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Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interactions - A Review of the Medical Literature, 1882 to 1982

Date: 05 Oct 1983
Length: 503 pages
2062774448-2062774949
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  1. PM doc from 1983 reviewing lit on syn.

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Comments: author and recipient from GEPRIV; date from GEPRIV 1/10/83 but latest date from text (Bates # 2062774765) is 10/5/83

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pages numbers sequential with geographical indexes inserted between sections
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TobDocs1
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Sirridge, P.M.
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Aviado, D.M.
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www.house.gov./commerce/TobaccoDocs/documents.html - Bliley/Commerce Committee site - set of 39,000

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Page 1: 00040435
ASBESTOS/CIGARETTE SMOKING INTERACTIONS A Review of the Medical Li.terature, 1882 to 1982 [400] [ 500 ] [600] [700] [800] [ 900 ] B IBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY CATEGORY INDEX AUTHOR INDEX GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX
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Asbestos/S~king Interactions [January 10, 1983] [000] [010] [020] (030] [,040] [050] [060] (070] [080] [090] SCOPE OF LITERATURE REVIEW Purpose.of Report 5 Asbestos Literature Sources 5 Research Techniques Used by Proponents of Asbestos/Smokln~ Interaction 7 Regea~ch T=chni~s..U3ed b~ Non-Proponents Geo~raphlcal Codln~ of Proponents and Non-Proponent~ 9 Preparation of Bibllq~raph~ I0 Preparation of Supplemental Bibliography 11 Textual and Tabular Summary ~f Asbestos Research ii Future Reports 12 Bibliography: None Page 2 .... ~', ~ f~
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! ASBESTOS/CIGARETTE SMOKING INTERACTIONS Review of the M~d£cal Literature, 1882 to 1982 Part One: Genesis of Asbestos/Smoklng Interaction Hypothesis [000 ] Scope of literature review " [I00 ] Animal experiments [200 ] Human pathology and in vitro studies [300] Eplde~iologlc studies on ~ortallty pattern of asbestos workers Part, T~:~ %sbestos-.~soc~.a~ed Diseases [400] Malignant mesoth~llomas and pleural diseases [500 Bronchial carcinoma and extrapulmonary malignancies [ 600 ]Pulmonary asbestosis Part Three: Asbestos Dust Exposure [700] Occupational exposure to asbestos [800] Environmental exposure to asbestos [900] Governmental regulat.ions and miscellaneous topics Part Four: Bibliographies and Indices Numerical bibliography Additional bibliography Supplemental bibliography Category subject index Author index Geographical index 2 105 175 261 Revised January 31, 1983
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Asbes~os/Smok£ng Interactions [January lO, 1983] Page 3 [000] SCOPE OF LITERATURE REVIEW It is implied in the. title that the literature on asbestos/cigarette smoking interaction spans a century. The year 1882 ~arked the commezcial exploitation of asbestos m~ning in Canada and the conception by an American (Mattlson) to subs- titute asbestos for hemp in insulating ~agnesla. Also in 1882, an issue of the Scientific Amerlcan had feature~ asbestos as its cover story and the United States Army Surgeon General had just embarked on an Index Catalogue of the Medical Literature, list- ing A description of pneumoconiosis tO include dust diseases of the lung. During the 1880s, James Buchanan Duke had already formed a company to manufacture cigarettes that were w~dely dlstr~buted in the United States. It is therefore conceivable that workers exposed to asbestos dust were also cigarette smokers so that the possibility of the occurrence of any interaction started a hundred years ago. The medical literature does not mention the ~nteractlon phenomenon until the 1960s when epldemlologlc studies suggested that asbestos workers who were cigarette smokers were likely to develop lung cancer than workers who were nons~okerso The
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 4 epidemiologic studies have been used to shift the causation of disease from asbestos dust exposure to cigarette smoking. This compiler started the collection of the blbllography on asbestos/clgarette smoking /nteractlon in 1980. It soon became apparent that the selection of ~rtlnent articles was not a simple task which became complex because the phenomenon of interaction can o~ly be crlt/cally described by understanding the independent effects of asbestos and cigarette a~oklng. ~t therefore became necessary to examine the events leading to the concept of interaction which was Inltlally suggested by the results of epldemlologic stud/es of asbestos workers in the 1960s. The concept subsequently gained acceptance among lung speclallsts, radiologists, pathologlsts and toxicologists on the basis of human observations and ~nimal experiments. Although some experts agree that cigarette smoking is likely to exaggerate the hea~th effects of asbestos, there is no general agreement on the pathogenesls of diseases associated with either asbestos exposure or cigarette smoking. The lltera- ture on asbestos alone is full of conflicting statements on ~ode of action, i~cldence of disease and safe exposure levels. Most proponents of the interaction hypothesis have con- ducted studies on asbestos but not on cigarette smoking. On the other hand, scientists who have investigated the health effects
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions :~January I0, 1983] Page 5 of cigarette smoking rarely extend their interest to asbestos particulates. The experimental studies on interaction are limited in number In contrast to numerous p~bllcatlons supporting the concept of interaction. [ 010 ] Purpose of Report This report was prepared to identify the studies that suggest an interaction between asbestos dust exposure a~d cigarette smoking. The design of the supportlv~ study has been scrutinized and grouped into major technical or procedural categories such as animal studles, human tissue studies, epl- demlologic observations, human lung function observations, and h~man exposure measurements. This separation clarifies the experimental basis for the generally accepted statement that exposure to asbestos dust alone can cause disease, particularly pleural mesothelioma, pleural asbestosls and lung cancer. At the same time, the separation to categorical techniques empha- sizes the limitations and contradictory results relating to the interaction hypothesis. [020] Asbestos Literature Sources This compiler has not conducted any form og original research experiments on asbestos particles, although he has done
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 6 so on the subject of cigarette smoking. He familiarized himself with the as.bestos literature initlally by reading monographs and conference proceedings on asbestos. This was followed by examining the key articles by proponents of the asbestos/smoklng hypothesis and the cited E~fe~ences which naturally turned out. to be supportive of the theory." This compiler then noted that the research techniques used by proponents were used by other investigators who were not searching for the interaction phenomenon. The proponents ' concept of asbestos action has been questioned by nonproponents. A decision was made by this compiler to conduct a thorough and complete scanning of the asbestos literaure, not from compiled bibliographies but directly from the following sources: Surgeon General's Catalogue List of Medical Literature (1880 to 1961) Chemical Abstracts (1907 to 1980) AMA Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1916 to 1956) Current List to Medical Literature (1941 to 1959) Index Med~cus of the National Library of Medicine (1960 to 1982) Biologioal Abstracts (1926 to 1980) Excerpta Medlca (1947 to 1980) It should be noted that the search was done manually rather than relying on computer searches that retrieve articles dating from the 1960s or 1970s.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 7 Since the compilation of the blbllography was conducted during a span of three years (1950 to 1982), there was ample opportunity to perceive the increasing controversies on asbestos scientific and nonscientific issues. Although this compiler had several -opportunities to attend a dozen asbestos meetings, he purposely avoided them for various reasons. Recent devel~pments on asbestos research were derived by scanning every month for three years, the twenty Journals on occupational medicine, chest diseases, toxlcology and envlronmental health. [030] Research. Techniques Used bY Proponents The decision to expand the literature search forced the grouping of the thousands of articles according to research techniques. Nine major technical or procedural categories evolved and are as follows: Category [100] Animal studies with subcategorles for differentiating anlm~l species, route of administration, nature of experimental observations such as hlstopathologlcal, biochemical and physiological, and asbestos/smoklng interaction. Category [200] Hlstopathologlcal, hlstocheaL~cal and blochem~cal studies of ~ lultgs, blood and other tissues, with s~bcategorles for asbestos bodies, hemolysis, i~unopatho- logy and asbestos/smoklng interaction.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 8 Category [300] Epidemiologic studies of mortality rate of asbestos workers with subcategorles for A~erlcan and foreign prospective studies, occupational groups and asbestos/smoklng interaction. Category [400] Malignant mesothello~as and pleura1 diseases including pleurai plaques and effusion, with subcategories for case ..... :~epo~s~ radi~logi~ d~agno~Is, patho~eneu sis and asbestos/smoklng interaction. Category [500] Bronchogenlc cancer and extrapulmonary malignancies with subcategorles for case reports, incidence, risk factors and asbestos/smoking interaction. Category [600] Pulmonary asbestosls with subcategories for case reports, lang fu~ctlon tests, theories of fibrogenesls and asbestos/ smoking interaction. Category [700] Occupational exposure to asbestos with subcategories for asbestos dust measure- ments, risk evaluation, asbestos m~ning and processing, and asbestos/smoking interaction. Category [800] Environmental exposure to asbestos with subcategorles for water and food contami- nation, indoor and outdoor pollution, and asbestos/smoklng interaction. Category [900] Governmental regulatlons and miscellaneous topics. [040] Research Techniques Used by Nonproponents NOt all scientists who conduct research on asbestos subs- cribe to the concept of asbestos/smoklng interaction. Some of them disagree with proponents on the interpretation of results on the effects of asbestos alone. The grouping o£ articles
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 9 according to technical categories and subcategorles reveals the conflicting results between proponents and nonproponentSo In this report, comparable studies are grouped ~n sun~ar¥ tables. The contained information "is necessarily brief, with a chronological listln~ o~ Investluators grouped accor~inq their Instltutlonal affllatlon. There is a considerable amount of duplication of scientific, information in the articles. One research study is usually described in two or as many as a dozen publications, with varying interpretations hy the authors. This compiler has estimated that the thousands of articles written on the medical aspects of asbesos exposure can be represented by a few hundred reports of original observations. The publication explosion on asbestos exaggerated the credibility of the propo- nents of asbestos/smoking interaction concept, and the o~Inions of the nonproponents have not attracted as ~auch attention. [050] Geographical Coding of Proponents and Nonproponents Each article on asbestos has .been ~x~ud to designate the geographical locatlon of the author or authors. This feature serves the purpose of identifying sclent£sts conducting asbestos research in a particular state or country. This compiler recognizes that the regional coding at the tlma the article was
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 10 published may prove to ~be inaccurate because of deaths of authors of articles published prior to 1960s, when the inter- action hypothesis was proposed. Approximately two-thirds of the asbestos bibliography has been published since the 1960s and any subsequent migration of the asbestos researcher can be readily ascertained from the available directories. [060] Preparation of Bibllography The literature references in this report are numerically arranged according to the order of their appearance in the text and summary tables. Only articles dealing on asbestos are llst- ed. Pubiications on cigarette smoking and asbestos are included but those that describe cigarette smoking without asbestos have been omitted. Since the bibliography has been entered in a modest computer, it is possible to retrieve all articles written by an individual author or from a group of scientists located in a particlar state or country. The omission of articles dealing on smoking end health without asbestos was dictated by several reasons. This report is intended for the purpose of the interaction phenomenon only. The appended bibliography includes asbestos articles directly or indirectly related to asbestos/ smoking interaction. The llterature on cigarette smoking is approximately ten times more than the asbestos literature, but
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 11 smoking articles can readily be retrieved by this compiler, using similar subject categories for asbestos used in this report. [070| Preparation of Supplemental Bibliography Th~ ~asbastos ~ub12~a~ion~ ~mentioned in the text were collected by this compiler. S~me of the artlcles marked with an =(X)" represent duplicate copies received from a literature retrieval source in New York. The asbestos articles not included in the Bibliography are those that were not examined since the journals were not readily available to this compiler. The authors and titles of articles that were not examined are _ listed in a Supplementary Bibliography. A combination of the Bibliography and the Supplementary Bibliography represents a complete checklist of the asbestos literature, which far exceeds the number contained in nine bibliographic lists prepared by other compilers. [080] Textual and Tabular Summary of Asbestos Research This Report is limited to the effects of asbestos that relate to asbestos/smoking interaction. The textual portion mentions names of those who are proponents of the interaction hypothesis. In addition, names of scientists who are presently not working on the interaction phenomenon but are qualified in
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 12 doing so, are included in the text. The summary tables are abbreviated in nature. Details of source and dose of asbestos have been omitted because they are not important in the discus- sion of asbestos/smoklng interaction. However, this compiler is prepared to expand on details that have been omitted. [ 090 | Future Reports This report should be regarded as an outline of the scientific contents of the asbestos literature that is directly or i~dlrectly related to the concept of asbestos/smoking inter- action. The report was written to define briefly the contents of the growing literature on asbestos. This compiler is prepared to answer queries relating to: (a) validity of an experimental procedure; (b) specific observations that conflict with observation of proponents on asbestos alone end the inter- action phenomenon; (c) application of publlshed information to a specific case report of a~ asbestos worker who is also a cigarette smoker; and (d) additional research on a specified form of Interatlon. All the above queries can be answered by citing not only the asbestos bibliography included in this report but also the smoking and health literature that has been omitted.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0. 1983] Page 13 [ i00 | [ii0] [111] [112] [113] [ 120] ~. 12i ] [122] [ 123] [ 124] [130] [140] [150] [160] [170 ] [180] [181] (182] [183] (184] [185] [186] (190) (191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] ANL~AL EXPERIMENTS Inhalation of asbestos dust 14 Guinea pig inhalation experiments 15 Rat inhalation experiments 18 Mice, hamsters, rabbits and primates 23 Trachea~] ~t~!la~!~n of asbestos dust ~. ~5 Tracheal instillation £n rats ..... 26 Tracheal instillation in hamsters 28 Tracheal instillation in dogs 29 Tracheal instillation in guinea pigs. rabbits, mice, sheep and monkeys 30 Pleural injections 31 Peritoneal injections 33 Oral administration 34 Subcutaneousr dermal and mucosal administration 37 Cellular membrane and enzyme studies 39 In vitro studies on cytotoxiclty 41 Hemolysis 42 Alveolar macrophages 43 Peritoneal macrophages 44 Organ cultures 46 Mutagenlclty 47 In vitro tests relating to teratologyand immunology 48 Proposed theories of asbestos/smokln~ Interactio. 49 Asbestos as complete carcinogen or ~ocaroinogen 49 Combined exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoke 50 Trace metals and hydroxylase theory 52 Polyfilamentous versus surface charge versus dimensional theories 53 Asbestos a~sorptlon of benzopyrene 53 Asbestos entrapment and translocatlon 54 Cellular turnover 55 Innuunologlc deficiency 55 Tracheobronchlal mucociliary clearance 56 Bibllography and Indices 57
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Asbestos/Smokiug Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 14 [ ii0 ] Inhalation of Asbestos Dust Inhalatlonal studies in animals are preferred because they simulate human exposure to asbestos dust. The first description of pulmonary asbestosls in domestic anlmals was reporte~ in 1931 by Schuste~ (1). The dog, a terrier, was kept in an asbestos ~actory for ten years to catch rats and had~eve~ "opportunity of inhaling asbestos dust. The dog, after suffering from progres- sive dyspnea and coughlng, was sacrlflce~ and the thoracic organs were examined Postmortem by Schuster. The lungs showed fibrosis similar to hlstologlc changes seen in the human form of ashestosls. Naked asbestos fibers were found in the canine lung, instead of" asbestos bodies characteristic of human asbestos is. In 1963, webster (2) reported the appearance of ashestosis and asbestos bodies in donkeys, baboon and rats that llved in the vicinity of an asbestos mine. Between the two above occur- rences of asbestoels in animals spanning three decades, several Inhalational experiments were conducte~ showing conclusively that most forms of asbestos dust cause pulmonary asbestosls or fibrosis and lung tumors. The formation of asbestos bo~les is not a uniform effect seen in all animal species. The inter- action between asbestos dust end cigarette smoke was not the subject of Inhalatlonal studies until the late 1960s, following
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 15 the epidemlologlc studies on asbestos workers that suggeste~ interaction. All published results of asbestos dust inhalation in experimental animals are discussed in this section. Details of type of asbestos dust and duration of exposure are ola~tted except in the experiments ~hat asbestos/smoking interaction. For completeness, studies not relating to interaction are included in the suamary tables for each animal species since many investigators have not necessarily endorsed the interaction hypothesis. |111] Guinea Pig Inhalation Experiments. The first published report on inhalation of asbestos dust in experimental animals appeared in 1931, by Gardner and Cmmuings (3). This report, as well as subsequent published reports, showed that pulmonary fibrosis and asbestos bo~les were characteristic findings resulting from Inhalatlon of asbestos dust in guinea pigs. The investigators, a~k~Itlonal animal species and results can be suE~arlzed as follows z INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (3) Gardner & Cummings guinea pig, rat, 1931 mouse, rabbit, (4) Gardner 1942 cat, dog (5) Vorwald et al 1951 pulmonary fibrosis asbestos bo~les influence tuberculous lesions
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ASbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 16 (6) Ramaswamy et al guinea pig 1953 (7) Davis 1963 guinea pig (8) Davis 1963 rat (9) Davis 1964 pulmonary fibrosis adrenal gland hlsto- logic changes pulmonary fibrosis asbestos bodies, trastructure changes (10) wagner 1963 guinea pig, tab- pulmonary fibrosis (ii) Holt & Mills 1964 guinea pig (12) Holt et al 1966 (13) Gross & De Treville 1967 (14) Holt & Young 1967 guinea pig (15) Botham & Holt 1968 (16) Botham & Holt 1971 (17) Botham & Holt 1972 guinea pig, rat (18) Botham & Holt 1972 (19) Hiett 1978 guinea pig (20) Hiett 1978 (21) Miller et al 1980 guinea pig (22).Holt 1981 guinea pig (23) Holt 1982 (24) Lee et al 1981 guinea pig, rat (25) Lee et al 1981 hamster (26) Emerson et al 1982 guinea pig guinea pig, rat, hamster (27) Rahman 1982 guinea pig pulmonary fibrosis asbestos bodies pulmonary fibrosis asbestos bodies asbestos bodies pulmonary fibrosis lung function changes alveolar macrophages alveolar macrophages pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary tumors alveolar macrophages lung collagen biochemical changes Pulmonary Fibrosis. The guinea pig inhalation studies are significant because they demonstrate that asbestos alone can
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 17 cause pulmonary flbros£s sim~lar to the human form Of asbes- tosis. It is the opinion of Davis (7-9) that the flhrob~asts r~sponsible for the fibrosis originate from dust-¢arrylng macro- phages. Examination of the alveolar macrophages under electron ~dcros=0~Vi.~reveal~-~.~.~ha~..~the" ~t particles have u~dar;one ~ structural change consisting of droplet-llke structures in the lumlna of the crystal tubes of asbestoe~ the crystal structure seemed to unroll producing flattened plaques. This dlslntegra- tlon of the dust was also accompanied-by "macha~Ical" damage on the nuclear membrane and .cytoplasmic structure including mitochondrla. On the other hand, there was no evldence for gross mechanical damage on the bronchiolar and alveolar cells. Pulmonary Clearance. The alveolar macrophagee parti- cipate in the clearance of asbestos fibers from the airways. According to Holt (22, 23), the fibers that reach ~e p~imonary alveoll are phagocytlze~ by macrophages and move towards the periphery by passing through alveolar walls. S~me of the macrophages aggregate In alveoli near larger bronchlolee and penetrate the bronchial wall. S~me of the macrophages penetrate blood vessels and presumed to be transferred to extrapulmonary sites.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983| Page 18 The clearance of dust from the airways is assumed to be by cillated cells although this has not been demonstrated In guinea pigs undergoing asbestos dust £nhalatlon. Functional measure- merits do not include clearance of dust particles and show a reduction in pulmonary complia,ce explalned by the progressive p~lmon~ry fibrosis r~sul~tlng ~f~om asbestos d~ust Inhal__atlon !~20). Asbestos Bodles. Guinea pigs exposed to asbestos dust consistently show the formation of asbestos bodies |n the lung. Since other animal species were also exposed, it has been pos- slble to compare their reactions. Like humans, guinea pigs and m~ce develop asbestos bodies but not the rat, dog, ~nd occasion- ally, rabbit and cat ( 4,5 ). Compared to g~Inea pigs or hamsters, rats revealed more pulmonary fibrogenic Eeaction (24). Asbestos/Smoking Interaction. It should be recognized that there are no guinea pig ~nhalation studies conslst~ng of both asbestos and cigarette smoke. Proponents for interaction mechanisms have used noninhalat[onal studies in the guinea pig and other species to explain the reported interaction in human epldemiologic studies, yet there are no published Inhalatlon studies (see hamster below). 112 ] Rat Inhalation Experiments
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactlons [January I0, 1983] Page 19 Asbestosis with characteristic histopathologic signs of fibrosis in the lungs, has been induced in rats exposed to as- bestos dust. The histologlc and ultrastructtlre features of the rat lung are similar to those o£ the guinea pig lung described above. Studies relating to pulmonary clearance, tumorigenicity and pulmoD~ry b~och_~!c~:changes, ~bsent i~ the gui~.p~g, ~r~ available for the rat and are discussed below. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (3) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (28) (13) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (17) (18) (37) Gardner & Ctmmings 1931 Gardner 1942 Vorwald et al 1951 Davis 1963 Davis 1963 Davies 1964 Bolt et al 1964 Gross & de Treville 1967 Gross et al 1967 Gross 1968 Donna & Cappa 1967 Donna 1970 Davis & Reeves 1971 Reeves et al 1974 Reeves 1976 rat, guinea pig, pulmonary fibrosis mouse, rabbit, cat, dog rat, guinea pig pulmonary fibrosis ultrastructure changes rat fibrogenlc mechanism rat, guinea pig, pulmonary fibrosis hamster pulmonary tumors rat rat, guinea pig, gerbil, mouse, rabbit Turnock et al 1971 rat Botbam & Bolt 1972 BOtham & Bolt 1972 rat Evans et al 1973 rat pulmonary fibrosis p~Imonary tumors pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary tumors pulmonary clearance pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary clearance
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983| Page 20 (38) Wagner 1972 rat (39) Wagner et al 1974 (40) McDermott & Wagner 1976 (41) Wagner 1975 (42) Tetley et al 1976 rat (43) Tetley et al 1977 (44) Ferln & Leach 1976 rat 1977 (46) Davis et al 1978 (47) Middelton et al 1979 (48) Morgan et al 1977 rat (49) Morgan et al 1978 (50) Holmes & Morgan 1980 (51) Leong et al 1978 (52) Miller & Kagan 1977 (53) Kagan & Miller 1978 (54) Miller et al 1978 (55) Miller 1979 (56) Kagan & Miller 1979 (57) Miller et al 1979 (58) Kagan & Miller 1981 (59) Miller & Kagan 1981 (60) Brody & Crapo 1979 rat (61) Brody 1980 (62) Pinkerton et al 1980 (63) Brody et al 1981 (64) Plnkerton et al 1982 (65) Davis .et al 1980 (66) Johnson et al 1980 (67) Johnson et al 1980 (68) Vincent et al 1981 (24) Lee et a~ 1981 (25) Lee et al 1981 pulmonary fibr0s£s pul~onary tumors pulmonary function blochem~cal changes pulmonary clearance ....... pulmonary uleaEance pulmonary clearance rat, hamster rat pulmonary tumors alveolar macrophages lymphocyclic reaction pulmonary fibrosis asbestos trans- location rat pulmonary fibrosis rat neuroendocrlne cells rat pulmonary deposition rat, guinea pig, pulmonary fibrosis hamster
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 21 Pulmonary Deposition. Rats were exposed for about one hour to a cloud of radioactive asbestos (crooldollte) produced by neutron irradiation (37}. Approximately 50 percent of the deposited asbestos was in the lower respiratory tract and the other half in the upper respiratory tract. Because of differen- ces inanatomfual~nflguration of the ~espiratory tract in ~an, the deposition figures relate only to the rat. After 30 days, the lung content of radioactive crooldolite was reduced to 73 percent of the inltial va~ue, followed by appearance of radio- activity in the feces. Examination of the autoradlographs of thin lung sections showed that the largest number of fibers were initially deposited at the bifurcations of smaller bronchioles just downstream from the carina. Fibers on the bronchiolar epi- thelium were frequently associated with macrophages and fibers in the parenchyma occurred at the ends of alveolar ducts, en- trances to alveolar sacs and within alveoli. Similar deposition results were noted with the use of tritium labeled asbestos (36) and static electrified asbestos (68). Pulmonar~ Clearance. Ferln and Leach (44} studied the effects of asbestos dust on the bronchial clearance of inert titanium oxide particles. They noted a depression of alveolar clearance, a signlfloant observation because proponents of
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 22 asbestos/smoking interaction have ignored the fact that asbestos alone retards clearance. The investigators did not test the hypothesis to deteraLtne if additional exposure to cigarette smoke can Influence the already depresse~ asbestos-lnduced clearance of partlculates,u, Pulmonary Tumorigenicity. Gross et al (29, 30) conducted inhalation studies and observed that 31 percent of asbestos exposed rats showed pulmonary tumors such as adenocarclnoma, squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelloma. Rats that were also treated with lye intratracheally showed a higher incidence, presumably because of the ~mportance of "upper respiratory tract mechanism" in eli~nating carcingenlc particles. It should be noted that it is the lower, instead of the upper tract, that is alluded to by proponents of asbestos/smoking interaction. Gross has explained asbestos carcinogenesis by involvement of trace metals introduced during hammer milling of asbestos, namely, nickel, cobalt and chrome. Other investigators have observed pulmonary tumors by inhalation of asbestos dust (34, 41) or pulverized asbestos pipe covering (50). E~docrine cell proliferation in the lung of rats exposed to asbestos inhalation has been reported (66, 67). Reeves et al (34, 35), after demostrat£ng the pulmonary carcinogenic effect of asbestos in rats and four other species, proceeded to review the physical and chemical theories for
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 23 . carcinogeniclty. They proposed that ~lung tumors seem to depend on the adsorptive capacity of asbestos fibers, allowing other carcinogens (heavy metals, polycyclic hydrocarbons, cigarette smoke) to attain a critical focal concentration~o Reeves et al did. not cite any supportive animal studies of their own that asb~shos adsorbs cigarette smoke. However, they cited the literature supporting the increasein processed asbestos of content of trace metals such as iron, aluminum, magnesium, chromium, nickel, cobalt and manganese. Some of these heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic. Biochemical Changes in Lungs. Davis and Reeves (33) described the alteration in collagen synthesis in the lungs of rats exposed to asbestos. It should be noted "that the process of hydroxylation of proline involved in flbrogenesis has not been reported to be influenced by cigarette smoke. Other studies relate to formation of surfactant (42, 43) and an increase in immunologic receptors of macrophages {54-58). The results on immunology have been interpreted as the mode of action of asbestos in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. [113] Mice, Hamsters, Rabbits, and Primates. The inhalatlonal exposure in mice, hamsters, rabbits and primates resulted in the formation of fibrosis and tumors in the
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 24 lungs. It should be recognized ~at the f~rst demonstration of carclnogeniclty in mice occurred in 1941, preceding the studies in rats reported in the 1960s. After several w~eks of exposing mice to asbestos dust, squamous cell carcinoma appeared in 20 percent of surviving ~Imals (69). INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (3) Gardner & Cummings 1931 (69) Nordmann & Sorge 1941 (33) Davis & Reeves 1971 (70) Craig et al 1972 (71) Wehner et al 1975 (72) Wehner et al 1978 (73) wehner et al 1978 (74) Wehner 1980 (24) Lee et al 1981 (25) Lee et al 1981 (51) Leong et al 1978 (I0) Wagner 1963 (75) Goldsteln et al 1978 Asbestos/Smokin~ rat, rabbit, cat, morose, guinea pig pul~onar~ f~brosis mouse pulmonary tumors mouse, rabbit, rat, pulmonary tumors gerbil, guinea pig hamster pulmonary tun~r s hamster, rat guinea pig hamster, rat rabbit, monkey baboon Interaction. pulmonary tumors pulmonary £1bros~s pulmonary tumors pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary fibrosis The hanmter exper iments reported by Wehner et al (71) are important because they are the only reported studies of asbestos and sn~)ke inhalation, separately and combined. Their concluslon is that "neither a
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 25 carcinogenic effect of asbestos nor a cocarcinogenic effect of cigarette smoke was observed". The design of the study did not permit the development of pulmonary malignant tumors In asbestos exposed hamsters, which has been successful in rats. The negative results relating to cigarette smoke would be more significant if positive carcinogenlclty from asbestos dust inhalation alone was also demonstrated. [120] Tracheal Instillation of Asbestos Dust Because of technical difficulties and expense in conduct- ing inhalation studies, many investigators have resorted to tracheal instillation of a suspension of asbestos partlcles. Another advantage of tracheal technic is that the dose of asbestos administered can be accurately expressed whereas measurement of inhaled asbestos deposition is technically difficult. However, it is recognized that tracheal instillation does not simulate human exposure. The same animal species used for inhalation studies [110] have been used for tracheal instillation. In addition, e~periments on dogs have also been a~ded to the llst of animal s~ecles, designed to determine interaction between asbestos tracheal instillation and inhalation of cigarette smoke. Rats and hamsters have been used to determine any interaction between
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 26 asbestos tracheal instillation and the injection of two poly- cyclic aromatic components of cigarette smoke. Results of these animal experiments have been freely extrapolate~ to humans by proponents that claim asbestos/smoking synergism (76). [121] Tracheal Instillation in Rats. The instillation technique was Introduce~ in 1951 to test the hypothes is that aluminum powder would reduce or prevent pulmonary fibrosis caused by asbestos dust inhalation (77). The results contradicted those from asbestos and aluminum Inhalation so that the therapeutic use of aluminum has been discarded. The tracheal technique has been applled to seeking interaction between asbestos and benzopyrene and coincidentally, the results offer a needed explanation for the epidemlologlc studies. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (77) Smith et al 1951 (78) Luechtrath & Sctunidt 1959 (79) Engelbrecht 1964 (80) Engelbrecht & Thiart 1972 (81) Gross a de Treville 1970 (82) Beg et al 1973 (83) Beg et al 1977 (84) Rahman et al 1976 rat rat rat rat rat pulmonary fibrosis aluminum interaction contaminant of talc pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory infection aluminum interaction pulmonary tumors biochemical changes
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 27 (85) Shabad et al 1974 rat (86) Salk & Vosamae 1974 rat (87) Sanders 1975 (88) Le Bouffant et al 1979 (89) Le Bouffant et al 1979 (90) Le Bouffant et al 1979 (90) Topping a Netteshelm 1980 (91) Topping et al 1980 (92) Netteshelm 1981 Tobacco/Benzopyrene rat rat pulmonary tumors benzopyrene inter- action pulmonary t~mors benzopyrene inter- action pulmonary tumors polonlum~ interaction pulmonary clearance rat tracheal implants benzopyrene inter- action Interaction in Rats with Intact Trache__a. Two groups of Russian scientists reported a statls- tically significant increase in tumo~Igenlclty of Instilled asbestos when benzopyrene was adsorbed to the dust partlcles. One group compared the Intratracheal instillation of asbestos dust alone and asbestos with benzopyrene or cigarette smoke inhalation (85). The second group used essentially a similar procedure of intratracheal Instillatlon using ~nported South African asbestos (86). These two studies are frequently cited by proponents of adsorptive role of asbestos for benzopyrene contained in cigarette smoke.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 28 Tobacco/Dimethylbenzanthracene Interaction An Rats w~th Tracheal Grafts. Rettesheim et al (91-93) used tracheal tra~s- plants to assure prolonged contact of a plycycllo aromatic anlne with asbestos particles. Their results showed that asbestos causes chronic irritation of the tracheal mucosa and that asbes- tos is a coral)fete carcinogenic agent. The interaction_protocol consiste~ of two steps= initial application of dlmethylbenz- anthracene contained in ~ellets, followed by their removal and the introduction of asbestos fibers. AlthOUgh the two subs- tances were ~sed as cocarclnogens, it should be recognized that both were not applied simultaneously. The reverse sequence of asbestos followed by the chemical ~)uld closely simulate the human exposure, rather than the experimental sequence used by the investigators. [122] Tracheal Instillation in Hamsters. The Russian scientists mentioned above have also reDorted that hamsters show an interaction between asbestos and two cons- tltuents of cigarette smoke. The studies reported by American investigators do not relate tO interaction. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (94) Smith 1966 hamster (95) Suzuki & Churg 1970 hamster pulmonary tumors asbestos bodies
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 29 (96) Suzuki et al 1972 (97) Suzuki 1974 (98) Pylev et al 1970 (99) Pylev et al 1975 (i00) Pylev & Kulaglna 1981 (101) Kung-vosamae & Vinkmann 1980 Asbestos/Benzopyre~n~, or alveolar epithelial cells pulmonary tumors benzopyrene inter- action nltrosamine inter- action Nitrosamlne Interaction~ ....... One Russian group has demonstrated the prolonged entrapment of benzopyrene when instilled with asbestos (98). The other group showed increased carcinogenicity of asbestos in animals treated with N-nltrosodlethylamlne (I01). ~owever, the nitrosamlne was not administered Intratracheally but instead, orally or subcutaneously. [123] Tracheal Instillation in Dogs. Man et al (102) described a new technic of measuring tracheal mucous transport in dogs. Their results so far include measurements of asbestos particle clearance an~ has not been applied to the subject of interaction with cigarette smoking. Humphrey et al (103) studied the interaction on the formation of ~allgnant t~mors. Their results are equivocal and are discussed by this compiler in a separate report.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 30 [124] Tracheal Instillatlon In Guinea Pigs, Rabbits, Mice, Sheep a~d Monkeys. The remaining studies on tracheal instillatlon of asbestos do not include interaction phenomenon. Although most of the re- sults show similarities to those in hamsters and rats, there are some differences ~whlch.-~estion their relevance to sure. It is fair to conclude that the biochemical and cellular effects of asbestos are definitely toxic in nature but it is not posslble to relate one experlmental observation to either human asbestosis or human carc~nogenesls. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (104) ~ofer et al 1961 ~ulnea pig (105) Szymczyklewicz 1970 (106) (107) (108) (109) {110) (lll) (112) (113) (114) (115) C116) C117) V~swanathan et al 1973 Vlswanathan et al 1973 Slngh et al 1975 Slngh et al 1976 Singh et al 1978 Narang et al 1978 Misra et al 1978 Schoenberger et al 1980 Dodson et al 1980 Jalswal & Viswanathan 1980 Jalswal 1981 King et al 1946 guinea pig guinea pig guinea pig guinea pig rabbit pulmonary collagen pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary fibrosis bloche~tcal changes asbestos bodies alveolar macrophages alveolar macrophages pulmonary infections blochemical changes aluminum interaction
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 31 (118 Jaurand et al 1978 (119) Oblln et al 1978 (120) Wilcox et al 1974 (121) Marcussen 1977 (122) Lemalr et al 1981 (123) Begin et al 1981 (124) Begin et al 1982 (125) Zaidl et al 1973 rabbit wK)use sheep .monkey. alveolar macrophages PUlmonary surfactant pulmonary clearance bloch~mlcal changes pulmonary fibrosis =~pulmonary'!nfectlons [130] Pleura1 In~ectlons Pleura1 mesothelloma can be induced by the injection of asbestos sus~enslon into the pleura1 cavity. This technic introduced in 1961 by Wagner has been generally accepted for proving that dust particulates are carcinogens. The animal species and general conclusions derived from Intrapleural injection studies are as follows= INVESTIGATORS ANI14AL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (126) Wagner 1966 (127) Wagner & Berry 1969 (128) Wagner et al 1973 (129) Berry & Wagner 1976 (130 Wagner 1976 (131) ~organ et al 1977 (132) Wagner 1979 (133) Brown et al 1980 (134) Stanton et al 1969 (135) Stanton and Wrench 1972 (136) Maroudas et al 1973 (137) Stanton 1974 (138) Stanton & Layerd 1978 (139) Stanton & Layard 1979 (140) Stanton et al 1981 rat mesothellomas rat mesothellomas
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 32 (141) Davis 1970 (142) Davis 1970 (143) Davis 1970 (144) Davis 1971 (145) Davis 1971 (146) Smith & Davis 1971 (147) Davis & Co.Jan 1973 (148) Davis 1979 rat, meuse, asbestos bodies guinea pig pulmonary fibrosis alveolar macrophages pulmonary tumors (149) G~oss & Harley,1973 rat, hamster mesothellomas (151) Monchaux et al 1981 1ocatlon mesothelio~as (152) Smith et al 1965 hamster mesothellomas (153) Smith 1973 (154) Smith 1980 (155) Peacock & Peacock 1966 fowl pulmonary t~uaors Mechanical versus chemical Theories for Carclnoqenesls. The mest significant impact of the pleural injection studies is that the mechanical theory of carclnogensls has received_ widespread acceptance. &ithough Wagner performed the first experiments favoring the mechanical explanatlon (126-128), Stanton et al completed detailed experiments (134-140) so that their explanation has been referred to by their enthusiasts as the Stanton hypothesis. Carcinogenic response was shown to be correlated with dimensional distribution of the fibers: those less than or equal to 1.5 micra in diameter end greater than 8 micra in length had the highest probability of induction of
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 33 amsothelioma. Pulverized asbestos and other fibers that ~ere shorter and s~aller in dimensions were weakly carcinogenic. Carcinogenicity is dependent on dimensional principles rather than physlcochem~cal features of asbestos. Proponents of the asbestos/s~oklng interaction find it ~if~cu]~ ~o ~u~'~ theTM St~ton dimensional hypoth=~s because this weuld exclude any contribution of bensopyrene and other constituents of cigarette smoke. They have cited objections to the theory which can be silenced by additional research. [140] Peritoneal Injections The experiments involving peritoneal injections of asbes- tos dust suspension show cellular proliferation, mesotheliomas and lymphatic uptake. The injection studies are as follows: INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (156) Miller and Sayers 1936 guinea pig (157) Schulz & Williams 1942 guinea pig (158) Scheuer et al 1973 rat (159) Engelbrecht & Burger rat 1973 (160) Engelbrecht & Burger 1975 (161) Shin & Firmlnger 1973 rat cellular reactions flbrogenic reactions peritoneal tumors benzopyrene inter- action peritoneal meso- thellomas peritoneal meso- thellomas
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 34 (162) Sethl et al 1974 rat (163) Stevens et al 1978 rat (164) Stevens et al 1979 (165) Pigott & Ishmael 1979 rat (166) Sahu et al 1978 mouse Interaction Asbestos/Benzopyrene cellular reactions peritoneal meso- theliomas peritoneal tumors lymphatic reactions viral interaction nltrosourethane in- teraction A group of German scientists (158) tested the combined effects of ~ntraperitoneal injection of asbestos dust and benzopyrene in rats. They did not show any change in ttu~orlgeniclty of asbestos. This is another supportive evidence for the mechanistic theory of carclnogensis which excludes any contribution from chemicals such as benzopyrene. The effect of combined asbestos with N-~ethyl-N-nitrosourethane reported by Japanese scientists (167) does not mean interaction because there were no groups of mice injected with one component of the carcinogenic mixture. [150] Oral Administration Since asbestos has been shown to contaminate water and food, studies in animals have been conducted to determine the extent ffbers pass into or through gastrointestinal wal~ and
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 35 identify the tissue reactions. The Consistlng of ingestion of asbestos fibers INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES animal exper Iments are as Eollows = TOXICITY RESPONSE (169) (170) (171) (172) (173) (174) (175) (176) (177) (178) (179) (180) (181) (182) Westlake et al 1965 Pontefract ~! ~ Cunni~gham i~73 Cunningham et al 1977 Gross et al 1974 Gross 1974 Amacher et al 1974 Amacher et al 1975 Miller & Kagan 1976 Bolton & Davis 1976 Jacobs et al 1977 Jacobs et al 1978 Jacobs et al 1978 Donham et al 1980 Sebastlen et al 1980 (183) wa~d et al 1980 (184) Hildlng et al 1981 (185) Eisele 1981 {186) Hamilton et al 1976 rat rat rat rat rat rat rat rat rat rat rat rat mouse colonlc penetration blood and organ analysls carcinogenesis gastrointestinal penetration DNA synthesis in abdominal organs peritoneal and alveolar macrophages intestinal penetra- tion biochemical changes cigarette smoke interaction colonic tumors mesotheliomas gastrointestinal penetration Intestinal tumors azoxymethane inter- action intestinal t~tmors potentlal hazards peritoneal macro- phage, steroid inter- action
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] (187) Zaidl 1974 (188) Smith et al (1980) (190) Lavappa et al 1975 (191) Eps~e~"&V~rnes 197~ (192) Webster 1974 (193) Hallenbeck & Patel-Mandllk 1979 (194) 5allenheck et al 1981 guinea pig hamster mouse • monkey Page 36 gastric responses gastrointestinal tumors bone marrow effects monkey' pancreatic DNA synthesis baboon intestinal penetra- baboon urinary excretion gastrointestinal penetration The question of gastrointestinal penetration has been answered by conflicting results. Even in the same laboratory, scientists who tested asbestos orally and initially reported urinary excretion of asbestos subsequently retracted the finding and concluded that there was no gastrointestinal penetration (193,194). The conflicting statements from other laboratories have forced a Federal agency to postpone Indeflnltely issuing a water criteria document on asbestos and other water contaminants. Asbestos Smoke Condensate Interaction Since Inhaled asbestos and cigarette smoke are cleared in the lungs and subse- quently swallowed, the interaction between both was exam/ned in rats by Jacobs et al (178, 179• 180). In their initial report,
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 37- the investigators concluded that the combined effect of cigar- ette smoke and asbestos on intestinal mucosal llnlng "was rareiy different from the alterations by asbestos alone'. However, In their final report, they examined cigarette condensate and asbestos ingestion Indlvidually but not in combination (180). [160] Subcutaneousr Dermal and Mucosal Administration AS early as 1930, Gloyne examined the cellular response to subcutaneous injection of asbestos suspension in guinea pig (195). This study was prompted by his earlier detection of asbestos fibers in the lung of a patient dying of asbestosls. In injection studies, Gloyne concluded that asbestos was an irritant to cells, producing granulation tissue containing many giant cells. There were no asbestos bodies although the asbestos particles were surrounded by connective fibrous tissue. The interaction studies conducted by subsequent investiga- tors did not include cigarette smoke condensates or Polycyclic aromatic components. One study included both carrageenln and asbestos injection resulting in the formation of asbestos bodies (196)o Another study showed that adrenocortlcotropic hormone prevented the Inflammatory response to asbestos (206)° A third study showed that dexamethasone prevented the asbestos-~nduced
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 38 vascular response oE the skin that is characteristic of dermal or mucosal carcinogenesis (202). That topical asbestos alone causes skin cancer has been demonstrated by Harington (209). Subcutaneous injections do not produce tumors probably because of the nature of the tissue reaction an~-~e m/gratlon of the-'~b~to~ part~cies'~through the lymphatic and blood clrculation (199, 200). The experiments reported on subcutaneous, dermal and mucosal admin~stratlon of asbestos particles are as follows: INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES ASBESTOS ROUTE (195) Gloyne 1930 (196) Governa & Vadala 1973 (197) Hueper 1954 guinea pig guinea pig rabbit (198) Speirs & Wenck 1955 mouse (199) Kanazawa et al 1970 mouse (900) Kanazawa 1979 (201) Hamilton 1980 rabbit (202) Hamilton 1981 (203) Harlngton et al 1967 (204) Pelfrene 1977 (205) Pelfrene 1977 (296) Rasanen 1962 rat (207) JacObS & Richards 1980 rat subcutaneous subcutaneous paranasal sinus bone marrow subcutaneous subcutaneous dermal dermal cheek pouch intramuscular ACTH intestinal loop.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Pa~e 39 [170] Cellular Membrane and Enzyme Studies Proponents of the concept of asbestos/smoking interaction rely heavily on the results of in vitro studies relating to lung and liver ~crosomes contalning hydroxylase. It should be emphasized that amon9 animal studies, the results of in vitro tc~hn!/u~-~s~i%~.~.mos~r,~m~tely ~_~at~d t~ intact an~al Inha- latlon experiments and determination of relevance to human disease requires several steps of extrapolation. The in vitro ~nteraction studies consist of benzopyrene which is derived from several environmentl sources including cigarette smoke. The cellular membrane and enzymatic studies are as follows: INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (208) Dixon et al 1968 rat (209) Kandaswami & 0'Brien 1980 rat (210) Kandaswaml & O'Brien 1981 rabbit (211) Lakowicz & Eylden 1978 rat (212) Lakowlcz et al 1979 (213) Lakowloz & Bevan 1979 (214) Lakowlcz & Bevan 1980 (215) Lakowlcs & Bevan 1980 (216) Bevan et al 1981 (217) Light 1979 model membranes lung ~crosomes -liver microsomes lung microsomes lung surfactant liver mlcrosomes surface charge AsbestOS/Benzo~Yrene Interaction. In 1968, Dixon, Lowe, Richards and Stokinger [208) publlshe~ in a Conference Proceed- ings their hypothesis that has not been cited by others. On the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 40 basis of the effect of asbestos on m/crosomal fraction of homo- genates of rat lungs, they proposed the following~ the trace metals are active as carcinogens and that asbestos simply serves as a passive metal carrier. Benzopyrene and other related ~oly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derived from the environment assume ~h~cr~tio~r~,of "In~It~tlng cancer.~ The maJ6r d~rmlnant for carcinogenesis is the residence time of the unmetabollzed benzopyrene in the lung. The trace metals contained in asbestos inhibit the activity of be~z0pyrene hydroxylase, thins increasing the residence time of benzopyrene and increasing the risk for' carcinogenesis. It should be noted that Dixon et al did not mention any participation of asbestos adsorption of benzopyrene. In 1980, Kandaswami et al, apparently oblivious of the 1968 article of Dixon et al, reported a different role of asbestos (209, 210]. They observed that asbestos alone was an effective inhibitor of rabbit and rat liver microsomal hydro~ylase activity, an effect that could not be ~edlated by trace metals slnce it was not prevented by metal chelating agents. Lakowicz et ai(211-216) have proposed a different mechanism for interaction. They emphaslsed the importance of dipalmitoyl L-phosphatldylcholine vesicles (surfactant) in the transfer of benzopyrene from asbestos particles to lung cells.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 41 They did not favor the transfer from asbestos to model membranes containing phosphollplds and globular proteins, as proposed by Light (217). The above discussion is a sin~listlc review of conflicting views on hq.w adsorption by asbestos relates to carcln~genesls. lase enzyme, membrane adsorption or transferance by surfaotant. [180] In vitro Studies on C~totoxlclt~ The cytotoxic properties of asbestos have been demonstra- ted repeatedly in several forms of in vitro preparations. In recent years, a monograph (218) on in vitro effects of mineral dusts, including asbestos has appeared which includes a compari- son of (a) cytotoxiclty with in vitro animal compared to in vitro human cells~ (b) cytotoxiclty in vitro compared to in vivo animal studies~ (c) cytotoxlclty in vitro compared to human studles; and (d) cytotoxlclty of asbestos compared to other mineral glbers. Portions of this monograph relative to asbestos/ smoking interaction are cited in this report. The scope of cytotoxiclty dls~ssed in "this section includes hemolysis, phagocytosls, flbrogenesls, carclnogenes is and mutagenesls. There is a miscellaneous group of in vitro
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactio, s [January 10, 1983] Page 42 observations relating to adrenal gland, virus and bacteria. [181] Hemolysis The discussion of animal hemolysis Is Incomplete because the phenomenon has been more thoroughly investigated with htlman erythor~ytes (Cate~ory 200). H~ever, for co~Darlaon with in vivo animal experiments, there are conflicting statements on the corelatlon between hemolysls and lung cellular responses. Even the role of trace metals has been reported to be either neces- sary or unnecessary for hemolysis. A nonmeta111c component of the membrane (tetramethylammonium) ~.has been proposed as an essential mechanism responsible for hemolysis. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (219) Koshi et al 1968 (220) Daniel a Le Bouffant 1980 (221) Desal et al 1975 (222) Macnab & Harlngton 1967 (223) Schnltzer & Pundsack 1970 (224) Ralunan et al 1974 (225} Richards et al 1980 rats hemolysis, alveolar macrophages rats hemolysis, alveolar mecrophages rabbit hemolysls, pulmonary surfactant sheep hemolysls, trace metals and EDTA sheep hemolysis and EDTA sheep hemolysis an~ lung cells sheep hemolysis
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Asbestos/SmoEing Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 43 (226) Depasse 1980 sheep hemolys£s and role of ammonium ion [182] Alveolar Macrophages The n~chanism for phagocytosis of asbestos partlcles is proposed to be mechanical (233), but this has been denied by oLLer~~2~~h~-'transf~rmation of alveolar ~ac~hagss to fibroblasts has been de~nstrated with several in vitro studies. Goldste~n et al (234) has suggested that prostaglandins play an important role in the Interaction between asbestos, macrophages and fibroblasts. The tissue culture studies on alveolar macrophages are as follows: INVESTIGATOR ~IMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC P~SPONSR (227) Davis 1967 (228) Davis 1972 (229) Beck et al 1971 (230) Beck et al 1972 (231) Beck 1980 (232) Kaw & Zaldi 1975 (233) Bruch 1974 (234) Goldste~n et al 1982 (235) Conning et al 1970 (236) Styles & Wilson 1973 (237) Miller et al 1978 (238) Miller 1980 guinea pig phagocytos~s f~brosls guinea pig membrane permeability lactate production guinea pig phagocytosls guinea pig lactate production gulnea pig prostaglandln produc- tion rat fibrosis rat phagocytosls
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 44 (239) Jaurand et al 1979 rat (240) Kaplan et al 1980 (241) Robock & Klosterkotter rabbit 1973 (242) Richards et al 1974 rabbit (243) Richards et al 1975 (244) Hext & Richards 1976 (245) Richards & Jaccby 1976 (246) ~ext et al ~977 • (248) Kang et al 1979 rabbit Jaurand & Bignon 1977 rabbit (250) Jaurand et al 1980 (251) Jaurand et al 1980 (252) White & Kuhn 1980 (253) Case et al 1982 mouse hamster pleural cell phago- cytos£s fibrosis fibrosis collagen deposition metabollo changes macrophage enzymes phagocytosls macrophage enzymes phagocytosls superoxide dlsmutase [183] Peritoneal Macrophages There is a considerable duplication of publications on macrophages because of the concurrent international meetings sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (218) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (254)° Most of the in vitro studies conducted on peritoneal maorophages were designed to compare cytotoxlc properties of varlous asbestos types, and in turn to correlate the results w~th other in vitro tests of cytotoxlclty and "in vlvo observations. The experiments llsted below form the experlmental support for substituting in vitro cytotoxlcity testing for animal experiments. The biochemical results do not agree with the Interaotlon theories discussed in other sections.
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Asbestos/smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 45 INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC ~R~PONSR (255) (256) (257) (258) (260) (261) (262) (263) (264) (265) (266) (267) (268) (269) (270) (271) (272) (273) (274) (275) (276) (277) Pernls et al 1966 Kloshi & Sakabe 1972 Bey & Barlngton 1971 Miller & Harlngton 1972 Allison 1977 Dean et al 1979 Morgan & Alllson 1980 Skeldon & Steele 1978 Costrlnl et al 1978 Kaw et al 1982 Pigott & Judge 1980 Wade et al 1976 Wade et al 1980 LIpkln 1980 Lemkln et al 1980 Wright et al 1980 Gor~ley et al 1980 Gormley & Wright 1980 Wright & Gormley 1980 Davies 1980 Davies 1980 Johnson & Davies 1980 guinea pig rat hamster peritoneal phago- c~osls macrophage metabolism colchlclne inter- action acid phosphatase mouse lysosomal e~zymes lactate dehydrogenase ~nouse mouse rat, P388DI cell lines P388DI cell llnes prostaglandin produc- tion elastase release lactate dehydrogenase phagocytosis cytotoxlclty particulate size protein content P388D1 cell cytotoxlclty llnes correlation in vivo mouse enzyme release
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 46 [ 184] Organ Cultures Studies on the hamster trachea culture have revealed that asbestos is a complete carcinogen. This preparation as well as cultures of rat llver cells, meeothelloma and ascitic tumor cells b~v~ l~en use~to c~.~pare carcin.og~n.lclty o~v~us f3rms of asbestos fibers. Both the mechanical and chemlcal hypothesis are supported by organ culture experiments. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSR (279) Frank 1977 hamster (280) Frank 1980 trachea organ culture abnormal cell growth (281) Chamberlain & Brown hamster cytotoxiclty 1978 V79-4 lung correlatlon with (282) Chamberlain et al 1980 cells mesothellomas, no (283) Brown & Chamberlain metabolic cooperation 1980 (284) Chamberlain 1982 (285) (286) (287) (288) (289) (290) (291) Mossman et al 1977 hamster Moesman et al 1980 Mossman et al 1980 Landesman & Mossmen 1980 Reiss et al 1979 rat Tilkes & Beck 1980 Beck & Tilkes 1980. rat Brown et al 1978 Gormley et al 1980 Brown et al 1980 Brown et al 1980 rat hamster V79-4 lung cells (292) (293) (294) (295) tracheal culture bas- al cell hyperplasla, inhibition by Vlt. A analog, tumor promot- ter liver cell cyto- toxicity ascltlc tumor cells mesothelloma cells
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983 Page 47 [185] Mutagen~city The Chinese hamster ovarian cell culture (CH0) has been wldely used for mutagenlcity testing of asbestos particulates. Most of the results show chromosome changes indicating that asbestos can cause cytogenetlc changes which may in turn relate t~c~c~~n~en~si~.~ ~,~ewma~ et aI-,(303~ 304) have ~oncl-~d~.that asbestos mutagenicity relates to physical changes in the cellu- lar membrane. The published in vitro tests for mutagenlcity are as follows: INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE (296) Sincock & Seabright hamster 1975 (297) Neugut et al 1978 hamster (298) Huang et al 1978 hamster (299) Huang 1979 (300) Price-Jo~es et al 1980 hamster (301) Livingston et al 1980 hamster (302) Kaplan et al 1980 rat (303) Newman et al 1980 hamster (304) Newman et al 1980 (305) Babu et.al 1980 hamster (306) Babu et al 1981 CHO-KI cell llne ovarian chromosome changes CHO-chromosome changes lung cells chromosome changes V79-4 cell llne chromosome changes C~O-chromesome change mesothellal cells chromosome changes embryo cells membrane changes CHO chromosome change sister chro~atld exchange
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 48 [186] In Vitro Tests Relating to Teratology and I-~-unology The remaining studies include mammalian cells', insects, bacteria and virus. The significance of the results to in vivo exposure has not been clarified. The reaction of animals to infections may be explained by the responses of the bovine ~drena~ ~±ano~ r~Dblt globuli~ and interferon ~'Induction of monkey cell culture. INVESTIGATORS ANIMAL SPECIES TOXICOLOGIC RESPONSE {307] Schneider & Maurer 1977 mouse (308) Cunningham & Pontefract rat (309) Lemalre & Lemaire 1974 bovine (310] Lukens 1978 rabbit (311) Chamberlaln & Tarmy 1977 bacteria (312) Hahon & Eckert 1976 monkey (313) Hahon et al 1977 (314) Litterst & Lichtenstein HeLa 1970 culture (315) Donna 1972 Tenebrio (316) Donna 1973 molitor (317) Donna et al 1980 larva teratogenlcity placental transfer adrenal gland antl-asbestos antibody mutation kidney cell induction of interferon cellular growth enzyme activity
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 49 [190] Proposed Theories of Asbestos/Smoking Interactlo-. The above review of the literature on asbestos animal studies indicates that although asbestos particles are cytotoxic, mutagenlc, carcinogenic and flbrogenlc, there are conflicting views on mode of action. Although the explanations can be grouped into two - machanlcal and chemical - there a~e major and m~nor variations in details. There is dlsagreenmnt on the role of pulmonary clearance and other defense mechanisms; of membrane permeabillt¥ and phagocytosls~ of hydroxylase, dehydrogenase, collagenase and other enzymes~ of pulmonary entrapment~ and of lymphatic and circulatory translocatlon. The review articles on the subject of animal studies on asbestos are plentiful (318-342) but only a few discuss the concept of asbestos/smoklng interaction. [191] Asbestos as Complete Carcinogen or Cocarclnogen? Asbestos has been characterized as either a complete carcinogen or a cocarcinogen or both. In the cataloging of carcinogens, it is customary to identify a substance as one or the other but not both. There are several experts who support the contention that asbestos is a complete carcinogen and their experiments have been identified in all the above major
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 50 categories, namely= [110] Inhalatlon experiments; [120] tra- cheal instillatlon; [130] pleural injections; [140] perltoneal injections; [150] oral administration; [160] subcutaneous, dermal and mucosal administration; [170] cellular membrane and enzyme studies; and [180] in vitro studies on cytotoxicit¥. All accepted technics, of animal .proof of carclnou~nlclty show that asbestos alone causes cancer or associated blologic responses. All theories on asbestos/smoking interaction is dependent on the premise that asbestos in no__t a complete carcinogen. One source of possible confusion in relating animal studies to human carcinogenesis (343) is that some of the results may relate to fibrogenesis instead of carcinogenesis. For instance, the use of leached asbestos results in the formation of polysallcic acid that causes fibrosis (344). Yet others would relate the observations as supportive of the chemical theory of carcinogenesis. Vigllanl (345) wrote a 1968 review of fibrogenesis differentiated from carcinogenesis, a commendable effort that has been ignored by recent reviewers who relate most animal experiments to carcinogenesis. [192] Combined Exposure to Asbestos and Cigarette Smoke Proponents of asbestos/smoklng interactions have freely
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 51 interpreted the results of experiments as follows: exposure of anlmals to cigarette smoke is slmilar to ad~/nlstratlon of benzopyrene and other purified constituents of cigarette smoke. In other words, proponents have regarded asbestos dust Inhala- tion as similar to tracheal, pleural, peritoneal and other forms of adm~nl-~r~t~n ~of asbestos suspension. It e~uld b<:,. ~ecog- nlzed that there is only one study simulating the human exposure to both inhalantsz [Category 113] hamsters inhaling cigarette smoke and asbestos particulate showed that asbestos is not a carcinogen and cigarette smoke is not a cocarclnogeno There is another study consisting of cigarette smoke inhalation and asbestos tracheal instillatlon~ [Category 123] dogs with instillation of asbestos and inhalation of cigarette smoke developed lung cancer which is not statistically different from the number of dogs with tracheal instillation of asbestos showing itulg cancer. There were no animals exposed to cigarette smoking only so that it is not possible to ~onclude that an interaction occurred. A consideration of the literature on canine carclnogensis has raised several questions on the design of the study {see separate report by this compiler). All the other animal studies that supposedly support the eoncept of asbestos/smoklng interaction were designed not with the use of cigarette smoke but with condensate or selected
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983 Page 52 constituents of cigarette smoke such as benzopyrene, benzo- anthracene and nitrosamine. The technical categories discussed above relating to asbestos and smoke constituents are as follows: [121] tracheal instillation of asbestos and be~Izo- pyrene or benzanthracene in rats with intact trachea or tracheal graf~ ~[ 127] traqheal ~inst~llatlon of asbestos ~~~d benzcpyr~ne or ni~rosamlne in hamsters; [140] peritoneal injections of asbestos and benzopyrene in rats; [150] Ingetlon of asbestos and condensate in rats; and [160] in vitro addition of asbestos and benzopyrene to lung and liver homogenateso The results have been discussed above and are briefly reviewed by Mo~sman and Craighead (346) in support of their interaction theory of cellular proliferation (see below). [193] Trace Metals and Hydroxylase Theory Gross [Category 160~ orlglnally proposed that asbestos carcinogenesis is caused by the composite content of trace metals. Dixon et al [Category 160 and reference 347] modified the trace metal theory to include one enzymatic ~echanlsm. Inter- action is caused by trace metals inhibiting hydroxylase and therefore prolonging the residence time of benzopyrene. Mossman and Cralghead (346) have subscribed to the hydroxylase theory but excluded the importance of .trace metals, on the basis
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 53 of their observations that asbestos with minimal metallic content alone inhibits the enzyme. Many other enzymes are influe~tced by asbestos alone (348, 349) and their relative importance has not been elucidated. It should be noted that there are at least three versions on the role of hydroxylase in asbesto~ ~.~ce~. carcinogenesis. . .~,~ [194] Polyf£1amentous Versus SurfaceCharge Versus Dimensional Theories. Exclusion of the chemical theories (such as trace metals} and focusing on mechanical concepts, one Is faced with the sole importance of particulate dimensions, particulate filamentous structure [Category 130] or surface active charges (350-356). The dimensional theory has been debated in terms of optimal size for carcinogensls (352-355). This compiler has concluded that several mechanical theories have originated from differences in techniques used by individual proponents: in vivo, In vitro, and physlochemical propertles of asbestos particulates without any biologic system. The mschan~cal theories do not explain how interaction would occur with benzopyrene. [195] Asbestos Adsorption of Benzopyrene. Proponents of interaction concept rely on the potential
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 54 properties of asbestos particles to adsorb benzopyrene. How- ever, some asbestos particles already contain this contaminant in the course of processing the material (357, 358). If the surface active theory Is true, then adsorption of benzopyrene would prevent carcinogenesis. The adsorption phenomenon is based o~ phy~!cochemical measurements of benzoDyrene ~a.ed to asbestos particles without concurrent measurement of a biologic response (359-360). The adsorption theory .would be less unacceptable if asbestos particulates extracted An the lungs contained benzopyrene. To the contrary, asbestos bodies from asbestos exposed animals contain iron from hemoglobin and benzopyrene has not been detected. The subject is pursued by microchemical analysis of human lung [see Category 200]. [196] Asbestos Entrapment and Translocatlon Proponents of the adsorption theory have explained their experimental observations by visualizing that asbestos occur as naked partlcu~ates, with a~orbed benzopyrene exerting its co- carcinogenic effect. However, asbestos particulates are phagocytosed by macrophages and those that are not cleared through the airways are translocated through lymphatic and blood circulation (361-365). The asbestos particles persisting in the animal or human lung are entrapped in ferruglnous bodies also
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 55 known as asbestos bodies. It is inconceivable that the adsorbed benzopyrene would act as a cocarclnogen in the lung tissue when the particulates are encased in tissues that need strong reagents to dissolve. [197] Cellular Turnover .._I., ....... -- ~h~'~sence of asbestos and benzopyrene in the lungs is believed to stimulate cells metabollcally resultlng in their de- differentiation that triggers neoplastlc growth (346). However, benzopyrene adsorbed in asbestos paEticles do not cause pleura~ mesothelioma (363), an observation that invalidates the cellular turnover hypothesis. Furthermore, the theory is based on the study of one enzyme, i.e. hydroxylase and there are many others reported to be influenced by asbestos which do not relate to cellular proliferation (364, 365}. Additional discussion of cellular turnover hypothesis appears above under Categories [1111, [112] and [170]. [198] I~munologic Deficiency Proponents of asbestos/smoking concept have cited that each exposure independently causes immunologic deficiency and that the combination of both would render the individual ~ore susceptible to lung cancer. There are no animal studies
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions (January i0, 1983] Page 56 supporting this theory. The published studies relate to the effect of asbestos alone which renders the animal more susceptible to infections and animal cell cultures show a reduction in production of interferon [Categories Ill, 112, and 186]. Miller et al (366, 367) have investigated the macrophage anai ly~phoc3~._~, r~sponses as ~.they relate t~ ~.~-~best~ induced pulmonary fibrosis. More recently, Pernls and Vlgllani (368) proposed he production of Interleukln-i as provldlog a unified view of the pathogenesis of pulmonary dust diseases. This theory as well as others relating to asbestos flbrogenesis (369, 370) are testable and should provide stimulus for further research on asbestos/smoking interaction. [199] Tracheobronchlal Mucocillary Clearance The last group of Ineractlon theories state that cigarette smoking retards mucocillary clearance of asbestos particles. As stated above [Category 112|, asbestos alone retards clearance without any contribution from cigarette saloke. Asbestos particulate clearance is believed to be dependent on dimensional aspects (371, 372) and there is no reported ex~rlmental study showing the influence of cigarette smoking. The often cited anlmal studies that state cigarette smoking depresses clearance, has been challenged by smoking researchers because of the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 57 questionable validity of techniques. The subject is again discussed in the human lung under the next group of Categories.. BIBLIOGP~%PHY and AUTHOR INDEX Among the 372 articles, a duplloate set ~ras received (X~tot~l~g 170 or,46 percent. The geographlcal dlstribut£on of the authors are follows~ UNITED STATES (129 or 35%) FOREIGN (243 or 65%) UAR Arizona 1 UCA California 5 UCT Connecticut UDA Distrct of Columbia 3 UDE Delaware 2 UIL Illinois 2 UIO Iowa 3 ULA Louisiana 1 UMA Massachusetts 3 UMD Maryland 15 UME Maine 1 UMI Michigan 5 UMN Minnesota Ii UMO Missouri 1 UNC North Carolina 9 DNY New York 19 UNE Nebraska 2 UNJ New Jersey 6 UOH Ohio 8 UPA Pennsylvania 4 USC South Carolina 6 UTE Tennessee UTX Texas 2 UUT Utah 2 UVT Vermont 7 U~A Washington 6 UWI Wisconsin 1 UWC West Virginia 2 Total 129 ATL Australia 1 BEL Belgium 1 CAN Canada 11 FIN Finland i FRA France 19 GBR Great Britain 120 GER Germany 18 IND India 23 ITA Italy 8 JAP Japan 5 NET Netherland 1 POL Poland 2 RUS Russia 8 SAF South Africa 24 TAI Talwan ~ Total 243 from
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 58 0001 SchUster NH (1931) J Pathol Baot 34:751-757 Pulmonary asbestosis in a dog. 0002 Webster X (1963) Nature (London) 197~506 Abestosis in non-experimental animals in South Africa. 0003 Gard~r-~L'U~"Cu---ings DE (1931) J Indust Hyg 13~65-81~ 97-114 Studies on experimental pneumonokoniosls. VI. Inhalation of asbestos dust: its effect upon ~rimary tuberculous infection. 0004 Gardner LU (1942) Am Rev Tuberc 45~762-766 Chrysotile asbestos as an indicator of subtle differences in animal tissues. 0005 Vorwald ~J, Durkan TM, Pratt PC AMA ~trch Indust Hyg 3:1-42 Experimental studies on asbestosis. 0006 Ramaswamy AS, Venkatesh DS, Rama Rao R (1953) J Indian Inst Sci 35A:319-331 The nature of lesions caused by asbestos and m/ca in experimental pneumokoniosis in guinea-pigs. 0007 Davis JMG (1963) Br J Exp Pathol 44:454-464 An electron m~croscopy study of the e~ect of asbestos dust in the lung. 0008 Davis JMG (1963) Br J Exp Pathol 44~568-575 The ultrastructural changes that occur during the transformation of lung macrophages to giant cells and flbroblast in experimental asbestosis. 0009 Davfs JMG (1964) Br J Exp Pathol 45:634-641 The ultrastructure of asbestos bodfes ~rom gulnea-plg lungs.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 59 0010 Wagner JC (1963) BE J Indust Med 20:1-12 Asbestosis in experimental animals. 0011 Holt PF, Mills J (1964) Intern Congr Occupational Health, 14th, 2=667-70. Experimental asbestosis In guinea pigs. Holt PF, Mills J, Young DK (1966) J Pathol Bact 92z185-195 Experimental asbestosls in the gulnea-plg. 0013 Gross P, de Treville TP (1967) Arch Environ Health 15~638-649 Experimental asbestosls. Studies on the progressiveness of the pulmonary fibrosis caused by chrysotile dust. 0014 Holt PF, Young DK (1967) J Pathol Bact 93:696-699 The mechanism of production of asbestos bodies from anthophyllite fibres. 0015 Botham SK, Holt PF (1968) J Pathol Bact 96=443-453 The me~hanlsm of formation of asbestos bodies. 0016 Botham SK, Holt PF (1971) J Pathol i05:159-167 Development of asbestos bodies on amosite, chrysotile and crocidollte fibres in gulnea-pig lungs. 0017 Both~m SK, Holt PF (1972) J Pathol 107=245-252 Asbestos-body formation in the lungs of rats and gulnea-pigs after inhalation of anthoph¥11ite. 0018 Botham SK, Holt PF (1972) Br 3 Exp Pathol 53~612-620 The effects of inhaled crocldolltes from Transvaal and North-West Cape mines on the lungs of rats and gulnea-plgs.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 60 0019 Hiett DM (1978) Br J Indust Med 35:129-134 Experimental asbestosls~ an investigation of functional and pathological disturbances. I. Methods, control animals and exposure conditions. 0020 Hiett DM (1978) Br J Indust Med 35~135-145 Experimental asbestosis: an investigation of functional and Patho!0~!ca! disturbances, iIo Results for chrys~tile and 0021 Miller K, Calverley A, Kagan E (1980) Environ Res 22~31-39 Evidence of a quartz-lnduced chemotactlc factor for guinea pig alveolar macrophages. (X) 0022 Holt PF (1981) J Pathol 133:123-129 Transport of inhaled dust to extrapulmonary sites. (X) 0023 Holt PF (1982) Environ Hes 27:255-260 Translocation of asbestos dust through the bronchiolar wall. 0024 Lee KP, Barras CE, Griffith FD, waritz RS, Lapin CA (1981) Environ Res 24~167-191 Comparative pulmonary responses to inhaled inorganic fibers with asbestos and fiberglass. (X) 0025 Lee KP, Barras CE, Grifflth FD, Warltz RS (1981} Am J Pathol 102:314-323 PUlmonary response and transmigration of inorganic fibers by inhalation exposure. 0026 Emerson RJ, Coffin B, Cole PJ (1982) Am Rev Respir Dis Suppl 125:Part 2, 165 Effect of systemic mononuolear cell activation on asbestos induced pulmonary lesions in guinea pigs. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983 Page 61 0027 Rahman Q (1982) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl 125, Part 2:169 Pulmonary biochemical aspects of asbestosls. (X) 0028 Holt PF, Mills J, Young DK {1964) J Pathol Bact 87~ 15-23 The early effects of chrysotile asbestos dust on the rat l~tng. 0029 Gross P, de T~-eville TP, Toker EB, Kaschak M, 9abyak. MA (1967) -~h~.En~r~Health 15:343-355- Experimental asbestosis. The development of lung cancer In rats with pulmonary deposits of cbrysotile asbestos dust. 0030 Gross P (1968) 2nd Intl Co~f Bio Eff Ash 244-245 The production of lung cancers in rats with chrysotile dust. (X) 0031 Donna A, Cappa APM (1967) Med Lavoro 58 : 1-21 Experimental contribution to the study of asbestos pneumo- conlosis. Pneumoconlotic activity of chrysotile asbestos in rats. (Italian) 0032 Donna A (1970) Med Lavoro 61:1-32 Experimental tumors induced by chrysot£1e, crocidollte and amosite asbestos in Sprague-Dawley rats. (Italian) 0033 Davis HV, Reeves AL (1971) Am Indust Eyg Assoc J 32~599-602 Collagen biosynthesis in rat lungs during exposure to asbestos. 0034 Reeves AL, Puro HE, Smith RC (1974) Environ Res 8:178-202 Inhalation carcinogenesis from various forms of asbestos~
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 62 0035 Reeves AL (1976) Ann Cl£n Lab Sol 6=459-466 The carcinogenic effect of Inhaled asbestos fibers. 0036 Turnock AC, Bryk8 S, Bertalanf~y FD (1971) Environ Res 4:86-94 The synthesis of tritlum-labeled asbestos for use in biological research. 0037 Evaua~C~E~ans EJ,.~olmes.A, ~ounam_RF, Jone~ DM, et al (1~73) Environ Res 6=180-201 Studies on the deposition of fnhaled flbEous material in the respiratory tract of the rat and its subsequent clearance using radioactive tracer techniques, i. UICC crocldollte asbestos. 0038 Wagner JC (1972) Cancer Res 39=37-46 The significance of asbestos in tissue. 0039 Wagner JC, Berry G, Skldmore JW, Timbrell V (1974) Br J Cancer 29=252-269 The effects of the inhalation of asbestos in rats. 0040 McDer~tt M, Wagner JC (1975| Inhaled Part 4 Pt 2=415-427 The effects of ~nhaled sillca and chrysotile on the elastic properties of rat lungs; physiological, physical and biochemical studies of lung surfactant. 0041 Wagner JC (1975) Br J Cancer 32=258-259 ~beetos c.~rc£no~enesis. 0042 Tetley TD, Hext PM, Richards RJ, McDermott M (1976) Br J E~p Pathol 57~505-514 Chrysotile-induced asbestosls= changes in the free c~ll population, pulmonary surfactant and whole lung tissue of rats.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 63 0043 Tetley TD, Richards RJ, Harwood JL (1977) Siochem J 166=323-329 Changes in pulmonary surfactant and phosphatldylchol~ne metabolism in rats exposed to chrysot~le asbestos dust. 0044 Ferin J, Leach LJ (1976) Environ Res 12:250-254 The effect of amosite and chrysotile asbestos on the clearance of T~02 particles from the lung. 0045 Mi~d~ton AP, Beckett ST, Davis JMG (1977) Inhaled Part 4:247-258 A study of the short-term retention and clearance of inhaled asbestos by rats, using UICC standard reference samples. (X) 0046 Davis JMG, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Collings P, Middleton AP (1978) Br J Cancer 37:673-688 Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos- related lung disease in rats. (X) 0047 Middleton AP, Beckett ST, Davis JMG (1979) Ann Occup Eyg 22:141-152 Further observations on the short-term retention and clearance of asbestos by rats, using UI~ reference samples. 0048 Morgan A, Evans JC, Holmes A (1977} Inhaled Part 4:259-274 Deposition and clearance of inhaled ~ibrous.mlnerals in the rat. Studies using radioactive tracer techniques. (X) 0049 Morgan A, Talbot RJ, HolmesT& ( 1978 Br J Indust Med 35:146-153 Signlflcanoe.of fibre length in the clearance of asbestos fibers from the lung. 0050 Holmes A, Morgan A (1980) Environ Res 22:13-21 Clearance of anthophyll£te fibers ~co~' the rat lung and the for~at£on of asbestos bodies.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 64 0051 Leong BKJ, Kociba RJ, Pernell HC, Lisowe RW, Ramp¥ LW (1978) J Toxicol Environ Health 4:645-659 Induction of pulmonary carclnoma in rats by chronic iflhalatlon of dust from pulverized asbestos pipe eoverlng. (X) 0052 M~ller K, Kagan g (1977) clin Exp Immunol 29:152-158 Immune adherence reactivity of rat alveolar maorophages following inhalation of crocldo!Ite asbestos. 0059~ Kagan E, Miller K (1978) J Reticuloendothel Soc 23~24 Alveolar macrophage-splenic lymphocyte interactions following chronic asbestos inhalation in the rat. 0054 Miller K, Webster I, Handfield RIM, Skikne MI (1978) J Pathol 124:39-44 Ultrastructure of the lung in the rat following exposure to crocidolite asbestos and quartz. 0055 Miller K (1979) Environ Res 20~162-182 Alterations in the surface-related phenomena of alveolar macrophages following inhalation of crooidQlite asbestos and quartz dusts~ an overview. (X) 0056 Kagan E, Miller K (1979) Adv Exp Med Biol 121~539-554 Alveolar macrophage - splenic lymphocyte interactions following chronic asbestos inhalation in the rat. 0057 Miller K, weintrauh Z, Kagan E (1979) J Immunol 123:1029-1038 Manifestations of cellular immunity in the rat after prolonged asbestos inhalation. I. Physical interaction between alveolar m-crophages and splenic l~hooytes.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 65 0058 Kagan E, M£11er K (1981) Chest Suppl 80:11S,12S Asbestos inhalation and the induction of splenic lymphocytic proliferation In the rat. (X) 0059 Miller K, Kagan E (1981) Environ Res 26:182-194 Manifestations of cellular immunity In the rat after prolonged asbestos inhalation. IIo Alveolar macrophage-lnduced splenic lymphocyte prollferatlon. 0060 Srod¥ AR, Crapo JD (1979) Environ Health Perspect 33:337 Translocatlon and elemantal content of inhaled chrysotile asbestos in the lungs of rats. (X) 0061 Brody AR (1980) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl 121~226 Differential uptake of talc and asbestos inhaled simultaneously by rats during experimental exposure. 0062 Pinkerton ~, Pratt PC, Crapo JD (1980) Am Rev Respir Dis Suppl 121~251 Morphologic lung changes followlng exposure to chrysotile asbestos fibers. (X) 0063 Brody AR, Hill LH, Adklns B Jr, O'Connor RW (1981) Am Rev.Resplr Dis 123:670-679 Chrysotile asbestos inhalation in rats: Deposition pattern and reaction of alveolar epithelium and pulmonary macrophages. 0064 Pinkerton KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JD (1982) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl 125:150 Fibe~ locallzation w~thin alveolar tissue compartments durfng and £ollowlng inhalation of chrysotile. (X) 0065 Davis JMG, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Donaldson K (1980} Br J Exp Pathol 61:272-280 The effects of Intermittent high asbestos exposure (peak dose levels) on the lungs of rats. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 66 0066 Johnson NF, Wagner JC, Wills HA (1980) .Lung 158=221-228 Endocrine cell proliferation in the rat lung following asbestos inhalation. (X) 0067 Johnson NF, Wagner JC, wills HA (1980) J Pathol 131=261-262 Neuroendocrlne cell proliferation in the rat lung following asbestos ~nhalatlon. (X) Vincent JH, Johnston WB, Jones AD, Johnston AM (1981) Am Indust Hyg Assoc J 42:711-721 Static electriflcatlon of airborne asbestos= A study of its causes, assessment and effects of deposition in the lungs of rats. (X) 0069 Nordmann M, Sorge A (1941) Z Kreb~forsch 51s168-182 Lung cancer due to asbestos dust in animal experiments. (X) 0070 Craig DK, Wehner AP, Morrow WG (1972) Am Indust Hyg Assoc J 33:283-292 The generation and characterlzat~on of a respirable aerosol of chrysot£1e asbestos for chronic Inhalat£on studies. 0071 Wehner AP, Busch RH, olson RJ, Craig DK Environ Res 10:368-383 Chronic ~nhalatlon of a~bestos and c~garette smoke by hamsters. 0072 Wehner AP, Dagle GE, Cannon WC, Buschbo~RL (1978) Environ Res 17=367-389 Asbestos oement dust inhalation by hamsters. 0073 Wehner AP, Dagle GE, Cannon WC (1978) Environ Res 16=393-407 Development of an animal uK~delr teohniquesr and an exDosure system to study the effects of asbestos cement dust inhalation.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 67 0074 Wehner AP ( 1980 ) IARC Sol Pub1 1:373-376 Effects of ~nhaled asbestos, asbestos plus cigarette smoke, asbestos-cement and talc baby powder in hamsters. In: Biologlcal effects of at~neral fibres. (X) 0075 Goldstein B, Webster I, Rendall REG, Skikne MI (1978) Environ Res 16 ~216-225 The effects of asbestos-cement dust ~nhalation on baboons. (X) Burns DM (Edltor) (1982) Commercial Union Insurance Companies (Boston) 139-170 Asbestos, smoking and disease. Chapter 5. Smoking a~d asbestos interactions. 0077 Sm/th JMr Wootton IDPr King EJ (1951) Thorax 6:127-136 Experimental asbestosls in rats. The effect of particle size and an added alumina. 0078 L'uechtrath B, Schmldt KG (1959) Beltr Silkoseforsch 61:1-60 On talcum and steatite, their relations to asbestos and their effect In intratracheal animal tests on rats. (G~rman) 0079 Engelbrecht ~14 (1964) S Afr J Lab Clln Med 10:45-48 Experimental studies on asbestos. 0080 Engelbreoht FM, ThWart BF (1972) S Afr Med J 46:462-464 The effect of small ~mounts of aluminlum, CarbOn and carborundum on the development of silicosis and asbestosis. 0081 Gross P~ de Tre~ille 'I~ (1970) ~nt Pne~onlosls conf 3~220-224 Stud4es on the carcinogenic effects of asbestos dust. Pneumoconlosls (Proc Znt Conf, Johannesburg 1969, symposium on asbestos ) (X)
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 68 0082 Beg MU, Rahman Q, Viswanathan PN, Zaldl SH (1973) Environ Physlol Biochem 3:185-191 The effect of asbestos dust on mitochondrlal enzymes of rat lung. 0083 Beg ME, Farooq M, Saxena V, Rahman Q, et al (1977) Environ Pollut Bum Health [Proc Int symp ist 1975, Eng.] 355-367 Biochemical studies on the cellular and acellular fraction of l~ng lavage and its relation with lung tissue in experlmental asbestosis. 0084 Rahman Q, Beg ME,Vlswanathan PN, "Zaidi SH (1976) Scand J work Environ Health 1:50-53 Blochem/cal changes caused by asbestos dust in the lungs of rats. 0085 Shabad LM, Pylev L~, Krivosheeva LV, Kulagnina TF et al (1974) J Natl Cancer Inst 52zi175-i187 Experimental studies on asbestos carcinogenlclty. 0086 8alk RA, Vosamae & (1975) Klin Onkol 2:88-94 Tumor induction in rats by intratracheal injection of a benzo(a)pyrene - chrysotile asbestos dust mixture. (X} 0087 Sanders CL Jr (1975) Health Phys 28:383-386 Do~e distribution and neoplasla in the lung following Intra- tracheal Instillatlon of 239Pu02 and asbestos. 0088 Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Daniel H, Tichoux G (1979} Rev Fr Mal Re~plr 7=707-716 Experimental study of the fate of asbestos fibers in the respiratory system. (French) (X) 0089 Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Daniel H, Tichoux G (1979) Thorax 34¢693-694 Behavlour of asbestos fibres in the respiratory system as shown by animal experiments. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 69 0090 Le Bouffant L, Martin JC, Daniel H (1979) Nouv Presse Med 8:2083-2088 Factors influencing the clearance and e|Igratlon of inhaled mlneral particles. (French} (X) 0091 To~ping DC, Netteshelm P (1980) J Naatl Cancer Inst 65:627-630 TWO-stage carclno~enesls studies with asbestos in Fischer 344 rats . (X) 0092 ..... " Topping DC, Netteshelm P, Mar~In OH 11980) J Environ Pathol Toxicol 3:261-275 Toxic and tumorigenic effects of asbestos on tracheal mucosa. 0093 Netteshelm P (1981) Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxlcol 21:133-163 Hosts and environmental factors enhancing carcinogenesis in the respiratory tract. (X) 0094 Smith WE (1966) Lung Tumors in Animals, Div CanceE Res, Perugia 565-570 Asbestos in relation to tumors of the respiratory tract. 0095 Su=ukl Y, Churg J (1970) Environ Res 3:107-118 For~atlon of the asbestos body. A comparative study with three types of asbestos. 0096 Suzuki Y, Churg J, Ono T (1972) Am J Pathol 69:373-388 Phagocytic activity of the alveolar epithellal cells in pulmonary asbesto~is. 0097 Suzuku Y (~974) Environ Health Persp 9~241-252 Interaction of asbestos with alveolar cells.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983| Page 70 0098 Pylev LN, Roe F, Warwick D (1970) Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 14:47-51 Macropha~e reaction of hamster lung tissue on intratracheal administration of trltlum-labeled benzo(a)pyrene mixed w~th carbon black and asbestos. (Russian) 0099 Pylev L~, Koval'skaya GD, Yakovenko GN (1975) Gig Tr Prof Zabol 0~31-35 Carcinogenic activity of synthetic asbestos. (RUSsian) 0100 Pylev LN, Kulaglna TF (1982) Prax Klln Pneumol 36:330 Blastoma-genesln of natural and synthetic asbestos after experimental instillatlon in hamster lung. (German) (X) 0101 Kung-Vo~amae A, Vinkmann F (1980) IARC Scl Publ ~o. 30, 1:305-310 Cumblned carcinogenic action of chrysotile asbestos dust and N- nltrosodlethylamine on the respiratory tract of Syrian goldem hamster. Inz Biological effect of mineral fibres. (X) 0102 Man SFP, Lee TK, Gibney RTN, Logus JW (1980) Arch Environ Health 35z283-286 Canine tracheal mucus transport of particulate pollutants: comparison of radlolabeled corn pollen, ragweed pollen, asbestos, silica, and talc to Dowex anion exchange particles. (X) 0103 Humphrey EW, Ewing SL, Wrigley JV, Northrup ~F III et al (19811 Cancer 47~1994-1999 The production of malignant tumors of the lung and pleura in dog from Intratracheal asbestos instillation and cigarette smoking. 0104 gofer J, Szymczyklewics K, Wiecek E (1961) Proc Int Congr Occup Health, 13th, New York 801-805 Effect of fibrous and amorphous asbestos on the collagen content in the lungs of guinea pigs. N N .~J
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 71 0105 Sz~mcz~klewlcz K {1970) Bull Pc1 Med Sol Hist 13:115-119 Some aspects of pathogenesls of asbestosis. 0106 Viswanathan PN, Dogra RKS, Shanker R, Zaldl SB (1973) Int Arch Arbeltsmed 31z51-59 Pulmonary flbrogenlc response of guinea pigs to amoslte dust. 010~ Vi~Wan-ath~n pN, Rahman ~, Beg MU, Zaidi SH ~9~3) EnVlr~-P~yslol Biochem 3:120-126 Pulmonary lysosomal enzymes in experimental asbestosls in guinea pigs. 0108 Singh J, Beg NU, Viswanathan PN, Zaldi SH (1975) Environ Physlol Biochem 5:267-272 Enzymatic changes in lung tissue of ashestotlc guinea pigs. 0109 Singh J, Beg MU, Kaw JL, Viswanathan PN, Zaidl SE (1976) Acta Pharmacol Toxlcol 39:77-86 Biochemical changes and pulmonary response of guinea pigs to asbestos dust. 0110 Singh J, Pandey SD, Viswanathan PN, Zaldl SH (1978) Indian J Exp Biol 16:208-211 Pulmonary response of guinea pigs to asbestos dust: changes free and bound amino acids. 011i Narang S, Kaw JL, zaldl SH (1978) Acta Phar~acol Toxlcol 42:337-342 Formation of asbestos bodies under the influence of parenteral iron overload. 0112 Misra V, Ratunan Q, Viswanathan PN. (1978) Environ Res 16:55-61 Biochemical changes in guinea pig lungs due to amoslte asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 72 0113 Schoenberger C, Hunnlnghake G, Gedek J, Crystal R AN Rev Respir Dis Suppl 121~257 Role of alveolar ~acrophages in asbestosls: modulation of neutrophil migration to the lung following asbestos exposure. (X) 0114 Dodson RF, Burst GA, Williams MG Jr (1980) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl 121:232 Short-term response of lung parenchyma following asbestos exposure. (X) 0115 Jalswal AK, Viswanathan PN (1900) I~dian J Biochem Bioph¥ Suppl 17~25 Pulmonary biochemical response to combined effect of asbestos dust and pulmonary infection. (X) 0116 Jalswal AK (1981) Toxicology 122:59-68 Biochemical studies in infective amosite pneuu~conlosis. (X) 0117 King EJ, Clegg JW, Rae VM (1946) Thorax i~188-197 The effect of asbestos,and of asbestos and alumlnium, on the lungs of rabbits. 0118 Jaurand MC, Bignon J, Gaudichet A, Magne L, Oblln A Environ Res 17:216-227 Biological effects of chrysotile after S02 sorptlon. II. Effects on alveolar macrophages and red blood cells. (X) 011% Oblln A, Warnet JM, Jaurand MC, Bignon J, Claude JR (1978) Br J Exp Pathol 59~32-37 Biological effects of chrysolite after 802 sorptiono III. Effects on the blochem/cal components of alveolar washing. 0120 Wilcox K, Marcussen W, Furst A Proc West Pharmacol Soc 17~247-250 Intratracheal ~nstillatlon of asbestos in mice.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 77 0153 Smith WE (1973) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 34z227-228 Asbestos, talc and nitrites in relation to gastric cancer. 0154 ~mit~ WE (1980) Environ Health Perspec 34z57 COmments on "Experimental approaches for exposure to..slz~d glass fibers" (X) ........ - .... 0155 Peacock PR, Peacock A (1966) Lung Tumors in Animals, L S~veri (Editor) 571-588 Asbestos induced tumours in fowls. 0156 Miller JW, Sayers RR (1936) Pub Health ~) 51~1677-1689 The physiological response of peritoneal tissue to certain £ndustrial and pure mineral dusts. 0157 Schulz RZ, williams CR (1942) J Indust Hyg Toxicol 24~75-79 COmmercial talc animal and mineralogical studies. 0158 8cheuer E, Ruth F, Pott F (1973) Arch Geschwulstforsch 41~120-136 Investigations concerning the morphology of exporlmental tumors induced in rats by intraperltoneal injection of asbestos dust. 0159" Engelbrecht FM, Burger BF (1973) S Aft Med J 47:1746-1750 Biologioal effect of asbestos dust on the peritoneal viscera of rats. 0160 Engelbrecht FM, Burger BF (1975) S Aft Med J 49~87-90 Mesothellal reaction to asbestos and other irritants after Intraperltoneal injection.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 78 0161 Shin ML, Firmlnger HI Am J Pathol 70:291-314 Acute and chronic effects of Intraperitoneal injection of two types of asbestos in rats with a study of the hlstopathogenesls and ultrastructure of resulting mesotheliomas. 0162 Sethi S, Beck EG, Manojlovic H (1974) Ann Occup Hyg ~7 : 53-56 ...... Giant cell forma~io, ~t~r ~ntraperltonea~'~app~ll'c~atlon crocidollte asbestos fibres in rats. Cover slip method. 0163 Stevens RE, Will LA, Osborne JW, Cole DA, Donham KJ (1978) Cell Tissue K1net 11:689 Cyclic nuoleotlde concentrations in asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothellomas in rats. (X) 0164 Stevens RH, Will LA, Cole DA, Meek ES, Frank CW, Donham KJ (1979) Environ R~s 19:442-448 Cyclic nucleotlde concentrations in asbestos-lnduced rat peritoneal moeothelloma. (X) 0165 Pigott GH, Ishmael J (1979) J Soc Occup Med 29:20-21 Toxicological assessment of potential hazards from new inorganic fibres. 0166 Sahu AP, Shanker R, Zaidl SH (1978) Indian J Exp Biol 16:976-979 Early changes in lymph nodes of mlce after Intraperltoneal InJectlon of asbestos. 0167 Kanazawa K, Yamamoto T, Yuasa Y (1979) Int J Cancer 23:866-874 Enhancement by asbestos of oncogenesis by Maloney ~urlne sarcoma virus in CBA mice. 0168 Kawai T (1979) Acta Path Jap 29:421-433 Histopathological studies on experimentally induced pul~onary, pleura1 and peritoneal neoplasms in mice by intraperltoneal injection of chrysotile asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [J~nuary 10, 1983] Page 79 0169 Westlake GE, SpJut RJ, Smith !~I (1965) Lab Invest 14~2029-2033 --. Penetration of colonic mocosa by asbestos particles. An electron microscopic study in rats fed asbestos dust. 0170 Pontefract RD, CunninghamEM (1973) Nature 243=352-353 Penetration of asbestos t~r~ugh the dlge~ve e~ct o6 r&.~,,.a.~.-. 0171 Cunningham HM, Moodie CA, Lawrence GA, Pontefract RD (1977) Arch Environ Co.tam Toxlcol 6~5~7-513 Chronic effects of ingested asbestos ~n rats. (X) 0172 Gross P, Harley RA, Swlnburne IR-,~av£s JMG, Greene WE (1974) Arch Environ Health 291341-347 Ingested mineral fibers. Do they penetrate tissue or cause cancer? 0173 Gross P (1974) Arch Environ Health 29~i15-I17 IS short-flbered asbestos dust ~ biological hazard? 0174 ~" Amacher DE, Alarlf A, Epstein SS (1974) Environ Health Persp 9~319-324 Effects of ingested chrysotile on DNA synthesis in the gastro- intestinal tract and liver of the rat. 0175 AmacherDE, Alarlf A, Epeteln SS (1975) Environ Res I0~208-216 The deae-<lepen~ent effects of Lugested chryaotile on D~A synthesis in the gastrolntestlnal tract, liver, and pancreas of the rat. ~ 0176 Miller K, Kagan E (1976) J Retlculoendothel So~ 20~59-70 The in vlvo effects of asbestos on ~acrophage ~embrane structure and population character~stlcs of macrophages: a scanning electron microscope study.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [3anuary 10 • 1983 ] Page 80 0177 Bolton RE• Davis JMG (1976) Ann Occup Hyg 19=121-128 The short-term ef£ects o£ chronic asbestos ingestion ~n rats. 0178 3acobs R, Dodgson F~, Rtchards 1~ (1977) Br J Exp Pathol 58:541-548 A preliminary study of biochemical changes in the rat small intestine fol~ Owlng 0179 Jacobs R, Humphrys Br J Exp Pathol 59=443-453 Light and electron microscope studies of the rat digestive tract followlsg prolonged and short-term ingestion of chrysotile asbestos. (X) 0180 Jacobs R, Weinzweig M, Dodgson KS, Richards RJ (1978) Br J Exp Pathol 59:594-600 Nucleic acid metabolism in the rat following short-term and prolonged ingestion of chrysotile asbestos or clgarette-smoke condensate. 0181 Donham KJ, Berg 3W, WIll LA~ Leintnger JR (1980) Cancer 45 : 1073-1084 The e££ects o£ long-term ingestion o£ asbestos on the colon o£ F344 rats. (X) 0182 Sebastlen P, Masse R, Bignon J (1980) Environ Res 22=201-216 Recovery of ingested asbestos fibers fro~ the gastrointestinal lymph in rats. (X) 0183 Wa~d JN~ Frank ~,• ~tk. M, Devor D, ~arone ~ (1980) J ~.nvJ, ron Pathol ~ox£~ol 3~301-312 Ingested asbestos and Intestinal carcinogenesis In F344 rats. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January lO, 1983] Page 83. 0184 Hilding AC, Hilding DA, Larson DM, Aufderheide &C (1981) Arch Environ Health 36:298-303 Biological effects of ingested amosite asbestos, toconite rail- ings, diatomaceous earth and Lake Superior water in rats. (X) 0185 Eisele GR (1981) Environ Int 5:11-14 A perspective on asbestos ingestion. (X) 0186 .... Hamilton J, vassalli JD, Reich E (1976) J Exp Med 144:1689-1694 Macrophage plasmlnogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by antl-inflammatory steroids. 0187 Zaidl SH (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:239-240 Ingestion of asbestos. 0188 Zaidi SH, Gupta GSD, Rahman Q, Kaw JL, Shanker R (1976) Environ Res 12:139-143 Early response of gastric mucosa to ingested asbestos dust and the dissolution of nickel. 0189 Smith t~E, Hubert DD, Sobel EJ, Peters ET, Doerfler TE (1980) J Environ Pathol Toxlcol 3:277-300 Health of experimental animals drinking water with and without amoslte asbestos and other mineral particles. (X) 0190 Lavappa KS, Fu MM, Epstein SS (1975) Environ Res 10:165-173 Cytogenetlc studies on chrysotile asbestos. 0191 E~tein SS, Varnes M (1976) Experlentla 32:602-604 The short-term effects of ingested chrysotile asbestos on DNA synthesis in the pancreas and other organs of a prlmate.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions ~[January 10, 1983] Page 83 0200 Kanazawa K, Roe FJC, Yamamoto T (1979) Int J Cancer 23:858-865 Milky spots (~aches lalteuuses) as structures which trap asbestos In mesothe~lal layers and thei~ significance in the pathogenesls of mesothellal neoplasla. 0201 Hamilton JA (1980 Environ Heal~h Perepect, 3~:69~74 . Ma~rophageS~mulat~on and the Infla~ry £e~;pons; to asbestos. (X) 0202 Hamilton JA (1981) J Tox£col Environ Health 8~205-214 Measurements of blood flow and vascular permeability changes in response to 12-0-tetradecanoy1-phorbol-13-acetate and to asbestos f~bers. (X) 0203 Harlngton JS, Roe FJC, Walters M (1967) S Afr Med J 41:800-804 Studies of the mode of action of asbestos as a carcinogen. 0~04 Pelfrene AF (1977) Microvasc Res 13~261-266 Early vascular modifications induced by asbestos fibers in the hamster cheek pouch. 0205 Pelfrene AF (1977) Med Lavoro 68~349-354 Magnesium and cytotoxlc effects of asbestos fibers. 0206 Rasanen T (1962) Acta Endocr (Kobenhavn) 41:437-440 Effects of heparln and asbestos with cort~eotrophln on the mucosal met cells and tissue eos~nophils of rat stomach. 0207 Jacobs R, R~chards RJ (1980) Environ Res 2:423-431 Contribution of 6-6(n)-3[H] sucrose and its radlolabele~ degradation products from Isolate~, perfusod rat small ~ntest~ne loops followlng prolongod Ingestion of chrysot~le asbestos.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 84 0208 Dixon JR, Lowe DB, Richards DE, Stoklnger BE (1969) Trace Subst Environ Health 141-159 Role of trace metals in chemical carcinogenesis - asbestos cancers. 0209 Kandaswa~i C, O'Brlen PJ (1980) Biochem Biophys Res COm~un 97:794-801 Effects of asbesto~ o~ mambrane tran~rt:a~ met~ii~m uf ~enzo(a}pyrene. (X) ~ 0210 Kandaswam/ C, O'Brlen PJ (1981) Bioche~Pharemcol 30s011-814 Pulmonary metabolism of benso(a)p~rene~ effects of asbestos. (X) 0211 Lakowlcz JR, Hylden JL (1978) Nature 275~446-448 Asbestos mediated membrane uptake of benzo(a)pyrene observed by fluorescence spectroscopy. 0212 Lakowicz JR, Hylden JL, Bevan DR (1979) Nature 279:350 Asbestos-enhanced uptake of carcinogens. (X) 0213 Lakowlcz JR, Bevan DR (1979) Biochemistry 18s5170-5176 Effects of asbestos, iron oxide, silica, and carbon black on the mlcroso~al av~ilabillty of benzo(a)pyrene. 0214 Lakovtcz JR, Bevan DR (1980) Cbem Biol Xnteract 29~129-138 Benzo(a)pyrene uptake into rat liver ~Icrosomes: effects of adsorption of ben~o(a)pyrene to asbestos and non-flbrous ~Lineral particulates. (X) 0215 Lakowlcz JR, Bevan DR (1980 The In Vitro Effects of M~neral Dusts 169-175 Effects of adsorption of benzo(a)pyrene to asbestos and non- fibrous ~ineral particulates upon its rate of uptake ~nto phospholIpid vesicles and rat liver ~/crosomes. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10• 1983] Page 85 0216 Bevan DR, Riemer SC, Lakowicz JR (1981) 3 Toxtcol Environ Health 8~241-250 Effects of particulate ~atter on rates of membrane uptake of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. (X) 0217 Light WG (1979) Nature 279:349-350 Asbestos-enhanced u~t=~e of car.cinoge,~. 0218 Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Gromle¥ IP (Editors) (1980) Acade~/¢ Press• London, 367 pages The In Vitro Effects of Mineral Dusts. (Z) 0219 Koshi K, Nayashi E, Sakabe H (1968) Ind Health 6:69-79 Cell toxicity and hemolytic action of asbestos dust. 0220 Daniel E• Le Bouffant L (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dust 33-40 5. Study of a quantitative scale for assessing the cytotoxicity of mineral dusts. (X) 0221 Desai R, Eext P, Richards R (1975) Life Sci 16~1931-19038 The prevention of asbestos-induced hemolysis. 0222 Macnab G, Harington JS (1967) Nature 214~522-523 Eaemolytic activity of asbestos and other mineral dust. 0223 Schnltzer 1~, Pundsack FL (1970) Environ Res 3~1-13 Asbestos Eemolysis. 0224 Ralman Q, Narang S, Kaw 3L, Zaldi SH (1974) Environ Phyeiol B£ochem 4=284-288 Asbestos induced haemolysis in relation to its silica solubility.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 86 0225 Richards RJ, George G, Hunt J, Tetley TD (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 323-332. 38. The relationship between the haemolytlc potential of certain particulates and their reactivity at the vivo. (X) 0226 ~ " Depasse J (1980) The in vitro effects.cf~ ~.nersl dusts ~125-130 i~. Hecha~l~m o£~he haemolysis by Col~old~l silica. ~X) 0227 Davis JMG (1967) Br J Exp Pathol 48:379-385 The effects of chrysotlle asbestos dust on lung macrophages maintained in organ culture. An electron-mlcroscope Stu~ly. 0228 Davis JMG (1972) Br J Exp Pathol 53~652-658 The effects of polyvinyl pyridineyn-oxide (P204) on the cytopathogen~c action of chrysotile asbestos in vlvo and in vitro. 0229 Beck ~G, Holt PF, Nasrallah ET Br J Ind Med 28~179-185. Effects of chrysotile and acid-treated chrysotfle on ~acrophage cultures. 0230 Beck EG, Holt PF, Manojlovlc N (1972) Br J Ind Med 29~280-286 Comparison of effects on macrophage cultures of glass fibre, glass powder, and chrysotile asbestos. 0231 Beck EG (1980) IARC Sci Publ I~385-400 Experimenta~ pathology - in vitro studies - related to asbestos and other ~Ineral fibres. In: B~ologlcal effects of mineral dusts. (X)
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Asbes~os/SmOk£ng ~nteract£ons [January i0, 1983] Page 87 0232 Ea~ JL, Za£d£ SH (1975) Acta Phar~acol Toxicol 36:225-235 In vitro studies on the cytotoxic action of dif£erent varieties of asbestos dust on ~acrophages. 0233 Bruch 3 (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9z253-254 Response-of cell ~it-~e~ to asbesto~ ~b~, _ 0234 Goldsteln RH, Miller K, Glassroth J, Snlder GL, Po~gar p (1982) Am Rev Resplr Dis Supp1 ~25~165 Effect of asbestos fibers on collagen and production in flbroblast and macrophage co-~ultures. (X) 0235 Cozening DN, Hayes MJ, Styles JA, Nicholas JA (1971) Inhaled Particles it499-506 Comparison between in vitro tox/clty of dusts of certain polymers and minerals and their flbrogenlclty. 0236 Styles JA, Wilson J (1973) Ann Occup Hyg 16~241-250 Comparison between An vitro toxicity of polymer and mineral dusts and their fibrogenicity. 0237 Miller K, Eandfield RIM, Kagan E (1978) Environ Res 15:139-154 The effect of different mineral dusts on the mechanism of phagocytosis~ a scanning electron ~icroscope study. 0238 Miller K The An vitro effects of mineral dusts 89-95 12. The ~n v~tro effect of different ~ineral dusts on th~e ~echanis= of phagocytosls. (X) 0239 Jaurand MC, Kaplan H, Thiollet J, P~nchon MC et al (1979) Am J Pathol 94=529-538 Phagocytoe£s of chrysotll~ fibers by pleural mesothel~al cells culture. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactfons [January i0, 1983] Page 88 0240 Kaplan H, Jaurand MC, Pincho, MC, Bernaudln JF et al (1980) IARC Sci Pub1 1~451-457 How pleural mesothellal cells react in vitro with chrysotile fibres. In: Biological effects of m/neral fibres. (X) 0241 Rohock K, Klosterkotter W (1973) Staub-Reinhalt Luft 33 ~279-282 Cytotoxlclty of asbestos dust. (German) 0242 • -. • "" " " "':~" " Richards RJ, Hext PM, Elundell G, Benerson WJ, Volcanl BE (1974) Er J Exp Pathol 55~275-281 Ultrastructuralchanges in lung fihroblast cultures exposed to chrysotile asbestos. 0243 glchards RJ, Hext PM, Desal R, Tetley T, Hunt Jet al (1975} Inhaled Part 2:477-493 Chrysotile asbestos: biological reaction potential. 0244 Hext PM, Richards RJ (1976) Br J Exp Pathol 57=281-285 Biochemical effects of asbestlform minerals on lung fibroblast cult0res ~ 0245 Richards RJ, Jacoby F (1976) Environ Res 11=112-121 Light microscop~ studies on the effects Of chrysotile asbestos and fib~: glass on the morphology and retlculln formation of cultured lung flbroblast. 0246 Hext PH, Hunt J, Oodgson KS, Richards RJ (1977) Br J Exp Pathol 58=160-167 The effects of long-term exposure of lung flhroblast strains to chrysotlle asbestos. o247 Hunt J, Pooley FD, Richar~s RJ (1981) Environ Res 26 =51-68 Biologlcal reactivity of calcium silicate composites - in vitro studies. ( X )
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January !0, 1983] Page 90 0256 Kioshi K, Sakabe H (1972) Ind Health 10=125-127 Effects of asbestos or quartz particles on the Nixed cUltures of macrophage and 3T6 cell. 0257 Bey E, Harlngton JS (1971) J Exp Med 133=I149-i169 Cytotoxlc effects of some Nineral dusts on Syrian hamster peritoneal macrophages .... ,_-..~._~_~ . 0258 Miller K, Harington JS (1972) Er J Exp Pathol 53 : : 397-405_ Some biochemical effects of asbestos on macrophages. 0259 Allison AC (1973) IARC Scl Publ 8:89-93 Experimental methods - cell a.nd tissue culture= effects of asbestos particles on ~acrophages, mesothellal cells and flbroblasts. (X) 0260 Allison AC (1977) Nobel Symp 40 : 337-356 Interactions of silica and asbestos with mecrophages. (X) 0261 Dean RT, Hylton W, Allison AC (1979) Biochim Biophys Acta 584=57-65 Lysosomal enzyme secretion by macrophages during Intracellular storage of particles. 0262 Morgan DML, Allison AC (1980) The in vitro effects of Nineral dusts 75-81 I0. Effects of silica ~nd asbestos on alveolar and peritoneal macrophages= a comparative study. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 91 0263 Skeldon N, Steele L (1978) Br J Pharmacol 64=448P-449P The effects of different partlculate stimuli o~ the extracellular release of prostaglandlns and lysosomal enzymes from mouse peritoneal macrophages In vitro. 0264 Costrini ~%M, Stevens CA, Gee JBL (1978) Chest 74=334 The effect of asbestos on secretion of elasta~- perlt~ne~ma~phages. ~(X) 0265 Kaw JL, Tilkes F, Beck EG (1982) Br J Exp Pathol 63:109-115 Reaction of cells cultured in vitro to different esbentos dusts of equal surface area but different fibre length. 0266 Pigott GH, Judge PJ (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 53-57 8. The effects of mineral dusts in vltro~ a comparison of the response of rat peritoneal macrophages and the P388DI cell llnes. (X) 0267 Wade MJ, LIpkln LE, Tucker RW, Frank AL (1976) Nature 264~444-446 Asbestos cytotoxlclty in a long term macrophage-like cell culture. 0268 Wade MJ, LIpkln LE, Stanton HP, Frank AL (1980) Tb~ in vitro effects of mineral dusts 351-357 42. P338DI In vitro cytotoxlclty assay as applied to asbestos and other minerals= its possible relevance to carclnogenlclty. 0269 Lipkin L~ (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34:91-I02 Cellular effects of asbesto~ and other fibers= correlations with in vlvo induction of pleural sarcoma. 0270 Lemkin P, LIpkin L, Merrll C, Shlfrln S (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34~75-09 Protein abnormalities in macrophages bearing anbest~s.
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ksbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 92 0271 Wright A, Gor~ley IP, Colllngs PL, Davis JMG (1980) The in vitro effects of ~Ineral dusts 25-31 4. The cytotoxicities of asbestos and other fibrous dusts. 0272 Gormley IP, Wright A, Colllngs p, Davis JMG (1980) IARC Scl Publ I~427-434 The cytotoxlcit¥ of UICC and modified asbestos fibres in vitro. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) Gormley IP, Wright MO (1980) IJ~RC Sol Publ Iz435-439 Electrophyslologlcal changes induced by asbestos in ~acrophage- llke cells during long-term culture. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) " 0274 Wright MO, Gormley IP (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 159-168 20. The application of electro-physlological techniques in the investigation of phagocytosis. (X) 0275 Davies R (1980) 1ARC Sol Pub1 1~419-425 The effect of mineral fibres on macrophages. Xn~ Biological effects of adneral fibres. (X) 0276 Davies R (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 67-74 9. The effect of dusts on enzyme release from macrophages. (X) 0277 Johnson NF, Davies R (1980) The ~n vitro effects of mineral dusts 97-103 13. The effect of crocidollte and chrysotile on peritoneal macrophagesz a study by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (X) 0278 Johnson I~, Davies R (1981) Br J Ex~ Pathol 62~559-570 An ultrastructural study of the effects of asbestes fibres on cultured peritoneal ~acrophages.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 93 0279 Frank AL (1977) Unpubllshed paper, (Thesis, City Unlv of NY) 1-I02 Quantltatlon of asbestos-lnduced hyperplasia in hamster trachea eplthellummalntalned in organ culture. (X) 0280 Frank AL (1980) The in vitro effects of n~Lneral dusts 235-240 27. Asbestos-lnduced changes ~n hamster trachea organ ~itur~. 0281 Chaabe~laln M, Brown RC (1978) Br O Exp Pathal 59:183-189 The cytotoxio effects of asbestos and other mineral dust in tissue culture cell lines. 0282 Chamberlain M, Brown RC, Grlfflths DM (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 345-349 41. The correlation between the carcinogenic activities in vivo and the cytopathlc effects in vitro of mineral dus~s. (X) 0283 Brown RC, Chamberlain M (1980) IARC Sci Publ I~401-407 The activity of two types of asbestos in tissue culture. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0284 Cha~berlaln M (1982) Carcinogenesis 3~337-339 The influence of mineral dusts on metabolic co-operation between ~am~alian cells in tissue culture. 0285 Mossman BT, Kessler J:B, Ley BW, Cralghead JE (1977) Lab Invest 36~131-139 Interaction of crocldollte asbestos with hamster resp~Lratory mucosa in organ culture. 0286 Mossman BT, Cralghead Jr, MacPherson BV (1980) Science 207:311-313 Asbestos-lnduced epithelial changes in organ cultures of hanmter trachea: inhibition by retlnyl methyl ether. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 94 0287 Mossman BT, Adler KB, Craighead JE (1980) The in vitro effects of ~L~neral dusts 0~241-250 28. Cytotoxic and prollferative changes in tracheal organ and cell cultures after exposure to mineral dusts. (X) 0288 Landesman JM, Mossman BT (1982) Cancer Res 42~3669-3675 ~nductlon of ornlthlne decar~oxylase in hamster tracheal phorbol-13-acetate. (X) 0289 Relss B, Welsburger JH, Willlams GM (1979) Environ Health Elf Res Ser Pt 4, 37 pages. Asbestos and gastro-lntestlnal cancer: cel~ culture studies. (X) 0290 Tilkes F, Beck EG (1980) /ARC Sci Publ I~475-483 Comparison of length-dependent cytotoxlcity of inhalable asbestos and man-made mineral fibres. In: Biological effects of m~neral fibres. (X) 0291 Beck EG, Tilkes F (1980) The in vitro effect of ~ineral dusts 339-343 40. In vitro effects of defined minera~ fibres. (X) 0292 Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Grlffiths DM, Timbrell V (1978) Int J Cancer 22~721-727 The effect of fibre size on the in vitro biological activity of three types of amphibole asbestos. 0293 Gormley IP, Bolton RE, Brown G, Davis JMG, Donaldson K (1980) Carcinogenesis it219-231 Studies on the morphologlcal patterns of asbestos ~nduced mesothellomas in vlvo and in vitro. (X) 0294 Brown RC, Cha~nberlaln M, Davies R, Morgan DML et al (1980) The in vitro effects of m~neral dusts 47-52 7. A comparison of 4 in vitro systems applied to 21 dusts. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January I0~ 1983] Page 95 0295 Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Sutton GT (1980) The in vitro effects of m4neral dusts 41-45 6. Detailed differences in techniques affect comparisons between the aotlvit¥ of different fibres. (X) 0296 Sincock A, Seabrlght M (1975) Nature 257:56-58 Induction of chromosome changes in Chinese _hamster .c~lls by ex_p~.~,~.~.~e~_to~ fibres. 0297 Neugut AI, Eisenberg D, Silverateln M, Pulkrabek Pet al (1978) Environ Re~ 17=256-265 Effects of asbestos on epltheliold cell lines. (X) 0298 Euang SL, Saggloro D, Michelmann H, Malllng HV (1978) Mutat Res 57:225-232 Genetic effects of crocldollte asbestos In Chinese hamster lung cells. 0299 Huang SL (1979) Mutat Res 68:265-274 Amoslte, chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos are mutagenlc in Chinese hamster lung cells. (X) 0300 Prlce-Jones MJ, Gubblngs G, Chamberlain M (1980) Mutat Res 79:331-336 The genet£c effects of crocldollte asbestos= comparison of chromosome abnormalities and sister-chromatld exchanges. (X) 0301 Liv£ngston GK, RO~ WN, Morris MV (1980) J Environ Pathol Toxlcol 4:373-382 Asbestos-~nduce~ sister chromatld exchanges In culture~ Chinese hamster ovarian flbroblast cells. (X) ~ 0302 Kaplan E, Renler A, Ja~rand MC, Bignon J (1980) The in vitro effects of m4neral dust 251-253 29. Sister chromatld exchanges in mesothellal colls cultured with chrysotile fibres. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 96 0303 Newman HAl, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) The in vitro effects of mlneral dusts 147-157 19. Putative inhibitory ~ffects of chrysotile, crocldollte and amosite on the surface membrane glycolipids and glycoprotelns. (X) 0304 Newman BAI, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34~103-III Putative ~uh~bi~ury ef£ects of chrysotile, crocldollte, and amosite u~Lneral fibers on the more complex surface membrane glycoliplds and glycoprot~$ns. (X) 0305 Bab~ KA, Lakkad BC, Nigam SK, Bhatt DK, Karnlk ABet al (1980) Environ Res 21~416-422 In vitro cytologlcal and cytogenetlc effects of an Indian variety of chrysotile asbestos. (X) 0306 Babu KA, Nigam SK, Lakkad BC, Bhatt DK, Karnlk ABet al (1981) Environ Res 24z325-329 Effect of chrysotile asbestos (AP-I) on sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (X) 0307 Schneider U, Maurer RR (1977) Teratology 15~273-279 Asbestos and embryonic development. 0308 Cunningham ~M, Pontefract RD (1974) Nature 249=177-178 Placental transfer of asbestos. 0309 Lemaire 8, Lemaire I (1981) Life Sol 29~II17-I124 Asbestos-ellclted catecholamine secretion from isolated bovine a~renal ohromaffin cells. 0310 Lukens HR (1978) R~ C~mu"un Chem Pathol pharmacol 21~517-522 Production of antibody toward asbestos.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 97 0311 chamberlaln M, Tarmy EM (1977) Mutat Res 43z159-164 Asbestos and glass fibres in bacterlal mutation tests. (X) 0312 Hahon N, Eckert HL (1976) Environ Res 11z52-65 Depresslon. of viral interferon induction in cell monolayers by asbestos fibers. 0313 Hahon N, Booth JA, Eckert HL (1977) Br J In~ Med 34:119-125 A~tagonlstlc activity of poly (4-vlnylpyrldine-N-oxlae) tO the inhibition of vlral interferon induction by asbestos fibres. 0314 Litterst CL, Lichtenstein EP (1970) Lab Pract 19:1221-1223 Toxicity of BeLa cell growth medium after passage through asbestos filters. 0315 Do~na A (1972) Med Laboro 63:7-14 Study of morphogenesls of asbestosls bodies, using an unusual technic: study in larvae of Tenehrlo molltor. 0316 Donna A (1973) Med Lavoro 64:34-40 Difference of action of various types of asbestos (crysothile, crocydollte, anthophylllte, amoslte) demonstrated with a new technlct study in larvae of Tenebrlo ~olltor. 0317 D~na &, Betta PG, Lanfranco G (1980) • Expl Cell Biol 48~321-328 Acid ~nd alkaline phoephatase in macrophages of Tenelrlo molltor larvae stlumulated with asbestos. Part IV. 0318 Allison AC (1974) Ann NY Acad Scl 221~299-303 Pathogenic effects of inhaled partlcles and antigens.
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [January i0, 1983] Page 98 0319 Beck EG (1976) Zbl Bakt Hyg 162:85-92 The interaction between cells and fibrous dusts. (German) 0320 Botham SKe Holt PF (1974) Excerpta Meal Found 321:117-122 Aspects of carcinogenesis by asbestos. In: Biological oharacterlzatlo.n of human tumors. (X) Brown A (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:203-204 Lymphohematogenous spread of asbestos. 0322 Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Sutton GT (1980) Toxicology 17 : 143-147 The in vitro activities of pathogenic m~neral dusts. (X) 0323 Cralghead JE, Mossman BT, Bradley BJ (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34 : 37-46 Comparative studies on the cytotoxiclty of amphibole and serpentine asbestos. (X) 0324 Crapo JD, Barry BE, Brody AR, O'Nell JJ (1980) IARC Sol Publ 1:273-283 Morphological, morphometrlc and X-ray mlcroanalytical studies on lung tissue of rats exposed to chrysotile asbestos in inhalation chambres. (X) 0325 Davis JMG (1979) Ann ~Y Acad Sol 330~795-798 The use of animal models for studies on asbestos bloeffects. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposu~eo (X) 0326 Davis JMG, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Donaldson K (1980) IARC Sol Publ 1:285-292 A comparison of the pathological effects in rats of the UICC reference samples of smoslte, and chrysotile with those of amosite and ohrysotile collected from the factory envlron~_nto
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10~ 1983] Page 99 0327 Davis JMG, Molyneux MK, Baxter RA, Walton WH, Berlin A (1981) A~n Ocup Hyg 24~227-234 The blologlcal effects of nimeral fibres. 0328 Huang S-D, Lee W-H (1980) Proc Nail Sol Count China 4:94-99 Toxlcology and carcinogenesis of asbestos. 0329 Johnson NF, Wagner JC (1980) I~RC Sol Publ 1~193-303 A study by electron m~croscopy of the effects of chrysotile and man-made mineral fibres on rat lungs. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0330 Jones JSP (1980) IARC Sol Publ 1:377-381 Discussion Summ~ry. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0331 Lazar P (1980) IARC Sol Pnbl 2:985 Discussion su~nary. In: Biological effects of m/neral fibres. (X) 0332 Planteydt HT (1980) ZARC Sol Publ 1:491-494 D.Iscusslon suz~ry. In= Biological effects of m~neral fibres. 0333 Port F (1980) IARC Soi Publ ls261-272 Anginal experiments on biological effects of ~ineral $ibres. In= Biologlcal effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0334 Port F, Huth F, Spumy K (1980) IARC Sol Publ I~337-342 TUmOUr induction after Intraperltoneal injection of fibrous dusts. Ins Biological effects of mineral fibre. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 100 0335 Robock K (1976) Rev Fr Hal Resp SuppI 4:97-I04 The blological effect of dusts of asbestos. 0336 Schepers GI~I, Wagner JC, Hueper W (1965) Ann NY Acad Sci 132:504-506 Discussion. Asbestos and neoplasla~ experimental. In= Biological effects of asbestos. (X~ 0337 Smith I~# Hubert DD, Sobel I~T (3.980) IARC Sol Publ 1~357-360 Di--enslons of fibres in relation to biological actlvitF. In: Biological effects of ~L~neral fibres. (X) 0338 J Natl Cancer Inst 46:V-IX Asbestos cancers. 0339 Wagner JC, Berry G (1973) IARC Scl Publ 8:85-88 Investigations using animals. Tn: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0340 Wagner JC, Berry G (1973) IARC Sci publ 0~285-288 Information obtained from animal experiments, l"n: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0341 Wagner JC, Berry G, Hill RJ, Munday DE, Skldmore 3%/ (1980) ZARC Sci Publ I~361-362 A~lJJ~al experiments with man-made mineral fibres. In= Biological effects of ~neral fibres. (X) 0342 Wagner JC, Berry G, Skldmore JW, Pooley FD .(1980) IARC 8cl Publ i~363-372 The comparative effects of three chrysotiles by Injection and inhalation in rats. Ins Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions (January 10, 1983| Page 101 0343 Lafuma J, Morln M, Poncy JL, Masse R (1980) IARC Sci Publ 1:311-320 Mesothelloma induced by i~trapleural injection of dlff~rent typ~s of fibres in rats; synergistic effect of ther carcinogens. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. 0344 Westlake GE (1974) Environ Eealth,~Perspect 9:227 . ....... Cumm~~.~estos fibers i~'the c~lon~6 wall, 0345 Vlgllanl EC (1968) Med Lavoro 59z401-410 The flbrogenlc response to asbestos. 0346 Moesman BT, Craighead JE (1981) Environ Res 25:269-280 Mechanism" of asbestos carcinogenesis. (X) 0347 Dixon JR, Lowe DE, Richards DE, Cralley LJ, Stoklnger BE (1970) Cancer Res 30:1068-1074 The role of trace metals in chemical carcinogenesisz asbestos cancer. 0348 Roy-Chowdhury AK, Mooney TP Jr, Reeves AL (1973) Arch Environ Health 26:253-255 Trace metals in asbestos carcinogenesis. 0349 H~aShi E (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9~267-270 Cytotoxlclty of heated chrysotile. 0350 Gross P (1973) J Natl Cancer Inst 51~315-317 Tumors of the pleura induced with asbestos and fibrous glass. 0351 Gross P (1975) Arch Environ Health 30:56 Is short-flbered asbestos dust a blologlcal hazard?
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Asbestos/S~oklng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 102 0352 Timbrel1 V (1972) Proc Rochester Int Conf Environ Toxicity, 3rd= 429-445 Inhalation and biological effects of asbestos. In= Assessment Airborne Particles. 0353 Harlngton JS (1981) J Natl Can'cer Inst 67=977-989 Fi~er.carclnogene~Is=~.epide~ioq~c~observa~.~ .~o~he 5~anton 0354 Beoklake MR (1981) Chest 79~249-250 The pathogenicity of fibers and their ~orphology. (X) 0355 MoCullagh SF (1981) Chest 79=249 The pathogenicity of fibers and their morphologyo (X) 0356 Gross P, Harley RA (1973) Arch Environ Health ;27:240-242 The locus of pathogenicity of asbestos dust - a theory. 0357 Pylev LN, 5habad LM (1973) IARC Sci Publ 99-105 S~me results of experimental studies in asbestos carcinogenesis. In= Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0358 Mlsra V, Rahman Q, Vlswanathan PN, Beg MU, Zaidi SM (1977) Proc Int S1mp Environ Pollut Hum Health 368-378 3,4 Benzo(a)p~rene content in chr~sotlle asbestos ~-d its significance to the biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0359 Lakowicz JR, Hylden JL, Englund F, Hid~rk A, NcNamara N (1979) Int Syrup Chem Biol Carclnog Mutag 835-853 Asbestos-facilltated ~embrane uptake by polynuolear arometlc hy- drocarbons studied by fluorescence speotrosoopy~ a possible ex- planatlon of the cocarclnogenlc effect of partlcu~ates. (X) N
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Asbestos/SNoking Interactions [January 10, 1983] Page 103 0360 Lakowicz JR, Eylden JL (1978) Nature 275~446-448 Asbestos-mediated membrane uptake of benzo(a)pyrene observed by fluorescence spectroscopy. (X) 0361 B~ck EG (1975) Arbe£tsmed Sozlalmed Praeventivmed 10:178-183 Biol.~Ical effect of fibrous dusts-- (X) 0362 Masse R, Sebastien P, Mon~haux G, Bignon J (1980) IARC Sci Publ iz321-328 Experimental dem~nstratlon of the penetration of asbestos fibres into the gastrointestlnal tract. Inz Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0363 Pylev LN (1980) IARC Scl Publ I~343-355 Pre-tumorous lesions and ~ung and pleural tumours induced by asbestos in rats, Syrian golden hamsters and Maraca mulatta Rhesus monkeys. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0364 Rahman Q, Viswanathan PN, ~a~dl SH (1977) Environ Res 14~487-498 Some new perspectives on the biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0365 Davis JMG, Bolton RE, Garrett J (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9z255-260 Penetration of cells by asbestos fibers. 0366 Miller K, Welntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) The in vitro effects of mineral dusts 305-312 ~ 36. The effect of asbestos on macrophages. (X) 0367 Miller K, Welntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) IARC Sci Publ I~467-474 The effect of prolonged inhalation of crocldollte asbestos on macrophage-lymphocyte ~nteractlon. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X)
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Asbestos/Smok£ng Interactions [January I0, 1983] Page 104 0368 Pernls B, VlgllanI EC (1982) Am J Ind Med 3z133-137 The role of macrophages and £mm~Inocytes in the pathogenesis of pt~Imonary diseases due to m~neral dusts. (X) 0369 Haubenstock H, Bekesl JG (1982) Am J Ind Med 3~131-132 M-~c:~pha~ ~ncti~n ~inked t3 ~e ¢o~ic e~fect~ o~ ~neral dusts. (X) 0370 Archer VE, D~xon WC (1979} Ned Hypoth 5~1257-1262 Carclnogeniclty of fibers and films: a theory. (X) 0371 Holt PF (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:205-211 Small animals in the study of pathological effects of asbest~s. 0372 Morgan A (1980) IARC Scl Publ i~329-335 Effect of length on the clearance of fibres from the lung and on body formation. In~ Biologlcal effects of mineral fibres. (X)
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TH]RD ANNUAL REPORT TO SHOOK, HARDY AND BACON February 1982 to ,January 1983 As in previous years, the activities during the third corporate year continue to be characterized as scientifically challenging and financially successful. The acquisition of a modest sized microcomputer and word processor finalized a literature retreiva] system on the subject of Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interactions. A book on Maternal and Neonatal Health Care has been completed, and there are more monographs forthcoming. There was ample opportunity to master the health effects ~of constituents of cigarette smoke such as suspected radioactivity and "pyrolysis products of tobacco additives. The role of hemorheologic factors in pathogenesis and treat~nt of peripheral vascular disease has becomo a new and exciting subject of interest. In five separate trips abroad, new- contacts were made on the topic of asbestosls, occupational health, international health, smoking and health regulations, and cardiovascular pharmacJlogy. The past year 'can also be characterized by an increase in consulting opportunities. Requests for services from existtng and new clients had to be carefully selected so that tkere would be no conflict of Interests. Shook, Hardy and Bacon continues to be the ma~or client. Xhe corporation has declined to assist the petrochemical industry because of opposing scientific views in causation of disease. The pharmaceutical clients have overlapping interests so that the corporation assisted only two out of the six interested companies. Contract firms serve governmental and industrial interests that
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1982 Annual Report, January 11, 1983 Page 2 were not acceptable to the Corporation. In other words, the corporation has become more selective as a research consultant. Assignments Relating to Smoking and Health Project 1: Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1981. A commentary was prepared relating to a statement appearing in the proposed bill H.R. 4957: that "Congress finds that smoking I~ the major cause of chronic obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema".' The reasons that question the validity of the statement are as follows~ (I) Functional and histopathological studies in humans show uncertain and inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking that do not support the-causal relationship between cigarette smoking and chronic obstructive lung disease; and (2) Epidemiologic studies suggest the association of chronic obstructive disease with several risk factors such as levels of outdoor and indoor pollution, alcohol consumption, occurrences of previous infections and familial predispositions and genetic susceptibility. Copies of the review were submitted to the House and Senate Committees (a). Pro~ect 2: Maternal and Neonatal Health Care: A Global Concern. Despite all the modern-d~y achievements and advances in technology, medicine, and public health, an age-old problem continues to ravage the developing
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 3 nations of the world: maternal and neonatal deaths now extract a greater toll from life expectancy than any specific disease category. This high mortality rate among mothers and their newborns could be reduced with the proper maternal care during the vulnerable period around birth. The International Association of Maternal and Neonatal Health (IAMANEH) convened experts from 25 countries to study the problems of maternal and neonatal health care at its First International Congress. Primary Maternal and Neonatal Health Care: A Global Concern details the problems of health care and. family planning that exist the world over, and offers suggestions for future r~'$earch, professional developments, and social action that will curtail this intolerable situation. Contained in this volume are accurate descriptions of the situations in these countries today, revealing epidemiological diagnoses, and strategies for the implementation of recent knowledge and technology relative to maternal and neonatal health care. The 500+ page book was coedited by this consultant (b). Project 3: Public Smoking Issues. TMs consultant was requested to read a draft report on "Publlc Smoking" dated September 11, 1982 and the "Third Report of the Independent Scientific Committtee on Smoking and Health (Untted Kingdom)" dated August 13, 1982. The cited references in both articles were collected but a written com~ntary was not submitted.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 4 Project 4: $~oking and Health Literature. The ti~e spent in the ~edical library was rather excessive this past year because in addition to the customary ti~e spent for updating the S~oking and Health Literature, there was the updating for asbestos (see Project 14), particulates (Project 9), radioactivity (Project 10), nicotine and vasopresstn (Project 12) and bleoBycin (Project 15). Other clients requested complete literature searches on all tobacco additives, breast cancer and treatment of intermittent claudtcation by he~orheologic drugs. . Further~re, this consultant was advised that the forthcoming 1983 Surgeon General's Report was on the subject of cardiovascular disease, ~hich necessitated that all pertinent articles mentioned in the Smeking and Health Bulletin are in the corporate collection of reprints. Over 200~ articles in 30 boxes were received from the Literature Retrieval Sj~tem at New York City, of which approximately 400 were on the subject of Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease. Over 600 additional articles on the same subject have been collected based on the contents of Smeking and Health Bulletin (1982), the Tobacco Advisory Council Library Check List (1982) and the Index Medicus (1982). This consultant feels prepared to co~m~ent upon the release of the 1983 Surgeon Gmeral's Report.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page Assignments on Smoking and Cancer Project 5: The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cancer. A Report of the Surgeon General. A prepublication copy was received in late February 1982. All cited references and related articles were set aside with the expectation that questions were going to be raised. No written commentary was prepared, as was done for the 1979 and I980 Surgeon General's Reports. Project 6: The Causes of Cancer by Richard Doll and Richard Peto. This publication was hlgh]ighted in the 1982 Surgeon General's Report on Cancer. The risk analysis used by Dol! and Peto is superficially familiar to this consu]tant. A written critique was not prepared although there are voluminous references and notes. Project 7: Lung Cancer and Cigarette Smoking in Greece. Professor Ioannides from Athens has written four successive drafts of an article discussing lung cancer in general, and in nonsmoktng women in particular. His fourth and latest version received in January 1983 is a considerable improvement over the earlier ones but needs more editing. Although this corporation contributed to the cost of publication of the Ioannides article that appeared in the American Journal of Ep|demiology, no formal con~itment has been made to contribute to publication costs of additional articles on the subject. 206277~1558
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 6 Project 8: Vitamin A Food Intake and Cancer Incidence A~onq Orientals. The possibility that the low cancer incidence among Pi]ipinos is related to high vitamin A intake was discussed ~ith the Director of the Institute of Nutrition (Hanila). A written report suff~nartzing eptdemiologic studies and animal experiments conducted by the Institute has been subfffitted (c). Assignments on Cigarette Smeke Constituents Project 9: Ciqarette Smoke Particulates. The deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract was described by Hiller et al in the April ~g82 issue of the American Review of Respiratory Diseases. A written commentary (d) included the following topics: (1) reasonably low level of respiratory deposition of sldestream cigarette smoke; (2) possible errors in measurement of particulate deposition; (3) oral versus nasal breathing; (4) theoretical lung models indicating relatively low deposition of particulates less tha lpm diameter; (5) paradoxically high level of respiratory deposition of main stream cigarette smoke; and (6) miscalculation of total side stream deposition.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 7 Project 10: Suspected Radioactivity in Cigarette Smoke. In 1982, letters to the Editor of the New England Journal of Medicine appeared relating to radioactive mutagens contained in cigarette smoke. The series of letters was initiated by Winters and DiFranza, continued by Ravenholt and most recently by Radford. The arguments and counterarguments include a discussion of "tar" in cigarette smoke. Although the cited and related references on risk analysis of radioactive mutagens have been Collected, a written commentary has not been prepared, t Project 11: Reduced Tar ~d Nicotine Cigarettes: Smoking Behavior and Health. .~ This monograph was released by ~he NAS-NRC Committee on Substance Behavior and Habitual Behavior. An earlier invitation to assist in the preparation of this monograph was declined by this consultant. Project 12: Nicotine and Vasopressin Research. Recent developments on cardlovascular research have led to increasing importance of pituitary hormones (such as vasopressin) in the pathogenests of vascular disease. The observations of Downey et al that nicotine releases vasopressin suggest the need for additional research investigations (e).
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 8 Assignments on Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction Project 13: Review of Asbestos Literature. The massive literature on asbestos alone has been catalogued and computerized using a system described in a Report (f) submitted early in January 1983. Subsequent sections are now in the process of preparation and will be submitted through February 1983. Project 14: Updating of Asbestos Literature. ~ The literature on asbestos was collected starting early in 1980 and concluded late in 1981. However, in 1982, several publications relating directly or indirectly to the asbestos/smoking interaction concept necessitated additional searches such as: (1) earlier articles by the proponents; (2) articles by nonproponents using the same research technique; (3) cigarette smoking articles applying the same research technique, and (4) application of the same research technique to substances in the occupational environment and households. These steps led to several reshuffling of subject categories. The final choice of topics will permit the addition of new research results relating to asbestos/cigarette smoking interaction hypothesis. Project 15: Asbestos-Related Pleural Mesothelioma and Pulmonar~ Fibrosis. The request to comment on Kiss' description of mesothelioma was answered by obtaining a copy of his monograph entitled "Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Disease in Primary Practice". Since the book is full of scientific ZO6277~I561
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 9 errors, it was suggested to regard the source as nonauthoritative in nature. The request to review a research proposal on the use of bIeomycin fibrosis as an animal mode] for the human f~rm of pu]monary fibrosis led to a review of the literature. Although there are similarities between bleo~ycin fibrosis in rodents to human form of asbestosis, there are some differences that question the relevance of bleomYcin studies. Project 16: Asbestos and Health Research in France: Unlike most other countries, epidemiologic studies in France have not included an examination of asbestos/smoking interaction. Yet there are experts in France with credentials comparable to American, Canadian , British and Scandinavian proponents of the interaction hypothesis. Although the French experts have no original studies endorsing the interaction hypothesiS, r they have cited in their publication the unfavorable results relating to cigarette smoking alone. For this reason, further contact with French asbestos scientists has been dropped. Assignments Relating to Occupational and Environmental Factors Project 17: Epox7 Resins and Polyprop~lenes Used in Manufacture of Cans. N N N
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 10 A request to comment on the health hazards of chemicals used for can manufacturing led to a search of the literature on this subject. The two written reports (g) led to a direct contact with the lawyer who is defending a company that supplied the chemicals. Project 18: Smoking and Health Research in Southeast Asia. This consultant prepared a review on this subject for presentation at the NMA Workshop in Hong Kong, April 26 to 28, 1982. Th~ central topic of the presentation was the comparative susceptibility to smoking-associated diseases of Southeast Asians and Amoricans (h). Project 19: Smokin9 and Health Research in Brazil. The environmental factors causing smoking-associated diseases have been reviewed, as they relate to Brazilians. The initial draft (i) needs to be revised because it was prepared without the benefit of examining publications from the Panamerican Health Union and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Project 20: Industrial Chemicals/Cigarette Smokln9 Interaction Italians. This consultant is discussing this topic ~th occupational ~ysiclans in Italy. Some of them have the impression that cigarette smoking does not exaggerate the health effects of industrial chemicals which is contrary to the 206277~563
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 11 opinion of their colleagues in the United States, United Kingdom and the USSR. There are no plans to encourage the Italians to conduct epidemiologic studies, which is the same attitude toward the French and Greek colleagues. Reports Submitted (a) Comment on H.R. 4957: Proposed Comprehensive,'. Smoking Prevention Education Act of 1981. 20 pages including 55 references, submitted March 5, 1982. (b) Primary Maternal and Neonatal Health CareJ A Global Concern. Edited by Fe del Mundo, Elena Ines-Cuyegkeng and Domingo M. Aviado. 500 pages, 1983. Plenum Press, New York; camera-ready pages completed July 31, 1982. (c) Vitamin A and Carotene Intake Among Pilipinos. 3 pages including 6 references, submitted November 17, 1982. (d) A co~entary on "Deposition of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke in the Human Respiratory Tract" by FC Hiller, KT McCusker, I~ Mazumder, JD Wilson and RC Bone~ 7 pages including 13 references, submitted December 10, 1982. (e) Nicotine and Vasopressin. 4 pages plus 60 reprints of key re'ferences, submitted December 10, 1982. ZO6Z77'-I56,./
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 12 (f) Asbestos/Cigarette Smoke Interactions: A review of the literature from 1882 to 1982. Categories 000 to 199; 104 pages plus 9 pages, including 372 references, subnfitted January 11, 1983. (g) Review of the Literature on Epoxy Resins and Polyprowlenes. 4 pages plus 60 references sub,fitted July 26 and August 15, 1982. (h) Smoktng and Health Research in Southeast Asia. 22 pages including 32 references plus sun~n~ry tables. Subafitted A~ri] 19, 1982; the June 21, 1982 revision consists of 18 pages, includin~ 24 references, plus 8 tables. (i) Smoking and Health Research in Brazt]. 46 pages, including 178 references, submitted November 17, 198~. Consu]tantships to Other Groups Law Firms: Covington and 8urling (W,ashington, DC.): Hein, Snfith and Berezin (Hackensack, NJ): tobacco additives. kmrstrong products.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 13 Contract Firms: JRB Associates (McLean, VA): water document review accepted; other assignments declined. Whittaker ToxiGenics (Decatur, IL): no assignment. Life Sciences, Inc. (Cleveland, OH): all assignments declined. Corporations Mobil 0i1 Corporation (Princeton NJ): all assignments declined. Johnson & Johnson Baby Products (Skillman, NJ): all assignments declined. Hoechst-Rousse] Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Somerville, NJ): Consultant to Marketing and Sales, and Medical Department on pentoxifylline (Trental) a new hemorheologic agent that reduces blood viscosity and increases erythrocyte flexibility. Six completed articles as well as other inhouse monographs written by this consultant avoid any discussion of hemorheologic effects of cigarette smoking. Several symposia are being planned on the dru§, the first one to be held in Washington on April 26-27, 1983; subsequent symposia will be held in each of the seven marketing districts~ including Kansas City.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 14 FINANCIAL REPORT February 1982 to 3anuary 1983 Project Title Number No. of Days i Comprehensive smoking prevention education act 7 2 Maternal and neonatal health care: a global concern 11 3 Public smoking issues 4 4 Smoking and health literature 24 ~ ~ealth cgnsequences of smoking: cancer 10 ~auses oT cancer 5 7 Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in 6reece 5 8 Vitamin A food intake and cancer incidence 2 g Cigarette smoke particulates 5 10 Suspected radioactivity in cigarette smoke 7 11 Reduced tar and nicotine cigarettes 2 12 Nicotine and vasopressin research _ 2 13 Review of asbestos literature 48 14 Updating of asbestos literature 12 15 A~bestos-related pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary fibrosis B 16 Asbestos and health research in France 5 17 Epoxy resins and polypropylenes used in can manufacture 7 18 Smoking and health research in Southeast Asia 11 Ig Smoking and health research in Brazil 13 20. Industrial chemicals/smoklng interactions among Italians 3 Total ....................... 191 Conferences .................. 5 Total ........................ 196 days Conferences with Patrick M. Sirridge April 14, 1982 (New York): Projects 5, 7, 13, 16 and 18. May 26, 1982' (Short Hills): Projects 4, 7, 9, 14, 1S, 16, 18 and 20. July 21, 1982 (Short H~IIs): Projects 2 and 7. September L~8, 1982 (New York): Project 3. December 14, 1982 (New York): Projects 12 and 13.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 15 Income from Shook, Hard}, and Bacon April 16, 198Z, Semiannual grant September 3, 1982, Semi annual grant June 11, 1982, Supplementary grant (Hong Kong, Project 18) July 12, 1982, Supplementary grant (Hong Kong, Project 18) July 23, 1982, Supplementary grant (Publication, Project 7) December 3,1982, Services of 1980 court case Total .................... ~xpenses: S-~T~ries (196 days x 500) 78,400.00 Benefits 19,600.00 .................. Microcomputer (one-half of cost) Travel (Supplementary Grant for Hong Kong) Pub|ication cost (Supplementary Grant for Am J Epidemiol) Library Services and Books Total .................... 51,000.00 51,000.00 7,620.00 786.00 1,015.00 3,200.00 114,621.00 98,000.00 3,800.00 8,406.00 1,015.00 3,400.00 114,621.00 Foreign Travel March 6 to 11, 1982 to France. Expenses paid by the French Pharmacological Society and Innothera. April 24 to May 3, 1982 to Hong Kong and Manila. Expenses paid by Supplementary Grant from Shook, Hardy and Bacon. May 30 to June g, 1982 to Italy. Expenses paid by the Italian Research Council and the University of Messina. June 24-27, 1982 to Italy. Expenses paid by Hoechst A.G. October 21 to November 6, 1982 to the Philippines. Expenses paid by Asian branch of Atmospheric Health Sciences Inc.
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, lg83 DAILY LOG 1982- 1983 DATE (PROJECT NUMBER) AND BRIEF TITLE PROJECT DAY NO. (1) Proposed congressional Btll (1) Proposed Congressional Bill (4) LITERATURE SCANNING (1) Proposed Congressional Bill (I) Proposed Congressional Bill (1) Proposed Congressional Bill (1) Proposed Congressional Bill 1 4 5 8 9 15 16 18 (4) LITERATURE SCANNING 25 (14) Asbestos Update 26 (5) Surgeon General's Report 27 (5) Surgeon General's Report Mar i/4 (1) Proposed Congressional Bill 2 (S) Surgeon General's Report 3 (5) Surgeon General's Report 4/1 (5) Surgeon General's Report 5 (4) Literature Scanning 9 (6) Asbestos Research in France 15 (5) Surgeon General's Report 16 (5) Surgeon General's Report 17 (5) Surgeon General's Report 18 (5) Surgeon General's Report 19 (5) Surgeon General's Report 25 (14) Asbestos Update 26 (4) Literature Scanning Apr 1 (4) Literature Scanning 2 (18) Southeast Asia 3 (18) Southeast Asia 5 (7) Lung Cancer in Greece 6 (7) Lung Cancer in Greece 7 (7) Lung Cancer in Greece 8 (14) Asbestos Update 9 (18) Southeast Asia 10 (18) Southeast Asia 12 (18) Southeast Asia 7 3 4 5 3 1 6 7 8 9 10 2 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 Page 16 CUI~4ULA- TIVE DAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2O 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3O 31 32 33
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 17 May 13 (18) Southeast Asia 15 (18) Southeast Asia 16 (18) Southeast Asia 17 (18) Southeast Asia 19 (18) Southeast Asia 20 (16) Asbestos Research in France 21 (16) Asbestos Research in France 22 (16) Asbestos Research in France 23 (4) LiteratureScanning 5 (4) Literature Scanning 6 (g) Smoke Particulates 7 (9) Smoke Particulates 8 (9) Smoke Particulates 10 (9) Smoke Particulates 11 (9) Smoke Particulates 12 (14) Asbestos Update 17 (15) B]eomycin and Mesothelioma 18 (15) Bleomycln and Mesothelioma 19 (15) Bleomycin and Mesothelioma 20 (15) Bleomycin and Mesothelioma 21 (15) Bleomycin and Mesothelioma 22 (15) B1eomycin and Mesothelioma 25 (16) Asbestos Research in France 28 (4) Literature Scanning June i (20) Italian Chemical Workers 7 (20) Italian Chemical Workers 11 (4) Literature Scanning 16 (14) Asbestos Update 18 (14) Asbestos Update 23 (18) Southeast Asia 26 (20) Italian Chemical Workers 28 (7) Lung Cancer in Greece 29 (1) Lung Cancer in Greece July 6 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 7 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 8 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 9 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 10 (4) Literature Scanning 12 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 13 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 14 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 6 1 2 9 5 10 11 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 11 5 6 7 35 36 37 38 39 4O 41 42 43 44 45 47 49 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 59 6O 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
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1982 Annual RepOrt, January 17, 1983 Page 18 Aug Sept Oct 15 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 16 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 17 (4) Literature Scanning 19 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 20 (2) Maternal and Neonatal Health 23 (17) Can Manufacturing 26 (10) Radioactive Mutagens 27 (10) Radioactive Mutagens 28 (17) Can Manufacturing 29 (14) Asbestos Update 2 (17) Can Manufacturing 3 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 4 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 6 (17) Can Manufacturing 7 (1/) Can Manufacturing g (17) Can Manufacturing 10 (17) Can Manufacturing 11 (14) Asbestos Update 14 (4) Literature Scanning 21 (4) Literature Scanning 3 (4) Literature Scanning 4 (14) Asbestos Update 9 (3) Public Smoking 16 (15) Bleomycin and Mesothelioma 17 (15) Bleomycin and Mesothelioma 22 (3) Public Smoking 23 (3) Public Smoking 24 (4) Literature Scanning 25 (14) Asbestos Update 27 (3) Public Smoking 1 (4) Literature Scanning 2 (4) Literature Scanning 4 (14) Asbestos Update 5 (Ig) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 6 (Ig) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 7 (19) SmokinglHealth Research, Brazil 8 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 9 (14) Asbestos Update 11 (8) Causes of Cancer 12 (6) Causes of Cancpr 13 (6) Causes of Cancer 8 9 12 10 11 1 1 2 2 6 3 1 2 4 5 6 7 7 13 14 15 8 1 7 8 2 3 16 9 4 17 18 10 3 4 5 6 11 1 2 3 76 77 78 79 8O 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 9O 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 N N -M
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 19 14 (6) Causes of Cancer 15 (6) Causes of Cancer 16 (4) Literature Scanning 18 (11) Low nicotine and tar 19 (11) Low nicotine and tar 26 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 28 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 29 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazi] Nov 2 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazl] 3 (8) Vitamin A 8 (10) Radioactive Nutagens g (10) Radioactive~_tagens 10 (10) Radioactive~utagens 11 (10) Radioactive Mutagens 12 (10) Radioactive Mutagens 15 (8) Vitamin A 16 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil I1 (19) Smoking/Health Research, Brazil 18 (14} Asbestos Update 19 (4) Literature Scanning 20 (4) Literature Scanning 21 (4) Literature S~anning - 22 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 23 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 24 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 26 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 27 (4) Literature SEanning 29 (13) Asbestos/SmoKing Report 30 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report Dec 3 (4) Literature Scanning 4 (19) Snaking/Health Research, Brazi| 6 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 7 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 8 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 9 (12) Nicotine and Vasopresstn 10 (12) Nicotine and Vasopressin 11 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 13 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 15 (13) Asbestos/~aoking Report 16 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 17 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 20 (13} Asbestos/Smoking Report 4 11/ 5 118 19 119 1 120 2 121 7 122 8 123 9 124 10 125 1 126 3 127 4 128 5 129 6 130 7 131 2 132 11 133 12 134 12 135 20 136 21 137 22 138 1 139 2 140 3 141 4 142 23 143 5 144 6 145 24 146 13 147 7 148 8 149 9 150 1 151 2 152 10 153 11 154 12 155 13 156 14 157 15 158 ZO6277~5?Z
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1982 Annual Report, January 17, 1983 Page 20 21 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 22 (13) Asbestos/$mokin9 Report 23 (13) Asbestos/Smoklng Report 24 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 26 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 27 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 28 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 29 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 30 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 31 (13) Asbestos/Smoklng Report Jan 2 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 3 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 4 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 5 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 6 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 7 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 8 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 10 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 11 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 12 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 13 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 14 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 15 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 17 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 18 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 19 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 20 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 21 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 26 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 21 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 28 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 29 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report 30 (13) Asbestos/Smoking Report Note: Daily log was prepared o~ January 16: activities for January are planned to complete Asbestos/Smoking Report. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3O 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4O 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 the rest 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191
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CUt~JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUPl]ER 183 0259 190 0318 183 0260 150 0174 150 0175 198 0370 185 0305 196 0361 190 0319 182 0231 182 0230 182 0229 184 0291 194 0354 121 0083 124 0124 124 0123 130 0129 170 0216 183 0257 130 0150 150 0177 111 0015 111 0016 111 0018 111 0017 190 0320 112 0061 112 0060 112 0063 190 0321 130 0133 184 O283 180 0218 184 0294 190 0322 184 0292 184 0295 182 0233 120 0076 A11tson AC (1973) Allison AC (1974) A111son AC (1977) Amacher DE, Alarif Ao Epstein $S (1974) Amacher DE, Alartf A, Epstein SS (1975) Archer ~E, Dixon WC (1979) 6abu KA, Lakkad SC, Nlgam SK, Bhatt OK, Kacnik Nt et al (1980) .:,>~b~K.~, Nig~-gK, LaL-;,~G BC~ ""o,(~t ~ GK, K~Tdk A8 et o1 (1981Y Beck EG Beck E6 (19/6) Beck E6 (1980) Beck EG, Holt PF, ManoJlovlc N (1972) 6eck E6, Holt PF, Nasrallah ET (1971) Beck E6, Ttlkes F (1980) Becklake H~ (1981) Beg NU, Fa~ooq H, Saxena V, Rahman Q, et al (1977) Beg NU, Rahman Q, Vtswanathan PN, Zatdt SH (1973) Begin R, Masse'S, Bureau M~ (1982) Begin R, Rola-Pleszcz~mskt N, $trois P, Lemaire I, et al (1981) 8e~ry 6, Wagner ~C (1976) 8evan ~, Rtemer SC, L~ko~cz ~R (1981) Bey E, Hacington 05 (1971) Bignon. ~, Mo~chaux G, Sebastlen p, Htrsch A, Lafuma J (1979) ~olto~ ~. Davis ~ (1976) Both~~ Holt PF (1968) 6otha~ SK, Holt PF (1971) Botham SK, Holt FF (1972) Botham ~, Holt PF (1972) Both~ ~K, Holt PF (1974) B~ody ~ (1980) AR, Crapo JO (1979) AR, Htll I.H, Adktns B Jr, O'Cannor RW (1981) A (1974) OG, Wagner ~C, Wagner I~F (1980) PC, Cha~_erlat~ H (1980) PC, Chamberlain 14, Oavtes R, Gromley IP (Editors) (1980) PC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Morgan DI~ et al (1980) PC, Chamberlain M, Oavtes R, Sutton GT (1980) PC, Chamberlain M, Grtfftths DM, Timbrel1 V (1978) PC, Chamberlain M, Sutton GT (1980) ~ (1974) ON (Editor) (1982) GEOGRAPHIC CODE GBR ORR GBR UOH UOH UUT IND INO GER GER GER GBR GBR GER INO INO CAN CAN GBR U~ FRA GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR UNC UNC U~ G8R GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GER UCA
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YE,~R NURSER 182 184 184 184 186 182 183 190 190 150 186 181 183 183 112 130 111 111 111 182 130 130 130 130 130 182 190 130 112 190 112 197 190 183 181 181 193 124 150 112 0253 Case 8W, IP ~C, Padtlla M, Kletnerman J (1982) 0284 Chamberlain N (1982) 0281 Chamberlain M, BPown RC (1978) 0282 Ch~erlatn N, Brown RC, 6rtfftths OH (1980) 0311 Ch~erlatn M, Ta~mY EM (1977) 0235 Conning DN, H~yes H3, Styles JA, Nicholas 3A (1971) 0264 Costrtnt AH, Stevens CA, Bee 3BL (1978) 0323 Cratg~ead J~, Mossman BT, Bradley BJ (1980) 0324 Crapo ~D, Barry BE, Brody Ni, O'Nei] O~ (1980) 0171 03~ 0220 0275 ~76 ~33 0147 O008 ~07 00O9 ~27 ~42 ~43 0141 0145 01~ 0046 0O65 O365 ~27 0261 0221 0347 0114 0181 ~32 Cunntngha~ 1~4, Xoodfe CA, Lawrence GA, Pontefract RO (1977) Cunnfngham HI(, Pontefract RD (1974) Daniel H, Le Bouffant L (1980) Davies R (1980) Oavtes R (1980) Davis HV, Reeves AL (1971) Davis 0148, Contain SW (1973) Oavts Jf4G (1963) Oavis ~HG .(1963) Davis ~ (1964) Oav~s ~MG (1967) Davis ~ (1970) Davis ~ (1970) Oavts. ~ (1970) Oavts ~ (1971) Davis ~ (1971) Oavi~ ~ (1972) Davis ,]HG (1979) Oav|s ~ (1979) Oavts ~I4G, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Colltngs P, Htdd|eton AP (1978) Davis ~G, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Donaldson K (1980) Davis ~I~G, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Donaldson K (1980) Davis ~!4~, 8olton RE, Garrett ~ (1974) Davis ~146, No]~neux I~, Baxter RA, Walton kH, Berlin A (1981) Dean RT, Hy|ton ~ ^]]tson AC (1979) Oepasse ~ (1980) ~ Desat R, Hext P, Rfchards R (1975) • Dixon ~R~ Lowe 06, Richards DE, CraI|ey L~ Stektnger I~ (1970) Dixon ~R, Lowe 06, Rtcha~ds DE, Stoktnger HE (1969) Dodson RF, Hurst GA, Williams HG Or (1980) Donham K~, Berg 3~, Will L~, Letninger ~ (1980) Donna A (1970) r~ GEOGRAPHIC CODE UNY GBR GBR GSR GBR G8R UCT UWA UVT UNC CAN CAN FRA GBR • UMI GBR GBR GBR GBR GER GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR BEt GBR UOH UOH UTX UIO ITA
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR ~NDEX FOR CATEGORIES I00 to 199 January 10, I983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 186 186 186 112 150 111 121 140 121 150 112 112 184 184 111 111 160 113 182 184 183 183 160 112 150 194 194 130 150 111 121 112 186 186 • 150 150 150 160 160 194 0315 Donna A (1972) 0316 Donna A (1973) 0317 Oonna A, Betta PG, Lanfranco 6 (1980) 0031 Donna A, Cappa APN (1967) 0185 Else]e ~ (1981) 0026 Emerson RJ, Co~rin B, Co|e PJ (1982) 0079 En~eIbrecht FI4 (1964) ~9~59 .... ~]~Pecht-FH, BurgeP ~F 0160 Engelbrecht FH, Burger BF (1975) 0080 EngeIbrecht FH, Thtart BF (1972) 0191 Epstein 55, Yarnes M (1976) 0037 Evans JC, Evans RJ, Ho|mes A, Hounam RF, Jones OM, et al (1973) 0044 Fe~tn J, Leach LJ (1976) 0279 Frank AL (1977) 0280 Frank AL (1980) 0004 Gardner LU (1942) 0003 Gardner LU, Cu~n|ngs DE (1931) 0195 GIoyne SR (1930) 0075 GoIdstetn 8, Webster I, Rendal] REG, Skikne H[ (1978) 0234 Go]dste|n RH, Hiller K, G]assroth J, Sntder GL, Polga~ P (1982) 0293 Go~mley IP, Bolton RE, Brown G, Davis ~G, Donaldson K (1980) 0272 Gormley IP, Wright A, Colltngs P, Davis ~ (1980) 0273 Gormle~, IP, Wright 140 (1980) 0196 Governa 0030 Grosi P (1968) 0350 Gross. P (1973) 0173 Gross P (1974) 0351 Gross P (1975) 0356 Gross P, Harley RA (1973) 0149 Gross P, Harley RA (1973) 0172 G~oss P, Harley RA, 5~dnburne LH, Davis ~4G, G~eene M8 (1974) 0013 Gross P, de Trevtlle TP (1967) 0081 Gross P, de Trevflle TP (1970) 0029 Gross P, de T~evtlle TP, Toker EB, Kasch~k 14, Bab~k !~ (1967) 0313 Hahon N, Booth ~A, Eckert HL (1977) 0312 Hahon H, EckePt I¢ (1976) 0194 Hallenbeck ~, Harkey DR, Dolan DG (1981) 0193 Hallenbeck ~, Patel-Randl|k KJ (1979) 0186 Hamilton J, VassalH JD, Re~ch E (1976) 0201 Haa|lton OA (1980 0202 Ham|lton ~A (1981) 0353 Hartngton J5 (1981) r~ GEOGRAPHIC CODE ITA ITA ITA ITA UTE UVT SAF GER GER GER UOH GBR UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY GBR UMA GBR GBR GBR UPA USC USC U$C USC U$C UPA UPA UWV UWV UIL UNY UNY UNY
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 160 198 193 182 182 111 111 150 112 199 111 111 111 112 111 111 190 185 185 160 123 182 150 150 160 150 124 124 182 124 182 182 182 183 183 190 112 112 190 112 112 112 0203 Hartngton JS, Roe FJC, Wa]ters M (1967) 0369 Haubenstock H, Bekesi JG (1982) 0349 Hayasht H (1974) 0246 Hext PM, Hunt J, Dodgson KS, Richards RJ (1977) 0244 Hext PM, R|chards RJ (1976) 0020 H|ett DN (1978) 0184 HIIding AC,- Hi]dlng DA, Larson DM, Aufderhelde AC (1981) 0050 0371 0022 0023 0011 0028 0012 0014 0328 0299 0298 0197 0103 0247 0178 0179 0207 0180 0116 0115 0249 0118 0239 0251 0250 0277 0278 0329 0O67 O066 0330 OO53 0O56 0058 Holmes A, Morgan A (1980) Holt PF (1974) Holt PF (1981) Holt PF (1982) Holt PF, NilIs J (1964) Holt PF, M|11s J, Young OK (1964) Holt PF, Mills ~, Young OK (1966) Holt PF, Young OK (1967) Huang S-D, Lee_W-H (1980) Huang SL (1979) Huang SL, Saggloro D, Mtchelmann H, Nalling HV (197B) Hueper WC (1954) Humphrey EW, Ewing SL, Wrtgle3 ~V, Northrup t4: III et al (1981) Hunt J, Pooley FD, Richards RJ (1981) ~acob~ R, Dodgson KS, Richards RJ (1977) Jacobs R, Humphrys J, Dodgson KS, Rlchards RJ (1978) Jacobs R, Rtchards RJ (1980} Jacobs R, Wetnzwe|g M, Dodgson KS, Rtchards RJ (1978) J~swal N((1981) Jaiswal AK, ¥|swanathan PN (1980) Jaurand MC, Btgnon J (1977) ~rand RC, Btgnun ~, 6audtchet A, Magne L, ObIln A (1978) Jaurand 14C, Kaplan H, TMo|Iet J, Ptnchon MC et al (1979) Jaurand NC, Nagne L, Btgno~ J (1980) Jaurand NC, Nagne L, 8|gnon J, 6oct ~ (1980) Johnso~ NF, Davies R (1980) Johnso~ NF, Davies R.(1981) Johnson I~, Wagner ~C (1980) Johnson !~c, Wagner ~C, Wills HA (1980) Johnso~ ~, Wagner ~C, Wt]|s HA (1980) Jmes JSP (1980) Kagan E, Mtl|er K (1978) Kagan E, Mi||er K (1979) Kagan E, Miller K (1981) GEOGRAPHIC CODE SAF UNY JAP G8R GBR GBR U~ GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR fiSR GBR GBR TAI UNY UNY GBR 6BR GBR GBR IND INO FR^ ~8R GBR ~R ~BR 6BR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January I0, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YE/s.R NUMBER 160 0199 160 0200 140 0167 170 0209 170 0210 182 0248 192 185 0302 183 0265 182 0232 140 0168 124 0117 183 0256 181 0219 122 0101 191 0343 170 0213 170 0215 170 0214 170 0211 195 0360 170 0212 195 0359 184 0288 150 0190 190 0331 121 0089 111 0025 111 0024 124 0122 186 O3O9 183 0270 112 0051 170 0217 183 0269 186 0314 185 0301 121 0O78 186 0310 181 0222 GEOGRAPHIC CODE Kanazawa K, Birbeck MSC, Carter RL, Roe FJC (1970) GBR Kanazawa K, Roe FJC, Yamamoto T (1979) GBR Kanazawa K, Yamamoto T, Yuasa Y (1979) ~AP Kandaswaml C, O'Brlen PJ (1980) CAN Kandaswami C, O'Br|en PJ (1981) CAN Kang KY, Bice D, O'Amato R, Ziskind M, ".S.~Iv~ooio J (!979) ULA -:@~p~'-~1; .~r~and-14C,~vinch(In'MC;-Ser~F~udfn dF et al (1980) IRA Kaplan H, Ren|er A, Jaurand MC, Bignon J (1980) IRA Kaw JL, Ti]kes F, Beck EG (1982) GER Kaw &, Zaldi SH (1975) IND Kawai T (1979) JAP K|ng E,,1, CIegg ~/, Rae VN (1946) 68R Ktosht K, Sakabe H (1972} JAP Kosht K, Ha,yash| H, Sakabe H (1968) JAP Kung-Vosamae A, Vtnkmnn F (1980) RUS Lafuma J, Morln M, Poncy Jl., Masse R (1980) IRA Lakowicz JR, Bevan DR (1979) U~ Lakowtcz JR, Bevan DR (1980 UI,IW Lako~cz JR, Bevan DR (1980) UPI~ Lako~cz JR, Hylden ~ (1978) Lakowtcz JR, Hylden JL (1978) U~ Lako~cz JR, HyIden JL, Bevan OR (1979) Ut~I Lako~cz JR, Hylden ~, Englund F, Hidmark A, NcNamara M (1979) Landesman JH, Mossman BI" (1982) tNT Lavappa KS, Fu ~f4, Epstein SS (1975) Lazar' P (1980) IRA Le Bouffant L. Bru~ere S, OanIel H, Ttchoux G (1979) IRA Le Bouffant L, Bru~ere S, Oanie] H, Tfchoux G (1979) IRA Le Bouffant L, Martin OC, Daniel H (1979) IRA Lee KP, Barras CE, Gr|fftth FO, Waritz RS (1981) UDE Lee ICo, Barras CE, 6riffith FD, War|tz RS, Lapin CA (1981) UOE Le~|re I, Stro|s P, Rola-Pleszczyn~kt N, Masse S, Begin R (1981) IRA Lema|re S, Lema~re I (1981) CAN UHD UHI UMA UMD UWI UUT GER UCA SAF Leektn P, Ltpktn L, Harrtl C, Shifr|n S (1980) Leong 8KO, Koclba RJ, Perne11 HC, L|so~ RW, Rampy LW (1978) Light ~; (1979) Lipktn LE (1980) L~tterst CL, Ltchtenstetn EP (1970) Livingston GK, Rom WN, Ho~r|s HV (1980) Luechtrath H, Schm|dt KG (1959) Lukens I]t (1978) Hacnab G, Har|ngton ~15 (1967)
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES I00 to 199 January 10, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU~ER 123 0102 Man SFP, Lee TK, Gibney RTN, Logus JW (1980) 124 0121 Marcussen k~ (1977) 130 0136 Maroudas NG, O'Neill CH (1973) 196 0362 Masse R, Sebastlen P, Monchaux G, Btgnon J (1980) 194 0355 McCullagh SF (1981) 112 0040 McDermott M, Wagner JC (1975) 112 0047 Middleton AP, Beckett ST, Davis JMG (1979) 130 0156 Miller JW, S~yers RR (1936) 112 0055 Miller K (1979) 182 0238 Miller K (1980) 111 0021 Miller K, Calverley A, Kagan E (1980) 182 0237 Mtller K, Handfie]d RIM, Kegan E (1978) 183 0258 Miller K, Hartngton J$ (1972) 150 0176 Miller K, Kagan E (1976} 112 0052 Miller K, Kegan E (1977) 112 0059 Miller K, Kegan-E (1981) 112 0054 Miller K, Webster I, Handf|e]d RIM, Sktkne MI (1978) 112 0057 Miller K, Wetntraub Z, Kegan E (1979) 198 0366 Miller K, Wetntraub Z, Kegan E (1980) 198 0367 Miller K, Wetntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) 124 0112 Misra V, Rahman Q, Vtswanathan PN (1978) 195 0358 Ntsra.V, Rah~n Q, Vtswanathan PN, Beg MU, Zaidi SM (1977) 130 0151 Nonchaux 6, Btgnon J, Oaurand MC, Lafuma J et al (1981) 199 0372 Morgan A (1980) 130 0131 Morgan Ao Davies P, Wagner ~C, Berry 6, Holmes A (1977) 112 0048 Morgan A, Evans ~C, Holmes A (1977) 112 0049 Morgan A, Talbot RJ, Holmes A (1978) 183 026.2 Morgan DI4., Allison AC (1980) 184 0287 Mossmn BT, Adler I(B, Craighead JE (1980) 192 0346 Messman BT, Cratghead ~E (1981) 184 0286 Hossman 8T, Cratghead JE, NacPherson 8V (1980) 184 0285 Hos~man BT~ Kessler O:B, LeY BW, Cratghead JE (1977) 124 0111 Narang $, Kaw ~L, Zatdi SH (1978) 121 0093 Nettesheim P (1981) 185 0297 Neugut AI, Eisenberg D, Silverstein M, Pulkrabek Pet at (1978) 185 0304 Ne~an HAI, $aat YA, Hart RW (1980) 185 0303 Newman HAI, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) 124 0104 Nofer J, Szymczykiewicz K, Wtecek E (1961) 113 0069 Nordmann M, $orge A (1941) 124 0119 Obltn A, Warner J14, ~aulralld ~4C, Bignon ~, Claude ~ (1978) 130 0155 Peacock PR, 'Peacock A (1966) GEOGRAPHIC CODE CAN UCA UMD FRA ML GBR GBR GBR UDC SAF SAF UDC SAF SAF SAF SAF SAF SAF SAF SAF SAF IND IND FRA GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR UVT UVT UVT UVT IND UNC UNY UOH GER FRA GBR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 160 0205 160 0204 198 0368 183 0255 140 0165 183 0266 1~2 ~Z. 112 0064 190 0332 150 0170 190 0333 190 0334 185 0300 197 0363 122 0099 122 0100 122 0098 195 0357 111 0027 121 0084 181 0224 197 0364 111 0006 160 0206 112 0035 112 0034 184 0289 181 0225 182 0242 182 0243 182 0245 190 0335 182 0241 193 03413 140 0166 121. 0086 121 0087 190 0336 140 0158 186 0307 181 0223 124 0113 GEOGRAPHIC CODE Pelfrene AF (1977) UNE Pelfrene AF (1977) UNE Pernls B, Vigllan| EC (1982) UNY Pernts B, Vigltant EC, Marchtsio HA, Zanardi S (1966) ITA Ptgott GH, Ishmael J (1979) GBR Pigott GH, Judge PJ (1980) G8R -.~nk~'.~on ~ Pratt rC, Crapo uO (1980) " UNC Pinkerton KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JD (1982) UNC P|anteydt HT (1980) NET Pontefract RD, Cunningham h~4 (1973) CAN Port F (1980) GZR Port F, Huth F, Spur~y K (1980) ~ER Price-Jones I¢], Gubbtngs G, Chamber] a| n M (1980) 68R Py]ev LN (1980) RUS P~lev LN, Koval'skaya GO, Yakovenko GN (1975) RUS Pylev LN, KuIaglna TF (1982) RUS Pylev LN, Roe F~ Warwick O (1970) RUS Pylev LN, Shabad LN (1973) RUS Rahman Q (1982) UAR Rahman Q, Beg MU, Viswan~than Pfl, Za|di SH (1976} IND Rahman Q, Narang S, Kaw ~L, Zaldl SH (1974) IND Rahman Q, Vlswanathan PN, Za|dl SH (1977) IND Ramaswamy AS, Ve~katesh DS, Rama Rao R (1953) IND Rasanen T (1962) FIN Reeves AL (1976) UMI Reeved AL, Puro HE, Smith RC (19/4) UMI Retss B, Weisburger ~1, Wtlltams GN (1979) UNY Rlchards RJ,. George G, Hunt 3, Tetley TD (1980) G8R Rtchards RJ, Hext PM, B]unde11 G, Henerson WJ, Volcant BE (1974) GSR Rtchards RJ, Hext PM, Desa| R, Tetley T, Hunt Jet al (1975) GBR Rtchards RJ, Jacob~ F (1976) GBR Robock K (1976) GER Robock K, Klosterkotter W (1973) GER Ro¥-Chowdhur¥ N(, Moone~y TF Jr, Reeves AL (1973) UMI Sahu AP, Shanker R, Za|dt SH (1978) INO Salk RA, Vosamae A (1975) RUS Sanders CL Jr (1975) UWA Schepers Gi~l, Wagner JC, Hueper W (1965) UOC Scheuer E, Huth F, Port F (1973) GER Schneider U, Haurer RR (1977) . UNC Schnttzer RJ, Pundsack FL (1970) SAF Schoenberger C, Hunntnghake G, Gedek 3, Crystal R (1980)UMD
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 140 0157 110 0001 150 0182 140 0162 121 0085 140 0161 x85 ~296 124 0109 124 0108 124 0110 183 0263 130 0146 121 0077 122 0094 130 0153 130 0154 190 0337 150 0189 130 0152 160 0198 130 0137. 130 0134 130 0138 130 0139 130 0140 130 0135 140 0164 140 0163 182 0236 122 0095 122 0096 122 0097 124 0105 112 0042 112 0043 184 0290 194 0352 121 0091 121 0092 112 0036 191 0345 112 0068 Schulz RZ, Williams CR (1942) Schuster NH (1931) Sebastien P, Masse R, Bignon J (1980) Sethl S, Beck EG, Manojlovic H (1974) Shabad LN, P¥1ev LN, Krivosheeva LV, Kulagnina TF et al (1974) Shjn.~, Firmlnger Ill (1973) . - ~'~tn~k-A, S~eabr.lght M (1975) Slngh J, Beg MU, Kaw JL, Viswanathan PN, Za|di SH (1976) Singh J, Beg MU, Viswanathan PN, Zaldi SH (19/5} Singh a, Pandey 5D, Vlswanathan PN, Zaidl SH (1978) Ske]don N, Steele L (1978) Smith BA, Davis ~ (1971) Smith ~, Wootton IDP, King EJ (1951) S~dth WE (1966) Smith WE (1973) Smith WE (1980) Smith WE, Hubert" DO, Sobe] HJ (1980) Smith WE, Hubert DO, Sobe] HJ, Peters ET, Doerfler TE (1980) Smith WE, Miller L, Churg ~, SeIlkoff IJ (1965) Spe|rs RS, Wenck U (1955) Stanton 14: (1974) Stantoa Stantq~ Stanton Stanton Stanton Stevens Stevens Styles ~Ao W||son J (1973) Suzuki ¥. Churg J (1970) Suzuki ¥~ Churg ~, Ono T (1972) Suzuku Y (1974) Sz~czykte~Icz K (1970} Tet|ey ~D, Hext PM, R|chards R~, McDermott M Tet]ey ~, R~chards RJ, H~od ~ (1977) T~]kes F, B~k EG (1~) T~Pe] ] V Topptng ~, N~teshe~ P (19~) T~p~ng ~, ~teshe~a P, H~tln DH (1980) Tu~k ~, BP~s S, 8ert~]~ffy ~ (1971) V~ncent ~, J~nston ~, J~es ~. ~nston ~ (1981) B1ackwe11 R, Miller E (1969) Layard M (1978) Layard M (1979) Layard H, Tegerls A, Miller E, M~y Met al (1981) Wrench C (1972) W|11 LA, Cole DA, Meek E$, Frank CW, Donham K~ (19/9) W~11 LA, Osborne ~, Cole DA, Do~ham KJ (1978) GEOGRAPHIC CODE UMA GBR FRA GER RUS UMD GBR IND IND IND GBR GBR GBR UNJ UNJ UNJ UNJ UNJ UNJ UMB UMB UMD UMU U~ UMB UIO UIO GBR UNY UNY UNY POL GBR GBR GER GBR UNC UNC CAN ITA GBR
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CUMULATIVE CATEGORY NU MBER 124 0106 124 0107 111 0005 183 0268 183 0267 111 0010 130 012o 190 0338 112 0038 112 0041 130 0130 183 0254 130 0127 190 0339 190 0340 190 0341 190 0342 112 0039 130 0128 130 0132 150 0183 Ii0 0002 150 0192 113 0074 113 0071 113 0073 113 0072 191 0344 150 0169 182 0252 124 0120 183 0271 183 0274 150 0187 150 0188 124 0125 AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 199 January 10, 1983 AUTHORS AND YEAR Vlswanathan PN, Dogra RKS, Shanker R, Zaidl SH (1973) Viswanathan PN, Rahman Q, Beg MU, Za|di SH (1973) Vorwald A,Io Durkan TM, Pratt PC (1951) Wade I~], Llpkln IF, Stanton H=, Frank AL (1980) Wade Pkl, Lipkin IF, Tucker RW, Frank AL (1976) Wagner ~C (1963) .... Wagn~ ,1C (1966) Wagner JC (19/1) Wagner JC (1972) Wagner JC (1975) Wagner JC (1976) Wagner ,]C (Editor) (I980} Wagner aC, Berry 6 (1969) Wagner JC, Berry G (1973) Wagner JC, Berry 6 (1973) Wagner ~]C, Berry G, HIll RJ, Mundey DE, Skldmore u~/ (1980) Wagner ~C, Berry'G, Skldmore ~, Pooley FD (1980) Wagner JC, Berry G, Skidmore JW, TImbrell V (1974) Wagner JC, Berry 6, Timbrell V (19/3) Wagner MMF (1979) Ward ,R, Frank At, Wenk M, Devor D, Tarone RE (1980) Webster I (1963) Webste~ I (1974) We~ner'AP (1980) Wehner AP, Busch RH, Olson RJ, Craig OK (1975) Wehner AP, Oagle GE, Cannon WC (1978) Wehner AP, Dagle GE, Cannon WC, Buschbom RL (1978) Westlake GE (1974) Westlake GE, SpJut H~, Snfith N9 (1965) White R, Kuhn C (1980) Wilcox K, Marcussen W, Furst A (1974) Wright A, 6ormley IP, Collings PL, Davis 3MG (1980) Wright 140, Germley IP (1980) Zaidi SH (1974) Zaidi Stl, 6upta GSD, Rahman Q, Kaw ,]L, Shanker R (1976) Zaidt SH, Shanker R, Dogra RKS (1973) GEOGRAPHIC CODE IND INO UNY UMD UMD GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR UMD UWA • UWA UWA UWA UCA UTX UMO UCA 68R GBR INO INO IND N C~ N N
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 105 [200] [210] [220] [230] [231] [232] HUMAN PATHOLOGY AND IN VITRO STUDIES Histopathologlc features of pulmonary asbestosis and cancer Asbestosls or asbestos bodies Ferruglnous bodies and asbestos fibers Tissue analytical methods Pulmonary asbestos content in asbestos workers .[ 2~_33 !_~ulmpnary a_~sb~q tos• gon te~ ~Li~ ~ ca~.- popu ~ at ion groups [234] [ 235 ] [ 240 ] (241) [ 242 ] [243] [ 250 ] ( 260 ] [270] [ 280 ) [ 281) (2821 (283) [284) - (2851 (290] Pulmonary asbestos content in foreign population groups Extrapulmonary tissue asbestos content Antemortem pulmonary cytolo.gic observatlons s~tum cytology " Bronchoalveolar cytology Pulmonary biopsy PartlculaEe deposition In excised human lun~ In vitro hemolysis Human tissue cultures I~munol..o~Ic. reactions to asbestos In vitro adsorption of plasma and serum proteins Delayed hypersensltiv£ty skin tests Cell-medlated Immunologlc tests HUmeral L~mune tests Miscellaneous tests Including lymphocytic hydroxylase activity As.beatos/clqarette smoklnq interactions derived from h~man postJno~tem and antemortem st~dles BibliographF Cumulative Author Ir~ex 106 108 109 112 113 115 121 124 124 125 128 128 129 130 131 133 133 134 134 136 138 139 141 174 plus 1
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 19833 106 [ 200 ] HUMAN PATHOLOGY AN~ IN VITRO STUDIES The recognition of diseases caused by inhalatlon of asbestos dust was originally based on hlstopathologlc observations of the lung. In 1906, Montagu-Murray reported to a ~epa~ntal com~See - 3n .ind~st~l~ ~sease~- in England concerning a case of pulmonary fibrosis in an asbestos worker on whom he had done an autopsy (373). This case was not published in the literature and so were ~any other autopsies performed in the 1880s at a hospital in Turin. This compiler is in the process of obtaining these records to document the fact that the first cases of asbestosis diagnosed by gross and et~croscopic observations of the lung occurred in Italy in the 1880s, rather than in Epgland in 1906. Th~ first publlshed case of lung cancer in a patient suffering fro~ pulmonary asbestosls was reported in 1935 by an American pathologist, and additional cases were reported from England and Germany. Thus, prior to the Second World War, there was enough s¢~entlflc Infor~atlon indicating that occupatlonal exposure to asbestos can cause diseases of the lung, such as Pulmonary fibrosis and bronchogenic carcinoma, d~monstrah~e by hlstopathologlc studies.
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) A 1982 monograph released by the Commerclal Union Insurance Companies which is intended to examine the scientific evidence on ~sbestos, Smoklnq and Disease (374) does not discuss the early recognition of asbestos diseases, although t~e relationship between tobacco and cancer was reviewed. The monog~a~ _~races its. origin to. &~l%.~t ~0~ year~ ago, in an article describing nasal lesions caused by the use of snuff. The relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer is attributed to a 1929 publication by Tylecote, and to a 1939 article by Ochsner and DeBakey. It should be recognized that these two articles contained clinical impressions without any case reports. The epldemlologic evidence associating lung cancer and cigarette smoking was not available until the 1950s. A review of the literature conducted by this compiler suggests that reco~nitlon of the pathogenetlc effects of asbestos dust exposure predated by several decades the epidem~ologlc studies relating to cigarette smoking. The techniques used to investigate the effects of asbestos dust on human lungs, blood and tissue cultures are discussed below. Co~pared to animal experiments [Categories 100s], the human studies are less extensive and efforts to either prove or disprove asbestos/smoklng Interactlon concept are mln~mal. The compiler offers, an explanation as fo~lows~ human pathologists
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 108 generally do not agree, with concepts derived from anlmal experiments and epidemlologlc observations upon which the interaction hypothesis is based. [210] Histopatho~oglc Features of Pulmonary Asbestosis and • Cancer The first monograph on the subject appeared in 1938, entitled Silicosis and Asbestosis, edited by Lanza (375). The chapters on pathology by Gloyne (376) and on experimental pathology by Gardner (377) eu~narlze the importance of micros- copic observations- in differentiating between ashestosis and silicosis. Auerbach (378) reviewed the differences in an article appearing in 1937, thirty years prior to his own description of histopathologlc changes seen An the lungs of cigarette smokers. This is another example in the expanding llst of events indicating that the pulmonary effects of asbestos dust exposure predated those from cigarette smoking. The specific hlstopathological changes seen in asbestosis, mesothelloma and bronchogenlc carcinoma are discussed ~nder their respective disease categories [400s, 500s and 600s]. It suffices to state here that "despite the elegant techniques in biochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology which have been applied to the investigation of lung cancer, the morphological
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 109 parameter is the ~ost accurate moasurable index o£ environmental exposure risk". This opinion was stated by Kotln (379) prior to becoming employed by an asbestos manufacturing co~pany. Weston et al (380) published in 1972 a collect£on of cases of Inhalatlonal injury to the itulg, including asbestos dust exposure. Although there were no diagnostic pathological problem, the medlcolegal ramifications which may arise were discussed. The problems in the interpretation of hlstopatho- loglc changes in the lungs resulting from occupational or nonoccupational exposure to asbestos have been reviewed by Bignon and Bientz (381). [220] Asbestosis or Asbestos Bodies Between 1927 and 1929, Cooke and Hill reported the occur- rence of .'"curious bodies" in sections of the lung of a patient who died from exposure to asbestos dust (382-386). They were found in alveoll, bronchloles, fibrous and necrotic areas. The larger bodies measured from 20 to i00 microns or more in length and were of golden brown in color and gave a Prussian blue reaction for iron. They concluded that these bodies contained asbestos particles and originated as tissue reaction, thus the term "asbestosls bodies" to signify that they were pathognomonlc of asbestos-lnduced disease process.
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&sbestos/Sm~klng Interactfons [200 Series] (Jan. 22, ~983) 110 In the 1930s, Gloyne supported the concept of asbestosis bodies as pathognomonic of asbestos disease. He cited unpublished guinea pig experiments conducted prior to 1928 by Mavrogordato, and l~sted eleven morphologic features of asbestosis bodies (387-389). Since no asbestosis bodies have He~ fo~.nd in cr.~d~ ~b~tos.,-:Gl~y~W~s ~ta~n £hat they are produced in llvlng tissues from inhaled asbestos fibers. In 1951, Gloyne (390) reported the incidence of primary neoplasm of the lung in a group of 102 cases of asbestosis, 41 males and 61 females. Postmortem examination revealed an incidence of mallgnancy in 14.1 percent, consisting of 19.6 percent for males and 9.7 percent for females. He also noted that in long standing cases of asbestosis, both the fibers and bodies wer~ smaller and less often seen than in lungs of workers more recently exposed to asbestos, suggesting that in course of time, the fibers and bodies are slowly dissolved. It should be noted that the majority of deaths took place in the age group of 45 to 64 years in the prime o~ ~Ife when experience [n these skilled oc~patlona counted most. These observations are contraste~ below with more recent observations of British asbestos workers. The first reported detection of the curious bodies among American asbestos workers was in 1937 by Lynch. He proposed
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 111 the term "asbestos bodies" instead of asbestosls bodies, and "silica bodies" to refer to those associated with s~llcosls. He also proposed that other fiber or crystalline dusts not yet part£cu~arly studied may produce similar bodies and cautioned that confus£on of some consequence may result from failure to realize that asbestos bodles~mav_~-_-~m~.ate~by other deposits in the lung. German pathologlsts (392, 393) agreed with Gloyne which in turn prompted a new terminology described in the next category. Asbestos/Smoking Interaction° From 1927 tO 1931, Tylecote publlshed on asbestosls bodies and lung cancer (394, 395). He is also cited (by the Co~nercial Union Insurance Monograph) as the first pathologist who linked cigarette smokfng as a cause of lung cancer. Tylecote's statmnents were as follows~ • "I have no statistics with regard to tobacco, but I think that" ~n almost every case I have seen and known of, the patient has b~en a regular smoker generally of cigarettes. To this there have been the followlng exceptions: (a) two ladles who succo~ed to the disease unusually rapld~y. In each case the lady laved 'hard by' a railroad ~tatlon where trains frequently stopped, and where s~oke from the engines must have at almost all times pervaded both house and garden. (b) A group of acute adolescent cases, all males in ~hich I regard the
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) condition as being usually medlastlnal Hodgkln's disease" (395). The above quotation by Tylecote is regarded as documenta- tion for the claim that lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking preceded the recognition of the disease among asbestos workers. Tylecote was probably the first pathologist who could hsve detected the.phenomenon of.-~/s~ok~glnteract£on, if it existed at all, and the same can be stated for Auerbach who was also interested in the pulmonary effects of asbestos and cigarette smoke. Simons and Ah (396) are other pathologists who wrote on etiological concepts of lung cancer and although they mentioned mined du~t particulates and cigarette smoke in their list of 14 causes, they did not specify any form of interaction. [2301Ferr~inous Bodies and Asbestos Fibers BefOre discussing the changing concepts on the slgnifl- canoe of asbestosls or asbestos bodies, it might be helpful to recall a 1935 publication (397) from two Boston investigators (one a petrographer for the Liberty Mutual Insurance Co.). After the appearance of the results of guinea pig studies of Gardner alld Cum~Lngs [Category 111] and human hlstopathologlc observations showing the persistence of asbestos fibers in the lung [Category 220], the petrographers conducted a
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) photomlcrographic analysis of rafter dust from six asbestos processing plants that included molding and weaving of asbestos fibers. They concluded that in the resplrahle sizes (less than i0 microns in maximal diameter for particles, or less than 5 microns in thickness for fibers as long as 200 microas ), asbestos is ~ re!at~velw =uni~DOrt~nt constituegt'. Instead, the predominating constituents of resplrable dusts were talc, serpentine, carbonate and magnetite. These results were not challenged for three decades until additional research studies in human lun.g revealed the deposition of significant amotmts of resplrable asbestos fibers in the lungs of asbestos exposed workers. [231] Tissue Analytical Methods There were two significant events that resulted in the improvement in analytical methods for asbestos analysis in human tissues. First, Gross et al in 1967 questioned the specificity of asbestos bodies and suggested that the iron containing structtlres be called "ferruglnous bodies" since they are formed in response to the inhalation of filamentous dust of unknown composition (398-401). Secondly, research was being directed towards detection of asbestos fibers which was prompted by the results of Knox and Beattle (402, 403). They measured the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 114 mineral content of the lungs from 27 workers in the asbestos- textile industry. Like earlier British investigators, they reported that the mineral material found in the lungs increased in amotult as the exposure time lengthened. As th~ survival time increased, the mineral content of the lung tended to decline. T~ey.. ~iso .quest~on~. the~. sJ~,if~c~.nc~.~ o~ une m~.neral content which was unrelated to the severity of asbestotic lesions in the lungs. On the other hand, since severity was related to the sum of exposure time and survival time, the results o£ animal studies were questioned by Knox and Beattle. The above results reported in 1954 were derived from light microscopic ~asurements of particle size distributions contained in the incombustible and acid insoluble residues of lung parenqhyma. In subsequent years, new in sltu partlcle Identlflcat~on methods were introduced that Included electron microscopy, both transmission and scanning, back scattered electron imaging, and x-ray mapping. Tissue removal techniques included hlgh-temperature ashlng, microlnclneratlon, plasma ashing and etching, wet che~cal digestion and enzyme digestion. The selection of analytical techniques for the study of dust extracted from the lung and other tissues is dictated by the amount of tissue sample available. Techniques such as quantitative x-ray spectrometry, . x-ray fluorescence
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Asbestos/S~oklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1953) 115 spectrometry, and plasma spectrometry are of value in deter~inlng elemental concentrations. For the positive identification of asbestos, x-ray diffractometry and selected area electron diffraction are the methods of choice (404-408). The interpretations of results generally disagree with those of KNOX_ ~nd ~ Beattie _ End ~h2re are as nm~y oplnlona as there are investigators prefering a combination of techniques. [232] Pulmonary Asbestos Content Among Occupatlonally Exposed Groups. The results _ of pulmonary tissue analysis are briefly listed below. The entries are arranged according to the geographical location of the autopsled subjects or lobectomized ~atients ~ho were the sources of analyzed lung samples. The nature of occupational exposure and pulmonary pathological lesions showing the presence of asbestos are also indicated. COUNTRY AND OCCUPATIONAL PATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATORS EXPOSURE" LESIONS United States; see also [232] and [300] (~04) Mace et al 1980 (406) Gaensler & Addington 1969 (408) Vallyathan et al 1980 asbestos ~orkers asb.e~tos bod£es shipyard pipe coverer lung carcinoma asbestos sheet worker machinist; isolatlon asbestos bodLes worker
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 116 Australia (409) Mllne 1971 shipyard workers France (410) Bignon 1970 asbestos workers (411) Jaurand et al 1976 (412) Thomassln et al 1980 (413) Sebastien et al 1980 (41;) Le Bouffant 1974 asbestos workers (415) Le Bouffant et al 1976 (416) Fondimare & asbestos workers Desbordes 1974 (417) Lavoinne et al 1976 (418) Berry et al 1976 riedrichs & Otto 1981 asbestos workers miners asbestos workers Great Britain (402) Knox & Beattle 1954 (403) Knox & Beattle 1954 (420) Blount et al 1966 textile workers asbestos workers (421) Davis 1964 asbestos workers with lobecto~ (422) Ashcroft 1968 asbestos workers (423) Ashcroft & Heppleston 1973 (424) Ashcroft & Heppleston 1973 asbestos bodies lung carcinoma pleural fibers parenchymal fibers pleura% ~esothelioma asbestos bod£es pulmonary fibrosis mesothelloma nickel content ferruginous bodies asbestos fibers masothelloma asbestosls a cancer ~Ineral content protein content of asbestos b~lles asbestos bodies corelatlon with guinea pig asbestos fi~ers asbestosis
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&sbestos/Smok£ng Interact£ons [200 Sm:£es] (Jan. 22, 1983) 117 (425) Henderson et al asbestos ~orkers asbestos fibers 1969. boiler ~akers mesothelionm (426) Pooley et al 1970 asbestos workers (427) Pooley 1979 (428) Pooley & Clark 1980 (429) Pooley & Clark 1979 (430) Gaudlchet et al 1980 (431) Wagner 1973 asbestos workers (432) 01dham 1973 (433) Timbrell 1980 (434) Lawther 1971 asbestos workers (435) Acheson & Gardner asbestos workers 1980 (436) Morgan & Holmes 1980 asbestos workers (437) Morgan & Holmes 1982 gas mask workers India (438) garang. 1980 asbestos workers (439) Governa & Vadala asbestos workers 1972 (440) Governa & Rosanda 1972 Netherlands (441) P~anteydt 1973 asbestos workers (442) Stumphltls & Meyer shipyard workers 1968 ~G lyseth et al 1979 insulation workers (444) Opbus et al 1980 shipyard workers (445) Gylseth et. al 1981 (446) Glyseth & Baunan 1981 South Africa (447) Goldsteln & Rendall asbestos ~ners ~970 asbestos fibers asbestos fibers asbestosis asbestos bodies asbestos fibers mesothelioma mesothelioma coated & uncoated fibers asbestos bodies asbestos bodies asbestosls asbestos bodies asbestps bodies mesothelloma asbestos fibers mesothelloma pleural plaques ferruglnous bodies
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) (448) Thomas & Sluls-Cremer 1977 Switzerland (449) Bossard et al 1980 asbestos miners asbestos workers asbestos fibers pleural plaques asbestos fibers [233] Pulmqnary Asbestos Content~In American Pogulation Groups ' The analysis for asbestos of lung tissues obtained from the nonasbestos workers undergoing autopsy has revealed varying levels that are dependent on the technique used. Although the results reported in the 1960s showed detectable asbestos fibers in 41 percent of autopsied cases, subsequent reports approached incidence rate of i00 percent. There is agreement that the presence of asbestos fibers reflects environmental contamination from sources discussed elsewhere [Category 800]. That ~sbestos fibers from nonoccupatlonal sources can be deposited in the l~ng raises a serious question as to the source of carclnogenlclty developing in asbestos workers. Are the carcinogens entirely derived from the work place or predominant- ly from environmental sources? There are known dimensional differences between asbestos fibers in the work place compared to asbestos contaminants in the atmosphere. F~rthermore, asbestos fibers are likely to adsorb outdoor pollutants. If the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 119 sfngle target theory of carcinogenesis is true, then ft Is difficult to prove that the sole source of carcinogens is the work place. On the other hand, if the concept of cocarclno- genesis or synergism is true, what about the interactlon between asbestos f£bers occupationally Inhaled and asbestos fibers from enviromental sources? In other words, the interaction concept of asbestos in work place/asbestos in envlronme~t can poss£bly replace the asbestos/smoklng hypothesis° The studies on asbestos content of lung samples derived from autopsies of nonasbestos workers are as follows: STATE AND PULMONARY PULMONARY INVESTIGATORS INCIDENCE LESIONS Pennsylvania (450) Cauna ~ al 1965 (451) Gross et al 1969 (452) Davis &,Gross 1973 asbestos bodies 41% New Yorkr New Jersey and Minnesota (453) Suzuki & Chung 1969 (454) Langer et al 197~ (455) Selikoff & Ha~ond 1970 (456) Langer et al 1973 (457) Langer ~ Pooley 1973 (458) Langer et .1 1974 (459) Auerbach et al 1977 (460) Sellkoff a Lee 1978 (461) Ehrenreich & Selikoff 1981 asbestos bodies 100% !llinols and Callfornla (462) Cburg & Warnock 1977 asbestos bodies 96% (465) Churg & Warnock 1977 (464) Churg et al 1977 carcinoma mesothelloma
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 120 (465) Churg & Warnock 1978 (466) Churg & warnock 1979 (467) CHurg & Wernock 1979 (468) Churg & Warnock 1979 (469) Churg & Warnock 1979 (470) Warnock & Churg 1980 (471) Churg & Warnock 1980 (472) Churg & Warnock 1981 (473) churg 1982 Flor ida (4~ Thomson et al 1966 asbestos bodies 20-30% Michiqan (475) Dicke & Naylor 1969 asbestos bodies 22% California (476) Tabershaw 1968 asbestos bodies 25-50% (479) Felton 1980 Maryland (477) Bhagavan & Koss 1976 asbestos bodies 919 Tennessee (478) Breedln & Buss 1976 asbestos bodies 90% carcinoma The above list includes nine publications by Selikoff in collaboration with investigators at the Mt. Sinai Hospital and other institutions. Their concept on the formation of asbestos bodies (460) is different from th~se of other groups (479, 480). They agree with other groups that asbestos fibers can be derived from envlron~ental sources, in their discussion of ~orenslc significance of asbestos fibers (461) the asbestos/smoking synergism is emphasized without commenting on possible interaction between workplace and environmentally derived
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 121 asbestos fibers. The substitute concept of asbestos/asbestos synergism has not been considered in any of the above publications. [234] Pulmonary Asbestos Conte~--~ ~nTe~gn Populatlon Groups. The foreign studies show essentially the same results as the American ones: asbestos fi~rs and asbestos or ferruginous bodies are present in significant quantities in the lungs of the general population. The lung samples were obtained from consecutive series_ of hospital autopsies. The reports from thirteen countries are as £ollows: COUNTRY AND PUI24ONARY PULMONARY INVESTIGA~bRS INCIDENCE LESIONS Australia. (481) XIpell & Bhathal 1969 {482) McCullagh 1978 canada (483) Dionne et al 1976 (484) AnJ£1vel & asbestos bodies Thurlbeck 1966 (485) Shugar 1979 Denmark (485) Francis et al 1977 asbestos bodies France (487) Sebastlen et al asbestos bodies 100% 1977 asbestos bodies 43.5% asbestos bodies lelomyosarcoma pleural plaques pulmonary fibrosis
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Asbestos/smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 122 Finland (488) Meurman et al 1970 9erman~ (489) Frledriohs & Otto 1981 Great Britain (490) Lewlnsohn 1968 . (491) Roberts 1967 (492) Um 1971 (493) Oldham 1973 (494) Donlach et al 1975 (495) McDonald 1980 (496) Stovin & Patrldge 1982 Israel (49-~Y~-Polllack 1968 (498) Peacock 1968 (499) Peacock et al 1969 (500) Peacock et al 1969 (501) Ghezzl et al 1967 (502) Bianchl et al 1981 (503) Betta 1982 South Africa (504) Thomson et al 1963 Sweden (505) H~gerstrand & Selfert 1973 Switzerland (506) Stolkin et al 1981 asbestos bodies 64% asbestos fibers all carcinoma asbe.to~w~es asbestos bodies 23% asbestos bodies 20~ pleural plaques asbestos bodles~ men 42% women 301 asbestos fibers all asbestos bodies 26% asbestos bodies 2% carcinoma asbestos bodies 51% asbestos bodies 94% pleural plaques asbestos bodlesl men 58t women36% asbestos bodies 26% asbestos bodies 47% pleura1 plaques
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 123 Yugoslavia (507) Plamenac et al 1971 asbestos bodies 38% (508) Dimov et al 1975 asbestos bodies 191 Asbestos/Smokin_@ Interaction. -Although the American pubiications did not re~ort smoking habits of necropsied subjects [Category 333], the foreign studies include three with such description. The investigation in France included six autopsied cases who were not asbestos workers; one of the two smokers had higher and the other had lower values for pulmonary asbestos content, c~mpared to the three nonsmokers (487). One Itallan study (499) did not include a statistical analysis of correlation between reported smoking habit and asbestos bodies because as6estos bodies were rarely detected, a conclusion that is contrary to others conducted in the same country. A Finnish study (488) compared smoking habit and asbestos exposure of lung =ancer and control groups. Most of the cases with lung cancer (35 out of 50) belonged to the group of combined tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure, whereas only 20'of the 50 control cases belonged to this group. A statistical calculation o~the effect of adding the asbestos body factor to the smoking factor has been made with the collected data. The authors concluded that "it appeared that the combination does not raise the incidence
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) ].24 of lung cancer significantly". This conclusion does no__~t support the asbestos/smoking hypothesis. However the authors explalned a lack of additive effect by the followlng: "The tobacco factor is obviously so strong that the asbestos body factor does not ~x~-rt an~ further ~ffect~ (48~). [235] Extrapulmonary Tissue Asbestos Content Analyses of tissues (509) show that ferruglnous bodies and asbestos fibers are present in several organs including the larynx (510), gastrolntestlnal tract and mesothellal tu~ors (511-515), and kidneys (516). The asbestos fibers could be found not only in asbestos workers but also in the general population.. There are no observations relating to the asbestos/smoklng interaction concept. [240] Antemortem Pulmonary CytologIc..Observatlon In contrast to the preceding sections that relate to postmortem £nvestlgatlons, this section Is devote~ to the appllcatlon of the same techniques on samples collected prior to death. Historlcally, it should be recalled that i~ the 1930e, asbestosls bodies were reported in s~utum of workers by the same investigators who first recognized the disease of asbestos workers in the United states (517), England (518, 519) and South
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactlons [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 125 Africa (520). In the past fifty years, the techniques for cytologic examination have improved and have been applied not only to sputum but extended also to include bronchial lavage and pulmonary biopsy. [241] Sputum Cytology The Tyler Asbestos Workers Program, designed to provide a cohort of 890 former asbestos workers that was in operation between 1954 and 1972, is the only American source of data relating to sput_t~a cytopathology. When the Progra~ was initiated in July 1974, approximately 90 percent of the cohort were cigarette smokers which is far in excess of the general ~opulation. From 1976 to 1982, ten ~ubllcatlons appeared that contain statements supporting the asbestos/smoking synergism (521-530). A close examination of the articles by Greenberg et al .reveals the following inconsistencies: Firs__t, there was no significant association between the occurrence of ferruginous bodies in the sputum and smoking ~istory. If the interaction hypothesis that smoking . inhibits bronchooiliary olearance is true [Category 199|, then there would be a dlrect-correlation between smoking history and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, since the occurrence of ferruginous bodies was found "to increase as a logarithmic ft~nction of the length of occupational
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactious [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983} exposure to asbestos in workdays" (524). Second, a lack of association between smoking and ferruglnous bodies in the sputum was reversed two years later (526) without any explanation. Thlr_____~d, in another subsequent publlcatlon (528), the confusion l~c~mpounded by the following statement: "AS ~ith s~eclmen quality, smoking was found to influence the detection of ferruglnous bodies in the two specimen types. The aerosol- induced specimens from smokers showed a slightly, but not statistically significant, increased yield of ferruglnous bodies (34% as compared to 30%, ~=.0.15). For nonsmokers however, the increased detection of ferruglnous bodies in the aerosol induced specimen was found to be significant (29% for aerosol induced as compared to 18% for spontaneous, p=0.05) .... The smokers in the cohort more frequently produced satisfactory sputum specimens without the aid of the aerosol induction than did the nonsmokers". It is the opinion of this gompiler that the above inconsistent remarks as well as other p~bllcatlons on sputum cytology of smokers versus nonsmokers do not support the interaction hypothesis relatlng to mucocillary olearance. The Conclusions of Greenberg et al relatlug to asbestos exposure and sputum cytology have not been confirmed by foreign scientists listed below:
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 127 COUNTRY AND OCCUPATIONAL SPUTUM INVESTIGATORS EXPOSURE CYTOPATHOLOGY United States (521) Greenberg et al 1976 asbestos processing (522) (523) (524) (525) (527) (528) (529} (530) Zeluff et al 1976 Greenberg et al 1976 Farley et al 1977 McLarty et al 1980 gclartye~: al 1980 Roggll et al 1980 McLarty et al 1980 McLarty et al 1981 Greenberg et al 1982 (531) Ott~a et al 1975 Finland (532) Huuskonen et al 1978 asbestos cement pipe workers asbestos processing Netherland" (533) Plan~eydt et al 1964 shipyard workers Yugoslavia (534) Plamenac et al 1978 asbestos mining Huuskonen et al (532) found ferruglnous colllected from 43 percent of the patients. commented on cytopathology: squamous ~eta- plasia, squamous caEc i~ome, ferruglnous bodies cytopathology supported by radiology squamo,s metaplasia carcinoma asbestos bodies leukocytes, hemosiderlc macrophages, squamous meta- plasla, no ferruglnous bo~les bodles~ ~n sputum In addition, they that the smoking
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 128 habits in this material appeared to have no effect on the prevalence of benign cellular atypla, possibly either because of the small size of the material or the fact that the heavy effect of asbestos exposure overshadowed the influence of smoking'. A similar conclusion was arrived at by the Yugoslavian scientists ~53~). It i~ inuerrestlng to note that these Ruropean studies have not been cited in publications su~narizlng the results of the Tyler Asbestos Workers Program. [242] Bronchualveolar Cytology Some investigators have relied on bronchial lavage fluid rather than sputum analysis for detection of ferruglnous bodies. Bignon et al (535-537) found that results of bronchoalveolar cytology correlate with asbestos exposure better than sputum examination, a conclusion confirmed by investigators fro~ Canada (538), Great Britain (539) and the Unlt~ States (540, 541). The review article on bronchoalveolar lavage by G~ a~d Flick (541) stumnarlzes a reasonable co~relatlon between the ce1~ular features of bronchoalveolar lavage and those from lung biopsies in patient with asbestos-induced fibrosis. [243] Pulmonary Biopsy Lung biopsy is used to diagnose asbestosis, either by open
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 129 surgery (542) or by needle puncture (543-545). The technique has also been used to investigate cellular reactions to inhalation of asbestos~ Morgenroth (546) reconstructed the. cellular events based on electron microscopy. The smaller asbestos particles are phagocytlzed by cytoplasm. Larger particles are found ~ther uncoated or coated in the alveoll and in the connective tissue septa. Groups of alveolar macrophages gather around the partlcles and engulf them. In addition, the asbestos material is dissolved in lacunae appearing in the cellular membrane of macrophages. These ultramicroscopic changes are different from those of cigarette smoke reported by other investigators. ~250| Partldulate Deposition in Excised Euman Lungs Since. there are discrepancies in results of deposition of particulates in animal and patient studies, physical and mathematical models have been proposed (547-550). Mitchell constructed an artificial chest wall which was large enough to hold an entire excised human leng. Re observed extremely good agreement in deposition of aerosol particles wit~theoretlcal models (547). So far, the excised human lung or any of the theoretical models have not been applied to the study of
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Serfes] (Jan. 22, 1983) 130 interaction phenomenon. 260] In Vitro Hemolysis Although the hemolytic effect of asbestos was known since 1914 (551), its significance wes not eluci~.~t~ntil fifty years later. Presently, tests of in vitro hemolysis are used to compare cytotoxlclty of different forms of asbestos. In conjuoction ~ith teats of animal erythrocytes [Category 181], those performed on human cells have been used to support the theories for cytotoxiclty. The hemolytic mechanisms derived from in vitro testing of human erythrocytes are as follows: COUNTRY AND INVESTIGATORS MECHANISMS OF HEMOLYSIS United State~ (552) Light & Wel 1977 (553) Light & Wel 1977 (554) Light & Wei 1980 (555) Schnitzer & Busescu 1970 (556) Depasse 1982 (55~) Ei-Shobakl et al 1973 France T~T-Jaurand & Bignon 1979 (559) Jaurand et al 1979 (560) Jaurand et al 1980 (561) Jaurand et al 1980 Great Britain (562) Sykes et al 1980 surface charge surEace charge and polymer structure slatic acid in membrane lipid resynthesls o£ hemoglobin increased ~mbrane permeability influenced by extracellular osmola~ty
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 131 Romania (563) Gabor & Anca 1975 (564) Gabor et al 1975 South Afrlca (565) Harlngton et al 1971 (566) Harlngton et al 1971 lipid peroxidation of fatty acids surface charge hemolysis enhanced by serum EDTA interaction [270] Human Tissue Cultures C~pared to animal organ cultur~ studies [Category 184], those involving human cells are less in number. The results are generally similar in that asbestos particles are cytotoxlc, cause macrophageal phagocytosis and fibroblastlc proliferation. The importance of tr~ce metals has been examined by leaching end the results indicate that trace metals ure not involved in the cytotoxic response. The human tissue culture experiments reported by American, Canadian and European scientists are as follows: , INVESTIGATORS CELL OR ASBESTOS ORCA~ CYTOTOXICITY (567) Mace et al 1980 alveolar (568) McLemore et al 1980 macrophages (569) McLemore et al 1981 (570) Bitterman et al 1981 pulmonary fibroblasts (571) Hart et al 1979 (572) Hart et al 1980 (573) Daniel et al 1980 (574) Hart et al 1980 (575) TeJwani et al 1980 foreskin flbroblasts phagocytosls asbestos fibers less harmful than naked fi~ers replication factor ultramicroscopic cytotoxlclty benzopyrene inter- action N
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 132 (576) Lemaire et al 1982 pulmonary flbroblasts (577) Harris et al 1979 bronchus (578) Sirsch et al 1982 pleural cells (579) R,~a~% Ev~ ~.973 embryoni~ (580) Reiss et al 1980 embryonic intestine inhibition and prollferatlon DNA synthesis benzanthracene interaction prollferation cytotoxlclty leaching no influence Asbest.qs/Polyc¥cllc Aromatic Amines Interaction. Hart et al (671-575) tested in the human foreskin flbroblast culture" the followlng ami~es= benzopyrene, dimethylbenzanthrane, nltrosodlmethylam/ne and pyrene. By measuring the concentration ratio of cyclic GMP to cyclic AMP, they concluded that each polycyclic a{omatlc amine acts as a cocarclnogen to asbestos. The conclusion is base~ on separate treatment of the cell cul- ture with one substance, rather that the use of a combination. They offer their results in support of the synergism hypothesis between asbestos and cigarette smoking. Harris et al (577) compared asbestos alone and asbestos with a coating of dimethylbenzanthracene. The cultured human bronchial cells were penetrated by both coated and umcoated fibers. There was also hyperplastlc epithelial response with cellular atypia but
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 133 their publications did not contain any statement that the coated fibers caused more intense changes than uncoated asbestos. [280] Immunoloqic Reactions to Asbestos c~rW to the opinion ~of~asbesto~z3=cgrapherz and bibliographers, the first investigation on the effect of asbestos on immunologic events was conducted in 1913 by Coplans (581). The adsorptive properties of asbestos was demonstrated by incubating the substance in blood serum and detected a loss of antityphoid agglutlnins and hemolytic complement. The advances in immunology and immunopathology during the past seventy years has led to the proposal that asbestosls and concurrent carcinogenicity are autolmmune diseases. The recent reviews oW the immunologic responses as they relate to pulmonary fibrosis (582) and to bronchogenlc carcinoma (583) generally highlight the authors' experimental results. Burrell (584) has recently written a commentary on the subject cautioning the enthusiasts. The subcategorles on immunologic techniques include in vitro adso~ptlon of plasma constituents, skin testing, lymphocytlc reactions, and Immunoglobullns.. [281] In Vitro Adsorption of Plasma and Serum Proteins The llst of constituents in the human plasma and serum that is adsorbed by asbestos particles includes the following:
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 134 immunoglobulins and globulins (585, 586); coagulation factors xII and VII (587, 588); and complement factors (589, 590). In an in vitro system, the serum reacts with the asbestos particles leading to dissolution of silica (591, 592). It is the opinion of the Indian scientists (591, 595) that ~the.--~rocess of dissolution is the basic mechanism for pulmonary fibrosis. [282] Delayed Hypersensitivity Skin Tests In four published studies, most if not all of t.he following skin tests were used: recall test antigens with streptokinase-streptodormase, tuberculin purified protein derivative and Candida alblcans extract; and new sensitization testing to dlnitrochlorobenzene (583, 593-595). The results show a d6presslon in dermal hypersensitivity and acute dermal responses in patients with pulmonary asbestosls. The depression of dermal hypersensitivity is in agreement with the results of cell-mediated immunity described in the next subcategory. [283] Cell-Medlated Immunologic Tests In patients with pulmonary asbestosls, the results of in vitro testing show depression of cell-mediated immunity. The evidence Is based not only on lymphocytic profile but also on lymphocytic response to phytohemagglutlnln. It should be noted
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 135 that results of in vitro tests conform with those of in vlvo skin testing. The investigators in the United States, Great Britain, Poland and South Africa are as followsz COUNTRY AND CELL-MEDIATED INVE~iGATOD~ ...... . . TEST ~ . ~ES~OS E~ECTS IN PATIENTS United States (596) Barbers et al phytohemagglutinin in vitro 1981 depression (594) Gaumer et al 1981 skin hypecsensitivlty depression in asbesstosls Great Britain (582) Turner-Warwick 1973 lymphocyte responses depression in (595) Pierce & skin hypersensitivity asbestQsis Turner-Warwlck 1980 phytohemagglutinln (597) Haslam et al 1978 (597) Campbell et al '80 phytohemagglutlnin depression in (598) Kagamlmorl et al lymphocytes asbestosls 1980 (600) Wagne~ et al 1979 (601) Wagner 1980 Poland (593) Lange et al 1978 South Africa (583} Kagan et al 1978 skin h~pecsensitivit¥ depression in lymphocyte profile asbestosis skin hypersensitivity depression in phytohemagglutlnin asbestosls Asbestos/Smoklng Interaction. Wagner et al (600, 601) investigated the formation of lymphocyte E binding rosettes in
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 136 British dockyard workers exposed to asbestos dust. They concluded that there was increased in vitro rosette formation'in subjects with radiological evidence of fibrosis who also smoked. They also reported changes in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts that disagree with the observations of cigarette smokers not exposed~ to .... a~best0s. The publicatio" has several inconsistencies with reported information characterizing smokers. Although Wagner's publication appeared in 1979, there has been no confirmation from other investigators. The significance of rosette formation by lymphocytes has been of interest to some American immunologists but so far, they have not applied the technique to asbestos/smoklng interaction. [284] H~unoral I-,-une Tests Most studies relating to measurements of Immunoglobullns and antibodies show an increase in workers exposed to asbestos compared to controls. There is therefore a paradox in the immunologic responses - an increase in humeral i~mune indicators but a decrease ~n cell-medlated immunity [Category 283]. The explanation proposed in 1978 by Kagan et al (583) has not been acoepted by others. The studies showing Inoreased humoral ~eohanlsms, including the only negative result from Tyler Asbestos Workers Project (602) are as follows~
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 137 COUNTRY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE WORKERS OR INVESTIGATORS TESTS PATIENTS united States (602) Nash et al 1981 (603) Ei-Sewefy et al 1971 (604) Ei-Sewef¥ et al 1974 Finland (605) Buuskonen et al 1978 (606) Huuskonen et al 1979 Great Britain (582) Turner-Warwlck 1973 (607) Turner-Warwlck 1979 (608) Gregor et al 1979 (609) Stansfleld & Edge 1974 Poland (610) Lange.et al 1974 (611) Matej et al 1977 (593) Lange et al 1978 (612) Matej'et al 1978 (613) Lange 1980 (614) Lange 1980. South Africa (615) Kagan et al 1977 (583) Kagan et al 1978 Immunoglobullns serum proteins bone marrow cells autoantlbodles Immunoglobullns HLA antigens autoantlbodles HLA antlgens antlnuclear antibodies antinuclear anti- bodies IgA, IgG, IgM HLA antigens salivary IgA~ se- rum IgA, IgM, IgE no effect reduced in cement asbestos increased in asbestos workers increased in asbestos workers no change present in ship- yard asbestos workers present in asbestosls higher levels of Ig's increased in asbestosis
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 138 [285] Miscellaneous Tests Includlng Lymphocytic Hydroxylase Activity. There are immunologic observations other than cell- mediated or humoral testing. They include the followlng: leukopenia among asbestos miners (616)~ higher lymphocytic adenosine "deami~a~e~ activity am~ngworKers expo~e~ to asbestos (617); induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in alveolar macrophages and blood lymphocytes in asbestos workers (618); no effect (619) or increased (620) in chromosome alteratlons in human lymphocytes; and increased in metabolism of polymorphonuclea~ leukocytes (621). Asbestos/Benzopyrene Interaction. There are two studies that show conflicting results° Both were designed to obtain proof for the synergism between asbestos and cigarette smoking by examlni~g aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of pulmonary macrophages and blood lymphocytes obtained from asbestos exposed workers. The first group of study was conducted by a Scandinavian group and showed negative ~ffects~ no difference in enzyme induction between smoking and nonsmoklng asbestos workers (622, 623). " Subsequently, a Texas group o~ investigators supported by the Council for Tobacco Research, oblivious to the 1980 swedish publications, found positive proo~ for the synergism hypothesis (618). This compiler had always
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 139 regarded the Swedish work as definitive in nature since the negative results were derived from human cells and would therefore negate the positive results of animal studies [Category 160]. The situation has been changed by the positive results reported by the Texas. group, Incldentallv, the Texan group is no__t the Tyler Asbestos Workers Project! [290]Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interactions Derived from Human Postmortem and Antem~rtem Studies. The above review of the llterature on human pathology and in vitro tests h~ghllghts three ~echniques that support the synergism concept between asbestos and cigarette smoking, namely: [Category 270] foreskin fibroblast culture~ [Category 283] rosett~ formation by lymphocytes; and [Category 285] aryl hydrocarbon, hydroxylase of lymphocytes. However addlt~onal studies are needed to resolve the question of applicability of confllctlng results to epldemlolegic studies. On the other hand, two techniques do not support the asbestos/smoklng interaction concept~ [Category 241] sputum cytology; and [Category 235] pulmonary content kof asbestos bodies and fibers. There is a striking absence of human hlstopathologlc observations applied to the interaction hypothesis, yet the technique has b~en used to demonstrate the
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 140 separate effects of asbestos particles and cigarette smoking on the human lungs. In a 1982 review of the literature, Cralghead and Mossman summarized the biologic mechanisms that would account for the =~yner~i~,.~a~clnogenlc effects of ash~to~ ~d cigarette smoke in the respiratory tract". Their explanations were derived fro~ the results of thei~ own animal studies [Categories 184, 190 and 192]. The observations by other investigators relatlng to human pathology and cytology were completely overlooked.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 141 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX Among the 252 articles for Categories 200s, a duplicate copy of 107 or 42 percent was received from (X). The cumulative total.f~r~...Categories.~= ~ ~ . 100s and 200s is 277 out ef 6~4 articles or 44 percent. The geographical distribution of the authors contained in the Bibliographies are as follows: United States Categories 200s Cumulative UAR Arl zona 1 UCA California i1 16 UCT Connecticut 1 2 UDC District of Columbla 2 5 UDE Delaware 2 UIL Illin.o.is 8 i0 UIO Iowa . 3 ULA Lou is lana 3 4 UMA Massachusetts 2 5 UMD Maryland 4 19 UME Maine 1 UMI Michigan 2 7 UMN Minnesota 3 14 UMO Missouri 1 2 UNC North Carolina 1 UNE Nebraska 2 UNH New Hampshire 1 1 UNJ New Jersey 4 I0 UNY New York 17 36 UOH Ohio 9 UPA Pennsylvania 6 I0 USC South Carollna 2 8 UTE Tennessee 1 2 UTX Texas 17 19 UUT utah 1 3
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 142 UVT Vermont 2 9 U~A Washington 6 UWI Wisconsin 1 UWV West Virginia 1 3 Total Articles 99 228 Percent of Total 39% 36% Foreiqn Cateqories 200s Cumnlatlve ATL Australia 4 5 BEL Belgium 1 2 CAN Canada 8 19 DEN Denmark 1 1 EGY Egypt 4 4 FIN Finland 4 5 FRA France _ 19 38 GBR Great Britain 62 182 GER Germany 4 22 IND India 3 26 ISR Israel 1 1 ITA Italy i0 18 JAP Japan 5 NET Nethe~ ~ands 3 4 NOR Norway- 4 4 POL POland. 6 8 ROM R~mania 2 2 RUS Russia 8 SAF South Africa 9 33 SWE Sweden 3 3 SWI Switzerland 2 2 TAI Talwan l YUG Yugoslavia 3 3 Total Articles 153 396 Percent of Total 61% 64%" [Note~ Bibliography for categories 200s start on next page]
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 143 0373 Sellkoff IJ, Lee DHK (1978) Academic Press, New York 3-33 Asbestos and Disease. chapter 1. Historical Background. 0374 Bordow RA (1982) Commercial Union Insurance Companies, Boston 15-18 Smoking and lung cancer. In~ Asbestos, smoking and d£~ase, the 0375 Lanza AJ, Editor (1938) Orford Unlveristy Press, New York Silicosis and asbestosis. 0376 Gloyne SR (1938) Oxford University Press, New York 198-256 Pathology. In~ Silicosis and asbestos£s. 0377 Gardner LU (1938) Oxford University Press, New York 257-345 Experimental ~athology. In~ Silicosis and asbestosls. 0378 Auerbach 0"(1937) Ind Med 6~38-48 Pathology of the pneumoconioses~ silicosis; silicosis and tuber- culosis; asbestosls; siderosls; anthracosis. 0379 Kotln P (1965) Arch Pathol 79~331-334 The present status of pathology in environmental health. (X) 0380 Weston JT, Liebow AA, D~on MG, Rich TH (1972) J Forensic So~ 17~199-279 Untoward effects of exogenous inhalants on the lung. 0381 Bignon J, Bientz M (1977) Vie Med 58~1927-1931 Asbestos and pathological manifestations in the respiratory system and other organs. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 144 0382 Cooke WE, Hill CF (1927) J R Microsc Soc 47:232 Pneumokonlosis due to asbestos dust. 0383 Cooke WE (1929) Sr Med J 2:578 Asbestos dust and the curious bodies found in pul~nary ~b~~::~.~-~ ~, .... ~. ......... 0384 Cooke WE (1927) Br MedJ 2:1024 Pulmonary asbestosis. 0385 Cooke WE, Hill CF (1930) J Microsc Soc 50:15-19 II. - Further observations on pulmonary asbestosis, with special reference to asbestos dust and the curious bodies found in the lungs. 0386 Cooke WE (1931) J State Med" 39z544-548 Asbestos d~st and asbestosls bodies from the lungs of an asbestos worker. 0387 Gloyne SR (1931) Tubercle 12z399-401 The for~atlon of the asbestosls body in the lung. 0388 Gloyne SR (1931) Tubercle 12z158-161 The presence of asbestosis bodies in the faeces in a case of pulmonary asbeetosls. 0389 Glo~e S~ (1932) ~ancet 1=1351-1355 The asbestosls body.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 145 0390 Gloyne SR (1951) Lancet 1~810-814 Pneun~coniosiso A histological survey of necropsy material in 1205 cases. 0391 Lynch KM (1937) a~u~ =~.2.~: ~!~. ~_:~ ~7 8 .......................................... Pulmonary asbestosis. IV. The asbestos body and similar objects in the lung. 0392 Kuhn J (1941) Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg 10:473-485 Hypermlcroscopic studies on asbestos dust on lungs in asbestosls. (German) 0393 Ruska H (1942) Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg 11:575-578 Hypermlcroscopic studies on asbestos dust and on lungs in asbestosis. (German) 0394 Tylecote FE~ Dunn SJ (1931) Lancet 221~632-633 Case of asbestos-llke bodies in the lungs of a coal-mlner who had never worked in asbestos. 0395 T~lecote FE (1927) Lancet 21256-257 Cancer of the lung. 0396 Simons EJ (1935) Lancet 551637-640 Primary carcinoma of the lung: 0397 Hurlbut CS Jr, Williams CR J Ind Hyg 17:289-293 The mineralogy of asbestos dust. etiologlcal concepts
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [~00 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 146 0398 Gross P, Cralley LJ, De Treville RTP (1967) Am Ind Hyg Assoo J 28=541-542 "Asbestos" bodies: their nonspeclflclty. 0399 De Treville RT, Gross P, Davis JMG (1968) JAMA 203~I142-1143 0400 Gross P, de Treville RTP, Haller M (1970) Oxford University Press, Capte Town 89-91 Pulmonary ferruglnous bodles~ studies on their origin. In: Pneumoconlosls (Proc Int Co~f Johannesburg 1969). (X) 0401 Gross, P, Davis JMG, Harley RA Jr, Cralley LJ et al (1972) J Occup Med 141757-759 Asbestosl Identiflca~ion of fibrous partlcles in lungs. 0402 Knox JF, Beattie J (1954) AMA Arch Ind Hyg i0:23-29 Mineral content of the lungs after exposure to asbestos dust. 0403 Knox OF, Beattle J (1954) AMA Arch Ind Hyg i0~30-36 Distribution of mlneral ~articles and fibers in the lung after exposure to asbestos dust. 0404 Mace ML Jr, McLemore TL, Roggll V, Brlnkle¥ BR et al (1980) Cancer Lett ~95-I04 Scanning electron mlcroscopic examination of human asbestos bodies. (X) ~ 0405 Schepers GWH, wagner JC, Webster I, peacock PR et al (1965~ Ann NY Acad Sci 132~121-127 Discussion. Section II. Lung tissue and mineral matter~ Problems in modern technology. In~ Bioeffects of asbestos. (X) 0406 Gaensler EA, Addlngton WW (1969) N Eng J Med 280¢488-492 Asbestos or ferruglnotls bodies.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 202 In 1967, K1elnfeld et al (660) reported the mortality pattern for 152 asbestos workers in New York State, who had 15 or more years of asbestos exposure by 1945 or had achieved 15 years of exposure to asbestos dust ~etween 1945 and 1965. The oh=~-~a/~y-rates comp~ tu-t~,ose-'r, epor~~by .S~likoff et al were as follows: CAUSE OF NEW YORK STATE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY DEATH NUMBER % NUMBER All deaths 46 100.0% All malignancles 50.0% Lung & pleural malignancies 26.1% Gastrointestinal & p@_rltoneum 15.2% All other malignancies 8.7% Cardiac deaths (other than cor pulmonale) 28.3% Asbestosis & complications 4.3% Residual causes 13.1% 255 100% 37% 18% In the abov~ mentioned pulicatlon Of Klelnfeld et al (660) as .well as in subsec~emt publlcatlons (661, 662) appearing respectively in 1968 and 1973, the authors did not mention the asbestos/smoklng interaction. Other artlcles by Kleinfeld relating to a~bestoe mining are discussed below [Category 339]. [333] Plumbers and Plpefltters Reported by NIOSH " Epldemlologists In 1976, the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipeflttlng Industries
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 203 requested NIOSa to conduct a ~ortality study of its members. The Union ~ade its computerized death benefit record of 30468 death benefits clalmed fro~ 1968 to 1975 available to the NIOSH epidemlologist (663}. This represented I0 percent of 330000 mc=~o£~ei~,mlon.and is-~t~ l~rger-~t~an-~t~e union membership used by Seliko£f et al. The proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for male plumbers and pipefitters combined, and for plumbers only, were as follows~ CAOSE OF PMRs PMRs DEATH PLUMBERS & PIPEFITTERS PLUMBERS Ali causes - 1.00 All malignancies 1.13 Digestive organs & peritoneum 1.07 Esophageal cancer ~.55 Lung, bronchus & trachea cancer 1.22 1.00 1.2"/ 1.25 2.75 1.29 While slgn[flcant excesses were found for the study group as a .whole, these excesses appear to be confined to those union mem- bers who were plumbers by trade. Since plun~bers, pipefltters and insulators are likely to work together, a question whether common chemical hazards e~/st needs to be raised. It [s also possible that asbestos used by insulators influence plumbers, and vice versa for soldering fun~s. ~ [334] Boilermakers Reported by University of Washington Epide~ologlsts
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 147 0407 Grleger GR (1976) Environ Health Ferspect 18:222-223 The use Qf soluene and KOH as tissue dlgestants for the determination of asbestos in tissue. (Letter) 0408 Vallyathan NV, Green FHY, Cralgbead JE (1980) eathol Annu 15~78-104 Techniques for In situ particle identification. In: Recent ad~ance~ ~-~he-study of m~era}-~:,umc~.~n~osis~ 0409 Milne JEH (.1971) Trans Soc Occup Med 21:118-121 Developmental changes in asbestos bodies and their significance. 0410 Bignon J (1970) J Franc Med Chlr Thorac 24~71-86 Method of isolatlon and concentration of "ferruglnous bod£es" £~ the human lung. Their incidence and significance. 0411 Jaurand MC, Goni J, Janrot P, Sebastien P, Bignon J (1976) Rev Fr Mal Reap SUppl 2 4~111-120 Solubility of chrysotile in vitro and in human lungs. (French) 0412 Thomassin JH, Touray JC, 5aillif P, Jaurand MC et al (1980) £ARC Sci Publ No 30 105-112 Surface interaction between chrysotile and solutlons (Dissolution and adsorptlon)~ Systematic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. In; Biological effects of mineral fibers. (X) 0413 Sebastian P, Janson X, Gaudlchet A, Birsch A, Bignon J (1980) IARC Sol Pub1 NO 30 237-246 Asbestos retention in human respiratory t£ssues~ comparative measurements in lung parenchyma and in parletal pleura. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibers. (X) . 0414 Le Bouffant L (1974) Environ Eealth Perspect 9~149-153 Investigation and analysls of asbestos fibers and accompanying minerals in blologlcal materlals.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 148 0415 Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Martin JC, Tichoux G, Normand C (1976) Rev Fr Mal Resp Supp1 2 4:121-141 Some observations on asbestos f/bres and various ~tneral constituants in asbestosic lungs. In: The pathologie of asbestosls. 0416 Pondlmare A, Desbordes J (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:147-148 P-sbestos bodies and f/bets in-~u~g 0417 Lavoinne A, Maltrot B, Gray H, Tayot J (1976) Rev Yr Mal Resp Suppl 2 4:141-144 Quantitative analysis of nickel by atomic absorption without flames in the human parenchyma. In: The pathology of asbestosls. (X) 0418 Berry JP, Henoc Ing, P, Galls P, Parlente R Am J Pathol 83:427-456 Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysls, and electron micro- diffraction. 0419 Fre~drlchs KH, Otto H (1981) A~ I~ Byg'Assoc J 42z150-156 Fibers in human lung dust samples: a scanning electron micro- scope study. 0420 Blount M, Holt PF, Leach AA" (1965) B iochem J i01 ~204-207 The protein coating of asbestos bodies. 0421 Davis JMG (1964) Br J. Exp Path 45~642-646 The ultrastructure of asbestos bodies from human lung. 0422 Ashcroft T (1968) Br ~ed J 2:696-697 Asbestos bodies.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interact£ons [200 ser~esl (Jan. 22, 1983) L49 0423 Ashcroft T, Heppleston AG (1973) J Clin Path 26:224-234 The optical and electron n~Lcroscopic detern~nation of pulmonary asbestos fibre concentration and its relation to the human pathologlcal reaction. 0424 Ashcroft T, Heppleston AG (1973) IARC Sc~ Publ No. 8 236-237 Asbestos fibre concentratio~ in relation, t~ pulmonary ~e~ctlon. In~ B~ol~glcal effects of asbestos. (X) 0425 Henderson WJ, Harse J, Grlfflths K (1969) . Europ J Cancer 5~621-624 A replication technique for the identification of asbestos fibres in ~esothellomas. 0426 Pooley FD, 01dham PD, 0m C H, Wagner JC (1970) Oxford University Press, Cape Town 108-116 The detection of asbestos in tissues. In: Pneumoconiosis (Int Conf Johannesburg 1969) (X) 0427 Pooley FD (1979) IARC Sci Publ No. 8 50-53 Methods for assessing asbestos fibres and asbestos bodies in tissue by electron n~Lcroscopy. In~ Biologlcal effects of asbes- tos. (X) 0428 Pooley FD, Clark N (1979) Ann NY Acad Sol 300~711-716 Fiber dimensions and aspect ratio of crocldollte, chrysotile, and amoslte partloles ~etected in lung tissue specimens. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0429 Pooley FD, Clark NJ (1980) IARC Sol Publ No. 30 1~79-86 A comparison of fibre d~unenslons in chrysotile, crooidolite and amoslte particles from samples of airborne dust and from post- mortem lung tissue specimens. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 150 0430 Gaudlchet &, Sebaetlen P, Clark NJ, Pooley FD (1980) IARC Scl Pub1 No. 30 1:61-68 Identification and quantification of asbestos fibres in human tissues. In: Biological effects of mineral flbree. (X) 0431 Wagner JC (1973) IARC 8ci Publ No. 8 11-12 Progress in pathology/experimental pathology. In: B1ological effects of asbestos. 0432 Oldham PD (1973) IARC Scl Pub1 No. 8 45-49 A trial of techniques for counting asbestos bodies in tissue. In: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0433 Tlmbrell V (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30 113-126 Measurement of fibre~ in htlman lung tissue. In: Biologlcal ef- fects of m/neral fibres. (X) 0434 Lawther PJ (1971) Proc R Soc Med 64:833-834 Asbestos| S.o~e nonradlologlcal aspects. 0435 Acheson ED, Gardner MJ (1980) Lancet 1:706 Po~..slble synergism between chrysotile and amphibcle asbestos. (X) 0436 Morgan A# Holmes A (1980) Br J Xncl Me~ 37~25-32 C¢~centratlons and dimensions of coated and uncoated asbestos fibres in the human lung. (X) 0437 ~rgan &, Eolmee A (1982) Br J Ind Med 39z62-69 C~centration8 and characteristics of amphibole fibres in the lungs of workers exposed to crocidol[te in the BrLtlsh gas-mask factories, and elsewhere, during the second ~orld war.
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Asbestos/Sm~klng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 151 0438 Narang S (1980) Indian J Biochem Eiophys Suppl 17:24 Asbestos-lnduced hemolysis and formation of asbestos bodies. (X) 0439 Governa M, Vadala CR (1972) Int Arch Arbeltsmed 30:273-2~2 Histochemlcal demonstration of hematoldln in the innermost layers Of human asbestos body coating ........... 0440 Governa M, Rosanda C (1972) Br J Ind Med 29:154-159 A hlstochemical study of the asbestos body coating. 0441 Planteydt EE (1973) IARC Scl Publ No. 8 80-81 Discussion summary. Assessments of methods in the studies of the biologlcal effects of asbestos. 2. Pathology. In: Biological effects of asbestos.- (X) 0442 Stumphlus J, Meyer PB (1968) Ann Occup Hyg 11:283-293 Asbestos bodies and mesothelioma. 0443 Gylseth B, Ophus EM, Mowe G (1979} Scand J Work Environ Health 5:151-157 Determination of inorganic fiber density in human lung tissue by scanning electron microscopy after low temperature ashlng. 0444 Ophus EM, Mowe G, Osen KK, Gylseth B (1%80) Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysls of mlneral deposits in llmgs of a patient with pleural mesothelloma. 0445 Gylseth B, Move G, Skaug V, Wannag & Scand J Work Environ Health 7,109-113 Znorganic fibers in lung tissue from patients with pleural plaques or malignant mesothelloma.
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Asbes~os/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 152 0446 Gylseth B, B.aunan R (1981) Scand J Work Environ Health 7~190-195 Topographic and size distribution of asbestos bodies in exposed human lungs. (X) 0447 Goldsteln B, Rendall REG (1970) Oxford University Press, Cape Town 92-98 Ferruginous bodles. In~ Pneumoconlosls (pr~ ~,t Conf .~hannes- b~rg 19~ ~'~X~. ...... 0448 Glyn Thomas R, S~uls-Cremer GK (1977) Br J Ind Med 34~281-290 200 kV xeroradlography in occupational exposure to silica and asbestos. 0449 Bo~sard E, Stolkln I, Spycher MA, Ruttner JR (1980) IARC Scl Pub1 No. 30_ 35-41 Quantification and particle size distribution of inhaled fibres in the lung. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 045O Cauna D, Torten RS, Gross P (1965) JAMA 192 ~ 371-373 Asbestos bod~s in human lungs at autopsy. 0451 Gross P (196~) Arch Environ Health 19:186-188 Pulmonary ferrugi~ous bodies in city dwellers. A study of their central fiber. 0452 Davis JMG, Gross P (1973) IARC ScE Publ No. 8 238-242 Are ferruglnous bodies an. Indlcatlon of atmospheric pollution by asbestos? In: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0453 6uzuk£ Y~ Churg J (1969} Am J Pathol 55~79-107 Structure and development of the asbestos body.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 153 0454 Langer AM, Rubln I, Selikoff IJ (1970) Oxford University Press, Cape Town 57-69 Electron microprobe analysls of asbestos bodies. In: Pneumo- conlosls (Proc Int Conf Johannesburg 1969). (X) 0455 Sellko~ IJ, Hammond EC (1970) Oxford University Press, Cape Town 99-105 Asbestos bodies in the New York City _popu__t ....... ~wo ~rlo~s of t1~e:~<i~d~e[~u~nocon~oslS (~roc Int Co~f Johannesburg. 1969) (X) 045~ Langer AM, Ashley R, Baden V, Berkley C, Hammond EC et al (1973) J Occup Med 15=287-295 Identification of asbestos in human tissue. 0457 Langer AM, Pooley FD (1973) IARC Scl Pub1 No. 8 119-125 Identification of sln~le asbestos fibres in human tissue. In: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0458 Langer AM, Mackler AD, Pooley FD (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:63-80 Electron microscopical investigation of asbestos fibers. 0459 Auerbach O, Eammond EC, sellkoff IJ, Parks VR et al (1977) Environ Rea 14=286-304 Asbestos bodies in lung parenchyma in relation to ingestion and inhalation of miners~ fibers. 0460 Sellkoff IJ, Lee DEK (1978) Academic Press, New York 393-412 Asbestos and Disease. 0461 Ehrenrelch T, Sellkoff IJ (1981) Am J Forensic Med Patho~ 2~67-74 Asbestos fibers in human lung. Forensic significance. (X)
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Asbestos/Sm0klng Interactions [200 series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 154 0462 Churg A, Warnock ML (1977) Lab Invest 36:334 Analysis of the cores of ferruginous {asbestos) bodies from the general population. 0463 Churg A, Warnock ML (1977) Arch Pathol Lab Med I01:629-634 Correlation of quantitative asbestos body counts and occupation ~ ~atlents. 0464 Churg A, Sakoda N, Warnock ML (1977) Am J Clin Pathol 68:513-517 A simple method for preparing ferruglnous bodies for electron microscopic examination. 0465 Churg A, Warnock ML (1978) Lab Invest 37:280_-286 Analysis of the cores of ferruginous (asbestos) bodies Erom the general population. I. Patients with and without lung cancer. 0466 Churg AM, Warnock ML, Green N (1979) Lab Invest. 40:31-38 Analysis of the cores of ferruginous (asbestos) bodies from the general population. II. True asbestos bodies and pseudoasbestos bodies. (X) 0467 Churg A, Warnock ML (1979) Am Rev Rasp Dis 120s781-786 Analysis of the cores of asbestos bodies from ~embers of the general populations patients with probable low-degree exposure to asbestos° (X) 0468 Churg AM, Warnock ML (1979) Chest 76 s 143-149 Numbers of asbestos bodies in urban patients with lung cancer and gastrointestinal cancer and in matched controls. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 155 0469 Churg AM, Warnock ML (1979) Lab Invest 40:622-626 Analysis of the cores of ferruginous (asbestos) bodies from the general population. III. Patients with environmental exposure. (X) 0470 Warnock ML, Churg AM (1980) Chest 77:129-130 ~ ......... _..~sb~odies~tedlt.urial~) ..- 0471 Churg A, Warnock ML (1980) Am Rev Resp Dis 1221669-678 Asbestos fibers in the general population. (X) 0472 Churg AM, Warnock ML (1981) Am J Pathol 1021447-456 Asbestos and othe~ ferruglnous bodies. Their formation and clinical significance. (X) 0473 Churg A (1982) Hum Pathol 13z381-392 Fiber counblng and analysis in the diagnosis of asbestos-related dlseas~o .(X) 0474 Thomson JG, Path FC, Graves WM (~966) Arch Pathol (Chicago) 815458-464 Asbestos as an urban air contaminant. 0475 D£¢ke TE, Naylor B (1969) Dis Chest 56~122-125 Prevalence of "asbestos" bodies In human lungs at necropsy. 0476 Tabershaw IR (1968) Occup Med 10z32-37 Asbestos as an environmental hazacd.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 156 0477 Bhagavan BS, Ko~s LG (1976) Arch Pathol Lab Med 100=539-541 Secular trends in prevalence and concentration of pulmonary asbestos bodies - 1940 to 1972. 0478 Breedln PH, Buss DH (1976) South M~d J 69=401-404 Ferru~Inqus.(asbestos) bod/e~ in the lungs of rura~ dwellers, -ur~ran~-dwl-lers~-and pat~nns wi~n pulmonary neoplasms. 0479 F~,ton JS (1980) JAMA 244=1675 The autopsy and asbestos exposure. 0480 Wright GW (1969) Am Rev Resp Dis 100=467-479 Asbestos and health in 1969. 0481 XIpell JM, Bhathal PS (1969) Pathology 1=327-330 Asbestos bodies in lungs= an Australian report. 0482 McCullagh SF (1978) Lancet 2~844 No~-occupatlonal exposure to asbestos. 0483 Dionne GP, Beland JE, Wang NS (1975) Arch Pathol Lab Med 100=398 Primary le£omyosarco~a of the diaphragm of an asbestos worker. 0484 AnJilvel L, Thurl~eck k~4 (1966) ~ Canad Med Assec J 95~1179-I182 The incidence of asbestos bodies in the lungs at rando~ necropsles in Montreal. 0485 Shugar S (1979) Natl Res Counc Can Publ 92-96 Effects of asbestos in the Canadian environment. Effects o~ asbestos in man. Asbestos bodies and ferruglnous bo~ies. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactlons [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 157 0486 Francis D, Jussuf A, Mortensen T, Sikjaer B, Viskum K (1977) Scand J Rasp Dis 58:193-196 Hyaline pleural plaques and asbestos bodies in 198 randomized autopsies. 0487 Sebastlen P, Fond£mare A, Bignon J, Monchaux Get al (1977) Pergamon Press 435-466 ToDo~raphlcd~strlbutlon" cf asbestos ...... F~,., _~n b~um~ ~a~n=~o~ccupat~ona~ndnoh~occupa~o~alexposure. In~ Inhaled Particles IV (Proc Int Symp Edinburgh 1975) 0488 Meurman LO, Hormia M, Isomakl M, Sutlnen S (1970) Oxford University Press Cape Town 404-407 Asbestos bodies in the lungs of a series of Finnish lung cancer patients. In: Pneumoconlosls (Proc Int Conf Johannesburg 1969) 0489 Friedrichs KH, Otto H (1981) Am Ind Hyg Assoc 42~150-155 Fibers in human lung dust samples~ a scanning electron scope study. (X) 0490 Lewinsohn.~C (1968) Br Ned J 2:120 Asbestos bodies. 0491 Roberts GH (1967) ~ Clln Path 20~570-573 Asbestos bodies in lungs at necropsy. 0492 UmCH (1971) Br Mad J 2|248-252 Study of the secular trend in asbestos bodies in lungs in London 1936-66. 0493 Oldham PD (1973) IARC Sol Pub1 No. 8 23~-235 AsbestOS in lung tissue. In| Biologloal effects of asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Sn~king ~nte~actfons ~200 Se~es| (Jan. 22, 1983) 0494 Do~lach I, Swettenham KV, Hathorn MKS (1975) Br J Ind Med 32~16-30 Prevalence of asbestos bodies in a necropsy series in East London: assoclat~on with disease, occupation, and domiciliary address. 0495 McDonald AD (1980) ~C.~Sci. P~ub~l .o. 306q~685~ . tu~oursl prellmlnary report. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. 049~ Stovln PGI, Partridge P (1982) Thorax 37~185-192 pulmonary asbestos and dust content in East Anglla. 0497 Polliack A, Sacks..MI (1968) Israel J Med Scl 4:223-226 Prevalence of asbestos bodies in basal lung smears. 0498 Peacock PR (1968) Lancet i~i153-i154 Detectio~ of asbestos in asbestos bodies. 0499 Peacock PR, Bianclfiorl C, Bucclarelll E (1969) Europ J Cancer 5~147-153 Retrospective search for asbestos bodies in necropsles and biopsies on cases of primary malignant disease of the lung. 0500 Peacock PR, Bianci£1orl C, Bucclarelll E (1969) Europ J Cancer 5~155-158 Exam~natlon of lung smears for asbestos bodies in 1%9 consecutive necropsles in Perugla. 0501 Ghezzl I, Moltenl G, Puccettl U (1967) Med La~oro 58~223-227 Asbestos bodies in the lungs of inhabitants of Milan.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Serlesl (Jan. 22, 1983) 159 0502 Bianchi C, Brollo A, Minlussl C, 8itt~slnl L (1981) Tumorl 67:279-282 Asbestos exposure in the MonEalcone area. A soclal and patho- logical study of i00 autopsy cases. (X) 0503 Betta PC (1982) Med Lavoro 1~58-64 .A~b~os~bodles In the ~cne~al populatlon of the District of Alessandria~ an autopslcal survey and correlation of quantitative asbestos body counts, occupation and residence. (X) 0504 Thomson JG, Kaschula ROC, MacDonald RR (1963) S Air Med J 37:77-81 Asbestos as a ~odern urban hazard. 0505 Hagerstrand I, Selfert B (1973) Acta Pathol Microb£ol Scand 81~457-460 Asbestos bodies and pleural plaques in human lungs at necropsy. 0506 Stolkin I, Ruettner JR, Sahu AP, Schibli L, Spyoher MA (1981) Staub Reinhalt Luft 41~I18-122 Electro~/c~oscoplc detern~tnatlon of the number and size distribu- tion of miheral fibres in asbestos and nonasbestos exposed lungs. (X) 0507 Plam~nac P, Pikula ~, Kahvic M, Markovlc Z, Selak ~ et al (1971) Acta Med Jug 25~325-332 Incidence of asbestos bodies in basal lung s~ear. 0508 D~nov D, Berltlo-StahulJak B, Ber£tlo T, Bunarevlc A (1975) Plucne Bolestl Tuberk 27~211-217 Asbestos bodies In the autopsy findings of the inhabitants of zagreb and their relationship to ~allgnant tumors. (X) 0509 Cook PM (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330~717-724 Preparation of extrapulmonary tissues-and body fluids for quanti- tative transmission electron microscope analysis of asbestos and other mineral partlole conoentratlons. (X)
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&sbestos/S~k£ng In~eractLone [200 Sarles] (3ano 22, 1983) 160 0510 Roggli VL, Greenberg SD, McLa~y JL, Burst GA eL al (1980) Arch Otolaryngol 106=533-535 Asbestos body content of the larynx in asbestos workers. (X) 0511 Auerbach O, Conston AS, Garflnkel L, Parks VR et al (1980) chest 77~133-137 Presence o~ asbestos bo~ies in organs other than the lung. Gold C (1971) J Clln Pathol 24:481 Asbestos in tumours. 0513 Langer AM (1974] Environ Health Pers~ect 9:229-233 Inorganic par.tlcles in human tissues and their association with neoplastic disease. 0514 Rickert RR (1974) Environ Health Perspect 9:237-238 Technique for the systematic examination of colon - rectum specimens. 0515 Carter RE, Taylor WF (1980) Environ Res 21z85-93 Identification of a ~artlcular am~hlbole asbestos fiber in tissue of persons exposed to a high oral intake of the mineral. (X) 0516 Patel-Mandllk KJ (1981) Arch Environ ContamToxlool I0~47-54 Asbestos £1bers in normal aria cancerous human k~a-eys. (X) 0517 ~ • Lynch KM, Smith ~(A (1930) JAMA 95~659-661 Asbestosls bodies in sputum a~d 1~ng. 0518 Gloyne SR (1931) J Ind Eyg 13=85-86 A method o£ staining the asbestosls bodies fo.,a in the sputum of asbestos workers. 206277~16~I0
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 161 0519 Stewart MJ, Tattersall N, Haddow AC (1932) J Path Bact 35:737-741 On the occurrence of clumps of asbestosis bod£es in the sputum of asbestos workers. 0520 $1mson FW, strachan AS (1931) J Path Bact 34:1-4 Asbestosls bodies in th~ sputum: a. stud~:c~ ~eclmen~ from fifty wo~ke~s.-~n an..asbestos "~111 0521 Greenberg SD, Hurst GA, Chrlstlanson SC, Matlage WJ Am J Clln Pathol 66~815-822 Pulmonary cytopathology of former asbestos workers. Report of the first year. 0522 Zeluff GW, Jenkins DE~ Greenberg SD (1976) ~eart Lung 5~482-484 Asbestos - useful and dangerous. 0523 Greenberg SD, Hurst GA, Matlage WT, Chrlstlanson CS (1976) Tex Med 72~39-43 Sputum cytopathological findings in former asbestos workers. 0524 Farley ML, Greenberg SD, Shuford EH Jr et al (1977) Acta Cytol 21~693-700 Ferruglnous bodies in sputa of former asbestos worker. 0525 McLarty JW, Greenberg SD, Burst GA,Sp~vey CG, et sl (1980) Acta Cytol 24s70 ' Statistical comparison of aerosol-~nducod and spontaneous sputum specimens in the Tyler asbestos workers programe. (X) 0526 McLarty JW, Greenberg SD, Burst GA, Spivey CG et al ~1980| J Occup Med 22~92-96 The clinical significance of ferruglnous bodies in sputa. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 162 0527 Roggli VL, Greenberg SD, McLarty JW, Hurst GA et al (1980) Am Rev Resp Dis 122~941-945 Comparison of sputum and lung asbestos body counts in former asbestos workers. (X) 0528 McLarty JW, Farley ML, Greenberg 3D, Hurst GA, Mabry LC (1980) Acta Cytol 24~460-465 Statlst~nal~ comparison ~F a~ol-~d~Ce~-and~ponta~eous sputum ~In the-Tyler a~bestos workers program. (X) 0529 McLarty OW, Greenberg SD, Hurst GA (1981) Acta Cytol 25:445-446 Ferruglnous bodies and cellular atypia in sputum of former asbestos workers. (X) 0530 Greenberg SD, McLarty JL, Toggl~ .VL, Hurst GA et al (1982) Am Rev Respir Dis SQppl 125:153 Asbestos bodies in sputum~ thei~ cl~n~cal significance. (X) 0531 Attia OM, Ei-Sewefy AZ, Wassef SA (1975) J Egypt Med Assoc 58:427-433 Sputum plct~re in workers at an Egyptian asbestos-cement pipe factory. 0532 Huuskonen MS, Ta~kinen E, Vaaranen V (1978] Sc.and J Work Environ Health 4:284-294 Sputumcytology of asbestosls patients. 0533 Planteydt HT, Stu~phius J, Spuyman J (1964) Nederl T Ge~eesk i08~2378-2389 Asbestos bodies in shipyard workers. 0534 Plamenac P, N1kulln A, Pikula B, ~arko~c Z (1978) Acta Med Iugosl 32~297-309 Cytology of the respiratory tract in asbestos miners. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 163 0535 Jaurand MC, Gaudichet A, Atassi K, Sebastien P, Bignon J (1980) Bull Eur Physlopathol Resplr 16~595-606 Relationship between the number of asbestos fibres and the cellu- lar and enzymatic content of bronchoalveolar fluid in asbestos exposed subjects. (X) 0536 Brambi~!a C, Kaehler D, ~r~ambil~.a Eo FoU~Cy ~ et ai ~(1950) Am Rev R~splr Dis Suppl 121:225 Interest of ~ineralogical studies on brcnchlolo alveolar lavage. (X) 0537 Oi Menza L, Hirsch A, Sebastlen P, Gaudlchet A, Bignon J (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30 2~609-614 Assessment of past asbestos exposure fn patients= occupational questionnaire versus monitoring in broncho-alveolar lavage. In: Biological effects of m/neral fibres. (X) 0538 Braude AC, Chamberlain DW, Rebuck AS (1982) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl 125=106 Asbestos fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluld in patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. (X) 0539 Haslam PL, Turton CWG, Heard B, Lukoszek A, Collins JV (1980) Thorax 35=9-18 Bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary flbrosls= comparison of cells obtained with lung biopsy an~ clinical features. (X) 0540 ~aylo~ B (1977) Acta Cytol 21s490-492 RegarSing cyanophillc bodies, toxoplasma cysts and ferruginous bodies. 0541 ~ Gee JBL, Fick RB (1980) Thorax 35~I-8 Bronchoalveolar lavage. (X) 0542 Van Ordstrand HS, Effler DB, McCorwack LJ (1955) AMA Arch ~nd Health ~2=26-32 The value of lung biopsy in the diagnosis of occupational pulmonary dseases.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 164 0543 Sm/th WG (1964) Thorax 19:68-78 Needle biopsy of the lung. With special reference to diffuse lung disease and the use of a new needle. 0544 Mann B, Sinha CN (1966) Dis Chest 50:504-508 Jack needle lung biopsy in pneumoconlosis. 0545 Walton M, Skeooh T (1968) Thorax 23 : 556-562 Diagnosis of asbsstosls by needle lung blops¥. 0546 Morgenroth K (1973) Beltr Pathol 248 = 199-210 Cellular reaction in the human lung caused by inhalation of asbestos dust over long periods. 0547 Mitchell RI (1977) Pergamon Press, Oxford 163-173 Lung deposition in freshly excised httman lungs. In: Inhaled Particles IV. (X) 0548 Harris RL, ~Imbrell V (1977) Pergamon Press, Oxford 75-89 The Influence of fibre shape in lung deposition. Mathematlcal estimates. Inz Inhaled Particles IV. (X) 0549 Palmes ED, LIppmann M (1977) Pergamon Press, Oxford 127-136 Influence of respiratory air space dimensions on aerosol deposition. ~n: ~nhaled Particles IV. (X) 0550 YU CP, Taulbee DB (1977) Perg*mon Press, Oxford 35-47 A theory of predicting respiratory t~act deposition of inhaled particles in Nan. In: Inhaled Particless
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 165 0551 Wyard S (1914) J ParLe1 Bact 18:485-489 The action of asbestos fibre on the components of a slmple haemolytlc system. 0552 Light WG, Wel ET (1977) Nature 265:537-539 surfa~e-~ge.~and asb~st~s 0553 Light W~, Wei ET (1977) Environ Re~ 13:135-145 Surface charge and hemolytic activity of asbestos. 0554 Light WG, Wel ET (1980) Academy Press, London 139-145 18. Surface charge and a molecular basis for asbestos toxicity. In: The in vitro effects of mineral dust III. 0555 Schnltzer RJ, Bunescu G (1970) Arch Environ Eealth 20:481-482 Polymer as selective antagonists of hemolytic asbestos fibers. 0556 Depasse J (~982) Environ Res 27:384-388 .Influence of the slalle acid content of the membrane of its susceptibility to chrysotile. 0557 E1-Shobaki FA, E1 Sewefy AZ (1973) Hed Lavoro 64~417-422 The effect o£ exposure to asbestos dust on iron ~etabolism in Egyptian ~rkers. 0558 Jaurand MC, Blgnon J (1979) Thorax 34:694 Interaction of fibres with human and animal cells. (X) 0559 Jaurand MC, Magne L, Bignon J (1979) Br J Ind Med 36:113-116 Inhibition by phosphollplds of haemolytle action oE asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 166 0560 Jaurand MC, Renler A, Bignon J (1980) Academic Press, London 121-124 15. The adsorption of phospholiplds and red blood cell membranes on chrysotile fibres. In: The in vitro effects of mineral dusts. (x) 0561 Ja~rand MC, Thomassin JH, Baillif P, Magne Let al (1980} BrJ Ind Med 37:169-174 . ~hemi~a~nd photoelect0~ spectrometry analys~s of the-adsorption of phospholipld model membranes and red blood cell membranes on to chrysotile fibres. 0562 Sykes SE, Morgan A, Holmes A (1980} Academic Press, London i13-119 14. The haemolytlc activity of chrysotile asbestos. In~ The in vitro effects of mineral dusts. 0563 Gabor S, Anca Z (1975} Hr J Ind Med 32z39-41 Effect of asbestos on lipid peroxidatlon in the red cells. 0564 Gabor S, Frets T, Anoa Z (1975) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 36:47-55 Effects of quartz and asbestos on erythrocyte surface charge. 0565 Harlngton JS, Macnab GM, Miller K, King PC (i971) Med Lavoro 62:171-176 Enhancement of haemolytic activity of asbestos by heat-labile factors in fresh serum. 0566 Harlngton JS, Miller K, Macnab G (1971) Envlron.Res 4195-117 Hemolysis by asbestos. 0567 Mace ML Jr, Brlnkley BR, McLemore RL, Martin RR et Eur J Cell Biol 22:568 Scanning electron microscopic characterization of interactions between asbestos fibers and human pulmonary macrophages.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interaction8 [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 167 0568 McLemore TL, Mace ML Jr, Roggli V, Marshall MV et al (1980) Cancer Left 9~85-93 Asbestos body phagocytosls by human free alveolar macrophages. (X) 0569 McLemore TL, Roggll V, Marshall MV, Lawrence EC et al (1981) Chest Supp~ 80:39S-42~ .~ .......... C~mpa~l's%n. of.phagoc¥~" 6f ~coa~ed versus coated asbestos fibers by cultured h~t~an pulmonary alveolar macrophages. In: The environment and the lung. (X) 0570 Blttermen P, Rennard S, Shoenberger C, Crystal R et al (1981) Chest SuppI 80~38S-398 Asbestos stimulates alveolar macrophages to release a factor causing human lung fibrobalsts to replicate. In: The environ- ment and the lung. (X) 0571 Hart RW, Fertel R, Newman HAI, Daniel FB, Blakeslee JR (1979) Environ Health Eff ReS Serv 35 pages Effects of selected asbestos fibers on cellular and molecular parameters (Abstract). (X) 0572 Hart RW, Ken~Ig O, Blakeslee J, Mizuh~ra V (1980) Academic Press, London 191-198 23° Effect of cellular ingestion on the elemental ratio of asbestos. In~ The in vitro effects of m/neral dusts. (X) 0573 Daniel FB, Beaoh CA, Bart RW (1980) Acadaml¢ Press, Lcmdo~ 255-262 30. Asbestos-~n~uced changes in the metabolism of polycycllc aromatic hydrocarbons in human f~brob~ast c~l cultures. In: The in vitro effects of ~neral dusts. 0574 Hart RW, Daniel FB, Kindlg OR, Beach CA, Joseph LB et al (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34~59-68 Elemental mod~flcatlons and ~olycycl~c aromatic hydrocarbon meta- bolls~ in human, flbroblasts.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 168 0575 Te~wanl G&, Fertel R, Hart RW, Allison DK (1980) J Environ Pathol Toxlcol 4~67-70 Effects of asbestos and chemlcal carcinogens on the cyclic nucleotlde system of h~n flbroblastso (X) 0576 Lemaire I, Gingras D, Lemalre S (1982) Environ Res 28=399-409 Thymldln~ncor~_rati~n~_~ ~.u~n, flbrobl&~ as a sensitive assay f~£' b~51~glcai a~ti~i~y of asb~st~s.- (x) 0577 Harris CC, Stone GD, Trum~ BF, McDowell EM, Hess F et al (1979) Lab Invest 40~259 Interactions of asbestos with cultured human bronchus. (X) 0578 H~rsch A, Ja~rand MC, Regnler A, Brochard P, Lange J (1982) Am Rev Res Dis Suppl 125~161 Assessment of prlmaryculture, of human parietal pleural cells in relation to previous asbestos exposure. (X) 0579 Rajah KT, Evans PH (1973) IARC Scl Publ No. 8 94-98 Experimental methods - organ culture. In: Biological effects of asbestos. 0580 Relss B, Solomon S, Welsburger J~, Williams GM (1980) Environ Res 22~109-129 C~mparatlve toxicltles of different for~s of asbestos in a cell culture assay. (X) 0581 Coplans M (1913) Br Med J 1360-1363 The action of the asbestos m/nerals and allied ~aterla~s on bacterial and other substances. 0582 Turner-Warwlck M (1973) IARC Sol Publ No. 8 258-263 I---unology and asbestos. In= B~ological effects of asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 169 0583 Kagan E, solomon &, Cochrane JC, Belssner EI et al (1978) Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 1631-1644 Cancer related to asbestos exposure: Immunologlcal studies of patients at risk. In: Prevention and detection of cancer. (X) 0584 Burrell R (1974) Envlro~ Health Perspect 9~297-298 ~.I~-unol~gica~ reflections on asbestos. 0585 McFee DR, Tye R (1965) J Ocoup Med 7:269-275 Adsorption of proteins on dusts related to the pneumoconloses: selectivity. 0586 Hasselbacher P (1979) J Allergy Clln Immunol 64~294-298 Binding of immunoglobul~n and activation of co~lement by asbestos fibers. (X) 0587 Hamilton JA, Chan JY, Movat HZ (1981) Environ Res. 26:119-124 Coagulation of human plasma by asbestos fibers. (X) 0588 Israels LG,~Frlesen E, Sinclair C (1958) Can J Biochem Physlol 36:953-958 Activation of factor VII by asbestos in beef plasma and serum. (X) 0589 Wilson MR, Gaumer ER, Salvagglo JE (1977) J Allergy Clln Immunol 601218-222 Activation of the alternative co~lement ~athway end genertlon of chemotact~o factors by asbestos. .. 0590 Saint-Remy ~MR, Cole P (1980) I-~unology 41~431-437 Interactions of chrysotile asbestos f~bres with the complement system.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 170 0591 Rahman Q, viswanathan PN, Tandon SK (1973) Med Lavoro 64s245-249 Influence of citrate ions on the dissolution of s£1ica from asbestos. 0592 Rahman Q, Beg MU, Viswanathan PN (1975) Scand J Work Envlron ~ea!th DiSso~tio~ o2 Silici6acld from amosite and quartz ~usts under physlologlcal conditions. 0593 Lange A, Smolik R, Chmielarczyk W, Garncarek D, Gielgler Z (1978) Arch Immunol Ther Exp 26:899-903 Cellular immunity in asbestosis. 0594 Gaumer HR, Dol~ NJ, Kaimal J, Schuyler M, Salvagglo JE (1981) Clln Exp Immunol 4~:i08-I16 Diminished suppressor cell function in pateints with asbestosis. 0595 Pierce R, Turner-Warwlck M (1980) Clln Allergy i0:229-237 Skin tests with tuberculin (PPD) candlda a~icans and trlchophyton spp. in cry~togenlc flbrosing alveolltls and asbestos related lung disease. 0596 Barbers R, Shlh WWH, Saxon A (1981) 37th Annu Meet Am Acad Allergy 15 Asbestos depression of human phytohemagglutlnln response in vitro. (X) 0597 Campbell gJ, Wagner MMF, Scott MP, Brown DG (1980) Clln Exp I~munol 39:176-182 Sequentlal immunological studies in an asbestos-exposed popula- tion. II. Factors affecting lymphocyte function. (X) 0598 Kagamlmorl S, Scqtt MP, Brown DG, Edwards RE, Wagner MMF (1980) Br J Exp Pathol 61:55-60 Effects of chrysotile asbestos on mononuclear cells in vitro.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Ser£esl (Jan. 22, 1983) 171 0599 Haslam PL, Lukoszek A, Merchant JA, Turner-Warwlck M (1978) Clin Exp Immunol 3=178-188 Lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutlnin in patients with asbestosls and pleural mesothelioma. 0600 Wagner~4F, Campbell ~J, Edwards RE Clin ExpIm~unol 38:323-331 Sequentlal immunological studies on an asbestos-exposed popula- tion. I. Factors affecting peripheral blood leucocytes and T lymphocytes. (X) 0601 Wagner MMF (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 247-251 Immunology and asbestos. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. 0602 Nash DR, Fortson NG, McLarty JW, Hurst GA (1981) J Toxlcol Environ Health 7z733-744 Serum protein concentrations and respiratory tract abnormalities following short-term exposure to amosite: a comparison between former asbestos workers and unexposed controls. 0603 E1-Sewefy AZ, Eassan F, Badr PM, Awad S (1971) J Egypt Med Assoc 54:243-250 Serum protein electrophoresls among workers in an Egyptian cement - asbestos pipe factory. 0604 E1-Sewefy AZ, 8haheen H, Shams El-Deen A (1974) Ned Lav~ro 65~168-173 Bo~e marrow changes in asbestosls. 0605 Huuskonen MS,'Rasanen JA, Harkonen H, Asp S (1978) Scand J Res Dis 59~326-332 Asbestos exposure as a cause of immunological stimulation. 0606 Huuskonen MS, Tillkalnen A, Alanko K (1§79) Br J Dis Chest 73:253-259 HLA-BI8 antigens and protection from pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos workers.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 172 0607 Turner-Warwlck M (1979) Br J Dis Chest 73~243-244 HLA phenotypes in asbestos workers. 0608 Gregor A, Singh S, Turner-Warwick M, Lawler S, Parks WR (1979) Br J Dis Chest 73:245-252 The rQl~ of h£stocompatibi~ity (HLA) antigens In asbestosis. 0609 Stansfleld D, Edge JR (1974) Br J Dis Chest 68~166-170 Cilrculatlng rheumatoid factoc and ant~nuclear antibodies in shipyard asbestos workers with pleural plaques. 0610 Lange A, Smoollk R, Zatonski W, Szymanska J (1974) Znt Arch Arbeltemed 32~313-325 Autoantlbodles and serum immunoglobul~n levels in asbestos workers. 0611 Mate] B, Lange A, Smollk R (1977) Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 25:489-491 BLA antlgens.ln asbestosls. 0612 Mate] E, Lange A, Garncarek D, Smol[k R, Roszak E (1978) Arch Im~unol Ther Exp (warsz] 26:201-205 ELA and antlnuclear antibody incidence'In asbestos workers. 0613 Lange A (1980) Environ Res 22s162-175 An epide~iologlcal survey of Immunologlcal abnormalltles in asbestos workers. I. Nonorgan and organ-speclflc autoantibodles. 0614 Lange A (1980) Environ Res 22~176-183 An epidemlologlcal survey of immunological abnormalities in asbestos workers. II. Serum immunoglobul~n levels. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 173 0615 Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane JC, Kuba P, Rocks PH et al (1977) Clln Exp Immunol 28 : 268-275 I~nologlcal studies of ~atlents with asbestosls. II. Studies of circulating lymphoid cell numbers and h~moral immunity. 0616 Munan L, Thouez JP, Kelly A, Gagne M, Labonte D (1981) Scand J Hae~atol 26:115-122 Relative leucopenla in the peripheral blood of asbestos u~Lnersz 0617 Formeister JF, Trisch GL, Mittleman A (1978) J Med 9z 285-290 Adenosine deam~nase levels in constructloa workers with asbestos contact der~atlt[s. 0618 Snodgrass DR, McLemore TL, Teague RB, Wray NP et al (1981) Chest Suppl 80:42S-44S Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in pulmonary macrophages and blood lymphocytes. Asbestos-exposed cigarette smokers with and without cancer. In: The environment and the lung. (X) 0619 Farulla A, Naro G, Allmena G, Delflnl AM, Ogls M et al (1978) Ann ist Super Sanlt 14:655-658 Short-term ~ffects in vitro of asbestos fibers on human lympho- cytes. (Italian) (X) 0620 valerio F, de Ferrari M, Ottaggio L, Repetto E et al (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 485-489 Cytogenetlo effects of Rhodeslan chrysotile on human lymphocytes In vitro. In.- Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0621 Doll NJ, Stankus RP, Goldbaoh S, Salvagglo JE (1982) Int Arch Allergy AppI Immunol 68:17-21 In vitro effect of asbestos fibers on Dolymorphonuclear leukocyte function. (X) 0622 Skerfving S, Korsgaard R, Stlksa G, Simonsson BG (1980) IARC Med Sci 8:532-533 AHH inducibility in Swedish workers exDosed to asbestos. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [200 Series] (Jan. 22, 1983) 174 0623 Skerfvlng S, Korsgaard R, Simonsson BG, Stiksa Get al (1980) Exerpta Medica, Amsterdam 205 Ahh inducibility in workers exposed to asbestos. A prospective study. In: II World Conference on Lung Cancer, Copenhagen. (X) 0624 Cralghead JE, Mossman BT (1982) N Engl J Med 17=1446-1455 The pathogenesls of asbestoss-assoclated diseases.
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 232 0435 183 0259 190 0318 183 0260 150 0174 150 0175 234 0484 198 0370 232 0422 232 0424 232 0423 241 0531 210 0378 235 0511 233 0459 185 0305 185 0306 283 0596 196 0361 190 0319 182 0231 182 0230 182 0229 184 0291 194 0354 121 0083 121 0082 124 0124 124 0123 130 0129 232 0418 234 0503 170 0216 183 0257 233 0477 234 0502 232 0410 210 0381 130 0150 270 0570 232 0420 150 0177 Acheson ED, Gardner I~ (1980) Allison AC (1973) Allison AC (1974) Allison AC (1977) Amacher DE, A1arif A, Epstein SS (1974) Amacher DE, Alarif A, Epstein SS (1975) AnJllvel L, Thurlbeck 1~4 (1966) Archer VE, Dixon tic (1979) Ashcroft T (1968) ~A~,%~FofLT,'HePple~AG (I~I3) ; ....... Ashcroft T, Hepp]eston AG (1973) Attla OM, EI-Sewefy AZ, gassef SA (1975) Auerbach 0 (1937) Auerbach O, Conston AS, Garfinke| L, Parks VR et al (1980) Auerbach O, Hammond EC, Se]ikoff IJ, Parks VR eL al (1977) Babu KA, Lakkad BC, Ntgam SK, Bhatt OK, Karntk ABet al (1980) Babu KA, Ntgam ~, Lakkad BC, Bhatt OK, Karntk AB eL a| (1981) Barbers R, Shth kS/H, Saxon A (1981) Beck E6 (1975) Beck EG (1976) _ Beck E6 (1980) Beck EG, Holt PF, Manoj]ovtc N (1972) Beck E6, Holt PF, Nasra]lah ET (1971) Beck E6, TtIkes F (1980) 8eck]ake H~ (1981) Beg NJ, Fa~ooq M, Saxena V, Rahman Q, et a| (1977) Beg l~J,.Rahman Q, Vtswanathan PN, Z~dt SH (1973) Begin R, Masse $, Bureau R~ (1982) Begin R," RoIa-PIeszczynskl 14, Strois P, Lemalre I, et al (1981) Be~ry G, Wagner ~C (1976) Be~ry JP, Heno~ Ing, P, Galle P, Par|ente R (1976) Betta PC (1982) Bevan OR, Riemer SC, Lakow~cz JR (1981) Bey E, Hartngton ~S (1971) Bhagavan BS, Koss LG (1976) Btancht C, Brollo A, Ntntusst C, Btttestnl L (1981) Blgnon O (1970) Btgnon ~, Btentz H (1977) B|gnon ~, Nonchaux G, Sebastten P, H~rsch A, Lafuma ~ (1979) Bttterman P, Rennard S, Shoenberger C, Crystal R eL al (1981) 81ount M, Holt PF, Leach AA (1966) Bolton RE, Oavts 34G (1976) GEOGRAPHIC CODE G~R GBR GBR GBR UOH UOH CAN UUT GBR GBR EGY UNJ UNJ UNJ IND IND UCA GER GER GER GBR GBR GER CAN INO INO CAN GBR FRA ITA U~ U~ FRA FRA FRA UMD GBR GBR
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CJJ~LATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22. 1983 CATE6ORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUI~ER 200 0374 232 0449 111 0015 111 0016 111 0018 111 0017 190 0320 242 0536 233 0478 112 0061 112 0060 112 0063 190 0321 130 0133 184 0283 180 0218 184 0294 190 0322 184 0292 184 0295 182 0233 120 0076 280 0584 283 0597 235 0515 182 O253 233 0450 184 0284 184 0281 184 0282 186 0311 233 0473 233 0464 233 0462 233 0463 233 0465 233 .0467 233 0471 233 0468 233 0469 233 0472 Bordow RA (1982) Bossard E, Stolkln I, Spycher MA, Ruttner JR (1980) Botham SR, Holt PF (1968) 8otham SI(, Holt PF (1971) 8otham S~(, Holt PF (1972) Botham S~, Holt PF (1972) Botham Si(, Holt PF (1974) 8ra~llla C, Kaehler O, Bra~|lla E, Fourcy Pet al :(1980) -.~r~ude AC, Chamber~(~ 0~, R~uck AS (1982} 8re'edIn'Pff, Buss DH (1976) Brod¥ AR (1980) Brod?/~R, Crapo JD (1979) Drody AR, Hill LH, Adklns B Jr, O'Connor RW (1981) Brown A (1974) Brown DG, Wagner ~C. Wagner I~ (1980) Brown RC, Chamberlain M (1980) Brown RC, Ch~erlatn H, Davies R, Gromley IP (Editors) (1980) Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Davies R, Morgan D~L et al (1980) Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Oavtes R, Sutton GT (1980) Brown RC, Chamberl~atn M, Grtfflths DM, Timbre|I V (1978) Brown RC, Chamberlain M, Sutton GT (1980) Bruch ~ (1974) Burns DM (Editor) (1982) 8urrell R (1974) Campbell MJ, Wagner N~:, Scott I~o, Brown DG (1980) Carter RE, T~yIor WF (1980) Case BW;. IP N~C, Pad|l|a M, Kleinerman J (1982) Cauna D,,Totten RS, Gross P (1965) Chamberlain 14 (1982) Chac~berlatn H, Brown RC (1978) Ch~er|ain ll, Brown RC, Grtfftths DM (1980) Chamberlain M, Tarmy EM (1977) Chur9 A (1982) Churg A, Sakoda No Wornock 14. (1977) Churg A, Warnock N, (1977) Churg A, Warnock NL (1977) Churg A, Wa~nock N. (1978) Churg A, Warnock R. (1979) Chur9 A, Wa~nock !~ .(1980) : Churg AN, Warnock N_ (1979) Chur9 AN, Warnock I~ (1979) Chur9 AN, Warnock I~. (1981) ~RAPHIC CODE UCA SWI GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR FRA CAN UTE UNC SAF UNC U~ GBR GBR 6BR GSR GBR GBR GER UCA UWV 68R U~ UNY UPA GBR GBR UCA UI/ UIL UIL UIL UIL UCA UIL UIL UCA
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CUI~JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NUMBER CODE 233 0466 182 0235 235 0509 220 0384 220 0383 220 0386 220 0382 220 0385 ~280 0581 1830~64 113 0070 290 0624 190 0323 190 0324 150 01/1 186 0308 270 0573 181 0220 183 0276 183 0275 112 0033 130 0147 111 0008 111 0007 111 0009 232 0421 182 0227 130 0143 130 0141 130 0142 130 0145 130 0144 182 0228 190 0325 130 0148 112 0046 190 0326 112 QOG5 197 0365 233 0452 190 0327 231 0399 Churg AM, Warnock ~, Green N (1979) UIL C~nnlng DM, Hayes 14~, Styles JA, Nicholas JA (1971) GBR Cook PM (1979) Cooke WE (1927) GBR Cooke WE (1929) GBR Cooke WE (1931) GSR Cooke WE, Hill CF (1927) GSR Cooke WE, Hill CF (1930) GBR ~epjans M (1913) ...... .~ . _ .: . GBR "~ostrfni AM, Stevens CA~ ~JBL (~1978) ' -'~~ OCT Craig DK, Wehner AP, Morrow WG (1972) UWA Cralghead ~E, Mossman 8T (1982) UVT Cralghead ~E, Mossman 8T, Bradley BJ (1980) UVT Crapo JD, Barr~ BE, BrodyAR, O'Ne~l JJ (1980) UNC Cunnlngham itl4, Xoodte CA, Lawrence GA, Po~tefract RD (1977) CAN Cunnlngham HH, Pootefract RO (1974) CAN Daniel FS,.Beach CA, Hart RW (1980) UOH Daniel H, Le Bouffant L (1980) FRA Davies R (1980) GBR Davies R (1980) - GBR Davis HV, Reeves AL (1971) Davis ,IHB, Conlam SW (1973) GBR Davis JI4(; (1963) C-8R Oavts ,]46 (1963) GBR Davis ,]HG (1964) GBR Davis ~ (1964) GBR Davis ~H6 (1967) GBR Oavts ~ (1970) GBR Davis ~ (1970) GBR Davis ,]HG (1970) GBR Davis ~HG (1971) GSR • Davis ~ (1971) GBR Oavts OHG (1972) GBR Davis ~ (1979) GBR Davis ~ (1979) GBR Davis ~141;, 8eckett ST, 8olton RE, CollfnDs P, Middleton AP (1978) GBR Davis JI4G, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Oo~aIdson K (1980) GBR Davis ~HG, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Oo~aIdson K (1980) GSR Davis ONG, Boltoo RE, Garrett J (1974) .- GSR Davis ,]HG, Gross P (1973) GBR Davis J~IG, Nolyneux I~, Baxter RAo Walton WH, Berlin A (1981) GBR De Trevtlle RT, Gross P, Oavis JMG (1968) UPA
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to EgO January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUHBER 183 0261 181 0226 260 0556 131 0221 242 0537 233 0475 234 0508 234 0483 ~..~ 03~7 170 0208 124 0114 285 05~1 150 0181 234 0494 112 0032 186 0315 186 0316 186 0317 112 0031 233 0461 150 0185 284 0603 284 0604 260 0557 111 0026 121 0079 140 0159 140 0160 121 0080 150 0191 112 0037 241 0524 285 0619 233 0479 112 0044 232 0416 285 0617 234 0486 184 0279 184 0280 232 0419 234 0489 Dean RT, Hylton W, Alltson AC (1979) Depasse J (1980) Depasse J (1982) Desal R, Hext P, Rtchards R (1975) Dt Menza L, Htrsch A, Sebast|en P, Gaud|chet A, Btgnon J (lg80) Otcke TE, Naylor B (1969) Dtmov D, Berlttc-$tahulJak 8, 8erittc T, 8unarevtc A (1975) Dionne GP, Beland JE, Wang NS.~(1976) ~o~ ~R, Lowe DB,~.R~char~s ~, Cral]eyl;J, Sto~I~g-er HE (1970) Oixon ~R, Lowe DB, RIchards DE, Stoklnger HE (Ig69) Dodson RF, Hurst GA, Wf111ams MG Jr (1980) Doll NJ, Stanku$ RP, Goldbach S, Salvagglo JE (1982) Oonham KJ, Berg JW, W|11 LA, Letntnger JR (1980) Oontach I, Swettenham KV, Hathorn 14~S (1975) Donna A (1970) Oonna A (1972) Donna A (1973) Donna A, Betta PG, Lan~ranco G (1980) Donna A, Cappa APN.(1957) Ehrenreich T, SeIIkoff IJ (1981) ElseIe 6R (1981) E1-Sewefy AZ, Hassan F, Badr FM, Awad S (1971) E1-Sewefy AZ, Shaheen H, Shams E1-Deen A (1974) E1-Shobakt FA, E1 Sewef~, AZ (1973) Emerson RJ, Co~rfn 8, Cole Pj (1982) Engelbre~ht FM (1964) Engelbrecht FM, 8urger BF (1973) Engelbrecht FH, 8urger BF (1975) Engelbrecht FM, Thiart BF (1972) Epstein SS, Yarnes M (1976) Evans JC, Evans RJ, Holmes A, Hounam RF, Jones OH, et al (1973) Farley ~!., Greenber9 50, Shuford EH Jr el; a] (1977) Ferulla A, Nm'o G, Altmena G, Oelftnt AM, Ogts H et al (1978) Felton ~S (1980) Ferln ~, Leach I~] (1976) Fondtmare A, Desbordes J (1974) Formelste¢ JF, THsch GL, Nlttle~k~n A (1978) Francis D, Jussuf A, Mortensen T, Sikjaer B, Vtskum K (197~.) F~ank N. (1977) Frank /~L (1980) FPetd~'|chs KH, Otto It (1981) Fr|edrichs KH, Otto H (1981) GEOGRAPHIC CODE GSR BEL BEL GSR FRA Um YUG CAN - UOH UOH UTX ULA UIO GBR ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA UNY UTE EGY EGY EGY UVT GER GER GER UOH G8R UTX [TA UCA UNY FRA UNY OEN UNY UNY GER
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CUI4JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 260 0563 260 0564 231 0406 210 0377 111 0004 111 0003 232 0430 282 0594 242 0541 234 0501 160 0195 220 0387 240 0518 220 0388 220 0389 210 0376 220 0390 232 0448 235 0512 232 0447 113 0075 182 0234 184 0293 183 0272 183 0273 232 0440 232 0439 160 0195 241 0521 241 0523 241 0530 284 0508 231 0407 112 0030 233 0451 194 0350 150 0173 194 0351 231 0398 194 0356 130 0149 150 0172 Gabor S, Anca Z (1975) Gabor S, Frit$ T, Anca Z (1975) Gaen$ler EA, Add|ngton gg (1969) Gardner LU (1938) Gardner LU (1942) Gardner LU, Cuomings DE (1931) Gaudichet A, Sebastten P, Clark NJ, PooIey FD (1980) G~umer I~, Doll NJ. Kalm~1 J. Schuyler. ~, S~Iv~ggfo JE (1981) Gee'JBE, Ffck RB (~980) Ghezzf I, Moltenf G, Puccett! U (1967) Gloyne SR (1930) GIo~ne 5R (1931) Gloyne 5R (1931) Glo~e SR (1931) Glo~ne SR (1932) Glo~me SR (1938) Glo~me SR (1951) Glyn Thomas R, $1uts-C~emer GK (1977) Gold C (1971) - Go|dstetn B, Rendall REG Goldsteln 8, Webster I, Rendall REG, Sktkne HI (1978) Goldste~n RH, Miller K, Glassroth ~, Sntder GL, Polgar P (1982) Go~mle~ IP, Bolton RE, Brown G, Davis ~HG, Donaldson K (1980) Gormley IP, kH~ht A, Co111ngs P, Darts ~HG (1980) Gormle3 IP, Wright MB (1980) Governa N, Rosanda C (1972) Gover~a H, Yad~a C~ (1972) Governa H, Yadala CR (1973) Greenberg SO, Horst GA, Christianson SC, Natlage W~ (1976) Greenber9 SO, Hurst GA, Matlage WT, Chrtstian$on CS (1976) Greenberg SO, McLarty ~, Togglt VL, Hurst GA et 81 (1982) Gregor A, Singh 5, Turner-Warwick M, Lawler $, Parks ~ (1979) Grteger GR (1976) Gross P (1968) G~oss P (L969) Gross P (1973) Gross P (1974) Gross P (1975) : Gross P, Cralley L~, De Treville RTP (1967) Gross P, Harley RA (1973) Gross P, Harley RA (1973) G~oss P, HarIey RA, Sw~nburne LM, O~vts ~RG, Groene WB (1974) GEOGRAPHIC CODE ROM ROM UMA UNY UNY UNY GSR UCT ITA GSR GSR GSR GSR GSR GBR GSR SAF" GBR GBR GBR GBR ITA ITA ITA UTX UTX UTX GSR UPA UPA USC USC USC UPA USC USC USC
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CUNJLATIVE AUTHOR INOEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 231 0400 111 0013 121 0081 112 0029 231 0401 232 0446 232 0445 232 0443 234 0~05 186 0313 186 0312 150 0194 150 0193 150 0186 160 0201 160 0202 28L 0587 194 0353 260 0565 260 0566 160 0203 270 0577 250 0548 270 0574 270 0571 270 0572 283 0599 242 0539 281 0586 198 0369 193 0349 232 0425 182 0246 182 0244 111 0020 111 0019 150 0184 270 0578 112 0050 199 0371 111 0022 111 0023 Gross P, de Treville RTP, Haller M (1970) Gross P, de Trevllle TP (1967) Gross P, de TreviIIe TP (19/0) Gross P, de Trevl]]e TP, Toker EB, Kaschak M, Babyak MA (1967) Gross, P, Davis JMG, Harley RA Jr, Cralley LJ et aI (1972) Gylseth B, Baunan R (1981) Gylseth B, Mowe G, Skaug V, Wannag A (1981) Gylseth B, Ophus EH, I,~ow~ 6 (1979) . -H~g~rstrand I, Sel?~rt B Hahon N, Booth ~A, Eckert I~ (19//) Hahon N, Eckert HL (1976) Ha]|enbeck ~, Marke~y DR, Dolan DG (1981) Ha|lenbeck k~l, Patel-Mandl|k KJ (1979) Hamilton J, Vassa]Ii JD, Reich E (lg/6) Ham|lion JA {1980 Hamilton JA (1981) Hamilton JA, Chart ~Y, Movat HZ i1981} Ha~Ington JS (1981) Harlngton J$, Macnab GM, Miller K, King PC (19/1) Harlngton J$, Mi||er K, Macnab G (1971) Harlngton J$, Roe FJC, Walters M (1967) Harrls CC, Stone GO, Trump BF, McDowe|] EM, Hess F et a] (1979) Harris RL, Tlmbre]! V (19//) Hart RW, Din|el F8, Kindig I~R, Beach CA, Joseph LB et al (1980) Hart RW, .Ferte| R, Newman HAI, Danlel FB, 81akeslee JR (19/g) Hart RW~. Kendlg O, 81akeslee ~, Mizuh|ra V (1980) Has]am PL, Lukoszek A, Merchant JA, Turner-Warwick M (1978) Haslam ~, Turtoe CWG, Heard B, Lukoszek A, Collins ~/ (1980) Hasselbacher P Haubenstock H, 8ekesl J6 (1982) Ha~ashl H (19/4) Henderson W~, Harse J, Gr|fflths K (1969) Hext PM, Hunt J, Oodgson KS, Richards RJ (1977) Hext PI4, Richards RJ (19/6) Htett DN (1978) Htett DN (1978) H|lding AC, HtIdtng OA, Larson DM, Aufderhetde AC (1981) ~ H|rsch A, Jaurand MC, Regnler A, Brochard P, Lange J (1982) Holnms A, Morgan A (1980) HoIt PF (1974) Holt PF (1981) Holt PF (1982) GEOGRAPHIC CODE UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA NOR NOR NOR SWE UWV UWV UIL UIL UNY UNY UNY CAN UMD UNC UOH UOH GBR UNH UNY JAP GBR GBR GSR GBR FRA GBR GBR GBR GBR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATE6ORIES I00 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU HBER 111 0011 112 0028 111 0012 111 0014 190 0328 185 0299 185 0298 !60 0197 123 0103 182 0247 230 0397 284 0605 241 0532 284 0506 281 0588 150 0178 150 0179 160 0207 150 0180 124 0116 124 0115 182 0249 260 0558 i~4 0118 242 0535 232 0411 182 0239 260 0559 182 0251 182 0250 260 0560 260 0561 183 0277 183 0278 190 0329 112 0O67 112 0066 190 0330 283 0598 112 0053 112 0056 112 0058 Holt PF, Mills J (1964) Holt PF, Mills ~, Young OK (1964) Holt PF, M|lls J, Young OK (1966) Holt W, Young DK (1967) Humg S-O, Lee W-H (1980) Huang SL (1979) Huang SL, Sagg|oro D, Michelmann H, Ma111ng IN (1978) /lueper WC (!954) ~-, .... H~mphrey EW, Eying SL, Wrlgley dV, Northrup WF III et al (1981) Hunt J, Poole~ FDo R1chards RJ (1981) Hut]but CS Jr, Williams CR (1935) Huuskonen MS, Rasanen JA, Harkonen H, Asp S (19/8) Huuskonen MS, Tasklnen E, Vaaranen V (19/8} Houskonen MS, T1|Ika|nen A, AIanko K (1979) Israe]s LG, Frlesen E, SlncIalr C (1958) Jacobs R, Dodgson KS, R|chards RJ (19//) Jacobs R, Hu~hr#s J, Dodgson KS, Richard$ RJ (1978) Jacobs R, Richards RJ (1980) Jacobs R, Welnzwe|~ M, Oodgson KS, Richards RJ (1978) Jalswa] AK (1981) Jalswal AK, Vlswanatha~ PN (1980) Jaurand MC, Blgnon J (19//} Jaurand MC, Bignon J (19/9) Jaura~d ~C, 8ignon J, Gaud|chet A, Magne L, Oblln A (1978) Jaur~d HC, Gaudichet A, Atassl K, Sebastlen P, 81gnon J (1980) Jaurand~C, ~o~| J, Janrot P, Sebastlen P, 8ignon J {1976) Jaurand HC, KapIa~ H, Thlo||et J, Plnchon ¢ et al (1979) Jaurand HC, Magne L, 81gnon J (1979} Jaurand NC, Nagne L, 819non J (1980) Jaurand MC, Magne L, Bignon J, Gonl J (1980) Jaurand RC, Re~ler A, 81gnon J (1980) Jaurand MC, Thomassln ~, Ba|llif P, Magne L et al (1980} Johnson NF, Oavle$ R (1980) Johnson IF, Olvles R (1981) Johnson IF, Wagner ~C (1980) Johnson IF, Wagner ~C, Wills HA {1980) Johnson IF, Wagner ~C, Jones ~SP (1980) Kagamtmor| $, Scott I~, Brown DG, Edwards RE, Wagner l~f (1980) Kagan E, N|]|er K (1978) Kagan E, H|l]er K (1979) Kagan E, H|l]e~ K (1981) GE05RAPHIC CODE GBR GBR 05R ~R UNY UNY U~I ~R U~ FZH FZN GSR ~R ~R FRA ~R ~R ~R ~R
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CUMULATIVE CATE6ORY NUMBER 280 0583 284 0615 160 0199 160 0200 140 0167 170 0209 170 0210 182 0248 182 0240 185 0302 183 0265 182 0232 140 0168 124 0117 183 0256 231 0402 231 0403 181 0219 210 0379 220 0392 122 0101 191 0343 170 0213 170 0215 170 0214 170 0211 195 0360 170 0212 195 0359 184 0288 284 0614" 284 0613 282 0593 284 0610 235 0513 233 0456 233 0458 233 0457 233 0454 210 0375 150 0190 232 0417 AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES I00 to 290 January 22, 1983 AUTHORS AND YE/~ GEOGRAPHIC CODE Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane JC, Befssner El et aI (1978) SAF Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane JC, Kuba P, Rocks PH et a] (19//) SAF Kanazawa K, Blrbeck MS(;, Carter RL, Roe FJC (1970) GBR Kanazawa K, Roe FJC, Yamamoto T (1979) G8R Kanazawa K, Yamamoto T, Yuasa Y (Ig/9) JAP Kandaswamf C, O'Brien PJ (1980) CAN Kandaswamt C, O'Brten PJ (1981) CAN Kang..~y, 81ce D, O~ePLo~,Z~skind~,:S~]vagg~o J (i979) ULA Kaplan H~'Jaurand MC, Pinchon HC, Bernaudln JF et a| (1980) FRA Kap|an H, Renier A, Jaurand MC, Bignon j (1980) FRA Kaw ~., TiIkes F, Beck EG (1982} GER Kaw JL, Zaldi SH (19/5) IND Kawa! T (1979) ,lAP King E~. CIegg ~, Rae VM (1946) GBR Ktosht K, Sakabe H (1972) JAP Knox .IF. 8eattte ~ (1954) GBR Knox .IF. Beattte J (1954) GSR Kosh| K. Ha~ash| H, Sakabe H (1968) JAP Kot|n P (1965) - U!43 Kuhn J (1941) GER Kung-Vosamae A. Vinkmnn F (1980} RUS Lafuma J, Nortn N, Poncy JL. Masse R (1980) FRA Lakowicz JR, Bevan DR (1979) Lakouicz JR, 8evan DR (1980 UMN Lakowtcz ~]R, Bevan DR (1980) UR~l Lako~cz'JR, HyIden ~L (1978) U~I Lako~cz JR, Hylden ~ (1978) UI~I Lako~dcz JR, Hy|den ~[., 8evan OR (1979) UI~I Lako~cz JR, Hy]den ~L, En91und F, Hidma.rk A, NcNamara N (1979} UHN La~desman 4, Nossman BT (1982) UVT Lmge A (1980) POL Large A (1980) POL Lange A, Smo]lk R, Ch~lelarcz, yk ~, Garqcarek D~ Gtelgier Z (1978) Lange A, Smoolfk R, Zatoqskt W, Szymanska J (1974) PO~ Langer AN (1974) UNY Langer AM, Ashley R, Baden V, Berkley C, Hammond EC et al (~973) UNY Langer AN, Rockier AO, P~oIey FO (19/4) UNY Lmger AN, Poo|ey FD (1973) : UNY Langer AN, Rubln I, Se|Ikoff la (19/0) UNY Lanza AJ, Editor (1938} UNY Lavappa KS, Fu I~4, Epstein SS (19/5} UOH Lavofnne A, Mattrot 8, Gray H. Tayot J (1976) FRA
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NUHBER CODE 232 0434 190 0331 232 0414 121 0089 121 0088 232 0415 121 0O90 111 0025 270 0576 124 0122 186 0309 183 0270 112 0051 234 0490 170 0217 260 0553 260 0552 260 0554 183 0269 186 0314 185 0301 121 007~ 186 0310 220 0391 240 0517 270 0567 231 0404 181 0222 123 0102 243 0544 124 0121 130 0136 196 0362 284 0612 284 0611 234 0482 194 0355 112 0040 234 0495 281 0585 241 0528 L~ther PJ (1971) GBR Lazar P (1980) FRA Le Bouffant L (1974) FRA Le Bouffant L, Bruyere $, O~n|e| H, Tlchoux G (19/9) FRA Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Daniel H, Ttchoux G (1979) FRA Le Bouffant L, 8ru~ere S, Martin JC, Ttchoux G, Normand C (1976) FRA Le Bouffant L, Narttn JC, Daniel H "(1979) FRA Lee KP, Barras CE~_~iff~th~.FO, W¢'_it;:~ {I98!) UDE Lee~P, Bar-ras ~, Grtffit-h FD, Waritz RS, Lapin CA (1981) UOE Lemalre I, Glngras D, Lemaire S (1982) CAN Lema.|re I, Slrols P, Ro]a-PIeszczynski M, Masse S, Begin R (1981) FRA Lemalre S, Lemalre I (1981) CAN Lemktn P, Ltpkin L, Merrtl C, Shtfrtn S (1980) UMD Leong BKa, Koclba RJ, Pernell 11C, L1sowe RW, Rampy LW (1978) UMI Lewlnsohn HC (1968) GBR Light W~ (1979) Light WG, Wet ET (1977) UCA Lfght WG, Wel ET (197/) UCA Light WG, We! ET (1980) UCA Lipkin IF (1980) UMD Litterst CL, Llchtensteln EP (1970) UWI Livingston GI(, Rom WN, Morris MV (1980) UUT Luechtrath H, Schmtdt KG (1959} GER Lukens ~!~ (1978) UCA L~nch KM (.1937) USC L3nch KN,'$~dth WA (1930) U$C Mace R_ d~, Br|nkIe~, BR, McLe~re RL, Marttn RR et al (198(}) UTX Mace ~ JP, NcLe~re TL, Rogg]i V, Br|nkIey BR et al (1980) UTX Nacnab G, Har|ngton OS (1967) SAF Man 5~P, Lee TK, Gtbney RTN, Logus OW (1980) CAN Mann 8, Stnha CN (1966) GBR Xarcussen Mt (1977) UCA Naroudas N6, O'Netll CH (1973) Nasse R, Sebastlen P, Ronchaux G, 8|gno~ ~ (1980) FRA NateJ H, Liege A, 6arncarek D, Smollk R, Roszak E (1978)POL NateJ H, Lange A, ~Itk R (1977) POL NcCullagh S~ (1978) ATL NcCullagh S;: (1981) " ." ATL McDe~mtt M, Wagner ~C (1975) GBR NcDona|d AD (1980) GSR NcFee OR, Tye R (1965) UOH PtcLarty ~/, Far]e~t ~L, 6reenberg SD, Hurst 6A, Habr.v LC (1980) UTX
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX. FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUF~ZER 241 0529 241 0526 241 0525 2/0 0568 270 0569 234 0488 112 0045 1!2. ooa?, 130 0156 112 OOS5 182 0238 111 0021 182 0237 183 0258 150 0176 112 0052 112 0059 112 005~ 112 0057 198 0366 198 036? 232 0409 124 0112 195 0358 250 0547 130 0151 199 0372 130 0131 112 0048 232 0436 232 0437 112 0049 183 0262 243 0546 184 0287 192 0346 184 0286 184 0285 285 0516 232 0438 124 0111 284 0502 10 GEOGRAPHIC CODE Mctarty JW, Greenberg SO, Hurst GA (1981) UTX McLarty JW, Greenberg SO, Hurst GA, Spivey CG eta] (1980)UTX McLart¥ JW, Greenberg SO, Hurst GA,Sptvey CG, et al (1980) UTX McLemore TL, Mace I¢ Jr, Rogglt V, Marshall MV et aI (1980) UTX McLemore TL, RoggI| V, MarshaI1HV, Lawrence EC et aI (1981) UTX Meurman LO, Hormia M, Isomakl M, Sutlnen S (1970) FIN Mfddleton AP, 8eckett ST, Davis JMG (1977) GBR M|dd4etoo..AP, Bec~t-ST~-.~cvis ~~1919~ " --- GBR Miller JW, S~yers RR (1936) UOC Miller K (1979) SAF Miller K (1980) SAF Miller K, Calverley A, Kagan E (1980) UDC Miller K, Handfleld RIM, Kagan E (1978) SAF Miller K, Harlngton JS (1972) SAF M|IIer K, Kagan E (1976) SAF M~ller K, Kegan E (1977) SAF Miller K, Kagan E (1981) SAF . Miller K, Webster I, Handfield RIM, Skikne MI (1978) SAF M111er K, Welntraub-Z, Kagan E (1979) SAF Miller K, Weintraub Z, Kagan E (1980) SAF Mtller K, Wetntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) SAF Mtlne ~EH (1971) ATL Misra V, Rahman Q, Viswanathan PN (1978) IND Misra V, Rah~n Q, Viswanathan PN, Beg MU, Zaidl SM (19//)INO Mitchell RI (19//) UOH Monchaux ~, 6|9non J, Jaurand MC, Lafuma Jet al (1981) FRA Morgan A (1980) GBR MorDan A, Davies P, WaDner 3(;, Berry G, Holmes A (1977) GSR Morgan A, Evans ~C, Holmes A (1977) GSR Morgan A, Holmes A (1980) OGR Morgan A, Holmes A (1982) GSR Morgan A, Talbot RJ, Holmes A (1978) GBR I¢~rgan ON., AIltsan AC (1980) GBR Mergenroth K (1973) GER Mossman BT, Adler I(B, Cratghead ~E (198Q) UVT Mossman BT, Cra|ghead ~E .(1981) ? UVT Mossman liT, Cratghead ~E, MacPherson BV (1980) UVT Mossman BT, Kessler ,18, tey BW, Craighead ~IE (1977) UVT Munan L, Thouez OP, Kelly A, Gagne M, Laborite O (1981) CAN Narang S (1980) IND Narang S, Kaw ~, Zaldl SH (1978) INO Nash OR, Fortson NG, McLarty ,114, Hurst GA (1981) LITX
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CUe#JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 11 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NUMBER CODE 242 0540 121 0093 185 0297 185 0304 185 0303 124 0104 113 OO69 !~!,., o1.~.,~... 234 0493 232 0432 232 0444 250 0549 235 0516 234 0498 234 0499 234 0500 130 0155 160 0204 160 0205 198 0368 183 0255 282 0595 140 0165 183 0266 112 0062 112 0064 241 0534 234 0507 232 0441 190 0332 241 0533 234 0497 150 0170 232 0427 232 0428 232 0429 232 0426 190 0333 190 0334 185 0300 197 0363 122 0099 Naylor 8 (1977) " " UM~ ' Nettesheim P (1981) UNC Neugut A[, Eisenberg D, StIverste|n Mo Pulkrabek Pet aI (1978) UNY Newman HAI, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) UOH Newman HAl, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) UOH Nofer J, SZymczyktewtcz K, Wtecek E (1961) POL Nordmann M, $o~ge A (1941) 6ER ObJ~n A.,. W._arnet_J~-~Jau,'aod.~C,.~.~,gnorL_~, C.]aude JR (1978) FRA O~dham PO (1973) GBR OIdham PO (1973) GBR Ophus EM, Mowe G, Osen KK, 6y]seth B (1980) NOR Pa]mes ED, Ltppmann M (1977) UNY Patel-MandIlk KJ (1981) Peacock PR (1968) ITA Peacock PR, 6|anctflor| C, 8ucc|areI]t E (1969) ITA Peacock PR, 81ancif|orl C, 8ucc|arel|t E (1969) ITA Peacock PR, Peacock A (1966) GBR Pelfrene AF (1977) UNE Pelfrene AF (1977)- UNE Pernis B, rig]tan| EC (1982) UNY Pernts B, VtgItanl EC, Narchisio HA, Zanardl $ (1966) ITA Pierce R, Turner-Warwick M (1980) GBR Ptgott 61t, Ishmael J (1979) GBR Pigott 6H, Judge PJ (1980) GBR Plnkertop" KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JD (1980) UNC Ptnkerton KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JO (1982) UNC P]amenac.P, NtkuI|n A, PikuIa 8, Markovic Z (1978) YUG P|amenac P, P|ku]a 8, Kahv|c N, Markovtc Z, SeIak Iet a] (1971) YUG P|anteydt HT (1973) NET PIanteydt HT (1980) NET P|anteydt; liT, Stumph|us J, Spu3~an J (1964) NET Po]|tack A, Sacks NI (1968) ISR Pontefract RD, Cunn|ngham I~ (1973) CAN Poo]e¥ FD (1979) GBR Pooley FD, Clark N (1979) GBR Pooley FO, C|ark NJ (1980) GSR Poo]ey FD, O|dham PO, Um CH, Wagner OC (1970) GBR Port F (1980) GER Port F, Huth F, Spumy K (1980) GER Prtce-Oones I¢], 6ubb|ngs 6, Chamberlain N (1980) GSR Pylev LN (1980) RU$ Pylev LN, Kova|'skaya 6D, Yakovenko GN (1975) RU$
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 12 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NUMBER CODE 122 0100 122 0098 195 0357 11~1 0027 281 0592 121 0084 181 0224 28!. 0~.91 197 0364 270 0579 111 0006 160 0206 112 0035 112 0034 270 0580 184 0289 181 0225 182 0242 182 0243 182 0245 235 0514 234 0491 190 0335 182 02.41 235 0510 241 0527 193 0348 220 0393 140 0166 281 0590 121 0086 121 0087 190 0336 231 0405 140 0158 186 0307 260 0555 181 0223 124 0113 140 0157 110 0001 234 0487 Pylev LN, Kulaglna TF (1982) RUS Pylev LN, Roe F, Warwick D (1970) RUS Pylev LN, Shabad LH (1973) RUS Rahman Q (1982) UAR Rahman Q, Beg MU, Viswanathan PN (1975) IND Rahman Q, Beg HU, Vlswanathan PN, Zaldl SH (1976) IND Rahman Q, Narang S, Kaw ~, Zatdt SH (1974) IND R~hman-Q, Vis "w~-han- Pi~..~Tan~on ~K (19/3) IND Rahman Q, Vlswanathan PN, Zaidl SH (1977) IND Rajah KT, Evans Pfl (1973) GSR Ramaswamy AS, Venkatesh DS, Rama Reo R (1953) IND Rasanen T (1962) FIN Reeves N. (1976) Reeves AL, Puro HE, Sndth RC (1974) Re|ss B, Solomon S, We|sburger JH, Williams GM (1980) UNY Re|ss 8, Wetsburger ~H, Wt|ltams GM (1979) UNY R|chards RJ, George G, Hunt J, Tetley TD (1980) GBR R|chards RJ, HexLPM, Blundell G, Henerson WJ, Volcani BE (1974) GBR Richards RJ, Hext PM, Desal R, Tetley T, Hunt Jet a| (1975) GBR Rlchards R~ Jacoby F (1976) GBR R|ckert RR (1974) UNJ Roberts GH (1967) GBR Robock K (1976) GER Robock K, K1osterkotter W (1973) GER Roggll .VL, Greenberg SO, McLartj~ ,~, Hurst GA et al (1980) UTX Roggli YL, Greenberg SO, McLarty ~W, Hurst GA eL al (1980) UTX Roy-Chowdhury /~, Hooney TF Jr, Reeves AL (1973) UMI Ruska H (1942) GSR Sahu AP, Shanker R, Zatdt SIt (1978) IND Saint-Re~LY ~, Cole P (1980) GSR Salk PJ~, Vosamae A (1975) RUS Sanders CL Jr (1975) UWA Schepers G~, Wagner ~C, Hueper W (1965) UDC Schepers G~tl, Wagner ~C, Webster [, Peacock PR eL el (1965) UI)C Scheuer E~ Huth F, Port F (1973) GER Schneider U, Haurer RR- (1977) ~ UNC Schn'ttzer RJ, Sunescu G (1970) UNY Schnitzer RJ, Pundsack FL (1970) SAF $choenberger C, Hunntnghake G, Gedek J, Crystal R (1980) UHD Schulz RZ, W1111ams CR (1942) UMA Schuster NH (1931) Sebastten P,, Fondtmare A, Btgnon Q, Monchaux G et al (1977) FRA
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CUI4JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 13 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU MBER 232 0413 150 0182 233 0455 233 0460 200 0373 140 0162 121 0085 ].40 C~6i 234 0485 220 0396 240 0520 185 0296 124 0109 124 0108 124 0110 183 0263 285 0623 285 O622 130 0146 121 0077 122 0094 130 0153 130 0154 190 0337 150 0189 130 0152 243 0543 285 0518 160 0198 284 0509 130 0137 130 0134 130 0138 130 0139 130 0140 130 0135 140 0164 140 0163 240 0519 234 0506 234 0496 232 0442 GEOGRAPHIC CODE Sebastlen P, Janson X, Gaudichet A, Hirsch A, Bignon J (1980) FRA Sebastlen P, Masse R, Bignon J (1980) FRA Seltkoff IJ, Hanmond EC (1970) UNY Selikoff Ia, Lee DHK (1978) UNY Sellkoff IJ, Lee DI~((1978) UNY Sethl S, Beck EG, ManojIovlc H (1974) GER Shabad LM, Pylev LN, Krlvosheeva LV, KulagninaTF et al (1974) RUS ~hin.~., Firmi~r H: (1973).. " UMD Shugar S (1979) CAN Stmons E~ (1935) U~ $tmson FW, Strachan AS (1931) SAF Stncock A, Seabrtght M (1975) GBR Slngh J, Beg MU, Kaw~L, Vlswanathan PN, Zaidl SH (1976) IND Singh a, Beg NJ, Viswanathan PN, Zaidi SH (19/5) IND Slngh a, Pandey SO, Vlswanathan PN, Zaldl SH (1978) INO Skeldon N, Steele L (1978) GBR Skerfving S, Korsgaard R, Simonsson 8G, Stlksa Get al (1980) SWE Skerfvlng S, Kor~gaard R, Stlksa G, S|monsson BG (1980) SWE Smith BA, Davis JHG (1971) GSR Smith ~4, Wootton IDP, King EJ (1951) GSR Smith WE (1966) UNJ Smith WE (1973) UNJ Smith WE (1980) UNJ Smith t(~, Hubert DO, Sobel Ha (1980) UNJ Smith WE, Hubert DO, S~el Ha, Peters ET, Doerfler TE (1980) UNJ Smith WE, Nlller L, Churg a, Selikoff Ia (1965) UNJ Smith WG (1964) ATL Snodgrass ORt McLemore TL, Teegue RB, Wray NP eL al (1981) UTX Spelrs RS, genck U (1955) U~ Stansfteld D, Edge JR (1974) GBR Stanton I~ (1974) UHO Stanton I~=, B1ack~11 R, Miller E (1969) U~O Stanton N=, Layard N (1978) UHD Stanton ~, LWa~d M (1979) UHO Stanton I~=, Layard N, Tegerls A, Miller E, May Net al (1981) UMD Stanton 14% Wrench C (1972) URD Stevens RHt W111LA, Cole OA, Meek ES, Frank CW, Oonham Ka (1979) UIO Stevens RH, Wtll LA, Osborne JW, Cole OA, Donham Ka (1978) U[O Stewart 143, Tattersa11 N, Haddow AC (1932) GSR Stolkln I, Ruettner JR, Sahu AP, Sch|bli L, Spycher MA (1981) SWI Stevln P~I, Partridge P (1982) GBR Stumphtus a, Meyer PB (1968) NET
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 182 0236 122 0097 233 0453 122 0095 122 0096 260 0562 124 0105 233 C~,76 270 0575 112 0042 112 0043 232 0412 234 0504 233 0474 184 0290 194 0352 232 0433 121 0091 121 0092 280 0582 284 0607 i12 0036 220 0395 220 0394 234 0492 285 0520 231 0408 243 0542 191 0345 112 0068 124 0106 124 0107 111 0005 183 0268 183 0267 111 0010 130 0126 190 0338 112 0338 232 0431 112 0041 130 0130 Styles JA, Wtlson J (1973) Suzuki Y (1974) Suzuki Y, Churg J (1969) Suzuki Y, Churg J (1970) Suzuki Y, Churg J, Ono T (1972) SJ/kes SE, Morgan A, Ho|mes A (1980) Szymczyklewlcz K (1970) Taber~haw IR <.19~8) .... -~ ._~.L ......... Tejwan| GA, Ferte| R, Hart RW, Allison ~TK (1980) Tetley ll), Hext PM, Rlchards RJ, McDermott M (1976) TetIey TD, Richards RJ, Harwood & (197/) Thon~ssin ~H, Tour~y JC, Bai|Iif P, Jaurand MC et aI (1980) Thomson JG, KaschuIa ROC, MacDonald RR (1963) Thomson ~G, Path FC, Graves M4 (1966) T11kes F, Beck EG (1980) Ttmbre11 V (1972) Timbrel1 V (1980) Topping DC, Nett~eshetm P (1980) Topptn9 IX;, Ne~teshetm P,'Narttn OH (1980) Tu~ner-War~¢k 14 (1973) Turner-War~ck 14 (1979) Turnock AC, BrJ~s S, Be~talanffj~ FD (1971) Tylecote FE (1927) T¥1eco.te FE, Ounn SJ (1931) Um Cif, (1971) Valerto F, de Ferra~l H, Ottaggto L, Repetto E et al (1980) Vallj~athan NV, Green FHY, Cratghead JE (1980) Van Ordstrand ~, Effler OB, McCormack LJ (1955) Vtgltant EC (1968) Vincent ~H,'Johnston WB, Jones AD, Johnston AN (1981) Vtswanathan PN, Dogra RKS, Shanker R, Za|dt SH (1973) Vlswanathan PN, Rahman q, Beg MU, Zatdt SH (1973) Vorwald ~J, Ourkan 11(, Pratt PC (1951) Wade 1(3, L|pktn LE, Stanton If, Frank AL (1980) Wade K], Ltpkin LE, Tucker RW, Frank AL (1976) Wagner ~C (1963) ? Wagner JC (1966) Wagner OC (1971) Wagner JC (1972) Wagner JC (1973} Wagner ~C (1975) Wagner ~C (1976) 14 GEOGRAPHIC CODE GBR UNY UNY UNY UNY GBR POL UCA UOH GBR GBR FRA SAF SAF GER GBR GBR UNC UNC GBR GBR CAN GBR GBR GBR ITA UVT UOH [TA GBR IND INO UNY UMU UMU GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 290 January 22, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUNBER 183 130 190 190 190 190 112 130 130 283 283 243 150 233 110 150 113 113 113 113 191 150 210 182 124 281 183 233 183 260 234 250 150 150 124 241 0254 Wagner 0127 Wagner 0340 Wagner 0339 Wagner 0341 Wagner 0342 Wagner 0039 Wagner Q128 ~.~ ~ Wagner 0132 Wagner 0601 Wagner 0600 Wagner JC (Editor) (1980) JC, Berry G (1969) JC, Berry G (1973) JC, Berry 6 (1973) JC, Berry 6, Htl| RJ, Munday DE, Sktdmore Jg (1980) JC, Berry 6, Sktdmore JW, Pooley FO (1980) ~1C, Berry 6, Skidmore ~lg, T|mbreI] V (1974) ~ (1979) N~F (1980) ~IF, Ca.pbe]| ~J, Edwards RE (1979) 0545 Walton N, Skeoch T (1968) 0183 Ward u~, Frank AL, Wenk N, Oevor D, Tarone RE (1980) 0470 Warnock N., Churg AN (1980) 0002 Webster I (1963) 0192 Webster I (1974) 0074 Wehner AP (1980) 0071 Wehner AP, Busclt RH, OIson RJ, Craig DK (1975) 0073 Wehner AP, Dag|e GE, Cannon WC (1978) 0072 Wehner AP, Dag|e GE, Cannon WC, Buschbom RL (1978) 0344 West]ake BE (1974) 0169 West]ake BE, Spjut HJ, Smith t~ (1965) 0380 Weston ,1T, Ltebow AA, Dixon to, Rich TH (1972) 0252 White ~, Kuhn C (1980) 0120 Wilcox K, Marcussen W, Furst A (1974) 0589 Wt|son ~, 6aumer If~, Sa]vagglo JE (1977) 0271 Wright A, 6ormIey IP, Co|]tngs PL, Davis 3MG (1980) 0480 Wright 6W (1969) 0274 Wrtght tO, 6o~m]ey IP (1980) 0551 WJfard S (1914) 0481 Xtpe]] ~]N, 8hatha| PS (1969) 0550 Yu CP, Tau|bee DB (1977) 0187 Zatdt Sff (1974) 0188 Za|dt SH, 6upta 6SO, Rebman O, Kaw Jl., Shanker R (1976) 0125 Zatdt SH, $hanker R, Oogra RK$ (1973) 0522 ZeIuff 6W, ,Jenkins DE, Greenberg SO (1976) 15 GEOGRAPHIC CODE GBR GBR 6BR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR UCA SAF SAF UWA UWA UWA UWA UCA UTX UUT UMU UCA ULA GBR UOH GBR GBR ATL UNY INO INO INO UTX
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 175 [300] EPIDE~/OLO~IC STUDIES 0~ MORTALITY PATTERR OF ASBESTOS WORKERS 176 [310] Pioneering and continuing studies conducted by epldemi~lo~Ists of UniVersity of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health 180 [311] Mor~allty pattern in a cohort of asbestos ~orkers [312] Mortallty pattern among asbestos and cotton textile workers 184 [313] Mortality pattern among retired asbestos workers 187 [~20]-As~estos/c~aret~e'=moking~syner~Ism ~uggested ~ by the M~ Sinai Hospital g~oup 189 [321] Asbestos insulators in New York City and Newark 190 [322| Revision of importance of cigarette smoking among asbestos insulators in New York City and Newark 194 [323] Asbestos insulators In the United States and Canada 196 [324] Amoslte asbestos factory workers 200 [330] Mortality Pattern of asbestos workers reported b~ ~th~r American epldemiol~ists 200 [331] Asbestos Ins=lators in the Cincinnati area 20~ [332] Asbestos workers reported by epldemlologlsts of the New York Department of Labor 202 [333] Pl~u~bers and pIpefltters reported by NIOSH epldem/ologlsts 203 [334] Boilermakers reported by University of Washington epidemlologlsts 204 [335] Asbestos cement ~orkers reported by T~lane University epldemlologlsts 205 [336] AsbeStos textile, friction and packing products workers reported by NIOSH e~Ide~/ologlsts 205 [337] A~erlcan asbestos textile workers reported b~ Canadian epidemlologlsts 206 [338] Shipyard workers in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts 206 [339] Asbestos ~tners and ~llers in New York and South Dakota 208 [340] Canadian eDidem~ologlc studies 208 [350] British epid~o~o~Ic studies 210 [360] Scandinavian epldemlologlc studies 215 [370] Western European epidemiologlc studies 217
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 176 [380] 390 | [391] [392] [ 393] [394] [395 ] [396] [3971 [398 [ 399 Eastern Europeanr Middle Eastern and Far Eastern epidemlolo~ic studies 218 Limitations and consequences of epldemlolo~ic studies supporting the asbestos/cigarette interaction hypothesis 219 American Cancer Society project on smoking and health 221 Limitations of cohort approach 222 Published criticisms of asbestos/clgarette smoking interaction hypothesis 223 Inconsistencies in nu~berlcal estimates 227 .Asbestos/ben~Yrene Intera~t!~... 228 N0h-app~icabillty of interaction studies to other cohort groups 230 Asbestos workers, asbestos management and government regulators 230 Future projections of asbestos associated deaths 231 Legal consequences 232 Blbllograph¥ 233 Cumulative Author Index plus 260
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 177 [300] EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES IN MORTALITY PATTERN OF ASBESTOS WORKERS At the time this review was being prepared, this compiler obtained a pre-release copy of a medical textbook soon to be distributed: Environmental and Occupational Medicine, edited by William N, ~ 6r-6m -the ~Un~i£y Of utah School of Medicine (625). The inclusion of a 1983 publication in this report is an exception to the cut-off date of December 31, 1982 for the comprehensive blbliography on asbestos, dlrectly or Indlrectly related to the asbestos/cigarette smoking concept. The chapter on Asbestos and Related Fibers (626) was written by the Editor, who has published only one article on asbestos. He also invited Selikoff to prepare the Foreword to this first modern textbook on the subject. Since the first suggestion that asbestos exposure interacts with cigarette smoking was made by Sellkoff based on the results of ipidemlologlc studies, it is important to quote his most recent thoughts on the subject, "There has been a considerable change in the perspectlves of publlc health and preventive medi- cine, with many scientific, academic, adm/nistratlve, social, political and economic consequences .... As I look at this, it appears that four Interdlgltating, interwoven threads form our present fabric of under- standing. The first component was geographical
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 178 pathology .... The second componen~ was the exami- nation of cigarette smoking, started in 1940s, in which over the next 30 years it was demonstrated that major human diseases, cancer of the colon, b~adder, larynx and pancreas; coronary disease and stroke~ emphysenm and bronchitis ... were exogenously derlv- ed, mostly from agents in our personal environment. The third component was the body of painfully gathere-~-~d~ta concerning occupational hazards with a variety of biological effects, neoplastic, neurolo- gical, immunological, hepatic, renal and metab~llc. "~" The~las__t-~'~compu~en~ ,as ~he observation that control of exposures not only would reduce the incidence of such disease but in some cases might even lead to reversal of risk. When did this change occur? ... A landmark of our understanding of tobacco's effects was the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. The asbestos industry insists that it did not appreciate the wide potential of asbestos disease until the same year (Selikoff et al 1964). The demonstration of reversal of risk in human disease occurred soon after (Hammond 1965, Selikoff and H~mmond 1979)." (627) It is apparent in the above remarks that Selikoff regards his own epldemlologlc studies as responsible for the second and third component~ (outof four)of perspective Changes of occu- pational medicine. The chapter on asbestos by Rum repeatedly pays tribute to Sellkoff~ "Inltlally, Sellkoff and colleagues noted a nlnetyfold risk among smoking asbestos insulators compared to nonsmoklng ocntrols~ however they revised the estimate downward in a larger study, which described a ~ortallty ratio of 10.4 for asbestos insulators more than 20 years after onset of occupatlonal exposure who smoked more than
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 "179 20 cigarettes per day, compared to asbestos insulators who never smoked" (626). As will be noted below, the above interpretation by Rom of the epldemlologlc studies contains an error. In other words, the results of Sellkoff's studies are so complex and ~confuslng th~-~ even Ro~,. his most devoted admirer, has .~is- interpreted the results. In Ro~'s chapter, there is a striking omission of Information gathered by other groups, one of which predated Sellkoff in applying epldemlology to estimating mortality pattern of asbestos workers, regardless of their smoking habits. It should be recognized that the epldemlologlc procedure used by Sellkoff is one of several techniques available for occupation.al studies. They are as follows: (a) Incidence rate or mortality rate applicable to a population group, and standardized mortality ratio (S~R) calculated from observed deaths and expected deaths for the general population ~ (b) Case control study consisting of selection of subjects and a comparison group with estimates of relative rlsk~ (c) Cross-sectlonal study involving people currently employed who choose to partlcIpate~
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&sbestos/S~oklng Interactions [300 Series] Ja~. 31, 1982 180 (d) Follow-up study, also called cohort or longitudinal study, either retrospective or perspectlve~ and (e) Uncontrolled case study or case report. The results of epidemiologlc studies are grouped In sub-categorles of geographical location. The summarized ~nformat~on in intended to Fac~1~.tate comDarlson or. ~chniques and estimations of risks. It will be apparent t~at the number of studies that disagree with Sellkoff's reported pattern of mortality far exceeds those that agree. [310] Pioneering and Continuing Studies Conducted bY Epidemiologists of the Unlversit7 of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health Contrary to the opinions of Rcm (an occupational physlclan~ and Paul Brodeur (a science writer for the New Yorker magazine), Selikoff's study is not "the first study ever made that had taken on a large enough group of asbestos workers from a point far enough in time and followed thru long enough to determine unequivocally what" their health experience has been• (The New Yorker~ October 12, 1968). The exchange of letters published in the Archives of Environmental Health (628) sets the record straight and this compiler agrees that the pioneering efforts of Mancuso should be recognized. Thus the
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactlo,s [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 181 discussion starts with the University of Pittsburgh group of epldemlologlsts, partlcularly Mancuso and Enterllne. [311] Mortality Pattern in a Cohort of Asbestos Workers Mancuso is credited for designing an application of the demographic method to IndustrJ.al epldem~ol~ov, a. early as 1959, he introduced a cohort method of approach to [dentlfy specific ~opulatlon groups ~xposed to known or suspected hazardous manufacturing processes or chemicals. By uSing statistical records and tabulations from the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance (Social Security), Mancuso was able to obtain specific information on the deceased, which was used to locate death certificates and establish mortality pattern for specific industrial population groups. The cohort study was initiated in the early 1960s while Mancuso ~as the chief of the Division of Industrial Hygiene of ~he Ohio Department of Health. The cohort consisted of workers in a company that manufactured asbestos products. An occupa- tional cancer hazard was suspected becauSe the pathologist in a small community had found 19 cases of lung cancer in a group of 39 pulmonary asbestosls cases. Mancuso selected, the workers employed at anytime during either 1938 or 1939, and followed them through Social Security records to determine cause of
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&sbestos/Sn~king Interact£on~ [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 182 death as shown by death certificates. Mortallty rates established for the 1938-1939 cohort asbestos workers were compared with expected numbers of deaths computed from average annual Ohio death rates and the decennial census for 1950 to 1960. The results of the cohort study were presented before Detroit in February 1961. The results were published initially (629) in 1963, and further analys~s (630) in 1967. CA~ISES AND .~ORT&L~TY RATE SMR AGE per I00000 ESTIMATED All Causes 15-24 _ 182 0.77 25-44 1406 2.66 45-64 7136 2.54 65 & over 12069 2.07 &ll Neoplasms 25-44 435 3.29 45-64. 1575 1.78 Malignant Neoplasms~ Lun~ Bronchus~ .Trachea 25-44 185 45-64 640 Malignant Neoplasms| Digestive Organs and Peritoneum 7.12 1.08 25-44 102 3.86 45-64 689 2.33 Asbestosls 25-44 176 45-64 591 o° Cardiovascular Diseases 25-44 379 ~.8 45-64" 3346 2.5
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 183 The above figures show the higher mortality rates of asbestos workers from all causes, all malignancies, pulmonary neoplasms, digestive and peritoneal malignancies, pulmonary asbestosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The additional findings derived from the cohort consisting of 1265 males and (a) Year of Employment. Of the total 1265 male employees £n the 1938-1939 cohort, there were 328 who b~longed to the 1939 cohort, of which there were 47 deaths due to all causes, including 2 deaths caused by bronchopulmonary mallgnancles. O~ the remaining 937 male employees in the 1938 cohort, there were 283 deaths including 31 asbestosls deaths and 33 due to bronchopulmonary malignancies. The better survival . for those of 1939 cohort could be due to the Influence of previous employment prior to 1938 in the same asbestos factory among the 1938 cohort, and also because of the effectiveness of the industrial hygienic improvements in subsequent years. These observations on reduction of risk are in agreement with those in Great Britain [Category 350]. (b) Sex Differences. Among males, 42 percent of all malignancies were bronchopulmonary in nature, "whereas among females, the bronchopu~monary component was 54 percent. N N =~I
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 184 (c) Cummulative Exposure. There ~as a consistent increase in mortality rate in association with a~re prolonged employment in asbestos industry. The higher mortality rate was evident for all forms of cancer In general, and specifically for bronchopulmonary and abdominal malignancies. earlier ages lessened the number of survivors who may live long enough to ~eet the requirements of the latent period to develop malignancles. [312] Mortality Pattern Among Asbestos and Cotton Textile Workers The cohort approach developed by Mancuso was applled by Enterline. to a comprehensive study initiated in 1961 by the Division ~f Occupatlonal Health of the United States Public Health Servlc@. Mortality rates were developed for workers engaged in manufacture of asbestos textiles, asbestos building products and asbestos friction ~aterlals. For comparative purposes, mortallty rate was obtained for cotton textile workers. The ten asbestos products producers used in the study were selected from a llst of I00 employers in the "~959 Edition of county Business Patterns. Death certificates were obtained from death claims filed through December 1963 with the Social
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 185 Security Adm/nistrat£on. The total death rates and Standardized Mortality Ratios for 2833 asbestos workers were as follows (631-634)= CAUSE OF DEATH NUMBER % OF TOTAL* SMR All causes 286 100% 1.31 ~i1 ca~cer~ 58 20~ 3.20 Cardiovascular diseases 130 45% 1.18 Respiratory diseases 25 10% 4.39 Violence 36 12% 0.79 Residual causes 37 13% 1.20 * Percentages calculated by compiler The SMRs for two asbestos-associated forms of cancers for each of the four cohorts were as follows: MATERIAL SMR RESPIRATORY SMR DIGESTIVE Asbestos building products l.]0 Asbestos friction materials 1.23 Asbestos ~extile products 2.29 Cotton t~xtile products 0.31 0.89 1.19 1.46 0.96 The standardized mortal£ty rates (per 100000) for the three "groups of asbestos workers were as follows= MATERIAL (D~.~BS/IO0000) ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER Asbestos building products 8.8 ~ 11.1 Asbestos fr~ctlon materials[0.0 23.1 Asbestos textile products 28.6 65.5 ASBESTOSIS It should be noted that asbestos textile workers have the highest risk of developing lung cancer and asbestosls compared
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 186 to other work groups. Not included in the above figures is the overall mortality of asbestos textile wDrkers which is 21 percent above that which might be expected based upon the experience of the American white population as a whole. Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction. With regard to Influence of -cigarette smoking, although the incidence was not known, Enterllne had the following comments: "It is possible that the increase Incldemce of respiratory cancer among asbestos products workers is due to an excess in cigarette smoking, and that the low respiratory cancer rates among cotton textile workers- is a result of restrictions on cigarette smoking at their place of work. Certainly more information is needed on this subject and the lack of this is a definite weakness- in the data presented here. It does seem unlikely, however,, that excess cigarette smoking among asbestos product workers could entirely "explain t~eir overall excess in mortality noted in this report. Mortality from asbestosis could not be explained on this basis, nor is it a l~kely explanation for the apparent excess in cancer of the digestive system" (631). The~e published coments were made by Enterllne in 1965, who was already aware of the 1964 publication of Selikoff et al on asbestos/smoking synergism [Category 320].
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 187 [313] Mortality Pattern Among Retired Asbestos Workers During the early 1970s, Enterllne, Decoufle and Henderson reported on the mortallty experiences of 1376 men who have completed their working lifetlme as production or maintenance employees in the asbestos industries. The observed deaths and SMRs of retirees followed through 1969 were as follows (635-638)~ CAUSE OF DEATH NUMBER % OF TOTAL* SMR All causes 754 100% 1.15 All cancer deaths 167 22% 1.51 Respiratory cancer 58 8% 2.67 Digestive cancer56 7% I. 22 Stroke " 61 8 % 0.79 Heart diseases 326 43% 1.06 Respiratory diseases 67 9% I. 82 Pneumoconiosls & fibrosis 29 Residual causes 112 15% ~ ~9 *Percentages. calculated by compiler The cohort that was origlnally observed through 1969 represented an average duration of "25 years of employment in the asbestos industry. The results tabulated above were subsequently revised to include death pattern from 1970 to 1973. The revisions w~re as follows (639-640)z CAUSE OF DEATH SMR 1970-1973 SMR 1911-1973 All causes 1.42 "1.20 Cancer deaths 1.79 1.59 Respiratory cancer 2.69 2.70 Digestive cancer 1.47 1.37 Other cancers 1.46 io21 Stroke 1.83 0.96
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 series] Jan. 31, 1982 188 Heart diseases 0.97 1.06 Respiratory diseases 1.56 1.73 Residual causes 0.82 0.92 In addition to the above results, Enterline et al noted that men who worked in the production of asbestos cement pipes exhibited a higher risk ~f.resplratory~cancer~.as_~Id men with some croc£dollte eKposure. Men working in general plant maLn- tenance dlsplayed a striking lack of deaths due to pulmonary fibrosis, as compared with production workers. Lack of Asbestos/Smoking Interaction. Smoking hls- tories were available for only 373 of the total 1464 retirees, representing 26~ production workers and 104 maintenance service workers (635). There was essentially no difference in the smoking habits of the production (77.3 percent smokers) compar- ed wit~ the ~alntenance service workers (76.9 percent smokers). Although the authors did not comment on the significance of slm/~ar smoking incidence, th£s ~ompiler would ~Ike to add that the similar incidence of smoking is in contrast w~th the higher respiratory ~ancer mortality .rate for asbestos production retirees than ~aintenance service workers. There is no support for the ~nteraction hypothesis fro~ the mortality pattern of these two 9Toups of retired asbestos workers.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 189 [320] Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Synergism Suggested by the Mt. Sinai Hospital Group The publlshed records are straight forward in that Mancuso presented the results of cohort study of asbestos workers--_at .a ..February 19~3~tlng. ...... of the.~cm~y. .... , -~-~= Occ~patlon Medicine [Category 310]. The first study from the Mr. Sinai Hospital group included data with a cut-off date of December 1962, and the results were presented six months later at the annual meeting of the American Medlcal Association Jolntly meeting with the American College of Chest Physicians. The presentation entitled Asbestos Exposure and Neoplasla was published in April 1964 in the JAMA authored by Selikoff, Churg and Hammond. None of them had previously written on asbestos associated diseases, and since Hammond was then active in the Amerlca~ Cancer Soclety-sponsored project on Smoking and Cancer, it .was natural that their working hypothesis was that cigarette smoking was a significant factor in asbestos- associated diseases. Although the studies on asbestos/cigarette smoking synergism are the subject of over twenty articles and two mono- graphs by the Mto Sinai Hospital group, there are surprlslngly only three epidemlologlc studies. The results of the studies were presented in two specially concened meetings sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences (641, 642) in 1965 and 1979. 206277~168~I
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series| Jan. 31, 1982 190 The meetings were accompanied by widespread publicity in the lay press, such as the article in the New Yorker magazine in 1968, that was the subject of a correction that Sellkoff did not initiate the first definitive epidemlologlc study on asbesto~orkers [Category ~l~.~. G~u£~. ow~ monographs (643, 644) did not give any credit to Mancuso who preceded him in reporting essentially similar conclusions on ~athogeniclty of asbestos. In the Eield of occupational medicine, Sellkoff is regarded as the founder of asbestos-associated diseases, as exemplified by a 1983 textbook [Category 300]. This compiler has hearsay information on the subject but verification is only possible for the events outlined above and no more. [321] Asbestos Insulators in New York City and Newark. T~e ~th~d used in the cohort study reported by Sellkoff, Churg and Hammond (645) is essent£ally similar to that used by Mancuso with one exceptlon~ instead of Social Security records to ohtaln ~eath ~erti£icates~ the records o~ the Asbestos Workers Union in the New York metropolitan area including Newark was used. Of 632 insulation workers who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, the mortality pattern was as follows (645, 646):
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series| Jan. 31, 1982 191 CAUSE OF DEATH NUMBER % OF TOTAL* SMR* All causes 255 100% 1.25 All cancers 95 37% 2.60 Cancer of lung and pleura 45 18% 6.80 Cancer of stomch, colon & rectum 29 11% 3.00 Cancer of all other sites 21 8% 1.02 Asbestosls 12 4% *Percentages and SMRcalculated It should be noted that the numerical expression of the results shows a strlklng similarity to those of Mancuso [Category 31~] in ter~s of overall distribution of causes of death. The above shows 37 percent of all deaths as caus_e~ by a11 malignancies, 18 percent by cancer of the lung and 91eura, and 8 percent by cancer of the gastro- intestinal system. The respective values in Mancuso's cohort study of males are as follows: 25.7 percent, 10.6 percent and 7.7 percen~ [Category 311]. Enterllne's cohort of asbestos retirees are as fol~ows: 22 percent, 8.percent, and 7 percent [Category 313]. In other words, the death pattern of the New York-Newark cohort is so different from that. reported by others. The cohort of insulators from New York and N~wark were interviewed as to their smoking habits. Among the 377 survl- vors, 320 gave information whlch was compared with a sample of men drawn from the general population of 25 states interviewed for the American Cancer Society project. The s~ok~ng habits
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 192 of the union sample were "inadequate since it does not include all of the present living members of the union. Nevertheless, it shows that a substantial proportion of asbestos werkers never smoked cigarettes rsgularly. Certainly the 632 men in our analysis of death rates were not all heavy cigarette sm~k~rs~"~ (~.~4~_5J.~ ~?he .~mg~g-- ~Its ~_~yi~g. wo~kers were as follows~ AGE GROUP ASBESTOS WORKERS GENERAL POPULATION H~stor¥ of cigarette smoking 40 to 49 86.1% 73.7% 50 to 59 79.6% 70.2% 60 to 69 69.7% 60.2% 70 and above_ 62.7% 39.0% Smoked pipe and cigars 40 to 49 4.6% 7.5% 50 to 59 6.1% 9.9% 60 to 69 10.1% 16.2% 70 a~d above 11.8% 23.9% Never smoked regularly 40 to 49 9.3% 18.8% 50 to 59 14.3% 19.9% 60 to 69 20.3% 23.6% 70 and above 25.5% 37.1% The above results were not analysed statistically but a superficial exaN~natlon shows that there were ~ore cigarette smekers and less never regular smokers ~mon.g asbestos Insulators (all age groups) compared to the general populat£on in 23 states. The compiler cannot help but question why the
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 193 comparison was not made with the population group from the Greater New York area, an infor~atlon available to Hammond from the ongoing American Cancer Society Project on Smoking and Health. Nevertheless, the authors dls~issed the importance of diseases by the following process of reasoning: "In the general male population, lung-cancer death rates are about ten times as high among cigar- ette s~okers as among nonsmokers; and the death rate from lung cancer increases greatly with the amount of cigarette smoking. However, a large proportion of all men in the United States have a history of regul- ar cigarette smoking. From data in a prospective study on smoking, it may be estimated that if all men smoked a pack or more of cigarettes a day (i.e., if all the nonsmokers, cigar smokers, pipe smokers, and light cigarette smokers had, instead, been heavy cigarette smokers) the lung-cancer death rate would be approximately 3.4 times as high as it is at this time. From this we may conclude that even if all our asbestos workers had smoked a pack or more of cigar- ettes a day (and, indeed, from our sample we know they did not), and if exposure to asbestos were of no significance, then their lung cancer death rate would have been about 3.4 times as high as the rate in the general US male population. Clearly, the smoking habits of the asbestos workers cannot account for the fact that their lung-cancer death rate was 6.8 times as high as that of white males in the general population." (645) ~ [322] Revfs£on of Importance of Cigarette Smoking Among Asbestos Insulators In New York City and Newark
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 194 The extension of observed deaths from January I, 1963 to April 30, 1967 resulted in a surprising announcement that asbestos workers who smoke have about "92 times" the risk of dying of bronchogenlc carcinoma as men who neither work with asbestos nor smoke cigarettes (647). During this three year p~r~,o~...~-~. ~.~ul~.be~rec~l!ed ~t the results of the A~erlcan Cancer Society project were being h£ghl£qhted ~n the. Surgeon General's Reports released in 1964 and 1967. The observed number of deaths and SMRs based on mortality st~tletlcs for the entire country (instead of Greater New York City only) were as follows: _ _. CAUSE OF DEATH NUMBER % OF TOTAL* SMR* All deaths 94 All cancers 49 All bronchoDulmonary cancers 27 Bronchogenic carcinoma 24 Pleura~ mesothelloma 3 Peritoneal mesothelloma 7 Cancer of stomach 3 Cancer of colon & rectum 5 Cancer of all other eltes 7 Pulmonar~ as~stosis 15 Heart & circulatory diseases including stroke 22 Residual causes • 8 100% 1.98 52~ 5.70 29% 11.7 26~ ... 3% ... 7% .. 3~ 5.00 5% 4.17 7% 1.55 16% 23% 0.77 8% 0.77 *~e~cen~ages and SMRs calculated by compiler The increased risk of bronchogenlc carcin6ma brought about by the combined effect of cigarette smoking and exposure to asbestos duet was estimated by Sellkoff et al in the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 195 following ~anner~ estimated expected death rates for non- asbestos workers who never smoked regularly (based upon data from American Cancer Society Project) were applied to the number of cigarette smokers ~or asbestos insulators in the Greater New York area. This interpolation indicated that only u.2~ ~- ~he general population would have been expected to die of bronchogenic carcinoma if they had never smoked regularly and had never been occupatlona1[y exposed to asbestos dust. "Since 24 of them actually died o~ this cause, the ratio of observed to expected deaths is 92 to l, i.e., 24 divided by 0.26 = 92. This appears to indicate that cigarette smoking plus occupational exposure to asbestos dust increases the risk of bronchogenic carcinoma by a factor in the order of magnitude of 92 to i". (647). The 92-fold increase in risk of bronchogenlc carclnoma askociated w~th smoking asbestos workers was emphasized in several international meetings: international Conference of Biological Effects of Asbestos (648), UICC Working Group on Asbestos and Cancer (649, 650) and ~nternatlonal Symposium on the Pathology of Asbestos (651). It is important ~o recognize that although the ~ewYork-Newark cohort was followe~ up unt~ December 31, 197~, there was no revision of the 92-fo~d
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 196 estimation of increased risk based on death records collected until the end of 1967. [323] Asbestos Insulators in the United States and Canada In 1967, Selikoff et al expanded their cohort study of asbestos insulators of New York-Newark area to include membership in the United States and Canada (649-651). Among the 17800 workers investigated, 9590 ware regular cigarette s~okers (54%), 2066 denied cigarette smoking (12%) and the smoking history was not known for 6144 (34%)° In the 1973 publication descriSing the~e results, Hammond and Sellkoff stated that they were "presently unable to calculate smoking- specific expected rates for this group (New York-Newark cohort) since death rates related to smoking are not yet available for the period 11967-1971" (650). Yet, they had done so for the period of 1963-1967 which was the basis for 92 times increase (641). For the cohort of 17800 insulators, Hammond and Sellkoff hesitated making an estl.mate. "Again, wa are at this time unable to calculate smoklng-speclflc expected and observed rates because as noted, death rates ~el~ted--to smoking habits of individuals are unavailable for this period" of years 1967-1971~ (650).
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 197 By 1976, Seliko£f (651) recalled the 92 tines increase risk of cigarette smoking asbestos workers which was based on interpolation of results of American Cancer Society Project and referred to the larger asbestos insulators cohort as follows: "the cigarette smoklng-asbestos interaction has been oonflrmed in a larger study" referring to the 1973 publication of Hammond and Selikoff (650), which is not so. The long anticipated synergism figure estimated fro~ the asbestos insulators in the United Sates and Canada (January 1967 through December 1976) was announced at a 1979 meeting of • the New York Academy of Sciences (652). After several steps Of interpolatlon again with the results of the American Cancer Society Project to derive expected death rates, the followlng figures were offered for "mortallty rates"~ asbestos no; cigarette smoking no = 1.00 asbestos yes; cigarette smoking no = 5.17 asbestos no; cigarette smokng yes = 10.85 asbestos yes; cigarette smoking yes = 53.24 Note that the increased risk has been downgraded from 92 announced in 1968 to 53.24 announced in 1979. The phenomenon of synergism rather than additive was formulated by the fo~lowlng reasoning based on estimates of death rate per 100000 man-years. "gow suppose that
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Asbestos/S~Oking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 198 occupational exposure to asbestos dust among cigarette s~oking acted independently in respect to the production of lung cancer. In that event, the lung cancer death rate of asbestos workers with a history of cigarette smoking should be very close to the sum of the following numbers : 1.3 ( "no, no" group), 47.1 (mortality difference for the =yes, no"'group) and 11.3 (the mortality difference for the "no, yes= group). The sum comes to 169.7 lung cancer deaths p~r' 100000 ~an-years which is a reasonable estimate of what the lung cancer death rate of the "asbestos workers with a history of cigarette smoking would have ~een If there had been no synergistic effect of the combined exposure. In contrast, the observed lung cancer death rate of the "yes, yes" group was 601.6 per I00000 man years:~" The difference (601.6 - 169.7) = 431.9 lung cancer deaths per 100000 man years was presumably due to a synergistic effect in men with both of the two types of exposure (yes asbestos dust and yes cigarette smoking) (652). In the same meeting, Frank (653) also from the Mr. Sinai Hospital group, reported a different set of mortality ratios for lung cancer. Instead of the 1.00~ 5.17~ 10.85 and 53.24 by Hammond et 'al (652), the following ratios were presented by Frank~ 1.00~ 7.10! i0o85~ and 61.40. There fs no explanation for the differences In ratios derived from the same data base
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 199 and published in the same volume o£ the Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. The flnal group of mortallty ratios from the 17800 asbestos insulatlon workers relate to causes of death derived either from death certlflca~es or ,~..c~t-- ~A&b~ n~dlcal evidence (654, 655). CAUSE NUMBER % RATIO OBSERVED/EXPECTED OF OF OF BEST DEATH DEATH DEATHS TOTAL* EVIDENCE CERTIFICATE All causes 2271 All cancers 995 Cancer of lung 486 Pleural ~esothelio~ 63 Peritoneal mesothelioma 112 Cancer of esophgus 18 cancer of stomach 22 Cancer of colon, rectum 59 Cancer of larynx 11 Cancer of pharynx, buccal 21 Cancer of kidney 19 All other cancer 104 Noninfectious pulmonary 212 Asbestosis 168 Residual causes 1064 *percentages calculated by compiler~ figure used. 100.0% 1.37 1.37 43.8% 3.11 2.88 21.4% 4.60 4.06 2.8% ...... 4.9% 1.0% 1.54 1.26 2.6% 1.55 1.52 0.5% 2.34 1.91 1.0% 2.08 1.59 0.8% 2,36 2.23 8.1% 1.40 1.91 9.3% 3.59 3.19 7.8% ... best medical evidence Once more, it should be noted that the mortality pattern for cohort of 17800 asbestos Insulators i~ different ~from those reported by others [Categories 310s, 330s].
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 200 [324] Amo$ite Asbestos Factory Workers The third epldemlologic study conducted by the Mr. Sinai Hospital group consisted of 933 amosite asbestos factory workers who began work from June 1941 through December 1945. Twenty years later (1961-19~57 582 were ~wn to ~h3~live. The conclusions were essentlally similar to those seen with ashes- tos insulators (656-658). The £nccease in risk for developing lung cancer was 80 times based on the followlng calculation: 55 observed deaths divided by 0.7 expected. [330] Mortality Pattern of Asbestos Workers Re~or~ed by Other American Epldemi01oglsts It is important to recall the results of epldemiologlsts other than " the Mt. Sinai Hospital group because they were reported at the same t~me. The mortality patterns are so different from that reported by the Mr. Sinai Hospital group that the conclusions of Selikoff et al need not apply to the ~ohorts used by others. It follows that the asbestos/smok£ng synergism refers only to the asbestos insulators and the volun- teer subjects of the American Cancer Society Project, unless there Is proof that other investigators have also demonstrated that the phenomenon occurs for ~ext~le workers, plumbers, boiler makers, and cement pipe manufacturers who did not belong to the American Union of Insulators.
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&sbestos/$moking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 3l, t982 20l [331] Asbestos Insulators in the Cincinnati area. In 1966, Keane and Zavon from the Kettering Laboratory of. _ the University of Cincinnati cited the unpubllshed results of Hutchinson, l~untz, Taylor, Williams and Gruber who essentlally followed Sellkoff ' s approach but ioste.~ ,~e~. ~e Asbestos Insulator8 Union members of the Cincinnati area (659). Their ~ortallty pattern as well as that for the New York-Newark area were as follows~ CAUSE OF DEATH CINCINNATI NEW YORK-NEWARK (% OF ALL DEATHS ) AREA % AREA % All malignant neopl~ms .24.2% Lung carcinoma 9.1% Colon carcinoma 6.1% 37.0% 17.6% ii o 4% The above results show the almost two-fold differences in carcinoma deaths between the two areas. The validity of the .United Stat~s and Canada approach to include all union ~embers used by H~m~ond and Sellkoff (652) may be questioned because such differences among geographic areas are suppressed. The above ~/fferences have not been discussed by Selikoff possibly becat~se the ~,for~atlon ~s not readily notlcable° [322] Asbestos Workers Reported by Epldemlologists of New York Department of Labor
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions (300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 204 Beaumont and Weiss (664) reported the mortality experience of 8679 members of a metal trade union from 1950 to 1976. The union represented workers in metal fabrication shops, field construction, small boatyards and shipyards. Respiratory cancer was in excess, with an overall increase of 3£ ~;~r'~ce~n~t- ~ ex-~ect~d ra~e. I~ ~xci~dln~:c~gaFette smoking as an explanation for the increased risk, the authors reasoned that "emphysema which is also caused by smoking occurred at a normal rate (9 observed versus 9.8 expected). Three studies have shown that welders may smoke cigarettes more than other occupational group~ and the nation as a whole~ it has not been establlshed whether this is true for boilermakers Local 104 welders, however" (664). Asbestos dust exposure remained as the most "probable cause for increased risk of respiratory cancer. [335] Asbestos Cement Workers Reported by Tulane University Epidemiologlsts Hughes and We.Ill (665) examined a cohort of 5645 male workers in a Loulsi~na asbestos cement factory that opened in the 1920s and is in continuous operation during the 1980s. The SMRs for respiratory neoplasms were highest for exposures exceeding i00 million particles Per cubic feet times years.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 205 Like other epidem£ologlsts mentioned under Categories 330s, cigarette smoking habits were not determined Inspite of repeated emphasis of the interactio, phenomenon by Sellkoff prior to the Inltlatlon of the cohort studies. [5~@~-'~bestos~Textilei ~riction and Pack£ngP~oducts Workers Reported by NIOSH Epidemiotogists Robinson et al (666), in a study among a group of 3276 textile, friction and packing products workers exposed to predominantly chrysotile asbestos, demonstrated the following: excess risk for -nonmalignant respiratory d~seases, suicide, heart disease, bronchogenic cancer and mesothelloma of the pleura and peritoneum among males; among females, there was an excess risk for nonmalignant respiratory disease, bronchogenic carcinoma ,and mesothelloma of the pleura and per~toneom. There was no information on smoking habits. [337] American Asbestos Textile Workers Reported by Canadian Ep£~emioZo~Lst8 McDonald and F~ (667) from the Canadian Research Institute of OCCUpational Health, reported death pattern of cohorts from three manufacturing companies in the United States: two asbestos textile factories where only chyrsotile
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 206 was processed, and a third factory where chrysotile, amosite and crocldollte were used. A total of 10763 men and 3118 women were included. Their analysis of death certificates showed that amphiboles were mainly responsible for mesothelioma whereas chrysotile had little or no mesothelioma producing P~r~a~al.. A~I forms of asbestos cohtrib~t~d to an £ncrease in respiratory cancer deaths. The Interaqtion hypothesis of Selikoff was not mentioned £n the publication. [338] Shipyard Workers in the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts Like Hammon~who had. concluded that "cigarette smoking causes bronchogenlc carcinoma" before embarking on asbestos research, Fraumeni had also arrived at the same conclusion (668, 669'} prior to conducting a case-control study of asbestos exposure among shipyard workers (670-676). The National Cancer InstitUte sponsored study involved four areas a~ong the Atlantic coast where the shipbuilding industry has been prominent, namelyz (a) Coastal Georgia 1057 subjects of which 21 percent were employed in shipyards~ (b) Jacksonville, Florida 789 subJects~ 22 percents (c) Tidewater, Virg~na 641 subjects, 33 percent~ and (d) Bath, Maine 64 subjects, 67 percent. In each survey, the lung cancer patients and controls (or their next of kin) were matched for age, sex, race, source
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series| Jan. 31, 1982 207 of ascertaln~ent (hospital or death certificate) and vital status. The patients and controls were Intervfewed for information on occupational and smoking histories. Combln£ng data from over 2500 interviews in the four areas, Blot and Fraumenl concluded that the relative risk of lung cancer a~.soci~ed with- employment in shipbuilding, adjusted for c~garette smoking, ~as 1.44. In the combined data set, the increased risk of lung cancer among shipyard workers was seen in nearly all cigarette categories (676)~ RELATIVE RISK OF LUNG CANCER EMPLOYMENT IN SHIPYARDS FOR CIGARETTE SMOKING STATUS NO YES Nonsmokers 1.0 2.2 Former smokers 3.7 3.0 Light smokers (0.5 pack/day) 4.8 5.2 Moderate smokers (0.5 to 1.5 pack/day) 7.2 10.2 Hea~, smokers (2 plus packs/day) 10.3 21.7 It should ~e noted that the highest value is 21.7 in contrast to Selikoff'e value of 92. There are other epidemlologlc studies reported from Louisiana (677), Maine ((678), California (679-681) and Hawaii (682, 603). Sellkoff et al (684) reviewed the l~teratUre on asbestos exposure of shipyard workers without ~eference to the fact that most investigators have not mentioned smoking habits as a contributory factor in causation of lung cancer.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 3l, 1982 208 [339] Asbestos Miners and Millers in New York and South Dakota The last group of mortallty statistics relates to the following cohorts: talc miners and millers in New York State (685) and hard rock gold miners in South Dakota (686-688). There are no observations relating to asbestos/smoking interaction. Furthermore, most of the asbestos fibers tlsed in the United States are mined in Canada so that the results on American miners are less relevant to the primary form of asbestos used in the United States. [340] Canadian Epi~emlolo~Ic Studies In 1965, shortly after the appearance of Sel£koff's arti- cle on mortality pattern of asbestos insulators including the role of their smoking habits in the pathogenesls of asbestos assoclate~ diseases (645), an Editorial appeared in the Canad- ian Medic~l Association Journal (689) that completely ignored the American publication. The first report of mortality pat- tern of chrysotile asbestos miners and millers appeared in 1971 whloh showed no excess deaths from respiratory cancer (690). The authors, McDonald et al, concluded that" their findings sug- gest either that chrysotile is less likely to caus~ respiratory cancer than other forms of asbestos among the Canadian cohort, or that additional exposure factors must he involved in the
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 209 group of American insulation workers. McDonald was reminded by Braun and De Treville (691) that the findings and conclusions relating to Canadian miners and millers confirm those of the 1958 study by Braun and Train that the hazards of respiratory cancer in the asbesto~ industry overall hava ~e~en 9f ~odest proportions. ~n subsequent publications, McDonald et al reversed their position and instead described a definite increase in risk of respiratory cancer that was related to cigarette smoking (692-697). Four control subjects w~re selected for each asbestos associated death from respiratory cancer, all born ~n the same year as the asbestos ~iner, but surviving into the year after the asbestos miner's death. One control subject was matched '~s closely as possible for smoking habits. Analysis of the case-control data indicated a "multiplication ~odel" of risk for the combined effects of asbestos dust and smoking. Results obtained by man-year analysis pointed to the same conclusion (694, 696). Other investigators, both Canadians and non-Canadlans have conducted additional studless insulation workers from Quebec (698)~ workers in Ontario ~ho received compensation for asbestosis and subsequently died (699|~ chrysotile ~Iners and millers from Thetford mines (700); a~d Quebec registry deaths from occupational cancer (701, 702). Although Sellkoff co- 206277z1701
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 210 authored the study of Thetford miners. Information on smoking habits was not included (700). In the group of compensated workers (699), 15 percent were never smokers, and the proportion of current and exsmokers were almost equal at about 42 percent. Of the q ~en who died...~f...m~soth~ioma, 2 never smoked, as were 4 of the 22 men who died of nonmalignant respiratory disease. It was also noted by Finkelste£n et al that all who died of lung cancer had smoked cigarettes (699). From 1979 to 1980, the canadian Medical ..Journal .published an Editorial and letters to the editor relating to the asbestos/smoklng interaction (703-705). [350] British Epidemiologic Studies Amohg English physicians interested in occupational medicine, Sir Richard Doll is regarded as the pioneer ~pidemlologlst who showed the association between asbestos dust exposure and the development of ~ung cancer. ~Is 1955 study conslste~ of a cohort of 113 men w~o had worked for at least 20 years in factories where they were liable to be eKposed to asbestos dust (706). Their mortality pattern compared with that which would have been expected on the basis o£ the mortality experience of the whole male population revealed the following= 39 deaths observed whereas 15.4 expected (SMR 2.5);
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 211 11 lung cancer deaths observed whereas 0.8 expected (SMR 13.75}; 22 respiratory and cardiovascular deaths observed whereas 7.6 expected (SMR 2.9). From the data reported in 1955, Sir Richard Doll concluded that lung cancer was a Specific industrial h~zard of certain ~be~to~_.~.~ork~s and that the average risk among those employed for 20 oE more years has been of the order of i0 times that experienced by the general population. The Editorial that shortly appeared in the Lancet (707) questioned the causative suggestion because pathogenic dust in general, including asbestbs, act on ~onnectlve tissues and there was no satisfactory explanation of why asbestos fibers should affect the epltheliumas well. At about the same time, Sir Richard Doll was conducting another epldemlologlc study on smoking habits of British physicians and reported that heavy smoking was associated with the high incidence of lung cancer. It is interesting to note that in his post-1955 publications on o~cupatlonal cancer (708-710), the asbestos/smoklng interaction was not mentlonea untll in his lecture at the 12th Internation- al • Cancer Congress held in 1978. He cited the mortality rates of American and Canadian insulation workers reported by Selikoff and Hammond In 1975. For an explanation, =it is conceivable that asbestos fibers exert their e£ffect by ~he
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 212 physical absorption of cigarette tar, but they can certainly cause mesothelioma in nonsmokers and it seems more likely that both factors are Independeutly capable of causing cancer and act synergistically when present together" (711). It is significant to note ~hat almost_ all~ subsequent epldemiologlc studies conducted in England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland wore not designed to determine the role of cigarette smoking, probably because most British investigators did not believe in the synergism phenomenon until the late 1970s. The British investigators and the cohort group of asbestos workers were as follows: EPIDEMIOLOGISTS NATURE OF ASBESTOS DUST EXPOSURE (706) Doll 1955 (712} Eil'l et al 1966 (713) KnGx et al 1968 (714} Newhouse & Wagner 1969 (715) Newhousa 1970 {716) Berry et al 1972 (717) Newhouse 1973 (718) Newhouse & Berry 1979 (719) Fox et al 1974 (720) Jones et al 1976 (721) Jones et al 1980 (722) Wlgna11 & Fox 1982 (723) Berry et al 1977 (724) Berry & Lewlnsohn 1979 (725) Berry 1981 (726) Peto 1980 asbestos textile workers (London) asbestos workers (London) cigarette smoking interaction cablemaklng & rubber (London) cigarette smoking interaction gas mask assemblers (London) asbestos workers (Penarth) asbestos textile workers (Oxford)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 213 (727) Thomas et al 1982 (728) Elwood et al 1964 (729) Finlayson et al 1971 (730] Chatterjee et al 1978 asbestos cement workers (Cardiff) asbestos workers (South Wales) relatives of asbestos workers (Dundee) fluors~ar miners (Dundee) (731) Sheers & Templeton 1968 dockyard workers (Plymouth) (732) Harrles 1968 (733) Harrles 1976 (734) Lumley 1976 (735) Rossiter & Colas 1980 (736) Elmes "1966 (737) Elmes& S~npson 1968 (738) Elmes& Simpson 1971 (739) Elmes& S~npson 1977 (740) Elmes 1977 (741) Elmes 1978 (742) Elmes 1980 dockyard workers (Devonport) insulation workers (Belfast) cigarette smoking interaction .Asbestos~ci~arette Smokin~ Interaction. In the study of cablemakers, FOX et al (719) analyzed their data to determine whether the excess mortality was due tn regional differences or to the population comprising an abnormally high proportion of smokers. No excesses were found in s~oklng- associated diseases. The authors concluded that although the effects of differences in smoking habit cannot be ruled out, the indications are against this factor being the primary ca~e. A similar conclusion was arrived at by ChatterJee et al
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 214 in their study of fluorspar ~iners (730). In the epidemlologlc study of insulation workere, E1mes concluded that there were too few nonsmokers to allow any determination of the significance of cigarette "s~oklng (738). Berry, Newhouse and their collaborators (714-718) are the only English Investigators to determine the combined effect of asbestos exposure and cigarette s~oking on lung cancer mortality in factory workers (716). Although the data showed excess deaths for smokers who ware severely exposed to asbestos dust, the investigators contend that "addltlonal followup time is needed to obtain valld results-. The authors also q~estioned the "reliability of information about smoking habits obtained in different ways for the deceased and the survivors". In a 1979 publication, Newhous~. and Berry stated that "a prospective survey of mort~llt~ is now in progress. Only 28 deaths froN lung cancer had o~curred.. workers who had never smoked. There are insufficient data to a~alyse ~n mote ~etall but the results are consistent with our earller findings that asbestos and smoking appear to combine mutlpllcatlvely In producing lung cancer. Firm conclusions must, however, await the accumulation of more data" (718).
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 215 [360] scandinavian Epldemiolo@Ic Studies In 1955, Ringertz reviewed the role of smoking and environmental factors in the causation of lung cancer (743). It is pertinent to recall that this Swedish scientist had already regarded asbestos exposure as a form of "occupational lung cancer in th~.strlct sens~~ a~._;-~i~d ~obacco smoke as a "suspected cause of lung cancer'. At that time he questioned the valldlty of epidemiologic studies in which smokers are over-represented. Although he did not conceive any form of interaction, the crit£cism is still applicable to asbestos workers_who are mostly cigarette smokers. So far there are no epldemlologic studies, of asbestos workers reported from Sweden. This is unusual for a country that has a very active group of environmental and occupational medlcal scientists. The probable reasons can be perceived from recent articles on the ethics of prospective study (744), .limitations of a cancer-envlronmental exposure registry (745), questionable usefulness of regional cancer case registry (746), and drawbacks of case-control study (747). Neverthe- less, the epldemiologlc studies among uranium mineworkers revealed unexpected results~ there were mere nonsmokers in llmg cancer cases than control miners (748, 749). In a recent conference on cigarette smoking and occupational health, this
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 216 subject was discussed, as well as the effects of cigarette smoking only (750) and the ashestos/smoklng interaction (751). The risk ratios presented at the ~eetlng ranged from the highest figure of 91 (proposed by Sellkoff) to the lowest value obtained by Finnish investigators discussed below. Sellkoff proposed the following~ 1.0, 4, 11 and 91 [Category 322] whereas Meurman arrived at smaller numbers~ 1.0, 1.4, 12 and 17. In other words, there is a five fold difference for the relative risk of smokers and asbestos workers compared to non-asbestos and_ non-smoklng controls. The reason for the diversity has not been explained by the prgponents of the interaction hypothesis. Meurman et al conducted their study in a group o~ employees of anthophylllte mines (752-754), unllke Sellkoff who examined asbestos insulators. Yet in Finland, the mortallt~ pattern of miners is similar to asbestos workers in general (755-759). This compiler has concluded that results of epldemiologlc studies refer only to the cohort group and respe~tlve controls. The interaction hypothesis cannot be applied to other groups and the five fold dlf~erence noted between the Mt Sinai Hospital and Finnish groups clearly supports the compiler's conclusion.
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Asbestos/SNoking ~nteractions [300 Series] Jan. 31~ 1982 [370] Western European Epidemiolo~ic Studies The studies from Austria, Belgi~m, France, Germany, Italy, S~aln and Switzerland do not include data on smoking habits. Although the results are not summarized below, they are readily accessible to support the premise that the ayn~rglsm ~pothe_~.~S~ ~,~_ed b~t.he~.cans.~. (~elikoff) and seconded by the British (Newhouse and Berry) and F1nnlsh (Meur~an) epldemiologists do not necessarily apply to Western European asbestos workers who have varied mortality patternsz EPIDEM~OLOGIST NATURE OF ASBESTOS DUST EXPOSURE (760) Halder & Ne~berger 1980 asbestos cement workers (Austria) (761) Lacquer at al 1980 asbestos cement workers (Belgium) (762) Avrll & Champelx 1970 asbestos workers (France) (763) Mol£na & Cheminat 1978 asbestos textile workers (France) (764) Bi~non et al 1976 (765) Anapach 1968 -(766) rain et al 1975 (767) Versen 1980 (768) Wo~towlts et al 1981 (769) Vlgllanl et al [968 (770) Puntonl et al 1979 (771) Lopes-Areal del ANo 1980 (772) Maillar~ 1982 asbestos workers (France) asbestos workers (East Germany) asbestos textile workers (West Ger.~a~y) asbestos workers (West GermaRy) asbestos workers (West Germany] asbestos workers (Italy) shipyard workers (Italy) asbestos workers (Spain) asbestos workers (Switzerland)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 218 [380] Eastern European, Middle Eastern and Far Eastern Epidemiologlc Studies It should be recognized that epldemiologlc studies are expensive to conduct, and if it were not for the Smoking and Health Project financed by the American Cancer Society, the 1.aEge sc~le stv~c~..cca~ted .-~ "~d~ would not have been possible. It Is therefore not surprising that epidemlologic studies in Eastern Europe, Middle Eas~ and Asia are minimal in number. The least expensive investigations in the form of case reports are abundant in these countries and are discussed in detail under disease categories 400s, 500s and 600so South Africa, although not represented in the tabulated data below, has scientists who were responsible for Indentifying the causal relationship between asbestos dust and mesothelioma based primarily'on autopsy and clinical material [Categories400s]. INVESTIGATORS NATURE OF ASBESTOS WORK EXPOSURE Eastern Europe and Middle East (773) Dobreva et al 1979 asbestos textile workers (Bulgaria) (774) Sunt¥oh et al 1970 (775) Kogan 1968 (776) Kogan 1975 (777) Kogan 1981 (778) Kurova et al 1982 (779) OJerassi et al 1979 asbestos workers (Czechoslovakia) asbeetos miners and workers (RUssia) asbestos cement workers asbestos cement workers (Israel)
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Asbestos/Sm~. klng Interactions [300 series] jan. 31, 1982 219 Eastern Hemisphere (780) Sera & Kan~ 1981 (781) Hobbs et al 1978 (782) Hobbs et al 1980 asbestos workers (Japan) crocldollte ~iners (Australia) [390] Limitations and Consequences of Epldemiologic Studies ~ Support-ln~ ~,e Asbe~tos/Ci~a~.tte Smoking ~nteractlon Hypothesis The preceding review of the literature on ~ortallty pattern of asbestos ~iners, millers and processors show a separation of authors into three groups~ First: Eplde~iologists who, llke Mancuso [Category 311], appreciated the limitations of the cohort approach and felt that occupational risk could only be estimated and not the role of ..personal habits such as cigarette smoking. A majority Of investigators in the United States [Categories 3308], Canada (Category 340], Great Britain [Category 350] and Scandinavia [Category 360] belong to this group of non-proponents. All reported studies in Western EurOpe [Category 370], Eastern Europe an~ the countries of the Eastern ~e~isphere [Category 380] do not include information on smoking habits. Se~ond~ Epldemiologlsts, who prior to conducting the cohort study, were already preoccupied with the concept that
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 220 "cigarette smoking causes the same diseases associated with asbestos', proceeded to conduct the study and concluded that indeed there is an interaction between both inhalants. Hammond and Sellkoff [Category 320] and Frau~nenl [Category 338] are prime examples from the United States. Investigators from o~her~ ~ountrles "who were probably e~couraged by the positive interaction results of Hammond and SelIkoff and became proponents of the interaction hypothesis Includel McDonald from Canada [Category 340], Berry and N~whouse from England [Category 350] and Meurman from Scandinavia [Category 360]. Thlrdz Ep~demlologlsts who examined the role of smoking habits and concluded that there was no evidence of interaction. This non-proponent group includes Enterl£ne [Categor~s 312 and 313], B~au~nont and Weiss [Category 334], Finkelsteln et al [Category 340], Fox et al and ChatterJee et al [Category 350]. A Fourth group needs to be added to account ~or "observers" who have not conducted original studies on asbestos/clgarette smoking £nteract£on but have ~ecome • proponents. R~m, the editor of a textbook ~Category 300] belongs to this group and there are more sclent~sts that are cited in the remainder of this report. For example, Gilson, a clinician fro~ the Pneumoconlosis Unit at Glamorgan (Wales) has
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Asbestos/Smok£ng Znteractlons [300 Series| Jan. 31, 1982 221 not conducted an epldemlologlc study but has -accepted the results of Selikoff and Hammond w~th hardly any criticism, other than to mention that "there are few nonsmoklng asbestos workers with long exposure" to allow estimation of risk to asbestos exposure alone (783-788). The remaining discussion that follows Include additional examples of "~bservers" as well as this compiler's ~erceptlon of the unexpected consequences of asbestos/smoklng hypothesis, a topic that is also discussed in "Some Epldemlologlc Issues ~or the 1980s" by Greenhouse (387). [391] American Cancer Society Project on Smoking and Health This compiler had agreed with the opinion of some asbes- tos scie~tlsts that the American Cancer Society Project was the "foundation that is responsible" for the interaction hypothesis introduced by Selikoff and Hammond. In examining the 1979 Surgeon General's Report~ Chapter on Occupational Diseases (788), as well as publlcatlons by Hammona, Sellkoff, Eoffman and Wynder (789-794), this compiler and supposedly other readers cannot J~medlately find a supportive statement oE the importance of t~e American Cancer Society Project for both the smoking and health controversy, and the formulation of the asbesto~/smoklng interaction hypothesis. However, the ZO~Z77~7 ! 3
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 222 importance of the data derived from the Project is clearly mentioned separately in the articles on smoking and asbestos by Sellkoff et al [Category 323] and the articles on smoking and health by Hammond and others. [392] L~mltatlons of Cohort Approach The intended readers of this report are undoubtedly familiar with the questionable ro~e of epldem/~loglc studies proving ~he causal relationship between cigarette smoking and disease. The same crlt~clsms apply to the interaction hypothesis a~d will not be repeated here. That expogure to asbestos dust alone is pathogenic has not been proven by epidemiologio techniques alone (such as the one used by Sellkoff .'and Roffman) but by a combination of epldemiologlc and non-epidemlologlc techniques (795). Not all epidemlologlsts recognize this. Enterllne reviewed most ~ertlnent studies to ~etermine acceptable and non-.hazardous exposure levels to asbestos dust without commentl,g-on the interaction hypothesis (796-799). Wagner, a pathologlst from Glamorgan, also reviewed the epldemlologlo st~dles from the standpoint ~f preventing asbestos related cancers (800-803) and dismissed the interaction hypothesis by stating that "more research is needed to show at what ~evel of asbestos exposure a detectable increase of risk due to the two factors together occur" (800).
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 223 [393] Published Criticisms of Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction Hypothesis Statements crltlcal of the studies of Selikoff et al and other proponents of the interaction hypothesis have been .difficult to find. A partial and incomplete llst followsz Nature of Control Group. Knox, a coworker of Sir Richard Doll in the initial epidem~ologlc study of asbestos workers In England, wrote Gross and the letter was reproduced by De Treville in the May 1968 issue of Industrial Hygiene Digest~ "The suggested synergism with cigarette smoking may or may not be proved in the paper but synergism with other materials is certainly a possibility. How far are the comparisons of mortality of the insulat- ing group with that of the general white populatlon of .the UoS. valid? I had thought that, even in a small country llke ours, there were differences between the lung cancer mortality of urban and rural dwellers. Surely in a large country llke the U.S. these differences ~uld be more marked, and there are coNparatively large groups, like Seventh Day Advent- ists, who are non-smokers. New York and New Jersey are heavily industrialized and polluted areas. Would not the basis of co~parlson have been more realistic if averages ~or large industrial conurbations had been used? S~-e 283 insulation ~rkers had a c~gar- ette smoking history and stated mortality in relatlon to their occupation and smoking habits, whereas 87 Insulation workers had a different mortality experience. In view of the dlspar~ly ~n the number~ concerned are we justified in regarding these are truly comparative groups? There were no non-smokers in the group of 87 workers~ 48 never smoked regularly and 39 had smoked pipes or cigars, but never smoked
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 series] Jan. 31, 1982 224 cigarettes regularly. This is a large proportion and I wonder if there is a problem here in view of the much lower necropsy rate in the 'expected' group. The statement that 'once exposure was reduced by improved industrial hygiene practice early deaths from asbestosls diminished and lung cancer became co---on', was not our experience In Rochdale - rather the reverse. The figures presented from the Rochdale Facto~sh~w_~t~.@t ~dGp.~.~f smoking ~h~ch ~e -remained -~b~tanti~l~ "the sam~ ~n ~he cohorts examined, there has been an improved mortal- ity experience and a reduction ~n the incidence of lung cancer. While there may be some substance in the findings of this paper in relation to asbestos exposure, smoking, and neoplasla, I think £t is not as great as these figures ~would have us believe. There are some statements made which seem slightly contradictory. We read that 'exposure to asbestos dust does not increase the risk of bronchogenlc cancer among men who never smoked regularly ... we only conclude that exposure to asbestos dust (variety unspecified) does not greatly increase the risk of bronchogenlc carcinoma among men who never smoke cigarettes regularly'. For comparison 'this finding, being based upon the experience of only 87 men does not" prove that asbestos dust (variety unspecified) has'.no influence on the risk of lung cancer among non-smokers. However, it suggests that exposure to asbestos dust does not lead to an extremely high rate of lung cancer among non-smokers". (804) The above remarks, although directed against the 1968 publication of Sellkoff (647) ca~ properly be directed against all subsequent publlca~ons of the Mr. S~nal Hospital group [Categories 322, 323 and 324].
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 225 (h) Tabulated Smoking Data. Morgan, commented on the 1973 presentation by Hammond and Sellkoff (650) in the following manner= 'dlscussion of ~e ~r by DES. H~ond ~d. Sel~koff. After the session, however, ~ere ~s some ~nt on ~e ~ta given in Table 5 of this ~per for the ~cted d~th rates due ~ l~g ~ncer. As the au~ors s~te In ~e text, values for the s~king specific death rates for individuals In ~e general ~pu~tlon, ~re not available for the ~ri~ ~der review at ~e time of ~e ~iting. As ~e ex~ct~ death, rates In Tables 2 ~d 5 disregard s~klng habits ~e data in ~ese ~b~es should ~ interpreted with cautlo~.= (805) A similar inconsistency was perceived by this compiler and discussed under Categories 322 and 323. (c[. Selection of Union Members. Weiss, also after llstenlng" to the same 1973 presentation by Hammond and Selikoff (650) made the following comments= =An important limitation in the study of New York insulation workers was .that only those workers ~elonging to a trade union were included. In Devonport (I/K) all dockyard workers are being studied prospectively to. establish cause of death and, where posslhle, to relate this to the degree of asbestos exposure." (806)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 226 (d) Limited Number of Nonsmokers. At a 1979 meeting on Dust Diseases, selikoff-~ade these comments relating to his own results: =If I Night take my chairman's prerogative, I would say that w~ are very uneasy about retrospective s~oking histories fro~...hospital ..~records or other f>~st-dea~'sd~r~'e~. "~T~~e~oa~ of ~lungca~ncers among non-smoklng asbestos workers is not resolved by the female experience in your population. "With regard to non-smoklng asbestos workers, we found an increase. We have been following 2,066 non- smoking asbestos workers during this 10-year Period, prospectively. There is an increase among the~, com- pared to non-smoking individuals in the population as a whole. But since the rates for non-smokers in the general population are so low, even increasing them three tlmes-or four times still does not constitute a major problem. If we had no smoking among asbestos • workers, we would not have all that much lung cancer. we would have more than expected, but, we wouldntt have the dlfflcultle~ that we ..have at present" (807). (e~ Relative Contributions of Asbestos and Cigarette Smoking. ~ Poole from the Environmental Protection Agency, commented at the 1980 Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Assoclatlon~ The interaction between cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure in elevating lung ~ancer risk ~s well known, but increased lung cancer risk ~mong nonsmoking asbestos workers has been s~own only recently. Previous conclusions that this"rlsk was increased only in smokers were made without adequate attention to the statistical power of an early study. Caution should be exercised in examining the latest results for Inforemtion on the relative contributions of smoking and asbestos to. lung cancer risk, the necessary temporal sequence of exposure, and the
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions (300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 227 implications of the observed interaction for theories of carcinogenic processes. Studies of asbestosis lead to a general consensus that smoking increases risk, but no study includes a group of smokers not exposed to asbestos to allow for the polyvalent nature of the diagnostic signs of asbestosls. A firm concluslon that there is no difference in the risk of pleural mesothelioma ~h~Id --~b~ avoided because the ct~rrent~data are not persuasive. High mortality rates for several causes of death in a s~all group of asbestos workers who smoked only pipes and/or cigars are worthy of note" (808). (394] Inconsistencies in Numerical Estimates Saracci, an_epidemiologist from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France) has commented on the nature of interaction between asbestos dust exposure and cigarette smoking (809-811). It should be recognized that Saraccl d~d not include smoking habits in the studies of 20000 asbestos "workers, on behalf of the Joint European Medical Research Board (812). on the other hand, Elmes who had been conducting epidemiologlc studies that included smoking habits, wrote a 1981 review on the subject as it relates to most occupational lung diseases, including asbestos-associated malignancies. He concluded the discussion on asbestos exposure as follows~ "the lack of adequate numbers in the nonsmoking groups means that this conclusion (multlpllcative) can only be tentative" (813). Lemen, ~ement and Wagner (the latter fro~
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 228 the Environmental Defense Fund and all are "observers') also reviewed the llterature on interaction and concluded that is important to note that the historic decumentatlon of cigar- ette consumption patterns is lacking for ~ost retrospective cohort studie~--~a~be~tos~-~r~s~--~ ~s £urther Important to note that a sizable portion of the general populatlon, the group usually selected for comparison in these studies, are cigarette smokers. Therefore the risk of lung cancer demons- trated for these industrial groups exposed to asbestos is of such magnitude _as to preclude the identification of an independent etiologic role for cigarette smoking" (814). The above mentioned articles are lengthy in their consideration of interaction hypothesis. If requested, this compiler ~an discuss at a later date the errors of commission and o~isslon by Saraccl, Elmes, Lemen, Dement and Wagner. These authors belong to all four classes of investigators discussed under Category 390. [Category 395] Asbestos/Benzopyrene Interaction ~ The introduction of as~estos/clgarette smoking hypothesis by Sellkoff et al led to initiation of animal experiments using benzopyrene and other polycycllc aromatic hydrocarbons [Categories 100s|. It is a paradox that Sellkoff questioned 206277~1720
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 3~, 1982 229 the health effects of b~nzopyrene fn a letter to the Editor of the Journal of Occupational Medicine that published a series of papers identifying a significant risk of lung cancer among coke plant workers in steel ~/lls~ ...... ,The-i-~fe~e.~=~ ~ b~on~a~e..however, thatthis risk is the result of gaseous hydrocarbon emissions (including benzpyrene) from these operations, and nmasures are being directed to their control. This etlologlcal relationship has not been demonstrated. The lung cancer risk has been found associated with coke oven work, not necessarily with benzpyrene exposure. This has been emphasized by O~Connor. An alternate explanation exists. Coke ovens and gas cohorts require effective insulation, much of it containing asbestos. We have been informed that repair and maintenance of such insulation is often the responsibility of coke oven workmen (except for major installation, alterations or repairs). This raises the question of exposure of this ~en to asbestos insulation dusts, an exposure known to be associated with the lung cancer hazard. This is not to say that carcinogenic hydrocarbons may- not act as co-factors. Such a role has already been associated with cigarette smoking and asbestos insulation dust." (815) In their review on biologic effects of asbestos, the benzopyrene hypothesis £a not mentioned by the Mr. Sinai Hospital group (816, 818) other than their own experiments on hydroxylase enzyme in asbestos workers (817). [396] Nonapplicabil[ty of Interaction Studies to Other Cohort Groups
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 230 Throughout this review, this compiler has repeatedly alluded to the differences in mortallty pattern between cohort groups showing interaction, and other groups that omitted a study of smoking interaction. There is one abstract alluding &u the same liai~atlo~L (819) and ~wo ~evie~s .showing the varied mortality patterns in epidemiologlc studies of asbestos exposed groups (820, 821). In the cohort of 17800 asbestos insulators one final and concluding question is being raised by this compilerz the American Cancer Society Project of over a million subjects-may have included some of the 17800 insulators so that there might have been duplicate entry of the same person in both the asbestos and control groups. [397] Asbestos Workers, Asbestos Management and Government Regulators The conflicting results on mortality pattern of various asbestos ~ohort groups has led to disagreement among epldemlologlsts on the one hand, and to varied opinions among union workers, asbestos management and government regulators (822-824)° There is an interesting exchange of letters in a 1981 issue of the American Journal of Public Health among the regulators, the regulated groups and the non-regulated group of scientists that lncluded Selikoff (825-829)o It is difficult for the compiler to paraphrase the contents of these letters.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 231 [398] Future Projections of Asbestos Associated Deaths In recent years, there has been apprehension or concern as to the number of future deaths of asbestos workers, specially because the latent period of their diseases is 15 or 20 o~ more ~ears.~ Government agencies have made their own projections (830, 831) and epldemlologists have proposed several estimates (832-837). The disagreement is the outcome of the different mortality pattern of asbestos cohort groups, and the conflicting estimates of additional risk from cigarette smoking. The rep6rted r~sks for bronchogenic carcinoma ~or asbestos worker who is also a cigarette smoker, compared to non-clgarette smoker, non-asbestos worker are as follows: [Category'322]: 322 New Yo~k-New Jersy insulators 92 [Category~324|~ 933 Am~slte workers 80 [Category 323]~ 17800 U.So and Canada insulators 61.40 or 53.24 [Category 338|~ Case-control study of shipyard workers 21.7 [Category 360]~ Finnish miners 17 It should be fi~ally noted that the upper four estimates that range from 91 to ~3.24 are from the Mto Sinai Hospital group. As the size of cohort group increases, ~here is a reduction in risk estimates. The several estimates have
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 3~, 1982 232 confused many scientists, including Rom who thought that Seliko£f has downgraded the risk estimates from 91 to I0 [Category 300] [399]~egal Consequences For the intended readers, the editorial and letter in a recent issue of the British Medical Journal may prove to b~ helpful. The discussion of "Smoking, coal, asbestos and lungs" in this Journal (838, 839) should be contrasted with the opln- ion of Popper and ~ellkoff (840) and the discussion of the role of epidemiology in proving future damages 'by Teret (841). Most of the consequences of epldemlologic studies were totally unexpected.." by this compiler prior to the preparation of this report. He is looklng forward to the discussion of cllnical studies on asbestos associated diseases, that are covered in the next three serles~ 400s on ~esothelioma and pleural diseases~ 500s on bronchogenlc carcinoma and extrapulmonary mallgnancles~ and 600s on pulmonary asbestosls or fibrosis. There are no antlcIp~ted unexpected consequences and Interpre- tatlon of most of the cllnlcal studies is straightforward in proving that expesure to asbestos dust can indeed cause malignancies.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 233 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX Among the 217 artlcles for Series 300s, a duplicate copy of 143 or 66 percent was received from (X). The cumulative total for S~e~ 100s to 300~s i~ ~'20 out of 841 articles, or 50 percent. The geographical distribution of the authors contained in the Bibliographies is as follows~ United States Categories 300s Cumulative 100s to 300R UAR Arizona 1 UCA California - 3 19 UCT Connecticut 1 3 UCO Colorado 2 2 UDC District of Columbia 5 UDE Delaware 2 UHA Hawaii 2 2 UIO Iowa ". 3 ULA Louisiana 3 7 UMA Massachusetts 2 7 UMD Maryland 17 36 OMEMa£ne UMI Michigan 7 UMN Minnesota 14 UMO MiSsouri 2 UNC North Carolina 2 12 UNE Nebraska 2 ~i~H NewHampshlre 1 ONJ New Jersey , i0 UNY New York 45 81 UOH Ohio 7 24 UPA Pennsylvania 20 30 USC South Carolina 8 UTE Tennessee 2 UTX Texas 1 20 UUT Utah 2 5 UVT Vermont 9 U~A Washington l 7 UWI Wisconsin 1 UWV West Virginia 3 Total U. S. ~rtlcles108 336 Percent of Total 50% 40%
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 234 Foreign Categories 300s Cumulative 100s to 300s ATL Australia 2 7 AUS Austria 1 BEL Belgium 1 3 BUL Bulgaria 1 CAN Canada 15 34 C~Z Cze~hos lo~i= ...... ! ............ 1 DEN Denmark 1 2 EGY Egypt 4 FIN Finland 8 13 FRA France 6 44 GBR Great Britain 50 232 GER Germany 4 26 IND India 26 ISR Israel 1 2 ITA Italy 2 20 JAP Japan 1 6 NET Netherlands 4 NOR Norway 4 POL Poland 8 ROM Ro~ania 2 RUS Russia 4 12 SAF South~frica 33 SPA Spain~ SWE Sweden 9 12 SWZ Switzerland 1 3 TAI Taiwan 1 YUG Yugoslavia 3 Total Foreign Articles 109 505 Percent of Total 50% 60% Grand Total 217 841 Percent of Grand Total 100% i00~ [Note: Bibllography for Series 300s starts on the next page]
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Asbestos/Sm~klng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 235 0625 Rom WN, Editor (1983) Little, Brown & Co., Boston 1015 pages Environmental and Occupatlonal Medicine. 0626 Rom WN (1983) Little, Brown & Co., Boston 157-182 Chapter 14. Asbestos and related fibers. Occupational Medicine. 0627 Little, Browll & Co., BOSton xxi-~xiii Preventing preventable disease. Foreword. and Occupational Medicine. 0628 Mancuso TF, Keefe F (1969) Arch Environ Bealth 18:859-860 Asbestos and cancer. 0629 Mancuso TF, CoUlter EJ (1963) Arch Environ Health 6:210-226 Methodology in industrial health studies. In: Environmental and In: Environmental The cohort approach, with special reference to an asbestos company. 0630 gancus~ TF, El-Attar AK (1967) J Occup Med 97147-62 Mortality pattern in a cohort of asbestos workers. on employment experience. 0631 Enterllne .PE (196~) Ann NY Aca~ Sol 132~156-65 Mortality among asbestos products w~rkers in the 0hired States. 0632 Enterline PE, Kendrlck MA (1967) Arch Environ Health 15z181-186 Asbestos-dust exposures at various levels and mortality. A study based
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 236 0633 Enterline PE {1968) 2nd Intl Conf Bio Elf Ash 113-118 Asbestos dust, increments and mortality from two diseases. 0634 De Coufle P (1970] Unpublished thesis, Univ. of Pittsburg 1-142 Mortality patterns of a group of retired asbestos workers. (X) 0635 Ent~rline ~: D~ e~ufl~ ~, ~-,~er~on V (1972) J Occup Med 14:897:903 Mortality in relation to occupational exposure in the asbestos industry. (X) 0636 Enterline PE, Henderson V (1973) Arch Environ Health 27:312-317 Type of asbestos and respiratory cancer in the asbestos industry. 0637 Enterline PE, Well1 H IARC Sol Publ No. 8 179-183 Asbestosis in asbestos cement worker~. In: Biological effects of asbestos. 0638 Enterllhe PE, De Coufle P, Henderson V [1973) Br J I~d Med 30:162-166 Respiratory cancer in relation to occupational exposures among retired asbestos workers. 0639 Henderson VL, Enterllne PE (1979) Ann NY Acad 8ci 330=117-126 Asbestos exposures factors associated with excess cancer and respiratory disease mortality. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X} 0640 Enterllne PE, Marsh GM (1980) IARC Sol Publ ~o. 30 965-972 ~ortallty of workers in the man-made mineral fibre industry. Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0641 Sellkoff IJ, Churg J, Editors (1965) Ann NY Acad Sci 132si-766 Biological Effects of Asbestos. In:
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 237 0642 Sellko~f IJ, Hammond EC, Editors (1979) Ann NY Acid Scl 330:1-815 Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0643 Selikoff IJ, Lee DHK (1978) Academic Press, New York 549 pages Asbestos and diseases. 064~ Selikoff IJ (1982) Environ Sc~ Lab, Mr. Sinai Hospital, New York 440 pages D~sabillty co~pensation for asbestos-associated disease in the United States. 0645 Sellkoff IJ, Churg J, Hammond EC (1964) JAMA 188~142-146 Asbestos exposure and neoplasla. (X) 0646 Selikoff A~ J Med Asbestos 0647 IJ, Bader RA, Bader ME, Churg J, Hammond EC (1967) 42:487-496 and neoplasia. Selikoff I~, 5ammond EC, Churg J (1968) JAMA 2041104-i12 Asbestos exposure, smoking, and neoplasla. 0648 Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC, Churg J (1968) Int Conf Biol Eff Asbest 283-288 Prospective studies of asbestos neoplasla in insulation workers in the United States. (X) 0649 Sel~koff L~, Hammond EC, Seldman 5(1973) IARC Sol Publ No. 8 209-216 Cancer risk of insulation workers in the United States. In: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0650 Hammond EC. Sellkoff IJ (1973) IARC Sci Publ No. 8 312-317 Rel~tlon of cigarette smoking to risk of death of asbestos- associated disease among insulation workers in the United States. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 238 0651 Sellkoff IJ (1976) Rev Fr Mal Resp Suppl 4:7-24 Asbestos disease in the United States 1918-1975. (X) 0652 Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Seidman H (1979) Ann NY Acad Scl 330:473-490 Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking and death rates. (X) 0653~ • ......... ..... Frank AL (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330:791-794 Public health significance of smoking-asbestos interactions. In: Health harzards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0654 Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC, Seldman H (1979) Ann NY Acad Sol 330~91-I16 Mortality ex~erlence o£ insulation ~orkers in the United States and Canada 1943-1976. In~ E~alth hazards of asbestos exposure. O655 Sellkoff IJ, Hammond EC, Seidman H (1980) Cancer 46:2736-2740 Latency of.asbestos disease among insulation workers in the United States and Canada. (X) 0656 Seldman H, Sellkoff IJ, Hammond EC (1979) Ann NY &cad Sol 330~61-89 Short-term asbestos work exposure and long-term observation. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0657 8ellkoff IJ, Se£dman R (1981) J Environ Bio~ 2s63-78 Health effects of am~slte asbestos exposure. (X) ~ 0658 Sellkoff L3, Seldman H, Hammond EC (1980) JNCI 65~507-513 Mortallty effete of cigarette s~oklng among amoslte asbestos factory workers. (X) 0659 Keane WE, Zavon MR (1966} Arch Environ Health 13~171-184 Occupatlonal hazards of pipe insulators.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 239 0660 Kleinfeld M, Messite J (19671 Arch Environ Health 15:177-180 Mortality experience in a group of asbestos workers. 0661 Klelnfeld MJ (1968} Med Times 96:1223-1229 Asbestos and neoplasla. 0662 Kleinfeld MJ (1973) J Occup Med 15:296-300 Biologic response to kind and amount of asbestos. 0663 Kaminski R, Gelssert KS, Dacey E (1980) J Occup Med 22:183-189 Mortality analysis of plumbers and pipefltters. 0664 Beaumont JJ, Weiss NS (1980) Am J Epldemiol 112:775-786 Mortallty of welders, shipfitters, and other metal trades workers in boilermakers local no. 104, AFL-CIO. (X) 0665 Hughes J, ~eill H (1980) IARC Sol Publ No. 30 627-635 Lung cancer risk associated with manufacture of asbestos-cement products. In~ Biological effects of m~neral fibres. 0666 Robinson C, Lemen R, Wagoner JK (1979) Pathotox Publishers, park Forest South, IL 131-143 Mortallty patterns, 1940-~975 among workers employed in an asbestos textlle friction and packing products manufacturing factory. In: DUSt and disease. (X) 0667 McDonald AD, Fry JS (1982) Seand J Work Environ Health Suppl 8:53-58 Mesothelloma and the fiber type in three American asbestos factories - preliminary report. 0668 Fraumeni JF Jr (1975) JNCX 55:1039-1046 Respiratory carcinogenesis| an epldemlologlc a~praisal.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 240 0669 Fraumeni JF (1977) J Environ Pathol TOXlCO1 1:19-30 Environmental and genetic determinants of cancer. 0670 Fratuneni JF, Blot WJ (1978) pergamon Press, Oxford 11:23-27 The geographic distribution of lung cancer in the U.S.A. In: clinical Canc~r_~prSn~i~al ~9~--~.,~--~ 0671 Fraumeni JF (1979) Ann NM Acad Scl 330:313-315 L~ng cancer mortality in the United States: shipyard correlations. In: Health h~zards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0672 Blot WJ, Harrlngton JM, Toledo A, Hoover R et al (1978) N Eng J Med 299~620-624 Lung cancer after e~ployment in shipyards during World War 0673 Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF (1979) J Occup Med 21~276-278 Studies of ~esplratory cancer i, high risk communities. (X) 0674 Blot WJ, Mo~rls LE, Stroube R, Tagnon I, Fraumeni JF (1980) JNCI 65:571-575 Lung and laryngeal cancers in relation to shipyard employment in coastal Virginla~ (X) 0675 Blot WJ, Morris LE, Fraumeni J~ (1981) Am J Epidemlol I14~423 Latency an~ duration of shipyard employment in relation to high risk of lung cancer along the Atlantic coast. (X) 0676 Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF (1981) Banbury Report 37-46 Cancer among shipyard workers, in: Quantification of occupational cancer. (X) 0677 Gottlleb MS, Stedman RB (1979) South Med J 72:1099-1101 Lung cancer in shipbuilding and related industries in Louisiana. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 0678 Rinsky RA, Waxweiler RJ, Bierbaum US Dept HHS Publ 1-91 Epidemiologlc study of civilian e~ployees at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. 0679 Borhanl NO, Hechter Ell, Breslow L (1963) J Chronic Dis 16=1251-1266 Report of a ten,year follow-up study of the San Francisco longshoremen ...... ~r~y ~om c~/h~art disease and~ from all causes. 0680 Baglnsky E (1976) Environ Res 11:271-279 Occupational illness and accidents reported from California shipyards. 0681 Kraus JF, Franti CE-, Newmaq B (19~2) Scand J Work EnViron Health Suppl 8:65-71 The untilty of regional cancer mortality data for ~dentifylng occupations at high risk. 0682 Kolonel LN~" Hirohata T, Chappell BV, Viola FV, Harris DE (1980) JNC~ 64:739-743 Cancer ~ortality in a cohort of naval shipyard workers in Hawaii~ early findings. (X) 0683 Hirohata T, Kolonel L, Nomura A (1977) JCNI Monogr 47~ 676-70 Epidemiologic cancer research of the Cancer Center of Hawaii. 0684 Sellkoff IJ, Lills R, Nicholson WJ (1979) Ann NY Acad Se~ 330=295-311 Asbestos disease in ~n~ted States shipyards. In~ Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0685 Kle~nfeld M, Mess~te J, Kooyman O, Zakl M Arch Environ Health 14~663-667 Mortality among talc miners and millers in New York State. .e
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 242 0686 Gillam JO,'Dement JM, Lemen RA, Wagoner Jet al (1976) Ann NY Acad Sci 271:336-344 Mortality patterns among bard rock gold miners exposed to an asbestos mineral. 0687 Dement JM, Zumwalde RD, Walllngrod KM (1976) Ann NY Acad Scl 271:345-352 ~scussion P~E:. a~esto~_~i~_9~..Dg~uz~s iDa hard rock gold ~ine;~ ~n:66c~patlonal carcinogenesis. (X) 0688 Dement JM, Zumwalde RD, Gamble JF, Fellner Wet al (1980) Natl Inst Occup Saf Publ 1-106 Morbidity, mortality, and environmental studies on m~ners and millers. In: Occupational exposure to talc containing asbestos. (X) 0689 Anonymous (1965) - Canad Med ~tssoc J 92:1034-1035 The association of asbestos and malignancy. 0690 McDonald JC, McDonald AD, Gibbs GW, 8~emiatyckl Jet ai'(1971) Arch Envlro~ Health 22:677-686 Mortallty ~n the chrysotile asbestos mines and mills in Quebec. 069~ Braun DC, De Treville RTP (1972) Arch Environ Health 24:294-295 COmment on McDonald et a~s study on mortallty In asbestos industry. (X) 0692 McDonald JC (1973) L%RC Scl Publ No. 8 189-194 Cancer in ohrysotile mines and mills. In: Biologlcal~effects O~ asbestos. (X) 0693 McDonald AD, McDonald ~C (1976) Rev Fr Mal Resp Suppl 4:25-38 Epldem~ologlc studies on the diseases due to asbestos in Canada.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 243 0694 McDonald JC, Liddell FDK (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330:i-9 Mortality in Canadian ~/ners and millers exposed to chrysotile. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0695 McDonald JC, Gibbs GW, Liddell FDK (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30 811-817 Chrysotile.flbre concentration and lung cancer ~ortallty: a ~-~elluinary ~t. ~iu~ B~ological~e~f~cts of mineral fibres. 0696 Liddell FDK (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 661-665 Latent period in lung cancer ~ortallty in relatlon to asbestos dose and smoking. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0697 Liddell FDK (1981) Can Med Assoc J 125~237-239 Asbestos and publlc health. (X) 0698 Myre M (1981) Union Med Cah 110~362-363, 365-367 Insulation ~orkers from the province of Quebec~ causes of mortality. (French) (X) 0699 Finkelsteln M, Kusiak R, Suranyl G (1981) Can Med Assoc J 125~259-262 Mortality among ~rkers receiving compens~tlon for asbestosls in Ontario. 0700 Nicholson WJ, Sellkoff IJ, Seldman H, Lills R, Fromby P (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330~iI-21 Long-term mortality experience or .chrysotile miners and millers £n Thetford Mines, Quebec. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0701 Graham S (1981) Environ Res 25~35-49 Methodological problems in ecologlc studies of the asbestos- cancer relationship
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 244 0702 Graham S, Blancher M, Rohrer T (1977) Am J Epidemlol 106:231 Cancer in asbestos mining and other areas of Quebec. 0703 giller AB (1980) Can Med Assoc J 122=985-987 Identification of adults at high risk of lung cancer. o~o4 - Cecilionl VA (1980) Can Med Assoc J 122:513 Occupatlonal lung cancer and smoking. (X) (X) 0705 Morrison AB {1979) Can Med Assoc J 120:1216 Asbestos-related disease. 0706 Doll R (1955) Br J Ind Med 12:81-86 Mortality from lung cancer in asbestos workers. 0707 Anonymous 1~955) Lancet 268=1163 Lung cancer Ln asbestosis. (X) 0708 Doll R (1960) L & A Churchill Ltd, London 208-220 Occupational l-ng cancer. In: Industrial pulmonary diseases. {X) 0709 Doll R (1975) Arch Geschwulstforsch 45~521-531 Port and the path to prevention. 0710 Doll R (1977) J Roy Col Phy London ii:125-140 The prevention of cancer.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 245 0711 Do11 R (1978) Pergamon Press, Oxford I1:9-15 Smoking, industrial pollutants and their interaction. In: Clinical cancer principal sites 2. 0712 Hill ID, Doll R, Knox JF (1966) Proc R Soc Med 59:59 0713 Knox JF, Holmes S, Doll R, Hill ID (1968) Br J Ind Med 25:293-303 Mortality from lung cancer and other causes among workers in an asbestos textile factory. 0714 Newhouse ML, Wagner JC (1969) Br J Ind Med 26:3302y307 Validation of death certificates in asbestos workers. 0715 Newhouse ML (1970) Oxford University Press, London 158-164 The mortality, of asbestos factory workers. In: Pneumoconiosls (Proc Int Conference Johannesbury 1969) (X) 0716 Berry G, Newhouse ML, Turok M (1972) Lancet 2z476-478 Combined effect of asbestos exposure and smoking on mortality from lung cancer in factory workers. 0717 - Newhouse ML (1973) IARC 8c~ Publ No. 8 203-208 Cancer among workers in the asbestos textile industry. In~ Bio- logical effects of asbestos. (X) 0718 Newhouse ML, Berry G (1979) Ann NY Acad Scl 330~53-60 Patterns of mortality in asbestos factory workers in London. Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 246 0719 Fox AJ, Lindars DC, Owen R [1974) BE J Ind Med 31~140-151 A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: results of flve-year analysis, 1967-1971. 0720 Jones JSP, Pooley FD, Smith PG (1976) IARC Sci Publ No. !3 117-120 ~actory~populatlnns ex[5osedto crocid~l~te asbestos - a continuing survey. In: Environmental pollution and carcinogenic risks. (X) 0721 Jo~es JSP, Pooley FD, Sawle GW, Madeley RJ et al (1980) IARC Scl Publ 2:637-653 The consequences of exposure to asbestos dust in a wartime gas- mask factory. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0722 - Wignall BK, Fox AJ (1982) Br J Ind Med 39:34-38 Mortality of female gas mask assemblers. 0723 Berry G, Jacobsen M, Cox DR, Fox AJ, Armitage P (1977) J R Stat Soc A 140~485-488 Method of cohort analysis. Appraisal by application to asbestos mining. (X) 0724 Berry G, Lewlnsohn Ann NY Acad Scl 330~185-194 Morbidity. In~ Health hazards of asbestos .exposure. (X) 0725 Berry G (1981] Br J Ind Med 38~130-137 Mortality of workers certified by pneumoconlosis medical panels as having asbestosis. 0726 Peto J (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 2:829-836 Lung cancer mortality in relation to measured dust levels in an asbestos textile factory. In: Biological effects of mineral fibers. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 247 0727 Thomas HF, Elwood PC, Benjamin IT, Sweetnam PM (1982) Br J ~nd Med 39~273-276 Further follow-up study of workers from an asbestos cement factory. (X) 0728 Elwood PC, Cochrane AL, Benjamin IT, Seys-Pros~er D (1964) Br J Ind Med 21:304-307 A fuilow-up study;o~wo~'E~rs [~o~n asbestos factory. 0729 Finlayson A, McEwen J, Mair A (1971) Scot Med J 16¢509-512 Home interviews with relatives of deceased ~ersons¢ a moans of obtaining histories of exposure to a hazardous substance. 0730 ChatterJee DS, Petrie A, Taylor W (1978) Br J Ind Med 35~208-218 Prevalence of vlbratlon-lnduced white f~nger in fluorspar mines in Weardale. (X) 0731 Sheers G, Te~npleton AR (1968) Br Med J 3~574-579 Effect of asbestos in dockyard workers. 0732 Harrles PG (1968) Ann Occup Hyg II~135-145 Asbestos hazards in naval dockyards. 0733 Barr£es, PG (1976) Environ Res Ii~261-267 Experience with asbestos disease and its control in Great Britain's naval dockyards. 0734 Lumley KPS (1976 Br J Ind Med 33~i08-114 A proportional study of cancer registration of dockyard workers. 0735 Rosslter CE, Coles RM (1980) IARC Sc~ Publ No. 30 2:713-721 HN Dockyard, Davenport~ 1947 moEtality study. In~ Bi61oglcal effects of m/neral fibres.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 248 0736 Elmes PC (1966) Postgrad Med J 422623-635 The epldemiology and clinical features of asbestos and related disease. (X) 0737 Elmes PC, Simpson M (1968) 2nd !ntl conf .B~ Zff-A:~ !~-141 Retrospective mortality studies on pipe coverers. (X] 0738 Elmes PC, Simpson MJC (1971) Br J Ind Med 28:226-236 Insulation workers in Belfast. 3. Mortality 1940-66. 0739 Elmes PC, Simpson MJC (1977) Br J Ind Med 34~174-18~ Insulation workers in Belfast. A further study of mortality due to asbestos exposure (1940-75) 0740 Elmes PC (1977) Ulster Med J 46.271-80 Investigation into the hazardous use of asbestos. Northern Ireland 1960-76. (X] 0741 Elmes PC (1978) J R Soc Med 71~914-916 Risk factors in asbestos exposure. 0742 rimes PC (1980) Chem Ind 5:173-175 Dust diseases of the itmg. (X) ~ 0743 Ringertz N (1955) Schwelz Z Pathol Bakterlol 18~866-88884 Environmental factors and smoking in the causation of cancer of the lung. (X) 0744 carlens E (1976| Lakartldnlngen 76:1194 can a prospective asbestos investigation be ethically Justified? (Swedish)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 249 0745 Vagero D, Allander E, Allebeck P, Persson G, Straat E (1982) Lakar tidnlngen 79: 2699-2700 Occupation and risk in cancer-envlronment registry: a commentary on methodological questions. (Swedish) 0746 Le~nholm B (1982) Lakartldnlngen .79:2927-2929 ~ - - .... Many adva6£ageS ~wit~i ~r~ional~ 6ancer r~glstry. Exposed risk groups can be followed up in a completely new manner. (Sw~dlsh) (X) 0747 Axelson Q, Flodln U, Eardell L (1982) Scand J Work Environ Health Suppl 8.-15-19 A comment on the reference series with regard to multiple exposure evaluations in a case-referent study. (X) 0748 " Dahlgren E (1979) Lakar tidningen 76 : 4811-4814 Lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and smoking in a group of mineworkers. (Swedish) (X) 0749 Sundell L (1980)" Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 107:131-132 Lung cancer in miners in relation to smoking habits. 0750 Thlrlnger BG (1980) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl i07:125-129 Epidemiologlcal studies of lung cancer - influence of smoking habits. 0751 Thlrlnger G, Jarvholm B (1980) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl I07~123-124 Smoking end lung cancer. 0752 Meurman LO, Kiviluoto R, Hakama M (1973) I~RC Scl Publ No. 8 199-202 Mortality end morbidity of employees of ant~ophylllte asbestos mines in Finland. In: Biological effects of asbestos.
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Asbestos/Sm0king Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 250 0753 MeurNan LO, Kiviluoto R, Hakama M (1979) An~ NY Acad Scl 3301491-495 Combined effects of asbestos exposure and tobacco smoking on Finnish anthophylllte miners and millers. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (x) 0754 Meurman LO, Kiviluoto R, Hakama ~ (~974) BE J Ind Med 31z105-112 Mo£tallty a~d morbidity .among the.work;rig population of anthophylli~e asbestos miners in ~irsland. 0755 Ahlman K, Partanen TJ, Rintala E, wi£~eri M {1973) IARC Sci Publ No. 8 165-168 Anthophylllte ~ining and milllng as a cause of asbestosls. In: Biological effects of asbestos. 0756 Huuskonen MS, Tossa~alnen A (~978~ Tyoterveyslaltoksen ~utklmuksla 1-45 Occupational asbestos exposure i, Finland. (Finnish) (X) 0757 Huuskonen MS, Ahlman K, Mattsson T, Tossavalnen Aet al (1980) J Occup Med 22~751-754 Asbestos disease in Finland. (X) 0758 Euuskonen MS (1980) J Toxlcol Environ Health 6:1261-~265 Asbestos and cancer in Finland. 0759 Koskela RS (19982) Soand J Work Environ Health Supp~ 8~34-39 O~upatlonal mortality and morbidity in relation to selective turnover. (X) 0760 Haider M, ~euberger M (1980) IARC Sol Publ No. 30 973-977 Cc~parlson of lung cancer risks ~or dust workers, asbestos-cement workers and control groups. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 251 0761 Lacquer LM, Van Der Linden L, Lepoutre J (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30 783-793 Roentgenographic lung changes, asbestosis and mortaltty in a Belglan asbestos-cement factory. In: Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X) 0762 Avril J, Champelx J (1970) Arch Mal Prof 31:198-200 Results of asbestos expo~ur~ in ~r~nce. (X~ 0763 Mollna C, Cheminat JC (1978) Monogr Coll Med Hop Paris 89-91 Consequences of long-term asbestos dust exposure. Statement on the health of workers in a textile mi11. (French) (X) 0764 Bignon J, Sebastlen p, Bonnaud G (1978) Monogr Co11 Med Hop ~arls 70-83 Asbestos dose-response studies for cancer in man. (French) (X) 0765 Anspach M (1968) Int Conf Biol Eff Asbest 124-126 Causes of death of employees of asbestos-processlng factories. (German) (~ 0766 .. Hain E, Hinz I, Dalquen P (1975) Int Arch Arbeltsmed 36~I19-136 Retrospective study of 236 former employees of a Hamburg asbestos t~xtile plant. (German) (X) 0767 Versen P (1980) Staub-Reinhalt Luft 40~181-187 Occupational diseases due to asbestos exposure which are covered • by the industrial injuries insurance associations. (German) (X) 0768 Woltowltz ~J, Beierl L, Rathgeb M, Schmldt K et al (1981) Am J Ind Med 2~71-78 Asbestos-related diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 252 0769 Vigliani C~ Ghezzl I, Maranzana P, Pernls B (1968) Med Lavoro 59:481-485 Epidemiologlc study of asbestos workers in Northern Italy. 0770 Puntoni R, Vercelli M, Merlo F, Valerlo F, Santi L (1979) Ann NY Acad Sol 330:353-377 Mortallty among shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (x) 0771 Lopez-Areal Del AmoL (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 201-206 Diseases associated with asbestos in Spain. I~: Biologlcal effects of m~neral fibres. (X) 0772 Maillard JM, Fellmann E, Wirz O (1982) Schweiz Med Wochenschr i12~174-176 Occupational respir~atory diseases in Switzerland at the present t Ime. 0773 Dobreva M, Burilkova T, Toceva V, Mihailova Let al (1979) Probl Khig 4~ 32-40 Professlona.~ risk in asbestos-textile production. (Bulgarian) (X) 0774 , Suntych F, Kryze B, Parizkova B (1970) Prac Lek 22:284-293 Occupational diseases and professional intoxications registered in Czechoslovakia in 1968. (Czech) (X) 0775 Kogan FM (1968) 2rid Intl C~f Bio Elf Ash 279-283 On the ~allgnanoy of asbestos dust. (X) 0776 Kogan FM (1975) NTIS PB-239 983-T :1-5 Cancer mortality rateamong workers in the asbestos industry oF the Urals. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 253 0777 Kogan FM (1981) Gig Tr Prof Zabol 5-10 Asbestosis and its prevention. (X) O778 Kurova EG, Gusel'nikova NA, Kogan FM, Starkov PS et al (.1982) Gig TE Prof Zabol 17-20 The influence of ths dust factor on the health of asbestos-cement plant workers. (Russian) 0779 Djerassi L, Kaufmann G, Bar-nets M (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330:243-253 Malignant disease and environmental control in an asbestos cement plant. In: Heal~h hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0780 Sera Y, Kang KY (1981) Tohoku J Exp ~ed 133:313-320 Asbestos and cancer-ln the Sennan District of Osaka. 0781 Eobbs MST, Murphy B, Musk AW, Elder J, Heyworth F (1978) Unpublished paper 1-7 The incidence of asbestos caused disease in workers formerly employed In.mlning and milling of crocldollte at Wittenoom Gorge. (X) 0782 Hohbs MST, Woodward SD, Murphy B, Musk AW, Elder JE (1980) ~RC Sol Publ No. 30 2:615-625 The incidence of pneumoconiosis, mesothelloma and other respira- tory cancer in men engaged in mining and milling crocidolite in Western Australia. (X) 0783 GllSon 3C (1973) Proc R Soc Ned 66~395-403 Asbestos cancer: Past and future hazards. 0784 Gilson JC (1974) C11n Sol Mol Med 47=iip Proceedings: Biologlcal effects of asbestos. Unanswered questions posed by epldemlologic studies.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 254 0785 Gilson JC (1976) IARC Sci Publ No. 13 107-116 Asbestos cancers as an example of the problem of comparative risks. In: Environmental pollution and carcinogenic risks. (X) 0786 Gilson JC (1977) Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 286:585-592 Environmental m~neralogy. Medicine and mineralogy. (X) 0787 Greenhouse SW (1980) Am J Epidemiol 112:269-273 Some epldemiologic issues for the 1980s. (X) 0788 National Instltue for Occupational Safety and Health (1979) DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066= 7-1 to 7-25 7. Interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. In: Smoking and Health~ A Report of the Surgeon General. 0789 Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Seidman H (1975) Excerpta Medlca, Amsterdam 147-150 Multile interaction effects of cigarette smoking. Extrapulmonary cancer. I~: Cancer Epldemiology, Environmental Factors. 0790 Hammond EC'(1974) C.ancer. 33~1728-1831 Epidemiologlc basis for cancer prevention. 0791 Hgmmond EC (1975) Cancer 35:652-654 The eplde~ologlcal approach to the etiology of cancer. 0792 ~ Hoffmann D, Wynder EL (1976) Prey Med 5~245-261 Smoking and occupational cancer. 0793 Hoffmann D, Wynder EL (1978) Zentralbl Bakt Parasltenkd Infektlonsk~ Hyg 166~I13-135 Identification and reduction of carclnogents in the respiratory environment.
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Asbestos/Sm~klng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 255 0794 Albert RE, Upton AC, Carnow BW, Wynder EL (1978) Bull NY Acad Med 54:435-441 Panel discussion: Sources of Carcinogens. (X) 0795 Anonymous (1965) N Engl J Med 272:590-591 Asbestos and malignant disease. 0796 "'~- ..... Enterllne PE (1976) Am Rev Resp Dis i13~175-180 Estimating health risks in studies o~ the health effect of asbestos. (X) 0797 Enterllne PE (1976) J Occup Med 18~150-156 Pitfalls in epldemlologlcal research. (X) 0798 Enterline PE (1978) Am Rev Resp Dis I18=975-978 Asbestos and cancer: The international lag. (X) 0799 Enterline PE (1981) Banbury Rep. 19-33 Proportion of cancer due to exposure to asbestos. In: Quanti- fication of Occupational Cancer. 0800 Wagner JC, Gilson JC, Berry G, Timb~e~l V (1971) Br Med Bull 27:71-76 Epldemlolog¥ of asbestos cancers. 0801 Wagner JC, Bogovskl P, Higglnson J (1972) Med Lavoro 63~213-220 The role of international research in occupational cancer. 0802 Wagner JC (1979) Practitioner 223:28-33 Diseases associated with exposure to asbestos dust. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 256 0803 Wagner JC, Berry FD (1980) Br Med Hull 36:53-56 Carcinogenesis and mineral fibres. 0804 De Treville RTP (1968} Industrlal Hygiene Foundation, Pittsburgh Progress in the asbestos bloeffects research. In: Industrial Hygiene D~e~. (~) 0805 Morgan A (1973) IARC Sci publ No. 8 318-319 Discussion summary, Considerations of etiological mechanisms and other factors. In~ Biologlcal effects of asbestos. 0806 Weill H (1973) IARC Scl Pub1 NO. 8 184-185 Discussion summary. In: B$ological effects of asbestos. (X) 0807 Selikoff IJ (1979) Pathotox Publishers, Park Forest South 199-219 Discussion of Session III, Exposures and health effects of asbestos minerals. In~ Dust and Disease. (X) 0808 Poole C (19~01 Annu Meet Am Public Health Assoc 230 Recent evidence on the health effects of smoking and asbestos exposure. (X) 0809 Saracci R (1960) Pathotox Publisher, Park Forest South 157-169 Asbestos and lung cancer~ an analys~s of the epldemlo~ogical evidence on the asbestos-smoklng interaction. In~ DUSt and Disease. (X) 0810 Saraccl R (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30 21951-963 ~ntroductlon: Epldemlology of groups exposed to other ~inera~ fibres. In~ Biological effects of mineral fibres. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series| Ja~. 31, 1982 257 0811 Saracci R (1980) Am J Epidemiol 112:465-466 Interaction and synergism. (X) 08~2 Hugod C, Kamstrup O (1982) Ugeskr Laeger 144:2126-2127 Biological effects of man-made adneral fibers. (Danish) (X) 0813 "~ E1mes PC (1981) Br J Ind Med 38:1-13 Relative importance of cigarette smoking in occupational lung disease. (X) 0814 Lemen RA, Dement JR, Wagoner JK (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34:1-11 Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases. (x) 0815 Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC (1971) J Occup Med 13~496-497 Asbestos exposure to coke oven operators. 0816 ." Kannerstei~ M, Churg J, McCaughey WTE, Sellkoff IJ (1977) Arch Pathol, Lab Med 101:629-634 Pathogenic effects of asbestos. 0817 Tishler PV, Naseem SM, Anderson BA, Sellkoff IJ (1977) Clln Rea 25zP412A Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in asbestos workers with h£gh risk for lung cancer. (X) 0818 Langer AM, Wolff MS, Rohl AN, Selikoff IJ (1978) J Toxlool Environ Health 4z173-188 Variation of properties of chrysotile asbestos subjected to 0819 Houten L, Wijnberg L (1978) Annu Meet Am Publlc Health Assoc 151 POssible synergism between cigarette smoking end occupational synergism. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 258 0820 Lewinsohn HC (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330:533-540 Surveillanoe of high-risk groups exposed to asbestos in the United States. In: Health hazards of asbestos exposure. (X) 0821 Wen CP, Tsal SP (1982) Scald J-~ En~on ~eal~-~uppi 8:48-52 Anatomy of the healthy worker effect - a critique ofsummary statistics employed in occupational epidemiolog¥o (X) 0822 Cutler JL, Weiss W, Cooper WC, Lewis JL et al (1976) Ann NY Acad Sol 271:508-512 Discussion of Part VII: High-risk industrial groups: identifica- tion, educatlqn, and surveillance. 0823 Bross IDJ, Viadana E, Eouten L (1978) Arch Environ Health 33=300-307 Occupational cancer in men exposed to dust and other environmental hazards. (X) 0824 Johns-Manville Corp. (1980) Johns-Manville Corp Publ 1-20 Smoking. (X} 0825 Kotin P (1981) A~ J Publ Health 71=93 T~ comments on smoking and the workplace. (X) 0826 Parklnson DK (198~) Am J Publ Health 7111409 Dr. Parklnson's response. (X) 0827 Krlstein MM (1981) Am J Publ Health 71z1409 Asbestos workers and lung cancer. (X) 0828 Sellkoff IJ (198~) Am J Pub~ Health 71~92 Two comments on smoking and the workplace. (X)
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Asbestos/S~king Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 259 0829 Wilson D (1981) ~nn J Publ Health 92-93 Tied comments on suu~king and the workplace. (X) 0830 NCI, NIEHS, NIOSH (1978) Unpubllshed ~aper 8-18, 33-39. Estimates of the fraction of c~ncer in the United States related to occupational f~ctOr~o ~(~ 0831 Hogan MD, Hoel DG (1981) Risk Anal i~67-76 Esti~ated cancer risk a~soclated with ~cupatlonal asbestos exposure. (X) 0832 Sellkoff IJ (1981) Banbury Rep 3-13 ~ Constraints in estimating occupational contributions to current cancer ~rtality in the United S~tes. In¢ Quantification of occupational cancer. (x) 0833 Enterllne PE, Selikoff IJ, Peto R, Sloan MH et al (1981) Sanbury Rep. 14-17 Comments, on Constraints in estlm~tlng occupational contributions to ~rrent cancer ~rtallty in the U.S. Inl Quantification of occupational cancer. (X) 0834 Acheson FJ3, Enterllne PE, Nicholson ~kT, Peto Jet al (1981) Banbury Rep 34-36 C~ents, ~ Proportion of cancer due to ~posure to asbestos° In~ Qu~tlflcatlon of ~cupatlonal cancer. (X) 0835 .Karsta~tM, Blot WJ, Peto J, Heebe GE, Ente~line PE et al (1981) Banbury Rep 47-49 C~mments, on Cancer anuDng shipyard ~rkers. In~ Quantification of ~cupatlonal cancer. (x) 0836 Nicholson WJ, P~_rkel G, Sel~koff IJ, Seidman H (1981) Banbu~ Re~ 87-108 Cancer from occupational asbestos exposure~ Projections 1980- 2000. In~ Quantification of occupational cancer. (x)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [300 Series] Jan. 31, 1982 260 0837 Cairns J, Nicholson WJ, Enterline PE, Blot WJ et al (1981) Banbury Rep 109-111 Comments, of Cancer from occupational asbestos exposure~ Projec- tions 1980-2000. In: Quantification of occupatlonal cancer. (X] 0838 Anonymous (1981) Br Med J 283~457-458 _. Smoking, ~al, as~estos an~~h~-~ungs.-r~ X~ 0839 Patrick JM (1981) BE Med J 283~675 Smoking, coal, asbestos and the lungs. (X) 0840 Popper H, Selikoff IJ (1981) A~ J Med 70:218-220 What is envlronmenta~ pathology. (X) 0841 Teret S (1980) Trial 16:31-33, 62 The role of epidemiology in proving future damages. (X)
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CUHULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUHBER 398 0834 Acheson ED, Enterline PE, Nicholson WJ, Peto Jet al (1981) 232 0435 Acheson ED, Gardner MJ (1980) 360 0755 Ahlman K, Partanen TJ, R1ntala E, Wiikerl M (1973) 391 0/94 Albert RE, Upton AC, Carnow BW, Wynder EL (19/8) 183 0259 Allison AC (1973) 190 0318 A11tson AC (1974) 183 0260 Allison AC (1977) 150 0174 Amacher DE, A1ar|f_A..Fn_~t~in $_K (!974) 150 01/5 ~ ~c-her ~; A1arlfA~ E~stefn S$ (19/5) 234 0484 AnJilvel L, Thurlbeck WM (1966) 350 OlOl Anon~tmous (1955) 392 0795 Anonymous (1965) 340 0689 Anon~tmous (1965) 399 0838 Anon~mous (1981) 370 0765 Anspach M (1968) 198 0370 Archer VE, Olxon WC (1979) 232 0422 Ashcroft T (1968) 232 0424 Ashcroft T, Heppleston AG (1973) 232 0423 Ashcroft T, lieppleston AG (1973) 241 0531 Att|a OH, EI-Sewefy AZ, Wassef SA (1976) 210 03/8 Auerbach 0 (1937} 235 0511 Auerbach O, C.onston AS, Garfinkel L, Parks VR et al (1980) 233 0459 Auerbach O, Hammond EC, SeI|koff IJ, Parks VR et al (1977) 3/0 0/62 Avr|1 J, Champeix J (1970) 360 0747 Axelson Q, FIodin U, Hardell L (1982) 185 0305 B~bu KA, La~kad BC, Nlgam S](, Bhatt DK, Karntk ABet al (1980) 185 0306 . Babu KA~ N|gam ~, Lakkad BC, Bhatt DK, Karnik AB et al (1981) 338 0580 Begfnsky E (1976) 283 0596 Barbers R, Shih WWH, Saxon A (1981) 334 0664 Beaumont ~, Welss NS (1980) 196 0361 Beck EG (1975) 190 0319 Beck EG (1976) 182 0231 Beck EG (1980) 182 0230 Beck EG, Holt PF, ManoJlovtc N (1972) 182 0229 Beck EG, Ho|t ~F, Nasra]lah ET (1971) 184 0291 Beck EG, Tflkes F (1980) 194 0354 BeckIake 141 (1981) 121 0083 Beg FlU, Farooq M, Saxena V, Rahman q, et al (1977) 121 0082 Beg 14J, Rahman Q, Vtswanathan PN, Zatd| SH (1973) 124 0124 Begin R, Masse S, Bureau HA (1982) 124 0123 Begtn R, Ro|a-P]eszczynski M, $iro|s P, Lemaire I, et aI (1981) 350 0725 Berry G (1981) 350 0723 Berry G, Jacobsen M, Cox DR, Fox AJ, Arm|rage P (1977) 350 0724 Berry G, Lewtnsohn HC (1979) 350 0716 Berry G, Newhouse ML, Turok M (1972) 130 0129 Berry G, Wagner JC (1976) 232 0418 Berry JP, Henoc Ing, P, Galle P, Par|ente R (1976) GEOGRAPHIC " CODE GBR GBR FIN UNY GBR 08R GSR UO~ UOH CAN GSR UHA CAN G8R GER UUT G8R GSR GSR EGY UNJ UNJ UNJ FRA SWE [NO [ND UCA UCA GER GER GER GSR GSR GER CAN [NO CAN CAN GSR GSR GBR GSR FRA
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31. 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NU MBER CODE 234 0503 Betta PC (1982) ITA 170 0216 Bevan DR. Riemer SC. Lakowicz JR (lg81) UI~ 183 0257 Bey E, Ha~ington JS (1971) SAF 233 0471 Bhagavan BS. Koss LG (1976) UMD 234 0502 B1anchi C. Brollo A. Mlnlussl C. Bltteslni L (1981) ITA 232 0410 Bignon J (1970) FRA 210 0381 Bignon J. 81entz M (197/) FRA 130 0150 Bignon J. MondLa, x G~ S~bast.ie~ Po Hirsch A. Lafuma J (1979) FR~ 370 0764~ uig~on~a, Seoastien P~ B~nnaud:G (191'~) FRA 270 0570 Bitterman P. Rennard S. Shoenberger C. Crystal R et al (1981) UI4) 338 0673 Blot ~, Fraumeni JF (1979) UHD 338 0676 Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF (1981) UMU 338 0672 81ot WJ, Harrington JH, Toledo A, Hoover R eL al (1978) UMU 338 0675 Blot k~l, Morris IF, Fraumenl OF (1981) UHD 338 0674 Blot WJ, Horrls LE, Stroube R, Tagnon I, Fraumenl JF (1980) UMU 232 0420 Blount N, Holt PF, Leach AA (1966) GBR 150 0177 Bolton RE, Davis ~HG (1976) GBR 200 0374 Bo~dow RA (1982) UCA 338 0679 Borhani NO. 14echter HH. Broslow L (1963) UCA 232 0449 Bossard E. Stolkln I. Spycher MA. Ruttner JR (1980) SWI 111 0015 Botham 5K. Holt PF (1968) GBR 111 0016 Botham SK. Holt PF (1971) GBR 111 0018 Botham SK,, Holt PF (1972) GBR 111 0017 Botham ~K. Holt PF (1972) GBR 190 0320 8otham Si(, Holt PF (1974) GBR 242 0536 B~ambtlla C, KaehIer D, BrambtIIa E, Fourcy P eL al :(1980) FRA 242 0538 B~aude AC, Ch~mberla|n DW, Rebuck AS (1982) CN~ 340 0691 B~aun DC, De Trevtlle RTP (1972) CAN 233 0478 8roedtn PH, Buss DH (1976) UTE 112 0061 Brody AR (1980) UNC 112 0060 Brody NI, Crapo ~]O (1979) SAF 112 0063 6rody AR, Hill LH, Ad~tns B Jr, O'Connor RW (1981} UNC 399 0823 8ross IDJ, Vtadana E, Houten L (1978) UNY 190 0321 B~own A (1974) UHN 130 0133 Brown DG, Wagner ~C, Wagner ~t4F (1980) GBR 184 0283 B~own PC, Ch~erlain M (1980) GBR 190 0322 Brown PC, Chamberlain H, Davies R, Sutton GT (1980)~ GBR 184 0294 Brown RC, Ch~erlatn M, Davtes R, Morgan D~ eL a] (1980) GBR I80 0218 Brown RC. Ch~erlaln 14. Davies R. Gromley IP (Editors) (1980} GBR 184 0292 Brown RC. Chan~oerlaln M. Grlfflths DM. Timbrell V (1978) GBR 184 0295 Brown PC, Ch~erIain H, Sutton GT (1980) GBR 182 0233 Bruch J (1974) GER 120 0076 Burns DM (Editor) (1982) UCA 280 0584 8urreIl R (1974) UMV 398 0837 Cairns J, Nicholson gJ, Enterllne PC, Blot WJ eL al (1981) ~C~ UHA 283 0597 Campbell 14,.1, Wacjner I,~F, Scott: ]~, Brown DG (198.0) cp, GBR 360 0744 Ca~lens E (1976) r~ SHE
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 124 0115 182 0249 260 0558 124 0118 242 0535 232 0411 182 0239, 182 02~( 260 0559 182 0250 260 0560 260 0561 397 0824 183 0277 183 0278 190 0329 112 0066 112 0067 190 O330 350 0721 350 0720 283 O598 112 0053 112 0056 112 0058 280 0583 284 0615 333 0663 160 0199 160 0200 140 0167 170 0209 170 0210 182 0248 395 0816 182 0240 185 0302 398 0835 183 0265 182 0232 140 0168 331 0659 124 0117 183 O256 332 0660 339 0685 332 0661 Jal swal Jaurand Jaurand Jaurand Jaurand Jaurand Ja,,.ran.d Jaurand Jaurand Jaurand Jaurand AK, Viswanathan PN (1980) MC, Bignon J (1977) MC, 81gnon J (1979) HC, Bignon J, Gaudlchet A, Magne L, Oh|In A (1978) ~, Gaudichet A, Atass] K, S~astlen P, Bignon J (1980) ~, G~i J, J~rot P, S~tlen P, Bignon J (1976) ~._~:~ ~, T~te~]e~ ~, Ptnchon ~ et al (1979) ~, Magne L, 8tgnon J (1980) ~, Magne L, _Bignon J (1979) ~, Magne L, Bignon J, Gin] J (I980) ~, R~ier A, BIgnon O (1980) Jaur~d HC, Thomassin ~i, Ba~11tf P, Nagne L et al (1980) Johns-Manvllle Corp. (1980) Johnson If, Davies R (1980) Johnson NF, Davies R (1981) Johnson NF, Wagner JC (1980) Johnson NFt Wagner JC, Wills HA (1980) Johnson NF, Wagner JC, Wllls HA (1980) Jones JSP (1980) Jones JSP, Pooley FD, Sawle GW, Madele? RJ eL al (1980) Jones JSP, Pooley FD, Smith PG (1976) Kagamlmorl S, Scott MP, Brown DG, Edwards RE, Wagner ~ (1980) Kagan E, Miller K (1978) Kagan E, Miller K (19/9) Kagan E, Miller K (1981) Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane ~C, Beissner EI et al (1978) K~u3an E, Solomon A, Cochrane ~C, Kuba P, Rocks PH et aI (1977) Kandnsk| R, 6etssert Y,S, Oacey E (1980) Kanazawa K, Bi.rbeck HSC, Carter RL, Roe FJC (1970) Kanazawa K, Roe FJC, Yamamoto T (1979) Kanazawa K, Yamamoto T, Yuasa Y (1979) Kandaswam| C, O'Brien PJ (1980) Kandaswagri C, O'B~ten PJ (19B1) Kan9 KY, Bice O, D'Amato R, Z|sklnd H, Sa]vagg|o J (1979) Kannerstein M, Churg J, McCaughey WTE, Seltkoff IJ (1977) K~olan H, Oaurand MC, Ptnchon M~, Bernaudtn ~F eL al (1980) Kaplan Ho Renter A, Jaurand MC, B|gnon ~ (1980) KarstadtNo 81eL W~ Peto J, Beebe GE, Enterltne PE eL al (1981) Kaw ~1., Ttlkes F, Beck EG (1982) Kaw ~., Zaldt SH (1975) Kawat T (1979) Keane W~, Zavon 14~ (1966) King EJ, Clegg ~W, Rae VM (1946) Ktosht K, Sakabe H (1972) Kleinfeld M, Messtte J (1967) Kletnfeld M, Messtte J, Kon~man O, Zakt M (1967) Kletnfeld M~ (1968) GEOGRAPHIC CODE IND FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA ~A FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA UCO ~BR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR SAF GBR GBR ~AP ULA UNY UNY 8ER IND MP UOH ~BR ~ UNY ~ • UNY
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 10 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 332 0662 231 0403 231 0402 350 0713 380 0775 380 0776 380 0~'~r~ 338 0682 181 0219 360 0759 210 0379 397 0825 338 0681 397 0827 220 0392 122 0101 380 0778 370 0761 191 0343 170 0213 170 0215 170 0214 195 0360 170 0211 170 0212 195 0359 184 0288 284 0614 284 0613 282 0593 284 0610 235 0513 233 0456 233 0458 233 0457 233 0454 395 0818 210 0375 150 0190 232 0417 232 0434 190 0331 232 0414 121 0089 121 0088 232 0415 121 oogo GEOGRAPHIC CODE Kletnfeld MJ (1973) UNY Knox JF, Beattte J (1954) GBR Knox ~, Beatt|e J (1954) GBR Knox JF, Holmes S, Dol1 R, Hill [D (1968) GBR Kogan FN (1968) RU$ K~an FN (1975) .... :. _:: RUS ~og~n FM (1981} .... " RUS Ko]one| LN, Hirohata T, Chappe]l BV, Viola FV, Harris DE (1980) UHA Koshi K, Hayashl H, Sakabe H (1968) JAP KoskeIa R$ (19982) FIN Kotln P (1965) UMB Kotln P (1981) UCO Kraus JF, Frantl CE, Newman 8 (1982) UCA Krtstetn 1~4 (1981) UMU Kuhn J (1941) GER Kung-Vosamae A, Vinkmann F (1980) RUS Kurova EG,-Guse1'n|kova NA, Kogan FM, Starkov PS et al (1982) RUS Lacquer LN, Van Der Linden Lo Lepoutre J (1980) BEL Lafuma J, Morln M, Po~cy JL, Masse R (1980) FRA Lakowlcz JR, Bevan DR (19/9) UI~W Lakowtcz JR, Bevan DR (1980 U~ Lakowtcz JR, Bevan DR (1980) UFI9 L~kowtcz JR, H~lden ~L (1978) UFIW La~owtcz JR, HyIden ~L (1978) U~ Lako~cz JR, Hylden ~I., 8evan DR (1979) UlVi~ Lakowicz ~, Hy|den ~L, Englund F, Htdmark A, NcXamara M (1979) U~I Landes~n JN, Noss~n BT (198Z) UVT Lange A (1980) POt Lange A (1980) POL Lange A, SmolJk R, Chmielarczyk W, Garncarek D, G1elgier Z (19/8) POL Lange A, Smollk R, Zatonskl W, Szymanska J (1974) POL Langer AN (1974) UNY Lmger AN, Ashley R, Baden V, BerkIey C, Hammond EC et al (1973) UNY Langer AN, Hackler AD, PouIey FD (1974) UNY Langer AM, Pooley FD (1973) ~ UNY Langer AN, Rub|n I, Selikoff IJ (1970) UNY Langer AM, Wolff MS, Rob] AN, Se]tkoff IJ (1978) UNY Lanza /~], Editor (1938) UNY Lavappa KS, Fu ~e4, Epstein $$ (1975) UOfl Lavoinne A, Mattrot B, Gray H, Tayot J (1976) FRA Lawther PJ (1971) GBR Lazar P (1980) FRA Le Bouffant L (1974} FRA Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Daniel H, Ttchoux G (1979) FRA Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, Oanlel H, T1choux G (1979) FRA Le Bouffant L, Bruyere S, MarLin JC, Tichoux G, Normand C (1976) FRA Le Bouffant L, Martin JC, Oaniel H (1979) FPJ~ 206Z77H756 ~
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES i00 to 399 January 31, 1983 ii CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU~ER 111 0025 111 0024 270 0576 124 0122 186 0309 394 0814 183 0~ 360 0746 112 0051 234 O49O 396 0820 340 0696 340 0697 170 0217 260 0553 260 0552 260 0554. 183 0269 186 0314 185 0301 370 01/1 121 0078 186 0310 350 0734 220 0391 240 0517 270 0567 231 040¢ 181 0222 37O O772 123 0102 311 0529 311 0530 310 0528 243 0544 124 0121 130 0136 196 0362 284 0612 284 0511 234 0482 194 0355 112 0040 234 O495 337 0567 340 0593 340 0592 GEOGRAPHIC COOE Lee KP, Barras CE, Griffith FD, Warltz RS (1981) UDE Lee KP, 8arras CE, Grifflth FD, Waritz RS, Lapin CA (1981) UDE L~ire I, Gtngras D, L~tre S (1982) CAN Le~ire I, $trois P, Ro|a-P]eszczynsk| M, Masse S, Begin R (1981) FRA Lematre $, L~lre I (1981) CAN Le~n PJ~, De~nt ~, Wagoner JK (1980) UOH L~i~(~n P, LipkIA L~ ~erril M, Shifrln S (1980} UMD LennhoIm B (1982) ~ SWE Leong BKJ, Kociba RJ, Perne11 HC, Llsowe RW, Rampy LW (1978) UMI Lewtnsohn HC (1968) GBR Lewtnsohn HC (1979) UCT Lidde|l FOK (1980) CJ~N Lidde]] FDK (1981) CAN Light WG (1979) U~ Light k~, Wel ET (1977) UCA Light WG, Wel ET (19/7) UCA Light WG, Wel ET (1980) UCA Lipkln LE~1980) • UMD Litterst CL, L1chtenstein EP (1970} UWI Livingston GK, Rom WN, Mo~is M~ (1980) UUT Lopez-Area] De] AmoL (I980} SPA Luechtrath H, $chmidt KG (1959) GER Lukens lt~ (1978) UCA :~umley KPS (1976 GBR Lynch KH (1937) USC Lynch KM, Smith WA (1930) USC Mace N. Jr, 8rtnkle? BR, McLe~re RL, Martin RR et al (1980) UTX Mace I~. Or, Mctemore l-L, Roggli V, Brlnkley BR et al (1980) UTX Macnab G, Hartngton ~S (1967) SAF Maillard 3% Fellmann E, W1rz 0 (1982) SWI Mm SFP, Lee TK, Gibney RTN, Logus JW (1980) CAN Mancuso TF, Coulter E~ (1963) UPA ~ancuso TF, El-Attar AA (1967) UPA Hancu$oTF, Keefe F (1969) UPA Mann B, $tnha CN (1966) 08R Ma~cussen ~ (1977) UCA Navoudas NG, O'Neill CH (1973) ," UMU Masse R, Sebastlen P, Mo~chaux G, 8tgnon J (1980) FRA Mate~ H, Lange A, Garncarek 0, Smoltk R, Roszak E (1978) POL MateJ H, Lange A, Smolik R (1977) POL McC~ll~gh SF (1978) ATL McCullagh SF (1981) ATL McDermott M, Wagner JC (1975) GBR McDonald H) (1980) 6BR McDonald AD, FW ~S (1982) CAN McDonald AD, McDonald JC (1976) CAN McDonald ~C (1973} CAN
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES i00 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 340 0695 McDonald JC, Gibbs GW, Lidde]l FDK (1980) 340 0694 McDonald JC, Lidde11 FDK (1979} 340 0690 McOonaid JC, McDonald AD, Gibbs GW, S|em|atyckl Jet al (1971) 281 0585 McFee OR, T~e R (I965) 241 0528 McLarty JW, Farley ~, Greenberg SO, Hurst GA, Mabry LC (1980) 241 0525 McLarty JW, 6reenberg SO, Hurst GA,$pIvey CG, et a] (1980) 241 ~6 ~L.arty ..~, ~ee,~b~;-g SO, ;iurst FA, Splvey CG et a] (1980) 241 0529 McLarty JW, Greenberg SO, Hurst GA (1981) 2/0 0568 McLemore TL, Mace ~L Jr, Roggli V, Marshall MV et a] (1980) 210 0569 McLe~re TL, Roggll V, Marshall MV, Lawrence EC et a] (1981) 234 04B8 Meurman LO, Hormia M, Isomeki M, Sutlnen S (19/0) 360 0/53 Meurman LO, l(ivi]uoto R, Hakama M (1979} 360 0754 Meurman LO, Kiviluoto R, Hakama M (19/4) 360 0/52 Meurman LO, Kivlluoto R, Ha~ama M (1973) 112 0045 Middleton AP, Beckett ST, Davis JMG (19/7) 112 0047 Midd|eton AP, Beckett ST, Davis JMG (1979) 340 0703 Miller AB (1980) 130 0156 Miller JWo Sayers RR (1936) 112 0055 Miller K (1979) 182 0238 Miller K (1980) 111 0021 Miller K, Calverley A, Kagan E (1980) 182 0237 Miller K, Handf|eld RIM, Kagan E (1978) 183 0258 Miller K, Har|ngton JS (1972) 150 0176 Miller IC, Kagan E (1976) 112 0052 Miller K, Kagan E (1977) 112 0059 M|Iler I~, Kagan E (1981) 112 0054 Miller I(, Webster I, Handfleld RIM, Sk|kne MI (1978) 112 0057 Miller K, Welntraub Z, Kagan E (19/9) 198 0361 Miller K, Welntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) 198 0356 Miller K, Welntraub Z, Kagan E (1980) 232 0409 Mtlne JEff (1971) 124 0112 14tsra V. Rahman Q. Vlswanathan PN (1978) 195 0358 M|sra ¥, Rah~n Q, Vtswanathan PN, Beg MU, Zatdl SM (1977) 250 0547 Nttchel| RI (197/) 370 0763 Hol|na C. Che,dnat JC (1978) 130 0151 Nonchaux G. Btgnon J. Jaurand MC. Lafuma Jet al (~981) 393 0805 Morgan A (1973) 199 0372 Morgan A (1980) 130 0131 Morgan A, Davies P, Wagner JC, Berry G, Holmes A (1977) 112 0048 Morgan A, Evans ~C, tloImes A (1977) 232 0436 Morgan A, Holmes A (1980) 232 0437 Morgan A, Holmes A (1982) 112 0049 Morgan A, Talbot R~, Holmes A (1978) r~ 183 0262 Morgan D~, AIllson AC (1980) 243 0546 Morgeflroth K (1973) 340 0705 Morrtson A8 (1979) 184 0287 Mossman BT, Adler KB, Cra~ghead JE (1980) 12 GEOGRAPHIC CODE CAN CAN CAN UOH UTX UTX UTX UTX UTX UTX FIN FIN FIN FIN GBR GBR UDC UDC SAF ATL INO INO UOH GBR GBR GBR G8R G8R GBR GBR GBR GER C~N
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 13 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU MBER GEOGRAPHIC._ CODE 192 0346 184 0286 184 0285 285 0616 340 0698 398 0830 1232 124 0111 284 0602 391 0788 242 0540 121 0093 185 0297 350 0/15 350 0717 350 0718 350 0714 185 0303 185 0304 398 0836 340 0700 124 0104 113 0069 124 0119 234 0493 232 0432 232 0444 250 0549 397 0826 235 0516 399 0839 234 0498 234 0800 234 0499 130 0155 160 0204 160 0205 198 0368 183 0255 350 0726 282 0595 140 0165 183 0266 112 0062 112 0064 • 241 0534 234 0507 Mossman BT, Cralghead JE (1981) UVT Mossman BT, Cralghead JE, MacPherson BV (1980) UVT Mossman BT, Kessler JB, Lay BW, Cralghead JE (19//) UVT Munan L, Thouez JP, Kelly A, Gagne M, Laborite D (1981) CAN M~re N (1981) CAN .NCI, NIEHS, NIOSH (1978) UNC N~'ang 3 (198(3) IND Narang $, Kaw JL, Zaidi SH (1978) IND Nash DR, Fortson NG, McLarty JW, Hurst GA (1981) UTX National Institute for OccupationaI Safety and Health (1979) N~1or B (1977) UMI Netteshelm P (1981) UNC Neugut AI, Eisenberg D, SJl.versteln M, Pulkrabek Pet al (1978) UNY Newhouse ~L (1970) GBR Newhouse 14. (1973) 6BR Newhouse ~, Be~ry 6 (1979) 6BR Newhouse R~, Wagner JC (1969) GBR Newman HAl, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) UOH Newman HAl, Saat YA, Hart RW (1980) UOH Nlcholson WJ, Pe~kel 6, Sellkoff IJ, Seldman H (1981) UNY Nicholson WJ, Selikoff IJ, Seidman H, Lilis R, Fromby P (19/9) UNY Nofer J, Szymczykiewicz K, Wlecek E (1961) POL Nordmann M, Sorge A (1941) GER Obl|n A, Warner JM, Jaurand MC, Btgnon J, Claude JR (1978) FRA 01dham PO (1973) GBR 01dham PO (1973) GBR Ophus EM, Howe G, Osen KK, 6ylseth B (1980) NOR Palmes .ED, Ltppmann M (1977) UNY Pa~ktnson OK (1981) , UPA Patel-Handltk KJ (1981) UMD Patrick ~14 (1981) GBR Peacock PR (1968) IT^ Peacock ~R, Blanclflorl C, BuccfarelIi E (1969) ITA Peacock PR, BianclflorI C, Bucciarelll E (1969} ITA Peacock PR, Peacock A (1966) Pa 6BR Pelfrene AF (1977) ¢~ UNE Pelfrene /~ (1977) ~" UNE Pernfs B, Vigltant EC (1982) ~ UNY Pernls B, Vlglianf EC, Marchislo IdA, Zanardi S (1966) ,,w.I ITA Peto J (1980) ~_j Pierce R, Turner-Warwick M (1980) (J1 GBR PlgoLL GH, Ishmael J (1979) ~ GBR Ptgott GH, Judge PJ (1980) 6BR Ptnkerton KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JO (1980) Ptnkerton KE, Pratt PC, Crapo JO (1982) UNC Plamenac P, Ntkulfn A, Ptkula B, Hm'kovtc Z (1978) YUG Plamenac P, Ptkula B, Kahvtc N, Xarkovlc Z, Se]ak I eL el (1971) YUG
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 14 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER GEOGRAPHIC CODE 232 0441 190 0332 241 0533 234 0497 150 0170 394 0808 232 0427 232 0428 232 0429 232 0426 399 0840 190 0333 190 0334 185 0300 370 0770 197 0363 122 0099 122 0100 122 0098 195 0357 111 0027 281 0592 121 0084 181 0224 281 0591 197 0364 270 0579 III 0006 160 0206 112 0035 112 0034 270 0580 184 0289 181 0225 182 0242 182 0243 182 0245 235 0514 360 0743 338 0678 234 0491 336 0666 190 0335 182 0241 241 0527 235 0510 300 0626 Planteydt lit (1973) Planteydt PIT (1980) P1anteydt tiT, Stumphlus J, Spu?man J (1964) PoIIiack A, Sacks MI (1968) Pontefract RD, Cunningham HH (19/3) PooIe C (19801 . P~Oley FO (1979) Poo|ey FD, Clark N (19/9) Pooley FD, Clark NJ (I980) Pooley FD, Oldham PD, Um CH, Wagner JC (1970) Popper H, SeIikoff IJ (1981) Pott F (1980) Port F, Huth F, Spumy K (1980) Price-Jones ~1~, 6ubb|ngs G, Cha~nberlatn M (1980) Punton| R, Verce]]t M, Merlo F, Valerlo F, Santt L (1979) Pylev LN (1980) Py]ev LN, Kova]'skaya GD, Yakovenko GN (1975) PyIev LN, KuIagtna TF (1982) Pylev LN, Roe F, Warwick D (1970) P¥1ev LN, Shabad L~! (1973) Rahman Q (1982) R~man Q, Beg MU, Viswanathan PN (1975) Beg MU, Vtswanathan Pfl, Za|d| SH (1976) Narang S, Kaw JL, Zatdt SH (1974) Viswanathan PN, Tandon ~ (1973) V|swanathan PN, Z~di SH (1977) Evans PH (1973) AS, Veokatesh OS, Rama Rao R (1953) (1962) Reeves AL (1976) Reeves AL, Puro ~, $~dth RC (1974). Re|ss B, Solomon S, gelsburger 31, Williams GM (1980) Relss B, Wetsburger 31, Williams GH (1979) R|chards RO, George G, Hunt ~, Tet]eyTD (1980) R~¢hards R~, Hext PM, B|unde|] G, Henerson 1¢3, Vo~c~nt BE (1974) Rtchards R~, Hext PM, Oesat R, TetleyT, Hunt ~ el; al (1975) R|chards R~, Jacoby F (1976) Rtckert RR (1974) Rtngertz N (1955) R|nsky RA, Waxweiler RJ, Bierbaum PJ, Te~pilak Met al (1980) Roberts 6H (196/) Robinson C, Le~n R, Wagoner ~I((~979) Robock K (1976) Robock K, Klosterkotter W (1973) RoggIt VL, Greenberg SO, McLart? ~, Hurst GA et al (1980) Rogglt VL, Greenberg SO, McLarty ~_, Hurst GA et ~ (1980) Rom WN (1983) NET NET NET ISR CAN UMD GBR GBR GBR 08R UNY GER 6ER 08R ITA RUS RUS RUS RUS RUS UAR IND IND INO IND IND GBR INO FIN UMI UNY UNY 08R 08R GBR GBR UNJ UMD 08R UOH 6ER UTX UTX UUT
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU MBER 300 0625 350 0735 193 0348 220 0393 140 0166 281 ~,o 121 0086 121 0087 394 0810 394 0811 394 0809 190 0336 231 0405 140 0158 186 0307 260 0555 181 0223 124 0113 140 0157 110 DO01 234 0487 232 0413 150 0182 324 0656 322 0651 393 0807 398 0832 397 0828 3~0 0644 300 0627 320 0641 321 0645 233 0455 395 0815 322 0647 322 0648 320 0642 323 0655 322 0649 323 0654 233 0460 200 0373 320 0643 338 0684 324 0657 324 0658 Rom WN, Editor (1983) Rosstter CE, Coles RM (1980) Roy-Chowdhury AK, Mooney TF Jr, Reeves AL (1973) Ruska H (1942) Sahu AP, Shanker R, Zaidi SH (1978) S.ai.~t-Remy. ~JI~R_..j CGle P (19~0) Salk RA, Vosamae A (1975} Sanders CL Jr (1975) Saracci R (Ig80) Saraccl R (1980) Saraccl R (1980) Schepers GWH, Wagner JC, Hueper W (1965) Schepers GWH, Wagner JC, Webster I, Peacock PR et al (1965) Scheuer E, Huth F, Pott F (1973) Schneider U, Maurer RR (1977) Schnttzer RJ, Bunescu G (1970) Schnttzerl~J, Pundsack FL (1970) Schoenberger C, Hunn|nghake G, Gedek j, Crystal R (1980) Schu|z RZ, Williams CR (1942) Schuster NH (1931) Sebastten P, Fondimare A, Bignon J, Monchaux Get a] (1977) Sebastlen P, Janson X, Gaudichet A, Hirsch A, Bignon J (1980) Sebastien P, Masse R, Bignon J (1980) "Se|dman Ho Se]lkoff IJ, Hammond EC (1979) Se| t koff IJ (1976) Sel I koff Selt koff Selt koff Selt koff Sel 1 koff Selt koff Sellkoff Sellkoff IJ, Seltkoff Seltkoff Sel|koff Sel|koff Sellkoff Se11 koff I~], Sel|koff Sellkoff IJ, Sellkoff IJ, Selikoff IJ, Sell koff IJ, Selikoff IJ, Sellkoff IJ, Sellkoff IJ, IJ (1979) IJ (1981) IJ (1981) IJ (1982) IJ (1983) IJ, Bader RA, Bader I~, Churg J, Hammond EC (1967) Churg J, Editors (1965) Churg J, Hammond EC (1964) Hammond EC (1970) Hammond EC (1971) Hammond EC, Churg J (1968) Hammond EC, Churg J (1968) Hammond EC, Editors (1979) Hammond EC, Setdman H (1980) Hammond EC, Setdman H (1973) Hammond EC, Setdman H (1979) Lee DtI((1978) Lee OHK (1978) Lee OI~K (1978) LIlts R, Nicholson WJ (1979) Seidman H (1981} Setdman H, Hammond EC (1980) N N 15 GEOGRAPHIC CODE UUT GBR UMI GBR INO GBR RUS UWA FRA FRA FRA UDC UDC GER UNC UNY UMD UMA GBR FRA FRA FRA UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY UNY
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES I00 to 399 January 31, 1983 16 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU MBER 380 0780 140 0162 121 0085 350 0731 140 0161 234 0485 220 039~ 240 0520 185 0~96 124 0109 124 0108 124 0110 183 0263 285 0523 285 0622 130 0146 121 0077 122 0094 130 0153 130 0154 190 0337 150 0189 130 0152 243 0543 285 0518 160 0198 284 0509 130 0137 130 0134 130 0138 130 0139 130 0140 130 0135 140 0164 140 0163 240 0519 234 0506 234 0496 232 0442 182 0236 360 0749 380 0774 122 0097 233 0453 122 0095 122 0096 260 0562 GEOGRAPHIC CODE Sera Y, Kang KY (1981) JAP Sethl S, Beck EG, Manojlovic H (1974) GER Shabad LM, Pylev LN, Krlvosheeva LV, Ku]agn|na TF et a| (1974) RUS Sheers G, TempIeton AR (1968) GBR Shin ~., Flrmlnger HI (1973) UMD Shuga~ S (19/9)~ . CAN Simons Ed X1935) UMN Simson FW, Strechan A5 (1931) SAF Stncock A, Seabrtght M (1975) GBR Singh J, Beg MU, Kaw JL, Viswanathan PN, Zaidi SH (1976)IND Singh J, Beg MU, Viswanathan Pfl, Zaldl SH (1975) IND $ingh ,1, Pandey SD, Viswanathan PN, Zaldi SH (1978) IND Skeldon N, Steele L (1978). GBR Skerfvlng S, Korsgaard R, Simonsson BG, Stiksa Get al (1980) SWE Skerfvlng S, Korsgaard R, $tlksa G, Si~nsson BG (1980) SWE Smith BA, Davis ,IMG (1971) GSR Smith ~4, Wootton ID.P, King EJ (1951} GBR Smith WE ~1966) UNJ Smith 14~ (19/3) UNJ Smith I(! (1980) UNJ Smith kE, 8ubert DO, Sobel HJ (1980) UNJ Smith ~, Hubert DD, Sobel Hi, Peters ET, O~rfler TE (1980) UNJ Smith kE, Miller L, Churg J, Sellkoff I~ (i965) UNJ "Smith i¢1 (1964) ATL Snodgrass OR, McLemore TL, Teague RB, Wray NP et al (1981) UTX Spetrs RS, Wenck U (1955) UI~ Stansfteld D, Edge JR (1974) GBR Stanton ~F (1974) UMD Stanton H=, 81ackwelI R, Miller E (1969) UMO Stanton I~, Layard M (1978) UMO Stanton ~F, Layard M (1979) UMD St~nton H:, Layard M, Tegerls A, Miller E, N~y M et al (1981) UMD Stantoa I~ Wrench C (1972) UMD Stevens RH, Will LA, Cole DA, Meek ES, Frank CW, Donham KJ (1979) UIO Stevens RH, Will LA, Osborne aW, Cole DA, Donham K,~ (1978) UIO Stewart M~, Tattersa11 N, Haddow AC (1932) GBR Stolktn I, Ruettner JR, Sahu AP, Schtbli L, Spycher MA (1981) SWI Stovtn I~I, Partridge P (1982) Stumph|us a, Meyer PB (lg~) Styles aA, Wilson a (1973) Sundell L (1980) Suntych F, Kryze B, Parlzkova 8 (1970) Suzuki Y (1974) Suzuki Y, Churg J (1969) Suzukt Y, Churg J (1970) Suzukt Y, Churg J, Ono T (1972) S~kes 5E, Morgan A, Holmes A (1980) GBR NET GBR SWE CZE UNY UWY UNY UNY GBR
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CUMUIJ~TIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NU MBER 124 0105 233 0476 270 0575 399 0841 112 0042 112 0043 360 0750 360 0751 350 0727 232 0412 234 0504 233 0474 184 0290 194 0352 232 0433 395 0817 121 0091 121 0092 280 0582 284 0607 112 0036 220 0395 220 0394 234 0492 360 0745 285 0520 23]. 0408 243 0542 370 0767 370 0769 191 0345 112 0068 124 0106 124 0107 111 0005 183 0268 183 0267 111 0010 130 0126 190 0338 112 0038 232 0431 112 0041 130 0130 392 0802 183 0254 392 0803 SZymczykiewicz K (1970) Tabershaw IR (1968) Tejwani GA, Fertel R, Hart RW, A11|son OK (1980) Teret S (1980) Tet]ey TD, Hext PM, Richards RJ, McDernz)tt M (1976) TetIey TD, Ri, char4~ RJ, Harwood JL (1977) Thlrlnger BG (1980) - Thiringer G, Jarvholm B (1980) Thomas HF, Elwood PC, Benjamin IT, Sweetnam PM (1982) Thomassln JH, Touray JC, 6aIIlif P, Jaurand NC et al (1980) Thomson JG, Kaschula ROC, MacDonald RR (1963) Thomson JG, Path FC, 6raves W~4 (1966) Tllkes F, Beck E6 (1980) Timbrel] V (1972) Timbrel| V (1980) Tishler ~, Naseem SM, Anderson HA, SeIikoff IJ (19//) Topping DC, Nettesheim P (1980) Topping DC, Nettesheim P, Martin OH (1980) Turner-Warwick M (19/3) Turner-Warwick M (19/9) Turnock AC, Bryks S, Berta]anffy FD (1971) .Tylecote FE (1927) • Tylecote FE, Dunn SJ (1931) Um CH (1971) Vagero D, AlIander E, A||ebeck P, Persson G, Straat E (1982) Va|erio F, de Ferrart M, Ottaggto L, Repetto E et al (1980) Vallyathan NV, Green FHY, Craighead JE (1980) Van OPdstrend HS, Eff]er 06, NcCormack LJ (1955) Versen P (1980) V|g]tani C, Ghezzt I, Maranzana P, Pernts B (1968) Vtgltani EC (1968) Vincent ~lt, Johnston WB, Jo~es AD, Johnston AM (1981) Vlswanathan PN, Dogra RKS, Shanker R, Zaidl SH (1973) Vlswanathan PN, Rahman Q, Beg MU, Zaidl SH (19/3} Vo~wald A~, Durkan TM, Pratt PC (1951) Wade 143, Lipkln LE, Stanton ~, Frank AL (1980) Wade M~, Lipkln LE, Tucker RW, Frank AL (1976) Wagner JC (1963) Wagner JC (1966) Wagner JC (1971) Wagner. JC (1972) Wagner JC (1973) Wagner JC (1975) Wagner ~C (1976) Wagner JC (1979) Wagner JC (Editor) (1980) Wagner ~C, Berry FO (1980) GEOGRAPHIC CODE POL UCA UOH UMD 08R GBR SWE SWE GBR FRA SAF SAF GER GBR GBR UNY UNC UNC GBR GBR CAN 08R 08R GBR SWE ITA UVT UOH GER ITA ITA GBR IND IND UNY UMD UMD GBR GSR GBR 08R GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS ARD YEAR NU MBER 130 0127 190 0340 190 0339 190 0341 112 0039 190 0342 130 0128 392 0801 392 0800 130 0132 283 0601 283 0600 243 0545 150 0183 233 0470 110 0002 150 0192 113 0074 113 0071 113 0073 113 0072 393 0806 396 0821 191 0344 150 0169 210 0380 182 0252 350 0722 124 0120 397 0829 281 0589 370 0768 183 0271 233 0480 183 0274 260 0551 234 0481 250 0550 150 0187 150 0188 124 0125 241 0522 Wagner JC, Berry G (1969) Wagner ~C, Berry G (1973) Wagner JC, Berry G (1973) Wagner JC, Berry 6, Hill RJ, Munday DE, Skidmore JW (1980) Wagner ,IC, Berry G, Skldmore ,IW, Tlmbrell V (1974) Wagner ~C~ Be~y ,), Sk!dmcre ,IW, Poole¥ FO (1980) Wagner JC, Berry G, [Imbrel] V (1973) Wagner JC, Bogovski P, Higglnson J (1972) Wagner JC, 611son JC, Berry 6, TimbrelI V (1971) Wagner ~ (1979) Wagner t~4F (1980) Wagner I~4F, Campbell ICJ, Edwards RE (19/9) Wa|ton M, Skeoch T (1968) • Ward ~M, Frank AL, Wenk 14, Oevor D, Tarone RE (1980) Wa~nock ~, Churg AM (1980) Webster I_(1963) Webster I (1974) Wehner AP (1980) Wehner AP, Busch RH, O|son RJ, Craig OK (19/5) Wehner AP, Dag]e 6E, Cannon WC (19/8) Wehner AP, Dagle 6E, Cannon WC, Buschbom RL (1978) WelIl H (1973) .Wen CP, Tsa| SP (1982) Westlake 6E (1974) Westlake 6~, SpJut HJ, Smtth MN (1965) Weston ~T, Llebow AA, Oixon M~, Rich TH (1972) White R, Kuhn C (1980) Wignal] BK, Fox AJ (1982) Wilcox K, Marcussen W, Furst A (1974) W|lson D (1981) Wilson ~, 6aumer I~, Salvagglo JE (lgll) Wottowttz I~, 8eterl L, Rathgeb 14, Schmidt K et al (1981) Wright A, Gormley IP, Colltngs PL, Davis ,1HG (1980) Wright GW (1969) Wright MO, Germley IP (1980) ~ Wyard S (1914) XlpeII 4, Bhatha] PS (1969) Yu CP, Taulbee OB (19//} Zaidt SH (1974) Zatd| SH, 6upta 6SD, Rahman Q, Kaw ~L, Shanker R (1976) Zaldt 5H, Shanker R, Oogra RK$ (1973) Zeluff 6W, Je~kins DE, 6reenberg SO (1976) 18 GEO~RAPH IC CODE GBR GBR GBR GBR 08R GBR GBR GBR 68R GBR GBR GBR 08R UMD UCA SAF SAF UWA UWA UWA UWA ULA UTX UCA UTX UUT UMU GBR UCA UMU ULA GER GBR UOH GBR 08R ATL UNY INO IND IND UTX
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ASBESTOS/CIGARETTE SMOKING INTERACTIONS A Review of the Medical Literature, 1882 to 1982 Part One: Genesis of Asbestos/Smoking Interaction Hypothesis [000] Scope of literature review [i00] Animal experiments [200] Human pethology and in vitro studies [300] Epldemiologic studies on ~ortality pattern of asbestos workers Part T~o: Asbestos-Associat~ Diseases [400] Malignant mesotheliomas and pleural diseases [500 Bronchial carcinoma and extrapulmonary malignancies [600]Pulmonary asbestosls Part Three: Asbestos Dust Exposure [700] Occupational exposure to asbestos [800] Environmental exposure to asbestos [900] Governmental regulations and miscellaneous topics - Part Four: Bibliographies and Indices Numerical bibliography Additional bibliography Supplemental bibliography Category subject index Author index Geographical index 2 13 105 175 261 375 424 Revised October 5, 1983 Notez Drafts for Series [600s] to [900s] are complete. versions will b~ forwarded late in October. Final N N
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Asbestos/Sm~klng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 261 [400] "[410] [411] [412] [413] [414] [415] [416] [417] [418] [419] [420] [421] [422] {423] [424] [425] [426] [427] [430] [431] [432] [433] [434] [435] [436] [437] [4381 "[439] [440] [441] [442] [443] [444] [445] [446] MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA AND PLEURAL DISEASES 263 Pioneerinq Mesothelioma Studies in Germany~ the U~nited Kingdom, and the British Commonwealth 265 Pleural mesothelioma studies in Germany 266 Pleural mesothelioma studies in South Africa 268 Pleura1 mesothelloma studies in England 270 Pleural mesothelioma studies in Wales 273 Pleural mesothelloma studies in Scotland 275 Pleural mesothelloma studies in Ireland 276 Pleural mesothelioma studies in Australia 276 Pl~ur~l ~esotheiloma studies in Canada 278 Summary of pleural mesothe1~oma research 279 Pleural Mesothelloma Studies in Continents] Europe and Asia 280 France 281 Italy 282 Switzerland 283 Scandinavia 284 Belgium and the Netherlands 285 Eastern Europe 286 Turkey 287 Pleural Mesothelioma Studies in the United States 287 Mount Sinai Hospital Group: New York and New Jersey 288 Additional studies in New York State 289 Additional studies in New Jersey 291 Connecticut 291 Massachussetts 292 Pennsylvania 292 Virginia 293 Texas 294 Pleural mesothelioma incidence estimates for the United States 295 Pleural MaliGnant Mesothelioma Case Report- 296 American case reports prior to 1960 297 Post 1960 American and foreign case reports with occupational exposure to asbestos ~ 298 Post 1960 American and foreign case reports without history of asbestos exposure 301 Mesothelioma case reports in children 303 Mesothelioma and tuberculosis case reports 304 Familial clustering of mesothelioma 305
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 262 [450] Benign Pleura1 Mesothelloma 306 [460] [461] [462] [463] [464] Extrapleural Mesothelioma 308 ~erltoneal mesothelloma in asbestos workers 309 Peritoneal mesothelloma in non-asbestos workers 310 Perlcardial mesothelloma Mesothelloma of male genitalia 311 [470] Treatment of Mallqnant Mesothelloma 312 [480] [481] [482] [483] [484] Pleural Plaques and Effus~cn Pleural plaques (Roentgenollc diagnosis) Diffuse pleural thickening (Lung en Culrasse) Pleural calcification P1eural effusion 314 315 319 319 320 [490] ~sbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction in Patients with P1eural Disease 320 Bibliography Author Index 4008 374 + page 1 to page Ii
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 263 [400] MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA AND PLEURAL DISEASES The three topical series comprising Part Two are devoted to diseases that are associated with exposure to asbestos dust, namely~ malignant mesothelioma [Category 400s]~ bronchogenic carcinoma [Category 500s]; and pulmonary asbestosis [Category 600s]. The or~entatlon of the literature review for the three category groups is on diseases with special emphasis on occupational factors and other risk factors. The disease orientation is in contrast to technique orientation for Pert One [Categories 100s, 200s and 300s] and to worker orientation for Part Three [Categories 400s, 500s and 600s]. As in earlier categories, this review on Malignant Mesothelloma and Pleural Diseases highlights the publications that have searched for asbestos/smoking interaction. The medical articles that do not mention the interaction phenomenon are also included although the coverage is brief. Copies of all publications are avilable so that a~Itlonal detai~s of selected topics of pleural diseases can be readily supplied. It is very likely that any recent case of pleura~ mesothel£oma had occupational history, medical history and clinical findings
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 264 that are similar to those cases that have been re~orted in the literature. There is a consensus of opinion that pleura1 diseases including malignant mesothelioma are caused by inhalatlon of asbestos fibers. There is also general agreement among experts that t~ere is no synergistic interaction between asbestos and cigarette smoking in the pathogenesls of pleural diseases. A closer examination of the literature suggests that cigarette smoking reduces the risk of pleural diseases and this unusual interaction is discussed below~ This reviewer proceeded to exam/he the literature of asbestos-associated pleura1 dlseas~s primarily to determine why the synergistic interaction phenomenon between asbestos and cigarette smoking is absent for pleural diseases, yet it is hypothesized for bronchogenic carcinoma [Series 500s] and pulmonary asbestosls [Series 600s]. This question has not been raised hitherto in publlcatlons on asbestos-assoclated diseases inclt~dlng the 1978 monograph by Selikoff and Lee (842), the 1982 monograph by Selikoff (843) and the 1982 monograph published by the C~mmerclal Union Insurance C~mpanles.(844~. The probable answers to the above stated .question are derived by tracing the evolution of the concept that pleural diseases including mesothelloma can be caused by inhalation of
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactlons [400 Seriesl March 30, 1983 265 asbestos fibers. The discussion that follows starts with pioneering studies on mesothelloma in Germany and the United Kingdom, including the British Commonwealth, and then proceeds to confirmatory studies in other European countries and the United states. There is a special section on case reports to illustrate the role of risk factors other than asbestos exposure, followed by a brief commentary on treatment of mallgnant mesothelioma. Extrapleural mesothelloma and benign diseases of the pleura, Including pleura1 asbestosis, pleural plaques and pleura1 effusion are discussed under separate categories. This series concludes with sun~ary statements on asbestos/cigarette smoking interaction in patients with pleural diseases. [410] Pioneerln~ Mesothelloma Studies in Germany, the United K~n~domr.and the British Commonwealth During the past thirty years, there has been an increas- ing number of patients with pleural ~al~gnant mesothelioma who have bee~ occupatlonally exposed to asbestos. Although early reports originated from Germany and Great Britain, the definl- tlve study of causal relationship between asbestos and pleural m~llgnant ~esothelloma was from South Africa. It is important to mention at the outset that the medical publications from
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 266 these countries as well as canada and Australla did not include a search for asbestos/clgarette smoking interaction. [411] Pleura1 Mesothelioma Studies in Germany In 1953, weiss (845) reported the occurrence of pleural tumors in the asbestotic lungs of a dockyard worker who had done insulation work. The patient's primary diagnosis was malignant pleural effusion with significant pleura1 thickening. Thoracoscopy followed by biopsy showed involvement of visceral and ~arietal pleura by malignant mesothelloma with asbestosls bodies. The mallgnan~y was diagnosed 31 years after initial exposure to asbestos dust and continued for 22 years. Several cases of German asbestos workers were later reported, and some of them are discussed under Case Reports [Category 440] and extrapl~ural mesothelioma [Category 460]. Large asbestos-processing factories are located in Berlin, Bad Berneck, Dresden, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Nordenham aad Schw~blsch-Hall. The incidence of pleural mesothelloma in autopsied cases are as follows= Investigators [City/State/Country] (846) Knappmann 1970 [Hamburg] Pleural Mesothelioma Cases Number or Percenta@e 0.314% of 79,841 autopsies
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [~00 Series] March 30, 1983 267 (847) Haln et al 1974 [Hamburg] (848) Otto 1980 [Dortmund] (848) Konetzke & Beck 1981 [German Registry] (850) Huzly 1981 [Stuttgart] (851) Calavrezos & Haln 1982 [Hamburg] 251 cases proven post mortem 150 cases retrospective history 85 occupational exposure to asbestos 20 lived in neighborhood of asbestos exposure 45 no history of exposure 514 lung biopsies - 20 mesothelloma with asbestos exposure 50 mesothelloma without 915 cases mesothelloma - 36.7% occupational asbestos 0.8% nonoccupational asbestos 9.1% asbestos underlying cause 33.7% no asbestos contact 19.7% Insuffic'¢ent data 290 surgically operated mallgnancl.es = 165 pleural mesothelloma 4 pleural carcinoma 12 pleural sarcoma 19 pl~ural solitary giant tumor 85 metastatic pleural carclnosis 5 metastatic pleural giant tumor 160 patients = diagnostic problems in most of them The above studies indicate the three major sources of diagnosis, namely, postmortem, needle blospsy and surglcal removal. It should be noted that approximately half of pleural malignancies that are surgically removed prove~ to be pleural mesotheliomas (85). Among cases of pleural ~esothelloma, less than half can be accounted for by exposure to asbestos (848, N C~ N -,.~ N
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions /400 Series] March 30, 1983 268 849). The results do not support the general proposition that most cases of pleural mesothelioma are associated with occupa- tional exposure to asbestos. To the contrary, most cases are either exposed to asbestos outside of the work environment or have no history of asbestos exposure. Asbe@tos/Ci~arette Smoking Interaction. There is o,ly one published study from Germany that examined the smoking habits of pleural mesothelloma patients. Hain et al (847) compared the social history of a group of 150 cases of mesothe- lioma with a control group. The mesothelloma ~atlent group had a significantly higher proportion of heavy smokers, tha~ the control group (50 versus 29). Until an English translation of this article is available, it is not posslble to formulate an opinion. [412] P1eural Mesothelloma Studies in South Africa Scientists in the Pneumoconiosls Research Unit (later changed to the National Research Institute for Occupational Diseases of the South African Medical Research Council) at Johannesburg are acclaimed to have established the causal relationship between asbestos and pleural malignant mesotheliom~. The first article that attracted world-wide attention was published in i%60 by Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions ~400 Series] March 30, 1983 269 (852). They reported 33 hlstologically proven cases of pleura1 mesothelioma, 31 to 68 years old, 22 males and ii female. ~Only 8 of the 33 cases had evidence of occupational exposure: six from mining, one from lagging steam pipes, and the other from working at an asbestos mining area. In the remaining 25 cases, the authors could "only present circumstantial evidence of exposure to asbestos dust; 18 were born in the vicinity of the mines and two arrived in the district as infants. Of these 18 people, Ii admit definite childhood exposure to the dust and two others were exposed industrially in later llfe. In addition two. patients with childhood exposure later worked i~ the asbestos mines. Three cases arrived in the region at an older age but were omployed either on the mines or in transporting asbestos. A further three of these 25 cases have had industrial exposure, and in only one case do the relatives deny any exposure to asbestos dust" (852). - Wagner et al (852) were careful to point out that "asbestos dust is a factor in the occurrence of these tumo. rs." By 1962, Wagner (853) had diagnosed a total of 87 pleura1 mesothelioma, of which 12 occurred in patients with Industrial exposure to asbestos, and the remainder in patients residing in asbestos fields; two cases had no history of exposure to asbestos dust. In 1973, Webster (854) revlewedk 232 cases of pleural mesothelioma, 14% with no known-hlstory of asbestos exposure. In 1978, Cohrane et al (855) reported 70 consecutive
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Asbestos/S~oklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 270 cases of pleural mesothelioma and reported that one case did not have a history of exposure to asbestos dust, although the extent of exposure of ~any could be questioned. Spokesmen from the South African Asbestos Tumour Registry l~ve repeatedly emphasized that there are a number of mesothelio~ cases with "no indication of exposure to asbestos" ('856)5 Webster, Thomson, GilSon and their collaborators (857- 861) have dismissed other possible causes of mesothelloma, and supported their theory by showing that mesothelloma could be initiated in experimental rats exposed to' asbestos [Category 1501. [413] Pleura1 Mesothelloma Studie~ in England AS early as 1921, Eastwood and Martin (862) reported a patient with pleural mesothelio~ who was admitted to the Royal Southern Hospital at Liverpool. There was no m~ntlon of any occupational exposure to asbestos. At that time, there was an ongoing controversy on the embryonic origin of pleural ttu~ors, although the authors accepted the term of mesothelloma to mean that cells originated from the endothelial lining of the pleura. In the course of discussion of the case, the English authors emphasized that mesothelio~ occurs tlsually in the elderly patient between -40 and 60 years old, slightly more
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 271 common in males than females, and are more often right sided. It is interesting that slmilar features characterize the cases of pleura1 mesothelloma reported in recent years. In 1964, Owen ( 863 ) reported 16 cases of pleura1 mesothelioma from the files of the Liverpool Cancer Control Organization and from those of the Liverpool Regional Thoracic Surgery Unit. Eleven of the patients were known to have handled asbestos during the course of their work; one worked as a clerk in the office of a factory where "the atmosphere was frequently contaminated by asbestos dust, and.~he remanlng four gave a negative or inconclusive occupational history. Owen subscribed to the asbestos etiology proposed by Wagner et al, but did not cite the earl£er study of Eastwood and Martin (862). Owen (863) also did not explain why a majority of mesothelloma cases in Liverpool were associated with occupational exposure to asbestos, whereas asbestos exposure for a majority of South African cases of mesothelloma were residential in nature. Subsequent medical reports from England indicated that the majority of pleura1 mesothelioma cases were no__t related to occupational asbestos exposure. The published results were as follows : - "
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 272 Investigators [City/State/Country] (864 Newhouse & Thompson 1967 [London GBR] (865) Newhouse 1967 [London GBR] [Cape Asbestos Co. GBR] Pleura1 mesothelloma Number or Percentage 83 mesothelioma = 56 pleural + 27 perltoneal 31 (41%) occupational exposure to asbestos 9 (12%) domestic exposure 36 (47%) no history of exposure 71 c'~ses of~asbestosls = 2 cases of pleura1 mesothelloma 26 cases of pulmonary carcinoma 13 cases of peritoneal mesothelioma (867) Whltewell & Rawcliffe 52 cases of pleur~l masothelloma 1971 [Merseyslde GBR] 80% occupational~_xposure to asbestos 17% showed pulmonary asbestosis (868) Edge 1976 28 cases of pleural masothelloma [Cumbrla GBR] 22 cases with pleura1 effusion (869) Sheers 1980 108 death~ pleural or peritoneal [Plymouth GBR] mesotheliomas; all worked in dockyard exposed to asbestos except one (bank manager) (870) Acheson et al 1981 4 deaths pleural mesothelloma; [Southampton G~R] all worked in factory for insulation board There is a wide range of incidences of occupational exposure to asbestos in the above medical reports, from 41 percent to as much as I00 percent. There are addltional publications relating to the asbestos content of ~esothelioma tissue (871-875), the histological changes of the tissue derived at necropsy (876, 877) and of pleural biopsy (878- 881). The histological features of mesothelloma are so varied ~'06:~77~777
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 273 although their malignant nature was readily shown by diffuse and profuse invasion of pleura. There are also published predictions of increasing incidence of pleura1 mesothelloma based on the long latent period of 15 to 40 years and the widespread use of asbestos in recent years (882-887). As~e~t~s/Cigarette sm~in9 Interaction. The publica- tion by Whitwell and Rawcllffe (867) is the only one in English that considered the possible association of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure. Among the 52 patlent~ with pleural mesothelloma, smoking habits were recorded in 28 patients: i0 nonsmokers; 8 smokers up to i0 cigarettes/day; i0 smokers more than i0 cigarettes/day. The incubation period from first exposure to asbestos until development~0f mes0thelloma was no shorter in the smokers than in the nonsmokers, neither was the duration of asbestos exposure any shorter in the smokers. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of synergism. [414] Pleural Mesothelioma Studies in Wales Wagner and his coworkers at the Penumoconiosls Research Unit report on mesothelloma patients that have been ~revlously studied by other investigators from England. _ The Welsh research group contributed additional Informatlo~ by measuring
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 274 asbestos levels in human lungs (888, 889). More recently they s~rized the asbestos contents of postmortem lungs from 103 patients who had worked at an asbestos textile factory, includ- ing 13 who died of pleural ~esothelloma. The lungs of those with pleura1 mesothelioma did not contain more of either ch~ysot~.~e, or .crocidolite, than the _~.~t~ngs ........ the controls withoutmesothelioma. Wagner et al (890) concluded that no particular type of asbestos could be implicated in causing mesothelioma and could not confirm Peto'~ suggestion that mesothelioma occurring in this particul~ British textile factory could be attributed to chrysotile exposure, wagner and his collaborators have reviewed the broad subject of meso- thelioma with special reference to _e~posure levels (891-894), histological diagnosis (895) and ultramlcroscopic changes (896). Gardner et al (897) reviewed the mortality ratios from pleura1 mesothelioma during the period 1968 to 1978 in wales and England. Over the ll year period, the annual numbers of deaths rose by 75 percent. This marked increase was virtually confined to ~en in whom the numbers of mesothelioma ~eaths had reached almost 200 per annum by 1978.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series| March 30, 1983 275 [415] Pleural Mesothelioma Studies in Scotland. Le Roux (898) from the University of Edinburgh reviewed the medical history of 3000 patients diagnosed to have bron- chial carcinoma. During the same ten-year period, 274 patients had pleural metastasis, and 16 had primary pleural t~Imors. In ~he_lat~r group, nine were diagnosed hlsto}~g~a~yr~s pleural malignant mesothelioma, thus a ratio of one pleural mesothelioma to 333 bronchial carcinoma exists for Edinburgh patients. Asbestos/Cigarette Smoklnq Interactlo~. McEwen et al (899) collected 80 cases of ~esothelloma recorded from 1950 to 1967. Compared to cancer patient controls and cardiovascular patient controls, mesothelioma patients smoked less cigarettes, and this difference was significant at i percent level. Com- pared to 24 percent nonsmokers reported for males in the general population, there were fewer nonsmokers in the meso- thelioma cases (16 Percent). Only 25 percent of ~esothelioma cases had a history of occupational exposure to asbestos. The most recent retrospectve study consists of 32 patients from Glasgow area, diagnosed between 1974 and 1980. Asbestos contact in shipyards was noted in 80 percent of patients (900, 901). The ul~rastructure- of human biopsy specimens were reported by Davis (902) to be sim/lar to those seen in animals with asbestos-induced mesothelloma. Greenberg :~06~77~1780
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 276 (903, 904) su~narized the results of Mesothelloma Registry for Scotland, England and Wales. [416] Pleural Mesothelioma Studies in Ireland Elmes has been maintaining a Registy of mesothelioma _~at~eDt- from Belfast (905-908). It w~_z ~oss~ble totrace the fate of 162 of the 168 men who were working as insulators in 1940. Their excess mortality was mainly due to respiratory cancers, one-thlrd being pleura1 mesothello~a. Of those who were registered, 98 died of malignancy whereas the age-adjusted prediction was only 37; thus a mortallty risk ratio of 2.6. [417] Pleural Mesothelioma Studies ~n Australia The first reported case of pleural mesothelioma in an asbestos worker was a miner who also was suffering from pulmonary asbestosis and silicosis. McNulty (909) reported the details in 1962, emphasizing the similarities to Wagner's cases from South Africa reported In' 1960 [Category 411], such as exposure to crocldolite, and short or transitory exposure to asbestos fiber. However the interval between exposure and development of mesothelioma was shorter (12 years) than the 20 to 40 years reported among South Africans.
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Asbestos/S~oklng Interactlons [~00 Series| March 30, 1983 277 In a larger series of 35 cases of pleural mesothel£oma reported from Australia by Grifflths et al (910), the latent period ranged from 18 to 52 years. Furthermore, i0 of the 35 cases had no history of occupational exposure to asbestos. Other reports of pleura1 mesothelloma cases did not discuss the question of occupational exposure and latent period (911-913). ...... Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction. In a 1982 review of pleuropulmonary diseases, Henderson (913) stated that "in an asbestos-exposed Population, the risk of developing mesothelloma is not influenced by conc~mltant cigarette smoking". No reference was ~ite~ for • ~he statement "on mesothelloma. The only mention of smoking habits of Australian mesothelioma patients is In the two cases reported by Mortimer and Campbell (914). One patient had smoked 3 to 4 ounces of tobacco per week for 40 years, and the other had smoked 40 cigarettes a day for more than 25 years. The former was exposed to asbestos, working as an Insulator~ but the latter patient had no history of asbestos exposure. The subject of nonoccupational exposure to asbestos in patients with pleural mesothelloma has been discussed by McCullagh (915) who reviewed the pitfalls in differentiating positive from negative asbestos exposures.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 278 [418] Pleura1 Mesothelioma Studies in Canada Prior to 1960, there were two cases of pleura1 mesothe- lloma reported from Canada, both females, 46 and 52 years old respectively (916, 917). In 1970, McDonald et al (918, 919) surveyed all fatal cases of mesothelloma known to have occurred in Canad~ between 1959 and mld-1968. The registered deaths numbered 165. Only 20 percent had definite or probable occupa- tlonal exposure to asbestos, 20 percent as possible domestic or residential exposure, and 60 percent as ~nllkely exposure to asbestos. By 1980, McDonald et al (920, 921) extended their survey to include 254 registered cases of mesothelloma. The occupa- tional exposure to asbestos was increased to 40 percent, and crocldolite exposure was claimed to be more dangerous than chrysotile. The mesothelioma cases who were not occupationally exposed to asbestos were explained by "some other etiology" that was not specified. Canadian scientists have made significant contributions to the hlstologlc (922, 923), histochem~cal (924), ultra- microscopic (925), and radiographic (926) diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. Chovil and Stewart (927} from the Workmen's Compensation Board, s~umnarlzed the latency of'~mpensated cases of mesothello~a. The mean latent period was 26.9 years, rang-
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [460 Series] March 30, 1983 279 ing from 6 to 44 years, which is shorter than figures reported by McDonald et al and some European investigators. Shugar (928) reviewed the disease for the National Research council of Canada but the publication did not mention results of Canadian investigators. Asbestos/Cigarette Smokinq Interaction. McDonald et patients, control group with primary lung cancer, and a second control group with mestastatic lung cancer..Their conclusions were as follows~ "In both males and females,~persons in the primary lung cancer group had smoked considerably more than those in either the case (mesothelloma) or secondary (metasta- tic) lung cancer groups. The latter two groups had almost an identical distribution of smoking habits. The 20 men with definite or probable occupational exposure to asbestos showed no great difference in smoking habits from cases without occupatlonal exposure". The tabulated results were not subjected to statistical analysis for significance. [419] Summary of Pleural Mesothelloma Studies in the united Kingdom and the British Commonwealth Following the pioneering efforts of Wagner who first suggested that asbestos dust is a cause of pleural mesothelio-
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CU~4JLATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 J~uary 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER 235 0515 182 0253 233 0450 34O 0704 184 0284 184 0281 184 0282 186 0311 233 0473 233 0464 233 0463 233 0462 233 0465 233 0467 233 0471 233 0468 233 0469 233 0472 233 0466 182 0235 235 0509 220 0384 220 0383 220 0386 220 0382 22O 0385 280 0581 183 0264 113 0070 290 0624 190 0323 190 0324 150 0171 186 0308 397 0822 360 0748 270 0573 181 0220 183 0275 183 0276 112 0033 130 0147 111 0008 111 0007 232 0421 111 0009 Carter RE, Taylor WF (1980) Case BW, IP l~°C, Padilla M, K1elnerman J (1982) Cauna D, Torten RS, Gross P (1965) Ceciltoni VA (1980) Cheuaberlaln 14 (1982) Ch~erIaln M, Brown RC (lg78) Chamberlain M, Brown RC, Grlfflths DM (1980) ChamberIaln M, Tarmy EM (1977) ~n~atterj~ DS; Petrie A, Taylor W (197Gj Churg A (1982) Chur9 A, Sakoda N, Warnock ~ (197/) Churg A, Warnock ~ (19//) Churg A, Warnock 14. (19/7) Churg A, Warnock ~ (1978) Chur9 A, Warnock 14_ (1979) Churg A, Warnock I~. (1980) Churg AM, Warnock 14_ (1979) Churg AM, Warnock PL (1979) Churg AM, Warnock ~ (1981) Churg AM, Warnock M., Green N (1979) Co~ntng DM, Hayes !¢], Styles ~A, Nicholas JA (1971) Cook PM (1979) Cooke kl~ (1927) Cooke kE (1929) Cooke ~ (1931) Cooke W~, Hill CF (1927) Cooke ~E, Hill CF (1930) Coplans N (1913) Costrtnt AM, Stevens CA, Gee OBL (1978) Craig IlK, Wehner AP, Morrow W6 (1972) Cralghead ~, Hossman BT (1982) Cratghead ~E, Noss~ 8T, Bradley BJ (1980) Crapo OD, Barry BE, Brod~ AR, O'Nell JJ (1980) Cunnlnghm FIN, Noodle CA, Lawrence GA, Pontefract RD (19//) Cunntngham !~4, Pontefract RD (1974) Cutler ~1., Weiss W, Cooper WC, Lewts ~ et a] (1976) Dah|gren E (1979) Dante| FB, Beach CA, Hart RW (1980) Da~te] H, Le Bouffant L (1980) Davies R (1980) -- Davies R (1980) Davis }IV, Reeves AL (lg71) Davis 34B, Conlam SW (1973) Davis ,]I4G (1963) Davis ~ (1963) Davis ~ (1964) Davis 346 (1964) GEOGRAPHIC CODE UMN UNY UPA CAN GBR GBR GBR GBR 6bR" UCA VIL UIL UIL UIL UIL UCA UIL UIL UCA UIL GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR UCT UWA UVT .UVT UNC UMD SWE UOH FRA • GBR GBR UMI GBR GBR GBR GBR
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January. 31, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUMBER GEOGRAPHIC CODE 182 0227 130 0143 130 0141 130 0142 130 0144 130 0145 182 0228 130 190 190 0326 112 0046 112 0065 197 0365 233 0452 190 0327 312 0634 231 0399 393 0804 183 0261 339 0688 339 0687 181 0226 260 0556 181 0221 242 0537 233 0475 234 0508 234 0483 170 0208 193 0347 380 0779 380 0773 124 0114 285 0621 350 0706 350 0708 350 0709 350 0710 350 0711 150 0181 234 0494 112 0032 186 0315 186 0316 186 0317 112 0031 233 0461 Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis Davis ~avis Da~t~ Davis Davis Davis Davis (1967) (1970) (1970) (1970) (1971) (1971) (1972) (1979) (1979) Beckett ST, 8o|ton RE, Oonaldson K (1980) Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Colltngs P, Mtddleton AP (1978) Beckett ST, 8olton RE, Donaldson K (1980) Bolton RE, Garrett J (1974) Davis JNG, Gross P (1973) Davis JMG, Mol~meux ~tC, Baxter P~, Walton 14~, Berltn A (1981) De Coufle P (1970) De Trevtlle RT, Gross P, Davis JHG (1968) De Trevt]le RTP (1968) Dean lET, HyIton W, Allison AC (1979) Dement J~4, Zumwalde RD, 6amble ~F, Fe]lner Wet al (1980) Den~nt ~14, Zum~alde RD, WalItngrod KM (1976) Depasse J (1980) - Depasse J (1982) Desat R, Hext P, Richards R (1975) Dt Nenza L, Hirsch A, Sebastien P, 6audtchet A, Bignon J (1980) Dtcke TE, N~ylor B (1969) Dlmov O, Berltlc-$tahulJak B, Beritlc T, Bunarevlc A (1975) Dionne GP, Beland JI~, Wang NS (1976) Dixon ~R, Lowe DB, Richards DE, Stoklnger HE (1969) Dixon ~R, Lowe DB, Richards DE, Cralley LO, Stoklnger HE (1970) DJerassi L, Kaufmann G, Bar-nets M (1979) Dobreva R, BuriIkova T, Toceva V, Mihailova Let al (1979) Dodson RF, Hurst GA, Wtlltams HG Jr (1980) 0o11NJ, Stankus RP, 6oldbach S, Salvaggto OE (1982) 0ol1R (1955) 0oll R (1960) 0oll R (1975) Doll R (1977) 0oll R (1978) Donham KJ, Berg ,]~, Will LA, Let~tnger ~ (1980~ Dontach I, Swettenham KV, Hathorn W,S (1975) Donna & (1970) Donna A (1972) Donna A (1973) Donna A, Betta PG, Lanfranco G (1980) pa Donna A, Cappa APM (1967) ~ Ehrenreich T, Sellkoff Ia (1981) ~ GBR GBR 6BR 6BR ~BR ~BR 6BR ~BR 6BR 6BR GBR 6BR 6BR 6BR UPA UPA UPA GBR UOH BEL BEL 6BR IRA UMI UOH UOtl ISR BDL UTX ULA 6BR 6BR GBR 6BR UIO 6BR ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA UNY
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CU~LATIVE CATEGORY NUI~ER 150 0185 284 0603 284 0604 260 0557 350 0736 350 0740 350 0741 350 0742 394 -~ 3 350 0737 350 0738 350 0739 350 0728 111 0026 121 0079 140 0159 140 0160 121 0O80 312 0631 312 0633 392 0797 392 0796 392 0798 392 0799 313 0535 313 0538 313 0536 312 0632 313 0540 398 0833 313 0537 150 0191 112 0037 241 0524 285 0619 233 0479 112 0044 340 0599 350 0729 232 0416 285 0617 350 0719 234 0486 184 0279 323 0653 184 0280 338 0669 AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 AUTHORS AND YEAR Etsele e~ (1981) E1-Sewefy AZ, Hassan F, Badr FM, Awad S (1971) El-Sewefy AZ, Shaheen H, Shams El-Oeen A (1974) El-Shobakt FA, E1 Sewefy AZ (1973) El~s PC (1966) Elmes PC (1977) Elmes PC (1978) F.lmes PC (1980) E lines' PC (1981) ..... E|mes PC, Simpson M (1968) Elmes PC, Simpson MJC (1971) E1mes PC, Simpson MJC E1wood PC, Cochrane ALo Benjamin IT, Seys-Prosser D (1964} Emerson RJ, Co~r|n B, Cole PJ (1982) Engelbrecht FM (1964) Engelbrecht FM, Burger BF (1973) .. Engelbrecht FN, Burger BF (1975) Engelbrecht FM, Thlart BF (1972) Enterllne PE (1965) Enterline PE (1968) Enterl|ne PE (1976) Enterl|ne PE (1976) Enterline PE (1978) Enterllne PE (1981) Enterllne PE, De Coufle P, Henderson V (1972) Enterltne PE~ De Coufle P, Henderson V (1973) Enterltne PE, Henderson V (1973) Enterllne PE, Kendrick HA (1967) Enterllne PE, Harsh 6M (1980) Enterltne PE, Seltkoff IJ, Peto R, Sloan ~ et al (1981) EnterlJne PE, Wet11 H (1973) Epstein SS, Varnes M (1976) Evans OC, Evens R3, Holmes A, Hounam P.F, ~o(les ON, et al (1973) Farley N., Greenberg SO, Shuford EH Jr eL al (1977) Farulla A, Naro G, A11mena G, Oelftnt AM, Ogls Met a] (1978) Felton ~S (1980) Fertn 3, Leach L~ (1976) Ftnke|stetn N, Kustak R, Suranyi 6 (1981) F1nIa~ A, NcEwen J, Nalr A (1971) Fondtmare A, Desbordes O (1974) Focmetster OF, Trtsch GL, Nittleman A (1978) Fox /~, Ltndars DC, 0~en R (1974) Francis 0, Oussuf A, Xortensen T, SikJaer B, Viskum K (1977) Frank AL (lg//) Frank AL (1979) Frank FL (1980) Fraument OF (1977) ZO6277~tTB7 GEOGRAPHIC CODE UTE EGY EGY EGY GS~ GSR GSR GBR G6R GER GER UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UPA UOH GSR UTX ITA UCA UNY CAN FRA UNY DEN UNY tINY UNY UHD
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEG.ORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CMEGORY AUTHORS ~ND YEAR NUMBER 338 0671 338 0668 338 0670 232 0419 234 0489 260 0563 260 0564 23! ~06 111 0004 111 0003 232 0430 282 0594 242 0541 234 0501 339 0686 390 0783 390 0784 390 0785 390 0786 160 0195 22O 0387 240 0518 220 0388 220 0389 210 0376 220 0390 232 0448 235 0512 232 0447 113 0075 182 0234 184 0293 183 0272 183 0273 338 0677 232 0440 232 0439 160 0196 340 0701 340 0702 241 0521 24I 0523 241 0530 390 0787 284 0608 231 0407 Fraumeni JF (1979) Fraumeni ~F Jr (1975) Fraum~ni JF, Blot WJ (1978) Freidrlchs KH, Otto H (1981) Frledrlchs KH, Otto H (1981) 6abor $, Anca Z (1975) Gebor $, Fr)ts T, Anca Z (1975) G_~,ensler EA, Addlngton WW (1969) Gardne~ LU (193~} Gardner LU (1942) Gardner LU, Cummings DE (1931) Gaudtchet A, Sebastten P, Clark NJ, Pooley FD (1980) Gaumr ~, Do11 NJ, Kal~] J, Schuyler M, Salvagglo ,]E (1981) Gee OBL, Fick RB (1980) Ghezzi I, Molteni 6, Puccettt U (1967) GtlIam OD, Dement ~M, Lemen RA, Wagoner 3 et a] (1976) Gt]son ~C (1973) Gi]son ~C (1974) Gtlson JC (1976) GtIson ~C (1977) SIoyne 5R (1930) Glo~ne SR (1931) - Glo~me SR (1931) Gloyne ~R (1931) Gloyne ~R (1932) G|oyne ~R (1938) Glo~me ~R (1951) Glyn Thomas R, Sluis-Cremer ; (1977) Gold C (1971) Goldstein B, Re~da11 REG (1970) GoIdstetn B, Webster I, Re~da11 REG, Skikne HI (1978) Goldsteln RH, Nt]ler K, Glassroth J, Sntder GL, Polgar P (1982) Go~mley IP, Bolton RE, Brown 6, Oavts ~, Ooaaldson K (1980) 6o~mle~ IP, Wright A, Collings P, Davis ~ (1980) Go~mle~ IP, Wright MB (1980) 6ottlieb MS, Stedman RB (1979) 6overna N, Rosanda C (1972) Governa M, Yadala CR (1972) Governa M, Vadala CR (1973) - Graham S (1981) Graham $, Blancher ~, Rohrer T (1977) Greenberg SO, Hurst GA, Chrtst|anson ~C, Matlage W~ (1976) Greenberg ~0, Hurst GA, Matlage ~, Chrtsttanson CS (1976) Greenberg SO, NcLart~ ~, ToggH VL, Hurst GA et al (1982) Greenhouse SW (i980) Gregor A, $tngh $, Turner-Warwick !~, Lawler $, Parks ~ (1979) Grieger 6R (1976) ZO627?~7BB GEOGRAPHIC CODE UMO LIMO UMI) GER GER ROM ROM UMA, UNY UNY UNY GBR ULA UCT ITA UOH GBR GBR GSR GSR 6BR GBR GBR GSR GSR GBR GSR GBR UMA GBR GBR GBR DLA ITA ITA ITA UNY UNY LITX UTX UTX UMD GBR UDC
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CUHULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NU ~ER CODE 112 0030 233 0451 194 0350 150 0173 194 0351 231 0398 130 0149 150 0172 231 0400 111 0013 121 0081 112 0029 231 0401 232 0446 232 0445 232 0443 234 0505 186 0313 186 0312 370 0760 370 0766 150 0194 150 0193 150 0186 160 0201 160 0202 281 0587 391 0790 391 0791 323 0552 391 0789 322 0650 194 0353 260 0565 260 0566 160 0203 350 0732 350 0733 270 0577 250 0548 270 0574 270 0571 270 0572 283 0599 242 0539 281 0586 Gross P~ "6~OS~- P, Gross P, Gross P, Gross P, Gross P, Gross P (1968) UPA Gross P (1969) UPA Gross P (1973) USC Gross P (1974) USC Gross P (1975) USC Gross P, Cra|ley LJ, Oe Trev|lle RTP (1967) UPA Harley RA (1973) USC Harley RA (1973) USC Harley RA, Swlnburne LM, Davis ,~HG, Greene g8 (1974) USC de Trevllle RTP, Haller M (lg70) UPA de Trevtlle TP (1967) UPA de Trevtlle TP (1970) UPA Gross P, de Trevtlle TP, Toker EB, Kaschak M, .Babyak HA (1967) UPA Gross, P, Davis JHG, Harley RA Jr, Cralley LJ-et al (1972) UPA Gylseth B, Baunan R (1981) NOR Gylseth B, Howe G, Skaug V, Wannag A (1981) " NOR Gylseth B, Ophus EM, Howe G (1979) NOR Hagerstrand I, Seifert B (1973) SWE Hahon N, Booth JA, Eckert HL (1977) UWV Hahon N, Eckert HL (1976) UWV Halder M, Neuberger N (1980) AU_S Hath E, Hinz I, Dalquen P (1975) - GER Hallenbeck gH, Markey OR, Dolan DG (lg81) UIL Hallenbeck WH, Pate1-Mandllk KJ (1979) UIL Hamilton J, Vassalli JD, Reich E (1976) UNY Haailton ~A (1980 UNY Ha~tlton JA (1981) UNY Hmtlton ~A, Chan ~Y, Movat HZ (1981) C.~N Hammond EC (1974) r~ UNY Han~ond EC (1975) C:: UNY Ha~nd EC, Selikoff IJ, Setdman H (1979) ~ UNY Hamond EC, Seltkoff IJ, Setdmn H (1975) .d UNY Hammond EC. Selikoff IJ (1973) ~_ UNY Hm'tngton JS (1981) ~ SAF Hartngton JS, Macnab GM, Miller K, King PC (1971) ¢z= SAF Harington JS, Mtller K, Macnab G (1971) ? ~13 Hartngton JS, Roe FJC, Walters 14 (1967) SAF Hatries PG (1968) GBR Harrtes, PG l (1976) - GBR Harris CC, Stone OD, T~) BF, HrJ)o~el] EM, Hess F et al (1979) UMD Harris RL, Ttmbrell V (1977) UNC Hart RW, Dante1 FB, Ktndtg OR, Beach CA, Joseph LB et al (1980) Hart RW, Fertel R, Newman HAI, Daniel FB, B1akeslee JR (1979) UOH Hart RW, Kendtg O, Biakeslee J, Nizuhtra V (1980) UOH Hasla~ PL, Lukoszek A, He, chant ~A, Turner-War~ck M (1978) 6BR Haslam PL, Turton CW~, Heard B, Lukoszek A, Co]ltns JV (1980) GBR Hasselbacher P (1979) UNH
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 100 to 399 January 31, 1983 CATEGORY AUTHORS AND YEAR NUI~I3ER 198 0369 193 0349 313 0639 232 0425 182 0246 182 0244 111 0019 111 0020- 150 0184 350 0712 338 0683 270 0578 380 0781 380 0782 391 0792 391 0793 398 0831 112 0050 199 0371 111 0022 111 0023 111 0011 112 0028 111 0012 111 0014 396 0819 190 0328 185 0299 185 0298 160 0197 335 0665 394 0812 123 0103 182 0247 230 0397 360 0758 360 0757 284 0605 241 0532 284 0606 360 0756 281 0588 150 0178 150 0179 160 0207 150 0180 124 0116 Haubenstock H, 8ekesi 5G (1982) H~yashi H (1974) Henders~ VL, Enterline PE (1979) Henderson WS, Harse 5, 6rlfflths K (1969) Hext PM, Hunt J, Oodgson KS, Richards RJ (1977) Hext PN, Rtchards RJ (1976) .,Hiett DM (1978) ~ett ON (1978) Hilding AC, Hilding DA, Larson DM, Aufderheide AC i1981) Hill ID, Do11 R, Knox ~ (1966) Hirohata T, Kolonel L, Nomura A (19//) Hirsch A, 5aurand NC, Regnier A, Brochard P, Lange 5 (1982) Hobbs MST, Murphy B, Musk AW, Elder 5, Heyworth F (19/8) Hobbs MST, Woodward SO, Murphy B, Musk AW, Elder 3E (1980) Hoffmann D, Wynder EL (1976) Hoffmann D, W~nder EL (1978) Hogan MD, Hoe1 OG (1981} Holmes A, Morgan A (1980) Holt PF (1974) Holt PF (1981) Holt PF (1982) Holt PF, Hills 5 (1964) Holt PF, Mills 5, Young DK (1964) Holt PF, Mills a, Young DK (1966) Holt PF, Young DK (1967) Houten L, Wijnberg L (1978) Huang S-D, Lee W-H (1980) Huang St (1979) Huan9 St, Sa99ioro D, Michelmann H, Malllng HV (1978) Hueper WC (1954) Hughes J, We|11 H (1980) Hugod C, Kamstrup 0 (1982) Humphrey EW, Ewing St, Wrigley OV, No~thrup W~ III et al (1981) Hunt 5, Pooley FD, Rfchards Ra (1981) Hurlbut CS 5r, Williams OR (1935) Huuskouen MS (1980) Huuskonen MS, Ahlman K, Mattsson T, Tossavatnen A et al (1980) Huuskonen MS, Rasanen ~IA, Harkonen H, Asp S (1978) Huuskonen MS, Tasktnen E, Vaaranen V (1978) Huuskonen MS, Tiltkatnen A, Alanko K (1979) Houskonen MS, Tossavainen A (1978) Israels LG, Frtesen E, Slnclalr C (1958) 5acobs R, Dodgson KS, Rtchards R5 (1977) r~ Jacobs R, Humphrys 5, Dodgson KS, Richards R5 (1978) 5acobs R, Rtchards RJ (1980) . aacobs R, Wetnzweig H, Dodgson KS, Rtchards R5 (1978) aatswal AK (1981) GEOGRAPHIC COOE UNY UPA PeR GBR GBR 08R PeR UHA FRA ATL ATL UNY UNY UNC PeR G8R GBR .PeR PeR PeR PeR GBR UNY TAI UNY UNY U~ ULA DEN PeR UMA FIN FIN FIN FIN FIN FIN CAN PeR PeR PeR IND
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 280 ma, many fnvestigators from the United Kingdom and Germany have reported about 250 cases that were exposed to asbestos dust. The various reports gave ~ wide range of occupational exposure to asbestos dust among pleural mesothelloma patients. A significant number of patients were exposed to asbestos either ~stic~lly or in the neighboring asbestos m~e6 or factories. Most investigators emphasized the long latent period from initial exposure to diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma, ranging from 15 to 50 years. This Long Latent period explains the recent increase in incidence of pleural meso~helioma although widespread use of asbestos was initiated over fifty years ago. [420] Pleural Mesothelloma Studies in Continental Europe and Asia From several countries in Europe and Asia, have appeared on pleural malignant mesothelloma. ~orts prior to 1960 did not mention the importance exposure whereas the publications after 1960 consistent with Wagner's contention that asbestos dust is the most significant cause of pleura1 ~esothel~oma. publicatlons The case re- of asbestos are unlfor~ly exposure
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 281 [421] France The first description of pleura1 mesothelioma in France was published in 1953 by Campo (929). The primary symptom of the patient was intercostal neuralgia and the diagnosis o£ pleura1 mesothelloma was confirmed by hlstopathologic changes seen in the lung. removed by surgery. Durlno the 1960s, a Mesothelloma Registry was organized largely through the efforts of chest physicians in Paris (930), particularly Bignon (931). The Registry was formed primarily to assist other groups in France in the diagnosis of mesothelloma and ~iso to determine if the recent experience in Germany and the United Kingdom [Category 410] were applicable to France. The questionnaire relating ~o a registered case of mesothelioma was designed to determine occupational exposure to asbestos. There were no questions relating to smoking habits. The published results were as followsz Investigators [City/State/Country] ... (932) Bignon et al 1979 (922) Bignon et al 1979 [France Registry] (934) perdrlzet et al 1980 [France Registry] (935) Boutln 1976 (936) Boutln et al 1978 (937) Boutln et al 1979 (938) Irisson et al 1983 [Marseille] Pleural Mesothelloma Number or Percentage 477 cases up to June 1979: only 186 confirmed pleural mesotheliome 77% occupational asbestos exposure; 3% residential asbestos exposure; 20% no asbestos exposure 305 confirmed pleu~al mesothelioma= 20% no asbestos exposure 38 pleura1 mesoth~lioma 80% occupational asbestos exposure
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [ZOO series] Na~oh 30, 1983 282 (939) Lajartre et al 1976 70 cases o£ pleura1 nmsothelioNa = (940) Lajartre & Lajartre 68% occupational asbestos exposure~ 1979 [Nantes] (941) Molinari et al 1981 (Toulln] 9% probable asbestos exposure; 23% no history of asbestos exposure 13 cases of pleural mosothelio~a asbestos exposure in only cases~ all smokers Bignon and his collaborators have examined several aspects of mesothelloma such as etiology (942-944), radiologlc and surglcal aspects (945, 946), mineralogical analysis of the lungs (947), bronchoalveolar fluid enzymatic content (948), phagocytic behavior of mesothellal cells (949!, hlstopathologlc (950) and ultramicroscopic changes (951). Bignon and collaborators as well as other scientists in France (952-960) have repeatedly questioned the concepts of their British and American colleagues, speclflcally the primary and exclusive role of asbestos in the pathogenesls of mesothelioma. [422] Italy Prior to 1960, Raga£nl and Sfondrlni (961) reviewed the histologlcal features of pleural malignant mosothelloma in 12 patients residing in Milan. An occupational exposure to asbestos was not considered. In the 1970s, ~the followlng
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 283 series of mesothelloma patients, most of them asbestos workers, were reported: Investigator [City/State/Country] (962) Rublno et al 1972 -~Turin] (963) Bianchi et al 1978 [Trieste] (964) Bianchi et al 1981 [Monfalcone] (965) Bianchi et al 1982 [Monfalcone] P1eural Mesothelloma Number or Percentaqe 54 oases of pledral ~esothelioma = 5 occupational ~e~to~ exposure~ 3 domestic exposure 26 oases of pleural mesothelloma = 22 occupational asbestos exposure 4 oases of pleu~al ~esothelloma - 3 occupational asbestos exposure~ 1 domestic exposure 11 cases of pleural mesothelioma = 9 occupational asbestos exposure; 1 demestic exposure It should be noted that occupational exposure to asbestos was of primary importance in shipbuilding areas, such as Trieste and Monfalcone. However, history of asbestos exposure could not be elicited in 81 percent of cases reported from Turin. [423] Switzerland Avrll (966) reviewed the diagnostic aspects of 16 cases of mallgnant mesothelloma: I~ pleural .and 3 peritoneal. R~ttner (967) retrospectively examined a group of 48 pleural mesothelloma patients: 39 of them involved occupatlonal ZO6Z77~I79H
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 284 exposure to asbestos, 6 had no history of asbestos exposure although asbestos was detected in the pulmonary tlssuel the remaining 3 cases had no history of asbestos exposure and asbestos ~ould not be detected in the lung. [424] Scandinavia . On the occasion of the 1980 International Course on Occupational Respratory Diseases held in Finland, Huuskonen (968) reviewed the observed/expected ~ortallty ratio in eight countries (including Finland) and arrlved'at a ratio of 1.3. That pleural mesothelio~a is rare in Finland has been inter- preted to mean that exposure to anthophylllte asbestos does not increase the risk as much as exposur~ to Crocidolite. The studies reported from Norway indicated that most pleural mesothelloma patients have been exposed to asbestos: all of 7 reported by Kjuus et al (969) and 16 out of 37 reported by Gulsvlk et al (970). The incidence of pleural mesothelloma in Sweden is higher than in the neighboring countries. In a series of 27 pleural mesothello~a patients, H~gerstrand et al {971) detected asbestos bodies in the lungs An approximately half, but the control series showed about the same incidence. The authors questioned th~ significance of N N
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 285 presence of asbestos bodies to mean that asbestos is a primary cause of mesothelloma. ? [425] Belgium and the Netherlands Although articles on mesothelioma appeared in Belgium (972) and the Netherlands (973) Prior to 1960~ a~esothelioma Registry was not established in the former country but only in the latter country (974-976). From 1969 through 1975, 294 cases of mesothelioma were recorded, with the largest concen- tration found in Rotterdam. To determlne.~he role of asbestos exposure, 67 mesothelioma cases were studled~ 31 from the Rotterdam area that included shipyards, and 36 from other parts of the country far away from shipyards. Asbestos exposure proved to be definite or probable in 84 percent of mesothelioma cases from the Rotterdam ares and in 61 percent of cases in other areas. Asbestos exposure was unlikely or absent in the history of 7 Percent of the Rotterdamers, and in 33 percent of cases in the rest of the country. In other words, in a shipbuilding area, majority of cases could be attributed to asbestos exposure, proportionately more than in non- shipbuilding areas. Stumphlus (977, 978) examined a grou~ of 25 patients with pleural mesothelioma on the Dutch island of Walcheran.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 286 All but 3 of the 25 cases had been employed in the shipyard at some time. It has ~een estimated that among shlpbuilders, the mesothelioma attack rate is about i00 per i00,000 There are no co~paratlve countries. estimates in the men years. neighboring [426] Eastern Europe There are no Mesothelioma Registries in Eastern Europe. However, there are reports of cases of pleural mesothelloma. Pleural Mesothelloma Httmber or Percentage 12 cases of pleural mesothelioma = 2 occupational asbestos exposure 13 cases of pleural mesothelioma = no correlation with asbestosis 1 case of pleural mesothelioma with asbestosls Investigators [City/State/Country] (979) Bursova & Pesek 1981 [Prague CZE] (980) Haskovcova 1979 (981) Haskovcova 1981 [Prague CZE] (982) HaJduklewlcz et al 1975 [LSd~ POL] local cases compared with those reported from other countries 28 cases of pleural mesothollomas: asbestos exposur~ not included (983) Kovac-Stojkovski 1979 [Zagreb YUG] (984) Rcmanychev 1979 [Moscow RUS] N C~ N
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 287 [427] Turkey The appearance of cases of pleural mesothelloma in Anatolia (Turkey) signifies that asbestos is not the only causative Inhalant. Since asbestos does not occur in the local sol1 or rock, nor is it handled in the village, Barls et al (9~5-993)~ave ........ sug~este~ that !o~a].I-._~ ...... m~m~ .~e~llte is the causative agent. The investigators cited observations indlcat- ring that mesothelioma is not familial in origin, and is not • related to cigarette smoking (988). Turki~sh Inun~grants resld- ing in Sweden have been screened resulting 2n the detection of three cases of pleural mesothelioma (994). Mineralogical analysis of lung tissue from two of the cases revealed the presence of both zeolite and asbestos minerals, suggesting to the investigators a synergistic action involving both types of minerals. [430] Pleural Mesothelioma Studies in the United States There is a general impression among non-asbestos researchers that ~esothelioma research in the United States is largely conducted by Sellkoff and his associates at the Mount Sinai Hospital (New York City} and the Barnert Memorial. Hospital Center (Paterson, Ne~ Jersey}. -- A review of the literaure reveals that this impression is far from the truth and that approximately less than 1 percent of pleural mesothe- :~06;~77~1798
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 288 lioma cases reported in the United States were included in the Mount Sinai Hospital prospective study of asbestos insulators [Category 300]. Sellkoff has been so active in uncovering the role of asbestos fiber and cigarette smoking as synergistic causative agents for asbestos associated diseases, that most ~£ his ....publi~a~$ons_on pleurai ~otheli~a ~rerepetltiv~ i~ content. [431] Mount Sinai Hospital Group~ New Yor~ and New Jersey o The attribution that Sellkoff and his collaborators "discovered" the causal relationship between asbestos and pleural mesothelloma probably originated from their publication on the relation between asbestos ~nd exposure that appeared in 1964 and 1965 in three separate publications (995-997). The contents of the three publications refer to the same group of i0 mesothelloma deaths from 307 consecutive deaths among asbes- tos insulation workers in New York and New Jersey. However, only 4 cases of pleural mosothelloma were included (six peritoneal}. These four cases of pleural ~esothel~oma was the origin of a projected increasing mortality from asbestos- associated mesothelloma (843). It is important to recognize that Selikoff et al Included 4" ~ddltlona~ cases of pleura1 mesothelioma (among 26 consecutive autopsies of cases of
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [4~0 series] March 30, 1983 289 asbestosls autopsied by two pathologists) and used mesothelloma cases from the Army Institute of Pathology to support their conclusion that mesothelloma "m~st be added to the neoplastic risk of asbestos interaction" in the United States. After 1965, mesothelloma research accelerated in pace but it is the opinion of this reviewer that the efforts were initiated "because oFre~ult~ from scle~tist~ a~road~ partlcu- larly from South Africa [Category 410] and Contlnental Europe [Category 420]. Since 1965, Sellkoff's group has not added any more mesothelioma cases to support their s~pposedly orfglna~ concept that asbestos is the cause of mesothelloma. During the past 18 years, their publications relate to management of patients [Category 460] and diagnosis by hlstochemlcal techniques (998), electron microscopy (999) and pathology of mesothelloma (1000-1006). [432] Additional studies in New York State Although the Mount Sinai Hospital Group reported the first group of I0 mesothelloma patients detected in the New York City area, the Sloan-Ketterlng Cancer center has reported 123 patients diagnosed from 1949 to 1980. In the 1982 publica- tion of Brenner et al (1007) inform~tlon on asbestos exposure was omitted. However, in the discussion of the etiologic
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [~00 Series] March 30, 1983 290 factors, they enumerated non-asbestos causes such as serious lung disease, tuberculosis, chemlcal pneumonia, radiation and industrial dusts and chemicals. They specified that 14 of the£r patients had a history of previous lung disease, one had received prior radiation to the chest, and 14 had been exposed to industrial dusts and chemicals other than asbestos. Among uhe ~5 r~terence~ c~ted by Brenner- et al (1007) only one reference from the Mount Sinai Hospital Group is cited, not on asbestos-associated mesothelloma, but on the subject of chemotherapy. Vianna et al (1008) from the New York State Department of Health su~earlzed the 288 patients diagnosed as mesothelioma in the State outside of New York City. Of 193 male patients, death certificates registered in 1973 through 1978 were obtain- ed for 170. Only 39.4 percent of ~esothelioma patients had well established asbestos-related occupations. Contrary to the experiences of the Mount Sinai Hospital Group, the results suggested that there was no apparent increase in the incidence of mosothelloma from 1973 through 1978. Vianna et al (1008) concluded that the epidemiologlc patterns of malignant mesothe- ioma differ in various sections of New York ~tate. Highly populated industrialized areas in close ploxlmity to major waterways had higher average incidence rates than the State as
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 291 a whole. Only one of 18 references cited by Vianna et al was attributed to Selikoff et al (1964 publicatlon). [433] Additional studies in New Jersey There are two groups in New Jersey that have not collaborated with the Mo,unt Sinai Hospital Group. In 1967, ~orow ~t al (i00~)-~ from ~the S~-~erset Hospital collected 9 pleural mesothelioma cases dla~nosed at surgery. By 1973, Horow et al (I010) had reviewed 72 cases of mesothelloma in asbestos workers, two of them exposed t~ asbestos in their neighborhood. The cytopatholcgy of 75 cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma" was recently reviewed by Trlol et al (1011). [434| Connecticut Bruckman et al (i012) from the Connecticut Department of Health identlf~ed 133 residents diagnosed with mesothelioma between 1935 and 1972. The authors attributed the ten-fold rise since 1935 to the increase in the state's "cumulative asbestos consumption". Since the complete occupational histories for the 133 cases ware not presented, Lewlnsohn et al (1013) reexamined the records of the Connecti~t Tumor Registry which by 1977 had already identified 229 cases of malignant
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 292 mesothelioma, 147 of which were pleural in nature. The authors concluded that since there was a serious question of diagnostic reliability, the recent increase in incidence rates cannot yet be accurately estimated. (435] Massachusetts TLe investigators from MassachuSetts have not published any estimate of the recent apparent rise in incidence of mesothelioma. Most of their publications are concerned with case reports of mesothelloma among asbestos workers (1014, 1015), and new diagnostic techniques including hlstochemlst~y, immunology and electron microscopy (1016-1019). Hasan et al (1020) in a review of 28 years experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital, concluded that half of 36 eases of mesothelioma were not associated with exposure to asbestos. [436] Pennsylvania Lieben and Pistawka (1021) from the Pennsylvania State Department of Health, sun~narized the clinical histories of 42 cases of mesothelloma reported from 152 hospitals diagnosed between 1958 and 1963. • Survivors of employer~ or both were questioned regarding the possibility of asbestos exposure and the results were as follows:
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 293 i0 patients worked in asbestos plants~ 8 patients resided or worked close to an asbestos industry; 3 patients had asbestos workers in their family~ 10 patients with assumed exposure to asbestos after prolonged questioning; and llpatlents had no history or asbestos exposure. [437] Virginia Several large shipyards operated ~hrough World War II in Tidewater," Virginia. Tagnom et al (1022) conducted a case- control study from 1972 to 1978. Among the 61 cases identified as mesothelioma, 75 percent of the cases had been employed in the shipbuilding industry, nearly all beginning employment prior to 1950. Asbestos/Clgarette Smoking Interaction. The relative risks of mesothelloma were calculated by Tagnom et al (1022) according to the following smoking categories: Mesothelloma Controls Age-Adjusted R.R. Never Smoked 15 42 1.0 Others~ current~ 41 192 0.6 <0.5 packs/day 6 Ii 1.5 0.5 to 1.5 packs/day 22 91 0.7 2+ packs/day 2 37 _ 0.i Former smokers i0 46 0.6
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 294 Using "the entire control series, the investigators noted a 40 percent reduction in ~esothelioma risk associated with current and former smokers. There was a significant trend of decreasing mesothelloma risk with increasing amounts of cigarettes smoked (p<0.01). The above publlcation is the only one showing that cigarette smoking reduces the risk of ~esothelloma. The inverse association needs further study to determine if the phenomenon may be related in part to a "competing risk of death, particularly from lung cancer and fibrosis, resulting from the greatly enhanced effects of asbestos among heavy smokers" (1022). [438] Texas Roggli et al (1023) reported 24 cases of mallgnant mesothelloma (19 pleural) and compared the lung asbestos contents of mesothellomatous lungs with lungs obtained from 50 consecutive adult autopsies conducted at the Methodist Hospital (Houston). The malignant mesothelioma Patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of Patients with pulmonary a~bestosls. Eleven of the 24 cases had history of occupational exposure whereas the remaining 13 did not have any exposure
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Asbestos/SmOking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 295 (1023). Three possible alternatives were discussed to explain the occurrence of mesothelioma in patients who are not occupationally exposed to asbestos and had low asbestos body counts : First, is that there is no threshold level of asbestos exposure below which mesothelioma will occur; hence a certain small, percentage of susceptible Indlviduals . will develop mesothelioma in any industrialized society in which there is ubiquitous asbestos contamination of the environment. Second is that those indivlduals with low asbestos body counts were subjected to undetected.', occupational or environmental exposure to submicroscopic asbestos fibers which does not readily form asbestos bodies. Third is that factors other than asbestos may be Involve_d in the pathogenesis of mesothelloma. The mesothelioma patients collected illustrate the possible role of tuberculosis, employment In the petrochemical or oil refinery industry, and engineering jobs involving site visits at a refinery or chemical plant (1023). [439] Pleural meso~helloma incidence estimates for the United States Cancer registries in Washington, Hawaii, New Mexico, Connecticut, Michigan, Utah, Louisiana and ~owa were contacted by Hinds (1024) for the determination of mesothelloma incidence
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 296 rates. The highest rates for ~oth males and females were found in the New Orleans area of Louisiana, and the Puget Sound area of Washington, both with significant shipbuilding activity. The age adjusted incidence rates for the 8 States range from 4.4 to 11.1 per mllllon per year for males, and from 1.2 to 3.3 per million per year for females. Scientist from England (1025-1030) have made their own predictions of increasing incidence of mesothelloma in the United States. It is a mystery to this reviewer why the British scientist were encouraged to make A~erlcan projections. These predictions were probably directed to the United Sates Government to use federal funds for compensating mesothelioma patients. [440] Pleura1 Malignant Mesothelioma Case.Reports Prior to 1960, mesothelloma was conslder.ed a very rare tumor in the United States and elsewhere. -The case reports enumerated ~elow show a lack of information on exposure to asbestos dust. After 1960, although most case reports have a history of exposure to asbestos, there are some who deny such exposure. ~
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 297 [441] American Case Reports Prior to 1960 The first published mesothelioma case in the United States dates back to 1917 and addltional case reports appeared in subsequent years. It should be noted that the causal relationship to asbestos was not suspected until 1960 by scientists from South Africa [Category 411]. The discussion of ~o~sible etiology in the early c~e rep~.ts.~sconfined to t~le role of trauma, primary pleural cancer and preexisting cancer outside of the pleura~ Investigators [City/State/Country]... (1031) Keilty 1917 [Philadelphia PAl (1032) McDonnel & Maxwell 1920 [Scranton PAl (1033) Wood & Walter 1921 [Sedalia MO] (1034) Zeckwer 1924 [Boston MA] (i035) Nesbltt et al 1958 [St. Albans NY] (1036) Miller et al 1958 [Rochester MN] (1037) Storer & Hooper 1960 [Cleveland OH] Sex, Age, Occupation Clinical Manlfes~tlon Male, age, salesman: died of systemic mestastases Male, 31 years, soldier: cerebr~l mestastases Male, 45 years, teacher~ crushing injury 22 years previously • Female, 57 years, occupation: metastases to heart, brain and adrenals Male, 42 years, naval officer: abdominal metastases with hypoglycemia Female, 32 years, nurse: mammary carcinoma at 4 years Male, 47 yearsz cystic lesion a~tedated mesothelloma
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 298 Most of the above publications are not included in the 1978 monograph by Selikoff and Lee (842). This monograph attributed the first case of pleural mesothelloma in an asbestos worker to a 1947 cllnIcopathologlc case report from the Massachusetts General Hospital (1038). [442] Post 1960 American and Foreign Case Reports With O-cupatlonal Exposure to Asbestos After 1960, the association of pleural nmsothelloma and asbestos work exposure was repeatedly suggested in case reports from the united States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia and Japan. Most cases were diagnosed from roentgenologic signs of pleural plaques, pleural effusion and pleural calcification. Investigators .[City~State/Country] (1039) Knowles et al 1963 [Boston MA] (1040) Fowler et al 1964 [London GBR] (1041) Steel & Boyd 1965 [London GBR] Sex, Age, Occupation, Clinical Features Male, 56 years, plumber: pleural nmsothelioma with asbestosis and ~estastases to medlast~ntun, pericardltu~, rib, diaphragm and liver Male, 55 years, asbestos bag cleaner: pleural mesothelfoma with pulmonary metastasis Male, 73 years, p1~mbe~rz pleural and perltoneal mesothelioma -- Male, 63 years, asbesto~ product distributor~ pleural calcification preceded mesothelioma
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 299 (1042) Wieckllng 1966 Male, 61 years, insulators [Charlottsville VA] originally diagnosed as benign fibrous mesothelloma but later metastatic (1043)Markham & Dodson Male, 68 years, accountant~ 1968 [Ann Arbor MI| as a soldier during WW~, road construction supervisor and gassed with chlorine (i044) Castleman & McNeeley Male, 63 years, letter carrier 1967 [Boston MA] (1045) Godwin & Jagatlc 1968 [Hines (1046) Rusky 1968 [Royal Navy GBR] previously wor~In~ as painter ahd-r i~et~~ pleura1~ " mesothelloma w~th asbestosls (1047) McGilloway 1968 [GBR] (1048) Champion 1971 (1049) Lewinsohn 1974 [GBR] Male, 50 years, asbestos m~ner: pleura1 mesot~elloma Ma~e, 59 years, ~sbestos ~orker Male, 55 years, resided next to asbestos fact~ry~ pleural calcification preceded diagnosis of mesothello~a Female, 67 years, ~sbestos worker~ calcified stippling preceded diagnosis of ~esothelloma Male, 54 years, pipe lagger: calcified pleural plaques Male, 83 years, retired boilerman, pi~e s~oker~ pleural effusion followed by diagnosis of mesothelioma Male, 31 years, cable maker and dlecaster~ pleural effusion and mesothelloma Male, 32 years~ resided in town of Asbeston since 3 years old! cigarette smoker for 14 years Male, 63 years, asbestos textile worker, ex-smoker, pleural plaques, pleural and perlcardlal mesothelloma
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Asbestos/S~oking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 300 (1050) Golden 1974 [East Northport NYJ (1051) BrlttOn 1976 [GBR] (1052) Rom & Anderson 1977 [New York NY] (1053) Perry et al 1978 [Columbia MO] (1054) Mostert & Melntjes 1979 [RHO] (1055) Goldsteln 1979 (1056) Hartung 1980 [GBR] (1057) Christensen & Rechfeld 1980 [DEN] (I058) Okumura et al 1980 [JAP] (1059) (1963) Langer & McCaughey 1982 [New York Male, 48 years, shipyard worker: repeated episodes of pleural effusion, pleura1 mesothelioma Hale, 71 years, insulation worker: pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma Male, 71 years, asbestos workers: nonsmoker, pleural plaques then mesothelioma Female, 68 years, washed spouse's ~clo~hes:~s~oke~, pl~ural calclflcations Male, 60 years, asbestos exposure as well as to phenol and chlorine, cigarette ~moker: plasmacytoma f£ve times followed by mesothelioma Male, 48 years, ~ockyard worker: mesothelioma with asbestosis Male, 61 years, boilermaker: mesothelloma with asbestosis Female, 35 years, resided at ashes- tos area: calcified me~othelioma Male, 38 years, amosite miner: calcified mesothelloma Hale, 37 years, glassblower, hand- ling of heat-protective cover Male, 46 years, gardener, sawing asbestos cement plates: Female, 55 years, asbestos worker: pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma Hale, 55 years, brake lining worker: pleura~mesothelioma with ~etastases
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [A00 Series] March 30, 1983 301 (1060) Gladfelter et al 1982 [Tampa FL] (1061) Newhouse 1982 [GBR] (1062) Matsumt~ma et al 1982 [Tokyo JAP] (1064) Jackson et al 1982 [Winston-Salem NC] Male, 53 years, shipyard worker, ci@arett~ smoker~ previous herpetic keratltls, pleural effusion then mesothelloma Female, 73 years, asbestos axposure: death certificate show myocardial infarction as cause of death although pleura1 mesothelloma is stated in hospital report M~le: ~5 years, asbestos worker for 27 years as boiler manufacturer, nonsmoker: pleural mesotheliomama Male, 61 years, shipyard worker= pleuritls followed diagnosis of mesothelloma [443] Post 1960 American and Foreign Case Reports Without History of Asbestos Exposure The concurrence of asbestoslassoclated diseases in a household is presently interpreted to mean that an asbestos worker has contaminated family members with asbestos dust in the working clothes. This concept of residential or domestic exposure to asbestos dust originated in the 1970s to explaln why family members of asbestos workers developed asbestos- related diseases, including pleural mesothelloma. A 1922 publication of Josefson (1065) on primary pleural cancer in a Swedish man and wife has been completely overlooked
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Asbestos/Smoking interactions [~00 Series] March 30, 1983 302 by recent investigators of mesothelloma. That the ~arried couple • developed pleural mesothelloma at nine years interval, suggested to Josefson several etiologic concepts that need to be "*recalled at the present time. Josefson cited other examples of a co---on contagion~ both succeeding wives of one man dying of cancer after using the same bed; two previous owners of a house succumbed to cancer in the same way as a third occupant. josefson favored an infectious origin for the cancer. Retros- spectively, it is noticable that both husband and wife who died of pleural mesothelioma had previously s~ffered from herpes zoster. It is inconceivable that asbestos was already widely used in Swedish housholds in the early 1900s. Furthermore, the occupation of the husband was not stated in Josefson's publica- tion (1065). Some recent case reports of pleural masothelioma from the United States examined the role of occupational or domestic exposure to asbestos. Investigators Sex, Age, Occupation, [Clty/State/Country] Clinlcal Features (I066) Strleder et al 1959 Male, 35 years, ? occupatlo~: [Boston MA] pleural mesothelloma with metastases to lungs~, skull, and femur (1067) Fischbein et al Male, 53 years, ? occupatlon~ 1978 [New York NY] unexpected seven-year longevity for mesothelloma
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [~00 Series] March 30, 1983 303 (1068) Chen & Mottet 1978 Male, 59 years, nonsmoker: [Seattle WA] asbestos detected in mesothellomatous lung (1069) Caravelll & zaman Female, 53 years, nonsmoker~ 1978 [New York NY] pleural mesothelloma (1070) Campbell & Greenherg Male, 36 years, cigarette smoker 1981 [Jackson MS] for 15 years~ plural ~esothe- lioma with calclfled liver metastases (1071) Decoufle 1980 Female, 72 y~s, sh~eworker : [Tucson AZ] pleural mesothelioma Male, 60 years, shoeworker: pleural mesothelioma (1072) Steiner et al 1982 Male, 47 years~ 61eural meso- [Philadelphia PA] thelioma with rib destruction. Male, 75 yearsl also with rib destruction Male, 68 yearsl also with rib destruction Female, 66 years: also with rib destruction (1073) Ragalle et al Male, 61 years, cigarette smoker 1983 [Milwaukee WI] for 40 years~ mesothelioma with superior vena cava syndrome [444] Mesothelioma Case Reports in Children Several case reports have been published suggesting that mesothelioma occurring in adults originate from childhood exposure to asbestos (1074-1076). Brenner et al (1077) reported seven cases diagnosed and treated at the Memorlal Sloan- Kettering cancer Center. Among a total of 40 pleural
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [BOO Series] March 30, 1983 304 mesothelloma patients re~orted in the literature, the yotulgest was 1.5 years old. One of the seven cases reported by Brenner et al developed mesothelioma in the same lung where she had a spontaneous pneumothorax four years before, a reported occur- rence al~o seen in adult mesothelioma patients. Wassermann et al (i078], in an attempt to explain a latent period of less than 20 years for childhood mesoth~e~oma, proposed that exposure to asbestos in children took place in fetal llfe. The explanation was based on the results of an ~experimental study showing the presence of asbestos fibers ~ in fetuses after intravenous injection of asbestos dust into dams. [445] Mesothelioma and Tuberculosis Case Reports In 1970, Sleggs (1079) reported the association, of mesothelloma and tuberculosis among Bantu patients. He proposed that tuberculosis predisposed to mesothelloma and that asbestos dust inhalation accelerated the development of pulmo- nary tubercle formation. More recently, Rovlaro et al (1080) examined the association of pleural mesothelioma and tuberculo- sis in a group of 35 patients diagnosed at the Surgical Cllnlc of the Unversity of Milan. Three mesothelloma ~atlents (i~8.5 ratio] also had calcified pleural, tuberculosis. They proposed
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 305 that the chronic irritation of the tuberculotlc pleura increases the oncogenicity of asbestos flb~r. Prenatal exposure to a tuberculostatlc drug is suspected of causing mesothelioma in childhood. Tuman et al (1081) reported a 9 year old ~ale admitted to the University of Chicago Clinics and diagnosed as pleural mesothelloma. After eliminating domestic and environmental exposure to asbestos, the authors proposed that isoniazid adm/nistered to the mother during pregnancy was the etiologic agent. The suggestion was based on experiments showing that isonla~Id administered to pregnant animals induced pulmonary tumors in the offsprings. [446] Familial Clustering of Mesothelio~a A Swedish family with a remarkable aggregation . of malignant mesothelioma was reported by Risberg et al (1082). Random occupational asbestos exposure in the building industry occurred in 4 of the 5 cases, yet there was a low incidence of malignant mesothelloma in the area where the family resided. The authors were not aware of the 1922 publicatlon of Josefson (1065| describing a ~an and wife who both developed pleural mesothelloma. Risherg et al reviewed the more recent literature and concluded that heredity may- be an important predisposing factor in the genesis of mesothelioma.
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r Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [~00 Series] March 30, 1983 306 "Since Wagner's report in 1960, mesothelloma has ~een coupled with exposure to asbestos, and results of many eplde~ologlc and experimental studies support his relationship. No differences have been noted between pleura1 and peritoneal mesothelloma concern- ning the frequency of asbestos exposure. Patients 1-3 and 5 had worked in the building trade, in which random exposure to asbestos is known to occur. The risk of developing ~alignant mesothelloma through do- mestic exposure to asbestos has recently been shown. Too llttle is known of the occupational history of the husband of ~atlent 4~ ..... an_~d, household expos1±~e cannot be definitely excl~ded in the case. That there was occupational asbestos exposure Cases 2 and 3 is supported by results of the energy- dispersive analysls of the lung tissue specimens, even though asbestos fibres are come, only found in the lungs of the general population of most Industrlallz- ed societies. The absence of asbestos in the specimen from Case 5 might be explalne~ by the fact that it represented tissue which was just close to the tumor and was not from the basal parts of the lungs as in Ca~es 2 and 3. The significance of asbestos exposure as the single important etiologic factor may be doubted, partlcularly since slight asbestos exposure was probable in their cases is common, but the incidence of mesothelloma is. .. generally very low. Oels found a relatively sllght assoc~atlon to asbestos exposure among 32 cases of pleural mesothelioma, and suggested other, as yet unknown causes, for this tu~oro However, she may have had difflcult~ in getting an accurate occupational hlstor~= the latent Period between exposure and manifest tumor may be as long as 20-40 years." (1082) [450] ,.Benign Pleural Mesothelloma The second category of primary mesothe1~oma of the pleura is solitary or benign in nature, in contrast to the first category known as diffuse or mal~gnant which is the subject of the preceding sections. In the literature, benign
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 307 pleura1 mesothelloma has received a variety of names incledlng fibrous mesothelloma, localized mesothelloma, subpleural flbro- ma and localized fibrous tumor of the pleura, which altogether reflect the range of clinical and pathologlcal characteristics as well as competing theories of pathogenesls. In the 1950s, one ~ase re~orted ~m JaPan was also suffering from syphilis (1083) and another case reported from Texas had a brother who died from carcinoma of the lung (1084). Cases reported in the 1980s excluded asbestos as an etiologic factor for benign pleural mesothelloma (1085-1089). Brisell et al reviewed the literature on benign pleural mesothelioma, and analyzed 360 cases including eight new cases diagnosed at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Among patients reported prior to 1972, 72 percent had symptoms due to tumor~ chest pain, dyspnea and pulmonary osteoarthropathy (finger clubbing) were each found in at least one-thlrd of patients who had symptoms. Since 1972, only 54 percent of patients were symptomatic, reflecting earlier diagnosis as a result of increased use of chest radiographs in asymptomatlc populations. Although 88 percent of cases after surgical resection were cured, in 12 percent of cases, the tumor was responsible for patient's death because of its extensive intrathoraclc growth (i089}.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 308 Since chest x-ray is an important tool in the initial recognition of benign mesothelioma, it is necessary to review other diseases that are known to confuse the final diagnosis. The list of diseases for differential diagnosis includes the followlng: pseudotumors or pleural nodules.~or.~Ibro-~ thickening of .... -~~ ~ ~i~ura seen in smokers and exsmokers {1090-1092); pseudomesothelloma or carcinoma of the peripheral portion of lung (1093, 1094)I Intrapulmonary mesothelloma or intTapulmonary sarcoma (1095|I pleural metastases (1096); rounded atelectasls (I097)I - radiation pneumon£tls in ashestosis (i098]I The diagnosis of benign mesothelioma can be finalized only after thoracotomy and histological examination of excised tissue. [460| E~.~rapleural Mesothelloma Since mesothelloma is emhryonlcally derived from serous layers of the mesothellum, tumors hlntologlually s~milar to the pleural form are known to occur in the peritone~uu, pericardium and tunlca vaglnalis. When peritoneal masothelloma occurs in asbestos workers, the causative agen~ is believed to be ZO6Z77"I819
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 309 asbestos fibers that reach the abdominal area by one of three routes: (a) ingestion and migration through the lntestlnal wall; (b) ~nhalation followed by lymphatic and blood circulatlon spread to abdominal organs; and (c} inhalation, transpleural migration and passage through diaphragm. The ~hr~ ~propo~ed ~h~n£s~ ai~"~e~ ~J~ " e~per~ental animal observations discussed ~mder Category 100s and a. 1983 abstract by Tianen et al (1099) that mineral fibers can penetrate the diaphragm of mice. [461] Peritoneal Mesothelloma in Asbestos Workers Contrary to the opln~on of investigators interested in asbestos-associated mesothelloma, the first reported case of peritoneal mesothelioma was a German asbestos worker described by Lelcher (Ii00) in 1954. Several case reports followed from the following countries, all asbestos workers and most of them with pulmonary asbestosls~ South Africa (1101); England (1102, 1103); Portugal (1104); Canada (1105). The American case reports were from the follow/ng cities: Lancaster PA (1106);
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions |400 Series] March 30, 1983 310 Jamaica NY (1107); Philadelphia PA (1108); ~altlmore MD (1109) Glendale Heights IL (1110. As in p~.eura~ mesothel~o~a~ there ~-¢~£11~ng issu~ on cytologic diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelloma (Iiii, 1112). t~he [462] Peritoneal Mesothelioma in Non-Asbestos Workers Case reports of peritoneal mesothelioma £n.'patlents who have not been occupationally exposed to asbestos preceded those of asbestos workers. The primary localizations of the abdominal tumor have been varied and included both malignant or diffuse, as well as benign or solitary forms: stomach (1113); intestine (1114-1116); kidneys (1117); secretin~ cystic (ii18-I121); bone marrow metastases (1122]| liver metastases (1123, i124); intestinal diverticulitis (i125); pleural metastases (1126); repeated ascltes (1127); ovarian cysts (1128).
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 311 Most of the above forms of peritoneal mesothellonm were diagnosed after either abdominal surgery or necropsy. [463] pericardlal Mesothelioma Perlcardial ~esothel£oma is the .rarest form of the tumor. Earl~ and r~cent case reports from Virginia (1129), Michigan (i130), Germany (1131, i132), Belgium (1133) and Thailand (1134) do not ~ent~on a history of asbestos exposure. In 1978, Churg et al (1135) reported the' first case of p~ricardlal mesothelioma in a patient who ~5 years previously had been treated for .angina pectoris by dusting of the pericardial cavity with a mixture of fibrous dust. Following this report, other investigators have" reported cases who were. not operated perlcardlally but were occupatlonally exposed to asbestos dust (1136-I139). I~ has b~en suggested that perlcardlal meso- thelioma also be recognized as another form of occupational disease caused by asbestos dust. [464] Mesothelloma of Male Genltalla Mesothelioma has been reported in the testlcular tunlca vaginalis, epldldymis and corpora cavernosa (1140-1143). Meso- thelio~a of tunica vaginalls in two asbestos workers have been
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 312 diagnosed at the Mount Sinai Hospital (1144) and Montef~ore Hospital (1145) of New York. [470] Treatment of Malignant Mesothel~oma The first published discussion of the treatment of mesothelioma was by Elmes (1146) during the 1972 Internatlonal Agency for Research on Cancer Conference on the Biological Effects of Asbestos. At that time, treatment was entirely palliative in nature consisting of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After 1972, the results of mesothelioma therapy have been reported by clln~clans in France (1147, 1148), Germany (1149), Wales (1150), Denmark _ (1151, 1152.), Norway (1153), Finland (1154-1158) and Sweden (1159). During the 31st Nordic Congress of Pneumology held in 1982, Billerdal (1159) reviewed the results of treatment of 4225 patients with malignant mesothelloma from 345 published articles. His conclusions were as follows~ "io The prognosis Is hlghly variable, Average survival from first symptoms was I0 months but single cases can survive i0 years or more° 2. The ep~the- llal type has a much better prognosis and long-tlme survivors (3 years or more) almost excluslvely belong to this cellular subtype. 3~ So-called- radical operation (extrapleural pleuropneumectomy) ~arrled a high operative mortality. Though there undoubtedly are a few long-tlme survivors, those operated upon are highly selected and therefore the benefit of the operation is highly doubtful. 4. 'Curative' radio-
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 313 therapy (4000 fads or more) se~m to prolong survival with a few months. 5. Chemotherapy was very diffl- cult to evaluate, but up to 50% in certain regimens noted a good response. There is not enough data to evaluate survival but the results are prom/slag. Alkylatlng agents, adrlemycln and 5-fluorouracil seemed most interesting. 6. Only large groups ran- domized for cellular type, stage of disease, age and sex, followed prospectively, can possibly add to our understandi~ of treatmentS. ~Inqle-~enter studi~s with small, number of patients treated that way or another will only add to our confusion of how to treat the single patient. This necessitates multi- center studies, preferably international. Urgent agreement on such things as diagnosis, staging, and treatment regimens is necessary in "order to start such a study as soon as possible. Since the tumour is steadily rising in incidence this is even more urgeht. Hopefully, the first step towards such cooperation can he taken during this congress." (1159) Since Hillerdal's publication appeared only as an abstract, it is not possible at -this time to determ/ne the percentage of Americans in the 4225 patients with pleura1 mesothelioma. The published results of American ~nvestigators refer to about 200 cases and are as follows~ (1160) Jara et al 1977 [Buffalo ~Y] = 26 patients; (1161, 1162) Aisner & Wiernlk 1978, 1981 [Baltimore - 108 patients from literature; (1163) Brady 1981 [Philadelphia PAl = 6 patients radiotherapy; (1164, 1165) Chahinlan et al 1978, 1982 [New York NY] 69 patients; (1166, 1167) Antman et al 1980 [Boston MA] ~ 40 patients
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 314 The above publlcations emphasize the importance of chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic lesions. In addition to ~urrently available drugs, there is pro~se that new ones will be developed using animals with experimentally induced mesothelloma (1168-1170) and by proyo~Ing .Imm_unologic responses (1171, 1172). Asbestos/Clgarette Smoking Interaction. Lebovlts et al, in three separate publicatlons (1173-1175), discussed the psychologlcal responses of ~esothelloma patients admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital. Twety-eight of" 38 patients smoked cigarettes and most smoked heavily~ ii stopped smoking before knowing of increased risk of asbestos workers~ 4 never smoked; 3 smoked but were never informed of i~cresed risk Information; and I0 continued smoking after being advised of increased risk of asbestos workers. The investigators did not include any information of alcoholic cons~unption, a significant omission since Watts et al (1176) have reported c~togenetlc changes in peritoneal cells in patients w~th alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. [480] Pleural Plaques and Effusion Although malignant mesothelloma is potentially the most fatal disease of the pleura, there are other pleural diseases
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 315 which, although benign in nature, may later signify malignant changes. Asbestos workers who die of pleural mesothelioma gen~rally show pleura1 plaques (some calcified), and/or pleura1 effusion. The incidence of the appearance of malignancy ranges from i0 to 30 present de~ending on t~ _~opn!~tion group. Among asbestos workers, the incidence is higher than that of the general population indicating that asbestos dust contri- butes to formation of early pleural plaques, pleura1 effusion, and later to pleural malignant mesothelioma (i177~I181). [481] pleural Plaques (Roentgenologic Diagnosis) Pleural plaques are the most common manifestation of exposure to asbestos. The incidences based on routine chest x-ray hav~ been reported for asbestos ~orkers in South Africa (i182), Great Britain (1183-i187), France {i188-I194), Czechoslovakia (i195), Finland (1196) and Sweden {i197-1203). ~n the United States, most research st~dles on pleural plaques have been directed to determine the structure, diffraction patterns and chemical composition of the asbestos fibers contained in lung samples [1204-1206). N
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 316 There is general agreement that pleural plaques signify asbestos exposure but donot necessarIy indicate an increased risk of mesothelioma or bronchogenic carcinoma (1207-1212). Thomson (1210) and Hillerdal (1211, 1212) reviewed the pathogenesis of pleural plaques. Hillerdal reviewed the mec,anlca£ (Inc[,di~g" Tho~0n'~') theory, as well as non-mechanlcal theories. He concluded thatz "None of the variousexistlng theories ~n the patho- genesis of pleura1 plaques is able to explain their pecullarltles. Knowledge of physlology of the lung and pleura and In particular its lymphatic system as well as cellular activities when the cells are ex- posed to asbestos ks necessary when discussing these problems. Short asbestos fibres when phago~ytosed by macrophages will activate these cells to produce various substances ~mong them a factor that will stimulate flbroblasts to produce more collagen. Some of the small fibres will spread towards the vlsceral " pleura of the lung, just like all inhaled dusts. Once ~n the visceral pleura, some of them will pene- trate to the pleural space. There, they will follow the normal lymph flow from the pleural space, which is excl~sively through the parietal pleura. Finally, in passing through the parietal pleura, a portion will remain in macrophages there, causing a low-grade stimulation of the submesothellal flbroblasts. After some decades, this will result in visible pleural plaques°" (1212) Asbestos/Clgarette S~okln~ Xnteractlon. ~n 1980 and 1981, Weiss et al (1213, 1214) reported the results of their survey of workers who had worked " f~ve years or more in an asbesto~ manufactur£n~ plant. They concluded that cigarette
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Asbestos/smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 317 smoking .appeared to be the most important factor in deter~Inlng the prevalence of pleura1 plaquesz lowest in nonsmokers, intermediate in current smokers and high in exsmokers. The results can be criticized for the following reasons: (a) R~duction in number of workers with pleural plaques from first to second publlcatlon. There is no exp1anatlon given by Weiss et al, for their abstract (1213) publlshed in 1980 specified 69 asbestos workers whereas the detailed publication (1214) referred to 45 workers. (b) Questionable confirmation from British studies. Weiss et al (1214) stated that the observations reported by British investigators confirm the results of asbestos/smoking interaction. Weiss et al cited the ~ubllcatlons by Rosslter et al from 1975 to 1980 without mentioning that the British dockworkers were exposed to a different type of asbestos fibers compared to American asbestos workers. These differences are discussed under Category 700s, entitled Occupational Exposure to Asbestos. It suffices to mention here that subsequent to Weiss et al 1981 publication, McM~llan et al (1215) revised their figures for incidence of pleural plaques as f~llows:
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 318 Percentage of Workers with Pleural Lesions Davenport Portsmouth American Asbestos Dockyard Dockyard Factory Current Nonsmokers 6 8 33 Smokers 16 13 42 Exsmokers 15 17 86 ~eiss~gt al (1214>..d[d ~ot e~_=iain.~-.~wh~ the American factory workers showed 3 to 8 times higher incidence of pleural lesions, compared to British dockworkers. (c) Questlonable confirmation fromSwedlsh studies. Weiss et al (1214) have cited the results'of Hillerdal in a 1978 health survey as supportive of asbestos/smoklng interaction. In addition to differences in population groups, Sillerdal and Hillerdal (1216) as recent as 1979 interpreted their earlier results as nonsupportlve of the asbestos/smoklng interaction. More recently, Hillerdal et al (1217) showed that in 45 patients with asbestos-related pleural plaques, there was no synergistic effect betweeen smoking and asbestos on lung ftmction. (d) Lack of asbestos/smoklng interaction on lung f~nctlon. In an attempt to explain the interaction, Weiss et al (1214) cited studies that cigarette smoking alone interferes with lung function and therefor~ could explain "an increased frequency of pleural plaques in exsmokers because damaged clearance mechanisms unaided by continued smoking may lead to ZO6Z77~IS~9
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 319 higher effective doses of asbestos in the tissues'. There are no studies showing specifically that asbestos workers who are also.smokers have retarded mucocillary clearance of asbestos fibers compared to nonsmoklng workers. Regardless of smoking habits, asbestos workers show a .reduced ventilating function ii~i~"~18). ~I~ other published s~udies that'show disturbed lung function do not include measurements of mucoc£1£ary clearance and do not differentiate between smokers and nonsmokers among asbestos workers (1219, 1220)~- [482] Diffuse Pleural Thickening (Lung en Cuirasse) In recent years, several cases of restrictive pleurisy wi~h diffuse pleural thickening ~ave been reported among asbestos workers. The lesion may occur with or without pulmonary asbestosls. It Is estimated that diffuse pleural thickening has the lowest incidence among benign pleural diseases in asbestos workers (1221-1225)o "[483] Pleural Calcification Pleura1 calcification is another dlagnost~c indicator for asbesto~ exposure. Like noncalclfied pla~ques, the presence of calclflcatlon does not necessarily indicate a subsequent development of malignancy. Patients with calcified p1eural 206:~77~1830
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 320 plaques show reduced pulmonary function, partlcularly in those with diaphragmatic calciflcation (1226-1235). Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction. Chailleux et al (1236) measured lung function in 34 subjects with asbestos related pleural calcifications. A third of the subjects were daily) and the remaining third were heavy smokers (more than i0 clgarettes/day). There was no correlatlon found between spirographic data and smoking habits. [484] Pleural Effusion Pleura1 effusion appears as an early sign of pleura1 mesothelloma or pleura1 metastatic c~rclnoma. The differentia- tion can be readily accomplished by cytologic examination of the fluid collected by thoracentesls. However, it should be recognized that pleural effusion may also occur in nonmalignant diseases, such as tuberculosis and emphysema. Pleural effusion rarely occurs with pleura1 plaques or fibrosis'(1237-1258). [490] Asbestos/Cigarette Smokinq Interaction in Patients With Pleural Diseases The preceding review of the literature on pleural mesothelioma includes the following studies that shows n__qo asbestos/smoking interaction: (a) a group of 52 English 2_06277~831
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 321 asbestos workers [Category 41311 (b) a group of 80 Scottish asbestos workers [Category 415|; and (c) a group of 254 Canadian asbestos workers. Only one monograph wrongly reports the existence of asbestos/smoking interaction in p~eural ~eso~elio~a (125~.~h~£c~-3, ot!~-~.r~~-~phaslz-e the absence of interaction (1260-1264). Experimental observations in dairy calves (1265) and canines support the general proposition that there is no interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos dust particles in the environment. The recent _report that cigarette smoking reduces the risk of mesothelioma [Category 437] deserves some attention. If the results are confirmed by additional case control studies, the reduction of risk of one asbestos related disease among c~garette smokers may also apply to other diseases provided a similar epidem~ologlc procedure is used. That cigarette smoking ~ncreases the prevalence of pleural plaques [Category 401] does not necessarily apply to pleural mesothe~iomao The or£gina[ observations relating to a group of asbestos faotory workers do not necessarily apply to other groups of workers with different exposure levels to asbestos dust. The criticisms of the original observation are llsted above [Category 481].
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions [400 Series] March 30, 1983 322 This review on Malignant Mesothelloma and Pleural Diseases started by raising a question as to the absence of asbestos/cigarette smoking synergism which has been hypothe- sized for bronchogenlc carcinoma and pulmonary asbestosiso For ~a~igna~t mesot~e!~.om~ D~ti~uts, synergism waL excluded by examining the smoking habits and comparing them with those of a group of control subjects. It leas not possible to compare mortality statistics of smokers and nonsmokers, either asbestos exposed or not, because of the rarity of mesothelloma compared to bronchogenlc~arclnoma and pulmonary asbestosls. It appears to this reviewer that the presence or absence of synergism is dependent on the epldemiologic technique used. The prospective study that compared the mortality rates of asbestos workers to the general populatlon showed synergism (for bronchogenlc carcinoma and pulmonary asbestosis), whereas case control com- parisons failed to show synergism (for pleura~ mesothelioma). Additlona~ case control studies are needed and those that are reviewed in the next sections dealing on bronchogenlc carcinoma [Care- gory 5OOs] and pulmonary asbestosls [Category 600s] were not designed strictly to conform w~th the 'case contro~ comparisons for pleural mesothelioma.
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Abestos/Smok~ng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 323 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND AUTHOR INDEX Among the 425 articles for Series 400s, a duplicate copy of 298 or 70 percent ~as receive~ from (X). The cumulative total for Series 100s to 400s is 718 out of 1266 articles, or 57 percent. The geographical distribution of the authors contained in the Bibliography is as follows~ United States Category 400s Cumulative 100s to 400s UCA California 9 28 UCO Colorado 1 3 UCT Connecticut 4 7 UDC District of Columbia 1 6 UDE Delaware 1 UFL Florida 1 1 UHA Hawaii 0 2 UIL Illinois 7 17 UIO Iowa 0 3 UKA Kansas 1 1 UKY Kentucky 1 1 ULA Louisiana 0 7 UMA Massachusetts 18 25 UMD Maryland 3 39 UME Maine 0 1 UMI Michigan 5 12 UMN Minnesota 1 15 UMO Missouri 2 4 UNC North Carolina 2 UNE Nebraska 0 2 UN~ New Banpshlre 0 UNJ New Jersey 4 14 UNY New York 40 UOH Ohio 2 26 UPA Pennsylvania 11 41 URI Rho~e Island 1 USC South Carolina 0 8 UTE Tennessee 1 UTX Texas 7 27 UUT Utah 3 ~VT Vermont 1 10 UVA Virginia 4 4 UHA Washington 2 9 UWI Wisconsin 2 3 UWV West Virginia 0 3 121 Total U.So Articles 136 472 Percent of Total 32%
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A~stos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 324 Foreign Articles Category 400s ARG Arg~ntlna 1 ATL Australia 8 15 AUS Austria 0 BEL Belgium 2 5 BUL Bulgar la 0 1 CAN Canada 21 55 CZE Czechoslovakia 5 6 • DEN Denmark 3 5 ~Y Egypt ~- 0 ~ . ....... 4, .... F~N Finland 9 22 FRA France 47 91 GBR Great Britain 83 GER Germany 18 44 IND India 1 27 ISR ~srael 1 3 ITA Italy 10 30 JAP Japan 4 i0 LEB Lebanon 1 1 NET Netherlands _ 8 12 NOR Norway 3 7 POL Poland 2 i0 POR Portugal 1 1 ROM Romania 0 2 RUS Russia 2 14 SAF South. Africa 23 56 SPA Spain 2 3 SWE SWede~l 20 32 SWI Switzerland 2 5 TAI Taiwan 0 THA Thailand 1 TUR Turkey i0 YUG Yugoslavia 1 4 Total Foreign Articles 289 percent of Total 68~ Grand Total 425 Percent of Grand Total I00% Cumulat/ve 100s to 400s 63~ 315 794 1266 100~ [Note= Bibliography of the 400s Series starts on the next page]
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 325 0842 Sellkoff IJ, Lee DHK (1978) Acades~Ic Press, New York 549 pages Asbestos and Disease. 0843 Sellkoff IJ (1982) Environ Sol Lab, Mr. Sinai Hospital, New York 440 pages Disabillty compensation for asbestos-assoclated disease in the United States. 0844 Commercial Union Insurance Companies (1982) C~merclal Union Insurance Companies, Boston 179 pages Asbestos, Smoking and Disease - the scientific evidence. 0845 . Weiss A (1953) Medlzinlsche 1:93-94 Pleurakrebs bel Lungenasbestose, in vivo morphologlsch gesichert. 0846 Knapp~ann J {1972) Pneumono~ogle 148:60 Beobachtungen an 251 obduzlerten Mesothellom-Fallen in Hamburg (1958-1968). 0847 Haln E, Da/quen P, Bohllg E, Dabbert A, Hinz I (1974) Int Arch Arbeltsmed 33:15-37 Retrospective study of 150 cases of mesothelloma in Hamburg area. (German) 0848 Otto B (1980) Pathologe 2:8-18 Occupational mesothelioma in Germa,y. (German) 0849 Konetske GW, Beck B Arch Geschwulstforsch 51:567-574 Risk factor asbestos. (German) 0850 Huzly A (1981) Therapiewoche 31:7593-7794, 7596, 7599, 7602, 7611-7612 Malignant pleural tumors. (German)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 326 0851 Calavrezos A, Hain E (1982) Dtsoh Med Wochenschr 107:903-906 Malignant diffuse ~esothelioma of the pleura: securing a diagnosis. (German) 0852 Wagner OC, Sleggs CA, Marcband P (1960) Br J Ind Med 17:260-271 Diffuse pleural ~eso~h~l~om~ and ~be~to~ ~posure in the North Western Cape Prov~nce. 0853 Wagner JC (1962) Proc Int Congr Occ~p Health (14th) Asbestos dust exposure and malignancy. 0854 Webster I (1973) ~ARC Sol Publ No. 8~ 195-198 Malignancy in relatien to crocidollte and ~mosite. In: Biological effects of asbestos. (X) 0855 Cochrane JC, Webester Z (1978) S Air Med J 54~279-281 Mesothellosm.in relation to asbestos fibre exposure. A review of 70 ser£a~ cases. 0856 Solomon A (1970) Environ Res 3~330-338 ~adlo~oglcal features of diffuse ~esothelioma. 0857 Thoumon JG (~970~ Int Pneumoconios£s Conf 3:150-154 The pathological diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma of pleura and peritoneum. (X) 0858 Earlngton JS (1971) ~ature 232:54-55 Asbestos and m~sothelloma in man.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 327 0859 Talent JM, Har£son ~iO, Solomon A, Webster I (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30; 2:723-729 A surveyof black mlneworkers of the Cape crocidol~te mines. (x) 0860 Gilson JC (1966) Trans Soc Occup Med 16262-74 Health hazards of asbestos. Recent studies on its biological effects. (X) 0861 Thomson JG (1963) Br Med J 5323~123 Exposure to asbestos dust and diffuse pleural mesotheliomas. 0862 Eastwood EH, Martin JP (1921) Lancet 2z172-174 A case of primary tumour of the pleura. 0863 Owen WG (1964) Br Med J 5403~214-218 Diffuse mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos dust in the Merseyslde area. 0864 Newhouse ML, Thompson H (1965) Br J Znd Me~ 22:261-269 Mesothelloma of pleura and peritoneum following exposure to asbestos in the London area. 0865 ~ewhouse ML (1967) Practitioner 199~285-293 The medical risks of exposure to asbestos. 0866 ~ Smither WJ (1966) Proc Roy Soc Med 59~57-59 Asbestos, asbestosis, and mesothelloma of the pleura. 0867 W~Itwell F, Rawcllffe RM (1971) Thorax 2626-22 Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelloma and asbestos exposure.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 328 0868 Edge JR (1976) Environ Res ii:244-247 Asbestos related disease in Barrow-in-Furness. (X) 0869 Sheers G (1980) Arch Environ Health 35~276-282 Mesothelioma risks in a naval dockyard. (X) Acheson ED, Gardner MJ, Bennett C, Winter PD (1981) Lancet 2:1403-1405 Mesothel£oma in a factory using amoslte and chrysotile asbestos. (X) 0871 Anonymous (1973) Lancet 1:815-816 Asbestos leads to lung cancer. 0872 Heppleston AG (1974] Environ Health Perspect %:295-296 Correlation between the tissue response and asbestos fiber content. 0873 Acheson ED, Gardner MJ (1979) Arch Environ Health 34:240-242 Meaothelloma and exposure to mixtures of cbrysotile and amphlbole asbestos. 0874 Jones JSP, Pooley FD, Clark NJ, Owen WG et al (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30~ I~187-199 The pathology and mineral content of itlngs in cases of mesothelloma in the United Kingdom in 1976. (X) 0875 McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Pooley FD (1982) Ann Occup Hyg 26~417-422 Mineral fibre content of lung in mesothellal tumours in North America.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 329 0876 Ashcroft T, Heppleston AG (1970) Int pneumoconlosis Conf 3:177-179 Mesothelioma and asbestos in Tyneslde. A Pathological social study. (X) 0877 Law MR, Hodson ME, R~ard B~ (1982) Thorax 37:810-815 Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura~ relation between his~logica~ type ~r.d cii~Ica! benav~our. (X) 0878 Butler EB, Berry AV (1973) IARC Scl Publ No. 8~68-73 Diffuse mesothellomas~ diagnostic criteria using exfollative cytology. (X) _ 0879 Gellert AR, Steel SJ (1982) Br J Dis Chest 765303-305 Pleura1 mesothelioma: Diagnosis by trephine biopsy. (x) 0880 Herbert A, Gallagher PJ (1982) Thorax 371816-821 Pleural bigpsy in the diagnosis of ~allgnant mesothelioma. 0881 Herbert A~ Gallagher PJ (1982) J Pathol 137~57-58 Mesothelial proliferation in pleural biopsies. (X) 0882 Newhouse ML (1981) Semln Oncol 8~250-257 Epldemiology of asbestos-related tumors. (X) q883 Newhouse ML, Berry G (1976) Br J Ind Med 33z147-151 Predictions of mortality from mesothellal tumours in asbestos factory workers. 0884 McDonald C, McDonald A (1979) Lance~ 2:1074 Age an~ latency in mesothelloma. (X) and (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 330 0885 Peto J (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30, 2:703-711 The ~ncldence of pleural ,;esothello~a in chrysotile asbestos textile workers. 0886 Anonymous (1981) Lancet 2 : 1397-1398 Amosite asbestos and mesothelioma. (X) 0887 Peto J, Seldman H, Sellkoff IJ (1982) Br J Cancer 45 =124-135 Mesothelloma mortality in asbestos workers: implications for models of carcinogenesis and rfsk assessment. 0888 GOld C (1969) J Clln Path 22=507-509 Asbestos levels in human lungs. 0889 Gilson JC (1972) Composites 3 ~ 57-59 Health hazards of asbestos. (X) 0890 " Wagner JC~'.Berry G, Pooley F (1982) Br Meal J 2:603-606 Mesothellomas and asbestos type In asbestos textile workers: study of lung ~ontents. (X) 0891 wagner JC (1964) Intern Congr Occup Health (14th) 3=1066-1067 Asbestos ~lust exposure an~ malignancy. 0892 Wagner JC ( 1972 ) Ann Occup Hyg 15 ~ 61-65 Current opinions on the asbestos cancer problem. 0893 POOley FD (1973) IARC Scl PUbl No. 8; 222-225 Mesothelioma in relation to exposure. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 331 0894 Constantinldls K (1977) Br J Clin Pract 31:89-101 Asbestos exposure - its related disorders. (X) 0895 McCaugbey WTE, Oldham PD (1973) IARC Sci S¢i PUbl No. 8! 58-61 Diffuse mesotheliomas: observer variation in hlstologlcal diagnosis. (X) 0896 Butler EB, Johnson NF (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30; 1=409-418 The use of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of diffuse mesothellomas using human pleura1 effusions. (X) 0897 Gardner MJ, Acheson ED, Winter PD (1982) Br J Cancer 46:81-88 Mortallty from mesothelioma of the pleura during 1968-78 in England and Wales." (X) 0898 Le Roux BT (1962) Thorax 17=111-I19 Pleura1 tumours. (x) 0899 McEWen, F~nlayson A, Malr A (1971} Int Arch Arbeltsmed 28~301-311 Asbestos and mesothelloma in Scotland. An epidemlological study. 0900 Dormard AJ, Stack EHR (1981) BE J Dis Chest 75:397-402 Diffuse malignant pleura1 mesothelioma in Glasgow. (X} 0901 Dormard AJ (1981) Scott Med J 26:177 Pleural mesothelloma in Glasgow. (X) 0902 Davis JMG (1974) J Natl Cancer Inst 52~1715-1725 Ultrastructure of human ~esothellomas.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 332 0903 Greenberg g (1973) IARC Scl pub1 No. 8; 273-276 The value of a cancer register in the study of asbestos tu~nours. (X) 0904 Greenberg M, Davies TAL (1974) BE J Ind Med 31:91-104 Mesothelloma register 1967-1968. 0905 Elmes PC, wade OL (1965) Ann NY Acad Scl 132:549-557 Relationship between exposure to asbestos and pleural malignancy in Belfast. 0906 Elmes PC, McCaughey WTE, Wade OL (1965) Br Med J 1:350-353 Diffuse mesothello~ma of the pleura and asbestos. 0907 Elmes PC (1973) IARC Scl Publ No. 8~ 267-272 The natural history of diffuse mesothelloma. (X) 0908 Elmes PC (i979) Br J Dis Chest 73~50-51 Asbestos and mesothelioma. (X) 0909 McBult~ JC (1962) Me~ J Aust 49:953-954 Malignant pleu~al mesothel~oma in an asbestos worker. 0910 Grlffltbs MH, Ridde11 RJ, Xipell JM (1980) Pathology 12~591-603 Malignant m~sothelloma~ a review of 35 cases with and prognosis. (x) 0911 Langlois ALP, Glancy JJ, Henderson DW (1978) AUSt Radlol 22:305-314 The radiology of malignant pleura1 mesotbelloma in Western Australia. (X) diagnosis
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 333 0912 Whitaker D, Shilkln KB (1981) Lancet 1:1369 Carcinoembryonic antigen in tissue diagnosis of ~allgnant mesothelloma. (X) 0913 Henderson DW (1982) Pathology 14:239-243 Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: asbestosls, mesothe~i~ma and~.!ung c~cer. 0914 Mortimer RH, Campbell CB (1968) Med J Aust 2~720-722 Asbestos exposure and pleural mesotheliomas. 0915 McCullagh SF (1978) Lancet 2|521-522 Non-occupational _ exposure to asbestos mesothelloma. 0916 Vallee A (1920} Can Med Assoc J I0~268-269 A case of @ndothelloma of the pleura with multiple metastasis. 0917 Haust MD, Kepkie GF (1959) Can Meal Assoc J 81~918-922 Pleural mesothelloma: Case report features. (X) 0918 McDonald AD, Harper A, El Attar OA, McDonald JC (1970) Cancer 26 s 914-919 Epidem~ology of primary mallgnant mesothellal tumors in Canada. 0919 ~ McDonald AD, Harper A, E1 Attar DA, McDonald JC (1970) Int Pneumoconlosis Conf 3t197-200 Epidemiology of primary malignant mesothelial tumours Canada. (X) 0920 McDonald A D (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330t441-454 Mesothelioma registries An Ident~fylng asbestos hazards. (X) and malignant and some diagnostic
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 334 0921 McDonald AD (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30~ 2z673-680 Malignant mesothelioma in Quebec. (X) 0922 Magner D, McDonald AD (1972) New Eng J Med 287¢570-571 Malignant mesothelial tumors - histologlc type and asbestos exposure. 0923 Tao LC (1979) Aota Cytol 23:209-213 The cytopathology of mesothelloma. (X) 0924 Benjamin CJ, Ritchle AC (1982) Am J Med Technol 48~905-908 Histological staining for the diagnosis of mesothelloma. (X) 0925 Dionne GP, Wang NS Lab Invest 36:356 A scanning electron microscopic study of diffuse mesothelioma and some lung carcinomas. (X) 0926 Eyssen C~1"(19801 Chest 78 (Suppllz411-414 Development of radiographic abnormallty in chrysotile miners and millers. 0927 Chovll A, Stewart C (1979) Lancet 2~853 Latency period for mesothelloma. (X) 0928 Shugar S (1979) Natl Res Count Can Publ 103-112 Effects of asbestos in the Canadian environment. Effects of asbestos on man (mesothel¢oma). (X) 0929 Campo MA (1953) Pocuuon 9:263-265 Mesothel¢oma of the pleura. (French) (X)
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Ab~stos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 335 0930 Abelanet R, Jagueux M, Fo~di~are A, Roujeau J (1979) Rev Fr Mal R~sp 7~243-264 Pleural mesothel£oma: morphology, hlstochemlstry, diagnostic dlfficultles, and nosologic problems. (French) (X) 0931 Bignon J, RuffLe P (1977) Pollut Atmos 76z367-371 Malignant ~esothelloma. Its- relationship with pollution caused by a~bestes. (Fr-.~luh)(.~ 0932 Bignon J, Sebastlen p, Dimenza L, Payan H (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330z455-466 French Mesothelioma register. 0933 Bignon J, Sebaatlen P, Di Menza L, Nebut M, Payan H (1979) Rev Fr Mal Respir 7:223-241 French register of ~esothellomas 1965-1978 (French) (X) 0934 Perdrizet S, Bignon J, Di Menza L, Nebut M (1980} IARC Sol Publ No. 30~ 2~697-701 French ~esothelloma register: critical appraisal of the registered ~ata. (X) 0935 Boutln C (1975} Poumon Coeur 31~iii-I18 Benign asbestoslc pleurisies (apropos of 3 cases). (X) 0936 Boutln C, Pietrl JF, Beddou M, Alabdu~lah F (1978) Rev Fr Mal Respir 6t331-334 Radlologlcal data obtained at the asbestos mine in Canarl. (French) (X) 0937 Boutln C, Farisse P, Viallat JR, Cargnino P, Choux R (1979) Thorax 34~692-693 Thoracoscopy in pleural mesothe~oma. (X) 0938 Irlsson M, Valardocchlo JM, Via~at JR, Boutln C (1983) Potlmon Coeur 39~5-II Malignant pleural mesothelloma~ clinical aspects and course of 38 cases in the region of Marse[l~e. (French) (X) (French)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactio,s [400] Series, March 30, 1983 336 0939 Lajartre MD, Cornet E, Corroller J, et al (1976) Ray Fr Mal Rasp (Suppl) 4~63-74 Etude cllnique et professionnelle de 54 mesotheliomes pleuraux diffus. (X) 0940 Lajartre MD, Lajartre YD (1979) Ann N¥ Acad Scl 330:323-332 Mesothelioma on the coast of BrlttanT, Franc-. (X) 0941 Molinari D, Verdier M, Simon A, Gontler C, Pibarot JC (1981) Mad Armees 9:381-388 Pleural mesotheliomas. (French) (X) 0942 Bignon J, Nebut M (1981) CM 7:135 Le mesothellomeo 0943 Bignon J (1980) CM 102-10:1403-1404 Les Mesotheliomes. 0944 Di'Menza L,.~Irsch A, Sebastlen P (1982) Arch Mal Prof 431672-673 Etiological study concerning 26 malignant mesotheliomas. (French) (X) 0945 Di Menza L, Hirsch M, Marigold M, Bignon J (1979) Ann ~Y Acad Sci 330z787-789 Radiologic and surgical aspects of the diaphragm in asbestos exposure. (X) 0946 Hirsch A, Di Mensa L, Dorbon F, Carte A, Bignon J (1950) IARC Sol Publ No. 30; 523-526 Diaphragmatic straightness in 302 asbestos-expesed patients.
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A~estos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 337 0947 Hirsch A, Brochard P, cremoux ~D, Erkan Let a~ Am J Ind Med 3~4~3-422 Features of asbestos-exposed and unexposed mesothelloma. (X) 0948 Jaurand MC, Ga~dichet A, Atas~i K, Sebastlen P, Bignon J (1980) Bull Europ. Physlopath Resp 16~595-606 Relationship between the number of asbestos fibres and the cellular and enzymatic content ofbronchoalveolar fluid in 0949 Jaurand MC, Kaplan H, Thlollet J, Pinchon MC, et als (1979) Am Assoc Pathol 5acterlol 94~529-538 Phagocytosls of chrysotile fibers by pleural ~esothelial cells in c~llture. 0950 Srochard P, Ameille J (1981) Solns 26~31-36 Pathology relating t~ the inhalation "of as-bes~os. (French) 0951 Stoebner P, Bernaudin JF, Nebut M, Basset F (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330~751-760 Contrlbutlon'of electron microscopy to the diagnosis of pleural mesothellom~. (X) 0952 Champeix J (1976) Arch Mal Prof 37~595-628 Asbestos ~a~hology. (French) (X) 0953 ~lina C, Delage ~ Mercier R (1968) Poumon Coeur 24~487-492 Primary pleural tumors. (French) (X) 0954 Chretlen J (1979) Rev Fr Mal Respir 7=221-222 Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. (French) (X)
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Abestos/S~oking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 338 0955 Boersma A, Degand P, Eavez R (1973) IARC Scl Pub1 No. 8; 65-67 Diffuse mesothelioma: bloche~ical stages in the diagnosis, detection and measurement of hyaluronlc acid in the pleural fluid. (x) 0956 Boersma A, Degand P, Biserte G (1980) 8uli Eur Physio~athol Res~!.r.~ i~z41-4~ ~yal~r~nlc ~ciA ail&i~sls and the-diagnoSis o~'pleura~ mesothelloma. (X) 0957 Mornet M (1979) Solns 24:23-26 Pleural tumors. (French) (X) 0958 Brambilla E, Brambilla C, Kaehler D, Bensa JC (1981) Am Rev Resplr Dis (Suppl) 123~61 Human pleural mesothelial cells in long term culture: Preliminary results of antl-mesothellal antl-serum. (X) 0959 Mulliez P, Saout J, Creusy C, Crlnquette J (1981) LARC Med. i~39-41 The contribution of pleural biopsy to the etiological diagnosis of pleurlsles. (French) (X) 0960 Roujeau J (1958) Monogr Co11 ~ed ~op ~arls 38-46 Anatomo-pathologlcal characteristics of lesions due to asbestos. (French) (X) 0961 Ragainl S, Fondrlnl G (1958) Osp Magg 46~68-71 Several histological aspects of pleural mesothello~as. (Italian) (X) 0962 Rublno GF, Scansettl G, Donna A, Palestro G (1972) Br J Ind Med 29:436-442 Epldemlology of pleural mesothelioma in ~orth-western Italy (Piedmont).
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Abestos/Sm0king Interactions [4001 Series, March 3~, 1983 339 0963 Bianchi C, Grand£ G, Di Bonito L (1978) Tumorl 64=555-564 Diffuse pleura1 mesothello~a in Trieste. A survey based on autopsy cases. (X) 0964 Bianchi C, Brollo A, Bittesinl L (1981) Pathologlca 73:649-655 Mesothelioma caused by asb~t~s~!~ the ~falccne area. (I~allan) (X) 0965 Bianchi C, Brollo A, Bitteslnl L (1982) Proc Int Cancer Congr 0:339 Malignant mesothelloma of the pleura in a shipyard area. (X) 0966 Avril J (1981) Schweiz Med Wochenschr 111=333-342 Malignant mesotht~lioma: a retrospective study of 16 cases. (German) (X) 0967 Ruettner JR (1983) Sohweiz Med Wochenschr 113=346-351 Malignant. mesothelloma and asbestos. (German) (X) 0968 HuuskonenMS (1982) Eur J Respir Dis (Suppl] 63=145-152 Asbestos and cancer. (X) 0969 KJuus N, Langard S, Oyb S (1981) Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 101:1119-1122 Mesothelloma: an occupational disease? (Norwegian) (X) 0970 ~ Gulsvlk A, Haanaes OC, Mowe G (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis (Suppl) 63~47 Dlf£use pleural mesothelioma: cllnlcal features and survival in Norway. (X) 0971 Hagerstrand I, Meurman L, Odlund B (1968) Acta Path Microhlol Scand 72~177-191 Asbestos bodies in the lungs and mesothelioma. A retrospective examination of a ten-year autopsy material. (X)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 340 0972 Plcard E, Gaspard P (1953) Scalpel I06~603-612 Tumors of the pleura. (French) (X) 0973 Eerland LD (1956) Arch Chlr Neerl 8:353-373 Diffuse and localized pleural mesotheliomas. (X) 0374 Planteydt HT (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330~467-471 Netherlands mesothelioma register. (X) 0975 Planteydt HT (1979) Ann NY Acad Sci 330:761-763 Observer variation and reliability of the histopathological diagnosis of mesothelloma. (X) 0976~ Planteydt HT (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30; 1:211-216 Experiences with observer varlat~on in mesothelioma panels. (X) 0977 Stumphiu~ J 11971) Br J Xnd Med 28:59-66 Epidemiology of mesothelioma on walcheren Island. 0978 "stumphius J (1979) Ann NY Aoad Sol 330~317-322 Mesothelloma Incidence in a Dutch shipyard. (X) 0979 Bursova J, Pesek M (1981) Stud Pneumol Phtlseol Cech 41:127-130 Mallgnant pleura mesothelicma. (Czech) 0980 HaskovcoYa I (1979) cesk Patol 15=179-189 Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum. (Czech) (X)
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Abestos/S~oklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 341 0981 Haskovcova I, Doblas J, Vodickova S (1981; Stud Pneumol Phtlseol Cech 41:397-403 Morphological findings in pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in workers exposed to asbestos dust. (Czech) (X) 0982 Hajdukiewlcz Z, Slodkowska J, Szan£awskl W (1975) Patol Pol 26~551-556 Pulmonary asbestosis and neoplasms of the lungs. Case reports and analysis of the literature. (PQllsh) (X) 0983 Kovac-Stojkovskl S (1979) Arh Hig Rada Tokslkol 30:267-291 Exposure to asbestos and pleural mesothellomas. (Serbocroatian) (X) 0984 Romanychev YA (1979) Vestn Rentgenol Radlol 26-32 Differential diagnosis of llmited tumours of the pleura and lung peripheral carcinoma located subpleurally. (Russian) (X) 0985 Earls YI, Sahin AA, Ozesmi M, Kerse I, et al (1978) Thorax 33=181-192 An outbreak of pleural mesothelioma and chronic flbrosing pleurisy ~n the village of Karain/Urgup in Anatolia. (X) 0986 Baris YI (1979) Thorax 34~693 . Environmental mesothelloma in Kappadocia (Turkey). (X) 0987 Barls YI, Artvlnll M, Sah~n AA (1979) Aun NY Aoad Soi 330~423-432 Environmental mesothelloma in Turkey. (X) 0988 ~ Artvinll M, Earls YI (1979) J Natl Cancer Inst 63:17-22 Malignant mesotheliomas in a small village in the Anatollan region of Turkey= an epidemiologlc study. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 342 0989 Barfs YI, Artvinll M, Sahln &, Savas T, Erkan ML (1979) Rev Fr Mal Resplr 7:687-694 Study of envlronmentally-related malignant pleural mesothelioma, chronic fibrosing pleurisy and pleura1 plaques in Turkey. (French) (X) 0990 Baris YI (1980) IARC Sol Pub1 No. 30; 2:937-947 The clinical and ra~iologJc~l ~p~cS~ u£ 185 cases of malignant -pleura1 mes0thelioma. (X) 0991 Sebastien P, Gaudichet A, Bignon J, Barls YI (1981) Lab Invest 44:420-425 Zeolite bodies in human lungs from Turkey. (X) 0992 Barls YI, Simonato L, Saracci R, Sk~dmore JW, Artvinli M (1981) Lancet iz984-987 Malignant mesotherioma and radiologlcal chest abnormalities in two villages in Central Turkey. An epldemiological and environmental investigation. 0993 Lilis R (1981) J Oocup M~d 23~548-550 Fibrous ~eolltes and endemic mesothelloma in Cappadocia, T~rkey. (X) 0994 Boman G, Schubert V, Svane B, Westerhol~ P, et al (1982) Scand J Work Environ Health 8zI08-i12 Malignant mesothelioma in Turkish immigrants residing in Sweden. (X) 0995 Sellkoff IJ, Churg J, Hammond EC (1964) Annu Meet A~ Public Health Assoc 1-6 Relation between exposure to asbestos and mesothel~oma. (X) 0996 Sellkoff IJ, Churg J, Hammond EC (1965) New Eng J Med 272=560-565 Relation between exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 343 0997 Churg J, ROsen SH, Moolten S (1965) Ann NY Acad Sol 132:614-622 Histological characteristics of mesothelloma associated with asbestos. 0998 Kannerste£n M~ Chug J, Magnet D (1973) IARC Sci publ No. 8; 62-64 Histochemical studies in the diagnosis of.mesothelioma. 0999 Suzuki Y, Kannersteln M, churg J (1973) IARC Sci Publ No. 81 74-79 Electron microscopy of normal, hyperplastlc and neoplastic mesothellum. (X) i000 Kannerstein M, Churg J (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34:31-36 Mesothelioma in man and experimental animals. 1001 Kannerstein M (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30; 1:149-162 Recent advances and perspectives relevant to the pathology of asbestos-related diseases in man. (X) 1002 Suzuki Y (~980) Semen Oncol 8:268-282 Pathology of human mallgnant mesothelloma. (X) i003 Suzuki Y, Chahlnlan AP, Ohnuma T (1983) Fed Proc 42s782 Malignant mesothelioma in vlvo, In vitro and under hereto- transplanted conditions. (X) 1004 McCaughey WTE, A1-Jabl M, Kannersteln M (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 301 1:207-210 A Canadian experience of the pathological diagnosis of diffuse mesothelloma. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklsg Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 344 1005 Churg A, Golden J (1982) Pathol Annu 17 : 33-66 Current problems in the pathology of asbestos-related disease. 1006 Kannersteln M, Churg J, McCaughey WI (1979) Ann NY Acad Scl 330=433-439 Functions of mesothelioma 1007 Brenner J, Sordillo PP, Magill GB, Golbey RB (1982) Cancer 49 = 2431-2435 Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. A review of patients. (X) 1008 Vianna J, Maslowsky J, Roberts S, Spel~man G, Patton RB (1981) NY State J Med 81:735-738 Malignant mesothe~ioma. Epldemiologlc patterns in New York State. (X) 1009 Borow M, Conston A, Livornese LL, S~halet N (1967) JAMA 201 = 587-591 Mesothelioma and its association with asbestosls. i010 Borow M, ~.ivornese L, Conston A, Schalet N (1973) Chest 64: 641-646 Mesothelloma following exposure to asbestos = a review of 72 cases. 1011 Triol J, Coneton AS, Chandler SVD (1982) Acta Cytol 26=729 Malignant mesothelioma: cytopathology of 75 cases seen in a New Jersey C~gnlty Hospital. (X) 1012 Bruckman L, Rubino RA, Christine B (1977) J Air Pollut COntrol Assoc 27=121-126 Asbestos and mesothelloma incidence in Connecticut. (X) 123
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 345 1013 Lewlnsohn HC, Melgs JW, Teta MJ, Flasnery JT (1980) IARC Sci Publ ~o. 30~ 2~655-660 The influence of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure on the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Connecticut. (X) 1014 Belleau R, Gaensler EA (1968) Respiration 25~67-69 Mesoth~lloma ~d 1015 Gaensler EA (1977) J Occup Med 19s286 Pleural complications from asbestos exposure. (X) 1016 Murphy R (1980) Ccmpr Ther 6~6-13 Asbestos related disease~ d~f~[culties in diagnosing occupationally red, ted illness. (x) 1017 Ant~an KH (1981) Semln Oncol 8~313-320 Clinlcal. presentation and natural history of benign and mallgnant~esothelioma. (X) 1018 Warhol MJ, Hickey WF, Corson JM (1982) Am J Surg Pathol 6~307-314 Mallgna~t mesothelioma. Ultrastructural distinction from kdenocarclnoma. 1019 Corson ~M, Pinkus GS (1982) Am J Pathol I08~80-87 Mesothelloma~ Profile of kerat[~ proteins and carci~oembryon£c antigen. An immunoperoxldase study of 20 cases and ~omparlson with pulmonary adenocarclnomas. 1020 Hasan FM, Nash G, Kazemi H (~977} Am Rev Respir Dis i15~761-768 The significance of asbestos exposre in the diagnosis of mesothelloma~ a 28-year experience from a major urban hospital. (X)
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AbeStos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 346 1021 Lieben J, Pistawka H (1967) Arch Environ Health 14:559-563 Mesothelioma and asbestos exposure. 1022 Tagnon I, Blot WJ, Stroube RB, Day NE, Morris LE, et al (1980) Cancer Res 40:3875-3879 Mesothelloma associated with the shi~buIIding industry in coastal Virginia. (X) Roggli VL, McGavran MH, Subach J, Sybers HD, Greenberg SD (1982) Cancer 50:2423-2432 Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma. A study of 25 cases. 1024 Hinds MW (1970) J Occup Med 20:4~9-471 Mesothelioma in the United States. Incidence in the 1970s. 1025 McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Pooley FD (1982) Ann Occup. Hyg 26:417-422 Mineral fibre content of lung in mesothelial tumours in North America. • 1026 McDonald AD, McDonald JC (1980) Cancer 46z1650-1656 Malignant mesothelloma in North America. (X) 1027 McDonald JC~ McDonald AD (1981) Banbury Rep 73-82 Mesothelioma as an index of asbestos impact. (X) I028 Peto J, Henderson BE, Pike MC (1981) Banbury Rep 51-59 Trends in mesothelloma incidence in the United States and the forecast epidemic due to asbestos exposure during World War If. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 347 1029 Sloan MH, Peto J, Radford EP, Schnelderman M, et al (1981) Banbury Rep 70-72 Trends In mesothello~a incidence in the United States and the forecast of epidemic due to asbestos exposure during World War II (Comments). (X) 1030 Gardner MJ, McDonald JC, Enterllne PE, et al (1981) Banbury Rep 83-85 Me~othelioma ~n index c~ asDesuos ~pact. ~Comments) (X) 1031 Keilty RA (1917) Am J Med Sc 153:888-902 Primary endothelioma of the pleura. 1032 McDonnell PJ, Maxwell ES (1920) JAMA 74:168-170 Endothelloma of t~e pleura. 1033 Wood EA, walter AI (1921) J Missouri Med Assoc 18=277-281 Primary mesothelioma of the pleura - with report of a case. 1034 Zeckwer I~ (1924) Arch Int Med 34:191-205 Mesoth@lloma of the pleura. 1035 Nesbltt KA, Boswell JT, DeJesus-Gonzeles MA, Sarklsian SS (1958) Am J Clin Pathol 30~148-157 Malignant mesothelloma associated with hypoglycemia: Report of a case. (X) 1036 ~ Miller RD, Dockerty MB, Bennett WA (1958) Arch Surg 76:160-163 Mammary carcinoma followed after twenty-elght years by primary malignant pleural mesothelloma. (X) 1037 Storer J, Hooper R (1960) Dis Cheat 38=567-569 Mesothelioma developing in the wall of a pulmonary cyst.
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Abestos/Smok~ng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 348 1038 Mallory TB, Castleman B, Parrls EE (1947) N Engl J Med 236:407 Mesothelloma of pleura and pericardium. 1039 Knowles JH, Dreyfuss JR, Wilkins EW, Castleman Bet al (1963) N Engl J Med 269:747-754 Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Pulmonary asbestosls, pleural mesothelioma. Case 62-1963. (X) i0~0 Fowler PBS, Sloper JC, Warner EC (1964) Br Ned J 5403:211-213 Exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma of the pleura. 1041 Steel SJ, Boyd J (1965) Br J Dis Chest 59:130-132 Pleural calcification and mesothello~a followlng exposure to asbestos. 1042 Wieckling DK (1966) Am Surg 32~308-312 Pulmonary asbestosis with metastatic mesothelloma. Report. 1043 Markham TN, Dodson VN (1968) J Occup Med 8~138-139 II. MeSothelloma in an accountant. 1044 Castleman B, McNeeley BU (1967) N Engl J Med 276~230-237 Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 4-1967o 1045 Godwin MC, Jagatlc G (1968) J/~IA 204:1009 Asbestos and mesothelloma. 1046 Rusby NL (1968) J Roy Nay Med Serv 54:142-148 Pleural manifestations following the inhalation of asbestos in relation to malignant change. Case Case
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 349 1047 McGilloway FA (1968) Nurs Times 64:663-664 Mesothelioma of pleura with massive pleural effusion. 1048 Champion P (1971) Am Rev Resp Dis I03z821-826 Two cases of malignant mesothelioma after exposure to asbestos. I0~9 ....... ' Lewinsohn HC (1974) BE J Dis Chest 68~121-127 Early malignant changes in pleural plaques due to asbestos exposurez a case report. i050 Golden RL (1974| Int J Occup Health 43:18-19 The long-range impact of asbestos exposure. 1051 Britton DC (1976) Br Med J 2~175 Exposure to asbestos dust. 1052 Rcm W, Anderson HA (1977) ciln Notes Respir Dis 16~15-16 Case report No. 605892: Malignant mesothelloma. 1053 Perry MC, Sollnger A, Farhangl M, Luger A (1978) Med Pedlat~ Oncol 5~205-212 Plasmacytomas and mesothelloma. {X) 1054 Mostert C, Helntjes R (1979) Cent Aft J Ned 25~72-74 Asbestosls and mesothelloma on the Rhodesia railways. (X) I055 Goldsteln B (1979) Thorax 34:375-379 Two malignant pleural mesothellomas with unusual hlsto- pathological features. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 350 1056 Hartung M (1980) Arbeitsmed Sozlalmed Praventivmed 15:153-154 Occupationally conditioned pleurOmesothelioma after occupationally handling of asbestos-contalning cloths. (German) (X) 1057 Christense JB, Rechfeld E (1980) Ugeskr Laeger 142:2510-2511 Mesoth~liom& i~ a g~den~r with brief asbestos exposure. (Danish) (X) 1058 Okumura T, Okada M, Tsuji M, Inoue A, Ochiai Y (1980) Acta Pathol Jpn 30:579-590 Mesothelioma with lung cancer complicating asbestosis. (X) 1059 Larger AM, McCaughey WTE (1982) Lancet 2:1101-1[03 Mesothelloma in a brake repair worker. 1060 Gladfelter T, Wiygul F, Campbell A et al (1982) J Fam Pract 14~827, 830-832, 837, 840 Mallgnan.~mesothelioma: an occupational disease. (X) 1061 Newhouse ML (1982) Lancet 2:991 Mesothelloma and the death certificate. (X) 1062 Matsumtuna H, Tsuchlyama H, Kawai K, Nakano Met al (1982) J Unlv Oooup Env Health 4:65-80 An autopsy case of diffuse pleura1 mesothelloma associated with pulmonary asbestosls~ light and electron m/croscopic study. 1063 Langer AM, McCaughey WTE (1982) Lancet 2:1101-ii03 Mesothelloma in a brake repair worker. (X) 1064 Jackson DV, Marshall RB, Albertson DA, Slatkoff ML (1982) NC Med J 43=I18-I19 Malignant (X) protective pleural mesothelioma: difficulties in diagnosis.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 351 1065 Josefson A (1922) Acta Med Scand (Supp1) 3:159-165 Primary cancer of the pleura in man and wife. 1066 Strieder JW, Scully RE, Pendergrass ~P et al (1959) N Engl J Med 260~491-496 Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 45101. (X) 1067 Fischbein A, Suzuki Y, Selikoff IJ, Bekesl JG (1978) Cancer 42~1999-2004 Unexpected longevity of a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Report of a case. (X) 1068 Chert W, Mottet NK (1978) Hum Pathol 9:253-258 Malignant mesothelloma with minimal asbestos exposure. 1069 Caravelll JF, Zaman MB (1978) Clin Bull 8:161-163 A diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. (X) 1070 Campbell-GD, Greenberg SD (1981) Chest 79z229-230 Pleural mesothelloma with calcified liver metastases. (X) 1071 Decoufle p (1980) Lancet Iz159 Mesothelioma among shoeworkers. (X) 1072 Stelner RM, Cooper M~, Brodovsky H (1982) Clln Radlol 33:61-65 ~ Rib destruction~ A neglected finding ~n mesothelioma. (X) 1073 Ragalle GF, Varkey B, Chol H (1983) Can Med Assoc J 128~689-691, 740 Malignant pleural mesothelloma presenting as superior vena cava syndrome. (X) mal£gnant
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Abestos/Smuklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 352 1074 Kashirsagar VB, Patil SD, 8harma KD et al (1971} Indian I Cancer 8~208-214 Mesothelioma. Report of two autopsy cases. (X) 1075 Arul KJ, Bolt PF (1977) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 40:141-143 Mesothelloma possibly due to environmental exposure to asbestos In childhood. (X). 076 Cochrane JC, webster I (1981) S Afr Med J 59:848 Mesothelioma in relatlon to asbestos fibre exposure. 1077 Brenner J, Sordillo PP, Magill GB (1981) Med Pedlatr Oncol 9~367-373 Malignant mesothelloma in children~ report of seven cases and review of the literature. (X) 1078 Wassermann M, Wassermarul D, Steinitz R, Katz L, Lemesch (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30; i~253-257 Mesothelioma in children. (X] 1079 Sleggs CA" (1970| Int Pneumoconlosis Conf 3~ 225-232 Mesothelioma, including peripheral lung malignancy and tuberculosis in the North West Cape. 1080 Raviaro GC, Sartori F, Calabro F~ Varoll F (1982) Am Rev Resplr Dis 126~569-571 The association of pleural mesothelloma and tuberculosis. (X) 1081 Tuman KJ, Chilcote RR, Berkow RI, Moohr JW [1980) Lancet 2~362 Mesothelioma in child with prenatal exposure to isonlazid. (X) 1082 Risberg B, Nickels J,-Wagermark J (1980) Cancer 45:2422-2427 Familial clustering of mallgnant mesothelloma. (X) c
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 353 1083 Fukuoka y, Yoshloka S, Takeda Y (1956~ Gann 47:733-734 An autopsy case of giant tumor in the right pleural cavity. (X) 1084 Heaney jp, Overton RC, DeBakey ME (1957) J Thorac Surg 34:553-560 Benign looallzed pleural mesothelioma: r~port of two cas~s. 1085 Sufian D, Danlels M (1978) JAOA 77:836-844 Benign fibrous mesothelloma: a report of ten cases. 1086 Tada S (1978) Jpn J Clln Radlol 23:801-802 Benign mesotheliom~, of interlobar fissure. (Japanese) 1087 Cobanoglu A, Rienhard JJ (1982) Del Med J 54:273-276 Locallzed fibrous ~esothelloma of the pleura: Two case reports. 1088 Chalaoul J, Barral V, Simard P, Lefebvre R, Sylvestre J (1982) Sem Hop Paris 5811881-1884 Benign pleural mesothelloma: Three developmental forms. (French) 1089 Brlsell IM, Mark EJ, Dickersln GR (1981) Cancer 47z2678-2689 Solitary fibrous t~Imors of the pleura~ Eight new cases and review of 360 cases in the llterature. (X} 1090 Hillerdal G, He~m~Ingsson A (1980} Acta Radlol Diag 21~615-620 Pulmonary pseudotumours and asbestos. 1091 Chang JC, Lesser M (1982) Mt Sinai J 49~508-510 Unusual roentgenographlo appearance of a pseudotumor in the pleural space~ A case report. (X]
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 354 1092 Sclammas FD, sherry S, Navanl S (1971) Chest 59:673-674 Multiple pleural nodules. 1093 Harwood TR, Gracey DR, Yokoo H (1976) Am J Clin Pathol 65:159-167 Pseudomesothellomatous carcinoma of the lung. A variant of peripheral Itm~ c~n~er. 1094 Broghamer WL, Collins WM, MoJsejenko IK (1978) Ac~a Cytol 22~239-242 The cyto-hlstopathology of a pseudo-mesotheliomatous carcinoma of the lung. (X) 1095 Alvarez-Fernandex E, Esalona-zapata J (1982) Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 395z331-343 Intrapulmonary mes~thellomas: Their identification by tissue culture. (X) 1096 Seamer T, Kantartzis M, Garcla M, Schubert GE (1981) Med Klin 76~626-629 Pleural metastases can mimic mesothelioma. (German) (X) 1097 Mintzer RA, Gore RM, Vogelzang RL, Holz S (igsl) Radiology 139~567-570 Rounded atelectasls and its association with asbestos-lnduced pleural disease. 1098 Ashford RFU, Maher J, Drury A, Plckerlng D (1981) Br J Rad£ol 54~74-77 Radiation pnet~nonit£s in a patient exposed to asbestos. (X) 1999 Tianen MH, Moatamed F, MJaatvedt CH, Lee JS, Rum W~ (1983) Fed Proc 42z777 Direct penetration of the diaphragm by m~neral fibers. (X) ii00 Leicher F (1954) Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg 13=382-392 Primary cortical cell tumor of peritoneum in patient with ashestosls. (German)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 355 1101 Thomson JG (1962) S Air Med J ;36:759-760 ~esothelloma of pleura or peritoneum and limited basal asbestosis. (X) 1102 Anonymous (1966) Lancet 2:1084 Death of an asbestos worker. 1103 Enticknap JB, Sm/ther WJ (1964) Br J Ind Med 21:20-31 Peritoneal tumours in asbestosis. 1104 Fernandes AC, Fonseca JML, ~e~riques AF, Soares AO (1980) Acta Med Port 2:303-317 Peritoneal mesothelioma reported in a flbrocement industry worker with neuroflbromatosis. (Portuguese) (X) 1105 Young JR, Reddy ER (1980) Clin Radlol 31:243-247 Peritoneal mesothelioma. (X) 1106 Mann RH, Grosh JL, O'Donnell WM (1966) Cancer 19:521-526 Mesothelloma associated with asbestosls. A report of 3 cases. 1107 Sianchi C~ Castelli M, Ca~luccio L (i~?~) Minerva Med 67z1511-1512 Frequency of lung asbestos bodies in autopsy material at Udine. (Itallan) 1108 ~ Banner MP, Gohel VK (1978) Radiology 129:637-640 Peritoneal mesothelloma. (X] 1109 Brenner DE~ ~hitle? ~0~ Goldste~n NZ, Aisner 3 (19Sl) Lancet iz939-940 Computed tomographlc demonstration of peritoneal mesothelioma. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 356 Iii0 Bryant J (1982) Acta Cytol 26:561-563 Diagnostic cytologic criteria for primary peritoneal mesothelioma. (X) iiii Wolfson WL {1982] Acta Cytol 26:561 Diagnostic cytologic criteria for prima~y~peritoneal ~esotheliomao ~) " ~ , "~--~:-~ 1112 BOOn ME, Veldhuizen RW (1982) Acta Cytol 26:563-555 Diagnostic cytologlc criteria for primary peritoneal mesothelioma. (X) 1113 Romeo M (1935) Arch Ital Anat Istol Patol 6:720-732 A case of mesothelFoma of the stomach with morphological aspect of linitis plastica. (Italian) 1114 gartelli CF (1953) Riv Anat Patol Oncol 7:639-664 Cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. (Italian) 1115 Bellomo VJ (1957) Prensa Med Argent 44z333-339 Mesenterlc tumor. Perltoneal celothelioma. (Spanish) (X) 1116 Dewan CH, Lindauer RG (1958) Guthrle Clin Bull 28z69-79 Mesothellomas. (X) 1117 Roujeau J, Steg A (1961) Arch Anat Pathol 9~72-73 Perl-renal ~esothelioma. (French) (X) 1118 Dvoskin S (1959) Ann Intern Med 40=809-811 Mesothelioma of the peritoneum= A case report in which the ascitic fluid contained hyaluronic acid. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 357 1119 8oon ME, Posth~ma Bs, Ruiter DJ, Van Andel JG (1981) Virchows APch Pathol Anat 392:33-44 Secreting perltoneal mesothelloma. Report of a case with cytological, ultrastructural, morphometric and histological studies. (X) 1120 Katsube Y, Kukai K, Silverberg SG (1982) Cancer 50~1615-1622 Cystic mesoth~qm~o~the ~c~i_~-~.~eport of fi~e cases and a ~evlew of the literature. (X) 1121 McClemont JMF, Webb JN (1981) J Roy Coll Surg Edinb 26:303-305 Diffuse benign p~rltoneal mesothelioma. (X) 1122 De Young WA, Frlcke RW (1962) J Mich 8tare Med Soq 61:440-441 Malignant mesotheliomas. Case report. (X) 1123 Yoon IL (1962) JAMA 181~1107-IiI0 Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Report of a case and review of t~e literature. 1124 Ferrer-Roca O, Ingelmo M, Elias AM, Rives Aet al (1979) Rev Clln Esp 153~343-348 Mesothellomas. Review of three cases, one of them with diffuse metastatic calcifications. (Spanish) (X) 1125 Riddel~ PJ~, Goodman MJ, Hoossa AR (1981) Cancer 48~134-139 Peritoneal mallgnant mesothelloma in a patient with recurrent peritonitis. (X) ~ 1126 Cohen BN, Efremidls S (1980) Mt Sinai J Med 47~386-390 Pleural peritoneal mesothello~a: A case report. (X)
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Abestos/S~oking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 358 1127 Campbell JM (1983) Scott M~d J 28:626-63 Masquerading mesothelioma: A diagnostic problem. A case report and short review of diagnostic techniques and therapy. (X) 1128 Schneider V, partridge JR, Gutierrez F, Hurt WG et al (1983) AN J Obstet Gynecol 145~355-359 ~e~gn .cystic ,~e~th~l~ma ~vol~.~.~.hefemalegenital tract: Report of four cases. (X) 1129 Drash EC, Hyer HJ, Skinner GF, Lam CR, Hughes FAet al (1950) J Thorac Surg 19~755-768 Mesothelial medlastlnal cysts. Pericardlal celomlc cysts of Lambert. (X) 1130 Forest JL, Kozonls MC (1960) Am J Card~ol 5:12~;-129 Primary mesothelioma of the pericardium. (X) 1131 Kaden F (1982) Z Kardlol ;71~485-487 Metastatic" mesothelioma of the pericardium. (German) (X) 1132 Nedogoda ~V, Gofman VA, Mogilevskli RE, Sglbneva OV et al (1982) K11n Med 60~26-29 Cllnico-morphological characteristics of mesothellomas of the p~ricardlum. (Russian) (X) 1133 Boreux J-L, Paesmans M, Feoll F, Lambert P, Par~se L (1982) Acta Clln Belg 37z201-210 Primary perlcardial mesothelioma: Clinical case and review of the literature. (French) (X) 1134 Laohpand T, Panyathanya R, Pacharee P, Maranetra Net al (1982) J Med Assoc Thailand 65~514-520 Primary perlcardlal mal£gnant mesothelloma. (X)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 359 1135 Churg A, Warnock ML, Bensch KG (1978) Am Rev Respir D~s 118:419-424 Malignant mesothelioma arising after direct application of asbestos and fiber glass to the pericardium. (X) 1136 Eck H, Berg-Schlosser V (1978) Dtsch Med Wochenschr 103~1751-1753 On the aetlology of mal~gnant p~rlcardlal (German) (X) 1137 Kahn EI, Rohl A, Barrett EW, Suzuki Y (1980) Environ Res 23:270-281 Primary pericardlal mesothelloma following exposure to asbestos. (X) 1138 Roggll VL (1981) N Engl J Med 304:1045 Perlcardlal mesothelloma after exposure to asbestos. (X) 1139 Beck B, Konetzke G, Ludwig V, Rothig W, Sturm W (1982) Am J Ind Med 3:149-159 Malignant p~rlcardial mesothellomas and asbestos exposure. A case repo=t. (X) 1140 Waugh TR (1953) AMAArch Pathol 55~98-i17 Endothelloma of corpora cavernosa of penis. (X) 1141 Lenko J, Bankowski ~ (1956) Pol Tyg Lek II~579-581 Case of mesothelioma of the epididymls and the spermatic cord. (Polish) (X) ~ 1142 Nagel R (1960) Chlrurg 31~219 Mesothelloma of the epidldymls (On the causation of benign t~u~ors of the epldid~s). (German) (X) mesotheliom~.
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Abestos/smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 360 1143 Chen KTK, Arhelger RB, Flam MS, Hanson JH (1982) Urology 20:316-319 Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalls testis. (X) 1144 Fliglel Z, Kaneko M (1976) Cancer 37:1478-1484 Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalls propria in a patient with asbestos exposure. A case report. 1145 Japko L, Horta AA, Schreiber K, Mitsudo Set al (1982) Cancer 49:119-127 Malignant mesothelloma of the tunica vaginalis testis: of first case with preoperative diagnosis. (X) 1146 Elmes PC (1973) IARC Scl Publ No. 8; 277-280 Therapeutic openings in the treatment of mesothelioma. (X) 1147 Miranda AR, Brigand HL (1978) Monogr Coll Med Hop Paris 92-94 Pleuropulmonary manifestations of asbestoses: The surgeon's point of view. (French) (X) 1148 Ruffie P, Hirsch A (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 301 2~553-557 A review of the treatment of dlffuse malignant pleura1 mesothelioma. (X) 1149 Bohllg B, Baln E (1980) IARC Sol Pub1 No. 301 2~497-506 Clinical and radlologlcal observations on asbestos-related pathology. (X) 1150 Bu~chart EG, Ashcroft T, Barnsley WC, Holden MP (1981) Semln Oncol 8:321-328 The role of surgery in diffuse maI~gnant mesothelioma of the pleura. (X) testis Report N N
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [ 400 | Series, March 30, 1983 361 1151 Sorensen PG (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63:90 Systemic antineoplastic treatment of diffuse malignant pleura1 mesothelioma. 1152 Sorensen PG, Rorth M, Hansen BH (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63:50 A. phase II cross-over study of Adrlamycin and Endoxan in patie_nts w~.ma~-ig~ant ~i~i~heiioma~~ (X) - 1153 Sm/th-Meyer R (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63:131 Attempts at treatment of mesothelioma pleurae. 1154 Mattson K (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63:87 Natural history and clinical staging of malignant mesothelioma. 1155 Holsti LR (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63~93 The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of pleural mesothello.~a. (X) 1156 Laustela E~ (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63:94 Surgical treatment in pleural mesothelioma. (X) 1157 Mattson K (1982) Eur ~ Resplr Dis 8uppl 63:~95 A practical multldlsclplinary recommendation to future management of patients with malignant pleural me,~sothelloma. (X) 1158 Kostainen S, Appelqvist P, Holstl LR, Mattson K (1982) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 63:49 C1inlcal features and treatment results of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma: A retrospective analysis.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions ~400] Series, March 30, 1983 362 1159 Hillerdal. G (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Supp1 63:89 Review of clinical trials: Prognostic factors and treatment results of 4225 patients with diffuse malignant mesothelioma. (X) 1160 Jara F, Taklta H, Rao UNM (1977) RY State J Med 77:1885-1888 Ma~Ignag~_~.es~th~l~ma cf ~ie,~±~. ~Ci£uicop~hologic observation. (X) 1161 Aisner J, Wiernik PH (1978} Chest 74~438-444 Malignant mesothelioma. Current status and future prospects. 1162 Aisner J, Wiernik PH (1981) Sem/n Oncol 8:335£343 Chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. (X) 1163 Brady LW (1981). Semln Oncol 8:329-334 Mesothellq~a: The role for radiation therapy. (X) 1164 Chahlnlan AP, Suzuki Y, Mandel EM, Holland JF (1978) Cancer 42:1687-1691 Diffuse pulmonary malignant mesothelloma. Response to Doxorublcin and 5-azacytldlne. (X) 1165 Chahlnlan AP, Pajak TF, Holland JF, NOrton Let al (1982) Ann Intern Med 96z746-755 Diffuse malignant mesothelio~. Prospective evaluation of 69 patients. (X) 1166 Antman KH (1980) N Engl J Med 303:200-202 Current concepts. Mal£gnant ~esothelloma. (X)
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Abestos/Smok~ng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 363 1167 Antman KH, Blum RH, Greenberger JS, Flowerdew Get al (1980) Am J Med 68~356-362 Multlmodallty therapy for mallgnant mesothelloma based on a study of natural history. (X) 1168 Wagner JC, Hill RJ, Berry G, Wagner, MMF (1980) Br J Cancer 41~918-922 Treatments affecting the r~t6 of asbestos-induced 1169 Smith WE, Holiat SM, Hubert DD, Sobel HJ, Davis S (1980) Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 21~258 Chemotherapeutic trials with an asbestos-lnduced mesothelioma in hamsters. (X) 1170 McCann J (19~2) Oncol Times 411, ~5 Clinicians trade notes on mesothelioma progress. 1171 Linden CJ, Korsgaard R, Willen H, Willen R et al (1982) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 63:46 Heterotransplantatlon of human malignant pleural mesothelloma to athymic, rats and mice. (X) 1172 Wagner JC, Johnson NF, Brown DG, Wanger MMF (1982) Br J Cancer 46~294-299 Histology and ultrastructure of serially transplanted rat mesotheliomas. (X) 1173 Lebovits AH (1980) Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 21~383 Psychological aspects of mesothelioma and knowledge of high risk for cancer. (X) 1174 Lebovits AH, Chahlnlan AP, Holland JF, Holland JC (1981) Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 22~397 Retrospective reactions of mesothelloma patients (pts) to asbestos exposure. (X)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 364 1175 Lebovits AH, chahlnian AP, Holland JC (1983) Am J Ind Med 4=459-466 Exposure to asbesots: Psychological responses of mesothelioma patients. (X) 1176 watts KC, To A, Boyo-Ekwueme HT, Poznansky Met al (1983) Acta Cytol 27:87 In vlvo transformation of tb~ =~th~iumin patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. (X) 1177 Webster I (1973) IARC Sci Publ No. 8; 264 Asbestos burden in lung and pleura, and its significance. Discussion summary. (X) 1178 Chretien J (1978) Monogr coli Med Eo~ Paris 84-88 Asbestos as inducer of pleural pathology. 1179 Matzel W (1979) Z Gesamte Inn Med 34:50-52 Differentlal diagnosis of pleural diseases. 1180 Smith WHR, "Davies D (1980) @r J Dis Chest 74:418 Non-malignant pleural disease and asbestos. llSl Shugar S (1979) Natl Res coune Can Publ 97-99 Effects of asbestos in man. Plaques. 1182 Solomon A, Webster I (1976) Environ Res Iiz128-134 The visceral pleura in asbestosls. 1183 Anton HC (1968) Br J Radio1 41z341-348 Multiple pleural plaquesz Part If. (French) (X) (German) (X) (X)
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 365 1184 Jones JSP, Sheers G (1973) IARC Sci Publ No. 8; 243-248 Pleural plaques. (X) 1185 Galloway RW (1978) J Roy Soc Med 71:916-919 Problem radiographs. (X) i186 Sheldon CS, Herbert A, Ballagher PJ (1980) J Pathol 132~ 352, 353 Reactive mesothelia~ proliferation. (X) 1187 Herbert A, Sterling GM (1980) Thorax 35:715 Lung en culrasse: histopathology of restrictive pleurisy with asbestos exposure. (X) 1188 Lemenager J, Rousselet P, Mandard JC, Le Bouffant L et al (1976) Rev Fr Mal Reap Suppl 2:75-86 Lea pleuresles benignes de l'asbeste. (x) 1189 Tory L, He~tzog P, Personne CL, Bakdach H (1976) Rev Fr Mal Resp Suppl 2:93-96 Thoractomies et plaques pleurales fibro-hyalines. Etude preliminaire apropos de 125 malades. 1~90 Chretlen J, Chahlnlan PH, Hirsch &# Hebut M (1976) Rev Fr Mal Resp Suppl 2z87-92 Pleuresles non t~morales de l'asbeste. Apropos de i0 observations. (X) 1191 Hirach A, DiMenza L (1979) Rev Fr Mal Resp 7:695-706 ~se of the ILO/UC International of pneumoconioses in 302 (French) 1192 Hirsch A (1979) Rev Fr Mal Resp 7:69-72 Classification radiologique (B.~.T.) utilisee dana la pathologle resplratolre de l'amiante. classification of ~ radiographs subjects exposed to asbestos.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 366 1193 DiMenza L, Hirsch A, Marigold M, Bignon J (1979] Ann NY Acad Sci 330:787-789 Radiologic and surgical aspects of the diaphragm in asbestos exposure. (X) 1194 Hirsch A, DiMenza L, Dorbon F, Carte A, Bignon J (1980) IARC Sci Pub1 No. 30; 2:523-526 Diaphragmatic straightness in 302 asbestos-exposed patients. (X) ....... -- 1195 Navratil M, Moravkova K, Trippe F (1978) Environ Res 15:108-118 Follow-up study of pleural hyallnosls in individuals not exposed to asbestos dust. 1196 Kaski P, Kiviluoto R, Meurman L (1968) Int Conf Biol Eff Asbest (2) 274-275 Pleural plaques and lung cancer. 1197 Hillerdal G, Hillerdal O, Mow E (1980) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl i07:89-98 Radlologically visible pleural plaques in a one-year material from a health survey in 1976. & cross-sectlonal study. 1198 Thlringer G, Blomqvlet N, Brolln ~, Mattson SB (1980) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 107:119-122 Pleura1 plagues in chest X-rays of lung cancer ~atlents and matched controls. Preliminary results. 1199 Thringer G (1980) Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 107:109-110 Are pleural plaques a predictor for carcinoma of the lung? 1200 Mattson SB, Ringqv~st T (1970) Scand J Resp Dis Suppl 75=I-41 Pleural plaques and exposure to asbestos. & cllni~al material from a Swedish clinic.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 367 1201 aillerdal G (1982) Am J Roentgenol 139:1163-1166 Asbestos exposure and upper lobe involvement. (X) 1202 Hillerdal G (1981) Eur J Respir Dis 62~140-141 Dorsal pleural plaques in the.!-ter~ 1203 Hillerdal G, Lindgren A (1980) Eur J Resplr Dis 61:315-319 Pleural plaques z Correlation of autopsy findings to radiographic findings and occupational history. 1204 Churg A (1981) Am Rev Respir Dis Suppl 123:135 Pulmonary asbestos burden in patients with pleural (X) 1205 Narnock ML, Prescott BT, Kuwahara TJ (1982) Am J Pathol 109:37-46 Numbers and typ.~s of asbestos fibers in subjects with pleura1 plaques. ( X ] 1206 Churg A {1982) Am J Pathol 109 : 88-96 Asbestos fibers and pleural plaques in a general autopsy population. (X] 12Q7 Sargent EN, Gordonson J, Jacobson G, Birnbaum W, Shaub M (1978) AJR 131:579-585 Bilateral pleural thickening. 1208 Nizze H (1973) Arch Pathol 95 ~ 213-214 Exposure to asbestos and the genesis of pleural plaques and neoplasia. 1209 Macpherson P, Davldson JK (1969) Br Med J 1:355-357 Correlation between lung asbestos count at necropsy and radiological appearances. plaques.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 368 1210 Thomson JG (1970) Int Pneumoconiosis Conf 3; 138-141 The pathogenesis of pleura1 plaques. (X) 1211 Hillerdal G, Lindgren A (1980) Eur J Respir Dis 61z315-319 Pleural plaquesz Correlation .of autopsy findings to r~iogr&phic findingsand oc~upatlo~a~hlstor~. (X) 1212 Hillerdal G (1980) J Respir Dis 61~129-138 The pathogenesis of pleural plaques and pulmonary asbestosls: ~ossibilities and impossibilities. 1213 Weiss W, Levln R {1980) Am Rev Resplr Dis Suppl - 121~262 Smoking and pleura1 plaques in asbestos workers. (X) 1214 Weiss W, Levin R, Goodman L (1981) J Occup Med 23~427-430 Pleural plaques~and cigarette smoking in asbestos workers. 1215 McMillan GHG, P~thybridge RJ, Sheers G (1980) BE J Ind Med 37:268-272 Effects of smoking on attack rates of pulmonary and pleural lesions related to exposure to asbestos dust. (X) 1216 E£11erdal G, Eillerdal 0 (1979] Lakartldnlngen 76~3635-3638 Asbestos and pleural plaques. (Swedish] (X) 1217 Frldrlksson HV, Hedenstrom E, Hillerdal G, Malmberg P (19~I) Eur J Resplr Dis 62z412-424 Increased lung stiffness in persons with pleural plaques. (X) 1218 Hedenstlerna G, Alexandersson R, Kolmodin-Hedman Bet al (1981) Eur J Respir Dis 62~111-122 Pleura1 plaques and lung function in construction workers exposed to asbestos.
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 369 1219 Wright PH, Hanson A, Kreel L, Capel L~ (1980) Thorax 35:31-36 Respiratory function changes after asbestos pleurisy. 1220 Lumley KPS (1980) Inhaled Part 4:781-788 Physiological changes in asbestos pleural disease. (X) 1221 Solomon A (1970) Int Pneumoconiosls Conf 3; 243-247 Radiology of asbestosis. (X) 1222 Solomon A (1969) S Afr Med J 43::847-851 The radiology of asbestosis. 1223 Miller A, Telrstein AS, Sellkoff I (1982) Am Rev Respir Dis Suppl 125:114 ventilatory insufficiency due to asbestos-lnduced pleural disease. (X) 1224 Sterling GM; Herbert A (1980) Thorax 35:715 Lung en culrasse: restrictive pleurisy associated with asbestos exposure. (x) 1225 Brltton MG (1980) Thorax 35~714 Asbestos pleural disease: a case for compensation. (x) 1226 Lawson JP (1963) Clln Radiol 14:414-417 Pleural calcification as a sign of asbestosls. A report of three cases. 1227 Froa~nhold W, Lagemann K, Lindlar F (1969) Fortschr Rontgenstr 111:769-778 Pleural calcification and malignant growth as late sequelae of asbestosls. (German) (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 370 1228 Schneider L, Wimpfheimer F (1964) JAMA 189:328-330 Multiple progressive calclfic pleural plaque formation. 1229 Viikerl M, Jaaskelalnen J, Tahti E (1968) Dis Chest 54:17-20 Ultrasonic examination of pleural calc~ficat~ i~--~ccu~tiohal-~as~stosis. 1230 Collins TFB (1968) Br J Radlol 41:655-661 Pleural reaction associated with asbestos exposure. 1231 Sargent EN, Jacobson G, Wilkinson EE (1972) Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 115:473-478 Diaphragmatic pleural calcification following short occupational exposure to asbestos. 1232 Wusteman FS, Gold C, Wagner JC (1971) Am Rev Resp Dis i06:116-i18 Glycosaminoglycans and calcification in the lesions of progresslve.massive fibrosis and in pleural plaques. 1233 LeBouffant L, Martin JC, Durlf S, Daniel B (1973) IARC Sol Publ No.. 8; 249-257 Structure and compsotion of pleural plaques. (X) 1234 Carroll MP, Britton MG, Green M (1981) Br J Dis Chest 75~318 Diaphragmatic function in patients with due to asbestos exposure. (X) 1235 Sargent EN, Felton JS, Barnes LT (1981) Radiology 140:634 Calclf~ed Interlobar pleura1 plaques. involvement due to asbestos. (X) thickenlngs and diaphragmatic plaques Visceral pleura1
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 371 1236 Chailleux E, Eveillard MF, Ordronneau Jet al (1982) Poumon Coeur 95-99 Asbestos exposure and pleural calc£flcatlon: Evaluation of the functional effects in 34 subjects. (X) 1237 Perous ML, Littman MS (1955) Am J Clln Pathol 25~467-479 Diagnosti~.~t-~y o~ ser~s effusions with emphasis on some unusual findings. (X) 1238 Eisenstadt HB (1962) Am Pract 13:573-578 Pleural asbestosls. 1239 Eisenstadt HB (1964) Dis Chest 46~78-81 ~ Asbestos pleurisy. 1240 Eisenstadt HB (1965) JAMA 192~419-421 Benign asbestos pleurisy. 1241 Gaensler EA, Kaplan AI (1971) Ann Intern Med 74~178-191 Asbestos pleural eff~tsion. 1242 Solomon A (1970) Int Pneumoconiosis conf 3; 261-265 Radlologlcal features of diffuse mesothelloma. (X) 1243 Sluis-Cremer GK, Wesbster I (1972) Environ Res 5:380-392 Acute pleurisy in asbestos exposed persons. 1244 Eisenstadt HB (1974) N Engl J Med 290:i025 Pleural effusion in asbestosis.
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Abestos/Smoking Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 372 1245 8asan FM (1975| Ann Intern Med 83:735 Asbestos pleural effusion? 1246 Mattson SB (1975) Scand J Resp Dis 56~263-272 Monosymptomatic exudative pleurisy in persons exposed to asbestos du~t .... 1247 zeman V (1979) Cesk Patol 15=29-40 Pleural and perltoneal cytology. (Czech) (X) 1248 Hirsch A, Ruffie P, Nebut M, Bignon J, Chretien J (19979) Thorax 34~i06-i12 Pleural effuslon= l~boratory tests in 300 cases. 1249 Donna A, 8etta PG, Gagliardi F, Provana A (1980) IARC Scl Publ No. 30~ 1:183-186 A new method for detecting activated and neoplastic ~sothellal cells in serqus effusions. (X) 1250 Robinson BWS, Musk AW (1981) Thorax 36:896-900 Benign asbestos pleura1 effusion: diagnosis and course. 1251 Israel HL, Steiner RM (1981) J Resplr Dis 2=111-113 Asbestos as a cause of acute pleural effusion. (X) 1252 Kondlapoo~i P, Gabriel JB (1982) West J Med 137=435 Differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. (X) 1253 Hark JBD (1982) West J Med 137=435-436 Differential d~agnosis of pleural effusions. (X)
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&bestos/Smoking Interactions [400| Series, March 30, 1983 373 1254 Sahn SA (1982) West J Med 137~99-i08 The differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. (X) 1255 Anonymous (1982) Lancet 1~1226 Mysterious pleural effusions. 1256 Felson B (1982) J Respir Dis 3~11-23 Radiologlc evaluation of pleural disease. (X) 1257 Taskinen E (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63~88 Pathology of mesothelioma. 1258 Stjernberg N, Lundgren E, Rcos G, Abu Sinna G (1982) Eur J Resplr Dis Suppl 63~45 Establishment and characterization ~f human mesothelioma cell lines. (X) 1259 Kiss GT (1982~ Addison-Wesley Publ COo, page 182 Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Disease in Primary Practice. 1260 Frank AL (1980) Environ Health Perspect 34:27-30 Cllnical observations following asbestos exposure. 1261 Craighead JE, Mossman BT (1982) N Engl J Med 306~1446-1455 The pathogenesis of asbestos-assoclated diseases. (X)
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Abestos/Smoklng Interactions [400] Series, March 30, 1983 374 1262 Becklake MR (1982) N Eng J Med 306:1480-1482 Exposure to asbestos and human disease. (X) 1263 Ro~ WN (1982) Little, Brown and Co. Boston 157-182 14. Asbestos and related f~-~er~. ~n: ~nvlronmental and Occupatlon~T~M~dIc~i~e. 1264 Rcm WN, Lockey JE (1982) West J Med 137~548-554 Diffuse malignant mesothelioma: A review. 1265 Croft W (1982) Proc Int Cancer Congr 13; 339 Environmental asbestos and mesotheliomas in dairy calves. 1266 Dc~anski L, Dublelzlg R, Gllckman R (1982) Am J Epldemiol i16~586 Canine mesothelloma and asbestos~ a case-control study.' (X)
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 Co 490 MARCH 30~ 1983 PAGE 374 ÷ I CAT. REF. AUTHOES AND YEAR CEOGIU~PHIC NO. NO ~.21 0930 AbelaneC ~13 0870 Acheron ~13 0873 A~eso. 470 1161 Aisner ~70 1162 ~50 109~ Alvarez-F~dex ~13 0886 ~,~ 12.55 ~13 0871 ~on~ (1973) ~61 1102 ~ou~ous (1966) A35 I0~7 ~70 I~66 ~70 1167 ~81 1183 ~cou &27 0988 ~ 1075 &13 0876 Ashcrof~ ~50 1098 Ashford ~U, &23 0966 A~il ~61 1108 B~er ~, ~el ~ (1978) &27 0986 &27 0990 &27 0992 ~27 0987 Bar~s 427 0985 ~27 0989 463 1139 Beck 490 ~262 Becklake 435 ~0~ Be~Eeau 462 ~15 Be~ V~ (~957) 418 0924 B~j~n 422 0965 B~chl ~22 0963 B~nch~ 422 09~ B~ch~ 46~ ~07 42~ 0943 B~on 42~ ~33 421 0932 B~on 42~ 0942 421 0931 421 0955 ~21 0956 B~rs~
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CUMULATIVE A~I~OR IEDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 co 490 MARCH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 ÷ 2 CAT. REF. AUT~OES ~ YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NO. ~O 470 1149 427 0994 462 1119 461 1112 ~63 1133 433 1009 433 1010 ~21 ,0935 421 0937 421 0936 470 1163 421 0958 461 1109 432 1007 ~ 1077 450 1089 442 1051 482 1225 421 O950 450 1094 434 1012 461 1110 426 0979 470 1150 413 0878 414 0896 411 0851 443 1070 462 1127 421 0929 443 1069 &83 1234 442 1044 470 1164 470 1165 483 1236 450 1088 421 0952 442 1048 450 1091 464 1143 443 1068 Bohlfg B, Hefn B (1980) GER Bom~n G, Schubert V, Svane B, WesCerholm P, et al (1982) TUR Boon HE, PoaChuma HS, RulCer D3, Van Andel JG (1981) NET Boon HE. Veldhulzen RW (1982) NET Boreux J-L, Paesmans H, Feoli F, L~abert P, Parlse L (1982) BEL Borow M. Co,Icon &. Livornese LL. SchaleC N (1967) Borow M. Livornese L. C~,atou A. SchaleC N (1973) -B~£~ C~(t9~5) BouCln C. Faz~lse P. ViallaC JR. Cargnlno P. Choux R (1979) BouC£n C. P~eCrl J-F. Beddou H. &labdullah ~ (1978) Brady LW (1981) UPA Bremb£11a E. 8remb£11a C, i~ehler D, Benam ~¢ (1981) Brenner DE, Wh£Cley NO, GoldsCe~u ~rz, &£suer ~ (1981) Brenner J, Sord£11o Pp, Ha8£11 GB, Golbey RB (1982) UNY Brenner ~, $ord~11o PP, Kag£11GB (1981) UNY Br£ae111M, ~8rk EJ, D£ckere£n G~ (1981) UI~ Br~CCon I)C (1976) Br~CCon MG (1980) GBR Brocbard P, Ameille J (1981) FRA Broghaner WL, Co11/ns blq, Ko]aejenko Y~ (1978) Bruckman L. Hub/no HA. Christine B (1977) Bryant 3 (1982) UIL Bursova J, Pesek H (1981) CZE BuCchar~ EG, A~hcro£C T, Barn~ley MC, Holden MP (1981) GBE BuCler'EB, 8erryAV (1973) BuGler EBB ~ohngon NF (1980) Calavreaoe A, Ha£n E (1982) CER Campbell GD, Greenber8 SD (1981) UTX C~-pbell JM (1983) C~mpo MA (1953) Caravell£ JF, Zaman MB (1978) UNY Carroll HP, Britton MG, Green M (1981) Cu~lennn 8, McNeeley BU (1967) Chahinlan AP, Suzuki Y, Mendel ~/, Holland JF (1978) Chahin~an AP, Pajak TF, Holland JF, NOrton LeC al (1982) UNY Chailleux E~ Eve£11ard MF, Ordronneau J e£ at (1982) y FRA Chalaoui J, Barrel V, S/mard P, Lefebvre E, Sylvestre J (1982) Champe£x J (1976) FEA Champion P (1971) CAN Chart8 JC, Lesser M (1982) Ulrf Chert KTK, Arhelger RB, Flea MS, Hanson JH (1982) ~CA Chert W, Mo~e~ NK (1978)
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CUMULATIVR AU~IOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 to 490 HAR~H 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 3 CAT. R.EF. AUTHORS AND YEAR NO. NO 418 0927 421 0954 481 1190 480 1178 442 1057 481 1206 481 1204 631 !005 463 1135 431 0997 450 1087 412 0855 444 1076 462 1126 483 1230 400 0844 414 0894 435 1019 490 1261 490 1265 425 0902 462 1122 443 1Q71 462 1116 421 0945 421 0944 481 1193 418 0925 490 1266 484 1249 514 0900 415 0901 463 1129 462 1118 413 0862 463 1136 413 0868 524 0973 484 1244 484 1238 484 1239 4B4 1240 Chovil A, Stewart C (1979) CAN Chret£en J (1979) FRA Chretieu J, Chahinisn PH, Hirsch A, Nebut H (1976) F~k Chretlen J (1978) F~A ChrisCeaae JB, Rechfeld E (1980) I~N Churg A (1982) UCA Churg A (1981) UCA Chug &, ~l~en J (1982) ~ Churg A, W~ock ~, eensch ~ (1978) ~ Churg ~, Roeeu 8~, ~l~en S (1965} ~ Cobano81= A. ~ard JJ (1982) ~E C~hrane JC, Nebester ~ (1978) ~ C~hraue JC, Webster I (1981) ~ C~en ~, E~e~d~s S (1980) ~ Collins ~B (1968) ~ C~ezcial Union I~urance C~pa~es (1982) ~ C~aCanCinid~s [ (1977) ~R Corsou ~, P~uku~ GS (1982) ~ Cra~ghead JE, ~se~n ~T (1982) ~ Croft ~ (1982) ~ Davis ~G (1974) ~R De Young ~, Fr£cke RN (1962) ~ Decou~le P (1980) ~ 9i H~ta L. Hirsch H, H~gold H, B~on J (1979) ~ D£ H~za L, Hi~ch A, Seb~stlen P (19~2) ~ C~za L, Bi~ch A, Hangold H, ~on J (1979) ~ Dionne ~, W~g MS D~nskl L~ ~iel~£g R, Glickmn R (1982) D~na A, Hefts ~, Gsglisrdi F, P~v~ A (1980) Do~rd ~ S~ck ~R (1981) Do~cd ~ (19~I) Drash EC. H~ ~, Sk£nner GF, ~ ~, Hushes ~A eC aI (19~0) Dvoskln S (1959) Ea~twood ~H, ~tle JP (1921) Eck H, BerK-Schloeser V (1978) Edge JR (1976) ~ecl~d LD (1956) E~seastadC fib (1974) Eisenstadt HB (1962) Eisenstadt HB (19~) ZiseustadC RB (1965) CA~ OVA GBR G~R
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CIJNULATIVg AUTHOR LNDEX FOR CATEC, ORIES 400 ~o ~90 MARCH 30, 1983 PACE 37~ + 4 CAT. REF. AU*fHORS AND YEAR NO. NO 416 0907 416 0908 470 1146 416 0905 416 0906 461 1103 418 0926 ~84 1256 461 If04 462 1124 443 1067 464 I144 463 If30 442 I040 490 1260 481 1217 483 1227 45O I083 4S4 1241 435 1015 481 I185 439 1030 414 0897 413 0879 412 0860 414 0889 442 1060 442 I045 414 0888 442 1050 442 1055 415 0904 415 0903 417 0910 424 0970 424 0971 411 . 08~7 426 0982 412 0858 442 1056 450 1093 4~4 1245 El~ea PC (1973) Elves PC (1979) Sloe, PC (1973) Elmes PC. Wade OL (1965) E~ ~, ~Ca~hey ~, ~ade 0L (1965) gn~c~ap JB, S~¢her WJ (19~) ~y~en ~ (1980) Fel,ona (~982~ Fe~des AC, F~seca ~ H~r~ques ~, Soare8 ~ (1980) Fe~er-R~a O, I~e~ H, E~ae ~, R~ves A e~ 81 (1979) Fl£g£el Z, [~e~ ~ (1976) Forest ~, Koz~s ~C (1960) F~ler PBS, S~r JC, W~er ~ F:idriksson ~, ~enstrom H, ~£lterdal ~ ~lm~r~ P (1981) F~old W, ~ K, L~d~r F (1969) F~oka Y, Yosh~oka S, Ta~d~ Y Gaensler ~, Eaplan ~ (1971) G~usler ~ (1977) Galloway ~ (1978) G~dner ~, Hc~ald ~C, guterl~ne ~g, e~ al (1981) G~er ~ A~esou ~ ~e~ ~ (1982) Geller~-~, Steel S~ (1982) G£1son ~C (1966) Gilsou ~C (1972) G~d~el~er T, ~£y~l F, C~bell Aet al (1982) G~n HC~ ~agaCfc G (1968) ~ld C (1969) ~lden ~ (1974) ~reenber~ M, D~ee ~ Bagers~c~ ~, ~u~n L, Odl~d B (1968) Hain E, Dalquen ~, ~lig E, Dabbert A~ H~n: I (197~) Eajduklevicz Z, Slodk~s~ J~ S~iawsk~ ~ (1975) E~u~ou 3S ~1971) ~t~g g (19~) Ha~od ~, G~acey DR, Yokoo ~ (1976) 5asa~ ~ (1975)
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CUMULATIVE AUTIIOR INDEX FOE CATEGORIES 400 to 490 M~Cll 30, 1983 PAGE 374 ÷ 5 CAT. REF. ~QI~IO~ AND ~ GEO~RAP~IC NO. NO 435 1020 Haaan lq~, Nash 0,, K,,,zemi H (1977) 426 0980 Haskovcova 426 0981 Haskovcova I,, DobLa-, J, Vodickova S (1981) 418 0917 450 I08~ Heaney J'P, OverCon EC, DeBakey ME (1957) 481 1218 He~enstlerna G. Alexandersso. E, Kol~od~J1-He~m~n B eC al (1981) 417 0913 Henderson 413 0872 481 1187 He.bert A, SCerllng GM (1980) 413 0881 Herbert A, Gallagher 413 0880 Herberc A, Gallasher 470 1159 H£11erdal G (1982) 481 1211 H~11erdal G, Lindgcen A (1980) 481 1201 Hillerdal G (1982) 481 1212 Hillerd81 G (1980) 481 1202 H~11erdal G (1981) 450 1090 Hillerdal 481 1197 Hil lerdal ~1 1216 H~11erd81 ~1 1203 H~lerdal ~39 102A H~ds ~1 1192 H~rsch A (1979) ~81 1191 Hirsch 421 09~6 H~sch ~81 1194 h~ 1248 H~sch ~21 09~7 470 1155 424 ~68 B~sk~en &ll 08~0 421 0938 4~ 1251 Israel ~2 1064 J~kson 4~ 1145 3apko 470 1160 421 0948 3aur~ MC: Ga~ichet 421 0949 481 11~ 413 08~4 463 1131 46~ Jaurand MC, Kaplan H, Th£ollet: J, Pinchou HC, st: ale (1979) Joaes JSP, 8hears G (1973) Joaes JSP, Fooley FD, Clark NJ, O~en WG eC al (1980) Jose£son A (1922) [aden F (1982) l~Lhn El, Rob1 A, Barrett EW, Suzuki Y (1980)
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Ct~HULATIVE AUTHOE INDEX FOE CATEGOEIES 400 to 490 MAECH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 ÷ 6 CAT. REF. AU'L~O~ AND ~ ~EOGE~PHIC NO. NO 431 I000 K~nuers Cein 431 0998 431 IO01 431 1006 K~ersCe~n 1074 [~96 462 ~120 490 1259 Kiss ~ (1982) 424 0969 Kjuua 411 0846 ~p~ J (1972) ~2 1039 ~les 4~ 1252 Kmd~od~ 411 0~9 Kme~z~ 470 1158 Kos~a~nen S, Ap~lqvist P, Holeti ~, ~k~sou K (1982) 428 0983 K~ac-S~j~vskl S (1979) 421 0940 ~jarere 421 0939 ~jar~re ~2 1063 ~er ~2 1059 ~ger 417 0911 463 1134 ~hpand 470 1156 413 ~77 483 1226 415 ~98 ~3 1233 ~uff~ 470 1175 470 1173 470 lI~4 ~1 1100 ~c~er F (1954) ~1 1188 ~naEer ~ 1141 43A 1013 436 1021 A27 0993 AT0 1171 481 1220 481 1209 418 0922 ~1 1038 L4~ko J, Bankovskl Z (1956) Levinsohn HC (1974) Le~insohn HC, Meig8 ~, Teta ~, F~ery ~ (1980) Lieben J, P~caw~ H (1967) Lilis E (1981) L~den ~, K~sg~rd E, Willen H, Willen t eeal (1982) L~ey ~S (1980) ~eraon P, D~ideou ~ (1969) ~er D, MoUld ~ (1972) ~110~ ~, CasCl~n B, P~r~s ~ (1~7)
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CUMULATIVE A~I~OR I~DEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 to 490 MA~CH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 7 CAT. REF. A~FI~ORS AMD YE~ GEOG~APHIC ~0. 461 1106 Mann ~H, Grosh ~I, O~Donnell WM (1966) 48~ 1253 M~k JBD (1982) ~2 I0~3 ~kh~ ~ D~son ~ (1968) 462 1114 ~elli ~ (1953) ~2 1062 ~s~ ~, Tsuchiy~ ~, ~a~ K, H~ M eC al (1982) 470 1154 MaCCson K (1982) 470 1157 ~so. K (1982) ~80 1179 ~£zel ~ (1979) ~70 1170 Mc~ J (1982) ~1~ 0895 McCa~hey ~, 01~ ~D (1973) 431 I00A Mc~hey ~, AL-~ab~ M, ~ueretein M (19~) 462 1121 McCle~nC ~, Webb JN (1981) 417 0915 McCullagh SF (1978) ~18 0921 Mc~ald ~ (1980) 439 1026 Mc~ld ~, Mc~nald 3C (1980) 439 1025 Hc~ald ~, ~ld ~C, P~ley ~ (1982) 418 0920 Mc~ald ~ (1979) ¢13 0875 Hc~ald" ~, ~D~ald ~C, P~leT ~ (1982) ~18 0919 Hc~ld ~ B~r A, E1 Attar DA, McD~ald ~C (1970) ~18 O918 Mc~ald ~, ~r~r A, E1 ACCar OA, McDonald ~C (1970) 413 08~ Mc~nald C, Mc~uald A (1979) 429 1027 Mc~ld .~C, ~ald ~ (1981) ~1 1032 Mc~eli P J, ~ell ~ (1920) ~I~ 0899 Mc~n, F~yson A, ~ir A (1971) ~2 I~7 McC~llov~y FA (1968) ~i 1215 McMillan ~G, PeChybr~dge ~, Sheers G (1980) 417 0909 M~ul~y ~C (1962) ~82 1223 Miller A, Te~r~Ce~n ~, Sel~koff I (1982) ~1 1036 M~ller ~ D~rCy ~, B~neCt WA (19~8) ~50 1097 ~zer ~, ~re ~ Vogelza~ ~, ~o1~ S (1981) 470 1147 Miranda ~, B~g~ ~ (1978) ~21 0953 Mol~ C, DelaEe 3, Mercier E (1968) 421 0941 Mol~nari D, Verdler M, 8~n A, ~n~ier C, P~b~ot 3C (1981) 421 0957 ~e~ M (1979) 417 091~ ~rt~r ~, Cmpbell ~ (1968) ~2 105~ M~ter~ C, ~eln~j~ • (1979) 421 0959 ~lllez P, 8~uC 3, Creusy C, CrinqueC~e ~ (1981) 435 1016 Mu~y E (1980) ~ 11~2 Nsgel R (1960) ~1 1195 Ha~ac~1 ~, ~o~avkova [, Trfppe F (1978)
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 to 490 MARCH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 8 CAT. REF. AUTHO~ AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NO. NO 463 1132 t~l 1035 413 0882 413 0883 44.2 1061 413 0864 413 0865 ~,81 1208 /d~2 1058 411 0848 413 0863 421 0934 484 1237 442 1053 413 0885 439 1028 413 0887 425 0972 425 0975 025 0974 425 0976 414 0893 /,.22 0961 443 1073 445 1080 462 1125 446 1082 484 1250 463 1138 438 1023 44.2 1052 490 1263 490 1264 426 0984 462 1113 421 0960 462 1117 422 0962 ~,23 0967 470 1148 ~2 10/,6 484 1254 Nedogoda l/V, Go,man VA, Nogilevskli R~, Sg£bneva OV eC al (1982) Nesbitt KA, Boswell JT, Dejeeus~zeles ~, S~k£sian SS (1958) ~ouse ~ (1981) N~ouse ~, Ber~ G (1976) N~ouse ~ (1982) N~ouse ~, ~ploU H (1965) ~o..e ~ (1967) - ..... 0~ T, O~a H, T~uj~ H, [noue ~, O~ Y (1980) OLeo H (1980) ~. WG (1964) PerdrizeC S~ B~gnon J, Di Menza L, Nebut M (1980) Pero~ ~, L~E~ MS (1955) Per~ MC, Solinger A. Farhau~ M, ~er A (~978) Peso ~ H~derson ~, Pike MC (1981) PeCo J, Sei~n H, ~ellkoff lJ (1982) Picard E, G~pard P (19~3) PlmuceydC ~ (1979) PlanteydC ~ (1979) P[auteyd~ ~ (1980) P~ley ~ (1973) Raga£nt S~ P~dr£n£ G (1958) Ragal£e ~F, V~key B, Chol 8 (1983) Rav£aro ~, 8~tor£ F, Calabro F. Varol~ F (1982) Riddell ~, ~dmn ~, ~s~a ~ (1981) Risberg B~ N~kela J, Wage~rk J (1980) Rob~aou e~, ~k ~ (~981} Roggl£ VL (1981) R~81i ~ ~c~an ~, Subach J, Sy~re ~, C~enberg ~ (1982) Rm W, ~eraou ~ (1977) R~ ~ (1982) ~ ~, ~key ~ (I982) R~uychev ~ (1979) • ~o ~ (1935) Ro~j~u J (1978) ~ Rouj~u J, Seeg A (1961) R~o ~, 8~n*etti C. ~ A, Palea~ro C (1972) Rue~tuer ~ (1983) Ruffle P, H~ach A (1980) Rushy NL (1968) S~n SA (1982)
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CUMULATIVE AUTHO~L INDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 ¢o 490 MA~CH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 9 CAT. REF. &.WI~OES AND I'EAE GEOGRAPRIC NO. NO 483 1231 Sa~ge-l: E~,, J-,cobsou G, W£1kinao- EE (1972) 483 1235 S~g~t ~, Fel~oa JS~ B~e~ LT (1981) ~81 1207 S~geDC ~, ~rdonson 3, ~acobson G, B~ba~ ~, S~ g (1978) 462 1128 S~eider V, Partridge JR, ~t~errez F, Hurt ~ eC al (1983) 483 1228 Schneider L, W~p~e~er F (196~) ~0 1092 Sci~a ~, Sheccy S, Nav~i S (1971) ~27 0991 SebaaC~en P~ Ca~cheC A,. Bi~n~.~.8~r£a Y~ .(1981) ~00 0~2 Seli~f~ ~, L~ D~ (1978) ~13 0869 Sheera G 41980) ~81 118~ Shel~n ~, Herbert ~, Balla~er P~ 41980) ~80 1181 Sh~ S 41979) ~18 0928 Shear S 41979) ~5 1079 Slesge ~ 41970) ~39 1029 Sloan ~ Peto ~, ~d~ord ~, Schneide~u H, eL al 41981) ~ 12~3 Slu£s~r~r ~, W~baCec I (1972) ~70 1169 S~Ch ~ Hol£ac ~. H~becC DD, Sobel ~ Dav~s S (1980) ~0 1180 S~Ch ~ DavLes D (19~0) ~70 11~3 S~-~eyer ~ (1982) ~l] 086~ S~Cher W~ 41966) ~12 0856 Solo~n ~ 41970) ~82 1222 Solo~n ~'(1969) ~82 1221 Sol~n ~ 41970) ~ 12~2 Solon A. 41970) ~1 1182 Sol~ A~ W~aCer I 41976) ~50 1096 S~r T, ~carCz~a H, C~cla H, S~uberC ~ (1981) ~70 i1~1 Soreu~eu ~ (1982) ~70 1152 Sor~aen ~ ~orCh H, H~aen ~ (1982) ~3 1072 S~iner ~ ~r ~. B~dovaky H 41982) ~82 122~ S~rl~ ~, Ber~rC A (1980) ~ 1258 SCje~berg N, ~dgren Z, a~a G. A~ S~a G (1982) ~21 09~1 SCoebner Ps B~a~n ~. Nebuc H. ~aet F 41979) ~I 1037 S~rer 3, H~r R 41960) ~3 I066 S~ieder ~, S~lly ~ P~dergrass ~ eC el (19~9) ~25 0977 SC~f~ ~ (1971) ~25 0978 SC~ ~ 41979) ~0 108~ Sug~ ~. D~iela H (1978) ~31 1002 S~i Y (19~) ~31 100~ S~i Y, ~u~u ~, O~u~ T (1983)
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CU~IULATIVE AUTHOR DIDEX FOR CATEGORIES 400 to 490 HATCH 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 10 CAT. I~F. AtrfltO~ ~ ~ GEOGRAPIIIC NO. NO 431 450 437 412 418 484 481 . ~81 412 461 412 481 460 481 433 445 418 432 483 414 412 414 470 470 412 414 435 481 470 464 412 480 411 481 481 417 413 442 451 481 0999 Suzuki Y, Kannerstelu M, Churg J (1973) 1086 Tada 8 (1978) 1022 Zagnon I, S~t WJ, S~oube ~, Day ~, 0859 Talen~ ~, ~ison ~, Solo~n A, ~ebeter l (1980) 0923 ~ao ~ (1979) 1198 ~iriuger C, B~mqv~t N~ Brolin I. 1210 ~omson j@ 0857 ~o~on JC (1970) 1101 Thomson JG (19~2) 0861 ~o~on JG (1963) 1199 ~inge~ ~ 1099 Y~nen ~, H~t~d ~, Hjaatvedt ~, ~e I189 ~oty L, ae~tffiog P, ~eouue CL, Ba~ach 1011 ~riol J, Cm*ton ~, ~ler ~ (1982) 1081 Y~n ~, ~ilcote ~, ~rkow ~, H~hr 0916 Vallee ~ (1920) 1008 V~a $~ ~loueky J,~berta S, S~l~n 1229 Vllkeri M, J~akelalnen J, T~t£ E (1968) 0892 ~er JC (1972) 0853 ~e~ JC (19~2) 0891 Wa~er JC (I964) t172 ~a~er JC, J~son ~, Bro~ ~, ~ger 1168 ~a~er ~C, a~ll ~, Ser~ ~, ~a~er, ~52 ~a~er JC, Sleggs ~, ~chand P (1960) 0890 ~er JC, ~ C, P~ley F (1982) I018 R~hol ~, a~ckey W, Corson ~ (1982) I205 ~k ~, P~scott BT, K~ara TJ (1982) 1078 ~*e~ H, ~ee~ D, S~e£nitg 1176 ~atte ~, To &, ~o-~ ~, eo~u~ky 1140 ~a~h ~ (1953) 085~ ~ter I (1973) I177 ~scer I (I973) 0~5 Weiss b (1953) 1213 ~e~as W, ~ R (19~) 1214 ~eieu W, ~ R, ~u L (1981) 0912 ~caker B, Shil~ ~ (1981) 0867 ~ell F, ~cliffe ~ (1971) 1042 Wteckl~ug ~ (1966) 1111 Wolfson ~ (1982) 1033 W~d ~, Walter ~1 (1921) 1219 W~ght ~, H~son b, K~el L, ~1 r~
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOE CATEGORIES 400 to 490 CAT. ~F. AIY~IlORS AND YEAR ~. NO 483 1232 Wusteman FS, Gold C, Wagner JC (1971) 462 1123 YOOn IL (1962) 461 1105 Young j'~ Eeddy ER (1980) 441 1034 Zeckwer IT (1924) 484 1247 Zemau V (1979) H&RC~ 30, 1983 PAGE 374 + 11 CEOCRAPHIC CBR UCT CBR UMA CZE
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 375 [500] (510] [520] BRONCHIAL CARCINOM~ AND EXTRAPULMONAR¥ MALIGNANCIES Case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers: 1935 to 1939 Case reports of bronchlal carcinoma in asbestos workers~ 1940 to 1949 [530] Case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos [540] [550] Workers: 1950 to 1959 Case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers: 1960 to 1969 Case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers'~ 1970 to 1979 [560] Bronchial carcinoma and asbestosis research proqress= 1980 to 1982 [570] Malignancies 6f t~e head and neck in asbestos workers [580] Malignancles of abdominal organs and extremities in asbestos workers [590] Asbestos/~i~arette smoking interactions in patients with bronchlal carcinoma Bibliography Author Index 376 377 378 381 387 392 394 395 397 397 404 423 + page 1 to 4
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction {500 Series] May 30, 1983 376 {500] BRONCHIAL CARCINOMA AND EXTRAPULMONAR¥ MALIGNANCIES The subject of asbestos-associated bronchial carcinoma is discussed in several preceding sections: experimental asbestos carcinogenesis [IQ0s], histopathology and cytopathology [200s], and mortality.~tati~st~o~ ~O0s~. A subsequent section on bronchial cancer appearing in asbestos workers [700s] estimates the risk of carcinogenesis involved in various trade groups. The present section is concerned with articles that describe case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers, starting with" the 1935 publication of Lynch and Smith. Subsequent case reports are summarized in tabular form with special emphasis on the nature of asbestos exposure and identification of concurrent risk factors that may have contributed ~o the etiology of bronchial carcinoma. Smoking habits are discussed whenever the clinical investigator included the information which was not a practice until the 1960s. This section also includes malignancies in the head, neck, abdominal organs and extremities that have been reported to occur in asbestos workers. The concluding section is a summary of opinions by experts on the question of asbestos/ cigarette smoking interaction in the pathogenesls of bronchial carcinoma. N N
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 377 [510] Case Reports of Bronchial Carcinoma in Asbesto- Workers: 1935 to 1939 At the outset, it should be recalled that the concurrent appearance of pulmonary asbestosis and bronchial carcinoma was first reported in 1935 by Lynch and Smith (1267) in an asbestos textile weaver from ~South car~llnao By 1939, a total of 11 bronchial cancer cases in asbestos workers were reported in the United States, England and Germany. The case reports are summarized as follows: Investigators/Year - [Clt¥/State] United States (1267) Lynch & Smith 1935 [Chareston SC] (1268) Lynch S Smith 1939 [Charl~ston SC] Sex, Age, Occupatloh: Histologic Diaqnosis and Pr~m~y Site Male 57~ weaver 21 years: squamous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 50, weaver 13 years~ squamous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe (1269) Egbert & Gelger 1936 Male 41, weaver 17 years: [New Haven CT] adenocarclnoma L-Lower lobe Great Britain (1270) Gloyne 1935 [London] (1271) Gloyne 1936 [London] ~rman¥ (1272) Nordmann 1937-38 [Berlin] Female 35, spinner 8 yearsz squa- mous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe Female 71, mattress maker, ? years: squamous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 59, packer 10.5 years: ~oat cell carcinoma L-Lo~e.r Female 35, spinner 7 years: squa- mous cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe Male 55, pre-splnnlng assembly worker 7 years: squamous cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 378 (1273) Hornlg 1938 [Helde] (1274) Koelsch 1938 [Munich] Female 35, asbestos factory worker 9 years: carcinoma L-Lower lobe (father esophageal cancer) Two cases, no details It should be noted that at least eight of the eleven asbest~ .~c~r~er~ .l-lstec! above~ bad_bronchial ~c~r~i~_~he lower lobes, whereas most nonasbestos workers developed bronchial carcinoma of the upper lobes (1275, 1276). In reviews of lung cancer in asbestos workers published in 1938, Teleky (1277, 1278) estimated that approximately half of autopsies of asbestos workers showed bronchial cancer. In contrast to cancer associated with silica and chromium, Teleky proposed the mechanism for asbestos carcinogenesis as mechanical irritation rather than chemical reaction. [520] Case Reports of Bronchial Carcinoma in Asbestos Workers: 1940 to 1949 The decade that included World War II was the period when the use of asbestos in shipyards became so extensive that exposed workers subsequently developed bronchial cancer two or more decades later. During the war years, although there was no exchange of medical information among the Allied and Axis countries, cases of asbestosls with bronchial carcinoma continued to be reported from the United States, Great Britain,
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 379 Germany and for the first t~me from Canada. In the United States, the 1940s started with two review articles on occupa- tional neoplasms that did not implicate asbestos as a causative agent (1279, 1280). By the end of the decade, an Editorial ap~=ar~d.~n ~ JAVA (~281) sug~s~i~g a between asbestos and bronchial carcinoma based on the available information, including case reports sunmmrized in the following table~ Investlgators/Year [City/State] ~nited States (1282) Holleb & Angrist 1942 [Jamaloa NY] (1283) H~mburger 1943 [New Raven CT] Great BEitain (1284) Cureton 1948 [Newcastle-upon-Tyne] German~ (1285) Koelsch 194~ [Berlin] (1286) Linsbach & Wedler 1941 [Berlin] Sex, Age, Occupation: Histologic Diagnosis and Primary Site Male, 52, pipe £nsulator 25 years~ squamous cell carcinoma R-Upper lobe Male 58, pipe insulator 18 years~ oat cell ~arcinoma" R-upper lobe Male 45, asbestos worker 5 years: squamous cell carcinoma R lung Male 43, asbestos worker 2~ years~ anaplastic carcinoma L-Lower lobe Female 49, no history of asbestos exposure~ squamous cell carcinoma R-LUng Female 37, asbestos pipe c~verer 7 years~ squamous cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe (Aunt w~rked in same factory and died of as~es- tosis at age 40) One case, no details Male 61, asbestos factory worker 18 years~ no addtional details
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 380 (1287) Welz 1942 [Hannover] (1288) Boemke 1947 [Dor~mun_~|~.~ Canada (1289) Desmeules et al 1941 [Quebec| (1290) Desmeules et al 1947 [Quebec] M~le 43, asbestos factory worker II years squamous cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe (also baker and tubercular) Male 56, asbestos m~xer 21 years: anaplastlc carcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 71, asbestos carder Ii years: squamous cell carcinoma R-T~wer Male 57, machine adjuster 25 years: alveolar cell carcinoma L-LUng Male 50, bagger 22 years~ squamous cell carcinoma R-Lung The Editorial that appeared in the JAMA (1281) as well as publications appearing in European Journals (1287, 1288, 1291- 1293) suggested that asbestos is the most llkely cause of bronchial carcinoma among exposed workers for the followlng reasons~ (a~'the incidence rate of cancer of the lung is excessive in asbestos workers compared to the general popula- tion; (b) the male to female sex ratio for bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers is lower than that for the general popula- tlon; (c) asbestos-associated bronchial carclnosm occurs more frequently in the lower lobes than in upper lobes, the reverse for cancer in the general population; (d) hronchla~ cancer among asbestos workers occured at a yoonger age than that in nonasbestos workers; and (e) the animal inhalation stud£es
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 381 conducted in the 1930s showed carcinogenicity of asbestos dust [Category 100s] [530] Case Reports of Bronchial Carcinoma in Asbestos Workers~ 1950 to 1959 The 1950s can be characterized as the decade that occupational cancer was recognized as a specific disease entity. Hueper, the newly appointed Chief of the Cancerigenic Statistics Section of the National Cancer Institute, published in 1950 three articles (1294-1296) on occupational cancer hazards including ~sbestos-assoclated bronchial carcinoma. He defined environmental or occupational cancers as follows~ "Since environmental cancers and cancerlgenic agent~" do not possess any properties by which they can be distinguished from the so-called spontaneous cancer, the recognition of the environmental nature of a cancer is based on circumstantial evidence. The bulk of this evidence is of statistical and epidemlologic nature. An increased total cancer morbidity and mortality with a shift in the distribution of cancers as to sites as well as an excessive incidence of cancer of a certain organ or organs within a restricted population group should arouse the suspicion of an environmental cause of these cancers. This interpretation receives ~upport if there is a demonstrable shift of the cancers to younger age groups and of the male-female sex ratio of cancer, o . The discovery and recognition of environmental cancers is thus based on a ~omplex type of evidence which is some instances forms a mosaic of a definite design, the environmental cancer pattern." (1294)
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 382 Hueper's summary of asbestos-a~soclated lung cancer is as follows: "Until rather recentl~, the question of a causal relationship between asbestosis and cancer of the lung has been a controversial one. Wedler reported in 1943 a total ~ of 14 cases of lung cancer in a series of 92 -~p~.~ on~pai~ients wFe.~, asbe~tosls ~A~u~ i~~ ~ cent). In a recent publication of Lynch and cannon from this country, 4 cases of lung cancer in patients with asbestosi8 ware reported, of which 3 occurred £n a series of 2,683 necropsies performed during a ten- year period. Ashestosis was found in 40 cases. The incidence rate of lung cancer in the presence of as- bestosis was thus 7.5 percent, compared with 1 percent in the total number of necropsies. Merewether, analyzing the data collected by the Chief Inspector of Factories during the period 1924 to 1946, found 31 cases of lung cancer among 235 deaths from asbestosls giving an incidence raue of 13.2 perce~t of combined cancer and asbestosis of the lung. If calculated for the male deaths only, the incidence rate stood at 17.2 percent, while it was 8.4 percent for the female deaths. The average age of asbestosis cancer was approximately 50 years. Very recent information indicates that cancer of the lung has been observed in workers with asbestosis employed in the Canadian industries." (1295) Mayers (1297, 1298), the Chief of the Medical Unit, Division of Industrial Hygiene and Safety standards (New York State Department of Labor) echoed the warnings of Hueper which actually dated back to a 1942 monograph entitled "Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases'. The far reaching importance of the activities in England was described by Mayers as follows:
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 383 "The relation of asbestos to lung cancer has been long suspected. Actually, conslderable confirmation has recently been provided by the Chief Inspector of Factories in England, in his Annual Report for 1947. During the period from 1924 to 1946 inclusive, there were 235 deaths either caused by asbestosls or in which asbestosls has b~en establlshed at necropsy. Cancer of the lungs or pleura was found in 31 of these cases or 13.2 percent, which is very. hi~h. tom, red ~i~n -~a -~general incidence--of ~ percent for cancer of the lungs among all adults exasL~ned at necropsy. Moreover, the sex distribution seemed to suggest the presence of an occupational carcinogen. The hlstolo- glc character of the cancers - squamous cell, instead of adenocarclnoma - and their histogenetic derivation, in that the bronchial mucosa was involved rather than the alveolar epithelium, was interpreted to indicate the presence of a specific exogenous carcinogenic agent as the etiological factor~ in this instance, inhalation of ~asbestos dust. It has been estimated that 20,000 workers are now employed in asbestos- producing industries in this country and Canada. The development of cancer of the lungs in these workers is believed to be more directly related to asbestosis, the disease, than to the inhalation of asbestos dust per se.~ (1297) The above commentary on asbestos-assoclated bronchial carcinoma should be compared with the conflicting opinions in 1950 on cigarette smoking habits of lung cancer patients. Ariel, Avery, Kanter, Head and Langston (1299) summarized in 1950, the clinical features of 1205 cases of primary carcinoma of the lung. Their observations on smoking habits were as follows: "No etiologlcal factors that might contribute to the production of bronchogenlc carcinoma could be ascertained from this review. Evaluatlon of the smoking habits of these patients is inconclusive. The various occupations were of such a miscellaneous
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Asbest0s/Cigar~tte Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 384 nature that none was considered of etiological significance. Of the 511 patients in whom histological confirmation was obtained, an associated syphilis was present in eighteen and concomitant tuberculosis of the lung was found in twelve. These figures do not warrant any statement concerning the etiological role of either of these diseases in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma." (1299) -~ni~h~:%~~er hand, ais6~n 1950, Wynde~ summarized the smoking habits of 857 cases of bronchial cancer and concluded that tobacco smoking plays a "major role in the induction of primary carcinoma of the lungs". The authors compared the occupations of lung cancer groups with those of a control group and concluded that occupational exposure did not influence the incidence of lung cancer. It is important to note that a third of the listed occupations involved exposure to asbestos so that the validity of their conclusion can be questioned, based on the presently available information that asbestos exposure is not only limited to miners and textile workers but also printers, plumbers, construction engineers and many other~ discussed elsewhere [Category 700s]. In 1952, W. E. Smith (1301) from the Department of Industrial Medicine, Postgraduate Medical School of New York .University published his observations in the course of visiting occupational physicians in Europe. He recounted case reports from Canada that were not previously published and are added in
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 385 the following table of published case reports of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers: Investigators/Year [Cit~/State] United States (130~ St~!!-et &l 1951 [J~a (1303) Castleman et al 1952 [Boston MA] (1304) Isselbacher et al 1953 [Boston MA] Sex,Age,.Ocoupatlon: Histologic Diagnosis and Prlmar~ Site Male ~O~__asbestos.~pipe~ere.~ years~ a~aplasti~cfrci~ma~: R-Lower lobe Male 41, asbestos mfll worker 12 years= adenocarcln~ L-~wer Io~, c~arette smoker (1305) Lynch & Pratt-Thomas Male 46, foreman in asbestos 1955 [Charleston SC] factory 25 years~ epldermoid carcinoma L-Lower lobe - Male 55, spinner 36 years: squamous cell carcinoma R-Upper lobe Great Britain '('130~) Owen 1951 [Bournemouth] Male 39, asbestos factory worker 1 year 20 years earlier~ squamous cell carcinoma L-Lung BShme 1951 [Bochum] (1308) BSmke 1953 [ Dortmund ] (1309) G~ttner 1955 [Dresden] (1310) Werber 1952 [Schwarzwald] Male 71, textile carder Ii years: carcinoma R-Upper lobe Female 57, braking machine operator in asbestos factory 3 years: squamous cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe Male 57, foreman asbestos factory ? years~ carcinoma lower lobe Male 51, weaver 5 years~ squamous cell carcinoma L-Lower l~be [tuberculos£s] Female 57, asbestos cutter'and worker 8 years~ squamous cell carcinoma R-Upper lobe Male 58, asbestos factory worker ? years= squamo~s cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 386 (1311) Bbhme 1959 [Bochum] Switzerland (1312) Chauvet 1959 [Geneva] (1313) R~bola 1955 [Milan] Canada (1314) Desme~les 1954 [Quebec] (1301) Cartier, cited by Smith 1952 [Quebec] Male 45, master weaver 15 years: small cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe Male 53, cardroom worker 15 years: carcinoma R-Lower lobe [tuberculosis] Male 52, asbestos bricklayer and board worker 30 yearss adenocarclnoma both l~ngs Male 58 years, textile ~arder and master spinner ~5-1~ar~:~d~o- ~carclnoma ~oth lower lobes Male 44 years, textile carder, spinner and weaver 12 years: carcinoma R-Upper lobe Female 58, asbestos Joint worker 4 years: adenocarclnoma L-Lower lobe Female 49, asbestos factory worker 28 years: small cell carcinoma L-Lung Male 50, asbestos bagger 12 years~ bronchial carcinoma R-Lung Male 57, machinist 25 yearss pleuropu~onary carcinoma Male 59, asbestos worker 30 years~ bronchogenlc carcinoma Male 54, asbestos worker ii years: bronchogenlc carcinoma Male 64, asbestos worker 2 years: bronchogenlc carcinoma
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 387 [540] Case Reports of Bronchial Carcinoma in Asbestos Workers~ 1960 to 1969 There ware three significant events in the 1960s which led to the proposal that asbestos is a carcinogen and that c~garrette smoking potentiate~ the carcinog~_nicJt~ of ~b~stos dust. First was the publlcation of Wagner in 1960 that as- bestos workers have a higher incidence of pleural mesothelloma compared to the general population in South Africa [Category 410]. Second was the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health sum~arlzlng the epidemlologlc data suggesting that cigarette smokers have a higher incidence of bronchial carclno- ma compared to nonsmokers. Third was the epldemlologic study of Selikoff end his collaboratos at the Mount Sinai Hospital suggesting that asbestos insulators who were also smokers have a higher risk of developing bronchial carcinoma than nonsmoklng asbestos workers [Category 310]. Conflicting epldemiologlc studies of asbestos workers were reported in the 1960s and are discussed elsewhere [Category 300s]. Case reports of bronchlal carcinoma combined with abestosis continued to be reported from the United States, France, Italy and the flrst.cases from Czechoslovakla were published.
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 388 Investlgators/Year fCit~/State] United States (1315) Anderson & Campagna (1960) [San Francisco CA] (1316) Tel~sch~ & -~e~one 1961 [Chicago ILl (1317) Cordova et al 1962 [Seattle WA] (1318) An & Koprowska 1962 [Philadelphia PAl SeX,Age, Occupation: Histologic Diagnosis and Primary Site Male 42, asbestos insulator 30 years: squamous cell carcinoma Middle or Lower lobe, heavy cigarette smoker Male 65, plaster mixer 12 years: squamous cell carci~omaa~d bronchial adenoma both lungs, also adenocarclnoma of stomach Male 58, insulator 20 years: adenocarclnoma R-Middle lobe, heavy cigarette smoker Male 46, ironworker~ bronchial carcinoma R-Upper lobe, cigarette smoker Male 55, Shipyard worker ? years: squamous cell carcinoma s!garette smoker Male 71, retired bricklayer: polypold bronchlal tumor L lung [tuberculosis] Male 64, pipe insulator ? years: adenocarclnoma R-Lower lobe, clgarette,sm~er Male 69, asbestos plant worker 18 years~ anaplastic carcinoma R-Upper lobe Male 65, asbestos insulator shipyard for 53 years: squamous cell carclno~a R-Upper lobe, cigarette smoker Male 62, asbestos worker ? years~ undifferentiated carcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 68, insulation worker ? years: bronchial carcinoma Male 60, asbestos handler 40 years~ undlfferentlate~ carcinoma R-Lower lobe, cigarette smoker Male 64, asbestos exposure 30 year~: adenocarcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 68, asbestos worker ? years~ undifferentiated bronchogenic carcinoma R-UPper lobe, cigarette smoker
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 389 (1310) Castleman et al 1964 (Boston MA] (1320) Dyson & Trentalance 1964 [Camden NJ] (1321) Durra & Carney 1965 [Castro Valley CA] (1322) Champelx et al 1962 [Paris] (1323) Danrlgal et al 1962 [Paris] 1324) Rousselin et al [Le Havre] (1325) Donna.1967 [Turin] (1326) Farina & Mazzantl 1963 [Bolgna] Czechoslovakia (1327) Fin~erland & Jindrichova 1962 [Prague] Male 65, pipe fltter 27 years: squ~mous cell carcinoma Male 54, newspaperman: sarcoma L-Upper lobe, cigarette smoker ~ale 70, pipe fitter ? years: squamous cell carcinoma L-Upper lobe [diabetes mellltus] Male 53, asbestos processor 12 yea£s: squamous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe Male 43, asbestos worker Ii years: small cell anaplastlc carcinoma R-LOWer lobe [tuberculosis] Male 43, asbestos weaver and corder II years: small cell anaplastlc carcinoma R-Lower lobe [tuberculosis] Male 52, insulator 27 years: squa- mous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe, cigarette smoker Male 38, carder, ble~.der, packer in asbestos factory 9 years: bronchoalveolar carcinoma both lungs Male 54, insulator 24 years: R-Lung cancer Male 61, asbestos worker 32 years: squamous cell carcinoma R-Lower lobe, ex-smoker On the basis of the above case reports a~ well as mortality statistics of asbestos workers reported Inthe 1960s, there was a consensus of opinion that asbestos workers bad a higher incidence of bronchial carclno~a than the general populatlon. Experts on occupational ~edlclne from Great
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Asbestos/Clga~ette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 390 Britain (1328-1330), Germany (1331, 1332), and the United States (1333) warned of the increasing incidence of asbestos- associated bronchial carcinoma. Hueper (1333) was crltical of the limitations of epldemiologic studies in general, and of the results from an Industry-sponsored Canadian study of asbestos sunless proper methodologlc precautions in the collectlon and evaluation of epldemiologic data are taken, data of the type used by Bohllg, Jacog, and M~ller contain a dilution factor which a priori may negate and defeat the purpose and validity of such studies. More serious objections must be raised against the scientific merits of the claims made in this matter by Braun and Truan, who studied asbestos nLtners and millers in the Province of Quebec. Accord- ing t6 the data published, this study was based on a survey of about 6,000 individuals employed by the asbestos industry in Quebec. There is an analysis of the degree of dust exposure and the number of Indivlduals in each of three graduated groups, but no data -are offered on the duration of exposure to asbestos dust. Although there is a statement on the number'of smokers and nonsmokers, the report is devoid of information on the n~uaber of asbestotlcs in the population group analyzed. No information is available regarding the number of long-term workers and their relative liability to lung cancer. No mention is made in the report on autopsies which have been performed on those who died during the period surveyed. This is particularly important, since Braun and Truan professed that only 9 'proved' cases of lung cancer were discovered to have occurred in the population analysed. This is a rather surprising observation since during a somewhat longer period than that covering the survey, a hlstopathologlc stedy by the pathologists of the Saranac Laboratory, under the sponsorhip of industrial management, on lungs from dead asbestos workers from Quebec revealed 34 cases of asbestos cancer of the lung. N N
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 391 The conclusions reached by Braun and Truan con- cerning an absence of an excessive liability to lung cancer among Quebec asbestos workers are incorrect even if proper epidemiologlc procedures were applled to their data as reported. While the statement of Braun and Truan that the annua~ rate of deaths from lung cancer in the asbestos group for the years 1950 to 1955 is only slightly higher than the rate for the inhabitants of the Province of Quebec could be correct under these conditions, this statement represeuts ~~al-ac~bat~c~ ~hich tend to ~'ob~cu~:~inC~m. hating evidence on hand by use of a highly biased populat£on group as a 'normal' standard. It is well-known fact that urban populations in all industrialized countries have a decidedly higher lung cancer death rate than that in rural regions. Since the asbestos m~nes are situated in rural areas of Quebec and are not located within the fume zones of Quebec and Montreal, where a high lung cancer rate prevails (Montreal rate 32.3), the lung cancer death rate of the asbestos miners, which stands at 33.8 per 100,000 has to be compared w~th the rates present in rural counties of the Province of Quebec. According to the data provided on this point by Braun and Traun, their conclusions is patently incorrect and grossly misleading and results in obscuring the existence of a markedly, elevated lung cancer rate for members of this worker group. The causal relation between asbestosls and cancer o£ the" lung ~s demonstrated by the fact that asbestosis cancer affects ~ore often the lower lobes than the upper lobes (53.7) in contrast to the general type of lung cancer which involves more frequently the upper lobes. Associated with this et~ologically significant topographic pecullarlt~ and frequent multlcentrlc occurrence of ashestosls cancer are the various equally important metaplastlc adenocystlc precancerous and cancerous changes of the bronchial and bronchlolar eplthellumwhlch precede and acc~mp~_ny the development of cancer in asbestotlc lungs, The coexistence of asbestosls and lung cancer has been reported from the Onited States, Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and Finland in asbestos miners, millers, crushers, loaders, sorters, grinders, clea~ers, pipe laggers, cement mixers, packers, boiler coverers, mattress fillers, weavers, sp~nners, and cement workers." (1333)
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 392 Some of the above comments are applicable to Seliko£f~s study but Hueper's specific criticisms were not published. [550] Case Reports of Bronchial Carcinoma In Asbestos During the 1970s, almost all published studies consisted of mortality statistics [Category 300s] and health surveys of asbestos workers [Category 700s]. There were only two publications describing cllnicopethologlcal features of bronchial carcinoma in asbestos workers~ Investigators/Year Sex,Age, Occupation: Histologlc [clty/State] Diagnosis and Primary Site United States (1334) Olsen" et al 1970 Male 52, machinist ? years: [Rochester MN] alveolar cell carcinoma L-Lower lobe, cigarette smoker (1335) Fisohbeln et al 1976 Male 57, drywall construction (1336) Fischbein et al 1978 worker 25 years: squamous cell [New York NY] carcinoma L-Lower lobe, cigarette smoker Asbestos/Cigarette Smoking Interaction. Although some epldemlologlc studies supported the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increased the carclnogenlclty of asbestos [Category 300s|, there are publications that did not discuss the hypothe- tlcal interaction: Bignon et al (1337) in their review of dose-related carclnogenlcity of asbestos in French workersl Mow~ and LeOW (1338) in their review, of Norwegian asbestos
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 393 workers~ Braude (1339) in his review of Russian asbestos workersl and Sera et al (1340) and Kang and Sera (1341) in their analyses of cancer in Japanese asbestos workers. KannerStein and Churg (1342) compared 50 cases of lung carcinoma who were occupationally exposed to asbestos and 50 ~h~d-~ntr~l- cases not e~po~ed~l:o asbe~t~..~-~her~ ~w~_li~ two statistically .significant differences~ predominance of lower lobe localization of carcinoma for asbestos workers in cOntrast to upper lobe for nonasbestos workers~ and more frequent severe pleural involvement in the exposed group. Although Kannerstein and ~hurg suggested that asbestos "markedly augments the effect of another potent carcinogen which in the human population is probably cigarette smoke", they frankly admitted that "the synergistic mechanism has not been illucldated'by our study". The smoking habits of male bronchial carcinoma patients admitted to a thoracic surgical center (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) were summarized by Martlschnlg et al (1343). Of 201 men with confirmed bronchial carcinoma, 58 gave a history of occupational exposure to asbestos, whereas only 29 out of 201 men matched for age and resldenti~l area who were admitted with other diseases gave a history of asbestos exp,.sure. Their results are as follows~
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 394 "The men exposed to asbestos did not differ greatly from their controls in smoking history. Nevertheless, it is important to look carefully at the combined effect of the two causal factors. Table II shows that for each of the three smoking groups there were proportionately more exposed ~en smong the patients with carcinoma than among the controls. Using the statistical methods of Woolf, we found no ~.~ni£1cant evldencethat the rel-at~-.r~-~d~ffered between the three s~oklng groups. Averaged over all smoking groups, the mean relative risk was 2.35. Thus exposure to asbestos of this type more than doubled the risk of cancer. In our sample the relatlve risks for the three smoking groups (0-14, 15-24, and 25 or more clgarettes/day} were 1.08, 2.92 and 3.26 respec- tively. Although these figures were consistent with a constant risk from asbestos exposure (independent of smoking level), they were also consistent with some element of synergism." (1343) Hillerdal and NSu (1344} studied 273 Swedish patients diagnosed as bronchial carcinoma during a five-year period. A signlficant~y higher proportion of metal workers and builders was found among the patients, while agrlcultttral workers were under-represented. The investigators concluded that smoking habits did not explain the difference. [560] Bronchial Carcinoma and Asbestosls Research Pro~ressz 1980 to 1982 In recent years, the concurrence of bronchial carcinoma in patients with cryptogenlc flbrosing alveolltls has been recognized. Turner-Warwick et al (1345} in their review of 205
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 395 British patients, reported an incidence of 12.9 percent lung cancer, which represented an excess relative risk of 14.1 compared to the general population of comparable age and sex. The investigators concluded that their "data suggest that there is an excess risk of lung cancer not wholly a~counte~.- for by age, sex or smoking hablt~. . . too few nonsmokers have been studied to obtain accurate information but the evidence as it stands suggests that there is an excess risk of "cancer in males with cryptogenlc flbroslng alveolltls that cannt be acconted for by cigarette smoking alone" (1345). The above results suggest that pulmonary fibrosis alone may be the predisposing factor to carcinogenlclty associated with asbestos exposure. This opinion is shared by Blaha et al (1346) and by Kuschner (1347). Additional research on flbro- •genic reactions in general may offer a resolution of current arguments relating to the asbestos/clgarette smoking interaction hypothesis. [570] Mali~nancles of the Head and Neck in Asbestos Workers In 1973, Stell and MCGIII (1348) reported the results of their occupational survey of i00 male patients with carcinoma of the head and neck. Out of i00 male patle~ts, 22 had been exposed to asbestos at work whereas only 2 An the I00 controls
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 396 (matched for age and sex with nonmalignant diseases) were exposed to asbestos. The sites of cancer in the asbestos workers were as follows: 17 in the larynx, 2 in the oral cavity and oropharynx, 2 in the nose and sinuses, and i in the hypopharynx. Although other investigators. (1349,_. 1350) questi0ne~-~~ the initial publ~catlon of Ste11 and McGill (1348), their later publication (1351) included addltlonal patle~ts with laryngeal carcinoma. Among i00 male patients, 31 had been exposed to asbestos. There was no difference in smoking habits of the patients who were asbestos workers compared to patients who had no association- with asbestos (1352). On the other hand, other investigators (1353-1358) interpreted the results of epldemiologic studies to indicate that cigarette smoking increased the" risk of laryngeal carcinoma in asbestos workers. Although most case reports are cigarette smokers (1359-1364), there is one publication recounting the apl~earance of laryngeal carcinoma in nonsmoklng asbestos workers (1365). Although there are case reports of brain tumors in asbestos workers (1366-1367), a prospective study showed that excess deaths from this form of malignancy are not statlstlcally si~niflcant (1368).
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 397 [580] Mali~nancles of Abdominal Organs and the Extremities in Asbestos Workers In addition to peritoneal mesothelloma [Category 400s], the following cancers have been reported to occur in asbestos workers at a higher incidence thanln the gen~ral pOp~atlon~ ovarian cancer~(1369); digestive tract cancer {1370-1379); lymphomas (1380-1383)~ leukemlas (1384)~ testlcular adeno- carcinoma (1385); liposarcoma (1386~ and skin cancer {1387). [590] Asbestos/Cigarette Smokln~ Interactions in Patients With Bronchial C~rcinoma It has not been possible to obtain any support for asbestos/cigarette smoking synergism from the literature on bronchial carcinoma with asbestosis reviewed above. Most clinical investigators agree that there is a causal relation- ship between asbestosls and bronchial carcinoma. In addition to the articles cited above, there are reviews sup~ortlng the positive llnk between the two diseases (1389-1400). Seme of the reviews that discuss asbestosls and bronchial carcinoma that mention synergism with cigarette smoking are .~entlrely based on Selikoff's mortality statistics [Category 310].
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 398 Brand and Brand (1401-1403) have expressed a more conservative attitude to the question of synergism between asbestos and cigarette smoking. "The cocarclnogenlc effect of smoking on the development of carcinoma, especially bronchogenlc carclnon~ and carcinoma of the larynx, .~n anbe~to~Is ~~~ has-" been dem~ustr~ed byepi~eml-6~gi~l ~d statistical studies and by animal model experiments. The incidence of these cancers is almost ten times higher in asbestos-exposed smokers than in their non- smoking co-workers. Actually, tobacco smoking must be regarded as the decisive carcinogenic factor in persons who have experienced only mlnlmal and brief asbestos exposure and who have not developed clinical pulmonary asbestosis. However, it would be going too far to say that tobacco smoking is fundamentally the active carcinogenic factor and that asbestos is merely a more or leas cocarcinogenic factor, for this view is contradicted by the development of mesothellonms after asbestos exposure, which, in contrast to bronchogenlc carcinoma and carcinoma of the larynx, are completely independent of and unaffected by tobacco smoking. Accordlngly, there is absolutely no doubt about the full potential of asbestos as a carcinogen. Moreover, it should be remembered that the age at which broncho- genie carcinoma develops in asbestosis patients is several years younger than in individuals who are not exposed to asbestos. The quantity of inhaled asbestos fibers may also be meaningful in connection with smok- ing. Large quantities apparently lead to asbestosls, mesothelioma and bronchogenlc carclnoma~ small quantities do not cause clinical asbestosls, but they do cause mesothelioma and, in smokers, bronchogenlc carcinoma and carcinoma of the larynx". (English translation of Ref. 1401).
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 399 Henderson (1404), an asbestos researcher from Australia, has commented on the significance of Ch~rg and warnock's measurements of asbestos bodies in the lungsl "In urban dwellers, low-level environmental exposure to asbestos is universal. Churg & Warnock ~e~asb.estos bodla~..i~ lungS"-of~--9~%-~ ~f-~an urban population and commented that uncoated fibres are present in every lung (the ratio of uncoated to coated fibres has been variously reported as i0-I0000~i). There is as yet no persuasive evidence that this low level of exposure produces disease by itself. However, in a cigarette smoking population the possibility that background asbestos exposure could be a co-factor in the genesis of lung cancer merits serious consideration. In one comparison of i00 cases of lung_ cancer with controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits end occupation there were no differences in asbestos body counts. Nevertheless, further studies are clearly indicated, and it should be stressed that the single most important preventive health measure which can be taken in individuals already e~posed to asbestos Is to encourage - avoidance of cigarette smoking'. (1404) Enterline (1405}, an epldemlologlst from the University of Pittsburgh, has expressed his opinion on the importance of Sellkoff's synerglsmhypothesis as follows~ "In summary, while in a given instance we cannot attribute an individual case of disease t~ a particular occupational exposure, we can, base~ on epidemiologic observations, make a statement as to the probability that a particular occupational exposure was the cause. Moreover, we can modify this probability by taking ~nto consideration various aspects of a specific case. To illustrate this in the case of asbestos exposure and lung cancer I've mentioned two~ time since first exposure, and the
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 400 intensity of exposure, and there are others. Two factors that do not seem to effect these probabilities in the case of asbestos exposure are smoking history and the point in time about which we are talking. That is, the prohability that for a given exposure a particular case of lung cancer was due to asbestos exposure is about the same for cigarette smokers as for nonclqarette smokers, and is no~ifferent now Mat ~.~~.20~r 30-yea~:-a-~o'~.~ (140~~ --~ ........ The validity of the synergism theory depends on the acceptance that each inhalant independently can cause bronchial carcinoma. Kotin and Falk (1406) in 1962 questioned the primary and exclusive role of cigarette smoking as a causative agent= "This study which is devoted to lung cancer properly points out the multiple etiologic factors probably Snvolved and deprecates the undue emphasis placed ~n any single agent, such as tobacco. The increased incidence of lung cancer appears to be both real and progressive, ~and is probably due to a combination of both endogenous and exogenous factors. The latter group includes polluted atmosphere, tobacco smoke and viral infections, and it is to be emphasized that no one o£ these on the basis of current evidence, has been proved to be an excluslvely major factor. Th~s study cocerns itself primarily with air Pollution, which certainly must include tobacco smoke, and many significantly interesting observations are recorded." (1496) Burch in 1982 (1407) reviewed the continuing controversy of cigarette smoking and lung cancerz "During the late 1950s Sir Ronald Fisher questioned the already popular, but in hls view precipitate, causal interpretation of the association between smoking and lung cancer. His pungently expressed
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 401 views began a controversy that has smouldered and sometimes flared ever since. The most recent attack of Fisher's constitutional hyDothesis was launched by Relf and in this paper I consider the valldlty of his criticisms. A range of evidence shows that it is not yet possible to distinguish between constltutlonal and causal-plus-const~tutional interpretations although recent studies indicate that a pure causal h~.~thesls ~capab!e ~f expi~i~ing the f~l~ ~a~-6ciat£dn as observed in Western populations. Unfortunately, errors of diagnosis and death certification still impede the rigorous testing of adequately formulated . hypothesis." (1407) The controversy was discussed in a 1980 symposium entitled "Asbestos and Lung Cancers The Clinical Question". Becklake and ~cDonald (~408) had the followlng commentsz "The objective of this presentation is to outline the way in which evidence of an association between asbestos ~xposure and lung cancer has been accumulated over tinte and to answer the question of whether in the light of this evidence, the association can be considered causal. There is an analogy here to the build-up of evidence relating cigarettes to lung cancer which led the writers of the second (1971) report of the Royal College of Physicians to conclude that objections to the conclusion that cigarette smok- ing is a cause of lung cancer are without substance. However, the association between the two had been suspected on the basis of clinical observation in the early 1930s and though not m~ntloned in an editorial in JAMA in 1948, was again impllcated by the Surgeon General in 1959, this time as the principal etiologic factor. The first Royal College Report in 1962 reviewed 216 reports but was not prepared to be more definite than to say that none of the facts contradict the conclusion that cigarette smoking is an important cause of lung cancer. Subsequently in his report of 1964, based on the review of I011 scientific papers, the Surgeon General went a step further in cautiously
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Asbestos/Cigarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 402 suggesting cigarette smoking was causally related to lung cancer. Parenthetlcally, who would be prepared to answer the legal question "In which year, doctor, was it known that smoklngcauses lung cancer?" (1408) Dur.lng.. the ~."Second I~nt~_ernatlo~a_i. ~ S_~_v~_~_~s~u~-. ~ of Epidemlology in Occupational Health" held in 1982 at Montreal, Demopoulos (1409) summarized the need for unaccounted variables in the study of asbestos carcinogenesis: "Critical factors that contribute to the develop- ment of cancer in humans, Particularly lung cancer, have not been eva~uated in studies on the possible carcinogenic effects of asbestos among asbestos work- ers. As a result, some of the carcinogenic effects ascribed to asbestos may not be valid. Unaccounted variables in the carclnogenicity of asbestos in humans include details of the smoking history such as number of Pack-years, type of cigarettes, butt length, and mouth versus 'ash tray' time, carotenoid intake, amount and type of fat in diet, alcohol intake, and slde-stream or 'bystander' smoke. These variables can influence cancer rates significantly, and they have not been included in asbestos-cancer studies, wherein asbestos alone or asbestos as a synergistic factor with cigarettes has been investigated. Smoking de- tails are of £mportance, and epidemiology studies from the United Kingdom , and the United States and Japan have shown that carotenolds may slgnflcantly affect rates. Furthermore the ¢o~posltlon of the diet can affect immune competenece since high polyunsaturated fat intake Is ~nnuno-suppreslve end a combination of high dietary fat with a low fiber intake will predis- pose to cancers of the colon, rectum, and other sites. Alcohol, in combination with cigarettes, constitute the predominant risk factor for cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver (aside from the lungs, urinary bladder, kidneys and pancreas accounted for by cigarette alone). Studies have shown that 'bystandert cigarette smoke poses a risk and although
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Asbestos/Clgarette Interaction [500 Series] May 30, 1983 403 one of these studies has ~een criticized methodologlc- ally, there is still sufficient reason to include this factor, particularly in considerations of the effects of 'bystander' smoke on the nonsmoklng asbestos worker who is working within ~onflned quarters together with several other workers, all of whom smoke. For the development of objective evidence for the stated carcinogeniclty of asbestos in the pharnyx, larnyx, l~ngs, stomach, colon, kidney end oth-r alleg~ ~Ites, ~ ess-en%lal to ~trol for these variables through a complete questionnaire. It may be found that the profile of many asbestos workers includes patterns of smoking and dietary habits that predispose to cancers at many sites, independently of any asbestos exposure." (1409) It is apparent from the above citations that the syner- gism phenomenon that - is based almost entirely on Sellkoff's epidemiologic study is being questioned by some investigators. Another research approach is the case control study which ~howed a negative interaction between asbestos and cigarette smoking for pleura1 malignant mesothelloma [Category 400s]. It should be noted that a similar case control study for workers exposed to chloromethyl ether showed a lack of synergism and even a protective effect of smoking among workers (1410-1413).
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s], May 30, 1983 404 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND AUTHOR INDEX Among the 147 articles for Series 500s, a duplicate copy of 92 or 63 percent was received from (X). The cumulatve total for Series 100s to 500s Is 810 out of 1413 articles, or 57 per- cent. The geographical distribution of the authors contained in the Bibliography is as follows~ un~te~ates-~Ca~e~or¥ 500~ C~mulatlv~ [l~0s~to 500s] UAR Arizona I - 3 UCA California 4 32 UCO Colorado 0 3 UCT Connecticut 2 9 ~DC District of Columbia 5 Ii UDE Delaware 1 4 UFL Florida 0 1 0HA Hawaii 0 2 UIL Illinois 4 21 UIO Iowa 0 3 UKA Kansas 0 1 0KY Kentucky 0 1 ULA Louisiana 0 7 UMA Massachusetts 6 31 UMD Maryland . 2 41 UME Maine 0 1 UMI M.Ichlgan 0 12 UMN ~nnesota- 4 19 UMO Missouri l 5 0NC North Carolina 0 14 USE Nebraska 0 2 U~H New Hampshire 0 1 UNJ New Jersey 3 17. UN¥ New Yo~k 14 135 UOH Ohio 1 27 UPA pennsylvania i0 51 URI Rhode Island 0 1 USC South Carolina 3 ii UTE Tennessee 0 3 UTX Texas 1 28 UUT utah 0 8 UVT Vermont 0 i0 OVA Virginia 0 4 U~A Washington 4 13 UWI Wisconsin 0 3 UWV West Virginia 1 4 Total U.S. Articles 67 539 Pereent of Total 46% 37%
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s], May 30, 1983 405 Foreign [Category 500s] Cumulative [lOOS tO 500s] ARG Argentina 0 1 ATL Australia 1 16 AUS A~strla 2 3 BEL Belgium 0 5 BUL Bulgaria 0 1 CAN Canada 8 63 CZE~E~choslovakia ~ ~i - DEN Denmark 0 5 EG¥ Egypt 0 4 FIN Finland 1 23 FRA France 7 98 GBR Great Britain 19 334 GER Germany 20 64 IND India 0 27 ISR Israel 3 6. ITA Italy 5 35 JAP Japan ~ 3 13 LEB Lebanon 0 1 NET Netherlands 0 12 NOR Norway 1 8 POL Poland 0 I0 POR Portugal 0 1 ROM Romania 0 2 RUS RUSSia 1 15 SAF South Africa2 58 SPA Spain 0 3 SWE Sweden 4 36 SWI Switzerland 2 7 TAI Talwan 0 THA Thailand 0 1 TUR Turkey . 0 I0 YUG Yugoslavia 0 4 Total Foreign Articles 80 874 Percent of Total 54% 69t Grand Total 147 1413 Percent of Grand Total 100% 100% [Notez Bibliography of the 500 Series starts on the next page]
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 406 1267 Lynch KM, Smith WA (1935) Am J Cancer 24:56-64 Pulmonary asbestosls III: Carcinoma of lung in asbestos- silicosis. 1268 Lynch KM, Smith WA (1939) Am J Cancer 36:567-573 Pulmo.T~r#-~sbes~os is ~- ~V :~A -f~0rt of b~nCh~i'~l~-c~ar~ih~ma and epithelial metaplasia. (X) 1269 Egbert DS, Geiger AJ (1936) Am Rev Tuberc 34:142-150 Pulmonary asbestosls and carcinoma. Report of a case with necropsy findings. (X) 1270 Gloyne SR (1935) Tubercle 17:5-10 Two cases of squamous carcinoma of the lung occurring in asbestosis. 1271 Gloyne SR (1936) Tubercle 18~199-I01 A case of oat=cell carcinoma of the lung occurring in asbestosis. (X) 1272 Nordmann M (1937-38) Z Krebsforsch 47:288-302 Der Berufskrebs deE Asbestarbeiter. 1273 Hornig F (1938) Z Krebsforsch 47:281-287 Clinical considerations of the question of occupational cancer in asbestos workers. (X) 1274 Koelsch F (1938) Acta Union Int Contra Cancrum 3:243-252 Lung cancer and occupation. (German) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 407 1275 Rogers WL (1932) Arch Int Med 49:1058-1077 Primary cancer of the lung. A clinical and pathologic survey of fifty cases. 1276 Bauer JT (1938) Bull Ayer Clinic Lab Penna Hosp 3z139-188 A.~-~vi,~of~-the.~rimary carcinomas of the luE~ an~ pie~rae occurring in six thousand consecutive necropsles. 1277 Teleky L (1937) J Ind Hyg Toxicol 19:73-85 Occupational cancer of the lung. {X) 1278 Teleky L (1938) Acta Union Int Contra Cancrum 3:253-275 Occupational lung cancer. (German) (X) 1279 Biederman M (1940) Med Rec 151~419-424 Bronchiogenlc qarcinoma. (X) 1280 Warren S (1943) Ann Surg I17z585-595 Minimal criteria required to prove causation of traumatic or occupational neoplasms. {X) 1281 Anonymous (1949) JAMA 140~1219-1220 Asbestosis and cancer of the lung. (X] 1282. ~ Holleb HB, Angrist A (1942) Am J Pathol 18:123-135 Bronchogenlc carcinoma in association with pulmonary asbestosls. Report on two cases. (X}
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 408 1283 Homburger F (1943) Am J Pathol 19:797-807 The co-lncldence of primary carcinoma of the lungs and pulmonary asbestosis. Analysis of literature and report of three cases. (X) 1284 Cureton RJR (1948) Squamous cell carcinoma occurring in asbestosls of the lung. (X) 1285 Koelsch F (1940) zentralb Gewerbehyg 27:32-33 Lungenkrebs und Beruf. 1286 Linzbach AJ, Wedler HW (1941) Virchows Archly Path Anat Physiol Cancer in asbestos workers. 307:281-456 1287 Welz A (1942) • Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg ii:536-550 Further observations of occupational cancer in asbestos workers. (German) (X) 1288 Boemke F (1947) Med Monatsschr 1:2-6 The pathology of diseases due to the inhalation of dust. (German) (X) 1289 Desmeules R, Rousseau D, Giroux M, Sirols A (1947) Sem Hop Paris 23:1820-1823 Asbestosls and lung cancer. (French) (X) 1290 Desmeules R, Rousseau L, Giroux M, S~rols A (1941) Lava1 Med 6:97-108 Asbestosls and pulmonary cancers. (French) (X) 1291 Wegelin C (1942) Schweiz Med Wochenschr 72~i053-i063 Bronchlal and lung cancer. (German) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 409 1292 Saita G (1948) Med LaY 39 : 105-116 Primary lung tumors of occupational origin. (Italian) 1293 Wedler HW (1943) Dtsch Med Wochenschr 69~575-576 Asbestosis and lung cancer. (German) i294 ....... ~ueper ~ (19~0) ~ed Ann I:~ 19=10-16, 59-60 Environmental factors in the etiology of cancer. (X) 1295 Hueper WC, Golch0an L (1950) South Med J 43:118-124 Present and potential occupational cancer hazards and carcinogenic operations in modern industry. (X) 1296 Hueper WC (1950) Acta Union Int Contra Cancrum 6:1295-1324 The role of environmental agents in the causation of human cancer. ( X ) 1297 Mayers MR (1950) C~apens Med 3:11-17 Occupational causes of cancer. (X) 1298 Mayers MR (1952) C~:x~pens Med 31:11-18 Industrial cancer of the lungs. (X) 1299 Ariel IN, Avery rE, Kanter L, Head JR, Langston HT (1950) Cancer 3 : 229-239 Primary carcinoma of the lung. A clinical study of 1205 cases. (X) 1300 Wynder EL, Graham EA (1951) AMA Arch Ind Hyg 4:221-235 Etlologic factors in bronchogenlc carcinoma with special reference to industrial exposures. Report of 857 proved cases.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 410 1301 Smith WE (1952) Arch Ind Byg Occup Med 5~242-263 survey of some current British and European studies of occupational tumor problems. 1302 Stoll R, Bass R, Angrist AA (1951) AMA Arch Int Med 88:831-834 ~h~st~i~ assoclated_w~thJ~ron~hogenl~_e~o~ 1303 Castleman B, Towne VW, Arnott ~, Banelin Jet al (1952) N Engl J M~d 256:867-872 Pulmonary asbestoslso Adenocarclnoma of the lung with invasion of heart and with metastases to bronchial lymph nodes and fourth lumbar vertebra. (X) 1304 Isselbacher KJ, Klaus ~, Hardy HL (1953) Am J Med 15:721-732 Asbestosis and bronchogenlc carcinoma. 1305 Lynch KM, Pratt-Thomas HR (1955) South Med J 48~565-569 Carcinoma of the lung in asbestosls~ cases. (X) 1306 Owen TK (1951) Br J Cancer 5:382-383 Carcinoma and asbestosis of the lung. Report of a case. (X) 1307 Bohme A (1951} Beltr Silikoseforsch 11:29-34 Results of periodical examination of workers in an asbestos factory. (German] (X) 1308 Boemke F (1953) Med Monatsschr 7~77-81 Lung carcinoma in pulmonary asbestosis. (German) (X} Report of two addltlonal
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 411 1309 Guttner HG (1955) Z Aerztl Fortbild 49:388-392 Lung cancer and asbestosis. (German) (X) 1310 Wether M (1952) Zentralbl Arbe£tsmed Arbeits$chutz :~.u.~na~y asbe~tosis ~nd.-ca~ingma. 2:179-180 1311 Bohme A (1959) Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg Asbestosls and lung carcinoma. 17:384-395 Part I. (German) (X) 1312 Chauvet M (1958) Presse Med 66:908-910 Asbestosis and bronchial cancer. (X) A relevant case. (French) 1313 Rombola G (1955) Med Lay 46:424-250 Asbestos and pulmonary carcinoma in an asbestos spinner. on the problem of tumor indution by asbestos. (Italian) Notes (X) 1314 Desmeules R, Richard P (1955) Union Med Can 84z138-145 Bronchogenlc 6arolnoma associated with certain pulmonary diseases. (French) (X) 1315 Anderson J, Campagna FA (1960) AMA Arch Environ Health 1:27-32 Asbestosls and carcinoma of the lung. of the literature. Case r~port and ~evlew 1316 Telischi M, Rubenstone AI (1961) Arch Pathol 72:234-243 Pulmonary asbestosis associated with primary carcinoma of the lung, bronchial adenomas, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 412 1317 Cordova JF, Tesluk B, Knudtson KP (1962) Cancer 15:1181-i187 Asbestosis and carcinoma of the lung. 1318 An SH, Koprowska I (1962) Acta Cytol 6~3910398 Primary cytologic diagnosis of asbestosls associated with .~runchdgenlc carclnoma~-.,Cas~reportand r~vlew o£-'li~erature. (X) 1319 Castleman B, McNeeley BU (1964) New Engl J Med 270:1355-1362 Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 30-1964. 1320 Dyson BC, Trentalance_AE (1964) J Thorac Cardiov Surg 47:577-589 Resection of primary pulmonary sarcoma. Review of literature and report of a case associated with pulmonary asbestosis. 1321 Dutra FR, Carney JD (1965) Arch Environ .Health i0~416-423 Asbestosis and pulmonary carcinoma. 1322 Champelx J, Laguillaumie BD, Jacquemet Let al (1962) Arch Mal Prof 23:267-271 Bronchial cancer and exposure to asbestos dust. (French) (X) 1323 Danrlgal A, Tabbara W, Proteau J, Derobert L (1962} Ann Med Leg 42~69-72 Asbestosis, operated pulmonary tuberculosis and cancer of the lung. (Prench) 1323 Rousselin L, Ernoult JL, Veret J, Manouvrler F et al (1965) J Fr Med Chir Thorac 20~37-51 Bronchial cancer in asbestosis. Report of two cases. (French) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 413 1325 Donna A (1967) Med LaY 58:561-572 Discussion of another case of asbestosls associated with pulmonary neoplasia. (Italian) (X) 1326 Sarina S, Mazzanti G (1963) Lay Um 15 ~ 276-281 Asbestosls and pulmonary neoplasial Another contrlbutior of a ,~ii,~ical case.-~ (Itallan~ -~} - --- ~" ~ 1327 Fingerland A, Jindrichova J (1962) Prac Lek 14:468-471 Pulmonary asbestosls associated with lung cancer. (Czech) (X) 1328 Anonymous (1964 } Br Med J 5403z202-203 Asbestos and malignancy. 1329 Williams WJ (1965) Arch Environ Health i0 : 44-45 .Asbestos and lung cancer. 1330 Roe FJC (1968i Food Cosmet Toxic 6z565-566 Asbestos as a carcinogenic hazard. 1331 Wedler BW (1943) Dtsch Med Wochenschr 69 : 575-576 Asbestos and lung cancers. (German) (X) 1332 Siebert K (1961) ~ Befte Unfallheilkd 66 ; 302-306 Rare case of asbestosls with lung cancer. (German) (X) 1333 Hueper WC (1962) Clln Pharmacol Ther 3:776-813 Part i. Environmental and occupational cancer hazards. Symposium on chemical carcinogenesis. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 414 1334 01sen AM, Woolner LB, Miller WE, Clagett 0T (1970) Chest 57:558-566 Alveolar cell carcinoma of the lung: a case presentation at the weekly thoracic conference at the Mayo Clinic. 1335 Fischbein A, Langer AM, Suzuki Y, Selikoff IJ (1978) Toxicol Lett 2:231-236 C~rcino~of the lung ina drywall tapi~-,or~e~ IR .e~ort of a case. (X) 1336 Fischbein A, Langer AM, Suzuki Y, churg J, Selikoff IJ (1976) Int Symp Detect Prey Cancer 168 Pulmonary carcinoma in a drywall taping workers report of a. case. (X) 1337 Bignon J, Sebastlen P~ Bonnaud G (1976) (Reprint from Bignon) Relation dose-effet cancerlgene de l'amiante chez l'homme. 1338 Mowe G, Lexow P (1970) Nord Med 84~i~53 Asbestosis and lung cancer. (Norwegian) (X) 1339 Braude VI (1979) SoY Med 0~43-47 Significance of etiology and the extent of activity of chronic lung diseases in the development of bronchogenlc cancer. (Russian) (X) 1340 Sera Y, Kang KY, Yoroyama K (1973) Gann 64:313-316 Asbesto~is and lung cancer in Osaka Sennan district. (Japanese) (X) 1341 Kang K¥, Sera Y (1973) J Korean Med Assoc 16:5~49-53 Asbestosis and lung cancer. (Japanese) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 415 1342 Kannersteln M, Churg J (1972} Cancer 30:14-21 Pathology of carcinoma of the lung associated with asbestos exposure. 1343 Martlschnlg KM, Newell DJ, Barnsley WC, Cowan WK et al (1977) Br Med J 1:746-749 U~suspect~d exposure to asbestos and bronchoqenlc carcinoma. 1344 Hillerdal G, Nou E (1979) Scand J Resp Dis 60~76-82 Occupation and bronchial carcinoma. (X) 1345 Turner-Warwick M, Lebowitz M, Burrows B, Johnson A (1980) Thorax 35:496-499 Cryptogenlc fibrosing ~iveolitls and lung cancer. (X) 1346 Blaha H, Karg O, Cujnlk F (1981) Munch Med Wochenschr 123:289-294 Coincidence of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchial carcinoma. (German) (X) 1347 Kuschner M (1981) Ab~tr Pap Am Chem Soc 181 Asbestos as a carcinogen. (X) 1348 Stell PM, McGIII T (1973) Lancet 1:678 Asbestos and cancer of head a~d neck. 1349 Holmes S (1973) ~ Lancet 1:839 Asbestos and cancer of head and neck. 1350 Newhouse ML, Berry G (1973) Lancet 2:615 Asbestos and laryngeal carcinoma.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [5008] May 30, 1983 416 1351 Stell PM, McGill T (1973) Lancet 2~416-417 Asbestos and laryngeal carcinoma. 1352 Stell PM, McGill T (1975) T0arynuol Otol 89:5!3-517 Exposure to a~bestos and laryngeal carcinoma. 1353 Daum SM, Seidman H, Selikoff IJ (1976) Cancerline 313-314 The occurrence of cancer of the larynx in asbestos workers and its relation to smoking habits. (X) 1354 Morgan RW, Shettigara PT (1976) Ann NY Acad Sci 271:308-310 Occupational asbestos exposure, smoking, and laryngeal carcinoma. (X) 1355 Bianchi C, Bonito LD, Castelli M, Brollo A (1978) Pathologica 70z403-408 Exposure to agbestos in cancer of the larynx. (French) (X) 1356 Hillerdal G, Lindholm CE (1980) Or1 42:233-241 Laryngeal cancer and asbestos. (x) 1357 Newhouse ML, Gregory MM, Shannon H (1980) IARC Sci Publ No. 30; 2z687-695 Etiology of carcinoma of the larynx. (X) 1358 Burch JD, Howe GR, Miller AB, Semenciw R (1981) JNCI 67:1219-1224 Tobacco, alcohol, asbestos, and nickel in the etiology of cancer of the larynx~ a case-control study. 1359 Libshitz HI, Wershba MS, Atkinson GW, Southard ME (1974) JAMA 228~1571-1572 Asbestosis and carcinoma of the larynx. A possible association.
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 417 1360 Guidottl TL, Abraham JL, DeNee PB (1975} West J Med 122~75 Asbestos exposure and cancer of the larynx. 1361 Bittersohl G (1977) Z Gesamte Hyg 23z27-30 The problem of asbestos-lnduced laryngeal carcinoma. (German) 1362 Cachin Y, Luboinskl B, Schwaab G (1978) J Fr Otorhinolaryngol 27~15-17 Association of bronchopulmonary cancers and cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts (43 cases). (French) 1363 Hirsch A, Bignon J, Sebastien P, Gaudichet A (1979) Chest 76~697-699 Asbestos fibers in laryngeal tissues. Findings in two patients with asbestosls associated with laryngeal tumors. 1364 Hinds MN, Thomas DB, Oreilly HP (1979) Cancer 44:1114-1120 Asbestos, dental x-rays, tobacco and alcohol in the epidem£ology of laryngeal cancer. (X) 1365 Frelfeld S (1977) JAMA 238:1280 Asbestos exposure and laryngeal carcinoma. (X) 1366 Whitmore JT, Brannon L, Wood JH et al (1960) US Armed Forces Med J 111203-216 Clinlcopathologic conference, US Naval-Hospital, Philade~phla, pennsylvania. 1367 Castleman B, McNeeley BU, Poskanzer DC et al (1964) N Engl J Med 27011355-1362 Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 30-1964. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 418 1368 Seidman H, Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC ~1982) Ann NY Acad Sci 381~160-171 Mortality of brain tumors among asbestos insulation workers in the United States and Canada. (X) 1369 Keal EE (1960) Asbestosis and abdominal neoplasms. (X) 1370 Knox JF (1961) Lancet 1:560-561 Asbestosls and abdominal neoplasms. (X) 1371 Shugar A (1979) Natl Res Count Can POb~ 112-118 E£fects of asbestos on man. Other cancers. (X) 1372 Schneiderman MA (1974) Environ Health Persp 9:307-311 .Digestive system cancer among persons subjected to occupational inhalation of ~sbestos particles: A literature review with emphasis on d~se response. 1373 Dohner VA, Beegle RG, Miller WT (1975) Am Rev Respir Dis 112:181-199 Asbestos exposure and multiple primary tumors. 1374 Chatel A, Mignon ¥, Sebastien P, Hirsch ~ et al (1978) Gastroenterol Clln Biol 2:459-464 Gastric and esophageal investigation with detection of asbestos fibers in patients exposed to asbestos. (French) 1375 Hillerdal G (1980) J Occup Med 22:806-809 Gastrointestinal carcinoma and occurrence of pleural plaques on pulmonary x-ray. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series (500s] May 30, 1983 419 1376 Miyao M, Kanao T, Muraoka T (1981) JPN J Chest Dis 40:170-175 A case of double cancer (lung and stomach) with asbestosis. (Japanese) 1377 Ross R, Dworsky R, Nichols P, Wright Wet al (1982) Lancet 2~i118-I120 A~be~tos.ex~Sure_a~,..!ymphomas of th~ ~ga~r~Inal t~act and oral cavity. (X) 1378 Selikoff IJ, Seidman H (1981) Cancer 47 Suppl:469-473 Cancer of the pancreas among asbestos insulation workers. 1379 Goldsmith JR (1982) Am J Ind Med 3~341-3~8 Asbestos as a systemic carcinogen: The evidence from eleven cohorts. (X) 1380 Bengtsson NO, Hardell H, Erlksson M (1982) Lancet 2:146~ Asbestos exposure and malignant lymphoma. 1381 Magulre PW, Mills RC, Parker FP (1981) Cancer 47:791-797 Immunoblastic lymphadenopathy and asbestosis. 1382 Waxweiler RJ, Robinson C (1983) Lancet i~189-190 Asbestos and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 1383 Abramson JH, Prldan H, Sacks MI et al (1978) JNCI 61:307-314 A case-control study of Hodgkln's disease in Israel. 1384 Gerber MA (1970) Am J Clin Pathol 53~204-208 Asbestosls and neoplastic disorders of the hem~topolet~c system.
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 420 1385 Gisser SD, Nayak S, Kaneko M, Tchertkoff V (1977) Hum Pathol 8;219-224 Adenocarcinoma of the fete testls~ a review of the literature and presentation of a case with associated asbestosls. 1386 Chung CK, Stryker JA, Zaino R, Sears HF (1982) PA Med 85~7-48 .__ _-~_~_~_~ .... Lipos~rcoma after asbesto~ exposure. 1387 Symanskl HJ, Beckenkamp HW (1970) Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Arbeltshyg 36:1-162 Occupational deru~toses - occupational malignant tumors, expecially those caused by exposure to asbestos. (German) (X) 1388 Daganl R (1981) Chem Eng News 59:21~22 Asbestos, smoking llnk to cancer probed. 1389 Norwood WD, Fuqua PA, Mancuso TF (1967) Northwest Med 66:821-828 Asbestos - an. environmental health hazard. 1390 Cooper WC (19~7) Arch Environ Health 15:285-290 Asbestos as a hazard to health. Fact and speculation. 1391 Beattle J (1968) 8r Med J 4z123-124 Cancer and asbestos. 1392 Pfelffer W (1970) Aerztl Prax 22~5393 Asbestos and bronchial carcinoma. (X) 1393 Bohllg H, Dalquen P, Ealn E (1972) Internist 13~318-325 Epidemioogy of asbestos-induced diseases. (German) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 421 1394 Falk HL (1976) Oncology 33:77-85 Possible mechanisms of combination effects in chemical carcinogenesis. 1395 Sluis-Cremer GK (1980) Chest 78:380-381 The relationship.between asbesto~- ~brc:ch~alcancer. 1396 McDonald JC (1980] Chest 78~374-376 Asbestos and lung cancer: has the case been proven? 1397 McLemore TL, Greenberg SD, Wilson RK, Buffler PA et al (1981] Tex Med 77=38-46 Update on asbestos-associated pulmonary disease. (X) 1398 Juntunen J, Jarvisalo J# Huuskonen M, Kivlsto H, Aitio A (1982) Acta Neurol Scand 65 Suppl:228-229 Tumor markers and neurological signs in asbestosis. (X) 1399 Anonymous (1968] S Afr Med J .42~325-326 Asbestos and neoplasia. 1400 Nicholson WJ Cancer 39=1792-1801 Cancer following occupatlonal exposure to asbestos and vinyl chlorlde. 1401 Brand G, Brand I (1980) zentralbl Bakterlol I71=I-1~ Investigations and review of literature relating to carclno- .genesis. Report Is Cancer from asbestos, schlstosom~asis and cicatrization. (German) (X)
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Asbestos/Smoklng Interactions series [500s] May 30, 1983 422 1402 Brand G, Brand I (1980) Zentralbl Bakteriol 171:359-387 Investigations and review of literature relating to carcino- genesis. Report II~ Cancer caused by foreign bodies. (German) Brand G, B£~nd I Zentralbl Bakterlol 172~544-573 Report III: Results of experimental foreign body-carcinogenesis in relation to asbestos, schistosomiasis and scar cancer in man. (German) (X) 1404 Henderson DW (1982) Pathology 14:239-243 Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: Asbestosls, mesothelioma and lung-cancer. (X) 1405 Enterllne PE (1980) Chest 78:377-379 Attributabillty in the face of unce~talnty. 1406 Kotin P, Falk. H (1962) Arizona Med 19:95-101 Host factors in relation to the action of environmental carcinogenic agents. 1407 Butch PRJ (1982) Med Hypoth 9~293-306 Cigarette smoking and lung cancer~ A continuing controversy. (X) 1408 Becklake MR (1980) Chest 78:372-373 Asbestos and lung cancer: the clinicians' questions. 1409 Demopoulos HB (1983) Scand J Hork Environ Health 9~59 Unaccounted variables in hypothesized asbestos carcinogenesis. (X)
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Asbestos/Smoking Interactions Series [500s] May 30, 1983 423 1410 Fugueroa WG, Raszkowski R, Weiss W (1973) N Engl J Med 288:1096-i097 Lung cancer in chloromethyl ether workers. 1411 Weiss W (1980) J Occup Med 22:527-529 Th~ cigarette factur,~n lung cancer ~ue to ch~orom~Uhy! ethers. (X) 1412 Goldsmith JR (1981) J Occup Med 23:77-78 Ciga@ette smoking, lung cancer and CME - a clarification. (X) 1413 Weiss W (1981) J Occup Med 23:78, 8~ Cigarette smoking, lung cancer and CME - a clarification. (X)
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CUMULATIVE AOTHOE INDEX ~OR C&TEGORIES 500 to 590 MAY 3~, 1983 PAGE 423 + I CAT. REF, AIFI~IOES AND YEAR C~OGRAPHIC NO. NO CODE 580 1383 abramson JH, Pridan B, S~cka M~ et al (1978) 540 1318 An SH, Koprowska I (1962) UPA 540 1315 Anderson J, C~mpagna FA (1960) 540 1328 Anouy~ous (1954) ~0 J28~ Anonymous (1949) • 590 1399 An~ny~ou~ (1968) SAY 530 1299 ArJ.el IM, Avery EE, Kanter L, Head JR, Langston El' (1950) UIL 510 1276 Bauer JT (1938) UPA 590 1391 Beattle J (1968) CBR $90 1408 Becklake ME (1980) CAN $80 1380 Bengtssou liO, lla~de11 B, Br£1~on H (1982) 570 1355 Bi~nch£ C, Bou£to LD, Ca~ce111 H, Brollo A (1978) $20 1279 Biede~n H (1940) 550 1337 Bi~a J, 6~t~en P, B~a~ G (1976) ~70 1361 B~te~ohl G (1977) ~60 1346 B~ha B, [acg O; Cuju~k F (1981) 520 1288 ~ F (1947) ~30 1308 ~ F (1953) 590 1393 B~l~g H, Dalqueu P, H~u E (1972) ~R 530 1311 B~e A (1959) 530 1307 B~e A (1951) 590 I~I B~nd G, Brand ~ (1980) 590 1402 Brand'G, Brand I (19~) 590 1403 Brand G, Brand I (1980) 550 1339 Bra~ VI (1979) RUS 570 1358 Butch ~, H~e ~, M~ller ~, S~euc~w R (1981) 590 1407 Butch ~ (1982) ~R 570 1362 Cach~n Y, L~oi~k~ B, S~waab C (1978) 530 1303 C~tl~n B, T~e ~, ~ott ~, H~elln J e~ al (1952) 570 1367 C~l~n B, ~ley ~ Pos~ger ~ et ~I (19~) ~0 1319 C~tl~n B, ~N~ley ~ (19~) ~0 1322 ~ J, ~illa~e ~, Jac~t Let al (1962) 580 1374 ~tel A, ~n F, Seb~tien P, H~ech A et al (1978) 530 1312 ~e~ M (1958) 580 1386 ~g ~, S~r. ~, Z~no R, S~ ~ (1982) 590 1390 C~per ~ (1967) ~0 131~ Cordova ~, T~I~ H, ~dt~on ~ (1962) 520 12~ Cureton ~ (1948) ~R 590 1388 Vagaui a (1981) ~0 1323 D~rlgal A, Tabb~a W, P~teau J, Dero~rt L (1962) 570 1353 Da~ ~, Sei~n H, Seli~ff ~ (1976) 590 1409 D~pou$o~ HB (1983)
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C~MULATIVE A~HOR INDEX FOR C~TEGORI~S 500 to 590 M~Y ~0, 1983 PAGE 423 + 2 CAT. REF. A~ORS AND YEAR GEOGRAPHIC NO. NO ~ODE 530 1314 Des~eules R, Richard P (1955) 520 1289 Ves~eules R. Rousseau D, Giroux M. Sirois A (1947) 520 1290 De~u~es R, Ro~seau L, Giro~ M, S~o~s A (1941) 580 ~373 D~ner VA, B~gle ~, M~er ~ (1975) ~0 ~325 D~na A (1967) 5~.0 1321 Durra ~ Ca~eT ~ (~965) ~ - • ~ 540 ~320 Dysou ~ T~n~alance ~ (~96~) 510 1269 E~er~ ~, Ge~Eer ~ ([936) 590 [~05 En~er1~ne PE (~980) 590 ~394 Falk ~ (~976) ~0 1326 F~lua S, ~z~ti G (1963) 540 1327 F~Eer~and &, J~dr~chova ~ (1962) 550 1335 F~chbeln A, ~ger ~, S~i Y, Seli~ff ~ (1978) 550 1336 Fischbein A, ~er ~, S~i Y, Chug 3, Seli~ff ~ (1976) 570 1365 F~feld S (1977) 590 1~10 F~eroa WG, E~z~ski E, Weiss W (1973) 580 13~ Gerber ~ (1970~ 580 1385 G~sser SD, Nayak S, K~eko M, T~erC~ff V (1977) 510 1270 Glo~e SE (1935) 510 1271 Glo~e SR (1936) 580 1379 ~ld~ch ~ (1982) 590 1412 ~ld~th ~ (1981) 570 1360 Cu~do~i ~, Abrah~ ~, ~N~ PB (1975) 530 1309 Guttn~r EC (1955) 590 1~04 H~derson D~ (1982) 580 1~75 Billerdal C (1980) 550 1~ Hillerdal G, Nou E (1979) 570 1356 B~llerdal C, L~dho~ ~ (1980) 570 13~ H~ds ~, ~s DB, O~llly ~ (1979) 570 1363 B~sch A, B~n J, Sebas~i~ P, Ca~fchet ~ (1979) 520 1282 Bolleb BB, ~sC A (19~2) 570 1~9 Bo~s S (1973) 520 128~ B~rger F (1943) 510 1273 B~g F (1938) 5~0 1333 H~eper WC (1962) ~ 530 1294 Bueper WC (1950) 530 1296 Hueper WC (1950) 530 1295 Bueper WC, ~l~n L (1950) 530 13~ Isselb~her ~, K~ B, ~dy ~ (195~) 590 1398 Juu~en J, J~salo J, H~s~n~ H, K~visto H, Ai~o A (1982) 550 1341 K~ ~, Sera Y (1973) 550 1342 ~er~cein M, ~urg J (1972)
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CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR CATE RIES CAT. REFo AI~HOR8 AND YEaR 580 1369 Ken1 F.~ (1960) 580 1370 K~ ~ (19~i) ~20 1285 K~lsch F (1940) 510 127~ K~lsch F (1938) 590 1~06 Koeln ~, Falk B (1962', ~G Z~7 ¢osc~aer H 41981) -- 570 1359 Libsh£~z HI, ~erehb~ 520 1286 L~zbach 510 1268 L~ch 530 1305 L~ch 510 1267 L~ch ~, S~eh ~ (19 580 1381 550 13~3 ~rCilchuig ~, N~ell 530 1297 ~yer~ ~ (1950) 530 1298 ~yers ~ (1952) 590 1396 Hc~al~ 3C (198p) 590 1397 Hc~re ~ G~enberg 580 1376 570 135~ ~g~ ~, S~t¢igara 550 1338 H~e G, ~ P (1970) 570 1357 570 1350 N~o~e ~, B~ G ( 590 1~00 H~ho~oa ~3 41977) 510 1272 Bo~d~ H 41937-38) 590 1389 Bo¢~od ~, ~ua ?A, 550 13~ Olsea 530 1306 ~n ~ 41951) 590 1392 Pfeif£er ~ 41970) ~0 1330 ~ F3C 41968) 510 1275 ~ogecs ~ 41932) 530 1313 ~bola G 41955) 580 1377 5~0 1323 520 1292 580 1372 570" 1368 580 1378 550 13~0 580 1371 5~0 1332 590 1395 530 1301 500 ~:o 590 HA~ 30, ].983 , A~kinsou G~, Southard ME (1974) ( 19AI ) 39) H~ (1955) 35) Parker FP (1981) DJ. laarnaley MC, Cowan MK el: al (1977) SD, Wilson RK, Buffler PAet al (1981) T (1981) (1976) [, Shannon H (1980) 973) [ancuso TF (1967) [ilter k~, CLeget~ OT (1970) PAGE 423 + 3 Ross R, Dv~orsky R, N~c ~ols P, Wright Wet al (1982) Rou~ael£n L, EruoulC T., Verst J, Manouvr~er F eC al (1965) Salts G (1948) Schne£derman HA (1974) Se£dman E, Sel{ko££ I3, Ba~ood EC (1982) Sellko££ IJ, Seld~an B (1981) Sera Y, K~n$ KY, ¥oroy;~a K (1973) Shugar A (1979) Siebert ¢ 41961) Slufs-Cremer CK (1980) Sm~¢h ~/E (1952) GEOGRAPHIC CODE GEe GER UAR UPA GER • USC USe UDE GBR ~Y ~Y CAN J~ CA~ GEe GEE UMA CER GBR CER CBR -UMD ~qY
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CUMULATI~'E AUTHOR INDEX FOE C&TEGORIES 500 to 590 M~Y ~0, 1983 CAT. REF. AUTHORS AND YEA~ NO. NO 570 1348 S~ell PM, McG£11 T (1973) 570 1351 S~ell PH, McGi11 T (1973) 570 1352 See11 PM, McGill T (1975) 530 1302 S~oll E, Bass R, Angrlsc AA (1951) 580 1387 Sy~anskl HJ, Beckenkamp ~ (1970) 510 1277 Teleky L (1937) 510 1278 Teleky L (1938) 5~0 1316 Telischl M, Rubeustoue AI (1961) 560 1345 Turner-Warwick M, Lebowltz M, Burrows B, Johuson A (I980) 520 1280 Warreu S (1943) 580 1382 Waxweiler EJ, Robinson C (1983) 520 1293 Wedler ~ (1943) 540 1331 Wedler ~ (1943) 520 I291 Wegelln C (1942) 590 1411 Weiss W (1980) 590 1413 Weiss W (1981) 520 1287 Welz A (1942) 530 1310 Werber M (1952) 570 1366 Whicaore JTj Braunon L, Wood JH ec al (1960) 540 1329 Willimae WJ (1965) 530 1300 Wynder E~, Grahaa EA (1951) 423 + 4 GEOGRAPHIC CODE GER AUS AUS C.,Blt UMA UOH GElt SWI UPA UTA GER GER UPA GBR

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