~ s~ms to be another t~ely rain, and if rids comes through there is optimism of a good crop. Since the rains have hirly spread over ~e planting area one can be optimisti~ of a good quality crop h 1~8~. The present ~dications are for an increase of acreage over 1D88~ ~d it is expected to b~ ro~d about 850,000 acres. If th~ wea~er conditions are hvorable we can look forward to a larger crop in 1~8~. ~ GUNTUR South India ~'~"~ Packers • ExpoSers ~ All type~ ~uthern Indian TI53810113
Page 112: TI53810114
BITCORP Indian tobacco BRITISH INDIA TOBACCO CORPORATION ESTA~ L. ISHED IN 1937 P.O. BOX 21, GUNTUR, S. INDIA LONDON OFFICE : IBEX HOUSE, MINORIES, LONDON, EC3 LTD Ti53810114
Page 113: TI53810115
BY DR. D. M. GOPINATH Director, Central Tobacco Research Institute Rajahmundry, Andhr~ Pradesh woa^cco eRoouc'r~o~¢ in the Indian Union is considerably diversified. Dif- ferent regions of the country are known to grow diflerent .types of tobacco, de- Pending upon the agreclimatic condi- tions of the area and the local require- ments. A.s a result, the ~esearch pro- gram has been organized in five re- gional research station,s dealing with the different types of tobacco and headed by the C~ntral Institute located at Raja~mundry, East Godavari Dis- trict (Andhra Pradesh)-the flue-cured tobacco belt of the country. Among the different types of to- bacco grown in India, flue-cured vir- ginia tobacco is el primary importance since it is one of the principal foreign exchange earners among exportable agricultural commodities. ht the current flue-cured virginia re- search program, perhaps the most en- couraging results--£rom the point of view of the farmers-have been ob- tained in theplant breeding investiga- tions. At present, four new selections- H.R.3, H.R.5, H.R.7 and H.R.9-have been evolved by ~ollowing the tech- nique of recombination breeding. They have already become popular frith the growers for their high yield and grade- returns. Although the final decision re- gardin$ their acceptability will rest on file tobacco trade, evaluation up-to- date has. been promising and they have been recommended for recognition by the Central Varietv Release Commit- tee, for large-scale ~ultivation. Resistance investigations Investigations on the incorporation of resistance to Powdery mildew and tobacco mosaic into the commercial varieties have made significant head- way, ~vhieh will lead to development of resistant types for these diseases in the near future. l~ea]izing that purity of sc~lS leads a long way into producing leaf of uni- form quality, the Institute operates a scheme of producing seeds el commer- cially-approved varieties and supplying them to growers. During the past years approximately 10,000 kg. ofprocessed seed, enough to saturate ~e entire flue-cured area of the country, and about four-million seedlings to cover about 270 hectares, havJbeen dis- tributed annually. Newer techniques for protecting the crop from diseases and insect pests are c~)ntinuously being e~'olved in the plant- N~temi~r ~, 1961 protection program. Particuhr mmation may be made to (1) controlling root- knot nematodes by several catch crops, which have proved most promising in greenhouse tests. Follow-up work is in oPbrogress; (2) chemical control of or- anche, a-root parasite causing near wilt of the plant in the field; (3~ con- trolling leabeating caterpillars by anti- feeding agents such as fentin acetate; (4) controlling aphids through some of the newer systemic insecticides in gran- uhr formulation, which have a ~ longed beneficial effect; (5) controtling ground beetles in the field hy using some indigenous material, such as hPonKamia oil take, which is safe to an~le and does away with tbe problem o1~ accumulation of harmful residue in the soil. Fertilizer trials; flue- cured study Fertilizer trials are being conducted to increase the yield and quality of Established 1778 EDWARDS, GO:ODWIN & CO., LTI). Buyers - Packers Importers Exporters of INDIAN Leaf Tobaccos Also AFRICAN AMERICAN and all other Leaf Tobaccos Head Office: 8, Temple Court Liverpool 2 Cables: GRADWELL L;verpool 2 London Office: Roman Wall House I, Crutched Friars LONDON E.C.3 Cables: TOI~AKER Lo~doss E,C,3 T~ 3Ie~ Use[~l P~per--'I"O~ACCO---17 T153810115
Page 114: TI53810116
The Central Tebac¢o Institute at Roliahmundry is carrying ~! research. flue-cured tobacco. Various forms of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effect on yield and quality are being ascer- tained. In a bid to increase the .phos- phorus supply available to tobacco plant, ferti~.er studies show that yield as well as phosphate uptake are sig- nificantly higher-when the nitrogenous and pbosphatlc fertilizers are applied together than separately in band or spot application rather than mixed up- plication in the soil. The spread of flue-cured tobacco cultivation in the newly developing light soil areas of the country has called for critical study of the growth and quality, characteristics of these tobaccos, A detailed pot trial has given valuable information-on specific quality char- acteristics preferentially attained in to- baccos grown on light ~oils as compared to that of heavy soils where ~ue-cured is normally, gro~'n in tim c~mt~'. been aevdoped for s~ ~I c~- ae~st~ ~ "~ininm~ e~., aff~ng ma~fa~ng qua~ of flue~ to~. Ca~ in Indhn flu~u~d and i~ ~sociated bad ~ have b~n thomu~ly v~ted. A meth~ for quick d~ee- ~on of saffne tobac~s h~ been d~ velop~. A multi-phased physi~l and ~ical leaf quality dmracter~ffcs of flue-cured tobac~ h~ been ope~tiw for dev~ing necessary quality indic~. S ecial attma~on ~ being pffid to the p • evaluaffon of the qua~ perfo~ance of improved agronomic praefic~ and developing varieties, to as~rtain that • e desirable chemi~l and physical factors have been maintaine~ induing sugar and nicotine raffo, filling capacity and graininess. Through fl~ese con- trolled methods, the standard of Indian tobaccos is maintained. Proper maturity studies Proper maturity at harvest is perhaps the single most important criteria which determines the usability of cured leaf. Investigations into this "phenomenon of interaction of maturity with cured leaf quality have shown thfft although pre- Cigarettes that SELL in export markets • PAHAMA--a m;M flue.cured, round, standard.length non.filter cigorefte in an Amer;can-style pad( of 20. ~ TAJ~ stronger, oval, standard-length ~gare~e w;fh gold-prlnted llquor;ce paper, in pac~s of 10. e GOLDEN'S GOLD FLAKE--o me~;um.~l~n~ ¢;g=. retie, s~ndard-lengt~, fo~] p~ec~ed ;n Ce]lophaned ~ch of 10. GAYLORD AND ESQUIRE ~lte~ are aho ova;ladle. EXPORTER OF CIGARETTES AND LEAF TOBACCO GOLDEN TOBACCO CO. PRIVATE LTD. TOBACCO ttOIJSE, VILE PJ~'~E, BOMBAY 56 J~, INDIA Cables: GOTOCO, BOMBAY T15381 O116
Page 115: TI53810117
SILEMANKHAN & MAHABO,OB KHAN u~.R., Eas, European & ~t~ C~- ~ P.O. Box 38 GUNTUR ~ S. INDIA tlne~tal countries, Ja,~,rl & U.A.R. Phones, Factory & Office 953, Tobacco Godown 368 -- Cables GOLD dieting the correct degree of ripeness from physico-chemical analyses s~ill re- mains a goal to be attained; slightly over-matured leaf ~vould perform much better upon curing than curing an im- mature leaf. Experiments are being conducted on evolving suitable curing condition at the yellowing stage of tobacco grewn xvith variable fertilizer levels. It is hoped ~hat this investigation will lead to stipulating conditions by which low grade outturn will be minimized. Research interests have further been extended to post-curlng operations of cured leaf. Large volume of valuable data have been collected on possibilities of improving the grading pattern of Indian flue-cured tobacco by introduc- ing plant l?osition grading in the exist- ing Agmar~: system. Ageing characteristics of flue-cured tobacco are being studied to find out optimum ageing period of stored to- bacco as judged by several ageing in- dices. In other pro~ects aimed at im- proving the quality of flue-cured tobacco hy chemical processings, hy- drogen-peroxide treatment exhibked ~ts potent power of increasing the filling value and sugar-nicotine ratio, thus bringing in more usability character- istics in cured leaf. The organized tobacco research pro- gram in India is about twenty years old. Compared to research programs of other agricultural crops this period is rather short. However, an ambitious plan has been drawn to embrace in- vestigations into all facets of tobacco, from seed to processed leaf. Already the impact of research is adequately felt in that the national yield per hec- tare has been increased by 21 per cent over a period of one decade. The fact that Indian tobaccos are being increasingly accepted in foreign markets at progressively higher prices than before also shows improvement ~ quality, which has been built up through an overall scientific awareness of the crop. This has not left an iota of eomplaceney in the research pur- suits. The problems are many: the per- hectare yield of Indian flue-cured to- bacco is still low, quality still has to be improved, the cost of produetlon has to be brought down by mechanizing agricultural operations, improving grade profile and breeding high yielding varieties. With the intensive cultivation in the developing light soil areas, new prob- lems of pests and diseases have to he solved, new norms have to be estab- lished for cultural practices and post- harvest operations. The task primarily is a researoh re- sponsibility and the Research Staff of the Central Tobacco Research Institute is actively engaged in these new prob- lem-oriented projects. [] East India Tobacco Company Private Limited Exporters of all grades of Indian Tobaccos TI53810117
Page 116: TI53810118
I ant~ C~mpany TOBACCO in LEAF MERCHANTS Personal supervision of buying, redrying ~nd quality control, using our own f~ctory f~cilities. MACMILLAN MAXWELL st~ff resident throughout buying and packing season. Wr~fe: Head Off'/ce: IBEX Tel: ROYal 848415 HOUSE, MINORIES, LONDON, E. 3 Cables: MAKKANBAC, LONDON, E.C.3 I I II TI53810118
Page 117: TI53810119
LEAF INDUSTRY LOOKBG FOR A LARGER SHARE OF WORLD MARKET BY DR. M. S. PATEL, Chairman, India Tobacco Export Promotion Council OVER SIX'i'Y-FIV~ ]PER CENT Of India's exports are directly or /ndirectly de- pendent on agr/cultural commodities. The agricultural products expo~ted from India consist mostly of jute and jute manufactures, tea, cotton manufactures, fruits, tobacco and tobacco manufac- tures, and coffee and spices. Among these, tobacco occupies art important position. In view of her geographical position and the variety of her soils, India grows almost all varieties of to- bacco leaf ~nd its cultivation now extends to all parts of t.he countw.. Tobacco is one of the ~nportant crops, though the area under it is only about 03.8 per cent ~ the total sown are~. Both in the internal economy and exp~rt trade, Indian tobacco occupies aprominent place. In the world to- bacco production, which averages about 10-billion pounds per year, India is among the-leading countries, account- ing for about eighiper cent of the total. Indian tobacco varieties A large number of varieties of to- bacco are cultivated suitable for the manufacture of cigarettes, cigar, che- root, bidi, hookah, che~ving tobacco and snu~. Flue-cured Virginia tobacco used in the manufacture of cigarettes is by far the most important variety i~sofar as the eJ~port trade is concerned. India has been "m the world tobacco export map since the 19P~0s. Dining the thirties, exports were to the tone o~ about Rupees one-crore onbf. Since then, and with the development of the virginia tobacco industry, exports have been inereaslng at a rapid rate. During ¢lxo period 1967-68, India exported 120-million pounds of tobacco valued at Re. 35-crores. India exports all the varieties of tobacco she pro- duces. The first position, however, goes to flue-cured virginia tobacco. The most important marketing cen- ter for Indian tobacco export trade is Guntur, a metropolitan town in Andhra Pradesh. Buvers from various parts of the world visit Guntur during the to- ~ season, extending from February to August each year, to inspect an~t purchase Indian tobneco according to tl~ir varied tastes and re_q_ uirements. laldnse turn pag~ ~ M~ U, eta~ P~per~YO~ACCO--21 TI53810119
Page 118: TI53810120
Praetor & Sckworfz redrye~ af I~dJon Leaf Suppliers. World production of virginia tobacco averages about 3500-million pounds per year. India's Droduetinn of this variety averages about ~00-million pounds per year, 90 per cent o[ svhich comes from Andhra Pradesh. India, as one of the principal sup- pliers of tobacco to the world markets, accounts for about nine per cent of world exports of leaf tobacco. Rhodesia had been the second largest exporter of flue-cured virginia tobacco after the United States until 1965. But, as the result of the embargo placed on the import of Rhodesiau tobacco by several Personnel trahtlag ~s consfan~ eccupaflon. countries, India has moved up to the second place as a world supplier of flue- cured virginia. Indian tob-aeco holds, therefore, a more significant place in the international trade than ever b.efore. The United Kingdom continues to be the main market for India's tobacco. Her off-take is in the area of 35.million poun,ds. During the period 1967-68, India s to the United Kingdom reached an all-tlme record of 54-milllon pounds, valued at Rs. 20-crores. In order to maintain and increase the quantum and value of exports to the United King- dom, constant efforts are being made tastes, with the aee~mt now o~ nk orange, m ~ eadier demands f~: Next to the United Kingdom, the West-European coun~es have been important markets ~a- Indian tobatx:o. With the enWance of East European countries on the Indian market in the earIy sixties, the situation has been altered somewhat. The oiLtake by the East European countries during 1964, at 86-million pounds, and valued at Rs. 9-erores, was nine times the quan- tity and Chir~een times the value com- pared to the tobacco they took in 1939. Their off-take during the subsequent vents declined due to the recovery o~ ~he countries in the region from blue mold disease and also, to a certain exten~, due ¢o the short crop in India. In 1967-68, India exported "22-million pounds, valued at Bs.5.3-crores to countries in Eastern Europe. Exports to the African countries are in the region of 9-million pounds per year. Algeria, the Congo, Chana, the Ivory Coast l~epuhlic, Libya, Senegal and the United Arab Republic are among the important coun~es in Africa importing tobacco from India. During the period 1967-68, imports o~ Indian tobacco into Africa reached the all-time high of 18-million pounds, MA DDI VENKA TARA TNA M and Company Private Limited Tobacco Redryers, Dealers, Exporters P.O. Box ]No. 2 CHILAKALURPET Guntur District, S. INDIA l~--TO~ge~'~:~--The International i~reeldy Cables: Evergreen Chilakalurpet T153810120
Page 119: TI53810121
men~ to that region. C~untrie, iu tlm South and East Asia region take about It-million pounds per year. with Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan, Ceylon, Singapore and Nepal, important markets for Ind/a's tobacco in South and South-East Asia. Strict quality control A feature of India's export trade is that all unmanufactured tobacco ex- ported outside the country is strictly controlled for quality. Under tile statu- to.ry provisions of the Agricultural Produce Act and Sea Customs Act, no unmanaffactured tobacco can be ex- ported unless it has been inspected and graded into different standards called ac,~r.anK grades prescribed in the To- bacco Grading and Marking Rules. Quality control and pre-shipment in- spection are operated by expert Gov- ernment staff under the administrative control of the Agricultural Marketing Adviser to the Government of India. Every package of tobacco for export is inspected, labelled and sealed with the Agmark Seal before it is shipped. The Indian farmer roughly sorts out his tobacco in five or six grades called 1V, 2~r, 3V, etc., primarily on the basis of color and blemish, and packs the graded tobacco in kutcha bundles and takes them to the buying depots of the exporting firms. The bundles are individually examined and priced by the buyers according to the qimlity anal croportion of different grades of to- aeeo in each bundle. Since the farm- er's tobacco is broadly sorted out before marketing, all the tobacco purchased by the merchant exporters i~ required t~ be regraded to conform to the pre- scribed standards, a large labor force consisting mostly of women is employed during the season to regrade the to- bacco into different xc~Am¢ grades. Fre~ enterprise system The graded tobacco is bulked for some time before it is redried and dPaeked for export. There are 34 re- rying factories having a capacity of nearly 100,000 kgs. per hour. Ever~ tobacco redrying factory is equippe~l with a moisture-testing laboratory and malay of them have ~lso facilities for sand-screening the tobacco. The export tobacco is packed in the form of leaf, strips or hands in standard packages viz., bales and eases weighing 220 Pounds and 396 pounds net respec- tively, according to the diverse req~re- ments of the foreign customers. Except for quality and price for ex- [x~rt. the tobacco ihdustry in India is Illdtistry i~ promoflng ioca||y.mado aquTpment, stick as tk|s at Chileka|urpot redrylng factory. TobaccOs are carefully peeked . . . • . . ~) meet rigid foreign demands. not controlled by Governmental agency. There is no acreage or poundage control either. Production generally depends on the demand and supply especially from [oreign countries. The £arme~s are, therefore, being continuously ad- vised to have only a planned output, with emphasis on producing such to- baccos having acceptability in the for- eign markets so that there are no ac- cumulation of stocks. An intensive campaign is also being carried out by the trade and govern- mental organizations, to discourage farmers from planting tobacco on un- suitable and doubtful soils, in order to ensure that only salable quality of tobacco is produced. With a view to meet the daanging pattern of overseas demand, new varieties are being evolvecl in the research stations, while farmers are educated in adopting im- proved techniques in production prac- tices. The Tobacco Export Promotion Coun- cil was set up by the Government of India in 1956 as part of the general overall efforts to~vards promotion of India's export trade. The main obiec- tire of the Council is to sustain and improve existing overseas markets for Indian tobacco and tobacco products and explore new ones. The members of the Council include representatives of the growers, exporters and manu- facturers, besides representatives of the State and Central Covernments. The Council through it~ propaganda, pub- licity and other export promotional pro- grams is continuously endeavoring to create more interest for Indian Tobacco in the foreign markets for increasing exports. [] The Most Ti53810121
Page 120: TI53810122
NATIONAL TOBACCO COMPAHY OF INDIA LIMITED BUYERS, PACKERS AND EXPORTERS-- ALL TYPES OF INDIAN LEAF TOBACCOS FLUE-CURED VIRGINIA LIGHT AND DARK AIR-CURED BURLEY REDRYING PLANTS AT GUNTUR AND BICCAVOLE REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSES GUNTUR • BICCAVOLE " CALCUTTA ALSO MANUFACTURERS OF CIGARETTES AND PIPE TOBACCOS HEAD OFFICE : NATIONAL TOBACCO BUILDING 1 & 2 OLD COURT HOUSE CORNER, P.O. BOX-726, CALCUTTA-1 CABLE : BELMONT, CALCUTTA, TELEX : 373 CALBELMONT TI53810122
Page 121: TI53810123
BY CHANDRaI, KANT KAKODKAR, Bmnbay Correspondent Sn~TC~ rrs ncr~oDucr~o~r in the 17th Century by the Portuguese, tobacco has assumed a position of un/que impor- tance in the life and the economy of the Indian sub-~ontineat, whose popu- lstion, according to a 1961 eensus, now numbers 430,325,000 persons. The use of tobacco in India is universal and has invaded the most remote corners of the vast eountry, with its myriad lan- guages, customs and cultural patterns of behavior. Sociologically, tobacco cuts a p~th across all strat~ of Indian society: it is used (in one manner or another) by the richest and the poorest members of society. But it is for the underprivileged-suffering as they do from chronic poverty and malnutrition and a lack of aeeess to the simplest amenities and pleasures of life---that tobeeco has the most meardngful siT- nifieanee, since it provides them with the only luxury within their reach. However, it is only when weighed in the balance of the overall ~dian econ- omy that tobacco's impertanee to Lndia can be fully plumbed. The souree of needed foreign exchange, .tobaeeo is one of India s most valuable cash eros, with its, tradition deeply rooted in the country s agricultural economy. This, despite the fact that the area under tobaeeo cultivation is comparatively small and restricted. For in a country suffering from a chronic food deficit, eomblned w/th a continually expanding population and a now marked reduc- tion of the mortality rate, the cultivation o[ foodstuffs invariably receives top priority: sugar, oilseeds, etc., are all placed ahead of tobacco iu the nomlc planning schemes. Room for production increase The smallness of the area under ~o- baceo cultivation is, however, made up by an effort towards intensive cu]tlva- tion and improvement of yields- par- tieularly in recent years with the use widespread of different types of chemi- cal fert/]ize~s. (Below are given the figures showing the area under tobacco cultivation, and production, for the pc- 1945-46, 1966-6'7): Year Area Production (000 Hec.) 0u. k~.) 1945-46 41~6 299 19~1 ~ ~I 1~6 ~ 2~ 1~1~ 418 ~ The ~obacco industry gives empleymenf ~o large segments of male and femole population. The yield per hectare in the period 1966-67 was 879 -- which is even lower than Chinas and, of course, much lower than the United States'. There- fore, there is considerable margin for improved production, with the efficient utilization bf up-dated agricultural teeh- nlques, including the use of chemical fertilizers for the different soil condi- tlons. Tobacco in India is grown mostly in lozrns and clay-loam softs, which sometimes irrigated ~or the addition of moisture. Nitrogenous fertilizers are also applied wi~ the employment of systematic crop rotation techniques. I~ is cultivated a~ sea level as as at an altitude of 3000 feet (900 m.). ~ th~ south, the tobacco crop is grov~n during the cold season (October- March), as it is in the Punjab, in the north. ~But in t~e eastern and western tPwarts of the country, it L~ grown be- een September and January. Generally, the crop requi~s 20 inches (500ram.) of rainfall during the grow- ing period. But rainfall is contraindi- cated during the period of maturity. A slightly acidic soil reaction (pH 5.5 to 6.5) is preferable, as excessive acidity affects quality ~d the yidd of the crop. While light to medium loam~ are pre- ferred, tobacco h India is grown on soils that may not be ideal, but factors like speeifie combinations of soil and dimate can produee tobacco leaf of a ~t ~e~t to~,~co- T!53810123
Page 122: TI53810124
~ (~ ~.r.8). r~ Mr~, t~ leaf t~pes spread out. India grows nicotlana tabacum and niartiana rustica, the former covering large tract~ throughout the country, particularly the south. The rustica re- quires a cold climate and its cultivation is therefore restricted to northern India, where precisely such a climate is avail- able. Several types of tabacum have been developed for use in cigarettes so-cal~ ~n ~~, ~ f~ q~, and are s- ~table [~ b~ng ~i~ to~ ~x~ in o~er ~ of InCa. In ~nt vea~, a number of v~e~ have bee~ introduced locally. Thee include Vir~nia Gold, ~ite V~nia, 402, and Dalacr~t. Of them, Vir~nia ~ld and Delacr~t are more popular ~th growe~ due to their high ~eld of salable tobacco. Cigarette tobaccos frem strai~ M. Venkateswara Rao and Company TOBACCO EXPORTERS PRIVATE LIMITED Exporter of all types of INDIAN TOBACC.OS Factory Equipped with modern redrying Plant Godavad, the lC6slma and C.tmtur dis- trict~ of Mwore State in the wrapper to'bac~ms is grown in the Cooch Behar district of We~t Bengal. The improved varietie~ are Ranga- Pbur, Sumatra, and Dixieshade. The to- acco u~ed for the manufacture of the local chervots £s also grown in three districts of Andhra Pradesh. Tobacco used for the indigenous version of ciga- rettes known ~ bidis, which is wrapped in selected leaf of certain local plants, is grown in G~jarat and Maharashtra States. tIookah and chewing tobaccos are grown in Bihar and Puniab States. Other tobacco-growing states are sam, Madhya Pradesh, and .Madn~s. High internal consumption From the fact that four-fifths of the tobacco grown in India is absorbed by domestic naanufacturers, it would seet]a that tobacco is not merely an agricul- tural crop meant for export- although the country exports both unmanufac- tured and manufactured tobacco to practically every country in the world -but a commodity the demand for xvhieh is steadily'increasing as the standard of livin~ rises under the im- pact of the five-year plans for develop- ment of the nati"on's economy, The bidi industry is a very" important cottage industr~ (Jaome manufacture), although there'are large bidi manufac- turing installations for intra-state dis- tribution. The bidi is the poor man's luxury and one of the few modest pleasures in the simple pa.ttern of life of the under- privileged. The industry is economi- cally important became bf its high po- tential for emplo~Tnent of the unem- ployed and unde'remployed peasantry in the rural, zones and the large popU- lation masses in the urban areas, includ- in'g a high percentage of women. The bidi is a cigarette-like smoking product, lightly packed with a few grains of specially-processed tobacco and its leaf wrapper, fixed with a bit of yarn. Bidi-making is not a highly- ~killed occupation and even children can work at its home manufacture. It helps to supplement the often meagre family incomes in the depressed seg- ments of the population. There are ancillary industries also, including the large p~'oces~ of gathering the leaf used for wrapper, in the forests. Cigarette manufacturing gains The bldi h~ not lo~t its gro.nd under the impact of the maehine-mant~ factumd cigarette, which has now pene- hated extensively in rural area~. For TI53810124
Page 123: TI53810125
~ud~ &e 1~ and seed o£ which are ~ in ~edic, or ~di~s ancient a~t o~ m~i~ne, which ~ no~v berg ~t~a~caHy reviv~ ~& gove~- mental engagement. ~idi smoking, even in the e~e of hea~ smokers, s~dely thought d~itely less harmful than cigare~smo~g, and the in~ke of nicotine ~ smaRer. The h~kah is an insHtu~on ~so- elated with ~e glamour and glo~ the Mughals and i~ h~ a social e~nno- ration as well ~ representing an aris- toerati~ luxury. It ~ a su~ti~to for the Western ~ipe, with ~h~ ~fferenee tha~ the hookah, or ra~her i~ long pipe, could b~ passed around at social gath- erings. Th~ ~peeialR~proeessed and fm~ant tobacco reed i~; fl~e hookah is known as gudakhu. Smo~ng of this apparatus, considered ~ nabobie luxu~ in the eountw, fo~ par~ of an elaborate tradition of~oliteness and social inter- course tha~ ~res in meetings and con- versafions and within tradi~ons, is exp~ to eont~bute towards good- ~I1 and eor~aRy among friends and strangers a~ke. The we~thy may have hookah eonst~e~ed o[ highly orna- mental material, ~th ~e us~ o~ gold and silver, while the less-advantaged may use a cheap subsfi~te. Never~e- less, in nor~em India, i~ still continues to maintain i~ position as a fi~alisfie totem da~ing back to the Mughal era. Because of the economic significance o[ tobacco as a valuable e~h crop, ~e ~vemment of ~dhra Pradesh, and other s~ govemm~, have been pang a ~eat deal of aRen~on to im- p~vements of ~he tobacco crops. To- ba~ ~ on~ o~ ~ aRiel~ providing excise revenue w~eh ~e fo~er Bri~sh rulers of India had exploited. ~e field f~m wba~ revenuo ~der the ~ee~- ing o[ retail tobae~ ~tab~hmen~ and th~ taxation on the tobae~ and ~rodue~ ~ considerable. The, for the ~ national budget proposals, India Finance Minister announ~d an ine~ase of 10per een~ in ~e exe~e du~ on ~man~ac~red ~bae~. which is expected to ~eld, dung ~e 1968-69, 6.~6 e~res of ~pees to the national exeh~uer. Xhe eigareRe manufaet~n~ ~dm- the ~Sng domestic d~ tht~ se~'e ~ a medi~ for internal ~-enue, but to ~de Dining British rule, the intema- tional~-known United Kingdom brands rranufaeturers practically _enjoyed a monopoly of the Indian market. But the national Government has slnee dis- couraged the free importation of foreign- mantaactured cigarettes, and instead has encouraged local manufacture of these brands-if necessary-in collabora- tion with native capital. In this wav, many foreign manufacturers have s~t up plants in partnership with Indian interests. One such manufacturer is located in xvhat ~vas ouee the estates of the Nizam r~tte. Since Andhm Pradesh, whic~ ~ ~e to~, ~d the foyer s~t~ of Ni~m have been mer~d in~ a newly~o~ed S~, ~a~ ~dd be sold pme~ca~y for ~o ~ of bi~s. ~ough it ~ a ~er strong ciga- rette, it ~uld ap~al to conno~seu= in &e upper social braeke~ and to Bd~h and o~er forei~ers not snobb~h enough to b~ repdled by its apparent ~arse manuheture and p~htarian popula~. A British firm hm taken over the concern siuee and ra~ ~e IIII SPENCER Company Limited India's Leading Cigar Manufacturer and Exporter Head Office: SPENCER BUILDINGS MADRAS 2 Specialized Export of - INDIA Cables: PORTEDOS CIGAR TOBACCO • Send for samples and price quotations l lll FACTORY DINDI6UL S. iNDIA ! TI53810125
Page 124: TI53810126
fore World War H, the int~e o£ t~- bacco by Indian cigarette manufacturers was in the order of 10-milli'on ]r.g. a year. Bnt it rose to 46-mflliun kg. in the period 1962-63, which should - vide an idea of the rapid progress ~h~t has been achieved. There are several cigarette manufac- turing plants in each of the states of Bihar, Maharashtra, Mysore, Uttar lh'a- desh and West Benthal, and their num- ber and volume ot turnover are ex- ~ bealaad e~port covsampt~ coa- ~mtes to rise. The dema~ for the pred.cts d the mandact~g sectors have been increasing apace with the general economic development of the country and the growth of the natiunal economy. Cigarette manufacturing by States, is the folloxving: Stale Cigarettes (m. pieces) Andl~ lh'mdesh 19,970 Maharashtra 13,753 Mysore U~tur Pradesh 7,523 West Benpl 12~337 Total 58,513 Na va B h a rat Enterpm'ses Private Ltd. An Export House recognized by the Government of India LEADING INDIAN TOBACCO EXPORTERS Cables: NAVENTER- GUNTUR GUNTUR South India ~"--TO~v~C.CO--The I~ern~.anal ]Vee/dy of ~ of stalxtards h export goods, aad partietdarly ~o safeguard qaalitat/ve standards of tobacco, a sys- tera d q~a~ control of a statmury character has been instituted by the Indian National Government. Long be- fore the necessary ]eg~sht~on was passed and the machinery of quality control was established, a voluntary grading and marking system was intro- duced at Guntur, the important tobacco "production center in Andhra Pradesh, in 1937 and 1938. quality control system Under the Government-of-India law regulating grading and marketing, known as xc.w.x'e.~ a number of I.~rades have been modified under the di~erent varieties. These are: Number Variety of Grades Flue*cured Virginia 20 Top-leaf Virginia 2 Sun-cured Virginia 5 Sun-cured Natu Counlry 10 Sun<ured $utlay (Virginia and Natu) 2 Sun*cured Motlhari (u~ rustica) 4 Jatl (sun-cured) 5 Ja/t Bhhpash (sun-cured) 3 Desl (sun-cured) 12 White Burley 4 Lal Chopadla (sun-cured) ~t3 Judi (s~n-cured) 2 Nalu Bidi (sun-cured) 2 Under the regulations estab]ished for quality control, the exporter has to ob- tain a" certificate to pack and grade the goods according to the xo~x stand- ards; the government inspecting officer cheeks every package. Tobacco area expected to rise The land area under tobacco is re- stricted under the heavy pressure brought to beat by the necessity to grow food crops, and bv the simple'fact that not all land is suitable for tobacco cul- tivation. However, under what is re- garded as a "revolution" in Indian agri- culture, with the use of hybrid seeds, thepressure on available land is ex- pected to be relaxed as the higher yields obtained with improved teoh- niques release lands formerly" under food crops. [] Tennessee U. agronomist receives Austin award KNOXVILLE, "r~xx. -- Dr. Lloyd F. Seatz, head of the University of Ten- nessee Department of Agronomy, re- cently was awarded the first Clyde B. Austin Distinguished Professorship in Agriculture. The US$2000 annual grant is funded by a US$50,000 endowment honoring the late Clyde B. Austin, Greeneville tobacco businessman and University of Tennessee trustee for 0_.9 years. Mr. Austin died in 1966. Ti5381 O126
Page 125: TI53810127
Daicel is Japan's only manufacturer of Cellulose Acetate for cigarette filters and largest manu- facturer of Acetate Tow. The company, one of Japan's largest makers of composite chemical products, is noted for its top technique and thorough research. This company's Acetate Tow, known as CIGATOW, is used in most Japanese filter cigarettes and exported to many different countries, to satisfied customers. DAIOEL LTD. Nev~nl~r 2~t I~
Page 126: TI53810128
ENT HENNLEAF Y SURREY, E DORKING LAND SURREY KANDIMALLA RAGHAVAI^H & KANDIMALLA RAMAMURTY CO. Chilakalurpet Guntur District South India CHEGU KRISHNAMURTHY P.O. Box 307 Guntur 4 Andhra Pradesh South India TI53810128
Page 127: TI53810129
BY P. SESHAGIRi Directorate, Marketing and Inspection Government of India .,, .xO,.TOt~ '~o~xcco-~,z~o~vc~c COUP- TaX; India has now been an exporter also for over five decades. In the early days, exports consisted mostly of the sufi-cured indigenous varieties, popular- ly known by their manufacturing xp- p]ication, that is, cigar, eheroot, bidi, hookah and chewing~tobaccos. The first two ~vere an dare grown in Madras, Andhra and Bengal, while bidi tobaccos are ~m-own in Bombay and Guiarat, hookah in Uttar Prades~ and Bihar, and chewi~g tobaccos in the Punjab and also Uttar Prasdesh and Madras. Kxports of these varieties were at the industry's beginning largely con- fined to neighboring countries: Burma, Malaya, Singapore, Ceylon, and Aden and ~ther east-African countries, eater- ing main~ to the immigrant Indian iPnOpUlation. Besides those varieties, dia was also exporting light air-cured cigarette tobaccos of the natu variety, grown in the Guntur district of Andhra, to Japan and the United Kingdom and to continental Europe. " The introduetlon of virginia tobaccos and its flue-curing in the-mid-twenties, however, changed the pattern of the export trade. The United Kingdom quickly became India's most important market for flue-cured tobacco, followed by other west-European countries. Th~ domestic cigarette industry, which was established in the first decade of the 20th Century, also began producing cigarettes using virginia tobaccos. De- mand for the flue~cured virginia to- baccos began to grow, both for export as well as from-the domestic manu- facturers. Subsequently, output of these varieties increased through the expan- sion of the cultivated area, until now. nearly 100-million kg. are produced annually in an area covering ~00,000 acres. Over ~0 per cent of India's to- bacco exports at present consist of flue- cured virginia tobacco. ~rading rationalization Indian tobacco was originally in de- mand for its bright lemon helot, neutral flavor, and for its suitability in blending with any other tobacco. However, there ~vas no organized system of grading for export tobaccos, a~d United Kingdom buyers soon began to show dissatisfac- tion with the sorting Indian merehantx • vere making. Thereafter. efforts were made by the London Chamber of Commerce to rationalize grading ¢m a voluntary ba~ through a private agency in India N~rmbc¢ ~9, 19~ The leclush~'s ¢olte*rn far proper grading standards has raised leaf quality. known as the Certifying Commit- tee. ~l'his, however, did not work out to the full satisfaction of the trade in India nor to United Kingdom buyers. Subsequently there was a move from a substantial segment of the trade for the introduction of a system of inspec- t/on by an independen~agency, prefer- ably governmental in nature. Recognizing the importance of the problem from the poin~ of view of the overall national interest, as well as the export, in particular, the Government agreed in pr/ne[ple to introduce quality control over tobacco exports, on a com- tmlsx~ bas/s. The Second World War, however, intervened and no satisfaeto .ry progress eodd be made. Eventually. in mid-l,945, the Govern- me~t took tl~e final decision and ban- ned the export of flue-cured virginia to the United Kin[~dom, under the Sea Customs Act, unless it was graded and marked accordin~ to the provisions of the .~,x,¢~ Act, and certified to this effect by the ~..~L~. Following that, exports o~ flue-cured virginia to other countries, as well as other varieties, were also brought under the purview of statutory quality control. A special iuspectorate staff was ap- pointed in .'May 1945, under the Di- rectorate of Marketing and Inspection, blinistry of Food and Agricul~u~, with headquarters at Gtmtur, to operate the export quality control scheme, then called the Tobacco Grading Scheme. As exports increased, the redrying capacity was also increased by setting up n~,v factorieffi from time to time, and TI53810129
Page 128: TI53810130
India must cenfinue IL~f quality improvements programs to secure new markets. thereby cope with the increased volume of pa~'king. The inspectorate staff of the Tobacco Grading Scheme was also suitably augmented for inspection and Agmarking of export packages. Agmark Grades drawn up The national standards, called the "Agmark Grades," were initially drawn up-in consultation with the Indian trade and the London Chamber of Commerce. As Indian flue-cured virginia tobacco was at that time primarily prefen'ed as a eolory neutral filler, the specifica- tions were drawn on the basis of color and percentage of blemish, the leaf quality, decreasing from brlght-lemoa or bright-orange, to yellow on light orange, and the-n, fron~ light brownish- yellow to brouaa, and-lastly, dark br(l~.vn. Suitable increase in thepercentage of blemish is allowed in each ^~,xt~,ag grade haversely as the quality de- creased. Separate xo~.~vac grades were drawn for-unripe tobaccos having a color range from light-green to dark- greelt. In accordance with the chan.~es in demand and/or to cater to specitie re- quirements of some countries, addi- tional grades have been introduced from time to time. In the case of ~cv tobacco, the number of AO.xIAaS: grades has gone up from hardly txvelve in the beginning, to 84 at the present time. Grading adaptations The original preference h)r color, however, began to lose its significance in the early sixties, as production of filter-tip cigarettes began to increase. Buyers began looking for additional quality factors, such as maturity, grlan, combttstibility, dastici.ty, filling c~- Great st~des kave already bee~ made . . . ~f.--TO~KC~)---Thr lnl~,rf~tlo~l ~'m,kly ^~aX grading. Test f~r ddoride con- tent in the leaf was introduced and a qualifying "S" will no~ be added to the ,~aArx grade, for any tobacco which is found to contain more than the mird- mum limit of tolerance prescn'bed in this regard. If it is more, no Agmarking is done and consequently not allowed for export. Composite grades were intro- duced for the convenience of United Kingdom manufacturers who are now able to buy Indian tobacco in tailor- made blended grades, ready to cut after aging. Testing facilities A separate government testing labora- tory was set up at Guntur in the Office of the Senior Marketing Ol~cer, to keep a constant check over both the moist~ure and chloride content in export pack- ages. Eve .ry red .rying factory, is also re- quired to have a fully equipped moisture-testing laboratory, with a qnalified chemist who draws samples from the apron at regular intervals-for tests in the laboratory. Tobaccos con- raining more than the prescribed mois- ture are not Agrnarked for export. With the increasing cost of leaf to- bacce in the maior producing countries such as the United States and Canada, and in the absence of supplies from l~hodesia, manufacturers in several countries are looking for suitable sub- stitutes from other sources. Among these, India occupies a very important place, being the third largest p~:oducer and exporter of unmanufactured to- bacco. Several new countries are there- fore eargerly looking for supplies from India, The Directorate of Marketing is currently studying the soecific quality preferet~ces o( these cot~ntries with j~ view to putting them under comidera~ tion nnder the present .~,o~L,,n~ s)~tem of grading. Grading advances In the early years of the tobacco ex- port industry, farmers did not grade the flue-cured virgiuia leaf-the main export variety. Th%v sold the cured leaf along with the strings in bu]ks in "as- is-where-is" condition, at the barn site itself. This pattern of marketing has since changed considerably, and now farmers sort out their tobacco roughly into brights, semi-bright.s, greens anal trash, p-opularlv called. IV, 2V, 3V, ete.o and pack each sorted bundle separately into kacha bundles, selling them at the private purchasing plat- forms of the leaf merchants. The exporter, therefore, has to ctas- TI53810130
Page 129: TI53810131
m~der a cons~ly inthting wag~ rate, is ~r~ng ~nsidmhle p~m on ~e ~t of ~ort ~ba~. ~ loss~ c~ ~wn In ~e proc~ of ~hand~g bac~o by ~e ~orter d~g ~e ~t summer monks ~at fo~ow ~e m~ket- ing s~n the~ ~ ako ~idemble loss of g~d ~bae~ by way of setup. In labor h ~e m~pa- ~g ~ntem, ~eh m G~r ~d ~i~et, ~ eamlng sefiom management probI~s. ~ere therefor, a s~ong move to g~in~at ~e f~efs level, ~ order to cut handling eos~, m~i~ labor problems and 1~ 1~, and to cheek ~ es~lafion of e~o~ p~e~. Secondly, it ~ a~o felt that the ~11 benefit of pr~en~ system of merchant-oriented expor~ quality ~ntrol is not fil~e~g to the level o~ the ~owers to ~e extent d~ire~ more speciafiy ~er ~e in~g- duefion o~ mi~-e~port pric~ by the ~verment for diffe~nt ~ad~ of tobae~. The question ~ving new ofien~fion to ~o~ ing ~e produ~gs levd ~ also oome- Iadian t~baeco expom hav~ started ~goUp again after a ~~~- ~g &e d~%~on of ~e ~an ~ ~ J~ 1~. ~e n~ ~ ako enlar~D Some d th~ a~ new crewmen who were p~iomly secur- ~g ~ leaf requi~men~ from ~e U~t~ Stat~, Cana~ or ~a, where ~e ~ of ~g ~ more or 1~ ~l~ but q~te ~erent f~m • at of InCa. A~emp~ are ~efore berg made for ~ading toba~o ae- ~g to ~e p~ifion of the le~ on 6e plant so that supp~ from h~a could a~o be made on ~e b~ of ~e ~own stand~ds of the ~un~ ~m- ~fing with h~a in Se world marke~. ~ou~ ~ ~ in an e~efimental stage, it ~ hop~ ~at it ~ be of ~terest. Thin, further development of ~ading along thee lhes ~I1 l~gely dep~d on ~e momentum gained by fu~ fo~i~ demand. The eon~oversy over cigarette smok- ~g and health h~ motivated among o~er ~in~ ~nsidemble r~eareh and developmdat ~ filter technolo~. At ~e s~e ~e, man~acturem aR over are s~ianeously looking for tobaccos which are low ~ ~co~e and 'ta~.' is more ~, light ~xl grainy than th~ one produced in the traditional bhek cotton soils, is being developed for commercial L~gduetiotx in the light soil areas of Andhm and Mysore States. These tobaccos contain 0.7 ~ 1.9~ 1~er cent nicotine only. Attempts are under way to classify these tobaccos separate- ly on the basis of chemical composition, plant position and physical eharaeteris- ilcs of the leaf. Ac~nx grading of tobacco has now, therefore, become a more complex and exacting task than what it was ten years ago. Recognizing the importance of grading by applying the modem technological knowledge relating to the diverse quality factors, and to meet the changing trends in demand, the Di- rectorate of Marketing and Inspection initiated a training program in April 1968, for grading tobacco under the Tobacco Grading Scheme at Gun~ur, for the benefit of the Government's marketing organizations in the tobacco- Panrodueing States and the supervisory d inspecting staff employed by the exporters and growers cooperative or- ganizations. ~ .~l~aher 29. 196~ The Mo~ Ti53,810131
Page 130: TI53810132
KOLLA THII UPATHII AYUDU and CHA ANTI KONAIAH Six buying depots Factory equipped with modern "Proctor" plant Packing to Buyers' specifications Exporters of all INDIAN TOBACCOS in Leaf and Strips P. O. BOX 37, TOBACCO COLONY ,.O,E~: o,F. ,,, RES. 715 C~bles: Enquiries invited -- GUNTUR I, S, INDIA - TABDEALERS INDIAN TOBACCO SUPPLIERS PRIVATE LIMITED INDIAN TOBACCO SUPPLIERS PRIVATE LIMITED INDIAN TOBACCO SUPPLIERS < INDIAN TOBACCO SUPPLIERS Private Limited Buyers Packers Exporters of Indian Flue-Cured, Sun-Cured Virginia, and Sun.Cured Country Natu Tobaccos ~4anag~ng Director K. SOMAIAH Reghfered O~ce P.O. Box I, CHI LAKALURPET Guntur District SOUTH INDIA costos: DIMTOK, Chilakalurpe÷ ~NDIAN TOBACCO SUPPLIERS PRIVATE LIMITED INDIAN TOBACCO YJPPLIERS PRIVATE LIMITED INDIAN TO-nACCO SUFI:~.IE~S Ti53810132
Page 131: TI53810133
gather together and present impressive statistics which, from the poiat of view of scienl~c development and growth potential, give a picture of an industry keeping pace with the world's best technology'. India is the world's third ranking tobacco producer. The fourth largest exporter of ]ea~, with the exclusion of Rhodesia from the ol~cial world mar- kets, it has now assumed the third posRion in this sig~ifi~nt economic indicator. Eql~|ly important within the con- text at the Indian national economy. tobacco, though covering only 4 per cent of the cultivable land mass is the third !argest single contributor to the nation s coffers. This is of particular note considering that only 9.0 per cent of the country's entire output is exported. Andyet, tobacco occupies ninth place. on the list of foreig~ exchange earning items, providing India with substantial outs/de revenues. Nevertheless, careful study of the in- dustry reveals the degree to which, in all its aspects-production, processing, application o~ technical expertise, "and even consumption-the industry is di- versified. Existing right alongside the most modem teclmiques and machiueDr of the cigarette industry, are the ancient techniques of the hand-made bidi-an article o~ general consumption in India. Consumption also follows the same diversified ~atterns, inasmuch as ciga- rettes employing the latest types of filters, are in competition for th~ smoker with tobaccos in raw form. The mar- ket therefore has a wide range of smok- ing products to appeal to the cousumer: bidis (recently introduced in the West on an experimental scale), cigars, cheroots, chi~lum, hookah, snufF, andlast but not least, chewing tobacco, xvhicb is by no means a negligible line. since it accounts for a fifth of the total con- sumption of tobacco in the country. Accent on flue-cured production The production segments of the in- dushT concentrate their efforts on cured tobaccos. Used extensively in the domestic cigarette industry, thee also comp~e the b,]k of the country's haeco exports. Mostly grown i;~ the State of Andhra, which account~ ~or some 95 l~er cent of total preduction, ttue-cm-ed is the mainstay of the h~dian tol~cco economy'. shi~t o~ the production to ~he State of M.~ore, w~erc this ty~ h:~; been suc- Valuable foreign exchange is berg saved w|fh use of lecal|y-made equ|pment. cessfully grogai and where it has found more favorably inclined buyers. In addition, there is some production o~ these types in the states of Maharashtra and Gtijarat, though the total area under cultivation there is negligible. Some 127,000 hectares are under flue-cured tobacco, with total produc- tion running to 11~,000 tons. During the last decade production rose .by about 10 per cent, with exports climb- ing by 25 per cerit for the same period. There has been considerable increase in internal consumption, as production of ~he locally manufactured cigarettes has risen from 20-billion pieces in 1955, to 55-billion in 1965. The rise in the carve persists and it is expected that developments in the coming decade will radically affect consumption- patterns. The development of other leaf vari- eties, though this h~ not been neg- lected, has not yet produced types sinfilar to those groxw~ in the premier leaf areas of the world. Among these the latter are suu-cured virginia and hurley. lodian air-cured-whidx from the in- ternal consumption s~ndpo~t is mos~ important-is grown in practically all zon~ of the count. This .~v is ~ed in bidi mannheture, chewing toba~o, th~ h~kah, and in a host of o~er ~o~s. The total area under this tobacco, 259,~0 hectares, with p~ducfion cur- ~ntly running at some 23~,000 tons, which is 63 per cent of the total pro- duction. In addition, India p~ducos the s~called wet-cured and pit-cured tobac~s in small quantities. Va~ consumption pa~e~s lodia probably ~rp~ses eve~ other nation in the numerous and varied of tobacco, with cigarette, bidis, hookah, chewing, cigar and sn~ being the most readily re~gniTable "inter- ~. ' -~ na~onally. ~"~ Currently there are 16 cigarette ~ .... heroics in the ~un~y, producing some 58-billion pi~ ann~lly. Thou~ the humor o£ man.acing ~n~ has not ~en in the l~t ~o de~d~, pro- ducfion has iner~ stea~y. The g~ m~c inc~e a~ s~ta~, and it would not be un~ual • p~duc~on doubhd in the next de.de. The ~nt~ circe ~actod~ are ~p~ with the latest in au~ma~c ma~ine~ and subo~i~ ~pment, and install~ ~pad~ ~ in~as~g re.fly; fl~e~, for ~t~. are now a ~mmon f~ture of the Indian ci~- ~tte. ~~lly op~ite tu &e man~a~a~ employ ~e ~p~ly aut~ machine~ ~ a~ | Ti53810133
Page 132: TI53810134
Sri Jayalakshmi Tobacco Co. Pvt. Ltd. Growers-Redryers xporters of all Yarieties of INDIAN TObaCCO in Leaf tdps to & & urope frica ~bles: ~ENI Telephone: 824 G T -S. made by hand. In fact, hand manufac- ture in this industry segment has been ofl~erially encouraged, and mechaniza- tion has been prohibited. This has been done to protect tha nearly one-million persons earning a living from the preparation of bldis, who are known as "bidi turners.~ This does not, of oOUrse, apply for bidis manufactured r expart, as the deterrent is the levy of an exeAse tax on bidis manufactured by machines, thus this is speeitlcally aimed at those made for local con- sumption. While the cigarette industry provides employment for a relatively small seg- ment of *.he population, bidis dirce~y employ over a million, in addition to another million indirectly benefiting from the industry. As such, in the con- text of employment potential, bidis arc a substantial factor in the tobacco-and in the national-economy. Bidis have been produced in India and Pakistan. However, because of the present Pakistani policy aimed at dis- eouraging bidi manufacture, as the raw materials (the bidi leaf, or what is known as tendu leaf) are available only in India, India is currently the only.~roducer of this smoking product and me only place where the raw ma- terial can be obtained. It is felt that because of the l~resent cancer scare, bidis would have a distinct advantage in the market, lace. This is because the bidi wrapper le#f-tendu- contains no nicotine or "tar', and it con- stitutos of up to two-thirds of the volume of each bidi. In addition, it is generally felt in certain circles in the country that Indian air-cured tobacco does not present the same contents of the so-called hazardous elements which other tobaccos do. The tendu leaf is known betanically as diospgrus melan,. oxglon, and bidis are baked after manu- facture at very high temperatures. It is claimed that, therefore, any bacteria present at this manufacturing phase are entirely destroyed. Partition of the country whet, India gained its independence lost for it valuable cigar wrapper growing tracts to Pakistan. Throug]i a sustained effort, the industry has, however, succeeded in grox~4ng cigar wrapper in the State of Bengal. This wrapper is of good quality, and furfl,er d~velopment and experimentation would likely result in India producing a high quality cigar w~apper tobacco. Chewing tobacco usage is most con- cen~rated in the south of India. with the area of its West coast closely follow- ing. Chewing tobacco usage in India is closely related to the economic condi- tions of the user, as it tends ~o kill hunger. It is expected "chat the overall improvement of the economic conditions of the Indian masses will produce a drop in utilization of this product. Snuff is also widely used, though in India manufacturers have ~acked on some of the customs of the herbal sci- ences, with the result that certain of ingredients blended into the snuff man- ufacture are claimed to produce sec- ondary health advantages. ProducUon~ industrial outlook Varied climatic conditions and variety of soils are easily available in India. Thus, attention is being paid to research studies aimed at fulfilling world market requirements. There has doubtlessly been considerable progress and research activities, through th~ Indian Council for Agricultural Re- ,search, but direction is lacking. This is due to ~ lack of a positive commitment on th~ part of the foreign buyer. If buyem would indicate a spe- cification and agree to ~nderwrite a part of the experimental cost, or at least to take up the product preduce~ at their behest in the initial productio,~ stages, the entire setup of the research machinery would then be so geared, BOMMIDALA PURNAIA I established 1920 _ Exporters of all Varieties" of " INDIAN TOBACCO in Leaf and Strips ~Equipped with modern redryin~ plant. 'ost uo. oo GUNTUR • S. INDIA T!53810134
Page 133: TI53810135
As I~v~xg~s~andards rlse, f~ll appl|cc~fion of entire lab~ ferce wll| have ~¢~ be .made. that obtaining the desired objective would not be a serious problem. The high potential for producing any desired product wouid make any such undertal/ing not only beneficial, but lucrative in a very short time. This, of course, provided the necessary direction ispresent. This direclSon can easily be given by the foreign buyers through their commitment and proper specifica- tion. Albeit, it is also n~ce~sary-that the assurance of the buyers is also there, that once the product acquires the de- sired standards, the price would not be un|air as compared to the prices pre- vailing for similar produce. This incentive is very necessary in view of the fact that similar Indian tobacco is priced much lower than its American or tLlaodesian counterpart. Obviously, of course, quality shoul8 b~* the determining factor and not other considerations. Bidis are another branch-a very im- portant part of the tobacco industry-- which can be developed to considerable advantage throu mutual co eration Research, changes, and adaption of this type of smoke, can be taken full ad- vantage of by the West. The benefits of a bidi are self-apparent. The bidi wrap- per containing no nicotine or 'tar', and thus two-thirds of a bidi are free from the suspected effects of those sub- stances. The tobacco contents also may be better than the fine-cured variety . The question of acce-ptabili6/of the bidi in the West as a part of the every- day life of the Western public is the main issue. This can be remedied by the adaption of modern manufacturing methods, with the introduction of filters in hhe hldi and presenting a more pl~g ~p~nnce. This ~tad prob- ably gn a long way toward overcoming consumer resistance. It would not be too difficult to achieve as bidis produce a quite pleasant smoke and are well enjoyed. ~n fact, in India, despite ciga- rettes being a status, bidi smokers have not readil hhanged to ci arettes Y g • The modern cigar-making machines - can well be adapted to bidi manufac- ture with suitable modifications. Cut- ttng of the wrapper leaf, rolling of the bidi with the insertion of the flake to- the bidi is a~ essential item. The priaci1~d factor is that some Western d~tributing agency shodd undertake the sbudy of fla~-~ec~sary" machinery changes, market surveys and, most im- pertant, a detetruinatioa to launch the product. It is quite in the realm of pess~ility that bidis so manufactured would catch the fancy of the western smoker in such a manner as to become a vast tldd of cooperation between the West and India. In the same way, development o~ a pipe-type apparatus with easy prepara- tory methods but employing the same principles and ingredients as the bubble hubble, cmdd lead to an unprecedented popularity of this t3rpe of smoke. De- velbping such an apparatus is not di~cult and present-day engineers can well do so. These arc just a few spheres where nmtual cooperation can be profitably extended. The West cart.take advantage of the modes of tobacco enjoyment of the East and the West can take advan- tage of the technical know-how of the West for adaptation of the modern metlmds for preparation of tobacco products. 121 T!53810135
Page 134: TI53810136
II The acute short,go and inflated cost of available seasonal labor has made it crystalline clear to U.S. tobaccomen that automation is no longer a question of "whether." but of "when" -- and the sooner the better. Convincing evidence of aware- ness to the urgency of the situation is the un- precedented search now going on for better ways to replace age.01d meth0~s of growing, harvest- ing, curing and marketing tobacco. Photo courtesy of N. C, State University Bioloslca| & The machine spotlighted here is a prototype of an automated harvester that will mechanically remove up to six ripe leaves from a stalk of tobacco in a single pass. Such performance gives encouraging support to predictions that it will soon be possible to develop harvesting and curing equipment to eliminate as much as 75 per cent of the field labor now required. Designed to be used hand in hand with new bulk curing systems, the harvester conveys the ripe leaves by belt to a rotating col. letting bin from which they are clamped directly into racks and transferred to the curing barn. With this machine, five workers can pick and barn about six acres of tobacco a day -- a job that would normally require the services of 22 people using conventional manual methods.. One present limitation of the automated picker will disappear with adoption of improved planting practices being developed to commodate mechanical harvesting, n En~in~erln~ Dept. Eishty, three years of close association with all phases of the tobacco Industry mark the W. A. Adams Co. as one of the most reliable soumes of quality leaf tobacco in all selected grades. W. A. ADA~.S (D}~PE ~NC., / O~.D, Exporters of Fine Leaf Tobacco Since 1885 3I--~O~J~CCO---Th~ Intern=t¢on~l T!53810136
Page 135: TI53810137
Sfartln4J with o dozes warkrnen. Mol|ns of ludla k~ gone ~em making spare part~o to the manufacture of mach|n~s, and experts. INDIAN-MADE SPARE PARTS, MACHINERY FITTING CIGARETTE INDUSTRY BY P. V. S, NARAYAN, Molins of India Ltd., Calcutta vwm~c 1960 the Indian cigarette in- dustry was faced with the acute need to ~md a metho~ of receiving regular supplies of spare parts. Due t~ the fact the industry had ]it~/e oppor{unRy to replace and medemlze .~eir manufac- turing units, for want of adequate port facilities, the demand for spare parts to keep the existing machines in sound working condition became ever ~eater. It was with a view to servicing ese machines with a constant regular supp|y of rares that Molins of India Limited, s rted operations in Calcutta during the third quarter of 1960, with a complement of a few dozen workmen. With the blessings and assistance of the cigarette industry, the range manufacture expanded to such an ex- tent that by 19~, roughly 60 to 70 per cent oF the demand for spar~ parts were already being met; achieving with it a saving of a considerable amount valuable foreign exchange for India. With the progressive policy that the Indian cigarette industry had adopted, the need to have new maehlnes for placement and ex~pansion purposes led Molins of India to expand their activi- ties in the production of progre~ivo manufacture and assembly o£maehines. Under the stewardship of E. ]. Granger, presently mana[~ng director of the Indian factory, the e~ansion program was t~nalized with the £ul1 approval o£ the Goverament of India and the cigs- One d the main p~oblems which ~ ~o~ted Mol/ns of India, was the cessity that the local product sboukl conform in every respect to that o~ the U.Ic_ product, both in quality and spe- cification. To achieve this end, an tensive production and training program was put into operation. Within two years the program began paying rich dividends, when for the first time in 1966, products manufactured by Mollns of India were exported abroad. The' operation was morally boosted upon hearing from customers that parts made in India were in no way inferior to those manufactured in the United King- dole. The success of Molins of India is re- flected in the fact thaL by 1967 the output of manufactured items had creased seventeen~oId. With the tirnely assistance of the Government, machine manufacture was started in 1967, and the first group these machines was scheduled to be delivered to the cigarette industry at the end of this year. It is anticipated that an increasingly larger.proportion. of machines will be maxmtactuxed m India and the imported dement pro- gressively reducedas skills grow and facilities expand. The stability and progress that has been achieved by Melins India is due mainly to the help and cooperation ~.hat has been received from both the Indian Government and the cigarette industry on the whole. Notwi~dlng ini~al setbacks to the e~t~prlse, Molim lms ~ very serried ~ it~ service to the Indian ~g~ industry, a.,d are now look~g expansion of activities in machine man- uhcture, with the objec'dve of develop- ing the service to the industry and to the Indian economy through exports. ~ ATHANS TOBACCO COMPANY • DIRECT BUYERS, PACKERS. IMPORTERS, AND DEALERS OF Maccdonlan. Thracian, Turkish Lear Tobaccos. Curers oE Latakia Cyprus and Pioneers of Greek-Latakia tobaccos. Ex- porters of Domcst|¢ Leaf. P.O. BOX 115 • WESTBURY, N. Y. 11590 ROSHAN TOBACCO COMPANY • P.O. BOX 17, CUNTUR, INDIA Phone: ~$6 Cables: BOSHAN Lea/To~o Expor:ers ....... Flue.cured, Sun.Cured and ]utty INDIVIDUAL,
Page 136: TI53810138
;~Could you stand C ~u pie of days~undb~ ~ • i~ a nice, big Announcin the "Vacation in Marlboro Country Sweepstakes." Your customers will soon be reading about our "Vacation in Marlboro Country Sweepstakes" in Life and TV Guide. It will be one of the most ex- citing consumer promotions we've ever run. Butwe also think there's nothing duller than tell- ing you about somebody else's vacation. So we're going to give you a chance to spend a little time in the sun, too. Five of you will win a $500.00 trip anywhere you want to go in Marlboro Country. But maybe the great outdoors doesn't agree with you. Okay, you can still take home $500.00 in cold, hard cash. One more good thing. You can also enter our consumer sweepstakes which gives you a chance at comi~ng up a $1500.00 winner. Be sure to stock up for t~e ",Marlboro Country Sweepstakes." Marlboro is growing so fast, it's an easy brand to find yourself out of. ~ere's your offiml entry blank. ~ Entries must be postmarked on or be- ~.~ fore March 31, 1969, received no later ~~l~than April 15, 1969. Winners will be ~.,_.=~." ~ ~ de~rmined by a drawing and no~fied ~ ~ ~J[ ] a~ut April 23. Fill in and mail today ~ ~fl~ • to: M~rlboro Trade Sweeps~kes, P.O. ~[ "~'Y:"" ~, Box 5315, Grand Central Station, New ,"'~ ...... ~~ York, New York 10017. Name Company, Addre~. Phone N~m~E I T163810138
Page 137: TI53810139
DIRECTORY. INDIA LEAFSUPPLIF $ A~RIMMCOR (PRIVATE) LTO., Post B~x 15, Mangalagid Rd., Gunl~r 1. Plume 419 (office); 1370 (8odowns). Cable~: AGRINDIMEX. Re~Ister~l office, Madras: 38 G. N. Chetty Road, T. Nagar, Madras 17; Post Box 1407. Phone: 444952. (:aMes: AGRIMMCOR Madras 17. Directo¢~ G. Katragadda (managinlD; K. S. Rao; K. Ramanadhan; K. Subramanyam Raju, IC Balaramaraju. Leaf handled: all varieties of Indian tobacco. PrlndpM Markets: U.S.S.R., G.D.R., Czechoslovakia, Hungary. ANDHRA TRADE DEVELOPMENT CORPN. I~T. LTD., Post Office Box 113, Guntur. Phones: 314, 399. Cables: EVERSHINE. Directo~ K. Venk~teswariu (managing); R. Vo Basava K. J. N. Prosed. Leaf handled.- all Indian tobaccos, Export capacity." 1000 tons. Principal Markets: United Kingdom, Continent. ANDREW CHALMERS (INDIA) Limited, Post Office Box 7, Chilakalurpet, Guntur District. Phone: 28..Cables: CHALIND. Chairm.a~." P. H. Mack; Managing Director:. D. F. Munn; Direc* tots: W. F_ Bernard, C. V. Parker. Leaf Handled: all varieties Principal Markets: world-wide. (Full redwing and packing fa- cilities.) BOMMIDALA PURNAIAH, Mangalagiri Road, Post Office Box 100, Guntur. Phone.- 357. Cables: WILLING. Partners: B. PuP naiah; B. NarayanamurLy; B. B. Murty; B. Kasiviswanatham; B. S. K. Murty. Leaf Handled: flue.cuRd and sun-cured vir- ginia sun-cured country; sun.cured Jutty. Export C~pacity: 600 tons. Pdncipet Markets: U,K., Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R., Hun- gary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Japan, U.A,R., Madagascar. (This company was founded 1920. The newly-built factory is equipped with latest Heinen plant.) BRITISH INDIA TOBACCO CORPORATION LTD., Mangalagiri Road, Post Office Box 21, Guntur. I~one: 57. Cables." BIT- CORP. Directors: E. E.. Jenkinson of Edwards Goodw|n & Co. Ltd.; A. G. C. Smith of Clagett, Brachi & Co., Ltd.; W. A. G. Cummin8 of Macmillan, Maxwell & Co. Ltd., P. R. Parthasa- rathy. CHEGU KRISHNAMURTHY, Post Office Box 307, Guntur 4. Phones: 182 (office); 607 (Residence). Cables: CHEKRI. Managing Partner:. Chegu Krishnamurthy. Leaf Handled: flue- cured virginia; sun-cured virginia and buriey. Export capacity: 6-million pounds. Principal Markets.- United Kingdom, Eastern & Western Europe, Japan. (This company opemtes two Proc- tors, capacity 3500 pounds per hour. with a sister company called Southern Tobacco Packers.) CHUNDI RANGANAYAKULU, Chilakalurpet, Guntur District. Phone: 15. Cables: CURINGS. Proprietor:. Chundi Ranganaya- kulu, Leaf handled: all Indian varieties. Principal markets'- United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong, etc. COASTAL TOBACO0 COMPANY (PRIVATE) LTD., ManRalagiri Road, Post Office Box 12, Guntur. INlones: 1502 & 1269. Cables: COASTOB. Managing Directon. Wo N. R. Kumar. Leaf handled: all types and grades of Indian tobacco. Export ©apacit~. 1500 tons. Princil~l Market: U.S.S.R. COMMEROIAL TOBACCO CO., Mangalagirl Road, Guntur. Phone: 175. Cables~ COMMERCIAL. Leaf handled: All types and varieties. Export c~pacity-" up to 1000 tons. PrillCJp~! m|r- kets: Belgium, Holland, Japan, Egypt, E. Germany, Hong Kong, Singapore. O'his company was estab%ished 1914). EAST INDIA TOBACCO CO. (PVTo) LTD., Grand Trunk Road, Guntur. Phones: 224, 978, 976. Cable~ EArl'IND. Man~ginlg director and chaim3an: Y. K. S. Prakasa ReD; DIrectors: F. Ho Maunder, Y. Koteswara Rao~ P. Peraiah. Leaf handled: all varieties of Indian tobacco. Export Capec|t~. 8 million pounds. Principal mlrkets: United Kingdom, Japan, and other European countries. (This company works in association with Slems~en, ThRshi and Co. Ltd., London.) (~ENERAL31~ADE CO., Mangala~iri Road, Guntur. Pho4~e: 1041. C~bles: GENTRADE. Managing dl~cto~. A. ~. Chowd~y. (This is an associate coml:~ny of Nave Bharat E~i~erp~ses (Pet.) Ltd. GOLDEN TOBACCO CO, (P~T.) LTD., Grand T~unk Road, Post Office Box 64, Guntur. Phones: 237, 757. Cables: GOTO~O Gu~cur. MzrBK~', l.eM ,,D~.padm~nt: M. V. Hha~. "'dgam~ manu~um~ ~on for ~ ex~) ~E IN~ ~U~RY & VI~INIA TO~O ~, ~ Ch~ W~m Rao. ~f H~ndi~: all varifies of Indian to~. ~1 Ma~ Unit~ Kingdom, Eum~, ~ Indonesia. (~n ~d~n8 ~an~ ca~ I~ ~s per hour.) INDIAN ~ ~BA~ D~ELOPME~ COMPLY LTD., 37 Chowfingh~ (~ Office Box ~7) ~lcu~ 16. ~o~: 23- 9141 (15 5n~). ~b~ INDEF. Guntur Branch: ~ ~ce Box 3~, Guntur~ ~onm 579. ~: R. J. Pr~hard; P.B.K. Mu~ (Member, L~al Board). ~f Handle: flue cured vi~inia, sun-cuRd Na~, white buriey and other sun- cured varifies. ~n~pel Ma~: Unit~ Kingdom, Barium, Holland, W~t Germany, ~p~s, Malta, U.A.R., West African countries, Ca~bbean Islands, Japan, Hon8 Kon8, Malaysia, Singa~ and othem. (Red~ing plants and refrigerated ware- houses in Chira]a and Ana~i. Research laborato~ in Rajah- mund~.) INDIAN ~BA~ SUPPLIERS PRIVATE LIMITED, Po~ ~ce Box 1, Chila~lpur~t, Guntur Dist~ct- Phone 28, 139. DIMTOK Chilekalur~L ~: K. Somaiah (managin8); D. F. Munn; ~ Da~iah; K. Rangalah; K. Subbarao; T. Rayalu. ~af ~ndl~: all ~s. ~ ca~ 5~ tons. Principal ~rk~: United KinRdom, W. Europe, Hunga~, Japan. @his company Is su~essor to Kakkera Danish & Cd., which was founded 1~. Wor~ in associaUon with And~w Chalmem International, Limit~ since 1~. Newly-equip~ redwing plant at Guntur.) SRI JAYABHA~T TOB~ D~ELOPMENT ~., Kothapet, Guntur 1. ~o~ 1277. ~ble¢ JA~IDh Managing R Peter. ~f M~I~; all ~s of Indian toba~. ~ipel markets: U.S.S.R., and supplier to State Trading Cor~ration. SRI JAYA~KSHMI TO~ ~MPANY, Tobacco ~lony. Guntur. ~ne: 8~. ~bl~: GOGINENI. Ma~ng Gogineni Nageswam Rao. ~ra~ors: Gogineni Kanakaiah; R. Rao; L. V. Subblah. Leaf handle: all origins of Indian flue- curd and Natu. ~ ~pe~: 6~ tons..Pdncipel mark~: U.S.S.R., U.K,, ~land, Belgium & Nepal. Firm ~unded 1~, with ten branches. Newly-built red~ing facto~ for 1~ kilos an hour. KANDIMALLA RAGHAVAIAH & KANDIMALLA RAMAMURTHY COMPANY, Chilakalurpet, Guntur District. Phone: Chllakalur- pet 29, 30. Cables: BONGRADES. Managing partnen Kandi- malls Ramamurthy. Lezf handled: flue-cured Virl~nia; sun- cured Virginia. Principal markets: United Kingdom; E. & W. Europe; Far East. KOLLA THIRUPATHIRAYUDU & CHAGANTI KONAIAH, Post Office Box 37, Tobacco Colony, Guntur. Phones: 751, 715. Cables: TABDEALERS. Partners: Kolla Thirupathlrayudu & Chaganti Konaiah. Principal markets: United Kingdom, U.S.S.R. J. V. KRISHNARAO & SONS, Kothapat, Guntur. Phooe= 586. Cables: RADHIKA. Managing partner:. Dr. J. V. Krishnarao; J. Syam Sundar (Partner). Leaf handled: all types of Indian tobacco. Pdncipgl markets: United Kingdom, Hungapj, and other European countries. A. S. KRISHNA & CO. PVT. LTD., Grand Trunk Road, Guntur. Post Office Box 62. CaNes: ADIPURI. Managing dlrecton A. S. Krishna. Leaf handled: all types. Export ¢aplcit~. 2-3 million pounds. Principal markets: European countries and Japan. (Established 1930. Factow equipped with Proctor redwing plant.) MAODI VENTKATARATNAM & CO. PRIVATE L'rD. Chilakalur- pat, Gunter District. Post Office Box 2. P'nones: 63, 62. Cabia¢ EVERGREEN, Chiiakalurpe~ Directors: Maddi Venkata Ratnam (Ch~irmarPMarm4~ing Director); Maddi Lakshma~ah (Managing); Maddl SatyaRa.myawa; Sreemm Krishnamurmy. L~f handled= flue-cured Vlrgi~ia; sun-cured Virginia; sun-cured white hurley;, sun-cured Natu. Prindpal marl~t~ United King- dom, Japan, Egypt; Czechoslovakia, O.D.R. (Operates own redrying factory.) Ti53810139
Page 138: TI53810140
EIDHOHT ] CCO PAH You can count on,.. 0UALITY "k SERVICE "/r INTEGRITY CHINA AMERICAN TOBACCO CO. ROCKY MOUNT, NORTH CAROLINA IIIS011E T0e,!~l~0 C0. L11]~ 17 R~b~r~d Ro~l, I~ ~L ~ ~ ~ I~ k~ N~o~l To~ ~, 1, 2 0~~~, ~BELMONT. ~f ~e~ In M. E. ~hen (Man~a~mm and ex~e~ of ci@re~s and of pi~ ~. A~o ex~, throughout 20 million ~u~s of leaf ~, of all Indian varieti~. Re- d~ing plan~ at Gun~r and Biccavole.) ~A BHARAT ~RPRISES ~. LTD., Mangalagiri Road, ~ O~ce ~x 132, Gun~r. ~o~: 934, ~5, ~6. ~bles: NAV~TER. Ma~ng dim~ A. S. Cho~h~. ~f handle: flue-cuRd Vi~inia; count~. ~ ~: 8~ tons. PHncipal ma~e~: U.S.S.R., Hong Kong, E. Germany, Czecho- slovakia, Hunga~, Holland. ~his company has ~n red~ing plant.) ~LIS~ ~MASUNDARAM, Mangala~iri Road, Po~ Office Box 99, Guntur. Phon~: 252 & 1611 (Office); 352 (Residence). ~bl~ SUNDARAM. Pa~e~: P. E, Gupta (Managing); P. Anjaneyulu (Managing), P. V. Bapanaiah; P. S. H. Prasadarao. L~f handle: all ~s of Indian to~ccos. ~ ~p=ci~ 4~ tons. Prin~pal marke~: Un~ed Kingdom, U.S.S.R., Japan, Hungaw & E~pt. (This com~ny was founded 1913, and has wo~ed in association with Siems~n, ~mshie & Co. Ltd., London, since 1~8. Two ~edwing plants with expo~ capaci~ 5~ tons.) K. RAMAIAH, K. RAMAKRISHNAMUR~ CO., ~nchester Road, Sangadigunta, Guntur. Post Office Box 72, Guntur. ~one: 158 (Office); 7~ (Factow); 156 (Residence), ~bl~; KAR~RAM. Mana~ng pa~ne~ K. Ramakrishnamu~ Seni~" pawners: K. Ramaiah; K. Venkata Narayana. ~f handled: flue-cured and sun-cured Virginia; sun-cured countw; sun~ured Pd~l~l mark,s: Japan, U.S.S.R., Belgium, Holland, United Kingdom, E~, ~st Germany, Hungaw, Singa~m, Austria, and West African countries. (Facto~ equipped with Quester red~ing plane Another Indian-made red~lng plant ready for erection.) G. V. RA~AIAH & CO,, Post O~ce Box 122, Guntur. Phone: 1333 & 1300. ~bl~: GADDE. Mana~ng di~ G. V, Rat- rajah. Leaf hand~: all ~pes. ~i~ ma~s: United Kingdom, Continent, U.S.S.R. THE ROSHAN TOBACCO COMPANY, Post Office Box 17, Guntur. ~one: 256. ~bles~ ROSHAN Guntur. Ghazi Mohammed Abdulla; Mohammed Sulaiman. Leaf handled: flu~cured Virginia in leaf and ~rips (all grades); sun.cured Ju~ Grade JBN. PHncipal ma~: United King- dom, Continental and African c~untries. SILEMANKHAN & MAHABOOB KHAN, Grand Trunk Road, Tobacco Colony, Guntur 1. Phone: 953. ~btes; GOLD. Man- aging pa~ne~ Rahiman Khan. Leaf handle: all varieties of Indian tobacco. Principal markets: United Kingdom, U.S.S.R., Japan, W. Europe, and United Arab Republic. New red~ing plant installed. SPENCER & CO. LTD., 153 Mount Rd., Madras 2. Post O~ce Box 327. ~one: 83~1. Telex: 525 (~RTEDOS) MS. ~bte¢ PORTEDOS Madras. Chairman: ~ R. Iraqi. ~vitre; Chief ex~tlve: J. G. Oaksho~; ~f assistant: V. Krishnamu~hi. ~af handled: South Indian to~o. ~e company's cigar ~ctow at Dindigul, ~uth India, makes high- grade cigars for the domestic market and for expoS,) STA~ ~RADI~ COR~RATION OF INDIA L~D., ~press Building, 9-10 Mohamad Shah Zafar Ma~, ~st ~ce Box 79, New Delhi. Ph~ 273373. ca~es: ESTICI, New ~lhi. C~an: B. P, Patel; Di~ P. J. Fe~andez; Divis~nal ma~e~ R. K. Balbi~ J~nt d~onai mana@~ A. C. Verma. ~ ~¢~: Variable, o~ng to ~licy of supplementing ins~ad of competing with private t~ders. In 19~ ex~ed 80,000 ~ns to ~lue of 220 million ru~es. ~mea= b~nche¢ in Prague, Ro~am, Moscow, Buda~s~ Nairobi, Montmal, BeiruE Teheran, ~gos & Bangkok. ~ S, SUBBI~ PIll & ~. (~.) LTD., Ma~la~ R~d, Guntur ~ ~¢ 2~. ~es: VE~ Man~ K. ~ Subbiah ~llai. Di~o~ Kamala S~biah. all ~pe~ Wa~ ~ 45~ ~ns. (~ e~ablished 1~. Fa~ ~uipp~ with P~or of 3~ ~u~s md~t~g TI53810140
Page 139: TI53810141
I(_ .Ramakrb.~...r~.mert~..j;.., $e~etaJ~j-~n-Ch~r~e: T. R. Ja~araman. (This Coueml ~ al~ pos~'ble ~ ~nd assistance to help promote and fac'~itate exports of Indian leaf and tobacco products.) M. VENKATESWARA RAO AND CO., Post Office Box 44, Guntur. Phorm~ 173, 899, 819. Cables= MARPUDI. Directors: M. Venkateswara Rao (Managing); A. Ramamohana Rao; K. Sremannaryana; P. Sambasivarao. Leaf handled: all types of Indian tobacco. Principal markets: United Kingdom and other countries. (Factory equipped with modem redrying plant.) India Cigarette Manufacturers Editor's Note---The following companies dominate the cigarette manufacturing industry of India. They are also actively engaged in the export of cigarettes. GODFREY PHILLIPS, INDIA, LIMITED, Chakala, Andheri, Bomba.y-58, AS. India, Post Office Box 7354. Phone: 571264. Cables~ SWEETCROP Andherl Bombay, Chairman: D. S. Bar- ton, C.I.E.; Directors: H. C. Brown (Managing); A. B. Bilimoria; P. A. Godfrey Phillips; D. J. Castrinakis; B. C. Belham. GOLDEN TOBACCO CO. (P1/T.) LTD., Tobacco House, Vile Parle, Bombay 56 AS. Phone: 572251. Cable~ GOTOCO Bombay. Directors: Shri Chatrabhuj Narsee (Managing); Shri Pratap Narsee; Shri Dharamshi Narsee. Redrying plant: Grand Trunk Rd., Post Office Box 64, Guntur. Cigarettes are exported to Czechoslovakia, U.S.S,R., U.S.A., Afghanistan, Aden, Leba- non, etc. IMPERIAL TOBACCO COMPANY OF INDIA LTD., Virginia House, 37 Chowdnghee, Calcutta 16. POst Office Box 89, Calcutta 1. Phone: 239141. Cables: I~:)WHAI"i'AN, Directors: C. A. Bone (Chairman); S. D. Gupta; P. E. John; B. K. Nehru; A. N. Haksar. O. MACROPOLO & CO., LTD., Kermani Bldg., Dr. Dadabhoy Naoroj] Rd., Bombay 1. Phone: 255764 & 252730. Cables: MACROPOLOS. Chairman: D. P. Sethna. Managing director:. C. 3. Mavricakis. Directors: $. A. flarlelwala; R. H. Colah. .(Manufacturer of cigarettes, cigars and pipe tobacco, export- ,ng to Middle East and Africa.) NATIONAl. TOBACCO CO. OF INDIA LTD. (See entry in Direc- tory of Leaf Suppliers.) VAZlR SULTAN TOBACCO CO. LTD., Post Box 6, Hyderabad- 20, Deccan. (Manufacturers of the Charminar brand. In asso- ciation with Imperial,) United Kingdom India Tobacco Importers Editor's Note--Much of India's leaf export trade is handled through the U.K. merchants, working in close association with packing companies in India. Most of the following companies also handle leaf from many other producing countries. ANDREW CHALMERS INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. Star House, 69-71 Clarendon Road, Watford, Hertfordshire. Phone: 32191- 2. Cables: ACANDO Watford. Telex: 261756. Chairman- managing director: P. H. Mack. Directors: W. E. Barnard, W. E. Pretlove, D. F. Munn, J. A. Saunders, J./L Keeling. BRITISH INDIA TOBACCO CORPORATION LTD., Ibex House, Minories, London, E.C.3. Phone: 01~180-5432. Cables: BIT- CORP. Directors: Sir Alexander H. Maxwell K.C.M.G., G. H. A. Goodwin, H. R. Crouch, E. E. Jenkinson, A. G. C. Smith, W. A. G. Cumming, P. R. Parthasarathy. Secretary: Charles Dalley. CHANNEL TOBACCO CO. LTD., ibex House, Minories, London, E.C.3. Phone: ROYal 5466. Cables: HANCTOBAC London E.C.3. Directors-" H. Farndon, H. Tcherke~an. CL~GETr, BRACHI & CO. LTD.o Radley House, Brockhampton Lane, Havaots, Hants. Pltone: H~vant 6271-6. Cables: CLAGETT. Havant. INfector: I. Conforzi, Go Confolzi, A. Con- fot-zi, H. W. J. Harts, A. G. C. Smith. ~ & KIN~S (AGElCrS) LTD., Walsingham House, 35 Seeth- i~ Lane, London, F_C.3. Pl~mm 01-709-9361. Cables: COX- SHIPCOM London E.C.3. Manager=. C. A. Bolden. ~ E.C3. Phor~ 01J,8~7185. Cable= ~ Lowdo~ ~ G. H. A. Goodw~ (MaP, aging3; ~ ~ J~ ~ ~n J- W~ A.CLS. ~ & ~. HEND~SO~MILL~ COMPA~, Vin~ H~se, ~n~nt ~ne, ~rki~, Su~y ~one: ~rking 4971/2. ~bl~ HENN- L~F ~rk~ng Su.rmy. ~n~: J. Hende~n; J. J. ~elan. ~ E. HILL & CO. LTD., 16 B~d S~ Wo~erham~on, ~on¢ WoNe~amp~n 249~. Cabl~: IN~OBAC. Diem: G. E. Hill; J. E. Hill. LEONI & DE~ LTd., 8 The Crescent, London, E.C.3. Ph~e: 01~0.~ ~bl~: LEO~ London, E.C.3, Oi~o~: R J. Chapman; T. R. Houghton. P. L L~ERSON L~., 8 The ~e~ent, London, E.C.3. Pho~ 01-~0-6~6. Cables: MENHADEN London, E.C.3. Dire~ F. J. Chapman; T. R. Houghton. MACMIL~N M~ELL & CO,, LTD., Ibex House, Minories, London, E.C.3. Phone: 01-~1-~-5. ~es: MAK~NBAC. Di~rs: S~r Alexander H. Ma~cil, K.C.M.G., (Chairman); C. B. Pear,e, B. T. Ogden, W. ~ G. Cumming. SALOMON BROS, TOBACCO CO, LTD,, Ibex House, Minories, London, E.C.3. Phone: 01-481-1821. Cabl~ AKSALBAK London, E.C.3. Dire~o~: F, Sande~on; J. Lam~urne. ELlA SA~MAN TOBACCO CO. LTD., 4 Ctemen~ Inn, Strand, London, W.C.2. Phone: 01-242~9~, ~bl~ ESALTOCO London, W.C,2. ~i~an: ~ E, Moca~a; Ma~ng dire~or: S. R, Alphanda~; DiR~ J. S. Gwatkin; S. D. Morris. SlEMSSEN, ~RESHIE & CO. LTD,, Ibex House, Minorles, London, E.C.3. ~one: 01~0-~11 & 01-~1-1718. Cables: SIEM~EN London, E.C.3. Diatom: R. Siemssen and T. S. Waddell (Joint Managing); F. H. Maunder; H. E. Cripps, F.C.A.; J. M. Threshie, M. G. Nash. WE ASK NO SPECIAL CONSIDERATION-ONLY THE OPPORTUNITY TO SHOW YOU OUR in Tobacco Processing Equipment DESIGN J l MANUFACTURINGI J INSTALLATION J l SERVICE J ~~NDRUM ,¢ H.AMMA CK East Broad Street Tel. 6489019 Richmond, Virginia Tl53810141
Page 140: TI53810142
II OD'6 E TOBA060 P.O. Box 1038 Owensboro, Ky. 42301, U.S.A. ~.AL~IIS--@M;KEIIS--~XPOM~R$ Old Belt pdces dec as v0kee wane lmdey auctions s=s0n g ets way tinued to decline £or the small volume of Old Belt flue-cured tobacco ~ffered last week wtule quality oE o~erings showed very little change., aceording to th~ Federal-State Market:News Service. Deliveries to the Stabilization Coq3o- ration increased to the highest percent- age in the past four weeks. Winston-Salem, N.C., the only mar- ket in the belt s~eduled to opera_ to this week, was to hold sales Monday and Tuesday and o~tlcially close for the season. Danville and South Boston, Va., have suspended sales until December 2, Cross'ales for the week ending No- vember 21, totaled only 4,607,685 po~rtds averaging U$$59.29 dred, a decrease of 49 cents from the season low of the week before. Sales for the season amotmted to 199,618,885 pounds for an average of US$64.84. " ' " ' "]L~zis total includes 9,407,606 pmmds of O~ tied tobacco which averaged US$73.38. DICKINS~ La~ year during the same period 259,- 110,856 pound~ were soldaveraging US$6L90. Tile BUYKR - - PACKKR LEft TOBACCO Spdn lield, Teunessee USA S7172 Telephone: 901-384--~1-56 Cable: TOBSUPCO • Lower averages- Grade averages last week were as much as US$3 per hundred lower when compared with the previous week's levels. Nearly 60 per cent of the averages were down. The general quality of offerings was about the same except for an increase in the pereentage of-smokng leaf and less leaf. Bulk of sales consisted of poor to fair leaf, nondescript, fair lugs and low smoking leaf. Receipts of the Stabilization Corpo- ration for the week jmnped to 32.6 ~r cent of gross sales. In the previous week £5.6 per cone was placed under govern- ment loan. Deliveries for the season ro~e to 17.7 per cent. Receipts for the season in 1967 were 33.1 per cent of sales. LEXINGTON', ~'Y.--Opening day sale, s of the 1968 crop of burley tobacco were highlighted by improved ~luality and better prices for some graaes, accord- ing to the Federal-State Market News. From the standl~0int of quality, in- itial marketings indicated this may be the best erep in recent years, the service reported. Averages for most flyings and lugs were unchanged from opening day last year but leaf and tips were chiefly up to US$4 per hundredhigher. Es~mated averages for early auctions on severnl markets ranged £rom US$72 to US$74 a hundred. Volume for the first day, November ~5, was reported heavy. Sixty-one market~ were expected to operate in the e~ght-state marketing axea with 71 sets Of buyers. A total Of 410 warehouses hdd auctions i~ the belt last year. • Production estimate " The U.S. Crop Reporting Board estimated pro- duction of the 1908 crop to be 559,- 040,000 pounds as of conditions on No- vember 1. The expected average yield of 2350 pounds ~ acre compares with 2274 pounds realized last year. Pro- dueers" sales of the 1967 crop totaled 537,072,815 po.unds for • record _hig_h average price of ,US$71.78 per,hundre~cl. Man~aeturers and dealers holdings of burley tobaceo on October amounted to 1,328,966,000 pounds (farm sales weight), nearly 53 million pounds under that of a year earlier. Disappearance of burley tobacco (do- mestic plus export) for the year ending September 30 amounted to 503.2-mil- lion pounds, or 7.3-million pouiads less than for the previons 19.-month period. The average loan level for the 1968 crop is US$0.635 Per pound, enmpared with US$0.618 per pound in 1967. The ~oade loan rates range from US$0.30 r crude green nondescript to US$0.77 for choice~buff and tan flyings and lugs. Growers placed 64,168,000 pounus, or 11.9 per cent of net sales, under government loan last year. This com- pares with 10.7 per cent for the pre- vious year. OLD B~eI-T* GRAPE U.S. THURS. DI~SC;RIPI'ION GRADE NOV. 21, LEAF Fair Orange ~IF US~75. Down Low Orange |$F $~), D~wn ~|r Variegated ~aK MI, Down 52 Low Variegated |5K iO. Down Poor Variegated ~K S4, Unch. Uew Yar|egated Orange DSKF 4~, D~wn $1 Peer Variegated Orange BtKF 43, Down $1 SMOKING LEAF LOw Variegated HSK $?, Unch. Poor Variegated H6K ~4, Down Fair Lemon X4L 71 Unch. Orange XSF 71. Down $ I PRIMINGS low Ocange ~F /,4, Down ];2 HaND F.SCRI Irr l~mt (lug Si~lei NIXL 63. UO Fewest N2 ~7. Up 44--TO~C~O--The l~ter~fiomd l~eddy Ti53810142
Page 141: TI53810143
bear on the many questions about to- onset and cocrse of the several chronic bacco use and human health, Dr. Olaf- diseases with which smoking has been ence Cook Little says ~n the lalz~c -stxt/stically associated, Dr. Li~e not~. annual report of the scienti~e director of Among these are aging, sex, honnones, the Council for Tobacco Research.- ~ ea~m~se, occupation, stress, con- U.S.A.stitutica~l factors a~l vlmses. The progress of the council's pro- gram of scientist study is reviewed in the 80-1~ge repoxt for 1968-67, which includes abstracts of published papers Flue-c red yield expected to be heavy for 1969 crop Hgh~Og~SO~¢, N.c.--Whatever the cut in flu~ to~ a~age ~undage for 1~9, yield ~II ~ h~ if w~er ~n~o~ ~ fa~rable. F~e one ~, some ~ milton ~unds of un~ q~ ~ ~ f~d and add~ to b~e ~lo~L short by ~on of ~e ~u~t ~e ~t s~mer, ~ ~udng .~ba~ ~at would have ~en pr~ ~d m~- ket~. The indus~d e~is ~me~ ~er si~afion, wh~ s~c~ons ag~st ~e eff~t. But ff ~ere s~d be ~ ad~t- ment ~een B~t~n ~d ~ia, sever~ ~ ~on ~ of 1~ would ~ ~ onto ~e ~ket to ~pote in ~ld eff~t u~n ~ ~. Gmwem ~R vote ne~ ~r in a ~hrend~ on ~.g ~e a~ge and ~und~ proem for ano~er three yearn, h ev~t o~ a b~ 1969, ~ ff pfi~s ~e low, ~we~ will be ~ppy ~d it ~R ~ a ~d ~e for ~em to ~ vo~g, ~ s~e vies. All ~ese ~sib~ were ~tom in a~oa ~ ~e No~ C~a Bu~u l~t w~k h ~ndln~aa su~ r~u~ m~ke~. A m~erate ~t ~d leave ~u~on, ~der w~ther ~n~ons ~ much ~ or morn than ~o crop m~ke~ ~ scion, n~ ~ but When ~e U.S. ~pa~t of A~- ~ ~ redu~ ~1~ it w~ ~bl~ • ~r af~ ~g ~~._~. "In such studies sedous fallacies in perspe~ve can z~sult from over-/n- ~erl~'elai/on of one-to-one cerreh~ions even ~,,ou~ ,~hesv may be va~id math- emat~eally, Dr. Little says. As a ~sult, new methods now are being used to analyze a numbs" of these variables at once for %hsterlng t~ndencies," which may provide ehes "to 4:he e~ology o~ degenerative disease." • Crants aid study- The council's program of scientific study is mrr/ed on through the medium of grants-in.aid made to independent scien~sts condueb ing their own research projects in their . own laboratories. R~pomtbdity ~or research pol/ey and ~¢ogramn~g is vested in a sclenti~c ed~ory board which consists of 10 scientists and doctors who maintain the/~ respootiv~,e institutional affiliations. The ~ s annuaI report includes abstracts of 99 ~esearch papers pub- fished during the repo~c~ year in the ~elds d l~Cho-Fhysiologleal s~udies, e.srdiovase~r s~udles, ~reinogenesis studies, studies at the c~lluhr level, epldera~olog~, pulmonary physiol?gy, neurophyslology, chera/sl~y and bio- chemistry, Ixharmaeology and psycho- l~harmacoIogy, pregnancy s~dies and others. Under the grants-in~ald program, the report states, awards have .been made to 313 seien~ts in over I00 hospitals, univers/t/es and research ~nstitutlons, here and abroad. The awards ,thus far have totaled US$11,800,000. The report also notes two sc~enl~c conferences sponsored .by the council during the year: a eon~enee on eelI and tissue culture, and a conference on alhrgic and immunologleal aspects of smok/ng. It xeviews resea~ progress in cancer of the hag, the eardiovasmhr diseases, chron~ p~onary diseases, nicotine and the central nervous system, and ¢an~er of the oral cavity'. The Cx~ncil for Tobacco Research -U.S.A., tl~ sponsoring agency of this program o~ research into questions of manufacturers, grovaz~ and -~arehouse- Clarksvme, Tean. 37~40, U.S.A. Packers--.Deolers~Exporfen ALL TYPES OF LEAF TOBACCO |m P[IT.R P. MOKRZF.CKY .& SONS, IHC. • CONN. HAVANA SEED CIGAR L~F TOBACCO NORTH HADL~, MASS. 01~5 CAIILS:St "CASKELL¢* All Cede~ U~I Fred P. 6askell Co., lae. ¥or~ign Freight Fo~a~en 1 ~RO~WAY, ~ YO~ N. Y. ~M flOUSE.BR~ W. I, Skinner & I)o. Inc,, Buyera and Packer~ All Ored~ nlu6ffrs, nURI~YS, MARYIANDS, DARK VIRCINIAS Ampls l~dryin| • Storage Faeilitis~ ~lHl•mst~s. ~. C.. U.$.~ SPRINGFIELD I|EDRYING COMPANY ,Ira. I. MIller, It., Pr~dd4mt LEAF TOBACCO MERCHANTS Dmlm'= All Tyl~ Le~/ Tobacco--~lrip~.~Sr~ap Sp~ngfidd, Ky. U.S.A. A.C. 606 P.O. Box 72 Telephone 336~395~ November ~, 196~ T!53810143
Page 142: TI53810144
LEAF TOBACCO BowDng Green, Ky. 42|01 Phone: 502-843-435| TIM~ONSVILLE TOBACCO COMPANY ~uyerz - Packers - Exporters of Lo~f Timmon~viile, S. ~ flran,5~ elfin: R~y Mount, N. C. ~BLE: '~TCO" Packers, D~ler~ ~nd CONTUCT OR ~OMMISSION FRANKLIN • U.S.A. • KEHTUCKY FOR YOUR AMERICAN TOBACCOS ... E.. R. Sykes & Company, Inc. CAB| fi SYKES-WENDELL WENDELL NORTH CAROLINA, U.S.A. THE TOBACCO TRADING CORP. L~F Ton~ceo Richmond, Vs., Durham, N.C. Louisville, Ky., USA TOBACCO ~SING CO,, INC. TOBACCO F~VOR~ 4$---TO~K~OO---The In~rmttlo~d ~ s. c.-Cigarettes sales of Li~vtt & Myers, Ir~, are reported de- clining slightly, hut a corporation state- ment ~portexl that the industry is ~eopardized. ~ has a cigarette fac- tory, its operations center, research center, leaf-storage warehouses, blend- /ng and prlntSng plants in Durham. A proxy statement released to share- holders in advance of a special meeting in Durham Dee. 3 said: "The decline in net earnings for the year ended Dee. 3I, 11t65, resulted from the d.e.eline in Liggott's sales of dgarettes. After 1965, the eft'cot of the contimtlng decline in e/garotte sales on ~yet earnings of Liggett has been offset increase,, earnings of non-tobacco subsidiaries." It was further pointed out in the statement that, "based upon unit pro- duetinn of cigarettes in the United States between 1~63 and 1967, Lig- gott's share of cigarette production de- dined from approximately 11 per cent to approximately eight per cent. tensive advertising is conducted by Lig- gett with respect to several cigarette brands. Aggregate advertising expend- itures may vary from year to year with a consequent effect on net earnings." ~, Data presented-No L&M brands ranked in the top 10, according to John C. Maxwell Jr. s .annual study of cig- arette consumption for Market~ng/Com- munlcations, a trade publication. But he pointed out that h/s survey indicated a 1.3 per cent increase in tobacco con- sumption compared to last year. He attributed the increase largely to women smokers. Although consumption has edg~ed ahead this year, hwentories haGe slaCk- erred, probably due to introduction of new brands, Mr. Maxwell said. Coy- eminent figures substantiate his conten- tion that production has extmrieneed a slight decrease. , ,, Cigarette sales were qaurt, the spokesman statedL but he ,a, dded that the decrease was not a lot.' He noted that many opinions are that action by the Federal Communications Commis- sion "is the primary factor." The com- mission has ruled that the Fairness Doctrine is applicable to cigarette ad- vertising, which means that all licensed telev/sion and radio stations must afford a significant amount of time for pre- sentation of anti-tobacco views. Legality of the ruling and its juristic- tion over product advertising is now being tested in court by interested parties,/netuding the Tobacco Institute, of which Liggett is a member. • D~¢atlon-- Tobacco products manufacturing is abo~t 76 per tent of the z~ corporation activities. In 1964, to c~ver~if-y the operation, Liggett ac- quired pet food, alcoholic beverage, cereal and watchband bnsinesses. A financial statement by L~ last week said the company's third quarter earnings rose to US87 million, or 89 per cent per share, from US$6.2 mil- lion, or 77 cents a share, for the same period in 1967. The report said that gains xvere primarily due to an increase in liquor sales and inclusion of results of National Oats Company, acquired in September 1967. Thb s~po~okesman said "the indus will not ]~ave the big sales in the futur~ it has had in the past." r~.st is the fifth largest of the six maior tobacco manufacturing com- panies.-Hxv. Guest speakers announced for I)MA-CIA convention .-kTLA,N'FIC CITY, N.y.--A highlight of the C~A-CL~. annual convention at the Claridge Hotel here, December 5-8, will be the appearance of Dr. Martin Gains- brugh, St., vice president and chief economist of the National Industrial Conference Board, and Martin Agron- "sky, political broadcaster and analyst, as speakers. Dr. Gainsbrugh, an economics an- alyst, has served with the race since 1939. He is an adiunct professor of economics at New York University and has served with such government offices as the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of the Budget, and the Federal Reserve Svstem. Mr. Ag~onsky, currently a c~s news reporter and analyst, has covered Wash- ington for more than 25 years and is ~generally acknowledged as one of the best newsmen in the nation's capitol. Dibrell corporate charter change approved by Virginia ~zcn-~zo.~'a~, e.g.-The Virginia State Corporation Commission has approved a change in the carperate chatter of Dibrell Brothers Tobacco Company of Danville, Va., raising the authorized capitalization from US$3-million to US$1S-milllon. The common stock of the company is to b~ in~ from 300,000 to 1.5-million shares aco~ling to a spokesman for the TI53810144
Page 143: TI53810145
EEC =pmgran to stimulate production BY OSCAR VILLASIS, btani~a F.xlitor ~, P.~.-The ou~ ~r ~ p~e ~nia le~ ~ ~ the Eu- ro~ C~mon Market app~s gl~my following r~or~ ~at the ~zc co~ are plan~g a new ~bac~ price suppo~ and ~idy pro~am to s~ulate ~e~ ~r~a ]e~ p~u~on, ~us ~g off f~er import. ~ ~e plan mate~a~=, ~e Phi~p- pin~ would l~se a substan~al po~on o~ i~ toba~ expo~ and woul~ have to look ~or o~er outlet, it is pointed A~ed by the inc~ing appear- ~ce of eiga~tt~ manufac~red by un- ~cens~ ~acto~ in cenkal and George Weissman awarded Townsend Harris medal rr~w xo~, ~.Y.-The A/umnl As- sociation of .~e Ci~ Collie of New York xec~tly a~ O~rge Weir- man, p~ident of ~p Mor~, ~c., the To--send H~ Medal ~or ~ngui~ ~t~aduate achiev~ent, To--send H~, for whom award ~ n~, ~ the founder ~e ~llege and aho sew~ ~ United S~tes Comul ~neral Japan. P~vious r~pien~ of ~ m~al ~dude: B~ M. B~ch; S~nley H. Fdd, c~ j~fi~, N~ Y~k Co~t of Ap~; U.S. Sen. Bo~ Wa~er; U.S. S~e ~ Ju~ F~x F~~ ~ H~n, ~- No~ ~, B~ H~d, ~ur nothern Luzon, the* Philippine con- stabu~ has been mobilezod to help the internal revenue authorities in track- ing down the illegal plants. • Spanida imports--Spain desires to increase her trade with the Philippines, says L~is Gonzales, Philippine am- basador to Spain. Spanish imports ~rom the Philippines consist mainly of blend- ing tobacco averaging USS.7-million a However, Spain could increase her imports from the Philippines only this country would buy more Spanish products, adds the ambassador. Philip- pine blending tobacco, he says, is find- ing increasing need in Spain which manufactures popular cigars, Philippine cigars cannot compete in that country" because the tariff on ported cigars is almost 300 per cent, he explains. " • Cigarette launched-Philip Morris International is reportedly launching this month in the Philippics its new Philip Morris Menthol 100s cigarette. A few months ago, Philip Morris Filter 10lYs was success[ully introduced in this market. "We expect the same kind o[ re- sponse g,e, nerated by Ph~ip Morris Filter 100 s, ff not better, says Lee Schreuder, the American firm's Far East manager. "This now Philip Morris Menthol 100's carries the same advantages: premium quality, elegant package, filter tip,,, and luxury length. 'It offers menthol smokers imported quality at a saving." The new 100mm. menthol cigarette is said to be the first and only bne of its kind to be packed in the Philippines. It is being manufactured by the La Suerte Cigar and Cigarette Factory. The latest-techniques-and machineut developed for cigarette manufacture are being u~ed in-the production, says Jesus Sequera, La Suerte executive. The retail price has been fixed at I~2.00 (about 50 US cents) a pack. • Cigar promotion-A recent British trade mission to the Philippines sug- gested that this country send a cigar sales mission to London. Sir Con O'Neill, head of the eight-man British group, said in a press conference: "We love your cigars, but you do not develop the cigar market in London." Filipine~ smoked 81 per ce~t more clomestlca~ made cigaret~ in 19~7 ~ in 1966, mad reportedly st~l more (F~o to us~Loo). . From 19e3 to 19e~ l~lipl~me ba~ ~ ~ d~ ~ s~ ~d ~e ma~y ~ of ~t ~u~g of ~ei~ ~. The ~e in ~e 1967 s~ a~but~ ~ &e ~tem~m~on of ~mu~l~g ddve by the govern- ment. ~v r~h dep~ent of ~e P~pp~ Toba~ A~ini~a~on ~nfly re~ed on ~e s~di~ sc~ it h~ ~dert~en. A ~rfion of ~v re~ ~ ~dies ~ ~e es~at~ ~t ~t of handrolled ~gars: B~ ~ s~divs of ~ batches of handrolled loug-fiH~ cigars and s~ batches of han~llvd short-~lcr cigars, the co~ of p~uc- fion per unit ~ computed at P0.039 (ab~t one U.S. cent) ~r long ~ler cigar, and P0.03 (l~s than % per short filler cigar. ~e ~clude ~st of wmppe~, binders, ~em and lair. ~ S~es on ~e isola~on o~ mi~ org~s in to~ ~owed ~at ~e ~v~ ~ of baae~a ~d w~ch may m~e de~y. ~ey con~n~ on ~age 49 M~nulacturt, r~ ot F/he FLAVORING MATERIALS CIGARETTE, CIGAR, PIPE 8, CHEWING TOBACCOS Virginia, Havaua, Rum Maple, ~o~(e ApSe, P~ch, SL J~a't Bread, Ton~ ~d Sp~nl BI~ ~11 ~nge of ~ln~Hum~lan~ LYeOL Nt A To~c~ Mo;ste~r ~LYCOLENE b ~d ~ your Flavodng avomafic TI53810145
Page 144: TI53810146
Virginia Farm Bureau unit wins legislative award vm~n~, ~.ca, v^.-Thc Virginia Farm Bureau Flue-Cured Tobacco Committee ~2elved the v~, Legsla- rive Award last week at the farm organ/zation's 43rd annual convent/on S. T. Moore Jr. of South Boston, chairman of .the committee, accepted the plaque and each member of the ten-man committee was presented a cerKficate. vl~" President Robert B. Delano made the .presentations. This was .the first legislative award presented ,by the v~'m~ and Walter C. Ayers, director of public affairs, said a similar sward would ,be made in the future when it is merited. The 1968 award was presented for the committee's activities /n the passage of House Bill 903 which set limit on warehouse ~ees to be charged growers ~n the mar]~et/ng of tobacco. The committee activated support for the hill at the county level and w~s responsible for having grower repre- sentation at public hearings held by the House and Senate.--)AN. Wade A, Davis wins citation for AMF achievement manager o~ lea~ /nstallatiou and ser- vice, U.S. operations, for American Machine and Foundry Company s World Tobaovo Group, has 'been awarded the A~ Achievement Award for contributions to the corporation's The award was given to Mr. Davis for his work ia complet/ng a US$4.7 milton plant for the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly in Bangkok. He joined the • "m in Richmond in 1947.--BA~. Cigarofle manufacturing rated by Commerce Oept, W.~.sHmcTO~r, n.c.- Cigarette manu- facturing ranked 39 in s list of 50 of this country's largest manufacturing in- dustries in terms of sales just released by Commerce Department. In tern~ of vabze el shipments for the year 19e6, cig~ttes amounted to US $2.86 billions, according to the report. selling days following the opening the Ontario flue-cured tobacco auctions, a total of lO.l-million pounds has been sold for an average of C64.38 cents per pound. The average daily prices have been climbing steadily since opening day during which a total o~ 1,915,439 pounds were sold [or an average price of C6~.71, compared with pounds for whleh buyers paid CB4.73 cents on opening day in 1967. This year's total rejected tobaoco amounte~l to 11.~8 per cent of the first day's offering as compared to 23.2~ per cent on opening day last year. Farmers in general seemed to he quite satisfied with the prices being paid thus far and this is reflected in the low level uf daily no-sale tobacco for the three warehouses. • Averages higher-Average prices for top grades were slightly above the CS0-cent figure which was approxi- mately a two cent gain from their start- ing price. It was d/t~cult to judge the qu~'ty of the crop_ by the type of tobacco be- ing offered in the-t~ree warehouses during the first week. Usually, the first specldl shipment being offered is not a good cross section as farmers in many cases will ship odd and lower grades during this period. Th~ T/lls0nburg auction warehouse started its first quarter shipment on November 18 when a total of 79.5,000 pounds was offered both at the Tillson- burg and Ddhi exchanges and 675,000 pounds at Aylmer. This was to be in- creased to 850,000 pounds at Tillson- burg and Ddhi and 800,000 pounds at Aylmer. Dutch auction clocks have been slowed down at the three exchanges to 4.5 seconds per sale from 3.~ seconds. LTEA hosts newsmen; tours organized through plants WH,SON, xq.c.-Better understanding between the grower and the buyer of U,S. flue-cured tobacco was the theme of a meeting here recently. Attending were farm newsmen, including writers, editors and broadcasters. They came here on the invitation of the grower rehtions committee of the Leaf To- bacco Exporters Assocgation. There were hw speeches but there was _poa~ulty to ask many questions, gather with a tour o~ processing and storage phnts. 4~--YO~K~X~-The In~mtiamd ~'eeldy B~u Feder~ou ~ ~nmu ~/s ~~ hem N~. 26. j~ ~ ~, ~s fie~ ~- ~ Bu~u.pr~ p~que ~r ou~- ke~ng o~ flue~d objec~ve ~ng h~ kep~ all ~ men~ ~ ~e to~ indus~ ~ ~o m~ke~n~ de~lopmen~ durin~ ~9~7 s~ C~rl~ J. S~II~, Edw~ ~. Turner Jr., ~ flel~ repr~en~ve for Sou~t Vir~nia, was cited ~or .h~ "~n~uous se~i~ in establish~ ~d m~intainin~ e~ ~ve ~laffons ~ ~ n~s m~i~ to k~p the p~lo in his ~a info~ of a~l~l development," ~id vvs~ p~sident Ro~ B. De~o. ~s ~ ~e ~st ~o ~ five y~ ~t ~e F~e=Mon h~ presented p~s awar~.-n~. U, S, Tobacco doubles military, export sales z~-~w xoz~x, N.~.--Sa]es of United States Tobacco Company products to United States military installations and civilian export markets throughout the world have doubled since this time last year, it was announced By Walter W. Watson, director of the company's sales development. Mr. Watson made this report on the company's sales expansion following his .recent return from England, Sweden, France, Spain, Italy, and Greece, where negotiations continue for introduction of additional eorn- pa,n,,y lines. Sales of Copenhagen Snuff and Skoal, wintergreen-flavored, fine-cut chewing tobacco, continue to show strong increases," Mr. Watson said. '~l'hese moist tobacco products are ,in constant demand at exchanges on all U.S. military bases." Louisiana cigarette tax bill BATO,~ novcx, L~.--A bill which would increase Louisiands cigarette tax from eight to 11 cents per package has been introduced in r.he special se~ion of the General AssemMy which is now meet/ng. The measure has been favorably re~-ed out o~ the House Committee.--zx:¢. TI538t0146
Page 145: TI53810147
h'ller of imported brands is ~.74 ~l/g; of local brands 4.39 ml/g. ~ St~l~es on burning quallu/ of c~gars and eig~ret~es: The average burn score of 19 Ioca~ly manufactured ei_'~- ~ brands with native cigare~e filler is 88.38, while flint of five impend brands is 89.68; and that of local hand- rolled cigars is 88.6. • - Compsra'~ve study of the and WilIard-Fmmaa ~ques o£ de- terminlng calcium in tiger leaf tobacco: Using er, op I~33-64 l~af .tobeeco, the two methods of determining calcium were ~ed. Both tests sh~wed that either method gives satis/actory results as shown by be per ee~ coe~eient uf variation which is ~..15 ~ cent for .the ~o~,c and ~.Sg per cent for the Willard-Furman ~cecb.~que. ~- Preparation of new .pi~e_ tobacco Mends u~ing locally produced Virginia, I~omero, Turkish and cig~r-BIIer fna~ive) *obaoco: All ~our blen& of pipe tobacco test~l were found accep- tdbIe. better resu]~ ~udging from t~e cam- ~ ~ ~nt to ~c e~nt ff abo~ ~ ~r ~L For flav~ a ~-. ~ of f~ flav~g age~ w~ m~: ~ ~av~, ~ flavor, r~ la~a ~vor~ ~d. FCC RIFLE UPHELD . , • the d~e ~e~i~ it b~d- ~t. The app~ to ~e ~u~ w~ made a ~up of b~d~ng ~d • ~g a~ cited-Judges on ~e ~w~ ~ ~y ~ g~ ~g ~d Adve~ A~ of 1~. ~t act r~ ~- e~ m~ac~re~ a~ ~ to ~u~on~t on ~ .pack &e w~g: : ~tte Smo~ May ~ H~om to Yo~ HealS." "Sin~ ~e ~ission~ m~ng ~ sic~ ea~ week, it does not viotate the not ~ ~y ~ ~ ~ ~ w~ ~able ~ say h~ m~ eff~ rebu~ai b~g ~d have on ~e s~. "We ~o note ~t ~g~tte ~- of ~d~g ~u~, ~d we ~ it at b~t d~b~l ~ s~ons ~ll ref~e ~ ~ ~m~s in ~er ~ a~d ~e ob- seat~ ~ judges ~a~ ~ ~r. Ban~aFs ~nten~on ~at ~ m~t ~sonso~y s~ ~m~t ~ ~s~ m~on upon ~e ~d~tem d~s- ~e~on. N~, ~ey add~ ~d &e ~cc qu~ ~bu~ ~e £~ ~e eig~e~e m~a~r~. fi~ ~ I~ that ~t~ ~ ~e ~cc to ~garett~ adver~g~. R. P. WATSON COMPANY LEAF TOBACCOS PROCESSORS 0 EXPOllIERS WILSON. NORTH CAROLINA EST. 1895 H. N. Howerd, Pr~ddent C, eble: WATSON Nevember ~, 1~ TI53810147
Page 146: TI53810148
CAS! NGS AN D TOP FLAVORS for Cigarette, Cigar, Pipe and Chewing Tobaccos Your Flavoring Problems will have our attention USA: DRAGOCO INC. King Road TOTOWA, N. J. New Jersey Telephone: 256-38 SO New York Telephone: 244-82 35 M~xiCo: ORAGOCO $.A. Rio Tigris 53 MEXICO 5, D.F. Great Bri~ln: DRAGOCO (Great Br[taln) Ltd. Tallon Road BRENTWOOD, Essex Telephone: Brentwood069 96/7 Deutschland: DRAGOCO HOLZMINDEN Teleran: 446-4 50 0sterreich: DRAGOCO vorm. Sch{mmel & CO., G.m.b.H. WIEN.LIESING Teleran: 8696-65 Serie Su|sse: DRAGOCO BOUVERET Admlnistrat|on: La Tour-de-Pellz RoUte de3t-Maurice 184 T~I.: i021) 5161 09 France: DRAGOCO FRANCE 20, rue de la Glac|~re 92- LA GARENNE-COLOMBES T~l~phone: 242-21-54 et 242-0E-78 Italia: DRAGOCO ITALIA Via Oropa 3a MILANO Tel~fo'no N. 285.00.3t GallMin Redrying & Slora~t go,, In¢, G~L~N U.S.A. TENNESSEE Packers, DeMers & Exposers All D~k Types & ~ur/e~ Tobaccos Latest Pr~tor & ~hwa~ SUPER 7 REDRYING ~CHINE. Ample Storage Copacl~ 25,000 H~sheads CONTACT OR CO~I~ION WILLIAM B. BEACH & CO. BOWEN For Primary Tobacco Manufacfurlng Equipment Tobacco t~edryers & CondHione~s Stick & Apro~ or Single Apron Conveyor Types for (}men Leaf, Loose Leaf or Thrashed L~mina, Stem, Cigar Rller, Dipped or Cased Leaf Drying, Cooling and Re-Condifion|ng, In~J~ding Ancillary Cenveyors, Au~o-F~ders et~. G. H. BOWEN LTD. HIGH ST, WORKS. WOODV|LI.E, |URTON.ON-TRENT. ENGLAND. CABLES: /OWENCO, BURTON-ON-TRENT. "~OV/B~" ~N CONVEYOR TOBACCO RE.DRYeR FOR LOOSE LF~J: OR THRESHEO LAMINA. " - TI53810148
Page 147: TI53810149
m ~ nAYs when our industry is faced with serious poblems, I think it's important that we meet together and e~change ideas. We ar~ under heavy attack because el the health question and we must all work together to rind the answer. Let us not try to fred a "Government Answer." Let us not try to find an dustzy Answer." Let us try to find the In my opinion there are three words which bes(express the course of action we shou/d aR take in the face of this preblom. These three words are: earn- cooperation-confidence. The tobacco industry is one of the major industries in the United States. Before irreparable damage is done to its reputa~on, we hope spokesmen who take a position against us will exercise ~ar~o For example, we hear publicity about illnesses associated with cigarette smok- ing. Many ~nes they are careful not to say these illnesses a~e caused by cigarette smoking, but one is likely to assume that this is what is meant. One fallacy in concluding that illness is caused hy smoking is obvious to any thoughtful person, The fallacy is this: If we knew that the subjects of this study were exactI¥ alike in all other respects, and that the only difference was in their smoking or non-smoking, we might then be able to conclude that the di~erence in health was caused by zraoking. But we know th~t'tlli~ has not true. As more studies ar~ ~ompleted, the evidence increases that different physical and emotional characteristics and habits of li~e a~o associated with cigarette smoking and non-smoking. For example, ther~ is evidence that smokers, as a class, marry more often, change )'obs more o~ten, are morn ath- letic, drink more alcohol and drink more bhek c6ifee. Cigarette smoking may be a reflection of some of these eharacterls: tics and habits. Tranquilizers cited, too A recent study showed that people who use tranquilizers have a much higher death rate than those who do not. The author did not conclude Chat tranq-,qi~ers kill p~ople. I'm sur~ most of you saw the story in the paper about shying, It said they now disc~¢m~t that the death stroke and hea~c attacks was "consid~r- ably higher~ among those who rurally slept nine or i0 hours a night than ~or those who slept seven hours ~ night. And for persons who slept I0 or more hours a night, the death rote was 286 per cent higher than for those who slept seven hours! It was not concluded that excessive sleep" will ]dR people. Among the long- sleepers there ~re ~nough People whose greater zequirements are due to life- shortening ~Iness to affect the morality statistics of .the whole group. No one would expect ~he longevity of such l~eople to be improved by restric~ng them to seven hours sleep a night. Conclusions unwarranted Some respected doctors and sci- entists do no~ accept .the statistical evidence of the Surgeon C, enera]'s ~rt as bein conc]nsive. ~urthermore, . ey feel th~ not those conclusions are warranted. These selen~ts and doctors are re- spected by ~cir colleagues and there is no evidence that they represent the tobacco industry. It would appear to be an honest difference of opinion among doctors and scientists. Here is a most important fact to bear in mind: There are more than 1100 compounds in tobacco, and to date, no one has proved that in .the quantities found in bigarettes, any one o]~ them is harmful to health. ' Wo would like the public to be fully informed. We would like the informa- tion that reaches them to be hctual rather than emotional or incomphte. The people of this industry are re- Cigar for boss ... ~ns~le citrus and have re, acted to gee against tobacco ~ ~nt ~d 1o~c. Ci~t~ ~g h fi~t ~d hr~ most one of ~e s ple~. ~g ~ ~ff~, ma and s~e beverage, ~- re~ belong ~ ~e f~ly of na~al pmduc~ which tend ~ m~ ~ple who are te~e ~d help peoph who are bor~ and deposed. Some p~pIe have alwa~ had raked feelin~ about thin~ ~at ~ve ~ pleurae-they think that ph~umble ~in~ are ~nful. We believe some of ~ aRac~ on cig~eRe smo~g co~d stem ~om thee so~c~. No laboratory proof The average American is a reasonable man-a thoughtful man. He will ze- spend to the truth. ,.He is entitled to the truth. He shouldn t be confused and fiightened by inconclusive evidence. We know that, in fact, there is no labo- xatory proof that smoking ever gave cancer to a human ,b.e. ing. We know that people who don t smoke do get lung cancer and most smoke~s get lung cancer.' With the national election approach- ing, I think it i~ significant that one of our maior political parties, in its party platform, comments on the tobacco and health questions. It says it advocates a positive ap- proach to the ~sue of health and to- bacco. Quote: ~/Ve recommend a co. operative effort in health and tobacco research by government, industry and qualified scientific bodies, to ascertain relationships between human health and tobacco growth, curing, storage and manufacturing .techniques, as well as specific medical aspdcts of tobacco smoke constituents." End of quote. I believe this indicates that an portant segment o~ American public opinion recognizes this is not a closed issue and that more cooperative re- search is necessary. Matter of responsibility I think if the average smoker knew all the so-called scientific evidence against smoking, he would say, ~I don't buy it, I need better proof than that. When you have, real proof, I'll be glad to listen to you! Joseph F. CulIman 3rd, chairman of ~e board of Philip Morea, lae., said: Despi~e the [act that ~ proo~ of a cause and effect rehtianship is still larking, at Phi]ip Morris we accept the respon~ility to the vast and byal TI53810149
Page 148: TI53810150
P~aps no other groap of people knows flie value of ccoporat/on better than tobacco growers. You know how vah~ble eeopera~on can be, for by working together and through yoar ee- operation with the U.S. D~ent of Agrienltureo you have been able to do an outstanding job. Our inchxcay has always stood ¢endy to eeoperate with the government, for only by working together can we be sueeessful. We do not regard the government as an enemy. When people within government make statements about cigarettes and health, they are stating their honest opinions. We have a right to disagree with their opinions, and in some eases we do. This underscores the necessity for cooperative efforts. Only in that way can there be a meeting of the minds and a solution found which wilt be satis- factory to all concerned. Legitimate qu~tion$ In 1954, we reeognlzed that legiti- mate questions existed about smoking and health. Man~aeturers joined with growers and ,~arehousemea and this mutual ecoporatinn led to the establ/sh- ~aent of the Council for Tobacco search-USA. Since then its Independent Sdentifle akdv/sory Board has provided grants amounting to more than 813 mill/on to some 300 se/entists in over 100 'hoso -pitals, universities and research in- stiOations. These grant reeipients are assured Thomas 8. Johnson, 99, dies; owned tobacco wholesale firm ~Icv,~o~qv, vA.-Thomas Barksda]c 'Johnson, 99, owner of the T. B. John- son Tobacco Company, ]daf whole- saler, died here November 18. Mr. Johnson, who founded the Lm- -pe~ial Tobacco Company in South Boston, Va., moved to Richmond in 1915 and ~V~'med his own tobacco company. Surviv~ ere two sons, T. B. John- son, Jr., Durham, N.C., and Evans J. Johnson of Atlanta, Ca.; four daugh- ters. Mrs. Cordon T. Mart/n, Phila- delphia, Pa., Mrs. Bruce Gregory, Sarasota, Fla., and Mrs. William L. Haley and Mrs. Sidney T. Adair Jr., "belch of Richmond, and a sistm', Mrs. M/nnie Atldns of Natalie, Va. Bmial was in Oakridga Ceme~ry, So,ath Boston.--a~.x-. More xeceatly, as yo~ knb~/, my company and 6re others have commit- ted ~e $1~m~on ~ ~e ~ M~ A~affo~s ~u~ffon and ~ F~ for ex~ of ~ re~ ~ smmer, the ~- mi~ of sden~ w~ de~ ~an~ ~m ~e ~h~ akeady ~~ ~a~ the~ ~ a bng h~ ~ad ~ ~aveF in ~b~h~g any of ~e and effect ~lafiom~p toba~ me an~ he~. We have ~v~t~ ~e mi~bm dollam b~e we have ~den~. We do ~ ~ ~e ~r~t o~ dete~ing the sei~e ~ ~d ~ ~nfldence ~at • e ~ ~ not h~n ~e day of d~e. We do so ~ a ~mple~ and moral d~ke ~ ~d ~e ~. 'Unfair' taxation Our own industry has another un- fair burden to bear-heavy and dis- crlminatory taxation. Cigarette smokers in particular are being discriminated aga~. y" t b increasing State and Muni- cipal taxes, It is totally unwarranted and unjust. Cigarette users, by virtue of paying the extra taxat/on, receive no special benefits/n return. Where cigarettes are concerned,expo diency rather tax equity seems to he the rule. This seems to ap- ply to taxing authorities at all levels of government. _Why shouId tobacco, a major agr/- cultural commodity of the nation, carry this staggering burden? When addi- tional revenues are needed, why single out dgarettes and cigarette smokers to carry suoh a large percentage of the tax burden? Despite all the problems x~e thbre /s one fact about tobacco that has been established over the past few years-Amer/cans like to smoke ciga- rettes. That should give us confulence. In 1,9,64, the year of the Surgeon CeneraI s Report, there were 53 brands and styles of cigarettes selling on the American market. Today there are 92 different kinds available. When a manufach~rer markets a new cigarette, ts represents a great deal of planning, investigat/on, testing, and the investment of large amounts of money. The proliferation of cigarette types aud brands is also art indication of con- 6dence we have in the future of our indush7. I believe that the tobacco industry is in a very strong posRion. We have the eon6denee of an overwhdmlng number of Americans and of people throughout the world. People h~ve demonstrated We ~ a I~ d ma~ fi~om pea~ Q~ot~s ~s ~r It~ ~om • c~p~" at a ~ ~dd h~i~ ~ Vi~ N~. Here ~ w~t he ~t~: "Requ~ for yo~ d~t~ ~e ~wa~ r~g ~ o~ e~. Wh~ ~e wo~ded ~k for ci~e~, I ~ we should e~nd eve~ ¢ffo~ for ~e ~ys who have given so much o~ ~ek t~e, and m~y ~ thek body. No matter w~t ~yon~ believ~ of ~s war, they oust ~ to feel eomp~sion for the eff~ on o~ yo~g men, and do what they ~n ~ the n~e of hu- mani~, to heed ~e~ plea for a ~ttle ple~eY I believe that s~ for i~elf. When we ~eak of ~ ~ba~ ~- d~t~, we have to ~elnde m~y ~ople and ~ine~es we may not no~ly eenslder to be a p~ of it. I th~k we have many more alli~ and ~iea~ th~ we believe. A ma~or ~d~t~ ~ the Unit~ Stat~ is the vend~g ~dm~o~-o~rat~ vendhg machine, h I~7 they did more than ~.~b~ion ~ bm~ess. The ~eat~¢ sh~o o~ ~b, one b~lion, g~ m~lion doRars was aeeeunt~ for hy d~rettes. ~ey are. ~v~ting vast amounts of money in new eq~pment. Some of ~e newer vend~g mae~es ~n now a~- eommodato as many ~ 40 ~e~ent br~ of eigare~es. They have ~n- ~deace ~ the futme of o~ ~dm~. Re~il op~ations One of ~e f~t ~ow~g retail o~ratlons ~ ~e UnitedStates ~ ~e convenience store. They ~e the ~1 ~eries ~at are o~n ~rom 7 a.m. ~1 1~ at nighL A study w~ made of the~ sales ~ttem, t~ng ~to con~derafion unit sales, dollar sal~ ~d dolor m~ -~v item ~at ra~ number o~ was ci~rettes[ ~ere are more ~an 15,~ d ~e sto~ in the U~d States and they are ~owing rapidly. In ~e ~t s~ yearn they enjoyed a 6~.8 ~r cent ~cre~e ~ cigarette sal~. ~ 1~, ~ s~v of toba~ p~uc~ ~ appro~a~ly $2~-mil~on. ~ey have ~d~ in &e future of our ind~. The s~e ~ttem ~ ~ m~rd to • e su~a~k~. ~e Latest ~ avai~ble show there am 32,7~ ~per- marke~ doing an ~nual vol~v of $50.5-bil~on. C~mt~ s~ f~r~p~a~y ~.~b~ of that. TI53810150
Page 149: TI53810151
ag;a~ ~e ,.ve~-~n~ of anym~e. I be.. lleve they ~re as x~pcnsible as anyune else. • Assistance welcomed The pattern of growth in our in- dustry" and the success we enjoy also brings with it a greater sef~e of re- sponsibility. We are aware of this re- sponsihility and accept it. We are con- tinual]y working to improve our prod- uets in every way. We welcome con- stmctive assistance from all sources-- goverm~ent as well as private. There is no reason to believe that with our cal~clty for sc~enti~e an~I technologi- cal innovation we cannot continue to make progress. Smokers ihroughout the world know the integrity and quality of American cigarettes. We have grown, manu- factured and sold products of the high- est quality since the beginning of our industry. We have spent many years building our reputation. The quality of tobacco we ~o'w" ~ t]~ countz7 enjoys a high reputation everywhere. ' The Good Lord in his infinite wisdom saw fit to create here, in the United States, a unique combination of soil, climate and intelligent population. These factors combine to l~reduce baccos Sat have not yet ]3een dupli- cated anywhere in the I believe that the outcome of this controversy will result in benefits for all parties concerned with this issue. Through continuing efforts in scientific investigation we are ]earning more about tobacco and Eltration than the world has ever known,. An unprece- dented number of scientist institutions and individuals are now involved in this question. The tobacco industry heartily sup- ports this effort. We are anxious that every shred of evidence or alleged evidence be investigated to the fullest. F'alth in results At ~hilip Morr~ oer p~ition long been ~lear. We ha~e faith in the zesultz that will come from thee e~orts. You have heard report~ about c]ining sales in the cig~zrette industry. We estimate at this time, that domestic sales for 1968 ~ be approximately equal to those of lass year. Even though my own company some n.~e per ce~t ahead of our of a year ag~, all of us are naturally concerned. The industry is not moving G. SAR( ,ENT'S SONS CORPORATION BULK Blending Storage FEEDERS by SRRGEnT ~ASSIVE, and of rugged construction, the SARGENT Bulk Blending Storage Feeder is especially designed to hold, tumble and blend five to six hogsheads of leaf, bundles or strip in one cycle. The feeder delivers a constant volume of 12,000 lbs. per hour uniformly blended. The bottom 8 ft. x 10 ft. area is an extra heavy duty conveyor designed to absorb the impact of half- hogshead chunks of prized tobac- co dropped from a substantial height. The s~ructural steel- pinned elevating conveyor de- livers at a height of 10 :tt., or as required, above floor level Equipped with variable speed conveyor drives, the adjustment o:t :teed rates and blends ia easily controlled. Whatever your special :teed equipment requirements may be, SARGENT creative design and advanced engineering will meet them :tully. Inquiries are invited. TI53810151
Page 150: TI53810152
must remember, howev~,-these ~these gur~ do not include more than one m~ American servicemen stationed over- try is a relatively mature industry-we ¢~a~ot always expect the pereapita sumpfion of cigarettes to enntinue to increase at the same rate. Some years ago we determined hhat great growth opportunRy exisLs in in- temational sa|es--in the rest of the world where peopl,.~ want American cigarettes but haven t always be~n able to affo~d them. Today, with increasing a~uen~o around th~ world, they able to buy them. It is encouraging to note that the ex- port of American cigarettes in 1968 is up approximately two billion unRs over last year. This amounts to an increase of 8.8 per cent. These figures should give us confidence, because they viously rettect international demand for our products. Concern for people You and I know the people in the tobacen industry. We seek no profit at the expense of, or detriment to, our fellow citizens. We yield to no one in our concern with the welfare of the American people. In summing up, the three key_words are care-cooperation-and eonfu~nco. We ask the exerelse of reasonable USDA announces loan rates for cigar-type tobaccos w.~smz~oToz% D.C.--Price s~port rate s~es for ~ 1968 ~op cigar ~ of rebec have .~n n~ by ~e U.S. Dep~¢n~ of v~s includ~ are Conn~t ~ B~f (T~ 51), C~- n~t V~ Ha~a S~ (T~ 52), N~ York znd Pe~sylv~a Havana S~ (T~o 53), sou~em W~nsln (T~ ~), n~em ~n (~e 55), Ohio filler (T~ 4~-~), ~d Pu~o ~ (T~e 4~). ~ sta~ ~ ~e ~oun~ment Fvb~ 14, ~e ~n hve~ ~r cig~ blnd~ (T~ 5~ and 52) av~agv US$.~ ~r ~nd, for ~g~ fi~r and b~der (T~ 4~ and 5~) ~ ave~e US$.317 ~nd, ~d ~r Fue~ ~ (T~ 46) ~ U~.~ ~n~ ~ ~d. ~ o~ ~ se~n. c~r~ from those in a position to in- auene~ Fabl~ ~- ~ ~ ~~t ~d a~ o~er ~%le ag~ who ~ ~fio~ly h~& chugs. We wo~d ~v more ido~a~on to be ~ve~. Only in • at way can we have ~e ne~ed Let m not find a ~vemment ~wer." Let m not ~d ~ We can ~en, aR d ~, look ward ~ ~e furore ~ ren~ ~n- ~s ~s s~ ~ on Nov~ber 21, 1~66, I made ~e ~ment: '~e Toba~o Ass~iates have been ta~g East-W~t ~ado ~ toba~o for mo~ thin ~o years, ~d now we are mea~omly eneourag~ by the Fr~i- dents statement 1~ month that &e A~is~ation wo~d pr~ fer legal an~ori~ to negotiate ~ade a~eements which co~d extend Mo~ Favor~ Na- tion t~ ~ent to Emo~ Com- ~ust over ~o mon~ ago, on Aunt 21, ~& ~e inv~ion of Czeohoslova~a • e pro~ess that hod been made so slowly and pa~f~y-tho conclusion ~ ~ns~ar ~ea~ ~th R~s~; &e tablis~ent of a~ so,ices to ~d from Moscow; ~e ~sc~sions be~a Wash- ~on ~d ~e ~eml~ ho~g to ~o coned o~ nuclear weapon~aR but v~ish~ in the ~g of eye. A magaz~e spee~iz~g ~ ~ter- na~on~ ~s ve~ aptly put it way ~ substance ~ i~ October issue: ~s~ial note '~at the ~ussi~ t~ ~ash~ do~ don't ma~er much ~onomlcaRy as f~ ~ the present ~ eoneem~ ca~e o~ sales to the once Soviet BI~ la~ ~e~ were le~ th~ $200 mil- lion out of ff~d total ~o~ of mo~ th~ $30 billion. "~at d~s matter ~ ~at ~e t~ks haw ~h~ the pr~ent ~t and fu~ ho~ which ~ of E~t-W~t ~nomie ~d ~mme~ or~i~ons ~d built up ~ th~ d~ of St~: a We~ ~an edor talesmen ~stem for ~a~e; a B~t~h nud~r rehash rea~or £or Remain; ~erie~ ~baeeo me~s ho~ of se~ng ~ C~m~t E~pe. ~1 thas~ and m~y oth~ th~ haw gone." I think it is both interesting and signi~t that the article ~eally mentions tobacco. In doing ~o it rec- ognizes and takes into account the activities of Tobacco Associates in Leipsig; of oar leaf exporters who have maintained contacts beyond the Cur- rain; and of our domestic manufacturers who supply certain quantities of ciga- rettes to socialist nations. Hope to do business From m~y own personal knowl~dge, I can confirm the aspirations of Central European Socialist countries to do busi- ness with the West. It is because I had the honor of serving on an Agricultural Trade Mission to those countries last June. The mission went at the request of Secretary Freeman to explore the sibflities, to take a realistic look at just what the chances were of moving our agricultural products in volume to those areas--not in the immediate future, but over the long pull. We visitdi l~oland, Htmgary, mania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, We called on Ministries of Commerce, Agriculture and Banking as well as on the State Trading Agencies. I am sure you all know that thee trading agenoies are simply govern- ment monopolies, and generally speak- ing, art agency will control groups of similar commodities, as, for example, textiles in one, eeresls and feed grains in another, and so. In these visits, the warmth with which we were received, and the courtesies extended to us, went far beyond the requirements of merely correct protocol. Chafing; at bit We found serious men, chafing at the bit for expanded trade with the West; businessmen who enuld not openly criticize the fact that so much of their trade was with the Soviet Union, but who could, and did pointed- ly call attention to it, leaving it to us to draw our own conclusions. What they had in mind, and what their opposites in the West had in mind -what both had been dreaming about since Stalin's death was the vast tential for two-way commerce. In turn for what they eonld deliver, the West would send back a vast array of sophisticated consumer gonds which they cannot get from Russi~ in the right volume, q~ah'ty, and l~iee until seane far off future date. $s~-:tOI.K~O--The ln~'nati~nal IFoeldy TI5381015;
Page 151: TI53810153
WILSON TOBACCO CO MPANY wILSON, N. C., u. s. BUYERS-PACKERS-DBALERS-BXPORTERS All Grades and Types Leaf, Sh:ips, and Scraps C~ble Addmm ~flLTO~AC" WILSON, N.C. ALL CODES USED AS of today, and because of vasion, ~e poss~ility of obtaining th,,ese products from us is remote. I say as of today" advlsely. Change is the most certain thin~ in this life, and once set in motion, there is no permanent stop- ping or turning back. I am firmly per- suaded that while the brakes may be locked now, the wheels that had begun to turn behind the Curtain will be loosed sooner than the actual situatioi~ would warrant one to believe. As and when they are loosened over there, several issues will have to be re- solved by the United States for any real progress to ensue. There are three major ones. • The Viet Nam War will have to be settled. However just our cause may be, the fact remains that all Socialist Coun- tries (and indeed many Capitalist ones also) op~os'e our presence there. It is stumbling block of the first magnitude to any political and commercial progress. • The stigma on products originat- ing in Socialist Nations will have to be removed. Witness, for example, the hue and cry raised against the few million pounds of Oriental tobacco that domes- tic manufacturers take from Yugoslavia. The same may be said of Polish hams. In many cases, people opposed to any and everything from behind the Curtain have gone into supermarkets with ice picks and puncheffholes/n tins of im- ported Polish meats. • An East-West Trade Bill men- tioned at the outset will have to be en- acted by the Congress which would pmvlde among other things for what is known as Most Favored Treatment to Bloc countries. Ov_ly Poland and Yugo- slavia enjoy it today. Tobacco as example Taking tobacco as an example, that from Creece comes in this country at about 1~.½ cents a pound duty because Greece has :v~ status. Bulgaria to- bacco, by comparison, would be char ed under .the old Smoot-Hawle sch~ule of nearly three times thaY~ figure. And so it goes over the entire range of products, making .trade be- tween us all but impossible. But even as it is under present cir- cumstances, we still manage to sell to- bacco to those countries. East Cermany has bought about two million pounds of flue-cured this year, and Poland something over a million flue-cured and hurley. Czechoslovakia has been buying our ~obacco through third coun- tries under barter arrangements, while Hungary is investigating the possibility of manufacturing American brands under license. It all leads to one central fact, that the demand is there ff ways and means can be found to meet it. In bloc coun- tries, excluding the Soviet Union, there are 1~5 million people, many of whom are potential users of American tobacco. I cannot reX'raln from making the ob- servation that if we can get it to them, ~ don't think their governments will try to prevent its ~age. From my observa- tions, they don t indulge in the stupid luxury of paying eggheads in the,:~r counterparts of .the Surgeon Cenera~s office and the ~w office to play silly numbers games. Unmcplored ground ~ I have dwelt at length on Eas~- West relations, it is because the bloc area is in reality frontier eountry for American-type cigarettes. When the genuine ~ticle itse~ is b~th legally ~r~ported, as well as smug- gled acress horde~: when the same happens with versions of it from Switz- erland, Austria and West Germany. and people ar~ willing to pay up to $1.~0 a pack ~or them, I think you mu~t agree that under reasonable trading condi- tioos, annual sales of 50 to 75 millions pounds of lea~ would be well within the ~eulm o~ prebahle, not merely the Possible. ~ TI53810153
Page 152: TI53810154
cas ngana and Impedal PruneJ Tobacco -Casing :liquids They are perfect bases for aromatic oils fine top dressings. 204--25TH STREET, ~ROOKLYN, NEW YORK REGISTERED CODE ADDRESS--LATAKL~, N.L%V YORK PEOPLE IN THE ~ ;~ Henry G. Walter, ~r., lxesident ot Int~atioml W~ ~ h~ e~ a ~ p~ent " ing ~c~ons. Mr. W~dv ~oin~ ~r l~t~ O~ober 21. He w~ ~mly wi~ Afl~ Che~ ~d~m, ~e. He ~adua~ Horn ~rdue Univ~W ~ 1956~ and ~o y~rs later rec~v~ a de~ee Horn • e Ha~a~ Graduate Sch~l o[ B~in~s A~i~tra~on. ~ Wa~e L. Graves h~ been ap~ted a dillon man- ager by Consolidated Cig~ Co~ation for the State of Ohio ac~rd~g to an announcement Horn R. L. Bo~hardt, ~ce pr~ident in charge of the Midwest Southern re,on. He succ~ ~ this p~i~on Earl R. Gust, who r~enfl~r~ t~ed after 16 ye~s of semite with ~e company. Mr, Graves joined Consolidat~ Ci~ ~ a factoW m~siona~ ~ 1959. ~ Appo~t ~ ~v~ion managers of Ra~ond L. Hughes ~ Jackson, Miss., Joseph R. Selich ~ Dover, Del., and Bobe~ B. Stiegele ~ Pate~n, N.J., have been an- nounced by J. ~ O'Connor, director of ~les, Liggett and Myers, Inc. Mr. Hughes jo~ the fi~ ~ 19~ as a sales representative ~ Natche~ M~s., after attend~g M~ ridian (M~s.) Junior College. Mr. Selich, who joined the comply in 1957 ~ a sal~man in Johnston, Pa., attended St. Franc~ CoHege ~ Latrobe, Pa. ~ The Bro~ and Wflliamson Tobacco Corporation has a~o~ced ~e promo~on of Robert E. Kiser to m~ager of its Des Mo~ sales ~sion, suc~ed~gWilliam F. D~er, manager of the die,ion s~ee 1951, who is feting ~der &e company~ pension pro~am. Mr. ~er ~oined ~w in 1959 ~ a retail sale~an ~ Spfin~dd, Mo. He was ~ans- ferred to Jefferson Ci~, Mo., in 1960 and in 1962 retched to Sp~n~eld. He w~ promot~ to ~s~tant manager of the companfs St. Lo~s sa]~ di~slon ~ 1967. A native of Sprin~eld, he aRended Sout~w~t Misso~i State College.. ~ Bobe~ J. Keat~g, execute vice pr~ident of the Pardi Cigar Co~., has anno~ the appoin~t of Pl~ido J. D~flippo as a~istant sales manager of the Black- stone Cigar division. Mr. DiFflippo ~o~ed Yaro~ ~ 1966 as a sales represen.ta~ve for the Bh~e Island and Southern Massaeh~etts are~. Previo~ly he had b~n a division m~ager for the Philip Mo~ Co. He is a ffaduate of B~ant College. ~ Funer~se~,ices for Walter E. Gladstone, 75, a retired super~tendent for the ~. J. Re~d& Tobacco Company, were held November 18 at W~ston-Salem, N.C. He was in charge of the foil division at W~ston-Salem when he retked ~ 1958 after 48 years with the comply. ~ ~ B. Dace, Sr., a retir~ cigar manufacture~', di~ of pne~on/a at a Mflwa~ee, Wis., hospit~ on No- vember 7. He had operated the ~ Ci~r Company in Mil- waukee for 45 years. He ~ s~ived by his ~dow, a ter and ~o sons. ~ The a~ent of Jo~ F. Com~h ~ ~ee p~si- dent, Marketing, of Bayl~ ~d~ R~lle, N.J., anno~e~ by Guy C. Be~e, pr~ident. In his new position Mr. Comfo~h ~11 be responsible ~or the ~duetion of n~ l~es ana the developer of new ~ for Smokador produc~. He a~o will retain ~- ~utive res~b~ for the ~tite of fol~ng ~ t~l~ ~d cha~, a Baylis ~on and ~ ~t~ ~ be a~ ~ in ~e ~dina~on ~d ~ion ot "1"153810154
Page 153: TI53810155
~2~, 1968 W. ~ ~'~o~ (Chtirman) North Carolina State University D. F. Matzinger" North Carolina State University R/chard Thurston University of Kentucky T. B. Hutcheson, Jr. Virginia Polytechnic Institute Robert R. Johnson Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. W. H. Johnson North Carolina State University " Louis Ouin Duke University Robert Seligman Philip Morris, inc. A. W. Spears P. I.oriilard, inc. G. W. Stokes University of Kentucky Gordon S. Taylor Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station IOBACCO ~CIENCE COLIHCIL T. A. 8ertlnuson Cigar Manufacturers' Association Research Committee W. (3. Waltz P. N. W~n, Jr. Tobacco Workers Conference C. F. Woodward Tobacco Chemists' Research Conference AOMINISTRATIVE ~BVISOR E. L Moore U.S. Department of Agriculture How to submit manuscripts for publication in Tobacco Science Submla=lon of manuserlpts for publication In Tobacco Science: • • Author,s. dealrl._ng publication of their forw_~rd.t_h.olr manuscripts In duplicate to.- up. w. G. Waltz, Chairman, Editorial . Baird, 426 Williams Hall, No~th ~a~ollna 8tats University, P.O. Box -h Raleigh, North Carolln~. 27607. ¢; arts. tables, photographs, etc., a=company|n0 the n~tnuwipt should be _ ._ caPUoned by the author. EP~P~m¢. detailed Instructions for the preparation of manuscripts may be found In ~.__B.AGCO _V~. I~, No. ~, pp. 14-~5 (.ooa¢¢o ~¢lerlce VIII, pp. December 25. While aN due care and diligenco will be eXll~lllld in the handling of manueorlptl and acc~mFanylog m~¢erial, neither TOBACCO. Tobacco Science nor members of the Editorial Board nor Tobacco • ¢|ence Council may be held responsible for their 1011. The Views and conClUsions contained In the artloloa appearing in Tobac¢~ ~¢|ence re~resen~ the views of, or the result of the research and experience of the mt~nentS in such artlc~ or the anu~Jptl not I)t~bli~hed w~ll ~etur~d to ~B auth,. TOBACCO S, CIENCE-/r Tobacco Science XII, pp. 226-228--TOBACCO Vol. 167, No. 22, pp. 58-~:) Tim and site of nicotine conversion in tobacco F-/L WERNSMAN and D. F. MAIZINGER, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C. (U.S.A.) Conversion of nicotine to nornicotine was studied in green and air-cured leaves of reciprocally grafted plants of nonconvertin8 SC58, and three con- vetoer genotypes (Cherry Red 401 and two tobacco breeding lines containing converter alleles from N. tomentosiforrnls and N. sylvestds respectively). The primary site of nicotine conversion in all converter flenotypes was the leaf. However, the converter gene from N. tomentosiformis causes nicotine to be converted to norn|cotine prior to curing, while conversion occurred during curing in leaves with converter alleles from Cherry Red 401 or N. sylvestris. The Cherry Red 401 and N. sylvestds converter genotypes were quantitatively equal to the N. tomentosiformis converter in total nico- tine converted when leaves were air-cured. Ti53810155
Page 154: TI53810156
Time and Site of Nicoti,n:e Conversion in Tobacco By E. A. Wernsman and D. F. Ma~zlnger~ The primary alkaloid in cured leaves of commercial tobacco, Nico- ~ian~ t~b~c~m L., is nicotine. In the contemporary versions of the pro- genitor species of tobacco, N. sy~es- ~s Speg. et Com. and ~V. formis Goodsp. (4,5), nornicotine, rather than nicotine is the principal alkaloid (8,16). Occasional plants in commercial tobacco varieties are ob- served which contain high amounts of nornicotine. These aberrant plants differ from their normal counterparts by a single dominant gene (1,6,12,- 20). In flue-cured tobacco this high nornicotine content is closely associ- ated with a dappled-red leaf dis- coloration; this discoloration has been termed cherry red (19,20). It is well established that both pro- genitor species of tobacco possess a single gene pair which is responsible for the conversion of nicotine to nor- nicotine (11,12). Mann e~ a/. (12) have shown that the locus controlling nicotine conversion in eleven differ- ent sources of N. ~ab~cgm co~wertexs was homologous to the conversion locus in N. Nicotine is synthesized in the roots of tobacco and translocated to the leaves (3). As yet, the pre- cursors of nicotine are not complete- ly defined. Tso (18) and Ladesic and Tso (10) have suggested that nornic- otine may be synthesized in the bacco root and serve as a precursor of nicotine. Mizusaki et aZ. (15) con- eluded that nornicotine is not a pre- cursor of nicotine, but they have shown (14) that the conversion nicotine to nornicotine can occur in the roots of iV. rustic~z. Nicotine conversion occurs during curing in tobacco varieties with the converter allele from N. t~b~um and breeding lines containing the con- verter allele from N. syI~es~ris (6,7,- 9,13,17). However Terrill (17) found that genetic stocks possessing the converter allele from N. form,s contained very high propor- tions of nornicotine in "quick-dried" leaves and the level did not change during curing. He concluded that the converter genes from N. and N. sylvestrls differed from the N. ~ome~tos~form~s gene in quantita- tive degree of nicotine conversion. In the present investigation a ciprocal grafting technique and two curing systems were utilized to com- pare the site, time, and quantitative capacity for nicotine conversion in tobacco genotypes containing con- verter genes from iV. t~bacum, syl~e~t~'is, and N. tomentos~formis. six inches tall, reciprocal grafts of scions and stocks of each of the three converters were made with non° converter ~C58. Twelve gra~ts of each combination were made in 1966 and again in 196"L The plants were transplanted to the field six weeks after grafting and were staked to prevent breakage at the graft union. The scions were topped at 12 leaves, and the top three leaves of each grafted plant were harvested as these leaves reached maturity. The lamina of one-half of each of the three leaves was placed in a plastic bag and packed in ice in the field. These green laminae were returned to the laboratory and immediately dried in an oven at 150°C. Here- after, these samples are referred to as green samples. The remaining half-leaf samples were air-cured at 29°C. until the leaves were dry. The green and air-cured samples were ground and analyzed for nico- and Me#hods ...... fine, nornicotine, and total alkaloid Three converter breeding lines 402-T, 402-S, and Cherry Red 401 (CR401), and the nonconverter flue- cured variety SC58 (c~rt~ c~tb~) were utilized in the investigation. 402-T and'402-S are breeding lines of N. ~abacum developed by Mann e~ (12) by the interspecific transfer of the converter alleles C~u~ and Cs"~ from N. tmn~nto~ifo~m~ and N. wst~is respectively to the variety 402. These breeding lines are not iso- genie, however. CR40I is a homozy-- gous converter (C~t~ CTt~) devel- oped by selfing individual cherry red mutants in the variety 401. The SC58 plants were sel~-progenies of an individual plant in this variety known to be a nonconverter. Seeds of each genot~pe were planted in eight-inch clay pots and in- dividual plants were transplanted to six-inch pots when the seedffngs were two inches tall. When the plants were content by the metho¢~ of Cundiff and Markunas (2). Results ~nd Discussion Mean values of the green and air- cured samples for nicotine, nornico- tine, and total alkaloids for each type of graft are given in Table 1. Chem- ical analyses of the green vs. air- cured samples in CR401/SC58 and 402-8/CS58 (scion/stock) gra~ts substantiate previous reports that nicotine conversion occurs primarily during curing (6,7,9,13,17). The pro- portion of total alkaloids represented by nicotine in the gree~ samples of CR401/SC58 and 402-S/SC58 as compared to the check (SC58/SC58), indicates that a small amount o~ nico- tine had been converted to nornico- fine prior to the inactivation of the enzymatic system of the le~ tissue. Since nicotine conversion is a phe- ~enon of senescence £n these geno- TI5.'3810156
Page 155: TI53810157
SC58/402-S 402-S/SC58 SC58/402-T 402-T/SC58 SC58/CR401 CR401/SC58 % N~cofirm % T.A. as N~ ~ ~ ~en Cure~ ~reen Cure~ ~en 3.14 6.05 0.09 0.30 3.~ 6.37 96.9 95.3 1.64 3.14 0.08 0.27 1.72 3.41 95.3 92.1 2.87 1.13 0.58 2.16 3.50 3.58 ~.1 31.5 3.01 3.40 0.24 0.42 3.29 4A5 91.7 88.7 1.28 1.67 2.32 2.85 3.92 4.13 32.7 27.6 3.76 4.60 0.26 0.26 4.08 4.88 92.9 93.7 2.53 1.05 0.73 2.25 3.32 3.87 79.9 28.7 types, it is proposed that the "degree of ripeness" at the time of harvest could have a pronounced effect on the degree of nicotine conversion in these genotypes. Analyses of green leaf samples of the 402-T/SC58 grafts showed that appreciable quan- tities of nm~icotine were present in these samples, and that the propor- tion of total alkaloids represented by nicotine decreased only slightly after air-curing. The proportions of total alkaloids represented by nicotine in the green and air-cured samples of SC58/402-S, SC58/402-T, and SC58/CR401 were slightly lower than the control. In a previous study chemical analysis of tomato scions grown on 402-T stocks revealed the primary alkaloid to be nicotine (unpublished). The possibility that appreciable quanti- ties of nornicotine could be translo- cared from the roots of 402-T and methylated in the leaves of SC58 to produce nicotine is considered to be of little significance. Thus nicotine conversion in genotypes conta/ning the dominant converter allele from N. ~omentor~formis is also a leaf phenomenon. The exact time of nico- tine conversion i~ the N. tome~tosi- form,s converter cannot be precisely defined in the present study. How- ever, it occurs sometime after nico- tine is translocated to the leaves, but prior to the temperature inactivation of the enzymati~ system in the green leaf samples at 150°C. When leaves from scions of 402-S, 402-T, and CR401 were air-cured, the mean proportions of total alkaloids represented by nicotine were 31.5, 27.6, and 28.7% respectively. An alysis of variance revealed these dif- ferences to be nonsignificant. Terrill (17) ha~ l~vie~sly sho~m that the C~"~ and Cs'~ genes produced simi- lar effects in their quantitative de- gree of nicotine conversion, but neither was as effective as the allele. However, his material was sub- jeered to flue-curing. Results of the present investigation indicate that the Ca~l and C~lbe genes differ from C~ttr in time of conversion, but when subjected to air.curing, the former were equally as efficient as the latter in nicotine conversion. The time of nicotine conversion in plants possessing the Cr~r gene raises a number of interesting ques- tions concerning the origin of tobac- co, and its use by man. Recent genetic studies indicate that tobacco probably arose from the hybridiza- tion of two species similar-to-pres- ent-day forms of N. syl#estr~s and N. tom~n~os~formis (4). At the time of origin, the ~mphidiploid, N. b~cum, would have been expected to be homozygous at the two nicotine conversion loci (C~ Cs~), and leaves from such plants would have had high levels of nor- nicotine. Man has shown a preference for those species of N~cotiana which con- taiu nicotine rather than nornico- tine. Primative man could have mini- mized the effect of the Cs"~z gene on nicotine conversion by utilizing to- bacco as a green-leaf product, or by rapidly ~drying the leaf with heat treatments as suggested by Gerstel (4). However, present results indi- cate that nicotine conversion proba- bly occurs in the green leaf of geno- types containing the CTtf~ allele and heat or drying systems designed to eliminate the effect of this gene may have been futile. If Iv'. tomen~osi- formis were the donor of the To- mentosae genome in 27. ~b~cum, it appears doubtful that man would have utilized tobacco prior to the mutation of the dominant converter allele (C~t~) to the recessive non- converting state. Once this event had occurred, the effect of the could easily be overcome. N. otaphor~ and N. eomen~osa are also considered possible donors of the Tomentosae genome in N. taba~.um. These species:also possess dominant alleles for hicotine conversion, but it is not known if the time of action of the alleles in these species is the same as the allele in N. $omentosi- formis, Summary The site and time of nicotine con- version to nornicotine was studied in green and air-cured leaves from re- ciprocally grafted plants of noncon- verter SC58, Cherry Red 401, and two tobacco bresding lines contain- ing the converter genes from/V, syl- vesfris and N. ~omvn~osiformis re- spectively. Green and air-cured leaves from nonconverter SC58 scions grafted on stocks containing the N. ~omento~formis converter allele con- tained very low leve/s of nornicotine. Thus appreciable quantities of nor- nicotine are not transloc~ted from the roots of genotypes containing the N. tomentos~formi~ allele. Analyses of leaves from scions containing the N. ~omem~os~formis allele grafted on nonconverter SG58 root stocks re- vealed that nicotine conversion had occurred prior to the inactivation of the enzymatic system at 150°C. in fresh green leaves. Nicotine conver- sion in plants with the converter alleles from Cherry Red 40I or N. rylves~ris occurred in the leaves also, but at a later stage of senescence. Air-cured leaves of genotypes homozygous for the CP, A01, N. to- msn~o~iformfs, or N. ~ylv~s~rfs con- verter alleles produced the same end phenotype, with regard to the quan- titative degree of ~cotine conversion. Uferature Cited 1. Burk, L. G., and R. N. Jeffrey, A TI53810157
Page 156: TI53810158
~, De~~ o~ n~ne, ~o~ic~n~ ~d ~ a~alo~ in 3. Damon, ~ ~., ~umula~ion of n~ne in ~ip~l gr~ o~ ~ma~ ~d ~b~. Amer. ~o~. 29:6~7L ~9~. ~n o~ ~o~cco. ~ob. Sc£ 5:15-17. ~96L 5. G~s~d, T. ~., "The Genus ica Bo~nica, ~al£ham, Ma~. 1954. J~he~it~nce s~d p~et~c~ t~o~ o£ ~coti~e ~ ~ocnicot~ne co~ve~on ~n tobacco. ~c~c¢ I~1 :~d~-~4. 1955. relat~ m~riah. P~n~ 40:45~8. ~965. 8. Jeffrey, R. N., Alkaloid composi- Sd. S-.SS-gS. 19S9. 9.~, G. ~ C~~ ~ N~~ ~ T~. D~ ~ ~:~. 19~. 10. ~4~, B., ~d T. C. T~ B~ chem~al stu~ on ~ac~ aLka- loids. VI. Bios~th~ of nicotine ~ugh norn~tine. Phy~hem. 3:541~45. 1964. 11. Na~, T. ~., ~d ~. ~. Weybrew, Inhe~ o£ al~loi~ in brids be~ flu~ur~ ~bacco and re]a~ ~mphidiploids. ~ob. SoL 2:29-34. 1958. 12. ~Iann, T. J., J. A. Weyb~w, D. F. ~Iatzinger, and ~. L. ~1, heritance o£ the ~nve~sion o~ nicotine to no, nicotine in varie- ties o£ N~o~ ~b~m L. and re~d amphidipIoids. Crop euc~ 4:349-353. 1964. 13. ~erker, J., On ~e nic~tine-no~ nicotine conversion and the alka- loid level in leaves o£ t~b~m L. HL ~nfluence maturity and curing. Dresde~ 1~. Tabfo~sch. Ber. 12 (2) :117- 137. 1965. ~rom Tob. 10:5~9 (2002)]. 1966. 14. ~izusaki, S., T. Kisa~, ~a~ Tamaki, Trans~o~tion o~ Tamaki, Phytoch~'c~i studies on the tobacco alkaloids. Part IX. Question of nornicotine as a pre- cursor of nicotine. Agric. Biol. C~m. 29:719-723. 1966. 16. Smith, H. H., and C. 1~ Smith, Alkalpids in certain species and interspecifie hybrids o£ Nico- tine..[our. Agric. Res. 65:347° • 359. 1942. 17. Ten'ill, T. R., Alkaloid conversion in tobacco. Fh.D. Thesis. North Carolina State University (Libr. Congr. Card No. ]~ic. 65-8971) 110p. Univ. Microfilms. Ann Arbor, mich. (Diss. Abstr. 26: 605). 1965. 18. Tso, T. C., Nornicotine as a pre- cursor of nicotine in Ni¢otian~ plants. Bo~. B~L Ac~demi~ ica. 4:75-80. 1963. 19. Wada, E., Conversion of nicotine to nornicotine in cherry-red to- bacco during curing. Tob. 8cl. 1:118-119. 1957. 20. Weybrew, J. A., T. J. Mann, and E. L. Moore, Nicotine conversion and cherry-redness. Tob. 4:190-193. 1960. TI53810158
Page 157: TI53810159
Now Av-~! Tobacco Science Volume XI- 1967 Volume XI in the continuing series of research volumes is now available. Included in the volume are all of the research papers which appeared in the "Tobacco Science" section of TOBACCO during 1967. The volume is fully indexed by the subject of each paper and author. Cost of Volume XI is $10.00. We have a limited Supply of all previous volumes except No, IV. Order missing volumes now while the supply lasts. TOBAC SCIENCE YEARBOOK SS1 ~ Avenue I New York, N. Y. 10017, U.S.A. TI53810159
Page 158: TI53810160
---
Page 159: TI53810161
MONK-HENDERSON TOBACCO CO., C~b~: "MOHENCO" T~k,¢ ST?43g 0UALITY Li6f, Strips, Scr.ps. Stems Ample Redwing & $~orage Fa¢|lit;~s World Snppflers of Leaf Tobacco. 131 Ea~ Third S~'reet WENDELL, N. C., U. S. A. 27S91 UNIFORMITY Order or Conflict CABLE ADDRESS Sk, IOKE-KINSTON BUYERS REDRYERS PACKERS 'ToBA,CCO Three Proctor And Schwartz Redrying Machines N Modern Stemming Facilities DALLY CAPACITY 600,00D POUNDS All Grades Leaf Tobacco Domestic and Export Trade KINSTON, N. C., U.S.A. | (;ABLE LOUISVILLE. KY. BALTIMORE. WILSONo N. O. A. II. C. ImBr~v~d Fifth (dltlomo BentleY's Phrase Cede W~storn Union Code Acme ~do EDWARD J. O'BRIEN CO. L,~F ~OB~CCO MAIN OFFICE, 815-817 WEST MAIN ST., LOUISVILLE, KY. Zarlng MHI Road, Shdbyv;lle, Ky., ~01 Goldsboro S~., ~;l~., N. C 210 E~ R~ S~ Baltimo~, Me 21~2 ~URLEY. Air-cured, G~en ~ver, Da~ ~red, Ma~nd. Vi~inia and Ca~li. Toba~o TI5381016
Page 160: TI53810162
" IBEX HOUSE, MINORIES, LONDON, E.O.3. Cable~ S~em~en, London, ~.C~. Siemssen Maunder |Pvf.) Ltd., Salisbury, Rhodesia. Tobacco Handlers, Ltd., L|mbe, MalawL Zambian Tobacco Handlers, Lfd., Lusaka, Zam~|a, George S. Ladas ~ Son Ltd., Famagus÷a, Cyprus. Siemssen Maunder IOverseasl Ltd., London. 1 TI5381016:

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size: