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Lorillard

Chemical and Physical Criteria for Tobacco Leaf of Modern Day Cigarettes

Date: May 1983 (est.)
Length: 21 pages
81051663-81051683
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Author
Jones, S.T.
Spears, A.W.
Type
SCRT, SCIENTIFIC REPORT
ABST, ABSTRACT
BIBL, BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAR, CHART/GRAPH/MAPS
Alias
81051663/81051683
Area
IHRIG/LAB 4 SMOKING CHEMISTRY
Named Organization
Maxwell
Site
G17
Named Person
Anderson
Chaplin
Demole
Enzell
Kasperbauer
Lloyd
Lowe
Roberts
Rohde
Schumacher
Sheets
Smiley
Vestal
Date Loaded
20 Apr 1999
Author (Organization)
Lor, Lorillard
Master ID
81051622/1826

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c CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CRITERIA FOR TOBACCO LEAF OF MODERN DAY CIGARETTES Dr. A. W. Spears
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CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CRITERIA FOR TOBACCO LEAF OF MODERN DAY CIGARETTES A. W. Spears and S. T. Jones Lorillard, A Division of Loews Theatres, Inc. 2525 East Market Street : Greensboro, N. C. 27401 ABSTRACT New cigarette brand introductions and brand extensions have resulted in significant changes in the average product sold over the last five years. Extrapolation of these recent product trends indicates that an increasingly significant change will be taking place on a sales weighted basis. This evolution toward reduced tar products has, and will continue, to importantly influence the average chemical and physical properties of the tobacco blends that are being used. Advances in'analytical instrumentation have allowed scientists to explore and better understand the significance of these chemical and physical properties. This paper reviews trends in the usage of tobacco types including reconstituted sheet. Additionally, the processes for expanding tobacco have produced a trend toward lower blend densities. These trends, both historical and future, are discussed. In support of the text, information on the usage of tobacco types and their chemical and physical properties are presented. Where appropriate to the chemical or physical criteria, consideration is given to individual tobacco constituents including those components that are generally recognized as important to the organo- leptic quality. Trace components, and more particularly
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residues, are reviewed with respect to their importance to the quality of modern day leaf. ..' INTRODUCTION Much has been written on the quality of tobacco and much more has been 'said. There remains considerable debate on the ideal properties and chemistry of tobacco leaf. One can state the obvious in physical properties, such as the tobacco should have good resistance to breakage and yet have a low density. Also, one can state that tobacco should support combustion and deliver a pleasant tasting smoke. In practical terms, however, tobacco is grown with a range of physical and chemical properties. Types, varieties, grades, geographical regions, and crop years are descriptors that may be used to discriminate between tobaccos with different physical and chemical properties. The tobacco buyer, then, has theoretically available to him tobaccos with the properties which he might define as having a high quality for its intended use. If we view the domestic cigarette market, on average we see little change in the gross chemical composition of cigarette tobacco blends over a five year period. If, on the other hand, we segment the market into type of product and then project future sales by segment, some trends in tobacco characteristics begin to emerge. 71.-.... THE CIGARETTE MARKET Sales weighted tobacco nicotine values for filtered brands with a 1% share of market using Maxwell data (13) have remained relatively stable over the last five years. This segment represents approximately 60% of the total market and has declined slightly over the previous five years. The relatively constant value for nicotine in the tobacco on a sales weighted basis is shown in Table 1 (12). ` C
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TABLE I C Sales Weighted Nicotine M , 1977-1981 Filter Brands with 1% Share of Market 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1.78 1.89 1.95 1.89 1.83 ` If we segment the market into "tar" delivery pe-r cigarette and again calculate the sales weighted nicotine in the tobacco, a different picture begins to emerge. Table II (12,13) shows the segments 7-15 mg "tar", 7-10 mg "tar", and 0-6 mg "tar". The first two segments, although not mutually exclusive, show no trend in the sales weighted tobacco nicotine over the last five years and are in line with the data of Table I for all filter brands with 1% or more share of market. The 0-6 mg "tar" segment shows a significant difference in tobacco nicotine level TABLE II Sales Weighted Nicotine (%), 1977-1981 Segment 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 7-15 mg "tar" 1.71 1.83 1.90 1.88 1.80 7-10 mg "tar" 1.70 1.90 1.95 1.89 1.84 0-6 mg "tar" 2.07 2.06 2.12 2.14 2.20 from the other two and a trend toward increasing nicotine over time. The 7-10 mg "tar" segment has doubled in market share, 11.5% to 21.3% over this period of time and the number of individual cigarette packings has grown from seventeen to thirty-six. The 0-6 mg "tar" segment has grown from a 3.8% share of total market to a 10.6% share over the last five years, and the number of individual cigarette packings has increased from five to thirty-three. Based on these trends, one would conclude that the lowest
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"tar" segment is composed of cigarettes utilizing a tobacco blend which is significantly higher in nicotine. Although one cannot conclude that this has been achieved solely by the selection of tobacco, it does indicate a trend toward the use of tobacco with higher nicotine levels. CIGARETTE BLEND COMPOSITION - In addition to this trend toward higher nicotine levels as shown through analysis of market and product statistics, we can look at trends in the use of tobacco type as compiled from government statistics (26). The typical cigarette blend composition has changed over the past several years as shown in Table III. TABLE III Tobacco Use By Type Year Flue-cured ($) Burley M Maryland (.$) Imported ($) 1972-74 47 -- 35 1 17 1974-76 ..46 34 18 1977 44 34 2 20 1978 42 33 2 23 1979 39 32 2 27 1980 38 33 2 27 The large shift in the use of imported tobaccos in recent times is quite significant. However, data on consumption, Table IV, indicate a constant usage of oriental type tobacc( over time (24). We conclude, therefore, that the `_-.-rease in imported tobacco has been primarily of the Flue-cured and Burley.types and that the average blend has remained reasonably constant (9).
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are, however, unable to focus, by the use of this data,-on a small market segment such as the 0-6 mg "tar" category which may have a different blend composition. TABLE IV U.S. Imports of Oriental Tobaccos for Consumption and Stocks on Hand (Millions of Pounds) Year Imports Stocks 1971 367 1972 356 1973 373 1974 366 1975 176.1 396 1976 174.6 403 1977 170.4 368 1978 178.3 337 1979 169.2 350 1980 176.1 351 In order to have some additional insight into the possible tobacco type trends that may result from the 0-6 mg "tar" category, we can examine the ways in which the higher nicotine levels can be achieved. Table V shows an average analysis for the three main types of tobacco, Flue-cured, Burley, and Oriental and for stem and tobacco sheet (12). These represent the components from which the composite blend may be formulated. Higher nicotine levels can be achieved by decreasing Oriental and the stem and tol.icco sheet and increasing the Burley and upper stalk of both the Flue-cured and the Burley tobacco. It --:y be concluded, therefore, that continuation of the trend in the 0-6 mg "tar" segment will lead to increased
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usage of Burley and upper stalk position tobaccos and a possible decrease in usage of Oriental and tobacco stem and sheet. TABLE V Average Analyses Type Stalk Position Nicotine (% Flue-cured Lower 1/3 1.87 Flue-cured Middle 1/3 2.65 Flue-cured Upper 1/3 3.26 Burley Lower 1/3 2.14 Burley Middle 1/3 3.00 Burley Upper 1/3 3.65 Oriental Composite ; 0.95 Stem-Sheet Composite 0.85 TOBACCO DENSITY Overall there has been a decreased usage of tobacco in the United States as shown in Table VI (25). The per capita cigarette consumption has decreased slightly over the last ten years and the number of cigarettes produced per pound of tobacco has increased. The cigarettes produced per pound of tobacco reflect both dimensional changes in the tobacco column of the cigarette, length and circumference, and changes in tobacco density. Tobacco density estimates for the 0-6 mg and 7-15 mg "tar" ,segments are shown in Table VII (12). .It appears that there has been little change in the tobacco density of the 7-15 mg "tar" segments over the last four years, but the density is somewhat less than that of ten or twelve years ago when a typical value was about 0.27 g/cc (12). However, in the 0-6 mg "tar" category, there does appear to be a trend to lower
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TABLE VI Tobacco Usage Trends Year Per Capita Tobacco Usage (pounds) Per Capita Cigarette Consumption Cigarettes Per Pound of Tobacco 1971 7.75 4037 521 1972 7.95 4043 508 1973 7.92 4148 524 1974 7.90 4141 524 1975 7.73 4123 533 1976 7.35 4092 557 1977 7.21 4051 562 1978 6.89 3967 576 1979 7.13 3924 550 1980 7.06 3924 556 TABLE VII Calculated Densities (g/cc) (Number of Packings) Category 1978 1979 1980 1981 0-6 mg "tar" 0.232 0.222 0.212 0.194 (Number of Packings) (7) (11) (19) (33) 7-15 mg "tar" >1% Market Share 0.246 0.242 0.245 0.240 (Number of Packings) (16) (16) (16) (16) ~ O U
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densities, and, more importantly, a significant difference exists between the average density of the two segments. Thus, we anticipate a continuing trend of reduced tobacco density for the sales weighted average of U.S. cigarettes. This trend in density does not suggest that unprocess- ed tobacco is becoming less dense but rather that the cigarette manufacturer is processing the tobacco in a manner to produce the effect (2,15). These processes impregnate the tobacco with a volatile working fluid which is then evaporated at a rate sufficient to create an internal cellular pressure without rupturing the cell. The inflated cell is then fixed in the expanded state by moisture reduction. Typically, heavy bodied grades of Flue-cured tobacco can be expanded by nearly 100% and Burley by about 85% (12). With the attainment of this process control over density, the requirement for low density unprocessed tobacco has been reduced. The emphasis has shifted toward friability of the unprocessed leaf. The economic importance of this property on present day Flue- cured and Burley leaf is further accentuated by the leaf marketing trend toward loose or non-oriented leaf. This requires more extensive threshing of the leaf for stem removal and increased dependence on sound leaf, with low friability, to achieve acceptable yields of usable product. THE USE OF MIDRIB OR STEM In addition to leaf-lamina, considerable amounts of tobacco midrib are incorporated into the average cigarette. In the┬ĽUnited States, midribs of Flue-cured and the smaller midribs of the Burley, along with fines generated in the manufacturing process are formed into a sheet by one of two basic methods as follows: ' (1) Water extractables are (2) formed into a sheet. removed, concertrated, and returned to the non-extractable components after pulp and sheet formation. A slurry of all of the components is prepared and C
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Tobacco sheet is used primarily for economic purposes, and, based upon available midrib and fines, an average of about 22% of the blend is near the limit. The raw materials from which the tobacco sheets are formed are low in nicotine and tobacco aromatics. Consequently, tobacco sheet is a rela- tively poor contributor to smoke aroma and strength. The physical properties of the sheet are controllable within a small range, and usually the thickness of the sheet is in the range of tobacco leaf thickness. Normally, both'densi- ty and burning properties are similar to that of the leaf. C SMOKE AROMA AND FLAVOR The primary requirement for present day tobacco continues to be its smoking quality. Although much has been learned over the years about smoking quality through the empirical approach, the tobacco chemist has recently made major strides in identifying important flavor com- pounds (16). The exudate of the trichome structures of the leaf is an important source of compounds from which many flavorful substances are derived. Enzell (8) present- ed, at the 1976 Tobacco Symposium, a review of the import- ance of the terpenoids to tobacco and its flavor. He specifically reviewed the three classes of compounds known as the carotenoids, thunberganoids, and labdanoids. Oxi- dation of these and other compounds through the curing stage of Flue-cured tobacco leads to a continous increase in carbonyl compounds as_shown in Table VIII (4). --"'"Y'--Additional studies in our laboratories have shown that similar levels of carbonyls exist on aged tobacco and that the level varies by tobacco grade (12). The total carbonyl content of Burley tobacco as shown by Anderson, Kasperbauer, Lowe, and Smiley (1) is less than that of Flue-cured and is reduced somewhat during air curing of the tobacco. Some of the oxygfi::u-`ed compounds, that are important to Flue-cured and Burley tobacco flavor, have been identified by the work of Demole and co-workers (6), Roberts and Rohde (18), and Lloyd, et al (11).

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