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Literature Search No. 395 Toxicity and Pyrolysis of Sugars

Date: 11 Dec 1981
Length: 339 pages
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88698436/88698779/Literature Search 395 Toxicity and
Pyrolysis of Sugars
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CQPIffDi ,oo,' A Division of Loews Theatiras, Inc., Research Center, 420! English, Street, P.O. Box 21688, Greensboro, Nortih, Carolina 2742p 1 December 11, 1981 LITERATURE SEARCH! NO. 39'.5. Requesited by Dr. R. Slaven TOXICITY AND PYROLYSIS OF SUGARS
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COBIED, December 11, 1981 LITERATURE SEARCH NO. 395 This search covers. Chemical Abstracts Chemline ExerptaiMed'ica Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Foods Adlibra Mediline National Technical Information Service Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances SmithsonianiScience Information Exchange. Tobacco Abstracts Toxicology Data Bank Vol. 23 (1929) through, Vol. 95 #21 November (1981) Current throughiNoveznber (1981), (19'7'4) through October (,1981). (19'69)' through October (198'.1). (1974) through October (',198'1) (19:66) through October (,198'.1)i (1964, through October (198'1)i Current through August (198'1)i October (',1979), through October. (1981). Vol. 1 (1957) through. Vol. 25 #11 November (,198'1)i Current through August (1981) (1965)i through October Toxline
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. 00P[IM December 11, 1981 LITERATURE SEARCH' NO'. 3'9'5 Search terms used: Corn~ Syrup CS o~1- 43-'`I1 Dark BrownlSugar lwi'ouasses Raw Sugar Sucrose [RN=57-50-1]', Sugar, invert [RN=8013-]17-OI] Syrups, corn [RN=8029-4!3-41
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COPI ED! Search texmsuggestion's : Toxic3ty:, Mutagen'icity: Te'ratpgenicity= Carcinogenicity: Pyrolysis : SEARCH FORMULATION'BEGINNSNG ATSS 1p 2' (SS li: )' (ACUTiE AND TOXICITY OR' SS 2': (CHRONIC AND TOXICITY OR' SS 3:' (DERMAL AND TOXICITY') OR'SS 4« (SUDCHRONI,C'AND;TOxICITY OR' SS 53' (ORAL AND TOXICITY ) OR' SS 6:' (SUBACUTE'AND TOXICITY ) OR', SS Z:~ (ALL LD.:OR ALL LC:)'. OR' SS 8': ) (CHRONIC TOXIC'DOSE (DTG) OR'SS 9: (LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS (DTG:)' OR'LETHAL DOSAGE (DTG) ). SEARCH FORMULATION BEGINNINGiAT SS' 6: l'SS 11t(ALL MUTAT'ION# OR ALL MUTAGEN:' OR ALL MUTANT# ) OR SS 2: ('UNSCHE'DULED AND ALL DNA' AND'SYNTHESIS')i OR SS, 3:1 (AMES AND'TESTi OR,M'ICROSOME AND TEST )'. OR SS 4: Y,SAL'MONELLA AND TEST OR'SALMONELLA AND ASSAY > OR S5 5:I (ISISTER,ANDiCHROMATID AND EXCHANGE ) SEARCH FORMULATION:BEGINNINGiAT' SS'5 : f3S i: (ALL TERATOGEN: OR ALL TiERATOLa )! OR SS 2':' (TERATOGENIC DOSE (DTG:)' ) OR'SS 34 (DOMINANT AND LETHAL ) OR SS 4:' (REPRODUCTIVE,AND':ALL EFFECT~: )' SEARCHI FORMULAT'ION' BEGINNING AT SS 1:' (ALL CANCER:!AND ALL CARCINOGEN':' )' SEARCH FORMULATION BEGSNNIN&AT SS 4: (SS 1: (THERMAL AND! DECOMPOSITDONI OR THERMAL AND ANALYSIS') OR' SS 2': (ALL PYROLY: OR ALL CARAMELIZ'3I )i OR' SS34' (ALL,BURN:'OR'BROWNING )' CAI
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L:' AI'IISWEFt1 OF 1 . RN 8029-43-4! * * CAS does not considier this Registry Number to represent a auni que chemi cal substance. To searcft the CA F'i 1 e,, use i ts name(s) terms deriwed'#rom its name(s)Y and/or the w'egistry Number i tsel-f . IN'. MN' Syrups, hydrolyzed starch Corn, syraup~ SY F{ydroly: ed starch syrups SY SY' SY ' Corn, syrup St._<rch syrup Si rups, hydrcl yzed! starch, SY' Sugar syrups, hydrol yzeJ stzxrch SY SY S Y SY Syrups, corn, Enzamyl' Syrups, starch Starch syrups' C~'! &=i~ MF CI U'nspecified MAN, CTS, TSCA' ~~Dr ~ **,* STRUCTURE' DIAGfiAt•I' IS hlOT AVAILABLE #~# <71REFtFEPJCES IN F I LE CA,(1967 TO DATE )
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NTIS i975 86 513105 FB-2 54 538I2 Evaluation of' the Health Aspects of Dextrin and Corn Dextrin as Food Ingredients Fedleration of American Societies for Experimental Bio1'ogy, Bethesda, Md. Life Sciences Research Office. Corp. Source Codes: 4011196 Spon~sor: Food and Drug Administration, Washington,,, D.C. Bureau of Foods. Report No,: SCOGS'-75; FDABF-GRAS-377'1; FDA/HFF-76/651 1975 2ti p Report of Select Committee on, GRAS Substances. NTIS Prices: PC AO:2/MF Ac_~1i Journal Announcement: GRAI761'9 Contract No.: FDA-72-85; FDA-75-20ti4, The report, by a group of scientists d'esignated'the,Select Committee on, GRAS Substances (SCO!GS) , provides an i'ndependent evaluation of the safety of' food ingredients, when used in f'oodl at present or projected levels of' use. For individual reports, see below:: 355840 F6-Lb3 853/ 3 Scientific Literature Reviews oniGeneral'Ly Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Food Ingredients - Corn Sugar (Fi nal rept. 1'92 C?-73')'. Iinformatics, Inc.,, Rockville, C1'di.. Corp. Source,Codes: 38711.:a. R'eport Nb..: TR-72'-1I552-29; FDABF-rRAS-i70 Jun 73 395p Document Type: Bibliography NTIS Frices: PC A17/hiF A01 Journal Announcement: GRA17323 Contract No.: FDA-72-1!04 The Scientific Literature Review summarizes the available scientific ]I iiterature from 1920 to 1973 related toe the safety of corn sugar as a food ingredient. Chemical' iinformation,, bio3ogical data, and, biochemicaL aspects of corn sug,ar are given in a 392 ' page summary containing 4925 references.
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FOODS ADLIBRAi 0190947 85004507 Federal Regi'ster, December 05,, 1984, p, 47505. CODEN: FEREAC DocType:JOUR'filAL 841205 Carbohydratest FD4 offers an; opportunity, for pubillic review of its second updated' literature review orni corn sugars and sucrose. Relevant articles from this scientific literature update and articles and' other data submitted'. in response to this notice will be cmnsidiered~ in, the agency's d'ecision on the GRAS status of corn sugar,, corn syrup,, invert sugar and sucrose. 84052907 Federal Register, June 06, 1984, p 23457 CODEN: FEREAC Doc Type: JOURNAL 840606 Sweeteners:FDAiI announces an opportunity for public reviewofiitscompiLation, of recently pubilishied~ scientific literature on, corn sugars and1 su~crose. The references and data will then be considered in the agency's decision on GRAS status of corn sugar, corn syrups, invert sugar, and sucrose., 0178383 840086471 Federal Register, January 26, 1984, p 3271-3272 CODEN': FER'EAC Doc Type: JOURNAL 840126 COLORS: FDAI an~noun~ces the, opportunity for publ i c comment on changes i ni the Foodl Chemical Codex,3rd Ed i ti on. Proposed new monog~raph~s would be for annatto extract,, casei n& caseinate salts,, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Blue Nb. 1, FD&C Red Nb. 3, FD&C Yellow No. 5, gelatin, hexanes, HFCS (Mg,hifructose corn, syrup),, invert sugar, liactose,,, paLydextrose, smoke flavor, and' various edible oils (coconut oi l, corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm kernel oi 1, saf f l ower oi1' , soybean, oil,, and sunf L o:aer oi l).
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B205TS 1924-1986 CORN SYRUP' SUGARS I N-V I TR0 AND I Na--V I VO D I GEST I b I L I'TY' AND CC. I NTCAL TOLERANCE IN ACU'TE DIARRHEAOF INFANCY' LEBENTHAL E; HEITLINGER L; LEE F` C; NORD K D. DIV. GASTROENTEROL. . BUFFALO, N. `d. 14222. J PED I'Alf f;' 1031 . Language: ENGLISH AND NUTFn., CHILD. 1983., 29-34., S; HODGE' C; E'FiGOk S S P; GEORGE ' HOSP. BUFFALO, 219 BRYANT ST.. CODEN: JOPDA The in vitro, and'in, vivo di~gestibility and'clinica:l tolerance of 3corr syruip, sugars (DE1I[7, 15, 24) and 1 infant formuLa corntaining, carn syruF sugar as the sole carbohydrate source (DE24) were eval'uated,. In vitrc studdes were conducted usi ng human duodenal f 1 ui dl and, .je junal mucosa wi tF`: normal enzyme acrti'vities. In vivo studies includEd intragastric perfusion studies and tolerance tests using the corn syrup sugars andi a clinical f'ormula trial in 32 infants withiacute diarrhea. Results of the in vitrc studies showed that each of theicorn syrup sugars was well hydrolyzed by dUiod~enal f l uid and by mi xtures mf' dluod'enal f l uli ds and mucosal homogenates In vivo studies as measured ind'i cated' by OnI y had' a revealed signi!ficant hydrolysis in the proximal intestine, duri'ng the perf~usion studi'les, and adequate absorption,i ass a rise in serum glucose concentratilon during, tolerance tests. patients who had a marginal serum gLucose rise after a glucose meal' blunted~rise after a corn syrup feeding. More than 85% of the infant=_ beginni ng the c l i ni caI tri a1 toL erated the f ormul a wel l and gai ned weight. at or above the expected rate for age duriing, the study interval. Except with severe mucosal injury andi secondary monosacchiaride intolerance,, glucose polymers of' the dextrose equivalents tested are suitablE carbohydrate sources for infants recovering f'rom acute diarrhea.
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TOXLINE CN - United States Food and Drug Adlmi.nilstratiorri AD TI - RockviAle - Corn~ sugar, corn syrup,, and invert sug,ar (syrup)'p proposed~ affirmat':on, of GIRAS's status as dilrect human food ingredients SI - CA/098/2'14271'M SO - Fed. Regi'st. ; VOL 47, ISS 23t7, 1'982,539117-23 LA - ENG A'B' - CBAC COFP'YRIGHT: CHEM ' ABS Glucose food Corn syrup food' Invert sugar food; Food Sugars andl syrrups of, stds. f'or; S'taneiards For corn sugar and corn syrup and invert sugar,, of food' Legal, and permv:ssiveaSyrups Of food, stds., f'or Hydrolyzedl starch i
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_> dis i/ L''omK) SIA-A't _ L IG ANSWER I! (IF I glutarald~ehyd'e)'. GI, in, thie whole~ cell immobiliaedl form,, was of'#ered' at D',, 1.5~„ 3.4,, or 5.0% o-V the diet to dogs for a min. of 90 consecut i ve days and' to rats over 3 generations. Animals were obsd'. daily for signs of ' toxicosis; body wt. and food consumptioniwere moni'tored; biocheml., tests, hematol, detns., andlurinalyses were done on blood'; and'urine samples;, and~ thorough gross and microscopicc tissue examns. were performed at terminations. There were no signs of infection or toxicosis fo1lowingi i.v. administiration of F. arborescens or the cell-free supernatant fluid. This, and' the lack of toxicity inidog,s and~ rats which received daily dietary concns. of GIl many times above the projected, highest possibile human exposure leveL, suggest that there should be v'rtual1v no risk of toxicity assocd. with the consumption of f'ood' and' beveraqes ANI CA1o1 (17) :.ii50U11x TI Safety evaluation of glucose isomerase derivedl from. FLavobacterium arborescens and used in production of high fructose corn svruQ. AU F•orter, Mi chael' C. ;, Martnagel, Ral ph, E., Jr. ;, Kowal'ski,, Robert L. ;!, C1'emens,, George F:. ; Jasty, 9enkatanaryana, Bare, James J. ;, Esoguslawski, George CS Dep. Toxicol., Miles Lab., Inc. LO Elkhart, IN'465'15, USA SO J. Food Rr-ot. „ 47(5), ' 359L71 SC 17-6 (Food'. and'. Feed Chemistry) DT J CO1 JFPRDR IS 0362-028X ' F'Y 1984 LA' AS' KW I~ T I'T I T' Eng Stud'i es were conducted to assure product safety and, establish GFAS'status for glucose isomerase (GI) C9055-00-9] derivedlfrom F. arborescens. A viable cell suspension, of F. arborescens and'the cell-free medium inh which the organism was cultured were administered i.v. to rats and:rabbits. For feeding stu!d'ies, the cells were immobilized using polLycatilonic polymers: and~ a crosslinking agent ('i .e. , chitosan, polyethylenimine,, and contq. hloh,fructose syrup_pro+duced by GI d€rived'-f'rom E. ,arborescens. --..-~ gtucose isomerase toxicity; Flavobacteriumi toxicity Flavobacterium arborescens (glucose isomerase~ of, toxicity relation to) ryrups(fructose-high„ hydrolyaed! Flavobacterium arborescenis 9055-00-9 of, corn syrup manuf. . fh 5 onG.IN i n ~. fb CD starch, gl ucose i somerase from QD' in manuf. of, toxicity o{rY ~' (,of~ F1 avob~acteri um~~ arb~orescens~, manuf. in rel.ation to,) tox i ci ty off, , corn syrup, ~ N
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AU - Akg:un S' ; Ertel NH'i T1' - The effects of F sucrose, fructose, and high-fructose corn, syrup AS meals on plasma alucose and insulin ininion-insuDin-dependent. ,dliabetic subjects. - We h~ave previously shown standard meal, cause less: that f'ructose and sorbito1 giiven:with a increment in plasma g,lucose than sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)' in patients withifNIlDDM. However,, therewas, was,no dicomparison of' sucrosewithHFCS. SY':,teen, (Tien, and'mne woman aged 54-b7)' wilth NIDDM were given, ' either 35 gi sucrose, 35 g, fructose, or 43.75 giHFCS containing 35 g carbohydrate as part of' a 4n0-cal ori e test meal. FsTood sampl es. were obtainedlat frequent i'ntPrvals up to,7. h and.were analyzed for glucose and insuliin. As compared with a fructose meal, the mean increment in plasma glucose (delta PG) after a sucrose meal was significantly higher at 45 ms'n and after an HFCS meal it was significantly higher at 30 and 45' min, but sucrose andi HFCS meaTss did not differ. When delta PGs were compared in nine patients with basal PG greater than 14D mg/dl and i'n eight patients with basal PG l ess than 140 mg,/d!1, di f f erences in del ta FG' af ter sucrose and'.HF'C'S versus fructose meals became more significant but still did not differ f'rom each other. The integrated total areas under the d'el~ta F'G curves after sucrose, HFCS, and fructose meaLs were not statisticall'y different. However, the areas under the curves up to 90 min after sucrose and' HFCS meals, which did not d'i f f er , were greater than the f ruciiose~ meal . The mean delita IRI aA'ter sucrose inP<-,1s was markedly elevated at 45, 60, and 75, rri n i F l_ss th=,n i>, c'i5) and after HFCS meal s at 45 mi n as compared -wih i.t. f ruct_,-js.= ow:a s. (ABSTfiACT TRUNCATED AT .^_S0i WORDS) aCl •- . i.t, Pr tF' S C;_t r F 1`7c'c hl';;'.+-•T1L.1n;1'23 (•'••)!:I279-S3
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FOOD DRUG COSMETiC L'AW RE'POAT'ER, Scope of Reporter . . . The Reporter is devoted' primarily to the Fcderall Food,, Drug, and Cos• metic Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act„ as admmiini'stered by the Food and Drug Administration, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, as administered by the: Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Compre- hensive Drug Abuse Prevention, and, Control Act, as adtninistered by the Drug Enforcement Administration. These Acts are reported'. in full text„along with the texts of pertinent regulations,, proposal's, rulings, decisions„ and other developments: described at f 5, A number of federal, "related laws," such as the Virus, Serum, and Toxiin, Act of 1944, are reported! in full text, with sum- maries of selected court decisions. Simiilarly,, state laws of'general application, to food, drugs,, and cosrnetics are reproduced! in full text, andi summaries of selected rulings and decisions are also reported. In addition, related state laws pertaining, to specific products or areas of the food, drug, andl cosmetic industries are idl'entified in separate lists of "Special Laws"' with official cita- tions, for those who wish to consult the officiall texts. These "Special Laws"' are laws governing standard's,, packaging, and label'ing, of' specific products. All regulations issued by: the Food and D'rug, Adiaiinistration; under the Food, Drug, and! Cosmetic Act, the. Fair Packaging and Labeling, Act, and the Virus, Serucn, and! Toxin Act of 1944 are published iln full text, as are regula- tions under the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, as amended by the Con. sumer Product Safety Commi'ssion. The f'ull texts of the regulations issued' by the D'rug, Enforcement Administration implementing the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act are reported. Regulations issued under some of the "related laws" in, the Federal Laws division are not re- ported., No state regulations are reported. Federal and' State court decisions are reported. Ptiimarily,, these decisions wilL be those cases that interpret or apply the provisions of,the Federall Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and'. the basic food, drug, and cosmetic laws of' the states: Cases that'ari'se under the various state or federal "related laws" are reported on a selective basis. _ HOW TO CITE' THE REPORTER I 1 fl Citations to FOOD D&uG CoSMET3C LAW REPORTS are accept'ed! by courts and' administrative agencies because they lead to authoritative data, some of'whilch isavailabl'e exclusiivel , here.]ust combinetl'~~eletters"CCH,^ with the name of the Reporter andl t~e paragraph number. For examplle, the food'' additrive regulations may be cited "CCHi FooD D~tua Cost~sxic I'.kw REPOYrs A~ 55,30U1"' A particular section, of the regulations could be referred', to by the specific paragraph: of' the Reporter where it is reproduced., CO1MiMEUC~13'~~, CLEARIIWG4 11OUSE.;Ilerc. , P~Ua~LIIS~H~ER'.S. o ,{L..AWV ~ p~.KtppP~..VS. 4025' W. FPETERSOtV' AVE., CHIiCAGO,, ILLIWOISI 60646 '.
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C C ii 4'3,613' TOLERANCES ESTABLISiiED, FORI RESIDUES OF INSECTUCIDES ON RED CHICORY' TOPS ~ Envi'ronmental' Protection Agency Order, published at 49 F.R. 47493, December 5„ 11984. Pesticide Residues--Tolerances-Amendtnent.--Tokrances have been established by the EPA for residues of two insecticides in or on red chicory tops. A tolerance of 0.7 ' ppm has been established for residues of' the insecticide O,O.diethyl (J-(2-isopropyl-6•methyi-4- pyrimidinyi) phosphorothioate and a tolerance ofi0.5'ppm, has been established for residues of the insecticide methyl 3-[(d"unetlioxy-phosphinyl)joxy]Ibutenoatralph'a and beta isomers. Ob- jections and' hearing requests may'be filed through January 4, 1983': Back references: 167,301.33; 67,,301.57' C 114 12-1rr..ai Nevv,Developriment's' 44,187 the Environmental Protection Agency has established a tolerance for combined resiaues of the fungicide iprodione,, its isomer [3-(1-methylethyl)4.N(3,9-fichlorophenyl)-2,4-dibxo-1- ianidazolidinecarboxamide], andl its metabolite [3-(3,S-dichtorophenyl)-2;4'-diQxo-1'- imid'azolidinecarboxatnideJl inior on grapes at 60 ppm. Tolerances have al3o been established' by the agency for residues of iprodione and'its nonbyidroxylated metabolites„ in, or on egp at . 0! g'ppm; fat (except poultry fat),, meat, and! meat byproducts (except liver and ltidney), of cat. tk, goats, hogs, horses„ poultry, andd sheep at 0!4 ppm; liverr and kidney: of cattle, goats,, horses, poultry,, and sheep (except poultry kidney) at 3 ppm; and poultry: fat at' 2.01 ppm. A tolerance for residues of the fungicide and'its nonhydroxylated and hydroxylated metabolites in, or on milk at 0.3 ppm was established' as well. Objections and hearing requests may be Filed~ until January 4, 1985. Back reference: 167,303'.99' " 143',612 TOLERANCE EXEMPTIONI FOR oJpha-(P'-NONYLPHENYL)-omego- HIYDROXYPCI'LY (OXYPROPYLENE) BLOCK POLYM'ER' EXPANDED - Environmental Protection Ageney: Ordery published'at 49 F.R. 47493,1 December 3, 1984: Pesticide Rlesidues-Tolierance Exemptionr-Amendrnent-The exemption, from the re- quirement of a tolerance !or al'plta{p-nonylohenyl)ronrega.hydroxypoly! (oxypropylene) bl'ock polymer with poly(oxyethylene) has been revised by the Environmental Protection Agency: to, expand: the polyoxypropylene content range from. 20i•60 moles to 10-60 moles, the poll ethyl'ene content range from, 30-80 moles-to 10•80 moles, and the molecular weight range from 2,100-7,100~to 1,200-7,100:, The substance is used' as a surfactantinipesticide formulations. The agencyaction was taken at the request of Quaker Chemical Corp. Written objections may be filed', until January 4, 1985. Back reference: 1 67,,31~0! 011 ' 143,614 4'3,614 SECOND COMPILATION, OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATUR'E'ON'CORN SUGARS AN'D SUCROSE AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC R'EVIEIM~ Food and! Drug Adtnini'stration 1 Notiee, published at 49' F. R. 47505, December 9, 11984: GRAS Substynces--Safety Review-Corn Sugars and Sucrose.-lnterested personss have been giNen Rhe opporttnnity to review the FDA.'s second updated compilation of the scien- tific literature on corn sugars and sucrose that is being considered' by the agency in d'etermining the generally recognized'as safe status ofi these items. Submissions of other relevant articles are being solicited land may be filed! with the FDA until January 4, 1985. The agency's notice is be- ing, reproduced below. ~ Back reference: 1'36,015 8869i845S ~ . Food'Drmg Cosmetic Law Reports 143,614
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44,188' Now Developments 114 12-n:aµ iDocket Nos.79ti-o74tG 79N-M421i sttmmttw 'Ihe Food and Dtug Admini'stration (FDA) i's announdng,ang opportunity for public review of its second'updated compilation of recently, publi'shed scientific literature on corn sugars and'sucrose and is soliciting from the public copies of relevant publishedd studies and other information not Included in the agency's compil'atianu. Relevant articles from this sci'entifi'c : literature update and articles and'other data submitted in response to this notice will be considered' in, the agency's decision on the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of corn sugar. corn syrup, Invert sugar, and~ sucrose. oAM Submissions by January 4,1985. Fliowever. highly relevant articl'es and other data on the safety of these ingredients will' be accepted and considered ithrougbout the review process. - ADonEM Published articles, other relevant! data, information, and requests for a single copy of the bibliographicc listing, for the updated scientific literature aompilation may be submitted ' to the Dockets ManagemeritBraneh (HFA-3o51 Food'and Drug Administatiom R'ooml-82~, 56UO'Fishers ti:ene. Rockvill'e,MDZOeti7. tFQtt FlnmtrJt INl*ciaruTtont eowuAar.. John Gordom Center for Food Safety and~ Applied'hiutritioa (I-IIFF-35)i Food! and' Dtug Administrationr 200 t; Street SW.. Washington, DC 20204. ZOyr428- 5987. suPMJ3WATwnrrtNFOnMAttott ln the FederalRegister of'.June 6. 2964 (49 FR . 23457). FDA announcedltbe availability: of the bibliographic compilgtion of scientiFuc articles thaU it will consider in~ formulating final rules on~the GRAS status of corn sugar, corn syrup, invert sugar, and sucrose. Tha[notice also stated that d'ata and informationn generated during the Federation of American Societies for Ecperi'mental' Biology (FASEB) Ireview, of corn sugars and sucrose, comments on the proposalss published In the Federal Register of November 34% 1982'(47 FR 53917 and' 53923), and responses to, the June 8. 1984 notice will!be consid'ered i'n the formulation of final'rules on these 143,61i4. ingredient..ln add'ition, the notice announced that the agency would update the bibliographic compilation by August 30,1984. Because of thre extensiveness of the data retrieval and compilation proeess, the agency was not able to meet the August 3011984 date. FDA is issuing this notice to providts an opportunity for all' interested persons to review the updated compilation: of the scientific literature t1aaC is being considered by the ageney: Thiss compilation consists of'arti'cles retrieved as a result! of machine searches of' various!d'ata bases tnciudingMedline, Toxline, Cancerline, Biol'ogical Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and others. Alll submissions responsive~ta the proposals and'~ the June8,19B4 notice have been incorporated into the agency's itle. The agency, will~ consider all of'the articles and informatinn generated from thi's notice and the June & 1984 notice, the FASRH' review, andd comments on the November 3% 1982 proposals in formulating final rules on, the GRAS status of'corn sugar, corn, syrup.invert sugar; and sucrose. The compilation, is on file at the Dockets Management Branch (address 'above) for public examination between 9 a.m. and 4 p6ml, Monday through, Friday: Requests for singl'e copies of the biblilographiclisting from, thescientific literature compil®tion, identifiediwithi the docket number found in brackets in the heading of this doeurnent, should' be submitted in writing to the Dockets M'anagement! Branclu Interested persons may; on or before _ January 411D&5, submit to the Dockets. Management Branch: (address above) published articles and other relevantt data and'information for consideration by the agency. Two copies of any submissions are to be submitted, except that individuals may: submit one copy. Submissions are to be identifted wiith the docliet number found'in, brackets inn the heading of.this d'ocument+Received Q, 1984, CCommerce Clearing House, Inc. C C c ~ . CID ~ ~ ~
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w C C C C ti14s ~ tz-ro-ac Niavv Develbptments 44,189 submissions and other data and Datsdi November 20, istis. - i'nformation imay be seen in the office ; ltooald' i. Otta, .. , above between 9 a.m. and!!'p.m.. .. Aetfng.luoc~cteCommiasio.rerfar Monday through Friday. Rey+r!'owr,t!AJja;rs... 143,6!15- ACCEPTED'STAND;IIRDS FOR CEFOXITIN'SODIl1M INJECTION ADOPTED Food!and! Drug Administration Ordery published at 49 F:R. 47826,, December 7, 1984. Antibipti'cs-Accepted'Standards-Establi'shment:-Accepted standard's for cefoldtin sodium injection have been; included' in the antibiotic regulations by the Food! and!Drug Ad- ministration. The agency stated that the manufacturer has supplied' data sufficiient to, establi'sh, the safety and efficacy of'the new dosage form of the antibiotic. Comments,, objcetions,, hear- ing requests, and noticesof partieipation, may be filed! through January 5,, 1985.Data to justify a hearing are due February 5, 11985. „ Back reference: 1'73',pp.5' 143'.6116 NEW STRENGTH OF ERY'1fHROM'YCIN! OINTMENT APPROVED Food' and Drug Administration arder, published! at 49 F.R. 47838,, December 7, 1984.. Antibioti'cs;-Aacepted' Stattdards-Establishmena-Inclusion of': accepted standards.for a new, 220 milligram-per-gram, strength of erythromycin ointment has been, authorized by: the Food and Drug Administration., The agency determined that data supplied by the manufac- turer concerning the antibiotic were adequate to, establi'sh; its safety and efficacy when used as directed in the labeling; Comments and hearing, requests may be submitted until' January 7, . 1985. Back reference: 173,9447' ;. 143',617 NADA FOR'. PO!LYSULFATED OLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN'APPROWED' .. Food and Drug Admu»'stration 1 Order, published'at49 "F:R. 478251;, December 7; 1984. Weterinary Drugs-Injecthble Dosage-Amendhtent.-Tfie Food and Drug Adntini'stra- tion has approved a, new animal' drug application providing for the intra-articttlar use of polysulfated glNcosaminoglycan, in, horses. for the treatment of noninfeetious degenerativee and/or traumatic joint, dysfunction and! associated laztteness of the carpal joint. The NADA was filed'by Luitpold Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The ageney has added! the firm, to the list of spon- sors of' approved NADAs. Back reference: 174,756 14.3',618 NADA FORi MORANITEL TARTRATE CARTRIDOES' APP'RO1'fED Food ~ and Drug Admini'stration 1 O'rder,, published at 49'F.R. 4783%, December 7, 115184~. Weterinary Drugs-Orall Dosage-AmendmenO.-The Food and Drug Ad'ministration has approved,a new animal drug application, providing for the oral administration by balling gun. of a morantel l tartrate-containing cartridge in weaned calves and yearling cattle for control of the adult stage of certain gastrointestinal nematodes through the summer grazing seasom Thee cartridge consists. of a stainless steel' cylinder having both, ends closed with polyethylene diffus- ing discs so, that, there is sustained release of morantelinto the somach fluid of'the calves and cattle., The NADA was submitted by Pfizer, Inc. 88G984r-J7 Back reference: 174,518 1i 4'3,619 FUNDING AUAIILABLE FOR'. CLINICAL TRIALS' ON ORPHAN' PRODUCTS. Food and Drug Administration Notice, published! at 45/ F.R. 47934, December 7; 11984. Orphan Drugs.-Qiniql! Trlalt--Orants:-The availability of funds for fiiscal year 1995 Food' Drug Cbaaetic Law Reparts - 143,6119
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THE MERCK INDEX AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ' CHEMICALS. DRCZOS.~ AND B'IOLOOI'CALS. Martha Windholz, Editor Susan Bwdavarii. Co-Editor Rosemary F. Blumetti. Associate Editor Elizabeth S. Otterbein, Assistant Editor Publislt'ed' by MERCK & CO., I1vC. R'AHVWAY. N.J.. U.S'_A.
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41 e' Gllnconic Acid CA 45. 2865 (1951). Pro. .ie and glucose: Clevenoti ,: Csey!enot): I 1~ ne' nlll sctone forms lirge sweetish ;6:0` (shows mutarotation). ptate sodir^ sodium gfuco- : Befinke. U.S. pat.,3;022,'- _rystals (a-form): der 1ti1r: t'reely aol'n in water. daae'tatr dslciaas, eatci'anr .ararononrbaaate, calcfunr Piepn from Na saltn Hol- to Pfanstiehl Labs.). Hy- rid taste, deo 200'. Sd in, ,r asagnesiaat gfirrnhtpto- rb'onatG atagneriawr gluco- Cipoli. U:S. pat: 3;063,896 sol crystals. pleasant, tastd myein, Glucoheptonate. 7anic add; dextronic , addt ogenic acid; pentshyd'roxy- a6.16. C 36.74%..H 6.17%.:. aiucose by electrolytic om- _IWig. U.S. pat. 1,937,273 vith, hypobromites: Stoll. 927):, At present', produced rtnentative oxid'ation of the orn using A'spergillus niger. •nicfllium chrysogenum. and' iulof. U.S: pat. 1y849.053' Chemist 16. , 239 (194'3)t _', 11379 (1940): Prescott at eid'er. US. pat. 2,9/16,513' . Hb1h1AY; Roehr. Natur- hydt of a-D-glucose. Var , J. ehem. Soc.. lucose: Phillips er aL, ibid' 959. 2871. Prepn of' solid: o U:S. Secy of Commerce). TeetenP GT:, Magnesium salt as antispasmodic; in treat< ment of magnesium deficiencies,, 4'3'17: Glueonolactone.D-Glbconic acid b-lacrbne; gl'uco, no ddta, lactonc; delta gliacanolactone. CvHuO6P mol' vh, 178.14. C 40!4'3%w, H 5:66%w 0 53,89"/a Prepn by oxidation, of glucose with bromine water: Isbell. Pigman. J. Res Nar. Bur. Stand 10, 337 (,1933): by oxidation of glucose in:.Ater, , bacter subaxydans King. Cheldelin. Biochem. J' 68, 31P' (1958): Structure: ]~ Stanek et aL. 7ne AltonosncrhQr~s (Acadetnic Press, New York. 1963) p 271. Crystals. dec 113'3': Sweet taste (different from, gluconic acid). [alJy +61.T (c = 1). Soly in water 59 g/1100 iml; in alc about' 11 g/ 1100 g. Insol in ether. Hydrolyzed to glueonic acid by water. A freshly'prepd 1'% aq soln has a pH of' 3:6 changing to pHl 2:5'within 2 hn. us'e: Component of i many cleaning ctnpds because of the sequestering ability of i the gluconate radical which remains active, in alk s'olns; in the dairy industry to prevent milk- stone: in breweries to prevent beentone; as latent,acid cam- lyst for acid colloidlresins; particularly in textile printing. 4318;,G1utosamiee: 2=A+eino-Z-deoryg/ucose; chitos• amine. C~Htt)V(Dy: mol wt 179.1'7: C 40.22%. H 7.31°a; 1,. 7:82%a 0 44.63%. Found in ehitin, in mucoproteins, and in mucopolysaccharides. Isolk from chitin: Ledtltuhosc, Z PhysioL' Chem. 2„213 (1878); Hz<c.kman, Alat J., Biol.,ScL 7„ 168, (1954). Synthesis: Fischer. 1'.auchs:, Ber. 35j 3'787 (1902); 36,, 24' (1903). Separation of' a- andd-fbrms: Wesl. pha1J Holzmann. ibid 75B, 1274' (1942). Structure: Ha. worth et aL. J. Chem. SoG 1939, 271; Cutler. Peat. ibid' 782; Cox, Jl¢ffcey, Nature 143, 894 (1939). Reriew., . Foster. Sta- cey. "I4te Chemistry of'the 2-Amino Sugars" in, C. S. i$ud. son et,aL. Advan. Carbohyd' Chem. vol. 7 (Academic kress.. New York. 1952) pp 247-288. oe e aste. (aJl? -6.T (c - I). al,in water, slightly sol in other organic solvents. In ormed'into an equilibrium -lolyctones. Because of thee yst product: gluconic add' nt amber color, faint odor d in stainless sted' drums. Needles, deliquesc in posure to ~light. Der 154': -:, 31.6 g1100 ml at 25'. col' in most other, organic ng, with the formation of' magnesium g/rconate, tonium salt used'as latent. a ', „e, . a-Form, crystals, mp 88'. [aJ[,° +100' - +47.5'after 30 min: (water)l p-Form, needles from methanoli dec l lff'. [aJml =28° - +47:5"'after 30 min (water)'. Very sol', in water, so] in annut, 38 parts boiling methanols'spuingly aol lim cold methanol ..r ethanol:, Practically insol'in ether, chloroform. N-Aemtylglucosamine. CiH sNO~.,needles frorn,methan.-.l1 + ether. mp 205'. [aJb~' +64~ - -f;40,9' (in i water)! THHnr.r il Pharmaoeutic aid:. 4319. Glucose. D-Gluease: dextrose; blood sugar, g-arc sugar, corn sugar., Dextropur, Dextrosol; Glucolin, C,ldt;- Op mol wt, 180.16: C 40.00%a H16.72%w 0 33:297.: A,mau: source of'energy for living organisms. Occurs naturallt a:,.f in the free state in fruits and other parts af, plants. i'.orr,- bined in glucosides., in di- and oligosaceharides, in the f>,,l5 , saccharides cellulose and' atarch, and in glycogen. Norm..l human blood' contains 0:08'-0.154L Manuf on a large +cnl: frorw starch: Dean, Gottfried, Adnan. Carbohyd. Chen:. 5. 127' (1950). Below 50", a-D-glucose hydtata is the etnl+b:-t cryst form, above 30`t'he anhydriorm is obtained and at std. higher temps S-D-glucose,is formed: W! Pigman. The C'a•- bohydrates (Academic Press. New York, 1957) p 92. Stn:: - ture: Kjaer, ILindlierg. Acta tVhena Scand. 13; 1713't14"'• Conformation: E. Percival, Structural Carbohydrate Cm+rn, - ery,(J. Garnet Miller, iLondon, 1962) pp 51-57. Compren.r- sivr monograph: H. Bartclheimer et' aL. o'-Glucase v.•:,: (:bnsalt'tltt crosr index bkforo, using thia srrtlon. a-Glucosc-l-phosphatr .envandte Verbindungen in Medlzin und Blotogie (Enke. Stuttgart. 1966) 1126 pp. H nH a-D-glucose a-Form monohydrate, crystals from water, mp 93. [cJo, + 1102A' - +47:9''(water). 0174 times as sweef, as sucrose. One gram dissolves in about 11 ml water and,in about 60 ml sleohol. LD' i.v. in mbbita: 35 g/kg. a-Form anhydr. crystrls from hot athanol' or water. mp 1'4G: [pJQ + l', IIZ 2'', +32 T(c = IO in water). Thrfinal' value is obtained instantly in the of hydroxyll ions ~ Formula for varying concns: [laJ +'.S' + 0.0188p (p g/100 m1)l pH of 0.5 molar aq lsoln 9.9: d=Jj ot'water solos w/v: 5% ~ 1!019 '. 10% - 11.03'S 20% - 1.076 30% , - 1.1113; 40% ~ 1.149. nr 1046'soln 11.34'79., Onrgram dis- solves in 1Lt'ml water at ZS'; in 0.8 mllat 30': in 0.41 mllat 9(1': in 0.28 ml at 70'; in 0.1',8'ml at 90'; in 120'ml methand'' at 20+. Very sparingly sol', in,abs alcohol, ether.,acetone sol in, hot glacial aaetic acid, Pyridine aniline. 1 D i!v. in nb. 6its: 35 g/kg. p-Form. crystals from hot water + ethanol, from dil' ace- dc acid', or from pynidine mp 14'8-1135: [a]Q +IB.T , +52 T (b = 10 in water). Txt tUr CAT: Fluid' and nutrient replenisher. ntFatwr car (vev Nutrition (Usually patenterally): hypo, glycemia ketosis, to counteract hepaotoxins 4320: G14eose Oxidase. /f-u-Glucopyranase aerodehy dtogenue P-FADp, corylophyline; microeide; mikrotsid; notatin. An enzyme obtained from mycdia of tungi, such as A'spergillf and Benicillia; a typicali aerobic dehydtogenase which catalyzes the, oxidation, of glucose to gluconic acid (molecular oxygen is reduo¢d' to hydrogen peroxide): It is a flavoprotein, the prosthetic group being flavine-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Commercial prepns ffequently'eontain appreciable amounts of another enzyme. catalysa which is desirable for certain uses since it removes hydrogen peroxide aerobically generated by gluaase oxidsae. NYmes of some commercial prepns are: DaeO,' Fennavzytne: OttryBtn. (ha- zyme. Ilsoln from Penicillia cultures: Coulthard et'aL. Bio- chenc J. 39, 241(1943). Commerciali production from, dsper- gilli md' Peeicrllia: Goldsmith er a1. U.S. pat. 2,926*1T.2 (1I960); from .Ispergillus elger. Faucett et aL. USL pat. 3,102,0911 (1963' to Miles Labs.). Removal of' proteolytic enzymes from, glucose, oxidase (eontg, catalase) obtained from, .lspergilli or Penicillia cultures: Oltlmeyer. US. pat. 2,940y904'(1960 to Ben 11,. Skrett).' Separation from eatalise: Pazur er aL: Biochem. Biophys Acta 65„ 369 (11962): Proper- ties: Muller:, Enzymologia 10, 40 (1941); Kailin, Hartree, Biocliem. ! 42, 221 (1948). 50031 (1952). Reriaws: L.. A. Underkofler "Glucose Oxidase: Produaion, Pfoperties. Present and Potential Applications" in Soc. Chem. lnd. (L;ondon), Afonogmph'eo. M 72-86 (11961); R'.,Bent'ley. Glu- eose Oxidase" in The Bnzymes.o6 7. P: D. Boyer et al.. Hds: , (Academic Press. Ncw York, 1963) pp 367-586: Amorphous powder or eryatala.. Abs max between 270- 280i 375+380. and' 450-460 nm (aq soln)i Freely sol' in water giving yellowish-green sohu. Most active at' pH' 5.5-6.0 and 30'-35''., Stable, between pH 4.5 and 7.0: Stable to pepsin and trypsin,, A glucose oxidaae unit is defined as that'quan- 6ty of enzyme which will cause the uptake of'110 mmi oxygen per min in a Warburg manometer at 3W in the,presence ot' excem air and,excsss ntalase,with a substrate eontg 3:3% glucose monohydrate and' 0.1 i1Uf', phosphate buffor, pH 5.9 with 0!4'%a sodium dehydroacetate: ScotG J.' Agr. Food' Chem! 1, 727'(1953): tnt:: Msinly in the protection of'food3: for the removal of glucose from egg albumin and whole eggs prior to drying. To remove oxygen from canned foods, soft drinks, beer, and stored fbod': In the manuf'of'test papers for diabetes control and fertility teats. To stabilize ascorbic acid and!vitamin Btz prepns. In , wrappers to Sctxt. US. 4321. gD- (pBenylhyd: phenylbsaz. zone: D-fn. 60l32"fo. H ~. sugar and r Yellow n. -0.62"- - ethanol). P. 4322. 611 thasphate): . HuA,' p; mo 11.91%. A always e:is:. For the en: a-C'sllucose-I ose phosph. King. Bioch phosphoglu( Sutherland. gllseose Lc phorylation ylation: . Fi Prepn: 2. 39 aL'. Fr.,pat. Barium sa der. (P')it - Dipotaasi nol. [aJ0, - 4323. , a-; acidl.a-D-9l P mol wt 2 Feund'widec immediate f being',also t!' of these sutib ttisilver ph, (1937); 1Ga from a-acc Poaternak. - olysis of' st McCready. Wolfrom, 1'. Con6gnrati. Diac Absir. Cryst. 18. 2- ConsalW the' cross index beJnn usfng,r, . 88698459
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3. F4iV- $0?~St~L-43'r4 MF - UNKNOWN Nl_rWmij0s;r -corn . Slff - Cornigwrwp LO - TOXLINE LO - TSCAINV Ct ~Y\ L llJE COPIED
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CQPIffD, IFST+ 18,'511, 198.931 81-013-90'218 Uses and safetw of'humectants in intermediate (In 'Food microbiol'oav and technologw^ Sloanr A. E.; Labuaa. T. F. Nutr. Dep. r General Millss I'nc., 1'979, pp. 12'1'-139 moisture foods. (~see FSTA, (1981) (1981) 13 3'gs'17) . ) M'inneapol i'sy Kinnesotav USA Languages.' En Summarv Lanr3uages.' 30, ref. A survew: of it Previous work oni water sorption Properties of Po1vo1sy sugars and! salts used in intermediate moisture f'oods ( I'MF) is given,. Vapour Pressure manometric and desiccation techinioues were found the moist reliab,le sorption isotherm techrrioues and were rtueasured for 12' humectanitss including Polvethvlene sl-dcol r slivcerol n sorbitoil r corn swrup sol id's p iViaC'L and'lactosev which' were studied bw static moisture gain, from: dru andfor crvstalline, materi'al' or b-a mo,isture, loss from a. solution. A true soirption husteresis occurred for crvstalline humectanits d'epend'ing ' on the initial crivstall'ine foirmi, and! its effect on water binding' was investigated for sinig'1Iei andl multiple hiumectantsini a semi-moist model dbig 'foodl swstern.It was foun~d' that above the monoliaver value enough, water was available for the crwstall'~ine humectant to be rapidliv dissolved'' and go into, solution or an amorphous form, so that the a: w was the same as in the solvtion mix swstem. 2Prediction einuationsr the linear slope and the girapiiic Pr~oc~ed'ure~r are~ derived and tested for Pr~ed'~i'~c~~t~in9~: the~ re~~su~lt~arit a~ w in~, I:MIF~ swstems to which, single and' muil'tiple humectants were added'. Data: on the safetu and toxi'citiv of humectants are stiven. (LH)
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CoP1ED .,-r CaW 51' PUP T 18/:3/'1 18/3/1 p'1~935K2' PB-262 659/6ST N'TIS Prices« PC AQ'.3/MF A4111 EwaIuation of the Health A'spects of Corn Sugar (D'extrose)v Corn Swrup. and Inv'ertSugarasIFooidl Ingtred~ients; Finalrept. Fed'eration of American Societies for Experi~mental B'iologvp Betthesdar Md. Life Sciences Research Off icel.*Food' and' Dru-q Administrationy, W'ashirngtonr D.C. Bureau of Food's, 19?6 3'1p* Rept No: SCOGS-50 Report of Select Committee on GRA'S Sut,stances. . (
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I Ss' 6 /C?' USERI:. 8029-43'-4 c a ftP PROG: r SS (6) PSTG (' 1 )'. ~ f, f E aS 7 /C? U!SER': PRT FUi PROG«' 1 A'U TI -LSRO/'FASEEt- EV'ALUATION' OF THE HEALTH ASPECTS' OF CORN SUGAa' SYRUP' AhtD INVERT SUGAR AS FOOiD IN!GR'ED'IENTS'. - EMIC/76'/029751 - U S N T I S PB REPORT; - E'MTC7'ORNL SS. 7 /C? US' ERA E8A'CK r- PRO :' SS 51/C? USER: P'1f RO!L C SN! )' PR'OG': TIME 0!YFLW CO~NT?' ('Y/N7 "qER** ~ PROG:' SS (5), PSTG' (5349) SSr. 6 US~F: (PEs-262' 659) : 2'7 PP',1976 8m0~±-3yt-iJj ' 0iR' .6Wf5-16-5 0!R',e58%6~=1'7'-6 CjK COW'A, OR' C PRO61t N''P ~ 6 1' , 16 r) NP ( 6~ 9' - -6,) SIS (45' ST (158), SS' $ ~ USEPx 6 A*PI11 '1 L US'~R'. ERASEBA PR G':. ~ i~ , i S .7' /'C -=.1SR: c 6 ~1ND 1 PRp'G: i (' 7' ) P$'TG~ SS ~ (. SS' 8 f C? (DEXTROSE') v CO!RN! ahL i-N G- CORiM € cl 0 41 s < 46 'i 6,&Li NE - ~ . 4. t .
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L21 ANSWER1 OF 1 : AN CA1r?1 ( 11'): 8909ie TI AU' Pyroliyrsi s behavi or r_-)f honey and hi gh-fructose corn syrup. Mar! ryama, Takenori : Kanematsu:„ Hi romu; hJi i ya, Lsa.og Ai da„ YumiF:o, Ohnishi, Masaru CS Jpn. Inst. Oi1s Far-s LO Tokyo 103, Japan SO Ni ppon Ei~yo, Shokuryo Gakkai shi ,.:+7 (4),, 98-1 r:>2 SC 17-6 (Food and' Feed Chemi stry)' DT J'CO NESGDC PY 1984 LA Japan AR Fyroliysis char.+cteristics of honey and high-f'ructose corn syrup (,HF) were studied by thermogravimetry (TG)' and deriw. thermogravimetry (IDTG). Twenty kiinds of honey of k,nownl f'1ora1 and~ geag. sources and 3: kinds of HF with different yructose ('T) C57-48-7]/glucose ('II) ~ C50-99-7] ratio were usedlas sampies. Rapid' red'n. in the wt. of I, II, andl sucrose C5~~--50•-17 was obsd., by TG and DTG at 200-3D0, degree. and 50D-6pD. degree. . The pyroliysi s behavior at 2D0-3D0~.degree, varied with the k.iind of sugar., In, the TG and DTG cur ves of HF wi th an F/G' rati o of 1. 28, the stage of rapild wt. redn. at 200-300.degree. was divided into 2 steps. TG and DTG curves of honey were classified into,3. patterns. Each pattern di4fered from that of HF. In TG and DTG test for mixt. of honey and HF (FL'G ratio, 1.28) , the patterns of DTG' curve of honey mixed with 25% HF differed from thoit of' the originali honey. KW pyro!l ysts property honey syrup ; adul terati or: detn honey IT Carbohydrates and Sugars, bioLogicali studie-» (of honey, pyrolysis behavior of, adulteration detectilon in relation to) IT Honey (pyrolysis beh~avior of', adulteration detection ini relation to). IT Syra!ps ifructose, pyrolysis behavior of, honey adulterationi detection iin relationito)' IT 50-99-7, uses and miscellianeous 57-48-7, uses and mi scel l aneous 57-50-1, uses and; mi scelI aneous (of' honey, pyrolysis behavior of, adrJlteration detecti'on in relation to)' ~~
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BIOSIS'1981-1986 REACTIONS.OF OLIGO SACCHARIDES 51, PYROLYS,Ig'GAS.CHROMATOGRAPHY' DONNELLY'R J; VOIGT J E; SCALLET B L NORTH AME'R'ICAN PLANT BREEDERS, P'.O. BOX 30, 806 2ND ST. N'ORTH,, BERTHOUD!. CO. CEREAL CHEM 57 (6). 1980. 388-390. CDDENI:i CECHA' Language: ENGLI~SH Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (pyrolysis-GC') dilsti,ng,uished between model carbohydrate compounds, a series of malto*-oLilgosaccharildes previousl'y isolatedl in the laboratory from corn syrup. These sugars, namely malitose (G2), maltotriose (G3), maltotetraose (GA), maltopentaose (G5), anc maltohexaose (G6) , were subjected' to: plyrolysis-GC under carefully controlled conditions; major volatile compounds were identifiediby mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharides gave similar decomposition products. When the pyrograms were normal'ized„ the relati~ve amounts of irnd'ividual' vo1'atile components varied from onasugar tolthe next. This proved toibe true a1so, for other disacchari'ldes, and, trisaccharides examined by thi=E technique. Dzfferences i'n the normalized patterns permitted differentiatior between carbohydrates of' varying molecular structure. Major volatilEE compounds identified~were ethyliene,, ethane, propylene, aceta:ldehyde, furan, propionaldehyde, acetone„ 2'-methiyl'furan, and', methyl ethyl -ketone.,
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_41 230626 82-12-1108951 (Ef''f'ects of ca!tal ysts on caramel co,l our propert ii es of' corn sugar molasses.) Ryu, B'. H. ; Lee,1 B. H. Dep. of Food Sci., + Tech., Liusan, Ind. Co1 l.„ Busan, S. Kor*ea Journali of thie Korean Socilety of Food and Mutrition, 198'1, 10, ('1) , 93-101 Language: Ko Summary Language: en Note: 1i7refl. Refined corn sugar molasses were caramelized in a pH 2-SU1solutioni, wiitf ammonium carbonate, gliycine or lysine as catalyst. The optimum concni. of catalyst for the production of caramel were 4.4%I ammonium carbonate, G.St glycine or 41.,4'/: lysine at pH 9'. (KoSFoST)'
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C~A~S oNLnQ~ L'9~ ANSWER;1 OF 1 RN 57-50-1 IN MN SY SY SY: SY SY SYI SY SY SY SY SY' SY SY SY SY' SY SY SY' DR, .al:pha.-D-GLucopyrranosidk, .b¢ta.-D-fructofuranosyl (9CI) Sucrose Cane sugar Confectioner's sugar Granulated sugar Rock candy Saccharose Sacch-arum Sugar Sucrose (!8CI). D-Sucrose White;sugar .beta.-D-Fructofuranosyl' .alpha.-D-glucopyrano6ide Beet sugar MY'crose Amerfondl D-(+)-Saccharose D-(+)-Sucrose Sucralox Manalox: AS ~' 12040-73-2, 75398-84-4„ 92004-84-7, 87430-66-8;, 861t7!1-30-6, . 80165r03-3,,85456-51-5,, 78654 77-0', 76056r38-7,; 63545-99-5, 64533'-66-0,; 47257-91-0, 47185-Q9r-1',, 47T67-52-2, 8027-47--2, 8030+-20-4,,50857-68-6 MF C12 H22 0,11 CICOM, , TSM ST 5:8-D-ARABINO,A-D-CoLUCO . CH2OH! O. HOCH2 . . . • . 0 . ., CH2OH . . C. . C....O ...,..........G . . C . C.....C HO.~ u«OH HO .. OH REFERENCES IN F1LE'CAOLD (PRIOR TO 1967) 1'9722,REFERENCE5 INIFIL'E CA (1967'TO DATE)'
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VoIL 21. SUGAR Properties of sucrose, 865 Sugar arialysis, 871 Cane sugar, 878'. Beet~sugar; 904 Sugar derivatives, 921 Sugar ecorrornics, 439' Special sugars. 94+t', PRUP'ERT1ES' OF SUCROSE SUGAR (RR'aPER7fIES) 865 Sucrose [57-5&1 ], (a-D-glucopyranosyl-p-D-fiructofuranoside), Ci¢EI22QYi, formula weight 342.30, is a disaccharide composed' of D-glucosyl and D-fructosyl moieties (Fig. 1)i. Sucrose,occurs almost univen;ally! in all components of practically everyesisting, phanerogam. As an item of commerce,, crystalline sucrose represents the highest volume organic compoundlproduced worldwi'de inpracticaTly pure state (>99L5%)'. The only possible exception to this statement is ethylene. Table 1I indicates recent volumes of production and consumption of crystalline sucrose. Universallyr recognized throughout history as a source of sweetness, sucrose is used widely in food processing as a preservative, bulking agent, flavor enhancer, and texturizer (2). In baking,, sugar functions as yeast food'~,, and it contributes to crust characteristics and product stability. Sucrose :ih extracted commerciall'yfrom sugarcane (5accharum: officinarum L. ), sugar beet (Beta ouigari's), and to a lesser extent from sorglhum~ (Sorghurn trul'g,are) and from sugar maple ! (Acer saccharum)., The latter two sources normally provide sucrose-containimg syrups, rather than the more commonly encountered crystalline sucrose of commerce (see Syrups). The cultivation of sugarcane is restricted t'o tropical and sematropical regions of the earth; the sugar beet is more suitedl to temperate zones, as are sorghum, and'~ maple. Beets provide : tlte source of sugar for Eiirope,, central Canada, and'the central and western United States, and cane supplies the sugar requirements of altnost all the restt of the world. Fressure of historic events has often had profound effects on the culita* vation of various sugar crops (see Sugar, cane sugar). Sucrose was first synthesized enzymaticallyin the laboratory from potassium D,glucosyl-1-phosphate and'D-fructose (3). The first chemical synthesis was accom- plished by! react'ion of 3',4',6-tri'-0-acety1-1,2Tanhydro-a-ID-glivcopyranose with 1,3;4,6'~tetra-0-aeetylLD-fructofuranose (4)'. B'ecause of low yiclds and other practical d'ifficulties, ib appears unlikely that this or other chemical or biochemical syntheses will be cheap enough to: soon supersede the production of sucrose by traditionaIDy in- expensive extraction processes.. Provided that low cost immobilized enzymes became available,, it would be possible to synthesize sucrose from a mixture of glucose and fructose whicli, can be obtained' in turn, from corn starch. Economicswould play an important role in such a development, however (see Enzymes, immobilized): 1
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866 SUGAR (PROPERTIES). OH H CH TaWle 1~ YNorkiwide froducrtion andCbnnmptibn (106 'ANetrit lfais) o(' RcAned Sucrose• P7oduction Conaumptiion Crop yrear t3tet' Ttal'~ Total 1974 5010, 28.5 78.5 770 1975 49:9 31.7 81.6 79:2 1976 53.5 32.8 86.3 81.9! 1977 57:5 35.0 92.5 86.11 1978 56.4 34.6 91.0 4 89A 1979 51.5 33.1 84'.6 90;0 19806 55.5 31,6 87.1 89:5 • Ref.' 1. b Pteliminary: The melting point of sucrose has been quoted within a range of' 160-200"C, with 188°C generalQy accept'ed'~ (6). The wide variability of melting points found in the lit- erature indicates the large influence of trace.impurities. The effects of these impurities on~ crystal structure have been i extensively investigated (7)~ Slowly cooling melted sucrose prod'uces an amorphous, g)assy state, which erystall'izes sl'owlyon standing (8-9'). . The density of sucrose is 1.5879 g,/cm3! The linear expansion coefficient ranges from 0.0028''-0.005096, d'ependyng on the axis. Charaeteri'stic ir absorption bands occur at 1010, 990,940,, 920, 870,, 850 cm-L (sharp)'and at' 680,:580, cm-1(broad)'. The specific heat of crystalline sucrose is 415.98 J/mol' (99.42 ca1/mol) at 20° C. The dipole moment is 2.8' x' 10-29 C.m (8.3 D). Sucrose crystals are tribohunsnescent, due eifher to gaseous discharge on, newly formed surfaces, or to a piEzoelectric effect (10-11)'.'I'he dielectric constant of sucrose is 3.50-3.85, and'varies with, axis orientation. Ih1 commercial bulk granulated sugar, (0-2---H-0-Il" and C)-5---H-")I.. Structural aspects of crystalli'nesucrose have been extensively studied byx-ray, neutron diff>iaction, and nmr methods. Seven of the hydroxyl groups in, the anhydrous crystal are hydrogen, bonded, and there are two: intramolecular hydrogen bonds tahydi?ate is ltnown, (5). heptahycbate modification6 C12H22011.31/ZH2O, has been examined! and a hemipen- which is strongly influenced by! impuriti'es: The presence of raffinose or dextran ini- puriti'ea; for exannple„ causes sucrose to crystallize in long needle-like shapes. A hemi- PMysiical Properties of', Sucrose Cs!lidaN'rre Sucrose. Sucrose cryatallimes as monoclinic, hemiinorphic (sphenoidal) cr;ystalb, with a ratio of azes = 162595r1:0'.8782;103°30': C'ryatals have a prismatic habit c
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Vo[. 21 SUGAR (RROM7f1ffS) 867 > maltose. Because of the variable degree of hydration,, sucrose behavior in solution is generally treated as nonideal at other than dilute concentratfions. The surface tension of sucrose solutions, in the range of 1-10% concentration, is described by Y = 73.636 + 0.099 C - 0:096r' T where Y is surface tension in mN/m (= dyn/cm)!, C is percent solute, andlT is temperature, °C (18). An important commercial property of sucrose in solution is its polarization. Su- crose is'purchased', and various stages of manufacturing processes'are monitored, by polarization measurements.'Trhe specific rotation, of pure sucrose (Ja]jy°) ) is +66:5, and decreases slliglitly, with increasing; concentration (14-15)1 Although generally considared! to be neutral i'n solmtion,, acid d'issociation constants have been measured for sucrose: pKl, = 12 .7; pK2 = 13.1 at 25°C'. Color in sucrose so- lutiona is due to thepresence of mother liquor in, association with the crystalt it may be present as inclusions or as an external surface film. Although, sucrose is colorless, and the lack of visible color in solution is used as a simple indication of purity, many of the impurities exhibit fluorescence. Sweetness of:sucrose solutions as compared organollept'ieally to~ other sugars has been thoroughly! investigated (13-20)'.'I'hesensationlofsweetaess is affected'by'several factors including to.talacidiit'ryr, pII, viscosity, temperature, and the presence of other constituents. Alone, in aqueous solmtion, the threshold concentration for d'etectionn of'suerose is'about 0'.1-0.5%.'I'he sweetness of sucrose is compared to, that of some other common sugars in'h'able 2. water. Hyd'ration of sucrose compared with ~other sugars is sucrase > glueose > iti's about 2.2: The enthalpy of formation is 360 dV(nnol•K) 1 [$6 cal/(pno11K)J'and'the~ enthalpy of mombusti'on is -5.65MJ/mol (-1.35 X 106 oal/mol): Surface energy is 0.224 ' pN/m (2.24 X 10-10 dyn/¢m)i.'D'he water sorptive capacity is 0.003 g H20/g solid, forr a 0L32=-0.23 mm (48-65 mesh), fraction of crystalline sucrose (12)'. Many other physical properties of'bulk granulatedlsucrose as producedlcommercially are collected in ref. 13', Sucrose Solutions. Sucrose is'very soluble'in water, 2.07 g/g HJO at 25°C, and'~ is rea dily so1'uble ia aqueous protic solvents such as methanol and! ethanoL It is practi'cally insoluble in anhydrous i ethanol, ether, chloroform, and anhydrous glyceroL It is moderately soluble in such organic solvents. as dimetllylformamide, pyriidine, and di'methyl i sulfoaide: The solubility of sucrose in wat'er,, especially in'the presence of water-soluble impurities, is of great commercial interest to sugar manufacturers, and extensive solubilit'y and refractive-indbx tables have been prepared (14-15). The crystallization of sucrose..from aqueoussolutions has'been extensively studied, espe- cially in, regard to the requirements for refined sugar (7y16-17).. In aqueous solutions sucrose can be associated with up to ca four molecules of Table 2 ReliZive Sweethess of Some Common Sug,irs° Sugar Relative sweetness fructose sucrose glucose galactose maltose : lictose •'AEaL 2T:. -I& 114 (Z 100 M 69! ?a 63' ~ 46 39!
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868 SUGAR (PROPERTIES) Sucrose Derivatives Many derivatives have been investigated with a'view towards utilization, of sucrose as a cliemical feedstock. Tlie multifunctionality of the sucrose molecule generaby frustrates efforts to prepare high yields of single compounds of sucrose:, A wide variety of sucrose esters has been prepared from both low and high moleculleur weight fatty acids. They have 1imited use as.baking ad'd'itives, emulsifiers (qv)!, viscosity modifiers in foods, and'~ are used'~ in detergents (qv), confectionary ingredients, and in drug and cosmetic formulations. Sucrose ethers have many similar properties and'~ uses. Sucrose formulatedldetergents have the advantage of biod'egradability (22). Various reviews have covered'the ehemistry, and use of a: multitude of sugar derivatives in i a variety of applications (23--25). Reactions of Sucrose Metal ISalts. In addition to the formation of esters and ethers, sucrose reacts with alkali- and alkaline-earth~metal salts to, form complexes ofvarying compositioni(26). Formation of sucrose complexes with calcium forms the basis for the Steffen ~processs for commercially separating sucrose from beet molasses. Similar processes based on strontium and barium have been employed. Hydrolysis. The glyeosidic linkage is rellatively, stable in ~dilute alkali and in neutral solution, with maaimum~stability occurring at about pH 9. Under mild acid catalysis, sucrose !i's easilyhyd'rolyaed„ and inversion occurs (chaY ge inithe sign of polarizationi from -*66.51 to a negative value, owing, to the larger negative rotation of fauctose). Muchi sucrose is sold in, liquid form, as`°invert"'(a roughly equimolar mixture of glucose and f>ructose) ~ or "'medium, invert", where about 50% of the sucrose has been hydrolyzedl. The hydrolysis of sucrose has been carried' out in the presence of a variety of catalysts: mineral acids, ion-exchange resins, and enzymes. Ovving,to economics, hydfrochloric acid' is the most common, cataDyst. Under conditions of acid hydrolysis, a small amount of the fructose formed is converted to! Di fructose dianhydii'des (27)'. A small amount of inversion is detectsble under alkaline conditions; the mono- saccharides degrade further by way of cond'ensation and disproportionation pathways (27). Hydlrogenationw Sucrose is hydrogenatedwith Raney nickel!to. a~mutureof sor- bitol and'~ mannitot under more drastic conditions, glycerol and propylene glyeollare produced. Oaddation. Partial or complete oaidati'on of sucrose with nitric acid or with ~various metal oxide catalysts produces many products and fragments. Mild oxidation forms oxalic and tartaric acids, as welIl as a: variety: of aeidic materials d'esignated collectively as saccharic acids: ~y,~ a S' ~ J' Themeal' Deg~radaticm. In general, degradation ~of dry sucrose at temperatures of ,~. 200°C begins with cleavage of the glycosidfic bond followed'~ by condensation and water formationi At temperatures of 170-21K.1°C; this reaction, is referred to as car- amelization, and the mixture of prodiscts formed is commercially useful ias "caramel". At higher temperatures uarbonrcarbon cleavage occurs (2'QO-30CIPC), followed by: small'-molecule format'ion (30ik500°C) and formati:on of materials not characteristic of'the starting material (5t1Q-800°'C). All of the degradation~ reactions are sensitive to: impurities in the sugar crystal (6)~ Thermal degradation in solution produces various
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! ( i Vol. 21 SUGAR (PROPERTIES) g6W compound's such as 5-hydroaymethyl'furfaraD and coiored' condensation prodklcts (28)~ Ionizing radiation causes degradation of'sucrose in a somewhat similar manner to thermal processes, both in the crystal and in~soliltion (27,29130): Safety and! Health Factors Physicall'y;, sucrose i's generallly considered.to be safe to handlle, although some! hazard may exist when much dust is present (31)., From the standpoint of health; ea- tensiWe studies'have concluded that; no health ~hazard exists when sucrose is consumed at current levels (32'-33)', although a synergistic contribution to the fornDation of dental caries may exist (34) (see aL4oi S'ugar„ cane sugar): BIBCNOGRAPklll'' .'ISpson, edi., Advances in Carbohydrate Chemist'ry, 0 ; ~' 26. J: A: Rendleman, Jr. in M L Wolfrom, and IL 'f' .~ pl VoL 21, Academic Pras; New'York„ 1966,, pp. 209-271. W 23. R. Khan and A. J''., Forage, Sugar Technol: Rev. 7,175 (11979=1980) '' 24. JL L. Hickson, ed.,, Sucrochemiatry, ACS' Symposium Series No. 41, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C:,1977: 254 R. Khan m R. S. Tipson and D. Horton; eds., Advanees in Cari.hydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, X VoC 33 Academic Ptese, New York1976,, pp. 235-294. W 1975., 20! Ri 1V1: Pangborn, J. Food Sci. 28, 726'(1963). I 21. M: A. Amerine, R M. Pangborn, and E. B: Roessler, Principles of S'ensory,Evaluation of Food,,Academic I Press, New York,, 1965s p. 95. ~ 22. V': Kollonitch, Sucrose Chemicals„InternationallSugar Researcli Foundation,,Inc:,Bethesda, Md.,, i 1970., Standards, Cirnilhr 440,, United'States Govensment Printing Office, W ashington, D' C,:1942 16. B. M.:Smythe, Sugar Technol. Rev. 1,191,(1971). j 17. A. VanH'ook, Sugar TechnoL Rev. 1, 232' (1971): I 18. M'. K. Supran,J: C' Acton, A. J. Howell, and'R. L: Safflr, J: Milk Food Technoi. 34, 548'(1971). I 19. R. S: Shallenherger mdIG: G. Birch. Sugar Chemistry, AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport,,Conn., "Sucrose" under "Sugars (Commercial)" in ECT llst ed., VoL 13,, pp. 247-251, by JL I.. Hickson, Sugar Re- search Foundation, Ibt; "Sugar (Ptoperties of''Sucrase)" in ECT 2nd ed., pp:151-155, by R'. A. McGinnis, Spreckels $ugar Co. , 1. Sugar and Sweetener G2utJook and' Situation, United'States Department af'Agriculture, Washingtonj D.C., Feb. 1981. 2 R: Jl Wicker, Chem. Ind: 41,1708 (1966): 3:: W: Z Hlaseid,,M1 Doudoroff, and HL A. Barker,,J: Am. Chem. Soc. 66,1416'(1944'): 4.: R: V. Lemieus and' GL Huber, J. Am: Chem:,Soc. 75j,4118 (1953). 5.: F. T. Jones and F:, E. Young, Ana1.' Chem. 26,421 (1954): , 6. L: Poncini,,ha Sucrerie Beige 100, 221 (1981). 7. H. E. C: Powers, Sugar TechnoL Rev. 1, 85 (1969-1970). 8. B: Makower and W. Bl Dye, J: Agric. Food Chem, 4,72 '(1956). 9. K. J. Palmer, W: B. Dye, and"D. Blhck, J. Agric. Food Ch'em::4,,77, (L956h 10. H. Kurten and H: Rumpf, Chem. Ing: Tech. 3g, 331(1966). 1'1. B. P. Chandra,J, Pliys: D 1'0,1'531',(1977).. 12. D: S. Smith,C. H. Mannheim, and S: G. Gilbert, J. Food Sci. 4'6,1051(1981). 1'3;: H. M1 Parx:oast and W. R Junk, Nandbook of Sugars,,The AVI Publishing Cm,,Ine., Westporti Conn.,. 1980:. 14: R: S. Norrish~ Selected Tables of PhysicalProperties of Sugar Solutions, Scientific and~Technical~ Surveys No: 51jhe British, Food Ititanufacturing Industries Research Association, Leatherhead, Surrey. Randalls Road, England, 1967. 15. F:,J. Bates and Associates, Pol'arimetry, Saccharimetry, and'the Sugars,, U:S: NationaI,Bureau: of'.
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R. M.,S>£QiJEIRA, Amstar Corporation I wt cc alr (Ir of mK Q sul djl; Ph S117 op idi as spr whb tai db1 iini; anc mc ref dir 26' poi. 1W is4 nnu beE . 71 . 10 dirsim anc i's a of 8' 870 SUGAR (PROPffFtnES) , 27. W. Mauch, Sugar Technoi. Rev. 1, 239 (X971)6 2& F. HL C. Kelly and D: W. Brown, Sugar Technol. Rev. , 6,1i (L976'•-1979)., 29. G. Lofroth,,lnt. J: Radiat. Phys. Chem:,4,,277 (1972): 30, W. W. Bfmkley; M. E.' Altenburg, and,M. L Wolfrom, Sugar J., 34„25 (1972). 31. I+I1 II. Sax, Dangerous Properties of lndustrial'1w7ateriala, 4th ed;, Van Nostrand Reinhold' Co,, New York, 1975. . 32; Evaluation o/'the Health Aspects of Sucrose, FASEB, Food and Drug Adininistration4 Washington, D.C., Biureau of Fooda,1976. 33: E. L. Bierman, Am. J: Clin. Nutr. , 32,, 2712' (L979)~ 34. F. Q. Nnttall and'M. C. Gannona Diabetes Care 4; 304,(1981): General Referenees. Ii. A'. McGinnia, ed'4 Beet Sugar Teehnolbgy, 2nd' ed., Beet Sugar IDevelopment Foundation, Fart Collins, Calo.,11971,(3rd e&,1982): GeneraU coverage with emphasis on manufactuiring. . G. P. Meade and J. C. P'.,Chen, Cane Sugar Hand6ook;1Uth ed', John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New l'ork,1977, General coverage with, emphasis on manufacturing. G. Vavrinecz, Atlas of Sugar Crystals,, Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, 1960. Detailed treatment of crystalline atate: W:Maueh and E. Farhoudi, Sugar TechnoL Reu. 7,87 (1979T1980). Discussion of physical properties and', , composition, of commercial white granulated sugar. F. Schneider, ed., Sugar Analysis, IICUMSA, c% Britiah Sugar Corporation Ltd., Peterhorough,17K,1979., Official analytical methods of'the Internationall Commiasion for L)niform Method's of Sugar,Analyais (IC- UMSA) rel'ating, to commercial sugar.
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Wol'. 21 SlJGAR' (ANALYSIS) 871 SUGAR' ANALYSIS Sugar analysis includes the analj4sis for sucrose and other sugars as well as other components. References 1-7 are detailed and comprehensive in their coverage of sugar analysis. The International Commissiion for Uniform Methods of Sugar Anaiysis (ICUIVISA) :convenes every four years and their Proceedings (1) reflect tlie acceptance of methods by the sugar industry:, Reference 2'is a compilation of the 1979 ICUMSA methods. The AUACrevises the QfficiaGMcthods of Analysis (3) every five years. The. Corn Refiners Associataon (CRA) established a set of inethod's (4) as used in the corn sugar indtastry;; ICUMSA, CRA, and AOAC do not always agree on methods but their differences are eventualIDy resolved (see alsoAnala!tical methods): Plhysiical! Methods Polari;zat'ion, THeconcentration~of a pure sugar solution is determined by mea- surements of polarization (optical rotation), refraetiveimdex„and density. In addition4 optical rotatibn ~ measurements of soliations of known concentration are a means of identifying individual sugars. P'ol'arization is the measure of the opti'call rotation of the plane of polarized light as it passes through a solution. The observed or d'iIIect rotations, , a, is eapressed' as specific rotation, [ar]} [a] '= a/'lc where a is the observed rotation ~ in circular d'egarees, G1 is the length of the tube conr taining the solution in dm, and c is the concentration in g/miL., The specific rotation depends upon the temperature and1the wavelength of the light. Both must be specified inistating specific rotation.lVfolleculas rotati'onis the specificrotat'ion multip8ed1by molecular weight Specific rotation is a characteristic of each sugar and hence iB a means of idlentifieation. Tables of specific rotation for different sugars are found in ref. 7. The sacc}iariinefier is a polarimeter modified for the sugar industry. Its suale reads directly in percent sucrose (sugar degrees) for the standard concentration of exactly 26 g solids per 100 cm3 and a standard tube length of exactly 2 dm. The 100% sucrose pointia 3,4.6'16 ± Q.A0!1°at 2U°Cusing white lightwith aidichromatefil'ter orsod'iuimlig}it of wavelength b139'.44 nnL At the mercury arc wavelength of 546.23'nm, the angle is 40:7i65' (1-2). However, polarimeter scales are not inherently: stable or accurate and must be calibrated frequently. For calibratfion,, aiquartz control plate is used that has been calibrated byythe manufacturer or by one of the national standards lnboratories.. The quartz plates are very stable and'~ are marked with the equivalent sucrose rotation; ICUMSA is considered the authority on calibration of'saccharimeters (1-2)i. Saceharimeters used in trade and factory control have the advantage of reading directly in sucrose concentration. ThiB reading is called the direct polarization or, simply, polarization, abbreviated pol. The instrument is calibrated for pure sucrose ! and' is accurate only for soiutfions containing no other optically active substance, which, is almost never the case. In trade transactions involvingthe monetary value of a cargoo of sugar, it is tacitly assumed, that the plus errors areexactly balanced by minus errors,. i
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872 ' SUGAR (ANALYSIS) and'therefore the poll reflects the sugar content. Although this is not correct, the pol ean be quickly, easily, accurately, and reprod'ucibly ineasured andis always the basiss for settlement'~ (3'-6)~ Strict adherence to the ICUMSA method'~ is required (1-2)!. Disagreements are referred'to the New York Sugar Trade Laboratory, (8) which is the official referee andlby d'efinition always correct. Older saccharimeters were manually adjiusted to the balance point and couldd be read to a precision of 0,06% sucroee. Modern instruments have a photoelectric end point and' are precise to better than 0.0'146: IVZutarotntion is a complicating phenomenon in po1 measurements. Reducing sugars can exist in different tautomeric forms with di'fferent rotatrons. These forms are stable in the solid state but labile in solution. Therefore, the pol of'these solutions depends upon their age. Equilibrium is established in several hours. This phenomenon is of great importance in measuring invert syrups, and I is of some imporbance in eval - uating molasses and'~ poor-quality raw sugars containing invert sugar. Clarification is reqqiredd for solutions that are so colored'~ or turbid that light cannot pass'througb them4 A minimum amount of clgrifying,agent, typicallly lead'~ subacetate, is added to, coagulate the dispersed solid! t'o permit filtration. Clarification is a source of error in measuring,the pol. This error,,called the lead error, amounts toabout 0s1Wv, and has ereatedmuch controversy. Doubk PohriaatlNOnr The direct polari;;ation, as described above, can give the correct value for sucrose only when, no other, optically active substances are present6 The correct value of sucrose is measured by double polarization: or the Clerget method~ (1-2,6'•'-7): First, the direct polarizatioa is determined; then+ the sucrose is inverted and a second polarization~ measured. The rotation of substances other than sucrose remains constant and the change in polerization is due to the inven;ion of sucrose: The sucrose is calculated by d'sviding the change in polarization, by the Clerget constant. This constant represents the algebraicdifference between the rotati'ons oEsucrose and glucose plus fnuctase under the conditions of the method used. In theory, the Clerget method is simple, but in~practice it'~ requires strict adherence to the correct technique. The Jackson and Gillis method (i1-3t54Yuses acid inversion. Itiversion~ with invertase is also used. The constant d'epend's upon the details of the process used. Densit'y. Density! measurement is widely used ini the sugar industry to d'eterminie the sugar concentration of syrups, liquors, juices,, and molasses. The instrument is the stlandard! hydrometer, also called a spindle. Hydrometers grad'uated'in sucrose:con- centration (percent sucrose by weight) are called Brix hydrometers or Brix spindles. The readings obtained are called spindle Brix. Hydromet'ers graduated in °Baume are used for molasses and ini the corn sugar industry. The relation, between °B'aume and density d, in g,(cm3, is °Bnume' = 145 (1 - 1/d) Brix spindles are calibrated for pure sucrose. However, the density of other sugar solutions is not very different. In fact, the densities of solutions of alll components nornsallry found in sugar are not very different Therefore,, the spindle Brix is considered a measure of total dissolved substances. The apparent density is the quantity generally used and tabulatedl Tlie : true density is corrected for weight in vacuum by a factor of 1.00026, which, for practicall purposes,, amounts to a difference !of ca 0.04 spindle Brix. If the apparent'~ d'ensity is measured and apparent density tables are used, there is no error. A density meter has recentlly been developed that measures the density ten times L . Vt sa a ar in re: su di: br: ha leE su;, su, ba A., q'u Ch' of of fer sol : cot stc eqr is L thi' rei fro ten oft1 sol: mo the use
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Vol. 21 SUGAR (ANALYSIS) 873 301 sis he. lly !mM ng ns ns on i1- ot ce D', ie .e r- a, e e r s i ; more accurately than aspindle. It measures the resonant vibration frequency of a glass U-tube that depends upon the mass and hence the density of'the fluid inside. This density meter is used in evaluat'ing,syrups for the soft-drink industry. Specific gravity'is defined as the density relative to the density of water at the same temperature. Tables of densities and specific gravities of sucrose and'~ other sugarss are given in refs. 3-4„ f4. Refractive Ihdex: Refractive index is another measurement'~ of sugar concentration in soiution. Many refractometers have Brix scales. The readings obtained are called refractometer Brix, or refractometer dry substance (R'DS): The calibration is for pure sucrose, but the refractometer is eveni better than the hydrometer for measuring, total d'issolved'substances: The refractometer is a rugged instrument that holds its cali- bration very well and is quick and!easy to use. The accuracy of the refractometer scale has recently beeni improved slightly (1). However, the newvalue's differ generally by less than,0:1'3'o from, the old scale. Tables of refractive indexea for sucrose and otherr sugars are given in refs.1-4,6~~-7: Values for sugar miat'ures are found in, ref. 4:. Isot'ope Dilutionr Isotope dilution is used as a referenee method to determine true sucrose (9-10). It is,,however, muchitoo complex and expensive to be used onia routine basis. A measured amount of 'i4C-labeled'radioactive sucrose is ad'd'ed'~ to the sample. A specimen of sucrose is recokeredy purified, and its radioactivity: measured. The quantity of sucrose in the original material is then calculated. Chemicall Methods for the Determination of Reducing Sugus 'I'he reducing action of aldose and ketose sugars is the basis for a large number of methods that have been devised for the quantitative and qualitative determination of aldoses and ketoses. Ih 1 general, the reagents comprise copper acetate, potassium ferricyanid'e; tungstates,, phenolic reagents in strong acid' solution4 and alkali'ne copper solutions stabiliaedby tartrate, citrate, or, carbonate ions. The principal problem en- countered with these methods arises from the fact that the reduction is not quitee stoichiometric, but' varies with experimentali conditions; therefore, the chemilcall equivalence factor is different for each sugar and each methodi The alkali'ne copper tartrate reagent, devised'~ by )a'ehling and modified by Soxhlet, is used in a number of inethods, The soluble copper tartrate complex ion present in this reagent is deep blue in color (rehling's solution): Cuprous ions resulting from reduction of'the copper do not form a complex with the tartrate but are preeipitated from the solution as cuprous oxides More than 80, methods using this reagent have been devised. They differ in temperature and time of heating, amount of reagent, and method for the determination ~ of the reduced copper:. Lane and'Eynon Method. In this method, the hot reagent is tit'rated with sugar solution, until the copper is completely reduced (2-7). This method is more rapid and more accurate than other procedures, and has, therefore, been generally adopte& by the i;ndust'ry. However, it demands skill,, and may present difficulties for the occasionall user. For the Soxhlet modification of Eehling''s solution„the following reagents are used: 34.64 g pure :Cu2Sb4.5H2G'm1 water, diluted'~ to 500 mL; 173 g Rochelle salt (sodium- potassium tartrate) p1us 50 g, carbonate-free sodium hydroxide in water, d'iluted to 500 mL; and 1% aqueous methyl'ene blue. OD
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874 SUCJUt (AM1iKL1CSIS) In the tirrati'on,10 or 25 ml, of mixed So$hlet's reagent is placed' in a 300-400 mL flask. The sugar solution is placed in a150 mL buret with its outlet offset'so that neither the stopcock nor the sugar solution are heated by the steam evolved during the reactiom Almost all of the sugar solution required to coanpletely reduce the copper is added to the cold reagent (the remainder must be between 0l5 and 1.!0'mL): The flask containing the reaction mixture is boiled for exactly 2 min, and then 3-5 drops methylene blue solution are added and the titration, is completed in exactly I min more. The intense blue color of the methylene blue indicator disappears almost instantly with the ad- dition of excess reducing sugar. Duplicate determination should agree within 0:1'. mll.. A preliminary titration establishes the amount of sugar solution to add initially to the cold copper reagent so that the final titration is between 0.5 and! 1.0 miL. It may have to be repeated severall times untill the titer is within limits and the time of boiling is exactly 3 min. For calculation, a factor is needed: mg sugar in 100 miL solution = (factor X 100)/titer The factors for several sugars are given in Table 1; for more extensive tables, see refs. 2-7:, Constant-vollume mo dification (1-2,6) adds sufficient water so that the volume at the end' point is always the same. This procedure elhminates the last variable in the. Lane and' Eynoni method and dispenses with the use of tables.. Munson and! Walken M'et'hotl. This method is convenient for an occasional sugar analysis (1-3,1'-7). The reducedl cuprous oxide is separated by filtration and d'eter- miined' gravimetrically. Factor tables are neededd for the calculations. Ofner M'eth od. This method is used i for up: to 10% i'nvertsugar in~ sucrose. It is performed at a pH, of 10A, attained' withi sodium carbonate instead of sodium i hy- droxide, and buffered with phosphate. The redueed l cuprous oxide is treated with excess standardized' iodine, which is then back-titrated with thiosulfate using starch as an indicator:. Knight and Allen MethodL Very smalli amounts of reducing sugars in sucrose are determined by this methodl(14). After the sugar reacts with the copper reagent, the excess unreduced copper is determined with EDTA. ffmmerich iMetihiod. Very small laihounts of reducing sugers ini white sugar are determined by this method' (1-2). It is basedlon the formation of a colored'complea of 3,6rdinitrophthalic acid and invert sugar. The absorption is readl at 450' nm. Enzymatic Methods. The enzyme glucose oxidase is highly specific for the oxi- dation of glucose. A coproduct is hydrogen peroxide which can be determined elec- trochemically. By using a secondlenzyme suchas invertase, other sugars are converted to glucose and'the method extended to other sugars. With immobili'zed' enzymes a very Tahle l Fac+tors for Use with, the Lane and Eynon Method of Suaar mietermination+:d Titer, mL Invert Glucose Fructose Maltose Lactase 25' 124.0 120:5' 127.9' 194.5' 169:9' 30 1'24.3' 1'2Q:8I 128.11 192.8 168.8 ~ ~ Ref. 2; ~ For 25'mL of'resgent: ra
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Woh 21 , $UGA1tl (AMMYSIS)' 87S 1 k Y 0 e Le ie ~ ir a- ia y- ch ch re he Lre .ez siL oedary 0 convenient and specific determination can be made (see Enzymes, immobili'zed). Automatic instruments are available for quick and continuous analysis.. lnversion. Sucrose by inversion (3y6):is obtaiinedby measuring, reducing sugars before and after inversion.The sucrose content is 0:9'5 times the increase in reducing sugars. This method works well for low purity syrups and molasses. The Cierget method is better for high purity materiials. Micromethads 1Wlicromethods of sugar analysis are used' in medical and biological laboratories, in; earbohydieate research work, and by the sugar industry when small quantities of sugar are to be,determinedl. These methods fall into three main categories, depending;upon the type of reagent: reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide; reduction of cupric sulfate to cuprous oxide; and the development of color withphenols in strong,sulfuric acid solhLtion. As a rul'e, the copper reagents are more selective than are the ferricyanide reagents, and the phenolic reagents respond to a wide range of carbohyd'rates in general. Ferricyanide has the advantage of;not being, oxidized' by air. The degree of rediiction of either copper or ferricyanide is determined by titration or colorimetricaII'yy the latter method is preferred for small amounts. Te he colorimnetric ferricyanide method i is used! for blood sugar in elinical ileboratories and by the sugar industry for monitoring wastewater for sugar losses.. Copper reagents are preferred for biologicall work because they are more specific (3), The Somogyi! Mmethod§ are used extensively: With phosphate-buffered reagenta, amylases stay in solution. However, the carbonate-buffered reagent is more stable and more widely usedL The quantity of copper consumed is determined iodometrically.. In the Folin and Wu w (3) method, tungstate.is added as a color reagent. Phenolic compounds in strong:acid gFve atolbr reaction with farfurallderivatives that results from the destruction of carbohyd'rates by the strong acid (1'1), Various sugars give different colors with this highl'y sensitive method' (1!1); the detection limit is 1 ppm. ChrormatogRaphic Methods Qualitative determination of the siogars and sugar derivatives is ideally suited to chromatographic methods (see Analytical method§). Paper chromatography gives a very! goo& separation and, with highly specific sprays, the individiaal spots can be unequivocally identified. Because a separation time of 12-24 h is requiredy paper chromatography is being replaced by other more rapid method's, such as thin4ayer chromatography, for which the usuall separation time is 1-2 & In additiony a wider selection of substrates permits better separations. P'apeII electrophoresis uses a, different principle of separation (12). Whereas in, paper and thin-layer chromatography! an advancing solvent front moves the sample, electrophoresis~uses a voltage gradient. Therefore, only charged species are movedy which wouldlseem~to rule out sugars. However, the hydroxyl groups on sugars readily form complexes withtorate and other ions. A charge is thus imparted and electro- phoresis can be appliied. By! using, a voltage gradient of 100 V/cm, good! separatnons are made in 20, min. However, the paper must be cooled by water.
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876 SUGIkR' (ANALYSIS)i All'these methods give good results for qualitative work but lack precision for quantitative determinations. The sugars are detected only by sprays and appear as spots. Even with densitometers„the content of a spot cannot be determined! within <10~'a, Since the samples are very small, recovery for farther testing is not possible. Gas chromatography gives.better results but, like all chromatographic methods, precisioniis not very highy at best ca 1~'a ('1-2')1 VKith pol'arization„precisions of 0:0S- 0:0!1~'a are attained. Polarization measures very precisely the sum, of alll the sugars, whereas gas chromatography separates and!identifies the sugars and measures them individ'ually., For gas chromatography, the sample is vaporized', and althouglh~sugars are not very! volatile, their methyl esters and silyl derivatives are. Complete conversion is es- sential,, otherwise several peaks are obtained. Single sugars often give multiple peaks because of the ability of the method to separate anomeric forms. Thus, glucose gives two peaks. Other columns separate five peaks for fructose, corresponding to the five forms in which fruct'ose can eaist. In many applications„ lower resolution is more convenient. Il.iquid!chromatogxaphy is the most recent instrumental method for sugaranal'ysis and promises eventually to be the method of choice (',1)'. It offers the advamtage that no derivatives need'be,formed and the solvent can be water. It is fast and the separated sugars can be collect'ed. The chromatographic precision is stillionly 1%„but the indi- vidual sugars are separated andldetermsned without interference. Automatic sample injectors give good'~ reproducibility! and precision i (see also Biomedicall automated in- strumentation)L Other Compounds As understood in the sugar industry, purity denotes sucrose content as a per- centage .of total solids. It is calcul'ated I as polVBriz. Beeause of the inaccuracies of pol and different ways of measuring Brix, different purities are obtained and are distin- guishedl by suchi names as apparent, true, or gravity purity: Despite its ambiguity, purity is a good control measure in sugar manufacture and every factory has its own system~ The purity of cane juice is generally about 809°0, of raw sugar about 98%, and of molasses about 35 to 50% (see also Syrups). Moisture. In fairly pure syrups and liquors, moisture is determined as the dif- ference between 100'and Bl.~ix which is measured' by spindle or refract'ometer (6). In molasses, low: purity syrups, and plant juices, the moisture content is not' oft'en neededL Of interest is the 'dry substance, frequentl'yd'etermined'I by drying. However,, if the period of drying is too long, or the temperature too high, the sugar begins toi de- compose. Optimum drying, conditions are controversial, and many different procedures are available., Conditions vary from 1 or 21 h at 105-110°'C to: vacuum, at 70°C. Betterr d'rying,iis obtained from dilute solutions spread thin, on sand, kieselguhr,,or pum:ice.. For dry sugarscontaiaing up to 0.5% moisture the best method is the Karl Fischer (6). Ash and Ihorganic Consthtuents. Ash is determined by incineration: The residue is calledl carbonate ash. Bubbling,and'swellling of the incinerating,sugar mass can bee avoided by adding,a small!amount of concentratedlsulfuric acid. Ini this case, the :ies, idue is strongly heat'ed to drive off sulfur trioxide. The ash components are converted I to sulfates and the ash is ealled! sulfate ash; it is reported as such. For control, the ash i m WoIL 21: is approx and 1repor the inorg Na,11+fg, ?' Colo and a sta Brix cont . Sugar col'l where b i, indea: In give sugas syrups h. BIBUOt';Rk "Sugar Ana "Sugar Anr ture. 1. I'C'UM." roughi ;'. I F. Sahiof Suge 3, Officia Washir 4. Standa 5. Rw.F 6. G.P'.N, 1977:, 7. F! J.13: Printin 8. h)dw Yi 9. NQ'. J . S'. 10. H. Hor 11. IWIL Dut 12. De Gros
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Vol. 21 SlllfiAR (ANALYSIS) 8" :ision for ppear as' ~d within possible, nethod's, ;of0.05- e sugars, resthem sare not ion is es- >1e peaks. )se gives the five is more analysis' age that iparated'' he indi~ .sar ated,m.- d saper- sofpol ~ ' di8tin* ~ Aguity, ~ its own 3% and ',he dif. . (6). A often ~ )wever, itod'e- :edures Better umice: Fischer -esidue can~ be he ir verlL he ash is approximated vKi'than, electrical'conductived i measurement, which is simple, quick and reported' as conductivity ash. Standard ~analytical procedures are used to: determine : the inorganic constituents, such as K, Ca, sulfate, chloride,and smaller amounts of Na, Mg, Fe, carbonate, phosphate, and' silicate (6). Color. In sugar, lack of color is used to indicate the general degree of refinement and a standar&met'hmd is prescribed. The standard'~ conditions for colorimetry are 50! B'ria concentration ~ and' pFl 7. The light transmilssion T is measured at 420 nm ('Il ). Sugar color is eBpressed'~ as:. a* = -log T/bc where b is the cell depth, cm; c is the concentrationofsugar„ g/m,L; a• i~s the attenuation . index. In practice, the mumber g)ven by the above equation is multiplhed1by 1000 to give sugar color units. Raw sugars have a color of 1000 or more. Very li lht-colored! syrups have a color of perhaps 100. Refine&granula;ted suga= has a color <35. BIBCICwGRAPHY "Sugar Analysis" in ECT 1st ad, Vo1:13. FPL 192-203, by E. JL McDanald, National'Bureau of Standards;, "Sugar Analysis" in ECT 2nd ed., VoL 19, PP:1155 -166~ hyE. J. M¢Dona1d,111.S. Department of'AgricuU ture.. 1. lCUlDf'S:4„17th session, International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar AnaDyeia, Psterbo- roughi England'41978. 2. F. Schneider, Sugar Analysis LCU1Y!'SA Alfethods, International Commiasion fmr Uniform Methods of'Sugar Analysis,1979: 3. Of/icial'Methods of Analyais of t1teA©AC,,13th ed., Association of Official AnalytiaalI Chemists, Washington~ D' C.,1980: 4. Stand'ard'Analytical'lYtethods, 6th ed., Corn Refiners Association, Washington, D.C.., 1980:. 5. R. W. P1ews, Analytical Methods Uaed in Sugar Refining, Elsevier, London,1970:. 6. G. P. Meade and J: C: P. Cheni Cane Sugar Plandbook„liOtl'h ed., John Wiley 8s Sons, Inc., New York, 1977. '77. F. J! Bates and!eo-workers, Polarimetry, Saccharimetry and the Sugars, C440, U:& Gtwernment. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,19~42'. 8. New York SugarTrsde Laboratory, 300 Terminal ~Ave. West, Clark, N:J'., 07066. 9. M. J'. Sibley, F: G. Eis, and R. A. McGinnis, AnaL Chem. 37,117011(1965). 10., H: Horning and H'. Hi>•schmuller,S: Zuckerind: Boehm. 9,499 (1959). l l l, M. Dubois and co•workers, Anal. Chem. 28,350 (1956): 12. Dl Gross, J. Chromatogn 5„194' (1961)l. FRANK G. CAI2PENTEIZ iJnitteed States Department of Agricullt'ure
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D~IOSI& 198'~1~-11986 DIETARY' CARBOHYDRATE' LEVEL AS MODIFYING FACTOR OF 3 METHYL-4-DIMETHYLAMINOAZOBENZ~ENE LIlVERCA'RCINOGENESIS~INIR'ATS'SATO A; NAk:AJIh9'A:Tg KOYAMA Y; SHIRAI! T; ITO' N DEP. OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, MED. UNIV., OF YAMANASHI, TAh1Al-1O, YAMANASH': 4d79-38 . GANN 75(8) . 1984. 665-671. CODEN: GANNA Language: ENGLISH The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) -level' on liver carcinogeniesi:s inducedlby 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAb) was investi'lgatec in male Wistar rats. In the 1st experilment,, 3groups of 30 rats were maintained on liquid diets, which differed only in, the leveli of CHQ (sucrose),;, hi gh,-CHO (14.04 gi/diay)' , medium-CH0 (9'. 72 g/day) and 1 ow-CHC (I3.64 g/day). Half of the animalls from, each group were given 7,'-Me-ADE added to thei r di et at the l evel of 10 mg/day/rat f or 20:wk,. the remai nder being maintained as carcinogen-free controLs. Final body and liver weights of control rats decreased wi th d'ecreasi ng dli etary l1evell of CHO, whi l e carcinogen treatment increased'the lliver/body weight ratio with decreasinc CHO level. Quantitative analysis showedlthat the number and area of'liver tumors per unit areaof liver sections increased with,decreasingdietarg,sucrose levei. Hepatocellular carcinomas were only observed in rats placec on the low-CHO diet (4 of 15 rats). In the 2md experiment, where rats were gi vem 3'-Me-DAB i n a semi syntheti c powder di et for 16 wk ,, the number anc area of~ .gamma.-gilutamyltranispepitidase-posilti've foci were significantl\ . higher in the low-CHO diet group, wi'thidecreasing values being, associ'atec with increase in sucrose level in, the d'iet. Lowered CHO'intake enhanced. whereas high intake reduced, 3'-Me-DAB liver carcinogenesis in rats. SUCROSE INDUCED BEHAVIOR' CHANGES OF PERSONS WITH PRADER~WILL.I SYNDROME, OTTO P L;: SULZBACHER S I y WORTHINGTON-ROBERTS B' W CDMRC/'CTU,, WJ'-101, UNTV'. OF W'ASH'., SEATTLE, WASH. 98195. AM J MENT DEFIC 86 (4). 1981 (R'ECD'., 1982). 335-341. CODEN:~ AJMDA Language: ENGLISH, The relationship between: changed! or erratic behavior of 9 Prader-Willi males and their ingestion of excess kilocaDori!es from sucrose was examined'. The study was a doub,le-blind design, withiobjective measures of behavioral changef'o1lowing, ingestion of either a sucrose solution or a control preparation containing starch or saccharin. On eachi of' the 3 test days, I of the 3 test solutions was given, along with a standard 210 kcal starch-based breakf ast . B1 ood glucose val ues at 0, 30, 6U,, 120 and 1,80 min after feeding were compared~ to the percentage of errors made or pai red-associ'ate learni ng tasks, (gi'ven 8' ti mes dai l y) and' the gross-motor movement scores from a wrist monitor and a chair attached' to~ an eTectrica7. counter. Out ofl 162 test correllati ons perf ormed, onl y 8 were si gni f icant ,, exactly the number expected by chance. Possibile reasons were suggested a= to why no signifilcant differences were found.
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COMPARIISONOF, DIETARY' C'ARIBOHY'DR'ATES~ FOR P'ROMOTION! OF7' 12 ' DIl' METHYL BEN:A ANTHRACENE INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORI'GENESI'S INIRATS k:LUP:FELD' D M; WEBER' M M'; KRITCHEVSKY D. WISTAR INST. ,, 36TH ST. AT SPRUCE, F'HILADELF'HIA, PA 19104. CARCINOGENESIS (LONDI) 5~ CZJ . 1984. 423-425. CODEN: CRNGD. Language: ENGLISH THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL CARBOHYDRATE SUCROSE SUPPLEMEN'TA'TI'ONI ON! THE GROWTH OF OFFSPRING OF PREGNANCIES WITH HABITUAL C'AFFEINE'CONSUMPTION' DUNLOP M;; COURT J MI•, LA'RKI NS R' G DEP'. DEV. PAED'IATR'. , ROYAL CHILDFtEN'S' HOSP'. y FLEMINGTON ROAD~„ PAF.'KVILLE. VIC. 3052 A'USTRALIiA' . BIOL NEONATE 4t7 (3T-4) . 1981'. 1'9b-198. CODEN: BNEOB Language: ENGLZSH' Offspring growth retardation was found following introduction of caffeinF into the normal diet of rats during, pregnancy and Iactation. When maternal caffeine (1tJ, mg,/kg per day) was consumed together with, supplementarti sucrose (7 g/kg per day) „ the expected of#springi growth reductior attributed to caffeine d!id~ not occur. Maternal nutritional status ma\ determine the outcome . of caffeine exposure at low concentrations whict mimic human usage..
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~~IOSIS 1981-1986. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY SUCROSE ON TH'E'DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME ALTERED', F'OC1 DURIN'G'CHEMICA'L HEPATO CARCINOGENES1S'HE I T K;i SUD'ILOVSK'Y 0' INST. OF PATHOL., CASE WESTERN R.ESERVE UNIV.„ CLEVELAND, OH 414106. 68TH ANNUAL MEETING OF' THE FEDERATION OF AM'ERICAN SOCIETIES FOF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, ST. LOUIS„ MO. „ USA, APR. 1-6,, 1984 FED PROG 43 (3). 1984. ABSTRACT 1787. CODEN': FEPRA Language: ENGLISH - EFFECT OF ASPA'RTAME' AND'. SUCROSE LOADIN& IN' GLUTAMATE SUSCEPTIBLE SUBJECTSSTEG'INK L D'; FILER L J JR; BAKER G' L DEPARTMENT OF PED IATR',I CS AND B Il7CHEM I STRY , THE UN'I VERS'I TY OF I OkJA COLLEGE OF MEDIC'INE„ IOWA CITY, IA 52242. AM J CLIN NUTR' 34 (9) . i9'8'1. 1899-1905. CODEN: AJCNA' Language: ENGLISH It has been postulated, that individuals Ghuman3 reporting: an idiosyncratic symptom after gD.utamate ingestion (Chinese Restaurant Syndrome) might also experience such symptosm after aspartame. (L-aspartyI-L-phenyl alanyl methyl ester) ingestion,. Such sensitive: subjects might have been missed in earlier studies of aspartame. Si'lx subjects reporting, various symptoms after glutamate ingestion,, but nott after placebo, were administered aspartame (~:.';4 mg/kg body weight) or sucrose (1 g/kg body weight)', dissolved in orange jiuice in a randomized,. cross-over, doubl'e-bliind study. No subiject reported symptoms typical of g;lutamate response after either sucrose or aspartame~]ioading. Onel.subject reported' slight nausea approx,imately 1.5~h after aspartame ingestioni, butt indicated that the symptoms were not those of a glutamate response., P'lasma phenylalanine and aspartate levels,were similar tci those noted in normal subjects admdnisteredl id'entical doses of aspartame. The data indicate nQ ef'f ect of aspartame l oad i ng i n g l utamate-su!scept i bll e sub jects.., SUCROSE' ENHANCED1EMERGENCE'OF AFLA TOXIN b-1 INDUCED GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANS PEPTIDASE P'OSI'TIVE'RAT HEPpT'IC'CELL FOCI BOYD J; MI:SSLBECF: N; iF'ARKER' R 5; CAMPBELL T C DIV. OF' NUTR'. SCI., CORNELL UNI'IV'., ITHACA, NY. 1'4853. 66TH' ANNUAL MEETING OF THE FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SOCIETIES FOR EXPERIMENTAL 13IOLOG+Y,, NEUd' ORLEANS,1 LA., USA, APRIL 15-23, 1982., FED1PROC 41 (3). 1982. ABSTRACT' 509. CODEN. FEPRA: Languaq;e: ENGLISH
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EFFECT OF SOME INHIBITORY SUBSTANCES ON'AFLA TOXINS FORMATION INISUCROSE. LOW'SALT MEDIUM SINGH~ M; KHAN S N;, RAMPAL DEP'. RIOCHEM., V'. P. CHEST INST., UNIV. DELHI, DELHI 110 ia07. ANNUAL MEETING AND 2ND CONGRESS OF THE FEDER'ATIONiOF ASIAN AND OCEANIAIi BIOCHEMISTS,, BANGALORE, INDIA, DEC'. 14-1'8, 198O. INDIAN J' RIOCHEM BIOPHYS 18' (4) . 198:1. 86. CODEN: IJBBB Langauage:ENGLISHI SUCROSE' EXTRACTS FROM NORMAL AND TR'ANSFORMED CELLS POSSESS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERENT GELATLON CHAR'ACTERIlST'ICS'. RUBIN R W« LEONARDI C. DEP. ANATOMY, UNIV'. M.IlAMI SCH. MED. ,, MIAMI, FLA. THE 20TH ANNlJAL MEETING OF THE AMERI'CAN SOC'IETY' FOR CELL BIOLOGY, CINCINNATI, OHIO,, USA, NOV'. 14-18'„ 1980. J' CELL BIOL 87 (2 F'ART 21. 19'84., 219A. CODEN: JCLBA Language: ENGLZSH EFFECTS~ OFHI~GHI SUCROSE DIETANDSTREPTOZ'OTOCIlN DIABETES'ONI THE IN~-V'IVCil ANID IlN-V'ITRO EMBRYONI'C DEVELOPMENT IN RATS' ORNOY A; ZUSMAN' I HEBREW'UNIV.-HADASSAH MED. SCH., JERUSALEM, ISRAEL. 12TH'CONFERENCE OF THEEUROPEAN! TERATOLOGY SOClETY,: VELDHOVEN. NETHERLANDS, SEPT. 5-7, 1984., TERATOLOGY' 32 (2') . 1980. 37A. CODIEN: TJADA Language: ENGLISH TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SUCROSE DIET IN DIAB'ETI~C AND' NONDI'ABETIC RATS ORNOY AyCOHEN AMDEP'. ANAT., H'ADiASSAiHI UNIV. HOSP. ,. JERUSALEM, I1SR. I SR' Ji MED SC Il' 16 (11). ' 1980. 789-791. CODEN : IJMDA Language: ENGL I SH IOMASS AS A CHEM I CA'L RAW MA'TER IlAL PARKER K J "MURRENS"', READTNG ROAD, CROWMARSH'GIFFORD1, WALLINGFOf"dD, OXFORDSHIRE OX10' 8EN, U.ft<'., ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY. ROYAL SOCIETY' OF CHEMISTR'Y SPECI'A'L. PUBLICATIONS, NO. 48~. OXYGEN AND THE CONVERSION OF'FUTURE' FEEDSTOCwS;, 3RCEsOC PRIESTLEY CONFERENCE, LONDON, ENGLAND, SEPT. 12-151„ 1983. VIII+471P'. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY: LONDOi?I, ENGLAND., ILLUS. F'AF'ER. ISF3N: 0-85586-910-7. 0 (Cl). 1984. F'247-262. CODEN: SROCD OD Language: ENGILISH cc ~ . Qd ' - ~ ~ (O ~'.
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C~ eSL_AUA- AV - Hei TK AU - Sudilbvskly 0' TI - EFFECTS OF 'HI6H DIETARY SUCROSE DN'THE'DEVELDPMENT OF ENZYME-A'LTERED'FOCIIDURIN6 CHEMICAL HEPATOCARC'INOGENESIS ('MEETIN6 ABSTRACT) SO - Fed Proc; 4'3(3)m591 1984 AB - Dietary fact'ors,.ay influence initiation, promotion or progression of tu.ors. To examine whether a high sucrose diet has any, efif'ect'on.the development of' enry.e-al'tered foci (EAF) during promotion of' hepatocarcinogenesis, I day-ol'd'Sprague-Darley rats were given a single IP dose of'diethy,lnitrosaline (DEN). Controls received an equivalent IP'volu.e of saline: After weaning at 21 days, rats were fedloodified AIN-76' diets containing either 65% glucose (HGD) or sucrose (HSD)1,,with or without 0.0511 phenobarbital (PB1. Four weeks later fe.ales oniHDS, but not .allea, had' significantly heavier 1'ivers thani those on H6D. Female rats fed~HSD developedltwice as many ga,oa-glutaeyl' transpeptid'ase positive foci~lc@2'of liver sections than animals on:H6D'. Addition of PB'inereased the number of' foci in1he H60 group, 5-fold and, in the HSD' group, 3-fald. Noisi,gnifi,cant dif'ference was found betweenithe number of'f'oci iniani.al~s on either of'the two PB-supplie.ented diets. Results in males were siaiilar, although differences between treat.entls Mere s.allier. By, autoradiography itlwas~shownithathepatocyties within EAF,, both1nf'e.ales and in, sales, had significantly, higher DNAisyntlhesizing, activity than surrounding normal hepatocytes. These results: suggest that HSD has a weak prodoting, effect during DEN-hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. AU - Setliff JA AU - MnNer HF TI' - MUTA6ENS I'N DECOMPOSITIDN PRODUCTS OF'CARBOHYDRATES (MEETIN6 ABSTRACT) . SO - Fed Proc; 3b(W004' 1977 ABI - Whenia variety of carbohydrates are heated to their decomposition points (cara.elliization reaction)and the,resultant products are tested'wit!h Ames' Salmonella typhiruriu.istraiins TA9&and TA100, mutants are obtai,ned from both strains indicating the presence of wtagens with bothpoint and fraseshift actiivi~ty., Compounds which produce mutagens upon heating include glucose„ sucrose, lactose, galactose, and aradi,nose. These water soluble .utagens are not extracted'by, ether and are stable at autoclave,te.peratures.. Similar mutagens can!be demonstrated in a diversity of commercial products derived from carbohydrates such as ralasses, h'oney, caramel candy, suy sauce, grape and rice wines. Brown sugar, but not white sugar, i's al'~so active. Micrososai enzy.es.are,not required for activation of these Autagens. (Author Abstract)
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EP'IE{!ASE - F'I LE 7'2' Eff'ect -of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on postnatal brain and behavioral development in,BALB/'c mice Wainwright P'. ; Fritz 6'., Department of Heal th Studi es, Uni versii ty of' Water l oo, Water l oo, Ont. N2L 3G1 , _ CANADA EXP. NEUFiOL., (U. S. A. )! , 1985,, 89/ 1 (237-249)' , Coden: EXNEA Languages: EPVBLISH R'riorresearchhadi indliicatedl that moderate maternal ethanol consumption, during gestation affected the growth, of the corpus caLlosumiand anteri'or commi ssure i n BALB/c mice when measured at day 19 postconcepti on. Ou~r purpose . was to assess whether or not this was an enduring, effect. Fregnant BALB/c mice were fed ethanol 1'~~:1:%v/v in the dri'nking water from days 5 to. 26 postconception. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose solution, and were pair-fed to the experimental animals. An additional control group, fed laboratory chow ad libitum was included. USing a split-litter desi'gn, brain development was assessed on days 26 andl 50 postconception andi behavioral development of' the pups was measured on day 32'. The ethanol-treated~offspring had lower brain weights at both, ages as well as a smaller cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure on day 5c7,,which ; was significantly related! to the smaller brain weight. There was no apparent effect of ethano;l' on the area of the corpus call'osum at either age. Similarly, behavioral development was not affected by the treatment, although eye--opening, was del'ayedl iin ethanoL-treated animals. Measures of maternal behavior indicated that the animals consuming alcohol were more' active than those inithe control'grou!p. An unexpected fi'nding was that the control group f'ed sucrose: appeared to be adversely affectedi. The body weight of these pups was lower, as was the area of the corpus callosumiat day 5D1. .
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Moderate prenatal ethanol exposure interacts withistrain in affecting brain development in BALB/c and C57BL/'6 mice W'ainwright P.; Gagnon M. Department of Health Studies,, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. N2L 3G1 CANADA EXP'. NEUROL. (Ui. S. A. ) , 19851, 88!/ 1(B4-9'4 )' , Cod'en; EXNEA Langu~ag~eseENGLI~SHThe development of two forebrain fiber tracts, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure was examined in BALB/cCF and C5!7EtL/6J'mice in relation to moderate maternal consumption of ethanol during, g,estati on. Pregnant animals were fedaethanoll 10%' vFvin the drinking water fromidays5t~oi119' of gestation, when~ fetal brain develiopment was as:se5sedl., Control an~imials, received' an isocaloric sucrose solutioni and! were pair-fed' to. the experimentali animals. An additional ad libitum control group was included. The alcohol treatment didnot increase the incidence of the CC being absent in: a midsagittal section. In G'AI_B/'c animals which had been exposed too ethanol the area of' bothithe corpus caLlosum and'anterior commissure was smaller than in the twolcontroll groups, and this effect was i!nd'ependent of the lower brain weight resulting from the treatment. The area of the corpus~ callosumi, adjusted for brain weight, was smaller in both the~ alcohol-treated'and' sucrose control C57 animals than in the ad Libitum control group; this suggests a nutritional effect. There was no evidence of an effect of ethanol on anterior commissure area or brain weight in,C57 animalis. s ~
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FOODS ADLI!EsFA 1!974-8fti. Jou.urnial of Nutrition,, May 198:'a,1 p 1u73!-1080 CODEN: JONWAI. Doc Type: JOURNAL $' 8305 Starchiess "Effect, of chronic h.ypierinsulinism on metabolic parameters andl histopathology iin rats fed sucrose or starch." _4
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FOODS ADL I BF'A 1'974-86, Experimental Study of Stimuilaitory Eff'ect of' Feeding Sucrose and~ Sinigrin i n Schi stocerca greg,ar i ai ('Orthopitera: Acr i dli diae )i and~ Regul ati on Phenomena. Etude Ex.perimentale de l"Action Phagostimulante du Saccharose et de la Si n i gr iine et M i se en Evi d'ence de Fhenomenies die Regul at i on Chez l e Cr i quet. F"elerin Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptere Acri'didae). Aspirot, J. ; Laug;e„ G. Lab., d~'Entomo3., Batilment 446 Univ. Paris Sud, 9140FiOrsay Cedex,, Fra. E;EF'ROD. hfUT R. DEV. ; 21 ('SA) ,, pip,. 695-704 1981! Langua:ge: French Summary Language: English Document Typie: Journal article-original research The stimulatory effect of' feeding sucrose and sinigrin was studded with 5th instar larvae of SL, gregaria . The food consisted of filter paper impregnated! , with the phag6stimulant dissolvedat different concentrations in water. The authors studliedthe intak:e of' filter paper and phagostimulant s1 mul taneousl y and' separatel v. The i ntaE.e of sucrose or sinigrin-impregnated paper gradk.rally increased up to a limit, depending on the concentraition of the phagosti'mulant, then decreased., tWhen. the intakes of paper andi of phagostimulant were studied separately, they evolvedi differently: phagostilmulant intake remained constant at the highest concentrations asfilterp~aper intake decreased. The stabil'ity ofphagostimulan# intake suggested regulatory processes whose nature has been discussed'. The results witlti the two phagostimulants were comparable;, however, they were obtai ned with l ower amounts of' si ni gr in than of F saccharose. There was no dissuasive or toxic effect even at every high concentrations.
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MEDL I NE 1984;!'RESENT AU - r;utman R ; Bas:iliico MZ ; Mocchiutti N;, Chii,cco A r, Lombard'o~ YB TI - Diazoxide prevents the development of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities present in rats fed a sucrose rich diet. AB - We have previousliy reported that normal Wistar rats fed an, isocaloric, sucrose-rich. (63%) diet (SRD1) developediglucose intolerance and elevated triglyceridle leveLs in plasma (P) as well as in heart (~M) andi liver (L) tissue. This metabolic state wasaccompani'..ed by hyperinsu~linism, both invivoandl inrn vitroi, suggesting that a state of insulin resistance has developedi., Dn order to gather information on the role of hyperinsulinemia and q:.ucose intolerance in the development of the above lipid, metabolism abnormalities, diazoxide„ a known insulinirelease blocking agent was administered (1'20 mgl/kgL'dlay) together with the diet (SRD + DZX), for 22 days. Control groups fed a standard chow (STD), or the STD plus diazoxide (STD + DZX) were i'ncludediin the study. Under the presen~t e,:perimentaT design, DZX was able to prevent the d'evei'opment of hyperirnsul ilnilsm, glucose i ntol rrance andl elevated Ievelsof triacyliglycerol in plasma, heart and liver present in animals fed on a sucrose rich diet. Our results sug;gest that mechanisms involved in the development of this nutritionally induced syndrome may include an interaction of hyperi rnsul i~nemi al, wi th a d!i rect Pf f ect of sucrose on several steps of lipid metabolism. S+7i - I+Iwrm Metab Res 1'985 Oct; 17 (1u) : 49'1-4 AaJ' - Merski JA ; Meyers MC TI - Light- and el'ectroni-milcroscoplic evaluation of renal, tubular cell' vacuoilation induced by ad'ministrationiof' nitrilotriacetate or sucrose. AB- Cytop1asmic vacuolation, of renalproxi'mal tubular epitheliial cells was studlied' in rats following administration of nitrillotriacetate (NTA) or sucrose. Sucrose was administerediat both a high dose (29.L mmo1/kg) and low dose (7.3 mmoll/{kgl) by ip injection. Both levels of' sucrose induced severe vacuolation,of the renal proximali tubular epithelium, as observed by light microscopy. However, at the high dose, the vacuolation was widespread, affecting essentially all the proximal tubuclles„ while~ at the low dose,, the liesion was distributedl ini a multifocall pattern., Nitrilotriacetate administered by gavage at a level of 7.3,mmoll/'kg also indur_ed'severe cytoplasmic vacuolation in the renali proximal tubular epitheliumr The distribution of this lesion was muiltilbocal and inJistingui.shable f'romithat caused' by the 7.3-mrnol/E{g d'ose of sucrose. Electron-microscopic examination of vacuolated tubule cells demonstrated, that, in both the NTA- and sucrose-treated animals,, the 1!esion was dule to changes in the endocytatic/lysosornal system. The nuclei, mitochondria, g!olgi andi endoplasmic reticuLum1 and the highly convoluted areas of the basal': membrane'appec'red normal in both the vacuollated andi non-vacuol atedl tubul'e cel l s of rats given ei ther IVTA or sucrose. SU' - Food Chem T'o>ricol 1985 Oct. 2T(1i0) c92y-3D 88698492'
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AU - E-sarl i~ng J;; B4i1 1 en G TI - Dietary factors and hyperactivity: a failure to replicate.. AB - Recent research suggests that sucrose consumption may be a factor in chil'dren's hyperactivity. Y'et, the manner in,which1hyperactive behavior was assessed confounded hyperactivity and aggression, thereby reducing the conceptuz;l validity of' the f'indings. Ini addition, accepting a probability level of 0.c7&as signif'icant with 36corre~latilons, an~dl using grams rather than p~ortionsas an: index of food consumption might have~contributed to a Type I error. Whenithese three issues were addiressedli nithe present study, no, sigirni~fi!cant relationships emerged, between, sucrose consumpti!on and hyperactivi'ty or aggressioniassessed~as separate d'imensi'ons. The age of the hyperactive ch.ildk•en in this sample (MI = = 9'.151years) ciontrasted'with that of the original research (M 6 years 2' months). and this may contribute to the differential results. Sugigestilons for further research are outlined!, and the need to separate hyperactive children, according to1whether they receive stimulant medication or not, and assess attention. de-Viciit disorders in addition to behavioral components of hyperactivity are stressed. SO - J'iG'enet Fsycholi 1965 Mar ; 146 (1 )' : 11'7-23 AU - Halperin-Walega ES ; Shively CA ; Griffith JW': Greene FE. TI - Adverse effect of a sucrose-based~ semiip!urifiied' diet onn development and postnatal growth.of Fi1scher rats. AP - A commercially prepared semiipurified diet ('Bio-Slerve No. 0006Q)) composed of chemi cal l y def i nedli nigred'iients was f ed toima1 e and female F344 rats before mating, to females, duxring gestation,, and' to the offspring after weaning. Compared to rats treated similarly but fed a standard, cer-eal-basedl chow (Agway GR RM)-{I 3:00U)i, offspring on the,semipurifiedl diet eRhibited markedly retarded growth., At 12 weeks of age, the deficits in body weight were accompanied by decreased absolute organ weights, increased organ-to-body weight ratios, increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels,, and developmenit of hepatic peripor-tal' lipidosis in both male and female offspring on the semipurified diet. The deficits,in body weight are er.pl'ained„ in part, by decreased intake of the semipurifiedid'iet, most likely attributable to its highe sucrose content. Investigators are cautioned about the inadequacy ot'certain semi1purifi'ed diets for development and~ postnatal growth of F344 rats. SO - Toxicol AppI Pharmacol 1985. Sep 15'; 80('2) :2'84-92'
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AU - Mei T'h: g, Siudi lovsky 0 T I - Effects of a hi gh-sucrose d'i et on the d'evel opment of enayme-alteredi foci in chem~ical hiep:atocarcinogenesis.in rats. AB - Di etar-y f actors can modi fly metabol i c events i nvol ved i'n the initiationi,, piromotion, or progression of tumors. To determinie ' whether a hi gh-sucrose diet has any ef'f ect on the devel opment of enayme-altered'foci during the promotion step of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, 1-day-oldSprague-Daw1'ey rats were given a single i.p., d'ose, of diethylnitrosamine; controls received an equivalent i.p. volume of 0.9%, NaC1 solution. At 21 days of' age, the rats were weaned~, segregated by sex, separated ini groups,, and~f ed~ mod'~i f i ed AI N76A di ets contai ni ng ei ther 65% glucose or 65% sucrose, with or without 0.05% phenobarbital. At the endlof a 4-week treatment period, the sucrose-fed control rats of either sex had significantly heavier livers than did those on the glucose diet. Enlarged livers were found al'so i'n the sucrose-fed diiethylnitrosamline-treated'femal'e rats, which developed twi'ce as many gamma-glutamyTtranspeptild'ase-posiitive foci per sq cm of' liver section than dlid'those on the gl'ucose diet. Addition of phenobarbitali augmented the number of foci'3-foldl in the sucrose group and 5-f'o1d' in the gDucose group. Focus count per sq cmiwas simi lar in ani mal s on the two phernobarbital-supplemented diets. Despite the absence of statistically significant liver enlargement, resu.ults ana1ogous to those in females were obtained in carcinogen-treated'males. Differences between treatments, however, were smaller. In, both female and male rats, the DNA-synthesilzing activity of heplatocytes in enay,me-alteredl foci was significantly higher than in the surrounding.normal' parenchymal cells,, as determined by autoradiography. These studies i nds cate that a hi gh'-sucrose di et has a promoting!effect during hieplatocarcinogenesis induced inithe rat by diethylnitrosamine and that this effect is weaker than that of 0.05% phenobarbi tal . SO - OancerRes 1985 Jun,,4 51('6J: t700-5' ` T I - Sugar f or debate Q l etter ]' SO-Lancet1985~ Mar 301,1(8431):759-60 TI - Sugar and' heaTth CLetter7 SOi - Lancet 1985 Feb 2a41(8426):45'6
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AUi - Bacon BR ; F'ark:GH; Fowell' EM;~ McLaren~ GE TI - H'epatic steatosis in rats fed diets with varyi~ng concentrationss of sucrose. AEs' - The role of' dietary sucrose concentrations in the deveLopment of hepatic steatosis in rats was investigated. Twelve groups of' wean l i ng male Sprague-Dawl ey rats received semipur ifl i ed diIetss with different sucrose concentrations ranging from 20~ta 50%, (w/'w) ; one group received a cer-eal-based',chiow di,et., Rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks andl body weight, liver/body weight ratia, plasma alanine amino+ransf'erase concentration, hep.atic trigllyceride concentration,,, and liver morphology (light and electron milcroscopy) were determinedI. Body weilght and liver/body weight ratio were decreased in:rats receiving 40-50 or 25-35% dietary sucrose compared to.rats receiving,20% sucrose or chow. P'lasma alanine aminotransferase concentrations were within normal limits. Hepatic triglyceride concentration was significantly increased in rats receivinq 40-50 and 25-35J' dietary sucrose compared' tos rats. receiving 20% dietary sucrose or chow., ILilght microscopy showed hepatic steatosis in~a periportal distribution at al l concentrati ons of di etary sucrose. Both the f''ireq,uepcy, and the severity of'the~steatosis were i!ncreased with increasing dIi etary sucrose concentrati ons. E'lectron mi croscopy f rom sel ected livers with, increased hepatic triglyceri'de concentrationss revealed increased:lipid.spheres and'ilncreased smooth endoplasmic reticulum without prominent Go1gi apparatus.or GERL complex. It is concluded that high dietary sucroseconcentrations are responsible for the development of'hepatic steatosis. SemiIp:ur i f'i ed di ets with hi gh dli etary sucrose concentrati ons such animal as the AIN-76A diet (5UJ sucrose)~ should, not be used irnl studies in,whichiincreasedl trilglyceride deposition could, influence experimental outcome. SO' - Fundam App1 To;<i col 1984 Gct; 4(5.) : 819-26 AU - Gross MD TI - Effect of sucrose on hyperki'netic children. AH - A hyperkinetic boy and his mother were found,, by bl'ind tests:, toe be hypersensitive to sucrose, with manif'estationis of irritability, hyperactivity, and h~eadach~e. Neither glucose,, lactose, or saccharin produced any behavioral changes. To ascertain whether this was common in those with hypersensitivity to sucrose, 5p hyperki'netiic children, whose mothers hadl volunteered that they "knew: or were °'sure: that their hyperactivity and general behavior were much worse whenithey had eaten foods containing sugar (sucrose),, were tested' in a bl'indd experiment with a challenge dose of a glass of lemonade containing 75g of sucrose compared with lemonade sweetened with, saccharin;~ this was done three times. h!b differences couldbe found in their behavior after- inge5tingisucrose, compiared with saccharin. Hypersensitivity to sucrose can lead to adverse behavi'orali changes, but this hypersensitivity appears to be an CD uncommon!conddtion. If'suspected' i't can be tested for very M ~T'a simply. ~ SO - Pediatrics 1984 Mov; 74(5) :67b-8I (b bA .. CD Clli
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AU - Radin DI TI' - A possible proximity effect on human grip strength. AF( - A dbuble-blind experiment with 58 adults tested~the hypothesis that proximity tro sugar reduces hulman grip strength. An analysis of variance supported'.the hypothesis. SO - Percept Mot Ski l l s 1984 Jun; 58 (3) : 887-8' AU -Thornber JM', ; EckhertCD'TI - Protection against sucrose-iinduced retinaL capillary damage in the Wistar rat. AB' - The proced'ure of' rearing rats on 1'nigh' sucrose diets has been used in some laboratories as a drug-free model tolinduce retinal vascullar-bed! damage resembiing, diabetilc retinioplathy. Examination of dietary salt mixes used in laboratories rep!orti'ng success with this'mcdell revealed that two essentiall elements, chromium and'd selenium, were not included. The present study evaluated the ef#ect of supplementingia high sucrose diet„ reported to.induce retinopathy,, with chromi'umiand Selenium supplementation significantly reduced'the number of acellular collapsedicapillary strands within arterial-venous capillary networks. The addition of chromium to the hilg,h,sucrosedietresulted in lower fasting bloodigl'ucose and a smaller rise in its level fo1liowing an oral' d'ose. Little or no retinal vascular damage was apparent in rats -F~ed'' the high sucrose diet supplemented with chromi'um, seleniumm and'.add'itional corn oila. Of the two elements, only supplementation with,Se protected the retinal capillaries from d'amage. SO - J Nutr 1984 Jun; 1:14('fn) : 107D•-5' AU - Hodges RE ; Rebel l o,T - TI - Carbohydrates andibloodlpressure. AB - H,ighi blood, pressure is recogn~ized'. as a major risk factor for both coronary heart disease andistroke. The role of diet in tMe genesis of' hypertension has been hotly disputed. Recently,- sucrose was reported~to augment the hypertensive effects of' saltt i1n, experimental animaLs. A' review!of many reports suggests that not canl ycarbohydlrates but a~l soprotei ns and~ f atscania1 ter bl oo!d'pressure. Whether salt retention is a cause of elevated blood pressure remains toibe ascertainied. We have shown,recently that sucrose and gl'ucose elevate blood pressure transiently, andl sucrose andlfructayse cause different degrees of salt retentioniin humans who.have beenif'asting. SO - Ann Intern Med'i 1983 May; 93 (5 F't 2)' : 8._.E3-4!1
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UiI - 1331342.32 AUi - Pu-nag RD ; Tomita T ; Sasaki S TI - Chronic sucrose ingestiion indlaces mild hypertension and tachiycard'i a i~n rats. AD' - As a means for increasing sympathetic activity„ maLe~weaniLing rats were given 8% sucrose soluti'on to dM°ink instead of water. AfterW weeks,, systolic pressures measured with a taill-cuffmethod became appreciably elevated, and~ the e1'evation was verified'i when phasic pressures were later recorded directly from femoral catheters. Successful' induction, ofl sympathetic overactivity was considlered'. &lii:kel'y explanation because sucrose-iingesting rats, compared with, untreated controils, had faster heart rates and larger hypotensive responses to: alphia-adrenergic blockade with phentolamine. Upon graded' electrical stimuliation ofl the,ventromedial hypothalamus under urethane anesthesia, resulting pressor and'sympathetic nerve responses were alsoil'arger in.sucrose-treatedrats. By contrast, pressor responses to injections of norepinephrine or tyramine were unaffected, thereby ind'icati'ng that cardiovascular . sensitivity had!not beenienhanced: by sucrose ingestion.During, iintravenous glucose toierance tests, increases i'n pl'asma insulin were consistently lower in;sucrose-treated than.control rats even though correspondinglincreases in plasmaiglucose were just transiently higher. These results support the~interpretation that chronic sucrose ing!estion inhibits pancreatic insuilinisecretionn and elevates blood pressure by stilmulating.the ventromedIall hypothalamus to increase sympathetic activity. SO - Hypertension 1983 Mar-Apr;5(2).218-L5i AUi - IV'i shi ok.a K ;' Katayama I ; Sano S. TI - Urticaria induced by D-psicose CLetter71 SO, - Lancet 1983 ~ Dec 1~7~;2('~8~364)~~e~~1417-8~~
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MEIpL I NE 1980-1983 Ai.]' - Fi restone AR: ; Schmi dR; M: uh1 errann HR TI1 - Cari'ogenic effects of cooked wheat starcKalone or with sucrose and frequency-controlled feedings in rats. SO - Arch Oral Biol 1982: 27 (9') :759-b3 ' AU - Abdukal ykov EA TI - CLip:id metabolism during excessive sugar consumptionI, SO - Lab Delo 1982;i(4):2'21-3 AU - V': egh A; Tak: ach,A; Zel l'es T TI - CThe effect of so1 id, compacted: cariogeni'c diet on, the sal i vary glands in,rats] SO - Foqorv S: 1982 Feb; 70 (2)i : 07-b1 AUi - Vr:ana A; F:abry P ; k:azdov:a L;: Poledme R ; Slabochov:a Z TI - Sucrose in~dMuced hypertriglyceridaemiar its mechanIsm andi metabol!ic effects. A'B - The study summarilzes the metabo1ic effects of increased sucrose or fructose intake. Compared' wi!th the traditional carbohydrate source-starch, a high intak.e of the above two carbohydh-ates produces a number of ine}aboli ic and~ other changes that can have a path~oiogical effect. A; thus induced metabolic and'other changes that can have hepatic 1.iipid synthesis, hypertriglyceri!daemia and increased' tissue 1'ilpi'd utiliza~tion,, while tissue g,Luicose utilization decreases. Moreover, the:increase of these carbohydrates can liead to some pathological organ changes and elevation of blood pressure. - SO - CLecK Med' 1982;5(1):9-15 AU - Preuss HG ; Fournier PD'. TI - Effects oF sucrose ingestion on b]oodpiressure:. SO -- Li f e Sc i 1982 Mar 15, ri] (1 11)1: 879-86 AU - M: aki'nen KK ; N1 i kahri F' ; MI: akin!en PL ; S: oderl inig! E; H:!am:al:ainen M TI' - Turku sugar studies 7(XIII. Comp!arison ofmet~abolic tolerance inhuman volunteers tolhigh oral doses of' xylitol and'sucrose after longrterm regular consumption of xyi!itol'. SO -- Int Z Vitam Ernahrung,sforschiQBeih3 1982;22: d9-49
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AU! - Otto FL ; Sulzbacher S'I ; Worthington-Roberts RS TIl - Sucrose-induced behavior changes of persons wi1th F?rader-U+ai L l i syndrome. AB - The relationship between changed', or erratic behavilor of niine Prader-Willi males and their i'.ngesti'on off excess k:caDori'les f'rom sucrose w~asexami nedl., The study was a doubl e-bll inddesi gln,wi thi objective measures of behavioral' change foiPllowing ingestion:of either a sucrose soliution: or a control, preparation containing starchior saccharin. On each of the 3 test days, one of the~three test solutions was given,, along with a standard L'1U1k'xaliorie starchrbased'brealkfast. Blood glucose values at 0.30, 60, 1'20, and1180 ' mi nutes af'ter f eed'i ng were compared toe the percentage of errors made on:paired-associate learnilng tasks (given eight times daily) and the gross-motor "movement: scores fromia wrist monitor anda a chair attached toian electrical counter. Results showed that out of162' test correl atilons performed',, .only 8 were significant, exactly the number expected'by chance. Possible reasons were sugg'ested's as to why no silgpificant dilfferences were foundi. SO - Am J' Ment De+ic 1982' Jan;86 (4) :335-41 AU - Lakshmanan FL ; Howe JC;, Schuster EM ;, BarnesR~E' TI - Response oaf two strains of' rats to a high-protein diet containiiing sucrose or cornstarch. SO! -Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1981 Jun;Jb7'(2)1:224-32 - AU - Ornoy A ; Cohen AMi TI. -~~ Teratogenic ef'fect~sof~ sucrose~ diet~ iin d4abet~ic~ and'~. nondiabetic rats. SO - Iisr J Med Sci 1'98.0 1!Jov; 16 (1 1): 789-91 AU - Moore MJ TI - Reactive hypoglycemia precipitated by sucrose and glucose. SO - Va Med' 19'8U' Nov; 1 D7 (' 11) : 785 8
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Fvo D!5 h, (;, 6t A' 4/5/5 C) 16-? 62 9 83013526 4 Scientist , Marct'n 10, 1993, p648' CODEN: NWSCAL Ddc Type: JOURNAL 830310 SUGAR:: The hypothesi s that sugar i s related to breast cancer i n•women i s. discussed. Breast cancer in older women is most common inicounitries where large amounts of sugar are consumed. Descriptors: NUTRITIONAL I!NFORMATION. , I
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C'R.IS/'USDAi 0046716 AGENCY' ID: ARS 1f35~ iF'ROJ' NIOe 1235-20911-015-OOD E',EG I OhJAL PROJECT NO. 00000 F'ROiI TYPE: INHOUSE PERIOD: 19 JAN 81 TO'. 19 JANI 86 INVEST: MICHAELIS 0' E IV PERF' OR[B: CARBOHYDRATE NUTF2I'TI ON! LAB! NUITf•t I T I ON' RES CENTER LOCAT I ON: AGR'I CULTUR'AL RESEARCH SERV I'CE' BELTSV I L,.LE MD CAR$OHYDRATE ANDAGE EFFECTS ON GLUCOSE TOLERAI'VCE' AND L I POGENSI S I hl! CAR$OHYDRATE SENSITIVE MODELS OBJECTIVES:Conduct es:perimentstodetemiine~ shortandl longi effectso-F specific types of dietary carbohydrates, e.gi. sucrose and starchi, on glucose tol'erance and lipogensis i'n normal and carbohydrate-sensi'tive humans and in rat models exhibiting genetic predisposition for carbohydrate sensitivity, e.g. genetically obese and spontaneously hypertensive'rats. To .stud'y the effect of' other dietary components, e.ig., nutritive fibers,.on b.ioavail'ability of dietary carbohydrates in the rat. To investigate Iong term effects of feeding, specii., APPROACH'.: Free I i'vi ng normal and carbohydrate-sensi tive human sub jects and rat models exhibiting genetic pred'~isposition for carbohydrate-sensitivity wiL1' be fedcarbohydrates which differ in molecular complosi,tion,, structure, and size~ in ord'~er to determine how specific carbohydrates effect glucose to1 erance and l i pogensi s, and'o to assess the i nfl'uence of' aging and geneti cs on metabol i c responses toy di etary carbohydrates. On the basi s of ob jectilves 1-3, the results of these studies will' be used'to make dietary recommendations, for the general population and': in particular for that segment of the population which ils carbohydrate-sensitive (approximately 12%). F'ROGRESS:83/G1 8'('/12 A total of' 48 SHR/N-corpul ent and -D ean malle rats (5 weeks o1d) were f ed f or 9'. 5 months d i ets contai ni ng. 54'/.I carbohiydrate as ei ther sucrose or cooked starch. Body weight, fasting serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total cholesteroli, response levels of serum insulin and glucose after an oral glucose load andurine volume, glucose and protein were determined. A4 phenotype effect (corpul!ent > 1 ean )' was: observed wi thibody wei ght, fasting serumii'nsulin, triglyceride and chollestraT, response serum,insuLin and glucose, and! urine glucose and protein. Both phenotypes were hyperinsulinemic and~ d'eveloped' postprandial hypergl'.ycemiia and glycosuria. Gl ycnsuri a was: evi d'ent in corpul ent rats by 2.5 months and i ni l ean rats by 9.5~oonths. A moderate improvement in the severity of' diabetes inicorpulent insulin, rats was observedby 6.5months. In, corpulent rats„ levels of serum, and triglyceride decreased only slightly with age. A sucrose~ e:-ffect (sucrose > starch ) was observed i n corpucl ent rats wi th body wei ght , f ast'i nq ser-i_k;Tu insul'in and triglyceride, response serum insulin and glucose, urine vol ume, gl ucose and protein; and i n, 1 ean rats wi th body wei ght , f asti ng. serum triglyceride, response serum glucose, and urine volume. The data demonstrate that SHR/W-Corpul'ient rats exhibit metabolic characteristiQs associated with obesity-iindLocedi diabetes in man, whereas SHR/N-lean rats exhibit characteristics associated withimaturity-onset diabetes in man. 88
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PUBLICATIONS: 83/01 S3L 12 ' MI'CHAELI~S, O.E., IiV. , 11982. The d',isaccharideeff.ect: A mechanism for carbohydrate-induced liplogenesis. In: Metabol~ic Effects of UtilizabiIre Dietary Carbohydrates, Marcel Dek.ker, Inc. New York,, pp. 55-70. MICHAELIS, O. E. , IV. „ ELLWOOD,, K. C. , HALLFRISCHI, J'. and HANSEN, C. T. 1983. Effect of' dietary sucrose and geniotype on metabolic parameters of a new strain of' genetically obese rat: LA/N-corpul!ent. Nk.ttr. Res. 3: 2'17-228. ELLWOOD, K. C'. , M'ICHAELIS', O'. E. , IV., and HALLFRISCH, J. G. 1983. F'3Lood' insulin, gluc, fruc, & gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in CHO-sensitive & normal men given a sucrose or invert sugar tolierancee test. J., Nutr. 113: 173~2-1736- MICHAELTS~ , G. E. „ IV'., ELLWOOD, 6:. C. , JUDGE, J. M. , SCHOENE, N. W. andl HANSEN, C. T. 11983. 1 The SHR',/N-corpu.il'lent rat: A new model for insulin-independent diabetes. Fourth International Congress on Obesity, New York. (Abstract)'. TULP, 0'1. L. j MARCO',, G, . D. , HANSEN,C~.. T. an~d'MICHAELlS, Oi. E. ,DV., 1983., Adipose tissue- cellularity in diabetic SHR',GN-cp (SHR corpulent) rats. Fourth International Congt^ess.on Obesity, New York. ('Abstract).
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FEDERAI:_ RESEARCH I N PROGRESS - F I LE 266 0088384 I DENT I FY I! NG NO. : 0047484; 1 ta90-209>L3-t:123S AGENCY CODE: AGR: CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR' EFFECTS OF DIETARY' DISACCH'ARIDES A'ND OTHEF' CARBOHYDRATES PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR': BERDANIER C D ASSOCIATE INVESTIGATORS: (SZEPESI Hs')~ PERFORMING ORG.: UNIVERSITY OF 6EORGIA,FOOD' & NUTRITION,, ATHENS, GEORGIA 30;5c'~2 _ SPONSOR I'NG OR'G', : Ui. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRI'CLILTU'F.E „AGR I CULTI:IR'AL RESEARCH SERVICE 8111001 TO 83D9y0. OBJECTI'VE: Essentially, the study consists of two parts: Part one is designed to 'fingerprint' the metabolic characteristics of rat liver and adipose tissue ceTls in order to specify the character and extent of the effects of' various carbohydrates., In the second part (FY 83) we wi'Dl attempt to reproduce the 'fingerprint' of the cells from rats fedl disaccharides by using free cells in a hormonal milieu or by serum extract fromrats fed disaccharides.. APPROACH: Vari ous metabol i c functions of rat l i~ver and adi pose tY ssue. will be dieterm'rned, as the function.of dietary carbohydrate fed. Blood' Uevel' of' hormones wi 1 l' be determi ned i n thie same rats. Metabol Y c studi' eswi l 1 then: be d'one withi free cells to determine the hormonal combinationnecessary to reproduce the disaccharide effect. Selected liver enzymeswil'l also be dietermi ned . D'i etary carbohydrates compared wi lil incl udh starch „ g.l ucrose,, maltose, invert sugar,, and' sucrose. PR'OGRE'SS: Iln, the. carbohydrate-sensitriue; BHE rats, sucrose was flmundd to increase the rate of gluconeogenesis from all substrates inwestilgated.In further studies, it was shown, that the disaccharide configuration (mal!tose over glucose and sucrose over invert sugar) allso increases gluconeogenesis i n the1 i ver .S'i ncethe1 i ver cell scame f rom, starved ani mal s,, the adifference was not due to: diff'erentiall levels of liver glycogen,., Thes findings constitute a breakthrough in our understanding of both carbohydrate sensitivity and the molecular size effect of carbohydrates. Thus, small carbohydrates not only alter insulin status but also produce hypergLycemila which in the older animal, will mimic diabetes.
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0023138 IDENTIFYTNG NO'. : 00;46714; 1238-209'11-012'-OOD, A'GENCY CODE: AGR EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND FRUCTOSE ON LIPOGENESTS AND GLUCOSE TOLERANCE P'R'Z'NGIF"AL INVESTIGATOR: REI'SER' S~ PERFORKTNIGOR!0.:A'CRICULTUR'A'L RESEARCHI SERVICE„ CARBOHYDRATE NUTRIfiION! LAB, NUTR.ITIONi RES CENTER, BELTSVILLE, MAF:YLAND'. 207051 SRONSORING ORG.: U. S'. DEF'ARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH' SERVICE 13 DATES:: 810113 13 TO 860113 OBJECTIVE: Determine whether sucrose and' fructose in the range of that currently consumed in the U.S. superimposed on other dietary and environmental factors currently characterizing the lifestyle in thiss country contribute to the high incidence of heart d'isease,, diabetes and, obesity. Determine whether the segment of the American population described as carbohydrate-sensi t i ve i s at a hi gher r i sk f rom sucrose andif ructose than is the general popula- tion. Conduct nutritional studies on experimental animals. AF"PROACH'Ia Groups of normal and carbohydrate-sensitilve sub jlects wi i l bestudied. The experimental diets wi1l vary in the content of sucrose orf'ructose added atthe expense of wheat starch., The diets will contain other components in the amounts believed to be currently consumedlin thiscountry., The follow-ing parameters will' be measuredl iln bllood be-Fore the studies begin and' at weekly intervals during the study: i'nsulin, glucose, triglycerides, choles-tero.L, distribution of triglycerides and cholesterol in, lipoproteins,, glu- cogon, uric acid, blood pressure, insulin bindingito red blood cells, gas- tric inhibitory po1lypeptide,, free fatty acids, cortisoll and indicators of trace mineral status. PROGRESS: The influence of the type of dietary carbohydrate on the severity of copp~er deficiency was determined. Rats were fed' copper-def'ilcient (0.SI mugLg)' or copper-supp1emPnted' dilets in which the carbohydrate was either starch, sucrose, or fructose (62'% by weight) for Z, weeks., Regard'less of' the nature of the carbohydrate,, copper deficiency decreased blood ceruloplasmin activity, hepati!c copper and ATP levels, and' i'ncreasedpllasmai cholesteroZl 'and trigllycerild'es. Copper deficiency in rats fed scurose or f'ructose„ but not those fed starch, significantlly lowered bloodhematocrit, Hb., and' albumin and significant1y increased heart •andl liverweight and the glucose response to a glycemic stress. Hepatic copper leve3! was significantly lower in copper-defilcilent rats fed sucrose or fructose~ than in those fed starch. Fasting blood glucose, cho!Lesterol,,, andtrigLyceridle levels were signifi'cantly higher in copper-deficient rats fed fructose than in those fed starch. During the study, 14 copper-deficient rats died,, one of 10 fed starch, six of 201fedisucrose, and seven of 2.0 ' fled' fructose. Death was apparently the result of' rupture of the heart i n the regi on of the apex. These resul'ts i ndi cate that fructose-comtaining carbohydrates as compared to starch markedly increase the severi ty of copper defi ilcilency in rats.,
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CRI S/USDTF.I 0 1' 40306 AGENCY I D: ARS 1235 PROJ NO:~ 1 2::,5--<<>91 1 03B-00D REGIONAL PROJECT NO. cac7c_lajca, PROJ' TYFE: INHOUSE PERIOD: 01 OCT 85 TO 30 SEfF' 90 INVEST: REISER S PERF ORG: CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION LAEt BELTS HUMAN NUTF:'I RES CENTER LOCATION: AGRIiCULTUF.AL RESEARCH SERVICE BELTSVILLE MD', EFFECT'OF D'IETARY'FRUCTOSE ONLIF'OGENESTS, GLUCOSE TOLERANCE & THE BI,OAUAIlLABIlLI'Tx' OF TRACE MINERALS C OBJECTIVES;To, determine the effects of dietary fructose or sucrose on: metabolic risk factors associated with heart diisease and diabetes in experimental animals and various segiments:ofthe Ynumanpopulation and the effect of fructose- containing carbohydk-ates on the bioavaiLabi'Tity of other nutrients.
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HAZARDOUS' SUHsSTANCESDATAB'ASE HAZ'ARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATABANK NUMEiER' NAME OF SUBSTANCE CASIREGISTRY NUMBER RELATED HSDB RECORDS SYNONYMS SYNONY'MS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS, SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS MOLECULAR FORMULAi WISWESSER LINE NOTATION RTECS NUMBER OHM-TADS NUMFiER SHIIP'PING NAME/NUME(ER', - DOTi /UN/NA'%IMCO. STCC' NUMBER 500 SUCROSE 57-50-1 ND! (ALPHA-D~-GLUCO S~IDO~)-&ETA-DI-FRUCTOFUR:!ANOSIIDEALF'HArD-GLUCOFYRANOSYL BETA-D-FRWCTOFURANOSIDE' AM'ERFAND'SEET SUGAR BETA-D-FRUCTOFURANOSIDE„ ALFLHA-D--GLUCOF'YRANOSYL CANE SUGAR, CONFECTIONER"S SUGAR', D-SUCROSE. FRUCTOFURANOSIDE„ ALF'H'ArD-GLUCOP'YR'ANOSYL, BETA-D. GLUCOFYRANOSIDE, BETA-D^-FRUCTOFURANOSYL, ALFHA-D GRANULATED SUGAR' MIICROSE ROCK CANDY SACCHAR~DSE SACCHARUM SUGAR WHITE SUGAR C i i-Hi2-O 1' 1 ND N I OSH/WNbW000G0 ND ND ND EPA HAZARDOUS WASTE' ND! NUMBER
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TOX'IC'IfiY' SUMMARY ND TOXIC HAZARD:RATING 1. 1= PRACTICALLY NONTOXIC: PROBABLE ORAL LETHAL DOSE (HUMAN) A1t3OV'E 15 G/tK:Gy, MORE THAN 1 QUART' (2.2 LB) FOR 70 IKG' PERSON (150 L.B) . CGOSSELINI. CTCP' 4TH' ED' 197h,, p., II-151} PO'ISONING POTENTIAL ND ANTIDOTE'AND EMERGENCY ND: TREATMENT MED'.ICAL SURVEILLANCE ND HUMAN TOX ICIlTY EXCERPTS ... I V USE OF 54!' SOLN (200 TO 300 ML )' AS. DIURETIC OR' TO LOMIER'INTRACRiANIAL PRESSURE CARRIES GRAVE RISK OF DAMAGE TO KIDNEYS. CGOSSELINLGTC~P' 4TH! EDi 1976, p. II-1557 NON-HUMAN TOXICITY SIGNS & SYMPTOMS IN POISONED ANIMALS INCL. EXCERPTS DIARRHEA, PROSTRATION!, CYANOSIS, TONIC-CLONIC CONVULSIONS,,. STUPOR & DEATH IN RESP FAILURE. DIFFUSE'PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INCL SHRINF,AGE, SWELL.I'NG& NECROSIS OF RENAL TURULAR~ EP'ITHELIUM, ARTER'I'OLITIS~,MILD, HEPATITIS, MYOCARDI'TIS,, CONGESTIVE ENCEPHA'LITI~S &SOM'EAD'RENALHYPERTROPHY'. CGOSSELINLC~TCP'4THED'1976, p. II-151] NON-HUMAN TOXICLTY' SUCROSE HAS'SHOWN NOTOXIGITY TO CaRNEAS OF EXCERPTS RABBITS WHEN' APPLIEDFOR3 TO 7 HR,INNEUTRAL AQ SOLN!... CGRAN'T. TOX'OF THE EYE 1974, p. 9491 NON-HUMAN TOXICITY ...CANE SUGAFt...OBSERVED.TO! CAUSE DIARRHEA, EXCERPTS COLIC, INFLAMMATION OF F:IDNEYS' &,...PETECHIAL HEMORRHAGES IN SPINAL DURA MATER OF HORSES. [CLARKE. VET TOX'19751, p. 2847, NON-HUMAN TOXICI~TY SIGNS & SYMPTOMS IN POISONED ANIMALS EXCE'RPTS' INCL...MILD HEPATITIS'...&,SOME ADRENAL HYPERTROPHY. CGOSSELIlN. CTCP' 4TH ED 1976, p. II-151] HUMAN TOXICITY VALUES ND NON-HUMAN TOX I C I TY VALUES MLD RABEs I TS PERCU'TANEOUS 500 M'G/'24 HR' CNIOSH'. REG TOX EFFECT CHEM SUB 1978, p. 117'9] NON HUMAN TOXI!CITY' VALUES MLD GU'INEA PIGS' PERCUTANEOUS 500 MG/'24 HR CNIOSH. REG'TOX EFFECT CHEMISUB '1978, p. 11791 ()oOa (Z) Ql1' C; 4
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NON-HUMAN TOXICITY VALUE& LDu0 F:ATS ORAL 29700 MG/'k:G CNIOSH'. REG TOX' EFFECT CHEM SUB 1978', pi. 11'797 NON-HUMAN TOXICITY VALUES LDLO DOMEST I'C AN I'MALS ORAL 40 G/KG' CN'IOSHI. R'EGTOX'EFFECT CHEMi SU&1978i, pl. 1 1I79 1 ~ ECOTOX'ICITY' VALUES MINIMUM FATAL DOSE LEVEL. F'OF'ULA'T I ONS. AT SF'EC I AL RISK ADSORPT I ON, D I'STR I'RUT I ON' AN'D~ EXCRETION METABOL I SMIMETABOLI' TE& D'IOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE' MECHANISM1OF ACTION'. I NTER'ACT I ONS' F"ROBABLE ROUTES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND AVERAGE DA I LY' I NTAh:E F'RDgADLE'EXROSURES BODY BU'I';DENS' ODOR THRESHOLD SKINI„ EYE AND. RESP"IfiATORY IF'.'R I'TA'T'I ONS I'MMED IATELY' DANGEROUS TO" LIFE OR HEALTH ACCEFTABLE' DAILY' INTAKES ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES OSHA STANDA'RD'S' NIOSH RECOMMENDATI'ONS THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES' ND ND ND ND ND ND ND, ND ND ND AIR: 10 MG/CU M. CNIOSHI. SUB 1'978, R., 1179] G TOX EFFECT CHEMi GD' G"1 OTHER OCCUF'ATIONAL PERMISSIBLE LEVELS ND CT? Wi 00 Qlt' O QD .
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WATEPt STANDARDS ND ATMOSIRFHEFti I C' STANDiAF:DS ND SOIL STANDARDS' ND CERCLA REPORTABLE ND QUANTITIES~ TSCA REQUIFcEMENTS ND. RCRA F:EQU'I FtEMENTS ND FIFRA REQUIf3EMENTSND; FDA SEQUIREMENTS FDA NUM&ER' B-L03g, LIMITATIONS: IN! F'RODN OF CARAMEL EFURIA. HDBK FOODi• ADD 2ND' ED 1972, p. 9501
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.i• E RIEGISTRY'OF'TOXI'C EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES ('RTECS) SECONDARY SOURCE ID! CAS TYPE I NAME CAS RE'GISTRY NUMBER CLASS'IFICA'TION CODE CLASS'IFt'CATION CODE STANDARDSlREGULATIONS'. STATUS STATUS STATUS'. SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS~ SYNONYIh'!S' SYNONYMS SYNONYMS' SYNONYMS SYN ONYM S SYNONYMS SYNONYMS NIOSHi WN1S5QG0:00 SUCROSE 57-5V-1 MUTATION DATA REPRODUCTIVE DATA MSHA STANDARD:NUISANCE PARTICULATES DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold' Limit Valuess for Substances in Wor4yroom Air," SuppLements for Those Substances Adid'ed' or Changed Since 1971, , Ci ncc innat i,, Oh i o,, 1i9'76. For publ i'sher information, see DTLVS* 3,48,7s REPORTED' IN EPA TSCA INVENTORY', 1983 EPA GENETIC TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM, JAP+lUARY' 1984 MEETS CRITERIA FOR F`ROPOSED'. OSHA:MEDICAL RECORDS'.RULE FF_REAC 47, s042'ta, 82 BEET SUGAR CANE SUGAR CbNFECTZONER'S SUGAR. FRUCTOFURANOSIDE, alpha-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL, beta-D beta-D'-FRUGTOFURANOS I' DE „ alpha-D-GLUCOF'YRANOSYL GLUCOP'YRANOSIDE, beta-D-FRUCTOFUF'ANOSYL, alpha-D aipha-D-GLUI.OPYRANOSYL beta-D'-FRUCTOFURANOS I DE (alpha-D!-vLUCOSI'DO)-beta--D-FRL;CT'OFURANOSIDE rR'ANULAI~~`ED SUGAR NC I1-C56597 ROCK CANDY M w. GD CA . 10A O
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.^- SYNONYMS SYNON`lMS' SYNONYMS SACCHAROSE SACCHAf','UM SUGAR MOLECULAE:' FOE;MULA. C'12-H22-01 11 MOLECULAF:'WEIOHT 342.34 WISWESSER'LI'NE NOTATION T60TJ CQ' D'QI EQ F.iQ BO- BTOOTJ E<1Q CQ' DO E1Q' -6LU,FfiUC EN!TR`t`, MON'TH'. TOXIC DATA SOURCE. 8512 PMRSDJ' Progress in Mutation Research.. 1., 34:_'•., 8,1 TOXDAT4F:;EYWORDS MUTATION;,METAE:OLIC ACT'IVA-I'IION; S. T'fF`HI'MUFt'IUM! BA'CTER~IA;'600 ug/plate TOX I C' DATA SOURCE PMRSDJ:Pr-ogress in MutationlResearch. TOXDATA }::EYW'ORDS. 1',50f,8S MUTATION;ID'NA FtEPA:IR; S. CEREVISIAE; YEASTS; 3Dt7 mg/L .; TOXIC'DATA SOURCE ATSUDS Arcfii ves of Toxi co1 ogy„ Supp1 ement . .i OXDATA KEYWOR'DS 4~)~, 41, 80 ~. MUTAT It7N;,CYTO!GENET ICS; HAMSTER; RODENTS; LUNG'. SOMATIC CELLS; 10 gm/:L TOXIC'DATA' SOURCE I1JMDAI' Israel JournaD of Medical Stiences. TOXDATA KEYWORDS 16„789,8D1 ORAL; F:AT; RODENTS; TDLo1; 1548 gmGkg (2'1D. TOXIC DATA SOURCE preG1-22D'.preg).;TOX'IC EFFECTS:;REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL TJADABTeratologyr, A Journal of' Abnormall Devel opment . 3C)1,203,,84 TOXDATA KEYWORDS ORAL;MAMM'AL, NOS';,;TDLo:54810 mgikg. (15-3SD. preg!) ; TOXIC' EFFECTS; REPRODUI:TIVE' TOXIC DATA SOUF,'CE. EMBRYOTO'X'I C I TY TXAPA9 Toxicology and Appli'td PharmacoIogy. TOXDATA KEYWORDS TOXI'C DATA' SOURCE 7 „6R>9', 65, OR'AL; R'AT:'RODENTS; LDOO, 297t;i0 mg/kg, QDm PCJOAUiPharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. ~ Eng,1 i sh~ TransL ati on of KHFZAN. 1!5, 139, 81 ()D, ., C,l1 bA Yi
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TOkDATA k:EYWORDS IiNTRAF'ER I TONEAL; h1ClUSE; RODENTS;iLD50; 140ta0 mgik:g;TOXIC EFFECTS; TOXIC DATA SOURCE NAREA4Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. 30,1503,60 TOXDATA: KEYWORDS ORAL; DOMESTIC;FARM ANIMALS; LDLol; 40igmi/k.q
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AU - BOUILLON DJ ;i BERDANLER', CD. TI - EFFECT OF MATERNAL CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE ON MITOCHONDR'IAL ACTIV'ITY' AND ON LIPOGENESIS BY THE' YOUNIG:AN'D MATURE PROGENY' SI - E'TIC/83/005936 SO~ - J NUTR; 113: 22051-22116, 1983 LA - ENG . AB' - ETIC/ORNL AU' - BOUF:NIAS'-VARDI'ARASIS N ; TEF'LITZ RL ; CHERNOFF GF ;, SEECOF RL T1 - DETECTION OF TERATOGENS IN THE DROSOPHI'LA EMS'RXONIC CELL CULTURE TEST: ASSAY OF 1Q4! CHEMICALS' SI - ETIC/83/005833 SO' - TERATOLOGY; 28:109-122,1983' LAi - ENG AP' - ETIC/ORNL SEE: CA 99-15?664 AUl - TA'MUR'A T; FUJ I I' A ; KOBAYA'SH'.I S'. TI - FETAL LIVER. ANDK'IDNEYTOX~IC:ITIESDYALCOHOL AND SUCROSE SI - ETICJ83J005632 SID- JTOX'ICIOL SCI; 8: 33&,1983 LA - ENG AP - ETIC/ORNL
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AU - Sandlie GI ; Holmes P; Lmbley RW, AD - Dept. of Internal Medl-, Yale Univ., New Haven,, CT iab01~~:> TI - Glucose or sucrose flor the oral treatment of infective diarrhea SI - IPAGS!111039-34 SO, - Lancet;, VOL 1 ZSS' May 2 1981, P99a, (REF 3). LA - ENG AS - IPA COPYRIGHT: ASHP Isotoni'c solutions (flow rate 19' mLf'mi'n), containing d'ex:trose('gliuco:se; I) or suorose~ (,IIJ bo:tKat a dose of 112' mmo1/1 were used to perfuse 20 cm segments of proximal je junum i n 4 normal sub jects. The results showedl that net water secretion with II (38',6 m1i/1'0 min) was greater thanithat with I (!c3.7' m1A1c_'r minJ and there was no difference between I absorption from II and from Il. It was concluded that I rather than II is particularly useful in the severe cases of infective diarrhea.
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L21 ANSWER 4 OF 54, ANI CA1i02'('1114s9'1213k. TI Inhibition of DNA synthesis by chemical' carcinogens i'n cultures of initiated and normal oroliiferatino rat heoatocvtes AU Novicki, Deborah,L.; Rosenberg, Mark R.;, Michalopoulos, George CSI Med. Cent., Duke Uhi'v. LO Durham, NC 27710,,USA 50', Cancer Res., 45(11)'„ 337-44 SC 4-6 (Toxicology) DTi 3' CO CNREAB I S' 0008-5472 /' i'Y' 1985 LA Eng AB The effects of carcinogens and rnoncarcinogens on the ability o~f' hepatocytes to synthesize DNA,were examd. by measuring sci'ntillation the incorporation of C3H]thymidine by 14q;n counting and autoradiog., Hepatocyte DNA synthesis was not decreased by EtOH C64-L7-5] or DMSO C67-68-5]1 <O'..5X. No eff'ect was obsdL when 061 mKketamine~ Cb740-88+-1]„ Nembu$al, 176-74-47',, hy- poi-1-n`ffiine C68-94-0], sucrose C57-50-1]1, ascorbic,acid'. C50-81'-7]„ or benzoCe]pyrene rf92=9'Y-2] was ~ added'._talcultures of' re icating hepatocy~es_ Estrogen, testosterone C58-22-07, tryptophin C73-22-3]„ and vi'tamini E', C1406-18+-4] inhibited DNA synthesis by .apprx.50X at 0.1 mM, a concn. at'which toxicity was noticeable. Several carcinogens requiring metabolic activation as,well as the direct-acting carcinogen N-methyl-Nl"-ni'tro-N-nitrosoguanidine CZ0-25-7'] interfered with DNA synthesis. Aflatoxiin BL C1162-65'-8], inhibited DNA; synthesis by 50XI(ID60J at 1.times. 10-8-1 .times., 30-7M., j~ The IDSO for 2-acetylami'nofluorene C53r96-3]Iwas 1i.:ti'mes. 10-7-1: times. 10-6M'. Benzoia]'pyrene C50r32-8'] andl . 3rmethyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene C3732-90-97 inhibited DNA':synthesis 5O%between 1l.times. 10'-5and 1.ti'mes. 1'0-4M. Diethylnitrosamine G53r18-5]1 and' dimethylnitrosami'ne C62'.-75-9] (IDSO or 1 .ti'mes. 10-4-5. .times. 1'19-4M)' and 1- C134-32r7] and 2-naphthylamilne, C91-59-8]i ('IDSO a 1L .times. 10-5+-5' times. 10-4M) caused inhibitinn,of' DNA synthesis at concns. which overlapped with concns. that caused measurable toxicity. The abi'li'ty of hepatocytes to activate 2-acetylaminofluorene to reactive intermediates capable of'bindingito DNA'and'inhibiti'ng new DNA synthesis decreased as a, function of time iin culture. .gamma.-6lutamyl transferase-pos. hepatocytes from diethylnitrosaminertreated rats were obsd. to be relatively , insensitive to carcinogeniinhi'bition of'DNA synthesis. ., KW carcinogen DNA formation hepatocyte, IT Carcinogens, (,DNA'repTicatinn by hepatocyte response to), IT Chemicals Estrogens (DNA replication by hepatocyte response to, carcinogenicity in relation to) I'T' Liver, metabolism. (hepatocyte, DNA repliicati'on by, chems, effect on, carcinogenicity,in relation to) IT~ Deoxyribonucleic acid formation (repSication „ by hepatocyte, cPoems, effect on, carcinogenicity in relation to) IT' 50-32-8, biological,studies, 50-81-7, biol'ogical' studi,es 53r96r3 55-18-5 57-50-1, biological studies 58-22-0' 62-75-9 64"17-5, biological studies 67-68-5, biological' studies 68-94-t:! 70-25-7' 73-22-3, biol'ogical' studies. 76-74-4 91-59-8: 134-32-7' 192-97-2' 11162-65-8 1406-18-4 3732-90-9' 6740-88-1i (_DNA repli'cation b hepatocyte response to, aar~,og~~``~" ~ nre a ioo, t o ~
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TO7('LINE AU' - anon TI - Sweeteners from, A to X SI! - IFAG8'5/q7810SO'- Can. Pha:rm.J. ; VOL 1 17' ISSPriar 1964, F'110'5-10'6l._A - ENG AiH' - IPA: COPYRIGHT: ASHP Nutritive and~non-nutritive Canad'ian sweeteners areldiscussed'. Nutritive sweeteners discussed include aspartame, highfruictosesyrups', manni tol, sorbitol andl xyllitol;l, non-nutritive sweeteners include saccharin and the cycl'amates.. AUi - Wa1 rai chi M ;, hI'i ]I i1ch R ; Stumbo F' ;, Schul tz F AD - Dept. of Ped~iiatrics, Univ. Hosp. School,, Lowa C'ity, IA 52242 TI - Effects of' sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys SI - IF'A/86/<a0U79 SO, - J. fFediatr. ; VOL 106 ISS Apr 1985, P675-682, (REF 26), LA, - ENG AF' - IF'A COPV'R'TGHT: ASHP' S'ixteen hyperactive boys, mean age 10.2+-1.5 yr, were given a challenge drink of either sucrose (1')1, 1.75 g/kg (imean, dose, 57.3 g) , or a placebo, aspartame ( TI')! in equivalent sweetness, mean dose 197.3 g, tolinivestigate the effects of I i ngest i on on the behavi or and~l earni ngiof these boys. The results reveal'ed no differences between, the boys' performance and ingiestilon of' I or II after lunch or after an overnight fast. These findlings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays aimajor ro1'e!in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys. AU - Gross MD AD - 11893 Sheridan Rd. „ Higfilandi F'ark, IL 60035 TL-Effect of sucr'oseon hyperkinetic ch~iLdtren', - S I' - IRA/851/'ta6696 SO! - Pediatrics; VOL 74. ISS Nov 1984, P876-878', (REF 101) LA - EN8'. AR - IF'AI COFyR!I6HT:. ASHF' Hypersensitivity to sucrose (I) was stud'ied in 50 hypierkinetic children whose mothers had~indicated that hyperkinetic behavior was observed following the ingestion of food containing sugar. None of' the children studied showed'any consistent response to I ingestion.
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b 76 . :CIZL_/i_irV StiElaC4CS Coc(:L-r 20/s/12 2a6782 79091293149' Reduction in muta enieit of'ei arette smoke condensate by su ars. hka,~ ;~ (iag~ao,Ml~ ;~~ suji,lw. ; K~osuge,T'.~ (Biochem. Div., hlati. Cancer Res. Inst.,,5-1-1':„ Tsukiji,, Chuo-ku,, Tokyo. 104, .Iapan)'. Mutat. Res. ; 60(2)', 155-1'61 1979' Language; English Summary Language:, Engl'ish Document Type: Journali article-original research, The effects of' addilngi sugars to high- and low-tar cigarettes on~ the mutagenicity of their smoke condensates were studied using,Sal'monelila typhimurium TA'100 and' TA98 with andl without metabolic activatfon,The sugars tested were glucose,, fructosey galactose,,sorbitol,.sucrose,and Tactose. The lowest mutagenicities observed with these sugars per mg of smoke condensate assayed on TA98' with, metaboliic, activation were 37%I (high-tar cigarettes), and 22%, (low-tar cigarettes) of that of smoke condensate from, untreatedl cigarettes. Addition of'sugars increased thee total amounts of smoke condensates, but the mutageniciti,es of the total condensates were a3'so d'ecreased by a11 the sugars, the lowest values being 35'Y. (high-tar cigarettes), and 36'/.I ('l'ow-tar cigarettes) of that of smoke condensates from ci'garettes without addedlsugar. On assay with TA'L00, with metabol'ic activation, decreases in both specific and total mutagenicities of condensates of' high-tar cigarettes were observed with aiL the sugars tested except galactose and sucrose. Treatment with glucose, fructose or 3orbitoT decreasedl the speci'fic mutagenicity of condensates of low-tar cigarettes and glucose and fructose reduced aSso their total mutagenicity.. The effects ofl added sugars were more marked when assayed on TA98 than on TAfOO' and of the sugars tested fructose and sorbitoS had the greatest =>6ferts. Addi~tion of sugars, had no effect ofl the mutagenicity of. .,igarette-smoke condensate without metabol'ic,activation. Descriptors: cigarette smoke; mutagenesis;, Salmonella typhimurium;, eff'ec- ts,on; condensates; glucose; fructose; galactose; sorbitol;, sucrose; lacto+- ='e;: sugar; additives Smction Heading Codes: 07221; 241180; 1100111 M
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L21 ANSWER 3OF 54 AN' TI AU WS LO SO' SC DT ^O, ~ !S Py LA A'Hs CA102 ('a1) : 1'8029llb~ Ani automated' analysis system f'or bacterial maet aqenic i ty assays Sulovani emi , O. ; Ekhol1 mi, P.; Falc:;, F;. ; Kaukanieni, E. ;, Ki nniunen, Labsyst. Ft.; Partanen, P'.; Sorsa, Oy M. g, Vainilo, FH. Finland Am. Lab. (Fai rf i.eild~, Conn.), 17(3), 122, 124-9' 4-1' (Toxicology) d. ALBl'8L 0044-7749 1985. Eng A new mutagenicity assay systemi„ Mutascreen, whichh uses the same organism (Salmonella typhimurium) and S-9 activation system as the Ames assay was tested~ on,38 mutagenic and nonmutagenic chems. and gave good comrellation wilth the Ames assay. Rather than counting revertant colonies onlFetl*i dishes, the Mutascreen assay utilizes a beam of white light passed verti'caLly thorough a liq. culture soln. of the organism, nutrients, and'test chem.; in addni. to mutation d'etection, toxicity of the chem. and~ the presence of endogenous nutrients were detectable. IKW mutageni assay M'utascreen, IT Muta ens g . (detect i on of, by Ames vs. Mutascreen assayr), IT Salmonella typhimurium, ('mutagensd'etection i'n,, by Mutascreen assay) IT 5D+-1i8r-D1 5D-32-8!, biological stud n es 5D!-8'1!-7', b i o1 og i c,a1 studi es 51-79-6 53-9'6-3 56-53-1 57-50-1, biological studies 57-57-8. 59-89-'?" 60-11-7 61-82'-5'611-68-73'„ biological studies 66-27-3 67'-21'~-« 67-66-3, bli olog;i cal' studies. 68-12-2, biological studies 71-55-6 86-30-6 91-59-8 92'-8'7=5' -95'-53-4, biological studies 96-45-7 96-418-0 1I01-21-3 106-89-8, biological studies 120-12-7 9~, bao~log~,ica1 s~tu~dies~ 283 c2'.-02'-::, 54827-17-7 ('mutageni ci ty of~, i n , biloliogicali studies 1i29-00-V1, biological studies 134-:1'~-7.3~4r~~:~,1-~ ,4r~~:~,1-~, biological studi'~es495-4~~8~-Z' 68~=~-:~1-~~ 781-43-1 2465-27-2'. 9'6189-1 •1 -8 Ames vs. Mutascreen: 55~L 9~-J J-7 0 ~. assay )'
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r .. . . . . ._ . _ . ~ L21 ANSWER 2' OF 54 AN' CA.103 (7).- 49231 k TI' MUtascreen, an automated bacterial mutagenicity assay AU Fal c k, Kai ; 6'artanen, F'auL ; Sorsa, Mar jia; Suovani emi ,; Osmo;, Vainio, Harri CS~ Labsystems Res. Lab:.LO' Helisinki SF-[.?t?84101, Finland SO Mutat. Res., 150('1-2) , 119-25 :~C 4-1 ( Tox ic o!1 og y) DT J CO MUREAV IS' 0~'~lt7-51107 Fy' 1i9'85, LA Enig: AB Mutascreen is an, automated'' instrument for bacterial mutagenicity testing.' The biol. principles of the Mutascreen, assay are the same as those of' the bacteri al reuerse-mutationiassays, like the (rtimes test, but several' operational principles are diflferent. The Mutascreen assay takes place in wel'ls contg. only 400 .muu.L of liq. medium. Also,, the di spensing odi the l i q. medi um, the bacteri al' tester strains, the metabolic activation system (S9):, and'. the test solins.. are all performedl by a computer-contrrolled robot accordIng,to the user"s.preprogrammed instructions. The~turbi d i tyi n up to .200 wel l'si is montored i'ntermi~ttentl yover a 24-h period by a vertical-pathway photometer, thereby avoiiding measurement problems caused by sedimentation. The datalfor the resulting growth curves is stored for arial.. The auxotrophic growthh pattern is altered characteristically by test solns. that,are toxic or contain endogenous growth. factor(s), whereas prototrophic growth is obsd. earlier in the 24-h period!when revertants have been induced by the test soln. To compare the Mutascreen assaywith the conventional plate assay, 36 chems. including, known, carcinogens and noncarcinogens were tested. Both assays identified the same chems. as mutag,ens and gave quant. similar results, thus testifyin'go to the potentialusefulness of automatedl bacterial mutagenicity testing;., ~::W Mutascreen mutati on ti ssay [T MUt agens (detectii on of, Mutascreen test for ) ii1 50-1,8-0 5t7-32-8,1 biol'ogical studies 50-81-7, bi'ologicalatudies 51-79-6 5-3-96-3 56-53-1 57-50-1, biological studies stud'ies b i ol ogi cal 92L -87- ;, 5'9-89-2' 60-11-7 61!-82-5 63-68-3, biol ogicaD 67-21-0 67-66-3, bi'oiogical studies 68-1'2-2, ~ stul i es 71-55-6 79-44-7 86-L 0-6 91-59'-8' ~ 95-53-4, b i ol ogical , stud i es 96r45"7 96-48+-0 10 1-2 1-3 L04-25-7 1ca6-89-B, biological studies 120-12- :, biological studies 129-00-01, biological studies 1=4"'2-7 -'=Q5r--4s3-7' 592-62-1 hB0-11-9, biologicall stuid'i es 781 -43- 1 11B4-6b- i 246 5-27-y: 28322-02-3 54827-17-7 ~ (mutagenicityrof';,, Mu.tascreentest forY I
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t! y 1 ANSWER 6 OF 54 AN CA101(17)' : 145729h TI Dietary cartnohvd'ratelevel asamodi'fvinalfactorof 3°-methyl-4-di~methvlaminoatobenzemie liver carcinoaenesis ini rats AU Satoi,, Ak'.io,; IUaka j i ma, Tami e; K'oyamai, Yutaka; Sh i rai ,. Tomoyuki ; Ito, N'obuyukil . CS Dep. Environ., Health, Med'.. Univ. Yamaniashi LO Yamanashii 409-38, Japan S'Oi Oann, 751(8), 665,711 SC 4-6 (To:€icology), DT' J CO 6A9NtVA2 IS 401'6-4i5OX PY' 1984 LA! EnigAR. The effect of' dietary carbohydrate (CHO) level on liver carci.nogenesils inducedl by 3~"-methyl-4-d'i methyl ami noazob~enz ene M: [55-8~~0-1 ]i was investi.gated in male rats. In the 1st expt., 3 groups of 30, rats were maiintained on, liq,.• d'iets, which differed only ini the level of CHO (sucrose C57-5D*-11); high-CHO (14.04 g/day), medium^CH0 (9.72 g/d'ay),, and Low~-CHG(3.64 g/day). Half of the animals from each group were g1ven'I' added toi their diet at 10 mg!/day/rat for 2t, wlt, the remainder beingg maintainedlas carcinogen-f'ree controls. Final body and liver wts, of'controL rats decreased with decreasinrl d i etary L evel of CHO, wh i 1 e carc i nogienitreatment. i ncreased, the liver/body wt. ratio with decreasing, CHO level. Quant. an:al. showed that the,no. and'area of liver tumors per unit area of 1' i ver sect i ons i ncreased wi th decreasi ngidi etary sucrose level. Hepatocellular carcinomas were onLy obsd. in~. rats placed on the low CHO dilet (4 of 1..,' rats),. In th:e 2'nd e;dpt.;,, where rats were given I, in a semisynithie#iic powder diet for 16 wk, the no. and area of .gamma.-glutamyltranspeptidase-pos. foci were significantly higher inithie Iow-CHOidiet group, withidecreasing values: being assocd'. with i ncrease i nisucrose lievel i~n the d'~i et . Thus, loweredl CHO' i ntaks enhanced, whereas hi gfrn i ntaF:e reduced, I liver carciniogenesis in rats. For dilagram(s), see printed'CA Issue. KW carbohydrate di et methyl dli methyl ami noaz obenzene 1 i ver nenplasm,; azobenzene;methyldimethyLami'noiliver carbohydrate IT Animal nutrition (carbohydrate in, methiyldiimethyiaminoazobenzene,liver neoplasm modification: by) IT Liver, neoplasm~ ('from methyldi~methylaminoazobenzene, dietary carbohydrate mod~ificationof)'i.T Carbohydrates and Sugars, biologicall studies (iin diet, methiyldiimethylaminoazobenaene liver neoplasm modification by): [i T ; 5-30-1 (carcinogenicity of, in liver, dietary carbohydrate effect on) ~ IT 5T-50-1, biolog~ieaL.studies - ~, (i,ndiet, methyLdiim!eth~rlaminoazob~enizeneLiver neoplasm, modification bv): ~
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4'l3/ 1 0976508 B2001065747' Chemi'caii mutaoenesis testibo in Drosophila . III. Results of' 48 coded'_ comaounds tested~for the National Tioxi~coloav Prooram. Valiencia,,R.; Mason, J'.M1,; Woodruff,, R.C.; Zimmering, S. Zool. Dep., 1517 West Johnson St., Madison„ WI 53706, USA ENVIRON. MUTAG.;. 7(3), pp. 325r34B 1'985 Languages Engl'i'sh, Summary Language: English 4'/3/2' " 0976483 8200'1065343' Adverse effect of' a sulle-based semipurif'iied diet on development and„ postnatal,arowthiof Fischer rats. Ha1'perin-Walega„ E.S.; Shively, C.A.; Griffith, J.W.;. Greene,, F.E. Dep6 Pharmacol., Pennsylvania State Univ.,,Co1'l. Med.,,Hershey, PA 17033, USA, TOD(ICOL. APPL.,'PHARMACOL.; 80(2),, pp. 284-292' 1'985' Language:, English Summary Languages English 6/3G1 09764B3' B2001065343 ~ _Adverse effect of a sucrose-based semipurif'3 ed diet on deveiopment and postnatal growth of Fischer rats. Halperi,.n*-Walega, E.S.; Shiveiy,, C.A'.; Griffith, J.W.;, Greene,, F.E.. Dep6Pharmacol.,, Pennsylvania State Univ.,, CoI1. Med.,,Hershey,, PA,17033„ , USA i j TOXICOL. APPL. PHARMACOL.; 60(2),, pp. 284-292 1985. Languages Engl'ish, Summary Language: English 6~'3f 3 ../ 0849783' B2000736858' Studi'es'on the metabolic f'ate of'sucrose esters iin rats. Shi~geoka, T.;, Izaway, Oi; Kitazawa, K.; Yamauchi, F. Mitsubishi'-Kasei Toxiicol. andlEnvi'ron. Sci., 1:000 Kamoshidarcho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 227, Japan FOOD CHEM. TOXICOL.;;. 22(6)1, pp. 409-414 1984 Language: English Summary Language: English
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6/7,/6 . 0644733 . 82000:? 14.T.33Serum Li poprotei n andi B1 ood Pressure Level s i~n Rhesus Mon keys Fed Sucro=_ Di ets. Ll evi dence,, B'. A. ; Sri ni vasan, S. R. ;, Webber, L. S'. ; Radhal:ri shnamurthy,, B. Dalferes, E.;, Berenson,i G.S. Dept. Med. & Biochem., Louisiana St. Uhiv. Medl. Ctr., 1542 Tulane Ave. ,. New Oirlieans,, LA70112, USA BIOCHEM. M'ED. ;, 25(2Y, ppi. 186-197' 1i98'1 Language:, Englishi Summary Language: English 6/'3/7' 0634817 82000180127 ' . Sucrose-I,niduced H'ypertrigL yceriidaemi a: Rel ati on to HDL-Cho1 esterol and t(-Phvsical Fi'tness. Fears,, R'.; Glenny, HI.P'.; Tred'ger,, J.A.; Lind~say, R. Beechiam,Pharmaceut. „ Res. Div., Great Burgh, Epsom, Suirreyr, UK NUTR. E:IEP'. INT. ; 24(5), p!p. 909-917 1981 Language: English Summary Language: Emigili~sh ' 61319 0619840 ' 820001 c7'786 Ef f ect of ' Poi' y-2-Vi nyl pyr i di ne-N'-Ox ide and Suicrose on Si l i cate-I nduced _H'emollys:i solf Erythrocytes.`- ~ Oscarson, D. W. ; Van,Scoyoc,, G'. E. ;~ Ahlri chs,, J'. L. Saskatchewan Inst. Pedol., Univ., Saskatchewan, Sas&atoon,, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N! OW(7, . ,J.: PHARM. SCI. ; 70(6),, pp. 657-659 1981 Language: English Summary Language: English i'
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FOODS ADL IDRA 0190947 85004507 Federal Register, December 05, 1984, p 4!7505 CODEN: FEREAC'. Doc Type: JOURNAL ' 8412015 Carbohydrates: FDA offers an oppor_tunity for public review1of its secont . updated literature review on, corn sugars and sucrose. Relevant articlier from this scientific literature update and articles and other dat< submitted in response to this notice will be consid'ered, in the agency'e decision on the6RAS~ st~atus~ of corn sugar,, corn syrup, invert sugar anc! sucrose. _. 84052907 Federal Register, June 46,, 1984„ p 23457 CODEN:. FEREAC Doc Type:: JOURNAL i 840606 Sweeteners: FDA announces am opportuni ty f or pub]i i c revi ewi of' i t6 compIlation of recentlly published scientific literature on corn sugars anc sucrose. The references and~ data will then be considered' in the agency"¢ d'ecision on SRAS~ status of' corn, sugar„ corn syrups,, i'nvert sugar, anc sucrose. a17&_ti8384t7086!671i Federal Register, January 26,, 1984, p a271-3272' CODEN: FEkEAC' ~ Doc Type: JOURNAL 840126 COLORS: FDA announces the opportunity for public comment on changes in,, the Food! Chemical Codex, 3rd Edition. Proposed'lnew monographs woul'ld be for;, anniatto extract, casein, & caseiniate salts, FDi35cC~ Green PN!o. 3, FD&G Blue Nlo_ !' 1, FD&C Red No. 3, FD.&C Yellow No~. 51, gelatin,, hexanes, HFCS (hi'gh, fructose corn syrup,)i, i nvertr sugar, 1 actose, po1 ydextrose, smoke f lavor , and~ var i ous edii b l e oi l s (coconut oi 1, corn oi 1,, cottonseed oi 1, 1 ard, pal m kernel oi 1, saf f l ower oi l, soybean oi l,, and, sunf l ower oill).i
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t. 0025625 IDENTIFYING NO'.: ia065c9'1; CA-D*-FST-30W2-H AGENCY CODE: AGR DETERMINATION OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN FOODS F`R I NC I FAL I NVEST I GATOR : RUS SELL G' F F'ERFOtiM I NG' ORG'. : UN I V OF CAL I FOF.N!I A!,, FOOD SC I'ENCE & TECHNOLOGY, DAV I S, CALIFORNIA 9'5616 SPONSORIN& OR6.: U. S.i DEPARTMENT OF'AGR'ICULTURE, COOPERATIVE STATE'F:ES' SER DATES:~ 74C;>903 TO 850930, OBJECTIWE:~ Investigate the occurrence and toxicityr, with, emphasis on carcinogenesis, of a group of' nutritionally deleterious chemicals from. foode, whose hiazardi has previously not been, defined'. The chemicals are products of' the Mailliard browning reactions, partilcuLarlly those formed, from the condensati on, of endogenous amilnes (!e, g. ami no aci d's) and~ sugars wFtii c. may, through Ad'madori rearrangement, •F'orm polar nonvolatile N-nitrosated seconda:ry amilnes.AfPF'ROACH•r We propose a coordinated study involving, the preparation,, characterization, and analysis of several mod'el Amad'ori and NL-nitroso Amadbr i compoundt;~ bi ochemii s,try/'tox:ii coil ogy, eval uate disposit i on, f ate and' toxic hazard. The extent of' N-nitrosation of Amadoril compounds and MaiLLard reactioni products ini human diets duri'ng food processing, and; through in vivom metaboli'sm and the associated hazards, wilil receive speciial emphasis. PROGRESS: The Maillard reaction is well recognized, in, food chemistry and by carbohydl^ate and protein, chemists. Initial condensation reactionsof' gl'ucose and, amino acids lead to; theformation, of' intermediates such as the Amadori compounds and their rearrangement products. Secondary aminies in these products are thus potential sites f'or reactions with, nitrites to form ni trosamii nes and, as such, may be of sii gni f iicance as genotox ii c agents. We studied the mutagenic properties of' the early Maillard product 1'-('N'-L-Tryptophan)-1'-deoxy-D-f'ructose CFru-Trp] and i~ts nitrosatedanaliogue CNO+-Fru-Tr.p], using HeLa SY carcinoma cells as biologiical probe. Other studies have shown mutagenic properties of this compound with Salmonella bacterial sustems (Ames assay) in which direct acting,mutagenic properties are manifested in these prokkaryotic systems. We are also studying, volatile Maillard reaction products that have nitrosation potential..Heterocyclic compounds such, as thiazolid!ines can react with nitrous acid'.to form nitrosothiazolidines which also show multa:genic activity in bacterial assays. We have purifipd' and characterized a number of volatile thi azol i di'nes, together wY th thei r ni trosated' d'eri vatives,, usi ng GLC analysis, IR spectroscopy as well as fragmentation mass spectroscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy.
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Food Add it i ves Permi tted for Di rect Addi t i on to Food! f or Human Consumption. FDA C'i tati on .21 CFR~ 172' F'ubl. Date:. 770315 Effective Date: 770315 Jctrisdiction: US'. Doc. Type:REGULATIDN' Status: FINAL Source of' Information: 81!/04/01, 21 CFR' Authority: FFDCA N!o. of Revs: & No. of'Chemd'cals: 928; INCOMPLETE'DISPLA'Y. Prescribes food additives andingrediients permitted! for direct addition to f'ood' for human consumption, including: food preservatives, coatings, fil'ms,, and related substances; special dietary andl nutritional additives; flavori~ng agents and related substances; gpms, chewing, gum bases andl related substances, and, other specific usage additives, particularly multip.urpose additives. *Details use, al!Lowable limits, an~d 1'abelinigi requirements for each additive. Also presents test procedures for determilni'ng ultravi ol et absorbance l i mi ts f or se1 ected i ng,red'i ents, (42 FR 1977. 14491, , Mar. 15, 1977. 4 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesive Coatings and FDA C'i tat i on : 21 CFR 1175' Publ. D!ate: 770315 Effective D!oc. Tyrpe:.REGULAT IdN Status: Sourceof~ I~nforma~tion:Authority: FFDCA No. of Revs: a' No. of Prescribes conditions of Date: 77Ui 1'5; F INAL'. 81/04/01, 21 CFR' Components. Jurisdiction: US' Chemica:ls:~ 1108;: INCOMPLETE DISPLAY. under which substances may be safely used as adhesi ves and'coati ng,s ulsed'i i n, the manuf acture of foodd packaging, materials. *Identifies andl stipulates liimi~tations oni the food associated' use of component substances of adhesives„ pressure-sensitive adhesives, and~ coatings, including,: acrylate ester copolymer coatings; hiot-melt strippabLe food coatings; synthetic paraffin; partial phosphoric acidlesters of polyester resins; poly (vinyl fluoride) resins; resinous and polymeric coatings; resinous and poliymeric coati'ngs for polyolefin films:; vinyl aceta~te/¢rotonicactid'c copolymer,11 vinylid'enechlori'de copol'ymercoatings for nylion film; viny3'idsne chloride copolymer coatings for p.olycarbonate film; xy1enie-formaldlehyde resins condensed with 4,4-isopropylidenediphenolep,ichl!orohydriln epoxy resi~ns; andi zilnc-silicon dioxide matrix coatings. Also details test procedures for determining the amount of' extractives from resinous or polymeric coatings using solvents simulatin~g! types: of foods and beverages. (42 FR 14534,, Mar. 15'1, 1977. com~ponent~s~.
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TI, Cenetic activity oii' 42 coded AU' CS' LO SO' SC. DT Col IS FN' LA AB compoundls in n the mi totic aene conversion assay using,Saccharomvices cerevisiae strain D4!_, Jagannath, D. R.; tdultaggio, D. M.; Brusick, D. J. Litton Bionetr., Inc. Kensington, MD, USA Pr-og. Mutat. Ftes., 1 (Eva1 . Short-Term Dnt. Collab. Erogram),, 456-67 4-1 (Toxicology) J PMRSDJ v7:y 1-2849: 11981 Eng Of 42 compds. Tests Carcinog.: Rep. tested i nithe ti tle assay, 10 compds. caused mitotic genie conversioni in S. cerevisiae strain m4. The results were reproducible ini1- and 3h preincubation This assay is of' value as a prescreen f'or chem. assay , carcinogenies,~ but~ the~ results oniva~~rious~~ compds. tested suggest that the protocol used is niot a sensitive one. KW' Saccharomyces gene conversion carcilnogenicity, mitotic gene I'T conversion carcinogen screening MUtagens Carcinogens (carcinogenicity of, and miitotic gene convers:ion assay wi th Saccharomyces: cerevi si'ae strai'n D4 ) IT Genie and Genetic element, microbiali (mitotic conversi'oni+in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carcinogeniscreening by) IT' Saccharamyces cerevisiae (mi toti c gene conversi on in~,, i~n~ carcinogen screening,)~~ IT 5Q-81'-7, biological studies 57 -50-1. biological studies 9W-5-7-4, biological studies 101-14-4 2465-27'-2 (carcinooenicitv of, and' mitotic gene conversion assa~r with Saccharomvices cerevisiae strain D4) IT 50-18-0 5D"352-8', biological' studies 51-79-6 53-96-3 56'53- 1. ..J6-57-5. 57-..J7-8. 59-89-2 6~I. -1L.1''-7 61-8'2 L-5 6?-68-3r, biological studies 67-21-0 67-66-3,, biological studies 68-12-2, biolLog,i'cal stud'ies 71-55-6 7'9-44-7 86-30-6 91-59-8 92'-87=5 94-59-7 96-45-7 96-48-0 10'1'-2 1-3 1a1-2 5-7 146 89-8',, biological studies 7, biological studies 129'-QD-01,, biological studies 134-32-7' 3U2-D1-2', b,ilo1 ogi caI studi es 49 5-48-7 12(J-T2'- 502-D'2- ? 592-62-1 684-3'1-9, biological stud'ies: 781-43-1 14D7•_y-DQ-8' 28322-412"-3' 54827-17-7 (carcinogenicity of, mitotic gene conversion assay wilth Saccharomyces cerevi si ae strain D4 i n eva1 uati on of )I
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AN C'A98123J:1921792c. T1 Summary report on the performance of' Yeast assavs AU De Serres,, Frederick J.,;, Hof'f'mann, Georg,e R. CS Nati. Inst. Environ. Health Sci. LO Research Triangile Park, NC, USA SO Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(Evali., Short-TermiTests Carciinog.: Rep. Int., Col l ab. Program), 68~-76 SC 4-1 (Toxicology) DT J CO PMRSDJ IS 0731-2849 PY' 1981 LA Eng AB' Forty-twolcompds. were tested wi th 8't di f f erent yeast assay systems with regiard~to their carcinogenicity. All tests had difficulties in distinguishing,carciDogens from closelly relatednoncarcinogens. The yeast test system with the highest accuracy (68'.9%) .was the forward mutation test in Saccharomyces pombe, however the.sensitivity of this test was only 58X. N'one of the assays tested showed very hig4 predictive value for carci~nogeni~city:testing. KW' yeast assay carcinogenicity IlT' Saccharomyces cerevilsia:e SQhizosa:ccharomyces pombe (carcinogenicity d'etection in)' IT Carcinogens (detection of,, by yeast assay, performance in relation to, )i IT 1'06-89-8!,, biological studies 120-12-7, biolog,ical! studi'es 129-Dt7-0,, biological studies 134-32=7 302-a11-2 , biollogi~cal studies 495-48-7 502"-42-3 592-62-1 680-31-9, bi o1'ogi cal studi es 781-43-1 2465-27-2' 1407.Ty-0D'-8 2832 2-D2-3 54827-17-7 (carci nogieni ci ty of, detn. oif, , by yeast assays, per ormance i n rela.. i on to,) 50-18'-U1 50'-32-8,, bi ol ogii cal studi es 54{-81-7,, bi ol ogi cal studies 51-79-6 53-96-3 56-53-1 56*-57'-51 57-50-1', biol'og,i cal studi es 5:7-57-8 59-89-2 60-11-7 61-82'-51 63-68-3,, biological studies 67-21-0 67-66r,3, biological studies 68L12-2', biological studies 71-55-6 79-44-7 86-30-6 91-59-8 92-87-5' 94' 5'9-7 95-53-4, biologicaL studies 9di-415-7' 96-48-0 101-14-410'1'-21-3~ 101-25-7 => dis 1:21 11-54 bib abs L2'1 ANSWER 11 OF 54 AN TI AU: CS' t_0 30 SC DT CO' CA9812,3) : 19479'1'b Summary report on the performance of' bacterial repair. ahage induction„ degranulation,, and nucl'ear enTaroement assays ~' Ashby, John; Kilbey, Brian: Oenet. Toxicol. Sect., Amp. Chem. Ind. Ltd., A1derleyLCheshire, UK Prog. MUtat. Res., 1(Evali. Short-TermiTests Carcinog. : ep. Int. Col l ab. Program)i, 33!-4f3' 4-1 ('Toxi col ogy) J PMRSDJ I'S 0731-2849 PY' 1981, LA' Eng
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AN CA98!(21) : 174196g TI Mutagenic activity,of 42 coded compouind!s in the "microtiter" fluctuation test AU, Gatehouse, D. CS Patholi. Div:., 6Iaxo Group R'es. Ltd'. LO Ware/'H'ertfordshiire, UK'. SO' Prog. Mutat. R'es.,, 1(IEva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog,. : Rep. Int. Co11'ab. Program,) , .376-86 SC 4'-1 (Toxicology) : DT' J' CO' PMRSDJ IS 0731-2849' PY 198'1LA Eng L21 ANSWER' 13 OF' 54! _ _ . . .... . . . _ : . . . . . _. . . . . . . AN CA98' (^c 1) : 17419.~~ r TI Summary report on the oerformance of in vitro mammaliann assays AU, Brookes,, Peter; Preston, R. Ji. J. CS Inst., Cancer Res.,, R. Cancer Hbspl. LO, Chalfort St. Siles, UK' SO Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Ilnt. Collab. Program), 77-85 SC 4-1 (7oxicoIogyY DT J CO' PMRSD471 IS Q731-2849 P1f 1981. LA' Eng L21 ANSWER 14 OF 54 Rep. AN CA98(19):155944h, TI' Use of repair-def'icienit strains of ueast to assay the act'i vi ty of 40 coded comQounds AU Sharp+ D. C'. ; Parry, James M. CS Dep~. 6enet.,, Univ. Col'1. Swansea ILOSwansea, UK SO' Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Evall. Short-Term Tests Carcinog. : Rep. Int. Collab. Program), WD2L-1b SC 4-1 (To.cicology) DT J' CO PMRSDJ IIS 0731-2847 PY 198'1 LA Eng E.2'1i ANSWER' 1 S OF 54'
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AN! C'A981111191:155943gi TI' _Mutaaenic~ activity of 42' coded compounds in the Sallmonell a/'mi crosome assay AUi Ri'ch~oldl, M'argaret~;; Jones, Eryl CS Dep. Mutagenesis„' Wuuntingdon Res. Cent.. LO Muntingdon/Gambridgeshire, UK . SO! Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Lnt.Colilabi. Program~) ,, 314-22' • SC 4-1 (Toxicol'ogy) D!T' J, CO' PMR:SDJ . IS 0731-2849' P'Y' 198'1 LA Eng L21 ANSWER16 OF 54 Rep. AIV! CA98 (' 17 ): 1385Ti 6c TI MutaQ!enic activi'ty,' of 42' coded compounds in, the Lambd'a induct ii on assay AU Thomson, 'Jertnifer A6 CS Dep. Genet., ,. U!niv. W!itwatersrandl LO Johannesburg, S. Mr. SO Prog. M'utat.. Res., 1' (Eval . Short-TermiTests Carcinog. : Rep,. IInt. Collabi: Program), 224-35 SC 4-1 (To:ci~coSogyr)i S'X 3 DT J' CO PMRSDJ I S 0731-2849 PX' 1981 LLA Eng L21 ANSWEF:' 17 OF 54 AN CA98!('17) s 1 38515b. TI Zorotest AU Dambil yr,, C'. ; Toman, Z. ; Radman„ M. CS Lab. Gengt., Univ. Libre Bruxelles LO! Rhode St. Genese,, Belg. SO! Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(IEvaI. Short-Term Tests 1nt. Col labi. Progrram), 219-23 S C 4-1 ('To;ricollogy), S)(, 3 OT J CO PMRSDJ IS 0731-2849' P'Y 1981 LA' Eng Ce:rcinog,.: R'ep. Q& ~ tM0 Wi
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L21 ANSWER 118 OF 54 AN CA98(17).138514a TI' DNI`-1 pot Xm ragg _ afg-f i i nt aacjav AU~ CS LO SO R'osen krana , Herbert S. ;; Hyman, J!ul i e; Lei f er , Zev Dep. Mi'crobiol., New York Med. Co11,. ValihallTa, NY, USA' Progi,.~ Mu~,tat. Res,,~ 1~ (Evall., Short~~-Term~ Tests, ~ Carcinog!.~: R!ep~. SC' oT COi I'S~ Int. Co]! 1!ab. Program)'., 214'•-18. 4-1i ('Tox icol og;y)'. J PMRSDJ 0731-284'9 PY 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 19 OF 54 AN C'A98(17):113851.3z TI Testing of a series of paired compounds (carcinogen and, noncarcinogenic structural analog) by DNAreaair-deficient .E. col i strai ns AU Tchinotsubo, Dana; Mbwer, Howarrdi;~ Mandei, Morton -. CS LO! SO'. Depi. Bilochem. Biophys.„ Univ. Hawaii Manoa,, H1, USA Prog. Mutat. Res., L('EvaT. Short-Term Tests Carcinog. : Rep. SC DT CO I5I Int. Collab. Program), 195'-B' 4-1 (Toxicoliogy). J PMRSDJ 073.1'-2849 PY 1981 LAi Eng L21 ANS4JER' 20 OF 54' AN ' CA98 (15)' : 1L1071f T I A'ctivi'tyr of codedl compioundsin tFhemicronuicleustest AU Tsuchimoto, T.; Matter, B. E. CS' LO' Pharmi. Dep. „ Sand'oa Ltd. SO BaseD,, Swi t: Prog. Mutat. . R'es.„ 1(Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: (b Rep. Int. Colilab. Program), 705-11 ZS C 4-6('Toxicolo ) 03 DT gy J ~ ' CO PMF:SDJ! . G.i ~' I S 07i 1!-28'49 P'Y ' 19a1 LA, Eng
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L21 ANSWER 21 OF 54 AN CA98'('1'51): 12'1D67j TI Salmonella/microsome tests on 42 coded chemilcals AU MacDonialdl, Douglas J'. CS. Inst. Anim. Genet., Edinburgh Uiniv. LO'. Edinburgh, UK SO Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog,.: Rep,. Int. CoSlab. Program), 285-97 SC' 4-6 (ToxicQlogy). DT 3 CO PMRSDJ' M 0731-2849 PY 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 22 OF 54 AN CF1'98 (15)! : 1'20760t TI .MUtagenic activity of' 41 compounds in the in vivo micronucleus assay AU Sa1 amone„ Mi chaet F. ; Heddl e, John A~. ; Kata, Morri s CS Dep. Bio1. Chem,., York Univ. LO Downsvi'ew, ON, Can., SO Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carciinog.: Rep. Int. Collab. Program)i, 686-97 SC 4-1 (Toxicology) DT J CO, PMRSD.T. M ©731-28'49' . PY' 11981 LA Eng L21 ANSNIER' 23OF 54 AN' CA98(15):120759z TI JILV test' (integration enhancement test)' of 42 coded ,compounds in mouse kidney cells AU! CS LO 5O! Yoshikura, H.; MatsushIma, T. Inst., Med. Sci., Unii'v. Tokyo Tokyo,, Japan Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinogi.:. ep. m ~ SC DT Init. Coll!ab., ProgramIT„ 647-50 4-1' (.Toxi col ogy)' J Ca t1'11 CO IS, PMRSDJ 073,1,-2849 C.! PY' 1981 LA i Enig
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AN' CA98(15):!120757x TI Evaluation of the sister chromatidi exchange method! in, mammal i an cell s as a screeni nosystem f or carci' nocnenis AU Perry, Pauli E.; Thomson, Eric J!. CS Med. Res. Counc. C1 i n. Uni t, Westl*. Geni. Hosp. LO: Edinburg,hi,, UK SO Prog. Multat. Res.,, 1('EvaT. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Int. CoLliab. Program),, 560-9 SC 4-1 (Toxicology): DT J CO PMRSDJ IS D731-2849 F'Y' 1'981. LA' Engi L2'li AfV'SWER! 251 OF 54 Rep. AN CA98' ( 15 ) : 120756w T'I Induction of m~itotic gene conversion by 41 codedlcomaounds. using the yeast culture JD'ii AU Sharp, D. C.; Parry, James M. CS Dep. Genet., Uhiv. Co1'1. Swansea - LO' UK SO Progi. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Rep. Int. Cvl'Labi. Program),, 49'1-501 SC 4-1 (Toxicology) DT J. CO PMRSDJ I S 4773.11-2849 PY' 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 26 OF..,4 AIVI CA98'(1 5D ' : 120754u TI Inidluction of' mitotic aneuploidy in, the yeast strain D6 coded compounds. AU Parry, James Mi. ; Sharp, D. C.. CS Dep. Genet.„ Univ. CoIl. Swansea LO'. UK' SO! Prog. Mutat. Res., I(Eva1. Short-TermiTests Carcinog.: Int. Colilazbi. Program), , 468-80 3C 4-1 (Toxicology) 1DT J CO PMRSDJ! j S 07311-2849 PY 1981 LA Eng by 42 Rep.
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A'NCA98(15 ): 12D:752s~ TI Fluctuation test with S9 and he atocyte activation A'UHubbard'i, S~. A. ;~ Green, M, HI. L. ;' Bridges, B. A. ;~ ain, A., J. ; Bridges, J'. W. CS h9ed. Res. Counc. Cell M'utation~ Unit, Univ.: Sussex. LO Falmer/Brighton, UK SO Prog. M'utat. Res., 1i (Evra1 ., Short-Term Tests. Carcinog.: Rep. Int. Collab. Program), 361'-70 SC 4-1 (To:<i':col]iogy), DT J' CO PMRSDJI'S 073 1-28419 PY' 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 28 OF 54 AN CA98 (15 ): 1 20751'r T'I1 Development of the dewranulationitest system AU Fey, EdWard G'.; White, Nlugh Aw. ; Rabin, Brian, R. CS Diep. Biochem., Univ. CoI I. London LO London,-UY. . SO' Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(Eval. Short-TermiTests Carciniog.: Rep. Lnt. Collab. Program')!, 236-44 SC' 4-1 (Toxicology), SX 3 DT J' CO' PMRSDJ IS G7'31-2849 PX 198'l LA' Eng L21 ANSWER 29' OF' 54 AN' CA98 (' 15 ): 1 L0750q TI Summary report on the performance of' in: vivo assays AU Purchase, I. F. H.; Fay, V. C'& Cent. Toxico3.Lab:. , Imp.: Chem. Ind., Ltd. LO A.Tderley Park./Cheshire,i UK SO Prog., Mutat. Res., 1'.(Eual. Short-Termi SC DT CO IZ PY LA Init., CoL lab. Program)i, 86-9'S'. 4-1i ('.Toxicoliogy) J. PhiRSDJ' 0731-2849 1981 En g, M Cb CD Tests Carcinog.: RepW , C!R W
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AN CA97 ('11) : 86520g TI' Trehalose toxicity in Cusculta reflexa. Sucrose content decreases in shoot tips upon trehalose f'eeding AU1 Veluthambi ,, M;. ;. Mahadevani, S. ;~ MaheshtMari ,, Rameshi CS Dep. Biochem., Indian Inst. Sci. LO Bangalore 560012, , India: SO Plant Physiol., 69(6), 1L47-5'1i SC 4-3 C,Tox i co1' ogy)' DT J CO PLPHAY' IS DOy2-DB89' PY' 1982' LA Eng L2'1 ANSWER' s1 OF 54 I AN' CA96 (21) : 175852p. T'I 6!uanti~tati ve correspondence betsween, the i ni vi'vod and i n vitro ftctivi'ty oif teratog,enic agents AU Braun, Andrew 8.;, Buck'ner, Christine A,.; Emerson, David J'.; CS Nilchinsoni,, Bradley B. Dep.. Radiat., Ther-, Harvard Med. Sch. LO SO Boston, MA 02115,, USA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A~., 7916), 2056-60 SC DiT' CO IS! 4-6 (Toxicology), J PNASA6. 0027-8424 PY 1982' LA Eng L21 ANSWER 32 OF 54 AN CA96(ii)::11941p T~ Acti vi ty o IF 42' coded, compounds i n:the BHK•'-21' cel l. transformation test AU Styles, J. A:., CS' Cent. ToxicoL. Lab,.,, Imp. Chem6 Ind. Ltd. LO' Cheshi re, UK SO Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Evall., Short-Term Tests Carcinogi.: Rep. I~nt. Collab. Program)' ,, 638-46 SC 4-7 (Toxicology) DT J CO PMF.SDJ' PY' 19'81 LA: Enq, L21 ANSWER 33 OF 54 AN CA96 (1)' : 19O'0n, TI Testi ng o E 42, coded compounds for their abii 1 ity to i nduce-. unscheduled DNA repair synthesis in HQLa cellis AU Martin, Carl N!.; McDermid, Eanne C. GO CS' Cancer Res. Uni't„ Univ. York: m. LO' York,, UK M! SOi Prog. Multa:t. Res., il ('Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog,. : R!ep. ~ Int. Coll liab. Program), 533!--7 CA SC 4-7 (Toxicology). ~ DTJ' CO PMRSDJ PY 198'1 LA Enq
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AN CA96 (1) : 1898t TI Activitu of 42'coded compounds in the Salmonella reverse~ mutation test AU, Trueman„ Roger W'., CS Cent. Toxicol. Lab.,, Imp. Chemi. Ind'. Ltd., LO MacclesfieLd, UK SO Prog. MUtat. Res., i'(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Rep. SC DT CO PY' Init. Collab. Program), 343-50 4-7 (Toxicology) J PMRSDJ' 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 35OF 54' AM. CA95(25):216193z _ TI: 1[o:ricitv of 41 carcinooens and noncarcinomlenig anaLoos AU Salamone, M'ichaeli F. CS Dep. Biloi. , York U'niv. LO Diownsview,i ON, Can.. SO Prog. Mu:tat. Ries.,, 1(Eval. Shart-TermlTests Carcinogi. :! Int. CoL lab. Program), 682-5 SC 4-7 ('Toxicoliogy) DT J' CO PM'RSDJ PY 1981 LA Eng. L211 ANSWER 36 OF 54 Rep. AN CA95I(25) : 216189c TI Mutagenic activity of 42 encoded compounds in the haploid yeast reversion assay., strainiX.V185-14C' AU Mehta, R. D. ; Von! BorsteT, R'. C. CS Dep. Genet., Uhiv., Alberta LO Edmont'on,, AB, Can,. SO Prog. Muta:t. Res.„ 1(Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.: Rep. Lnt. ColL lab,., Program), 4'14' ^c3' SC' 4-7 ('Toxicology)i DT J" CO' PMRSDJ. PY' 1981 LA Eng, L21 ANSWER ?7 OF 54 atV, CA95,(1.25)':216188b TI Reverse mutation test on 42'coded comoounds with the E coli ,WPt system aUl M'atsushima,, Taijilro.;, Takamoto, Yuji; Shirai', Atsuko~; Sawamura, M'utsukol, Sug,ilmural, Takashi CD'. QD . CS LO !=0! Inst. Med. Sci., Univ. Tokyo Tok:yo,,, Japan, Progi. Mu!ta~t. R~es. „ 1 (Evall. Short-Term, TestsCa~rci nog.,: Repl. C1t Int. Co11'ab. Program),„ 387-95 1C 4-7 (IToxicol'ogy)' C11 DT C0 J ' PMRSDJ PY' 1981 _ . . . . LA Enq,
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AN CA95(25):216187a TI Mutagenicity of 42'coded compounds in a bacterial assay' uslngi Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimuriu~m AU ueni tt , S. ; Cro~f tonrSl eigln!, C. CS Inst. Cancer Res.,, Chester Beatty Res. Inst. LO Bucki:nghamshiire,, Engl. SO Prog. Mutat. Res.,, L(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinogi.: Rep,. Lnt. Coll liab. Program), 351-60 SC 4-7 (ToxicologyY DT Ji CO' PMRSDJ! Py 1981 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 39 OF 54 AN CA951(25):216185y TI' MUtagenicity ofcarcinogens and noncarcinogens in the .Salmonella/microsome test ! AUi Rowland, Ian; Severn,, Brian, : CS~ Brit. Ilnd. Biol. Res. Assoc., L0 Surrey, Engl. SO Prog. Muta:t. Res.,, 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinogi.: Int. ColIll:ab. Program), 323-32 SC 4-7 (Toxicology)i DT' J CO PMRSDJ PY 1981 LA Eng. L21 ANSkdER', 401OF 54 A'N I CA95 (2'5). : ^c'1618'4>c TI Mutagenic activity of 42 coded compounds in the salmonelLaL'microsome assay AU Nag,ao, Minako;: Takahashi, Y~uri CS Biochem. Div., Na:tl. Cancer Cent. Res. Dnst.. LO' Tokyo, Japan SO! Prog. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Evali., Short-Term Tests Ca:rcinog.: Int. Col lab. Progr-am) ,, 3'D2-1y, SC 4-7 (Tos<icology) DT J CO PMRSDJ. PY' 198'11 LA Enig L21 ANSWER'. 4'1' OF 54 AN CA95 (2 5 )' : 216182v T I Mutaaieni c act i vi ty' of' 42' coded'compoundis i n the 5almonellatmicrosomeassaywith preincubationi ~()l! Brooks, T. M. ; Dean,, B. Ji. i~S Sittingbourne, Shell Res. Ltd. LO Si tting~)ourne,, Engil. '=0' Prog. Mutat. Res., 1(Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog!.: I'nt. Colllab. ProgramY, 261-701 SC 4-7 (Toxicology)'. D'T J'' CO PMRSDJ PY 1981 ,~LA Eng Rep. Rep,. Rep..
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AN CA95425):216181u TI Study of 42 codied' compounds wi th the SalimoneL lialmammal' i an Q!i ~ rntin~+~ assay AU Baker, Robert S. U.; Bonin,, Antonio M'.. CS Sichi. Public Health l'rop. Med., U'niv. Sydney LO Sydney, Austrayia SO Prog,. Mutat. Res.,, 1(Eva1. Short-Term Tests Carcinog,.: Rep.. I n~t . C'o1!L ab:. Pe-ogram)',, 249-60 SC 4-7' (Tox i col ogy) DT J CO PMRSDJ PY 1981 LA, Engi L21 ANSWER' 43 ' OF 54 AN, CA95 ('25) : 2'16180t TI A'ctivityof ' 42 cod'ed' compounds i nadi fferenti' al kil l ing, test usinai Escherichia, coli Strains WP?'. WP67 (uvrA oo1A),, and CM871 (uvr4 lexAl recA) AU CS~ LO Tweats, David J. Histopathol., Dep. j Gla:x:o Group, . Res. M idd'1' li E Ltd. : SO l esex, ng . Prog. Mutat. Res., 1('Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinog.:! Rep. Init. Col lab~. Program), 199-209 SC DT COi P1C 4-7 (Tor:icol'ogy)' J PMRSDJ 1981 LA Eng, L2'1 ANSWERI 44 OF 54 AN CA95(25):216179z TI A differential killing test using an improvedrepair-deficient strainaf'Escheriich~ialcoli AU Green, M. H'. L. CS MRC'Cell Mutation Uhit, Uhiv. Sussex LO' Bri glhton ,, Engil. SO! Prog. Mutat. Res., 1!('Eval. Shart-Term Tests Carcinog.: Rep.. Int. Col labi. Program)!, 183-94I SC 4-7 (Toxicology) DT J CO PMRSDJ' PY 1981 LA Enig i L21 AN'SWER. 45~OF 54 r;N CA95 C^5 k:216178y TI The DNA-d~amaqi ng acti vi'ty of 42' coded'comQounds i n the rQc-assay AU K'ada, Tsurieo CS' Dep. Induced Mutation, Natl. Inst. Genet. LO Sizuoka, Japan S0, Prog,. Multat. Res.,, 1('Eval. Short-Term Tests Carcinogi. : Init. Collab. Program), 175-82' SC 4-7 (Toxicology) DT J CO' PMRSDJ UY' 1981 LA Eng GC'
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i I' Decreasedn orotein utiTization in •amaranth to.<icitv and its ~meIioration by the concurrent fPPding ~~~f_o_*ar•~s_~b er_*ar•s_~ber in~ rats AU Tak:eda, Hi'detoshi; Tsujita, Junji; Ebihara, Kiyoshi; Kiriyama, Sh,uhachi CS FAc. Agric., Ehime Uhiiv. LO SO' Matsuyama, Japan Nutr. Rep. Int., 24 (3) ,, 481-97 SC SX' 4-3 ' CToxicol'ogyp 17, 18' . DT CO I S J NURI'BL 0029-66.35 RY 1981 LA Eng; L21 ANSWER 47 OF 54 AN CA95 (2'1 ):185678e. TI Effect of' aspartame and sucrose loading in ail utamate-suscepti lbil Pmith,j af-i-e AU Stegink, Lewis D. ;, FiiLer, L. J., Jr. ; Baker, George L. CS' Col l. Med.,i Univ. Iowa i, LO Iowa Ci ty', IiA 52242, USA SO Am. J. Clini. Nutr.,34('9) , 1899'-9051 SC 17='?' (Foods) SX 4 OT' J CO AJCNAC 1S 0042L-9165, F'Y' 1981 LA Eng, L21 ANSWER 48 OF 54 ANI CA95i(17) : 145114m, TI Unisuitabil i ty of control sucrose or gT ucose i n studi es o_f ;the effects of chronic ethanol administrationi oni brain 5-hy,dlroxytryptaminiemetaboilism~ ' AUi Badawy, AbduliLaA- B.; tRunijiani~„ Nazeera F.,; Evans, MyrddinCS Addict. Unit Res. Lab., Whitchurch Hbsp. LO, Cardiff CF4 7XB, Wales SO J. P'harmacol. Methods,, 342), 167-71 SC 4-1L' (Toxicology) DT J C'O JPMED9 IS 0160-5402 Py ' 11980 LA', Eng
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L21 ANSWER 49 OF'54 Aht' CA95 09> : 750991 TL Interaction o+fpolyhrydroxy comRoundsand,nitrosamines AU Lyl,e,; R. E. ; Fribush, W'. h6. ; Gunn, V. E. ;, Barton, R'. ; Jasheway, N.; Jacobson, M. ;, Lyl e, G. CS~ Div. Chem.. Chem. Eng;. ,, So4ethwestRes:., Inst,., LO San Antonio, TX 78284, USA SO, IARC Sci. h'tab-1., 31 (~N-N~i trosoCotrtpd., : O,ccur, ren,ce), 59-69 An,al.,; Form. SC DT CO I S PY 4-7 (Toxicology) J IARCCD c73DD-5tJM 1980 LA; Eng 0 Klt& - S"c 1; /';/9 222-0Sukistances Generally f,'ecognized as Safe. FDA Citati,on: 21 CFR18cFub1. Date: 770315 Effective Date: 770315, Jurisdiction: US Doc. Typee REGULATION Status: FINAL Authotr i ty: FFDCA No. of fievsr 0 hJo., ofC'hemicals~:271, ~ ~
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AN CA94(: -?)i :18664'ShTI' MUtaoeniciti~es of natural food additives. II. _ Mutageniicit~r And anti~bacterial acti'vilty o r ramAi ~ AU Kawana, FC'iyoko;, Akema, Riichiro; Nakaoka, Tadayoshi~; Ikeda, Haruoq~ Takimoto, Toshiiko; Kawauchii, Saju CS' kanag;awa Pref ect . Pub L i c Hoal th Lab. LO Y'okohama,; Japan SO Eisei hagaku, 26(5), 259-63 SC'4-7(Toxi cology)'S)Q 117 DT J COi ESKGA2 1S 04,13-273X' PX 1980 LA Japan _ L2'1 ANSWER ..,1 OF' 54 AN CA94 (2 i)' : 186517t TI Effect of sucrose on the acceptability of thallLous nitrate xn Norway rats AU! Shimizu,,, Toshiaki; Kusano, Tyuzi' CS Inst. Agri c. For., Uni'v. Tsukuba LO Ibaraki 3D5, Japan SO Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi, 5'(4)i, 595-8'. SC 4-3 (Toxicology) DT J' CO NNGAIDV' IS «s85=1559' P'Y1980 LA Eng L21 ANSWER 52'OF 54 ANI CA94(17):133409c TI Taste preference and licking intake of' thallous ni'itrate by rats and mice AU Shimizu, Toshi4ki a Takayanagi, Masato; Kusano, Tyuzi- CS LO! SO! SC DT CO Iinst. Agric. For., Ulniv. Tsukuba Ibaraki 305, Japan NipponiNoyaku Gakkaishi, 5(3)', 403-6. 4 L (Toxicology) J NNG'ADV' IS 0385'-1559 _~Y_ .. 198oLA Eng L21'1 ANSWER 53 OF 54 AN CA94 ( 15) : 11157'64ik TIi Ef f ect of chroni c ethanol' and sucrose i'ngesti on on ]I iver po1'ysomal poly(A)mFtNA content and incorporation of C5-3HJ'uridinle intomPNA~;U F3ant1' e, John A. ; Edmi sten,, Gayl e E. ; D' Arcy Doherty, Mary CS Dep. Cell MoiI. Dev. Biol., Oklahoma State Univ. M LO Sti 11 water, OK 74078, USA' cc SO Biochem. Pharmacol., 29(21)', 2993-3001 MSC4!-1•'••"~ (Tohicollogy) CDDT' J' ~ tyO BCPCA6 ~A IS c?0(74-295'2' © PN' 1984 LA Eng
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AN CA94(13):101484c TI Sample preparation by dry' ashiing, prior to the d'eterms,nation., nf' mpbi-a1 s i n sugars AU CS LOi S0. Sai to,, Slhoj'i , IKamoda„ Milnioru J'apan Sugar Ref i ners • AssoQ.. Tokyo, Japan Sei to 6i jlutsu Kenkyu Kaishi , 29) , Z-56-44 SC Sx. 17-1i CFoods) 4', 44 D'T CoI I S' Ji S8IKA8 D37D-98411 FPN 11980 LA' Japan ..r
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.k pt THE MERCK INDEX AN ENCY"CLOPEIDIA OF CHEMICALS, IDRCIGS4 AND BIOLOGICALS TENTH EDITION i Martha Windholz, Editor SUsan Budawari, Co•Editor Rosemary F. Blumetti4 Associate Editor Elizabeth S. Otterbein. Assistant Editor Published by MERCK & CO, INC. RAHMIAY. N.J.. U.S.A. 1983
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~ rd'asanti (rshort dura- ).O-Succin yldicholine :holine diiodide; suRar noethyl)suceinate bis- n: Curacilt Kuratsit. 30.89°Ja H 5:567a I by rt:ac'ting p-bromo- Gliek, J. Biol' Ckemm yim., ItaL 79.129. 837 3. Succinic acid! ahlb- aride directly or with'i quaternization with i Scand:7, 185 (1953): ethyl ester of sueeinic -action with dimethyl- :thyl iadide: Phillips. 2t-' .3-241'., Fredy sol in hich are very slightly +Ins undergo progres- tivity and increase in I , Incompatible with relaxant' (short dura- ioxybisft-orabaranoic '34,11& C'41.03%H ')204, 4ned from abouI with d'e- 30 parts water; mad~, :hem insal lin benzene, ected from ligkt. -arrbarypkeny(kucci+ u, CuiHt,O,; mol wt, Prepd by the action the presence of'benz- 4634'C1906 to Bayer); Icohol. mp 176-1178': ad cold glacial acetic ether at, 2(^. o-l-[,[I -[f1-th'iazolyl'. aefd•', I''-(2-tk'iazoljl. .zol ylsulfLmylsuccin- o)thiazoie: Sulfenter- C sHyNyO5S=: mol 1.8~%., SI 118.05:0; 0 .a with aslighuexcess oore, Miller, J. Am. . 2;324,0113-4 (1943');' :fon)+1', chloride withi 578,004101940! tp. I' ,en report. :s pt fume.s on &bout', -....aD ml water. m Solltble,in soins of' dkali h'ydroxides and in sollns of'sodium bicarbonate with the evolution of'carbon, dioxide; sparingly' sol'n in alcohol and in acetone. Inso1 in ehloroform and ether. LDw i.p: in mice: 5.7 g/kg, THERIU"CATt. Antibacterial.(intestinal):. THERAP I CAT (vETI: Antibacteri811 agent, in I enteric . infec- tions. 8754. Stucit:ulfdne: 1-[)',4-[;(I:AmiltopAenyl)rulfanrlJ- pkenafJaetinoJ-4-orobatanoic acid: I'-salfnni(vlracrinanilic acid; , 4-amino-4'-(p-carbo:ypropionylamino)phenylkulfon- ylbenzene;'4Lamino-4"-S.carboxypropianylaminodiphenyl- su lf o n e: 4-(tJ.ca r box y propi o n y l'am i n o)-4'-am i n od i p h e n yl. sulfone: 4'-suecinylamido-4'-aminodiphenylsulfone; F 11500a Fourneau 1600! C,~HKNxO!$, mol wt 34'8.40. C 55:16Pw HI 4.63Rb: N' 8.04%, t) 22:969tw S 9.20%.~ Prepn: Fourneau, 'Ifrefoud. Fr. pat. 866,619' (f941' to Rh&ne-Poul'enc):, Kha- rasch. Reinmuth, U:S& pat. 2,268,754 (1942 to Lilly):~ laua, J. Am. CkemI Sac: 70, 2254(1'948); Rohls: Bbhnish. Gen,pat'. 995,6001 (1953'to Bayer),,Libertnan, Fr. pat. 1i,020,713'(11953 to Chimie et Atomistique): Cry,stals, mp 15T: Solublle in ammonia. 2.2'-Iminodiethanol aI CwH NrQ.t$' BzosalfonrL Ptepn: Fr. pat 992,112 (1951' to ,T}nierapsu). THERAP CAT: Antibacterial (IlOprostatie): 8755. Sueralfate: lferadbra-r-hJdtarxtetnnoasahj+dMrp- (ty-[Y:3'.4,d-tetra-t?+sttlfo+d-D: fructojitranosy/+a-D-glitrto- pyranosfde tetrakir(kydrogen srtl'fato)(8-)]Jheradecaalami-, num; t3-D-fructof'uranosyi-a-D-glucopyranoside octakis- (hydrogen sulfate)' aluminum ~ complex; sucrose actakisI drogen sulfata) aluminum complex; Antepsin; Carafate; Ulcerban; Ulcerlmin; Ulcogant. CuH~A1ttO~ ~ mol wt. 2086.74. C 6.91%, H'. 2.61%. Al' Z0:69%. 0:57:30%, S 12:2970. A basic aluminum sucrose sulfate,complkx which inhibits peptic hydrolysis and stomach acidity. Prepn: M. Nametaka et aL, Yakugaku Zasrki 87, 889 (i1967); CA. 68,, 2083fd (1968); Fr: pat. 1,500,S71,cortesp to Ni Yoshihiro et' at. U:S:,pat. 3,432,489 (1967. 1969 both to Chugai). Struc. ture,and properties: R. Nagashima. Ni Yoshidfr, A/zneimit• tel, Forsck 29, 1668' (1979). In rino and' in i.iro study of' antipeptic and antiulcer activity: L. E. Horellai eraL, ibid' 793. Series of': articles on mode of'action: ibid' 3% , 73-88 (1980). Pharmaeokinetics, metabolism and'seleetive binding studies: K. Steiner et'a1: ib'id'32, 512 (1982). Clinical'stud- ies: J. F. Mayberry et aL: Brit J. Clin. Prnct, 32,,2911(1978)1 Review: J Clin. GastroenteraL 3, Suppll 2. 103:184 (19811). a - 903 [az(uay White amorphous powder. Sal in dil HCL ai.d NsOH solits: Practically insol in water, ethanol. CHC1j, pKL - 0.43 to 1.19. Dissalution of laluminum occurs at pH < 3; off sucrose sulfate at ~ pH > 4: TxERar CAT: Anti-ulcentive (gastrointestinal)'.. •756. Suerose: B •D-Frratafrranoryl~a-D-g(ieeopyrano- aide; a-D-glucopyranosyl-p-D-fructofuranoside; sugar; sac- charose; cane sugar;,beat sugar. C1!HuOiv mol wt 342:30. C 42 10% H 6.4'8%. 0 51L42%. Obtained from sugar cane (Sacrk'arum officinarum L., Gramineac) and! sugar beet (Beta valgaris L„ Ckenopodiaceae). Sugar cane contains from 115'-20% and sugar beet, from 10-17% sucrose. Structure: Avery at aL, J' Ckem. , Sac. 1927, 2308; ®eovers, Cochrane, Proc. Royv Soc 190A, 257 (1947). Synthesis: Pictat, Vogel, Id'eln Chim.. Atta 11, 436 (1928); Lemieux. Huber:, J. Am.. SudaniIII' 8759 Ckem. SSoc: 78,, 4147 (1956); Ref: with extensive bibliogra- phy: f$ates: PalarimetrJ: Sbccharimerry, and tke: Sugars; National Bureau of'Stand'ards Circular C440. Washington, 1942; W': Pigman The Carbohydrates (Academic Press: New York, 1957)' pp 501-306. Reriew: M. R. Jenner: Der. Food Carbvhyd. 2;, 91-143' (1980)'. Monodinic sphenoidhl erystals, cryst masses. blocks. or powder. Sweet taste. Stable in air. Finely divided sugar is hygroscopic and absorbs up to : 1% moisture which is given up on headng to 90': dit 11.587. Dec 1601186'. Chars and emits characteristic : odorr of caramd. [a]I not less than +65:9' (c - 26); usual ivalue [a]V +66:4T to~ +66.{9'. One gram dissolves in Al5'ml water, in ~slightly more than.012'ml2 boiling water, in 1'70 mllaleohol; imabout 1100 1 methanol'. Moderately sol' in glycerol, pyridine. Ka,at 19' - 2.4 X 10`u: dal af'water,solns (g/100 g)c, 2%11.0060: 6% 11.0219; 10%' 110381: 20% 110810; 30% 1'.1'270:, 4'0% 1.1764'; 5M 1.2296; 60% 1.2865;~ 70%5 11.3471; 76% 113854: nj, ot 107% soln 1.34783. Sucrose does not reduce Fehlingk soin, farm, an asazone, or show mutarotation. I't is hydrolyud!ta glu. cose and fructose by dil acids and I by invertase, a yeast enzyme. Upon hydrolysis the optical rotation (a110 and is negative when ~ the , hydrdysis, is eomplete. The mixture of'' glucose and fructose is knownlas'tinvert,sugar.^ Sucrose is ftnmentable: but, resists bacterial' decompn when in high concentrations. OsE: Sweetening agent and food. Starting material' in the fbrmentative production of' ethanol, butanol; glycerol, citric and levulinic acids: Used in pharmaey as a preservative: as an antiouidant(in the form of: invert sugar); as a demulcent. as substitute for glycerol', as granulation agent' and exdpientt for tablets, as coating for tablets. In the plastics and Iaxllu, lose industry., manuf.of ink and of'transparent', soaps:, TxERAt r•i.ATe, Pharmaceutic aid (flavor).. 8757:, Sucrose Oct.acetate. CyH's,O„; mol l wt 678.58. C 49.56%. H 5:64%,, 0144.807. ': Prepn from sucrose: Lin- stead' at' aL, J. Ain. , Cheim Soa 62', 3260 (1940)i Synthesis: Lemieux, Hluber. ibid 78, 4117 (1956):. Hygroscopic. intensdy bitter needles Brom, alcohol., mp, 89't dec above 28SC bpt 260's [a]r '+58.5 (c - 2.56 in abs altohol): nn 1.4660. Sol', in 111100 parts water,, 1.1 parts ace. tal, 0.7 part glacial acetic aeidJ 0.3, part acetone, 1!11 parts alcahall 0:6 part benzene,, 22 parts carbon tetrachloride, about 0:5' part, methyl acerate, 7' parts' pataldehyde, abouu 0.9'part toluene. usE: : Adhesive; impregnating and insulating papers; in lacquers and plastia;: as a deaututant, for alcohol. $758. Sucrose Polyettier;, SPE. Nonrabaorbable lipid; substitute for fat in foods to reduce cholesterol', levd. Mix- ture of' hexa-. hepta- and octa-tatty acid esters,of sucrose. Anall!sis by gel permeation chromatography:, C. 0. fdirch. F., E. Ctowe, J Am, Oil'Chem. Soc. 53,,581' ('1976). Effect' owabsorptiowof dietary cholesterol in rats: F. H. Mattson et a1, J.' Rdutr. 106, 747,(1976);' L. Aust et aL'„ Ann. Atutr. Al~erab: 25, 255. (1981). Effects as'aidietary agent for lower- ing , plasnu ~ ehollesterol''. in man: R. , W. Fallat , er aL, , Aln. J Clin:Nutr. 29;,1024 (1976); C. J:,Glueck et'aL'„ ibkt'32, 1636 QD ' (1979). Effects on, cholksterol! metabolism in mam J. R. M' Crouse, S. M. Grundy. MetaE.. Clin. Expµ 28. 994 (1i979) R. Q) J. Jandacek et aL, .tm. J.' Cfin. )Wmr.33, 251 (11980). Calo (~nc dilution study in obese patients: C. L Glueck et aL, ibid. 35, ~ 1352 (1982): ~ ~ f~~S USE: As supplement in dietary foods. 8759 Sudan IIII, B'-!(4-('PliertXfazo)pkenyllazoll'2-napk,tj thalenal; l-(p-phenylazophenylazo)-2'-naphthol; tetrazoben- zene•h-naphthol: Oil' Red: Oil Scarlet: Toney Red; D & C' Red No. 17; C.I. Solvent Red 23; C.l. 26100. CuH{^O;, mol wt 352!40! C 74':98%: H 4.5876, N' 15'.90%, O' 4:54:0. C.onsttlt'the cross index before ttsing,th'is section. Page 1273
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Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products: ACUTE POISONING ROBERT E., GOSSELIN, INf'.D., MD. Irene Heinz Given 1P~nqfessorr of PharmacoloRy: L)artmauth Medical:School. Hanoaer, Nem Hampshire HAROLD C. HODGE, Ph.D., D.Sc. Professor and Chairman,Emeritois of Pharmacology and ToaicoloRy. School of 14fedi- cine and Uentistr' %•, The Universit i v of Rochester. Rochester. New Xork: Profesaor in Residence, of Pharmacology and' nml' Blol'og.•. University of California. San Fran, cisco: of Enuironmental'Torieology, and 'o/ PAarmacolog,y and Medical nempeutics: Unieersig)• of California, Iroine, California; ROGER P. SMITH, Ph.D. Professor of'Toxicol'ogy; Ddrtmqtxth Medical School. Hanover, New HampshTre.. 11oAAR ION' I'V. GLEASON', M.Sc. (h.c~.)! Hononuv Associate Fellow. American Academy of Fediat'rics: Formerhr Research Associate in Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Dentistlv; The Uniuersityof Rochester, Rochester. New Kork,. F'caurth Edition WILLIAMS & WILKINS Ballti'rnore/Lonidloin RA 1211 G5 1975
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F I R S T A I D li G E N E R' A L E M E R G E N C Y T' R! E A' T' ME I N T I N'G R~~E D~~IiE~~N T S~ I NiD~E'X . S UI P P O R T I V^' E T' R' E A T M E NI T! GENERAL FORMULAT'IONS T HIE R'A P E U T 1 C S' 11 N D E X' . TIRAD.E NAME IND! EX M' A N' U! F A C 1fi U R' E R'. S' I I N D E X F'IRST AID! l: G E N E R AL EIME.RGE'NCY TR'EA,TMi ENIT II N G' R E' Di II E N T' S I NI D E X'. S Ui-P P 01 R T II W' E T R E A T M E. N T T~HIE~R! I7i~~P~EU'.TCC'~S~ 1 N D~E'X « T R A D E' N A MiE I'N D E X. TOXICITY RATING CHART To:icit Flat io or FmbaNlp Oral ILF.THAL lhwe 1 Humani g y Cla" Dtn;e TFor -, nlcX-per.vm /15tlh.I 6 Supertaxiv less than i mg./kg; A tarte,liers thani7 d!'opsl 5 E:'xtremely toxic 5-50 mg:/kg; Between 7 drnp.and I teacpoam[ul l t 4ery toxic 5QN-.i(10 mg./kg', Hetw•een l t:cp. and' I ounce I Moderately toxic 1 p:5-5 gm-/kg. Between I oz. and 1'pint. Corllb.l~ 2 I Slightlv toxic Practically nontoxic. 5-1a abme 15, gm./kg: gm./kg: 8etweemll pt. and l quart. More than 1 quart tY:2'lb.l i FfRS~T' A1D G E N E R'A'L E M E R G' E N C Y ifi R'. E A T M E N' T I IN'G'R'EDIENTS 11NIDEXI . T HIE R'A P E U T I C S IIND.EX' I S U! P P 01 R T 11 N' E T R E' A T M' E N T . T R A D E N A M, E I N' D E X GENERAL FO'RM'ULAT~IION'S .. MANUFACTUR'ERS' IINDiE'X F1RST' AID & GENIERAL EME 'R'G ENCY TREATiMi EN'T I IN G R E'Di1iE'N T S ~ .-> - T'IiC S 1!NID'EX W , R 1[ . ~ ..- ~ S U P P O R T IIIhf E V'AM'E INDEX W '. 611' ' 1 dGi i G iz ' $c:xC ', T rCf :: tjac t"t3'LTIi: 41 GENiER AL FORM I'RERS' 1NIDE'.X CA
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0 . BOTANICALS 151 lla (or'Urginea), •tystalline steroll -diotoniractions .t. Even official ;, but probably nics that which t the hazard'af' ury excret'ion!is roside; it may or uill serves as a is 0.25'to 0.45% ogicallly equiva- rts of'the,plant;, ,dlother clinical Nicotiana. The icotine content, af' commercial l together wit'h 'hus a madern, :ine, a•'-' or 3 noke, ver,, :tion anu'rectal' .-eral cigarettes., ies so slow t'hat ie poisoning. ubutin4 tannin, ,e:of arbutin, a elgm.threeta. 'lie dried leaves tract (prepared twe2 to+ml4)., s distilled from !rpenes). Alf~ of 4c acid are the ting to mucous membrane (e.g., evacuation,after rectal suppository). No appreciable oral toxicity, but the injection of' largee doses may induce convulsions, paralysis, hemolysis, etc. Ref.: Hine et a11, 1953b; Pfeifferr and Arnove,,1937. 636 Starch 636' Amylum6 e:g:, Cornstarch Toxicity rating: 1l, Use& for starching and sizing, fabrics, and occasionally as an antidote in iodine poisoning. When used as a lubricant for surgical'i gloves, small' amounts released in, the course of operations have resulted in granulomas and peritonitis. Amylbphagia during pregnancy is recognized as a common form of'pica im certain localities. In one series:the incidence was as high as 35%. . Some women retain the habit for years and! may' ingest several pounds of starcli d'aily. Since atarch in sucb "addicts" accounts'for the buik,of the d'iet, the commonly observed iron-d'efciency anemia is probably a result'.of' the: practice and'not its cause.. Less common complications include parotid gland enlargement' and partial' intestinal obstruction due to starch gastroliths: Withdrawal has reversed these sequelae., St'arch, has such a low acute toxicity by mouth t'hat rats given 10-20% of'their total body, weight, showed' only'y minimal!symptoms.. Ref.:, Allan and l Woodruff, 1963; Blair and Blumenthal, 1964; Boyd and Liu, 1968; Kieth et al.,, 1'965; Mlerkatz, ,1961.. 637 Sucrose 637 Sugar (granulated or powd'ered), Saccharose Toxicity rat'ing: 1. Common household product obtained from cane or beets. Acute oral LD,, in irats 35.4 * 7.0 gm./kg., in males and 29.7 f 3:7'gm./kg. in females. While these doses may be extrapol'ated to the equivalent of a pound'of candy in a 25'pound child, the acute gastroenteritis observed in animals leadt one to predict prompt'vomiting in humans.. Peppermint candy, may present special problems; see Oil of'Peppermint ini the index. Certainly no clinical reports oflacute sucrose poisoning have come toour attention.. Hlowever; the intravenaus use of'9U% solutions (200 to 300 ml'.) as a diuretic or to~ lower intracranial pressure carries a grave risk: of damage to the kidneys: The signs and! symptoms in poisoned animals include diarrhea, prostration, cyanosis, tonic-elbnic eanvulsions, stupor and death in respiratory failure. Diffuse pathological I changes included shrinkage, swelling and necrosis of'renal! tubular epithe- lium, arteriolit'is. mild hepatitia; myocarditis, congestive encephalitis and some adrenal hy pertrophy. Re(.: Boyd et, all, 1965; Hodge and Downs, 1961. 638 ' T!'alllow 638 Animal fat, Toxicity rating: 1. In, commerce tallowusually means fatty tissue of'~cattle and sheep: Edible grad'ea are white or light eolored: Hydrolyzed' in bowel tai glycerol and fatty acid®.,Hexadecyl, octadecyl, and especially octadecenyl igroups predominate: See also Glycerol and Stearic acid in the index. Furthermore in commerce and industry the word "tallow" (also di-tallbw; etc.)'is samet'imes used,in 9pasi'-chemical names to:designate straight chain alkyllgroups'prepaned'firom natural!mi>ctures'of'fattyacida derived from t'allow: ReJ:: Grif6th4 1964a. Naturall products: fnted'oi'Ia 639 Argemone Oil Katakar oil, Sialkata ioii An oil derived from the seeds of'Argemone mexiccana L. which ~ia often, found as an adulterant of mustard, sesame or groundnut oil in some tropical countnies. The toxic substance or substances, which may be alkaloidal, seem to be active,in very low'cancentrations. The clinical picture,after chronic ingestion of adulterated oil,closely resembles dropsy. In severer cases the prominent manifestations include edema4 dyspnea, hepatic enlargement and' pulmonary congestion, all af'which may be due to capillary dilatation, Tachycardia and minor ECGG evidence of nonspecific myocarditis are described. The syndrome closely resembles congestive cardiac failure, but digitalis:t'herapy'seems ta meet with only indifferent suecess.. Sanghvi concludes that:the circulatory failure is due chiefly to peripheral vascular collapse. Management requires a correct diagnosis, termination of the exposure, bed rest, measures to combat shock, and, in the presence of anemia, blood transfusions. Ref.: Sanghvi et al.,,1960! 640! Bone Oil 640! Dippel's oil, Oil of hartshorn, Animal oil Toxicity rating: 3. Obtained by the destructive,distillation of'bones in the preparation of'anirnal charcoalL A black liquidl consisting, largely of nitrogenous compounda'such as pyridine, aniline,, methylamine, pyrrole, etc. Sometimes usedas an alcohol denaturant. Rats given oral doses of 31 gm./hg, went into rapid,progressive depression, terminating in about 4 min. in respiratory arrest with the heartt still beating.,Dioses of110 gm,/kg. produced an~initial weakness of the hind legs within 5 mini, extreme.
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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY THIRD EDITIOfNi A IMILFY-INT6'R'SCIENCft P4JBWCATIOfV, .(0 John Wiley & Sons cD om NEW YORK • CHICHESTffR • BRISBANE • TO!RONTO'O w Go C!1 ~ ~.
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:¢rose :ral'ly triety fatty ifiers ;and crose' Aews •riety: with. (26)s acess ,don utrt: lysi8,, ition 4 luch . a:,di zed. ysts: ' loric ount ono - ways 11 sor- l are. I ious irm3's vely !s of and car- iel". I by: istic tive _ iOUB', I WoL 211 SUGM (PROPERTIES) 869! . compounds suchlas 5-hydioxymethylfurfural and colored condensation products (28): Ionizing radiation causes degradation of sucrose in a somewhat similar manner to thernial'processes, hoth, ih the crystal and in solution (27;29-30)'.. Safety and'~ Health Factors Physically; sucrose is generally' considered to be safe to handle, although some hazard may exist when much dust is present (31). From the standpoint of health, ex - tensive studies have concludedithat noahealth hazardIezists when sucrose is consuzned! at current levels (32-33)4 although a synergistic contribution to: the formation of dental caries may exist (34'), (see also Silgar, canie sugar)s BIBUOGRAPHY "Sucrose" under "Sugars (Commercial)" in ECT 1st ed:, VoL 13, pp. 247 -2511, dy J. L. Hickson, Sugar Re- aearch Foundation, Inc.; "Sugar'(Properties of'Sucroee)" in ECT 2nd etlr, pp:1'51'-155, by R. A. MlaGinnie,. Spreckels Sugar Co., 1. , Sugar and Siveetener Outlook and Sitttation, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D:C., Feb:1981. 2' IL J. Wicker, Chem. lnd. 4'1,1708 (1966). 3. W. Z HassiI Doudoroff,, and H: A. B'arker, J: Am: Chem. Soc. 66;1416'(1944)~ 4. R. V. Lemieu: and IG. Huber, J: Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 4'11'8'(1953): 5. F. T. Jones and F. E: Young, Ahal: Chem. 26,421 421 Q1954)! 6. L. Pancini, La Sucrerie Beige 100,221 (1981). 7. H. K C. Powers, Sugar Technol: Rev. 1, 85 (1969-1970)i & B. MAliower and W. Bl Dye, J Agric. Food Chem. 4,72 (1956). . 9'., K'. J Palmer, W. B. Dye, and!D: Blkek, J: Agric:, Food Chem. 4,77 (1956).. 10. HL Kurten and'~ H. Rumpf,,Chem. !'ag: Tech6 38; 331(1966). 11. B: P. Chandra, J. Phyrs. D 110„L531(1977). 12. D: S. Smith, C: H. Mannheim, and S. G. Gilbert, J'. Food Sci. 4'6,1'0511,(1981). 13: H. M. Panooast and W': R. Junk, Handbook o%Sugars„The AVi;Publishieg Co:,Inc., Westport: Conn., 1980. 14. R. S'., Norrish, Selected Tables %Physiral Properties of Sugar Solutions, Scientific and Technical Surveys No, 51, The British Food M'anufacturing Industries Research As.ociation; Leatherhead, Surreyr. Randalla Road, England,1967. 15. F. J. Bates and Associates, Polarimetry; Saccharimetry;,and'the Sugars, U'.S:,National Bureau of Standards, Circular 440, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D:C.,1942 16. B'. M. Smythe, Sugar Technol. Rem 1,191 ,(1971): , 17., A. VanHook, Sugar Technol. Rev. 1„ 232' (1!971): 18. M. K. Supran, J! C. Acton, A. J: Howell, and R. L. Saffle, J:llfilk Food TechnoC 34,548 (1971). 19. R: S:,Shallenberger and G: G: Birchi ,SrigarChemistry,,AVI Publiahing,C6., Ine:,,Weatport; Cbnm, 1975:. 20. R: M. Pangborn, Ji Food'Sci; 28,726 (1963): 21. M. A. Amerine, R. M. Pangborn, and E.' B. Roessler, Ptincipies o/Sensay Eoaluation o/Food; Acad'emic Press. New York;1965, p: 95: 22 V. Kollonitch, Sucrose Ch'emicals;, International Sugar Research Foundation,,I'nc., Bethesda. Md., 1970. 23, R. KhanandlA. J. Forage, Sugar Technol'. Rev. 7,,1175'(1979-1980):. 24. J. L Hiakson, ed'., Sucrochemiatrlr„ACS Symposium Series No. 41, American Chemical Societx,, Washington, D.C:,,1977L 25., R. Khan in lR` &Tipaon and D. Horton, eds., Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemiatry, Vul. 33, Academic Press, New Y'ork, 1976, pp. 235-294'.. 26. J. A. Rendleman, Jr. in M: L Wolfrom, and it'. T. Tipson, eds., Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry, VoP. 211, Academic Press, New York,1'966, pp. 209-2711
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R. M. SPQuFaRA Amstar Corporation Wo4 SUG cozn anal I (!ICtiI ofin meC) Cori. suga diffe Phys surei optrlt, iden as i't' spec whe: tain:. d'epe ; inst; moit naea ref. • dire~~ 26 g poir lighri is 4Q mus beer The ICU:. dbrrr" of `f' 870 SUGAR' (PROPffR7fIffS)i 27. W': Mauch, Sugar Technol. Rev. 1, 239! (1971): 28. F. H. C.1Kelly and!D. W. Brown; Sugar Technol: Reu. 6, 1 (1978-1979): 29., G', I:ofrothi Int:,J: Radiat. Phys. Chem. 4,277 (1972)~ 30.W'. W'., Binkleyr, M. E. Alkenburg, and'M. L Wolfram, Sugar J.' 34.25 (1'9172):, 31iN.1. Sax,:Dangerous Properties o/Industrial,llfaterials, 4th edL, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Biew. York;1975i 32'. Eualuation of the Fl ealth Aspects o/' Sucrose, FASEB',, Food and Drug Administration, W'ashingtom , DIC:,, Bureau of Foods,1976: 33: B. IL: Bierman„Am: J Clin.111utr., 32,2712 (1979). 34. F. Q; I'duttalll and M: C. Gannom Diabetes Care 4,,304 (198L)!. General'Rejerences R: AL MaGinnis, ecll, Beet Sugar Technology, 2nd ed:, Beet Sugar~Development Foundation, Fort Collins, Cblo.,1971(3rd ed1,1982). General coverage with emphasis on, manufacturing.. G, P. Meade and J. C.' P: Chen, Cane Sugar Handbook;10th ed:, J'ohn W iley & Sons, Inc., New York,1977: General coverage with, emphasis on manufacturing.. G. Vavrinecc, A'tlas of' Sugar Chystalir, ' r Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, 1960. Detailed I treatment of' crystalline state. W. Mauch and E. Farhoudi, Sugar TechnoG , 87,(1979-1980): Discussion of physical properties and' composition of aommerciall" white granulated sugar. F. Schneider, edl,, Sugar Analysis, ICUMSA, do British Sugar Corporation Ltdl, Peterborough, UK,1979. Official analyt.ical methods of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (IC- UMSAY relbting to commercial sugar.
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SURVEY OF COMIiPOWNM WHICH HAVE BEEN TESTED FOR CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY 1974-1975 VOLUME tartY iwDEy, , i-e, G4511-:;6- NIH PubliicationiNo. 83-2607 ' (Formerly Publ~ic Health Service Publication No. 149) lYpri i 1 1983 U.S. Daua~ He:~alth and Human Services Nationai Institutes of Hea a iancer nstitute The printing an6 distribution of this publication are financed by United States taxpayers. For " by the 3uperintandeat of Documents, U:S. Go.erament Pftntiw ottia Wsbington, D:G 204U2
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/IOUTE ~ATN M TOTAL i i MI /1 O._ L O DURATI©N -- REfERENCE ANtMAL P/1EPAKATIOM AND DO[[ ANf) fITE fXAM. LEYEL _ T•[•! E - ` K C. ~ A E M[ 1. I V T N DETAlLEOIMiO11MAT10N >fU/1V1VAL OF ~ A [XPEAIA4 j ..... _ -..... ...... __ _. ~ N M R y . 93. S-ETHYL-L-HOMOCYST€INE Ethionine S-Ethyl- homocyeteine 55-17.-4 Vann, L.S. 12 rats, 0.3% in Farber diet eAntg 75% p.o. 3 * 5/9 with hep nod, 11 eff 32 vk proe.. West Pharntncol, Wistar, sucrose as non-protein carbon 2/19 with hep ~ Soc. M, ca 160 g source (NPC) ad lib x 32 wk. 4/9 with bile duct carc, 17:251-255, 1974. live>` distorted by elen_y lg nod, aame 12-14 me in size. 12 rats, As above, except diet een- p.o. 3 +~ 3/7 with bile duct care, 7 eff 32 WIc wistar, tained 30% glycerol, 401 liver with 3-20 sm nod/ M, ca 160 g propylene glycol, 5% sucrose liver, 1-2 [m in size, -- (ccntg water solubie vitamins) no hep nod, no hep. as NPC called GPG diet x 32 wk. 8 rats, As above, except in diet p.0, 3 * 2/3 with hep, 6 eff 34 w1c Wistar, contg 796 glucose x 34 wk. 1/3 with bile duct carc, M, ca 160 g nuneraus nod in most liver the largest ca 8 m[, no hep nod. 8 rats, As above, except in diet p.o. 3 * 2/3 with hep, 6 eff 2-7 wk Wistar, cantg 79% fructose x 27 wk. 3/3 with bile duct carc, M, ca 160 g liver grossly appeared similar to sucrose-fed rats, no hep nod. Rthicnine was nost carcino- genie where non-protein carbon source of diet was fructose and least carcino- _ genic genic with glycerol, proQglene glycol, sucrose diet. aoygh correlation found between incr liver size and degree of neopi change. 6 oontr rats fed the diet in each of the 4 groups, withDnt_ ethionine. In each group, the growth of the oontr rate was such greater than that of the ethionine ttd at 16 wk. Ttre only atypical finding in oontr was fatty aetamorphosis in the livers of the GeG diet group. 159
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.,~ FOOD DRUG COSMETIC LAW R E P Oi RT E R Scope of R'eporferr . . . The Reporter is devoted primarily to the Federal Food,, Druq, and Cos- metic Act and the Fair Packaging andi Labelinq Act, as administered by the. Fc>od, and Drug Adini~nistration, the Poison~ Prevention Packaging Act„ as administeredl by the Consumer Product Safety Commission,, and, the Compre- hensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, as administeredy by the Drug Enforcement Administration4 These Acts are reported in fulll text', along,with the texts of' pertinent regulations, proposals, rulings,, decisions, and! other development's described at 15. A number of federall "related laws,'" such as the Wiirus,, Serum, and' Toxin Act of' 1944, , are reported in full text, with sum- maries of, selected court decisions. Simil'arly; state laws of general application to, food, drugs, and', cosmeticsare reproduced in fulll text, and summaries of' sel'ected rulings and'd'ecisions are also reported. In additiony related state laws pertaining to specific products or areas of the food; drug, and cosmetic industries are identifie& in separate lists of "Special Laws" with ; off'icial cita- tions, for those who wish to consult the official texts. These "Speeial Laws" are laws governing, stand'ards; packaging, and labeling of specific products. AIII7 regulations issued by the Food and Drug Administration under the Food; Drug,, and Cosmetic : Act, the Fair Packaging, and Labeling Act, and, the Virus, Semxm~ and Toxin: Act' of 1944 are published in full tQxt„ as are regulla- tions under the Poison Prevention Packaging Aet', as amended by' the Con- sumer Product Safety Commission., The full texts of the regulations issued by the Drug Enforcement Administration implementing the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act are reported. Regulations issued under some of'the "'related laws"' in the Federal LI aws division, are not re- ported. No state regulations are reportedL Federal and: State court dtcisions are reported. Primarily,, these d'ecisions* will be those cases that interpret or apply the: provisions of' the Federal Food, Drug, and' Cosmetic Act and the basic food, drug, and cosmetic laws of the states. Cases that arise under the various state or fedtraP. "'related' laws"'are reported on a selective basis. HOW TC') CITE THE REPORTER Q1JI Citations to h'oon DRUG COSMETIC Ii..Kw RErorrs are aecept'ed' by courts and administrative agencies because they lead to! authoritative data, some of which is availabl'e exclusively here: just combine the letters "CCH"' with the name of'the Reporter and the paral;raph, number. For example, the foodd additive regulations may be cited "CCH FooD Dauc COSMETIC LKw RxPoxrs, 155,300."' A particular section of'the regulations could be referred'to: by the specific paragraph of the Reporter where it is reproduced.. CZ CID 09 . 41! m COMME>ftcm, ,CLEARIr1TG~ HOUSE«I11TC, ~~ PW~B~~L1'S'.WE~IR~S~ m{"ro~~.p.ic.,A~L, 4.A~WV R E'P~.01R~.T!'.~ VV~. 4025 W. PETERSON AVE., CHIICAGO; lLLUVOt6 60646
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57',528 F'ood Ac]iditiives--G1RAS' Subst,atvoes 1193 10-21-85 d- or YCXrvone (carvoll): CYnnamaldehyde (einnsnc aidehyde): Citrali (Z.6•dimethyloctsdlen.2,ti-a1'.8, gem nIa1L neraU. Decanal (JY-decylialdehyrde. capraldeh'de. capric aldehyde, caprinaldehyde, aldehyde C-10). Ethyl~ acetate. Ethyl butyrate. 3!Methyl-3.phenyl! g1llcidic acid ethyl! eater ('ethyli-methyllphenyl=glycidate, .so+call'edi strawberry aldehyde. C-16 aldehyde). Ethyl vanlllita Oeraniol (3.7-dimethyrl-2.is and 3.Q-octadlen- 1•oik Cieranyl acetate ( teranlbl I saetate ): Glycerol (glyceryl) tributyrate (tributyrin„ butyrin). Limonene Gd-. Ir: snd' dl-fi. Linalool (!)halol. 3.7-dlmethyl-1.b-octadien 3-o1): IilnalXl acetate (berQamol). Methyli anttiraniltte (methyl-2-aminoben~ zoate): Piperonal (3,41methylenediosy-benrslde- hydt. heliotropin)i. kanillin. [As amsnded, 43'F. R'. 47724, Oct. 17', 1978'; 44 F.R. 3962, Jan. 19, 1979'.;, 44 F.R. 20655, Apr. 5, 1979; 48 F.R. 519061, Nov. 15., ]i983.] Tietrasodium pyrophasphate. VPheatstarch. 7anc ehl+oride: [21 CFR 18'2.70'1 as of Apr.- 1, 1985; ame,nded,, 50 F.R'. 40204, Oct. 2, 1985'.JI ' . [957,501.9]I 018290 Substanees migrating to food from paper smd paperbo.rd I products. Substances migrating to food fromm paper and paperboard products used'in food pacltaglzig that are generally recogpized as ssie for their intend'ect uee, within the meaning of' section 409: . of the Aet„ are as follows:. C [157,501.7] 0182.70, Substances mitiati'ns from cotton and cotton fabries used in dry food packaging, Substances rnigrating, to food from, cotton, and cotton fabrics used'in dry food packaging that are generally! rea- ognized as safe for thei= intended uae: within the meaning of' section 409' of the Act, are as follows: Beef' tallow. Carboxymethylcellulose. Coeonut' olli refined. Cornstarch. Oelatin., Hyd'rogenperoxltle. Japan, wax. I.ardJ Lard!oil. Oleic acid. Peanut oil., Potato starch. Sodium aeetate. Sodium chloride. Sodium silicate. 3odilum tripolyphosphate. Soybean oil (hydrogenated)'.. Talc. Tallow (hydrogenated). Tallow flakes. Tapioca starch. 1(57, 501. 7 21 CFR ]~:82. 70 Alum. (double sulfatr of aluminum. and am- monlum potassium. or aodium): Aluminum ~ hydroxide: Aluminum oleate. Aluminum palmitate: Caseln. Celltrlose acetate.. Conestarch. Corn sugar (sirup): Diatomaceous earth filler. Ethyl cellulose. Ethyl vanillin. Ferric sulfate. Ferrous sulfate. Glycerin. Invert sugar. Iron6 reduced. Mono- and dlgyQcerides from slycerolysis of' edible ,fats and oils. Oleic add. Oxides of 1ron. Fotassium sorbate. C Silicon dioxides. Soap (sodium oleate, sodium palmitate)'. Sodium aluminate.. Sodium ch)or)de. Sodium hexametaphosphate. 8odium hydrosnlfite.. Sodium phosphoaluminate. Sodium silicate. 8odium sorhste /. Sodium trlpolyphosphate. ~. SortNtoi. _ Starch, ad'd modified. Qa. Starch, pregelatinized. Starch, unmodinied. Q~ Sucrose. ~, Tale: W ~. snUllh . , ~ Zinc hydrosulfite. 1GWd% Zinc sulfate. Q 1988j, Commerce Clearing House, Inc. ~
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aB'4g&,'.~'OP.E~ _ eriles or naEs Sixth Edition U IRVING SAX Assisted by: Benjamin Freiner/Josephi J: F'itageraNd/Thomias JL Haley/Elizabethi K. wei§burger ~ 1JAPV, IWCISTRAMD REINHOLD COMPANY New York
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Toxicity Ratings An expltsnation of the toxicity ratings is given in the following paragraphs: U= Unknown. This designation is given to substances which- fall into, one of the following categories:. (a)! I*lo, toxicity information could- be foundi in the; lirterature and(none was known, to the authors: (b) Limited information, based.on anima4 ex- periments was available but in the opinion of' exposures lasting, seconds or minutes cause in- jury to skin or mucous membranes of suflieient ~ severity to- threaten life or to cause permanent physical impairment;or disfigurement. ~ the authors this infortnation could not be ap- : plied to human exposures.. In, some cases this i information is mentionediso thctt the reader may !! know that some experimentalF work has been; done. (c) Published toxicity data were fel't by the authorsro be of questionuble validity. 0 = No Tonicity. This designation is given tomaterials which 1'all' into~one of the following cate~,'Uries;' (a) Maaerials which cause no harm under any conditions of use. (b)' Materials which produce toxic effects on humans only under the most unusual' conditions or by overwhelm ing dosage. I _Sli~ghtToxiaity: (a) Acute Local'. Materials which, on single exposures lasting seconds:, minutes or hours cause only slight, effects oni the skin or mucous membranes, regardless of the extent. of the exposure. (b) Acute Systemic. M'aterials; which~ can. be absorbed'into the body by inhalation„ i'ngestion, or through the: skin and' whieh produce only slight effects following single exposures lasting seconds, minutes, or hours, or following inges- tion of'a single dose. regardless of the quantity absorbed or the extent-ofexposure. (c) Chronic Locaf., M'aterialswhich,on con- tinuous or repeated exposures extend'ing, over periods of d'ays, months: or years cause only slight harm, to! the skin or mucous membranes,. The extent of exposure may, be great or small'. (d), Chronic Systemic. IWlaterialswhiich, cam be absorbed' into the body by inhalation, inges- tion,or through theskinand' which produce:only slight effects following; continuous or repeated& exposures extending over days,, months or years: The extenuof tha exposuremay be great or small. In general., those substances classified, as hav- ing "slight toxicity'"' produce changes in the human body which, are readily reversible and which will disappear following termination of harm to, the skin or mucous membranes. (d)' Chronic Systemic. M'aterials which can be absorbed into the body by inhal'atton. inges- tion or through the: skin and, which produce moderate e(L'ects following continuous or, re- peatedexposures extending over periods of, days. months or years. 'fhose substances classified as having "moder- atetoxicity"'may produce irreversible as well, as reversible changes in, the human body. These changes are not, of such severity as to threaten, life or produce serious permanent physical' impairment. 3 s Severe Toxicity:: (•r)j Acute Locat! Materials which on single~ 2 s M'oderate Toxicity: (a) Aeute Locali Materials which on single , exposure lasting, seconds, minutes or; hours {' cause moderate effects on the ski'n or mucous i membranes. These effects may: be the result of + intense exposure for a matter of seconds or ~ moderate exposure for a matter of houn. (b) Acute Systemic. Materials which can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion or through, the skin and which produce moderate . effects following single exposures lasting sec-- onds, minutes or hours, or following ingestion f i of a single dose. + (C) Chronic Local. Materials which on con- tinuous or, repeatMd, exposures extending over ~ periods of days, months or, years cause moderate i i (b) Acute Systemic. Materials which can be absorbed i'nt,a the body, by i~nhalation, ingestion~ or through the skin and' which can cause injury of sufficient severity; to,threaten life fiollovwing, a- single exposure lasting seconds, minutes or hours, or following ~ingestion of a single dose: (c), Chronic Local. Materials which on con- tinuous or repeated exposures extending over periods of days; months or years can cause in- jury to skin or mucous membranes of sutlicient severity tothreaten, life or to cause permanent impairment., disfigurement or irreversible change. (d)Chronic Systemic. Materials which can, be absorbcd!into the bod'y,, byinhalation;inges- tion or through the skin and which can cause death or serious physical, impairment following continuous or repeated exposures to, smuili amounts extending over periods of days, wnths, exposure.,either; with or without medical treat- ~~ ment. or ve•r rs. i ~
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KEY TO, ABBREVIATIONS (Refer to Introductiion for Elaboration: of Certain Definitions) alc-alcohol ALR-allergenic : effects AQTJd-Aquatic Toxicity un.,Alspergillus nidulans BCM-bloodlclbtting mechanism, effects bcs,Hacillus subtilis BLD-bIbod effects bmr-boee marrow. BPR.bloott pressure effects brd-bird (d'omestic or lab) bwd-wild!bird species C-cotttinuous CARC,carcinogenic effects ec-cubic centimeter chd+child ckn-chicken. CL-ceil i ng , concentration CNS-central nervous system effects compds-compounds crys-crystal C1UIvl cumul'ativr effects CVS-cardiovascular effects cyt-cytogenetic anaiysis. D6day dck-duck DDP=dtug dependence effects . dec-decomposes DEF-definition ditdominant lethalI test dmg-Drosophila melanogaster dnd-DNA damage : dnr-DNA repair dns-unschedulled DNA: synthesis dom-domestic DOT-Department, of Transportationn dpo•Droaophila pseudo•obscura emb-embryo EPA-Environmental! Protection Agencyy esc-Escherichia coli i ffTA-equivocal! tumorigenic agent eye-administration into eye (irritant)i EYE-eye e@'ects (systemic) 1br-6broblast frg,frog g, gm-gram ~ GIT-gastrointestinal' tract effects GLN.glhnditlar effects 8Pg'guinea pig; grtwgerbil IIr hr-hour h:un-hamster hl-HIcILa cell hma-host-mediated assay hmn-hutnan llantermittent wl-tntraaural IARC-Interttational, Agency for Research ion, Cancer iat-intraarterial ice-intracerebral I icv-intracervical idr-intradermal idu-intraduodenal 1 ihl -inhalation imm4mmersion, imp-implant ims-intramttscularr inf-infant ipc-intraplacental ipl'-intrapleural ipr-intraperitoneal IRDS-primary irritation dose irmintrarenal I IRR-irritant effects (systemic)) isp-intraspinal'l itr-intratracheal! 'tvg-intravaginal I ivn-intravenous kg-kilogram (one thousani grams) klp-Klebsiella pneumoniae L-Iiter LCS0.lethal concentration 50 percent kill II:CLo -lbwest published lkthal I concentration LD5011ethal' dose 50 percent kill II,DI.o•lowest' published'lethal dose leu-leukocyte lel=low explosive limit uel-upper explosive limit, Ing.-lung lvr-liver -- lymrlymphocyte M-minute(s). M3, m3-cubic meter(s) mam-marnmai (species unspecified), mem-membrane u, lu.-micron mg-milligram (one thousandth ofla gram;lo~-3 gram) misc-miscible mky-monkey m1-milliliter MLD,mild irritation effects mm-millimeters mma-microsomall mutagenicity assay MMI-mucous membrane effectsm mmo-mutation in microorganisms mmollmillimole mmr-mammary glandl mnt-micronucleus test MOD-moderate irritation ettkcts mol-mole mppcf-million particles per cubic foot mrc-gene conversion and mitotic recombination msc-mutation in, somatic : mammalian, celis 69.
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2478: SUt:CIMOiMITRJLE' Raportedd in EPA TSCA Inventory,, 1'S180i EPA TSCA 8(a) Preliminar,y Assessment Information Ptopaised'Rula FERRF.AC 45,13646,80. TH1R: An exper ETA. HIGH ivn; MOD orll Disaster Hazard When, heated to decom'p it emits very toA fumes of Cl' and' N%. SUCCINONITRILE' CAS RN: 110612 NIOSH #: WN 38500000 mf: C.H4NS; , mw: 80.1.0 Colorless, od'orless; waxy material. mp: 58.1 °, bp: 267°'„ flash p: 2'70°F (ASTM D92T46), d: 1.022 0 25°, vap6press: 2 mm 0 100°, vap~ d: 2.1. Slightly sol in ether,, water, alc; sol in acetone. S3GNS:! RIFTANEDINI7RILE S-DICYANOETHANE . ETHYLENE CYANIDE ETHYLENE DICYAHIDE' SUCCtN11C ACID. DINI7IRILE SUOCINAC DINrrRILESUCCINODINrRRILLE USAF A'9442 T•OXICITY DATA: 3-2 CODEN: ipn-mus LIA5b:1M mg/kg NTIS"' AID277•684 unk-dog LDLo:W50 mg/kg', A[PTAK 3,77,1897, unk-rbt LDLo:36' mg/ilg AIPTAK 3''.77„1897 unk+pgn LDLos22001 mg/Icg AIPTAK' 3,77,1897 scu-feg LDLo'- 1000 mg/kg AIPTAK 3,77;1897 Occupational Exposure to Nitriles recm std': Air: ~ TWA 20, mg/m3 NTP'IS'•. Reported in EPA TSCA Inven- tory,.11980: THR: HIGH' ipr, unk; MOD unk, scu. See also, nitriles: Fire Hazard- Slight, wheni exposed, to heat or flame. Disaster Hazard D$ngerous;, when heated~ to dbcomp or on, contact with acid or acid fumes, emits highly toxic fumes of N%, e7anides;, can react with oxidizing mate- rials.. To Fight Fire: Alcohol foam, COi, dry chemiicaL SUCCINOYL DIA7ME mf: Cs11.,NsOs;. mw: 168.12 THR: No tox data. See also, azides. An explosive. Disaster Hazark Wheni heated to, decomp it emits tox fumes of NOt., 4 '-SUC4,ZNWLAMINO-2,3' - DIMEIrHYLAl9:('dBENTOL CAS ILN: 63042137' NIOSH! #: WM 3825000, mf. C1,HIeN3OS; mw: 325.40 StiGNS: N+(4'=O+TOLYti-O,•hOt.YLAtOSIIC- 4'-SIICCINDIILAW INo-T„11-DL, CINAMIIC ACID. WP.TNYLA7ARENZENE TOXICITY DATA: 3 CODEN: orl-rat TDLo:94 gm/Icgl541W-C:ETA GANNA2 33,196,34 THR: Ani exper ETA. Disaster Hazard` When heated to decomp it emits tox fumes of'NO4. SUCCINYL CHLORIDE CAS RN: 5432041 NIOSH #: ~ VKN 4900000 tnf C:H4C1SO2; mwr 154.98' Colorless crystals; d: 1.377' @ 20p/4°; mpr 1'6.7°;; bpr. 192°493p; decomp in water, alC;soi in, benzene; insol in, petr ether. SNNS: SUCCINIC ACID ~. DICHI:ORIDE ~, SUCCINIC CHLORIDE ~, UCCINOtl7.' CHLORIDE sUCCINYL DICHLORIDE .-.y.a~. .T"~. TOXI!CITlf ' DATA: 3 CODEN: ipr-muz ~~. LQ3UI6Z'~ mg(Kg ~ C:SWC-~ 4;111.32 ~ Reported!in EPA TSCA Inventory, 1980. THR: HIGH ipr. See also, chlorid'es. a'' '2 * Disaster Hczard` When: heated to decomp it emits tox ~ fumes of C1'. SUCCINYLNPTRILE CAS RN: 63979840 , K'. .. NIOSH #:~ WN' 5800Q001 . mf CsH,,NzOi;; mw: 136.12 • TOXICITY DATA:! 3-2 CODENa aeu-rbt LDLo:36 mg,/lag AIPTAlk 3,77,1E47 aw-frg LIDLo;:1000 mg/kg AiP'rAK 3.77'.1897 THR: HIGH-MOD scu. See also nitriles. Disaster Hazard When heated to: decomp, it emits tox fumes of'NOj. SUCROSE . CAS RN: 57501 NIOSH #:~ WN 65000001 mfi C1zHssOyt; mw: 342.34 White crystals, sweet taste; d: 1.587. @ 25°/4°. mp: 1'70°- 186°' decomp; SoI in water„ alc;; insol in ethen SYNS: - REET'SUGAR'. CANE EUGAR GRANULATED.SUGAR NCI•C56597 ..p' CONFECiIIONER'S SUGAI. AlLlnA-D+GI:UCORYRANOSYI:. RESA-0-RRUCIIOFURANO6IDE (ALPBA-D-GLUC061D0)IRETA-D- ROCK CANDY' SACCHARORE'. _ _ sACCHARUw SUGAR . y, y lRUCTOFURAN061DE TOXICITY DA'I'A: 1 CODENt exl-eat TDLo: 154s g/Ieg 2aDpra Ct.nDlrW, UMDAC 16,789.80 ocl-rat,LD50:2970D, mghg TXAPA9 7;6Q4,6S orl4om LDC:o;40 pnAg', NAREA4 30,503,60! TL 1!- ' Air: 10 mg/m3 DTIl.WS"'-,27.76: Reported Gn EPA TSCA Inventory, 1980i EPA TSCA 8(a) Preliminarn' Assessmea Information Piroposed! Rule FERREAC 45,131646,80. THR LOW '' orl.. Disaster Hruard: When heated to decomp it~ emits acrid smoke and fumes.. SULFABENZAMIDE CAS RN: 127719 NIOSH #: CV 5802500' mf Ci3HtxNzOaS; mw: 276.33 88698557
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Smoking an 0 0 sA call ~Heti 0 m
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SMOKING CESSATION METHODS 83-0989. Moss, R. A.;' Ptue, D. M.; Lomam; D.; Martin, J. E. Implicrtioas of SeCGMooitoring for Smokiag' Treatmeatt Effects oi Adherence snd I Sessiaa Attendanoe. .[ddictiwr deliaidas7(4): 381-385; 1982. Dropout rates for smokers assigned to seli:monitoring,condi- tibas in a1 smoking, cessation program were higher than those for smokers in control groups with no selfrmonitoring. Pltrtici- pants (411 ma1'es and 9 femalts) ~were tandomly assigned' to one of five oanditiotuu (1)no: selhmonitoring, delayed treatment; (2) no selC-monitoring, immediate treatment (camtrd' 8rotipa)t, (3)I pack self•tnonittuing, (recording time each cigarette pack was' apatad}, (4) time self-.monitcn»ng' (recording when each cigarette was smoked); and (5) intensive self-monitoring (time of each cigarette, where smoked, with whom, brand, how much of cigarette was smoked, and i enjoyment on a 5•point scal'e).. Lvaluation was on compliance with monitoring requirements and session attendance during, the 6-week program. It is noted that while only eight smokers compliied' with 1 the self-monitor- ing eonditiwns, eight attended the second sessiom even though they had' not complied. Since there was no charge for the program, par0icipants may not have been as motivated as those who attend programs that charge for treatment. The implica- tions of the high dtop.out rates for self-monitoring on future cessatiws prograats are di5cussed. i3-09'6: Reckeadorf, H.: Praktitche Hinwetse fur dia !Rancb- ereatwohaung. Eine Wiehtige C'iesundHei'tserzieherisehe Auf- gabe. [Phactieal! Tips for Smoking Withdr.walL An Important Task of : Health Edueatloa.] DrutuAer.!'eztetilctt 78(30 1689- 1691, Scptember 3, 198L,German: A5-day grmip therapy programr intended to induce partici- pants to ceaae smoking at once or at least to reduce consump• tiat progressi'vely, is describedl The program consists of lectures by the therapist;, kaeping,a dtary of successes in not smoking in particulYr situations;, listening to recorded lkctura, reading; therapeutic advice about averaive, diversive, and subsdtution drugs; eollketive repetition of autosuggestive slo- gans; review of the achieved smoking, withdrawal cases; additional tips for less successful participants;, and additiondl therapeutic advice (hydtotherapy::motivatian for.nonsmoking, promotion of a nonsmoker image)~ On the last day, the most important arguments against smoking are summarized, eventu- al! nicotine withdrawall symptoms are diieussed, advice is given to participants stin' smofting, questions are answeredj, and arrangements aro made for a new discussion sessi'on, in i'~ tol . 2' weeks. _ g3-119g7i* Wilson, D: Sbtokin= Cess.tion Strategies: Mr Fnmily Pfiysiei.e's Role. Canadiaa FamilP ftrieian 28: 51i3- 516r March 1982. The !CHEST' (qonfiiontation, history, of'smoking, editcation; strategies disctusion; treatment and folk>wup plan) program for cessation of smoking, utilized by a family practice teaching team, is described. While the average success rate at 6 months was higher in the group that rettuned' for scheduled ibllowup,,, the rate rose to 40lpereant when advice was given to ~a patient who attended' the clinic with a disease that, could! be smofting.- related' (e.g., bronchitis). Other situations (following, myocardit ali infarct, hospitaliaation with no smoking allowed) alw, lend themselves to advice to quit. VBhiln counseling alone is a sueeessfull strategy,, education of the posaiblea'conseqpenaa and the risk reduction from quitting should be included. Although research has not' shown any intervention strategy to be superior, methods recommended include organized withdrawal grograms, acupuncture or el'ectrostimulation ;(whiich has been relatively successful), and!.nicotine cliewing, gum. Aversive therapy and hypnosis are not recommended, satiation because it involves an overdose of a toxic chemilcal! (nicotine), and hypnosis because reports are still very, ccontradictory. Another itnportant factor is maintenance, and' physicians should explain withdrawal l symptoms and'arrange followup visits to provide reassurance and continuing support. TOBACCO PRODUQ.'Ir ADDTriM: g3-0985. Hertz, A. AI. Tobaeoo. Flavours and Casings. TobbJc hwraal datsrnatlonal 6: 543'-544, December 1982: The inttoduction: of low-yieldd cigarettes resuited' in a, aearch for' flfvors based on tobaoco: extracts. Traditional natutal'1 additives overwhelm the : residual level of true tobacco flavor, after emerging,from high retention filters and ventilaCion:lRte WelY of sugar in casings must aho, be redoCed, in0uencing, the basic tectiniques of casing and taasting. Flavorings are used too correct faults in the smoking' quality, such as harshness and I bittarness, and to 1 add new taste nuances. Alsa, humecrants: such as;lyexroP diethyleneglycol, propylene glyeol, and!others are adtlad'to retain moisture.'dhe new synthetircompounds are extremely powerful and' areappl•ied in very low concentrations. Lioorice is oftdrn utilized to boost swroctness, while sugars anr added to neutralize the alkaline nitrogenous eompounds in, the smoke,, mellowing their harshness and bitterness: Ifowever, sugmrs also reduce the filling power of the tobacco and increase the ratio of condensate to niicotine„whiich is undesirable in low- yield cigarettes, and a balance must be maintained. W CID M ' to 83~-0989. Jackson, A. C. Combination Cigarette Holder and ~ Oigarette Smoke Catcher.llJnited States Patent No. 4,369,798; ~q January 25;,1983, 4 pp. ~ 1.25 r :
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(24 cctZ9 .- I11L_~ Acute orali toxicity of sucrose: Rldon M. Irene Godi,, andIM. Abel (Queen's Lfniv., ICingston, Can. .~Taxicof: A'ppf. Pharnmcot: x(4), 809i 18(1985xEng). The L.D.W of suerosr (I) given orally to male rats was 35.4 g./kg:,, and it was 29'.T g./kg. for females. The initial elin: signs of toxicity were kypokiaesia, prostration„ eyanosis, abdominal bl'oating, and diarrhea. Doses }L.D.r tended to produce sudden death in <10 hrs., apparently as a result primarily of'eap' congestion of the brain and meninges; a fuhainating gastroent~eriti's may albo have been a contributing aause. Doses <L.D.W produced a delayed death at 10-48 hrs.; the severe renal' tubular nephritis produced by I may be an important eause of d'eath. Sublethal doses of I produeed~ anorexia, polyd'ipsia,, hyperthermia, diar- rhea, and loss of wt, for 1-3 days: Rats surviving an L.D.w of I developed polydipsia, polyuria, alltalinuria and some hyper- thermia at 3-6'davs. Frank A. Staith Are sugars carcinogens? An ezperimental stndy. VIJ. C~ ~(N'atl. Caneer, Inst., Bethesda, Md.). Cencor Ras: 25, H65)(Eng): Injections (subcutaneously) of 25% solns. of arabinose; dextrose, lactose, levulose, maltose, sortiose, and! _ suerose were given twice a.reek into the region of the nape of , the neck to 480 rats and 480 mice for pcriod~ up to 2'years: Oinly 2 rats given sorbose soins. developed sarcomas (after 21 months)i at the site of' injection. iVo tumors were found' in addnl. series of,rats and mice injected with water or traumatized by needle., It is snggested that previously reported' carcinogenic action fal= ~' lowing, repeatedi injection of'sugar solns. may be due to, the pres- ence of carcinogenic impurities, possibly ellnted from charcoal'l i employed for the decoloratlion ofisugar solns. J'. R. Sampey ~i
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O' H Cz-vn, L r ti P COPIED 11 RN' - 57-50-1. ON! -80127-4'7-2' (CAS) OMI - 8030-20-4 ( CAS ) OMI - a7T167-52-?' (CAS) OMI - a7185-09-1 (CAS) ONI ONl -47d57-91'-0~ ('CAS) - 50'8v7-68-6 ('CAS) OMI - 6A533-66-a~ (CAS) ON - 65545-99-5'(CAS) ONl - 76056-3!8r-7' ('CAS)' MF - C1 2'-H22'-Oi11 N1 - a1pha-D-G.1'ulcolpw.ranoisir3ev beta-Di-fructofuranosvl C'9CI') SY - .SUcrose (8CI) SY ' SY - Flmerfond' - Beet su3ar • S'K' SY - Cane susla.r - Confectioner's suslar SY ' - beta-D-FructoifuranoswT a1Pha-bl-g1uicop-dranosi'de SY - Granulated sullar SY ' - Microse. SY ' -Rockcandw SN' - Saccharose SY - D-(+)!-Saccharose ` SN' ---Sacc~rar~im SN' - h-Sucrose. SY ' - Suaar SY - Whilte suaa,r L0! - TOXLINE LO - TOXBACK651 LO, - TQXRACh74 LO -RTECSLOi - Th'Et L8r - TSCAIHV! LO, - MEDLINE ,..._._ d~.«..~ .:..,,,.
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COPIED' ~-- ~, ~ u c~- T. 23f3/1-2' I`lifi ( oe 4 %f 23/3/1, 81117068'. Protective effects of osmotic stabilizers om, morphological and rrermeabilitv alterations induced in Vero cells bwC]ostridium perfringens enterotoxin M'cCl~ane B'.A. r McLiionel J.L. nept. M'icrobiol. Cell Riol. 8'iochem. Biophws. r Pennswl'wania State U!niv.. Uni,wersitw Park. Pa. 16802 U.S.Ai. bIOCHIM'« 8IOPWIYS.ACIl1A (NETHERLANIDS) .19'81 x641/2(401-409')'p Coden.BBACA 23/'3/'2 . . . . 802'51?44 01604801003"62 Comparison of d'eutran-coated charcoal andi sucrose; dbnsiitv grad'ient anaLwses of estromen and pro-desterone receptors in humarn breast cancer Anderson K.M..BmnomiP'. ;~ Mlarog1]IM~~. n~ e~tall.Sec;. Med. Orrcol . r Oncol. Lab. s I)ePt. Med. r Rush, Miedi. Col l t r Cihicagor 111, . 606'S2' U. S~.A. . CANCER' RES.(Ui.S.A. )P1980!, 401/'ii1i C412'7-4132)': r Codleni.CNIREA,
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23/3:. L 801; 12 . Ex _ndina the prudent diet to cancer Prevention Weisburger J'.H.,' Heasted DI.Ml. r Gori G'«B'«. Lewis D.. Dept. Chem. Pathol. Metabl« Dii'sorders,x St Thomas's Hosp. Med. Sch. r UNITED KINGDOM PREV. MED. (U«S.A«)1 ~1980 ~ 972' (297-3014)x Codent PVTMA W London ~ 80116768 'The effects of lifetime feedina studies onipatterns of' senile lesions in mice and! rats ~ ~ S 'T b a D a ur . s Clilni. Ries« Dept«. Pfizer Cent. Res. r Grotons Conn,. 016340 UI. S . A i. - DR'UG CHEM« TOXICOL. ('U!.S'.A. )' .1980', 3/1 (1-33) r C'oden. DCTOD 0 W 23/3/'9' ~ 80111039251 008'051014011470 Flavor aversions rapidlw Produced bw in,oraanic lead andl tri'ethu2', tin Leander J.D. x Gau B.A'. Dent. Pharmacol!.y Sch. Med«x 231 Hr Univ. North Carolina, Chapel' Hilly ~ N.C. 2'7514 U.S.A. : NEUROTOXICOLOGY (U. S. A«)i .198'p r 1/3 ( 6315-642 ) r• Coden. NRTXD 23/3/10 ~ 80099655 0220251002595 The E« coli Pol Asub, 1sup - assaw. A auantitative Procedure for diffusib],e and non-diffusibil!e ctiemicals ~ H~iman J. x' Leifer Z«, Rosenkranz µN.SI, Dept. Microbiol.. New York Med'. Coll. x Vel'hall'ar N!«Y'« I Ui.S.A. `~ MU'11AT. RES. ( N'ETHERLA'NDS) r 19'80'x 74/2' (10'7-111),p Coden. MUREA 23/3/11 ` 80095473 Suaar content and Protein f'ractionattion in human Pleural' fluid' Kim W.J. r' Ahn Y'.S. r K'i'm H.Y.: Lee W!.Y. . Dept. Med.. Yonsei Univ. Colil. Med'., Seoul K062EA P SOUTH KOREAN J«, PHARMACOL. (KOREAjv SOUTH)': ,1979r ~ 15/1 (1-5)r Coden.'TYCPA. S 0 `. ` ` 23T3T12 80025976 . . Hwperreactivitw to, aversive diets in rats Prodijcecil bwinj!ectiions of' 0 lnsuuin, or tolbutamWeir but not bw food deprivation V!asselli J«R«. Scl'afani A. . . 0'besitv Res. Cent. r St Luke's Hosp'. s New YorNtir, N.Y. 10025 Ui. S.A. PHYSIOL. BEHAV. W.S'.A. ) r19'79s 23/3 (557-56'7') r Coden. PHBHA • 23/3/13 80017595~ 030015010903412Ini vivo, bindina' of 2's3r6.2',13''r6"-hexachlorobiphenwl ~ 2.4p5v2" s4' n5l''-hexachloroblilphenwl' to mouse liver macromol'ecules. Morales N'.M.i Matthews H.8'. and (* ~ Lab. Pharmacokinet. rNat. Inst. Envuronm. Hlthi. Scz. p Research Triangle f-`rk. N'«C. 27709' ~- U«S.A. CHEM~.-D~I~OL. IN'LERACT.~ (NETHERLANDS) y ~1979'. 27/1 (99-ii~10!)1r, Coden:~ zZi'CBIM'A 886985G3 0
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. t5xc-.-R!'r.A M~Eir--A i0(90-9) T 23/3f ii-1i6 23/3/ii C 80227178 (IOP1ED, Heuristic modeling of drua deliverw to malianant brain tumors Levin V«A«; Pa.tLak C.SI.; La:ndahl H.D. ~ Brain Tulm« Res. Cent.. DeQt. Neurol. Sura. v Sch. Med.. Uh1vi. Caliiforni'ap ~ San Franciscor Cali'f'. 94'143 U«S«A,. ~ J« P'HARM'ACOKIMIET. RZOPHARM. (U.S.A.). s19801s 8/3 (257-29'6)l: Cod'en: ~ JP'BE"$ 231f 372' ` ` 8011990i77 0'1703601802966 --"Ttiie-wspatrt-am:. A"-new eeneratio.n of' sweeteners L'~AS~PA~~RTAM.~ UN!E'~ NOUVELLE~ GENERATION D~'~EDULCORA'iJTS'~ Pa:ccaLin,J!. r Lambert J. x Lacomere R'.. Dept. Thierapeut. n Univi« B'orcieaur, I'L'. Dordeaux FRANCE CAH. NUTR. DIET. (FRANCE) V 1980'.r 15/1 (4'1-4811r Coden:' CN'DG'A 23/3/3 80116',88'433 ' 015039011100091 Pulmonarv accumulation of drugs in vitamin A deficiencs Siddik Z.H'.; ' Trush~ M.A.s' Gram T.E. Lab. Toxicol.r N'at. Cancer Inst.r NIH, Dethesdar Md. 20205: U'.SI.A. LUNG ('GERMANY,+ WEST) s 1980, 157/4 ( 209'-217 ) r Coden .' LUiNG.D. ~ 23f 3/4 5166042 0220260'10'0032 Fluoride: Interaction! with chemical mutaaens in Drosophila MacDonald D'.J.. Luker M.A. Inst. Anim.. Genet. r Ed'i'ntaurah Univ.. Edinburgh, EH9 3JN UiH'ITED' KINGDOM MUTAT. RES.. (NETHERLANDS) P1980, 7172' (2'11-218)' y Codeni. MUREA 23/3/5 " 80148507 C Effect of ' carcinosenic N-alkwl-N'-nitro.so compounds oni nicotinamid'e C adenine dinucleotide metabolism Ja:cobson M.K.r LeciV'.;' Juarez-Salinas H.; et al.. C Dept. Chem., North, Texas State Univ. Ter:as Coll. Osteopath,. Mied. p Dentonr ~ Tex. 76203 U.S.A. c. CANCER RES. (U. S. A',. ) .1980', 40/6 (' 1797-1802Yr Coden 2' CNREA' ,( 23~/376' ~_ 80134689 0690510702667 ~ Stabilization of human breast cancer Proaesterone Q50201)' receptor bwsodium molwbdate C- Anderson K.M. r Marogil M'., Bonomi P.D; r et al. Oncol. Lab. r Sect« Med. Oncol. r Dept. Msd.. Rush P'resbwt. St« LuW.e"s Med. Cent.r Chicaao. Ill. 60612 C~ U''S«A. 0 CLIN. CHIM. ACTA( iVETHERLANDS )'. ,19810 r 103/3' ( 367'-373 )':,w Coden ti CCATA
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EOPbED 23/3/14 80010840 Iderntif'icati'on of receptors for es#tradiol-1i7bettac Pro-4esiteroine and' Prollacti'n in N-nitrosomethwluree-ind'uced' rat mammarwtUmors Turcoit-Lemaw L. i Kellw M.A. MRC Group Mlolec. Endocrinol. p CHU' Laval. Quebec GIV 482, CANADA CANCER TREAT « R'EIP'., (Wi. S.. A'. ) ,1929. 63/7 ( h!o . 129') . Coden t CTR'.RD 23/3/15 8'.000510514 Studies on estroslen and proaesterone receptors in human breast cancer bw sucrose grad~ientcentrifw.9ation Ii'noi Y'« II D'ent. Swrg. r Gunma: Winiv. Sch. Med. s Maebashi . JAPAN FOLIA ENDGCRIIN©iL . J'1FNl. (JAFAN)' i-1979r 55/8 (97'1-993)'. r CodenS' NNIGZA 23/3/16 800101855 02'3027'06'.019014 Relationship between DNA alkwlation and specific-locus muita:tion induction bw N-methwl- and M-ethwI-N-nitrosouirea in cultured'Chinese hamster owarv- cells ('CHG/HGRRT sustem) Thielmann~ H.,-W!. x Schroeder C'.,H.; Q''Neil 1 J.P., et al « Dtsch. ICrebsforsch.. Imst. Fiochem., 6900 Heid'elberg' G'ER'MANY'r WEST -CHEM,."BIO!L« -INTEF~ACT. .(NETHIERLA~NDiS~)- ----x~1979'r 26/3 (233-243)r Cod'en,CD II TIA
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EXERPTA MEDICA 1974-79 COPIED The EXERPTA MEDICA (1974-79) search for the toxicity of Sucrose was not performed due to the large number of citations retrieved upon the initial inquiry into this database file. Instructions per Dr. R. Slaven. 11/81
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~ oc- 004~~>C- - ,rox COPIIED 30~~'6'~11 81-09-t0481 N'oni-nutritive sweeteni'na asents. Linidnar, K'. Coll« of Commerce 375.Caterins, Alk.ot,manw u,tca 9-11, Budapest V, Hunaarw Bibliotheca ''Nutritio et Di'eta', 1980r tVo. d9, 82-88 30f3/2' 2036351 8'11-06rnO3O7' (Studies on the uti'lization of Pawpaw seed's as a source ofi' seed oil. ) hfatsui, T'. " Bulletin of the Facultv of Asriculture, Meiji Universitv (MeiJ'iDaiaaku Nosakubu Kenkwu Hokoku),, 1980, No. 52, 43-53 30/3/3 200758 81-04-10255 The industrial utilisation of ' sua'ar and mill bw-products. Kort, M1. J~. Pub,l'~« Durban, South A~fricar' Unkversitv: of N!ataL, Suaar MfillAna Researcth, Institute 197'8, 175prr'.. 30/3/4 ' 199986 81-03-t0122 Plasma and! eruthirocute amino: acid level~s of ad'uLt, humans given 100 ma/k3' t'rodb' weight asPartamew - Stea'inik, L. DA Fiill'er, L. J«, Jr. r Baker, G. L., Brummel, M. C'. Pediatrics 3751 Bilochiemistrw,S~2'65Hiospital School,Univ. of ' IowaCiitw, Iowa: 522'42', USA. To.:icolosw, 19?9, 14s (2), 131-140 30/3/5 199300, 81-03-10175 (Process for making invert susar«) IK!hankfiodzhaeva~~, D. Ai. ; ~~ Reikhsf'eh'~dlx W~~. 0i.~ ; ~~ As~ka~~rov~~,~ M~. A~*;~ Ludlinov~a~~,~ I. S.', LevaL'd, M'« A'. r Serdwuk, E. V. i Gavrilov, B. M'. Und'oniof' Soviet Social'ist Rrepublics LeninaradsY.ii Ordena T'rud'ovos'o ICrasnolgo,~ Znameni Tekhnol~oai~c~meski~i ~ Insti~tut imi. Lensove~~ta: USSR' P'atent s 1980, 730, 809' 30/3/6 198573 8'~1-021-t~0104 Aspartame metabolism in human subJects ('In "Health and sugar substitutes' (see FSTA ('1981), 13' 2'T56).)! Stesink, L. D.i Filer, L. Ji., Jr.; Baker, G. L.. Brummel, M. C!.~ Tephlw', T. R'. Dep. of' Pediatrics, U'niv'.# of Iolwa, Coll+ of' Med., Iowa C'itv, USA 1979, pQ. 1601-165 30/3/7 1':985,72' 811-02'-ta1-03. Dihwdrocfial'cone sweeteners. (In 'Health andi suaar substitutes' (see FS'TA (11981) Horowitzs R. M.;Gentili, B. 1A 52'24~t~,~ 13 2T56).) USDA, : Fruit 375 VesetabTe Chem« Lab., 263, South, Ci'~ester: Awenu'e, , . . . _ ... .. ~ ~.M'...._ _ Pasadena, California 9i106, USA 1979, pp. 166-171
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~.UC-RO'~jC -TOP 1 7 O J i V V.L v.:_ a. v.a v.r Acesulfame-Kr a new noncaloric sweetener. COPIED (In 'Health anJ sugar substitutes' (see FSTA (1981) 13 2T56).) A H -J rpe, . . Hoechst AG,, Postfach 800320r 6230 Frankfurt (M) 80r Germanv Federal Republic of 1979j, pp. 178-183 30/3/9 198569 81-02-t0100 Potential intense sweeteners of natural origin. (In 'Health and sugar substitutes' (see FSTA (1981) 13 21T56).) Inglettr 6. N. Reg. Res. E. Cent. , USL1Ar 1815 N. Universitv Street. F'eoria, Illinois 61604r USA 1979Y Pp. 184-190 . 30/3/10 198525 81-02-t0056 Health anU sugar substitutes. Guggenheim, B. (Editor). Dep. oP Oral Microbiol. 375 General Immunologv, Dental Inst.y Univ. of Zurichr Zurich, Switzerland European Research Group for Oral Hiolo9v Publ2 8aselr SwitzerlanUr S. Karger AG 1979Y viii + 351pp. ISBN 3-8055-21961-9 30/3/11 189911 80-08-P1507 (USE OF WHEY IS FINALLY AUTHORIZEh - LEGISLATIVE ASF'ECTS.) LUQUETr F.-M. TECHi+lIQUE LAITIEI:Er 1980? NNO. 940P• ?3y 25 30/3/12 187716 80-07--C0327 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO SCREENING MEDIA FOR DETECTING MYCOTOXINS. T'fABROUKr S. S.'r LdEL-&SHAYEBr N. M. A. LA$. OF NATURAL F'PiOAUCTSr NAT. FiES. CENT.r DOKKIr CAIROr EGYPT CHEMIE MIKROBIOLOGIE TECHNOLOGIE I1ER LEBENSMITTEL, 1980Y 6. (4) r 106-11w 30/3/13 186789 80-06-L0420 EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON SUCROSE LOSS IN SUGARBEETS DURING STORAGE. AKESONY W+ R. r YUNr Y. M. y SULLIVANr E. F. GREAT W. SUGAR C0.9 AGRIC. RES. CENT.r L0NGNfONTY COLORADO 80501y USA JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF SUGAR BEET TECHNOLOGISTS. 1979, 20 r (3)v 25 5-26 8 30/3/14 184701 80-05-C0269 COMPARISON OF F'fiOTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF DIETARY FIBER AGAINST THE TOXICITIES OF VARIOUS FOOD COLOURS IN FiATS. TSUJITAr J.; TAKEhAr H. i EE{IHAI:Ar K. r KIFtIYAMAr S. m L1EF. OF AGRIC. CHEM. r EHIME UNIV. rMATSUYAMA. JAPAN Gb NUTRITION REPORTS INTEkNATIONAL. 1979r 20r (5). 635-642 ~ GO 30/3/15 Cli ' 182747 80-03-T0174 THE METABOLISM OF BEEF TALLOW SUCROSE ESTERS IN FtAT AND '.MAN:", DANIELr J. W.: MAh'SHALLY C. J. i J0NESy H. F. i SNODINr D. ' J. LIFE SCI. RES.s STOCKs ESSEXy UK --FOOD AND COSMETICS TOXICOLOGY, 1979~ 17. (1) r 19-2
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~ c R oSE - ~ro~ 1 5' TPr 181860 80-03-J0a84 fi0P1ED' TOXINS OF MOiLDiS FR'OM, DECAY'ING' TOMATOi FRUIT. HARW!I'G', J. i SCOTT, P. M. ; STOLTZ', D. R. ; B'LANCHFIELD', $'. J. HEALTH 8' W'ELFARE CAN'AD'A, TUN'NEY'' S PASTURE, OTTAWA, ONTAR'I0, CANADA K'1iA OL2 A'PP'LIED' AN'D' ENVIRONMENTAL MICROB'IOLOGY', 19'79, 38, ('2) , 267-274 30/3/17 181288 80-02'-T00175 USE OF ASPARTAME BY APPARENTLY HEALTHY' CHILDREN'AND' ADOLES'CENTS. FR!EY', G'. HI. HEALTH' CARE DIIV. , JOHNSON R JOHNSO'N, NEW BRUNSW'I'CK'r NEW' JERS'EY, USA JOUR'NALOFTOXICOLOGYANDENVIRONMENTAL HEA'LTH, 11976~, 2', (2'), 4011'-415 30/3/18 1730143 7'9-09-L0584 (CAR'AMELS.)i DU!FR'ESNOY, X, SOIC.MIEII'AY'ER AROM'ATI'C2UES~ S'o A. ,9' RUEGAMBETTA'~,94',.i00'CHAIMPIGNY°, FRAINCEBIOS, 1978, 9', (3), 19-25. 301/'3!/ 19' 167623 79-05~-S0879' MISCELLA'NEOUS' P'EN!I'CIiLLIUMI TOXIN!S. (II~N~ 'MYCOTOXINS IN~~ HU!MANAND1 ANIMAL HEALTM"' (SEE FSTA! (4979')~~ 11 5C268)1.~. LEISTN'ER, L. s' P'ITT, J'. I'.. BUNDESANSTALT FUIE~ FLE7fSCHFOR'SCHUiNG,~ 86510~~ KU!LMBA'CH~~, FEDERAL R'~EP'~UBLIC~ OF GERMANY 1977, PP'. 639-653 30/3/20 163917' 79'-03-J0'39'4 CHEMICAL ANDi PHYSICAL _PRO~~PERTI'~ES'~ OF APRICOT KERNEL, A'PRZ~~COT' KERNEL OIL ANL1' ALMON'D~ KERNEL OIL. HA'LLAE{0,, S. A. S. P^ @'EL-@WAIKEI'L, F. Al. s'MORSI, M. K. S« FOOD, TECH. DEP. , FA'C. OF AGRIC «, CAIRO UNIIV. , GIZA, EGYPT EGYP7fIA~N!JOURNAL ~ OF F00'~D~ SC~~IENC~E~~r 1975~,~ P~UBL. 1977,~ 3~,~ (~~1/2')~l,~~ 1-6, 30/3/21 163414 79-0'3-C0130 MYCOTOXI'N! PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF FUiNG'I! AS'SOCIATED' WITH' DRY SHIRIIMP'S. WU', M'A, T'. x SALUNKHE, "D. K'. DiEP.~ OF N~UTR~.~ 8'~ FOOD SCI~.~,~ UTAH S'~TATE~ U~~N7~V~.,, LOG'AN',~ UTAH! 84326-,~~ USA, JOURNAL OiF' APPLIED BACTER~IO~LOGY', 1978! , 45, (~~2) ,~ 231-2'38 30F'3T22' 158733' 78-12-C0'496 B'I'0!LO!G'IICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS 0!F' TO'XIC' STRAI'NS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATED FROM' IMPORTED FOODSTUFFS. BUR'ZYNSKA', Fl. STATE IlitS:T. OF HY'G'IENE,WARSAW,, P'OLANDZES'Zlff'TY' PROBLEMOWE POSTEPOW N'AUK ROLNICZY'CH, 197'7'r N01. 1'8'19 n 215-218' 30/3/23 8sG985filg' 1581432' 78-11-T0416 EUALUiATIONOF' CER'TAIN'FOODAzrD]I'TIIVES'«TWENTY'-FIRST REP'ORT' OFTHE. JO'SNT FAOi/W!H0l EXP'ERT' COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES'. FOOD 8 AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, JQ!INT' FAO/WHO' EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD I ADDITIV'ES. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDIITIVESI WHO TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES, 19'78'1 . N0. 6i7, 44PP'. ISBtJ! 9Z'-4-1s0617-9'
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~ ocRaSlE'-,~ 156'595' 78-10-T0387 CUPCED. EFFECT OF Ah9iARANTH, PONCEAN 4R' AN!D/OR VITAMIN A ON ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF THE RAT LIVER. HOLMBERG, D~. TO!XICOL . LAD'. , NAT . FOiODi ADMIN ., BOX 62'2 r S-7'51, 26 UP'PSALA s SWEDEN! FOOD AND' COSMETICS TOX'IC'OLOGY, 1978', 16, (' 1)' , 1'-5'. 30'73'/2'5 154984 78-09-R05 2'1 MECHANI'SED' CRAD PROCESSING M'AC EARLY, J. C.r STROUD, G~. D. TOR'RY' RES. STA., ARERDEEN, UK. HINE TESTED IN' SCOTLAND. FI SHING NEWS' INTERNA'TIONAL, 197'8, 17, (5), 56-57, 60, 30/3/26 - 154548' 78-09'-L0666 A SOLV'EN'T--FR'EE SYNTHESIS ,RIZZI, G. P'.; ; TAYLOR, H. W~INTON' HILL TECHI. C'ENT. s OF SUCROSE P'OLYESTERS. M. PROCTOR &' GAMBLE C'0~.,~ C~INC~~INNATI',~ OiHI~O~ 45~22'4~,~ U'SA JOURNAL 0'~F~ THE~ Ai'i~ER~~IC~~AH'~ OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIi~ETY~,~~ 19',~ a , 55'1, (4)!,~ 398 401 30/3/27 154333 78~-09'-J11'243 PR'ODUC'TI©NI OF~ PENITR!EMl A~ AND~ OF' AN' UNIDENTIFIED TOXIN BY~ PENICILLIUM 4.ANOiSO!-C'~OERULE~UMI ISOLA~~TEDFROM WEEVIL-DAMAGED P'ECANS~. WELLS, J. M.: COLE, R. J. SOUTHEASTER4 FR!UIT~ 9 TREE NUiT' RES~. STA~. , USDA, BYR0N'~, GEORG~~I~A~~ 3110i08,~ US'~A~ PHYTOPATH'OLOGY. 1977, 67, (6), 779-782 30T3T28 150899 78-06-UO458 (APRICOT JAM. ): CENTRAL AMERICA , INSTITU'T0 CEN!TROAN'ERICANO DE INVESTIGACION' Y' TEC'NO!LOiGIA, INDUSTRIAL CENTRAL AMERICAN STANDARDi, 19'74,IC'AITI3'4062,: 7P'P'.. 30If3729 14'9535 78-05-T0'179 ALTERNATIVES'T0'SUGAR. P'ARKER'r K'. J. TATE 8 LYLE LTD. , P'HIL?P' LYLE MEMORIAL RES. LAB. , UNIV!'. , WHITEKNIGHTS, PO D'OX' 68, READING RG6 2BX', UK. NATURE, UK, 1978, 271, C5645?, 493-495 3073/'3i0 1 148415 7'8-05-A03'04 PRESENT KNOWLEDGE IN NUTRITION. HEGSTEDi, Dl. Mi. r CH'ICHESTER, C. 0'. ; DA'RB'Y, W. J!. r M'CNUTT, K'. W'.: STALVEY', R. M. r STOTZ, E. H. ('EDITORS). P'wbll «' OFFICE OF EDUCATIION I PUBLIC A'FFAIRS, 888 SEVENTEENTH STREET, NW, WASHINGTON'x D'.C. 20006, USA'. THE NUTRITIQN' FOUND'ATION, I'NC'. 1976, ED. 4, XXI' 8 60'SPP. 30i73731 145911 78'-02-U0094 - (IPINEAPPLE' JAMi. ) CENTRAL AMERICA , INSTITUTO CENTROAhiERTCA'N0 DE' INVESTIGACION Y TEC~lO'LOG'IA INDUSTRIAI:``' ~ CENTRAL AMERICAN STAN'DARDl, 1974, ICAI'TI 34 0'64, 6PP.
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S~c.Q©~- Td~ ~.~7 i ~ -- CM{ED. , 145910 78-02-U0093. (PEACHI JAM'« )' -------CEtVTR'A'L AMERICA s_ INSTITUTO CENTROAMERICANO DE IN'VESTIGACION' Y' TECN0L0GIiA INDUSTRIAL CENTRAL AMERICAN STAi'td'DAiRDi, 1974, ICAITI 34 063'r 7PP. 30/3/33 14'5483 7'8-02'-P'0210 ]i THE' IN'FLUENCE' OF EVAPORATION AND DRYING ON MILK. ( Ilit ' PHY'SICALr CHEMICAL A'NDi BIOLOGICAL CHANGES IiN' FOOD CAUSED BY' THERMAL PROCESSING' ('SEE FSTA (1978) 10 2A90).) IGUSSENDRAGERs K.: SCHUTP J. RES. LAB. OF THE ZUI'Di iNEDERLAiilDSE NfELKIiN'D. B'V r DMV, PO' BOX 1131, VEGHEL, ?VETHERLAN'DS' 1977r PP. "?'67'-2'79 . 30/3/34 145481 78+-02'-P0199' FATE OF STAPHYLOCOCCU!SAUREUS~ IHI RAD~I~ATION, STERILIZEDMOD~EL FOOiDSYSTEMSSIM'ULATING DAIRY' PRODU!CTS. ('IN' 'USE 0iF' RADIATIONS AND, RADLOISOiTOPES' IN STUDIES OF ANIMAL PR'ODUCTIOM" (SEE FSTA (1978) 10 2G584.) SU!LEBELE, 6. A. r' KA'ifiAT', Mi. Y. DEP. OF CHEM. TECH'. r UiVIV. OF' B0MBAY'r BOM'BA1'F' 400! 0119, INDIA UN'DA'TED r PP'. 347-360 30'73f 35 143317 77-12-T0!67'0 QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE ItJ! SUiCROGLY'CERIIDES WITH INFRARED SP'ECTROP'HOTQMETR'Y. JAKUBSKAr E'. ; ' PLENt(]IEW'ICZs J. 'r A'RCT r J. DEP. OF ORGANIC CHEM « I ' TECH. , WARSAW TECH. UN'IVl. , WARSAW', POLAND ACTA ALIMENTARIA POLOP{lICA, 1'9'77', 3, (1') r 79-84 30/3/36 1362449' 77=08-C0347' TANNIC AC'~IlDlx~ ACUTE HEPATOTOiXICITY~ FO'LLO~WING~ A~DMIN~ISTRA~~TIOiV' B!Y' FEEDING TUBE. OLER', A« r rDlIEAIL, Ml. Wi. x MITCHELLr E. KI. DEP'. OF PA'TH. , STATE UiNIV. OF NEW' Y'ORKr UPSTATE MED,. C'ENT'. , SY'RA'CUSE, tVEW'. YORK 132'10', USA FOiODi AND COSMETICS TO)(ICOLOGY', 19'76, 14, (6')'r 565-569 30/3/37 136037' 77-07'-T0398 (ORGANOLEPTI'~C STU'DY' QN, A'~ HIEW' DIHYDR~~OCHALCO'HE S~WEETENIN~G' AGEHT. )i SENSORISCHE UiIJTERSUCHUWG E~I~N'ES NEUEN' DlIHIYD,ROiCIHIALF(0!N~-SUESSITOFFES',.~. ~ RAJ!IGY~-MIEDVECZhGY',~~ G'« ; ~~ TAKACSI-P'ALASITI~r~ P`91« x~ BOLLA-PUSZTAT, E'.. x'~ S7~EJITLI,~ J. IIdST. FUER LEBENSMITTELKONTROLLE & U!TilTER'SUCHUrrlG, BUDAPESTr HUNGARY N'AH'RU'NG, 19'77', 2]i, (2'), 131-1i37 30/3/38 8'869sw0 136'014 77-07-T0375 ~ STUDIfS OtJ THE METABOLISM OF SUCROSE ACETATE ISOBUTYRATE IN THE RAT APV'D~ IN MAN'. P'HILLIPS'r J. C. 'r KIIrlGS'iilOIRTHs J. G R'QWLA'ND, I'.. GAiNGOLLF , S. D. i LLOYD'r A. G. BRLTISWIN'D. B'IOL. RES. A'SS'., W!DODSMANSTERNIE' RD* r CARSHALTON', SUR'REY' SM15' i 4DS', UK ~ - FUODi AiMD! COSMETICS T0X'ICOLOGY', 1976, 14, (5)I r 375-380
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f ,5 t)C.iZ'ASE -Tbv~, ~W/~ V/~ - 134~790 77-0'7-C0'332 T0XICITY' OFASPERG'ILLUS AMSTEL0DAMI'.RESURRECCIOhtr A. A.; KOEHLER'x P'. E. FOOD SCI. DEP'. p Ut+lIV. OF' GEORGIAr ATHIEIiVSr GEORGIA' 306021. USA JOURNAL OF F00'DSCIENCEs 1977p 42'v (2)~ r, 482-4:87 F5T?4 30/3/40 1'347'5E3' 77-07-C0300 PATU'LIN AND CITR'I'M'IN! S'YNT'HES'IS' DY PENICILLI'U'M' EXPANSUF6.. CTiEG~LER, A'. r' VESOiNDER'.. R« F.. JACKSON!, L. K'. N. REGIONAL RES. LAB'. r USDiAir PEOR'IAi. ILLIN!O1S'r USA ABSTRA'CTS' OF THE ANNUAL PfiEETI~N&OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETYFORMICROBIOLOGYr. 1976, 76, 180 - 30/3/41 1301315' 77-01.4-C011144 USE OF SJLI~CAiGELST0~ I'SOLA'TE~ TOXIC M'OLDS~~ FRDKHOME~-STOR'ED, FOODS AND THE INFLUENCE OF REFRIGER'ATUR' TEMPERATURES ON' GROWTHi OF SOME MOLDS. TORREY r G. S. UN~IV~~.~ OF WISCONSI~N~r~ MADISON' 6~!p ~~ WISCONSIIJ4 USA ~ DISSERTATIONABSITRACTS' IM~~TE~RN'ATIONALr~ D'~. 1976r 3~7, 682~: OR'DER' N01. 76-160124 30/'3/42'. 117911 76-07-T02'85 (SALTS OF N-(CYC~~LO'~PE~NTYLMETHIYL )~ S~UILPH~~AMIC ACID WITH SWEETENIHG~ PROPERTIES. AND!THEIR PREPARATIOH:.)l PVOFREP ~ C'~. ; ~~ P'AUTETr~ F. FRENCHI PATENT APPLICATION ~~ v 1975s 2: 254~:. 282' 30/3/'43 117235 76-017-L016101 SUGAR'S> IN NUTRIITIlUN. SIPPLEr H. L.. MCiNIUTTr K. W: (EDI'TURS) i NUTR. FOUhlDATION, MEW' YOR'K'r UiSA Pub1., NEW YORKY USA 8 LOMDOhlr UK'r~ ACADEMIC PRESS INC. 19'74: XX I 768iPP'. ISBN 0-12 -646750-1 30/'3/44 113616 76-05-C02136 TOXICITY' OF PURE FOODS.. ROYD'. E. K. Publ' Z CLEVELAHD19, OHIO P USA; CRC PR'ESS'. 1973. 2'60PP. ISBN 0-878ii 9-035'-X' 30/'3/451 1061'15' 751-11'-T0560 (PHYSIOLOGICAL AN'D TOxICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CYCLAMATE U'SE. ) Z'YKLAMATE. PHYSIOLOGIISCHE UND, T07CI'KOCOGIS'CHIE' ASPEKTE EINER VERWENDUhlG. HELLAUER. H.r' GOIETTIMGER,P E.P' H'AGMUELLERr K,. QD PARKSTRASSE 1i0l. A-4540 BAD HALLx AUSTRIA 0) 1974 x PP'. 19'5-209' C'a 4D u3Qi/3/'46..;° .; QD c!t 104673 ,:.:-75-10-T0466 .~ IKTENSE SWEETENER FROM ILO~ HAN! KUO: (MOMORDICA GRO!SV!ENIOR11Y.f~'ILE~~ C~ WL> • CENTRA~-G'''RES. DEPT. p GENERAL FOODS COR'P. r WHITE PLAINSY nlEW! YORK 11062'51s USAI EXPERIENTIA r 1975, 3'1. ( 5) r 533-534
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5 0 e_iLosE' - -ry 16, F srpr CQPO ,SUfi,9~f4/' 100450 75~-0'7-T0283 SODIUMN-(CYCLOiPENTYLMETHYL ),-SULFAM'A'TE.'AiNEW'SYNTHETIC' SWEETENER.. N,OFRE, C.; PAUTET, F. FAC. IDE MED. , LAB'. DE CHIMIE, LYOIN, FRANCE NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN' r 1975, 62, (.'?), 97 30/3/48. 0931' 17' 75-0!~ -P02'83 MY'COTOX1,N-PRODUCING POTENTIAL OiFFUNGI ISO'LATEDi FR'OMI CHEESE'..vGAD'DI v"_D,« -L ~--- ------- -- .. UNIV.OF WISCONSIN,MAD:IISON6,US'A DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL, B' r 1974, 34, (10'), 5a12« ORDER NO'. 74-482' 30/3/49' 087713' 74-10-T0565 EFFECTSOF SACCHARIN ON RATS FEDlCHEMICALLY DEFINED DIETS'. P'URDOiM'I, Ml. E.. H1fDER, K. ;' P'YBAS', MI« D. SCHIOOLOF HOMEECONOMICS, Nl. TEXAS ST.UNIV. ,D'ENTON',US'Ai JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION, 1973, 63 (6) 635-638'. 30/3/501 0851104 74-09-F0393 (PUBLIC HEALTHI EV'ALUATION' OFNEWPACtK'AGING MATERI'ALS FOR'FOODPRODUCTS'01 AGRANOVSIKI I', Z'. Ml. ,` . SHIBA, V!. V« x D'OTSENKO', V'. A. LEN!I'N'GR'ADSKI'I' SANITA'RNO-GIG'IEN'ICHIESICII MED« INST«, USSR V'OPROSY' PITANLYA, 1974, N'0,« 3s 55i-5,9 30/3/51 08480161 74-018}-T0429 6-SUB'STITUTED-TRY'PTOPHANS', A NEW CLASS OF POTENT SYNTHETIC SWEETENING AGENTS'. !<ORhtFE'LD, E. C.:' SUAREZ, T.: EDlIE, R« i B'RANNON', D'. R'. r FUfCUDA, Di. r' SHENEMAN', J!., r TO'DD', G. C. ," SECONDlI'NOi, Ml. - LI'LLYRES.LAB,.,ELI LILLY A'N'D1 CO., IND'IANAPOLIS,IN'UI~ANA46206,USAABS'TR'AC.TSOF'PAPERS, AMERICAN'CHEMICAL SO'C]fETY, 1974, 16, MED'I 41 30/3/52' 0791148' 74-04-T0'194. (DITERPENOIDS. XXII. H'YDROFLUOREN'E COMPOUND WITH' STRONG SWEETNESS. ) TAHIAR&, A. , NAhCATA, T. r N'AKATANT , Hi. ;~ ICA'GIWADA, K. R'IKAGAKU ICENNCYUSHO's INST. OF PHYSICAL AND CHEM. RES., WAKO, SAITAMA JOURNAL OF' THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN (YAKUGAKA ZASSHI'), 1973, 93 (8') 951-956 30/3/53 073380i 73-12-H18'88' BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS 0!F' SUCROSE ACETATE ISOBUTYRA'TE IN RODENTS AND DOGS'. KRASAVA'GE, W. J« " D'IVINCENZO, G. D'. r AS'T]ILL, B« D. ; ' R'OU!DAiBUSHs R'. L.,r TERH'AAR', C. J. HEALTHI AND SAFETY LAB «, EASTMAN KODA'FC COl. , ROCHESTER, NEW' YORIK 14650, USA JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTR'Y', 197'3, 21 (3) 473~-479 30/3/54 86698572 0164489' 73-05~-N0237 0!BSERVATION'S' ON' THE RJDLE OF V'ITAMIN! E IN THE TOXICITY' OF OiXIIDIZED, FATS'« P'RIV!ETT,;,,O. S«,' CORTESI, R« UNIV. OF MINNESOTA, HORM,EL INST., AUS'TIN, 5'5912r USA L IPTDS~, 1972s 7(12)780-7'8!7' .
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~ ~ri?i oSE- row FIST4 ,~3f55 064053 73-05-J0695 (EFFECT OF COPPER FER'TILIZ'ATICTN' OF LEAVES ON YIELD OF CAR'k0!TS(UAUCUS CAR'OTA L.).) M'ATEVY I. V'ISSH. SELSKOSTOPANSKI INST. "VASIL KOiAR'OV'"r fF"LOVIYIVr BULGARIA NAUCHNI TRUDOVE. VISSH SELSKOSTOPANSICI' ]INSTITUiT 'VASIL KOLAROV" V 1972', '?1 (4) 27-33, 30/3/56 057458' 72-12-L0908' SUGAR AND DISEASE. Y'UDiKIM's J!.. QUEEN ELIZABETH' COLLEGE'r NATURE ( LOIV'DON)' r 1972'r 30/3/57 054050, 72'-09-T051'4 ( SODiI UMI-CARB0'xYMETHYL ISHIZUICAi. T.. CENTRAL R'ES. LAR. rl JAPAN JOURNAL OF FOOD 19'70v 17' (5) UiNIV. OF L0'ND'OMs UK 239' (5369') 119'7=119'9' CELLULOSE AN!DITS USE IN FOOD fiROCESSI'N'G. ) DAIICHI KOGYOi SEIYAKUi C0. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 211-220 LTD. v SHIIMOGYOi-KU's KY'0TOr (NIHON SHO'KUHIN' KO!GYCl GAiKKAZ-SHI') r 30/3/58 0'48'516 72'-05'-T0292 A' NEW SUGAR' SUBSTITUTE. MAZ'URr R. H.,r CRA'IGf, T. FERMCO- LAI='.. It]fV.'. OF G. D. SEARLE Z CO.: CHICAGOr ILLINIO]IS'r USA AMERICAN SOFT I)iRINK' JOUR'NALY 1971r 125 (909') 94-95 30T3/59' 043174 72-02~-C0035 CITOTOXIC RADIOLYS'~I'S~ PROI)U~CTS~~ OF IRRADIATED ~$1+ALPHA$~$, r $$BETA$$ -UNSA'TURATEIr~~ CAiRB'ON'YL SU'~GARS~~ AS' THE CA'RBQHYT)~RATES:.~ ~ SCHUBERIT'Y Ji.. SANIDERSs E. 8'. DEPT. OF RADI'AiT'I0N' HEALTH. GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PU'BLIiC' HEALTHIX UMIV., n IP'ITTSH}URGHr PEN'NSYLVANIA' 152'13, USA NATURE NEW BIOLOGY~r 1971, s3'3~ (41)~~ 199-z03~~ ~ 30/3/60 035578 71-08'-M0984 (MOULDS OH FLOUR' FOR fiREAU'MAKIING. ) MOREAUrC'.. Ci!!R'S r LAEi'. DE BIOL. VEGETALE. FA'C. DES SCIi . r i9-i'V' B'REST r FRANCE A'NNALES biE LANUTRITIO'NET DiE' L''ALIM'EiNTA'TION, 19701s 2'4 (6)' 117-27' 30T3/'6 ii 03175!6 71-05-T0199 (SUHsSTA'NCE'FOR' MEDICINES AND FOOD FRODUCTS. )A'RZNEIiMlITTEL- OI1ER' LE8'EN'SM'IITTELMASSE. GFiEGORY. Ho IMPERIAL CHiEM'ICAL S INUU6'TR'IES IiTIr. WEST' GERi~+iAN! PATENT' A'h'fr"L][CAT]ION'r 19'70'Y 1 948 788! 30/3/62 , 0121607' 70-09-T03'02' FEED!ING STUDIES ON! SO!DIUFf CY'CLAMATE'r SACCHAR'IH' ANIr SUCROSE FOR'. CARCINOGENIC AND T1JM0U!R=PROMOTING AC'TIVITY'. R'C1EP ~~ F. J.~ C. r~~ LEVY~x~ L. S'.. CARTERY ~ R'. L.~. 88698573 QOPIED CHESTER' BEATTY R'E S. I'N'ST.. INST. OF CANCER RES.. ROYAL CANCER HOSfiITAL r. FULHAM RID.. LONI+ONSW3. ENGLAND FOOn ANn cnsmFTTr.P,TnXTr.ni nr,Ys 1970. 0(2) ii35-4`.
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-rok '1/63 .L7770 70-•06-J0613 4FLATOXIGENIC ISOLATES OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS FROM PECANS. LILLARDy H. S. r HANLIhr R. T. i LILLAF.D, D. A. DEPT. OF FOOD SCI. r U1+lIV. r ATHETlSr GEORGIA 30601 r USA APPLIED MICR0BI0LOGYr 1970r 19 (1) 128-130 COPIED 30/3/64 011027 69-12-C0506 INVESTIGATED ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION METHODS FOR DETECTION OF FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS AND OTHER CHARACTERISTIC END PRODUCTS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CLOSTRIDIUM SOTULINUM. ANDEF:SON. A. W. ST. UTlIV.r CORVALLISr OFiEGONy USA ATOMIC ENERGY COt'iMISSIONr USA FOOD IRRADIATION CONTRACTPRS' hiEETINGy 196£3r 1968. 221-25 30/3/65 007975 69-03-T0233 (NEW NATURAL COLOURING MATTER FOR POWDER JELLIES. ) SHCHEKOTOVAr L. F'. y KhAVCHEAlKOr N. A. DNEPROPETROVSKII ZAVOD PISHCHEVYKH KONTSENTi;ATOV, USSR KONSERVNAYA I OVOSHCHESUSHIL'NAYA F'ROF'fYSHLENNAST' v 1969r 1969 (1) 22-23 30/3/66 00354? 69-04-J0320 ( INHIItITI0T1 OF GERMINATION OF POTATOES BY IRh2AL1IATI0N. I. PRINCIPLES AND EFFECTS OF ThEATMENT. ) SANDkET Y F. POMME hE TERRE FRANCAISE. 1968v 31 (329) 6-7 a 9-13 k-1
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CoPIED ~ U~ e.iz~os E- - -nx T 30/5/ii Foo~ S FZ)Ueiq_ 30/'5/'11 128717 78020714 I CHEMICAL WEEK r AU'GU!ST 16r 19?'8r P 32--33. Cmlden. CH4lKA9; D!oc, Tvpe: JOURNAL 780816 STUDY ' BY M~.~ N~.~ CRANIMER' OF~ FDA'~S~: NA1fL. CE~NTER~! FOR TOXICOLOGICAL R'ESEARCH~. ~~ CI1fESSUCROSE AS MORE~ OF~ A HEALTH~ HAZARD THAN , SACCIHAR'IN~;~«~ STEAIKANID~ ~~ IP~fAINU'~TSr~ TO'Or ARE MORE OF~ A~ CANCER ~ THREAT'r~ SAY~SREF'OR!T~, Descrilpttors. NUTR'ITIONAL IN'FO!RMATION
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wn , 5UCROSE rnEbr-r nJE- COPIED 1! Tli -SUGARAN'DDENTAL CAR'lt:S-Ct14N'1C'AL VIE1MAU - SAK'AK l t3' AR A K tNr! - CMII'LD'. ; CrtlLa', PkESCHUUL ; DENTAL CARIESA'*EtTIULII6Y M4M - DIETARY' CARfsUhYDRATES/ADPfiNISTRATI.ON & [?USAGt:/ADVtRSt tFFItCTS MMi, - f=OO!D, hABI'TS ; hUMAtN MIMi - SUCROSE/'ADMA-NiSTRAIf ION € DOSAGEA'*ADVERS1: EFFLC'IS LA - J!PN SO- 5MIKA 1 TENlBl1 11y81;, t 21 :333-t3
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COPIED_! o00tI17'T0 PA'Gt 11 SLAVENS CUMYUUIVUS-MED'LIINE FILES 2 TI - SUiGAR! AND DENTAL CARIES AU - ICATAYAMA, T Mh! - ADOLESCENCE ; ChILD ; ChrLD* PRESChOt}L ; DLNTAL CAR'ItS/'*{JCCURRtNCt M'h - ENGLAND: ; hUiMAN ; JAPAN ; SUiCROSE/'*ADVERSt tFFtCTS LA - JPN SU - N1PPON'. Sh'I'KA I'ShIKAl ZAS'Snll Z9!t'sfl;331(!b) :5Is2'-9' 3' TiI -~~ RESPOiN~S~t~ UF~ TWO STRAIlNS~ Ok~ RATS TO A, hIGh-W~RUTtI'~N~ UlItT~ CUNTA~INING SUCRQ1St UR CUR'NSTARChi. A'U -~~ LAK~~SHM~AN'ANI FL~ ; hU:WE JC~~ ;~ SC~hiWSTER~, EM~ ;~~ k3A!KNES~ RE Mti - ANIMAL ; HLUUU HkUiTE1NS/ANALY'S1S ; BODY W'EIGMT/URUG thFEC7iS M'h - CNULE'STERUL/'BLODU' MH - DItTARY PRDTEINS/A,DKINIISTRATION C DOSAGt/*AUVtRSL tFFECTS Mh - LLP'UPRUTtI'NS/'ANALY'SLS ;' M,ALE ;' NEPhRUS1SI!thEM'IGALLY' INGUCEU Mw - URGAN wEiGhT/DR'tG EFFECTS ; PRQ1TEiNS/ANALY'SaS ; R'ATS MM - SPEC'IES SPECIFICITY' ; STARCh/*Ai7VERSE ElFfECTS Mh - SUCROSE/*ADNERSE E.FHECTS LA - ENG S'U' - PRUC SUC tX'f+ I3IUL M ED! 19as1 JU!N,167(2): 224-32 4 TI - THU!St WhU' LIVE BY' SUGAR DIE BY CAR'1tS A'u - SP1NU! S' M1i - DENTAL CARIES/*ETIOLfi.iGY/PhYSIUPAThOLOGY' Mmi - DItTARY CARBUhY'DRATES/*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; hti1MAN. Mh - SUlCRWSt/'*'ADV.tRSk ttfFtCTS', LA - ITA SUI - PREV STOMATUL 1980, MAl-JUN;b;3J:23-i' 5 TI~~ - E~F~rE~CT OlF ~~ CUUPLIN~G~ SUGAR A~S~ CaMPARI~ED! W'IT~h SUC~RUS~~t~ UN! v~LAQw!L ACCUMULATION IN MON'KEYS (AUTMUR•S TRANSL) AU! - nAGA K !!IM - AN'I'MAL ; A!'ll'TMRU'PUyDEA 's' CUMi'ARATIVIE' STUDY' MFt' - DEN'TAL PLA4tUE/*ETIlOLUGY/MiCRIUlBIOLUGY Mti - DItTAR'Y CARB'UrtYDRATES/*AD,VtRSt EFFtCTS ; EN6LIsM ABSTRACT Mrl -~ PULY'SA!CCM~ARIi[j',IES/'*P'hiA~Ft'MAC(Li'[JYNA~l4ICS~~ ;~, ST'~REPTaI'CUC~CUS', M'UTA,NIS/r'CY'TUL(JGY~ MM - SUlCRUSE/*AU~vEiiSE EFFECTS ; SWEETENING AGENTS/*'PMARM'ACUDYNAMIC'S LA - JM't1' SO - NIPPt7N Sh1S"UBYU (i;AKKA1i KA1ShI 148'©' MAR;2'2 (1): ti5--ci 6Ti - TERAT(yGEN1e tFFLCTS Uk SUCRI7St DIET IN DIABETIC ANU NUN(i1At3ET1C RATS. AU - ORNOY A•, QOhEN AM Mh - *At3NURMAL1TiESw URIUG-lNUUCtU ; ANIMAL MH - UItTARY' CARtSUhY.UfiA.'TES/*ADVERSft EFFECTS ; FEMALE MK - NREGNIANCY IN D7ABETES/*COMP'LLCATIONS ; PREGNANCY ; RATS Mrti - RATS, iNBREU STRAIlNS ; SUCROSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS. LA - EN'G SO - ISR J MitD' SCI 1980' NUV';'16l'11'1 )': "/85T-9I 00m ~. ClD .
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CDPlED 0!00a17":'7~,11 ~ k'A~WE 12 ~ SLAVENS CUMx'UUNDS-MEDLtINE FILLS 7 TI1 - REACTIVE hYPUGLYCEMIA PR'ECIP:ITATED BY S+UCRUiSE AND GLUCUSE. AU - INUURE MJ , MM - DIETAR'Y' CARBIU,hYDRATES/'ADMINISTRATI(IN' C' DOSAGE/!'*ACtiV'ERSE Lirk-LCTS MM' - GLUCUSE/*ADVERSE EFrIrECTS ; HUMAN MM - hY'POGLYCEMIA/'D1ET TtrIERAPY/*ET1!QJLOGY.' ; SIJCRUiSt/*ADVERSt EFFtCTS LA - ENG SO - VA ME D 19'60 NUlV ;10.7F C 1 l): T bS-Fi. 8 71, - DiitT ANi3! UtNIfAL CARIES. JUINT REPURT B'Y' THE bRITISh UIETETDC~ ASSUCIATIUN' AND ThE bRtTiSM PAED'0D0NTi C SOC1 tTY. rlh - DENTAL CAR'1LS/*ETIU!LU6Y ;' *DItT ; HUMAN ; SuCRUSE/'*AUV"EkSE EFFECTS LA - fcN V SlJ': - PROC 8'R P'AEUU,I) 'SUC 1 V7Y; 9:1'1-1' T1i - SUCROSt AND iD'ftNTAL t?~1'SEASIt LtTTER AU - NAGY tA MH - CiHILO ; D,EMt'TA4. CARIES/'*ETIOLG'IGY' ; HUMAN' ;' SUC'Rti1SE/'*AUVt.RSt EFFECTS. MM - VEn1C LE S/''*Allyl ERSE E F rECT'S LA - ENG. SO! - BR DtNlf J 19R'0AUG5;149 ('.31:68 10' TI' - HIGH AMUUNTS UF LIPUTrICHUIC AC1D IN SUCRUSE-INDUCED PLAQUE INV'I'V U. AU - R9L LA G ; OiPP'EBtMANIN RV ; td0i+f tN' WHi ; CI ARDI J(t ; KNUX K W' Mri - ADHESIVENESS ; ANIMAL ; M'ACACA. FASCICULA~RIS Mh - DEiVTALPLA@~UE/*ANA,LY'SlS/ET10!LCI'GY; DOUBLE-BLINU' MieTh:UDMM - GLUC(aSE/PHARMACUUYN'AMiICS ; HUMAN ; ANTHRUPUIUtA MiH - PHUSRrtATIDIC ACIUS/*ANALYSIS ;' SUCRCIiSt:I'*ADVtRSt tt-EtCTS MM - TEIChuiC A.CLD~S/*ANALYSIS ; X'YLITGLhPnARM'ACODYNAMICS LA - ENG SU - CAR1'tS. RES 19b0;Il4(4):215'-8 11 TI - DENTAL CARi'ItS PRtV'tNT1UN AND SLIVAR AU! - ICHIKI n' ; IWAT!A)d~U R; SAfcAKI BxARA K Mm - ChIL(I; ChILGs PKESC:M,OUL ; DENTAL CARIES/*PRtVtNTIUN C CUNTRUL M" - HUMAN ; 1NFANT' ; SUCRUSit/Av'ADVttRSE EFFFECTS Mh - DIETARY' CAR8OhYURATES/'AUVCRSt EFFECTS LA' - JPN SO i - SInIKAI TE/NBU19'?9;531a1:2'95-3'0y 12 TY - SWttTENtRS AND UtNTAL UISEASE IN C1n~ILDR'ENI EDDTURIAL Mm - CHI4D hEAcTh SERwiCEs ; Chi1t:0* PRESCHOOL ; U'EN'TAL CAR'yES/*ET1UL0',GY' MM~ - DRU6 TrtERAIrY/A[uivER'SE EFM-ECTS ; HUMAN ; 1INFANT MK - SU'CRC1'SE/*AUVERSE E1=1rECTS ; SWEETENING AGEN'TS/*AUwt-RSt trFtCTS LA - ENG SO! - BfR DENT J' 19!'19' AUG 2'T;14r1':14f :9:3
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COPIEa! 00,0101.1 T xE P'AUt 13 SLAVENS CUMPUUND!SrMffflLINIt FI LES 13, Ti AU MHi MH1 MHl LA SU! THE "SWEET TOOThi) AND CARIES E)cP'ERIEN'CE. JACKSUN D ADl7'LESCENCE ; CANDY ; CARbONATED, BEVERAGES ; CHILD* PRESCh4J'LtL. DENTAL CARIES/'*UCCU!R'Ri:N'CE ; DMF INDEX ;*FUOO, PRtf-ERLNCES ; hU'MAM MILK ; SUCRiUSEA'*ADV ERSE EFFECTS ENIG PRUBE (LUND) 1919 JUL;21(11:4-8 CARIES EXPItR'ItNCt IN 15-YEAR:-ULD~ ENGLISni Cr,ILDREN: 19'50-1914. JACIK'SUN D AUUI.ESCENCE •, DEN'TAL CARIESA'*OCCURRtNCE ; DItT SUR'VEYS DIlETAfiY CARf1Ult*YDRATES/'ADVERSE EFFECTS ; DMF tNGsEX ; 0N6LANU HUMAN, ; SuCRU!SE/*AD;v'ERSE EFFECTS., ENG PROBE (LUND!) 1919 MAY;2'0111) :4y5-1' . 15 Ti - CARIES tXPER1tNCE IN DtC1DUUUS TttTh OF FL'1fiE-YEAR-u1D ENGLISH CHILD R'EN ; 1944--117F. AU - JACKSON U MH - ChILD, PRtSCHDOL ; DtNTAL CAR1ES/*UCCU'RRENCt ;' UIET SuRvEYS MH - DIETARY CAR8UhYU)RATESA'ADWERSE EFF=ECT'S ; DMF- 1NUEX ; ENGLAND Mh LA SO! TI AU MH MN MHI MH MHi LA S0, 11 TI A U! Mhi MH, MH LA 50~ 18 TI AU MH' MH MH LA So' - HUMAN ; SUCRUSEt*ADv'ERSE EFFECTS ; TOOT'r-,; DtCTDUUUS - ENG - PROBE (LUNDI 1979' APk; tU (10) :404-6 SUGAR WILSIIN! FFt,EQUtNCY REDUCTIUN'• A BASIS FUR CUUPNSELLING. A ChiILDv DENTAL DtET, PRtSChC30L ; CIUUNStL1N'6 CARIES/*NRE1fEN'TIWt`I' & CuNTRUL CARIU+GENi1C/*A0vERSE EFFE. TS DIETARY CARt10hYDRATtS/ADVtRSE EFFECTS ; FUUU, hA1sITS ; nuM'AN INFANT ; PARENTS ; PAT1tNT EDUCATIiON ; SuCKttSE/*AUVtRSE Eb-F-tCTS ENG Nl SCh DENT StK' GAZ 1979 Ft6;4L'1' 1):S SUGAR AND uRAL HEALTh: ENII1L-MIULUGY Il N TNE rrUMAN' t!IARTtiALER T DENTAL CARItS/tTIO!LOGY/'*DiCCURR'ENCE DIETARY CAR6uhYDRATtSAAU1ltRSE EFFECTS ; hwMAN ; REvIEW SUCRUSE/*AD!YERSE EFFECTS GER aAHNARZT 1919 UCT;23u 1t3):99U-5 CARI'OGtNl'CITY UF DItTS WlTiMi ALx1tD SUGAR MARCU.CC! M ; t3ANUETT 1NI NIV ANIMAL ; *DENTAL CAR1tS SuSCItP'T1dlLiTY ; (JtNJfAL CARLtS/*tTiwLUiGY DIETw CARIUGENIC ; ENGLIShi AZ,SIIRACT ; RATS SUCRtISE/*A~DYERSt EFFECTS ~ ITA RIV' I TAL STUMATtrL 19119 JU!L-AUG ;48'C 7,-8 ):31-b ai CD OD C!t Ci~
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cUpifa aadolll'73' F'AGE 14 SLAVtNS Ct1MNUUNII5-NIED!LINt FYLtS. 19 T1 - THE RELATION OF SUCRUSt CfUNSUM'P'f'AJNi TU DtNTAL CARlES INi A SAMPLE uF INDIIANAP'uLIS CHILDREN. AU - LUTTiE s MT ; iHENUERSUN MZ MkM, - Mh - MM - LA - AGE FACTORS ; CIrsI'LD! ; ChiIiLDy PRESCHOOL ; DENTAL CARIES/*WCCuRRENCt DIET SURVEYS ; UMF INUEX ; FEMALE ; hiUMAN ; INDIANA ; M'ALt SEX Fi0.CTtiRS ; SUCft'U!SE/*ADvWER'S~E EFFECTS ENG SO - J INDIANA DtNT ASSUC 1919 JAN-FEB';5bCIN:tz-5 20, TI ' - IN VITROEX'PERIMENTS ONfPLAQoE FflRMATIUN AUI - BvUSS'MANN K AtT - THE M'ECHANISMS Cl7NT'R1E3U!T1NG Tit7 PLAQUE FUR'MAT1U'N MAVt ST1LL NUT BEEN ADEQUATELY EX'PLA1NtD'. AN' ATTtMPT' ThfEREFURtt WAS ihCAUt lu FURM' PLAQUE IN' VITRiu IN URUtR 1W' ACqI)!IRE A MIUiDEL FUR TttE NRUGENSES ANU WHAT INFLUENCES TtifM. PLAQUE kGtR'MS IN' WARIDu:S STAGES, ANALDICsUU'S TO THE NATURAL CONDITION WHEN SALIVA AND! MICROGRGAN'ISMS ARt PRESENT ON Tr+E SuRFACt arF ThE 'IEETH. MICRUURGANISMS FituM PLAQUE FURMED IN SITU DEMUNSTRATE A DECREASED ABILITY FUR ADHEyIUiN AND Ct)HESIU'N WHEN C4lMPARED WITH FREE SALi'vAR'Y MICRLWRUANISMS. SUCRUSt ENCOURAGES MORE RAPID AND, TrtICKJ--R PLACI,ut FtuRMATYuN. MH' - DENTAL PLAQUEI!*ETIUiLUGYA'MICR(HBIULUGY' ; ENGLLSh, ABSTRACT ;' hWMAN Mh - IN VITRU; SALIVA/'MiICRIuB'IU;LUGY ; SUICROSEA!*AU'wERS,E ErFECTSLA - GER SOi - DTSCH ZAHNAtRZTL Z 1979, MAY; 3415 )"« 43 I'-y 2'1' TI - t:FF'ECT UN CARItS INCIUENCE I'N RATS CiF INCREASING UIETARY SUCRUSE LEVEL S. AU' - HEFT1, A; SCnMJ D R, MH - ANIMAL ; CARIU6EN1C AGENTiS/A'DVERSE EFFECTS MH~~ -~ DENTAL CARIES~/'*ETI'GiLUGY ;*DiI~ET,~ CARI06~,€NIC~ ; Fttu1'~NG B~~trvAV~~1UK ~ MH - LA - SO - RATS- ; ENC CARIES SUCRal'SJE/'*ADv ERSE -EFFECTS RES' 19T9';13'('~5)i:l9li-3D'a 2'2' TI - Rt1.ATItiN BtTWtEN MED1CINtS Si/EETENED! 1#ITH SUCKUSE AnlD! DENIAL UIStASE. Ati - ROBERTS Iir ; RUItERTS G.i: AB - ThiE' TEE7M~ DN= 44 ~~ CMI~LDR~tNl AGltO uNDtR'~ b~ Y1tARS~ W~MU MAU'~ FiittNI ~ TAKIN~,G SYRUP MEDIC1NtS RtGuLARLY' FUR AT LEAST SIX MuNiTr~S WERE U,MNAktU M'LTMi THiuSE UF A CUNTRUL GKOU'P OF 47 CM1tiDREN' UF' SiM'1LAR AGtS. DENTAL DISEASE WAS ASSESSED' BY MEASURI'NG DtNTAL CARIES n UtN'TAL PLAQUEs AND! 6IN6IVITI'S'. ThE CHILDRkNi Whu WERE RECEIMINb SUCRUSE-BASED MED!I~CrNtS HAD S!(aNIF-ICANTLY N4URE CA.kilLuS TEtTh AND GINGIVITIS. iT IS CONULUDED TnAT SUCRDSt-BASED Nt'EDICIiNES CONT~INUaUSLY~ ADMINiST~tRtD~ Tu~ ChILD!RkN~ CAUS~~t~ UtNTAL CAR~A~ES~ ANU~~ GINGIVITI S. LIQUID' MEDICINES FUR CHI't:ORENI ShuU!LD tsE E1 ThE+i UNSMtE'ETENE'[J. OR SWEETtNEU W'1TH~ NDN'-CARIQ1GtNI~C SUE3STANCES. I+IM .- ADM'INI STRATIUNs UR'A'L ;' CHILD, ; ChILIDis NR'ESCIhiuuL MH - DENTAL CARIES/'CtNlet+1ICALLY INDtjCgD MW -~ DENTAL PLAQU!E/ChEM'ICA~LLY IND~~U'CED, ; U?~RUGS/AD~MIN~ISTRA~~TID'.M 5 DIQS~AUE M#f'~ -~ GIN'GIW11TI'S/ChEMICA~LLY~ 1NDUCED~ ;~ MUM'AN~~~ ; 1Ni1=ANT ;' SOLUT1'~WNS~ MK, - SUCROSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; SWEETENING AGENTs/*ADvERSE ErrECTS 886~8~sd
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COPIED. 0000,1774 irAGE. 1'5 SLA1/ENS CUMPUUNDS-MEDLINE F1LES wm - TUCJTm U1StAStSI'*ChEMICALLY IND'UCED, LA - ENG. SO -BR ME D.J 197,1 7 ' JUL; 2'l'61Ei1'.1:14-6 23' TI - SUGAR AND, D1AEitTitS MEcL1TUS E.ETTER' AU - YUDlCI N J Mh - ANIMAL ; t1AStMtNT MtMt3RANt/'DRuG EFFECTS Mh - DIABETES MELLITUSA'*ETIQLUGY MFi - DiLABtTES MitLLITUSt EXPIERIM'tNTALA'ETI'U!LUGY Mlbi~ -~~ DIETARY C~~A~RSWhYDliA~T'ES'/*ADV~ERSE~ E~~FF~ECTS~ ; M~~UMAN~ Mtr! - KIDNEY GLUMERULUS/DRU!G EFFECTS ; RATS ; SuCFtUSE/*AUvtRSt tFrFtCTS LA - ENG S©' -Ot' ME'~D! J 1979 ~~~~ 224 MAR;,lCbld6~;'~:8'20~ 24 TI' AU MM MM'. Mh LA Sw. ThE R'ELATIVt KISKS UF SACCHARIN AND SUlCRUSE IN'GESTIUNS LETTER WALKER' AR. ADULT ; CA.LORI'C INTANC't ;' FEMALE ; MUiMAN ;! LUNCiEVl'TYAURU6 itFFECTSG UB'ErSIT'Y/ETIU!LUGY ; SACChARINA'*ADrtEftSE EFFECTS SUCRD!SE/*AOVtERSE EFFECTS ENG AM' J CLINi NuTR 19'719 ANR;32't14j: FL'1-8 25 TL - SUGAR' AhiD, DI S EA SE. AU - DANOWSKI TS MIh - AThER'US!CLER43'SIS/ETIULOGY ; DIABETES MELLIlTUSI!tlIOLLtwY Mti - DIETARY CARBUhYaiiATES/*ADVERSt EFFECTS ; MiUMAN. AM - MYP'UGLYCEMIA/ ETiIULDGY :' NUTRIITI(l'N' DISU!RDERS/ttTIULUGX Mh - 0tIESI'TY/ET1QlLUGY' ; SU!CRtJSE/*ADVERSE EFI=ECTiS LA - ENG SO - ASDC i DENT CMILD 19'l'9r MAR-AP'R;46C23:1b4-5
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MPlIEff , I'9Ub4(5I ********* ** ******** ****~* #** *z~~**~ ** ~r*****~***~ *~~* **~ x~~x*z~**~zc$ ~*~* * *~~* * 'K TMIS IS AIK i;i~FF-LIlNt BIfS'LIuGR'Aii'Ri1C CIT''ATIlUf4' LIST 6EAtERATEU bY ~ * * * =1,A8: 11 ~ ~t * * N.L.M'.IS NATIUNAL IIVTERACTI'VE RETRIEV'AL SERVICE * * * *~I~.~it~k~k* ~k** ** ** ~~K ***#'~K*~K ~k * *~R ~It*~k~k~k* ~kac##'*** #**'*~t*# ***~k ~~k~k %c ~k* ** * ~k** ~k* * **# ~ SUCRO SE-M E07FT NUMBER Oe= CITATIUNS PRIn1TED = s2' NwVEMBER 199 , 1ly81 TH!IlS SEARCH WAS PERFURMED~ UN ThE t3AC'iG'T'/ F1LE.. SORT WAS NOT REQuESTiEiI PLEASE SENO, TMI'S LISTING Tul LARRY SKLADANOWSKI N+U BOX 2'Lb85i LfiIRILLA'RU RES CENTER L]C8(tARY GREENSBORU9 NORTH CARlJLINA Z'i!42U
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COMM 00001736 PAGE 1 SUCRU'5 t-M IED ~7I~~ 7 I TI - SUGAR AND DENTAL CARIES: MYTH AND1 FACT. FIFTr+, IN A SERiES UF ART IC LE S. AU - JACKSON D, M'M - ADULESCEUCE ; ADULT ; AGED ; iIENiTAL CARIES/*E.TIl4tLtuGY'/UCCURRENCE MM - DENTAL nEALT1n~ SURVEYS ; GREAT BkITAIN' ; HUMAN ; MIDDLt AGft MH - LA - SO - REVIEW ; SuCRUSE/*ADiVERSE EFFECTS ENG PR,UBt (LUiND ) I9'1b A Witi; 2t)'(2') :49-54 2' TI - RAMPANT CARI tS IN VERY YUUNG CwILDREN' AU - uE 2tti1W-WAN GERVENi M; THUDEN v'AN VELZEN: SK MM - BEV'ERA6ES/ADVERSE EFFECTS ; CARIOGENIC AGENTSlAUVERSE EFFECTS MH - CASE REPUR'T ; CMILD ; ChILDv PRESCHOOL ;' *'DtNTAL CAEitEyA`E1f11WLUbY MM - ENGLISM ABSTKACT ; hUMAN LA - DUT ; MALE ; SUCR'USEA!*ADv^ERSt tFFcC,TS SO - NEU' T1'JDSChR' fANDWtELKU 19-08 Nt3W;85t11):43'4-7 3' TI - TOTAL SUCKUSr INTAICE ANDI UENTAL'CARIES' IN' BLACK AND NtMiIlE SUUTM AFRl:CAN CHILDREN UF 1-b YEARS. PART II : CUENm AL CARIES AND SUCRUSE INTAIQ E. AU' - RICHARDSON BD ; CLEATUN-JONtS P' ; MCINNES NM ; RANTShU JM. AU - PiETERS L MH - BLACKS ; CHILD ;' ChIu.D* PRESChOD!L ;' COMPARATIVE STUDY Mr1 - DENTAL CAR'IES,*ETIUL UGY/*OCCURR'ENCE ; DIET SWRvtYS ; r+uMAN' ; INFANT MH - SUUT'M AFR ICA LA - ENG' ;' *SUC RUSEv'*A,DV ERSE EFFEC TS ; WMD TES. SO - J DEN TASiS1IC S, AFR ]l`pld OCT; 331101):539~-44t a.~ TI - SUtsARAND'Dr-NTAI CA RIIfS:M'YTH AN'DFACT. AU - .JAC'KSUN U MFi - ADOLESCiENCE `s' AUULT ; AGE FACTUR'S ; CMiiLU ; CH1LDt K'RESCl-iC1UL MM - DENTAL CAKIES/*ETit1LUGY ; DaETAR'Y' CARSOhYD'RATES~r*ADV'ERSt t(FFtG11S MH - UM'k INUtX ; HUMAN ; RESEARCM/STANDARDS ; SUCNtUSt/*AilVtkSE tFFECTS MH - XY'u.ITUL/*AUVERSE Ei-t-ECTS LA - ENG' SOi - PRUS't: ('ILUN'U)' 19Ttf MiAR;19'(9):3b8-94 Q.UiN'TU, 5' TI ' - CARI tS. I'lNCItItNCE PATTERN .BY il'US'T-E RUPTiVE TUUTft AGE I N PERMANENT TEETFi AU - KATAYAM'A K Mh - CHILD' ; DENTAL G.ARIES SaSCEf+TiBILITY ; DENTAL CARI'ES/*UCCuaRREN'CE MM - DI'ETARY' CARtsUhY'UFiATiESZA0vERSE EFFECTS ; EN'GLISh AE3'STfiALT ; nUM'AN MH -,JAPAN' ; NkuaAeILITY ; Su€KuSE/ *ADVERSE EFrEC1iS ; TiME LA - JN'N SO - KOKU tI St Il GA ICFCAI ZASShtI 1978' . JU'L; 28 ('2 ):22'©-43 . 00 (b Oa C0 0~. t~'
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00001739' ~O~IED' PAGE ~ SU~ C~RUS~t-M~ED'T' 7 b TI - OR'AIL HEA'LTH, IN A GRUUP OF SUGAR'-CANE CHEWERS. AU - HARRIS S's C4.kATUN-JUNES P MM - ADOLESCENCE ; ADULT' ; AGED, ; iDENTAL CARLES/'*UCCURRENCE M'M - DENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS ; DENTAL PLAQ,UEA'*UCC'URRENCE ; FEMALE MH - hAB'ITS ; HUMAN ', MAILE ; MAST1'CATION ; MIDDLE AIbE ; UR'AIL HYGItNE MIrt - PLANTS ; SuUTH AiFRICA ; SUCROSEA'*ADVE'RSE tFFECTS LA - ENG SO - J' DENT ASSUC S AFR 19db MAY;33'C51:255-8 7!' TI - NUTRITION AND, UcNTAL CARIES AU - TUORS FA M'M - DENTAL CARIlES/*ETIOLOGY ;' ENGLISH ABSTRACT ;' hU1MAN ;*NuTRITIUN' MH - SU'CRUSE/*ADVERSE EF-FECTS. LA - DuT 8 SU' - NED TIJUSi'imR TANUrtEEU.14D' 197m MAR;85'[3/ :Sy-9d TI - SUiCROSITIS. AU - SA,MSUN MH' - HUMAN' LA - ENG hh ; SUCtLUSEA'*ADVERS.E EFFECTS/METABOLLSM' ; URtC ACID'/tiLwUU 9 SO - S AFR MED i 15y7es T' OCT;54t115)1:59D-1 T1 - IS SU16AR GU!UU FuR' YUU? AU - MtALKtR AR ; CLitATU~N'-JUN'tS P't ; R'ICHiARDSUN IiD MH' - UENTAI: CARZES/EiIULUGY' ; ENERGY METABOLISM ; HUMAN M'H' - NUTRI'TIUNAL REQUIREMENTS ; SACChARINII ;' SUCR(USEA'*AUwEft'S'E EtrMECTS LA - ENG SOI - S ArR MED i 19:Its, I UCT;54115):589-90 ll0'~ TI - THE E FF't~CT~ uF' F~REQ!U'ENT SU!CRO'SE~ MKJUTHRINS~~ING~ UN ~ THE~ IlNU',UCTIUN IN'~ VIVU UF CARTES-LIICE CnANGtS INi HUMAN DENTAL ENAMEL. AU - GE17DE S MIH, -~~ DENTAL Mili - DENTAL MM - UtNTAL DA ; C00!K;E JA ;' EDGAR WiM'l ; JENK INS GN GARaES~ S~~USCE~P'TCtuLi~TY CAfcItS/*CHEM'ICALLY INUiUCEfl/PATH.ULU6Y' ENAMELA'*rATnULUC-oY ; UEN'TAL P'LAQUE/ANALY'SIiS ;' HUMAN M'H' -~ MUItJT11WASMES~~ ; SUCti'Ui'SftA*TUlXIC~ITY~ 11 LA - ENG Si7' - ARCm oRAL BIUL 19'18;2'3181i :bb3-S TI' - DIETARY' FACTURS IN A'NtTtR1USCLERUSLS': SULRUSE. AU' - YuU14lN J~ AS - EPIUEMIULUGICAL STUDIES ShOMt THAT CURO'NARY' HEART UISEASr IS MURE COMMON I!N MIcALThIER CCtUMTRICS THAN IN i'lA1RERR. SUCH STuU1'ES CANNwT, huMt:VtR, ISULAfE wHJ ChUF THE ULETAkY UK NUNUI ETARY' CHAR'AC~TERISTIC~~S~ UF A'f-FL.UENCE HELP TOi C~AUS~~E~ Tht~ UiSLAS~E; T'HEY~ PRUvIUlE UNLY CLutS THAT NEEU Tt)' BE SUB'JECTEU TU EXP'ERIMEN1At STWD!Y. ExPERIMENTS SmuULD BE UESIGNED UN THE bASJIS Ur THEIR AE3~ILITY~ TU, PR~LtUUCE~ TME. ~ RMU~LTIP'LE~ ABNIIRMAlLTI~ES A~SSOC7lA1fED~ WIlm, CORUNARY n,EA~R~T' ~UIS~EASt 4~CMDl;'~ ANt)! NOT ONLY HY~PERCHiULEST~E~RULE~MlA. "~ THEY SHNULD ALSU tXPLAIN iih,t ASStCIATI'UN' UF Ct'rU WITH UBESITYr ~ DIABETES M'EiUI'TUSs CIGARETTE SRDiMCiNGp AND PHYSICAL INACTIVITY. THESE CO'NSID~ERATIONS SUGGEST TM1AT THE UNDiERLYING ABNtIRMALITY' THAI +8'8f 9!858~
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00001140 SUGRU,St -MttD T?' COPiED PAGc 3 fi'RUUUCES CHO IS A DISTURBED Ht?itM17NAL 8'Ak.ANCE. EXPERIMENTS HANE SHOWN THAT A, nrLWh GUrwSUMP"flUN uF SUCRUSt NRuUuCES Nul uNLY TrfE ti1IDE RA1i!6t UF AdNURMALITIES SEEN IN CH,D BuT ALSU AN IN'CFcEASEU EiLUUU CUNCENTRATYuN; u~- IN'SU'LIN AND ' CORTISOL. SINCE A. LGW' INTAK;E OF SUCRt3SE CUNFEiiS MANY UTWttR HEALTiH BENtF1TS*, AT iS A MURt LIJGiCAL (JIETARY kECUM'Mth1U'ATiI'UN THAN THAl' WF Su4sSTiITiuTIN6 FULYUNSATiuRAT Ea3 FAT FuR SATURATEU #=AT. Mti MM Mm LA SO - ARTERIUSCLERUSI'S/#ETIULGiGY - DIETARY CARBU!ts,YG)RATtS/*AD,VERSt EFFECTS ; HUMAN. - SU!CRUStA'*AUWERSE EFFECTS -ENG~ - LIPILJiS 1,918 NyAY.13~5):3lOr~ I2', TI - Ct]MP ARAT IVt ST uDY UF 'Nrf CrtA nnv Eg I N Ut N;T'At P LA rtUE AFTE R AU: Mh, MM, Mh Mh LA SO CUNSUM,PTIUNUF SACCtnARItSE-CUNTaI!N'ING Ch41CULAT'E - 0'STTRICS I ; vASKWU A ; KuLLaU J - ADULT ; *CACAT.I ; *CANUY ; CARILGENIC AGtNTS ; 'EC+•rUCt1LATt -C'OMNARATIvtSTuUY` ;W!EUTA:L PLAW E/'*AN,ALYSIS~ ; httMAN' - HYURUGEN-IUN, CiiNCENTRATIGiN: ; StRt3'I'Tt1t/AUVtRSt tFFLC.TS - SUCRGSE/*ADvERSE Etrr' ECTS -HU4 - FUGURY 52 19 18 MAY; I 1 (5 1`-129'-3ik 13~ TI - LUMP'ARA:IAV'tSTU()Itc S uNf Tmt t''LAQ,tE FUR'.M:INt;, EFFECT UF ' SjukbITUL ANU: SACChARUSE CUNTAINING CHUCuLATL AU! A9 - P1NT@Ek A ; SCHUDER: L ; SotANaUCZY J - DENTAL VLAQuE VALUES tJET,EFiMiNED iMMEDiATELY ArTitR CUNSUMING~ SCJ'R9;ITUL-CUN'TAININGCht7iCULATtS wtRESI GNIF ICANTLwLuwtR TttANTrtUSE AFTtR CUNSWMI:N6 SACCrriARuSr CCIN1AININU LhuwC.ULA7E• ir+ESE uATiA SUPF'UR'T INUIkLCTLY' THE KESuLTS [!t- CLINICAL EXPERIMENTS Q:UNCtRtNING THE KEL1UCED LAkItIGtNICITY Q1- SCRMTUL-Ct1NTA1NIN6 SWtETS. Mn - AGULtSCrNCt ; AUULT ; ChuCuLAT"E ; CwMKARATIYE SfuU,Y MH - DENTAL wLAQwE/*ETIU~LUGY' ; EN'GLLSFs ABSTRACT ; 1-LiUt3 Al3t)LT&VtS MM - HUMAN ; MALt 's' SURtSITiu4./*Ai)V$btSE EFt=ECTS Mh - St,/CRUSEA*ADw;€1tSt thl-tLTS LA - GER S[Ji - UTS.Crt ZAnNA,tK1 TL Z Lo?b J'uk; 3s! t'6):418-Z;is 14 TI - TMt RULt uF THE CUM61NAIi'UN' UF SWCRUiSE ANU M.1;LK IN UTAtsETE.1-0 MkLiI TiUy LETTER AU, - WALES A. Mh .-ANI'MA4. ;6:Akb61MYURATtSfiMtTAH1',ULISM;~ DIAtSETE"SMItLLIT'UN/ *ETyULU6Y' Mh - FATTY' ALItsS, NUhiESTEKIf-lEtr/tsLta~.'D ; HUM;AN MM, -ISLAN'U!Sutr LANWERMAirtS/F'hY'SIULLt,GY ;! K1LK/*AUV'tRSt tkrFtCTSMrt - SUM,ATUTRU~VYhi/btUUU ; sULRUSE/*AUvER:SE Et-FLCIS. LA - ENG coS-Q - AM J! CLIN NtiJTR 1918 .ANR';3I'(4):55;Si--bU ~ CD ~
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001001141 PAGt 4 SUCRUSt-Mt07'( 15 TI - DENTAL CARIES AND BETNtitivrMEAL SIVACKS L'ETTtR AU- SALTtR' AJI ; 1fWUK1NI J Mh! - ADULESCENC ; DENTAL CAtttES/*ET1t)LO6Y MM - UIETARY CAR80MYU2'ATES/*ADVt:RSE EFFECTS' ; FttuINU BEnAViUR « FEMALE Mh' - Mt1MAN', ; MALt ; URAL hY'G1ENt/*SJANDARfIS ; SUCkwlSE/*AUvER-SE &FFECTSG LA, - tN!S SO - t3R MED J 1978 4 M'AR ;'I 1611E ): 5-f7f 16 TI - CUC'iGTAILS Fu1c TtN. AN tN' VIV'U--IN V'ITR'u STuW.Y ED!1TURIAL AU~ - VA~Il~~SRUlB'~ S Mti - ALCC1H0Lv EThYL/*ADV'ERSt tFFtCTS ; rtuMi4rw ; riYruuLYCEMiIA/*tTl lluLUUY Mltt' -~ SUCRUSt/'*A~[DEVE~R~~St EFFECTS~ LA - ENG SO - ARCm INTE'RN MW L9Id MAR;13a13'11:3'59-bti. 17 TI - SMttET IMDYSCRtTIUNi R',EVISIJED teDITUR'I'AL AU - TILLI S 8F Mti - tIIEURY CARt301hYDRATtS/*ADUtRSt EFFtLTS ; huMAN MM' LA SO' I'8 TI MM Mh LA SO 19 TI - SUCRUiSt/'*ADVtRSt EFFECTS - ENG - NY' ST A T fE DENT J'. 1976' f E t3 ;44t' 2 I' :4r 3 - DI ETARx MABI TS ANDULNTAL CAR'IES OF I NFANTS - ChILD'fi P3tESCtiuUL ;' DENTAL CAP.IESf*ETIO'LDGY ;*FLiOD hABI7S ; huM'AN - INFANT ; JAt+AN ; SuICRU'SE!*ADV'.ERSE EFFECTS - JP'N - NIPPO!N SMIIGA 1lShIKA I Z.ASSrnI' 19'!1;3014T4: 111-i!~ - FI'GrtT AGAINST TV PtJ'[sLiCITY UF SuGAR. PRUDuCTS. A~U~~ -~ JAC~uBSIJN' MF ;' CuURS'V? ~ J:l~ 31) MHi -*AD~~VE~RTISIl'WG ;~ HUMAN ' ;~~ tUU'TR.'T.LLN1 ~ ;~: SU~CFLUS~t/'*~AG~vtR~St~ t~wEtLI:S~ MiiI - *TE'tEVlISIUN. LA - ITA S0l - PRftV' ST4tMATUL 1971' NUV'-UtC;3 fYb1 :45-7 20 Ti - SMEtTENERS UR SUt;AR' tIUiTuR.LAL AU' - k1AR'RI S R' Mti' - CNI'LD! ; DENTAL CAR1ES/ETit1LL1C,Y'/*P'REVtNTiU,N 6 CUNTRaiL Mli - DIETARY C'AR'BQDhYDRATES/*ADVtRSE tFFtCTS ; huMAN Mn' - S~UCROS'~E/'*ADVE~RS'E E~F~~F'tCTS~ ; *~~S'ME,ETEN'INIG~ AGa~~EN~T~S~ LA - ENG SOi - AUST DENT' J! 1911 O'CT;22C5./!:4Q3-5 21 T I AUl MM l Mh! LA SO'. REMUVIfN6 SuisAR AUVERTIS1Nti, FRtsM TELEv1SlUN.. JACUBSU'N MF ; CUttRSEY JJ *ADVERTISING •, DENTAL CAR1tS/ETI[!LO'3Y ; MJ=Aft'TI G1StASttS/LTIlULUGY' MUMAN ; UbESIT`Uf'/ETtULUGY ; SUCRO'SEA'*ADiVtRSc tFFtCTS ; *TtLtV1SkuN EN6' J! AM' SUC' kRtV DENT 19'0! JAN FEt3;' X1l/:11-2 00 00 Oa . W W . . ~
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00001742 ' SU!CRUSt-fittD C7. 1COPIIED P'AGt 5 22 TI' - SUGAR' DISEASE DISASTtR. AU - Mm - MK - LA - KULSTAD hiMi ADwtERUSIN TELEV ISIUN ENG G ;*NUTR ITIUN uI.SDFtDERS ; SUCRUSt/*ADVERSr EFFECTS SU' - CDA J 1911 JAN; 5(1)' :44-6 23 TI - SUCRO'SE-ThE TIUUIirt'S MURICAL ENtMY; FLU[DRIDE-TIhE TUUTh''S aEST FR'I ENU!. AU - ShANNUN IL MMt - BEVERA6ES ;' Ch1LDl MH - *DENTAL CAR.IESz(;HEMIGALLY IN:DUCED/PR,EVEN'TIt?N L CUNTRUL MH - DIABETES MELLITuS/CnEMICALUY 1NDUCEU Mhn - DIETARY CARBfj!hYDRATES/'ADMINISTRATION & tJOSAUt ; FLUUR'IUATiIWN Mlht~ -~ FLUOR'1'D~~kS~A*T'h~tRAPtUiTLC~ uS~E ;~~ FILUUR1D~tS v TuiNICAL/~TnERA~PEUTI~~LiC~ uSE MN4 - FWUD ANALYSI'S ; FtJUID LAB'Er.1N(i ; hEAtTT GISEASES/ChEftCALLY' I'N'UUCED MH - mIlSTURICAL ARTICLE ; h,ISTt1RY Of MEDICINts ANCIENT MH - hISTUR'Y OF MED7CINE, 15Tkt CENT. ; rtISTURY Ur- MtDICINtim ?bTltti GtNT. MH - ttUiMAN ; MOUiThWAShES/ThiEfiA'PEUTIDC USE * UBtSI'TY'/CrnEMICALLY' INUUCItD Mh - SUCtI[7SE/*ADVERSE E1=frECTSI''ANA LY'SI'S ;SW'EETEN!rNG AGtNTS/'hiSTURY' Mh - TUUTM/'iIRUG EF~ LA: - ENG FECTS ; UNiTED STATES SD' - J DENT Ch ILD 19 F7 NUV-ULC;44(b ):'429-3?I ~ 24: T'.& ~ -~ SUGAR AND~~ DtNTA1L C~ARIt& PR~~EWf'ENTIIUN AU! MM NHi LA SQ' - F4{KAD A~ h ~. - DENTAL CA'itIES/*ETIU~LU'G1f/PkEV~ENTIUN! &~~ C~~CJNTfR~~tD~~L ;~ hUMAN ; INFANT - INFANT, NtWE3URN ; SuCRUSE/*AUVtRSE tFEECTt% - JPN - DENTEISUTO 1977 JU!L;'3('4):15-8 25' TI - RUUIf SUkFAGtt CAkIES IN Ttn~E Me3LAR TEETH, uF RICE RATS. 1I1. AU AB' M' MM QUA'NTtTAT1iJN U'k LE51'UNS INDuCEO BY H1.Gh S+uCKwSE ul tT. - DOFF RS ;I RUStN S ; APP G - WEANLING RIGE KATS WEKEt irED, iEIThfiitR' STANt)4RG LABURATGRY LhUW UR D1tT 2'filUO. Tht ANIMAILS wtRft SACRIFICED AT 4, es, ]:Zr ANU 15 WtEluS. THERE WAS AN' YNCREASiNG AMUUNT UF EXPO'SED kUDT SuttrACE ANU RUU'T SUR1FAC~E~ CARIEN ~ WIT1i! ~ A~GE I~N~ TH~~E A~N'IMA~~LS~~ H-LU, U~1ItT 20U~~v.~ ThERE W'A& tXPOS ED ROOT SURFAC t!3'U!T NOI CARI'iES IN! THE AN IMALS FED LAbURA f URY CHGI'k,. - AN]LMAL ;' UIENTA L CAR I'ES/CHEMI'CA LL Y I'N'Dl1 CtD/tT lU'LUV Y/'4,P'A 1I MULUit"Y - DIETARY CARBL71hY'Dl;'ATES/*ADVERSe EFFECTS ; MVLAR/*NAThULV('Y MMi - PtRlUDUNTAL UIStASE S/ETIULUCoY ; RATS ; SCFCUSti*A UuERS t ErrELT ~. . M'"' LA Sil'. - TUUTM RtixJTF#PATIhULUGY - ENG - J! DENT RES 151~-1Y StP",'ybt9):'llll-4 0
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COPiED' 0000I743 PAVt b SU C RU'S E-M ED f 26 TI - ANIMAL STUDIES CEJNCtRNING THE CARIOfdENICITY OF URY B'.RtAKFAST CEREALS. AU - MCDONA'LD JL JR' ; STU!UKEY GK AB - FUiUR STUDIES WERE PtR'rilRMED IN', RATS AND HAMSTERS CUNCERNING THE CARIOi6tNI(iITY WF CEREALS AND Tr* RULE UF SUCRuSE 1N ThATl 1,RuCESS. THE FINDINGS INDICATE THAT SllCR[!SE CONTENT PER' SE DUES NUT NECESSARI',L.Y' RtFLELT THE CARIOGNNIC POTENTIAL. PRESW'tETENLD CEREALS WERE MGI~Rtt CONDWC1Vt TO ThE FURMATIUN uF SMUuTM SUK'FACE CARIES IN THE r!tAMSTER ThAN' WERE NUNPRESWEETENED CEREALS Wrn1LE N'U M'AJ[?R tlIhF£R'ENCES fiETW'EEN' THE CEREALS WERE UBSEKvEU IN UCCLUSAL CARIES IN RATS. Mrtii - ANIMAL ; BUUY ivEIGMT ; CER'EALS/*AUV'ER'SE EFFECTS Mh - uENTAL CAiIIES/*ETIOLaGY ; *DIElf, CAR'IO'GENIC MMi - DIETARY CAIikSU'hYWitAIfES/AdV'ERSt ftrFECTS ; tV'ALUATiU'N STUDtt:S MMi - MAMSTERS ; MALE ; RATS ; SPECIES SPECIFICITY MM - SUCRUISE/*ADV'ER'SE EIrFELTS ; TIME FACTORS LA - ENG SO - J DENT RES 19117 AWG;Sb)8N:I00l-6 0 2?? TI' AU MM Mtl LA So 2'8 TI AU Ad Mhi MM MH MIM I M'ail MM LA SCl NUR'SING BOTTLE CARIES. RIC'HARD'SiUiN t3(D' ; CLEATUN-JUNES F'E *BOTTLE irEEUING ; DENTAL CARItS/*ETIOLOGY ; hUlMAN ; INFANT RURAL P'uPULATII,N; SUCROSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS, ; URBAN PC1PULATIUN ENG PEDIATRICS 1977 NUv;t'sU(5):748-9 SUGAR INTAKE AND NIAFsETES M'ELLITUS. WALKER AR WiThiN ThE LAST CEN!TU'RY' THE PREVALENCE ANU MURTALITY' RATES uF DIABETES AND Il1TMEtI CME6ENEiiA1f1VE DISEASES HAVE iN!CREASEG CUNSIDERAdLY. SIMULTANEOUSLY* THERE MAV'L BEEriMARI6EWI AL1ERATLU~NSIN THE TYPES AND AMIU'UNTS tsF FULD CUNSU!MED. uNt uF THE )~USi C4INSNICtX)t!S UIE7IARY CHANGES HAS BEEN THE VERY CUNSIlUERABLE itI'Si: IN' SUGAR INTAKE. SOME kEGARD THIS CrtANGE SP'ECIfICALLY AS THE rACTDR MOST RtSPUNS AbLt kUR TtuE 1NCREASt IN D1AbtTtS. IN iinil'S RtV'IEW's TME RELATIuNSMIP EsETWEEN' RISES iN', SuGAht INTAKE AMU f'REVALENCES U} UlAt3ETES ANU THE BEARIi.NG UiF SUGAR INTAKE UN OBESITY ARE DlISCUSSED. THERE IS Nt)T EN'OU6M EVIUtNCE ThAT A trtlt"i INTAKE OF SUGAR SPtCIF1CALLY' I+RU1MOTES THE [)EVELCUFMENT Utr DIABETES• EI'4JTi THIS DUES NGT IMPLY ThAT SUGAR INTAKE IS UhM'iMPORTANT.~ BECAUSE @fFTHE h1l16H, PREVALENCE UFUBItS4TYINSUM1tPIIPULATIU!NSs RtSTRI'CTIuN owF SUGAR INTAKE IS AS 1MwtrRTAN'T AS uTr,ER UIlLTARYRESTR'ICTIUkS. ADULT ; AGED ; ANIMAL DIABETES MELLITUS/'*tT'IULOGY/MORTALITY/UCCURRENCE D1tTARY CARBUtiYDRATtSZ*ADVtRSt EFFECTS ; EURUNE ; FEMALE GLU!CUiSE/!M'ETABU3LISM 's HUMAN ; I SRAEL ; MALE ; M iCE ; Ml UWLt AGt tJBE SITY/GICCUR'RENCE ; RATS ; RE VIl EW' ; SiDiitTM A FRICa SUCRO,SE/*AUvER'SE EFFECTS UNITED STATES 00 ENG S AFR MED J! 197'X 4 JUN;51C234 :842-51 GO
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00001744 N A G t vOPIEQ SuQ:RUSt-NI!ED4 I ' 29 T1 -"tVALUATIO[V! UF Tht CAR1UGtNICITY UF CWNIFtCTIUNERY t3Y' 1NTkA-URA~L AU WIR',E-TELEMETR'Y'. - I'MF EL D, T M'h M'h M'M - E3'UF'FERS ; DtNTAL CARIitSA'D!IA!GNuSIS/'*ETIULWVY' -DENTiAL PLAQut/DiIAGNOSIS ; DIETARY CAR~B,OhYDRATtS; hUMArv - hYDRUGEN-lO1lI' COiNCENTRATIU!N ;' SALIVA/PhYS'IULOGY MM Mh LA - SUCR41SE/*ADvER'SE EFFECTS ; SWEETENING AGtNTS ; SWITZtRLANU - TELEMETRY/*METhUDS - ENG 30 SO TI - SSU 1911 MAY•,84 (5) :4s`If-b4 - TME BITTER TRuTh A~BUuT SUGAR. AU' M'h MH Mh - MAYER'J - DEN7AL CARIES/CMEKI'CA'LLY INDUCED, - DIABETES MtLLI'TiUS/'ChtMICALLY INDUCtD - U;IETARY' CARCiUhY'URATESA*AD~VERSE EFF€CTi-S ;h.UMAN' MM - UBESI TY/'ChElPIICAULY' INDUCED ; SUCRDS€/*ADVER'St tFFtCTiS LA - EN~ G . S0! - PA DENT i t.hiARRIS0) 19(1 MAY;,44(3'11: 24-7 31 ~ TI -~L'UN~CM~TIME~ G~IN~ AND! TONIC~~ A CA~US~t~ EiF~~ AtEA~~CTIV'~t hY~wUGLY~CA:EM'lA~.~ A,U~~ - UP~KEEF~E S~~J ;~ MARAS V' AB - 10 MEALTMY' YDUN'G SUBJECTS DRANIC9 ON fihtRtE SEP'ARATt OCCASIt7NS, T'hE ELlll!IVALENT UF ThREt G1N' AND TUNICS CilNTAIlININ6 50 G ALCUhUL AND 6tJ, G SUCRuSEP GINI AND »SLiMLINE) TiJN'~IC CUNTAINING yt?~ G A,LCUhUL AN'D 0.5 G, ~ SUGRUSt*~ UR'~ TUNIC ALUN,E CULNTA~INI NV 60, G, SuCRUS(t. THE'IR ~ t3'EhAVAUUiR r; SYMP'lUl'I'S~9 k3LUU!U-GLUCOSE 9 AN~D~ P~~LASMA-T111SU!L IlN~ ~WEkE MONILTQIRED! FOR 5 hUiU~~RS.~ B'O!Tb~~ alF~~ THE ALC~O'~hUL-CLftSALN!lN~~G~ DR'~IN!ICS~~ CAU!S~ED~~ M~~I'LD-Tu+-MUDiERA~~11~E INEBNCIATION. BUT ~ GIN' ANG'~~ SL1~M~LINE~~ TUNIC MAU! Nu SI6NlFICANT El-FECT ON EITHER BLGlUDi-GLUCUyE Uk PLA~SM~A-INyUL1N LEV~~tL~s. G'14 AN'D~ T!CONI~C~ P'R~UVUK~tD~ A~ G~RtAJtR.~ I!NS~~ULINA~EK1~A~ A'ND~~ MOR~t WRUfUiJiku: ~ REACTIVE hYP'U6LNC~AEM~,IIC~ kLSt'vNS~E ThAN' TUN'I'C ALUNEP ANU IN 301- TME SUEiJ!ECTS ThIiS WAS ASSL:CIiATtoW1'Th THE APPEARANCE U'F= NtUR(Y6LYCOP~ENJiC SYM'PTUMS. ALCUtiUL-MtUIATEU RtACTIVft hYP11hLYCAEMIA MAY' CUNTRIB:UTE SIGNIFICANTLY Tu MUTUR-CAR ACC ID ENTS IN TxiE LA T E AFTERNUtsN AT A T I'ME WM EN BLUUD-A L l.UttUiL. LEVELS hAVE kALLfrN' lIEtUYf' ThiE LEG'AL LIM'IT. Mh - ALCOMO!L! EThY.LA'*ADlVERSlt EFFtCTS MM - ALCOhULIC BEVERAVESA'*AW'VERSE EFFECTS ;,' BEhAvIUFi/DRUG ErFtC.TS MH - BEVER'AGES/'ADVERSE EFFECTS ; BLQIOm. GLUCIlSEf*ANALY'S1S' ; FASTING MH - rtUMAN' ; MYNUGLYCEM'IAt'*CHEMICAULY INDUCED ; INyULIN/*BLUC]D MH - SUCRCJ!SEe*Ai)VERSE EFFtCTS ; TIME f-ACTURS LA - ENG SO - LANCtT 1911 18 J~uN'; 1(tsC'15).I12b6-8'
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oUool 145 COPIED PAG t b SuLRtJSt-MED'T''1 32 T1 - Tht CARICIGENICITY' [11= DltTARY' St1CRU!SE AT VARIAIUWS LEVtLS IN 7'kf3U STRAINS uF kAT WNDIrk UNRESTRICTED AND CuNTRuLLEU-MFtEQuEiVCY FEEOING C'UND!ITIUNS. AU! - HtJiX'LE Y MG Mh - ANIMAL ; C:AitIWGtNTC A6tNTS ; UI&NTAIi CARIES/*E T1'ULUGY'/P#'ATMULWGY MM, - DIET ; k;lETAlZY'. CARE1uMYURATES/*AIDVERSE EirFFEi:TS ;*FttDl'NG bthJ1V'I(UR MM~ -*F~EEIi~~IN!G &EttiAvf~~l'UR ~ ; ~ P4AJS~ w~, S~~UCkO~SE/*A~~DVLR~SE EFFEcCTS LA - ENG Sll - CARIES RtS 1'7/f`t;lIC4I:23'7`-42. * * * * t N U, fu F U F F L I N E P' R I N' T * * * * *:
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, " 5ocRosE Me b ei Pt c.r"45--l GME6 I TI - WtnAT! IS ifht R!ULt UF SavAR (SuCRUSE) IN UEriTiAt CAkLES TtuAY? AU - CL.EATI'iN,-Jl'+NLS }' ; W'ALKEk AR ;' RETIEt- Uh Mh - trENTAL [:AICIES/*ETI0LC3wY ; huMA.N ; SuCROSE/*A.UVtRSt trFtCTS LA - ENG. SU - JUL 7!50(i'l Al:b.-io 2. TI - EXPERIMENTA'L 64NtaIVIT!1S BY' FtEIDING' SUFT FULUi Ca.iNTAININ!la Sa1l:RUSE. REPtATEU lt&SERVATI'U'N' IN A MACACA IRuS MUNfeEY' i'AuThOR•'S T+tANSL/ AU - 1IKENU N ; hUNMA hi ; I'lStsIKA41A J MIH - AN'1'MAt lrEED/*ADVEkSE E:i~-F=tCTS ;, ANIM~AL ; ENGLtSt, AtISTRAC I MkM - GIlNGIv1TIS/*ETItsiWGY ; MALE ; ANTMRUPUIUtA MK - SUiCRO-%E/*AIUvERSfc CF 1-ECTS LA - ,JM SU - N'Ii+N'UN ShISmUlt3lif'tj hAKMCAI' IICAIShL SEF' 3 TJl - DENTISTS AP'PL.AUU Tht k1'SING CUST UF SU1GAR'.. AU! - MAMRY' t Mh - *ECUNUMICS ; *N'UTk'ITIlCsN, ; WCKUSE/*AfJ!VERSE tF-ttCTS LA - ENG SO - YOUR UKLA U NT ASS'uC J' JAN T.'-5;b5(3'):I9. 41 4 TI - DIETARY S4uCRUSE: d'tN'TAL DIILEMMA. AU - ShiANN!UN IL ; tD!MWNUS EJ Mru - CANUY/'*ANALYSIS ; uENTAL CARI'ES/*ETICtLOGY ;' *trtbD ANALYaIS ; nuMAN, Mn - SUCRuSE/*AGvEkSE Et-r-ECTS LA - tNG SU - DENT hY6 (Cm1C) JuN t5;49'lbl:d5l-6lT 5 TI - TrHE RULt Ulr T rtt @'tN'TAIL hY'tuIt(r1Y S"I S' AS A NwTRll'IlsNi4LL GuuhtSEtUk. Au! - CL INE A MM' - *U!ENTAiu, riY'GlENh'STS ; *'NuTRITIi2N ; SUCRUSt/*AOVtFtSt tFFtGTS LA - ENG SOi - DENT RsYG 4Ce,IC1 UtEC 1S,496I2'):555-b
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0!00'01801 COPIED PA6E 12 SLAWENS COMPOUN'DS-MEDLDN.E FI!t.t& 6 TIl - THE DEVELOPMENT OF RETINOPATHY I' StJCROSE-FED! AND STREPTEJZUTUCIN'~-DIABETIC' RATS. AU - PAPACInRISTUUOULUU! D's' HEATh 1!fi ; KANG SS AB -~ NORMAL AN~D~~ ST~REPTO20TOC'~I~N-D!I~ABETIC~ RATS~~ hA~W~~E BEEN~ MA~IlNTAINED~~ FUR br-11 MONTM'S' UN' CO!MPLETE:LY' BALAN'CEDIP RECONSTiTUTED' DytTS IN WhtCmi THE SOLE SOURCE OF CARBOHYDRATE WAS EIl T!hER 68% ' CU!RN' STAkCh UR b8z SUCROS'E. Tht RETINAL VASCuLAR' SYSTEM' WAS ISULATiED BY' TRYP'SIN' DIGESTION AN'D EXAMINEU hISTULOGICALLY FOR' ThE PRESENCt Li- TORTU!O~SITY A~ND~~ IRHtE~GULA~~RITY~ OF~ CAPILLARY DIIAMt~TER~t ~ I~NC~~RLASE~U ~ PAS-P'OiS1TtVE DEB'US1TS, M'ICRUAN'EU!RYSMS* LUSS uF PERICYTES* END~OTMELIAL PR4iLllFERATiuN's ACELLULARITY AND! STRAND FORMATaUN. NONE OF THESE PATHOLOGICAL CMANGES OCCURRED IN NORMAL RATS Fttt) A STARCM-RICh DIE'ivBUT ALL DEVELOPED TO A SIMI'LAR' EXTENT IN' TriE SUC~ROIS~~E-F~ED Ni'1R:MAL RA~~TS~ AND~ Ttt~E~ STARCM-FED~~ DIABETI1C~~ G'RWUP'. ~T~HE CHANGES WERE MORE SEVERE IN' SUCROSE-FED' DIABETIC R'ATS AFTER' b MON'ThS. IN ALL GRWUIPS ThE RETINUPAThY PRUGRESSEU W1T'hii TIME. TME ~ Pti]S~SI~BILITY~ T~wAT A FACTUR~~ CUMMiI+I TO~ BOTH ~ TNiE~ tNGESTi,WN(uF k SUCROSE-RICii UIET AND STREPTO2Ulf'OC'IN DIABETES IN RATS hAS B'tEN CUNSIfUiER'ED, SINC~E~P: h~ISTOLOiGIC~ALLY9 ~ THE R'ET'IN'GJ'PA~TMY' OBSERVED WAS I!DENT ICAL BOTh WITri RESPECT TO SEVERITY AND RATE UF D't VELt1PMENT tN NOiRM1UGLYCAEMtAv SUCRUSt-FED AND hYPERGLYCAEMIA. S1fARCMrFED DIABETIC RATS• MFT' - ANIMAL ; DIABETES MELLITUS/CHEMICALLY INDUCED,. Mlrl - @IAB'ETIC R'ET'INO!PAThY/'*ChiEM'ICALLY INDUCED/P'ATMU!LC1GY MM - DIETARY CARBUhYDRATES/'ADMINISTRATLUN & DOSAGE ;' MALE ;' RATS Mli - RETINAL VESSELS/'DRUG EFFECTS/"PAThOLOGY ; STARCh ; STREPTO2OTUCIN Mh - SUCRfJiSE/ADMI'NISTFtAT1UN & DUSAGE/!*AOV'ERSE EFFECTS LA - ENG SO - DIABETULOGIA AUG 7f'b; ]16(4):36? 74 SO! - AM' J CLIN, NruTR JUL 7b;29(T'):b89-9Qi LA - ENG 7 Tt - LETTER'.: Tht RCtLE ulF TrtE C1IMBINATION UF SUCRUSE AND MILK INI DIABETES MEiL1TuS. AU - WALES A Mii1 - ADULT ; ANIMAL ; CE REALS ; C'M~ILD ; CMILD, PRESCMU4IL MM - DIABETES MELLITuS/*ETIULO'GY ; DIETARY FATSA!ADVERSE tFFECTS, Mh - F[IUiD PREFERENCES ; GR'EAT~ t3'RITA IN ; IrtUMAN'. Mlfi' - INFANT FUUDeA,DVEtiSE EFFECTS ;' iMt'FANT ; MiLIK/*Af1VER'SE tl-k-ECTS MM - SUC'Rtl'SEf*ADVERSE EFFECTS 8 T'1 - INCREASED CONSW!MPTtUk UF REFIN.ED CARBUttYDR.ATES IN PATIENTS WITh CRUiMN'S DISEASE. AU - MARTINI GA ;,' BRANDEs JW AB - THE NUTRITIUNAL tiABITS OF b3 PATIENTiS W'ITM CRUMft'S DISEASE (C.D.)WER'E EXPLORED BY MEANS GF qJ!ESTI'ONNA'IRES AND C1jMPAREU, WIlTn A Cl)NMU!LGRUKJPUFb3PERSUNS, MATChEI): AS TO AGE, SEX. AND SOCIAL STATUS. BEFURE TttE' DISEASE WAS RECOGNIZED PATIENTS WLTiM C.D. CONSUMED 742 GRAMS7r'W'EEK (GAW)` SN'EETS AND 113801 G/W NASTRIES* DURING ThE DISLASE 482' G/W SWEETS AND 905 GfW PASTRIES. THE CONTROLS,O!NLY' CONSUMED, 285 G/W SWEETS': AND: .563 G/W- PASTRIES. TME ,;. . ., DIFFERENCES BETWEEN' BOTh GROUPS" ARE.?'h]fGhLw'-'SIGN'IF.I'CANT'.`*TtiERE ',t'_:F.~;;` _. , ;;
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. 000a160'2 COPIED PAGE 13 SLAVENS CUMPIhJNDS-MEDLINE FILtS MIH. MNi MFhi' MH' LA SO, EXI STED NO SIGNIFICANT OIti=ERENCE I'N' THE INTAKE UF UTH'tR FOODS'TUFFS SUCH AS P'RUTiEI'iNSip FATSs VEGETABLES UR ALCUHUL. THE HIGH INTAKE UF REFINED CARBOhYIDRATES IN PAT4ENTS W'aTMi C.D. MAY BE PARTLY RESPONSIBLE FUR ITS' INCREASIN'G INCIDENCE IN THE UEVELUPED COUNTRIlES. THIS MIGriT bE DUE TU THE SUGAR CUNTENT AS SU4:Hi ANDeUR THE F[IU'D ADDI1TI'W'ES. ADULT ;,' CANDY/ADVERSE EFFECTS DIETARY' CARBOhYDRAT'ESA'*ADVERS1t tFEECTS ; *FUwU HABiTS CROhKV D!ISEASE/*ETIULt36Y' ;,' FEMALE ;*FUUDl MAbiTS ; HUM'AN ; M'AtE MIDDLE A6E. ; SUCRUSE/'*ADV'ERSE EFFECTS' ENG KLIN' WOCktiENSC'ir~2 15 AP'R ?'m;54(df):367F-?l 9' TY - ANAPHYLACTGI'lD REACTIIUNS rN CUNNECTIUN WIIT'h INFUSIIUN UF tNVtRT SUGAR S'DtUTIUNSAREDU~E' TOM'ACRUM'ULECUItARCUNTAM'1iN•AN'TS~. AU - RICHTER AW ; QRANATM K; USTLING G AS - 13 UNTOiWACtID' MULD! ANAP'HYLACTUID REACTIONS WERE UBSERVED IN PA'TI'ENTS IN'FU'SED, W'IThi INVERT StGAR SO!LUTIUNS IN SWEL2EN UU,KIlNV A. 7f-MONTMi PERI'UU' 1N L9T3: AN I'NCIiDENCE Uk 1/31,6Gi} I'N'FUSILNS. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND! PHY'S1COChEMiCAL ANALYS4S Ui~- iNVtRT SU(WDIR SOLUTIONS AND OF TH'E RAW MATERIALv SUCRUStvF.EVEALED TRACES UF NATIVE ALKIMA-19b-GLUCANi W'ITM MULECUILAR WEI'GHT l,f lU'-1U0 M,ILLIUNS AS CONTAMINANT. TKIS INDICATESs TNiAT' THE SUCRUSE HAD BEtN' EXPOSED TO MICROBIAL ~KD'NTAMIINATION DURING ITS MANUFACTURE FRUM, SUhAR-BItET OR SUGARI-CANE. RttV[RStD SINGLE RADIAL IMMuN'UUIFFUSlUN WAS USED FUR ALP1iA-1*b-GLUGAN' DETECTION AND SCREENING UF ALL SUGKJSbE. BATCliES. RE.)ECTIUN OF CONTAMINATED SUCRUSE AS RAW MATER'ZAL REDUCED' ThE INCIDENCE OF ANAPHYLACTUI{I INVERT SuVA'R REACT]iuNS Tu ABOUT I/5?5*Q!0C), INFUSIONS. EXAMINATION UF ALL SUCRUSE RAW MATERIAL FOR TRACESOirCR'WDE A:LP'1nA-119b-GLUC'AN ISR'EC~UM'MieNDL+D~ AS A . TEST FOR DETLCTitiN OF M1C'RDB1iAL CUlNT'AM'INATiUN. MW - ANAPNiYLAJCIS/*CiMUEMICALLY' INDUCED ; DEXTRANS/AUVERSE E1rfEGTS MH -*DRrJG CUNTAMI'NAT10N! ; HUMAN ; MACROMOLECULAR SYSTEMS MH - SUCRU'SE/*AUMVERSE E'FE-ECTS LA - ENG SO - INT' ARCH. ALLERGY APPL IMMuNUL '197b;5Q4 5):606-1r 1'p' TI'~ - INIT1'AT~ION~1 ~ AN'D~~ A6GR'AV'ATI~ON~ IU'F~ OE~NTUR'E~ STOM'A~T'~IT~1S~ By ~ SUCRUS~~E RINSE S. AU .- OLSEN I;,# BIRKELAND JM AB' -•T1ME PURPOSE' OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS WmtThtR FREQUENT itXPUSuRt TO, SUCROSE 1tOULD AGGRAVATE U'R' INIITIATE A PALAT AL CANDIOI'+Si' S IN DENTURE W'EARERS. EiGHT SUBJECTS W1Thhi GENERALiZEU 51MPLt UR GRANULAR INFLAMMATTCIN IN THE PALATE (INFLAMMATiUN! GRUUN)! ANU SIX WITH CLINICALtY HEALThY PALATAL MUCOISA (CUNTRUL uRUUP) c:ARRitD. OUT, 1'=M'.IN MOUTHRINSES W'I'Tii, 10 ML UF A 251% SuCR(sSE Sul.u!TIUN FUUR TIMES DAILY FUR 15 D. IN THE I'NF'LAMM'AT1uN' GRCiUP AN AGGRAVATED PALATAL ERYTHEMA WAS SEEN' 1N TWD! SUBJECTS AFTER T LJ, AMi1,2 iN AN©TIHER ,SUB,JECT AFTER 15 D. AMIONG THE CUNTRULS A GkNER'ALIZED SIM'PLE..I~I'FLAMMATION HAD DEYEL~Il!'ED IN THE 1~ALATE UF UNE SUBJECT AI~TER~~?fDi :AND- IN AN!UThiER OYE AFTER 15 D. AN INCREASED NUMBER C3F TffAST- ~C~ONIESW PALATAL ANDDENTUREAGAR M'UDiELS, AN'D/ O~R HYPHAEL bA IPA,LIkrtALXAND:: DENT!U!RE SMEARS WAS' FauND IN ALL ~Ue'.IECTS WITH ~869!8'S93. . ... ... , - .., . eti a ~, r.k
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. If 00001803 CORI Ea P' A G E 14 SLAVENS CtIMNUUNDS-MEDLINE FILES MM1 MM MM MM LA SO 11 TI, AU' MM. MM' LA. SO, 12' TI AU Mh M'W MH LA SO. 14 TI AU A'B CLY~NICAL S'IGNS~, OF~ AGGRAVATED: UR INITIATED~, . DtNT Wt~~E S~TUM'Ai ITI~S~.~ ERYTMIElIA/rETIULtTGY ; HUMAN ; MAX'ILLAR'Y' D1SEAsESATt[ILUGY CANDII~D'IAS~ISv ~ URAL/*C~~MEMiI~CALLY INDU~C~tD/CUM~P'~LICAT1ONS~ STCIMAT~I1TI~S/'*ChtMICALLY~ INDUC~ED~ ;,ST'OMAT~ITI~S, UENTWRE~/ ~~C'~IUMPLI~C'A~T~IUNS SUC~ROiS~~E/*A~DVERS'E EFFECTS ENG SCAND! J! DENT RES MAR f6;84121:'94-T SUGAR', AND D'ENTAL CARIES iChlK' I h *CARIOGENIC AGENTS ; CMILDv PRESCHOOL ; D!ENTAL CARIIES/ *tTIULUtyY hUMAN ; INFANT ; INFANT, NEWRORN ;' SUCROSE/*ADVERSE tFFtCTS JPN WAY 1 97!5; H4I : 50+-1 THE ROLE OF THE COMBINATION' OF SUCR'USt AND MILK PRUU'UC1'S IN' DIABETES MELLITUS AND ISChAEMIC HEART DISEASE. WALES A CORONARY D!ISEASt/*ET hULl7GY ;' DIABETES MELLITUS/*ET I!D,LWGY DIETARY CARBOHYDRATESlADWERSE EFFEC'TS ; HJMAN' MILK/'*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; SuCRO}SU*ADVERSE EfrFtCTS ENG , MED HYPl1NESES SEP-UCT 75;1'l 5f~ :191' LETTER: DENTA L CAR'1 ES AND SUGAR INTAKE. MCKENDRICK AJl ; RUBER'TS GS ; DUGUI'D R' CHILD ; Ch'ILD, PRESCh'I7OL. DENTAL CARIitS/*PREV'ENTIUN' C' CUNTROL/iET I'ItLU6Y' ;*D1'ttT, GAR! U6tN IC IiUMAN' ; SUCROSE/'*A4'VERSE EFF'ECTS/AAMIIlNISTRATIUN L DUSA'GtE ENG LAN'CE'T 29 NO!V'' ?5;21 1'I'441 :108b+-7' f=ACTORIS~~ RELA~~T~CtD TO, THE ~ CAR'II7GtNI'C~ P'UTENIIIAL luF~ kiREAKFA~ST~ CER'.EA~~LS.~ KATZ S'. OLSON BL ;' PARK IcC REPORTED IS A SERIES OF STUDIES IN WhICn SEVERAL BREAKFAST CEREA~~LS~ WERE TESTE~D~~ FUR T~hl~ FU'LLUW'I~NG PRUPERIIES: SUG'A~k RETAINED BY~,~ AND PLAQUE~ Ft]R!M~ED, ti]Ni ~~ EX'TRACTED, TEETh T~MAT~ CMEWE~D~ THE CEREALS::. ABILITY' OF THE CEREALS TO INDUCE ACID, ruRMATiUN WhtN. INCUBATED WITH SALIVA, AND, TO' NEUTRALIZE ACIDS WHEN MIXtDl M'ITiM WATER: AND', AS A, SUMM,ARY9 AW'I'L1TY' TO INDUCE CARI'ES FURMATIUN. UNDER MUUT!ti-SIlIULATIU!N CU!NDITItNS. 1T WAS, FOUVD THAT THE CARIOGENIC POTENTIAL OF THE CER'EALS' TESTED tS NUT DEPENDtNT UP'4N TIiE IR SUGAR CONTENT s TMiEI R R ET ENTI V ENE SS t1N THE TEf T'h s ThE AMU,UN'T UF SUGAR RETAINED, . BY' TMtETEET'Hi, URTMiiE AMUUNT UFP'LAQUE kOFtMiATIUN' THEY INDUCED ON _TME TEEThi. ThE ONLY' P'ARAlWIETER THAT RftLATED M1tLL WITH TME CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL UF' THE CEREALS WAS ThE1R BUFFERING 1UR ACID-NEUTRALIZING! ABILITY':' ThE GkEATER' THE BvFFERING, THE LESSER THE CARCIMOGENIC POTENTIAL. THIESE RESULTS,. WHICM' WEItE, : CONFIRMED. IN' INDEP'EN)ENT ANIMA'L STuUIlES, CASIt SUME DOUBTS .UPON..TME,ROiLE TRA[}ITIi1NALLY ATTRIBU'TfED' TU SUVARS IN CARIES FORMATION.yAC&LEAST5yTHEYijCAi)TI[DN AGAINIST GENERALIZATIUNS AND PO M tu i H ~ A U Cr Q3 h04MLD BE STUDIED BEFrO SA ThAT~s :IJN.DEF_I:ST"ANMNG(~l~~Ti,HW.F/a;OTORZ`DETERt4iINING THE CARiOGENI'CATY UF ' ' `` 88G98~594
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! 00001804 SLAVENS GUMPOUNUS-MEDL1iN'E HILES COPiEa ~ FOUDS CAN BE GA~IMED. MM - AC'1DS/M'ET'ABCILISM ;' ANIMAL ;! BACTERIA,IMETABULISM ; BU'FFEkS. MH - CE.REALS/'*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; DENTAL CAR1 ES/*ETIULUGY' Mh -DENITAL P'LAQUE/ 'ETIULOGY; hLIMAN;MOUTM'AMIICRUBIlULOGY Mh - MYDROGEN-!ON' CO'NCENITRATION'. ; RATS Mh - SUCRDSE/'*ADVERSE EFFECTSlMETABOLISM ;~ TOOiTM1META8OLISM LA - ENG SO - PtiARMACUL TMER': DENT 1q?5; 2(12') :10¢31 1'5' TI AU'. MH' MH MM. Mhi LA Sol 16 TI AU MM'1 Mh PAGE 15 LETTER: S'UGAR, AND DENi'AL CARIES. 1+1A LKE R AR' ADOLESCENCE ; ADULT ; AUSTRALIA ; CHILD DENTAL CARIES/*ETIULUGY/UGCURRENCE DIETARY CARBUnYURATES/*ADvERSE EFFECTS' ; 6ERMANY' ; GREAT tsRJITAIN eiU!MAN ; SUCRIUSEI*AD~wERSE EfFECTS. ENG S AFR MED! J 23 AUG r5;451'(36) :1458' - LETTER: SUGAR AND DENIAL CARIES. - FARMAN AG - Ch1LD9 PRESCHOOL ; DENTAL CARIES/*ETIOLPJGY - D'IETARY' CARBOhYDRATES/*AOV'.ERSE EFFECTS ; Ft]OD M,A8yTS ;' HuMAN MM'- SUCR'OSEf*ADVERSE EFFECTS LA - ENG. SO - S At=R' MED J 14 JUN' 7"5;49t 25) :998' 17 TY - SUGAR AND UENTAI. CARIES MH -*CARIOGENIC A GENTS ;' ChitLD1 PRESCHOOL Mtill - DENTAL CICRIES/*PRIEV'ENTIQN L CONTROL ; MuMAN' ; INFANT Mh- *SU!CRQSE/*AD~VER'SiE EFFECTS LA - JPN SO, - WAY 1975; '! (1) : 39-4b ~~. 1~8TI - P'RkJiCEED'1INGS:~ DENTA~,L N"LA~QUE~ FajR'14A~TIWhI'~ I!N RELATIIilN'~ TU TYhfl~ UF CAR' BOi htYDRATE • AU' - GRENBY Th ; E1ICREM G MM - CO-w'FEE ; COMPARAlIV'E STUDY ;' DENTAL PLA(lWE/'*ETIULCIGY Mh1 - DIE'TARY' CARbOWYDFiATES/'ADV'ERSE EFFECTS ; FUO!0 MABITS ; DMF INDEX Mi' - GLUCOSEI'*wtdARMACUD~YNAMICS, ; HUMAN MM - ULIGDSACChARIDES/P'NARMACOE7Y'NAMTCS ; SACCHARIN Mh - SUCRUSE/*ADV'ERSE EkFECTS ; SWEETENING AGEN'TiS/PhARMAGODYNAMICSm, MM' - TE A ~ LA - ENG ~ SU - YRUC N'UTR SUC' Sti' n'4;J:3[2'):24A-25A W CJ1i ~ 19'~ TI~ -~ SUGAR(SUCRO~~S~~E)~ AN~D DE'N'TAL CARIES M'ti - ChIILa NUTR1TlluN ;' CtruILD ; Cn1~LD* PRESCF+iOO'L Mh - DENTAL CARiESA'*PREVENTION. 6 CONTROLA'ET'1O'LOGY/OCCURRtNC'E 's' HU!!1AN MFi - INFANT ; IN'FANT„ NEWBORN ; JAPAN' ; SUCROSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS LA - JPN SO' - Jl J'PN DENT ASSOC 19'75;27f(10).:I039-54
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s 0000180i5 COPIED P'AGE Ib SLAVENS C'UMPUUiNDS-MEDLINE FILES 20 TiI 1 MM MFl HtM LA SO, Ti 2' AU: N'IHI MiM'. !!lM' lylH . Mrt LA SU l Tl ~ AU1 MM MIMl KM !!iM' 3 PIM' LA SOi Ti 4 AU MM', mM i MMi MM MM' • ly1M LA TI' AU' INM MM MM' NIHi LA SU - - - - - - - - - --- - DISCUSSION: SUGAR AND DENTAL CARIES - CrtI LD, ;' C hI LD.: PRE S ChiU1uIL - *DENTAL CARIES/'ETIU'LGJGY/'PttE1V'ENThON C C'ONTROL ; DJiETp CARtOGENI'C - HUMAIt ; INFANT ; INIFANT. NEM'BmRN' ; SUCRt]SE/!'*ADiIER'SE EIFEtCTS - JPN - J' J'PN DENT ASSOC 19:T5.2r(1Gi) :1Cf2'T'-38' SUCROisEj~ MYPt~RTtNSlGftv AN'DlMtART Dl'SEA,SIt.WALKER' AR. ADUILESCENCE ; ADULT ; ANIMAL ; BLOOD P'RESSURE/trRUG tFfECTS ; CHILD CURON'ARY' DISEASE/*ETIULUGY ; DIETARY CARBaMYURATtS/ADVERSt EFFECTS DIETARY ' FATS ;' FEMALE ; HUMAN ;' MYPERTftNSION/'*ETICILOGY' ; MALE MIDDLE AGE ; RATS ; S,EX FACTORS ; STARCM/PMARMACODYNAMICS SUCRUSEI!*AC3MERSE EFFECTS ENG AM' J CLIN, NWiTR MAR T5;2t3'(3):195-240 - DiETARY SUCRO'SE tN RELAT1uN TU! TME UEVELUPMENT uF ISChMEMIC rlEART DISEASE- - l1P 1f'E' LH'. - AR'TER'IUSCLERL7SI SA'tT!IiU,LUGY/ METABCILISM - CORONARY tIISEASE/*ETIULU6Y/METABULISM' - DIETARY CARf3UhYURATES/*ADvER'SE EFFECTS' ; GLUCOSUMETABULISM - HUMAN ; LIPID'SA'BLUUD ; MY(3CARII'lUM/'METABULISM - SUCRG)'SE/!*ADVERSE Erf'ECTS ;' TRI'GLYCERIDESA'BLUOU - ENG' - AMI HtAR'T J MAY T5;89(S):bf4-5 RUMF-N, ACIDU'S1S IN SrnEEP INDUCED BY DIFFERENT GuSES 4rF SACCrWRUSE C AKALA S ; BURKUMSKI T; ALdRYCMT' A ACIlDO!S1S/'*VETERINA}t'Y/CMEMI'CALLY' INDUCED ; ACUTE DDSEASE AUANTATICJN, N'hYSIULUGICAL ; AN1lr1AL ; B'LC1OU, GIuuCUSt/ANALYSIS CMRON'IC DTSEASE ; ENGLISH ABSTRACT ; MYDRO'GEN-IUN CUNCENTRATI(1N MALE ; METhUio'S, ;' *RUMiEN' SHEEP DISEASESA!*METAIdULISM/CMEMI LALLY INDUCED ; SHEEP SUCROSt/*ADVERSt tFFtI;TS/ADMINISTRATIUN! E DOSA6E ;' T IME FACTuRS PUL POL ARCh, MCETER' 1974;'17(1):117-3U - THE E'/^FECT, UF DIETARY' SUCkUSE OV PLASMA LIN'IUS AND UN', THE LIVER WF' THE SPINY MUUSE 4ACUMY'y CAh1RINUS)« - BRU!ClCUI)RFER ICR ; W4)'RCESTER, NA ; YUO'K1N J - ANIMAL ;' CMLIlLtSTERUL/'F3LU[7'D ; *DIET ; hiYPtR'P'LASIAI'ETIULUGY - HYVERTRaxrhY.rETIIiLUG1rt ; L1P1DS/*ANALYSIS ; L1VER/*ANALYSlS ; MilCt. - URGAN WEI'GHT ; wMUSP'MULIPI'US/t3t11lID ; P'ROTEINS/WNALYSIS ; STARCH - SUCR0!SE/*AUVER5E EFFECTS ;' TRIGLYCERIDES/B'LUO'U - ENG' QD - PRU!C NUTR SUC MAY T.4;33(1)l3'A-4A ~' Cj! m c:_...
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COPiEO ' 00001806 wA~~ ~fi ~~ SLAVENS CUMNU~'N'US-MEDLIN'E FILES -------- -- ~~--- --- ------------- --- 25' ~~ TI - D'IETAFtY' SUCROSE AN'D' StRUK TR'IGLYCERIDE LEVELS. AU! - RUiBEFtTS AM MM - ADULT ; BODY' WEIGHT ;,' CLIlNICAL TRIALS MH - DIlETARY' CARBOMIYDRA.TES/*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; hUMA1H MFi - IiYNERLIPIDEMIA/'*DIlET' THERAPY ; MALE ;' STAR'Ch,FADVLRSE tt•FFCTS MH - SUCRU'SE/'*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; TRiGLYCER'1iDESA!'*E3LGtiD LA - ENG S(I - AM, hff AR Ti DEC -14. 88 10:8C38-9
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SuCROSE7 ~.. ~~ 1'~. (I ~ - COPIED MIM - t)ENTAL' RLAQUErr*ChMEM'IICALLY' INDUEED ; XYLITUL/'*ADVEtRSfe icfrF-ECTS Mh - FRUCTtI'SE/#ADVftRSE EFFECTS ; SIadROSE/*ADV'.ER'Sr tlr)rtCTS MH - DENTAL CARIES!*CHEM~ICALLY INDUCED LA - GR E SO - STmMATOL'OGIA (ATttENAI) MAR: AVR T4;3ltG'):Sti-9l - TI - C1RAL EFgECTTL71r TH~E CUMSutMN~TI~a.N l7F VA~)t~IEIU~~S~~ SU16AkS AU - SCHIEIN,I1fY` A ; M19ANIKEN K r; MH - ENGLIlSt: ABSTRACT ;' hUMAN ; CLINICAL TR'IALS ; CU1M~'ARAT~IIwt STUDY e, 2 T1 - LETT!tR: SUGAR A HEALTMi MAIAfRD? AU - MEMERT H Mh - CAR~BD'HY~DRATt ME~IAB~(l~LLSK. IN'B'Q1RN~ ERR~UFtS/'CWMP'LICAiTIUNIS~ MH - DENTAL CARIESJ'ChEMICALLY INDUCED ; DllA61tTES MELLITUS/'CUMPLICATIUNS MMi -~~ MUM'AN~ ;,'~ HY~PE~RLI~PTDEXI~~A/ChEMI'C~~A~LLY I'ND!UCttD! MH - UBESlTY/QhEM1CALLY iND41CED ; S'UCROSEA!*ADtif'tFtSt EFFE.CTS' MH - V'LTAM'INSA'METABiJ~LISM LA - fbER SO - MED KLIN' 24 AUG 73; bts 134) :I140,
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00001827 c'IEff PAGE T' SLAVENS CUMNUUNDS-MEDLINE FB'LES 3 TI - SUCROSEp hYP£RTENSION9 AND HEART DISEASE ANi hISTURICAL PERSPECTIVE. AUl - AhR!ENSRA, MH' - ANIMAL ; AR'TERIOSCLERUSIS ;' CAIRBUiYDRATESfMETAEtULISM MMi - CMROMIUM/!METABULiSM Mh - Ct1RONARY UlI'SEASE/BL0'UD/ETIDLOGY/MORTALITY/UGCURREfVCEI*hISTURY' Mihtl - DIETARY CARf3UhYDRATES/'ADVERSE EFFECTS ; DIETARY FATS ; EURUNE. Mrs - FEMALE ; hiST'URiCAL ARTICLE ; h1STURY' OF MEUICINEs 19Th CENT. Mh - MiISTL7R')C OF M~ED'1C.NE. 20Thi CENT. ;' hUM'AN. Mh - NiYPEftTENSIUN/ ETIUt:[IIG'Y/UCCURREN!CE/*1iISTORw' ; LIPIDS/*BLUUD ; M'ALt MM' - MIDDLE AGE ;' SUCROSE/'*ADYERSE EFFECTiS ; UNITED STATtS ; 4tAR. LA - ENG SO - AM J CLiN NUT R APR 74;Z? ) 4:) :4C73T22 4 TI - THE tFFECT UF A SUCRuS'E UIET UN THE ACTIvITY aF AMINUTRM115FERASES ANU PhOSPhATASES I'N TihE gALI V'A. UIr RA TS UF- DIFiFERENT AGES AU - PETROVt'Ch 1UA ; FUDURuZhNAIlA RP Mhl - ACID VhUSNhATASEI'*METAtdlito.ISM ; AGE FACTO2!S MH - ALANI'NE AMIN'17TR'ANSfERASEA*METAPOLISM, M1i - ALKALINE' PhUSPMATASt/*METABULISM ; ANIMAL. Mh' - ASPAR'TATE AMINUTRANSFERASE/*METAB'OLISM Mh - DENITAL CAR'IES/ETil'OLOGY/*ENTYMOLOGY ; *DIET. CARIOGENIiC MI`i - ENGLISH AB'STRACT ; RATS ; SA,LiVA/'*ENZYMOLOGY M1i' - SUCRUSE1*ADWERSE EFFECTS LA - RUS SE), - VUPR PITAN MAR-ANR 73;32('2'):54-b 5~ T1 - tFErECTUF SUGAR UNATHtRUS~CLERUS1'S IN! NUNhUMANPRIMATES. AU - MURAKA MI M' Mk1' - ADIPOSE TiSSUE ; AN'IhiAL ; AURTA/P'ATtiULOVY Mh - AORTIC UISEASkS/CnEMICALLY' I'ND'UCED Mh - ARTERIOISCLtROISISA!'P'AThwLUGY/*ChtMiC'ALLY INDW!CEU ; t3UiDx' WEIGhT Mh - ChULESTERuL.OANALYSIS ; ChRUMATUGRAPFtiY,, GAS Mh - CUR43AiARY vES~SELSA'P'AThULUG,Y;DERMATaT1IS MED!1CAMENTUSA/ETIULUGY' MH - DIETs AThERUGENI4; ; GANGRENEfCr,ErtICALLY' INDUCED ; MACACA Mli - ANTH'RUPUIDEA ; PRI'MATES ;' RAl38'ITS ; RATS' ; SKIWAN'ALY'SIS Mh - SUCRU'SE!*ADY'ERSE EFFECTS/ADMINISTRATIOiN' C DLtSAGL ; IAIL LA - ENG SO - JAP CIRC Ji StP 73*3?C9),:11U33-8 6 TI~ -~~ EFFECTS UF~~ hA8t1TUA~L Cnt~EW'ING UF SUGAR CA'NE~ UN' CARIES INC1UENCE AU MM Mh Mti MM MH LA SO AND P'ERIUDUNTAL CUNUITIUN' O)- CUB'AN SUGAR', CANE WURKERS' - K. UNZEL W' ; f3URROT41 R,C ; LAN 1 t R S ; SOTUl F - ADULT ; *AGRICULTURAL MJU!RKERS9 DISEASES ; *CAkLUGENIlC A16ENTS' - CUBA ; DENTAL CARIEy/*CICCU!RREN'CE ; DENTAL hEALThi SURVEYS - DMF INDEX ; ENGLISH AbSTRACT ; FOOD hABiTS ; hiUrMAN ; MALE - PERIUDUNTAL D'ISEASES/*UCCuRREAiCE ; PERlUDON!TAL iN'DEX fb - SUCRUSEA*AOwERSE EFirECTS m - GER ~ - DTSCh STCIMATUL AUG 7r3;'23 )'R ): 554-61'1 ~ 61t
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COPIED 000018'28' b'AGt 8' SLAVENS C'UMPUUNDS-MEDtINE FILES 7 TI AU Mh '. N4H'. Mli' LA so DIE'TARY SWGARS AND SUUAR SUBSTITUTES. SCHEIN',IN', A CAR1fI'G'ENl'C AGENTS ; C'UUNSELiNG ; DENTAL CARitS<*tTIULUGY ; DI'tT DIETARY CARBUHYURATES/*ADVER'SE EFFECTS ; HUMAN SUCRUISE/*ADvERSE EFFECTS ; SkEETEN'ING AGEN!TS/*ADVtRSE ErFtCTS ENG I'NT~ DENT J! S~tP -13~;231I3~)~:'~42T-3T~ 8 71 - C'HANGESIk TME [)ENTAL PLAQ'UEAFT'ER EATIN6 S'MEETSCUNTAININ6 STARCH hYDRULYSnTES INSTEAD UF SuCRUSE. AU - GRENBY Th: ; E3U1L .)MI Mh - CA(VDY'A'ADV'ERSE EFFtCT',S ; DtNTAL CARItS/"tTIULUGY NH- DEN'TA1. P'LAQ11E/*ETiOLID'GY ; D1ET„ CARLUGtNLC ; r+UMAN ; hY'URULYSIS MH - STARCn/*AIfrVERSf EFFECTS ; SUCRUSE/*AD'VERSE EFf-ECTS ; WhEAT LA - ENG SO - PRD!C NUTR: SUC MAY T 3; S2 (1) :3'VA-4 W1. 91 TI' AU! MM MNi. Mh ~'. MH MH Mh~' Mli MNi'. MH LA SO! SUCROISE AND CARDIUV'A.SCULAR: DISEASE. Y'UDK I N' Ji ANIMAL ;`ChULtST'tR('IL/ti'LDOU CORONARY DI'SEASLfBL ODD'/*tTIULUiGYfOCCURRENCE DIABETES MELL hTUSlCUMPLICA~TIUNS/'ETI'ULUGY' DI'ETARX'CARf)Ii;HYDR'ATES/'*ADVER'SE EFFECTS ; DIETARY FATS EVALUATION STWDiES ; GUUT/CUMP_x1!CATIONWETIUEWGY ; HUMAN HYPER1NS.uiLINISM/ETIUii~.UGY ; INSULINA'BLOUD ; LIPIDSlBL4iUD' ; MALt. MIDDLE AGE ; U!BESITY/'CUM,PLI'CATIUNS' PEPT'IC ULCEii/COMPLiCATtUNS/tTlOLOGY ; RtVItW SMOiCING/CUM'PLICATI'UNIS ; STARCH SUCROSEI'*AavERSE EFFE4.TS/P'hARMAC)IDYNAMICS' ENG PRUC NUTR' SUC DItC 'A2;3113):33i 7 10 TI - THE EPFECT OF SALT UR VARIIUUS CRYUPRUTECTIVE At,ENTS UN FR'Ut, SCIATIC NttRVES. AU- PRIB'OR D8 ;'NARA A. Mhti - ACTION POTENTIALS/DRUG EFFECTS ; ANIMAL Mh - CELL MEMBRANE/'DRu1G tFF'tCTS' ; CUMiP'ARATIVE STUUY MihM - CiIYOwROTECTIVE A6ENTS/*TUiX'ICTTY ; D1METhYL SULFOXiDE/*TUX.CiiY' M" - ELECTRIC CONDuCTIVITY ; ELECTRIC STIMULATIUN ; A(VURA MN - GLYCE RIN!/*TUX IC'ITY ; thY'PERTONI C SOiLUTI Q]NS MH, - NEURAL CONDUCTI'UN/''*DRUG EtFECTS ; PERI PhERAL N'ERVES/*DR'UG EFF'tCTS Mh - RANA PIPIEN'S ; REACTtUN TiME ; SCJIATIC NtRVE/DRUG EfrFL-(.TS. MH, - SU'DIlU'M CH4UiRIDE/*TUXI'CLTY ; SUCRi3S'E/*Te?XI'CITY LA - ENG SO - CRYDiBIULUGY APR 7f:I;IO(I):33'-44
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DOPJIER 00'.001829 PAGt 9 SLAV'E~NS~ CUMP~~UUN~D'S~-ME~~DLIN,E F~I~LtS 11 TI' AU Mh MM' MH LA SC) WMITHER SUGAR CONSUMPTION? WALKER AR CHILD ;' CORUly'ARY UIlSEASE/*ETIOLOGY ; D!lABETtS MELLiTUS/*tT1UtO1GY DIETARY CAR'BOHYDRATES/*ADwERSE EFFECTS ; FEMALE ; hrUMAN ; MALE MIDULE AGE ;, WBESITY/*tT1OLOGY ; SUCROlSE/*AiDVERSE EirFtCTS. ENG S AFR M1ED 11 ]lU. MAR /f3;47/'10) :4C4 12 TI - WHITHtR SuGAR C4lNSUMPTIC)N? AU! - YUiDKIN' J' MH - ChtOLESTFR'OLA'BLOW ; CCtR'UNARY' U!ISEAS~E/*ETIOLWGY Mh - DIETARY CARBO!hYDRATES/*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; MUMAN M14 - SUCR'OSE/*ADV'ftRSt EFFtCTS LA. - ENG Stl! - S AFR MED, J 13 JAN 73;4?'QcN':44 INFAN'T FEEDING AND DIABtTES. YU!DKINI J'. DIABETES MELLITUSs JUVENILE,F*ETIOLOGY DIETARY CARBCIMYDRATES/ADVtRSE' EFFECTS ; HUMAN ; INFANT INFANT* NEMF3ORN' ; SUCRUSE/*AIIY'ERSE EFFECTS ENG LANCET 3• FEB -13;1t'T9TI':268 SUCROSt IN DUGtatNAL ULCER'. AND, CARDIUV'ASCUiLAR UISEASE. YUD'K'1'N'. J" ADULT ; CARDIUVASCULAR UISEAStS!*CiiEN/11l+ALLY INDUCED ; DIET DUUDENA1 ULtaRA'*CIitMIlCALLY INDtuCED ; GLUCUSt TULER'ANCt TtST hUMAN ; INSULIN/BLUUD ;' MALE ; SUCROSE!*AUVERSE EFIFECTS. ENG BR' ME D Ji Ib DEC 7a ;' 4 t ~341) : b7F I SUGAR AND t)tS'tASE. YUDKIN'J ANIMAL ;' BL0O0 GLUCOSE ;' CMOLESTgROLLBLUOD CORONARY' DtStAStA'tT 1'OLOGY ; DENTAL CAR lES/ETiULuG'Y UTAt3ETES M'ELLI'TuSA'BLUUD 's DIET THER'APY UIETARY' CARBQlnYDttAT ES/*AD1tERSE EFFECTS 's DY'SFEP'SIA/ET I ULUGY FEMALE ; F'UU'D' hABITS ; FOOD PREFERENCES ; GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST HUMAN' ;' MALE ;' tuBES 1iTY ; PROTEIN DE F1C I'ENCY/ET lOLOGY ; RATS REFRACTIV'L+ ERRUii5ft3'LU1JD 's SEBURR'ttEA/'ET IOLUGY SUCRUiSEA'*AUVERSE EFFECTS TRIGLYCERIDES/BLUOD ; URIC ACID'/BUUtJD ENG NATuRE 22 StN -12';239:(3'69') :197-9
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COPIED 000018'30 PAGE 1(1. SLA1'IENS CUMPUuNDS-M'EDLIIN'E FI Lt S 16 T1 - SUCRQ SE 1'NDUCTION OF HEPATIiC hYPERPLAS IA iN Tht: RAT.. AU' - BENDER AE ; DAMJI KB ; KHAN' M'A ; KHAN Ih ; MCGREGIDR L ;' YU!DKIN J! MH - ANIMAL ; CELt Ctx1NT ; DIETARY CARBOMYDR'ATES/*AUuERSE EFfFECTS MM' - DNA/ANALYSI~, ;' FRUC TUSE/PhARMACDDYNAMICS MH - GLUiCOiSE/'PhARM'AC0DYNAMiICS ; MYPERPLASIA/CHEMICA,LLY INDUCED MH' - LIW'ER'A''ANALYSIS/*DRUG EFFECTS/ANATOMY' & h1STUL'OGY/PAThULtIGY ; MALE MM' - MALTO'SEhPhAfRMACUDYNAM,ICS ; URt'iAN' WEIGHT ; RATS MHi - STARCM/'NhARMACUUYNAMJIC:S 's SUCRUSE/*ADU'ERSE EFFECTS LA - ENG SO' - NATURE Z5 AUG 7Il's23Fs'(365)1:4b]i-2 17 TI Akt MHi MH. MH'. MHMMi MH LA Sfl INTfRM1TTENT SUCRUSE FEEDING AND CARIES IN hAMSTERS. FITaGERALD UB; FITZ'GERAL[3R',J ANIMAL ; *CARIU4`,EN'IC' AGENTS DENTAL tJARIitS/'MICRtJBIULOGY/*PR'EW'EN'TIUN' & CUNTRUL ; DENIAL VLAQ'UE D.LfETv CARiL6tN!1C ; *UIETARY CARE3UhYDR'ATES FLUIURESCENT AN'TIB'ODY' TECHNIC ; GLU!COSE/'ThERAPEUTIC USE ; HAMSTERS STARCtt/!ThERAPEUTIC USE ; STR'EP'TU1!COCCUSf1Sll'LATI4N & PuR'1irIICATIUN SUC'RU!StA'*AU' WERSCi EFFECTS ENG ARCH URAL B1U,L JAN'12;'I174Y4:215-7 18 TI - RELATIUNSHIP UF SUGAR-INDuCED LESIONS' IN THE ih~EART t1F THE PIG TU LIVE WEIGmilis SERUMC~HULESTERUL AND DIET. AU - BRUl1KS CC ; M'IYAHARA AY ; HUCK OW ;' ISHIZAKI SMi Mn - ANIMAL ; "ESUDY WEIGHT ;. ChOlLESTEROL/PhARMACDDiYNAMILS/*B'LLI)D Mlii - DiIETARY' CARtIUhY~DRATES/*AD'vERSE IEFFEC,TS ; DIETARY FATS/'MtTABULISM, Mh - FEMALE ; FISM~ VRI]DUlCTS ; HEART ATRIUM MF1' - HEART D,ISEASES/^iILU©~D/ETIULOGY/PATHU LOGY/*WETERINARY ; MALt Mh - METtiIUN'IN'Ft/eH,AR'MACD,DYNAMI,CS ; SEX FACTORS ; SUY BEANS Mrs - SUCRUSE<*AD!V'tRSE. EFFECTS ; SWINE/'GR'ulwTM & UEVrELUPME'NT MM, - SWINE DISEASES/ *ETIULUGY/M'ATrnO!LOGY ; ThIAMINEA'PhARMACUDYNAMiCS. LA - ENIG SOi - J ANI'M SCI JUL 7c;35/I):31-?' 19' Tl - RETYNl,iP'AThY IN RATS WITh UISTURB'ED CARBUhYURATE METAE3OLISM FULLUWING A hiiGhi SUCRU'SE DIET. 2. NEURAL CHANGES. AU - YANKU L's MICHAELSUN'. IC ; COHEN AM MM - ANIMAL ; DIlABETIC NEUROPAJhIES4'*ET!IUiLOiGY/PATMUt,UG Y Mh - DIAB~ETIC~RETIwDPATHYA!'*L-TIDLDGY/P'ATHOLOiGY' MHi - DIETARY C'ARBU!lrYDRATkS'/*AD'YERSE EFFECTS ; DISEASE MUDELS. ANIMAL MH - GLUCUSE TULERAN'CE TEST ; MALE ; PHO!TDRECEPTiuRS ; RATS Mri - RET.INA/*iNNERvATIUN/'PATHULOGY ; RODIg AND CUNES Mri - SUCRUSE/'*AD~VERSE ErFECTS ; TIME FACTORS LA - ENG S0 - AM, J UPhT tiALM'UL JUN X'2 ; 73 (6)' : 8 T©-5
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copVED 00001831 PA,6E' 11 SLAVENS CUMPUU!lVDS-MEDLINit FILES ( 20 TI - RETiNOPAThY' lN RATS WITh DIS'TURBED CARBUMYDRATt MtTiABULiSM FOLLOMING AHIGhiSUCRUSE DIET. I. VASCULAR ChANGES. AU - CIIFiEN AM ; MICHAELSUN I'C ; YANKO L MFI' - ANEURYSM;,P'ip'ATHULOK;Y' ;' ANIMAL ; CAPILiLARIESA'P'ATMULOGY Mh - D!I'AB'ETIC' RETI'NOPATFi~YA'*ETItDLO'GY/P'AThO!LOGY Mlrk- - DItTAR'Y CARBUinYDRATtS/*ADVER'S1: EFFECTS ; DIStASt M!UUtLS, ANIMAL Mh - GLUCUSE TULtRANCE TEST ;' MALE ; RATS ; RATS, INfsRED STRAI'NS MH - RETINAA'PATttULiuGY ; RETINAL vESSELS/PATFtU'LUGY Mh - SUCRCISEA'*ADrER.SE EFFECTS LA - ENG SO! - AM' J UP'hThALMIIL JUN T2;7F3('6):883'-5t 21 TI '2 AU Mh MH' Mh MH Mt1 Mh LA SO' SUCR©S~E-CONTAI'NiNG IrtNICILLIN MIX'TURtS AND Thil DENTAL CARIES PRUCESS... tFRUSTELL G ADMIN'ISTRATION'* URAL ; ADULESCEN'CE ; ADULT BACTERIA/DRUG EFFECTS/'YSULATIUN' C 1?URIFICATICN ; CAFtIUGENIG AGENTS DENTAL CARI'ES/'*CIIiEMlI'C'ALLYIi+IDU~CEOM;DiENTALCA'RiES ACTIV'1T'Y TtSTSDENTAL PLAQ'UEA'MIGROidf'IULUGY ; DRUG INTERACTItINS •, tNVLISh ABSTRACT tfUMAN' ; Ml~Itia'DLE AGE ;*NEN7CILLINI,, PrnEN~O7CYMEThY'L ; PtNIC1LLI'NASt SU!CRUSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; TIME FACTORS SWE LAbCARTIDNINGEN 19 JAN 'Ca';b9(14):3a5:-r0! TI - THE FATTY ACID CUMPUSITIUN OF T'hE TISSUE L1kIIUS uF RATS MAINTAINED UN AThtR'U6ENIC DIETS WITh (TUALIYATIVtLY UIfHtRENTi CARBUMY'DRATES AU - APTEiGAR' SG ; M4NaNA AV M'i - ADIPOSE TISSUlEh*ANALYSIS ; ANIMAL M1i - CH'oLESTER'ULAANALYSiS/M,ETABULI'SMi ; *DItT, AThER4]6tNIC Mw - ENGLI'Sh ABSTRACT ; FATTY ACIDSfi*METABQLISM'/ANALYSIS. MH - L1PiDSA'*META8ULL~SM/ d'LUQU ; LiVER'A''ANALYSIS/'*l9tTAksULISMi ; RtALt: MH - UILS/ADV'ERSE EFFECTS ; PhUSPhU'LI PI'DS/M,tTABU'LISMi ; RA.TS MM - STARCh/*A,UVER'SE EFFECTS ;' SUCRUSt/'*AtlV'tRSt LFttCTS. MH - TR'IGLYCERIO)'ES/ANALYSISIMETABfi1LISM LA - RUS SO - VUP'R PITAN' JUL-AU(, 7T;s(r'C41':1ty-2'D' 23 TI AU Mh MH MW MH. M'M' Mh LA SO - SUCRUSE IN Trt1t D'IET A'ND CuRUNARY nEART U1StASE• - ICEYS. A ' ' - AGE FACTORS ; CFtOLESTiER[1L/BLQUDU''META$QILI,SM - CORON'ARY' DiSEASEA!*ET'IULI'1GY/UCCURRENCt -Ca'IETA'RYC~A'RBUhYDfiA1ES/ADVtR'StEFFECT`S;EURuPE - FAT TY ACi US/A DVERSE EFt=ECTS; rW'U! hAti I7S ; hUMAN ; JA P'AN ;' MA Lt - MIDDLE AGE ;' NUTRITIUN' SURVEYS ; PRDSPEC'TIvE STUUIES ; REvIEw. - SUCRUSE/*ADN'ERSE: EFFECTS ; T'NCIGLYCERIDES/bL[1Q1D ; UNITED STiATtS - ENG ...;~E '. 00 m Ql ~L! - ATHERU!SCLEROS I S SE P'-WCT ? I; ll442):119t31-2 02
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'' SvC,Ro~E cop1m TI, - SUCR'~O1SE.~~ DEN~T~AL P~tAQ~t1E A~ND~~ CARI~ES~~ AU - RULLA f; MH - ANIMAL ; BIGUANIDESlThERAPEUTIC USE ; CARIU6ENllL AGtNTS MI!i - CAR IIJiSTAT IC AGENTS ; UENTi AL C'ARIES/*ET II]LQGY/P'REVtNT'IUN & CONTRUL !4M - DENTAL PLAQUEA''PREV'ENTaON & CD'NTRUL/#tT IULU!6Y Mf+t - DEXTRANS/ADVEitSE EFf=ECTS ; ENGLISH ABSTRACT ;' wAMSTERS ; IN Y'ITiRO MH' - ANTHROPOIDEA ; MWCOPCILYSACCFcARIDES/BI0!!iYNTM,ESIS , ~ MM~ -~.POLY'SA~~CCM'A'R~I',D~ESs &A~CURIA~LlrB~,IOSYN'TnES~IS~~ ; RATS ;~ REVIEW Mr.i - STREPTUCOCCUS ; SUCRUSE/*ADVtRSE EFFECTS LA - NUR SV' - TIDS~SKR NUR LAEGEfORE'N , 10 APR 7rI;'9li ( IU ):69i'T~-7VO TI. Mri MH MHl MIR Mhti Mtrt. MM' MH LA. S.0l SW'EET' MYSTERY UF LIl FE. ANIMAL ;ARTERIUSCLEiiUSiS~,*'ChnEMICALLY' INUUCED'; E3L0ODGILtJCIJSE BUD1C WEIGMT ; CARBU'MYDRATES/METAE3OLlSM ; CMULESTEROL/B'LUOU' CHR0MIU'M/whYSI'ULUGY' ; UIETARY' CARBCIHYDRATES/'*ADVER'St EtrECTS FEMALE ; GIOMER,ULUN~EPnRITYSd'CMitMICAI.LY' 1lNDUCkD ; rtuMAN INTESTINAL ABSORPTI'ON/DRUG EIrfECTS ; LTiPUFRUiTttINS/"BL1uU'D LiVER DYSIEASES/CmKLCALLY INDUCED ;' MALE ; MIUULE AGE P'LATE 4.ET ADMESI YENE SS/ DRUG E FF ECTS ; RATS ; RE vC1EW' ; S EiZUM A I.tIUMIN'. SMUKING;' SruCRUJE/*At)VERSE EFFECTS ; TiRIGLYCERIUES/BLu14iL ENG' FOOD COSMET TUMICO'L JUN 72;9'.(311'-'43'9-4r2
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CdPIE6. 000018'54 P'AGt a SLAVENS CUMPOUNOS-ME~D~L~IN~E F~LLtS~~ ~ TT' - SUCRQIiSE--WFtAT ELSE BESIDES CARIES? AU - MACDONALD i MM - ACN'thMETABULISMi ; ART€RI'USCLERUSIS/ETIULUGY M'M - CURUNARY DISEASE/ETIULuJGY ; DENTAL CARIES/*ETICiLO'GY M'M - DIET,r ATMERIIGENIC ; DiETAR'Y CARBOMYDRATES' ; t=EMALE Mh -FRUC:TUSE/METAB'UiLIlS,M' ;GLU!COSE/ ME TABaLI SM;hL/MAN'M'M - LIP'IDSA*METABULISM ; MALE ; STARCMi/METAS0LiSM'. MM - SUCRDSE/METAFiOLiSM/*ADVERSE EFtECTS ; TRIGLYCERrDES/B'LULD LA - ENG SO - GUYS hOSP RtP 1969; 1lEs(4)I:4b9-93 4 T'I - DIFFUSt iNTtRCAP'IiLLAiI'Y GLUMERULUSCLERuSIS'. IN SUCROSE-FEU Ft'ATS. AU - CUMEN AM' ; RUSENMANN' E. MN - ANIMAL ; ANIMAL M-icEDl ; DItTr AThIEROGEN'IC Mh - DIETARY' CARwOMYDRATES/'ADW'tRSlt EFfrECTS ; GLuCOSt TOLcRANLa TEST MM - *IG1lDN'EYY GLUMERU'LUS/PATMyULUGY ;' NEPMROSCLEROISi'S:/*C»tMiiCALLY iNt7uCltD' Mhi - RATS ; STARCM/PMAR'MACUL3YNAMICS ;' SUCROSt/'*ADV'ERSft thFtCTS LA - ENG SO - DIABETULUtilk Fttl 5' Ti - FtEDlN6 STUDIES UN SurDIUM CYCLAMATEs SACCMARI'N' AND SWCRtuSE FtuR. CARCINU!GtMIC AND TUMUUR: PRUMUTING ACTI#ITY. AU - RUE FJ' ; LEVY LS ; CARTER' RL Mh - ANIMAL ; f3UDY WEIGMT ; *CARC'INUG'kt+!'S Mlh - CARCINOMAil SQUAMOUS CELL/ChEMI'CALLY INDUCED, ; FEMALE Mti - MEP'ATUMA/CMtMLCALLY' INDUCtD ; LIVER NEUPLASMS/!CmEMIlCALLY' 1NDUG.ECJ MM - LUNG iV'tUWLA'SM'S/CMEMICALLY INDUCED ; LYMPFhUMA/!CMEMACALLY tNDUCtD MM - MICE ; PAP'IiL41MA/CHEMIICALLY INDUCED! M'M - STD'MACM NEOPLASMSA'ChtMI'CALLY' IND.UCEa ; SUCRUSt/*TUXT.CITiY M'M - SWtET1"tNING A:tfltN'TSA`*TUXICITY LA - ENG . SU' - FOOD CUSMET TUAICOL APR 7U;t3(2 )1:13'5-45 6 TI -Et=FleC'T UrCERTAINI DIETARYSUiGA'RSON'; MAMSTrRCARIES.AU - CAMP6ELL RG ; ' ZINNER DD, Mh -.ANIMAL ; LARIUGENIC AGENTS ; DlN'TAL CARIES/*tTIUU.UGY/'MICRUBIULUGK M'M - DENTAL PLA4UEhETIULDGY' ; DiETARY CARB0hYDRATtS/*AGVEAtSt tFFtCTS MM - FLUIURESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIC ; fRUCTUSE/ADVEkSE EFFtCTS MM' - GLUCUSE/AUVERSE EirFfCTS ; tyAMSTERS ; LA'CTUSt/ADVtRSt tFFtCTS Mh - PERIUU!UNTAL DISEAS'ES/'ETIOLUGY ; STAT!IS'TICS MM - STREP'TUCUCCAL iNIrECTIUNS. ; STREP'TOCC3CCUS/PATk~J'GtNLC1,TY' MM - SUCRUiSE/*ALIWERSE EFfiECTS LA - ENG SU' - 1 NUTR' jAN 10!; lDG(l):Ili-2Ul
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COPIffM 0000118'55 PAGE 7 SLAVENS CUMVUWND!SrMEDLIN'E iFI~~LtS DIETARY SUGARI'NTAIGE AND ISChAEM'.IC HEART D'ISEASt. BEGG Tt3 ;~ ULIIVER MF DIETARY CARBUlhYUitAITES/*ADVEHCSE EFFECTS ; h,UMAN ; MALt MYUCARDIAL I'NIFARCT'IlUN/*ETIlOLOGY ; OGCUPATIONS ; SrNOKING SUCRUSE/*ADVERSE Et-FECT'S ENG' BR MEART JNu~V b9;3'1fi,bl:.7'92-3 8 T I AU Mh Mti MMi LA so. FACTURS AFFECT ING S'UCRUS'E TUXi'LITY'. CUN'~ST ANTUVUU4. US v; BUY(Ji EM' AGE FACTIl1RS ; AIN~IMA.L ; E3ODY' WtIGbT ;' D!RUG TULtRANCt ; FFLtMALt FUUD' ; MALE ;' RATS ; S.EASUNS ; SEX FACTORS SUCRUiSEA'*TUXICITY/A!DMiNISTR'ATitJNl C DU'SAGE ; V'EhICLtS ENG INT Z' KLIN IPMARMAKU~L TMtR TOXIIKOL 19C'bb;l(b):5i39-44 9TI'~ - UN Tnt QuEST~lIwN uF TnE TERATUGEN'IlC AND EME3kY0T0XIC EFFttC'TiS OF CYCLAMATEs SA.CChAR,1N AND! SACChAROS'E AU~ -~ KLt3iTZ'SCr+E C, MM -*AIINU!RM'ALITIESs L1RUG-IND!U4:ED1 ; ANIMAL ; CCIMPARATIVE STvDY ' MM - ENGLIlSn A63STRACT s FftMALE ; fFETU'SJ''*DR41G EFI-ECTS ; P'REGNAIVCY M~M~ - RABBITS ~ ;~~ SuDIuM/TUX~ICITY ; S[ILVEN'TS/T(IxyCiTY~ ;~~ S~UCRUS ~E/*TOXIC1~~TY~~ M'M - SWEETENING AGENT.S/'*TUx1CITY' LA - GER SO ~ -~ ARZ'NE IlM FURSC'r+ JUN~ b9;~151~('0~~):~92~5-8. . (~-~Zr:>' ~. _-- . .
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vinEz QAC-YCfi6-foo, IF 000018'b8 P'AGE . S~~LAAV'~E~NS~~ CUMeUUND!S-MEDL~I~N~E F~I~L ES~~ COPIED ll TI - PERIO©ONTAL W'ATIitJS~IS IN M'AN. XW. EFFECT OF GLU!CUSE DRINKS UPON GINGIVAL STATE. AU - CERASKIN E ; RINGSDORfr WM JR ; SETYAAMADJA AT ; GINN DiC AU - MEDFURD! iFM Mh- CLiNICAL TRlALS ; DIETARY CARS'.[,hYDRATES.**AUVERSEt EFFECTS MH - GINGIVA/*DRUG EFFECTS ;' GLUCUSLA'*ADVERSE EFIrECTS ; hUMAN ; MALE Mh - SUCRUSt/*ADVERSE EFFECTS LA - ENG SO - J ORAL MED' APR t)6x21Q'2J:59-b5 2 Ti SUGAR CONSUMPTiON aN ACNE VULGARIS AND SEBURRt,iUE1C LERMATrTIS. AU MH MNi. Mh Mh LA SO! BETT DG ; MORLAND J ; YUDKIN J ACNE/*ETIl7LOG'Y ; ADOLESCENCE ; ADULT ;' AGED D!IETA'R'Y' CARBU:hY'URATES/'ADV,ERSE EFFECTS ; FEMiAILE; MUM'A~N, ;MALttMI'DDLE AGE ; QUESTiUNNIAI'RES ;' SEt3'ORRhEA/'*ETIOLUGY SUCR'OSE/*ADiYERSE EFFECTS. ENG BR'MED J 15 JUL b1;3(558):153'-5 3 TI' - ELECTR'ON' MICROSCOPIC AND htISTOCMEMICAL ENZYME STuUIES UN EXPERIM.ENTAL SUCROSE NEPMRUSIS AU - SiCM 1L L !1 MFfi' - ACID, PHC1SPMATASE.I*METABULISM ; ANIMAL ; EST!ERASES/*METAbULISM, MI!1' - K'I'DNEY/*ENZYMULUGY ; LYSOSGjMES ; MALE ; MICR'OSCOP'Y MMi - MICRDSCUV'Ys ELECTRON ;*N'EPktRUSI'S 's PINIDCYTUSI S; RATS , MFri - SUCR'USE/*TU!XICITY LA - GE R SOi -ZENTRALBL ALLG VATMUL 15 JUN' b5;'1'07f (4) :38'9-405 4 TI' - PER IODONTAL PAThUS'I S IN MAN. 13. EFFEC T UF SUCRUSt Uit'I NMCS UlNUlN SULCUS DENTM. AU - CnERASKIN E; RINGS'DUR1= W'M JR ; SETYAADMADJA AT Mh - DIETARY CARiIUttYDRATES.f*ADVERSE EFFECTS ; DIETARY' PRUTt iNS MM~ - f;INt'vIvr'A/*URUG EFFECTS ; NtUM'AN ; PERIODONTIUM'/*DRU!G EkFtCTS. Mh - SUCRUSEI*ADv'ERSE EFFECTS LA - ENG SO - J' UR'AL ThER, PtiARMAC'U!LNUV'b5•,2'('3):1951-202 5 TI' - NUTRITION AND DENTAL CARIES. VIi'. SUSCitPTIlBiLITY TU DENTAL AUI - CARIES OF UUR' EiREEDS uF RATS K:EPT Ull DIETS W'ITM, ktIGM SUGAR CO'NTENT - WY'SOCKIl E Mri - ANIMAL ; *CAR'IUGtN'1tC AGENTS ; *D1'ET ; Mh - SUCRIISEA*ADYERSE EFFECTS LA - POL SO' - ROCZ VANSTW' ZAK4. HJG 1965;16 (4)': 429-35 RATS . w W' GTa CD r W .T
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00!001869' PA~6E 5SLAVE.NS CUMP41UNDS-MEDLINt FI LtS 6 TI - SUCROSE ESTERS AND SUCROSE CLIPCERIDfES:' MtM'ULYSIS TtSTS' AU! - TUDISCO R Mti - ANIMAL ; GLwCERIDES/*TOXICIT.Y ;*rtEMOLYSIS ;' IN VITRO ; RABBITS MF!i LA - RATS ; SUCRUS.EA'*TUXICITY' ; SU,RFACE-ACTlVE AGENTS/*TiOIX1CITY - ITA SO - FARMACO PRAT JUL b5`, 20 17! 1i: 372-5 7 TI - ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF SIUCRLtSE. AU Mh M1i LA - BUYD! EM' ; G13lDl I; ABEL M - ANIMAL ; APPETITE ; GLYCOSUR lA ; PROTE ItwUR'YA - SUCRUSEt*TUXICITY' ; URINE - ENG ; RATS SO! - TOX~~ICEi,L AP~PL ~ wwARw1ACD~L JUL 65; 7(4): bm9~-18~ S~ Tl~ -~ COMPARA%'Vt~ ACUTE E~~FFtCTS~ UF S~UME ChiEMIICA~LS~~ WN' TMt~ SKIN uF~ RABBITS AND GUZNEA PIGS~• , AU. M!i' - RUUDABU'SH RL ;' TERHAAR CJ ;' FASSETT DW' ; DT,'IU!BA SP - ACETATES/*TUXICITY ; ACETONE/*TO'XLCITY .; ALCUM4X_S/*T(DXICITY MM MM' Mti' - AMIlNES/'*TWXICIiTY ;. AMMONIA/*TO'XICITY' ;. ANILINE COMPUUNDS/*TOXICITY - ANIMAL ;',BEN2ENE/*TOXICiTY' ; BtRATES/*TOXyCiTY I I - CAR'BON' TETRACMLORIO'E!*TOX'IC]lTY' ; C'ARBfJIN'ATES/*TUXICIiTY I'~ MM' - CYANIDESI"*TUXlCI'TY ; GUINEA PIGS ; IRR'ITANTS'/*TOXICITY Mh. - KERUSENEfTOXTCITY ; KETONESnI!'*TCOiICITY' ; PARAThIWNA'*TUX'ICITIF I MH - PETROiLEUM/f*Tl17KICITY ; PhENYLhYDRAZINESA'*TOXtCITY - wttU~SPMATES/*TUXICITY ; RABBITS ; SKIN/:*DRUG EFFtCTS MM. LA - SUC'RDSEA'*TOXI'CITY ; - ENG SULF ITES/*TO,XI CITY SO~ - T'UXICUL APPL PMARMACUlL JUL 65;740:559-bs 9 tf1. - SACCtiARG7SE COMPLEX INTiJLERANCE MAS'KIN,G RECURRENT FAMILIAL TUDK'ICUSES AU' Mh MIH - RUMAGNY' G's CUTTE J; FILLIAT M; J!OiFFARD P ; Di3U!ILLET P' ;! 'tirL A, - CARBUhYDRATE MiETABULISM,, INBORN ERRORSA'*DIAGNOSIS ;' CASE REPORT - DI'AGNUSIS. DIFFERENITIAL ; HUMAN ; iNFANT N1H LA SO' - INFANT NUTRITION OISORUERSA'*D1AG•'NOSIS ; SU!CRUSE/*ADVERSE EFFECTS - FRE - PEDIATRIE APRI-MAY b5';20431:3'A<7'-9 101 ~ Tt SACCMAROSE INTOL'ERANCt ift AN ADULT A.U' Mti Mh LA. Su Tht'IJE UJ TEN ; SEBtU!S J; COENE ER ADULT ; CASE REPURT ; ClIARRIHEAf*ETIOLOGY ; hUMAN SUCROSE/*ADVER'SE EFFECTS DUT NED TIJDSChR GtNttSKD 18 S~EP 65; I0Sr[3'81 :17'198'.
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COP1M 3oc,Ros6 ' -TOY. D.C.. Bureau of Foods. 1976 34p* R,ept N'o ` SCOiGS-69 Report of' Select Committee on GRAS Siubstances. 30i/3!/2' C34'F'5L1' P'B-234 877/9 NTIS IP'rices: PC A03/MF Aai Teratoloeic Eval'uati'on, of FDA 71-76 (Pvre Cane Suear,' Sucrose) in M ice, Rats and~Rebbits I Food' and. DhrugResearct4, Labs., Im~c., WaverLw, Administration, Washinaton, D1. C'. N.Y.*Food and, D!ru9. :J!an, 74 43p:K 30/3/3 C2543L3 PB-228 548/4 NTIS' Prices. PC A14/'MF A©'1' ' T' 30/3/ii -3 30i/3/ii D19'41A3PB~-2'62' 668/7ST NTIS! Prices«'PCA0'3/MF A~01 Evaluation of the Healtth, Aspects of Sucrose as a Food' Ingred3eniitr Final rept. Federation of American Societies for Experimental, Biolosqw, B'ethesda, ~fd'. Life Sciences Research Offf~ce.*Food and Drua Administrationi, Wasi~in~ton,r IS.cienitific Literature Reviews on Generallw Recognized I'ngredients - Sucroser Final rept. 192G11-]i9Z3. Infbrmatics, Inc., Rockville, Md« Dec 73 204p* Ftept. w!o« FDABF-GRAS-189r' TR-72-1552-38 as Safe Q'GRAS'Y Food ~
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QTYECScoNEO -•SECDNDARY'SGURCE ID NIOSH/YN6500000 ~ .C/68 TYPE' L NAME _ r EUCRDSE:• - CAS REBISTRY NUMMER 57-50-1 - CLN99IFICNTION CODE - TUMORIBEN ~ CLASSIFICATION CODE, TERATOBEN STATUS SELECTED 91 'NTP FOR CARCI,NOGENESIIS DIOASSMY' - - .,.- - AS' OF' JULY' 1982 - ~ STATUS REPORTED IN EPA,TSCA INVENTORYr t'980 STATUS MEETS CRITERI'kFOR PROPOSED OSHA MEDI,CAL RECORDS RULE FEREAC 47s30420r82 SYNONYMS SEET'SUGAR SYNONYMS - • - CANE SUGAR SYNONYMS CONFECTI,ONER'SISUGAR SYNONYMS FRUCTOFURANOSIDEr, a1phs-D-BLUCOPYRANOSYLn beta-D SYNONYMS' b.ts-6-FRUCTOFURANOSIDEr alrba-D-GLUCDPYRANOSYL SYNONYMS' BLUCOPYRANOSIDEP b.SS-D-FRUCTO,FURANOSYLr a1Pha-D SYNONYMS': altha-D-GLUCOP*.'RANOSYL bet'a-D-FRUCTOFURANOSIDE SYNONYMS' ('s1'aha-D-GLUCOSIDOf-bata-D-FRUCTOFURANOSIDE SYNONYMS GRANULATED SUGAR, SYNONYMS' NCI-C56597 SYNONYMS ROCK CANDY' SYNONYMS SACCHAROSE' SYNONYMS SACCHARUN R ' NS SUBA ` - SYNONT MOLECULAR FORitULA' Ct2-H22-OTt. ' MOLECULAR YEIBHTi 342.34 ~' YISpESSER LINE NOTATION T60TJ CO DO EO',F10 DO- DT50TJ'81'0'CO DO EIO -BLU rfRUC ENTRY MONTK 8209' TOXIC DATA,SOURCE IJMDAD Isr..i',Jburnal of'Medical Scirnces., 16'r 789 tS0 TOXDATA KEYYORDS ORALNRATiRDDENTSf'TDLoi1548'f./ky (2tD, rr./t-22D Prs)i'TOXIC EFFECTSiREPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXIC DATA SOURCE TXAPA9'To:cicolo=y and'Arpl'•fediPharesealoi!i.. 79609965' TOXDATA KEYWORDS ORALERATiRODENTSiLD50f29700 ef/ks TOXIC DATA SOURCE PCJOAU Phar.aceuti'ca1, Ch..ist'rv JburnaL. 1Sr149r81' TOXDATA KEYWORDS • INTRAPERI'TONEALiMOUSEiRODENT9i~LDS0i14000 .!/kliTOX4C EFFECTSi' ° - TOXIC DATA SDURCENAREA4 Nutri'tion Abs'tracts and'Rwi.ws. - TOXDATA:KEYYORDS 309503060 ORALiDOMESTIC{FARM ANIMALSiLDLaiIkO !./ks'
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~.y ~. ~Ee ,sttG -, aA~ ~` FRl1f7bFURAKIOSID ~,<ALFHA= ~~ BE '-~F.RUGTOFURANOSIDE~ GLIU .}~ry; } ~`~~~'.:~. Y 0 CQPiffa ~: g GP~AHQSMETk4 ~. S -`ALPHA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSYL BETA'-D-FRUCTOFURANOSIDE SY - (ALPHA-D-GLUCOSIDO,)-BETA-D-FRUCTOFURANOSIDE :'GRANULATED SUGAR SY - ROCK',CANDYi „ SACCHAROSE i' SACCHARUM :I SUGAR, : D+-SUCROSE SY - WHITE SUGAR'i MICROSE'i' AMERFAND' USE'- SRI SWEETENING* TEXTURE A'BODYIN6 AGENT FOR'FOODS A'BEVERAGESI' RAW.MATERIAL FOR NUMEROUS ORG CHEMIA YEAST PROON USE - SRI FLAVOR BLENDERv ACCENTUATORr MODIFIER t DISPERSING A6ENII IN'. FOOD i BEVERAGE USE - SRI FILL'ERI(EXCIIPIENT) IN'MFR',OF PHARMACEUTICAL TABLETS, 11 TOXV- NIOSH. REG TOX'EFFECT CHEM SUB 1978 1179 MLD RABBITS PERCUTANEOUS: 500 MGf24 HR ` i7IOXV- NIOSH. R'EG TOX EFFECT CHEM SUB'1978 1R79 MLD GUINEA'PIGS PERCUTANEOUS 500 M6/24 HR FENLING"S SOLN,,FORM'OSA'ZONEY OR SHOW MUTAROTATION SPOP- MERCK'INDEX 9TH'ED!1I50 HYDROLYZEDiTO GLUCOSE i FRUCTOSE BY DIlL ACIDS'i BY.INVERTASEk A YEAST ENZYME SPOP- MERCK INDEX',9TH ED 1150 UPON'HYDROLYISIS OPTICAL RDTukTIONIFALLS l IS NEGATIVE WHEN HYDROLYSIS IS'COMPL'ETE SPOP- HAWLEY. CONDENSED CHEM DICTNRY'9TH ED 823 SOLN ARE'NEtJfRAL TO. LITMUS LUBRICANT IN FOODS ~, USE - MERCK',INDEX 9TH=ED 1150 IN'PLASTICS i'CELLULOSE INDUSTRY, MFR', OF INK & TRANSPARENTiSOA'PS, ADDITIVE',IN WINE MAKING USE - HAWLEY. CONDENSED!CHEMIOICTNRY 9TH ED 832 MFR'OF SYRUPS:' SOURCE OF'INVERT SUGAR; CONFECTIONERY; PRESERVES 1'JAMSi CARAMELi'CHEM ~, INTERMEDIATE FOR DETERGENTS USE - MERCK INDEX'9THED' 1150 STARTING MATERIAL IlN'FERMENTATIVE PRODN OF ETHANOL, BUTANOL, GLYCEROLr CITRIC & LEVULINIC ACIDS MP - 185-186 DEG C ~ DENI - 1.587 D 25 DEG' C/4' DEG C THER- OSOL. REMINGTON'S'PHARM 15TH'ED 1235 IV ADMIN OF HYPERTONIC'SOLN' OF SUCROSE HAS'BEENiEMPLOYED CHIEFLYiTO INITIATE OSMOTIC DIURESIS. SUCH I PROCEDURE IlS NOT COMPLETELY SAFE & RENAL T1UBULAR ~ DAMAGE'MAY'RESULTr PARTICULARLY IN'PT'WITN'EXISTING RENAL PATHOLOGY. SA'FER', i'MORE'EFFECTIVE DIURETICS ARE'AVAILABLE. THER'- ROSSOFF. HDBK VET DRUGS'1974 56'1,VETT ITS'ORAL USE'IN ACETONEMIA.. OF CATTLEf IS' CONTROVERSIAL BUT STILL POPULAR. IT IS' OFTEN USED ~ ORALLY WITH VINEGAR'...IN'EMERGENCY TREATMENT OF ACUTE'UREA TOXICITYiIN CATTLE. DAILY'ORAL USE CANiOCCASIONALLY'REOUCE INCIDENCE OF BLOAT IN CATTLE ON'SPRING PASTURE LOWiIN CARBOHYDRATES. L THER- ROSSOFF'., HOBK' VET DRUGS 1974 561 VET= 2.07 ORAL SOLN CAUSE' REFLEX CLOSURE,OF ESOPHAGEAL GROOVE. ... SUGAR'IS'OCCASIONALLY'USED.,..T0 FACILITATE'REDN OF EDEMA t'EASE OF R°_PUIICEMENT OF PROLAPSED UTERI IN COWSN EWES'r BITCHES. ETC.i & HAS BEEN'USED'LOCALLY ON'WOUNDS, ~ FOOT ROT,,ETC BY LAYMENIt PROFESSIONALS. l WARN- ROSSOFF., HOBK VET DRUGS'1974 562'VET:' ORAL ADMIF7'TO'YOUNG ANIMALS UNABLE TOlDIGEST'IT WILL CAUSE OR'ACCElR'DIARRHEAS. ' COFO- i'IONOCLINIC SPHENOIDAL CRYSTALSa CRYSTALLINE MASSES9 BLOCKSa OR POWDER SSL - STABLE IN AIR', SOL - 1 6'DI'SSOL'VES IN 0.5 ML WATER'i 170iML ALCOHOL SOL - 1 G'DISSOLVES 1N'ABOUT'100 ML-METHANOL ~ SOL - MODERATELY SOL IN'GLYCEROL i'PYRID'INE ; INSOL IN ETHER SPOP- MERCK' INDEX 9TH ED 1149 SWEET TASTE; CNARS'i EMITS CHARACTERISTIC ODOR 0F'CARAMEL, DECOMP'S L60-186 DEG C SPOP- WEAST. HDBK' CHEMI A PHYS 60THI ED' C-503 INOEX' OF REFRACTION: 1.5376; SADITLER'REFERENCENUMBER~:! 8659OIR.PR3SMly 563 (IRw, GRATING) SPOP- WEAST. HDSK',CHEM i,PHYS 60TH ED C=303 SPECIFIC OPTICAL ROTATION: +66.37 a 20 DEG C/O (WATER'1! ~ ~ SPOP1 MERCK INDEX'9TH ED' 1150'KA,O 19 DEG C= 2.4X10-13r DOES'NOT REDUCE " ~ r.r , ::-~a z
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TDg - COPIED 00005220 PAGE 19' SLAVENS'ADDITIVES' TOXV- NIOSH. REG:TOX EFFECT CHEMISUB 1978 1179 LD50~RATS'.ORAL 29700 ' MG/KG' TOXV- NIOSH. REG'TOXIEFFECT CHEMISUB 1978 1179 LDLO DOMESTIC ANIMALS ORAL 40~ G/KG MMI - MERCK INDEXI9TH ED 1149 OBTAINED:FROM:SUGAR'CANE (SACCHARUft OFFICINARUM L, GR9UIINEAE) i SUGAR', BEET OBETA,VALGARIS'L, CHENOPODIACEAE)i. SUGAR,CANE CONTAINS FROM~15-20r i4'SUGAR BEET FORM 10-179.!SUCROSE. STRUCTURE:: AVERY'ET AL, JiCHEM SOC'1927.i 2308;~BEEVERS,,COCHRANE, PROC ROY S0C'190A,~ 257 (11947)'.; MMI - MERCK INDEX 9TH ED 1149' SYNTHESIS-' PICTET, VOGEL, HELV CHIIMI ACTA 11, 436 (',1928'): LEMIEUX'., HUBER, J AM CH'EMI SOC 78, 4117 (',1956',)., REFERENCES'WITH EXTfENSIVE'BIBLIOGRAPHY: BATESr POLARIMETRY.. SACCARIMETRY,i & THE'SUGARS, NATIONAL BUREAU OF'STO CIRCULAR C440. WASHINGTON. 1942i'N PIGMAN'r THE CARBOHYDRATES (ACADEMIC PRESSs NY', 1957')i PAGES 501-50&. MMI. - HAWLEY. CONDENSED CHEM DICTNRY 9TH.EDi823 GRADES-' REAGENT; USP;. TECHNICAL; REFINED. MMI - MERCK INDEX' 9TH ED 1150.APPLICATIONS:' USED IN PHARMACY AS PRESERVATIVE, AS' ANTIOXIOANif ( INI FORM OF INVERT SUGAR l'v AS' DEMULCENT. AS SUBSTITUTE FOR GLYCEROL, AS GRANULATIONAGENT & EXCIPIENT'FOR TABLETSv AS COATING FOR!TABLETS. MMI - FURlA'. HDBK FOOD ADD!2HD ED 950 REGULATORY STATUS: FDA NUMBER 8'.303; LIMITATiIONS= IN' PRODN OF CARAMEL;I MIlD.' L'IMITATIONSc! TO FLAVOR'SAUSAGEv HAM A MISCELLANEOUS MEAT PRODUC1fS'. MM'1 - HAWLEY. CONIOENSED CHENDICTNRY'9TH ED 823 OCCURRENCE* ALSO OBTAINABLE FROM SORGHUM BYCONVENTIONAL,METHODS. OCCURS IN LOW PERCENTAGES IN HONEY.7k'MAPL'E SAP. MMI - AOAC. 10TH ED 1965'AND FOLLOWING ED!12/567'31.020-31.031'. PRODUCT ANALYSIS:: SUGARS A SUGi4R'PRODUCTS~B1f'POLARIIMETRIC METHODS. MMI' - ROSSOFF. HDBK,VET DRUGS 1974,562'APPLICAT'IONS« EVIDENCE'EXISTS THAT HIGHLY CONCN SOLM ARE LETHALTO'NEMATODESIIN'SOIL. MM'1 - HAWLEY. CONOENSED'CHEM~DICTNRY'9TH ED 823 OCCURRENCE' CARBOHYDRATE (fqVl! PRODUCT 0F' PHOTOSYNTHESIS' COMPRISEDi OF L, 2, OR, MORE SACCHAROSE GROUPS.... SUGAR IS IMPORTANT SOURCE OF METABOLIC ENERGY'IN'FOODS, i'ITS FORMATIONIIN'PLANTS'ISIESSENTIAL FACTOR IN LIFE PROCESS. MM1 - PRC INFURMATICS'INCa SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE REVIEWS ON~GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE (GRAS) FOOD INGREDIENTSt SUCROSE:~ US NTIS~PB' REPORT; (IPB-228 548') 202,i 1973., SHIP- HAWLEY. CONOENSED CHEM DICTNRY 9TH ED 823 COF(TAINERS:'MULTINIALL PAPEWSACKS: BULK. PPOT- GOSSELIN. CTCP 4TH ED 11-151 TOXICITY RATING= 1. I= PRACTICALLY' NONTOXIC: PROBABLE ORAL LETHAL DOSE (HUMAN) ABOVE 15'G/KG,, MORE'. TH'AN 1 QUART (2.2 LB4 FOR 70 KG PERSON (150 LB). TLIH- THIENES. CLIN'.TOX 5TH ED 1179 AIR-! 10'MG/CU M1 CMU- SRI FO00!ADDITIVE (SWEETENER) IN'INDUSTRIAL FOOD PPROCESSING~ GoUSP - SRI (1972Y5.01X10+i3 G (CANE t BEET SUGAR) C1') USP - SRI (19751! 5.19X10+13 G('CANE AND BEET SUGAR)i M i IMPIf- SRI (1972)i-4.77X10+1'2 G.(,CANE/BEET SUGAR_A..SYRUPY w - IMPT- SRI (1975) 3.62X10+12 G 00EXPT- SRI (1972),7L06X10+8 G (CANE/BEETM RAWI& 'REFINED) ~ (n EXPT- SRI (1975) 1.87X10+11 G "' IPA • MMA - SRI HARVESSING AND'WASHING OF SUGAR,CANE:AND BEETS. FOLLOWED! BY
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ND,;ANIHi4LS;ND;ND;SKIN'sCYANOSIS NDI;IINTHA'LS'sND;ND;NERVOUS'SYSTEM;CONVUL'SIONS',CENTR'AL NERVOUS SY'STEM D'ISEASES',COMA;ENCEPHAUITIS;BRAIN EDEMA oOO~OS22IPAGE20 SLAVENS ADDITIVES SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION BY'MILLING OR'DIFFUSION* CLARIFICATION', EVAPORATION, CRYSTALLIZATION, CENTRIFUGATION, & REFINING CPAT- SRI ('DELIVER'IES OF REFINED SUGAR,)'; 35%'WAS CONSUMED ~ DIRECTLY FOR'SWEETENI).G FOODS'A BEVERAGES;: THE REMAINING 65%'WAS USED INDUSTRIALLY IN BEVERAGES f22%i'a, IN! BAKERY'i CEREAL PRODUCTS'(12Z')'.; IN CONFECTIONS (9'J.)',!IN CANNED, BOTTL'ED. A FROZENI FQODS'(6'/.); IN''ICE CREAMIB'DAIRY'PRODUCTS'(3J:);~ IN'MISC FOODS' (5'/.'l'.; i' IN MON-FOOD & UNSPECIFIEO USES (16X) (1976) . HFSI- SRI ALEXANDER'A BALDWIN INC, PAIA, HAWAII 96779', PUUNENE, HAWAII 96784 (CANE)' MFS - SRI THE AMALGAMATED SUGAR' CO, BURLEY, IDAHO 83'318. NAMPA,, IDAHO 83651,i OGDEN, UTAH 84402, RUPERTP IDAHO 833350'., TWIN FALLS, IDAHO 83301 (BEET) MFS'- SRI'AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR:COs CHASKA, MINN'553I8,i CLARKSON, CALIF 95612', DRAYTON', ND'58225,:GRAND'~FORKS,~ MINN'56721, MOORHEAD', MINN 56560, NORTH HILLSBOROn ND, 58045. ROCKYFORD, COLO. 81067 (BEET A'CANE) MF&- SRI AMSTAR> ARABI, LA'70032, ARL'INGTON. TEX 76011', BALTIMORE, M0, 21703, BDSTON. MASS 021149, , BROOKLYN6 NY'11211, CHANDLER, ARIT' 85224, MANTECA, CALIF 95336, HENDOTA, CALIF 93640, NEW'YORK, NY 2002011, SAN FRANCISCOs CALIF 941'11, WILCOXP ARIZ '8564'3'(BEET i CANE). MFS - SRI BORDEN INC, MOBILE, ALA 36601, GEISMARD LA,70734 (',CANE) MFS - SRI BUCKEYE SUGARS INC, OTTOWA, OHIO 45875 (BEET). MFS - SRI CALIFORNIA & HAWAIIAN'SUGAR COi,: AIEA', HAWAII'95701, CROCKETT., CALIF 94525 ('CAhE) MFS - SRI CPC INTERNATIONAL INC, YONKERS, NY'10705 (CANE) MFS.- SRI'GREAT WESTERN SUGAR CO, B'ILLINGS,, MONT 59103, DENVER, COL'0 80217. GERING, NEB'69341, GREELEY., COL0180631, LONGHONT, COLO 80501, LOVELAND, COLO•80537„ OVID, COLO 80744, RESERVEr Lk 700849 . . STERLING, COLOi 80751 (!BEETi t! CANE ) HFS'- SRI HOLLY SUGARICORP, COLORJYDO, SPRINGS, COLO'.80901, DELTA, COLO. 81416, HEREFORDs TEX 79045, SHERIDAN, WY0, 82801r SIONEYf, MONT 59270iTORRINGTONn WYO'.82240. TRACY. CALIF 95376'('BEETY MFS' - SRI' IMPERIAL SUGAR' C0, SUGAR' LAND'., T;EX', 77478 (!CANE)i HFS'- SRI MICHIGAN SUGAR'CO, CARO, MICHI48723, CROSWELL: HICH,48422 ( BEET )' ; SRI MONITORI SUGAR CO,: BAY' CITYi, MICHI 48706' ('BEET ) i MFS'- SRI SAVANNAH FOODS:i INDl1STRIES, SAVANNAH, GA' 31402 HFS'- SRI SUCREST CORP, BOSTONc MASS 02129, CHICAGOa ILL 60611, DOLTON, ILL 60419'(CANE), ST - 800701COMPLETE WITHiPEER REVIEWiCOMMENTS INCORPORATED ATEX'- GOSSELIN. CTCP'4TH ED 11-151 SIGNS A SYHPTOMS INIPOISONED!ANIMALS INCL DIARRHEAr PROSTRATION, CY/1!.'OSIS, TONIC-CLONIC CONVULSIONSr STUPOR'& DEATHIIN'RESP'FAIL'URE. DIFFUSE PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INCL SNRINKAGEr SWELLING'4 ' NECROSIS'OF RENAL TUBULAR'EPITHELIUMw ARTERIOLIifIS, MILD HEPATITISp HYOCARDITIS, CONGESTIVE' ENCEPHALITIS i SOME-ADRENAL HYPERTROPHY. ATKWI- NO;ANIMA'LS;ND;ND;DQGESTIVEISYSTEMGDIARRHEA, NDI;~ANIMA'L'S;ND;NlD;NO;FATIGUEiDEATH c ` (i
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. , 00005222 PAGE, 21 SLAVENS'ADDITIVES ND';/CNIMALS;ND;ND;RESPIRATORY SYSTEMi;RESPIRATORYiINSUFFICIENCYi NDi;IYtJIMALS;HD;.ND;KIDNEY;KIDNEY TUBULAR:NECROSIS. ACUTE;EDEMA ND;ANI'MALS;ND;ND'.CARDIOVASCULAR''S1fISTEM';ARTER'IOLES;ARTERITIS MYOCARDITIS' ND;ANIMALS;NDi.ND;LIVER;HIEPATITIS ND';ANZMALS;ND;NDGENDOCRINE'SYSTEM;ADRENAL GLANDS;,HIYPERPLASIA ATEX- GRANT. TOX OF THE'EYE 1974:949 SUCROSE'HAS SHOWNINO'TOXICITY T0. CORNEAS'OF RABBITS WHEN'APPLIED FOR 3'TO 7 HR' IWINEUTRAL AQ SOLN.... ATKW- ACUTE;RABBITS;HD;OCULAR;ND;NO EFFECT ATEX'- CLARKE. VET TOXI1975'284 ...CAWE'SUGAR...OBSERVED'TO CAUSE' DIARRHEAy COLlCs INFLAMMATION OF KIDNEYS i..,.PETECHIAL HEMORRHAGESIIN SPINAL DURA MATER,OF HORSES.. AIIKW+ ND•.HORSES3ND;ND;DIGESTIVE SYSTEM;DIARRHEA;COLIC. ND;HORSES;ND;ND;KIDNEY;KIDNEY'DI'SEASESI. ND,HORSES;ND;ND'.N€RVOUS SYSTEMI;SPINAL CORD DISEASES;HEMORRHAGE ATEX- GOSSELIN.,CTCP'4TH ED I1'r1511 SIGNS i SYMPTOMS IN POISONED, AWIMALS INCL.;..MILD'HEPATITIS.-A SOME'ADRENA'L HYPERTROPHY.: ATKW- ND;ANIMALS;HD';HD';LIVER';HEPATITIS' NOGANIMALS;ND;ND';ENDOCRINE S1fSTEM;ADRENAL GLANDS;HYPERPLASIA, HTEX- GOSSELIN.CTCP'4TH ED 11-151 ...IV USE OF 50%'SOLN'(200 TO 300 ML) AS DIURETIC OR TO LOWER INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE CARRIES GRAVE RISK OF DAMAGE TOlKIDNEYS. HTKW- NDGHD;ND;ND;INFUSIONSs PARENTER'AL;KIDNEY;KIDNEY DISEASES. LMEX- BERGMEYER. METHiENZYMATIC'ANAL 1974 17.7G DETERMINATION IN FOODSTUFF BY SPECTROPHDTTtETRY a 340, 334r OR 365 NM'. LMKW- FOOD,;SPECTROPHOTOMETRY'. ULTRAVIOLET W 0 0
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SUCq~ROSE 0R 57=50 .,.G~ SS (6) 6"STG' (30061) i SS 7 /C? USER: 1~ AND 6 `*~'OG: ..S~ ('~7~)~~ PSTG~ (58~~)~. ~ S S 8 /'C? CJSER: 5AN'D6 R'RO~G':. SS (' 11) IP'STG' (26)i SS 1'2' /C? U!SER': 7 OR' 8' OR' 9 0'R' 10' OR' 11. PROG: SS (12)' R'STG (289) SS 13 /C? USERt' FRT~ COMPRESSED' 4 P'R0G': w...._~ ...... ..... . ..........._..~..,.~~_- --- - . _.._~ . . COPIWI 1 AU - ELLENTON' JA ; NESTMANN' ER ; DOUGLAS' GR' TI - hiwlta!Ienir evaluation of 1lr1r2r3'-tetrachloro-2'-pTropenep a 2' AU' Tj contamilniant in, Pulp mill effluentss using a batteirv of' in vitro mammalian anci' microbial tests. - HEEP'/'8'1/12013 - CAN J GENET CYTOL i 23 ('1) . 19'81. 17-26. - ORM'OYA; COHEH~AM - TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF DIABETES' IKGENETICALLY SELECTED SUCROSE FED DIABETIC RATS SI - ETI'C/8'0/'022329' SO - ACTA MOR'F'HOL ACAD SCI HUNG; ' 28:2'T9',198'01 3 AU, - ST]fCH HiF' ; STI'CH' 4)' i' RO'SIN' MP' ; POWRIE WD TI - CLASTOGENIC' ACTIVITY OF CARAMEL ANDi CARAMELIZ£I)' SUGARS ~ SI - EMIC/81/03'7860 S0! -~~ MUTAT' RES; 91i:1i29-1'36s 1'9'81 ~ 4 A'U' - STICH' HF ; ROSIN I'iN" r' WU CH i' F'0WR'IE Wih, TI - CLA'STOiG~~ENiIC~ A~~CTI~V'I~TY' OF~ ItR][EDF~RUITS~ . ST ~ - EMIfC/'8'1/0'137'833~ SO - CA'NCER' LETT(~AM'STERDA'M'Y: 12'.1-8.1'9'81 . E USE INV PRO . SE OR Hic C S S Y-WTG (15) ;,; i
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fZCo.wg..ToikTBk~9 vo1.' pp-, 137 to 147.1992 n ~ r ZlV.24 IMf orrxnation Section ABSTRACTS AN Chromosome damage from caramel' Stich,,H. F., Stich, W:, Rosin, M. P. & Powrie, W. D. (1981). Clastogenic activity of'ea'ramel and carame, lized sugars. Mutation Res. 91, 129'. Long-term feedfing,studies on various types'of cara• mel have revealed no, evidence of carcinogenicioy;, al'though ammonia-process caramel produced lym- phocytopenia att alU lavels tested(Evans et' al: Fd ,Cos, met. Toxicol: 1977, 15, 523). A food-grade caramel also gave negative results in an Ames test with, five Salmonella strains (Bonin & Baker, Fd'Technol. A',ust: 1980,,32„608): However, a very weak mutagenicity ofI caramel to S. t}pHimurium TA:100 was reported else- where, and several other studies have demonstrated the mutagenicity of sugar, ppyrolysates (Sugimura et at.. CRC' Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 1979, 6, 189); A, sugar-ammo+ niia modelsystem, the reaction products of which in} cluded many pyrazines, was also ~ strongly mutagenic (Spingarn, & f..rarvie;, J'. agric. Fd' Chem. 1979, 27, 1319). In the present study Chinese hamster ovary, cells were exposed' for 3 ihr to commercial I caramel powder, (a positively=cliarged material prepared by, heating a sugar-ammoniium, solution), or to caramelized sol- utions of sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannose, maltose or arabinose (prepared'. by heating solutions at 18(rC' for. i' hr) The caramel! and'. all the caramelized sugars induced a high frequency of chromosome breaks andd exchanges; the potency of'caramel itself (which pro- duced 46% metaphase plates with chromosome aber- rations), being exceeded only, by caramelized fructose. Non•caramelized sugars did not increase the aberra- tion IUequency: The transition, metals CuZ' and Iwln2+ had no effect on caramelTs potency, but Fe2* and Fes" had! a strong inhibitory effect. Addition of' an S-9 microsomal preparation from, PCB&pretteated rats.abolished the clastogenic activity, of the caramel', powder,, and' this property' was unimpairedl by re- moval' of NADP or MgC12 from, the S-9 mixture. However heating for 20 min at 80'C did destroy its inhibitory action, It was conchided that the effects off the S-9 preparation were not due to! the mixed4unc- tion-oxidase system4 but might result from a physical binding of' caramel to S-9 components. No attempt has yet been made to identify, the clas- togenic ingredients of,caramel, although possible canr didates may, be /uran and its derivatives or maltol. As': yet unpublished studies by the authors have showni some of the former to be mutagenic in more than one test, system, while the latter indueed reverse mutations in S: typhimurium strain TAI00' (Byeldanes & Chew,. Mutation Res. 1979, 67, 36n [Whether these in vitro findings have any signifi- cance to caramel consumption, by man is still open to question. If its potency is abolished'. by binding to S•9 components, it may, similarly be abolished by binding to dietary components.]
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a (9) PSTG (8) S 110 /C? USER. 4 AND 6 PROG2 SS (10')! PSTG ('1) :i'S 11 /C? USER: 5 ANIUi 6 PR'OG':' SS (11) PSTG (13)! SS'12 /'C? USER« 70R' 8 0R' 9 0R 10 0R 11 PROG 2 . SS (12) PSTG (~50:)! S S 13 /C? USERt PRT TI 10 PROG2 .;, ISU c-2o5C- !5c/57, --nTL tS I T'I - Sucrose esters based on 'linetol' tx)--C> E,4 tlb 1-~6 k k 5l Sc~-~ eN~~, < , 2 TI - Ctualitv chang~es in r'ed' ginseng extract durilnist high temperature storage I - Interaction of Pol'vhwdyroxu compound's anidi nitrosamines 4 TI - Altered hepatobilliarvPermeahilitw irnd'uced' biv Amanita Ph,alLoidess ini the rat and the erotective role of bile duct ligation 51 ~ T'I' - TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SUCROSE DIET IN DIABETIC AND N~.0'TtD'IA'BETIG RATS'i t (L _ 6 4 TI -Mutasenicilties of' natural food additives. IlII. M'utagerricitwand' _ antibacterial activit-i of caramels W 7 TI - Clastogenic activitv of caramel and' caramelized sugars 8 ~ TI - POINT MUTATI~ONS~ A~TTHE THYMIDINE KINASE LOCUS IN L5178Y ' MOUSE ~ LYMF'H0M'ACELLS«:'.TES!TVA~LIIiATION ANDi INTERPRETATION M TT - Teratogenir effects ofswcro~sediiet in diabetic and nondiabietic rats. '~. 0 T7f~ -~~ Sucr~os~~ei es~~te~~rs~ biase~d~ on "linetol•" SS 13 /C? USER: ~, PRT TI SKIP 10 10 .rvxuwe .. QJ l WMVW~,~ ~ y
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1 - The influence of'various tablet components on thermal decomeosition of some Pharmaceuticals TI, - Results f rom alwehosate used as a rieener..: at Fel'ixton TI - Point mutations at the thvmidine kinage locus in, L5178Y mouse +a livmphoma cell's. I'I. Test validationiand interpretation 14 ~ TI - UTILITY OF THE MOUSE LYMf`Ht1MA L 5178Y/TK ASSAY FOFi' THE U'ETECTIDN' OF CHEMICAL MUTAGENS , 15 . w1+.u4 r+te CQPIED! 6 Is ` TI - Comparative stud'vof'the monovalent cations on development of Buifo, arenarum, e!g'ag. ! 9 9 . '~ TI - Fluoride: interaction with chemical mutaaens in 8rosoehila. 17' TI - Influence of mutaaenic chemicals on fermentative Producti'oin of lactic acid' bw Lactoltba,ctillws delbrueckii 18 lp TI - Influence of muta-tternic chemdicalis on fermentative kroduction of lactic acid buLactobacil!1us delbrueck:ii 9 19' TI - Iodopfior disinfectant 1 ,au TI~ - Toxic effect of' fee~~d, suaa~~r from str~aw, h~wdrolwsis~~ ~ SS 13 /C? UISER «' PRT TI SKIP' ?0' 10 ~ PROG.' 21 TI - Formation, of mutagens in suaar-alramoniia model swstems. 22' TI - Reduction in, mutaaenici!tv of cigarette smoke condensate k+vadded . sulgars. ' 1P 2 23 TI -~ EFFECT OF~ REFINED CARB~OHIYDRATES~~ ON COLO'N~! CANC~~Elfel IN ~~ THE A'LB'~INO~ 24 TI - Aeueous essential oil composition 25 T'I P TI G 6 6 O i it ` ` O W . - Enhancirrg effect of carbohiwdrate >~vrol'vsates ore mutaaenesis in C[~ 05 Salmonella tvs•himurium Ca ~ ~ - Reduction in mutasenicitv of ciaaret smoke condensate bwadded' ly ~ suslars ~-. 27' TI, - ENNANCING EFFECT OF SUCROSE PYROLYSATE ON MUTAfENICZTY IN 0 SALt{C7TJLLL[i-TYl','IHTMU112P1./15, ~ . ., ~.
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~- Influence~ o~~n s~r~owt'hi and flowe~r~~i~ng ~~ of special P~~rec~~ooled t~ulips~~ o~f~ growth~ re~gula~~torsa~~nds~ucr~os~e, i~~niject~iol~ns~r~ an~o' of temperature ~~ arno'~ ' ethiL-ileme exposures under ventil'ated' andl non,-ventilated conditions C.OPIM fL'.?9 TI - The rrlant 9rowthiregwlatorw Properties of a sroup on N'-carbamow1 imidasoles ' ~30, , TI - Penetration of' insecticides through the foreNut of ' the honewbee ('Apils me11!ifera L. ) SS' 13 /'C? UISER'« PRT TI ShIF'' 3'01 20, PROG : 31' TI - Intensification of sweetness n I 32 TI - Stuciwof' conditions for Prociuction of' roeuefortine and' other metabolities of' Penici1Uium, roctuefmrti« 33'. TI -MUTAGENS' IiN' DECOMPOSITION P'RQLiUCTS' OF CAF:ISOHY'IDRATES' 34 TI - Studies on muitagenicitvof' irradiated sugar solutions in Salmonella t-uphi'murium. 3 35 'IT - Therapeutic agents containirn3, disaccharide derivatives f~ ~.., 36 TI' - Thera~~pe~ut~i!c~ agents co~~ntadirn~irng d~isac~cha~~rioe-g!lutathibne! compoum~os 37 TI'. - Induc~talani of~ mu~~tati~on~s~ in tomat~o~ bv i~or~'izimg ~ rad'iait~i~on ~. 38 '. TI - Treatment of liime-comtai'niiinA ' waste sludge 39 T I'. - REDUCTION IN t1U'T!AGENICITN' OF CIGARETTE SMOKE CON!DENS!ATE' FtY' AfiUED! SUGARS 40 TI' - DNA SYNTH'ESIS INH'I'B'ITIi©iN' IN HELA CELLS' AS A SIMPLE TEST FOR AGENTS THAT DAMAGE HUMAN DNA l 41 T'I' - STUDIES ON MUTAGENICITY ©iF' IRRADIATED SUGAR SOLU!T'ION!S' I'N' SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM ' 4"?' TI~ - EFFECTS OF CENTRIFUGATION AND SUCROSE T'f;EATMEN"T~ ©NTHE MUTAGEN C~ ~' (I SENS~~ITIWI~TY' IN~~ HORInEUM VUL'G~~AF:~Eru CICER A'C.'~I~ETIN,UM ~~ AN'L1~ PISUM, SA~TIIVU~M~ GO TI - EWALUATI'W OF HERBICIDES FOR FOiS S'I!Ei'LE MUTAGENIC PfiiOF•ERTIES' ~ GO, 44 TI - Ft'AIiIOMTMETIC REt1ERAGESs 1URUGS' ANIt M'UTAGEN'S',
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(4g TI - POSSIBLE MUTAGENIC HAZARDS OF SOM'E' F0'OU' A'fiDITIVES. KEVERAGES' AN'Ul INSECTICIpES SII - TER!ATOGEN'IC' EFFECT AND STEREOSPECIFICITY' OF A THALIDOMIDE ~ METAS'OLIiTE' 0 0 0 47' TI~~ - MODIFICATION ~ OF TER~ATOGENII~CITY' BY' S'~I'~MIULTANEO'US'~LY' INTERFEIk~I~~N!& AGENTS' CONTINUE PRTNTING?' (YES/'N0!)~~ 48 ~TI-TERAiTOiGENIC EFFECTS'_ OFSUGARS~ ON! THE CINICK EMBRYO 49 ~ TI - TERATOLOGIC EVALUATION 0'F' FDA 71-76(PURE CANE SUGAfi':SUiCROSE)IM! MICE r RATS' ANDf:AfitEe'ITS ~ 510 TI - TERATOGEN'IC AND EMBfr'Y0TOXIC' EFFECTS OF CY'CLAMATE PSACCHAR'INE AND SACCHAROSE 13/d'? ER :. _E T01C'BACM'74 FRIOG : 0 SS USE 9 TOX< 1='ROGI: TI ME USER: NO Y TIME C1VtLW:' CONT? ('YlN) I''kOGl: USER Y PROG SS (h ) P*G' (77'50!). Ss 9 /C? Us nU (SN) T E OVFLWl CO,NT?' ('YfN). ip ~ G: F:O G :' ,I ME OVFLW!:' ItOtZT? (Y/'N), 7U)L t. I " E (b 0 0 e . 0 ® a ( u
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U Ur.~~ Y uK ~~ iu: uIN~, 111 4747 : 1L) P`STG. (1s) SS 13 7C'?' USEF.: ~ Pf1T .qG 2, Z~Y~~iAC.k. COPIE©' ~ ~ 1 1. 3 AU1 AU! - WAC.KEF:', Ai RP - BURKITT h'F" i ~ TI - Colonic cancer: Hlwpothesis of causationip dietarv Prophwlaxiss and . SI future research. - HEEF%'77'70'3739 ~ S0, - AM' J, UIG, DIS'r 2'1 (10). 1976 910-917 0 2 ~ AU - BAR-ON H .. . 0 AU AU' - Ft'OHE I M' PS - EDER HA ~~ TI~ SI - Hwp~er~lieoerot~~e~irne~mdia: i'~n s:tr~er-~~to: otoiciinrtreat~ed r~ats~~.~ - HIEEF'T77'70'03'89' SU 0 - hiIAPETESr' 25 (6'). 1Q76 S09L-5'1.°', 0 3 AU, - KRAYBILL H'F 0 TI - FOOD CHEMICALS AND FO'OU, ADDITIVES . 0 SI - HEEF'776/10729 ' ~~ SO - N'EWBE8NE r PAUL M'., (EL1. ). TRACE SUBSTANCES AhlLli HE'ALTH. A HIAN'U8'ODiK'r PART 1« IX-F39~8(F'.: I'iLLUS4 MARCEL T1EKK~ER'~x~ IN,C~.~: N!EW! Y'OfitQ~~p- ~ NI.Y'. x~ • {'i AU' AU' U!. S. A. r Es'ASEL, SWiITZ'ERLAND. ISBN! 0-8'?'47-6341-6. : 1976 245-318' - G,i ]11 HS. - Toor HS @ TI - Evaluation b-zt biloassawg of the to.ciicitwto fishi of sugar factorw effl!uents SI _ - CAT086/'134506'Li ~ S01 - Acta Hvdrol+iol.; VOL 1i8'r-I'SS 4r 1976r323-9 0 3 0 AUi - Samuels G 0 AU TI SI - Beale A. - P'araeiuat as aPretiarvest desiccant for sugarcane in Puerto, 8'ico, - CAT08'S/0'42124Di SO - J. Agric. Univ., P'. 8'. ; ' VOL 60r ISS 3. 1976rs62'-70 O CDNTINU'E' PRINTING? (Y'ES/N'Ai)' 0 0 USEfi 2' Y F'EtOfi :' 0 6 ~ AU' - Kiwoshi Y ao ~ 0 ' - AU' TI - lf'amasata H - Sucrose-dependent spectinom4-rin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli OD N 0 T - CA7'08'4/'1i0'0109V' _J - J.Bacteri'ol . iVO~L 125~r ISS 1y1976r142'-8 C d ' 7 ~ AU' AU - Nara T - homatsui T A tl - Cl'k. a,n o T _
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~~6%xeK q y_, , - Na ra I ~ " "-J - K omatsu T COPIED .~ `-A'U' - 0'~ .a~T TI-- =`Rh8~rin~a`e~~eu,tica~l'- stw~cl~i~es~ ~ of ~cvst~eine~ d'er~iv~at~i~~w~es. 2'. ~- Ef'fect o~f~ ~ wate~~r~ content anid, diluerrt~s~~ on the~~ s~tabilitu of' c~ws~teitrne~ derivatives in Powderedpreparations SI, - CAT085/083'172M i ,0' - YaWuzaisakw: VOL 35r, ISS 4j, 1197WS176 82 ~, A'U - Inreiser RD L TI' - Dopilatorwcontainina carbohwdrates SI - CA/084/140607N ~ SO! - Fr. Nemande PATENT N0. 2267755 11./14fi75. 9' AU1 - Ster-fiens, VC~ AU' - SUi MS E ~ TI - Nbnanueous' vehicle for oral Piiarmaceutical suspc~'r~sions f~ SI - CA/084/049844B SO' - UI.S.~ PATENT NO. 3!92a81~9~ 11/18/75 (~L~ililw~r Eli,~ and C!o~~«~)'. © 10 AUi -Fascarella GAU - Sal!weminii F @ TI - F'urificationiolf waste waters S'I, - CA/083/032743Z SO - Oer. . Oi'fen « IP'ATEN'T' N0'. 2428562 02/27/75 (Tecneco1S«p«A «)' ~ COAtTINUEF•R'TNTINO!?AY'ES'TWO)' • USER'.' 'rf PR0'G: ' 11 4 AU1 AU1 AU1 - Husfies AF - Freeman RB - Fadem T ' TI -Teratove~rnicef'fects of' suaarso~rntPhe chick embrWo, S'I - . CA/'08s7133787Is J S0 12 -.Ji. Embrsol « Exp. Miorphol. r'' VOL 3s'r Pt. 3, , 1'9'74'r6'61-74' AU AU1 AU - Nakai Y' - Nel!a.iima S - Kekizmwa H1 TI! - Disintegration measurement of susar coated' tat+lets bVtbermali analwsis .1 SI - CA7'0827'103086E S0 - Chem. Pharm. BuTl «', VOL 22'. ISIS 1124 1974s2910-15 SS, 13,/C? U!St8 « EC.ASE PAiCK PR0b:1 ' -SS 6 1~1C? UsEFy 6 M-, 6 r .JG« t SS jQ6). PSTG ('133)' ~ (9 0A (A Qd SSr: 7 UIE(CI. ~ - 1' AN'LS 6:F'
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TYZ_ WK(o~ CUPIEDi -r n>EcACQG . 00010602' 45 SLAVEHT.olCI/1 TWO' PAGE 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- I AU - Anzaldo FE AD! - Philippines TI - Chemical composition of coconut water as related to its use i'n, ilntravenous therapy Si - CA'/084/065a32F SO - Sci.,Rev. (Manila); VOL 14, ISS 69, 1973,,10-16 LA - Engi AB - CBAC CDPYRIGHT::CHEl1 ABS Total sugars (gLucose,:fructose, sucrose)i„ protein, fats, and mineral content, pHi osmolarity, and degrdn. tests after various kinds of storage as well as ale. contentl(0.,99% after 6 days at room temp.) were detd. (150-99-7 Glucose)(57-48-7 Fructose)!(57-50-1 Sucrose) Sterility studies, pyrogen tests, acute and'subaeu3e toxici'ty studies, and animal and!cliin. expts. were carri'ed! out'. I.v. i'nfusion did not cause significant changes i'n eliectrolyte compn, of'blood, osmolarity, pH, nor changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or respirati'ona. No untoward reactions of any type were obsd. 2' AU - Fontana R;'MeTica L; Satta G ADi - Ist. Microbi'ol., Lhiv. Genoa, Penoa. Italy TI - Growth characteristi'cs and morphology of a Klebsiella pneumoni!ae morphoLogicaL mutant iin media di'fferent', for values of pH, i'oni,ec strength, and osmotic pressure SI - CA/083/022905Q S0, - G!. M'icrobi'ol.i VOL 19-21 „ 1973983-100, LA - Eng AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT-'CHEM ABS The,presence of 0.1M NaCI, 0.05M MgC12, 0.4M sucrose, 0I.3M'Dul'cite, and 15X Carbowax eliminated the 2-hr lag phase for round cell growth irn K. pneumoniae muRant M'ir MF at pH 545, increased~ the growth rat,e, and inhibited the formation of filaments inithe stationary growth phase. (7647-1'4-5 Sodtum chloriid'e)(7786i-30-3 Magnesium chLoriide)($Z-50-1 Sucross)(',608I-66-2 Dui'cite)C25322-68-3 Carbowax)i HbC1, MgCl2', and sucrose changed the morphol. of the Mir M7 strain, with the rod-shaped cells becoming shorter as the concns. increased. Cell morpholl, also vari'edi wi th pHl3. 3 AU - Chung,YJ ; Hong HJ AD: - Ewha Momans:Univ., Seoul, S. Korea TI - Effect of monosodium gluRAmate on the development of Drosophi'la melanogpster SI - CA/082/000977S' SO'. - Tongmul Hakhoe Chi4 VOL 16, ISS 2, 1973',127=37' LA - Eng AS - CBAC COPYR'IGHT:~ CHEM ABS: The effects of manosodi'um glutamate (MSG) on the d'evelbpment of'D. melanogaster were stud'ied'.. (142-47-2 Monosod!i;um gTutamate) MSG and cane sugar media were prepd. by adding MSG or cane,sugar at various concns. to std6 food media. Five male and five female flies were placed in each vial' and'the numbers of'F1 flies emerging from fit were counted!. The no. ofl F1 flies decreased'.as ~ the concn. of MSG tncreased, impiying that' MSG has an i'nhibiltory Go ~. W . ~' ! _.. y . ~. ., . ._. .. ~
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TT`1-&Akr.icc S- GaQiEm 00010603' .6.1;- PAGE 2 SLAVENTOkA TN.O, -------------------°-------------------------°--°------------------------- effect on the development, of D, melanogaster. Cane sugar enhanced fly prodh., The Muller-5 test was neg.,i suggestiing,that' MSG may be mot',mutiagenict t 4 AU - A'lileva ZM sucrose metab Nitrogen metab mutagen revi'ew, 5 AU' - Krasnitskaya NW' AD - Uzhgorod. Derzh. Unilv., Uthgorod, USSR AB - CBAC COPtifRI&HT-' CHEM ABS Tiltle on1!y translated., Review mutogen, AD - USSR' TI - Transformation of sucrose and nitrogeneous substances under treatieent, withimutageniv, factors. SI - CA/081/131204Q' SO - Uch. Zap. Gor'k. Gos. Un4v.: 1i973,J1-5 LA - Russ i TI - Biochemical variabiLity of streptomycin-resistant mutants of' Klebsieila pneumoniae SS - CA/080/126630ff SO - M!ikrcbiiol. Zh. (1Kiev)i' VOL 35, ISS 6',, 1973,739'-41 LA - Ukraimi AB - CBAC COPtfRIGHT-' CHEM'AB5 The activities of catalase andi dehydrogenase in K',. pneumoniiae mutants resistant to steptomycin('0.1-T0' mg/rol)i were lower than those in the ° susceptible strains. C9001-05r2'CatalaseJ!(9035-82-9 Dehydrogenase) The.rates of glucose,, lactose, maltose, and sucrose metab. were alto lower in the,resistant mutants. (50-9917 Glucose)(6'3'-42'-3 Lactose)i(69-79-4 Maltose)i(,57-50-1i Sucrose ) -" '" "' 6 AU - Hennessey TD AD TI, SI, - Pharm. Diw:, Iinp. Chem. Ind., Ltd'., MacclesfikldlCheshire, Eng,l'.. - Antibacterial properties of' chlbrhexidine - CAY080/056056S'. t4r. SO LA' AB' - J. Periodontall Rss.., Supp1.; VOL Mo. 12,, 1973',61-7 - Eng - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEMIRBS Chlorhexidtne diglUconate (I-digluconate) showed a wide spectrum of activity, wi'R'h, grram-pos. cocci being esp. sensitive Cmin. inhi'bitory concn. 0.19-2.0 mug/mll. (18472-51-0 Chlbrhexidine digluconat,eA Exposure of suspensions of varibus bacterial species to 0.027 I ~ for 10 in at room tsmp6 reduced, the viable organisms by .sim.99.99%'iri most'instances. Presence of serum or sucrosee appeared to decrease the bactericidal action of I. AlTe~.T^-fo ~, select Escherichia coli and oral st,reptococci resiistant to I by serial'passage in subinhibiitory,concns: in vitro, indieated'that ~, mutants were rare., No changes were,obsd., in the susceptibility ~, of fecal organisms of hamsters g'ven I(5D, mg/kg) daily by ~, gastric catheter for 28 days, but 100 mg I/kg raptdly caused a ~, lethaiienteri'.ti's which was assumed to be the result of gross ~ - disturbances of the alimentary microfllora. In, 3 human W volunteers, use of a Mouthrinse (twice a day for up to seven weeks )! contg. 0.2'/.' 1-digluconate resulted in a, sliight' but ew 4.
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transient decrease in susceptibility of'saliuary organisms to the bacteriostatic action of the agent. 7 AU - TAHARA A;'NAKATA T ; NAKATANI'H ;'KAGI40ADA'K' TI - Diiterpenoidt: ')(XII. Hydrof'Duorene compounds with strong sweetness. SI - HEEP/75/01202 SO - YAKUGAKWiZASSHI;' 93 (8). 1973 951-956. AB - HEEP COPYRIGHT:'BIOL ABS. Among 4 stereoisomers of hydY-ofluorene derivatives recently deriived from pine rosiin, only one has a strong,sweetness (about 1000 times sweeter then sucrose and about 12'tilmes more bitter thanicaffeine); others have no taste. The stability and acute toxicity of thi's compound were aliso examined. 8 AU - HOZHAEV,EA TI -(Relationshi'p of the water consumption by anieaals poisoned wilth certain chemical water contaminants and the physicaliproperties of' the elements.)' 51 - HEEP/72/08763 $0, - GIG SANIT; 36'(8). 1971 17-21 AB - HEEP COPYRIGHT: BSOL ABS, The consumpttton of water by antmalls (rats) is a qui't'e reliatlle sign of acute toxicity of the various ehemiea1cont'amiinatlionsandl tsrel'ated to the physical properties of elements contained. s,s a rule, increased elementaL dmsi'ty is accompanied by increased toxicity. With the increase of the periiod'i!c number the toxicilty changes accordingly. The lowest toxieityy was found!in the main subgroups of'. the 1st and',2nd group of the Mendeleev Table. 9 AU - BOYD EMI T3 - One-hundred day LD50 index of chronic toxicity. SI - HEEP/72f0fl352 SO - CLIN', TOMICOIL; 4($')i. 1971 205-213 AB - HEEP' COPYRIGHT: BIOIL ABS, In thiis analysis of'data on, Ll drugs, clinicopathol'ogiic:signs of' toxicity other than death are not discussed. Some of these nonlethal signs do not appear untiil, after a eertain, periodlof' d'aily administration. An LDO ('100 days) of'phenaceti'n,, for example, produces sterililty iniMale rats but' not siigndficantly so~ untiladministiereddbily forover100~r days.. Signs of this nature wouldbe missed if daily administration were stopped! before they could! appear. The maree thorough the study,, the less likely are signs of chronic toxicity to be,missed. If routine tests are limi'ted',to 6'.wk', then conclusions must apply only to thi's intie-vaL and not, be extrapolated to longer periods. (n CD . 0 0 W 0 1A 0. 0 01
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- Ti:MBACV,C;S CaPI&D 00010605 PAGE, 4 SLAVENT0XP TWO1 -----°--°------------------------------------------------------------------ 10 AU - BOYD EM TI - 100 DAY LD50 INDEX' OF CHRONIC TOXICITY SI S0 - HEEPf72F02882' - TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL; 17 (11)'. 1970,300 AB - HEEP' COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. ABSTRACT RAT AJROPINE PILOCARPINE ASPIRIN PHENACETIN PARACE7fAMOLL SWROSE SODIMCHLORTDE CAFFEINE DICOPHANE PESTICIDE ORAL 11 AU' - Land JB ;:Norton 6 AD - Bot'. Sch., Lh-iiv, Oxford', 0xford:,, Engl. TI - Growth of barley mutants at the Xan-b,and Xan-c loci i'n the SI presence of sucrose.pr L-Leucine in the growthimedium, - CAf079/101012f-'^ SO! - NbwiPhy#ol.;l VOL 72', ISS' 3,, 1i973,485-92, LA, - Engl AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT-' CHEM',ABS' After the addn. of'. L-leucine or acid'li(70-47-3, Asparagfne) Ribul'ose-1,5'-diphosphate carbaxyliase l', sucrose to the medium on which chloratie barley mutantss developed, the fresh wt. of the mutants i'ncreasedlto~thet of the green segregants grownionibasal medium, and'their protein eontent~ was also higher. (61-90-5 L-Leucine)'(57-50,1 S_ucrs~qjThe chlorophyll content of the Xan-b15,18 a- n7c-Xan~e23 mutants increased but was less thaI of'thr green segregants, whereas that' ofl mutants. 5(an-b22', and Xan-b54 did not i'ncrease. The sol. amino acid poais oflthe~mutants grown on all mediaan4of green segregants grown on 1'eucine-cantg. medium showed charaeteristiles ofchlorot!ic growth with highilevels of aspartic aci&and' asparag:ine;, these levels were less marked i'n the mutants which responded to sucrose supplementati'on. (56-84-8 Aspartic Ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxyl'ase), The response of the Mantha; levels were substantially below those of the green segregants irrespectiive of the medium supplementation. (,9027-23-0. barley mutants apparently was dif'ferentfrom the pattern assocd. wiith strilctly auxotrophic growth. 12 AU, - Rozgonyi F;'Vaczi' L; Redai' I AD - Inst. Microbtol.,, Uhtv. Med'. Sch. Debrecen,, Debrecen, Hung. TI - Effects of'. hypertonic media on~the growth.of'highly methicillin-resistant mutants of Staphylococeus aureus in the: presence of'methicill'in, SI - CA/0i79/03885?Z' S0 - Advan. Antimicrob., Antineoplastic,Chemother., Proc. Inti. Congr. Chemot,her., 7th', VOL l, 155' l, 1972v667-70 LA - Eng AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT~' CHEM'ABS' Hyperosmosis maintained by 0.5'or 1.0 (Z , methiciTl1in resistance~in highly resistant mutants of S. aureus~ 0 , and inhibitedigrowth, in, the presence o#Ithe antibi'otie, whereas cD M sodium chloride signifieantly decreased'the degree of GII . hyperosmosis maintained by 1 M sucrose had no effect on or OD effect growthiin the presence of the antiibiotic. (76Hi7-14r5 ~ Sodium chloride)i(61-32-5, MethicilYlfin)~(57-50-1 Sucrose)! CAI , enhanced methicillin resistance in these organtsws, and did not q)
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Miethiicilllin may act an some enxyme(a), i'n thel bacteriai membrane responsible for regulating the electrolyte state i~n cells and'for ion exchange throughithe bacterial membrane,i since the electrolyte NaCI i'ncreases sensitiivi'ty,iwhereas the nonelectrolyte sucrose does not. 13' AUi - Mattocks AR' AD - Toxicol. Umi't', CarshaitonfSurrey,,Engl.. TI - Acute hepatotoxicity and pyrroltc met'abolites in rats~dosed'wi'th pyrroll!zidine alkaloids SI - CA/078/053567G . S0l - Chem,-Bicl., Interacti'ons;IVOL 5, IS5, 4, 1972,227-42 LA - Eng AB, - CBAC! CDP'YRIigiT: ' CHEMI ABS The acute hepatotbxiici ty of some pyrrolizidine alkaloi',ds was correlWted to the amt,. of pyrrolic metabolites foundlin the livers ofl rats given the,alkaloilds. The toxicity of an~alkaloidland the liver pyrrole level was affected by sex:, dieti andlpredosing wi'.th compds. which affect'the hepatic microsomal enzymes. Retrorsine (I,) and'wonocrotaline (II) were more toxic to male rats than to femal'es. (480-54-6 Retrors ilne )( 315-22-0 itonocro:tal ine ) Pretireatment wi th Hh phenobarbital i,ncreased the suscepti'bflity'of'female rats, but'in, males, the I'toxicity was decreased 50% by a week's phenobarbitall pretreatment. (57-30-7 Sodium phenobarbiltol)i Pretreatment of male:rats with,SKF 525A, or prefeedi'ng aisucrose di'et,, decreased bothithe taxici'ty'and the liver pyrroles from I administration. (62-68-0 SKF 525A)(57-50-1 Sucrose), Retrorslne W-oxi'dc was less toxic when adninistere ' i.pn an when gi'ven orally. (,15503-86-3 Ret'rorsine H-oxiide)i ' 0 0 0 14 AU'- SinghCB ; Dhar RD ;I Kaull AK AD, - At. Energy Lab., Indian Agric. Res. Inst., New Delhi, India TI - Effects of centrifugation and sucrose treatment on the .utagen ~ sensitivity in Hordeum vulgare, Cicer ari'eti'nur., and Pilsur sat:ivum SI - CA/077/014935K SO: - Basic Mech. Rad'ilat. Biol. Med., Proc., Sywqs.,; 1971,295-301 ~, LA - Eng * AB' - CBAC COPYRI6HT-' CHEM ABS After centriifugatianiat 5,000-20,000, rpm, there,was a considerable increase int,he rut'agen sensi'tivity i of Hordeum vulgare, Ciicer arietinum, andlPisum sativum seeds to gamma-irradn. (2Okrad) ) or niitroso-methyl urea ('0.A05-0.027). ! (684-93-5 Nitrosormethyl urea): Whiile the redn. In the rate of' germination and'survi'val were speed dkpendent, the rate of root' S and shoot growth i'nhibtti!an did not'showiany consilstency. The! sensi'tivity increased when postcentrifug(+tion was coupled'wi'th !~ the chem. mutagen treatments as comparedlto the phys, wutaqans. ~ Postcentri'fugatiicnmarkedly increased the f'requency of cellis ~ di'splayimg',chromasome breaks and bridges. There was no ~ consi'stent relationship between speed levels and the frequency of W abnormalities., Soaking of'the seeds for 30 min in a 10'/.Isucrose, M solh. prior to the chem. treatments increased the mutagen ~i sensitivity. ('57-5Q1 -Sucr.nseJ. Sucrose: treatment'by fitself had ~ a sli'ght'stimulating effect.
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00010607 ~5 PAGE 6 SLAVEHTOX7A TWO °-------- °--------------°------------------------------------------------- 15 AU AD TI SI - Qadri SS H ; Kashi KP ~ - Cent. Food Technol. Res. Inst., Mysore, India - Assaying the oral toxicity of organophosphates to house flies without body contact with the insecticides - CA/076/042742T 4C SO - J. Econ. Entomol.; VOL 64, ISS 5, 1971,1015-18 LA - Eng AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM ABS The toxicity.of Sumithion 4 (0,0-dimethyl 0-[4-nitro-m-tolyll phosphorothioate) (I), diazinon, parathion, and malathion (II) when fed orally ad libitun without body contact to houseflies, Musca domestica, was potentiated in the presence of s~u°ar--alone or milk and carrot juice mixed with sugar, and was-decreased in the presence of potato juice mixed wiQh sugar when compared to the toxicity of these insecticides in distd. water. (122-14-5 Sumithion)(333-41-5 Diazinon)(56-38-2 Parathion)(121-75-5 4r. Malathion) I was the most toxic and II the least toxic when assayed by this method. 16 AU - Flavell RB ; Woodward DO AD - Dep. Biol. Sci., Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif. ~ TI - Selective inhibition of enzyme synthesis under conditions of respiratory inhibition SI - CA/014/008015'a SO - J. Bacteriol.; VOL 107, ISS 3, 1971,853-63 4- LA - Eng AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM ABS When Heurospora mycelium was transferred from a medium contg. sucrose to one contg. acetate as 4~ a sole source of C, a preferential synthesis of many Krebs cycle, ~ glyoxylate cycle, and assocd. enzymes occurred. (57-50-1 Sucrosel(64-19-7 Acetate) Synthesis of HAD-linked glutamate E(eii)-1irogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was less (46, inhibited under conditions of respiratory inhibition than was the ~ synthesis of Krebs cycle, glyoxylate cycle, and most other cell proteins synthesized during the adaptation period. (53-84-9 HAD) The differential inhibition of enzyme synthesis was not due to differential repression by regulatory metabolic end product ~ effectors. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration under these conditions apparently results in a limitation of the energy supply of the cell. Inhibition of synthesis of most proteins after inhibition of mitochondria respiration apparently results 46„ _ from the lack of energy in a utilizable form. Respiration was inhibited during preferential enzyme synthesis by reducing the aeration, adding cyanide to the culture, removing the C source, L acetate, starving a mutant strain of its Krebs cycle aJ 4- intermediate, or inhibiting respiration by mutation. (57-12-5 (~ Cyanide)_ ~ 0
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CORIffff 00010608 (15' PAGE 7' SLAVEHTO)4% TWO ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 AU - Mailtra PK AD - Mol'..Biol. Urit, Tata Inst. Fundfns. Res,, Bombay, India TI - Glucose and fructose metabolism In a phosphoglucoisomerase-Less mutant of'Saccharomyces cerevisiae ~ SI - CA/014/008008T 50 - J. Bacteriiol.;' VOL 107', ISS' 3, 19711,759-6'9 LA " - Eng AB, - CBACCOPYRIGHT:! CHEM:ABS Amutant:ofS'.:cerevdlsi'ae deficient:iln ~ phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.19.)' grew on galactose or maltose, but not on glucose (I)' or sucrose. (159-23-4 GalactoseJ('89-79-4I Malitose)(50-99-7'Glucose)(57-50-1'Sucrose) Addn. of I to cultures growing on fructose,, `mannse, or acetate arrested'' further growth without altering vilabiliity; removal of'I permits resumption of growth. (57-48-7 Fructose)'('3458-28-4 Mannose)(64-19-7 Acetate) I causedlacewnulation of .sim,30 mumoles of g,lucose-6-phosphate per g(wet' wt. ) of ceilis and suppressed synthesi's ofIRNA. (56-73-5 611ucose-6-phosphate)i Inhibition of growth by I apparently was not the,result of loss of ATP'or inorganic orthophosphate. (56-65-5 ATP)(114265-44-2' Orthophosphatedl The mutant, however, utildzes glucose 6-phosphate produced intracell'ularly. Release of carbon dioxide from labeled I indicated a C-1 preferential cleavage. (124-38-9 Carbon dioxide) The kinetics of g~ucose-6'-phosphat-e accumul~Rtiion during I utilization was not consisttmt with the hypothesis that . M, the utilization of I'is controlled'by glucose 6-phosphate. 18 AU - Mikhaiilov MA ; Kurbanov EA AD - Inst. Bot., Baku, USSR, TI - MUt,ation of'snapweed under the action of various mutagens SIi - CA/014/001019P 50 - Dokl. Akad.:Nauk Azerb. SSR; VOL 26, ISS 91 1970,77-81. LA' - RUss AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT!:' CHEM ABS' I'rradn, of Impatliens belsamfna plants,, in the H3 stage, with 6OCo (I or 30 kR)1, or allowing,them to iarbibe 0.03% or 0.05% colchicine (I), caused a,no, of mutations with respect to flower color, viabili'ty of the seeds, height of' the plant', andlshape and'siae of'the leaves. (64-86-8 Colchilcine) The lower i'rradn. dose was more effective than the higher in promoting vari'ations,in flower color. The flower color changes were inherited by the progeny. Pollen grains from,thee mutated'plants were morphologically different from those of the parent plantsi andiwere more vi'able when held in 57 sucrose for 1 hr then in distillled water or 10d'sucrose. (57-50-1 Sucrose ) 19 AU! -.Ireshenetski' il AA ; Kasatkina ID ;' Zheltova ET " AD - Inst. Miikro64oi., Moscow, USSR. TII' - Growthimedia stimulating protease synthesis iniA'spergillus terricola and its mutants SI -CA/013A007487R50- Mikrobiologi,ya; VOL 40,, ISS~1v1971,18-22': LA - Russ AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT:'CHEM ABS Addn. of starch, glycogen, or sucrose -n,.. ,. ., ! 49 *I L 46
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to the:basal medium of A. terri'coia or 2 of'i'ts mutsmts ('103M'andi 208B) stimulated increases in biamass and!proteasesynthesis.. (57-50- rose). Enzyme synthesis was more greatly stimulated iin e parent strain than in ei'ther ofl the mutants, but'the max. protease activilty of the parent strain medium was sti11.1.5 times Lower tihan that, of' the 208B medium. The mutant wasapparently insensitive to inductors or to catabolites which repress protease synthesis in the,parent strain, 20 AU - Sarvas M ADI - Dep. Bact'eri'ol. Immunol.r Univ., Cali'fornila, Berkeley, Calif., TI - Mutiant of Escherichi'a colt K-12 defective in D-glucosamine bi'osynthesi's SI - CA/013/004199N' 50 - JI. Bact,erioi.; VOL 105, ISS 2, 1971',467-71, LA' - Eng AS - CBA6' CDPYRI6HT: CHEM ASS An E'. co1'i mutont contg. normal levels of gl'ucosamine 6-phosphate dpami'nase (EC 5.3.1.10) but, no detecteble,glucosawine-6-phosphate synRhettase (EC 2.6.1.16)i activrity, was isalated'after mutagenesis wiitK N*methyl-Hl'-nitro-H+ni'trosogWani'dine. (70-25-7 H+.Methyl-NP-nitro-H1-ni'trosoguanidine) Tihe mutant'requiired ei'ther N4-acetyl-D-glOcosamilne or D!-giucosamine (I),f;or growth, and went' into rapid lysi's when the supply of these compdb. was exhausted. (7512'-17-6' N'-Acetyli-D-gTucosamine)('3416-24r8 D}6lucosaminel In a medium eontg. Tl% sucrose, the cells were converted i'nto spheroplasts in the absence of I(57-50-1 Sucrosell .- 21 G <1 AU - Nu1HC' i MlU TC ; Knopp TJ 4~. AD, T!I - Health Cent.,,Uniu. Connecti'cut~, Farmington, Conn. - Isolatiom and characterization of a glucosamine-requiring Mutant of Escherichia eoli K'-12' defective in glucosamine-6-phosphate: synthetase ~ SI - CA/013/004198MI S0, - J!. Bacteri'ol.;'VDL 105, ISS'2, 1971,455-66 LA- Eng, AB - CBAC' COPYRIGHT: CHEM A8S A mutant, requiring glucosamine ('T) or iY.. N'racetyl§,lucosamine for growth was ilsolated from E. co1'fi K12'. ('~3416-24!-8 6lucosamine),47512-17-6 N-A'cetylglucosami'ne) Depriving the mutant of glucosamine resulted in a rapid loss of viability, When thevnutan4; ee1'ls were resuspendedAn1brotKi.edi'acontg. 10X' sucrose, the rod-shaped cells became spheroplasts., (57-50-1 Sucro ~se) The presence of'sucrose, however, didlnot preven ISe cells from losing theiir viability. The mutant was deficient in glucosamine 6-phosphate synthetase (EC 2.6.1.1'6).: The activi'ty of the deamihating enzyme, 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate OD ketai-isomerase (EC 5.3.1.10),appeared normal in this mutant. m' The position ofl the mutation was detd!. to, be at, the74W min of' the Taylor and'Trotter mapa, as shown by cotransduction with,phoS ~ (,90'/.:) and iliv' (25'J'.) by using bacteriophage P1. OD ' ~ `I. W
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0 22 AU - Flavel!1 RB' ; Woodward' 00, AD - Dep. Genet., Univ. Leeds, Leedsr Engl. TI, - Metaboli'c role, regulati'on of synthesi',s, celllalar loeaLizat3on,, and geneti c control' of the glyoxylate: cyclie enzymes i'n Neurospora crassa SI1 - CA/013/003478R SO - J. Bacteriol.; VOL 105, ISS 1, 1971,200-10 LA - Eng AS - CBAC COPYRIGHT:' CHEK ABS The synthesis of'ilsociitrate lyase (EC. 4.1.3.1) and malAte synthetase (EC 4'.1.3'.2) im N, crassa apparently is regulated!by a gl'ycoLytilc intermediate or deniw. These glyoxylate shunt enzymes were present at high levels in mycelium g,rown on acetate as sole source of'Cv compared with mycelium grown on a sucrose medium. (64-19-7 Acetate)i(57-50-1 Sucrose) The g1!yoxylat,e shunt,acti~~vi'ties were also el'evat,e i'n myceTum grown on glutamate or casamino acids as sole source ofl C, and in amino acid'-requiring,auxotrophta mut,ants grown in a suerose medium contqw li'miting amts. of their required amino aciid, CS6-8b-0 Glutamatel, Under conditions of enhanced' catabolite repression in mutants grown in sucrose medium buR, starved'of Krebs cycle i'ntermediates, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase levels were,derepressed compared with the wild typee grown on,, a.sucroQe medium. The repression dYld not'occur i'n reitated'mutants in whilch, Krebs cycle intermediates were limiting growth but cataboli.te repression was not, enhanced. Of the 2 forms of isocitrate lyase in Neurospora, isoci,trate lyase-11 constilt,uted over 80'/7 of' the actilvity in acetate-grown wild typee and in sucrose medium when the glyoxylate shunt activities weree elevated. 23' AU - lfOl10EDA M ; KOKUBU M ; NABATA H:' MINAMIKAI!JA S AD'~ - FAC. PHARN. SCI., KANAZAWA UNIV:r KANAZAWA,n JAPAN'. TI, - ELIMINATIONI OF' SEXI FACTORS' IN ESCHERICHIA' COLI' BY UREA SI, - CA/012/009943Q SO - J. BACTERIOL.i~ VOL 104, ISS 2a 1970,864-70 ABI - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEMIABS ('57-13-61 UREA,EL'IMINATED F OR F'a F-GAL FACTORS CONTAINED, IN ESCHERICHIA COLI. YIELDING F CELLS. THE APPEARANCE'OF F- CELLS AMONG SURVIVORS WAS'OBSERVED WSHEN1 THE' CULTURE WAS'IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE EXPONENTIAL PHASE. FREQUENCIES OF'F CELLS FOrHEB, HOWEVER, DID'WT INCREASE HUCH AS A FUNCTION OF THE' INCUBATIONI TIHE. UNUSUAL F OR F'a' CELLS' WHICH RETAINED THE ABILITY'OF GENETIC TRANSFER'BUT SHOWED RESISTANCE TO M12 PHAGE WERE'ALSO ISOLATED. ADDITION OF [57-50-11 UCR_ObE T0 THE BRUTH WITH! UREA LED, TO THE FAVORABLE', GR TiOiJ H'~~ OF CE iLS IN 7H'E'. CULTURE AND THE INCREASE OF ELIMINATION FREQUENCIES~OF F FACTORS' BY UREA. UREA APPARENTLY INACTIVATES F BY DIRECT ACTION, SUCH'AS MUTATIONI, AND BY SELECTING F V'ARIANTS',BY DIFFERENTIALLY INHIBITING'THE'GROWTH OF F'. 0 i • .! 0 ! 0. Toy,e,~ ('137- .
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WPIIED 00010611 ' cyr PAGE 10 SLAVENTO%14 ' TWO ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ~ 24' AU - EOWARDS'JG ; JAMES DR ;~ MATH'IAS AP ;'EVANS MJ. AD - DEP. BIOCHEM.,, UNIV. COLL.LGNDONI, LONDOW, ENGL.TI, - SYNTHESIS OF RAPIDLY'LABELED RNA IN A BETA-GALACTOSIOASE CONSTITUTIVE MU9'ANT, OF ESCHERICHIA COLI < SI, - CA/012/007653W SO - BIOCHIi1. BIOPHYS. ACTA';i VOL 213, ISS'2, 1970~469-77 AB' - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM, ADS BY STUDYIHG 3H- AND 14'C'-LABELED [66'-22-8]' URACIL Ih'CCR'PORATIONI INTO POLYSOMES OF A BETA-GALACTOSIDASE'CONSTITUTIVE MUTANT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, IT WAS SHOWN TH'AT'BOTHI LYSATESIAND'RESUSPENDED!POLYSOME FRACTIONS' HAD AN EXCESS OF RAPIDLY LABELED RNA SEDIHENTING INITHE 30-50 S REGION OF [57r50'-1],.j5UCitOSEI GRADIENTS. EXCESS RNA FROM, THE' QONSTITUTIVE MrJT'AtIT WAS IN 2 REGIONS, WHICH CORRESPOtU)ED'TO RNA WITH'SEDIMENTATION VALUES'OF ABOUT 18 AND 25 S. GRATUITOUS. SYNTHESIS OF BETA-GALACTOSIDASE MAY BE ASSOCIATED!WITH ENHANCED LEVELS OF RIBOSOMAL FRECURSORS'., 25 AUI - KEL'KER'NE ;I HANSON TE ; ANDERSOW'RL. AD: - DEP.,OF BIOCHEM., MICHIGAN STATE UNIV'., EAST LANSING, M'ICH. TI - ALTERNATE PATHWAYS'OF D-FRUCTOSE METABOLISMIIM AEROBACTER AEROGENES. SPECIFIC 0-FRUCTOKINA'SE AND'ITS'PREFERENTIAL ROLE'INI THE METABOLIS°t OF SUCROSE SI - CAL01'2/000482F S0: - J. BIOL. CH£M.; VOL 245, ISS 8, 1970,2060-5 AB' - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM!ABS THE PATHWAY BY WHICH' [57-4BL71 D-FRUCTOSE WAS METABOLIZED, IN AEROBACTER AEROGENES PRL-R3' DEPENDED'ONiTHE SOURCE'OF THE SUGAR. EkOGENOUSLY'SUPPLIED 0-FRUCTOSE WAS METABOLIZEDIPRIMARILY'V'IA C15978-08-2]' D-FRUCTOSE 1-PHOSPHATE, kHILE THE'D-FRUCTOSE MOIETY 0F' C57-50-1] SlJCgOSE NAS. METABOLIZED PRIMARILY VIA ['6814r87-5] D-FRUCTO EPHQSPHATE. THE ENZYMES UNIQUE TO THE D-FRUCTOSE 1-PHOSPHATE PATHS:AY, PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE D-FRUCTOSE 1-PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE:AND D-FRUCTOSE 1-PHOSPHATE'KINASE, WERE ONLY SLIGHTLY INDUCED BY SUCROSE, WHEREAS D-FP.UCTOKINASE WAS INDUCED TO A HIGH LEVEL. A MUTANT LACKIR'G O-FRUCTOSE'l-PHOSPHATE:KINASE EXHIBITED, DEFECTIVE GROWTH ON D-FRUCTOSE BUT GREW' NORf1A'LLY' ON' SUCROSEr UTILIZING BOTH HEkOSE'MOIETIES. A MUTANT LACKING D'-FRUCTOKINASE'GREW NORMALLY ONID'-FRUCTOSE'AND:METUIBOLIZED THE D-FRUCTOSE MOIETY OF SUCROSE VIA D-FRUCTOSE 1-PHOSPHATE, RATHER THAN D-FRUCTOSE 6-PHOSPHATE. A MU!TANT! LACKING BOTH OF THESE ENZYMES' GREW NORMALLY ON C50-99-71 D-GLUCOSE:BUT VERY SLO9•1LY ON'SUCROSE AND NOT AT ALL ONI D-FRUCTOSE. BOTH D-FRUCTOSE AND SUCROSE INDUCED' SUCRASE ACTIVITY IN ALL,4 STRAINS: 26 AU AD, TI SI SO AB' NEUROSPORA CRASSA DURING GROWTH ON 1.5'[57-50_-1]~ROSE.AS c 4L ~ - FLAVELL RB ;!W00DWARD:DO ~ ~.. - DEP: OF B10L_ SCI., STANFOP.D UNIV'.n STANFORDi, CALIF. ~ - REGULATION OF SYNTHESIS OF KREBS CYCLE ENZYMES ININEUROSPORA,BY CATABOLITE AND END PRODUCT REPRESSION ~' - CA/012/000344N Q~ - EUR« J. BIOCHEM'.;I VOL 13, ISS' 3, 1970,54'8'-53I ci ' - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM'ABS KREBS'CYCLE ENZYNES WERE REPRESSED IN N
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~~&AC_K(,5_110 copim 0001061i2 I,,', PAGE 11 SLAVEHTOXZATW0 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- CARBON'SOURCE AS COMPAREDITO GROWTNION 40MMI C64-19-73 ACETATE. INIMITaCHONDRIAL, CYTOCHROME-DEFICIENT STRAINS'GRO$-84'QN'SUCROSEr. THIS ['50!-99-7], GLUCOSE OR CATABOLITE REPRESSION WAS DiECREASED IN MUTANT STRAINS'INIWHICH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS'AND MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATIONIWERE INHIBITED, CATABOLITE REPRESSION WAS ENHANCED, SUPPORTING'THE'HYPOTHESIS THAT [56-65-571 ATP'OR THE CEtLULAR' ENERGY LEVEL WAS INVOLVED IN CATABOLITE REPRESSION. ADDITION OF 0.5 CASAMINO ACIDS'TO'A CULTURE GROWING ON SUCROSE OR ACETATE, . DID NOT CAUSE REPRESSION OF ANYi OF THE',KREBS'CYCLE'ENBYMES' M'EASUREDI, INI SPITE' OF THE FACT THAT MANY OF THE CONSTITUENT AMIWO' ACIDS'WERE CONSIDERED AS'BIOSYNTHETIC PRODUCTS OF THE'KREBS CYCLE. THE INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENERGY'METABOLISM, THE ENERGY' DISTRIBUTION'IN THE CELL, AND'CATABOLITE REPRESSIONIARE DISCUSSED. 27 AU - PAL'MOVA NP ; MAKSIMOVA'RA' AD' - LAB. ANTIBIOT., MOSK. GOS'.,L4JIV.,IM. LOMONOgOVA, MOSCOW, USSR',., TI - EFFECT OF C!'.RB'JHYDRATES ON' THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, Atv'D SPOROGENESIS OF VARIOUS'STR'AINS OF TRICHOTHECIUM ROSEUMI SI - CA/012/000212T S0 - BIOL. NAUKI (lMOSCOW);'ISS 2, 1970!,82-7 AB - CBAC' COPYRIGHT: CHEM ABS THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS'CARBOHYDRATES WERE STUDIED ON SPORE FORMATiION ANDi THE LIFE CYCLE OF' 16 TRICHOTHECIUMIROSEUM STRAINS DIVIDED INTO 4 MORPHOLOGICAL GROUPS' ACCORDING TO'THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS ON'AGARINUTRIENT MEDIUM AND THE LEVEL OF ANTIBIUTIC FORMATION. STRAINS'WERE ISOLATED FROM NaTiJR'AL SUBSTRATES AND'OBTAINED DURING [684-93r5]i N'ITROSOMETHYLUREA- AND [6379-69-7] TRICHOTECHIN-INDUCED' MUTATIONS. [50-99-731 GLUCOSE WAS THE MOST FAVORABLE STIMULATOR OF GROWTH', DEVELOPMENT, AND SPOROGENESIS FOR STRAINS IN ALL MORPHOLOGICAL GROUPS AND FACILITATED INTENSIVE GROWTH OF CONIDIUM AND MYCELIUMI, EARLY Af:) ABUdDANT FORMATION OF MACROCONIDIUMi, AND! ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY. [57-50-1J SUC,ROSE, [56-81i-51 GLYCEROL,, C69-65-8J' MAf`9JI'TOL, AN"J SFARCHI PROLONGED THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH PHASE. [3615-4'1-6J1 RHArNOSE STIMULATED DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETATIVE MYCELIUT AND ItA(IBITED'SPOROGENESIS, WHILE C63-42-31 LACTOSE INHIBITED!MYCELI/YL GROWTH, MACROSPOROGENESIS, ANDlANTIBIOTIC' FORMATION. 28 AU' - KINGSBURY EWI ;I VOELZ' HI . AD - SCH. OF MED'6, WEST VIRGINIA UNIV'., MORGANTOASN', WI. VA. TI - INDUCTION OF HELICAL ARRAYS OF RIBOSOMES BY VINBLASTINE SULFATE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI SIi - CA/01'1G000900V' 30 - SCZENCE';' VOL 1669 1S3'3906r 1969,768'-9' AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT:' CHEM ABS' G143-67-91 VINBLASTINE SULFATE 5'.4 X 10 4 OR 5.4 X 10 5M ELICITED, NUMEROUS'RIBOSOMAL HELICES IN ABOUT 70-80 OF THE CULTURES OF ESCHERICHffA COLII MUTANT SUD 24, WHEREAS NONE ORI ONLY A' FEW RIEOSOHA'L HELICES WERE SEEN', INI CONTROLS. THE HELICES'IN TREATED' BACTERIA:WERE'USUALLY SEEN AT THE DIVISION PLANE, ANDlWERE OFTEN COYNECTiED TO THE MEMOR'ANE NO DISTINCT RIBOSOMAL HELICES'WERE SEEN IlN CONTROL CELLS, BUT PAIRING OF' RIBOSOMES WA'S'OFTENINOTICED NEARITHE DIVISION'PLANE. THE VIN3LASTINE SULFATE-TREATED SPECIMENS CONTAINED MANY MORE a W ol ! 0 - •
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00010613 ( y PAGE, 12 SLAVENTOXa~ TWD COPIED DIVIDING CELLS TH'AN'CONTROLS, SUGGESTING'EITHER',A PARTIAL ARREST OF DIVISION, OR ANiINCREASED'DEGR'EE'OF SYNCHRONY'IN THE'CULTUREI. ESCHERICHIA CDLI K12GR0WNl INI A[57-50-1)', SUCROSE-DEFICIENT'MEDIUM AND' EXPOSED T0, [6'0-00-47i EDTA SIHI-CAR RESULTS WHENI VINBLASTiINE SULFATE OF'STRAINS K1'2 AND SUD 24 MAY BE A:MATTER OF. PERMEABILITY. TREATED WITH.VINBLASTINE SULFATE. THE DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE T0, 29' AUi - SIEGEL SM' AD - UNIV'. OF HAWAII,. HONOLULU, HAWAII. TI - MICROBIOLOGY OF SATURATED SALT SOLUTIONS'AI'2D OTHER HARSHI ENVIRONifENTS'. V: RELATION OF INOSINE 5'"-PHDSPHATEI AND CARBOHYDRATE TO, GROWTH I OF W1LD-TYPE' ANDI MUTANT PENICILLIUM IU BORIC ACID AkD POTASSIUM CHLORIDE SELECTIVE MEDIA SI - CA/011/000862J! S0, - PHYSIOL. PLANT.,I VOL 22, 1969,1152-7 AB - CBAC COPYR'IGHT:! CHEM ABS CHEMICAL STRESS TOLERANCE IN A PENCILLIUM MUTANT WAS STUDIED USING'PQTASSIUM CHLORIDE- AND!BORIC ACID-SATURATED' [50-99-77 GLUCOSE 5 G/L.,PEPTONE:BROTH AS A BASIC GROWTH MEDIUM. VARIATIONS WERE THE PRESENCE!OR ABSENCE OF' [1'31-99-77 INOSINIC ACID IMP AND THE CHOICE OF CARBOHYDRATE WH'ICN WAS SUBSTITUTED!FOR GLUCOSE. GROWTH WAS COMPLETELY'RESTRICTEO TO THE MUTANT., IN THE PRESENCE OF D-GLUCOSEs: 057-48-77i D-FRUCTOSEPI [59-23-41 D-GALACTOSE, t87-72'-9]i L-ARABINOSE'r [50-69=10I D-RIBOSEa OR' E58-86-6a' D-XYLOSE THE MUTANT GREW BOTH INIPO'rASSIUM CHLORIDE, AND' BORIC ACID MEDIA THERE,WERE NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES!IN THE GROWTH RATES WITH THESE MONOSACCHARIDES'. THESE'GRO'dTH RATES WERE EtMAItCED BY 2.5-6-FOLD BYi IMP I G/'L.. BURIC', ACID' BLOCKED SPORULATIONIlR9ER ALL CONDIT!IONS. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE'PERMITTED SPORES OF ABi!ORMAL COLOR TO FORMIWITHOUT' IMP. U8IEREAS' SPORES OF NORMAL GREEN COLOR APPEARED IN ITS PRESENCE. MED'IA,CONTA'INING BORIC ACID AND DISACCHARIDES OR: STARCH SUPPORTED NO, GROWTH'., BUT' THE ADDITION OF IMP STIMULATED GROWTiHI WITHOUT SPORULATION. IN' POTASSIUM' CHLORIDE MEDIA: [57-50-1], SUCROSE' ALONE' AMONG' THE DffSACCHAR'IDES!ARro,STARCH P MITTED GRO5ITH WITHOUTiIMP, BUT THE NUCLEOTIDE WAS REQUIRED, FOR SPOROGENESIS. THUS, THE ROLE OF NUCLEOTIDES, ESPECIALLY'IMP. IS.NOT LIMITED' TO, RECOVER!Y'FROM, EXPQSURE! TO! EXTREME SALT EFFECTS, BUT ALSO' APPLIES TO GROWTHI IN THE CONTINUING PRESENCE OF QUITE DIFFERENT CHEMICAL STRESS CONDITIONS. 30 AU! - TOMITA' T: 02"A1JA T i! TOMITAI I AD - SHIZUOKA COLL. PHARM. SCI.,i SHIZUOKA, JAPAN. TI' - ROLE OF MYO-INOSITOU IN!METABOLIC CONTROL. III. EFFECTS OF CARBDN'. SOURCES ON'MYO-INOSITOL DEFICIENCY OF SACCHAROMYCES CARLSDERGENSIS!4228 ATCC 9080' SI - CA/011/000160D SO - CHEM. PHARM.,BULL.i VOL 17, ISS'9w 1969.1787'-93 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT:' CHETT A8S' THE GRO'aTH OF SACCIIARO7YCES' CARLSBERGENSIS WAS'INHIBITED BY 187-89-81 MYO-INOSITOL M-I DEFICIENCY' WHEN C50-99-77 GLUCOSE, C57'-48-71, FRUCTOSE, 'ST-50_1I : SUCROSE. AND C3458-28'-491 MANHOSE WERE'USED AS CARBONIAND EW dGY"a SOURCES.. BUT NOT WHEN [59-23-4] GALACTOSE uAS USED. THOUSH
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94 CQR1ffD. 00010614 (m.5r PAGE 13' SL'AVENTOXZM1 TWO 0 M-I'-DEFICIENT', THE AMOUNT OF [513r86-01, ACETOIN' FOL'ND INI GALACTOSE-GROkIN CULTURES WAS NEGLIGIBLE, WHILE LARGER AMOUNTB'OF ACETOIN ACCUMULATEMWITH M-I-DEFICIENT CUI.TURES'GROWN WITH THE OTHER FOUR SUGARS. M-I-DEFICIENCY DECREASED!THE OXYGEN'UPTAKE'INI GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE,i SUCROSE, AND, MANNOSE-GROG.TJ'CULTURES T0 25-43 0 OF THE:AIORMAL LEVEL,: WHILE THE:OXYGEN UPTAKE'OF N-I-DEFICIENT GALACTOSE.-GROlrTI CELLS' WAS 76.3' OF THE NORMAL LEVEL., N0 INCREASE IN![i24-38-91, CARBON'DIOXIDE EVOLUTION OCCURRED WITH M'-I-DEFICIENTr 6AL'ACTOSE'-GROWN CELLSs 1.71'ILE A SLIGHT INCREASE 10-30 INICARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION OCCURRED WITH M-I-DEFICIENT SUCRDSE, 6LUCOSE, FRUCTOSE,i AT.'D MANNOSE'-GRO{~'W CELLS. 6ROWTH INHIIBITIONAND!UNDUE ACCUMULATION OF'ACETOIN!CAN BE CLOSELY CORRELATED WITH'RESPIRATORY IPv'HIBITIONI WITH RESPIR'ATORY' DEFICIENT' tOJTAN[TS OF TH'E, YEAST' NEITHER GROWTH INHIBITION NOR ACCUMULATION OF ACETOIN DUE TO M-I-DEFICIENCY OCCURRED, SUGGESTING THAT THE RESPIRATORY'ENZYNES t'AlST'BE PRESENT FOR ACETOINI PRODUCTION. THE ABNORMAL ACCUltULATIONI OF ACETOTN' INI M~I-DEPLETED CULTURE MEDIUM WAS:REPRODUCED!IN EXPERIMENTS WITHI CELL SUSPENSIONS'OF'THE YEASTiW1TH [113'-24-6J SODIUM PYRUVATE ANO, THE FIVE SUGARS AS SUBSTRATES. THE AMOUNT OF ACETOINIPRODUCED BY PYRUV'ATE-GRO{S!' CELLS WAS LESS THAN THAT' PRODUCEDIBY GLUCOSE-GROWN CELLS. A DIRECT'CYCLIZATION 0F'GALACTOSE TO M~I',WITHOUT CONVERSION OF GALACTOSE T0lGLUCOSE' MAYTAKE' PLACE' INI SACCHAROMYCES'CARLSBER6ENSIS. 31 AU! - OJHA:MN ; VELMELAGE R', ', TURIANIG AD TI - UNIV. GENEVE, GENEVA, SWITZ. - MALONATE METABOLISM STIMULATION OF'CONIDIATION AND!SUCCINATE SI DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY'IN NEUROSPORA CRAiSSA - CA/010/0o4628Q SO' - PHYSIOL« PLANT.;' VOL 22. LSS!4, 1969r$1!9-26 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHENI ABS C156-80-9]i KILONATE AT 10' 1N STIMULATED SUCCINATE',DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY'AIRD CONIDIATION'OF 0 NEUROSPORA CRASSA INCREASING THE'TEMPERATURE:FRON 25 TO 40 PROLONGED THE ONSETiOF STIMULATION., BUT AT 6 DAYS THE ACTIVITY' WAS 4-5-FOLD GREATER THAN TH'E'ACTIVITY'AT 36 HRS. THE EFFICIENCYi OF f57-50-1] SUCROSE METABOLISM FOR'CELLULAR SYNTHESIS WAS' ~ STIRIN L TE SUPPL'EMENTEDI CULTURES. HIGHI CONCENTRATIONS OF MALONATE 0i.5M HOWEVER,~ HADi A TOXIC EFFECT ONI CONIDIATION!AND THE EFFICIENCY'0F CELL SYNTHESIS'TERATOLOGICAL STRUCTURES'WERE'OBSERVED AT THIS H'IG1[ CONCENTRATION. MALONATE . NAYSTIttULATE CONIDIATION~VIASTINULATION OF'THEE430-75-1) GLYOXYLATE CYCLE'INVIVO IN HEUROSPORA CRASSA. 32' AUi - KLOTZSCHE C OD ' -AD - MED'.-BIOL. FORSCH., SANDOZ A.-6.,i BASEL, SWITZ. m TI - TERATOGENIC AND EMBRYOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CYCLAMATEP SACCHARIN ANO. ~ SUCROSE S1 - CA/010N003597S' SO - ARZNEIM.-FORSCH.;'VOL 19. ISS 6a:1969',925-8 Go 0 AB - CBAC COPYR'IGHT:! CHEM' ABS' [57-50}3 I SUCROSE 2, 4,: OR 110, G.AKG.GDAY, [139-05'-9J SODI YCLAMATE 50, 100,, OR 250 4h MG./KGw/DAY-ANO [128-44-9T SODIUM,SACCHARIN5, 10, OR 25 ~.
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AD! - DEP. FHARMP,COL., GUEEN'S'UNIV:r KINGSTON. ONT. TI - MAXIMAL TOLERATED AMOUNTS OF SUCROSE'GIVENIBYIDAILYIINTRAGASTRIC ADMINISTRATION TO ALBINO RATS SI - CAY010/000783P SO! - FOOD COSMET'. TOXICOL., VOL 6, ISS'6', 1968,717-27 AB - CBAC COPYR'IGHT:! CHEM ABS [57-50-11 SUCROSE WAS INTRAGASTRICALLY ADMINISTERED TO YOUNG, MALE RATS ONCE DAILY'FCR 100 DAYS OR UNTIL 60 OF THE ANIMALS DIED9 WHICHEVER OCCU2RED'FIRSIfi. THE'LD50i100. DAYS', OR DAILY DOSE, OF' SUCROSE THATi KILLED 50' OF' THE ANIMALS DURING 100 DAYS' WAS' 28'.5 AYI, AND THISI VALUE' WAS,801.6 THE 100- DAY LD50 INDEX'OF'THE ACUTE ORAL L050 1iDOSE'. THE 100-DAY LD50 INDEX WAS HIGHER'.FOR SUCROSE THAN FOR ANY DRUG PREVIOUSLY STUDIED. SIGNS;OF TOXICITY AT THE ORAL LD501100 DAYS WERE GROWTH' INHIBITIONsi DIURESIS, POLYDIPSIA,, ACIDURIA,, DIARRHEA,, SOILING', ATA'KIA, HYPOREFLEXIA,,DROWSINESS, PALLORti PROSTRATION, ~ MENINoOENCEPHALITIS, ARTERIOLITIS', MYOCARDITIS, HEPATITISr NEPHRITIS, PNEUMONITISn INH'IBITED!SPERMATOGENESIS, WEIGHT LOSS, AND DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN MANY BODY ORGANS A'ND' HYPERTROPHY'OF' MG.JKG./DAY',GIVEN ORALL'Y'TO PREGNANT RABBITS IN.ESCA'LATING DOSES DURING THE PERIOD OF ORGANOGENESIS'FROM THE 6TH TOlTHE 18TH DAY 0F'GESTATION'DIDiNOT SHOW ANYlTERATOGENIC OREMBRYOTOXIC EFFECTS. 33 AU - ROMA6MJ' AH N KORNBERG HL AD - UNIV« LEICESTER:, LEICESTER, ENGL. TiI' - REGULATION!OF SUGAR UPTAKE BY'ASPERGILLUS NIOULANS SI - CA/010/002095fi SO - PROC. R,. SOC. LONDON, SER. B; VOL 173mISS 1033, 1969,475-90 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT:' CHEM ABS C71-50!-11 ACETATE INHIBITED THE' UTILIZATION OF [50-99'-7] GLUCOSE'OR'['56-81-51 GLYCEROL BY CULTURES OF ASPERGI'LLUS'NIDULANSvBUT NOT OF A MUTANT WHICH LACKEDiACETYL-COA,SYNTHETASE ACTIVITY. ACETATE'ALSOiINHIBITED TH'E' UTILIZATION OF GLUCOSE, C57-48-71 FRUCTOSE, (69'-79-41 MATTOSE, [63-4'2'-3] LACTOSE, [59r23-41 GALACTOSE'i C3458-28-41 MAKTIOSE, [69-65-87I M.ILh'NITOL, AND GLYCEROL BY' AN ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS MUTANT'FOiICH'LACKED A COMPONENT! ENZYME,OF THE PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX IN THIS MUTANT. THE FORMATION'AND EXCRETION' OF [57=6"0-3]i PYRUVATE FROM THE', SUGARS' WAS STRONGLY INHIBITED'. BY ACETATE, BUT OCCURRED RAPIDLY IN ITS ABSENCE. IN CONTRAST,i PYRUVATE FORMATION FROM [57-5 +- L-M=a BY TtIIS MUTANT WAS NOT INHIBITED BY ACETATE, INMCATiING THAT THE INHIBITORY ACTION OF ACETATE WAS ON'THE UPTAKE 0F'THE SUGARS'BY'THE CELLS. ACETATE MARKEDLY INHIBITED THE'UPTAKE OF 14C'-LABELED GLUCOSE AND ['154'-17=61, 2'-DEOXY~-D-GLUCOSE'.AFTERADDITION OF2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE TO, THE MEDIIUM, THE PREDOMINANT COMPOUND FOUND IN THE CELLS HAS PHOSPHOZYLATED12-DEOXY-D-6L'UCOSE ANALOGS AND FREE 2-DEOXY-D~-GLUCOSE IN THE PRESENCE OF ACETATE, THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THESEILABELED MATERIALS, BUT NOT THEIR,REL'ATIVE PROPORTIOWSs L'ERE,MARK'EDLY DECREASED!. THUS. THE UPTAKE'OF THESE SUGARS'BY THE CELLS IS REGULATED BY THE INTRACELLULAR' LEVELS OF AN'ACETATE METABOLITE, WHICH MAY BE'EITHER' [72-89-9J, ACETYL COA OR' [126-44-31 CITRATE. 34 AU - CONSTANTOPOUL'OS' G i' BOYD EM'. (L (k (4k
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THE GASTRD-INTESTINAL TISSUES. THESE'EFFECTS WERE LESS'PIARKED.OR' ABSENT AT THE MAXIMUM LD0 10(fDAYS, THE LARGEST DOSE,THAT CAN BE GIVEN DAILY FOR,100:CONSECUTIVE'DAYS WITHOUT CAUSING'DEATH', WHICU WAS 19'.8 6. SUCROSE PER', KG./DiAY'., AT THE MINIMUM LD100~ 100, D'AYS OF 35'.5 G'. SUCROSE', PER KG.ADAYn THE' SIGNS' OF' TOXICITY WERE. SIMZLAR',TO'.THOSE SEEN IN ACUTE 1-DOSE TOXICITY STUDIES. 35 AUl - DICKER JW c OULEVEY N i'TURIAN 6 AD, - UNIV:. GENEVE, GENEVA, SWITZ. TI - AMINOiACID INDUCTIONOF CONIDIATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN'WILD'.TYPE,AND MORPHOLOGICAL MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA SI - CA1009Y00566CK S0 - ARCH. MSKROBIOL.r~VOL 65, ISS 3, 19(i9,241-57' AB; - CBAC' COPYR'IGHT:~ CHEM ABS' THE PRESENCE OF'4-8 CASAMINO ACIDS AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN THE'GROWTKMEDIlUM MARKEDLY~ALTERED THE'MORPH07.OGY OF WILD-TYPE AND'SEVERA'L MORPHOLOGICAL MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA,,EVEN STIMULATING CONIDIATIONIUA STRAIN PP,EVIOUSLY~THOUBHT ACONIDIAL. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED,BY THE AMINO ACIDS'WERE REVERSED BY 2'[57'-50-13 SUCROLE` OR',OTHER,SUGARSr BUT OTHER CARBON'SOURCES, IHCUWrNG [57-60-3J PYRUVATE, [71-50-1] ACE7ATE, AND KREBS-CYCLE INTERMEDIATES'H'AD'NO SUCH EFFECT: ELECTRON'MICROSCOPY'OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL t"x1TANT, AMYCELIAL, SHOWED CHAR'ACTiERISTIC' MOD'IFICATIONS'OF THE CELL WAUL, ENDOPLASMIC'RETiICULUM, AND' MITOCHONDRIA, ACCOMPANYING!INDUCTION OF'CONIDIATION BY THE AMINO ACIDS OR A COMBINATION OF ACETATE'PLUS [56-14-471 SUCCINATE. THE MODIFICATION OF THE EN')OPLASMIC RETICULUM ACCOMPANYING INDUCTIONI OF CONIDIATION WAS PROSABLY RELATED TOlA MORE AEROBIC METABULISM' WHICH ACCOMPANIES'THE'TRANSITIONL 36 AU - CLARK'AM ; CLARK'EG' AD - FLIK9ERS'UNIV. SOUTH AUSTRALIA, ADELAIDE, AUST.. TI - THE GENETIC'EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE IN DRUSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. SI - CA/008/006414Z' SO' - MUTAT. RES.r VOL 6, ISS 2, 1968*227-34. AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEMiABS BOTH'MALE AND FEMALE'DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER LARVAE REARED ONI A MEDIUMI CONTAINING 0'.O1Mi [58-08-27, CAFFEINE EXHIBITED AN! INCREASED FREQUENCY OF'CHROMOSOMAL LOSS'AND. SOME DECREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF NON+DISJUNCTION, AT LEAST IN THE,MALES:~ ADULT DROSOPHILA INJECTED WITH 0.1iMUL. OF 0'.01M' CAFFEINE IN 0.7 SODIUy'CHLORIDE SOLUTION OR',FED ON 0.01M!CAFFEINE' PLUS 10 [5-52-11'~S!.~'GROSg SOLUTIONIFOR'72 HRS. DID NOT SHOIW ANY' SIGNIFICANT'CHROMOSCt1AL LOSS OR NON-DISJUNCTIONI EVIDENCE FOR' THE INDUCTION OF SEX-LINKED.RECESSIVE LETHAL MUTATIONS IN MALE, DROSOPHILA BY CAFFEINE WAS'NOT CONCLUSIVE.
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37 AU - BUFFARD-MOREL J AD, - LAB'. CROISSANCE, D.R'.S.T.O.M., BONDY, FR. TI - EFFECTS'OF GLUCOSE!, FRUCTOSE,i MALTOSE, AND'SUCROSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT 0F'OIL PALt1, ELAEIS GUINEENSIS, EMBRYOS CUI:TURED IN VITRO SI - CAG008/003699K' SO - C. R. HEBD.i SEANCES ACAD. SCT., SERC DG VOL 26'7. ISS 2, 1968,185-8' AB' - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEH ABS THE EFFECTS'OF CULTURE ON HELLERS MEDIUM CONTAINING ANY OF 4 SUGARS' 0.5,, 1i,, 2',i 3,i OR' 4 0N THE DEVELOPMENT OF'OIL PALMr ELAEIS'GUINEENSIS', EMBRYOS WERE INVESTIGAT!ED'. C57-48-7] FRUCTOSE ENH'ANCED THE APPEARANCE OF ABNORMALITIES AND, SMALL CRACKS IN THE COTYLEDONARY PETIOLE'AND LIMB. THE COTYLEDONARY'PETIOLE DID NOT SHOW GREENING IN'THE PRESENCE OF FRUCTOSE, BUT'GREENED NORMALLY DUR2N3 GROWTH OU [50-99-7] GLUCOSE,i C69-79'-41i MALTOSE, AND [57-50-1] SUCROSE. THE CUTYiLEDUNARY' LIMB SHO:JED NORMAL GREENING' INiF E~FFRE`SERCE"OF't:OW CONCENTRATIONo!OF GLUCOSE OR'SUCROSE', BUT BROHNING!OR'NECROSZS OCCURRED' WITHICONCENTRATIONS'ABOVE'2:GLUCOSE OR', 4 SUCROSE•4: GLUCOSE CAUSED TOXIC SYMPTOMS. MALTOSE DQD NOT SUPPORT'ROOT GROWTHL ALTHOUGH M1IXIMUMi GRO:ITH WASi ACHIEVEDi WITH 2' GLUCOSE OR' WITH 2' ORI 3 SUCROSEi THE 2' GLUCOSE' CAUSEDi BR06.TlING OF THE HAUSTORIUM'u INDICATING THE USE OF 3 SUCROSE'FOR', CULTURING OIL. PALMiEMBRYOS'.. 38' AU - ARIMA K' i' KATOH' Yi ; BEPPU' T' AD - UNSV. TOKYO, TOKYOG JAPIAN'. TI - COtICIN'B. MODE OF ACTION'ANDiNEW'EXTRACTION METHOD, FROM'CELLS 51 - CA/007/005177S S0, - AGRIC. BIOL. CHEM.; VOL 32, ISS'2,, 1968n170-7' AB - CBAC COPYR'IGHT~! CHEMIABS THE FORMATION AND!BACTERICIDAL AC7IV,ITY OF COLICIN B WERE EXAMINED. ADDITION OF' YEAST EXTRACT AND INDUCTION BY ['50-07-7]' MITOMYCIW'C 2! MUG./ML. WER'E'ESSENT'IAL FOR THE FORMATSONIOF COLICIN B BY SALMONELLA'TYPHIMURIUMILT2'B. A NEWIEXTRACTION METHOD IS'DESCRIBED'. COLICIN B-PRODUCING CELLS WERE' INCUBATED! WITH'. 0.2 A6UEOUS' ['60~-00-41 EDTA AT 37 FOR' 30 MIN'.,i UNDER'WHICH~ CONDITIONS'ALt1OST ALL THE,INTR'ACELLULAR COLICINS WER,E EXTRACTED' FROM'THE CELLS INTO, TNE MEDIUM. COLICIN EZ, COLICIN B,, AND COLICIN I'WERE EXTRACTED BY THIS METHOD6 CDL:ICIN B INHIBITED, OXYGEN UPTAKE;, OXIDATiIVE PHOSPHORYLATIONd PERMEABILITY'OF THE CELL MEMBRANE'TOWl:RDS [369-07-31 O+NITROPHIENY,L BETA-GALACTOSIDE, ANDTHiE SYNTIIESES' OF' Pi RNA, AND DNA BYi SENSITIVE' ESCHER,ICHIA COLI K-12W12252' T. COLICIN B'COULD NOT BE DISTINGUISHED1FROM'COLICIN K BY A:CRDSS-IMMUNITYiTEST USING K-COLICINOGENIC STRAINS. ALTHOUGH COLICIN K'AND!COLICIN B BOTHi -HAD A SIMILAR PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT'ON ESCHERICHIA COLI,i SEVERAL DIFFERENCES'NERE OBSERVED. C57-50-Ii SUCROSE 20 PARTIALLY PROTECTED ESCHERICHIA COLI K-12W 225 ' LL~ifROMICHACLENGE WITH COLICIN'K,BUT NOTi WITH! COLICINIB. ANaEROBICALLY'CULTURED CELLS'. HAD A HIGHER! SURVIVAL RATIO, THAN A'EROBICALLY'CULTURED CELLS {v71EN TREATED WZTH' COLICINy B',i ALTHOUGH'. THE AERATION CONDITIONS' DIO NOT AFFECT THE LETHAL ACTIVITY'OF COLICIN K. DESPITE THESE DIFFERENCES,,A CLOSE RELATION SEEMS'TO EXIST BETWEEN THE 2'
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COLICINS. 39 AU - CONTESSE G ; GROS F AD - INST. BIOL. PHYSICO-CHIM., PARIS. TI - EFFECT OF CHLCRAMPHENICOL ON THE TRANSCRIPTION OF THE LACTOSE OPERON IN POLAR MUTANTS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI SI - CA/007/004684T SO - C. R. HEBD. SEANCES ACAD. SCI., SER. 0; VOL 266, ISS 3, 1968,262-5 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM ABS INDUCTION OF BETA-GALACTOSIDE TRANSACETYLASE BY THIOGALACTOSIDE IN THE WILD TYPE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI INCREASED THE 30S FRACTION WHICH CORRESPONDS TO THE COMPLETE POLYCISTRON MESSENGER RNA AND THE 23S FRACTION OF THE INCOMPLETE [63-42-3] LACTOSE MESSENGER IN THE [57-50-1] SUCROSE GRADIENT CENTRIFUGATION, AS COMPARED TO THE N~~FJ6U~~D~ONTROL CULTURE. IN THE TOTAL OR PARTIAL POLAR MUTANTS, THE INDUCTION OF 30S AND 23S FRACTIONS COULD BE RESTORED TO NCRMAL LEVELS BY THE ADDITION OF [56-75-77 CHLORAMPHENICOL. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT CHLORAMPHENICOL SUPPRESSES THE POLAR EFFECT AT THE LEVEL OF TRANSCRIPTION. IN THE ABSENCE OF THE ANTIBIOTIC, THE RIBOSOMES ENCOUNTERING A NONSENSE CODEN DISSOCIATES INTO SUBUNITS, THUS, INTERRUPTING THE TRANSCRIPTION. CHLORAMPHENICOL PREVENTS THIS DISSOCIATION AND THE 70S RIBOSOMES SLIDE BEYOND THE NONSENSE CODEN UP TO THE TERMINAL POLYCISTRON tiESSENGER. CHLORAMPHENICOL PERHAPS PLAYS A ROLE LIKE AtiINDACYL-TRNA OR PEPTIDYL-TRNA BY OCCUPYING THE SITES OF THE PRECURSORS ON THE SOS SUBUNITS. 40 AU - HABERMANN HM AD - GOUCHER COLL., TOWSON, MD. TI - ALLAGOCHROME. II. EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND SUBSTRATE ON ALLAGOCHROME AND CHLOROGENIC ACID LEVELS OF INCUBATED SUNFLOWER LEAF DISKS SI - CA/007/002441N 50 - PLANT PHYSIOL.; VOL 42, ISS 12, 1967,1769-79 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM ABS SUNFL04:ER, HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, LEAF DISKS INCUBATED FOR 24 HRS. IN THE LIGHT ON [57-50-1}_ SUCR_OSE 0.5M SHOWED INCREASED AMOUNTS OF EXTRACTABLE ALLAGQCHROME AND [327-97-9] CHLOROGENIC ACID blHEN COMPARED WITH DISKS INCUBATED IN THE DARK. THESE CHANGES WERE LINEAR WITH TIME OF ILLUMINATED INCUBATION, AND OXYGEN WAS REQUIRED. THE LIGHT EFFECT WAS SATURATED AT APPROXINATELY 600 MUa./CM.2 WHITE LIGHT WHICH IS ROUGHLY THE COMPENSATION POINT FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS. RED LIGHT WAS AS EFFECTIVE AS WHITE LIG`1T. INCUBATION IN THE DARK OR FAR-RED LIGHT PRODUCED NEGLIGIBLE CHANGES IN THE LEVELS OF ALLAGOCHROME AND CHLOROGENIC ACID. THE NET LIGHT EFFECTS WITH [57-48-7] FRUCTOSE 0.2t1 AND [50-99-71 GLUCOSE 0.2M WERE GREATER THAN THOSE WITH SUCROSE AT THIS CONCENTRATION. THE OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR THE INCUBATION WAS 20-30. ALLAGOCHROME AND CHLOROGENIC ACID VALUES OF BOTH LIGHT- AND DARK-INCUBATED SAMPLES DECREASED BETWEEN 30 AND 50, APPROACHING 0 AT 50. THE NET LIGHT EFFECTS DECREASED TO 0 BETWEEN 40 AND 50. [51-28-5] 2,4-DINITROPIENOL, HYDP.OXYLAMINE, AND C94-67-77 SALICYLALDOXIME HAD NO EFFECT ON LIGHT-ENHANCED ALLAGOCHROME AND CHLOROGENIC ACID VALUES EXCEPT AT HIGH CONCENTRATIONS WHICH WERE GENERALLY DELETERIOUS TO LEAF TISSUES AND WHICH CAUSED DECREASED VALUES FOR BOTH DARK- AND (w #0 0 4
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n LIGHT-INCUBATED SAMPLES. [33D-54!-11 DICHLOROPHENY'LDIMETHYLUREA 1-10MUMIAND,AZIDE 0.1-1MM COMPLETELY INHIBITED THE NET LIGHT EFFECTS WITHOUT CHAi:GING THE V'ALUES' OF DARIK-INCUBATEDi DISKS. LEAF TISSUES~FROM HELIANTHUS ANNUUS XANTHA MUTANTSDID NOT SHOW A LIGHT-STIMULATED INCREASE IN A'LLAGOCHROME AND CHLOROGENIC ACID LEVELS. THE ABSEMCE'OF'LIGHT EFFECTS IN NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC LEAF' TISSUE AND THE'INHIDITING~EFFECTS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC POISONS SLMdGESTS'THAT THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC'APPARATUS'IS INVOLVED IWITHE LIGHT EFFECT. AN HYPOTHESIS FOR I:IGHT-REGULATED' METABOLISM VIA PHENOL'IC'SYfNTNESIS,IS'.DISCUSSED. 41 AU - POSNER ft AD - STATE UNIV: OF NEW', YORK'V BINGHAMTON. TI - INHTBITO7Y EFFECTi'OF'SUCROSE ON,FLO'rfERING IN'LEMNA,PERPUSILLA, 6746 AND;MUTANT STRAIN 1073 SI: - CA/006/007264W 50 - PLANT CELL PN'YSIOL.;~ VOL 8's ISS 3. 1967,535-9 AB' - CBAC COPYRIGHT-' CHEM~ ABS LEMNA PERPUSILLA STRAINI 6746 AND! ANI . X-RAY INDUCED1MUTANT. STRAIN 1073., HERE GROl.TI'ON HALF-STRENGTH~ HUTNER MED'IUM WITHOUT C5T-50-1')' SUCE= AND: THEN GROWN ON VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF MEDIIJM WITH'OR'WITHQUT SUCROSE 0.03M UNDER'. NIGH'~INTENSITY LIGHT., SUCROSE INHIIBITED: FLOWERING IN THE MUTANT,. ESPECIALLY' WITHI LOW CONCENTRIATIONS OF THE MEDIUM~. SUCROSE ONLY SLIGHTLY INHIBITED FtOWERING'OF THE W,ILDITYPE', AND THIS ONLY AT THE LOWEST CONCENTRATIO4 OF THE NEDIUMITESTED 1/1'O1DILUTION_ EXPOSURE OF WI~LD TYPE,STRAINS TO~SUCROSE 0'.03M 1NCREASEDiTHEIR SENSITIVITY TO SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT WITH',SUCROSE 1/1!0 STREtdGTH HUTNER MEDIUM WITH &.03MISUCROSE., TO.DET!ERMINE WHETHER, INHIBITION OF FLOWERING BY SUCROSE'DEPEhbED ON LOWILEVELS OF' MINERALSOR'ONA HIGH SUCROSE TO MINERALS RATIOii WILD TYPE CULTURfS. PREVIOUSLY GRO:1N ON A-STOCIC,SOLUTION CONTAINING ~ SUCROSE WERE GROWN ON A I/10-STRENGTH'MEDIUMIWITHI SUCROSE dy 0.015~, OR, 0'.03M OR ONI1G2'-STRENGTH MEDIUM WITH 0a 0.075, OR 0~15H'SUCROSEr WHICH GAVE'THE SAME RATIOS.OF SUCROSE'TO MEDIUM FOR'BOTH GROUPS,. I'.E., 0,~ 0.15v AND 0~3. A RATIO:OF'0.15 COMPLETELY,INHIBITED. FLOWERING ON THE MORE DItUTE',MEDIUM', WHEP.EAIS.THIS RATIOiNITH HALF-STRENGTH MEDIUM'HADLITTLE'OR'N6 EFFECT THE HIGHEST RATIO, INHIBITED FLC".dERING W,ITHI BOTH CONCENTRATIONS OF MEDIUM. APPARENTLY. THE LOWER,RATIOS'OF'SUCROSE TOJMINERALS'ARE ADEQUATE TU INHIBIT FLO:.ERING WMEN~ THE' CONCENTRATION OF' MINERA'L'S' IS'. LOW., PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS INDICATED TFYAT [50-99-7]', GLUCOSE AND, ['S7-48-7)' FRUCTOSE BOT*II 0.,03M COMPLETELY INHIBITED: FLL'S:ERING~ON A 1/10-STRENGTH MEDIUM. THE'MACRONUTRIENT FRACTION OF THE MEDIUM APPARENTLY CONTATNS THE ACTIVE COMPONENT S,THHAT OVERCOME THE SUCROSE-INDUCED INHIBITION.
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42 AU, - HEPPEL LA, 9 AD - HATL. INST. OF ARTHRITIS ANDi METAB'. D'ISEASES,, BETHESDA, MD'. TI - SELECTIVE RELEASE OF ENZYMES FROM BACTERIA SI - CAf006/003466R SO - SCIENCE';' VOL P56, ISS 3781', 1967,1451-5 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT=~ CHEMIABSI A GROUP OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMESs INCLUDING'PMOSPHATASES AND NUCLEASES, WAS SELECTIVELY'RELEASED' FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI AIdD, CERT'AIN OTHER. GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA BY'QSMOTIC SHOCK. THIS PROCEDURE INVOLVED:EXPOSURE OF THE CELLS' TO'. 0150-4'3-67 ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE EDTA IN 0.5MI 057-50-131 qUC.ROS_EJOLLO.ED BY SUDDEN OSMOTIC TRANSITION TO' COLD D!fCOTE- MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE. OSMOTIC SHOCK ALTERED THE PERMEABILITY BARRIER OF THE'B'ACTERIAL CELL AND THE'DEPLETIONIOF THE POOL OF' ACID-SOLUBLE RAICLEOTIDES. BUT'NO'LOSS~OF VIABILITY WAS'OBSERVED. ON,BEING'RESTORED T01GROWTH MEDIUM, THE SHOCKEDiCELLS RECOVERED AFTER A LAG'PERIOD. THE',FORMATION'OF SPHEROPLASTS BY TREATMENT W'ITH'EDTA AfkDiLYSOZYME:LED!TO SELECTIVE RELEASE OF THE SAHE GROUP' OF ENZYMES. THE'RELEASED ENZYMES PROBABLY WERE CONFINED TO TH'E REGION BETWEEN THE BACTERIAL CELL WALL AND THE',CYTOPLASM'IC MEMBRANE. THE ENZYME ACTIVITIES'WERE,MEASURABLE WITH INTACT CELLS, EVEN WHEN THE SUBSTRATE WAS A'NUCLEOTIDEi~ TO1 WHICH WHOLE CELLS ARE IMPERMEABLE. A MUTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI WITH A DEFECTIVE CELL WALLn LOST ONE'OF'THESE'ENZYMES INTO!THE MEDIUM DUR'I!x's THE COURSE' OF GROWTH. AFTER' OSMOTIC SHDCK,, THE' BACTER;IlA', SHOWED A REDUCED UPTAKE OF SULFATE, BETA-GALACTOSIDESP [59-23-4I GALACTOSE, AND'CERTAIN AMINO ACIDS. THE SHOCK,TREATMENT CAUSED. THE RELEA'5E'OF NONDIALYZABLE FACTORS'ABLE TO BIND SULFATE, GALACTOSE's AND THE',SAHE AMINO ACIDS. THE BINDING PROTEINS. PROBABLY OCCUPY SITES NEAR'THIE'BACT'ERI'AL SURFACEn AND!THEY MAY BE COMPONENTS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS'RESPONSIBLE FOR', THE CONCENTRATIVE UPTAKE OF THESE NUTRIENTS., 0 ! 43 AU! - SHAW JH ;' KRUMINS' I' ;' GIBBONS RJ 0 AD - HARVARD,SCHOOL OF'DENTAL MED., BOSTON~, MASS. TI - COMPARISON OF'SUCROSEr LACTOSE, MALTOSE, AND'GLUCOSE IN'THE CAUSATION OF EXPERIMENTAL ORAL DISEASES' SI - CA/006/0013112P 9 SO - ARCH. ORAL BIOL.;I VOL 12, . ISS'6ti 1967,755-68 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHT-'CHEM ABS IN THE RICE RATf,,THE COMPLETE 50~i14a U2QneF IWI APER'IODQNTAC RERLACEMENlT OF i7 - - ~ SYNDROME-PRODIICING DIET BY (50+-9~9-77 GLUCOSE OR' BY CONFECTIOPtER'S' SUGAR, A MIXTURE OF'FINELYI GROUNDISUCROSE PLUS 3 STARCH. OR, 50 REPLACEMENT BY t63-42-3]i LACTOSE DID NOT EFFECTTHE COURSE 0F THE DISEASE INI THESE' ANIMALS HOF,EVER' REPLACEMENT' OF SUCROSE BY . ~ . [69,79-41i MALTOSE SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED THE'INCIDENCE OF THE SYNDROME, AND REPLACEMENT' BY I+L40LE k'HEAT' FLOUR OR WHITE FiOUR'. Qo REDUCED1IT STILL FURTHER. IN A riUTANT ALBINO!STR79INiOF RATS, (~'j COMPLETE REPLACEMENT OF'SUCROSE BY GLUCOSE'DIID NOT EFFECT THE INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES. BUT DIDlMODERATELY REDUCE THE ~i ! ICID'ENCE'IN A HARVARD CAR'IES-SUSCEPTIBLE STRAIN6REPLACEMENT OF M CONFECT!IONER'S'SUGAR BY GLUCOSE OR'BY GRAHULATED SUCROSE SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED CARIOUS LESIONS MALTOSE SUPPORTED ASy . wo -4, d w
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RAPID A DEVELOPMENT OF CARIOUS LESIONS AS SUCROSE,IN ALL EXPERIMENTS. STUDIES ON MIDCEDIMICROBIAL CULTL'RES'FROM!RATS FED-DIETS CONTAINING SUCROSE« GLUCOSE, OR MALTOSE SHOWED, THAT MALTOSE'AND SUCROSE PROMOTED A'SOME40iAT GREATER SYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULA.R':MATERIAL THAN DID GLUCOSE. THESE'CULTUR,ES ALSOi SYNTHESIZED DEXTRAN FROM EACH OF THE CARBOHYDRATES. IN CONTRAST TO!TiHE PLAQUE CULTURES FROM'RATS, WHICH'WERE ABLE TO:SYNTHESIZE' EXTRACELLULAR'MATERIAL,FROM'EACH'OF THE SUGARS, ORAL MICROFLORA FROM HAMSTERS'AND HUMANS SYNTHESIZED EXTRACELLULAR SLIME ONLY' FROM SUCROSE.. 44 AU' - SCHAEFER CH ; TiIEMAN' CH - AD - SHELL DEVELOP. CO.r, MODESTO, CALIF« TI - 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2-ONE AN INSECT'GROWTH'INHIBITOR',AND CHEMOSTERILANT SI' - CA/005J'006851'C S0 - J. ECON. ENTOHOL.;IVOL 60, ISS 2a 196'7,542-6 AS - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM'ABS' CS918-93-4] 4-IMIDuAZOLIN-2-OHE,FED'TO FEMALE HOUSEFLIES MUSCA DOMESTICA'AT 0.05 OR 0.3 IN THE'DIET INHIBITED REPRODUCTION TREATING ONLY THE HALES WAS WITHOUT EFFECT ON' REPRODUCTION. 4-IMID'AZOLINE-2-ONE 01.5' INJECTED INTO' STH'• INSTAR NYMPHS'OR'NEWL'Y EMERGED, ADULT MILKWEED!BUG ONCOPELTUS' FASCIATUS FOR'UP TO 5 DAYS CAUSED PRODUCTION 0F'UNVIABLE EGGS. A SINGLE INJECTED'DOSE'OF 2.5 GAMMA OF 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2'-ONE FOR' S DAYS'ORION IJATER'TREATED, WITHIO.S 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2-ONE'CAUSED' PERMAr'aENT STERILITiY'IN,ADUL'T'MALE', BUT NOT'FEMALEr MILKWEED BUGS. WHEN'CORN EARI]ORM HELIOTHIS ZEA PUPAE'WERE PROVIDED~WITH'5 ~,57-.50r.1L.5UCROSE,CONTAINING 0.05 OR 0.2 4-IMIDAZOLIM-2-ONE, THE NUHBER'OF EGGS LAID, THE HATCHABILITY OF THE EGGS, AND' THE DUR'ATION'OF OVIPOSITION WERE REDUCED. 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2-ONE EFFECTIVELY INH'IBITED DEVELOPMENT OF LARVAE OF THE'HOUSEFLYI, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTERr CORN EARWORM,i CABBAGE LOOPER TRICHOPLUSIA NI, MOSQUITD1ANOPHELES A'LBIMANUS, AND PEA APHIDS' ACYRTHOSIPHONiPISUMIIT WAS'INEFFECTIVE'AGAINST WEBBING CLOTHES MOTH TINEOLA BISEL'LIELLA'LARVAE AND TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER' MITE YETRANYCHUS UATTICAE NYMPHS AND ADULTS. WHEN 250:PPMi. 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2-ONE WAS FED' TO QUAILS COTURNIX INI THE D!IETr HOUSEFLY LARVAL DEVELOPMENT INITHE FECES WY1S'REDUCED'95 THE EGG' &'HITE 0F'THESE TREATED BIRDS CONRAINEDiABOUT'10'PPM'. OF THE COMPOUND. BROADBEAN, PINITO!BEAN, COi.ON, TOMATO!, AND CABBAGE PLANTS WERE SPRAYED TO RUNOFF'WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS'CONTAINING 0.1', 01.5. OR'1 4-IMIDAZOLINL-2LONE'. ONLY COTTON WAS INJUREDl AT THE 0.1 CONCENTRATIONIPINTO1BEANS'AND COTTON WERE MODERATLY' AT THE 1' LEVEL PINTO, BEANS WERE,SEVERELY BURNED BUT'NEW',GROIJTH WAS NOT AFFECTED COTTON AR] TOMATO LEAVES WERE MODERATELY INJURED (; AND!HEIGHT GROIITH'WAS REDUCED6 BROADBEAN AND CABBAGE PLANTS'WERE RESISTANT T0'EVEN THE'HIGHEST'DQSE USED. IN GENERAL, 4-IMIDAZOLIN-2-0NE HAD' GREATER BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY THAN DID ITS' ' GO•, SAITURATEDIAN J1LOGn C120-93-4I 2-IHIDAZOLIDIt;ONE., UK. INJURED AR'D:TOMATO PLANTS WERE SLIGHTLY INJURED AT THE 0.5 LEVEL. ~
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00010622 SLAVENTOX74 TWD PAGE, 21 ---------------------------------------------------------------°------------ 45 AU' - KABIEV OK ;'VERMENICHEV'SMI AD - KAZAKH, RES. INST. ONCOL. RADIOL. n AL'MA'-ATA, USSRI. TI - ONIANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF LEUKOANTOCYANIDINES AND CATECHINS SI - CA/004G0'01019G' SO - VOPR. ONKOL .„ VOL 12', ISSI 4v 1966,61-4 AB - CBAC COPYRIGHTs! CHEMIABS' A PREPAR'ATIONI70-80'MG. OBTAINED, FROM THE' BRANCHES OF EPHEDRA EQUISElfINA ANO' CONTAINING [491-52-10 LEUCODELPHINIOINE AND ANOTHER PREPARATION 70-80 MG. OBTAINED FROM THE'ROOTS OF FOLYGONUM COLIARIUM'AND CONTAINING LEUCODELPHINIOINE, ITS'POLYNER,, TANNING~ COMPOUtO)Sr [*u7-50-1'I SACCHAROSE;, [57-48-71~ FRUCTLISE,i [50-99-7]' GLUCOSE, AND: [149-91-7J1 GALLIC ACID INHIBITED GRAFTED P4ISS LYMPHOSARCOMA, SA.4COMA 45, WALKER CAfiCIhOMA, AND GEREN CARCINOMA BY 84-86a 74-78, 58a AND, ABOUT 51, RESPECTIVELY, INIMICE'AND!RATS. INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTIONS OF'THE TWO PREPARATIONS AT 5 X 250, 10 X 55. OR',10 Xi 110iMG'.AG,, OR ORAL ADMINISTRATIONIOF 2000 T0!6000 MG./KG. WERE NOT TOXIC INIMICE OR RATSL PREPARATIONS'OBTAINED FROM RUMEX'. CONFERTUS F81ICH'CONTAIhED~4 LEUCOANTOCYANIDES INHIBITEO, PLISS L'YMPHOSARCOMA BY'68-74 THE L.0.50 VALUE OF THIS PR,EPARATION'WAS NOT DETERMINED, DUE TO:ITS LOW TOXICITY: 46 AU' - SCOTT KJ' ; SHILLIE RM AD - BROOKHAVENINATL. LAB.n BIOL. DEPT., UPTONw N: Y. TI - METABOLIC REGULA7IONI INI DIISEASEO'. LEAVES'. I. THE' RESPIR'ATORY' RISE IN' BARLEY LEAVES', INFECTEDi WITH POWDERY, MILDEW SI - CA/003/005201NI SO' - PLANT PHYSIOL.; VOL 4I1, ISS 2, 1966,289-97 AB - CBAC COPYRIEHTZ CHEM':ABS' PHOTOSYNTHETIC ANDiRESPDRATORY ACTIVITIES'µERE MEASURED' IN BARLEY HORDEUM VULGARE LEAVES'AFTER' INFECTION'WITH POWDERY MILDEWIERYSIPHE GR'AMINIS TWO ISOGENIC LIHES, ONE' RESISTANT T0, INFECTiION', AND THE OTHER' HIGHLY' SUCEPTIBLE, HERE EXAMINED: THESE ISOGENIC LINES'SHOWED VERY DIFFERENT FHYSIOLO^aICAL RESPONSES FOLLLOWING'INFECTION. PHOTOSYNTHESIS ANDiTHE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF RESISTANT LEAVES WERE UNAFFECTED'.BYIIAFECTION. RESPIRATIONiINCREASED:SLIGHTLY WITH CONCQMITANT'SMALLL INCREASES INIACTIVITIES'0F'ENZYMES OF GLYCOLYSISvTHE PENTOSE PHOSPH'ATE PATHWAY, AND THE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID TCA',CYCt'E. THE'INFECTION OF SUSCEPTIBLE L'EAVESICAUSED k SLIGHT INCREASE IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS 48 HRS. AFTER IlNFECTIONy BUT SUBSEQUENTLY THERE WAS A'PROGRESSIVE DECREASE INIPHOTOSYNTHES3Ss AS COMPARED TO'THAT OF SUSCEPTIBLE UNINFECTED LEAVES. THE CAPACITY'OF'INFECTED,LEAVES FOR PARTIAL REACTIOWS 0F' PHOTOSYNTHESIS, SUCH AS THE HILL REACTION AND THE PHOTOREDUCTION: OF [53-59-81 N'ADP. DECREASED DURING THE LATER STAGES'OF INFECTIONI TIIE LEVELS OF CHLOROPHYLL, HADPH-DIAPHORASE, AND ALDOLASE ALSO DECLLINED.THERE WAS'NO DETECTABLE DIFFERENCE IWI RESPIRATIQN! OF'SUSCEPTIBLE'INFECTED AND' NONINFECTED L'EA1rES UNTIL 48 HRS.AFTER IKOCULATION:THEREAFTER', THE INFECTED: LEAVESISHOWED, A,HIIGHER'RESPIRATION,, THE MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE OCCURRIWG'ABOUT 144 HRS'. AFTER INOCULATION. THE INCREASE IN RESPIRATION WAS NOT ACCOMPANSED'.BY'SIGNIFICANT CHANGESIIN THE LEVEL'S'OF'ENZYMES OF GLYCOL'YSIS'AND THE TCA CYCLE,WITH THE EXCEPTION OF MALATE' 0
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DEHYDROGENASE, ITS ACTIVITY BEING LOWER IN THf'INFECTEO LEAVES. GLUCOSEr6-PHOSPHAT'E,D'EHYDROGEWASE AND'6-PHOSPHOGLUCONATE DEHYOROGENASE ACTIVITY SHOWED CHANGES'SIM'ILAR',TO THAT OBSERVED FOR RESPIRATION. THE RESPIRATION AND: THE ACTIVITIES'OF GLUCOSE-6-FHOSFHATE DENYDROSENaSE AND 6-PHOSPHOGLUCONATE' DEHYDROGENASE DID,NOT INCREASE INIINFECTED LEAVES OF ETIOLATED PLANTS, EVEN'WMEN EXCELLENT G&0llTH OF THE FUNGUS WAS ESTABILISHED BY GRDWINGS THE PLANTS'IN A h'HITE"S BASAL MEDIUMiSUPPLEMENTED'WITHI 157- UQ.5f_ THE RESPIRATIONi OF A' SUSCEPTIBLE CH OROPHYLL-LESS BARLEY MUTANT, WHEN GRO*4 IN THE LIGHT AT,11, WAS NOT CHAhGED BY INFECTION', ALTHOUGH THE,CHARACTiERISTIC RESPIRATORYI RISE' OCCURRED PSIEN GROWN AT 15 AT 11, CHLOROPLASTS FAILEOiTO DEVELOP 1N THIS MUTANT, NHEREAS DEVELOPMENT WAS NORMAL AT 15. THE PATHOGEN'PROBABLY'IS HOT DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE IN RESPIRATION'IN:GREEN LEAVES, BUT RATHER THE'IhrREASE'. IS DUE TO A LOSS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY IN THE HOST CELLS., 47 AU - BOYD EM :I GODI' I;' ADEL Mi AD - QUEEN'S UNIV'.v KINGSTON, CANI TI - ACUTE'ORA'L TOXICITY OF SUCRUSE' SI' - CAL002/000796E S0 - TOXICOL..APPL. PHARMACOL.; VOL 7v ISS 4, 1965P609-18 AB' - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEM ASS, THE L050 OF [57-50-11, SUCR~ GIVEN ORALLY WAS FOU:lD TO! BE' 35.4 7 G.JKG. IN MALE RATS' AND 29:7 3'.7' G.lKG:'LN FEMALE RATS. TOXIC SYMPTOMS WERE HYPOKINESIA, PROSTRATION, CYANOSISr ABDOMINAL BLOATING, AND DIARRHEA. DEATHS OCCURRING~FRON'DOSES EXCEEDING THE LD50 OCCURRED WITHINI10 HOURS AFTER',TONIC-CLONIC CONVULSIONS,i STUPOR', AND'RESPIRATORY FAILURE. GASTROENTERITISw ARTERIOLITIS, MILD HEPATITIS,i EARLY NEFHRITIS', MYOCARDITIS, AND CAP'IL'LARY' Ah'D' VENOUS' COhyESTION OF THE BRAIN AND. MENINGES'ACCO:IPANIED DEATH. SURVIVORS OF LETHAL DOSES DEVELOPED, POLYQIPSIJI, POLYU2IA.,AL'KALINURIA, AND SOME HYPERTHERMIA AT 3'AND 6 DAYS AFTER THE DOSING. THE DEHYDRATION OF'THE ORGANS'SEEN IN THE NONSURVIVORS HADlDISAPPEAREDlAFTER'2 WEEKS AND!THE WEIGHT AND APPEARANCE OF THE ORGANS WERE NORMAL AT 1 MONTH. qc ~s. .c k
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1 AU - Reiser S AU - Bi cN:ard MC ,-4U'- Hallfrisch J - Michaelis OE 4th AUI - Prather ES TI --=-BLoo!di liipids and their distribution i'n, lipoproteins iini huperinsul inemic subjects fe.d' three different levels of sucrose. LA - Ena MH - CholesteroU'RLUO!Di M~H - Llietarw Carbohwd'ratesfB''HA'RMIACOD'YlN'AM'1I,CS .. MH - MIH, - MH' - MH - D'iose-Response Itelati~onshipy Itiruig Femal e H'uman H'uperinsuilinism/*KL00U ,. MH - MH - Li'pi1d's/*8L0i0I+' Lipop rotei'ns/*l+'L00D HH1 - MH - MH - MH - MH ; - Lipoprotei'nss H'DUEsL0i0ID Lipoproteiinsp LDL/BLOOD Lipoproteins, W'LDUBLOOh Male F'thienotwpe s MH' ' - Sex Factors MH - SUrrose/*P'HARM'ACOhiYN'AMICS MH' -Tri~g1weeriidesfBL00'D' RK - 0 (hii'!gh densitw lipoprotein cholesteroli) RN - 0' ('low densiW li¢oProtein -cholesterol)I RN - 0 (rrervliow, densitwl'ipoprotein cholesteroil ) R'Tl - 57-50-1 (Suc rose ) - 517-88'-51 ('Cholesteroll'Y aJi - Ji Nutr 1981 Jun. ilii (<6') "104`;-517 CONTINUE FR'IN'TING? (YES/NO) USER'2 Y IPRDG 2 AU - Salsburg' TI - The effects of' lifetime feed'i'ng studies on Patterns of senile lesions in mice, and'rats. ~ LA - MH' - Erns Adrenal Glanidg/F''ATHOLOGY PfH - *Asina MH - Animal MH - 8l'adder/P'ATHOLOGY' MH - Carcinogens ~ MH - Comparative Studw MH - Diet MH - Dose-Response R'euati'onship. Drug ~. MH - Female MH - hidney Uiseases/ETIOLOGY' ~ MH' - Liver hfeoplasms/ETIOLOGY' ~ MH - Male tp HM - Mice ~ - Neoplasmis/':RCNEhiICALLY IN'hUCEP/'ETIOLOGY'/IF^ATNOLOGY MH - PituitarwGLandfFATHIOLUG'Y MH' - Rats MH - Se>: Factors , MH - Sorbitol/TODdI'CITY MH - S't a t i s t i c s
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LA MH' HH MHI MHI MHI MHI MHl r' MH' MH' MH' r MH MIH m~H ~ MH. M'H MH ~ M~H MIH MIH ~ MIH MH MH ~' ~f~ . miN • F^.1'!!' S0 Sa 1 sbu r a' The effects of lifetime feedina studies on Patterns lesions in mice andrats. Ena Adrenal Glands/'fiA'THIO'LOGI° *Aai'na' Animal S ladde r/F'ATHOiLOiGY' Carcinoaens. Comparative Situdqj Diet Dose-Response Relationsh,ipr I)'rua Female ICidmew I1;i seases/ETI0L0!GY' Liver Neoplasms/ETI0L0!GY' Male Mice 4w N,eor- liasm's/':KCHEMICALLY INDiUCEIi/ETIDLOGY/'F'ATHOLOGYIPi tu'itarv: : ]I and/'pATHOLOGY Rats Sex Factors Sorrii'toL/TOX'IC'ITY Statistics Sucrose' Time Factors ° *Toxicoloew Xyl itol'/TO'XICITY' , 50-70-4 (Sorbitol ), 57-50-1 (Sucrose) 87-99-0 (Xvlitol) Drua' Chem Tox.ico1 1950, .3(1) :'1'-33. Er 6 E ,'AT C? ~ SS 14 uSER:. GEr2!I~C'~ DOSE (~IIITG')~)~. IIOMIMOANT ANA LETHAL IPROG : S NP (IOMINANT MF f' ETH'AL )' b5 119! /!'L. F k UISER: ?EFCzOiDU!CTIV~E AND ALL EFFECT:'~ PI'kM~ tVP' :(R'EPROEiUCTIVE')' Q *NO'NE-~ ! SS 14 /C? - _ .h usrl; : - of seni 1 e.
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OG: IPR ( ~ , ` . I~IYlt1~ I AUi -Cowkendial1 AL r` Freed'ma~nML , .., TI - Colonization and carioeeniritw of' Streptococcus ferus. ini rats. SO - Infect Immun 1981 Apr's32(1):8'0-5 AU - Oitake S ; H'i rasawa Cf ; Brown TA' r' Kawabata Y' r' Ki-aono, Hi r' - Michalek SM ; tfirGhee J!F' s Shiota T TI, - Virulence of Streptococcus mutans: characterization of a serotw r-e 9 antiaen-defective mutants and,its revertants. r` SO - Infect Immun 1981 Janr3ii ('1) "« 1'511'-9' 3 ~ AU! - Si:ddicai 0' i 8'od'riaues V TI - Genetic analusis of a complex chemoreceptor. S0, - Basic Life Sci 19'801i 16:347-59 r 4 ~ AU = P'elechov:'a J ; Sm:ekal F. Koura V: F•lach:'wJ:' lCirumr-hanzl V TI - Bi'oswnthesis of L-I-dsine in Cor9nebacteriurtn alutamiculm on sucroser ethanol and' acetic acid'« Spi - Folia Microbliol (Praha) 1980;d5(4):341-6 ~ ~ ~ AU -macNe~ena~iie~ CR r~ Mch~ona~ld'i IIJ! ; Johnson K:~: ~TI~ - Antibiotic resistance~ in, Neiss~~er~i~a: dIenitr~i~f'i~cans:.~. ' ' ~ 9-97 SO - Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1i9'80i Mlawi17(5):78 6 ( ~ AU - MacDonald UJi ; Luker MA I `L - Fluorid!e« interaction with chemical mutaaens in IUrosophii,La. SO - Mutat Res 1980 Jwl r71( 2') S211-8 7 C C AU' - Slee AM : Tanzer JM TI - Effect of arowth, conditions on sucrose Phosphotransferase activitwof Streptococcus mutans. SO - Infect Immun 19801Mar,27('3)1:9'22-7 8 ~ AU! -,St.M'artin EJ :Wi,ttenberAerCIL. TI - Regulation and functi!oni of' sucrose 6-phosphate hwdIroiliase irn Streptococcus mutans. S0, - Infect Immun 1979 Nov;26('2') «487-9ii ~ CONTINUE PRINTING? (YES/'N0)! USER. C Y F`'F;OG:' ~ 9 ~ AU' - Lucchesi JC r Hughes M8'- ; Geer E+W T~I, - Genetic control of' Pe~nt~~os~~e~, r-hios~whiat~e~~ Pa~~thwaw! e~ni-dme~s~~ in W ~ hirosophila. Cell Regul 1979i'15.143-514 S'0 Curr Tos~ m Cm ' C 8 ~ / ~~..~~I9 ,F'C? -~.--.-..-
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V V i 1 ' /', W' :. , USER:' . . PIRT. 'FU -- I'FOG :' TF+~~-~ ~ z CQPIEDi 1 AU - 0rrnov A r ^'U -Co~henAM ~ - Terato9eni'c effects of sucrose d''feti. yn di-abatlc artid r•ond!'s1'etic rats. (C LA - Err-1 MH - *Abno'rmalities, Drug-Ind'uced MH - Anirtial' MH - IDietarw Carbohwdrates/*AhVERSE EFFECTS MH - Female MH - P'regniancw irtn UiiabetesT*COtiF'LICATIOhlS MH - P're-Irnancw MH - Rats MH - R'ats, Inhred' Strains MH - Sucrose/*ADVERSE EFFECTS RN! - 57-50-1 ('Sucrose)~ SU, - Isr J Med Sci 1980 Novi'16(11):789-91 21 AU - Ohno, h' AU - Chiueh CC A'U - Burns EK AU - F'ettigrew h<U1 AU - Repoport SI TI - Cerebrovascuilar integrit-a in mroteirr-dep rived rats. LA~ - Eni!g M'H - Animal Pressure y - Esl~oo~~dVo~l~~u~me~ rr . MH *Bl'ood-Slrain Barrier MH Brain/'METABDLISM MH Cerebrovascular CircuTatiorr MH Epi~neehri~nef'FsL00ih, MH Female MH Ndrepinephrine/B'L0''0h M'H F roteiniheficiencv/'*BLOOD MH Rats M'H Suc rose/BL00lii ~ RN 51-41-W (Norepinephrin'e)' FC N' 51-43-4(Epinerhrine) FN' `~J7-vO-'1 (S/Jc rose )! 0 so Brain Res Bul l 19a'0 Mav-J'un. ;1(3) :''2i'1'- ; ~ SS'' '19' VC?' 0 USE l' : {f 3' A N`h; 17 ~ I~'IROG ~ SS ( ~') ~"STG (3) SS ~ :~C? ' USER . t C~ Ic I ~ F'1R'T ~'0 ; t='fi'OG :' 1 ~ ; GD M ~ ~ ~ L AU - R'ohiinson KMI 9 ' AU ~,- Mi;l l!e r HI '. TI' Z ,- Adipose tis'sue and Plasa+a-free f'attv acid and 9lwcerol Qohcerntration's duirirrs huirn shocN~k in, Ejuirrea eirA''s. I LA' - E'n-q ._ -4 -r- ciuc•cn Y/*J•tCTAFtf71 T.4Ch1.
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CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS 1982-87/APR AN CA 105 ( 24 ): 21 a7Q)5w TI, Initial steps in thermal degradation of'sucrose AU Ri chards,, G. N. CS' W'ood Chem. Lab., Univ., Montana LO M.i ssoui ai,, MT 59812, USA' SOl Int. Sugar J., 8844052), 145-8 SC 44-4 (Industrial Carbohydrates) CO I SUwJA3 I'S ~ 0020~-8841 PY 1986 LA : 8ng, AB' Cryst. sucrose Q57-5'.~?-1] was stable for severali hours at 15a.degree. but iin the melt it d':eg,raded'o to glucose ¢5'v-99-7]i along wi'th some fructose Q57-48-7] and'ketoses. The presence of 10% glucose or, fructoselacceLerated the degrd'n. at 135.diegree., and an even greater effect was caused by 1'l. NaC1 in the melt. The presence of li% Na2CO3 stabilized the melt,,indicating an acid!-catalyzed d'egrdn., The-NaC'1 could facilitate sucrose degrdn. by increasingi the dielec. const. of the melt. KW'. sucrose thermal degrdn mechanism IT Heat stabilizers (sodi um carbonate, f or moltenlsulcrose)': IT 50-99-7', uses and m4scellaneous 57-48-7, uses and miscellaneous 7647=14-5,, uses and miscellaneous (g,liucose thermal degrdn., in presence of, acceLeration of') IT 57-50-1, reactions (thermal d~egrdn. of, initial'. stepsi'n)'IT 497-19-8, uses and'miscellaneous (thermal stabilization of sucrose by) 1
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AN CA'S'<<>6 ( 1p)~: 68926u TI Rapid hydrotfiermolysi~s of~cel Lu1,oseandrelatedcarbohydratesAU Kallury, R. Krishna M. R.a~ Ambidge, Chrisa Tidwell, Thomas T'.;1 Boocock, David G. B. a, Agblevor, Foster A. ; , Stewart, Daniel J. CS Dep. Chem., Univ. Toronto L0, Toronto,„ ON ' M5S 1AI, Can. SO' Carbohydr. Res., 158, 253-61 SC' 43-3 (CeLl'ulose„ Lignin, Paper, and Other Wood Products) SX 33DT J. CO' CRBRAT IS' 0008-6215 Rl"' 1986 LA Eng A'8! Aisystemati c studyo~f th~eth~ermal hydrolysisof cellulose C94D!4-34'-6]1 and related sugars over the temp. range of 250 to 354.d'eg,ree., was undertaken in order to ascertain, the products and elucidate their format.ion mechanilsmi. A recentl'y developled,, fast-heat-up, tubular reactor system was used in order to minimize residence-time andef'fects of reactiionsdur-ing , heat-up, and cool-down. The rapid thermal hydrolysis of the carbohydrates gave products whose compn. was strongly dependent upon the particular precursor, as well as other reaction variables. The identity of' the reaction products and the pathways to these mater ial s were clar i fi ed'. __ KW thermal hydro1ysismecha~nism carbohydratecel'iluloseI'T Carbohydrates and Sugars, reactions f (thermal siis Wi d'rol hydrol'ysi s of, mechani sm and prod'ucts of ) y y (thermal, of' carbohydrates and cellulose, mechanismiand products of) 67-47-OP 98-01-1P, preparation 12D!-84-9P', preparation 123-31-9P, preparation 1?3--42-2P 123-76-2P 4T1-C13'-8P' 513-86-4R 61'5-9D-7f? 62D'-02'-OF' 4G)84-27-9P' (formation of',, in thermal hydrolysis of carbohydrates and cel 1 u1 ose, mechani sm o,f' ) IT 9004-34-6, reactions (microcryst., thermal hydrolysi~s of, mechanismiand' products of)i IT 50-99-7, reactions 69-79-4 97-30-3 528-50-7 7D9"50-2' ('thermal hydrol ysi s of, mechan1sm, and products ofl )' IT IT 1
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AN CA103(3):56693r TI ThermoanaLytizall studies of carbohydrate p~yrolysiis~ AU f?avl athi, Atti lla E'. ;j Gregorski, Kay S. CS West. Reg,. Res. Cent.„ Dep. Agri.c. LO Berkeley, CA, USA SO Fundam. Thermochem. Biomass Convers., CFap. - Int. Conf.J, Meeting Date 1982, 437-52'. Edii: tedby: Overend, R. F". ;, Mi 1 ne, T. A. ; MUdge, L. K. Elsevier Appli. Sci.: London, UK. SC 52-1 (Electrochemical, Rad'iation~al, and Thermal Energy Technology) CO 53UHA3 ' PY 1985. LA Eng AB' A math. approachito develop more informati'on about various simultaneous and consecutive reactions involved in carbohydk•ate pyrol ysi s i s presented. AI together 21 carbohydrates were studledl, and catalysts included ZnC12', NaOH, and Na2C03. The complex thermal decompn. of carbohydrates can be followed through thermogravimetric measurerqlents in N'. The curve fitt'xng of the resul'iti'ng wt.-loss rate curves of related carbohydrates can provide an empirical' method to compare,the~ decomp~n. patterns:anidl to det.theef'Fecto~f stru~cture,, catalyst, and other reaction variables. The components obtained~ during the curve-f'ittingprocedUre do not necessarily represent any actual reaction. Ht,wever, if sample size and heating, rate are kept const. for all carbohydrates investig,ated',, the comparison of patterns obtained through this math. approach may-lead to the identification of the actual reactions occurrinig.dGring pyrolysis. The combination of' the curve-fitting data with those of other characteristics plotted as a function of temp. caniprovide this needed informationif'or the u'se of bi,omt'tss'. KW biomass carbohydrate pyrolysis; carbohydrate pyrolysis thermoanalysis; zinc chloride catal•yrst carbohydrate pyrolysis; sodi'.um, IT hydroxide catalyst carbohydrate pyrolysis; carbohydrate pyr.-oi'ysi s Carbohydrates and Sugars, reacti'ons (p~yro1 ysi s of, thermoanal. of'), carbonate sodium catalyst IT 497-19-8,usesandl misce~ll'aneous13'10-73-2',, usesan~d' m~isceTlaneous76+46-85-7,, uses and miscellaneous (catalysts, in pyrolysis of carbohydrates)'. IT 50-99-7, reactions 57-48-7, reactions 58-86-6, reactians 59-23r-4, reactions 57-5D'-1,, reactions - 63-42-W' 65-42'-9' 69-79-4 99-20-7 147-81-9 470-55-3 3 512-69-6 528-50-7 54'7-25-1 554-91-6 585-99-9 597-12'-6 ?458-28F-4 9004-34-6+ reacti ons 9005-80-5' 9005-82-7 (thermal decompn. of) 2'
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AN' CA104'(8) : 52176n TI Study: of thecatalyticpyrolysi!s of carbohydrates through thermograv~imetryAU Gregorsk:i, Kay S'. ;, PavIath, Atti la E. CS West. Reg. Res,, Cenit., U. S. Dep. Agric. LOi A1bany, CA 94710, USA SO Thermochim., Actai, 9?,, 395-6 SC' 44-4 (lndustrial Carbohyd~rates) CO THA'CA'S. I S' 0040-6031 PY 1985 LA Eng AB' The influence of vars acidic, basic and'neutral catalysts on t'hee pyrolysis of pure carbohydrates (glucose C5DF-99-77', maltose C'69-79-4 ],, c elil ob i ose Q 528'- 50*-7 ], amyl ose C 9005r82-77 , and cel l uliose C9004-34-63 ) present i n agri cuL tural products was studi ed. Thermogravimetrywas coupled with gas chiromatoq. and mass spectrometry to identify th,e products. Information was also obtained concerniing, the rate these compds. formed as a furiiction of' time and tempi., This alDowedd improvement of the present hypotheses of carbohydrate pyrolysis. KW' pyrol ysi s sugar catal yt i c; cel liulose pyrolysi s catall yst;~ amyl ose pyrolysi's cataLyst IlT' Carbohydrates and Sugae-s, reactions. (pyroilysi~sof,, catalyst ef'fectoa)IT' Polymer deg,rad'ation catalysts (pyroL ytic , f or cel l ul ose and amyliose, prodni. of water i n. rei at i on to) I T' R'ol ymer d'~egrad'at i on. (pyrol yti c, ofcel l ulose and amyl ose, prodin. of water i n rel ation toY I'T' 50-99-7', reactions 69-79-4 528-W0-7 9004-34-6, reactions. 9005-82-7 (pyrolysis of„ catalyst effect on) ' 10
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AN TI, AU' CS LO SO, SC CO I'S PY LA AB IT IT CA10T_. (7) :49567z Mutagenicity of' pyrolyzates of natural substances typhimurium TA97 Kuroda, Miyuki; Yoshida, Da'isuk.e; Cent. Res., Inst., Japan Tob. Inc. Yokohama 227, Japan Agric. Biol. Chem. „ 49(6)1, 4-6 (Tox i col ogy) ABCHA6 0D0t'-1 s69 1985' Eng 189i- 5 M1 z Llsalr '1 y toward' Shigenobu Salmonella A substantial mutagenic activi'ty of pyroTyzates of all the tested compds. ('org,. acids, polyphenols, lipids, sugars, etc.) was detected toward S. typhimurium,TA97 in the presence or absence of S9 mix, and these pyrolyzates other than that of casein exhi'bited higher mutagenicity towardTA97 thianitoward~TA98 or TA'100inithepresenceor absence of S9 mi.r. The fracti~onation of' the pyrol'yzates into neutral, acidic, phenolic, and basic fractions showed most of the mutag~eni c act ivi tyresi ded':i n theneu~tral f r'actio'n . Tiheaci d'i c and phenolic fractions were weakly actilve and the basic fraction showed no detectable activity with either strainiTA9'7'or TA98. TA97 was more,suscepti~bl'e~ tolmutation by many polycycl'ic'arom~c hydlrocarbons the presence of' S9' mix than either TA98' or TAi0D. sugar'pyrolyzate mutatilon; polyphenol pyroliyzate mutation,; lipid pyrolyzate mutati'on-, carboxylate pyrolLyzate mutation; Salmonella mutation chem pyrolyzate Mutagens (pyrolyzed org. compd.„ Salmonella typhimuriumistrain for' study of ) A'lkanies, biolog,ilcal studies Carbohydrates and Sugars, bi'oLociicaL studies Carboxylic acids, biological st'udies. Caseins, biological studies Glycerides, biological studies P'henolls, biological studies (pyr 7iv-P ';,, mutageni'ci!ty of, SalmonelPa typhimu'rium strain for in study of ) IT SalmonelTa typhimurium (strain TA97„ for screening mutagenic org. compd. pyrolysis produ'cts)' IT Aromatic hydrocarbons, bioLogi'ca1 studies (polycyclic, pyrolyzedl, mutagenicity of, Salmonella typhimuri'um strain for study ofl) IT 57-11-4D,, pyrolyzed 57-48-7D, pyrolyzed 60-33-3D, pyrolyzed 83-46-5D,, pyrolyzed 122-32-7D', pyrolyzed' 327-97-9D, pyrolyzedl 117=39-5D, pyrol'yzed 124-04-9D1„ pyrolyzed 555-44-2D, pyrolyzed' 120-80-9D', pyrolyzed 153-18-4D, pyrolyzed 69'15-15-7D,, pyrolyzed 90G0-69-5D, pyrolyzed 9005-53-2D, pyrolyzed 9004-34-6D,, pyrolyzed 3I1566-31-iD', pyrolyzed 9C7C15-25-8D, pyrol'yz'ed (mutagenicity of„ Salmonelila typhimurium, strai~n for
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AN CA 1 04 ('5 ) : s4250n TI' Atmospheric pyrolysis of.carbohyd'rates with thermogravimetric and AU mass spectrometric analyses Fa:v1 ath:, Atti l a:E. ;' 6regorsk~i,, Kay S. CS W'est. Reg. Res. Cent.,, L1. S'. Dep. Agr i c. LO CA 947'1!C1 B k l WS4 SL], er e ey, , J'., Anal. Appl'. IPyrolysiis, 8', 41-8' SC CO IS 33-1 ('Carbohydrates)! JAAPDD 0 16x-2-374' PY 1985 LA' Engi ApB The pyrolysis of' glucose, malitose,,j cellobiose,, amylose and celliullose was stud'ied' by thermogravimetry between 2'5D-4041.idegrree. at atm6. pressure in heliumi. The thermogravimetric analyzer was coupledl with a mass spectrorneter and the evolving gases were continuously moni tored!. Between 2.6 andl 2. 8 mol of water were obtas ned f or every, hex:ose unit. For amylose and cellulose the water formation,was.i:lm one step,a, for the other carbohydrates, varying, a:mts. of water formed in two different steps. The scans were evaluated by computer and the conens. of'the possible components were plottedlvs. temp. The correlation of these curves with, the wt. loss curve throws new light on carbohydrate pyrolysis reactions. KW pyrollysi; s carbiohydrate thermog,ravi metry; mass spectrometry p~yrol ysi s carbohydrate,, monosaccharide pyrolysis thermogravimetry; oligosaccharid'e pyrolysis thermogravi~metry, pollysaccharide pyrolysi'.s thermogravimetry:;, cellulose pyrolysis thermogravimetry IT Mass spectroscopy (atm. pyrolysis of carbohydrates stud:lied by), IT Carbohydrates and Sugars, reactions (atm. pyrolysis of„ thermogr-avimetric and mass spectrometric anal. of )' IT Thermogravimetric analysis (of' atm, pyrolysis of' carbohydrates) IT Thermal decomposition (of carbohydrates, thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric anal. of )' IT 54-99-7,, reactions 69-79'-4 528-50-7' 9UG4"a4-b, reactions 9D05-82'-7' (pyrolysis of, thermogravimetric study of) 11
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ANI CA101 ('13'): 1542r17t TI Toxic hazards of acrolein and carbon monoxide evolved under vari~ous combustion conditions AU Mori F:awa, Tolsi o CS Fire Res. Inst. Japan LOi Tokyo, Japan SO Shobo. k;enkyusho Nok:oku,, 57, 21-7' SC' 50-5,(F'ropel l ants and E::p1 osi ves) CO! SHFWHBF~ I'S' Q!4L6-2700RY 1984 LA Japan AB G'as chromatog. was, used to study the evol uti on of' acrol ei n C'107-h2'-8] and CO' when lcw~-mol.,-wt. flammable liq. materials and sucrose were burned'iniplace of polymeric materials in a tube furnace under different temp. and air supply conditions. There are cases where acrolie2n has a greater role than CO in causing death in smoldering or nonflamingicombustion at .Itoreq,.650.d'eg,ree.. KW combustion toxicity sucrose polymer; acrolein forrnation combustion; carbon monoxi de format i on combust i on, IT Combustion (of f'Lammable low-mol.-wt. liqs., and sucrose, toxicity in relatimnn to acrolein and' carbon monoxide evollutioni inJ IT 57-50-1, reactions 71'-21-8',, reactions 71'-41-0„ reactions. 75-83-2' 79-29-8 ' 1'U7-83-51 110-54-3, reactions (combustion of, acrollein arnd'carbon monoxide formation in, toxiciFy nazards in relation to)'. IT 107-42•-8F', preparation, 630-«8-Op", preparati©n ('formation, of', ini combustion of low+-moil.-wt. flammable Tiqs. and~ sucrose, toxicity hazards in rel'.ation to)' 3
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AN mA98 (17 ) : 1'. 43754h T1 Thermal' dehydrati oni ki neti cs of di sacchari des. AU Sctieer „ M'i 1 ton D., CS Chem. Ki net. Div. , N:atl. E:ur. Stand'. L[l SO Washington, DC 202?4,, USA Int. J,. Chem. Kinet., 15(2')', 141-9 SC 33-4 (Carbohydrates) CO I J CK'EsO IS 0538-8~'a66 F'h 1'983 LAI Sng. AB Th~e vacuum decompini. of' sucrose and cgL 1 obi ose was obsd~. at 150-250. degree. . The predominant decompn., product of both sugars was H20': wi th, <5% CO, C02,, CH2O, t"PeCHO.,, MeOH,, a:nd~ BtOH' formed~. The detailedlrates and temp. dependences suggest that witrh; the plossible exception of' EtOH, the minor products are formed in secondary reactions of the dehydration products. The so-called mel'ting, with decompn. of a sugar i s i n real i'ty a hi gh-temp. di ssol ni. of' the disaccharide in the eLiminated, water. F:W' thermal dehydration diisaccharide kinetics,, decompn tfiermal sucrose .cellobiose IT Thermal decomposition Dehydration,, chemical ('o# dlisaccharides) IT Gligosaccharides (di-, thermal! dehydrationkinetics of) IT Kinetics of dehydration ('thermal, of disaccharides) IT 57-50-1,, reactions 528-54-7 fthermal d'ecompn. of) 4
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AN CA97(25)'i216587r: TI' Thermal decomposi ti on of carbohydrates studi ed b:y heat f l1ow' calorimetry AU Raemy, A.;' SchweizEr, T. CS R'es., Depi., , Nestl!e Prod. Tech. Assi!st. Co. , Ltd~. LO Tour-de-Pei l z CH-i'E314,, Switz., SO Calorim. Anal. Therm., 13, I'11.11.7~~:1--'IL1.,11!.76 SC 33-1 (Carbohydrates) CO CAATD!G PY ' 1982 LA' 8ng Ai3' Heat f Low calori metry was used' to study the thermal behavi or of various mono-,, oli!go-, and polysaccharides. The samples were analyzed by heatingn in sealledceIls., The temp., range in which exothermic reactions, due'to.therma1 d'ecompn.,, occurred:, varied widely depending on the type of the' carbohydk-ate., KW thermal decompn carbohydrate; monosaccharide thermal decompn!' olig'osaccharide thermal d~ecompn; pollysaccharid'e thermal decompn; heat flow calorimetry carbohydrate IT Thermal diecomposi'tion ('of carbohydrates„ heat flrw'caliorimetric study of) IT Monosaccharides ml'igosaccharides Poi1 ysacchari des, reacti on~s Carbohyd'~ratesandSugars,, reactions (thermali decompn., of,, heat flow calorimetic study of) IT Calorimetry (ff low, thermal decompn. of carbohydrates studied by) IT 50-70-4, reacti!ons 57-48-7', reactions 57=5t.1-1, reactions 59-23-4, reacti ons 87-79=-6 87-89-8 87-99=-01 528-50-7 90(74!-3'4-6',,, reacti~ons 90:05-32-7 9r:105-80-5'1 9if05-82-7' 9037-22-3 ' 9ra46r40-6 9050-36-6, 9r>57-02-7 9062-07-1 9064-57-7 1 i 1 14-20-8 14641--9ti-1 17629--30-0: 26655-34-5i ?:9927-76-9' (thermal decompn. of, heat f l ow ca1 ori metri c study of ) . vaCD ~ ~ C14 ~
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AN CA97( i 9): 158047'h TI CS LQ PI Mosquito attractants from sugars and, amino: acidIs Riken Perfumery Co., Ltd.. J!apan. Jpn. Kokai Tokk.yo, f,oho JF 57/114504 A2 C82/11'4504]!, 6 Jul 981„ 3 AI pp'• Appl. 81/179, 6 Jan 1981 CL SC DT' CG PY Ai71rl61l0ry 5-4 (Agrochemi ca1 L+i oreguT a+_ors) P' JKXXAF 1982 LA AB Japan Thermoreaction, products of sugars and amino acild'.s are mosquito attractants. Thus, a compn, contg. fructose G3i3237-26--4'J 5, maltose [69-79-4]I 5, brown sugar 110', .aLpha.-alanine G56-411-7']' 6, glutamic acid, [56-86-07 3, leuci'ne C61-90-5] 3.5, threonine C'72~-19'-5] 51, serinle[56-45-1]2.6, valine [72-18-411,, aspartic acid C56-84r-831 3, ilsoileucine C73-32-5] 3.5, glycine L56-40-6]' L.5 g, and water 10 rrjL was heated at 140.degree. for 3h to yield brown paste that attracted mosquitoes, kaW'sugar amino acild pyrolysis mosquito attractant IT Mosquito (attra:ctant for, pyrolysis products of amino acids and sugars as) IT Insect attractants ('for mosquito,, sugar and amino acid pyrollysis products as), IT 57-48-7Ia', c!ompids. (as mosquito attractant) IT 50-99-7, reactions 57_50- 1 uCear-ti nn-63-91-^c, reactions 69-79-4 147-81-9 u5022? 7-26-4 CoYrol•>sis aroduct of amino acids and, as mosquito attractant) IT' 56-41-7, reactions 5,cS-45-1,1 reactiions 56-84-8,, reactions 56-86-Ey,, reac-11-ions 61-90-5,, reactions 72-18-4, reactions 72-19=5, reacti ons 7~-3z-5, reacti ons (pyrolysis product of sugar and, as mosquito attractant) IT 56-40-6, reactions .(pyrolysis product of sugars and', as~mosquito attractant) W (0 01 td ~ ~
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AN rt-i98 (6)s "=64f^b TI1 Kinetics of thermaI decomposition of fructose, glucose, and' invert sugar in alwealkly basic medium AU Kolesni k-ov, V'. A. ; Gorokhov, 8'. I. CS Krasnod'ar. Pol i'te4Yh. Iinst.. LD' Krasnodarsk, USSR SO Itv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved.,, Pishch. Tekhnol.,, (S)', 65-70 SC 44-4 (Industrial Carbohydrates) ' CO I8' I VUF'A8' 0579-3009 PY 1982 LA AB Russ Emplirical formulas proposed for calcn. of rate consts, of' decompn. reactions in, of fructose (I) 457-48-7] and' giluAcose (II) C50-99-71', aqi., buffer solns, at pH' 7-9 and 1UQ-1447.degree. permitted d'etrni., of the activati'on, energy of the reactions d'epending on p1W ofr mediumi. The process of decompn. of invert sugar ( I I'IJ C801 3-1'7-0'] [ I-I I mixt. (1: 1)] is composed of _ 2 independent irreversible reactions of decompn. of its components„ iwhich are described by Ist--order relation, and'length of decompn. of III detdl. the specific rate o•f' decompn. of I I'whi ch decomps. sl: ower than I' under the condi ti ons: studied. hW' fructose th~ermal decompn k:inetics,, glucose thermal decompnikinetics; inert sugar thermal decompn kinetics IT Kinetics of thermal decomposition ('off'ructose, glucose andl invert sugar, in a+eaklybasicmedium): IT 54-99-7,, reactions 57-4'.8'-7, reactions 8013-17-0 (thermal decompn. of, in weaking, basic medium, kinetics of ) 8
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AN CA96, ('9 )I ; 693!U9g 1fI Computerized curve-fitti~ng of thermogravimetric d'iatai A'U F•avlathj Attila E'.; Gregorsk:i, Kay S'. CS' !~f'est. R'eg. Res. Gent., U'. S. Dep. Agr i c. LO' Berkeley, CA 94'7'1tr,, USA SO! Proc. Eur. Symp. Therm. Anal.,2nd!, 251--4 SC 33-1' (Carbohydrates ) CO PESADG: F'Y' 1981 LAi Eng AR The thermogravimetricall:y de:td'. rate curves of carbohydrates show 2'2 peaks and follow a nonintegrable kinetic expression, A expE-D'(T-TD)2']1TO Ewhere TO is the temp. of max. t[rermoliysis wt. loss and A' (a peak~intensity) and B, (a peak half-width) are characteristic of the reaction and the rate of' heating]l, which is solved by computer simulation,. The start of carbohyd'rate,d'ecompn. is structurally dependent and compds. f'ormedl thir-ough . al pha. -g,l uAcosi dli c bondi~nig are less stable than those through .beta:.-bonding. The absence of a free glucosi~de OH'group increases the thermal stability of' the carbohydrate, whichiindicates that this OH' group is involved in the start of decompn:. A.free OH group at C-4 iis more reactive than one at C-6. The relatively easy decompn. of fructose implies that carbohydrates contg., 5-membered rings are less stable than those with 6-membered rings. Disaccharides start decompni. at .apprx.2t7.d!egree. hi gh~er thanithiat of' monnsacchari d'es andithe del aying eff ect of in¢reasing, moil.-wt. is noted for gl'ucose and its polymers. Oligo and polysaccharides start toldecompi. at even higher temps. with d'ecompn,., sprea.dl throughout the ent i'.re range (except for cel lul ose,. where % app'rx . 54:: i s decompd!., in 1 step: . apprs 33s:r. degree. ). Most carbohydrates decomp. with 55-7<?7% of volatiles lost at . ltoreq. 360. degree. andl 25-._y0% resi due, mostl y char, „ remai ni ng at 450. degree. . KkJ'I carbohydrate thermogravimetric analysis; kinetics carbohydrate thermal degrdh IT pi~ng(5~- vs. 6 numbered„ thermal stabi l i'zati'on of, i n carbohyd'rates)! I~T Kinetics of degradation Thermogravimetrilc analysis Kilneti'cs of thermal decomposition (of carbohydrates) IT Configuration Mol ecul ar weight (of' carbohydrates, thermal decompn. iin relation to): IT Carbohydrates and Su4ars, re,.ctions (p*n--~*-mis k,inetics and thermograviimetric anal. of:) IT 50-99-7D', reactions 57-48-7,, reactions 59-23--4,, reactions 69-79-4 99-20-7 51 2'-69'-6 547 25'' 1 ,.i97'-12.-6 9004- 34-6 , reacti'ons 9005-82.-7' (pyroLysiis of, thermogravimetry and curve fitting for kinetics of) ~ CTa~ 4a ~' GO CTa O 9i
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B,IOS1S' 11981-1986 CLASTOGEN I C ACT I V I TY' OF CARAMEL AND' CARAMEL I1ZED' SUGARS' STIlCH H F; STICHW; ROSIN M'P; POWRIE W D ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENESIS UNIT, BRITISH COLUMfiIA:CANCER RES. CENT.: b01 WEST 10TH' AVE. , VANCOUVER, BC V5Z 1L3. MUTAT RES 91 (2). 11981',. 129-136. CODEN:'. MUFtEA Langu.aage: EN!GL ISH Culturedl Chinese hamster ovary GCHO) cells were~ exposed for 3 h tc carameLi!zed solutions of the sugars sucrose,, glucose, mannose, arabinose. mal tose and f ructose. Eachiof these caramel iized~ sugars i nduced a rel atiiveL ~ high frequency of chromosome breaks and exchanges in: the treated' cel'Ls. TE noni-caramelized sugars dild not increase the frequency of chromosomE aberrations. A potent clastogenic ef'fect was observed when a commercial'1} usedl caramel powder was assayed~. Up to, 54%' of all examined, metaphase plate=_ of the treated CHO cells had at least 1 chromosome break or exchange. This . chromosome-damaging1 acti~on of'commercial caramel powder was reduced in thE presence of rat liver microsomal (i9) preparation or Fe:~.'_+ and Fe2+. transition metals Cuz'+ andl Mn2+ :neilther enhanced~ nor reduced clastogenic activity of the caramel powdrr. ThE thE THE~~ RAR'I'~D~~ PYROLYTIC! CHARACTER'I~~Z'AT'ION! OF~ TO~BACCO~ LEAF CARBOH~YD !RATE ,~ MATERIAL SCHLOTZHAUERW! S!, ARRENDALE'R'F; CHORTYh 0 T TOBACCO' SAFETY' RES. UNIT, AGRICULTURAL RES. AGRICULTURE, PO1BOX 5677, ATHENS, GA. 30613, USA. BE I TR TABAKFORSCH INT 13(2)' (2). 1985, (RECD.. 1986)1. SERV., , 74-80. US~ DEP. CODEN: B OF TAIL!. Language: ENGLISH A rapid, semi-micropyrolysis technique was developed andiappl'ieditc. materials representative of tobacco, cell-wall constitu~ents and sucrose. Glass capillary gas chroma:tography-mass spectrometry was used'ito separatE and identify the major semi-volatile pyrolyzate components. -Ce1il:uSose anc dextrin produced a: pattern of furan and'! cyclic ketones of potential importance to flavor and aroma of tobacco smoke. Sucrose pyrolysis resultec intheformation of substantial amountsof' 2-furald4hiydeand Lesserquantiti'es of' substituted' furans. The ce1l,-waliL biopolymer lignin was ¢ source of phenols, but contributed li~ttle to, the compound~s produced in, thF thermal breaH:downlof' carbohydrates. MAILLAKD': BROWNING OF COMMON AMINIO+-AGIDS' AND SUGARS ASHOOR S H;, ZENT J B DIV. AGF2'IC.,, ARIZONA STATE UNIIV., TEMPE, ARIZ. 85237. Ji FOOD SC'Il' 49 (4). 1984. 1206 12[a7. CODEN: J,FDSA Language: ENGLISH . ~.h
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ROLES'~ OF TODACCOCELLULOSE'SUGA'RS AND CHLOROGENIIC'-ACDD'A'SPR'ECURSORS'TC CATECHOL IN' CIGARE1fTE SMOKE CARMELLAiS' G; HECHT S S; TSO T C; HOFFMANN D NAYLOfi' DANA INSTITUTE DISEASE F'REVENTION'.,, AMERICAN HEALTH FOUNDATION VALHALLA, N. Y. 10595. J AGRICFOOD CHEM 32 (2). 1984. 267-273. CODENI: JAFCA Language: ENGLISH Tobacco was extracted sequentialLy, with hexane and methanol-H20, and thc extracts were pyrolyaediat b5V.degree. C to id'entify likely leaf precursors to the tobacco smo{ke cocarci'nogen catechol. The methanol-H2Oiextract anc the extracted tobacco residue were good pyrolytic precursors to catechoL. Subfractions of the methanol'-H20 extract were isolated by H'PLC QhiigF pressure liq,uid chromatography7iand pyrolyzed. Fructose, glucose, sucrose and chlorogenic acid were i'dentif'ie+d'as important pyrolytic precursors tc catechol. CeTlulose, acomponent of the extracted tobaccoiresidue, was alscc found to be, a gcood precursor to catechol in pyrolysis experiments. Tc d'etermiine the role of' these substances as precursors to catechol under the conditions prevailing, in a burning cigarette, fi14C(U)]cellullose, C'14C(U) ]fructose or various levels of' the unlabeled „ polyp1henol'ss cholorogenic acid': or rutin were added toicigarettes and the~mainstrear smoke was analyzed~ for E14C]catechol andlcatechol. On the basis of these e:<peri'.ments, th~e minimum contributions of these compounds to maiirtstrear smoke catechol levels was estimated as follows:: cellulose„ 7-12'/.; total! ol fructose, glucose and' sucrose,, 4%; chlorogenic acidi, 13%;, ru!tin, w 1%. F significant portionlof' the remaining catechol in mainstream cigarette smol.E, was formed from pectin,, starch and hemicellulose. NONENZYMATIC BROWNING OF FREEZE DRIED SUCROSE LINK~J M DEF". TECHNOL. wLANT FOOD FROD., ROYAL VET. AGR'IC. UNIV., COF'E'NHAGENI„ DEN. ,. Ji FOOD SCI' 48' (2) . 1983. 5:39'-54?. CO,DEN': JFDSA - Language: ENGLISH The~ aplpearanceof' nonenzymatic brown~ing productsinsucrose-baFsed systems (5-c0%';, pH 1-5) during freeze drying and during subsequent roomitemperaturE. storage in, the dry state was investigated. Following the completi'on of the pri marysublli mati on stage of dryilng, sucrose hydrollysi stol.gl tolglucofructose was initiated. Glucose and'fructose underwent further break:d'own, and at the same time,, products which absorb in the UV (28U nm) were formed. A short time later observable brown colors were noted'('absorbance at 40( nmi). The extent of UV absorbance and brown color formation increased,witF decreasing sucrose concentration and d'ecreasi'ng pH'in the initial solution. 00 m' . D~ ~ N
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MEDLINE 1980-1983 AU - Aeschbachier FiU ;, Chappuils G; iNranganel M;~ Aeschblach R' TI - Investig;a#tion, of' Mail1lard'~ products in, bacterial mutagenicity testt systems. SD! - ProqFood Nutr S'cil 198~~1;5C1-6) :`?7'9~-93 1'
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FSTA 1981-86 F1 avour chemi stry of sucrose. Monte,, W. C. ;' Maga, J. A. Ariizona State Uniiv., Tempe, Arizona 852'8!1, USA Sugar Technology Reviews,i 1982, 8, (3)"1 181-204 Language: En Summary Language: es Document Type: Review Note:.95' ref. Sensory differences between cane and beet sucrose were found to be influenced both by the tempi. of the sample and the concn. of sugar. The~ odour of the beet sugar solutions was described as 'rooty' or musty, and, was associated with the presence of g.eosmin. At roomitemp. concn. GREATER THAIN' 2% ' had sensory differences, whereas at refrigerated' temp, the~ sensory differences were significant only at conicni. of 16%. Maj~or flavour changes are associated with processing,, as ind'icated in particullar by heat-inducedcaramel'iaation of sucrose andithe Mailiard reaction. Voliatile flavour compounds associated with carameliization are numerous and incl!ude all dehydes, ketones, f urans andiaci ds al ong wi'th other non-vol ati 1 e~ decomposition products suchias gentiobiose (which contributes towards some of the unpl'easant tastesY. More complex. interactions occur when sucrose is heated in the presence of' amino acids;i these are responsible for the o+f-fLavours associated with the storage of' processed f'oods. (iCRP) Comparison of the antioxidative actilvi'ty of' Maillard and caramelisation reaction products. (In ' Recent dievel opments i n food anal ysi s'' G'~ (see FSTA (119(33) 15 G6A34I0) . ? Hluyghebaert,, A.; Vandewalle, L.; Landischoot,, G. van Lab, of' Food Chem. + Microbliol'., ,, State Univ. of' Ghent,, Cou:pu:re 533, gt' 9CJ0p1 Ghent,, Belgaum, 1982',, pp. 409-4:15 Language: En Document Type: Lecture Note: 17 ref. _ Nonenzymic browningipiroducts were obtained by heating at 10V' DEGREE C (i) 01.5M sug;ar (xylose, glucose, sucrose or fructose) + iu,5M glutamicc acid atp~H 7' (flail lardl products) and(ii )1'1M sugar (as(1) ) at pH 7 caramel'ization products)i and~ separating, the soiDutiion, after 120 min heating, on Sephadex G 10. Oxidation stability tests performed were: ascorbic acid dissolved ini KH 2PO 4/Na 2HPO 4' buffer at piH 7' with Cu 2 + as catal yst , ascorb i c ac i d d'egradat i on bei ngif o1 l owed at 22QEGREE' C on addition of the browning,, reaction products;, also reaction products were vacuum conc.„ extracted wilth acetone„ and blended with butterf'at, the acetone was vacuum, evaporated~ a~nd~ thiobarrbituricaci!dandi pieroxilde values of the fat were determined after storage at 50 DEGREE C for up to 24 days. Resul ts are gi ven as graphs and!show that reaction products -f rom (i) were the most strongly antio:ai'dant,, especially those formed before any visible discoloration had' occurred;, products of (1i ) had antioxidative activity dependent on the system studied,, i.e. had low activity to protect ascorbilc acid but had similar activity to (i) in protecting fat., Caramelization products with a low mol. wt. had the highest activity. (LHI) s8ss8664
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Thermal degradati on,of precursors anidl f'lormati on off L avour compounds during heating of cereal products. I. Changes of amino acids and sug,ar s., F;amilnskil,l E. ~ F`rzyb.ylski, F,'. y Gruchala, L. Food Tech. I'nst, of Plant Origin, Uhi.v. of Agric. , Foznan, Poland' Nahrung, 1981, 25,, (6) , 507-W1B Language: En Summary Language:~ de, ru Note: 1 1 ref. GLC was used to study the effect of' controlled' heating at 80-160 DEGREE C on the content of free amino acids and simplie sugars in wheat, rye and barley malit extracts (data tabuliatedl). Even, at low temp., lysine, arginine, glutamilc acid and proline were quickliy degraded. At pH GREATER THAN 7 and LESS THAN 5 amdnolacid degradation increased greatly.. At neutral pH' 5<:3'/, of' free amino acids were degraded in 15 miniat 120 DEGREE C. Sugar degradation was as extensive as. that of the amino acids only at high temp. In contrast to the degradation of gliucose„ maltose and'. maltotri!ose, fructose content i',ncreasedl at temp,. up to 140 DEGREE Ca, this is due to sucrose decomposition. (IN) (Caramelization inithe confectionery industry.) Mbhos, F.; Orisi, F. Edesi par , 198 S, 32, (2)9 44-48 Language: Hui Summary Language:~ de, ru Nbte: 5'ref . Chemical methods are presented for the characterization of caramelization, from the thermal decompositi'on of sugars ('sucrose) and from the Maillard reaction. In the latter case, a spleciiali condensed milk, preparation was examined.. The study of condensed milk preparations may be useful' in obtaininig the special 'millky f'lavo!ir' inmilk chocolate because the flavour is closely related to the compounds resulting from the Maillard reaction,. (ESF:;) Thermal degradation of sucrose in the crystalliine phase andlmelt. A review. Pbncini, L. James Cook Univ. of N'. GlueensLand,, Austral ia Sucrerie PeLge, 1981, 100, (6Y, 221-229' Language: Eni Summary Language: de,, fr, nl Documernt Type: Feview Note:, 1'U9' ref. Si nce the earl y part of' thi s century the questi'on of how su!crose behaves under thie, act i on of heat has bleernii nvest i gated mostl y i n terms of coIoration, caramelization and degradation product formation. This review aims at highlighting: these areas of investigation by considering the action, of heat on sucrose in the crystalline phase,. melt and in aqFu!eous solution. Studies in which sucrose iis heatedl in the presence ofl either acid or base are not dliscussed., (AS),
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FOODS ADLIBRA 1974-86 Journal of Food Science ,M'arch 1983, p 539-54?_' CODEI4: JFDSAZ Doc Type: JOURNAL 8303 Sucrose: "Nonenzymati~c browning of freeze-dlri~ed sucrose." Descriptors: RESEARCH'. & TECHNOLOGY; CARBOHYDR!ATES Clastogienic activity mf caramel and caramelized sugars. Stich,,H.F. : Stich,W. ; Rosini,M.F'. ;: F'owrie,W.D. (Environ. Carcinogenesis Unit, Br'itish Columbia Cancer Res. Cent., 6011 West11U'thi A've.,, Vancouver, BC V5ZiIL3, Canada)Mutat. Res. Lett. ,91(2), 1129-1.36 19'S1. Languagez Eng,lish, S'ummaryLanguage:: Englishl Document Type: Journal: article-original resea'rch. Cultured' CHQ ceLDv were e:cposed for 3 h to caramelized: solutions of sucrose, glucose, ma:nnose, arabinose, maltose and -fructose. Each induced'a high, freqµ.cency of chromosome breaks anai, exchanges inithe treated cells. Non-caramelized sugars did! not increase the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Apo!tentclastogenic effect was also observed when a commercially used' caramel powder was assayedl. Up:to 54I% of all' examined . metaphase plates of the treated CHO cells had at least I chromosome break or exchange. This chromosome-damaging actiorn of co'mmercial' caramel powder was reduced'. irn, the presence of liver microsomal preplarationior FeLI and F'eI I I'. Cul'P and Mn I I nei ther enhanced nor reducedl the c1 astogeni c acti~vi ty of the caramel powder.
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TOXLINE AU - CHAN RTM ; STI'CH HF ; ROSIN MP ;~ POWRIE WD TI - ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF BROWNING REACTION RRODUCTS SIl - EMI'Cl92/004069 SO - CANCER,LETT(AMSTERDAMI);.15:27-3?:',,1'9B2 LA - ENG' AFi, - EMLC/ORNL SEE: CA 96-84248'. AU - POWR'I'E WD ; WU CH ; ROSlN MF' ; STICH HF TI - CLASTOGENIC AND MUTAGENIC ACTIV'I'TfiIES OF MAILLARDiREACT'ION MODEL SYSTEMS SI - EM I1CY8'.1 /0i r2693. SO - J FOOD' SC'I ; 46:.1433-14 s8'„ 14451, 1981 LA - ENG AS' - EMIC/ORNL SEE: CA 95-1488,18 t:a
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CRI S'./USDA 004599._y AGENCY ID: ARS 6612 PROJ NO: 6612-2t_18811-0c->a~-0u0D ~ REGIONAL PROJECT NO. 00000 PROJ TYPE: INHOUSE PERIOD: INVEST: 34NOV79TO~ SCHLOTZH'AUER 3Ci~. NOV82 W,S"`CHORTYFrI 0 T PERF Orn'Gc R B RUSSELL AGFt' F:ESEARCH! CNTR LOCATION: AGRICULTUF:'AL RESEARCH SERVICE ATHENS~ GA PYROLYTIC STUDIES ON COMPOUN'D&RELATEDi TO FLAVOR,, AROMA AND BIOLOGICAL IP'ROF?ERl' I ES OF TOBACCO SMIOKE' OEsJECT'I VES': Conduct pyrolyses to determi'ne th~e l eaf' precursors andl modes of' formations of both the hazardous and aroma-reLated'.compound's of tobacco smoke. Apply developedl methods to evaluate new tobacco germpiliasm and' tobaccos producedl by new, agronomiicLcuring, methods, in order to guide production of a safer tobacco. APFROACH; Pyro1yze tobacco isolates, Ieaf' extracts, or leaf constituents, e.g. lipids, carbohydrate, pectins,, lignins, phenolic constituents, acids, aLkaloids,, proteins, or other components to determi'ne the leaf precursors of hazardous compounds that occur in, the condensate (FAHI, quinones, phenols, nitrosamines, aza-arenes,, etc), and vapor phase (carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, alldehydes„ nitrosamlines, etc) of' tobacco smoke. Similarly,, potentilal leaf precursors of the flavor/aroma constituents of smoke (carbonyls„ esters, terpenes, furans, etc.)! will', be examined and flavor/aroma profiles, (by glass capillary GC) will be devel oped'.. Methods of voil ati' Il es trappl i'ng wi l 1 be~ exami ned,. Fyrolyt i c product-precursor results will be used to guide genetic and~agronomic developments of a safer tobacco. Analyti'cal methods wi11 be usedlto evaluate developed germplasms. (Cooperate with projects 7f3G2L2D881-01101 and 7802-2:0881-011. ).. PF.OGFESS:84/01 84/'1i A rapiid semi-micro pyrollysis method, in combination wilth glass-capilliary GC and GC/MS, was used to identify semi-volatile pyrolysis products,of red'ucing, sugars and' po1'ysaccharides. Sucrose was a major pyrosynthetic source of' S-hydroxymethylfurfural and! 2-furaldehyde„ as well as fu.trans, aldehydies, and ketones. Starch produced large amounts of 3-methylfuran and 1,3-cyclopentaneddone. Cellulose was an i!mp.ortant precursor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyTpyran-4-one. A study was made to determine effects of sucrose esters on smoke composition. On pyrol'ysis,, a sucrose ester isolIlate from TI'-1651 tobacco yi1elded 3-methylva~leric acidi, believed to be responsible for the u~niq~_te aroma of Oriental'! tobraccos. Addition of' the TI. 165, sucrose esters to, ci garettes conta.i n1ngi al l NC 2326 f lue-cured tobacco resulted i!n an enhancement of 3-methylvalleric acid in smoke. Addition,of 2' mg of sucrose esters.per cigarette prodLnced a smoke composition similar to that observed; in Turkish blended and aTl TI 1!65'cigarettes., GC methodology was devel oped~ to prepare r_api' l l ar. y coI umns f or spec i f i c anaL yses, such ass mono- and dihydh•os<yybenzenes, phenolic acids, volatile acids, fatty: acidis,, pyrolyzates, and steam d'istilliates of tobacco or smoke condensates. It was foundl that hiighitar cigarettes transferred as much as 107% of the added Se i nto mai nstream smoke, whi 1 e low tar ci'garettes dlel i vered' about -37.. The fortification of smoking materials with Se may be a way of counteracting. `~ the~ hazards of tobacco. smoke. i 8869!8'.fiS'$'.
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1'6J5/1 239481 83-06-10430' Reactions of' olilgosacchari'des., V. Pyrol:ysis-gas chromatography. onnely, B. jI.; oLg , 1. .; calle , B. L. Anheuser-Busch Co., I'nc.,,St. Louis,, Missouri 63118, USA' Cereal,Chemistry,, 1982, 57'„ (6), 388-390 Language: En, Nbtes 14 ref. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (pyrolysis-GC) distinguished between model , carbohydrate compounds, a series of'malto-oliLgosaccharides previously isolated from corn syrup. These sugars, namely maltose (6 2), maltotriose (G 3), maltotetraose (G'4)„ maltopentaose (G 5), andlmaltohexaose (G 6),, were subjected to pyrolysis-GC under carefully controlled conditions; major volati'le:compounds were identified by MS. The oligosaccharides gave simiLar decomposition products., However, when the pyrograms were normalized, the relative amounts ofl individual volatile components varied from one sugar to the next. This provedto be true also for other disaccharides and trisaccharides examined by this technique. Differences i'nithe normali'~zed patterns permitted d'ifferenti'at'ion between carbohydratess of varying molecuLar structure. Major vollatile compounds identif'.ied were ethylene, ethane,, propylene, aceta:ldehyde, furarn, propiQnaidehyde, acetone, 2-methylfuran, and methyl ethyl' ketone. (See FSTA (1974) 6 1'L855 for part IPI.) : (AS)' Descriptors: Decomposition - olligosaccharides, pyrol!ysi's-GC differentiation of; Gas li'quid chromatography - oligosaccharidesy pyrolysis-GC differentiation of;, Carbohydrates - ol'igosacchari'des,, pyrolysis-GC differentiation of;i Volatile compounds - oligosaccharides,, volatille,compound's MS~detn. in; Mass spectrometry - oligosaccharides, volatille compounds MS'detn., in;: Carbohydrates - oligpsaccharides, volatile compounds MS detn, in; Sugars - pyrolysi's-GC diff erentiation of sugars ~
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18r5T1 261768 84-08-c0274 - Formation of mutagens by ami'no-carbonyl',reactions._ Shinohara, K.r; Jahan, N7.; Tanaka, M.;', Yamamoto, K.;, Wu, R. T.; k H' Om U ura , ,. a aml, .; Dep. of' Food Scf. + Tech,., Kyushu' Univ.,, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku,, Fukuoka 812, Japan Mutation, Rq?searchy, 1983, 122, (3/4), 279-286 Languages'. En Not'e: 9 ref. Formation of mutagens by amino-carbonyl, (iMailliard)' reactions of 20 kind's of amino acidh wilth sugars after heating at 100! DEGREE C for 10 hi was examined by the, Ames' test. The browned solutions of G1iy„ Al'a,, Val~„ Leu, Ile, Ser, Thr, Gim,, Lyss x.HC1', Arg, Phe, Cys, Met and Pro wi'~th gl'ucose caused mutation ofl SaLmonell~a typhimurium TA100 andl'or TA98' withior without S9'mix. The presence of S9'mix increased the mutagenic acti'vityy of' the brownedso1'ut'ions of Cys and Phe with glucose on TA10CA andof those of Gly, Ala, Va1', I1e and Cys on TA98,,but decreased the activity of other solutions. hlb revertants of Salmonella were induced by the browned solutions of'Trp, Tyr, Asp,,Asn„ Glu and (Cys) 2 with glucose. Among positive browned solutions, Cys, Lys, Arg and Phe,had the stronger activity, but their activity was weak,compared with that of pyrolysates or chemical' mutagens such as T'rp-P-1!, Trp-P-2',and 4-ni~troquinoiine-N-oxi'de. The mutagenic acti'vity of the browned solutions increased with prolongation of heating time and varied with pH of the reaction mix,ture. Fructose, galactose, arabinose, xyl!ose, mannose,,lactose and sucrose also~ had the ability to form mutagens in the browning reactions with amino acids. (AS) Descriptorsm Carcinogens - sugars-amino acid Maillard browning solutions, mutageni'city:of; Amino acids,- sugars-amino:acidiMailllard browning, solutions, mutagenicity;,of;, Maill'ard reaction - sugars-amino acidiMaillard browning solutions,, mutageniicity of; Browning,- sugars-amino aci'd!Maill'ard browning solutions „ mutagenicityr of;, Sugars - mutagenilcity of sugars-amino~ acid MhiAlard!browning solutions
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18/5/2 173043 79-09-L0584' (CARAMELS.)I DUFRE X. SOC. METAYER AROMATIQUESI S.A'., 9' RUE GAMBETTA„ 94500' CHIAMPIGNY, FRANCE BIOS, 1978, 9, (3), 19-25 Languaqe:^-FR .- Note: 16 REF. 2 TYPES OF CARAMEL ARE IN USE. ONE (USED MAINLY'IN!THE BREWING INDUSTRY) IS:PRODUCED BY' MILD HEAfiI'NG OF SUCROSE ALONE TO GIVE A'NATURAL' PALE BRDWN COLOURIiNG AGENT WHICHIRETAINS SOME SWEETNESS. THE OTHER;IS PRODUCED BY STRONGER HEATING, HAS A DARKER,COLOUR, LESS AROMATIC ODOUR'AND!SOME BITTERNESS OF FLAVOUR, AND IS WIDELY'USED IN E.G. THE BAKING'AND CONFECTIONERY' INDUSTiRIES'. VARIATIONS' CAN BE OBT'AINED' BY' CHOICE OF RAW' MATERIAL, E.G. SUCROSE, GLUCOSE, INVERT SUGAR'_ MALT'SYRUP',, MOLASSES OR 'r1YDROl.YSED STARCH.: IMPORTANT FACTORS'DURING MANUFACTURE ARE'7fHE SUGAR:!W'ATER RATIO, RATE OF TEMP.: INCREASE AND MAX. TEMP. WHICH INFLUENCE BOTH INITIAL. HYDROLYSIS AND'LATER PYROLYSIS, AND FINAL COOLING RATE'TO STOP THE REACTiI0N8. REACTIONS ARE DECOMPOSITION, POLYMERIZATION AND'INTRAMOLECULFIR CHANGES, PRODUCING A M'I':XTURE'OF LOW Mcf1. WT. AROMA COMPOUNDS,AND'HIGH MOL. WT. COLOURED COMPOUNDS. COOKING IS DIFFICULT TO CONTROL IN OPEN VESSELS, AND IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT'UNDER PRESSURE IN ANIAUTiOCLAVE, COMMONLY WITH ADDITIONIOF A CATALYST, E.G. PERMITTED ACIDS, BASES (NH3 GAS, NH40H„ KOH, NAOH), OR'AMMONIUM,, SODIUM OR'PUTASSIUM!SALTS. CARAMELIZATION'IS MUCHI I,NCREASED BY BASES; NH3 COMPOUNDS'IN PARTICULAR PRODUCE AN IN'fENSE'COLOUR 7UT INFERIOR FLAVOUR. NH3 MAY PRODUCE'4-1'iETHYLIMLDAZOLE,, WHICH IS SUSPECTED iOlBE TOXIC AND IS LIMITED TO 200 P.P.M. LN'CARAMEL. ANALYTICAL CONTROLS ARE DISCUSSED, PARTI'CULARLY'FOR COLOUR AND ACID FOOD STABILI~TY'(ISOELECTRIC ?RECIPITATiION POIINTS), IMPROVED BY AMMONIU'i OR' SODIUM CATALYSTS, AND ALCOHOL STABILIT!Y'(ESSENTIAL IN E'.G'. BRANDY „ RUM). (ELC) Descrfptorso' CARAMEL - BREWERIES, CARAMEL MANUFACTURE:FOR; CARAMEL - BAKERIES „ CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR;; BREWERIES - BREWERIES, CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR; BAKERIES - BAKERI'ES. CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR 1:8/5/3 158663 78'-12-A0776 (HIGH FREQUENCY'PYROLYSIS OF SELECTED CARBOHYDRATES.) HOCHFREQUENZPVROLYSE AUSGEWAEHLTER' KOHLENHYDRATE. BALTES, W.; SCHMAHL, H:-J.. INST. FUER'LEBENSMITTELCHEML, TECH. UNIV., BERLIN,,MUELLER-BRESLAU-STRASSE 1:0, D-1000 BERLIN (WEST) 12' ZEITSCHRIFT'FUER LEBENSMISTEL-UNTERSUCHUNG UND-FORSCHUNG„ 147G, 1167, ('2)',,, 69-77 Languag,e: DE Summary Language:: EN Note:- 46 FZEF. GLUCOSE, AMYLOSE, AMYLOPECTIN, CELLULOSE, FRUCTOSE, INULIN„ SUCRQSE, CELLULOSE'ACETATE AND METHYL-CELLULOSE WERE TREATED,BY HIGH FREQUENCY PYROLYSIS (CURIE POINT PYROLYSIS) AT 700 $$DEGREE$$ C. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS'. FORMED'BY THIS'PROCESS WERE SEPARATED,BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, AND1THEIR UTRUCTURES DETERMII'JED BV GLC/MS. (AS)' ~, Descriptors: CARBOHYDRATES'- H'IGH FREQUENCY'PYROLYSIS AND' VOLATILE ~ COMPOUNDS FROM'CARBOHYDRATES; HEATING - CARBOHYDRATES, HIGH'FREQUENCY YROLYSIS AND VOLATILE' COMPOUNDS FROM; SUGARS - HIGH'FREGEUEPJCY PYROLYSIS ~ iND VOLATILLE COMPOUNDS FROM'5UGARS; VOLATILE COMPOUNDS - CARBOHYDRATES, ~ +'I6H FRfcQULNCY PYRrJLYSIS AND VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM ~ ~
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1ElZL4 139187 77'-10'-H1697' (PRECURSORS:OF COLOUR AND AROMAFORMATION IN COFFEE.) N UND ENTST No ARBE' UND' GESCHMACK DES KAFFEES. (IN '7TH INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUQUM ON THE CHEMLSTRY'OF COFFEE' (SEE FSTiA' (1977) 9' 1OH1'670).). BALTES, W. TECH. UNIV., BERLIN (WEST)' 1976, PP. 91-1'07 Languager _D_E Summary Language: ENI Document Typet LECTURE' Nbte:: 44 REF. IT IS'SUGGES~.TED THAT COFFEE AROMA DOESINOT DEPEND SOLELY ON BEAN VAR. OR' METHOD'OF PREPARING THE BEVERAGE; CHANGES:DURSNGIROASTING ARE ALSO OF IMPORTANCE. CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING'ROASTING OF GREENICOFFEE'ARE DISCUSSED: IN DETAIL, INCLUDING: BREAKDOWN OF SUCROSE. Ab1 INITIAL INCREASE OF REDUCING. SUGARS BEING FOLLOWED BY~THEIR BREAKDOWN; DECOMPOSITIONIOF CHLOROGENIC ACID TO QUINIC ACID, FOLLOWED BY FURTHER DECOMPOSITION; DECOMPOSITI'ON'OF CAFFEIC' ACID; REDUCTION OF FREE AMI'NOiACI'DS AND THEIR'BREAKDOWNIPRODUCTS'DUE TO! PYROLYSIS'OR'STRECKER'DEGRADATION;' HYDROXYMETHYrLFURFURAL FORMATION', BY HEATING OF THE SUGpRS: AND'THE GLUCOSE-ALANINE REACTION AND PRODUCTS OF THE. ATMADORI REACTION. I'N',GENERAL, MONOSACCHARIDESi(EVEN IN'LOW CONCN.)' AND~ AMINO ACIiDS~ARE THE MA3N AROMA PRECURSORS, FOLLOWED'TO',A LESSERIExTENT BY' CHLOROGENIC',ACID. THE FINAL DECOMPOS!ITION PRODUCTS I'NCLUDE'3$GREATER THANSt 300 VOLATILE COMPOUNDS;, IT IS BELIEVEDITHAT THE AROMA'COMPOUNDS'ASSOCIAT'ED WI,THIMAILLARD-STRECKER'.BROWNI'NG ARE OF'MINOR SIGNIFICANCE,AND THAT PYROLYTIC DECOMPOSITIONS ARE THE MAJOR FACTOR„ FOR WHICH ROASTING TEMP. ARE SUFFICIENTLY HIGH. (ffLC) Descriptorsa COFFEE - AROMAiFORMATION!IN COFFEE; AROMA - COFFEE, AROMA FORMATION IN'; ROASTING - COFFEE, AROMA FOF:MATION DURING' ROASTING..OF' 18/5/5 092367 75-02-H0181' (SUCROSE DEGRADATION!DURING HEATING AND EFFECT OF AMINO ACIDS ON PYROLYSIS.) ~T A.; LOMINADZE, V., N.; SKRIPNIK, A. YU. - INST. BIOKHIMI'I' IMENI A. N. BAKHA,AN SSR,,, MOSCOW, USSR PRIf:LADNAYA BIOKHIMIiYA~I MLKROBIOLOGIYA , 1974, 10, (5), 681-687 Languaget RU Summary Language:, EN'Note:'. 9' REF. MIXTURES OF 100 G'SUCROSF __AND 2'ML WATER ALONE'OR WITH 0.25 G GG"CINE, PHENYLALANLNE'OR PROLLIVE WERE HEATED TO 1i85-190.#SDEGREE$f C:IN'A BATH OF WOOD'S ALLOY FOR' 1'0 OR 45 MINOR FOR 11, 1.5 OR 2' H, ALDEHYDE, VAPOURS BEING' TRAPPED IN 2,4-DTN',ITROPHENYLHYDRAZI':NE. ALDEHYDES „ VOLATILE AND NON-VOLATILE .ACTDS AND~OTHER'PRODUCTS OF PYROLYSIS'WERc. DETERMINED BY VARIOUS CHRUMATiOGRAPHIC PROCEDURES. GLC AND PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY'CHROMATOGRAMSIARE PRESENTED. FURFURAL, FORMALDEHYDE, ACETIC AND BUTYRI~C ALDEHYDES AND ACETONE WERE MAINLY'FORMED. IN THE PRESENCE',OF AMINO ACIDS,, METHYL ETHYL KETONE AND. PHENYLACETALDEHYDE'WERE FORMED AS WELL. IN VIEW OF THE BENEF'ICIAL EFFECT OF' PHENYLACETALDEHYDE ONIBRANDY QUALITY, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT SUGAR COLOUR'I'NG' FOR BRANDY BE MADE BY~ HEATING',SUCROSE WITH'PHENYLALANINE UNDER REFLUk'. CONDENSER. (SKK) W 3escrilptors: AMINO ACIDS' - SUCROSE, AMINO ACIDS' AND' PYROLYSIS' OF; DECOMP-M `]SL'TION - SUCROSE, AMINO ACIDS AND PYROLYSISIOF; DECOMPOSITION - SUCROSE „~ f•;EAT1',NG AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF; HEATING - SUCROSE, );EATING AND CD' r3ErRADATION PRODUCTS'OF';, BRANDY - SUGAR COLOURING PREPARATIONS FOR BRANDY; ~ COLORANTS - BRANDY, SUGAR COLOURING'PREPiARATIONS FOR;, SUCROSE - HEATING ANDCa 1EGRADATION PRODUCTS'OF SUCROSE; SUGAR - BRANDY, SUGAR'COLOURING -4 '•REP.IRATIONS' FORI N'. "1'oaotf
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AU TI AU CS' LO, SOi SC DT CO L15 ANSWER 2 of 4 CA101 (?) :90^5y $tudies of the browning! of' techn~i ca~l sugar jui ceswi th speci~al reference tolphenolic components. fieinefeld',, E. ; E(lliesener, K. 1M.; Borrass, V.,; Poltrock, U. Inst. Landwirtsch. Technol. Zuckeriind.,, TU Braunschweig Brau,nschwei g, Fedl. p,ep., Ger. C. R'.Assemi. Gen. Comm. Int- Tech., Sucr.,,, 17'tth,, 67'1-700, 44-2 (Indlustrrial Carbohydrates) J Cfi'ISAx' IS 0254-5128 PX' 1'983. LA Ger AB Hi gh-perf armance l i q. chromatog. of modell catechol ami nies ' added i nd'i cated that DOPA (' I) , bui l t up i~mmed i atel. y dur i ng cutting the beets, is rapidly oxidized to mellamines under normal canditions of extrn., whichiare el iminated durilng the puri f'ni. of' juice. Anal. results al so showed that under the alk. conditions during! juice purif'n., the concn. of free phenol i c compds. i n jui ce i ncreases, whereas the concni. of bound phenolic compd~s. decreases from raw juice toimollasses. There was no significant influence of' o-diphenols on the thick juice color. 'Model' exts. with additives, i.e. Na2SO3, H202, FeC13 and' air, showed that those substances do nol affect significantly thick juice color inireglard to catecholamines; the formation of'I via tyrosine was delyed byad'dny of NIa2S06'„ wheireasthe presence of monophenoTsincombiniatfon,with,iFeC13 caused the formation of dark color in thielajui!ce. Thiclkjuilcefrom raw, j~uiceincubatedl att35.deg,ree. contained~ high amt. of high moll. wt. browningi compds. indicating that infection lieads to col'or formation in juice. KW juice browningiphenolic compd effect; sulifite effect beet juice browning; peroxide effect beet juice browning;~ iron, effect beet juice browning; microorganismiinf'ection juice browning IT Air (browning of' sugar beet juices in presence of) IT Mi croorg,ani sm (effect of y on sugar beet juices, browning in relation to ) IT Browning ('of' sugar beet juices, phenolic compds., in relation to), ~ IT 51-41-2 51-43-4 51-61-&,, usesandm~iscellaneous. 51-67-2 65-85-0, uses and miscellaneous 87-66-1 99-50-3 99-96-7, uses andl misceL lianeous 120-80-9, uses and'miscellaneous 121-33-5 123-11-51, uses and, miscellaneous 123-31-9',, uses and miscellaneous 139-85'-5' 149-91-7, uses and' miscellaneous 331-.39-5' 458-35-5. 510-59-6 536r66 3 1135-24-6 (browning of sugar beet juice in presence of) IT' 8013*-17-0(browning, of' sugar beet juices in presence of amino acids and)' IT 59-92-7, uses and'miscellaneous (browning of sugar beet juices in presence of invert sugar andI IT 7705-08-0, u~sesanid~,mi scel l aneouls7722-84~-ll , us~esand~ mi sce11 aneous 7757-83-7 (browni ng, of sugar beet jui ces i n, presence of phenol i c compd1s. and') IT 57-50-1P, preparation ('manuf. of', juice browning in, phenolic compds. in ra1atimn, tm) ;
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V- KIRIC-OTHAAER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY THIRD EDITION , Go A WiUE1f=INTEFtSCIENCF' RUBUCATION on' John W/IlIE=y & SQmS, ~ ~, NEW YORK • CHICHESTER' • BRISBANE • TORONTO ~ ~
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868 StJGAR' (FR©RERTIES) Sucrose Derivatives Mamy, dderivatives have been investipted 1with a view towards utiliaation ~of sucrose as a chemical feedstock. The multitunctionality of the sucrose mol'ecule generally frustrates efforts, to prepare high yields of sing.le compounds of 'sucrose. A wide variety of'sucrose esters has been prepared from both low and high molecular weight fatty, acids. They have limnited'~ use as baking additives, emulsifiers (qv);, viscosity modifiers in~foods, and'are usedlin, detergent (qiv)., confectionary, ingredients, and'.in drug and cosmetic formulat,ions. Sucrose ethers have many similar properties and uses. Sucrose formulated detergents have the advantage of biodegradability (22). Various reviews have covered the chemistry andluse of a multilud'e of sugar derivatives in a variety of applications (2'3! 25)h Reactions of'Sucrose of the starting material (500-800pC). All of the degradation1 reactions are sensitive to impurities in the sugar crystal!(6).I'hermal degrad'ation~ in solution produces various At higher temperatures carbon-carbon cleavage occurs (200-300°C), fol'lowed, by small-molecule formation, (300-,500PC), and formation of materials not characteristic amelizati'on+ and the mizture of products Sormned' is comrnercially useful as "caramel". water formation., At temperatures of 170^210'C', thi's reaction is referred'to as car- 9U-200°C begins with cleavage of the glycosidic bond'~ followe&by condensation and' OacidQtiom Fartial! or complete ozidation of sucrose with nitric acid or with various metal'oxid'e:catalysts produces many products and firagments:lMild oxidation formss oxalic and tartaric acids, as well as a variety of acidic materials designated collectively as saccharic acids.. Themraf Degradation. Lli general, degradation of dry sucrose at temperatures of' Mydbogenationi Sucrose' is hydrogenated with Raney nickel to a mixture of sor- bitol and mannitolt under more drastic conditions; ghycerol and propylene glycol are produeed, (27)I. saccharides degrade further by wayof cond'ensation and disproportionation pathways A small amount of inversioniis detectable under alkaline conditions; the mono- of the fructose formed is converted'~ to, D-fauctose dianhyd'rides (27). acid is the most common catalyst. Under conditions of acid hydrolysis, a smalll amount mineral acid's, ion-ezchange resins, and enzymes. Owi'ng to economics, hyd'rochlloric The hyd'rolysis, of sucrose has been carried i out in, the presence of a variety of catalysts: sucrose is sold in liquid!form, as "ynvert"'(a roughly equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose) or "medium imvert", where about 50% of the sucrose has been~ hydrolyzed.. sucrose is easily hydrolyaed„ and inversion occurs (change inthesign:of polariaationfrom , +66:51 to a negative value, owing to the larger negative rotation of fructosey Much HydFolysis. I'he glycosidic linkage is relatively stable in dilute alkali and! in neutrall solution,, with maximum ~ stability occurring at about pH 9, Under mild'acid catalysis, stront'ium, and barium have been employed. for co,mmercially separating sucrose from beet molasses. Similar processes based'on, alkalir and alkaline -earth metal salts to form complexes of varying composition (26). Formation of sucrose complezes with calcium, forms the basis for the Steffen process M'etal Salts.In addition to the formation of esters and l ethers, sucrose reacts with h: te at cf Bp
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Vol. 21, SUGAR (PROPERTIES) 869! ose My aty tty ers nd' .)se ws ity, .;ig :)n -al \' is, ' )n. „hh a., 3:'. 'ic nt' r- -e if d C' a compounds such as 5•hydroxymethylfurfural and colbred condensation products (28). Ie,nizing radistion causes degradation 1 of sucrose in1 a somewhat similar manner to thermall processes, both in the crystal andl in solution (27,29=30). Safety and iHealthi Factors Physicall'y, sucrose is generall'y, considered to be safe to handlie, although some hazard'~ may exist when much: dust is present (3IL): From ithe standpoint of health, ez - tensive studies have conclklded'that no health hazard erists when sucrose is consumed at current levels (32-33)6 although a synergistic contribution too the formation of dentat~ caries:mayn exist (34')i (see also Sugar, cane sugar). r. BIBU GAY "Sucrose" under "Sugaars (Commereial)" in ECT lst edl„ VoL 13, pp. 247-251, by J'. L Hickson, Susar'Rie- search Foundation, Ihc.; "Sugar (Properties of S4crose)" in ECT 2nd ed., pp. 151-155, by IR A. McGinnin, Spreckele Sugar Co. 1. Sugar and S'weetener 0utl'ooli and'Situatkors, United States Department of A`riculthue„ Washington, D.C., Feb. 1981. 2 R. Jl Wicker, C1iem: lnd: 41,1708 (1i966): & W': Z Hassid, M: Doudoroff; and HL A. Barker, J'. Am. Chem. Soc: 68,1416 (1'944)l, 4. R. V. ILemieuz and G. Huber,J: Am. Chem. Soc. 75,,4118:(Q953). 5. F. T.' Jones and'F: E. Young, Anat: Chem. 2G, 421(1954)'. 6. L. Poncini, La Seyererie Belge 100;,221(1981). 7.: H. E. C: Powers, Sugar Technol: Reu. l„85 ('1969--1970): 8. B. Makower and W. B. Dye, J::Agnc. Food'Chem. 4.72 ('1956): 9. K. J. Palmer, W. B. Dye, and D', Black, J: Agric. Food Chem. 4,77 '(1856): 10. H. Kurten and H. Rumpf, Chem.ing. Tech. 38,331 (1966)~ 11. B. P'. Ch.ndra, J Phys. D' 10„ 1531(1977): lt D. S. Smith, C:, H. Mannhreim,,aad S.:G: Gilbert, J: Food Sci. 46;1051(1981). 13: H. M: Panooast and ~ W. R: Junk, lYandbook of Sugars, The AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Con., 1980., 14. Et. & Norrish, Selected Tables of'Phyrsical'Prapertiea of Sugar SolYYtiona, Scientific and.Technical Surveys No., 51,,The British Food' MenufiacturinBIndustrie. Research Aseociation, Leatherhead, Surrey. AtandaW Road, England,1967: 15. F. J. Batea and,As.ooiatea; Poldrwnetry, Sacaharimetry, and'tlie Sugars, U.Si Nationall Bureau of Skandarda; Circular 440. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C:,194'2: M B. M'. Smythe, Sugar Technot. Rev. 1, I91(1971). 17. A. VanHook, Sugar Technol: Rev. 1, 232 (1971): 18. M. K. Supran;,, J: C. Acton, A. J Howe11J and R. Il" Saftile, JMilk, Food' Technal: 34, 548 (,1971): 19. 11r S. S1ia114nber8er, andlG. G. Birek; Sugar Chemistry, AVII Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Connm, 1975. 20. R Mi Pangborn, J: Food Sci. 28,726 (1963): 21. M. A. Ameruie, IR.' M: PAngborn, and E: B: Ruesskr, Princip('ea of Sensory Eualuation of Rood; Academic Press, New ldork,1'965, p: 95. 22: V. Kollonitch,,Sucroae Chemicals, International Sugar Research Foundation, Inc., Bethesda. Mdi, 1970. 23, R. Khan and A. J: Forage, Sugar TechnoL Rev. 7,175 (1979-1980). 24'. J. L Hickson4 ed., Sucrochemistry, ACS'. Symposium Series No. 41, Ameriran Chiemical Society, , Washington, D.C.,1977, , 25: R: Khan in R. S: Tipson and D. Hlorton, edL, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemietry and'Biochemiatry, Vol'. 33, Academic Press, New York,1976; pp, 235-294. 26. J. A. Rendleman, Jk.:in M. L Wolfrom, and' It T. Tipson, eds., Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Vol. 21l AcademicBress, New York;1966, pp. 209-271.. 1. =d
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ffi70 SUGAR (IPRC)PER'TIES) ~ 27. W. Mauch, Sugar Techna/: Rev.,1i, 239 (1971).. 2fl. F:11L C: Kelly and DL , W'. Browna Sugar Technol. Rev. 6,1(19711-1979): 29. G. Lofroth, lnt: J Radiat. Phys. Chem. 4„ 277 ('1972): 30: W.1N. Binkley, M. E. Altenburg, and M. L Wolfrom, Sugar J 34', 25 (11972)i 31. N. IL Sax, Dangerous Phopertiea;o/Induttrial'Materiall, 4th edL, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co:.New Yorlt,1975.. 32: Etwluation o/'t/ue Health Aspects of Sucrose, FASKB, Foodand Drug Administ`ation,lWashingtisn.. . D.C., Bureau~ of Foods,1976, 33. & L Bienman, Arn. J. Clin. Nutr. 32,, 2712' (1979): , 34. F. Q. Nuttall and'M.C. Gannon, Diabetes Care 4,304 (1981)L General References ~ It: A. McGinni, ed, Beet'Sugar Technology, 2nd ed:, Beet Sugar Development Found'ation6 IFort Collins, Colb.,,1971(3rd ed., 1982). Generd'l coverage with emphasis on manufactln•ing. l;. P: Me.de and IJ: C'., P. Chen, Cane Sugar Hundbook,l Glth ed:, John. {Villsy,li Sons, Inc., New Nork;1977: General coverage with emphasis on manufacturing. G. Vavrinecs, Atlas of Sugar @rystala, Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens; Berlin, 19601 Detailed treatment of crystalline state. W. Mauch and F: Farhoudi', Sugar TechnoL Rev. 7,,87 (1979=1980); Discussion of physical properties and' eompasition of'eommercialf white grenulated'sugar. F. Schneiider, ed, Sugar Analysis, ICUMSA, do British Sugar Corporation Ltd., Peterborougl4 UK, ,1979: Qfficiall analytical methods of the International!Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugu,Analysis (IC- UMSA) relating to, eommerciall sugar. R. M. SF.QUF.IRa Amstar Corporation F s a 0
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922 SUGAR (DERIVATIVES) HO CH,OH ` OH OH :' Figure 1. Sucrose. depend on a number of factors, eg, the solvent used, type of reaction, steric interference, and temperature. Generally, the primary hydroxyl groups are the most reactive and the 2-, 3-, 3'-, and 4'-hydroxyl groups the least reactive. Sucrose is insoluble in most organic solvents, so that reactions in solution require the use of polar or hydrogen-bonding solvents (see Table 1) (2). Most commonly, pyridine, dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide and hexamethylphosphoric triamide are used. Occasionally, a reaction takes place in an aqueous medium or in the absence of a solvent. The need for costly or polar solvents, which are difficult to recover, is frequently a determining factor in the economics of a synthesis starting from sucrose. Degradative Reactions of Sucrose and Other Sugars. Thermal. Sucrose, when heated at temperatures above its melting point (180°C), rapidly decomposes with the formation of a complex mixture of volatile compounds, ie, 2-butanone; 2-methyl-2- cyclopentenone; 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one; 2-acetofuran; 5-methyl- 2(5H)-furanone; furfural; 5-methylfurfural; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; 2,5-dimeth- ylfuran; y-butyrolactone; 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one; and phenol; and an involatile residue containing glucose; levoglucosan [498-07-7] (1); levoglucosenone [37112-31-5] (2); 1,4:3,6-di-anhydroglucose [4451-30-31 (3); and polymers (3). The intensely dark-colored product, known as burnt sugar caramel, is widely used as a coloring agent in foods and drinks. In manufacturing, catalysts, eg, sodium hydroxide, ammonia, and ammonium bisulfite, are added to increase the tinctorial power and Table 1. Solubility of Sucrose in Nonaqueous Solvenlsa Solubility (at 100°C), Solvent ghoo g dimethyl sulfoxide ' 58.7 morpholine 45.1 dipropyl sulfoxide 42 N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone 33.5 N,N-dimethylformamide 29.6 hexamethylphosphoric triamide v. sol. 2-methylpiperazine 29.5 propane-1,2-diol -11 pyridine 5.99 pyrazine 2.23 sulfolane <1 dimethylsulfolane <1 1,4-dioxane <1 a Ref. 2.
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WaIL 2!11 SUGAR (DERIVATIVES) 923' to: modify the properties of the caramel for particular applications (4). Sucrose can be replacedl by glucose,, highi dextrose equivalent (DE)' corn syrup, or invert syrup; which caramelize at lower temperatures, typically 130°C. The product is usually specified by rigorous analyrtical tests; however, its composition is undefined which leads toproblems in~food-additi've regulatory controll UH. (1L), Hydrolysis*. In acidic aqueous sollution, sucrose is hydrolyzed at a rate that depends on ~temperature, pH, and solids concentration4 to give an eq,uimolar mixture of glucose and'~ fructose (5). Under alkaline conditions, sucrose is more stable than in acid'solution, but at higlh : pff it is rapidly degiaded' on heating of the solutionl Since glucose andi ','~ fructose are extremelyunstabl'e under alkaline conditions, onlly their products of de- _ composition are obtainedlon alkaline hydrolysis of sucrose. A'atidic. In acid and alkalinesoltition4 glucose andI fruetoseare interconvertible through their common intermediate enediol form of the hexose (4'), (Fig. 2)'. The equivalent enzyme-catalyzed interconversion in the presence of glucose isomerase,, for example from.qclinoplanes rreiasouriensis„is used in thecommereial production of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) (6). The intermediate enediol (4) readily loses one~ molecule of water to give arab'niohexos~2-ulbse [I26345-59'-5] (Q (Fig; 2'). The further deconnposition~ of the latter explains the formation~ of the numerous d'egradationn products identified as components of the mixture obtained on, heating sucrose, gl'ucose,, or fructose in iacid or alkaline sollutipm Und'er mildllyacidic conditions andlat high temperature (typicallly 100-420QC), sugars undergo progressive loss of three molecules of vvater-with the formation of5- hydroxymethylfurftaral (6). (7), Pentoses, derived from the hydrolysis of pentosans, the main~components of'hemiiceliluloses, undergo a similar reaction when heated in the presence of dilute sulfuric acid! to form furfural. This process is used for the com- mercial production of furfural from corni cobs or sugarcane bagasse (see Furan d'eriv- atives)i.. At' high temperatures, typically 180PC, and'.in the presence of strong,scids, eg, HCl, hexose sugars give a mixture of l'evulinic acid (7) and' formic acid as a result of the further breakdown of the intermediate (6) ('8): I.evulinic acid is the source of a wide range of products, eg, the esters,, which have been proposed for use as sollvents for ni- trocelGulose, a-angell'calactone, 2,6-diimethyl-3-pyrid'aziinone, and' 5,methyl'-2-pyr- rolidinone (9). None of these routes to these derivatives, however, is commercially significant. AVkalirte.Under strongly alkaline conditions, glucose and! fructose decompose rapidly by the formation of the hexosenediol moiety. Elimination of a hydroxy: group from~ the carbon at'om $ to t'he carbonyl group, a reaction~ catalyzed by cal'ciwm ion, yields the corresponding deoxyhexosulose which can then.reaet iin~ any of several di- .
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IISS'fNG 0067-73~6~. _I/ Bibliography on Smoking a adi Health V4/ORLD 1 HEALTH ORGANI2ATIIpN COOLLABOR'ATING' CENTRE FOR REFER'ENCE' ON SMOKING ANDHEALTH,
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.. ... y,. CHEMISTRY i i 9 81-1701. Benner,, J. F.; Keene, C.' K. Inrestigatioos on th'e Preprration and (2,emical I Cumpositioa of Tobacco Leaf, Smoke, and Fraeeiom ThereoCTobaoeo and Health Contract VIiI'(Final Report: July 1972-June 1975), Il1S. Department of Agriculture, September 27, 1976+ 121 pp. Details on activities involving the preparation and chemical analysis of tobacco smoke and condensates are reportedJ Thesee efforts were undertaken in support of' a number of investiaa- tions into the biolbgic:l IefTects of tobacco. Procedures used for prsparation of smoke condensates and bio.ssay samples are described, and detailz on condensate fractionation are provid- ed. A subproject to determine whether various mycotoxins could be transferred into cigarettes in a physiologically, viable form is discussed. The transfer of alf*toxin BI, alfatoxin G„ kojic actd and duaactoxysctapetwl was specifically tnwestigatedl IIt' was found, in I this last studx, that no' measurable transfer of ' alfatoxin 4"i. I occumed. Transfers into mainstream smoke were obsermd' for the other compounds; the transfer of alfatoxin I B; amounted to 0:8' percent, 12 percent for kojic acidJ and 4 percent for diaeetoxyseirpenolJ 81 -1n02'. Betts, T. E: Sugar In Tobacco - Its Efred'oa Smoke pH. Labot+otory Practice 30(4): 34'6•348. April! 1981. The eR`'ect of tabacco sugar on the pH of cigar and cigarette smoke was investigated. The pHl of tobacco smoke affects nicotine absorption by the smoker, a greater amount being abaorbed in a free base form at' alkaline pH ltvelk Two tobacco blends were used to test the relationship between smoke pHi and the addition of gloeose. One was an air~cured blend from ¢ommercially available ciytare.ttes('A). while the other consisted' of cigar, tobacaa as a comparison (B). Both had a sugar content approximately 0.5 perocttt' of dry tobacco weight. The A and B' bkend's were sprayed wiWi glucose in aqueous solutionj , giving a sugar content of'0.3'to 27 percent. Test results showed' that the pH of the sutokrdearassed as the sugar content' increased. Both tpbacaas showed a high degree of correlation in the relation- ship, 0.9856 for A and 0.9410, for B' (p C 0.001). A linear pattern of smoke pH' vs: glucose percentage of dry tobacco weight was appareat from about pH 5 to pHl 9. As an additional test, 200 cigarette brands were examined, having,a sugar content ranging,from 0.03 percent to 20.3'perrent and!a smoke pH of 9.0'to 3.9. Similkr values were obtained' from a blend of Virginia and Burley tobaccos in I varying proportions, the sugar content ranging from 0.3 to 18.0 peroent' and the pH ranging from 8.6 to, 4.0. The cigarette brands and' the Virginia and' Burley mixture each gave a smoke pH vs. sugar relatuon- ship of' two straight graph lines crossing just' above the pH' S5 level. Below pH S; inctrasing, the sugar content had a diminishing effect on lowering smoke pH: The study results of the glucose treated and'untreated tobaccos appexr'to indicate that the sugar a.ontent of tobacco had' a linear relationship with smoke pH' within the range of pH 5 to pH 9. The relationship 398'8 1~ diminished' bekrn pH' S, with, other chemiicall and physical' factors playing an increasingly itnportant rok between pH' 4 andpHI3. 81-1703. Cirnuthets, tr:;, NeilYOn, A. A ShaplitTkd Procedure for the Grs Qrastabograpbk Deten.i.atton of Nkwti.e: Appliraflos of the MetbW to Jldoase Skie. M'i kinchintioa Acm II(11/2)t 59-66; 1980. A method for isolation and Purifkatioa of nicotine, bypassing tedious soltraat partitioa scluxnrs, is described. The method is al'so useful for the determination of nicotine disappearanea in mouse skin. Nicotine was applied' to the backs of' mice, which were then saaifiaed at specified itime intervals and washed withh aaetane. The tneatad skin area was trcnwred and!homogeniaed in water. Samples of the honwgenate were used ifor protein and. DNA determination; the remainder for, the extraction of' ni'cotine. For the extraction, the pH was taised I to 1'2:0i with NadH~, then extractied' twice with ethyl I acetate. The solution was rortexed, cattnifuged',, and the ethyl acetate removed with a stream of nitrogen. The remaining centrifuge was weighed. sealed with parafilm, and stored at 4'C. The final! nicotine determination was then made by gas chromatography. The peak areas measured in Diac units sbowed'tharthis method can detect 0.005 pg nicotine per µ1l of soetone. The time-interval tests revealed a nicotine half-life of 1.2 hours for the first', 6 hours in mcuse skin. 81i-1704: Cooke, RS':;', Dennis, A. 3. (Editors). (iemieal Analysis and BiolbgiealFate:Polyeuclear Aromatic HydMo- eartions: Columbus, Ohio., BatteNe Ptrcss, 11981, 7951 pp: Papets presented at the Fifth International Symposium ion Pb1'ynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarhans ~ reviewing resaarchon , their formation, their detection in the environnxnt+ and their fate in biological systems are compiled. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which have eytotoxiic, mutagenic, ani carcinogenic effects, result' from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and' are found in aitbocne industrial pollution as well!as in tobacco smoke. Several papers presented deal with the chemical analysis and biological effects of selected PAHs commonly found in cigarette smoke. The first study inwestisat- ed the metabolic aotivation of dibenao(Qi)pyrene and' diben- ao(aii)pyrene: Both compounds are strongly carcinogenic hexacyclic PAHe; traces of'the latter have been detected in the neutral fraction of cigarette smoke condensate. The second~ study describes a new method for rapid analysis of gaseous~ PAH and other combustion-related! compounds in I hot gas (0 . streams, which should be useful in the chemical I analysis of (Z . tobacao smoke. In the third study. the biologic effects ofi'Q5 selenium (a trace metall found' in cigarette smoke)', and sulfur onm metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, also present in tobacco smoke, bA
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181 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 501 CARMELLA, S.G.; HECHT, S.S:;TS(T, T.C.; HOFFMANN„D. Roles of tobacco cellulose,,sugars„andichlorogenic acid~as precutsors to catechol in cigarette smoke. d. Agrie: Food Chem. 32(2):267-273, Mar.-Apr. 1984. Tobacco was extracted sequentially with hexane and methaniol-Hr0, and theextl•actswerepyrolyzed at650°C in order to identify likely leaf precursors to the tobacco smoke cocar., einogen catechol. The results demonstrated that the methanolLH2O extract and the extracted tobacco residue were good' pyrolytic pres cursors to, catechol. Subfractlons of the methanol-H2 0 extract were lsolated by HPLC and pyrolyzed. Fnctase_ oincose, sucrose, andi - dil'orogeniic acid were thus identified as important pyrolytic pre. cursors to, catiechol. Ceilulose,, a component' of the extracted tobacco residue, was also found to be a good precursor to, catechol i;n pyrol, ysis experiments. To determine the role of these substances ass precursors to catecholl under the conditions prevailing in a. burning cigarette,, either [iiAC(U)];eellulose, [14C (U)i]Ifructose,, or various levels of the unlabeled polyphenols chl'orogenic arSd or rutin were added to cigarettes and the mainstream smoke was anallyaed for [I14C]'catechol' and catechol. On the basis of these experintents,,the minimum contributions of these compounds to, mainstream smoke catechol levels were estimated as follomrs: celliilose„ 7'-12%; total of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, 4%; chlorogenie acid, 13%;, rutin„ CL96. it is suggestedl that a significant portion of' the remaining catechol in mainstream cigarette smoke is formed from pectin, starch, and hemicellulose. 502' GREAT BRITAIN. LABORATORY of theGO'VERNiV1ENT.. CHEI41- ~' IST. Report of' the Government Chemi'st,, 1981. G.B: Lab. Gov. ~ Chem. Rep: Gov. Chem, :1i-188, 1982. Includes data on tar, nico- tine, and carbon monoxide yield of'cigarettes.. :I 503 KAltl'ESVIWARA RAO, B:V.; SATYANARAYANA 1WIURTY', IG.R.; NIAHALAK'SHMIi, V'. Variation i'n tobacco, smoke composition with ageinng.. N'atl Symp. Tob. 5th Pap. 1:55-59„ 1984. 504 LEADERER„B~.P.. CAIN, WS:; ISSEROFF, R.; BERGLUND, L.G. Ventilation requirements in buiDdings. II: Particulate matter and'ear.
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~5uC:L3SC - PY20L-1,s1s CA, 1`tCvr4- N,,. 1i8( COPIED C 19 d~~ ( / ~ 10 d p ~ n ( /qee) ~~~~~~ ~'~~~ . Q 89: 148463m High f uency~ ~yrolxsis of selected carboh= ydrates. jWteL W~erner,~Schmahl, Josef (Inst. Lebensmittelchem:, Tech. Uwv: '. r in, Berlin, Gert)j 2: Lebenam.-dlntert: Fdrsch. 1978, 167(2), 69 •-77' (Ger)hThe volatile eompdL , formed'by subjecting lucase [50~:-99-7]~ amyloso [9008-8t-7]j am fbpectir~ 9037-22-3 ~ ceGlulose [9004-34~],/r~ctose (B7-48~7{ inrulin ~'9004-10~8 J sucrose [57-50:-1], ceti(ufoee acetate [9004'-35-7)J; and methy cellulose [9004-67-5] to high frequency pyrolyau (Curie point pyrolysis) at 700° were sepd& by gas chromatog., and resp. sttuctures were detd. by xas chromatoK:-mass spectroscovy: 62: L834MSw Study of the osidatioa of carbonized peats .and natural palymees b DTA and a M. differentfal! tbermo- ravinnetric method. L;, IWiazi'na, O: L;, ~trobina,, O. A.; Zhuhov, Torfa, 114insh, USSiI):, Khim. Toerd: TopC (Moucow) 1980,. (11h, 101-4 (Russ):. DTA and' thermogravimetric curves were detd. in ozidative pyrolysis of'dry sucrose (57-50~1], cellulose (I) (9004-34T6],, hgnire 9005-b3-2], sad 2 tiypa of -35% carbonized peaf~. (bog peat ana'cotton grass-pinewood peat)h. The thermal dkaompm started at -200°. Inwtially, wts: increased (2.3% for 1, little change for peat), but began to decrease at -400' for I and at 300-400°' for the other substancea. DTA showed a strong ezothermaU effect at 415-515'. DTA indicated the ease of' carbonization to be sucrose < I < Hgnin <'eotton grass-pine peat < bog,peat. 76323c Pyrolytic decomposition of' orgRnlc substances con-, taining oxygen. s~ M. N.; IChabarova., N. A.. •Sb'. Z'r., Vse.r. Zaac o sta nst. 1967, No. 39. 5-W (Russ): Pyrolytic decompn. of org: substances contg. 0 lead§ to H2O:. CO,, and! CO. The transfer of O into these 3 substances (HtO;. CO., andi CO) was studied!by running, the decompni in a dosed system in the presence of inert gas. Products of'org: dissocn. were absorbed by paraffin wax. H}O'was absorbed by a Pregl absorber. CO.,and CU were atiserbed' by ascarite.. Pyrolytic decompn: of glutamic acid was,investigated. At 200° dehydrs- tion took place, at 300° CO2 was evolved, and at 400° CO was evolved. During, the pyrolyYic dissocn. of'y-benzyl glutamate the CO was evolved' only at 700«. During,decompn:, of palmitic and benzoylbenzoic acid at -800' 0 was evol'ved! as COi, andi I'i=O: In benzoytbenzoic acid 90%p, of the 01 was generated' in, the form , of CO, and~ 7% as HsO. In the case of pahnitic acid' nearly 60% of O was generated'~ as COs and 35% as HypL The missing, amt. of' O was liberated! at 700 r' as H=O. Pyrolytic de- compn:, of sucrose showed' that at. 700!' all 0 was converted to H10+ CO,, and CO1. The main part of' O(67%a), is cronverted into H}O„ 21% into CC)3 and 10% into CO: Pyrolytic de- compn: of bromobenzoylbenzoic acidland' benzoylbenxoic acid vdas compared'. The presence of' halogen influenced the reaction .considerably. For example, no water eouldd be detected duringg the decompn. of' bromobenzoylbenzoic acid. At 700% 98% O': contained' in bromobenzoylbenzoic,acid was transferred into COt, s and 2% into COL Similar results were obtained during pyrolytic dissocn.,of sucrose in the presenee of halogen derivs. The pres- ence of' halogen derivs. (CuCI, AgCl, CiCI.) increased the COt •content,and decreased the H.O content of products of' pyrolytic decompn. Optimum temp6 for detg., 0 during pyrolytic de-, compn., of org. components is 700P. The presence of halogen affects the equil. considerably and' transfers 70% 0 into CO3..
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eM ~-Z:01,7s) ~ A" aZ~:' ( !q x5) eR l' '° _ n ( 0 /' o`'' 4502f Gradual degradation of' sucrose. Ii. Synthesis of oligosaccbarides andi pol'ysaccharides with a jpztacyiic double bond. j2C3ggjCL GG.; Faure; A.; Martin, J. C. (Lab+ Chim:, Org., F.c.per. Chim. lnd. L,yon+, Vilkurbanne, Fr.)., J. CHa~~. . .... . CMZ ' OAtOAa, 11 . Carbobyd'.„ IWudeosi'd'es, 1Vrecfeottidts 1974, 1(3)„ 189-211 (Fr). C;ellobiose, sucrose, and cellulose S allyl and gbenzyl' dithio• earbonates were thermally degraded to the cozresponding olefins., Thus, Me 2',2',3,3'',4-penta-0.acetxl'-S.cellobioside 6,6''-bis(S•.' allyl'dithiocarbonate) was pv_rol'yzed a_t 180-200!° to giivra% 1. 29914e Sbcrose degradation during heating and amino acid influence on ~ pymol sis: Eaprmr. L A.; Lominadze~V. N„ Shripnili, A. Yu. (A. N, nI^st.-S'-ochem., Moscow, SSR)- Ptikl. Biokhim. ]Ifikrobiol: ' 1974, 10(5), 681-7 (Russ)~ Compn. of products fformed! as a result of heating sohuL of sucrose with and without amino, acids fbr 0i5-2r br at 185-90'W was estd. During heating, the pH of the solbs. decreased' from 6.8 to 2~:58 owing to formation of'various aliph. and arom. carbonyl eompds. Acetic,' formie, propionic, butyric,isobut)rriG,' valeric, roovalenc, caproi~~~ c, malonic, and' succinic acids, PtOH, BhOHl furfurol; lia(;~ O and MeCHO were detected. In the presenae of amino acids, decompn. occurred at a highl'y, acxelerated rste. The products resulEing from the heating of Nsucrose with gIxcine, alanine, or phenylalanine includedi MeCOEt and phenylacetaldehyde. Taking into consiaeration the ' favorable effect of phenglacetald'ehyde on the quality of cognac it was recommended' to~ add phenylalanine to sucrose and' heat it in order to prep. sugar colorin/l: Y. Teiesingova _ 26613w Deterrnilnatilon of the indWation period~ of the autocattalytio deaornpon ition of auorome. Ivanov, S. Z. (V'oronezh. Tekhnol., Insl oronez , tJSSR)i 1av. Vyash, tl'cheb: Z'wred., PiahcA.. 7"eArJwol. ' 1971, (3), 30-2 (Ruas)i The autocatalyt'ic THERiIAAL DECOWCPN. of suara.e (U f b7-b0L1] haa an induction.period (r) the end'of which~is also the beginnin of a rapid I soln. pH increase. The kinetic curves of concn. vs. time~practically coincide' widh, I soln. pH vs. time ciurves: PH d'etns. being Ieas' time consuming than " the IODOME'L'RIC DETN: of I. are recommended for detg. r of industriall I solns: 10648f: Browning reactions and' frag~nentationi of carbohy- drates. IM1T'. Companson of the volatile degradation prod'ucts' from the nvrolvsis of mono-, olieo-- and~ nolvsaccharides: Iieo3, K.; Klier,, Ild. (Univ. Hambur& Hamburg, Ger.). Car Rca. 19b8, 6(4), 438•418 (Ger)',. On pyrolysis at 300-500• for a, short period,n.erythrose, o-zYlose. n-ribose, n-arabinose, D-ginlV cose, a-sorbose, n-fructose, »glucurono-6.,34actone, eellbbiose. maltose, lactose, sucrose, raffinose, amylose, amylopectin, and' cellulosr give the same volatile products of degradation. Thisl finding suggests that, by , degradation, dehydration, and condeo- sation ~ reactions, alll of' these compds. form similar polymeric iir termediates that then undeigo a secondary, thermaidegradation. A different distribution of pyrolysis products was found with DI, glyceraldehyde, hezitob, pentitols, and : 1,6•anhydrohezosea. Ad'dn. of acid salts has a small effect on the compn, of'the pyrolY` sis products; neutral salts have no effcct. Addn. of'basic salts' suppresses the formation of' furans and f'scilitaties the formation ofl carbonyl , eompds. Anali of' the products of pl,*roly!sis was' ef ~~.wr.7l 1:.. ...1.2:...~::... nF! sa-linwl'.m+++e.fns nnA'.nass. SnGf.~~ tirometry. aoPIED,
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C...' f I 7^ -` 0 ~74) (~Iq~ 761, n~ n C, P _4° ( /'9L T. QQPIEb' 44062n: P7rolytic rei¢tions of carbohydrates. IV. /llnhydro• sugar formation and tranaglycosyladon In the thermal' reactions of various glucose derivadves~ ~ine~ Yoram; Patai, S. (Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem, j em,1i-Zl, srael). Ixr., J. CTem: 190, 7(4), 535-46 (Eng). The formation of 1'evoglucoaan and 1,6:anhydro-D-glncofnranose in the thermali dbcompn. of D-g11n- cose derivs., such as methyl and phenyl a-glucosides and oligo- saccharides was studied. At 25Q', all simple glueosiden were found to undergo eleavage with thrrelease of:their aglyConicom~ ponent;' Ph P-n-glucopyranoside and! 1,2*0-isopropylidene-ar-D- glucofuranose gave this reaction nearly quant6 Since no; n- -glucose could'~ be detected among the decompn. products, it is eon- eluded that the cleavage of the glucosidic linkages is not a hydto- 1yticone and that the aglycon is formed as one of the products of transglqcosyl'ation reactions occurring through a nucleophilic attack by an O'H''group:of one n-glucoside mo1. on C-11 of another. The Ph /3-rsglucopyrranoside reacts much faster than the cor- responding Me compd'. because of': the catalysing effect of phenol, once formed. In contrast,to the simple glucosides, all oligosac- eharides during the pyrolysis reaction formed n-glucose which is produced' by transgCycosylation and (or)'hydtolyrsih. The resufts also indicate that: the thermal stability; of trehalose is: much higher than that of other glucosyl glneosides studied; this is:, interpreted in terms of' a correlation between thermal stability, and,the pressure or absenee,of bloching groups at the anomeric OH' group, Furtliermore, the thermostability of glucosyl units in a chain increases with the chain length of the substrate, reach- ing a max, in cellulose. The thermall decompn. of' oligo- andl polysaccharidic chains is initiated! and preferentially involvess reducible end units, and the speed of' decompn. d'epends on the ratio of the no, of' reducible end-units to that of'the total!no+ of' units in the chain. G. W. Seherf' 46286w Formation of sucrose pyrolysis products. hnwn° Robert Reiner; Alford, E. D.; Kinaer, Glenn,W'. (Res. 15e .,, Brown, andi Williamson Tobacco, Corp., Louisvil&, Ky:): J. Arr: Food CJFarn. 1484; 17(i),,22-4(Eng). The volatile products from sucrose pyroly!sis and from an aq. acid-stannous chloride degradation of, gllncose are similar in eompn., which suggests some similarity in reaction mechanisms. A no, of products have been isolated from one or both of'the product mixts, and identified. Three,represent previously unreported'carbohydrate pyrolysis products: RCiB 18818v Prodncts of sugars pyrolasl's. Yoiichi " U'rako Kobashi,Tashil¢o Daihara, and Shiro Sugawara Scnbai Koaka Chuo K'enkyesho Kenkyu Hokoku No. 108, 355- 9(1'966)(Japan). n-Glncose, n4ructose,, sucrose,, a-arabinose;, and n-xylose were heated at330°, and the pyrolytic products were analyzed on gas chromatograms at 8(1'-200° using 3 mm. X 3 m. coltrmn with, 5% PEG 6004'^Chromosorb-W: Each chrnma- togram gave a considerably different pattern. Fufural'and 5- methylfurfural were detected in, all sugars but no 5-hydroxy- methylfurfural ~ was detected in, the pentose pyrolyzates. Amts. of' carbonyls, volatile acids, reducing substances, and HjO' in the pyrolytic prodhcts obtained by heating the sugars at 4011-50TM were detdL H. Kubo 901 56696g Thermal decomposition and color formation, in aqueous sucrose solutions. IS,e11it, F. H1 C.;, Brown, D. W. (Univ. Singapore, Singapore, S'in~ga~pore). Sugar TechnoL Rev. 1978, 6(1), T-47 (Eng). A review with 199! refs.
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COPIIE@. ~~ ~aI _." C l 7 L 7' 6R 7 I' ; 6/ '?4 7), l..i, 1 614, (irI ,7 ~ 11S118b Caramei's and carameHzation. 11. Formation of'f olfgosauharides in the gy~rolysis of sucrose. Shoza- buro; Sushki~ Kirolnt (Shimane Uniiv.;, Matsue, apan)., S/sj-_ mane Noka. Daiga ku Refutyu Floknkr. 1967,115, 19-24 ( Japan ). , Sucrose was heated at 190 f 5' and the resultant caramel extdL with 84% EtOH. Column chromatog. on charcroal-Celite ~ showed the presence of isomaltose..kojibiose, and nigerose, besides undecompd. sucrose, glucose, fructose, and 1',6-anhydto- glucose. A flew swbstances contg. ketose and some non-reducing ones inn+olt+ring anhydro-d'isaccharid'es were,alko present. 6i702t Electron spin resonance in sucrose induced by pyrol7- sis : and z-irradiatl'on. Sanchi; Sugita, Shigetaka; , Fujii, Kazuhiro (ICeio niv„ oganei„ Japan).. Tanso 1969, 561, 162-4 (JapI fi.S.R. studies were made,on charred sucrose, whieh~ was itradiatedi with, X-rays after heat-treatment at dif= fkrent temps., to cl'arify the nature of spin centers produced,by pyrolyrsis. P!~eliminary expts. were done on irradiated single- and poly-cryst. sucrose„ the result agreeing with previous studies. In most cases the resonance due to uradn. behaves in a different manner from that d'ue,to pyrolysis; the latter is quenchediby the Presence of air while the former is not, even when both types of` spin centers are present in the specimen. This and othe; observa-' rions indicate a possibility that, irrad'a.-induced spin centers are immobile a-electrons whereas pyrolysis-induced spin centers are mobile ,r-electtreons: RCGD _ 91: 161919m Enhanoinnr erfect' of carbohydirata "pyyrolysstes on mutagenesis in Salmonella typLimariam. ~~~_ Hitoshi; Mizusaki, Shigenobu; Yoshidar Daisuka, rll~tsoto, Takashi (Cent. Res. lnst, Japan Tob. and Salt Public Corp .7Gokohama, Japan 227). Agric. Biot Chem: ll979, 48(7), 1433^8 ()+ng)~ Carbohydrate pyrolyzates obtained at 700* intensively enhanced mutegenicwtres o[ severall mutqenia agents on, 3 typhimrxrium. The pyRrol'yzates obtained by heatin~ 1-18 min had' an enhancing effect oa the mutageaiaity of a amrlar level. Of the 8 kinds of carbohydrates teated, sWerose [8740-1] pyrolyzate hsd , tha highest enhancing effsck The enhancement of mutagenicit~+ by sucrose pyrolyzate was much imore effective on arom. amines such as 2-amin%l4orene [L6S'-78~~-6]I and 2-aminoanthracene [613'-13-8]I than on polycyclic arom. hydrocarbons. The enhancing, effect of sucrose pyrolyzate was ezh9bited' in the presanca of'a,metaboiic activation ovstem: - 94: i 12i819x Thermol'ysis of sucrose ia1 dimethyl sulfoxide soiution. p4aeiai. Laurence; .Richards,~~ N: (ID~e~p~ Chem. Bibchem.,-ama Cook Univ. 1North Townsville, 48'1Ri Australia):Cartlollydn~ ltles: 19M87(2), 209-17 ' (Engh. Thermolysis of sucrose in anhyd. Me3SO is list order in, suerose, but' the rate also shows some depend'ence on the initial I eoncn, of sucrose. The reaction is facilitated by intramoL H-bonding and is inhibited by intermoL H-bonding to water or alcs. The thermolysis yield's a-D-glueopyranose (rovhich, then anomerizea)) and the fructofuranosyt carbonium ion which can I raact withbenzyl alc. to yield' benzyl a- and' /3-D-fructofuranosides. The fructosyl cation is the precursor f'or formation of 2,6'-anhydro= fructofuranose in the thermolysis of sucrose.
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`1 40 C n 93'." ~(j:J' "a9; 163877t Mechani'sm of'thermal degradation of sucrose. A preliminary stud'y.~g~ Geoffrey N.; Shafizadeh, Fred, ,SYood Chem. Lab., Utnv'Io~na`tsna„ 1Mlissoula, Mont.): Aust. J: Chem. 1978, 31(8), 1825-32 (Eng): The initiating reaction in the thermal decompn. of sucrose is a first-order intramoL displacement't yieldin~~~ o-glucose and' a fructose deriv (I)~ I' has. not been identified, but is postulated as reacting, rapidly with sucrose to yield I trisaccharides. When another alc. (erythritoq is present_in the melt, I: reacts to produce fructosideL 93: 116Z77v Thermal decomposition of sugar in condl+nsates used for feeding steam boilers. Xar'm_il~ D.; Tsyutayurai V. D. (Vaes. Nauchno-lssied. Inst a~E1~P- E. rom:,, USS6t). Sakh: Prom-st. 198% (6), 39-41 (Russ). At high temp~ sucrose (I). ["a7-50-1l in soln. decompd: with the f6rmation of org. acids accompanied with an increase of sp. elec. cond. and a decrease of pII of the soln. The marked d'ecompn. of'. I started at;1'75° and reached i to a man value in the: temp, range of 2t)0-504, and time sufficient for complete decompn, of I' during heating of the soln. at 25q° did not exceed , 5 min, The entry of I into the steam boilar, via condrnsation,of juice evapn, in amta. >0.001% should not be allowed4 andl boiler HsO must be treated with alkali to, secure pH of 5,5~-9:5i 9& 78S3e The influence of various tablbt' components on thermal decomposirti'on of some pharmaeenticalY. W' M'arek (Inst. Chem. AnaL, MedJ Acad., Gdamk, B0L). 71~~~ Acta 1980, 1(3-4)6 199-213 (Eng):. The thermal! decompn: (as measured'~ by dill'erentihl! thermaL anaL, thermogr.vimetry, and'~ 'dkriv: , thermogravimetry)I of ' individual tablet components was a 3-stage prcaess with stage I'.resuitiag',in HsOi laes, stage II due to dkcompn. with the accompanying formation of intermediates, and' atage III in which combustion of org: qroups by the decompd. compd's. occurred, owing to desorption of volatile prodiicts. The thermal behavior of tablet component' mintad depended on the decompn: of ! the main component. Tablet components altered the thermal decompnf of dnugs. Thermal' decompn. was used to identify and det. drugs in mints. 89: 91376d Reduction of nnmonitored losses as an important way of inereasing sugar yielldlfrom beets. 7.~ lA. Ya.;. Oleinik, D. P:; Tovatenko, Yu. V.; NovoselietsFii; .US.SR). Sakh. P.nm~it: 1978, (6)i, 33-7 (Ruas)'. Methods aimed at reducing,the bacterial/enzymia and thersnalI decompn. of'sucroae• [57-W1] d'uring,sugar manuf. are discussed.. U
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f, ,° ~ r- 0 -\ ,<_ ' IPy 7 Z r. L. - ___J ~.., YSiZ) C R i 9!21 I~ G ~ CORIEU C~ R ~~ o Clwc~s~' 4 6-o2c bi 60 : 69i04) 914 '(05 L r T'Z.3`io~ LA ~~_ o C~~ ~~) I 3~3 20~ FIrst~ d'ecompodtion products of dry-heated sncrose. Dietrich,, B' lh Silvia Schmidt-Ber (Inst. Zuckerindj Berlin). . 15(4), 179-89(196b~(Ger):, Pure. d'ry sucrose,, heated to 13Q°, formsonly glucose, while at or above 150r'eonden- sation (•'neversion")iproducts also form. Fructose andi its an- hydride appear at 1609' and! hydroxymethylfurfural above 170°. At this temp: (15 min.), d'iu and trisacaharides also form; 5 of the lattv,consisting of sucrose to which fructoseu linkediglycosidally. ~Kestose is one of them., A. VanHbok, FhmsicocEemicali studies on starches. %XIA. Thermal deg-' radhttion of starch. 3. Formation, of decomposition products fror,t starch and related materials at temperatures between:l7S° and 400° D. Js Br= and C. T. Greenwood (Univ. Ed'in- bur;;lt, Scot.)., Staeri e. 1'5',, 359-83('1983)(in English);~ cf. pre- ccriang, abstr. Potato starch, potato amylose and amylopectin, - nrcitox, isomaltose and glucose were pyrolyzed in vacua at'. 17:i"-4QQl°' for 18 hrs. The volatile products formed'~ were ana- Isde 1 by gas chromatography and' included AcH, furan, acetone, acioicin, 2-methylfuran, butyraldehyde, MeCOEt, and 2,5-di', in<:ccyIfuran,., The amts, of ~'rlCi-IO, HCO=HL AcOH, and fur-. fi:na':: in the residue-vere also detd. During the pyrolysis of' starch, there was rapid deeompni at,about 220-230°~„ when 1,6- aclied'roglucose was formedl due to cleavage of the a-1,4-glyao.. si'ic bands: Catbiona Crawford Thermal conversion of carbohydratias ln tobacco., R. TN- Lt Burde F: H'. Crayton, and,-Al. Bavley (Philip Morrts, i r.~~~:. .'~ie Im.ond„ Va.)L Tobacco Scii 8, 70r3(1964). Flue-cured 0-78x tobacco with and without, enrichment, with glhcrr.•A•?'CC was packed in gas-tight cylinders and, exposed to a; es- ternal heat source in the range 24°-804 for 1-9 days.: The nmt. of' reducing sugars decreased, whilr the free acids and water iir• -creased. Less than 3%of'theglueose was fully oxidized tn Cth, and water. The observed! decrease in reducing, power was dur' mainly to the formation lof water-sol l andd water-insol. carbt)liys- drate conversionproducts. The higher, the temp., thegreaten..cae the:tendency: to form the water-insol. prodtrcts:. Acidity n: the leaf' increased during the thermal treatment, but there was no evidence that the dibasic acids were actually formed as degrrda• tion products of the radioactive glucose. It is likel y: that the in - erease in acidity is due to the blocking of basic groups.. A, srnall amt. of' glucose ('<1.8%a), was converted into Et20~sol. products. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were, identified in this -fractionlas a degradation product of' the radioactive glucose: !h,L pyroiysis:oi some hexoses and derivedidt , trir, and polY. saccharides. Duncan Smrriinec (Cotton Silk Man-Madu hib-n Res Lab:, Shirley Ins$.-„ Ma-nchester, Eagl.). J: Chcur. .Nn:. C, Ohg: 1i9h66(17)1 , .14'73+R(Eng). The vacuum pyrolysis d glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, and certain dhrirod di-. tri-, and polysaccharid'es gives, as major products, 1,Eiranhydrv hexopyranoses and -furanoses and'~ 5-hydmonymeth}lfurfuc,4lk- _ hyde. These, together with some minor products, have brca estd'. as the 0-triinethylsilyll ethers by gas c:{romatoAarphT- The pyroi'ytic reactions, which in many respects resemble acid• eatalyzed reactions in aq. soln. are discussed, particularlfs c' relation to the influence of' thermally induced conformatiwul i i tloinges. Glltcose is shownn to undergo mutarotation anril a+a• ' densation-polpmerization in the molten state; the pyml?--' prod'ucts:are,thase of. the resulting polymer. 29 references.-.
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r 4.f t! J~ a~1 l~S~ 017 ~ C R s~ o 0%-4) I30me C/P\ 1'2o92~e. a0PlEQ Thermal decomposition of' some : tobacco constituents. J. A. S. il~t andi A. J. Lindsey' (Sir Joha Cass Coll'., London). ~TT.T. Catlcer 1,1, 398-402(1937),-The major constituents of cured tobacca (aellhlioee, ]fignin,, peetiny, starch, sucrose, gl'ucose, fructose, taalic,aeid, citric acidj and oxalic acid) were subjected to thermal dbcompn. at 650' in the absence of air, The polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons acenaphthylene, fluorene, anthracene, pyrene; Suorantltene, 3-methylpyrene, 1,2=benzanthraeene, 1',2'- benzopyrrne, 3,4-benzopyrene, anthanthrene, and coroe nene were detd. in the decompn. products. The quantities found were much greater, than were found in the smoke of' equivalent amts., of tobacco. Especially large quantities of fluorene were,formed during,decompng of lignin. Analysis of' the thermal d'ecomposition products of ~ carbo- hydrates by gas chromatography. C. T., ~, J. H. Knoz, atuf E: Milne ( U'mv. Edinburgh,,Scot~l.=. ~ ~'f Ind. (London)'~ 191d1, 1878-9.-Gas i chromatography is ezcxllent for analyzing,the volatile products (2-methylfiuan, MeOH, Me:CO. EtCHO; acrolein, fucan, kTeCHO, COf, and! H20) of' the thermal deeompn., of' sucrose, maltose„ jute hemicelllilose„ alginic acid;, cell'ulose,, aad starch. The eolmmn (150& cm. long) was 511ed' with 6(F:-80, mesh Cel'itt coatedI with 10% by wt. of' a 2:1 mint. of di-Bu phthal'atr and polyethylene glycol 400: A katharometer was used as the detector and N was the carrier gas. Chromatograms were;recordtd'at 50". Chia-mai T. Kao. Free sugars in cigaret' smoke. Nusuke K_ o~. ' and Soichi~ Sakaguchi (Japan Monopoly Cocp:, ' o!,r t]-y-o). To- bacco Sei: 3, 161-3(Pub. in To6acco 149, N'o. 17,, 20-2! (1959)):-The smoke of' cigarets made from 4 types of tobacco, Japanese flue-cured (A ), American flue-curad! (B)', native sun-cured (C), and native burley (D) iwas investi- gated , for free sugars i The cigarets were conditioned and wt. selec0ed: 1.15 t,0.1 g.fortypesA,and B'and! 0.80, f 0.1 g., for C'and D. For each analysis 1000, cigarets (70 mm:): were srnokedi with & 40 tni. puff of 2 see., duration taken every 30 see., Length smoked was 55 nun. The smoke was trapped on a glass wool plug and'~ subsequently extd. with H2O: After removing acids and bases by ion' eaehangr column, chromatography, the neutral aq. fraction was concd: in tocuo and used' for paper chromatography and f'or , the detn, of total reducing sugars.Glhcose, w.ab_inose,, and Ayl'ose were,fbund in the smoke of '¢iprets made,from, alli 4 tX es of' tobacoo, Fructose was found only in the smokrof'A aad B. Among iinidentified sngars, also present, was an aldo'peu tose and_.a._ketohe:ose., The total reducing sugar eotYten~'(img./1000 cigare~s) of. the smoke of A' and' B was 517:3 and 562'.6„resp., and of C and' D' 75.0 and 77.5, esp6 A., M: Gottscho Formation of 1',5•-anhydro$n-glucofuranose in, the thermall decomposition~ of' d,n-glucose fn vacuo. - N. M. t, E: a.. Andtievsitayaj, Z. V. Voludina, and O: P. Golova Obs%t. k.. ICkin. 34(1), 334-6(1984); cf6CA 51,, 13385d: Pyrolysis (,f' "P-n-glucose gave about 8.5% 1,8anhyd'ro:.Q -o-glucofuranose and l about 14% 1,8-anhydnrA-n•glucopyranose: The yield of' the former was established; after purification.of the reaction mint,. un •anionite:resin, by paper chromatography.
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FST1} CMw 3'1~(37'1 5 1J~iQOS~ - P`/ Pa4. 173043 79-019-L0158i4 ('CARAMELS. ) DUFRESNOY, X. SOC..ME~.TAYER~~ AROMIATI~Q~UES'~ S.A~.,~ 9' RU'E~ GAMBETTA,~ 94500~ CHAMPIGNY~,~~ FR'ANICE~ BIOS,'.. 1978., 9s (3)., 19-25. 31/372' 158663 78-12'-40776 (HIIGHIFREQUENCY PYROLYSIS OF SELECTED' CARBOHYDRATES.) HOCHFR'EQ'UENZPYROLYSE AUSGEWAEHLTER ICOHLENHY'DRATE. BALTES, W!. ; SCH'MiAHL, H.-J. IItVST. FU!ER LEBEh[SiNITTELCHEM'I., TECH. UNI•V. B'ERLIN, MUELLER-BRESLAU-STRASSE 1!0!, D*-10001 BERLIN (WEST) 12 ZEITSCHRIFT' FUER LEBENSP'fITTEL-UNTERSUCHUNGUIVD' -FO'RSCHUNG'r . 1978,~ 1'67'c (2), 69-77 3 ii 73/3 13~9187: 77-101-H1697 ('P'RECURSORiS' OF COLOUR' AN'Di AROMA FORMATI'ON' IN! COFFEE'. )' VORSTUFEN UND ENTSTEHU!NG. VON FARBE UNIi, GESCHIMACIK' DES IKAFfEES. (IN' ' 7TH INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUMI ON' THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE' (SEE FSTA (1977) 9' 10H'1670). )BALTES, W. TECH. U'NIV., BERLIN (WEST) 1976, PP. 91-107' 31/3/4 092367' 75-02-H0181 (SUCROSE DEGRADATION DURING HEATIING AND EFFECT OF AMINO ACIDS ON' PYROLYSIS'. ) EGOIRO!V, I. A. r^ LOhfI'irlA'DZ'E, V. hf . r SICRI PhlI1C, A. YU. INST'. B'I0KHIIMlI IMENI A. N. BAKHA AN ' SSR', MOSCOiW# USSR P'RIJCLADiNAYA BI0KHImIIY'Ai 11 I"fIKROB~IOLOGIYA~ s 1'~97'4~:~ 1O~y (&)'~,~ 681-687 31 /'3T5' 045b6'9 72-013'-S0'.3010 (METHANOL IN RAW PORiK SA.USAGES, ) PYRCZ, J.; PEZ'AC1(I, Wl. ; DUD'A, Z. PRZEMYSL SP~OZYWCZY',~ 1971'., 2'5 (91 336-339 31/3Tfi, 0194,71 70-08-B0':059DIFFERENTIATION OF CLOSTRI'DiI'UM, BOTUILINUM', TYPES A,B AND, E BY PYROLYSIS-GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. CONE, R. D« i LECHOWICH, R'.. V'. ----DEPT«-OF- FOOD SC'I.r S'T'. UNIV., EAST LAN'SING, MICHIGAN 48823s USA APPLIED M~IC'ROBII'OLOGY, 1970'.r 19 (1) 138+-1145'. %
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CQPt ED, -'-,, v(z--Q0St_ - T 3.11/3'/1 31 /3/1 256343 AD-633 211 CFSTI Prices«' PC' A02/MF A'~Oii U71S CHROMIATOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF SUGARS IN HEAT PROCESSING' OF' FRUIT CQNCE~hITRATE~S'~ ~ 4Jashatko.p I.:' Pribelas A. ArmvForeisn Science and'TechnologwCenter Washington D C Maw66 2p Re~pt~~ iJ'o,: FSTC~-HT-2'3'r-77~-66~ Trans. ol~1P~~ I~zves~~tywaV!wsshii';Ikh~ Uche~bniwlk~h~~ Za~~ve~d'eni~i~. Piishchevawa Tekhnologiva (US!SR) n6. P17'-2'0 1Q'~65.., I
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a C69g69se INVERT SYRUP-TOX
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C4*S cNQN6 L1oAI`dSWER 1 OF 1' P%N' 80113- 1 7-0 IN Sugar, invert ('9CI)~ MN' Sugar, invert BY 9Y' Lnsubeta Invert sugarr SY SY' SY' SY' Nulomaline Travert Invertose Inverdex . S1A' T'r i ma l i ni 5Y' Lumolinine Sx' Metabol DR' 12656*-78'-9 MF' Unspeci f i edl J CI COM,, MAN, TSCA *** STRUCTURE DIAGRAM IS NOT AVAILABLE 385' REFEREhICES~ INI FILECA(1967TO D'ATE) C ~ cl ~
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IL 11c=> ANSWER I OF 1 C AN TD AU CS' LO SO, SC' Sx. DT CO Py LA A B'. h.aW' IT IT IT' IT CA83 (?3) : 19'1722h Problems wi tf'n i nvert sugar as f ood f or J'erlLimowNcz, T.; El Sherbiny, G. Pundes-Lehr-Versuchsanst., Bienenkd. u'iienna, Austria! Ap.idologie, 6(2)', 121-43 18-4 (Animal Nutrition) 4 j AF'DGBS. 1'975 Ger Invert sugar toxic te bees C 67'-47-0] I/1t]tT, g,. added up honeybee. Honeybee honeybees Wi en, C8013-1'17-O] produced by aci d hyd'~rol ysi s was because of' the hyd~rox ymethy:ll f urf ural (I) in it.," Com. invert sugar contained up to 30 mg Exptl". mixts. of pure glucose and fructose with to 15 ' mg/'1d4g1wereharm~Lesstohoneyb'ees. . invert sugar; ('i nvert sugar to:<icity in), Animal nutriition (invert sugar toxi~city in) 8(? 13-17-n (in nutrition in) 67-47-0 (toxicity: of, hydroxymethyl f urf'ural honeybee in nutrition of, in:, of honeybee, of to hydroxymethyl furfural hydroxymethyi f urfural' honeybee, hydroM'ymethylfurfural. toxicity honeybee)
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FOOD&ADL 1 BF.'A 01909417 85004507 Federal. Register, December 05, 1984„ p,47505 CODEN: FEREAC Doc Type: JOURNAL 841205, Carbohydrates: FDA offers an opportunity for public review, of its seicon( upd'ated'l'iteraturerevi4w, oncornsugars and~ sucrose., Relevant articliesfrom this scientific Titerature upd'ate andl articles and other dat<, sub!mitted! in, response to this notice wi11 be consid'ered in the~agency'sd'ecision on the GRAS status of' corn sugar„ corn syrup, invert sugar anc sucrose. 84052907 Federal! R'egister, June 06, 1984,, p 23457 CODEN: FEREAC D!oc Type: JOURNAL !, 84c76c_i& Sweeteners: FDA announces an opportunity f or publ i'c revi ew of' i itQ compiLatilonof' recent:lypubLished sci~entifilc literature, on corn sugars ancc sucrose.. The references andidata will then be considered'iin the agency'ss dec i sion on. GRA S status of corn sugar, corn syrups,, i nvert sugar, ,, anc sucrose. 0178.w83' 84008601 Federal Register, January 26, 1984, p327'1-3272 CODEN'.: FEREAG Doc Type:, JOURNAL 840126 . COLORS: FDA announces the opportun2ty for public comment on changles in the Food Chemical Codex, 3rd' Ediiti'on. tProposed' new monographs would~be for annatto extract,, casei n&, casei nate sal ts, FMC GireenNo. 3, FD&C &'l ue, N'o. 1, FD&C Red Nb.. 3,, FD&C YeTlow, No.5, gelatin,, hexanes, IHE'CS ChIgh fructose corn syrup):, iinvert sugar,, lactose, pollydextrose, smoke f'lavor, and various edible oi'ls (coconut o21,, cornioi1, cottonseed oiIl„ lardt,, palm kernel oiD,, saf'f l ower oi 1, soybean oii l' ,, and sunf L ower oi l,) .
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TO'.XL lNL OIV, - Uni ted Sitates Food and IDrug, Ad'mi nistrati on AD - Ftockvi 11e TI - Oorn sugar, corn syrup,, and'i'invert sugar (syrup)l proposed affirmation of GRAS status as direct human food ingredients SI - GA'/098/2'T427'1M! SO -Fed~. Regist. aVOL 47, ISS 23'0,; 1982',,5i9'17-2 r~ LA - ENG - AR - CBAC COPYRIGHT: CHEMABS~ Glucose food Oornsyrupfood'Invert sugar food; Food Sugars and syrups of „ stds. for; Standards For corni sugar and corn syrup and, invert sugar, of' foodl Legal andl permissive;Syrups Of food, stds. for Hydrolyzed starch
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H'AZ'ARDOUS' SUBSTANCES DATABASE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES' DATABANK NUMBER' NA'ME OF SUBSTANCE CAS, REGISTRY NUMBER RELATED'HSDB'RECORD& SYNONYMS! SYNONY'IriS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS SYNONY'MS SYNONYMS SYNONYMS MOLECULARFORMULA. W'ISWESSERLINE NOTATION RTECS NUMFtER. OHMLTADS NUMBER SHIIP'PINGNAME/NUMBER - DOT/'UN/NA/ I MCO -STCC NUMBER EPAiHAZ'ARDOUS WA STE NUMBER TOXICITY' SUMMARY TOX'IC' HAZARD RATING'. POISON'ING'POTENTIAL ANTIDOTE AND' EMERGEN!CY' TREATMENT INVERT SUC,AR'. 8013-17-t71 ND CALOROSE INSUBETA INVERDEX INVEF:TOGEN INVERT'OSE NULOMOLINE SUGAR, INVERT TRAVEF:T UNKNOWN ND ND ND ND ND' ND' ND'. N D' ND'. Al' "TREAT PATIENT, NOT P'OISONP" IS MOST SUCCESSFUL GENERAL RULE WHEN DIAGNOSISIS ON! SHAh:;Y GROUND., B) DILUTION WITH WATER OR MILK' FOLLOWED B'Y EMESIS MAY' BE PERFORMED IF THERE IS uUESTION'OF SIMULTANEOUS INGESTION. 1NOPV'-TOXIC INGESTION/ ¢RUMACK. POISI'NDEX' 1'975-PRESENT,j p. MGMNT 1] MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE ND 86698698
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HUMAN TOXICITY EXCEFiF'TS SEE DEXTROSE., SC ADMIN'I:S NOT DESIRABLE BECAUSE SOLN ARE,I'RRITATING-CAUSE LEACHIN~C., OF EXTRACELLULAR WATER & ELECTROLYTES, & MAY DISTEND TISSUE & LEAD TO NECROSIS. ., .,. LEACHING. .,. MAY RESULT IN ANURI'A ?K OLIGURIA BECAUSE OFC'IRCULATORY' FAILURE.../IN THOSE WITH'/ ELECTROLYTE & WATEI't IMBALANCE. /DEXTROSE/ CAM'A DRUG' EVAL 2ND ED 1,97 3,, p.1181 3' NON=HUMAN TOXICITY CARIOGENICITY OF INVERT SUGAR WAS STUDIED IN EXCERPTS LONG-TERM' RAT EXPERIMENTS. CEsIRKHED D ET AL; CARIOGENICITY OF INVERT SUGAR IN LONG-TERM RAT EXF'ERIMENTS; CARIES RES 15,(;4,) 302 (198143, 147, HUMAN TOXI'CITY'VALUES NON-HUM'AN;TOXICITY'VALUES ECOTOXIG'ITY VALUES M'INIM'UM FATAL DOSE'LEVEL POPU'LATIONS AT SPECIAL RISK ABSORFT ION',, DISTR'I DlJT I ON! AND EXCRETION- ND ND ND ND ND LESS THA4zX OF SUGAR IS EXCRETED IN URINE WHEN 1 L OF 1OJ'INVERT SUGAR SOLN IS.INFUSED IN 1 HR. WHEN~ CIVEN OVER A LONGER FERIOD OF TIME INVERT SUGAR IS COMFLETELY UTILIZED AND NONE I'S EXCRETED!IN URINE. CASHF'., AMERIGAN HOSPITAL FORMULARY VOLS IAND I L, p., 4D1: a03 METABOLISM,/META'BOLITES ND BIOL:.OGICAL HALF-LIFE' ND MECHA'NISM"OFACTiON ND I-NTERACTIONS' ND PROBABLE ROUTES OF HUMAN ND EXROSURE AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE ND PROBABLE EXFOSURES ND BODY BIJRDENS ND ~ ~ O,DOR THRESHOLD ND CD G! Cd i
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SKIN, EYE AND RESPIRATORY ' ND IRR ITATIONS~ IMMEDIATELY DANOEROUS TD ND LIIFE OR HEALTH! ACCEPTABLE DAI~LY' INTAKES ND' ALLOWADLE TO'LERANCES_ ND' OSHA STANDARDS ND N!I OSH RECOMMENDAT'I ONS, ND THRESHOLD LIMIT'VALUES ND OTHER OCCUPATIONAL ND PERMISSIBLELEUELS~ WATER STANDARDS ND ATMOSPHERIC STANDARDS ND SOIL STANDARDS. ND: CERCLA~REFORTABLE ND1 . QUANTITLES TSCA REQUI'REMENTS~ ND RCRA REQU'IREMENTS ND FIFRA:E:EQUIREMENTS ND FDARiEQU I F.EMENTS ND
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NT IiS 1970-86 t 2'14427' AD-7d 1 D~05 Sickle Cell Crisis Termiiniated: by Use of Urea in Invert Sugar in, Two, Cases (Progress rept.)! Nal bandian, R'obert M':. ;, Henry, F.aymond! : L., ;, Schultz,, Garth ; Camp,Jr.„ Frank R. ; Wo1f, F`aul! L. Army Medi cal Research Lab, Fort Khox Ky Corp. Source Codes: 039650 E:ep or t hlo.: USAMRL-B96 17 Sep 7034p NTIS Prices: PC A03 MF' A01 Journal Announcement: 6RAI'71'iiC7 Contr act N!o. : DA-3'-A-<7+6t L 1 Q-A'-821; 3-A-Ubb l i e7-A'-8b 10KD The use of' urea in invert sugar ('UIS), for the treatment of SS crisis iss related to the existence of ' pathiologlic hydrophobic bonds in sicklied' hemoglobin. Murayama's recently modified hypothesis for the molecular mechanism o+ sickiing, in SS' hemoglobin clearly implicates the formationiof hydrophiobilc bonds between interacti ng tetramers of Sn hemogT obi n as the necessary condition for the sickling event. Hydrophobic bond's are now recoglnazedl by some biochemists to, be responsi,bile for the integrity of tfiel steri c conf ig,urati ons of protei n moI ecul es i n aqueous systems. Urea„ l ong known to attack hydrogen bonds and more recently recognized to attack hydrophobic bond's,, has been used successfully by us as a chemical agent both to reverse and to block sicklinig, in, susceptible cells as shown elsewhere in, optical'and'n eLectron microscopy studiles. Urea in invert sugar (UISYY has been estab1ishedl by a large biody of literature and by Javid as a safe pharmaceutical agent;, hie has personalliy used': th~is pirepa.ratiion ini the ^ treatment of over 2,000 cases of intracerebral edema. For these reasons, there was littl'e hesitancy in using, irnfusilons of UIS in the treatment of our fi'rst two cases of SS'crisis, a therapeutic strategy which has proved to, be effective inithese preliminary studies. Clinical histories and d'ata are given. Precauti'ons and principles concerning the use of U!IS are discussed. A protocol including thie, use of' controls for the evaluation of this therapeutic modality in the treatment of painful sickle cel1 cri~sis is recorded. (Author)
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199067 AD-71'O 250 Sickling Reversea!' and Blocked by: Urea in Invert Sugar: Opticall and ElectronMicroscopyEvidence(Frogress rept.)'. Nalbandian, Robert M. ; Henry, 8aymond' L. ; Fiarnhart,, Marion I. , tVichol's, Bruce M. ; Camp, Jr,, Frank R. Army Medi cal Research Lab Fort Knox Ky Corp. Source Cod'es:03965D Report hfo. : USAi''9p,L-895 17' Sep 7(7, 27p - NTIS Prilces: PC' A03 MF AV1 Journal Announcement: USGRD'R7'1102' Contract No.: DA-3-A-(7621!10-A--82'1; 3-A-U6211o-A'-82i0D Optical andel'ectronmicroscopic evidence is presented to support the~ finding! that sickling of'hemog,lob.in S can be reversed and blocked by urea in invert sugar WIS). Erythrocytes from subjects having hemoglobin SS,, AS',, or Afl were treated! with UIS either before or after deo:aygenati'on with sodium metab.isulf'Ste (Ne2S2mW). Light microscopy studies indi'cated~that approximately one-f'ifth as much urea is required to block sicklingi than is necessary to reverse previously sicks.lied poikilocytes to normal forms. Intracellular microfi~laments apparent in transmission el'lectron micrographs of si c kl ed erythrocytes were ely i m,i nated', by treatment of al i quots of the same deoxygenated erythrocytes with UIS. Soanning electron micrographs showed a reversi on, of si ckl ed' p:oi killocytes to a normal erythrocyte populiation of biconcave discs. The use of UIS was, deduced' from Murayama's recently modified hypothesis for the molecular mechanism of sickling which clearly implicates the role of hydrophobic bonds f'ormedl between the no. 6 Valine substitution of the beta-S gilobins and the alpha globirns of interacting hemoglobin molecules. The use of ULS to arrest the formation of such hydrophobic bonds is advocated as an evident, safie, and ef+ective therapeutic strategy to treat sickle is advocated as an evident, safe, and' effective therapeutic strategy to treat sickle ce11' crisis., (Author)'
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THE MERCK INDEX AN' ENCYCIl.OR'EDIA OF CHEINIICAILS. DRUOS'. AND B'IIOIl;OGICAIl.S TENTH! EDITION Martha Windholz, Editor Susan, B'udawari, Co-Edi'for Rosemary F. BlumettLA'ssociate Editor Elizabeth S. Otterbein;.0sestant Editor 5t' 9' 8 .2. Publfshed by MERCK & CO., IxC. RAH'W/AY. N.J.,.,U.S!.A..
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locarmic Acid ~ 4876 my LI nf ,nd ud- dc'- .n~ ,hle m- led 'trI(. 24. _ie- ar- l l p. the in cli- : of 'ur- ati. da- In)• elis turt' on+ , nsist of leukocyte interferon. also known as IFN-a, LeIF ~ o + IFinhb n a ~~ ~ FI;orFlFN; bathar generallyst ble at pH 2. rn- l uk t nd tibroblast interferons differ anti f~ g e ocy e a Ituman ~ xally, have different target cell specificities. and are products >*o( different structural genes. Both IFN-a and IFN-p con- ~ sist of groups of proteins with similar primary structures. rype 11, or immune interferon, also known as IFN-y, is re- f, Itased by lymphocytes after exposure to specific antigens or . pitogens; it is acid-labile and usually more heat-labile than ~ IFN-a or IFN-(!. Purification of human IFN-a: K. Berg et faL, J. JmrnunoL 114, 520 (1975). Purification and character- z irsnon of human IFN-p: E. Knight, Proc. Nat. Acad. ScL :(ISA73, 520 (1976); W. Berthold et aL• J. BioL Chem. 253, i. 5206 (1978). Amino acid analysis, sequence of the 13-NH=- t terminal amino acids of human IFN-(i: E. Knight et at, Science 207, 525 (1980). Amino acid sequence of mature q human iFN-y: P. W. Gray et al• Nature 295, 503 (1982). ; Structure of human immune interferon gene: P. W. Gray. D. ~ V. Goeddel. ibid 298, 859 (1982). Production, purification, clinical applications of human IFN-S: W. A. Carter, J. S. Horoszwicz, Pharmacol. Ther. 8, 359 (1980). Syntheses using recombinant DNA technology: D. V. Gaeddel. Nu- cleic Acids Res. 8, 4057 (1980); S. Nagata et aL. Nature 284, 316 (1980); H. Weissbach et aL, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, : 417 (1981). Structural studies: M. Rubenstein et aL• Proc. s Nat Acad. Sc[ USA 76, 644 (1979); W. P. Levy et aL, ibid. 77, 5102 (1980); S. Stein et aL, ibid 5716; K. C. Zoon et al, Science 207, 527 (1980); H. Taira etaL, ibid. 529; W. P. Levy et at, Proc. Nat. Acad Sci. USA 78, 6186 (1981). Crystal- lization of a recombinant human IFN-a: D. L. Miller et al.. Science2lS, 689 (1982). Biological activity of human IFN-a produced by E croh: D. V. Goeddel et al, Nature 290, 20 (1981). Evaluation as antiviral agents in animals: Ii. R. Kern. L. A. Glasgow, PharmacoL Ther. B 13, 1 (1981). Clinical use fn viral infections: D. Ikic et aL• Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. ToxicoL 19, 498 (1981); G. M. Scott et at. Lancee 2, 186 (1982). Reviews: S. Baron, F. Dianzoni. Eds., Tex. Rep. BioL Med. 35, 1-573 (1977); Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 350, entitled "Regulatory Function of Interferons". J. Vilcek et al., Eds. (1980) pp 1-643; S. Baron et at. Eds., Tex. Rep. Biol. Med 41, 1-715 (1982). Review of immunobiology and s clinical significance: E. R. Stiem et aL. Ann. Intern. Med. 96, 80-93 (1982). Books: Interferons and Interferon Inducer.t N. Finter. Ed. (North Holland Publ. Co.. Amsterdam. 1973) 598 pp; W. E. Stewart. The Interferon System (Springer, New York. 1979) 421 pp; Interfervnx T. C. Merigan. R. M. Friedman, Eds. (Academic Press. New York. 1982) 481 pp; Interferon• K. Munk. H. Kirchner, Eds. (S. Karger. New York. 1982) 233 pp. THEa" CAT: Antineoplastic; antiviral. 4871. Inu1a. F.lecampane; acabwort; elfwort; horseheal. Dried rhizome and roots of Inula helenium L., Compositae. Habit. Central Asia. Europe; naturalized in U.S. Consttt Inulin, volatile oil. alantol. helenin. alantic acid, acrid resin. 4872. Inulin. Dahlin; alantin; alant starch. Mol wt approx 5000. Polysaccharide of Composirae which partially or completely replaces starch as a reserve food. Isoln from dahlia tubers: McDonald. "Polyfructosans and Difructose Anhydrides" in Advan. Carbohyd. Chem. vol. 2, 254 (1946); from Jerusalem artichoke tubers: Bacon. Edelman. Biochem. J. 48, 114 (1951). Structure: E. G. V. Percival, Structural Carbohydrate Chemistry (J. Garnet Miller, London, 2nd ed.. 1962) p 274. Spherical crystals from water. Hygroscopic in moist air. (a]D -40' (c = 2) for the anhydr. Sol in hot water; slightly sol in cold water and organic solvents. Yields D-fructose and u-glucose upon acid hydrolysis. Acetate. fine powder from methanol. [a]p -34' (c = 1.5 in chloroform); [a]l° -43' (c = 1.8 in acetic acid). Trimethylinulin, powder from hot water + acetone, mp 140'. [a]p -55' (c = 1.03 in chloroform); (a]p -54' (c = 1.09 in benzene). THEaAP CAT: Diagnostic aid (kidney function). 4873. Iu7ertase. Invertin; saccharase; sucrase. Enzymes, obtained primarily from yeast as well as other sourees, which catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Since sucrose is both a p-fructofuranoside and an a-glucoside, it is split by two different types of enzymes. 0-fructofuranosidasea or p-h-fructosidases and certain a- gfucosidases or a-n-gtucosidoinvertases, which attack the sucrose molecule from the fructose and glucose end, respec- tively. p-Fructofuranosidase, generally obtained from yeast, is characterized by its ability to hydrolyze raffinose, while a-glucosidase is inactive toward raffinose. Reviews: K. Myrbiick, "Invertases' in The Enzymes, vol. 4, P. D. Boyer et aL, Eds. (Academic Press. New York, 1960) pp 379-396; Lampen, "Yeast and Neurospora Invertases". ibid.• vol. 5 (3rd ed.. 1971) pp 291-305; Cochrane, Soc. Chem. Ind. (London) Monograph no. 11, 25-31 (1959) (Pub. 1961); Meister, Wal)erstein Lab. Comrnun. 28, 7(1965). USE: For preparation of invert sugar from sucrose; as ana- lytical reagent for sucrose. 4874. Invert Sugar. Nulomoline; Calorose; Invesol; Invertogen; Insubeta; Travert. A mixture of about 50% glucose (dextrose) and 50% fructose (levulose) obtained by hydrolysis of sucrose. Hydrolysis of the sucrose may be carried out with acids or enzymes. Invert sugar is slightly levorotatory, reduces Fehling's soln and can be fermented. Honey is mostly invert sugar. Due to the levulose, it is somewhat sweeter than sucrose. The commercial product is obtained by inversion of a 96% cane sugar soln. The inver- sion is carried out at pH 3 to 4 by means of invertase and dil HCI. The acid is usually neutralized with sodium carbonate to pH 6.5. At this point. the dextrose crystallizes and the entire mass is beaten into a creamy, plastic product. USE: In food products, in confectionery. As a humectant, like glycerol, to hold moisture and to prevent drying out. In brewing. THERAP CAT: Parenteral nutrient. 4875. Iobettzamie Acid. N-(3-.tmino-2,4,6-triiodobenzo- yf)-N-phenyf-0-alaninr 0-[N-(3-amino-2.4,6-triiodobenzo- yl)phenylamino)propionic acid; isobensmic acid; Bilibyk; Osbil. CtsHt,1,N,0,; mol wt 662.03. C 29.03%, H 1.98%. 1 57.51%, N 4.23%. 0 7.25%. Prepn: Brit. pat. 870,321 (1961 to Oesterreichische Stickstoffwerke). I I Crystals, mp 133-134.5'. Sol in acetone. dioxane. DMF; sparingly sol in cold ethanol, ether, benzene, toluene; practi- cally insol in water. LDm orally in mice: 2.87 g/kg. Lind- ner et aL. Arzneimittel-Forsch 11, 384 (1961). Methyl ester. C1rHtslsN=G), crystals. mp 156-15T. THEanP CAT: Diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium, chole- cystographic). 4876. locarmic Acid. S,S'-(Adipoyldiimino)bis[2,4,6-tri- Consull the t•rnss index before using this section. Page 725
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. -5 1982 BBibliography on, Smoking, and Health WORLD HEALTH QRCANIZATI'4N' COLLABORATING CENTRE FOR REFERENCE ON SMOKING AND HEALTH ~~~1
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TOBACCO PRODUCT ADDITIIVES' described by the patent. Nuances prodhc¢d' by the oomposi- tions include sustainediand consistently strong orange,, cherry,, and fruity, notes. 82-1490: Mussinan, C. JL; Mookhetjee, B. D:; Vock, M. H.; Vinals;: J. F.; Kiwala, J!; Schmitt, F. L Use of A+liitture Containing Caryophyllene Altoh'ols for Augmenting or En- bancing the Aroma or Taste of Foodstttfts. United' States Patent No. 4,250;201, February 10, 19811,18 pp., An organoli:ptically improved'smoking tobacco product and additives, which,impart specific desi[ed' woody, cigar-box-like, and Orientall tobacco-like flavor characteristics of natural "Turkish" tobacco (prior to smoking and', on smoking, in the mainstream and in the sidestream), are descritiedJ The charac+ tetistics can be readily controlled and maintained'at the dFsimdd uniform level' regardless of variations in the totiacco compo- nents of the blend. An aroma and flavor ad'ditiverontaining as an active ingredient one or more caryophyllene alcahols or dihydrocaryophyllette alcohol isomers is ad'ded' to the smoking tobacco material, to the fillter, or to the leaf or paper wrapper. The smoking tobaceo material l may be shredded, cumd, cased;, and blended tobacco matetial' or reconstituted!tobacco mater9all substitutes. Satisfactory results are obtained if the proportion by weight of the sum totall of caryophyllene alcohol or dihydrocaryophyllkne alcohollisomer mixture used to flavoring material is between 1,500 and 1151000 ppm (0.119' percent-ll.S' percent). g3.-1491. RenoldL W.; Skorianetz, W.; Schulte•Elte,, K: H.; Ohloff; Gl Spirane Detivatives: United States Patent No.. 4,1'74;327,, November~ 13, 1I979i13'pp. A,method of producing ,spirane compounds to reproduce the fulll character of patchouli oil l is disclosed Owing, to their particular organoleptic properties, these derivatives can be used for the preparation os'arti}icial flavors or for thratamatizatyon of foodstutTs,,animal feeds,,beverages, phatmtaceutical! prepara- tions, and tobacco, products. The compounds suitable for flavoring tobacco or tobacco products impart a woody, amber- like, and cedar wood-like note reminiscent of Oriental' tobac- cos. The various nuances are achieved by the replacement of various isomers of 2,&„10, IU0.tetramethyl -1-oxa+spiro[4.9]decan- 6:011 g2-1497.:,Ross, W'. S. wtiaClt Been Added to Your OSgareKe7 Rerrder's Digest 1121'(723): 111-114, J!uly 1992. The advent' of the low-yield cigarette with its altered flavor has brought,about a new concern that manufacturers might be putting in more harm with additives than they are removing, Representatives of the Office of the, Assistant Secretary for Health have been negotiating with thrtobacco industry for the release of lists of additives used, in U:S, cigarettes. Although many of these substances are derived from compounds consid-, etnd' safe to humans, alterations may occur upon burning. Animal skin tests have shown tumorigenir activity for the following,substances: coumarin, earamel,,invert:sugar, eugenol;, guaiacoU angelica root extract, cocoa, licorice, glycerol, glyeol, dodecan-5'-olide,, and nonan+4-olide. Acrolein, formed by the, pyrolysis of glycerol, suppresses the action of'microsoopuc eiliaa that force irritants from, the lungs. As a tesult+ the risk of chroniic bronchitis and emphysema is increased and the lungs are exposed to toxins and!eareinogens: It is concluded that' if additives pose no threati that fact should' be known; if'there is a threat, the substances should not be used. 82-1493. Rowsell, D. GL; Spring, D. J.; H'ems;, R. Acyelic. Carboxamides Having a Physiological Cboling Effeet. United States:Patent No. 4',230,688; October 28, 1980; 110 pp~ Tobacco products containing certain organic compounds, which can be readily synthesiierl!and'which havrbeen foundito have a physiological cooling effect similar to that obtained with, menthol, but without the strong minty odor, are describedL The compounds are, amides which may readily be prepared by conventional techniques, i.e., by the reactionofan acid chloride of the, formula R,R,R, COCI with an amide of'the formula HNR'.R' in the presence of' a hydrogen chloride acceptor. Typical! amides used are listed, with an indicatian of their cooling activity. The compounds can be incorporated into cigars,,ciganettes, pipe and chewing tobaccos, andsnuti.~,as well' as tobacco filters. The pail of filter material, which,may be of eelllulose acetate, paper, cotton a-cellulose, or asbestos fiber, is simply impregnated with an alcoholic solution of'thecoolanti The effect is to give a pl'easant cool sensation in the mouth when the cigarette is smoked. 82;-1494. Sprecker, M. A:;, Schmitt, F. L.; Vock,: M. H:;, Vinalc, J. FS;, Kiiwala,; J: (syrclotiezenemethanolt and Their Lower Fsters In Perfume Compositions., United' States Patent No. 4,247,423, January 270981, 46 pp:. A method' ffor manufacturing an improved' tobacco product containing, as an active ingredient, one or more of the oxabicyclooctanrd'erivatives and/or the cyclbhexene alkyl'and alkenyl,carbinols andfor esters is described. With this methodi desirable hay-llke notes may be imparted to smoking tobacco products and may be readily, varied and' controlled to produce the desired!uniform flavoring chancteristiics: Iln iaddition to the oxabicyclooctane derivatives and the cyclohexene alkyll and' alkenyll carbinols and, esters, other f'lavoring, and aroma additives may be added to the smoking tobacco material or substitute. The additives may be added to the smoking totiacco materialJ to the filter or to the kafl or paper wrapper, or to a filter which is part of the smoking article. The smoking tobacco material may, be shreddedl cured,eased~ and I blended tobacco material or reconstituted tobacco material or tobacco sutisri- tutes (e.g., lhtuce leaves) or mixtures thereof. The proportion+ of flavoring additives may be, varied in, accordance with taste. Satystactory results are obtained if the proportions by weight of the sum total o£oxabicyclooctane derivatives and7or cvclohe+- ene,alkyl and alkenyl carbinols andYor esters used to flavoring , 8$6987a6 342'
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214? ~-~/ COPIIEm'. alt9 9-3o (i~7-5- ~A $so (ig7~~ 9191I2b Acute tozicitl+ of 102 pesticides and'miscellaneous - substances to fish, T: E.; HurseyP A.; Alabaster, d' S: (Salmon Frashwa a*ia h Lab., h1'inist. Agric. Fish. Food London, Eagl.), Chem. lnd: (London) 1975, (112), 523-6 (Eng) The toxicity of 25 herbicides,,15 insecticides, 15 fiungi'cides, 25 ; microbicides, 17 miscellaneous substances, and 6 palyrelilorinated ~ biphenyls to: harlequin fish.is reported. 85t 190200r Sugar polymers in rats and man. ~, H. 1~; Henahoe T. H. P.; West, G: B! (IkR• APpI• Blo1.,~+T~rth East L ondon ~olytech., London, 1.): lnt. Ahch. Allergy Appl:. lvnmunal. 1976, 51(5)L 637-40 ,E(~ng)L , Intraeutaneous injections af, a arL"ucAn contaminant of invert sugar soins& and crude cme sugar into skin produced'~ a localized'~ whealt and' eryttiema reaction. The glucan- was ! also ~ active on int'radermsl' injection inta both ~deitran-senaitive and deatranrresistanG rats.
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. U!SEAc "« 8013-17'-0' ~ PROG: SS (13), RSTG (1) SS 14 /C? USER«' fF"RT Fla. PR 0'6'" 1 RN' - 80,13!-]i?-0 ON - 1s656-78'-9' GCAS) MF - UNKNOWN ' N'1 - Sug'arp invert (9CI), ~ SIY - SY - S1"' - Insubeta Imverdex I!nivertose ' SY - Invert sug~arSY - Mulomol'ine C ~ SY' - LO - LO - LO' - Travert TOXLINE TOXBACK65. TOX'B'ACKa'4 ~ LO! - LO - Lff - TIi'B' TSCAINV' MEDLINE 0 ~{' Cfv-\u I I%\~ t~. COIPIED:' i
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w-r ~ lr1 5'`r RuP -Ttw FST)q CoPiED 32f311 199300 81-03-10175 (P'rocess fmr mak.irnainvert sugar. ) Khanikhodzhaevar D'.. Ai« ; Reikhsfel 'd'j- V. Oi. r Askarovv M., A. r Ludinovar I. S« s' Leval"dl, M. A'. r Serd'wul:. E. V!. ~ Gavrilov. B. N!. Union of ' Soviet Socialist R'er-ublics Lenine'radst%ii Ordena Trudovoeo IK'rasnogo,Znameni TeNhnoloieiohesJcii Instituit im. Lensoveta. US SR' P'atenity 1980r 730 8019' 32/'3/2 11867'89 80-06-L042 0' . EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON' SUCROSE LOSS IN SLJGARDEETS, DURING STORA'GE. AIKESiOM. W. R':. rI YU!N!v Y'. M. r' SULLIVAMr E. F'.GR'EA'T W. SUGAR C0« s AGRIC'. RES. CENT.. LONIGMONT'r COLOR'ADO' 80501, USA' JOURNAL OF THE AI'1E'Rl[CANSO!CIETY' OF SUGAR BEET TE'CHNOLOG'ISTS.x 1'979e 20 r (3) y 255-268 32 /3/'3 183685 80'-0'4-L.0284 FOR'UMI - LIQUID INVERT SUGAR MANUFACTURING. PAL. G'« (EDITOR); H~-2'462?'f'ARTONVASARr POSTAFI014199- HUNGA~RYACTA AGRON0M2CA A'CADE1iiIAE SL'IEhlTIAF:UM HIUN!GARTCA'Er 1979r 28r (1f2')!r1 193-252' 32/3/4 173043. 79L-09'-L0584 ('CARAMECS, ) Dt:1IFRESNOIY'r )Q'.. SOC. (rf'E1fAX'ER AROMATIQUES S.A., 9 RUE GAMBETTAr 945001CHAt'iPIGhlY'r FRANCE BIOS. 1978Y 9'r (3) x 19-25 32/3/5 156624: 78-10-U0855 (AP'PLE' JUI'CE. ) CL1LOMBIiA x IN'STITUTO COLOMBIAN'0' DE NORMAS TECN'ICAS COLOMBIAN STAIJD'ARDs 1976r IiCONTEC 78'3'r 4PP'. 3273T6. 15089'9 78-0'6-U0458' (APRICOT JA'M« )! CENTRAL AMERICA 9, ITJS'TI'~TUTO~ CENTROAM'ERICA'iJ0! DiE' INVESTIGACION ~~ Y~ TECNOLOGIA I NDiUSTRI A'L CENTRAL AMERICA'USTAN!DARD, 1974y I'CAITI 34 062r 7PP'.. 32/'3T7' 1459111 78-02'-U0I094 INSTITUTO CENTRAL AMERICAN! STANDARD,. ( P'INEA'PP'LE J!AM. ) CENTRAL AMER.I,CAi P INDUSTRIAL 32f3T8 ~ 145910 78'-02-U00'93. (PEACH JAM. ) 0 CENTROAMERICANO DE INV!ESTI~~GACI~ON Y' TECNOLDG~IA! 1974i, ICAT'TI, 34 064r 6PP. 8'.L fi987q9 CENTRAL AMERICA . IN!S'IITUTO' CENTROAMER'I'CAN'0 DE INVESTIGACION Y TECNOLOGIA. IMDUSTRIAL CENTRAL A?1ERICAN, STAND'ARD!. 1974r ]ICAITI 34 0~63. 7PP.,
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F`'F:;OG : S!Fi (3?, P. STIiG „(463Y ~ SS' 4 /C?' UiSER «' • 8013-17-0 (~Y 12 FROG:' S (4) IFSTG ('i'). < fYnIzb L_ uou= fA S S' 5TC? CORIEOI USEa: PRT FUi fP'R0!GI I 0 ~ AU AU' AUi - Birkhed U ` - Topitsom'loui V' - EdIwardsson, S ~ AUi TI LA - Frostell G - Cariogenicits of invert sugar in long-term rat experilmenits. - Eng v. ~ MHI' MIH M'H - Animal! - *Cariogenic Agents` - Dental Caries7*ETIOLOGY ~. MH MH MH - Female~ - FrtJctose/*AhVERSE EFFECTS - Glucose/:KAUV'EF.'SE EFFECTS ~ MH MH MH RN' fRNI R'N - Rats - Streptococcuis multang/'METASOLIS'M' - Sucrose/ADVERSE EFFECTS - 3O237-2'6r-4(Fructos~e)i - 510-99-7 (Glucose) - 57-50-1 (Sucrose) i ;'N S©' - 8013-17-0 (invert sugar), - Caries Res 1981s'15(4).302-7 t i AU AU' AU AU - de Vroede M' ~ ' - Mosin M'J .- Cadranel S - Loeb H! (` AU' - H!eim,ann fR TI' -[D'iscovery of'f'ructose initolerance in a case of'acute. --- .--- -failure 'iri a 16-monthi-old' child7i liver ~ LA - F're ` MH - Carbohwdrate Metabolism. Int+orn,Erro!rs/*BIAGNUSIiS MH - Case Report MH - Enigli sfi Abst ract MH - Fructose Intolerancel'Ct1MFLIC'ATIOiNS'f*DIAGNOSIIS ` MH - Fructose/A'LIV!ERSE EFFECTS MH - Glucose/ADVERSE EFFECTS' ~ MH - Human MIH' - Infant MH - Liver Uisea:se~sTETIfD!LOiGY'7*METABQLISM' MH - Male F9N' - 301237-26-4( F ructose ) ~ ~ RN! -501-99-7 (Glucose) 001 RN- 8013-17-0 (invert susqar) SO - Pediatrie 1980 Jun,.35~(4) Y353-8 M ~, 1` SS 5 TC? 1~ ~ USEF': . O l I i
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f~JZIS L I tiC_ CUP(fD: 1017/'2 0410569 81166784 .Effect of hieh-dose Parenteral fructoser eyucose~andlmannii'tol on the ratt kidlrnev. Au~swirkunaen, hochd'osierter Parentera.ler Frulktose-r Glukose-r und Manni'tzu~fuhr auf die IR'attenni~ere. Ackermann RH Wrriversi'tats-Frauenklinik Mainz. Infusionsther.K1'in,Ernaehr ('GEFMANYr WEST) rFeb 1'9'8ii. 8~(1) P9-15,r ISSN 0378'-0T9!1 Journal' Code. GO'I As PreviiousIv obs~erve~d'~afterinifu1ssionsofd elWcerol rfructose infusions withirates above the average maximal turnover caPacitw C3.5 s X ke-1 X '' hi-ii>, result in damage of the kidnews as shown bwa: decrease~ o!f' the total activitv of alwcerokinase and fructokinase and excretion,of alwcerokinasee inithe urine.8eaI~nninaalterationsofthe,kidniews aredepernd'ent on time and dose become evident bu a: d'epletion, of Protein Per gram fresh weieht. In, the beainninaof the changes the total activitv of enzwmes in the kid'news remaining constant. Interrelations between, the observed kidnew alterationsr •turnover capacit-a, substrate concentrations in the bloodr and the rate of r,enia1 eXcreilion! are~ discussed with rega~rdto: the~ resul!tsafteri~n~fu~sionsqf g1'~ucose and' mannitol. For infusion therapwit can be ded'ucedlx that dosage inborderliirne Qasesshould bede~term~i~n~ed'bue th~eblood'~ level, ofth~esUbstrate rather th~an bu bodu weiahit r i fund!esi rable effects are~ to! bieavoided.
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~, Y 5T>,U P 0842080 78069899. .tCosiparatike studies during postoperative ilnfusion of' glucose or a carlbilnation of' glucose, fructose and xyllttoi' over fiiwe days (author''s transli)'. Vergl'ei'chende Untersuchungen wahrendifunftagi9er postoperat- iver Infusion von Glucose oder ei'ner Kombinatilon von Gfucose,. Fructose und kylllt. Goschke Hl; Leutenegger AF;: Mannhart H; Stutz K; werdenberg O ;; Alilgower M! Ka i'n wochenschr .,1977 115 , 55 (122) p115-9b I'SSN' 0023"2173 Journal Code:! KWH Two groups of' 12 cholecystectoAized or vagotomi'zed patients were given central venous i'~nfUaions of either a comb4nation of gAucose, fructose and xyliltoll at the ratia of' 1l:2:1 or of gllucose alone for 5'd®ys., The dose was increased stepwise from 1.43 g/kg['h, on operation day up to 7. 14~ g/kg/24 h on, the fourt!h, day after surgery, which equals t00-500 g/24 h for the avera$e 70 kg patient. On both infusion, reg!tin~ens mean bllood'~ gluco3e values ranged from98-12! mg/'tOO' ml., Urinary losses of ilnfused substrates anounted' to 0.2-0.8' g,/24 during gl'ucosee i'nfusion and'to 2.22-13.4 g/241 hi during ihfusions~ of' the carbohydrate conbination. Regarding mean~bl'ood or serum vallues of lactate, pyruvate, uric acid', sodfum, potassium, phosphorus, insuilUr and free fatty acids., no significant dilfferences were found between the two types of carbohydrate infusion. SYde effects were not observed. The results obtained allow conclusion that in cliniicali situations wi'th, moderate st'ress, such as the selective operations mentioned above, the combinatiionloA gl'ucose, fructose and xyJli'toll studied offers no advantage over glucose alone. However, i,n severely il'1I patients presentingi wi',th raore pronounced gilucose int;olerance, further studies with sugar substi'tutes are warranted.. 0688860 7717070:U .Severe toxilc liilver injury after overdosage of parenteral ad.inistered earbohydraies: a case report (author's transl). Schwere toxische Leberschadiigung nachUberdosierung von parenteral verabreichten Kohlenhydraten Hutteroth TH;: Wagner R; Knol'le J' Med' KUin ,1977 22 , 72 (16): p703'-7, ISSN 0025-8458' Journal: Code:: M4'E A 3'1'-year old'female patient, wilth anorexia nervosa developed a severe tox i'c liver i njury, af ter parenteral hyperal ilmentat ilon. Over a periodi of' five days she received' a totall anrount,of carbohydhates of 0:47-ii.07 g/kg/hr consilsting of glucose, fructose and the: polyal'cohols sorbitol and xylitoill. A steep rise in SGOT, SGPT, and GLDH were notedlas wellll as prolongation of'the prothrombin time and decrease of' the cllotting faetors: uric acid and lactate increased6 serum phosphate decreased'. After termination: of parenterall hyperal'imentation a laparoscopy and llivrer biopsy were performed.. The litver biopsy revealed by light- and' electronMllcroscopy signs of a severe toxic 1iNer i, nyury. A'fter reduet,ion of total carbohydrates and, later orali feeding a complete remilssion, occurred. Tihe cause of the toxic liiver lesions was beliieved'to be due to an overdosage of fructose and' sorbditoll.. 067657'11 77:151606' .Volkwann's contracture after extravaseuliar infusi'on of ln)rpertonicihvertose.Vollksfanns kontraktur et,ter ekstravasali infusJon av hyperton fnvertose Benum P; Saltvedt E Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen .,1'977 10 , 97 (i') p48-9, ISSN' 0029-2001i JournaT Code: VRV MM
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. , z f 'I cbf,~ACIC~S ~~ COP1ffD! 0491858 76259476' .Sug#r substitutes in the diabetic diet. Zuckeraustauschstoffe in der Diabetesdiiaet. INehner t, H Int:Ji Vitam Nutr Res: ,4976,, Suppl (15) p295-324,, ISSN 0300-9831 Journal'Code: GTF The decreasedi glucsoe uti'Uization tn diabetes melilitus justllfies the use of sugar substitutes ("dilabetic sugar") if two conditions are fulifill'ed: I)The sugar substitute shoulid: be a carbohydrate which does not liead, or onl~y to a s111'ght degree,, to hyperglycaemia and thus, in, thi'e respect, differs distilnctly from sugars suchlas giucose and saccharose. 2')', The sugar substitute must not cause undes:ired'side-effects. The absorption„ util:ization and side-effects of the sugar substitutes fructose, sorbitol and xyliltol were investigated. They: were found to be more slowly absorbed! than glucose and, thus to offer the advantage, of better utUl'i'aation under cond4tIons of 11imited i,nsul'in production.. However, the particular7y slow passive absorption of' sorbitoT and xyliItol can sometbmes be a disadvantage, since osmotic diarrhoea may occur after administration of' high oral doses. The sugar substitutes enter the metabolism enzymatically and are utilllized mainly in the liver. The, peripheral 'st~atlewasinvesti~gated after intravenous, intraduodenal and orali administration oiF glucose and: fructose to heal'thy subjects. Liver metaboi'ism was examined (D,ietze) by comparing hepatic venous and arterial' concentrations after intravenous admfinistratfon of the sugars. A'llso, diabetic patients received glucose and fructose orally. As previously demonstrated,, the investigations using severat technM1aIpes showedI a small'er 1'nf'1'uence on blood gUucose,and seruminsulHn concentrations after administration of' fructose, sorbi'toU and xyllltoll t;han after glucose. If no metabolic changes occur after intravenous ad*1Inistration of high doses, no such, changes,ne@d be expected after orali adMinistrati'on of sealili doses. IYor, did measurements i1nihepatic venous blood (Dietze) show any, marked effect of' fructose oni the blood glucose level.The,healithy subjects showed nosigni'fi'cant changes1in biood g1ucoseor serum i~nsuA iin concentration aftereiither intraduodenall, or oral' adminilstration of fructose„ whereas they showed a consider ( 32' Refs.)i 0491841 76259458'. Possible sid'e effects of glucose, fructose, sorbiltol and xX!liitoli in, wam Forster H Int Ji V,it,am NUtr Res , 1'976„ Suppl. (15,) p116-30„ ISSN 0300-9831 Journal Code: GTF It is conc:luded that,there are no specific and dramatic side effects of glucose substiltutes, apart from the increase in uric acid synthesis. All other side effects are noticed with glucose as well'. The danger of lacti'c acidosis is not indiicated, provided a normali dose of fructose or, other carbohydrates is used. W4th respect to sorbiitol, andl xyliitol', lactic acidosis was: not, consildered:a seri'ous side effect untiill now. No facts are known to establishithe hepatotoxiciity for fructose or for another glucose substitute. The danger of hyperglycemia is sr.aliler wi,th tihe glucose substitutes as compared to glucose. Therefore, the glucose substitutes are an al'~ternative to glucose under certain condUti'ons., W i
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rn Ct--i3.acK =+s- 9~ . tOPlM 03551831 76169289 Role of carbohVdrates inidbntal caries. Bowen WH'In: Jeanes A, Hodge J,, ed. Physiological effects of food carbohydrates. Washi!ngton, D.C. „ Amert~can, Chemical! Soaiety, 1975. QU'75 A512p! 1974:. Journai! Code: IDM! NLM Call No.,: OUI 75I A512p 1974 (46 Refs. )' 02'54363i 7:6030596 Side effects of' sugar adbinistration.. Thomas DW; Edwarda JB;~ NUtr Metab ,1975.. Journal' Code: OAT substitutes during intrarrenous Edwards RG 18 SuppJ i' p227-4'1,, 02287,20 76004670 .8iocheeilcal consid'erat'ilons parenteral feed'iing. 8:lochemlsche Uber1'egungern zur in der parenteraleniErnahrung Forster H', Hoffmann H of the use of Verwendung Infusionstherapie/Ypr 1974, DO00-GOKU'. Journa9 Codec GOK'. IiSSNI 0029'-6678' carboHydrates in, der Kohilenhydrate i'. (4,) p265,79, I!SSN 011'45112 75115335 Sidle effects of IV fructose loadin diabetics. el-Ebrashy Nl; Shaheen MH;, Wasf9 AA'; el-Danasoury MI J Egypt Med Assoc , 1974, 57 (,9- 10')' p406- 14„ ISSN 0013r2411 Journal' Code: HZR 0082092 75082686 The role of sugars iln hXperl!ilpildeefa6 Nut,r Rev Nov 1974. ,132'(',11)I p340r2, ISSN 0029-6643 Journa1 Code:: OJAY (5' Refs. )
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IM\JERT s`I RuP mE.j~ eAC-446--41 COPIED 11535230: 7317 1'878 .Incimence of fnfusilon throwbophliebitts after infusion mif' giucose and fructose. Hyppllgheden af infusionsthrombophlebitis ef'ter infusfon, af glUkose og fruktose. Thayssen,P Ugeskr Laeger (©enmark), ,8 Jan U973„ 1!35' (2) p74-6,, I'SSW'004.1-5782' Journal Code: WM8 14I49255 73076035 The sugars and variaius'cations present in cane eolasses and their effect on diarrhea In chickens. Cuervo C; Restrepo L; Bushman,DH;, Rendon,Ml Poult Sci' (',Unflted States) ,M'ay f972„ 51 (3), p8'1'3-2U!,. ISSN U032-579t Journal Code: PG3 1071903' 71241537' Dentall plaque studies on baboons fed mn diletsi containing dilfferent' carEiohyd-ates.. Grenby TH Arch, Oral' Bfoli (Englland)i Jun 1971, 16 (6) P631-8, ISSN 0003-9969 Journa1 Code:, 8301 07851143 70092341 Effect of certain di.tary' susars onihawt'er cariles. Campbell RG; Zinner DD Ji Mhntr (UnltediS.tates)! Jan t970. 1Q0 (1)i p11-20, ISSN' 0022-3166' Journali Cod'ec JEV
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EMU T 32/3/1 . 32/3/1 D1935K2 PB-262 659/6ST N'TIS' Pri!cest' PC Aa3/MF A01 . Ewaluaition of the H'ea1tfi Aspects of Corn,Sugar (Dextrose)v Corn,Swrupr and Invert Sugar as Food! Imgredientsi~ Fi'nal rept, Fed'eration o+P' American Societies for Experimental B'i'oilogu. Bethesd'ar Fid. Life Sciences Research OPYice.*Food and Drug Administration, Wasthington, Bi. C. Bureau, of ' Foods « 1976 31p* Rept No. SCOGS-50 Report of Select Committeeon,CIRASSubstances. .
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PROTEINiHYDROLYSATES'.. THERL ASHP. AMERICAN HOSPITAL FORMULARY 40:20 DOSAGE RANGE OF INVERT SUGAR GIVEN' IV' IN FORM OF 10' X : SOLN' 13 FROtl 1-3 L('1i00-300 G) DAILY.:WITH AVG OF 2 LIDAY, WHICH!WILL SUPPLY 800, CALORIES. INVERT SUGAR:MAY'BE ADMIN':SC. 5'Z'SOLW OF INVERT SUGAR MAY'...BE EMPLOYEDi PARTICULARLY'FOR', SIMULTANEOUS ADMIN OF'AMIMN3 ACIDS. THER- AMA'DRUG'EVAL 2ND ED 181 THE INDICATIONS A PRECAUTIONS FOR'...USE lOF INVERTiSUGAR/ ARE,THE':SAME AS FOR,DEXTROSE INJ'ECTION:.. INVERT SUGAR,OFFERS NO ADVANTAGES OVER DEXTROSE ALONE. THERI- AMA'DRUG EVAL 2NDi EDi 181 USUAL DOSAGE'--IV:' ADULTS, AS REQUIRED'BY THE'INDIVIDUAL. THER- AMA DRUG EVAL 2ND'ED:181 SEE DEXTROSE. SOLN CONT'AINING 25 Y. TOi50 X'DEXTROSE ARE USED IN PARENTERAL HYPERALIMENTATION. THESE'MAY BE ADMIW SLOWLY'TO PROVIDE A'S'MUCH AS'3,000-4,000 CALORIES!DAI'LY, & MUST BE'GIVEN VIA THE SUPER'IOR'VENA CAVA OR, OTHER EQUALLY LARGE' VEIN. /DEXTROSE/ THER- AMA DRUG EVAL 2ND ED 181 SEE DEXTROSE. SOLUTIONS CONTAINING 501% ' TO'75 X DEXTROSE DECREASE THE',FREQUENCY OF'DIALYSIS'IN PATIENTS WITH'RENAL FAILURE.:fDEXTROSEf' THER- OSOL. REMINGTONI'S PHARMi 157fH ED' 964 WHILE IT' HiAS! SAME CALORIC VALUE'AS DEXTROSE (4 KCAL/G), INVERT SUGAR'IS MORE RAPIDLY UTILIZED AND'MAY BE ADMINITWICE AS FAST AS'DEXTROSE'. WARN- AMA DRUG EVAL 2ND ED 181 SEE DEXTROSE. IF THE INDIVIDUA'L , I NM+ - INVERT SUGAR !1F -:.UNKNDW'N! ;;AU3,a7-0' <;~X MPJED TDBWi 2008 ~ SY ,'- NULUMOLINE F CAIAROSE : INVERSOL C.INVERTOGEN'i'INSUBETA i'TRAVERT USE' -. MERCK'; INDEX! 8TH ED 569 FOOD! PRODUCTS, IN CONFECTIONERY USE".-;,MERCK"INDEX 8TH ED: t69 AS' A HUMECTANT TO HOLD MOISTURE USE'-.HERCKIINDEX'8TH ED'569 INiBREWING USE - MERCk'IWDEX,8TH'ED, 569 MEDICAL: PAREWTERAL NUTRIENT' 7IHER-:MFRCK,INDEX',BTH ED!-569 PARENTERAL'.NUTRIENT. DOSE:' INTRAVENOUS 5 2 OR' 101'/. SOLN IN WATER' OR' SALINE. _ THER- ASHP. AMERICAN'HOSPITAL FORMULARY'40:20 INNERT.,SUGAR,SOLNL..ARE EMPLOYED TO'FROVIDE CALORIES REQUIRED FOR'METABOLIC NEEDSh TO' SUPPLYiBODY'WATERa T0!LOWER PRODN!OF EXCESS KETONES BY LIVERv AND TO!SPARE BODY PROTEINS AND'LOSS OF ELECTROLYTES. , THER- ASHP. AMERICAN'HOSPITAL FORMULARY'40:20 SOD!IUMiCHLORIDE SHOULD BE USED WITH'INVERT'SUGAR ONLY TO, CORRECT'A LOSS OF SALT. INVERT ~ SUGAR MAY BE ADMIN' INI COMBINATION! WITHI ELECTROLYTE SOLN & WITH t~ SUGAR BUFFEREDiTO'PH'6.8 WAS FOUND TO CAUSE SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER WARN'r MARTINDALE. EXTRA PHARMACOPEIA 26TH ED 81 10'7ISOL'NiOF INVERT D'IURESIS WILL OCCUR.,/DEXTROSE/ PATIENT''S CAPACITY'TO UTILIZE DEXTROSE IS EXCEEDED, GLYCOSURIA i r WARN- AMA DRUG EVAL 2ND ED 181 SEE DEXTROSE. DEXTROSE'INJECTION SHOUL'D. QUANTITiIES! IN 76 PATIENTS. BETWEEN 3.5 AND 5.G FOLLOWING INTRAVENOUSS'INJECTION OF 500 ML INCIDENCE OF THROMBOPHLEBItIS THAN!SOLN OF SAME STRENGTH'WI'TH PH' NOT BE USED AS!A DILUENT FOR!BLODO, BECAUSE IT CAUSES CLUMPING'OF' REDiBLOOD'CELLS S, POSSIBL'Y, HEMOLYSIS. THIS CAN!BE AVOIDED BY' USING 5 X DEXTROSE' IN 0.2' '!.! OR 0.11 X SOD'IUMI CHLORID'E', INJECTION: ADEXTROSEA' WARN- AMA,DRUG EVAL 2ND ED 18i SUBCUTANEOUS /ADMIN OF INVERT SUGAR/:' GENERALLY DEEMED!INADVISAB'LE. - ACTN- ASHP. AMER'ICANIHOSPZTAL FORHUL'ARY 40:20 DUE TO ITS FRUCTOSE COMPONENT, INVERT SUGAR'IS MORE'RAPIDLY UTILIZED 3 MORE QUICK'LY' CONVERTEDiTO GLYCOGENiTHAW IS'DEXTROSE. SPOP- MERCK INDEX 8TH ED 569 SLIGHTLY'LEVOROTATORY'r REDUCES FEHLING'S' SOLN'AND CAN BE FERMENTED SPOP- WEAST. HDBK CHEM i PHYS 55TH ED 01242 SPECIFIC GRAVITY:' 1.00211' fWT "!.= 1; VACUI SPOP- ASHP. A?IERICAN'HOSPITAL FORMULARY'40:20 1 L OF 10 X'INNER'T'SUGAR. SOLWiINiWATER CONTAINS 100 G OF CARBOHYDRATE i'PROVIDES 400 ~ ~ CALORIES'OF ENERGY HMI - MERCK INDEX 8TH ED 569 PREPNI:'COMMERCIAL PRODUCT'IS OBTAINED BY' INVERSION'OF 96:7:'CANE SUGAR SOLN. INVERSION IS CARRIED' OUT AT PH 3-4'BY MEANS!OF INVERTASE & OIL HCL. ACID'...NEUTRALIZED WITH 00 , SODIUM CARBONATE TO, PH 6.5. AT THIS POINT DEXTROSE CRTSTALLIZES'tM , ENTIRE MASS IS BEATENIINTOlCREAMY, PLASTIC PRODUCT. M I ~ MMI:- MERCK INDEX 8TH'ED 569 NATURAL OCCURRENCE-'HONEY IS MOSTiLY'INVERTW SUGAR,. DUE' TO THE LEVULOSE' A501 %' 0F COMPOSITION OF INVERT' SUGAR/',QoI ITiIS SOMEWHAT SWEETER'THAN SUCROSE. -4 .
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MMI - MERCK,INDEXI8TH ED 569 PRODUCT ANALYSISt A MIXTURE OF ABOUT 50 X', GLUC05E',(DEXTROSE), 1'50 X FRUCTOSE (LEVULOSE) OBTAINED~BY HYDROLYSIS'OF SUCROSE. HYDROLYSIS OF THE'SUCROSE'MAY'BE CARRIED. OUT WITH ACIDS OR ENZYMES. MMI - ASHP. A?(ERICAN'HOSPIToAL FORMULARY 40.'20 FORMULATIONS: INVERT SUGAR: INJECTIONo 5'!.; 250 ML, 500 ML AND I L BOTTLES. INJECTION, 1!0' %; 250, ML, 500' ML AND! I L BOTTLES, INJECTION,, 20' 7:; 100 ML BOTTLES. INJECTION,, 5' XI WITH SODIUM CH'LORIDE' 0.9 3C; 250 ML, 500, ML AND11 L,BOTTLES. MMI - OSOL. REM'INGTON'S'PHARM 15TH ED: 1445 FORMULATIONS-'SUCROSE INITHE 66.7' % WT/WT SOLN /OF INVERT' SYRUP/' MUST BE' AT LEAST 95 'A.' INVERTED. MM1 - SAX. DANGER PROPS'INDUS'MATER 4THED 319 REGULATOR!Y'STATUS!- INVERT SUGAR'IS CONSIDEREDiAMONG THE SUBSTANCES MIGRATING TO FOOD FROMiPAPER A 'PAPERBOARD1PRODUCTS'USED IN FOODPACKAGING'THAT'ARE GENERALLY' RECO:,NIZEDlAS' SAFE FOR THEIR INTENDED USEv WITHIN THE, MEANING OF SECTION140'9 OF THE'ACT /FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, i COSMETIC ACTV: PPOT- S/YX'.. DANGER' PROPS' INDUS: MATER' 4TH' ED, 831 TOXICITY: DETAILS'. UNKNOWN. ADE - ASHP. AMERICANiHOSPITAL, FORMULARY 40':20' LESS' THANI 2'/.' OF SUGAR!IS EXCRETED IN URINE WHfN 1 L,OF 10 X INVERT SUGAR SOLN IS'INFUSED IN 1 HR'. WHENGIVEN OVERIA LONGER PERIOD OF TIME IINVERT'SUGARIIS COMPL'ETELY'UTILIZED AND NONE IS, EXCRETED: IN'URINE. ST - 780801COMPLETE WITHH'PEER'REVIEW COMMENTS INCORPORATED. HTEX- AMA DRUG EVAL 2NDED 181 SEE DEXTROSE. SC~ADMIN IS'NOT DESIRABLE BECAUSE SOLN,ARE IRRITATING'.-CAUSE LEACHING'OF EXTRACELLWLAR' WATER & 'ELECTROLYTES, 6'MAY'DISTEND TISSUE'i LEAO TO'NECROSIS:. -LEACHING...MAY'RESULT'IN: ANURIA'lkOLIGURIA, BECAU6E~ OF CIRCULATORYFAILURE...GIN THOSE WITHG ELETROLYTE'A WATER IMBALANCE. /DEXTROSE/' HTKW- ND;ND;ND;ND'.;INJECTIONSs SUBCUTANEOUS;SKIN;SKIN DISEASE6;CYTOL'OGY' EDEMA;NECROSIS ND;ND';ND;ND';INJECTIONSa SUBCUTANEOUS;UROGENITAL SYSTEM;URTNATIION DISORDERS;OLIGURIA ND;ND'.;ND;'ND'.;INJECTIONSa SUBCUTANEOUS;CARDIOI7ASCULAR SYSTEMiSHOCK' LMEX- AOAC. 10TH ED 1965 AND FOLLOWING ED 12f572'31.034-31'.,044s' LANE-EYNON GENERAL VOLUMETRIC METHOD. MUNSON+WALKER GENERAL METHOD:' DETERM'INATIONIOF REDUCEDiCDPPER'.BY DIRECT WEIGHING OF CUPROUS'OXIDE. BY TITRATION'WITH POTASSIUM PERMANGANA'TE, OR'BY' ELECTROLYTIC DEP06ITION FROM NITRIC ACID SGLN. LMKW- HA'SUOLUMETRIC'METHOD ND'';TITRATION' _. LMEX- AOAC. 10TMIED 1'965 AND FOLLOWING'EDi12/574 31.045-31.046- OFNER VOLUMETRIC METHOD (!FOR MATERIALS CONTAINING SMA'LL AHT'OF INVERT SUGAR IN'.PRESENCE OF SUCROSE). MEISSL-HILLER,GRAVIMETRIC METHOD (FOR'MATERIA'L'S CONTAINING~GREATER THAN 1.5 Y. INVERT SUGAR i LESS THAN 98,5Z 'SUCROSE)i. LMKW- ND;VOLUMETRIC METiHOD. ND;GRAVIM'ETRICMETHOD, 0 .. 0 W
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QOP11ED 00005225 PAGE 24 SLAVENS ADDITIVES LMEX+ AOAC. 1!0THI ED, 1965 AND' FOLLOWING ED 12/574 31.047-31'.049: QUISUMB'ING-THOMAS METHOD.,BERLIN'INSTITUTE'METHOD'(APPL'ICABLE TO DARKICOLORED SOLWiWITHOUT DEFECATION). LMKW- NDyGUISUMBING-THOMAS METHOD, DAP.K;-COLOREDiSOLUTIONS;BER!LIN INSTITUTE'METHOD LMEX- AOAC. 10TH'ED 1965 AND FOLLOWING ED 12'/578 31.078-31.086':' TOTAL SUGARS'EXFRESSED AS INVERT SUGAR,OF MOLASSES &'MOLASSES PRODUCTS. DETiER?/INATION'BY LANE-EYNONICONSTANT VOLUME'VOLUMETRIC METHOD. LMKW- MOLASSES AND,MOLASSES~PRODUCTS:VOLUMETRIC METHOD LMEX- AOAC. 10TH ED 1965 AND FOL'LOWING ED112/586 31«13'8-31:.139: DETERMINATION'OF'COMifERCIAL INVERT SUGAR IN HONEY BY THE RESORCINOL TEST., LMKW HDNEY;RESORCINOL TEST' * * * * E N D 0 F ff F F' L I NI E', P R' I NI T * **+v * . 0
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SS S /C?. - USER 2 _ IlMWERTOSE O~R8013-1!7'-Q1 PROf 2' SS (6) PS'TG, (15) SS' 7' /C? ~ 'ER"' _ , Ai`!D! 6 *NOiNE- S'S' 7 /C? USER'S 2 AND 6 PROGt #i•lONE-. ti. C C SS 7 /C? USER : 3 AND 6 PRflG t *NIOMIE- SS 7 /C? USER*0 4 A111Di 6 PROG«' *iwlONE- SS 7 /C? USER~ 2 ~ ~S AND 6 ( zoo : C 'sS (7) PSTG (1) SS' 8 f C?' c USER:' PRTEUI PROGIf C iNJ' Q' 1.YZT- si,Rl':yf -T0 ' X L II !-1 t COPIIED J!i1ndra L DetaMc Ji Nileilek J D'anha J Stablilization of sterile solutions containing'sugars CA/'091/1 Q8932A Czech,« PATENT N0!. 1'78535 05/ii5/7F' CZE CRAC~ COPk'R~I~GMT~«'~ C~~HE~M' ARS~ 1roRUsion, and inJecti~on solrns~. oi!~ lactates and acetates conts« sZucoger fructose, o1r invertose was s~ta~~t~~i~lii~e~d li~lii~e~dl with, citric acid and~ NalHIS03wh:ichi hl~oc~k~. o;.:~idati~we~ d'ecom~pni.~ o~P' sacch~ar~i~des~~. and'~ Frewe~nt browning ~~ of' t~he~ s~~oi~n. (~~50-9'~9~-7~ G~~luc~og~,e)1~517~-48-7 ~ Fr~uctolse~~)1(~~8107i3~-17=0~~ i~nv~~e~~rto~~se)i('77~-92~-9 Citric acid)' The reouisite amts. of statailli: er are given for a wide range of Products and! concs. C L C ,
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d SS 6 /C? - USER: _ 8013-17-0 PRUG :' SS (61) F'STG ('2') -m)41~)Acr1 _+~ c COPIED S 7' /C? f ;ER` PRT PROG: ~ 1 A'U = Toobw TE : Ail' AUi - IHluirsew P4 - Alat+asterJS TI - Acute toxicitv of 102 Pesticides and'm4sceL1'aneous substances to fisfi, SI -CA/083/0919 i 2R " SO!. - Criem. Indi. (Lond'on) r ISS 12'r 1975r523-6. 2 ' A~U - Suranwi_ D TI - Effect of maleic hw!drazide on half-rir-e apri'cots anai~ Plumss and its rew.ersion, with: ascorbic acid S I - CAf'082/'0393710'. S'0, - Acta: Ag'ron!. Acad'. Sci. Hun-q:s' V!0'L 2'3r ISS 1/2, 1974r1'011-B S S 7 /C? USER: STOP' Y ' TIME 0:57':29 NLM' TIME 18`1'1:4b GOOD-BYE'! tc> d'ropped' bw host swstear Pi'ease log' ini: !
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L 15 ANSWER 3 OF 4 AN' CA99 (4) : 24339n~ TI Heat stab,il'ity of'invert sugar solutions andlsyrups raU Vuk:ov, t'onstanti ni;, Patk,ai, Gyorgyri ;, Monszpart Senyi, Mrs., Judi t ! 0 Hung. SO' Kert. Eg,y. ktozl., 45, 209-14 SC DT 4I4-3 ('Industriall Carbohydrates) J CO'KEKZAR. IS 0.368-52i7 PY 1982 LA Hung AB' The degrdn. rate (.kappa.) of glucose-fructose mixt. in, mildly acidic andl neutral media was calcdl. as a:function, of al kY. and temp. . kappa. Increased from 6.3 ' . ti mes. 11C)-8 to 2.2 .times., 1C1!-4 h-L as the temp, was increased from 60'.,degree. to 120. degree. and pH was decreased from,8. 98' to. 7'.96. By comparing wi~th an analogous function, calcd. one tt'ne basis of'lit., data., the pH range of' max. stability of invert sugar solns.,, depending on temp.,,, could be detd., KW invert sugar syrup thermal stability; thermal decompn rate invert syrup. IT' Thermal decompasiti~on (of invert sugar syrups, rate of) Syrups (invert, thermal stability of) Ahf. TI AIIJSWER' 4 OF 4 CA98 (6) 1: 36422b Kineti~csof thermall: decomposition of fructose,, g;lucose,, andl invert sugar in a weakly basic medium AU Kol esnii kov, V. A. a Gorokhov, G., I. rS Krasnodar. Pol i tekh.. Inst. LOK':rasnodarsk , USSRi _ SO I'aw. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Pishch. Tekhnol.,, (5)„ 65,70 SC 44=4 (Ilnd'ustrial Carbohydrates)i DT J, CO IVUPAB' I S 0579-3009' PY 1982 LA Russ AB Empirical formulas proposed~ for calcn. of rate consts. of d'ecompin. reactilons off fructose ('I)' C57-48-7I andl glucose CI'I>. Q50Q-99-7]1 in ag. buffer so.lns. at pHl 7'-9' and L'00-1401..degRree.permittedl d'etni.of' the ac:tivationieniergy,,of the.reactions depending on pH of medium. The process of' decompni, of invert sugar (111I), C801?'-17-03 CI-1I mixt. (1:1)]iis composed, of 2 independlent irreversible reactions of' decompn. of i~ts components, which are described by 1st-order relation,.andlengthlof' decompn.of ' IIIde:tdI the fk"1 speci•A ii crate of decompin. of Z Iwhich, decomps. sl ower than I C~'f under the conditi'ons studied. ~ CD KW fructose thermal decompn kinetics;, glucose thermal decompn kinetics; inert sugar thermali decompin kinetics ~ I:T' Kinetiicsofl thermald'ecompvsi'tion: . W (of' fructose, glucose and~invert sugar, in~ weakly basic medi um)! IT 50-99=7,, reactions 57-48-7, reactions 8013-17-<7 (thermal decompn. of, in weaking basic medium, kinetics of')
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FSTA 11981 _ 8b 242342 83-O8-h 1('9 30 (Vacuum,boi' L i ng of syrrups for non-al cohol' i c beverages. )~ B!odrov, V. S.; Zaremba,, A., A.; Malezhik, I. F.; Muravsk.aya, O. 6.;, - KI!emirovi ch., P. 1'4. k:ievskiA Ordenia Trudovogo k:rasnogo Znameni Tekh. Inst. Pishchevoi' Promy'shll ennost i„ I<'ilev, USSR IzvestiyraiVysshikh Uthebnykh Z'avedeniii, Pish.chevayal Tek.hnol1ogiya, 1q8- „ hlo. 2, 131-1ti3 Language: Rul Mote: 1 ref. Fru~itjuli cesyrrups contai ni'ng invert sugar w~ereb~oi led'underwacuum,, at atmospheric pressure and at a pressure of (2891-347) TIMES 1012 Pa. Best result'swereob~tainied under vacuum: caramelizat'ion wa~spractical']I,y zero, sucrose decomposition was reduced thereby helping, the beverages to retain their natural fruit flavour,, and', the hyrdroxymethylfurfural content dropp, to 4. 0'5-O. 07 gJ'1 beverage. The ster il i ty of the vacuum--boi l ed syrups wass such: that the beverages had a shel f l i f e of 8-12' days. Addi t i onal1 liy, the manuf acturi ng. costs of the beverages was reduced, due~ to a reduct i on i n heating steam, consumption by ?U 4'0%, more efficient utilization of the equipment, and'l the production of ani aqueous alcohol condensate, which could be re-used. (STI)
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i 15/5/1 173043 79-99-L4584 ( CARAMEL.S. ) DUFRESNOY, X. SOC. METAYER AROMATIQUES S.A., 9'RUE GAMBETTA, 94500 CHSAMPrGNY,; FRANCE' BIOS„ 1978„ 9, (3)', 19-25 Language: FR Note: 16 REF. ~,.~~ 2 TYPES OF CARAMEL ARE IN USE. ONE (WSED'~Y IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY) IS PRODUCED BY MILD HEATING OF SUCROSE ALONE TO GIVE A 'NATURAL' PALE BROWN COLOURING AGENT'WHICH RETAINS'SOME',SWEETNESS. THE,OTi4ER'IS PRODUCED BY STRONGER.HEATING,, HAS A DARKER COLOUR, LESS AROMATIC ODOUR AND SOME BITTERNESS OF FLAVOUR, AND IS WIDELY USED IN E.G. THE,BAKING AND CONFECTIONERY I9VDUSTRIES'. VARIATIONS CAN BE,(OBTAINED BY CHOICE OF RAW MATERIAL, E.G. SUCROSE, GLUCOSE, INVERT SUGAR, MALT SYRUP,, MOLASSES OR HYDROLYSED,STARCH. IMPORTANT FACTORSDUfiTF79-l°fANUFACTURE ARE THE SUGAR':WATER RATIO,, RATE OF'TEMP'. INCREASE AND, MAX. TEMP'. WHICH INFLUENCE BOTH INITIAL HYDROL'YSIS~AND'LATER'.PYROLYSIS„ AND'F'INAL COOLING RATE'TO ST(lP'THE REACTIONS. REACTIONS ARE'DECOMPOSITLON~ POLYMER'IZaTION AND IN4RAMOLECULAR' CHANGES, PRODUCING A MIXTURE OF'LOW MOL. WT'. AROMA COMPOUNDS'AND HQGHIMOL. WT. COLOURED COMPOUNDS. COOKING IS DIFFICULT TO'CONTROL IN OPEN VESSELS, AND IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT UNDER PRESSURE IN ANIAUTOCLAVE „ COMMONLY WIT'H ADDITION, OF A CATALYST, E.G. PERMITTED ACIDSy BASE5'(NH3 GAS,, NH4OHy, KOHt, NqOH')'„ OR'AMMONIUM, SODIUM OR POTASSIUM'SALTS. CARAMELIZATION IS MUCH INCREASED BY'BASES; NH3 COMPOUNDS'IN PARTICULAR'PRODUCE ANIINTENSE'COLOUR' BUT INFERIOR'FLAVOUR. NH3 MAY PRODUCE 4-METHYLIMIDAZOLE, WHICH IS'SUSPECTED TO BE TOX'IC'AND.IS'LIM'I?ED TO, 200 P:P.M. IN CARAMEL. ANALYTICAL CONTROLS ARE DISCUSSED, PARTICULARLY FOR COLOUR AND ACID FOOD STABILITY ('SSOELECTRIC PRECIAITATION'POINTS)„ IMPROVED BY'AMMONS'UM OR:SODIUM CATALYSTS,, AND ALCOHOL STABILITY (ESSENTIAL IN'E.G. BRANDY, RUM).. (ELC) Descriptorss CARAMEL - BREWERIES„ CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR; CARAMEL - BAKERIES, CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR; BREWERIES - BREWERIES, CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR; BAIfERIESI- BAKERIES,, CARAMEL MANUFACTURE FOR ~
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- - --- -- ----- - ~, ---- 1~l? P' - ~Y2o1_y51~ 0 Pr neq - NpO 1 il I' : CRIED 0 (~/~ (_im) ~Ag'S.' (1??:). 91: 17G9G6n Yinetics of the decomposition of invert sugar. E mal C, A.;, U'stinnikov, B. A. (Vaes. Nauchno-iesled.. , m r. BYozheniya, USSR); Khlebopek. Konditer. Pram-st, 1979. (6). 30-2 (Russ). The decompn. rate of invert sugar (I)i 1801I'-117=0]I obtained from raw and granulated cane sugars was detd, at 70-190* and' pH' 3r1U, andi the math. dependence of' dewmpn. rate on temp., pH, and' reaction time wae established. On' the basis of these data, a nomogram was developed to det. t~ hnoL conditions of sugar syrup prepn. and tn minimize . usaes of i. _ 08: 7b5G1ij' Decomposition of glucose and'druetose in uquids of high purity at high temperature. V Konstantio (1Conzetvipari Technoi: Tanaz: CBoportje, Ke , Budhpat., Hung.):, Kertesaetiegy~. KozA., 1976, 40, 4 30 (Hu~ )• The decompn. rate of' invert sugar [801'3-17-01' in aq; soia increased with the temp. in the 60 to 1$0' range. due to pu~aUd'; .. decrease in, pOH. Na glutamate further increased the d'ecomilm rate. Variations in invert sugar, degrdn, for each 1a' temA', increment are given for eonst. pH and const. pOH. Invert sugar soln. is considered a model for fruit juices.
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1I{If fLU 100f-- 51-fe-oP- C7AND 15 33 1 7 AND 15 ? T 33/3/1 . 33/3/1 173043' 79-09-LU584 C CARAM(ELS'O DUFRESfVOYP x. SOC'. METAYER AR'OM'IATIGUES S.A*v 9' RUE GAMB'ETTA', 9450© CHAMR'It6MY, FRANCE B'IOSr 1978 r 9: (3) v iiQ-25,
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4/5/12 242752I 83-08J-10593 Brown sugar and health. Brekhman, 1. I.;, Nesterenko, ~. F. Far-East Sci. Cernt, Acad'. of'Sci. of'the USSR, Vlad'trrostock,, USSR'. Pub1i'shers Ortford,,UK;~ Pergam Press. Price POUND-~ 10'.00Y _ •1983, v + 96pp. ISBN'0-08-026837-4 Language: En Document Type: Book This book on brown sugar and~its clai.med'advant'ages over white sugar includes the folIowing chapters: WealtK (pp. 5-12Y. Food.and health (pp. 13-1B);. 'Pure, white andldeadlyr' (pp. 19-27); Attempts to solve the sugar problem (pp. 28-33)1;, What: we know about brownisugar (pp. 34-43):; The generaL action,of brown sugar in animal experi'ments:lasting up to 30.days (',pp, , 44-52); Brown sugar's general action in prolonged andmal experiments (pp. 55-62);, The iinf'luence of white and brown sugar on metabolism (pp. 63-67)j Sugar and!dental caries (pp. 6B-71i)'; The effects of brown sugar on, man: some observations (:p06 72-75);i and Conclusions (pp. 76-81). 1lpp. of' reflerences and nntes'and a 4pp., subject index are given. (AdDW)' Descriptors: MeaLth - sugar, health advantages of brown, Book; Sugar - healthiadvantages of' brown sugar, Book; Books - sugar, health adwantages of' brown ~ r t+ r
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AN' CA1c71 (23) ~: 2 tJ9699h TI Preventive anditherapeutic effects of brown sugar on experimental hyperlipidemia anid!atherosclerosis of rabbits AU B'_in,~ Xlueyi ; Sao, 6Ei ngyi'; Z'hao, Shi l i n. CSI Jingzhou Med. CoTl. LOi Jinzhou, Peopi. Rep., China SOi Y'i ngyang Xuebao, 6(2), 121-6. SC 18-4 (Animal Nutrition) DT J COi YYHPA4 IS 0511 t'-7955 PY 1984 LA Ch AB Feed i ng rabb i ts brown sugar inh1bii ted' the hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceirid1mic effects of an, atherogenic diet and' prevented or reduced the atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary artery. L23' ANSWER' 3 OF 7 AN CA 100(18') : 144977e TI _Inhibitors of glucose absorptilon i~ni the digestive tract CS Osaka Y'akuhi'n t;enkyusholK'. K. L 0' Japarr - P'I Jpni. lKokai Toikkyo Koho JP' 59/16830 A2' C84/'16830] , 28 Jan 1984, 6 pp. A~I' Appl. 82/]i26432„ 19~Jul! 1982 CL A61'K35/78, A61K35/'0O SG 63-W(Pharmaceutica3s)i S x' 1, 17 DT CO PY P' JKXXAF 1984 LAi AB Japan A brown sulgar ext., is effective iinidecreasing,D-glucose Q50-99-7] absorption fromithe digestive tract. Physicochem, properties of the ext. are described. The ext. mAy be used' f or treatment of obesi ty and~d'i abetes. Thus, 5~kg brown sugar dissolved in 25L H20s was subjected to chromatog. om a column~ contg,. po!1ystyreneresin thatabsorbsth~epigmentsofbrown sugar. The pigments were eluted with MeOH'l,, and the eluant was concdl. by evapn. to giive 16 g brown residue. The resi du~ewasda sso~l ved i n EtOHI and i'nsoli. mater ial s were fi l tered out. The soT n. was concd. by evapn. anidl dh-i'ed to give15'~ gbrown~ powder which was used! astheinhib~iitor ofgl'ucose absorption. Studies on the ext. with resp. to IR,, UV spectrometry, and elemental anal. are describedl. 01 L23 ANSWER' 5' OF 7 ANI mA97' (1 1)' : 9090Tb TI FHypoliipid~emic effect of' brown sugar AU Nesterenko, I. F.; b'•.hasi na, E., I. LO USSR SO O' FtYloli . Akti v. Raz l. Vi d'ov Sakhara i Promezhutoch. Sakh. Pr-va, Vladivostok 27-31 . QD m' Produktov ~, From: Ref. Zh. , Biol. Khimi. 1!982', Abstr. Nm. 12Sh553 SC 18-4 (Animal' NutritionJ DT J PY' 1981 LA Russ AF1' Title onilly translated~. w. 0 a
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L6 ANSWER,1 OF 1 RN 68476-78-8 * ~' CAS does not consider this Registry Number to.represent a unique chemilcaD substance. lfo search the CA,File, use its name('s)', or terms derived fromii:ts na:me(s) andL'or the Registry Number i 1ise1'f . IN' Molasses W1 Mo1 asses' . SY' Beet sugar molasses SY Cane sugar molasses SY Syrups, moliasses SY Molasses, cane MF Unspecified CI MAN', CTS, TSCAi *** STRUCTURE D1IAGRAMi IS WfAVAILABLE' #*~ 0 REFERENCES IN FILE CA:(19'67 TO DATE)
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BIOSIS 11981--1986 SUR'VIVAL FEEDING OF CATTLE WITH MOLASSES 1. FEEDING NON-PREGNANT HEIFERE WITH MOLASSES PLUS UREA AND' ROUGHAGE GULBR'ANSENI & QUEENSLANID DEF'., PRIMARY INDUSTRIES, AN'IMAL RES. DNST.,*FAIF:FI,ELD ROAD. YEERONGPILLY, QLD' 4105. AUST J EXP AGRIC 2 51(1)., 1985. 1'-3'.: CODEN:A'J,EAE Language: ENGLISH Twelve groups, each of 4 yearling Hereflord heifers of mean .+-. SEE initial fasted liveweight of 2'11 .+-. 6.51kg,, were fedlsollelly on molasses ei ther with or wi thout roughage f or 23 wk i n a 2' . tilmes. s3 t i mes. 2 factorial experiment. The experiment examined the effects on liveweight change of mol asses al l,owarnce (2.0 or 3.2 kgi/ani mal per day)! , type of' molasses mixture (undiluted; molasses 80%;, water 2U1%; molasses 80%; water 17%; urea: 3%,;!, all wt/wt)'and, roughagea1I owance(n,ill or0.3 kg/anima:lper diay)'.. Increasing the molasses allowance improved growth rate from -D'.25 tc -0.12 kgJanimal per day (P < D'.U1); including urea inithie molasses improvea, growth rate from -0.22' to -0.11i kg/animal per d'ay, (F. <0.01_). 'M'olasses toxicity' was not a probDem even in the absence of' roughage,, and dilutior of mol asses wi th, water d1d not af f'ect an i mal perf ormance. COMPA'RA'TIVE BIOCHEMICAL: AND6'ATH01i.OGICAL STUWES~ ON ACUTERUMSNAL AC I DOSI S' I NDUCED! BY MOLASSES AND' GRA I N I FEED I'NG I N HUFFALO, CALVES BUBALUS-BUFiALIS RANDHAWA S S;, DAS L N;', M I SRA S K ' COILL., VET.8CI .,, PUNJAB~AGRIC. UNIV., LUD!HIANA-141e70',IFUNJAS', INDIA. ACTA VET ACAD'. SC I HUNG' 30 ('4)' . 1982' ( RECD'.. 1983). 257-264. CO'DEN': AVASA Language,: ENGLISH buf'f al o cal ves were fed wii th a siingL e dose of mol asses ora1iL y (Group 1) or with, crushed wheat grains: intrarum,inally (Group, 2')1. In Group I there wa=s an initial increase in the Lactic aciid concentration of ruminall fluid and trTood while in; Group 2' there was a continuous increase in lactic~acid content throughout, cul'mi'natingq at a 2- to 3-folid increase. Molasses feeding caused hypoglycemia; the grainrfed' animalis developed hyperglycemia. Concurrent to these changes in biochemical parameters, there werc differences in qualiity as well as magnitude of hilstopatho1'ogilcai changes in the cerebrum, exocrine,and endocrine pancreas, rumen, reticul!umi, omasum and liiver. The hi'stopathologi'ca1 changes were correlated with, thie, biochemicai changes.
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BRONCHO6ENPC CARCINOMA I~N' NORTHERN IND-I~AJINDAL S k'.; MALIK.' S K; DHAND R'; GUJRAL J S; MALIK A k:; DATTA 6i' N. DEP. CHEST DISEASES, POSTGRADUATE INST. MED. EDUCATION!AN'D RESEARCH!,, CHANDIrbARH-1w0012, INDIA. THORAX 37 (5). 1982. 343-347'., CODEN: THORA Language: ENGLI SH A study of336.patientswithibronchogenic carciniomalwasca~rri~ed out ir Chandigarh,, Northern India. Its epidemiology differs in several respects fromtthatin,. Westernicountries. A1`mostathirdof al'1pati`entsand,94.4% of the 54 women had never smoked. The peak frequency ofr bronchog!enic carcinomk o:ccurredb~etween the ages, of51. and 6Dyr, 1;4.6%, of the; pat.i.entsbeirng~ aget1'ess than 41 yr. Of the 232:smiokers and ex-smokers, 48.3%, hiad! smokedion1~ ci garettes„ 28~., 4% onl yb~i,dx s(-made of: natural lycured~ .tobacco)! , 19', g%, biotfitcigarettes and, b.idlis, and 3.4% hukkas Ctobaccoi mixed wilth mollasses.J. Therc- s was a cl,ear association between, duration of smoking and~frequency of carcinoma. Tumors ' were classif'ied in. 287 (85%'), of the patients. Squamous-cell carcinoma was re1'ativel'y more frequent ('s2.4/.') tha.n any other tumor type and occurred almost excl'usivel'y in smokers.. Adenocarcirnoma wa=_- found in 1.}.2'l:,of patients and was the most frequent tumor in non-smokers. No differences of histological type were found! beti,reen cigarette smokers and bidd smokers. { PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN', EX'PER:IMENTA'L RUMENi LACTIC-ACrDO'SISAN CRO'SS BRED. CALVES SODHII S P' S, RANDHAW'A S N S; SET I A M S COLL. VET. SGI.,, PUNJAB AGRI,C. UNI'V., LUDHIANA 141004, INDIA. ZENTRALDL VETERINAERMED REIHE A 28 (3),. 1981. 252L-258: CODEN: ZVRAA' Language: ENGLIlSH An, experi mental study on ruminal aci dosi s induced by feedi ng mol asses tc ; 8 cross-bred cal'ves was undertakenj to study its: effecton,th~e various.: physiological parameters. D~uring, peracut'eaci"dosis(~molassesali 30gl~ke body weight )'the pI asma and bl ood volume decreased si gni f i cantl'y W < 0.01) while the hematocrit, increased. There was tachycardia and'an increase ir theT-wavepotent~ia~ls.Ventriccil'arfibri,lll!ationoccurred' justbefore d'eath,. The PR,, QT and' ST intervals; decreased',, whereas theQ,RS and T-wavedurations, were slightly increased. D'uring subacute acidosis (mol'asses at 10, g/'kg, bodyy weight) the plasma and blood volumes, expressed on an induced ruminal acidosis body weight basis, increased after 48and 72 h and the hematocrit decreased significantly. The EEG recording change&from,its normal s1'ow build-up pattern to a: train of spindles after 24 h in: peracute andl 72 h in subacute acid'osis. The postmortem examinationi of the peracute cases revealled~ sewerecerebra1 hemorrhage, gastroeniteritis,, pneumonia,„ general venous conigestion;and'enl'argement of the liver.
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SYMPTOMS' OF EXPERIMENTAL POLIO! ENCEPHALO! MALACIA INI CALVES'~ AGUILERA R;i MELLA C; CONTRERAS Fc' CLIN'. BIOQUIM. , CENSA:,, ISCAH, CU£iA., REV CUBANA CIENC VET 10 (:.1)1. 1979' (RECD. L98O)I . 21'-24. CODEN: RCCVB Language: SPANIGH Symptoms shown by a group, of 7 animalis were descri bed where piol3oencephalomalacia or cerebrocortical necrosis was, explerimentall%, ind'uced by feeding a bliackstrap moliasses d'ilet., Regular clinical checkupss were done during the course of study. Symptoms corresponded to i neurodigestive compl'ex. Most coincided with, those already described' for molasses drunkenness and poldoencephaLomalacia, although glossopl'egia wasn't reported before. A direct relationship existed between symptoms, lesion sites and degree of' involvement. No p!athognomonic signs of this condition were evident. MOLASSES NEURO TOXICITY'AND H!IGHER VOLATILE' FATTY-ACIDS IN. SHEEP DUNLOP R H; gUENO L SCH., VET. STUD., MURDOCH UNIV.,, MURDOCH, WEST. AUST., AUST. COMMUNICATIONS ON DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM AT THE 51fh; INTERNATIONAL SYMPOS'IUM' ONRUMINI',1NT PH4fS'I'OLOGY', CLERMONT-FERRAND, FR'ANCE,i SEPT. 3-7, 1979'. ANN RECH VET 10 (2-3). 1979. 4b2-464., CODENI: ARCVB Language: ENGLISH
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< , 0833216 82000694645l A report on acute urea toxicity in cattl'e. Gupta, F:.F,',.P.;! Satija, K'.C.;, Bhatia, K.C. Dep,. Vet., Fathol.,, Haryana Agric. !J'ni'v.,Hiss~ar, 1'nd~ia INDIAN VET. J.; 60;(1), p. 79 1983 CLanguage: Engl ist'i Summary Language: Engl ish~ Document Type: JQurnal` article-original research, Cases of spontaneous urea poisoning have been recorded in the literature (Bullington et al. 1955; Swabowilez„ 1962)'. In the present communication an accidental urea toxicity among adult Hollste3n-Fresian cross-bred cows at the H.A.Lf., Animal Farm is reported. On the d'ay of the incident, the animals were ad'ministered 2' percent urea treacle (molasses)i after feeding ofi the concentrates. Fi ve cows~ d'i ed after exhi bi ti ng severe abdomi nalds stensi on+ muscular tremors, conjunctival congestion, profuse frothy straw-coloure¢F dsschargesf'rom th~e~ mouth~ and, nostrils, rapi,d breath;ing~,, vio~lentstrugglin:g and be3'lowd'ng.At necropsy, massive subcutaneous ecchymotic heamorrhages.in the thoracic region,, peritoneum andserosa.lsurface of gall bladder, spleen and Wi'dneys,, epi'cardium, and myocardium were observed'., 0764264 820005086611 Lysosome inJurybyperfiusion of' theisolated rat li'verwithieth'ian;o1, oral molasses distillate (cachaca). Rolim, E.G.; $vrges, D.R.;: Prado, J.L. Dep. Med. eBi'oqui,m. Escola Paulista Med,., 0,10QftSao Paulo~,SP, Fi'razilfitEV~., BffiAS~., PESQUJI.. MED. BIOh..;; 16(;114, pp., 23~-2811983 ~ Language: Eng~l i'shSummary ILanguage: EngI ish, Document Type: Journal' article-original research, An isolated rat liverp~erfusion modeI was:used'to, studythel effects of acute exposure of the organ to either ethanol or a mollasses distillate (cachaca).When ehtanol (!72mM:)l oramolassesd'i'sti 11 ate (68 mM ethanol ) was added t,o- the ; perfusion; f~l ui d, 1 ysosomal i njury, was indi cated; b~yth~eincreas!ed reLease of tartrate-i'nhibxted, acid phosphatase activity at the end, ofra3 hperiod' of perfusion. The~ datamay be of importance for a better understanding of the hepatic d'amag!e caused by al'cohol abuse andd useful for l aboratory i nvesti gati on of al cohol' i ntoac i cati on,.
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L34 ANSWER 3: OF B; AN CA99 (25) :210811k TI Comparative biochemical and pathological studies on acute rum#:nal acid'osis induced by' molasses and grain feeding in buffal.u calves (Bub:alusbubalis:)'AU Randhiawa„ S. 5.i; Das,, L. N.; Misra, S. K.. CS0l~'1 : Wet.Sci,.,,, Punjabi A'gtric.Wniiv. LO! Ludhiana 141000, Il'ndiaSO Acta Vet. Acad. Sdi. Hung,.,3tT(4) , 257-64 SC' 14-15 (MammalianPathological H'.iochemistry) SX 18 DT J CO' AVASAX I S 0001-7 cc75 PY' 1982. LA Eng, AS Buf f al o, ca1 ves were f ed wa'th a si ngLe dose of mol asses orally (6roup 1)' or with crush~ed, wheat grains intraruminally (6rmup, 2). In Group 1, there was an, i ni t i al i ncrease i nithe. lactic~ acid conicn.of ruminial f'luid and; bilood wh~ileinOroup 2 there was a, con~tinuousin~crease i-n,l,acti~c acidcontentrthroughout, cul mi nati ngi ata2~-3-foldt i ncrease. Ih9olasses;, feedino; caused h,ymiowlycemi a, whi l e the grain-f ed animal's developed,hyperglycemia. Concurrent,to these changes in biochem. parameters,, there were differences in the quali'ty: aswe2'1 as themagnitude of hi!stopathol. changes in~ the cerebrum, exocrine and endocrine pancreas,, rumen,, reticul'um,, omasum:, and liver., The histopatholl. change%were correlated with the biochem. changes.IKW acid'osis rumen mo1'asses grain buf'fialo, IT Organ (histoplathol. of, iniruminal acidosis fromimoSlassesandgrain feeding, inbuff~al'o~)! I T' B1 ood, (lactate of, in molasses- and' gr-ain feeding-induced ruminal acidosis inj buf'falo), IT Stomachi content,, ruminant (lactate of, i n rumi nal aci dosl s inducediby mol asses and grain feeding~ in buffalo) IT Wheat (ruminal acidosis from grain of,: lactate of bTood' and ruminal fluid' and' organ hilstopatthol, in, inbu~ff'alo)' IT Molasses_. ~(r~.urainal acidosis, from, lactate of billood and rumi~nal fluid and organ histopathoi'. in, in buffalo). IT Acidosis ('rumi-nal,, f rom mol asses and grain f eeding~y l actate of bl oodland~ rumi nalfl u!id~ and,organ~ hi stopathos' ., i n, i n, buffalo)! . . IT 50-21-5, biological studies. ; (of b'lood: and, ruminal.:,f'luid, .in molasses- and grai'n feeding-induced'.rumi'na1 acidosis in buffalo) fb' CTa CC m C~
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MoL.assES~ 69 M (If 730 C A fm: (i?7i): ~ ly! `7 '.~~ ~P? P~~ C A ag( q - t4ovfti; 101429h, Heifer feed with corn or molasscs ind Brachiaria , sp. (Tanner grass)'. ndrade~RSyllvia 0.; Cosentinoi d. R'.;. StYttt, ~N. N3 . (Secao ~ogp nim:, Ih~st. Biol., Sao Paulb, Btazil),. Arq,, Inst. BioL.,,3ao Pau1o 1972, 39(4)6 , 329•-33 (Port): Cows, horses;, and sheep graaun g for 2 months on 'Panner grass ,(8rachiaria species) contg; 0•0169G~ nitrate [1i4797-55-i (measured' as KI+IOy)~ dud not develop the symptoms of intoxication reported in previious work (Andrade, Betz, and 141armo,,1971)- A short, term (2 weeks) methemoglobinuria was l seen in the cows, but this returned'to normal!values by the end of the expt. Weekly serum creatinine [W27-51~ glutamie=oualac= etic transaminaae [9000-97-91, gtutarnicrpyruoic tranaaminase f9000-86-61', and nitrate levels were normal i throughout the stud}~ : 1 he previously reported toxicity of Tanner grass waspr obably due to a high nitrate content„although the transient methemogl obinuria suggests the presence of some toxic priniciple other than nitrate. 15395z Foodadditives. (1-(',:hloroetliXl)trimethylammonlus chlbrido:. ~ (Environ. Prot. eney, lungto .em~. Fed. Regist» 1'li Oct 1974, 39(199), 36583 (~g)L A 6: ppm was establiahed'under Federal. Food, Drug and Cosmetie l4ct for residues of the title plant regulator, in sugarcane by~-product molasses intended for human and ammal feed i from usee in an exptL program involving application to tlie~grrcnnng sugarcane cropL W. I~oiwitz ~ 92:57058& Deto=i'Crcatioa of molasses by electrodialysiY and transport-depletion, n Sanchez, C: (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Fr.. : Aliment: Agric. 1979, 96(7-8), 819-26 (Fr). Anionic materials toxic to PeniciUium- exslopiurn, and presumabliy to animals, were removedl from: molasses by electrodialysis with udicious selection of membranes aad' eleem murrent. The method of dialysis involving, traneporG eprichment was effective and ; is described. 67391 ~ PY~eliminary assessment of, the eflect of some insectides on, predators of cotton pests. ~)~ H.; Btugeas, IWl 1~W. (Getaoma Rea 3Cn. Gatoomar esia): Rhodeaia Agr. J: 1973, 70(5), 103-4 (gng). As shown in cotton fieldi ezpta:, endosull5in [115-29-7 ;appGed with mol~ was lese tonc than, waa DDT [50~29 3~ to~ Chr)rsopid eggs, Syrphid • lavae and I Coecinellid adults. Endosulfan with molasses was less to parasites of aphids than was carbarxl' [6~25-2]i with m~om' 92: 5178y 1Mlolasses neurotoxicity and hi:ghei volatile fatty> acids im sheep6 flun[pa„R. H.; Bueno, L. (D'ep. PharaioL, Ec. Ifatl. Vet., 31076-'If louse, Fr.). Ann. Recl[6 Vet. 1979, 10(2-3)i 462-4 (Eng)G Sheep girxen molasses at 125 mL/L feeding solo. contg. casein 12.5, unea 1.25g and mineeals (4 L feeding;soltr. infusedl into the rumen/d'ay) showed a shifft toward bacteria and death of' protozoa in the rumen within 48'' a temporary peak in rumen lactic acid [50-21-5I, levels at: -72 h, with a simultaneous decreasa in total volatile fatty sci8s1 (Vb'A)in the rumen, and then a decrease in rumen lactate, increase in totnl VFA, and a shift toward higher moL wt. VFA, esp,, butyrne acid [107-92-6]I and valeric acid [109-5t~-4j, by~ tha end of the Yst 6 daxs of molasses feeding. There was also an increase in cortex high am~~ Qlitude potentials inpare11d with the Ncreaae w)'~igh-moL Jwt. VF~II, indicating a possi 'ble neurotozici of'these fatty acids. Lv. infusion of' butyrata and valerate; but not, lactate, also produced increased cortex high amplitud'el activr . ty--_ 1 _ .. ...u..• T'_ .. ~.
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CQPIEQ' CRdd: Ci??') 231i: g2tiif7a i (atyceroll as a protective agent against malasses intozicatiionin beef'cattle: Gaytan. T.; Zamora, F.; Shimeda,. A. S: (Inst. Nac. Invest. Pem-,-Nfe~nco City Men). Cuban J, A'gric. Sci: 1977„ 11(1)1 29,-37' (Eng): Hofstein steers groups given AY restricted! corn sillsge• B) 1400 mL of ;1y+cerol [d6-81-5] r os; or C)' a control ~roup, to dek the roie o7 glucose i0~99~7]! in molasses intovcation. For'20, days all the animals had' an adaptation process and' were fed high-test molasses and urea. , All received i a ~ miztL of molasses with 2%, urea, , mineral mi:t. and I 800 g of turkey wastes ad ~ libitum: The molasses consumption was 59:0; , 68.1 and 67.2% of the t,otai' dry matter for groups A, B,, and C, reap. Seven days after the beginning of'_the ezpt., the control group shqwed toxicity symptoms, while the glycerol treatment protected group B' from intoxication. One animal died in the corn silsge treatment At the end of , the ezpt., blood glucose levels in group C were 37:29 mg/100 mL, signi'ficantl)r lower than those of (A 5L.28) and B(53:05): No. ketone bodies were detected in the urine or serum of the 3S ezptL` groups. A typical cerebrocortical necrosis and~ various degrees of ruminitis were d'eteeted' in, the affectedi animals. Molasses intoxication is apppa~rently the result of'~ a deficiency of glucose in the tissues and' difters from ketosis: 74474k To:i'cologfical' studles of starch-molasses sirupa decolorized with i'on-eachanse resins. I E V.; Pbltrovakii; V. A. (USSR): Tr. Voronezit. Gos:~niu. 197i, 9!, 1i46'-9' (Russ). Starch~ molasses syrup d'ecolorized! with ion-ezchange resins Av-16Gy IKu-2, or Kb-4P=2'.increased'the no. of' neutrophils and decreased! the no: of erythromyeloid cel[s, in the bone marrow when given.orally to rabbits at 250 mll/dayfor 6, months. A decrease in the cholinesterawe [9001-08-5] activity: in the blood wasaleo obsd. , 93: 127068a T6ii'eity synergism of 11u-Ter to Spodoptera littorali. (Boi.d.) ia 1 relation to the interaetios of organotin compounds with carbohydrate metabolism. AbdeC Sa)hm IfI. (Faa Agpic,Am,r-Shams biniv Caita Bali:. . Sntonwi. Sbe. Egypt, Fcon. Ser:19'75 (~ub 1979). 9, 349-54 ~ Toxicity af Du-Ter [76=1R7-9] to S. li'ttoralis larvae was aud in relation to carboh,~rate supplj+ in their diet and the possible interaction of IhrTer with carbohydrate metab. The mitL of Du-Ter + molasses is more than twuxas toxic as Du-Ter alone on the bqsis' of LCo values, whereas, the 2 treatments were equally toxic on the basis of LGs values. At any IDu-Ter concn, on the LD-P' (log dosage-probit)' linej the presence of molasses adds an increment' of prob~t mortality that mcrsased with inceasing the molesees:IDnr'T•er ratio, indicating . the possible interaction ~ of Du-Ter with carbohydrate metab, 9j N'S75r Glucose metaboli'smin eattle on molksseis$asedi studi'es on molasses toxicity. J: Ravelo, Gr, ~,,5.; Prestonr T. R.;, Leng, Il. A. ent. Domin. Invest. ,~,, CProd A 1978, 3(L~ 19-~21 (l~).miIn an study' of the. ~cs of giucowe f60-99-7J, metab. in bulls (20o ks , 6ve wt.) ~ m~palbses-baaed diets, the animals on molasses diets from, ~ the forage: component had been removed all showed! l . rates P ~ ' ~ d ~ diln proredurea) d d not per iff er between the X ~pcated and I control animals snd showed values within a ~ ~ y~ ezpected' of animalsg~vnn g' at 500 , daily. This was;~ ~ng since the animal's liad been offfor >_1 d'ay. The': ~ ~ ~t severely intozirated aninoaL showed Ihype u, indicatiag . h ' ' ibition of aluoose utilization, e data d s1possible m o not, ~ppoM the hypothesia t$at molasses tozcity i's simply due to'~ W. ~. ~aact of glugose p_recursors
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IIOPIED'. CA 8f' O?7/) CA Ifs" ( /710 0 h - 1150B82a Effect of final or high-test molasses on morasses tozicity. H.; Preston, T: IL (Inst. Cienc. Anim., Havanar Cuuban.J. Agric. Sci. 1974, 8(1')i 11-20 (Eng) Fifteen Fi Holstein.7l' ldrahman, bulls with a mean wt of 150 kg were sepd'L into 3 groups of' 5 animals each with the follbvnng teeatmentsr (a) final molasses with 2% urea without forage; (b)' fmi molasses with 2% urea and restricted amt. of fresh forage;, (o) high.-test molasses with 2% urea without forage. These groups aleo received 500g of' fsh meal/Yni~mal/d'ay and minerals ad Lbitum. The ezpt. lasted 42 days. There was 100% ietozcation by molhsses in treatments where no forage was Lupplied No apparent differences were found in the disease symptoms between the ! 2't~a of molasses. Animals g~ven forage ate more molasses and total dry matter, and' had' a lYwer rumen pH, a higher percentage of' propibnic acid and a lower p~entage ofbutyric acid in rumen liquor as well as less ketone bodies in the blood compared I to the intoxicated animals i that nceived no: foraRe. ' P. K. Ray 24II49u Mercury in Hawaiian cane molasses. Mee John M. I..; I3Yoolcs,, Coy C. (Dep: Anim. Sci~, Umv: 'I'~awaiil HonolulW, Hawaii) : Sei: Total Environ. 1973, 1(4)i, 39i}-& (Eng). The Hg content in Hawaiian molasses was detd. by Hg in: the sugar raw material~ and l was well below the suggested tolerance limit for Hg in fiah 1Wfolasses Hg',appeared predominantly as organomercurialb. -- A. W. Hofer _g4;1'01282u Induction of! bovine polioencephalomalacia .rith a feedin system based' on molasses and urea C, ]~4f.; Peresliva, 0.; Loew, F,~ M. (Biochem. IDep ~ )V.c. Invest. Cient., Havana, Cuba)L Can. J. Com,~. Med: 1976, . .{p(y), 104-10(Iang): The title disease, produced in 2U0-300-kg bulls by feed' a low- hage diet alon5 with molasses and urea [57-113+GG ~, producede same din. sugns as were obed. in ..ryeld cases in Cubs. Elevated blood! pyruvate [127-1'7-3]I and ,depressed lactate a5p-21'-5]/pyruvate ratias wera in agreement with data from field cases, and suggested a block in pyruvate, osidjL in, the d'isease. There was no evidence of urea intoxicationr sndJ in addh., brain and'~ liver concns. of total thiamine:from field. -cases and normal animals,were simila_r, 76107f Tosicity of inethylimidazoles. N' Keica; Waiss,. Anthony C., Jr.; ICeyl, A'lexand'er C.esCern Reg., Res: Lab:,, Albany„ Cal'if.~)., Z'oxicot:A~'p¢!. Pkar~nacaf.1A89;, 1'4(2)„ 30i-7 (Ehg): Toxic manifestations of' ammoniated' invert; molasses in cattle can be simulated'~ in lab6 animals such as rabbits, mice, and day-old chicks by administering 4Lmet1lylimid'- azole (I): I, which results frrom the interaction of reducing' sugars with ammonia, has previously been iwlated fhom am-: moniated invert molasses in addn. to other compds. such, as. -pyraaine derivs., The.mouse seems to be the most practical animal' for testing the neurological signs produred' by I. The convulsive death produced by, I in the rabbit is eharacteri'zed by.y the typiieall epileptiform electroencephalograph (high voltage, high frequency)l concomitant with clonic and, tonic seizures and terminal respiratory paralysis. Thi's fatal course can be pre- vented with Nwpentobarbitsl and'~ chlordiazepoxide: Diphenyl-hyd'antoin did not: protect , mice against I seiznres and deatb; in contrast tio ~ Na phenobarbital and chlordiazepoxide. 4=. lts'ethylimidaaole had. appro:. 1/4 the: oonvulsant, potency of; pentylenetetrazole. Imidazole. 1-methyli'midasole, and 2?; methylimidazole prodiiced neurologic effects in mice similat; to: those caused by Il, but'they were,less potent as convulsants.. The spontaneous motor activity of'mice treated-with.I was re•6 duced to about 5Q% during the period proeediqg ;the s-iz+•vx__O
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G CR IS; (JiiL) C A :93' (1980) 85: 122224b Utilization of urea/riiolasses liquid feed as the main source of nitrogen and energy for cattle and buffalo. R han S. K.; Pathak, N. N.; Singh, U. B.; Verma, D. N.; arY ma, A. (Anim. Nutr. Div., Indian Vet. Res. Inst., Izatnagar, India). Tracer Stud. Non-Protein Nitrogen Ruminants, Proc. 'Res. Coord. Meet. Panel, 2nd 1974 (Pub. 1975), 165-73 (Eng). 'IAEA: Vienna, Austria. Zebu cattle and water buffalo were, given a urea/molasses liq. feed (Bhargava, B., et al., 1973) which, 'supplied -70% of the total digestible nutrients of the ration (200 g fish meal, 2400 g wheat straw, 4800 g urea/molasses liq~ feed/day). N intake was 70.9 g/day for both animals, with a N balance of +4.2 and -0.2 g/day for the cattle and buffalo, resp. Nutrient digestibilities were similar for both animals, ranging from 41.9% (crude fiber) to 72.0% (N-free ext.). Rumen tluid volatile fatty acid content was 44.7 and 45.4 µmole/L for buffalo and cattle, resp. Rumen bacterial populations were conaiderably higher in buffalo, and low protozoa levels were obsd. in both animals. Molasses tozicity and glucose recycling are also discussed. 91: 106999b Molasses toxicity in cattle: rumen fermentation and blood glucose entry rates associated with this condition. {owe. J. B.; Bobadilla, M' ; FernandezAng ela; Encarnacion, T'Cr Preston, T. R. (Div. CEAGANA, CEDIPCA, Santo Domingo, Dominican R.).. Trop. Anim. Prod. 1979, 4(1), 78-89 (Eng). Zebu bulls were given a daily ration consisting of 11 kg sweet potato forage (17% dry matter) and 4.2 kg molasses (3% urea; 70% dry matter) for 6 wk prior to and for the first 2 days of the ezpt. For the last 9 daya of the ezptL only molasses/urea was given, ad libitum. The daily feed intake of each group of animals was estd. When the roughage was removed from the ration, the turnover rate (vols./day) of the rumen fluid decreased from 1.7 to 0.05, which in turn was assocd. with an increase in rumen voL from 32 to 75 L No significant changes or trends were obsd. in the daily consumption of molasses or in the estn. of rumen fluid volatile fatty acids (-90 mmol/L: 69% acetic, 15% propionic, 15% butyric and 1% valeric acid). There was neither a si ifcant change in the plasma glucose concn., 69 f 7 mg glucose~00 mL plasma, nor in the glucose entry rate, 819 f 57 g glucose/day. Several areas of the cortex of the brain of each animal slaughtered had well defined areas of necrosis. All the animals showed signs of the early stages of molasses toxicity: ealivating, shivering and standing with the head down. Thus, brain dama;e may occur during molasses toxicity without glucose being a limiting nutrient The very slow turnover rate of rumen tluid may be an important factor in this condition through its effect on the supply of protein and thiamin to the animal. The Possible importance of the animal's body reserves (glucose precursors and thiamin) in buffering the animal against anoxic brain damage is discussed. . 93: 162113m Thiaminase activity in the rumen of cattle given diets based on sugar cane, molasses and sisal pulp. R J. B.; Bobadilla, Milagros; Preston, T. R.; Leng, R. A. an Domingo, Dominican R.). Trop. Anim. Prod. 1980, 5(1), 63-9 (Eng). Thiaminase [9030-35-7] activity was found in the' rumen fluid of all cattle examd. and was at a high level in animals on a basal diet of molasses or derinded cane. Between 200 mg and 4.3 g thiamine [59-43-8] /day could potentially have been degraded by bacteria in the ruinen, suggesting a possible major involvement of thiamine in productivity responsea to supplementation of cattle on sugar cane, with vegetable, proteins. In cattle given a high molasses diet, thiaminase, activity in the rumen was low and remained low following~ withdrawal of roughage from the diet up to the occurrence of symptoms of molasses toxicity 6 days later. The assocd. lowi rumen turnover rate, assocd. with this condition, together withl low thiaminase activity, might affect the availability of thiamine' from the digestive tract. Thiaminase activity was not assocd.' with protozoa in the rumen nor was it present in the rind or pith of sugar cane._ ~- - - --- -- _ . COPIED
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:f1PIED! 93ZBOq Comparison of nitrogen metabolism andl ammonia tozi¢ity from ammoni'um acetate and urea ln cattle. • W :; B'ertley, E: E:; Meyer, R. M. (K.nsas Sta'~~, ~ ]4lanhattan, Kans.): d. Anirxi:,Sci. 1972, 35(6); 1263-70 (Eng). Ammonium acetate [6311-61«8J adminiatered! intraruminally intoo rumen-fistulated cattle gave greater rumen ammonia [7664-41'-7)1 concns. than did iaonitrogenous quantiti~ of wea~ [57-13~-6)t urea, elevated rumenpH j but 1'HHaOA'c did'~ not; and both NH4OAc and' urea increaaed tbe concns. of NHv and urea in peripheral bloodL Smaller nitrogen [7~727-37-91 equiv. dosa of urea than of' NH.OIAIr prod'uced toucitx,, and a relation between perilpherall blood NH3 concnam and toxicity was clearly indicated, with: severe. tbaicity occurring,at blood NHa-N concns., >q:7-0.8 mg/1'QO ml.' Administration of urea increased the rumen~ pH and predisposed the animals to rapid NHa absorption{ but NH4OAc did not cause immediate changes in rumen pH so, greater cancns; of rumen NH3 were required after NH4OAc than after urea for absorption of'sufficient NH', to cause tozicity:Simultaneous administtation of molasses with either NH4OAc or urea reduced rumew NHs concns: and pHl and, markedly reduced blood NH3d and urea concns: Molasses apparently increased N utilization by rumen microorganisms and! decreased i the rumen. pH, , reducing , the rate . of NH6 absorptionfaam the rumen.
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CNEVALl"t S S. 13/ C,? USER'I : DARK AND SUGAR C''ROG : MM (SUGAR') (2) 1' SUGAR'. (NF) 2 SUGAR (SY')'~ SFEC'IfY' NUM'HtERSY ALh~r~~ Oh'~r~~ N0N~E~- USER':'. ALL - I?'R'UG4 *NOUE~-~ SS' 13 /C? U'~S E R': BROWN A'ND! SUGAR', IF'ROiG': MM (' S U'GAR')i (~ 2)'. *N(ZE-- t Cz IIif:AP' (NF) Ss 6. /C? - US~ER~: RAW AND SUIGAR FROG: MH (SUGA,R') ( 2') 1 SUGAR ('NF ) 2' SUGAR (SIY') S!F`'EC'IFY' NU!ME+'EF:'S'r ALL s OFR'r iil0'1VE- USER' ALL PPt',OG'.:' *tM'ON'E'-
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SS 6 /C? ~ WSER:. jCANE ~ A'NDI SUGAR_ - PF~'OG:- 4 iiMl (SUGAR) (2), I SUGAR (N'F') 2' SUGAR (SY) _: 'EC'IF'Y NUMEs'EfiS. A'LL. ORr NOhiE- 0' 0 p : USER ALL FROG:' SS (6) PSTG (4) SS' 7. /C? USER:'. PRT PROG :'. F ei4EYmu i rJ e- COPIED : P i'' RN - 393!00-95'-3 ON - 54792'-46-0 ( CAS ) ~ ON - 56560-92'-0 ('CAS') N11 - alpiia-0I-G1uicolpwranosider beta-D-f'ructofuraniosw1 r =hexad~ecanioate ('9CI) ~ LO - TOX'LItVE' LOi - TOXBACK74 ~ 2' IRIN - 37318-31-3 N'1 - alplha-ID-G'lucopvraniosid'es beta-U'-fr'uctofuranosull octa'deca'nolate ('9'C7)l bi - TOXLINE L0i - TOXRACt<74. • 3' - RN - 25339-99-5 ONl - 40994-62-5~ (CAS') NI - a~~lr-ha~-R-Glucopwranoside~r_ beta-D-f~ruct~of'ur'anos~w~1 j, moniodod'~ec~anoate <' 9C'1) ~, LO - TOXLINE L0 - TOX'EsACII('651 LO - TOXBACK'74 0 R'?~ - 5~7-50~-1' ~ 0~ 8P27-4'7-2' (CAS) _ ON 030-20-4 ( CAS') ON - 7167-52'-? ( CAS ) ~ ON! 718'5r-09'-1 ( CAS ) ON! 4~~7257=91-0! ( CAS ) O~!! - ' 50i8 517~-68'-6 ( CAS) A 0N! - '64W33'-66' 0i (CAS) UMI ~5545-99-5! ( CAS ) ON 60 ;6-38-7 ('CA'S ) h!'1 a Pha-D'-Glucopyranosider ibetarIIl-ftructofuraniosw1 (9CI')' LO - T ,LINE ~_0 I- TO IErA'CBC'65 X ' - TO WACIK74 A _0 Lff - Fc'TEbS LO;- - TOIi \ ~ LQ - TSCA'I'NV' Ld - MED'L iiN!E . ~ft ` r ` t 4- ...~, .. . _ . _. _ . . _ _ _ . . . ~ ~ _ _ . , ..... _, _.;., _ _ -. . ..... ~.,...y- .-...:...: _ .. ,; ..~ -~:;:w:~,
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.A, ~ 7 427 47-21w('CAS )' * ~©~~' 0N - 8030-20-4I G CAS )i F ON - 47167-52'-2 (CAS)- 47185-09-1 ( CA6 ) ( !I - 47257-91-0 (CAS) UU - 50857-68-6 ('CAS,)' 0U - 64533-66-0 (CASY ON - 65545r99-51 (CAS)' ON - 76056r-38!-7' ( CAS ) MF - C12-M22.-071N I - alpihia-m-Glucopvranosider beta-h'-fructofutranosul ('9CI) SY' -~wcrose(SCI) SYi' - Amerfond SY - Beet sugatr ~ SY - Cane suaa v SY' - Conifectioner's sugar SY`= bae~a ~i-Fruetofwranos~l alpha-D-alucopwranoside ~ SY - Granulated sugav SY - Mlicrose SY - Rock candw ~ SY - Sacc'fiarose . SY' - n-(+)-Sacchatrose SY - SacchArulrn ~ SY ' - LiL-Sucrose SY' - Sulgar . SY ' - White suaar ~' L0i - TOXLINE L0 - TOXBACK65 LO - TOXBACK74 -[il' - R'TECS ~ _o - TDR L0 - TSCAINV ~ LO' - MEDLIINE L L t.; 0 SS 7' 7CT _ US'ER : STOP Y TiIME' 0'.'11245 NLM ' TIME 9:5'1.'30 « « « PROG:' G0!011-BYE ! c!'l~Ey\/\ CUPVEO. s f cl (i
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~ I~A~tt~ra+:n m . ,w . . ` SS 6 /C?' USER: R'A'W'' AND SUGAR OR MOLAsSES `, P'ROGI -~9 ~ (~~64 PSTG (~117~), ` SS 7 /C? U!SER': I AND 6 ` PROiG: SS (7) PSTG (4) 6 S'S 8 /C? USER:' 2' APWD! 6 ~ PROG :' SS' (8'), P'STG (4)! ` S S 9 ' /C? USER: 3 AND 6 ` PROG: SS (9) PSTG (2) ` SS 10 /C? USER': 4' AiVD, 6 ` PROG:« *tJONE- ~ y 1'01 /C? U!S ER : 51 AND 6' ~ P'ROO:'SS (10) PSTG (4) (a 0 t SS'11 /C? UiSE'R «' 7' OR 8~ OR' Q' OR~ 10 PRO!G':' SS('~ 11)~~ PSM (13~~) ~~ SS 12G'C?' USER: PRT FU! PROG :' 1 e AU' AU Ah, e, TI ~ SI 101 _A ¢ AB -r0AL)i1QC" c COPIED C - YOSHIDA M' - HOSHII H -~ National Ins~tiitu~te~ o~f~ Animal ]Ind'us~tr~w~y ~ Tsukutiia~~ tdor~ini-dianicihii P'.~0!.~ Box 51, Ibaraki 305: Ja:pani« m - Nutritive evaluation, of 1'6 samples of single cell rrroteirti arown, Cb on aNricultural waste materials bw growiina' chicks. Oa - HEEF'/'81/'10'999 - AGRTG BIOL CHEM'r 44 ('111). 1980' (RECD. 1981). a671-2676. ~ - ENG . Db - HEEP' CUPY'RIGHT:' BIOL AB'S« The available energur v'ross Proteirrn va~lue~r~ P availlabli~l it~-A! ar5~dl Pal'~atabil~it~w~ of~ 16 saRipl~es~ o~f~ s~in-q7~e~ CA cell: ~ Protein we~re~ eva~~lluated' in 2'0~~ t+ioassaws~~ usin~g', 2136 depleted ®, chicks. Four Protein samples were Prodwcts from Aspersilluss tamarii 5rowr!y on waste water of' a fish, processinis' factorw: 3were 4 C E C (I C C ~ C (L
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tt'rom A., orwzae grown on acetic acidl medium or cook.edl sowbean ® waste, 3 were from Candide sP. e'rown on citrus molasses extracted fromimeel wastes of citrus Processine Plantss 4 were from C. utiLiserown o~n, wood'molassesProduced'f'rom vari~o~uswoodwastes, and 2 were from Pseudomonas saa# and ATteromonas thalassomethanolica grown on methanol. Uf' 16 samples, 5 had excellent nutritive vaiuer comparable to, single cell Proteins available commerciallv in Europe. All samples were Palatable to the chiclr,s, and no sign of acute toxicitw was observedl. 42 AU - A'nonwmous TI - Guazatine« ~ SI - PESTAR/8'1/s163 . S0! - FAO Plant P'rod'. P'rot. PaPer 1'5i('SPP11t 13'9-158 1979' ('39' O AR Peferences )'. PESTAB. Data >sertinent to the evaluation'of' the Pesticide guazatine are described« Information is Presenteif reeardine the identitw, Properties and formulations of the compound, and! biochemical aspects(abisoirptionudistribution,exrrretioni)! are, eluridated.Ftatse'ive~rnasiingleoral dose oflabeLledewlazatineexcreted' 80% ' of the dose within 72 hr, withino, evidence of tissue accumuil'atyoni.Long-and short-term stud'iesh~avebeen Perfiormed' oni various animals. A no-effect level of 200 PsPm has been determined i'n rats and dioes. AI 3-generation stucfwhias shown no effects on reproduction~ orteratoigenicitw~.Noi differences i~n, tumorincidenc~eswerese~en betwe~en, control and treatedl eroups.UsePatterns are described, as are residues in foods resulting from susrervised trials, and fate of' residues in aniimals, Plants, andl soils. Analwsis ofbarlew,i oat, rwe and' wheat g,rown from euazatine-treatedseed, Pineappl!e fromitreated seed sbieces, and sugar caner basasse, molasses and raw sugar grown from treated setts all showed no N'uazatine resid'ues« Guaaatirne rapidlw degrades in the soil'« Some maximum residue limits are recomrriend'ecilr and' recommendations are made for further research. Faiilai COHTINUE PR'I'NTIhlG?' ('YES/ND) _ 0 CJSER .' Y PPf]G .'. ! 3 Aw1 ~ AU AU AD ~ TI W Shuler ML Austic RE Seelew HW' Jr Cornell U!niv. Medical Col l., New York. ControLled' iM'icrobial' Conversion of Poultrv Waste into a High Protein Feedstuff' N'T I S/'F' Er 80-t'0 0'88'4 Govt Reports Announcements 9 I!ndex('GRAII )!. Issue 2'2', 19'80' NTIS/F'B80-20088'4, 146r NTIS' P'rices. fC A'07/MF' A01 TIn3: This report describes technically feasible one- and two-staA'errrocesse~s for aerobic corrversion o~f' Poultrw ma:nure~ i~n~to, high rrrotei'n feedstufif. These Rrocesses increase the eff'iciencv of aniamal ,rroduction and' minimiize the amount of waste matter reI'eased' to the atmosPhere. The two-stage continuous aerobic Process beains wi!th d'e9radationof uric acid and release of ammonium ion andcon~ti;nueswithi th~ead'~dlition of' carbon ini the form of molasses or sLucose to obtain a carbon to ni'trosen ratio suitable for microbial Proliferation. The rrrod+:ict consists of a ~, nearlq eure culture of P'seudoirrcnas fluorescens which is esgenitia21'wfrree of comrmcrn natho-lenic orsanisms. The sinsile-stage 0 0' 0 is 0 4) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0- e C
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~~ egseritiall~ t'ree of co~iimon; ~athoserni;c oraanisms. The sinsle-stase . Process reduces operational comr-lexit-a and' offers aPotential larvae was studied in relation to carbohi-ddirate sui in their diet and' the Possible interaction of Dur-Ter with, carbohwdrate metab. (76-87-9' Iltu-Ter)i The mi:•.t+ of' hiur-Ter + molasses is moire than twice as toxic as Du-Ter alone on the basis of LCSO values, whereasthie~ Z ftreatmentswere eQuallw to~xicon the, basis ofLC951 values. At anw Du-Ter concn# on the LU+-FP' (lios dosaae-probit) liner the Presence of molasses adds an increment of Probit mortalitw that increased with increasina the molasses.I)u-Ter ratior indicating the Possible interarition, of Du-Ter with carbohwd'rate metat+. ~ S - AU - Kansouhi AS H C AD' - Fac., Asiriic. r Ain-Shams Univ. r Cai ro TI - Toxicitvsvnersism of' Du-Ter to, Spoidolptera littoralis (Bmlisd'. )' ini relation to the interaction of'orsarnoti'ni compounds withi ~ carbohivdrate metabolism SI - CA/093/127058A S0' - Ru1i ]I . Entomoili. Sor. E3wpt r Econ. Se r. . VOL 9'. r 1979 P349'-514 ~ LA - EMG AB' - CBAC C0F'Y'R]IGHITJ CHEM ABS To:zicitv of Ir,t-Te,r to S. littorali's larvae was studied in, rel'a~tiontocarbohivdratesur-PlV inthei:r~ diet and the Possible interaction of Uiu-Ter with carboliWdrate metab. ('76-87-9 Uiu-Ter) The mixt. of 11iu-Ter + molasses is more than twice as toxic as Du-Ter alone on the basis of LC5U1values. ~ whereas the 2 treatments were eauallw toxic on the basis of LC95 values. At anvDu-Ter concn. on the LUI-P('los dosase-probit) ~ ' ' ' t Prob1i molasses adds an increment of li'ner tlie Presence of -C mortalitw that imcreasedi witti, irncreasins the: miolasses:'IDur-Ter ratioy i'ndicatirns the PossibLe irnteraction of' Du-Ter with, carboh,idrate metab.i C ;ONTINUE PfiIHTItVG?' (YES/Ht]) C cost reduction bw eliminatina the second stage bw usi'na a mutant of IP'. fluoirescens. This mutant degrades uric acid inithe Presence of'-slucose and ammonilum iorn. A sinale-staae .ssstem operates at a PH o~fabou~t7'#5without PHI corntroL ireducessta:rt-up timerretains nitrosen conternt; andiPossibilw improves culture stablili'tw. A d'etailed' AreLiminarw anialiwsis of Process economics i~n~dicatescondi~tionsund'~er which, the two-stage Process is economiQallwattractive. Economic feasibiliitwof the single-stase Process awaits nutritional trials of the Prod'uct« Final rept. 1 Mav 76-30 Oct 78 CONTINUE P'R'INTIN!G'?' GYES/HOa USER: Y -IPROG :' 4, A~U - Kansouhi AS H ~ AD - Fac. Aaric. r Ai'n-Shams Unriv. r Cai ro . TI' - To.cicitw sunersism of' Du-Ter to Spodopitera littoralis ('F+oisd. ). irn, rel!ation to the interaction of orsanoti~ni compounds with, carbohudirate metabolism SI' - CA/093/Y,27fl58A SOi - Bull. Entomol. Soc. Eawpts Econ. Ser.. V'OL 9. r f979's349-54LA - ENG AB - CSAC' CO'FYRIGHT; CHEM ' ABS Toxiritv of' hurTer to, S. littoralis U'SER Y PROCr "I C%'k.ih,+. CUPIM C C
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:fff;,;._;_. Liuzao JA N'ovak AF " R'aoi MR'. Louisiana State Universitu,' Agricultural Z Mechanical Colleaes' A9ricultural Experi'ment -Station: Dept* of Food Science Z Technolodw's Universitw Station; 8aton Rouaer Louisiana 70803. k1l (0 to (6 .PESTICIDAL RESIDUES' I'N' FOODS SSIE/GY 23985 9' ToxicoLoeivResearch Projects Directorwr V'o1.0S iss«10 1980' R'PROJI OHtJ'ECTIIVE: Pesticide investigations will be mad'e on various foods d'uring the course of handliina as thew Pass f'rom the fieldto the tatile and into the nutritional Pattern of' the ultimate consumerr to ascertain if anwhealth hazards e:<ist« APPROACM: Studies will be made on the foilLowing ': Actual testing' of' seeds where applicable. Several stages during growt~i arnd cultivation. Comparisons will' be made with the food's. Harvesting. What auantilties of residues are Present when the foods are removed from the solil, the vines or trees« Pre-processing storage. What ouantities are degraded Prior to Processina. Processina foods. Foods will be anaLwzedd'uring the various steps commonlw empLowed for Processina' each fmod' under investisation. Packaaing. W'hat Problems and effects are encountered bw emplovi'na various Packagina materials and Proced'ures. Distribution. What happens to residues durina transportationir storage in warehousesv storage under various temperaturesy etc. Retail outlets. Does 1'ongterm handLing': result in resiiduechangeisorunu~su~al m~oddifications. Preparation of' f'oods. Various methodsof cook;i'n-qs friving, mia.inar etc*« Cornsumpti~oni. What is theac~tual conce~ntration: ifanv Pres~ent at the time of' consuming the food'. P'RO!GR'ESS'. Ini Past studies, it was reported that raw sugar samples (1976 'seagon) contained traces of aainphosmethv!l, re~sidu~es.Therefoire, during 19'77v 4 repl icatesamples of first and~ clarified juice: swrupri molasses and raw sugar were collected once, a week for ;, weeks from the Cinclare Sugar Mill at Brusliewr Louisiana and! usedl for investigations on the distribution, and' thermal d'eeradation of this insecticide. Although arnalwtical results showed~ resid'ues of' a:inphosmethiwl raneins from 0' to, 01.51 Ppbi i~ni the first ,iuices the Pesticide was si9nificant] iv degraded' a:sthe Processcontinued.Analwsiisof variance for the data obtained in the randomized block desi gin indicated a sisni'ficant difference ini azinphiosmethwl residues ~~ between the various step~s~ dUrina~~ sug'ar~cane~ Proicessina.~ ~ Si~a-if~icant d~iff'erence~~s we~re f'ound! ini samw~~l'~es~ collected on (0- 107~13/77 and 1071~9177' (~~P~~robabtiliilitv ~~ 0i.~05)~i« Hishl~v ~ signi~ficant~ differences were found~ in, samples collected' ora 10%2'r/'77' (probabilitw0'.0i1i). When, the orthosonal comparisons were mader the~ result~s~~ of t~~he~ anal~-asys~ i~ndiicate~d~l a~ hiahliv sign~if~i~~cant reduction of' assrnolphios~me~thiv~ll (~Pr~obab~~i~~llit (Text Truncated - Exceeds Capacitv) CONTINUE PRINTING"?' (YES/NO) USER: T ~s PROiG: ~ 7 ew AU - Tiwari KP ~WI -Pandev A .aD - Department of Chemistrivr Uiniversitiv of Allahabadir India. ~ TI - The influence of mutag'eriiiic chemicals on lactic acild! fermentation bwLactobacilDus bulgaricus AU.. S1 - TOXBIEs'/'8'0/175]i08' ~ SO - 7entralbl Rakteriol CtV!aturwiss] r VOL 1341 ISS 8. 19'79'. PT48'-50 ILA - ErrS .0 ti Or~ .. 4i - C
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- Tiwari KF' - Pandew A - Department of Chemistrwr Uhiversitw of A1Dahiabad, India. - The influence of mutaAenic chemicals on lactic acid'fermentation bw LactobaciLlus t+ulsaricus AU. - TO)CHIBf80/1751108 -Zentralb1 BakterioL CNeturwiss]i VOL 134r ISS 8r 1979r P748-50 - Ene - Lactic acidfermentation, from molassesbw L. buLg;aricusW in the Presence of caffeine and ammonium fluoride was studied. It was found that caffeine had a stimulating effect only at lower concentration (01.001X-0.002x) . while at hiNh concentratioin the acid-Producing activitw of the bacteria was consideratalv depressed. Ammonium fluorider at a concentration of had a stimulatin3 effect on the activitvw of' the i+acteri'av maximum activitv was observed at a concentrationi of 0.003%. 8' AU - Tsuruta H' AU! - Itob S AU! - Otsuka M AU - Shimizui H' AI1i - Japani TI - Method and apparatus for evaporatin9 water from material SI - CA/090A11 r166S0F SO' - Brit. PATENT NO. 15244711 09/13/78 (Nittetsu Chemical Ensineeringr Ltd.) AR -CRAC COFrYRIGHT«CHEiiABS App* for reducing the water content of waste fermn. lictuor or sewage sludge bw evapni. includes a rotatabledrum, wn;thlongitudinal compartmentsconte~~. metal ringsrtubesr or rods which are free to tuimible and transfer heat from a hot as which is blown asciall'w, throu-4hi the drum to the waste li'as. whiich is fed! through the drum. The compartments have-perforated walls which allow Passage of as and wastes but not of the metal' Pieces. Thius: a 770-mm-lone drum on a horizontal axis with 380 mirninternal diam. and 86.7L-vo1.contained301-ma-wide ringscutfrom 20~A steel Pipewhtich: occupied.apprx.6;,Xof the innerdTrum, space « Gasfrom, burning- propanewasdi ld«with, air and Passed at 820.degree. axiallv through the rotating drum, with 119.7 kg/h waste liouor at 26.degree# from the alc# fermno of bl'acW.strap molasses which hadl been, concd. to «appr,c.35% biv, indirect heating. In Passins throush the concentratory 69'.6 W,s/h water was evapda f'rom, the l iouor whiich left the drum at 89. desree. and 50.1 Ikg/hi. CONTINUE PRINTING? (YES/'HOi) USERS y t IPROG** 9 ~ AU - Ochomoso, 0R AD - Louisiana State Uhiv. ,r Paton Rou.9ev LA 70803 TI - hegradation of azinphosmethvl (Guthion), in sugarcane Jwicer `C sirup« SI - RESTAF#/79/0272 S0i - Diss. Abstr. Int. B. 39(3) 21 1193 1978 C. -B -PES!TAB~., TheoreanoRhoisphorus insecticide azinphosmethvl vsold commerciallv as Guthionr has been, used in Louisiana for several wears to control the sugarcane borer^ Diatraea saccharalis (F.)r whic,h, isthe major economicPest of this crop.Thisinvestisation was desisned to devreLoP an accurater rar-id and' relial+le method for the nuanlitative and cauantitative anali-jsis of azinwhosmethtiliy and to use t`iis anals•tical Prccedwre to ateasure thie desrad3tlion t. L
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and tcoi use this analwtical procedUre to measure the aiesraoation TvY",ac and distribution of this insecticide in the Products obtainedi during the Processine of suearcane. To accomplish, these COPIm, .objectivesr a surface extraction techni'aue with benzene was ~ developed to extract the Pesticid'e from s.amples for first ,iuicer clarifiied juice, sirups moLassess raw residues. Gas chromatoa'raphwwas used to compare the accuracwanid effectiveness ~' ' the of detection. The method developed' for extraction of insecticide was approxitrratelv 90-92% effective in the recoverw of the insecticide from samples of raw and refined'sugar that had been fortified with 2' Ppm of' azinphosmelthw'L. Samples were collected' during 1977' from the Cinclare sugar mill at Fsrusl'wp _ Louisianar so that studies in the distributiocn and thermal degrad'ation of' the insecticide could! be Performed durinEL the suearcane Processine. Four replicate samples of f'ilrst juice, clarif'ied, .iuice, sirupr molasses and raw' sugar were collected once a week for five, weeksr extracteds and' analwaed for residues. ._Althoiigh 'arialstical regul ts stnmwed .resi'd'ues of'--aii"rii5hogmL:~thwl ranains from 0 to, 0'.50 Ppbl in, the first .iuice, the Pesti'cid'e, was sigrnificantlv degraded as the Process conitinued'. It was apparent that the, high temperat'ures used in the clarification and concentration of the juice sila'nificant'1w d'estrowed' the Pestiicide residue. Analwsis of' variance for the data obtained in the randomized blocN;! d'~esi!e'n, inidicatedi sienificantd'iff'erence~si~n, a~~~in'phiosmethiw] residues between the various steps of the sugarcane Processina. When orthoeonal comparisons were made, thee results of the analwsis indicated a highil'wsienif'icant reduction of azinehosmethwl (probabli l itv < 0«0`1), from the f i rst juice toward the end of' the Process. Traces of residues were found' in molassessa~mplesrbut no, residu~ewa~sdetectedl i~ni raw sugareoDlected during'the 1977 season. Refined sugar obtained from aa local supermarket did not contain anwresidue of azinrrhos'methw1.. (Author abstract bY Perm'issionr abri'dgedl., Copies of' the thesis ; C are available from' Uiniversitv Microfilmsr order Mo. 78'1'563'4) CONTINUE PRINTING? (YES/:NOi) USER'.' .M IPROG. (I SS 112, /C? USER: I PRT CQ/VTiEN\\\\MRRESSED, SS' 1i1 SK'IP 9' PR'OG. .. 1i0I AU TI ~ Sl S0~ - Ware GW ; Estesen R' r' Cahil!1 WP - hisTodgablle insecticide residues on cotton (197'5')1. -~ PESTAB'~778Ti768~ . - 8ul1.~ Env~i ron~. Cont~am,.: Tooriicoill«20~(~~1) :~ 17-1'9'~ 1'978~. 1'1 AU ' - Chekman IS ; Zabrods~ii i AG ', I:udnitsl,.i 2 i IP'V : Svet1 iakova RI' RubchiimisR:;aa; a K'I ~. TI --SI - CEffect of feed' weasts on the bod-=i of animals]1 - TOXBIB/77/152402 09. S!01 - V'eterinari'iar ISS 2'r 197'7'r FP'27'-31 ~ , tJTi AU TI - SI -~ SETLIIFF JA r: MIOWEIi'~ H'F~ -~~ MlJ!TAGEh(SIN ~~ DECOMPOSITION ~~ PrOIiIUCTS~~ OF CARB'OHIYDRA~TE S~~. - EN'IC/77/024624 O Sa~ - FED PROC'z P"Eh AM SOC EXP D'IOiC ; 36 .*1304' c 1977 C C Fo. C (W I
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-1 amiai na'-f roW0- - U 0 - b`, siarnificantliv degraded that the fiigPh tempera ~ concentration of the residue. Anal'wsis of randomized block~ d~es~~i FF'+O1Lii s the.Process continwed.-It..was apparent res used in'the clarigication:and „ (juice significantlw destrolwed the Pegticidce var'iancefor_tihedata obtained inthe ni i~n~dicated~~ sta~nif'ica~~nt~ d'iff~erenc~es: in, ; between the various steps of the aziniphosmethwl residue sugarcane Processina. W results of the analwsiss of azinPthosmethwl (proba toward the end of the'Pr molasses samplesv but n coil!lectedi during the 1 local supermarket dici )'. (Author abstract by are available from CONTINUE PRINTING? (YES/ USE'R'. NI PR!OG': ) S S 12' /C? USER« ~ PRT CONDEN\\\\MPRESSED SS 11\,StCIP 9 PRQGt ~ 1'0 H AU - Ware GW ; Estesen 8"s Ca~i 11 WIF' TI - IDiisl'ods'abile insecticide esidues on, cotton (I19'754« ~ SI1 _ s0 - PESTAB/78'/2768 - 8'ull«~ E~nvirorii. Co~,nt~am~~./I'oxico~l~.~ 20~(1)14 ~ 17-19, 1978~~ - AU - Chekman IS' ; Zabrodiki . i AG s'! Rud'n,itski « i PV ; ' Swetl iakorra RI i Rubchinskaia KI ~ TI -[Effect of feed'weasts on the bodu of animals]' ~ SI - TOXB][R/77/152'402 - SO~, - V'eterinari~ia~r~, ISS a'y '~1i977~v P27-31 ~ 1`. en orthogonal comparisons were mader the ndicated; a highlv significant reduction ilitw < 0«0i) fromAhe first Juice cess. Traces of resfdues were found in, residue was detected in raw sugar 7 season,. Refined sugar obtained; from a not contain anwresi'd'ue of azinphosmethwl. ermission, abridged« Copies-of'the thesis fhiversitw~ Nf~li~cro:fiil~m~s.~ ord'e~r~ hto. 7815634)~, U !) i AU! - SETLIFF' JA' rMOIW'ER H'F I, +~ TI - MUTAGENS IN IIiECOMPOSTI 14 PRODUCTS OF CARBOHYDRATES SI - EMIC/77/024624 y S©, - FED P'ROC YFED, . AM, SOC, E°' BIDL: 36 2 30!4.19'77 13 AU! - SHCHERBAKOVA EYA ; KARADZHOVA ZS' . ERMIABCOVA V'P' TI - VARIABILITY OF ASF'EF.GILLUS N'IGER, A PRODUCER OF CITRI'C' ACIIIur UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEPARATE AND COMBINED ACTION , OF N'ITROSOiMETHYLUREA AND ULTRAVIOLET RAYS ~ SI - EMIC/'74if0'18731 SO - MICf.0BI0LOGY(USSR')! r 43'«'432-436.19'74 r' (TF'AlJSLATE1G' FROiMi M!IKF.08'DOLOGIYA 43.508-51131.1974) ~ 46 SS 1'2'-• /C? U EF~:' ,i E ,ASACIK' 6. ~ SSI /C'? • ` US VAMLLI;hf OR 1^1-33-5 P S!V I¢y PSTG~ (iS2)
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DARK BROWN SUGARS-PYROL
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23062682-1y-.i c:?895' (Ef4ects of cataliysts on caramel colour p~roperties of corn sugar molasses.) Fyu,, B. H.., g Lee, R. H. Dep. of Food Sci.+ Tech.,, Busan Ind. Eol l., Busani, S. Korea Journall of the f.'orean Society of Food and, Mutrition, 1981,, 14, ('1i)!, 9-7-1t71 Language: Ko Summary'Langwage: en Note: 17 ref. F;ef i ned' corn, sugar moL asses were caramel i z ed i n a pH:2-10 sol uti on,, wi th ammonium carbonate, glycine or lysine as catalyst. The optimum concn. of , catal yst for the producti on of carameli were tJ. 4'Y. ammoni um, carbonate, 01.8%, g,lycine or O'..4% lysine at pH 9'. (1:oSFoiST);
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F5TA t 981i-86 275589 85-04-10095. ('Spontaneous decomposition of molasses. ) Dobrzycki,~ J'. Inst., Chem., Tech. Zywnosci Folitech. Lodtesk,iej, Lodtz, Poland Gazeta Cukrownicza, 1983, 91, (6), 129 ' Lanigulage: IPI Document Type: Review Note: 8 ref . Inicases of spontaneous molasses decomposition, described inithie literature over the last 151yr the initial cause has been a latent Maillardireaction between the invert sugar and aminoiacids, leadIng to: development of a considerabile amount of heat. Uhcontrollied'Local overheating induces an autocatalytic reaction, which may even result in combustion of the molasses. Methods of' preventing, molasses breakdowni include proper cleaning of the tank:s, addition of alkalies and inhibition of the- Mai'1Iiard' reaction,. (STI)' U
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xol - asol3nxa
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MEDL I NE 1984-1986 AU - Wagner K ; WoI f AS TI - GDeath followinig, fructose and sorbitol infusions] AB - Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI)' is a rare inherited metabol i c di sease. Because of~ the wi de app1 i cati on. of i'nfusi ons containingi fructose and sorbitol, patients suffering from this disease are at speciall risk. The disease ils frequently not diagnosedIuntiL adulthood and the danger associated with thiis delay is insuff'iciently recognizedl., This report therefore includ'ed'aicase~ historyinwhichthis ishig~hliighted. SO - Anaesthiesi st 1984 Nbv; 33 (11) : 57:'+-8 AU - N'i sh i oka F;' ;, Katayama I; Sano S' ; Numata T' ; Yamamoto; S TI - M'onosaccharide in hilgh fructose syrup, as an, etiolog,ical, factor of' urticaria. SO - J Dermatoll (,Tokyo) 1984 Aug; 1 1I (4)1:.•'_{91-6 AUI - Akg:.un S ; Ertel! NH'. TI - The effects of sucrose, fructose, and, h,igh-fructose corn, syrup AB meals on plasma g,lucose and insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.. We have previously shown standard meal cause less that fructose and~ sorbitoil given,with a increment,in plasma glucose than sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), in patients with NI'DDM. Hlowever, there was no direct comparison, of' sucrose with HFCS. Sixteen men and one woman aged 54-67) with NIDDMlwere given: ei ther 351g sucrose, 35 g1fructose, or 43.75 g, HFCSI contai ni ng 35, g carbohydrate as part of a 400-calorie test meal. D'lood samples were obtained at frequent intervals up to 3 in and were anallyzed for g,L ucose and i nsul i n. As compared with a f ructose meal , the mean i ncrement i n pil asma g 1 ucose (del ta PG) af ter a1sucrose meal was significantly higher at 45 min and after an HFCS meal it was significantly higher at 30 and 45 min, but sucrose andIHFCS' meaTs did not differ. When delta PGs were compared in nine patients with basal PG greater than 1140 mg/dl andlin eight patients with basal' PG less than 1'40 mg/'d1' ,, differences in delta PG after sucrose and HFCS versus fructose meals became more significant but• still did not d4ffer fromi each other. The integrated, total areas under the de1 ta PG curves af ter sucrose„ HFCS', and f ructose meals were not statistically different. However, the areas under the curves upito 90 min after sucrose and HFCS meals, which did, not differ,, were greater than the fructose meal. The mean~de3ta IRI after sucrose meals 'was markedly elevated at 45,, 601, and 75 mi n('P' l ess than 0.05) and af ter HFCS meal s at 4'5 mi n as compared with fructose mealis. (Af3STF:ACIf TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) SO 8'(3):279-83 . -Jun - Diabetes Care 1985 Ma ; y M GD ~ ~ OD . %I Qd1. M .
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AU - Mock Dt'f ;, Ferman JA ; Thaler M' ;', Morris RC Jr TI - Chronic fructose intoxication after infancy in children with, )' hereditary fructose intolerance. A:cause of growthiretardation. ~ A8' - In two unrel ated boys, 5.3and 3.8' years of age wi th heredi tary fructose intolerance,, apparently i'soilated growth retardation (-?'. 71 S'. D. and -2. 4O S. D'.. ) occurred after infancy, even though acute symptomatiic fructose intoxicationiwaspreventedi by restriction, of' dietary fructose. When more stringent restriction of' dietary fructoseiwas instituted~(approximatelly 40 mg, per kilogram of body weight pier day), growth velocity iincreased' from the 25th to the 97th percentil'e in, one child and fromiwel'l below the 3d to: above the 75th: percent:il'e in the other. When restriction of' dietary fructose was experimentally relaxed (from Tt0 to 250mg~ per ki liogram per d_ay), neither boy hadl symptoms, hypoglycemiia, or evi'dence o+ hepatic or renali dysfuncti'on, butt both had sustai nedhyperuiri c emiaand h'yperur i cosur ia a~nd'increases in the plasma concentration, and, urinary excreti~on of magnesium:. We conclude that in patients with, hereditary flructose intolerance, cli~nic411'y importantchron~icfructoseinto.aication, can occur af ter i nf ancy wi thout causi ngisymptoms ofl acute; fructose intoxication and can be expressed as an apparently isolated, reversible retardation of somatic growth with a continuuing, disorder of adeni~ne nucleotild'e metabolism,„ characterized in part by recurrently increased rates of degrad'ationf of' adenine nucleotides. SO'- NI Eng,l J!`1ed 1983 Sep 29'; 309' ( 1 T). : 7'64-7'Cr AU - R'eiser S; Ferretti' RJ ; Fields P"I ; Srtri'.th JiC' Jr TI, - Role of dietary fructose in the enhancement of mortality andl biochemical' changes associated with copper deficiency in rats. AB - Rats were fed~ copper deficient (O.9' miicrogram/g) or copper-supplemented d'iets.in which the carbohydrate was either starch,, sucrose, or frIActose ('62Y' by weight), for 7 wk. Regardliess of' the nature of the carbohydrate, copper d'eficiency decreased b1ood ceruloplasmin activity, hepatic copper andlATR levels, and increased plasma choliesterol and triglycerides. Copper deficiency i n rats fed sucrose or f'ructose„ but not those f'ed' starcirn,, significantly lowered blood hematocrit,, Hbi,i and albumin and signi f i cant L y iincre sed~ heart and 1' i ver wei ght and' the g,l ucose response to a glycemic stress. Hepatic copper level was sign~ificantlyLoweriin copper-dleficient ratsfedl sucroseor fructose than in those fed starch. Fastinig, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in, copperdef~icient rats fed fructosethan in~those fed starch,. Duriingi the study 14 copper-d'efilci'ent rats died!, one of 10, fed starchi,,six of 20 •fed sucrose, and seven of 2ia1fed fructose. Death was apparently the result o¢ rupti..irEi of the heart in the reg,ion,of the apex . These resul'ts i ndi cate that f'ructose-contaiiniing carbohydrates as compared~ to starch marlkedly, increase the severity of copper deficiency in rats. Whether this effect is due to, differences in the nature of the simple QD , carbohydrate ('fructose versus g1ucose)i or to molecular, size 00 (simple versus complex car-bohydrate) remains toibe established.~ SC)- AmJ Cl' i n Nutr 1 q83Aug:338 (2):214-22' ~. ~ -4
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AU - M.uller-UJiefeL DE ; Steinmann H' ; Holim-Hadulla M; Wi11!e L;I Sch:arer K ; GitaelmanniR ` TI1 - CInfusion-associated kidney and' liver failure in undiagno!sed, hereditary fructose intollerance] AB' - Appendectomy was performed inia 14 i/2-year-oldl boy with undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance because o-C chronic' recurrent abdiomiinal' pain. During, and, after operation, fructose containing, solutions were infused. The patilent received a total of 250 g fructose intravenously over 30 hours. Hours after onset of infusion he became soporous, hypoglycaemic and acildotic and was anur i c af ter one daryr. A1 though, the di agnosi s was suspected by the end of the first postoperative day and fructose had been cance1'Uediand haemodlia:lysis been started, the boy died after a further 3 days with signs of acute kidney and liver failure. The di agnosi s of hered'~i tary fructose i'ntolierance was bi ochemi cal l y establi~shedlin post mortem liver tissue.. This case recalls the f act that f ructose, sorbitol or i nver.t sugars shoul d not be added to iniFusion solutions as they may be toxic for healthy persons and i'mply a lethal risk for patients with undiagnosed hereditary fr-uctose intolerancey, even well beyond~the baby and infant period. SU - Dtsch Med,bslbchenschr 19B3 Jun 24; 10B ('25):9BSr9
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MEDIL I NE 1980-84 A'U -AcN:ermannrn FnH TI - EEffect of h,igh-dose parenteral fructose, glucose and'l mannitol on, the rat kidm,ey7' A63 - As previously observed after infusions of glycerol, f'.ructosee infusions with rates above the~ averagw maximal turnover caplacilty(3. 5 g, X k,g~-1 X h-1), resul t i n d'amag,e of' the k i dneys as showni by a decrease of'the total activity of glycerokinase and fructokinase and excretion of gilycerokiiniase in, the urine. Beginniiing alterations of the kidneys are dependent on time and dosee become evi'dent by a d'epletion, of protein per gramifresh weight. In the beginning of the changes the totali activity of enzymes,in, the kidneys remaining constant. I'nterreiiations between the observed kidney alterations, turnover capacity, substrate concentrations in the blood,, and the rate of' renal excretioni are d!i scussed wi th, regard to the resul ts af ter i n•f usi ons of' gil ucose. and mannitolL. For infusion therapy it can be deduced, that dlosage in borderline cases shouldibe determined by the blood levell of the substrate rather than by body weight, if undesirable effects are to:be avoided. SO, - Infusionsther kTin,Ernahr 1981 Feb;81(11):9'-15: A'U - Johnson, PR ; Mil1 er TR Jr TI, -A'dverse effects of fructose in, perfused~ livers of' diabetic rats. AB - Livers isolated from both fed normal and a11'~oxan diabetic rats were perfused for 30, min: using, h'.rebs-Henseleit bicarbonate blood buffer medium followed by 10 miin fDow+-through infusions with ei ther5 mM or 2RmMifructose con~centrati ons: Inili versof normal' and diabetic rats, both 5 mMiand 28!mMifructose concentrations produced' an, ellevation in tissue cyclic AMP levels,, activation of gl ycoglenphosphoryl phospncreased protein kinase acti vi ty, decreased tissue ATF" 1'eveLs, large increases in tissue fructose-l-phosphate, and variable effects upon gl!ycogen synithase. These resuLts are consistent with previously reported cyclic AMP mediated activation of gl'ycogen phosphorylase by fructose via protein kina~se in, normal rat' liver.. In addi~tioni,, both,5 mM and 28',mM f ructose infusi on resul ted in I ar9e decreases inrnormal and diabetic synthase phosphatase activity. Therefore, these results in both normal' and diabetic livers are inconsistent with a direct beneficial effect of fructose in the isolatedl perfused rat liver. SO - Metabolism 1982 Feb;31(2):121-5
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AU - Boot-Hand-ford RP ;, Heath HI TI - Theeffec:t of dietary,f.ructose and! ddabetes'on the rat kidln~ey.AH, - To determine whether the fructose moilety of~ sucrose or the lack of~ some factor essential for the integrity of the microvascular system is responsible for the development of sucroser-induced glomeruiloscLerosis, a series of d'iets, with, or without "such a factor and/or fructose was fed'. to rats over a 6-monthipieriod'. Consumptionofd'i~etscontainingi or yielding', fructosecaus~ed~ aa significant increase in kidney weight i'n comparison with glucose-yielding diets. Diabetic animals also ex.hibiited an, i ncreased ki dney wei ght . The inciidence of d i ff use glomerulloscLerosi's, tubular damage and lymphocyte infiltration was increased in the starcli-d'iabetic,, fructose- andi sucrose-normal groups. Diabetic MRC 41Fi- and, normal MRC' 41B/fructose-, MRC' 41B-, gl'ucose- anid'd starch-fed rats (withithe excepti oniof' one ani mal Y n the l atter groupJi did not devel op these kidney lesions. Sucrose-, in comparison with starch-ingestion was found.to produce signifi1cant increases in blood •fructose and {i:ildney fructose-l-phosphate concenitrat.ion. The resuTts are discussed ini relationo to blood-g.lucose concentration, renal-fructose metabollismiand'the devellopment of glomerular and tubular damage. SO - Br J Exp Pathol 1981 Aug, 62('4)' :398-406 AU - Poot-HandfordlR ; Heath H TI - Identification,of fructose as the retinopath1c agent associated with the ingestion of sucrose-rich diets in the rat. AFt' - In order to determine whether the fructose moiety of sucrose or the lack of some factor essential for thie, integr-ilty of the microvascular system was responsible for the development of sucrose retinopathy in the rat, a series of diets containing, possible sources of' such a factor and/or fructose was testediover a 6-mol periodl., Examination of the isolated rat retinal vascular systems showed conclusively that fructose was the dietary milcroangiopathic agent associated.with sucrose-induced retinopathy. The microvascul'ar lesions produced~were similar to those found,in ddabetic rats maintained ouer the same periodl., Cross-sectional studies of~the retinas revealed.that microvascular lesions preceded, the associated'degeneration of neural' tissue rather than vice versa since the majority of rats withretinoplathy showed no signs of neural damag,e., Slacrosefeeding was found to prodMu~ce a significant elievation (p, Q0.0011). in blood fructose concentration and a, slight increase, albeit not significant (p < 4.0;1)', in retinal fructoserl-phosphate ('F1P) levels. The results are discussed in rel'ationito the changes iin reti~nal sorbitol, fructose, EIF,and, l:actatemetabolism found in, d iabetes .. SO' - M'etabol ism. 1980 Dec; 29 ('.12') : 124:7-52
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AU' - Wauer RR TI - [Antenatal ethanol-fructose infusions for the preventiomof respiratory distress synd'rome ('1et~ter)] ~ SO: - Zentralbl rynak.ol' 1981;10?(7):Q17-9 AU' - uel :.osy G;; lCert: esz T' ;, Gyr: ongy: osi M TI - [Lactic acidosis following fructose inf'usion] SO - Orv Hetil 1981 May 31;122(c2):1327-8
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TOXLINE. L, AUI - anon TI - Sweeteners from A to:X Si - IF'A/85/07830 SO - Czn!. Pharm. J. ; VOL 117 ISS Mar 1984, F 105-106LA~ - SNG AB - IPACOPYRIiGH]fmASMP Nutriti~ve andnonrnsu~tritiveGanadi'answeeteners are discussed. Nutritive sweeteners discussed include aspartame, high fructose syrups, mannitol, sorbito:l and xylilto.L; nonr-nutritiive sweeteners include saccharin and the cycLamates.
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BIOSIS 1981-1986 SAFETY EVALUATION OF FLAVOB'ACTER':I:UMI-AR9ORESCENSAND, SYRUP' fPORTER~ M~ C;HARTN:AGEL R E~ JR; J; BOGUSLAWSKI G DEPARTMENT OF TOXICOLOGY,, 465151. J FOOD PROT 47' (5)! . 1984. Language: ENIGL I S~H GLUCOSE ISOMERASE DERIVED: FROR` USEID! I N. PRIODUCT I ON! OF ' H I'GH FRUCTOSE COR~ KOWALSKI R L; CLEMENS G R; JASTY' V; SSARE, ~ MILES LABORATORIES, I'NC., ELICHiART,, IIVDIAN'F CO'DENI: JFP'RD. 359-371. F. arb.orescens is a common rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium whidich, when, cultivated' in a nutrient medium, is an efficient source of glucose isomerase CGIJ. GI is used in the production of high f'ructose corn syrup. Studies were conducted tolassure p!rodluct safety and! establish GRAS statu=_ for G'I' derived'. from F. arborescen5. A viable cell suspension of F. arbiorescen5 and the cell-free medium in, which the,organism was cultureo were admini steredl i! . v. to rats and rabtri ts. For fl aedi ng! studi es,, the cel I s were immoblilized using po1ycationic polymers andi a crosslinkingi agent (i.e., chitosan., polyethylenimine and gl'utaraldehyde). GI, in the whole cel l immobi l i aed form, was off'ered! at concentrations of' 0, 1.51„ 3.0 or 5.,0"/.' (wt/wt), of the dilet to dogs for a minimum, o~f' 90consecutive d'ays and, to rats over 3 generations. Animals were observed, d'aily for signs of toxicosis; body weight and~ food consumption were monitored'i; biochemical:: . tests, hematolog,ic determinations, and, urinalyses were dbne on blood, ane urine samples; and thoroulghigross and microscopic tissue examinations were performed at terminations. Thiere, were no signs of' infection or toxicosis following i.v., administration of F. arborescens or the cell-treEsupernatant fluid. This, and' the lack of toxicity in dogs and rats whictrreceived daily dietary concentrations of GI many times above thie projiectec. highest possible human exposure level, suggested that there shouldible ne r i s k of tox i c i ty assoc i ated wi th the consumpt i on of' f'ood' and beverages containing high fructose syrup prod'uced by 61 derived from - F. arborescens.
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F STH 1 y811-86 (:N!ew types of' sugar derived from starch.) Huchette,: M. Roquette Freres,, 62136 Lestrem, Fr-ance Rivista della Societa t'taliana di Scilenza dell'Al:i~mentazione, 198'3„ 12, (6) „ 503'-516 Language: Fr Sugars which may b~epr-oduced industriallyfrom, sta:rcharediscussed, with reference tolg]ucose, fructose, sorbose, xylose, glucose syrups andl glucose/fructose syrups. Aspects considered include starch hydrolysis, isomerizationi, purification, the structure and characteristics of the sugars and syrup,s, and nutritional aspects and carcinog!eni~ciity. (AJi©W).
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FEDERAL RESEARCH'1N PROGR'ESS O0678i2 I DENT I F Y I' NG Ii,tO. : 7'R23HDL 132U-C11 AGENCY CODE : HHSN I Growth retardation caused by fructose intolerance (human, rats)' PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR'.: MOCK, DONALD M UNITVEF.SDTY' OF IOWA IOWA CITY,, IOWA 52242 PERFORMING! OFaG~.,: UNIVERSITY OF' IOWA, IOWA CITY,, IOWA SPONSORING ORG.: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF GH!ILD HEALTH'AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FY' : 85 Reversible retardation of growth, has recently been demonstrateditoo occurin children with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI):, an inborn errorof fructose metabolism. This growth retardation is causedl by ingestilonof small amounts of fructrose that do not cause symptoms. The pathog,enesis of' the growth retardation will be investigated inclinicall studies onpatients with HFI and in an animal model. The animal model wil l be deveL oped by pai r f eedii ng wean1i ng! rats on an otherwise adequate diet containing upito 60% of cal!ories as either fructose or gliucosei the adequacy of the model wi I 1 be eval uated'. by 1) assessing the severity of the growth retardation by measuring body weight, tail length, and crown-rump length, andi 2), demonstrating that the severityof growth retardation depends on the dose of fructose and 3) demonstrating, reversibility of growth retardation. This proposal seeks funding to test the following hypothesis: In patientswith~ HFI, small amounts of dietary frunctoseinduce chronic fructoseintoxication which is expressed biochemically as a detectable d'i sord'erof adlenine nwscleotodemetabol i sm and, physi ologica1 1 y as growth retardation. Further, the chronic metabolic disorder causes the growth, retardation by one or more of the follow'xngi mechanisms: 1) direct disturbance ofan essential process such as protein synthesis 2) a disturbance in the metabolism of calcium,, phosphate, or vitamin D or 3) a disturbance in, thesecretion,of or responsiveness to growth:hormone (GH) or somatomedin C SM-C. This hypothesis wilil be tested by: 1) assessment of' the magni tude of thP disturbance of adenine nuclieotide metabollismi by measurement of serum concentrations and uri'nary excretion, rates of the products of adenine nucleotide degredation (inosine, hyposanthine, x.anthine, and uric acidi), magnesium (released by ATP-Mg,++ degradation), and inorganic phosphate. (depletion of' which: triggers the degradation of pre#ormed adenine nu.cleotidles) in HFI1 patients consuming small amounts of fructose and, in: the rat model'. 2) assessment of serum concentrations of calcium,, phosphorus, 25 hydlroxy Vit. Dand 1,25 dihydroxy Vit. D, and urinary excretion of' calciacm in patients and in the rat model, and'.of bone mineral content and total' body content of' calcium andlphosphorus in the rat model, and 3) measurement of basal and evoked serum concentrations of GH,and Smr-C in patients with. HFI and in the rat mode1 and measurements of' the effect of fructose on GH rellease by rat pituitary cells inivitro.
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0060957 ' I DENT I FY I'NG NO. : 5RO1 Gh't?:2344-02 AGENCY CDDE : HHSN I Aldolase genies in normal and fructose intolerant humans PRINCIPAL INVESTPGATOR:F•ENHQET', EDhJARDiE 401 BIOCHEM BLDG/DERT-BIOCHEMI UN'IVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFOhNIA 94720 PERFORMING ORG.: U'N'IVERSITY' OF CALIFORNIIA BEF.k:ELEY, SERK:ELEY', CALIFORNIA SPONSOR I NG ORG. : NAT I OIiJAL I NST I TUTE OF' GENERAL MED I CAL SC IENCES FY : 85 The overall goal' of this research is the comp1ete~ characteriaation~ of the genes coding for the,isozymes of fructose diphosphate aldolases im human6.. Th.e~ methods if recombinant DiNA' technology will be used to isolateand characterize the, genes for alsolase A,„ B'., and C. The characterization will involve the determination of' the complete seqµienices, transcriptional uni'ts, andl the chromosomal locationiof' these genes, The biochemical and molecular biological techniques, i'ncluding DNA sequences analysis,will be employed for this: investigation. The information obtainediformthese analyses will provide the amino acid sequence of the three proteins, provide an additional test system for relating, exon structures tolprotein domins, and def i ne promoter regi ons for a cl ass of genes, so cal l ed'.°house4teepi nig," genes, not previously well studied. A ma jlor focus of the study wi l1 be the determi nati on, of the mol ecul ar basis for hereditary!fructose intoTerance, a disease wnown to be the~ resuilt of defects in aLdo1'ase 6' in the lines of' affected patients. The proposed studi es wi li 1 prec i se1 y def ine the mol ecul ar l esi on or l esi ons responsi bl e for the disease. Several' patients.who have beeniconf'irmed for thedisease by biopsy wdlli be, selected' andl asked to participatelby informedconsent. The genes from affected unrelated patients will be cloned' andisoTatedl., Characteriaation, of these genes wi'1l' be to, the level of theirprimary structures. Nucleotide differences in the gene,will be analyzedfor their effect on the expression of' the gene by in vitro mutagenesis of' the mutant gene. Expression of the isolated genes in tissue culture celi1s will be anal'yzed. The proposedl studies wil'L 1'ead to~ the development of simple methods for scre!ening, patients and detection of' people who are heterozygous for the disease. Possible mutations which relate toithetranscription and/or control of transcripition as well as those which alter the structure andl/or cataliyti'c properties of' the enzyme will be defined.,
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0002795 IDENTIFYING NOi.: 00011 AGENCY CODE: VA Iinvestigation of' the Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Fructose irr Adul its and Chi1 dren wi thiHeredi tary Fructose Intol erance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR'.: MOCK~, DONALD'. M. , M. D. , Fh. D. ASSIG7C'IATE' I'NVESTIGATOIFtS-i Copeliand! KC; 6Teason,WA PERFORMING OF.B'.: Veterans Administration, Medical Center SAN' ANTONIO1, TX SPONSORING ORG.: Veterans Administration, Research and DeveLopment (15)!, 8LC7,Vermont Ave. N.W., Washington,; D.C. 20420 United States of America. DATES: 850701 Fructose„ Hereditary Fructose Intolerance, Mletabolic Abnormalities OB'JECTIVES's (L), To determine whether detectable abnormalities in adenine nucleotid'e metabolism is induced' in platients with, hereditary intolerance by ingestion of' small amounts of fructose that doinot produce symptoms. (2) To deitermi ne whether d'etectabl e abnormaL i ti'es i n the metaboL i sm, of ph,osphorus, calcium, or vitamini D are induced, in these patients by sma1D amounts of' die-tary fructose. (3)' To determine whether detectable abnormal i tiles in growth hormone, or somatomedin are induced' in patients with, HFI by small amounts o-F dietary fr4ictose. RESEARCHI F'LAN: (1')I Dietary Studies. Studies will be conducted on metabolic ward withistrict control of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and fiructose., After suitablebase~linei periodduringd whichthepatiients receive the diets severely restricted in •fructose, the diegiree of'. rEstriction of' dietary fruc-tose wi1i1 be relaxedito approximately 250 mgl/kg/day. Serum, concentrations of~ urinary excretion rates iinosine,,; hryrpoxanthine, xanthi'ne, uric acid, mag-nesium, calciumand, inorganic phosphate will be measured. (2) Acute Fruc-tose. Metabolic effects acute; administration of fructose including; the mag-nitude ofadenine nucleotide degredati'on, and'the effects of prior phosphate Load'iing on the metabolLi~c disturbances wi11 be determined'. METHOD: HRLC assayfor iniosine, hypoxanthinp, xanthine;, atomic absorption spectrophometry for calcium andi magnesium measurements. Standard wet chem-istry assay for uric acid ano: inorganic phosphate. RESULTS TO DATE: None. ;
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CRI S'l USDiS ~ e)1'40-306 AGENCY ID: ARS 1235 PROJ NO: 12i5-209'11-Gi8-DOD REGIONAL PROJECT NO. 00000 ' PRO'J' TYPE: INHOUSE'. PER1OiD: 011 OCT 85, TO 30 SEP 90~ - INVEST: REIlSER S PERF ORG: CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION LAEs! BELTS HUMAN'NUTRI RES'CENTER LOCATION: AGRICULTURAL RESE'ARCHISERVI'CE BELTSVILLE'MD EFFECT OF DlETARYFRUCTOSE~ON LIPOGENESIS,,, GLUCOSE TOLERIANCE& THE'. BII'O'AVA'ILABILITY OF TR'ACE'M'INERALS t ~ t.~. OB'JECTIVES:To determine the eifflects of dietary fructose or sucrose, on metabollic risk factors associated with, heart disease and! diabetes in experimental' animal's and various segments of the human population an6 thee effect of fructose- containing carbohydrates on the, bioavaiilability of' other nutrients. U04i9D119'A.C.~ENCY'ID';.:AR'S12tiSPR!0Ji NQ. 12s5-2~'a'9'111-01'9-U2SREGIONAL PRQJECT' NOi. 00000 PROJ TYF'E': COOPERATIVE AGREE. PERIOD: 12' JAN 84 TO 3U NOV' 86 INVEST: SZEPESI B'HANSEN R J PERF ORG:' PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES LOCATION: UNIV OF CA'LIIFORNIA DAV'IS CAL MECH'ANIDSTI'C'EFFECTS OFD1ETA'RYFRUCTOSEO'NLIVER EN'ZYMES' OF LIPID~ SY'NiLHESIS' OBJECTI'VES:Th~e object of these experiments is to determine ilf di'etary' fructose aliters li'ver g,lucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase acti'vitydire or indirectly, via, increasing the 1'eve1 of' some, hormones in the bliood. 0049002 AGENCY ID: ARS 1235 PROJ' NO: 1'235-20911-<>31-0DD REGIONAL PROJECT NO!. 00000, PROJ' TYPE: INHOUSE PERIOD: 31 AUG 83 ' TO 3'1' AUG' 88 INVEST: HALLFRISCH J LOCATION: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE BELTSVILLE MD EFFECTS' OF FRUCTOSE' ONI CARBOHYDR'A'TE, L I PI D'„ AND, Ml NERAL METABOL I SM , AND, ON' THERMOGENESIS OFiJECTIVES:To determine effects of' dietary fructose on (1)1 gFucose metab!o1 i sm of' normal and' hyper i nsulli nemi c humans bef ore and af ter ex erc i se, (2) lipogenesi's of normal and' hyperinsulinemilc humans before and~ after exercise, (UJ' mineral metabolism, andl (4) thermogenesis. ~ ~ CD C!I' ' ~ Qa
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0046714 AGENCY I D: ARS 1235 PROJ NO': 12•3,C.,-20914-i?1 2-c=10D'. REGIONAL F'ROJ'ECT' NO. 00000~ PROJ TY'FE: INHOUSE PERIOD: INVEST: 1ti JAN 81 TO 13 JAN 86 REISER' S FERF ORS: CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION LAB NUTRITION'RES CENTEF. LOCATION: AGRICULTURALRESEA'RCH SERVICERELTWILLE MD~ EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND FRUCTOSE ON'LIPOGENES'IS AND GLUCOSE TOLERANCE OBJ'ECTIVES:Determine whether sucrose and fructose in the range of thatt current l y con- sumed~ i n, the U'. S'. sup,=r i miposed on, other dii etary and environmental factors currently characterizing the li'festyle in thiss country contribute tro the high incidence of heart disease, diabetes and'. obesity. Determine whether the segment of the American population described as carbohydrate-sensitive is at a higher risk fromisucrose and fructosee than, is the general popula- tion. Conduct nutriltionaT 5taidies on e>,perimental, anima1s. t
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_> ~ dis~ If~ ~ C'OMnJ~ S-('Rut.t C.4 S oM c~./N~ C L 10ANGWEF 1 OF 1 AN CASOi('17).15DD11x. TI Gaf'.ety eval!uation of glucose isomerase deri'ved from Flavobacterium~arborescens and used iniproduction of h~ig,h fructose corn syrup AU1 Porter, Mi ch~aelC. ;klartnagleli,. Ralph E'. ,Jr. ; It'owal sk~i ,. R'obert L. ; C1'emens,, George,R. ;. Jasty, uenik:atanaryana; Bare, James J. ; Boguislawski, George CS' Dep.. Toxilcol., Miles Lab., Inc. LO'Elkhart, IN 46515, USA GO' J. Food Prot., 47(5), 359-71 SC 17-6 (Food andl Feed'. Chemilstry) DT' J' CO ,IFR`R'DCn' I5 <2362-02BX' PY 1984 LAEng! AB Studies were cond'ucted to assure~product safety andi estabLishGRAS status for glucose isomerase (GI) C9055-u4-9] derived from F. arborescens. A viable cell suspension of F. arborescens and the cell-free medium,i'n which the organism was cultured were admilnilsteredii.v. to: rats and'rabbits. For feeding studies, the celiLs were immobilized using polycation1c polymers and~a crossliniking agent (i.e.,, chitosani,, polllyethylenimine,and glutaraldehyde),. GI, in the whole ceyL i~mmobilized~ f'orm,, wasof#eredl at 0, 1.5,1 :3.4, or 5L0`/% of the diet to dogs for a min. of 94'1 consecutive days and', to rats over 3 generations., Animals,were obsd. daily for si'gns of' - toxicosis; body wt. and foodiconsumption were~monitoredly biochem. ~t+ests, hematol. detns., and urinal'yses were done oni blood and urine samples; and' thoroug!h'r gross and' microscopic tissue examnis. were performed at terminations. There were noisigns of infection or toxicosis following, i.v. administration of F. arborescens or the ce1L-free supernatant fluid. This, and' thie lack of toxicity in dogs and rats which receivedldeily dietary concns. of GI many times above the~ projected highest possilblie human, exposure level, suggest that there shouId be virtualLyno risk of toxicity assocd. with the consumptiion of foodl andl beverages contg. high fructose syrup, produced by GT derived' f'romiE.. ar. borescens, KW g'Tucose isamerase toxicity; Flavotbacterium toxicity IT Flavobacterium arborescens (gliucose isomerase of, toxicity of,, corn syrup manuf., in relation to), IiT Gyrups (fructose-high, hydrolyzed~starchi, glucose ilsomerase from F1 avobacteri um arborescenis i n manuf. of „ toxi cii ty of ) IT 9055-00-9(of' F1 avobacteri um arbor escens, tox i ci,t y of,, corni syrup manuf. in relation to)
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THE MERCK INDEX AN' ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHIEMICAIS, DRUGS. AND BIOLOGICALS TENTH EDITIaIhii Martha, VN"tndholz. Editor Susan Biudawani. Co-Ed+tor Rosemary F. BI'umetti.Assoaiate Lditor Elizabeth S. Otterbeiml,Assistant~Editor Fublished by MERCK & CO., INC. R~AHVWA~Y'. M_~JL,.,Ui.B'.JA. 11983'
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tly + is np :oli ne, tic F tone, dioxane; less soli in chloroform, ethanol., benzene; slightly sol in:earbon tetrachlloride: water. 4148. FriedllimL>:A'~FriedbolmnanI f'medelan-3- one. C3rHS0O; mol wt, 426.70. C 84'.4'4% H 11',.81P/a 0 3'.73ul M'ajor triterpene constituent, of' cork. obtained by extraction of' ground cork with a1c. IEoln: llstrati: @strogo:- vich. CompL Rend 1128, 1591 , (1899Y Isolated also frmm Censtopera/um apetalum D. Don. C•unoniaceac Jk:fferies. J.' Chem Soc. 1954. 473. Structure. sterochemistry: Btownlie et at. Chene d Jnd' (London)1955, 1136; Kane. Stevenson, , Tettuhed'ron liS, 223 (1961): Stevenson. J., Otg. Chem. 28# . 188 (11963): Total synthesis of'(t)-form: R. Ii. Ireland, D. M. Walba: Tltrahedron Lattets 1976, 1071. Needles from ethyl acetate or alcohol, mp 263-263sJ'., [a]n -27.8' (chloroform). One gram dissolves in 8.6 ml' chloroform. 264 ml 1999e alcohol. 41i4'9, Ftvctose; n-Fruetose; p-n-fructose: levulose; fruit, sugar. FructosteriL Laevoralt l.evuger 1aet+osan. C,HyOd; ma( wr 180. 16. C 40.001.. H! 6,72%'w 0 53.29%. Occurs m a large number of' fruits, honey, and as the sole sugar in bull and human semenc, Auerbach,, Bodlander. A'ngew.Chent. 36`, 602 (1923); M'ann. Nature 157,,79 (1946); Pkyd6: ibid. 6601 PrepdI by adding abs alcohol to the syrup obtainedifre.lt the acid'hydrolysis of'inulin: Bates er,aL. NatL Bur. Std. (U.S).. Circ. C440, 399 (1942). Prepn from dextrose: Cantor.. Hobbs. U.S., pat. 2;354,664'(1194'4 to Corn Prod'. Refining). From sucrose by enzymatic conversion: Koepsdl l erat. U:S& pat: 2,729;587 (1',956; to U:S:A.): Crystal andi molecular structure: J. A. Kanters er aL. Acra,CtysraUogr. 833, 665 '. (1'977)., Review Barry.,HOneyman. AdMaa Catdwhyd.,Chem. 7, 33-98 (1932); M. Chen. R. L. , Whist/kr. ibid 34, 285-343'. (11977). Occurs in both the furanose and pyranose forms. An aq soln at 20' contains about 20% of the furanose formi NI oN N Urthorhombic, bisphenoidal prisms fnom alc, dtc 103- 109'. Sweetest of the sugars. Shows mutarotation. [a]hl ' -1132' - -92' (c - 2)'. Rapid and'.anomaloua mutarota- tion involves pyranose-furanose interconversion. The,finali value is obtained instantly in the presence of hydroxyl,ions. Ka ar 18': 8.8 X 10-13: Freely sol' in water.. One gram dis- solves in, 15 ml aic, in 14 m1' methanoli Slightly sol lin cold. freely in hot, acetone;, sol in pyridine. ethylamine, methyl1 amine. USE: To prevent sandiness in ice cream' THERAP C>aT: Fluid'and nutrient replenisher: Tt1ERAP'CAT (vEfl:. For bovinee ketosia. 4150!. Dt.-Flvetbse. a-Acrose; methose: C,H12O,; mol wt 1 N0.16: C 40.00'Ya H' 6.72%,O 33:29%a: Component of formose (polymeriration product ~ of' formaldehydt): , Vogel, Ne1r. Chirn. Acta 11,370 ('1928): Needles: from methanol. d~~ 1.665. mp 129-130" (sloww heating). Reduces Fehling's soln. Phcnylosazone:: C1siH'ytri4pv mp 216'-2llT: 4151. Fructose-t,6-diphosph'ate: D-Frucrou l:6•'•brs(di- htdn.Xen phosphate9:. 1'.6-D-fructarodiphosphoric acid:: hexose diphessaphatec: H~arden-Young, ester.. Esafosfina. C`)it4O,tP=;'. /u( le,tc fL FSH 4153 mol wt 340.~13'. C 211.1996 H 4'.159«., 0 36:4M P' 18.22%. Formed from frttctoae.6-phosphate in the presence of'ATP. Mg=• and!the enzyme phosphohexokinase. Preptt from,glu- cose. mannoI fiuctosem sucrose by the action of yeasu: A. Harden. A(coholic Fermentation (l.ongmans:: Green & Co.. New York. 4th ed.. 1932): v. Lebedlv. Bladietn. Z 36, 254! (11911?; cJGer. pats. 292;817; 293,t#64;,3011590. Fructose- 1.6-diphosphate is reversiblyr split in the presence of aldtalase forming ll-phosphodihydroxyaeetone and 3-phosphoglyeer- aldehyde: Meyerhof et at. Biochent. Z 286„ 301 (1'936). Metabolism regulation study:, M. E:, Kirtley, M. McKSy., JYfoL' Ce11 Biochem. 18, 141 (1977):. H_OSpOQ,.H,~ Q OHI H HJ ' K M.OPQjN_~.. OH N Calcium salt monohydrate:,C~,HwCatUytPrHtU, Candia-' (in. 6faca(or. White powder., Sadium salt. C~HtsHa:GtsPr in Fiuetergy(. THEtIM CAT: . Roborant; tonic. 41i52. Fnlet'nse-6'-p,hasphate. o-Frudnmr, 6-(dlhxd'roges pAospb.tt); o-fructase-6-phosphoric acid; fructose mato- phosphate: heatosa phosphate; hexose,mooophosphate: Nea- berg ester. CGHp opP; mol wt 260:114'. C 27.70fG, H 9:047G. P 111919., 0 33:35%.. Present in anitnal1issues as an eqpilib- tium mixture with glucose.6-phosphate.. The gl'ucose.6+ phosphate may be reversibly transformed into tructttse•6- phosphue by the enzyme phosphohexose isonterase. Prepn by hydrolysis of 1.6-fructose diphosphate with dil'f acid's 1Veuberg. Blachetn. Z 88, 432' (1917); ~ Gkr., pat'. 334',250 (Bayer);' Chenr Z'entr. 1921, ,11. 961: FrdL 13, 948. Role in metabolic regulation, and heat: generation: holtne. Blorhent. Soc. Trans 4, 978 (1976). E. A. News-, Verx sol in water. (aJ n+2.5 '(c = 3) Misyerhof. aoh- mann. Blac(tem. Z 185, '17 (1927). (a]o + 11.2" (c - 0.9h Lohmann, ibid 262, 145 (1933), The magnesium and zinc salts also are sol in water. The equilibrium mixture of' 7a:80% glucose-6-phosphate and 20-25% firtuctose-4-phosphate is callkd! /actacidogen or Embden ester. 4153. ,FSH., Fo(Jicfe-sNonu('atfng h'ormone•, Follitropin;' Luteoantine, Thylakentrin. Mol' wt about 36.000. Glyco- protein gonad'otropic hormone found in pituitary tissue of, mammals that dinectlly regulates the metabolic activity of, granulosa cells ot' the ovary and Sertoli cells of' the testis. In the female. FSH induces the maturation of the Graafian fol'- lides of'the ovary. , The follieular cells which i surround the growing ovum develop the, apacity to produce estrogens which induce proliferalive changes in the walls of the uterus and vagina. The rising titer of iestrogen will l bring on ovul.- tion and the changeover to progcstational activity. In the male. promotes the development of the germinal' cells of the testes. Ilsoln procedures: Fevold et at. Endoceinologr 26, 999 (1940); Fraetkel-Conrat et' al., Plac: Soc. Exµ BJoI', Afed 4'S. 627 (19600); McShan., Meyer. J: BioL Cbent. 136,, 47311940h Greep et'al't ibid 133, 289 (1940) L.t er aL. Sci- ence 110l, 4'4'S' (1949). Prepn of'human FSH from pituitaries and i from postmenopausal urine: Roos. Gem¢ell i in Ciba Foundation Study Group no. 22 (f.ittle. Brown and Co.. Boston. 1963). Isoln and a study of some chemicalJ physi- cal, immunological and biological properties of FSHI; evi'- dence of'subunit structure: Roos. Acta EndocrinoL' (COpen- hatden) $9„Suppl. 11311 (I1968)d Reichart; Rathnam, Saxena, in Gonadotmpins. B. B. , Saxena er aL:, Eds. (NVilty-1'nterscience. New York. 1972): pp 107-13]L Amino acid sequence of human FSH, a-subunil: P. Raohnam, B. B. Ssxena. d:, Biol Chrnm. 250, 6739d197S1: of'human it-suhuniti B. B: Saxena. Cottsu!l,thectass ind'er brfptr using this wrli'on. Page 609
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aaHIa = dsoaanxa . 886987'73
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L2'1' aNSWER, i OF 1 AN' CA 1 ca 1(11 ): 89sa911e TI Pyrolysis behavior ofhoniey and, h1gh-f'ructosecorn, syrup, AU triarcwama,, Takenori ; Kanematsu,, Hiromu!; Ni i ya,, Isao,, Ai da, Yum- i F::o; ~Ohni shi , Masaru CS Jpn. Pnst. Oils Fats. LO Tokyo 103„ Japan SO Ni pp!on Ei yo, Shokuryo Gakkai shi ,37(l), 98-102 SC 17-6 (Food and Feed Chemilstry)' DT J CO, NESGDC F''Y' 1984 LA Japan AB' F'r,+rol ysi s characteri sti cs of honey an4hi gh-fructose corn syrup (HF) were stud'ied by thiermogravimetry (ITG)i and d~eriv. thermogravilmetry (DTG). Twenty kinds of' honey of known f'loral and geog. sources and 3 kinds of HF with different -i'ructose (l) C57-48-7]/'glucose (II)'. C50-99-71ratio were used' as samplzs. Rapid redni. i'ni the wt, of I, I,I, andl sucrose C57'-50-11]I was obsd. by TG and~DTG at 2VD-3DD. degree. and' 5DD"fs0D. degree. . The pyros ysi s behavi or at 2fl0'-3D'0.d~egree. varied~ withi the kind of' sugar. Ini the TG' and! DTG curves of HF with an F/G ratiolof 11.28, thie stage of r•api d wt. redn. at 2C)4-.3DD. degree. was divided i nto 2' steps. TG' and DTG' curves of' honey were cl assi'f i~.ed i nto 3 patterns. Each pattern differed f romithat of HF. In, TG and DTG test for mix.t. of' honey and HF (F/G ratio, 1.28) , the patterns of DTG curve of honey mixed~ wfth 25% HF' differed~ from that of the original'honey. . KW' pyro~lysi's property honey syrup; adulteration detn honey IT Ca'rbohydra~tes~anid~Sugars,biological studiies(of honey,pyrolysi~s behavi~orof,, aduiterationidietecti!oni'ln relation to)' IT Honey (pyrolysis behavior of, adulterationidetection in relation to)' - IT Syrups ('f'ructose, pyrol ysis behavi or of',, honey ad'ul terati on, detection in relation to) I~T 50-99-7'„ uses and' mi scel l aneous 57-48-7, uses and miscellaneous 57-5G-1, uses and~miscell'~aneous (of honey, pyrol ysi s behavi'or of, adul terati'on detect i'on i'n relation to)',
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FS.T.(a, 1981-198b Antimicrobial activities of heated glucose andl fructose solutions and their elucidation by highiperformance liquid chromatography. Suortti, T.; Maelkki:, Y. Tech,.Res., Cen~t., of Fiinland',, F©odF~es- Lab. , BiologiniN:ui,a1i, SF-0a150, Espoo 1'5,, Finland' Food Chemistry, 1984, 15, (3)„ 165-17a' Language: En Note: 14 ref., The heating, of' glucose and fructose in, phosphate buffers (pH 51.0and 7, (:)), at 100 DEGREE ,, 1 1'C!. DEGREE and 120 DEGFtEE' C f or 30, 60 and 120 rri'n led tolincreasing, inhibitory activities against the growth of Escher ii ch i a col i. lfhL- i nhi bi tory ef'f ects of both heated sugars were similar, which was in agreemenit with the similar compositions of solutions after heating. The antimicrobial activity of solutions was separatedlinto 7 di.fferent fractions by HPLC. Furfural or S-hydrox,ymethylfurfural was not responsible for this antimicrobial activity. None of the fractrionss yielded any interpretable mass spectra. The active compounds are slightly acidic and, rapidly lose their activity at room tempi., but not at -20 DEGREE C under NI 2. The possible benef i ci a1 ef f'ects i n heat ster i l i z ati'lqn of' food's,, and harmful toxicological andd nutritional effects are subject to, further investigations. (RM) I
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FC' I ' 41981-8 fi Formati~on of' mutag,ens by amino-carbonyl' reactions. Shi nohara,, IK. ; Jahan,, N'. ; Tanaka, M. ; Yamamoto, K..i; Wu, R. T. ;, Miur- _tkami , H. ; Onrura„ H. Depi. of' Food, S'ci- + Tech., Kyushu! Wniiv.,j 6-10-1 Ha:koaaki,Higashii-ku,„ F uk:uoH-a; 812,i ,Japan htutati on Research, 1983, 122, (3/4),: 279-286 Language: En, Note:i 9 ref. - Formatiorr of mutagens by ami no-carbonyl ('Mai l 1 ard ), reacti ons of' 24 ki nds of amino aci6with sugars after heating at 1D:rD!DEGREE C for 10 hi was e:cami.ned by the Ames test. The browned solutions of GLy, A1'a,, V'al, Leu, I'le, Ser, Thr, G'in, Lys x HCI , Argi, Phie,, Cys, Met and Pro withi glucose caused mutation of' Salimonell'a typhimurium TA1OO':and/'or TA98' with or wi thout S9' mi x. The presence of S9' mi x i ncreased the mutageni c act i vi ty off the browned solutions of Cys and Phe with glucose on TA1U;U1and of those of G} y, Al a, Val , I lie and Cys on TA98, but decreased. the acti vity of other solutilons. Nos revertants of Siallmonell'a were i~nduced by the browned solutions of' Trp, Tyr,, Asp, Asn, Glu and ('Cxs), 2 with glucose. Amon~g! posi t i ve browne6sol uti ons,, Cys,, Lys,, Arg and Phe hadl the stronger a:ctivity, but their activity was weakcompared with that of pyrolysates or chemical: mutagenssuchi asTrp-P-1 „ Trp-P-2' and 4-nitroqu~i nol i ne-N-oarIde., The mutageni!c activity of the browned soluti~ons increased with prolongation~ of heating, time and varied wn~th pH of the reaction mixture. Fructose, galactose, arabilnose, xylose, mannose, lactose and' sucrose also ,",had the abi1ity to form mutagens in the browning reactions with amino, acid's., (AS)' (Kinetics of thermal decompositioniof' fructose„ glucose and invert sugar in a weakly alkaline medium.)i Kol esni kov, V'. A. ; Gorokhov, G. I. : k:rasnodarskii' Ordena Trudovogo Kr-asnoga Znameni Politekh. Iinst.,. k::rasnodar, USSR' Iavesti'ya Vysshi kh Uchebnykh Z'avedeni i, Pi shchevaya Tekhno]I ogi ya, 198- , PV'o ,. 5, 65!-701 Lang,uage: Ru hU'otee 8i- ref . k:inetic parameters of decomposilti'on of gl'ucose,, fructose and their mixture iin water at 1rT4-14ca1DEGREE' C' at pH 7.1-9'.2' (content of redtuctants 0.1-0.2%) were studiedi. Empirica1 equations are proposed'. for calculatilon of d'ecomposiition, rate constants which consider the dependence of activation energy of'these reactions on pH. The d'ecomposition of reducing sugars in invert sugar (model solution of fructose and' glucose) consists of 2 independent reactions of decomposition of its components, in the formm of 1st order equations. The process duration is governed' by the specifi'c rate of gI ucose decomposi ti on; gl ucose decomposed sl ower than: f'ructose~ i~n thee given, conditions. (STI') G1 Cdl' . ~D Gb ~ , m~
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(Formation of volatilie al'dehydes by thermal' degradation of phenylalanine and leucine in, the presence of gllucose and fructose.) Seck, S'. ;i Crouaet,, J. Lab. de Biochimie Appliquee,, IUT, BP 5065, D'akar„ W. Afric& Sciences des A1Aments, 1982, 2, (2), 187-194 L_angziage: Fr Summary Languag,e: en Nbte:. 19 ref. Model systems of dii 1. so1 ut i ons of' gil ucose or fructose with one ami no acid, i, e~., phenyliaIanine or leucine, were heated in: contiinuous f low at S0-1c=)~_l1 DEGREE C for a residence time of 1.8-14 min, using, a special device. The shape of' the curves giving the quantity of alidehydes formed vs. the quantity of amino aciids shows the possiible occurrence of 2' pathways for the formationiof' these products. The Strecker degradation is the main pathway when the temp. is uip, to 90-95 DEGFtEE' C. At these: ternp,. phenyl'acetaldiehyde and methyl-3 butanall are quickly formed from, phenyl'.al ani ne and' I eucine. hinet i c d'atai show that ho1 di ng, the product at these temp. for increasingi residence t:imes leads to thie formati'.on of iitcondary p~rodUcts by degradation of' the previouslly formed ald'ehydes or nf the startiing, amino acidNs. ('AS).
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18/sr1 261768 84-08-cO274 Formation of mutaoens:by amino-carbonyrl reactions.. Shi'nohara,, K',.; Jahan, N.; Tanaka „ M.; Yamamoto,, K.; Wu, R. T.;, Mur- akami, H.; Omura, H.. Dep. of Food Sci. + Tech., Kyushu Uhiv., 6-10'-1' Hakozaki, Higashi:-ku, Fukuoka8'12„ Japan Mutation Research „ 1983, 122',, (3/4), 279-286 Language: En'' Note: 9' ref. Formation of' mutagens by amino-carbonyl .(MaiLlard)' reactions ofl 201kinds of amino aci'd' with sugars after heating at 1'00' DE6REE C for 11O hiwas examined by the Ames test. The browned solutions of'Gly, Ala, Vali, Leuy Ii'e„ Ser„ Thr„ Gin, Lys x HCI, Arg, Phe, Cys, Met and Pro with glucose caused mutation of Salmonella typhimurilum TA100 andl'or TA98 with or withou.t S9 mix. The presence of S9'mix increased the mutagenic activity of the, browned solutions of' Cys and Phe with glucose on TA'1001 and of those of GIy,, Ala, Val, ILe and Cys on TA98, but decreased the activity of other soluti'ons., No revertants of Salmonella were induced'by the browned solutions of Trp, Tyr,,Asp, Asn„ Gliu, and (Cys) 2'with glucose. Among positive browned solutions, Cys, Lys,, Arg and Phe had the stronger activity, but their activity was weak compared with that of' pyrolysates or chemical mutagens such as Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2 and~ 4-nitroquinol'ine-N oxide. The mutagenic activity of' the brownedlsolutions increased with prolongation of'heating time and variedlwith pH of'the reaction mixture. Fructose~, galactose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, lactose and sucrose also had'the ability to form mutagens in the browning reactions,wi'th amino acids. (AS) Descriptorst Carci~nogens - sugars-amiino acid Maillard browning solutions„ mutagenicity of; Amino acids - sugars-amino acid Mai'1',iard browning so1Lt'ions,, mutagenicity_of'; Mai'Llardlreaction, - sugars-amino acid Mailil'ard browning solutions, mutagenicity of';, Browning - sugars-amino acid Mail'Iard browning solutions, mutagenicity of'; Sugars - mutagenilci'ty of sugars-amino acid Maillard browningi soluti~ons
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