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Lorillard

the History of Cigarettes

Date: May 1983 (est.)
Length: 38 pages
81051625-81051662
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Author
Norman, V.
Type
REPT, OTHER REPORT
ABST, ABSTRACT
BIBL, BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAR, CHART/GRAPH/MAPS
Alias
81051625/81051662
Area
IHRIG/LAB 4 SMOKING CHEMISTRY
Named Organization
Amer, American Tobacco
Blackwell
Coresta, Coresta
Fs Kinney
Goodwin
Greiner
Kimball
Lm, Liggett & Myers
RJR, R.J.Reynolds
TI, Tobacco Inst
W Duke Sons & Co
Allen Ginter
Named Person
Allison
Bonsack, J.
Bradford
Duke, J.B.
Duke, W.
Emery
Griest
Guerin
Hanmer
Harlan
Morris, P.
Obrian, W.T.
Pfyl
Rickards
Schooler, S.
Schur
Susini
Wenusch
Date Loaded
27 Feb 1998
Request
R1-082
Master ID
81051622/1826

Related Documents:
Author (Organization)
Lor, Lorillard
Litigation
Stmn/Produced
Stmn/Selected
Site
G17
Brand
Camel
Chesterfield
Kool
Lucky Strike
Old Gold
Philip Morris
Raleigh
Wings
UCSF Legacy ID
ghr91e00

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C C THE HISTORY OF CIGARETTES Dr. V. Norman
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c CHANGES OF SMOKE CHEMISTRY OF MODERN DAY CIGARETTES Vello Norman Lorillard Research Center Greensboro, N.C. 27420 ABSTRACT The origin of cigarette smoking can be traced to the Aztecs in South America. From there, the custom spread into Spain, throughout southern Europe, to Russia, to ;England and thence finally to the US in the middle of the 19th century. At that time, first research in the iden- itification of cigarette smoke components was carried out in Germany. Recognition of the difficulties in obtaining reproducible results and identifying critical smoking parameters, however, came much later; the first practical .smoking machines capable of puffing in a controlled fashion were devised only in the 1930's in Germany and the U.S. Early cigarettes were highly varied and there were thousands of brands of various blends and configurations. Until the 1930's, the number of home-rolled cigarettes was still comparable to manufactured cigarettes. Cigarettes became standardized with the advent of a small number of dominating brands in the 1920's and remained relatively unchaav;zd until the introduction of filter cigarettes in the 1!1l;O's. The beginning of quantitative smoke analysis method3lagy coincided with the inception of filters and was immensely aided by the invention of new analytical
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;techniques such as gas chromatography. From the 1950's on ~cigarettes began to change rapidly. New parameters which ; 'had an impact on smoke chemistry included filters, papers ' .of increased porosity, reconstituted tobacco, tip ventila- ' :tion, expanded tobacco, dimensional changes, and the .concomitant blend and flavorant alterations. The chronol- ' "ogy of the introduction and acceptance of the various new :€eatures and their impact on smoke chemistry are discussed. Introduction ; Quantitative analytical chemistry of cigarette smoke `is a very recent science and thus, when we endeavor to ;talk about changes in smoke chemistry, we can really only make authoritative statements about the last twenty years :or so. Cigarettes, in some form or another, of course, have been around for at least 600 or 700 years. They were very primitive at first where every cigarette had a .`character of its own. Then through a progression of 'technological manufacturing advances cigarettes developed 'to the mass production stage where individual cigarettes ;of a brand were quite similar if not identical. Generally, changes in cigarette construction and tobacco types used are historically much better documented than changes in smoke chemistry. Thus, one can infer `something about the chemical composition of smoke from knowing how the cigarette was put together. In the course of the current presentation we shall look briefly at the development of cigarettes and smoke analysis in the historical perspective and then document the recent significant changes that have influenced the chemistry of smoke. r t
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c The origin of cigarettes goes back to the Aztecs in South America. This style of smoking was observed by the Spanish in the early 1500's, was adopted, and brought back to Spain. The Aztecs crushed the tobacco leaves and wrapped them in corn husk. In Spain, early in the 17th century, paper was substituted for the corn husk, and the custom of smoking cigarettes spread quickly through Portugal, Italy, Greece, Turkey and into southern Russia. During the 1830's cigarettes also crossed the Pyrenees into France. Our word "cigarette" is actually the French adaptation of the Spanish "sigarito". Local French tobacco at that time was very acrid and primarily Virginia and Maryland leaf were used. Meanwhile, in Russia, leaf was imported from Ohio, Maryland and Kentucky and blended with native tobacco. Then, around 1850, Turkish leaf was introduced which contributed greatly to the popularization of cigarettes in Russia. During the Crimean War (1853- 1856) British troops that participated in the fighting learned how to smoke cigarettes and as the war heroes returned to England, brought the custom with them. As demand developed, the local tobacconists began to manu- facture cigarettes. Among some of the now-familiar names, Philip Morris, a Bond Street tobacconist in London went into cigarette production in 1854. Of course, all ciga- rettes were hand-rolled. Russians and Poles were gener- ally the acknowledged masters of the art and initially they were hired to man the factories. A good roller produced about 40 cigarettes a minute. Still, the use of cigarettes in England grew very slowly and by 1860 the custom was only something of a curiosity. History In the U.S., The War Between the States was taking place at that time and while Americans travelling abroad had witnessed the use of cigarettes, there was no popular
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~demand and first manufacture did not begin until 1864. The first manufacturing center was New York City. The production was of the order of a few million a year. The earliest written record of anybody smoking cigarettes in 'the Virginia-Carolina area is by a Samuel Schooler from ;Caroline County, Va. who in 1868 witnessed an Army person ~smoking a cigarette and commented: "Knew he did not ;belong about here and moreover he was smoking a cigarette ;which is unheard of in these parts." ~ ; Ironically, the first cigarettes made in America were :predominantly of Turkish leaf but the manufacturers ilearned quickly how to blend the cheaper Bright tobacco 'with the Turkish. The first manufacturing leader to `emerge was the F. S. Kinney Co. of New York. In the ;Virginia-North Carolina area cigarette manufacturing got ?started with the opening of the Allen and Ginter plant in ;Richmond in 1875. The 1876 Philadelphia Exposition served ,as a catalyst to create much new interest in cigarettes ;and it was there that many people saw their first ciga- ;rette manufactured and smoked. By 1880 the U.S. produc- ;tion had grown to about 440 MM cigarettes annually of :which 384MM were produced in New York City, 52MM in Virginia and 2MM in North Carolina. The first working cigarette making machine was ;invented in about 1879. There were a number of rival designs such as Susini, Emery and Allison. Allen and iGinter of Richmond at that time offered a prize of $75,000 ~for a practical cigarette making machine. Young James ,Bonsack of Roanoke Co., Va. finally devised a successful imachine and applied for a patent in 1880. He had solved 'three major problems - how to feed tobacco uniformly, how jto form a paper tube and fill it, and how to cut the roll ,into equal lengths. The prototype machine was loaded onto i C e
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c a railroad car to be shipped to Allen and Ginter but somehow it caught fire in the railyard at Lynchburg and was destroyed. Bonsack promptly built a new and improved 4machine, applied '.Allen and Ginter I ifrom the records ~ jcertainly, world ;there were seven ~ for a new patent and this one intact and arrived at was tested. It is not clear whether Bonsack collected the $75,000 but wide interest was generated and by 1884 Bonsack machines in operation in the U.S. 'and seven in Europe. iwas more of a failure i ~the machines had been I Still, by 1886 the Bonsack machine .than a success. By then a number of installed in various factories but !as a rule they were used not running at all. i only at rare intervals or were In North Carolina, there were a number of producers C ;Blackwell's Bull Durham smoking tobacco. His only salva- i • ;tion was to go into the cigarette business. When the tBonsack machine became available, Duke quickly realized ;its potential and acquired some of the early machines. iLuckily, Duke had a mechanical genius named William T. O'Brian working in his factory. Duke and O'Brian made icertain improvements on the machine and as a result, in j1886, when the machines in the other factories were idle, ';Duke's were in regular production. It is not known what :these improvements were since no records were kept and no :patents filed. By 1886 Duke had 15 machines and by 1889 'he had 24 turning out over 2MM cigarettes a day. A local ; ;chronicle at t,ia observed: ."There are not many ~machines in th,a w..~ r L.' tha : are more complicated or work amore beautifully but they work a hardship on society by ;of smoking tobacco and plug, among them W. Duke, Sons & 'Co. and R. J. Reynolds but very little activity in ciga- ~rettes. By 1881, James Buchanan Duke, one of Washington -Duke's sons, had assumed the commanding role in the Duke ;Company and decided that he was unable to compete with
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depriving many people of work." By the end of 1889 Duke had grown so much that he was able to absorb the other four leading U.S. cigarette producers - Allen and Ginter, Goodwin, Kimball and Kinney - and form The American Tobacco Company. Cigarettes at that time were made primarily of Bright tobacco with some Turkish added for aroma and flavor. The popularity of cigarettes grew steadily until about 1895 and then the consumption dropped off drastically for five years so that the 1900 sales were roughly equal to those of 1890. Turkish tobacco became increasingly popular and from 1900 to 1910 held a significant share of the market. The total market was very fragmented, there were some 2000 brands of various sizes and prices and most of them enjoyed only regional popularity. There was no truly "All-American" brand. The popular Turkish leaf was very expensive and the manufacturers again began to experiment with increasing proportions of Bright blended with the Turkish. By 1911 J. B. Duke's American Tobacco Company domi- nated the cigarette market, but still, cigarettes consti- tuted only a relatively small part of the total tobacco business. When the Tobacco Trust was dismantled in 1911, cigarettes contributed only 21% to the operating profits of The American Tobacco Company. J. B. Duke himself prepared the splitting plan and he probably had no idea of the phenomenal growth in cigarettes that would follow shortly. Duke's existing cigarette brands were distrib- uted among American, Liggett & Myers and Lorillard. R. J. Reynolds had been associated with the Duke empire but was not yet in the cigarette business. The biggest impetus to the growth of cigarettes and really the birth of the modern day American cigarette occurred when R. J. IC
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,'. J :Reynolds put Prince Albert smoking tobacco, containing a :large dose of Burley, in cigarettes and called it Camel. Camels were an i~nmediate success touching off a number of imitations from the rivals and a furious promotional and marketing contest from which ultimately all the competitors benefitted since it created new interest in cigarettes. Thus, Camel became the first All-American cigarette. The .competitors' answers to Camel - Lucky Strike and Chester- field also caught on rapidly. The 1922 Tobacco Tax Law specified the weight of Class A cigarettes at 3 lbs per C C 1000 (1361 mg/cig) and thus in effect fixed the size of modern day cigarettes. By the 1930's and 40's the market was dominated by the three big brands and there was a second echelon of Wings, Old Gold, Raleigh and Philip Morris. During the rapid growth period of manufactured cigarettes home-rolled cigarettes were also a very impor- tant factor. It has been estimated that in the middle 1930's still more cigarettes were home-rolled than fac- tory-made. While the manufacturing technology was going through its growing pains, analytical chemists were already beginning to ask questions about the composition of smoke. Semiquantitative cigarette smoke analysis dates back to about the middle of the 19th century when German chemists started looking for individual components of smoke, particularly gas phase components such as ammonia, hydro- gen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. One can suppose that the choice of what was analyzed for was largely dictated by the methods that were known. A 1939 monograph by Wenusch (9) summarizes what was known about smoke chemis- try at the time. Somewhat surprisingly, most of the things that he asserted are still valid. i
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Initially, mechanical puff-by-puff smoking presented considerable problems. Bradford, Harlan and Hanmer (1) in 1936 perceived very succinctly the problems that quantita- tive smoke analysis confronted at the time: "The published results of research work on cigaret smoke show little agreement. These discrepancies are largely due to differences in the technic of smoking. A standardization of procedure is in the interest of economy of research, and harmony among the various investigators." They also understood basically what the criteria for a successful smoke analysis should be, namely: 1. "It should be reproducible, 2. The smoking procedure, the cigarets smoked, and the environment while smoking should be defi- nitely characterized, 3. It should sufficiently approximate the condi- tions of human smoking for conclusions from experiments in vitro to admit of interpretations in vivo." The first viable smoking machines were designed by . Pfyl (6) and by Bradford et al. (1) and the capability for generating quantitative analytical numbers thus existed in the 1930's. However, during the next 15 or 20 years little data was published. Smoke analysis began in earnest in the early 1950's. The big impetus for this research probably came from the first appearance of a significant number of filter ciga- rettes. One can suppose that the use of filters raised 1C
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C the questions of how much and what the filters removed from smoke. This in a sense, created the need for a quan- titative smoke measuring technology. Luckily, new ana- lytical methodology was concurrently becoming available, in particular, gas chromatography which found wide appli- cation very quickly. Along with filters there have been five other princi- pal factors which have had a varied degree of influence on smoke chemistry: changes in cigarette paper, ventilation through the tip, reconstituted tobacco, expanded tobacco and blend and flavorant changes, the latter being somewhat dictated by the effects caused by the other innovations. Among other parameters that have changed are the dimen- sions of the cigarette - the length of the tobacco column and the circumference but their effect on smoke chemistry is subtle. All the new features of cigarettes, while they also may have yielded some economic advantages, have been in the direction of lower smoke yields. Schur and Rickards in a 1960 article (7) give us a snapshot of how researchers felt at the time about what was happening to cigarettes: "To satisfy the smoking wants of a great, rapidly growing, and experimentally minded public, domestic cigarette manufacturers have vied with one another during the past few years to develop new brands of cigarettes which, though containing the normal weight of tobacco, yield to the consumer greatly reduced amounts of smoke. In certain influential circles, the merit of a cigarette appears to be gauged, sometimes with missionary zeal, according to how little particulate matter it delivers to a smoking robot operated under standardized laboratory conditions; and a non-technical periodical of wide

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