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Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act Report (to Accompany H.R. 3014)

Date: 08 Jun 1965
Length: 21 pages
03731371-03731391
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Author
Harris, O.
Type
REPT, OTHER REPORT
LETT, LETTER
Alias
03731371/03731391
Area
LEGAL DEPT FILE ROOM
Named Organization
American Cancer Society
American Heart Assn
Bureau of Customs
Bureau of the Budget
Cfr
Childrens Bureau
Dept of Agriculture
Dept of Commerce
Dept of Justice
Dept of Labor
FDA, Food and Drug Administration
Ftc, Federal Trade Commission
Hew, Dept of Health Education and Welfare
Natl Clearinghouse on Smoking + Hea
Natl Interagency Council on Smoking
Natl Tuberculosis Assn
NIH, Natl Inst of Health
Public Health Service
Sgc, Surgeon General's (Advisory) Comm
Ama, Ama
Named Person
Celebrezze, A.J.
Clark, R.
Corman
Fino
Giles, R.E.
Grabowski
King
Lea
Meyner, R.B.
Moss, J.E.
Nelsen
Rogers
Rooney
Smith, F.B.
Surgeongeneral
Udall
Wheeler
Date Loaded
05 Jun 1998
Request
R1-004
Master ID
03731053/1514

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Litigation
Stmn/Produced
Author (Organization)
Comm on Interstate + Foreign Commer
Characteristic
UNCO, UNCODED LIST
Site
N14
UCSF Legacy ID
yaa71e00

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Page 1: yaa71e00
i* 3' fet{, , st: rkl?.~~:rc~l~rv~-O uS9TI$ CoN(}RESS +-HC1USE ©F REPRESENZI'ATIVF9 ~ ', `;=R'2RORT lst,~'ess~iovt:~tti afal4~,~f) sti~~ , , -:1rTo. 449~ r . ~.,. • rb~,~rr~s~{t~F~s91~c~3t~~. r~-rtirl}jz~j ,{,Tihx4 lp1fN i f>.+ ;a~;,~ar ~r r ~1r' nf G !-~tr 7iC'fYlfai~rl~,n FELIERAL,l JGARETT~ T,~ABELIn Q,;&~ D ~D~ERTISINIG ACY 4fi)`Yte:'?M'W ()t. {)ctlT r1~fr) f?'U(i1l 'rr+•rtJ)rtitliCit`Y'3 rdF n f til_r~ ~F Jqrr$r8~79g5..-CQmmitted to the Committde pf the Whole House on the r5tate ! J lll. :7.•1 • I,... .J 1V "Al,,•.I.. fll 4~1~~T~tFm*~ ~lU)t Mt tl i3r tl f:.. ~.. ~ ~ CaraLmerce, submitted the followlllg :iii ~s,~ ~)altu~~cr~ v~u74 iP q(1t'+F~R:I~}d~,:fitr~Lt91ZIr.ulff' trfTiJ4:!~S~I. sri~ u" ~ r~rtla,:_.tt .b~~.6xrrLd r; t ~fr E P0Rr~ I] ~~[17~~~' r ~t tfrlltf!')ff ~' .,r~ p ~.1.~ ,LUr4~~'9f~.Y~t14~ ~t~L fLqf.l~7 i [To accampany 3014l] t, rnrt.}1:;.. r3; tr i ~r,; ! ~1f ,.. The CrammLtitee on~nterstate ari~~'oreign Gbmmerc`e; Lo w'~om was referred the''hi11 (H.R. 3014)', to'regullate the Iabeling'and advertising' of cigarettes, and for other purposes, having, considered the same, report favorably thereon with amendmenfs and~recommend that the b~i1las amended do'pass 4tI+tatrr)r4fir4 fi~~si~ ri~t The 'amendments`a're as folllows ('in terms of the bill, as reported). - . I'age' 4, Tine' 9't immeduately:.~.fter ~`appear"' imsert ..`in print con- tmasting to~ the-background" -`.yf tri b5:(xl(rict )cl`.I' ,r7' . Page 4, Iine' 15, immediately after "priiLted"' ,insert `'in print con.~ ; tltasting,t'o, the be,ckground''':x+.,i~{~t:a +:)sfng IiitlIrArrIA't{A il ct)A' -Page' 5, - beginning, ih line 2, • etrike out "`concerr~ing an hazard to heaith involkred in smoking aigarette~'".'z,and- insert _ in ~eir :thereof; ;`with respect to smoking and health" '; ~'f -?!~ft* ~:Page' 5, lime 6,'immedlateIy after ".`statelnent".insert'•`wIt'h, respect to smokingaiid:health" w'-tju•) 'u-rr;!riirJf)uAaresr,f' tou WrrOW arrti.t aKift- .,. 3P'age 5, b'eginning in'line' 22,` sttrike out "and- subject'to .the piovi+-: sions of~ eeetion 381 (relating to notlce to,the opposite party) o#'.title '. 2g,rf )~~+ /if;iitTliE~'i+(UI. rt4A.la,a.r~t C1; tJ9rj''3:C (J~1yT ti`4rC?;iF)(i 114tIll /f')iJftq Page 6t line 22; strike out "'twenty" and insert in'-li''eu thereof'; rspRTI+1CIPALf PURRO5F. OF THE BILL :•i''b: 9i1I': The principal purpose of the bill is to provide adequate wa'rningg to the public of the potential' hazards of cigarette smolting by requlring,., the labeling of cigarette packages with, the statennent:,, f`Ca'utian: Cigarette Smoking May Be Hazardous to Your Iiealth,",:,., .i':,,~,, As reported, the bill does the f'ollowing,: •i't (1) The bill makesit unlawful'for any persani to manufacture, import, or package for sale' withiin the Unitedl States a'ny cigl&- , 35--0106'-65:--1 of the ~Tnion and ordered to be pr~~ed , , , ~ ia. , a r•. ._. '"; tz r~ 1J`S (1fT 15~I.fLlt !C ~ lls;rHiaRnis, froni the Committee: oiI Interstate,,*nd' Porelgn , "a
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FEDERAL CIGARETTE LABELING AND ADVERTISING ACT manufactured for'export from the United States. EiLCKGRUIIND' PNF@RKEITTOM rettes which do not bear the above-mentioned'~ statement on the ~,,,i_;package. Yiolat'ion,ef~_this req,uireMent;is made a •m~asdernieanor 1?;; rsubject to a fineof ~not more~~than $1'Q,~000;, (2) The bill prohibits the requirement of any other caution ~ statement on the labeling, of cigarettes under laws administered by any Federal, State~ or local authority;. viols,tions~of theact, and providesanexempt'ion for'cigarettea- (3) The 1 bill states that the FederaY Trade C'ommission has no authority to require any caution statement in any advertisementt of~ cigarettes- labeled in conformity with the act, but otherwise, neither limits nor expand's the authority of the Federal Trade' Commission with~respect to the dissemination of false or mislead- i'mg advertisement's of ci'garet!tes., . Y. ~. (4)~~ The~ billi permits, ynjunctions~ to be~~ obtainedi to restrain On June 7„'1962, the Su'rgeon ',G'eneral of'the F'ublie Mealth Serviee "' appointed an advisory `rommittee to study all published literature bearing on the relationship of smoking to health. `I''his committee studied the problem for 18.,months, and•subm.ittedi a report to the Surgeon Creneral on Januarq 11, L964:1 'this report' aras adopted by the Department of Health, Education, andj Welfare. Among, its principal findings was the following: s' "':" Y~ ,,Cigarette,•smoking zs a health hazard of sufficient }mpor- tance m the [~Tnited States tio warrant appro~riate remedial .r:: i ~il: ,! ~ ;~U.. v, ~ ~., . :a1U :J.;.~. LuI1JU5'1) t-' y1: aCtlon I '„ 7;'.19~i..fSV;}vfS~'T,f't! ,_ a{sff7':( 7Rt4~kh717~' ~1~~~•_+9~irf~p•~j+y nOn, January.18, 1964!, the Fedaral! Trae,Commission issued a notice : of proposed rulemaking; proposing the establishment, of, a; trade, regulatTon rule under which, the labeling. and advertising of cigarettes would be required to contain a warning of $ealthi hazards involved in cigarette smoking. The proposed rulei in modified' form,, ,was_issued, l~ll June~Y'964.' HF?le+fltt 1~ ~"tt~° l°. J) `14it."{ .(SF~l;?.l , 3 Both, before and after the ~QtTce of proposedruleTnaking,~ a num.ber, of bills were int'roduced' in the Congress dealing with this sub'ect: On June 23, 11964, this committee began hearings which lasted 4. ~ays _ (Jinne 23~, 24,2'S',and July 2, 1964). hn % 1,,Ti3ue,to the imm.~inent adjournment of' the Congress, it was apparent that time would not pemmt adequate consideration of~ this problem, ^ and the committee; •theref'ore, directed'the chairman to request that the Federal Trade Commission postpone the effective date of the rule which, it, had adopted with respect tialabel'ingfrom Januaryl,19fi5,,: to suiy 1,1965. 1 v,, :-i j,r;1i ` ~ ;r,,, By letter dated August 19, 1964,the chairman of the comniitteee requested the Federal Trade Commission to postpone the effectiue, date of' its rule so as to perxni' adequate time for the 89th Congress to consider appropriats labeling llegislatfon and thus to avoid •an,~ unnecessary delay in protecting the public's health in this, area. It had, been pointed out during this,committee's,hearings that litigationn over the Federal' Trade Commission's action might suspend for 4 y, earsor more the effectiveness of't'he proposed action by the Coan.missiom ..
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FFDERAL CIGAREFI, LABEILINCn , AND ADVER'1tISING AlC2'..Z c~' .A~l,~.......:LJ ,. ~_.....~i ... ..~.1.. x~.........i~. ., •:L~n L. ~.l..i« ..... . , On August 20, 1964, the .Commission adopted an amendment to i'ts,. ti.~ad® ' regulation "rule postponing the ' effective date of the labeling ^ require'ments speciffed therein xo July 1, 1965:, ;, t,, :{;~, .: r, :,A,nunlber of bills have been introduced~ dealing with the,prol~lemof' cigarette labeling amd advertising,"during" this Congress. They are :H.R. 2248 (Mr. Udall), H.R. 3014 ,(Mr. Rogers of Texas), H.R. 4007 (Mr. N!elsen); H.R. 42'44 (Mr. Fino)',~H.R. 7051:"(Mr. 'Rooney), RR':. ~, 7393' (Mr. K.ing), H R } 7560 (Mr. ,Corrnan); y,a,nd H :~ '7713 (Mr, : ~,,{ GTabowskl) y;' s Y4` r I+ ~n 4• i~r:r1 T f~car i ri+ l+ ~>rr~:,r i"" ~, Hearings were ~Ield, on these bills orL Aprlli 6, , 7, '8; , 9 j ~3, 1.'5, and , luiay, 4', 1965: H.R. 30I4,' which, is reported herewith, was considered ,. . byy the' committee during 2' days of executioe sessions, and was ordered'' reported to the House on May 27',.1965 " a~ ~:CJtiTaI ;%7/If°9~11$Y ltilf ~~~'1C1~ n.ryj rr.Y{ r'~i ].f~ ~N` ~'r ~~ 'f~3~t1~'3J~$~:J`f 1] f~(: ;'rJI7l~~,~~Kl SCOPEr OF~THE PROBLEM It i? ~ xa F,1-&j )~S1hJ!DY {{ 17 3b'" o ..~ 1 ,e FrTlie determinatlon'of appropriatetiemediall ictlon in thls area.' asr' recommended by the ;Suigeon General's' Advisor y' Committee; ns a" responsibility which should be exercised by , the Congress after con='' sidering, all facets of the problem. : The problem has broadl implica. `t ' and involves`' ~ield of public liealth and health re'seancli taons i th y e n potentiallly far-reaching consequences lar 'a''numbeT" of 'seetors 'of'" our economy. The entire tobacco raising and manufacturing in- ~dustry, and the' numerous businesses which market tobacco products; are involved. ..,Somej,proposals have; been made, In.t'his area which might lead to sevepe curtail'sng or the possible,elimmatiiorijQf,cigarette., advertising.", This ,~could have a serlous '-economic impact,r ~t~,;tlie, television, radio, and ublishing industries, in the United Stat'e' After giving consieration', to,,various salternative: ap~proaches to,s the p11 roblem, t'he coIllin.ittee det`ermined that congresslonal a"tioni , should~"be taken, in order to dispose of this problem pra~pt~ and s 4 e$ectivel Y{~rtr fI~~U 21#JL+F F: !~~ "~(f fir hYsl l Y~t,'~)!~ £3ff,~ ~~31j~~~((jAifs: I,ABELINCt ty .. ..~.: +--il," f 3:.~. n t.i6,000 " ' -ti,fr~'.:. ....f1 ...h ~ ~ ' ... 7Vlore than ' cOpies of the Surgeon' General s Committee report have naw' been ,distribut'ed'.: ': The' Public Health Service has't developed pnograms for 'public `education' wit'h regard to smoking , and ,health .and has 'established a' 'national clearinghouse. " More:' ° over, State and local health and educati~on' authorities,'-'as~ 'welll a$'~' the' major voluntary health associations; have launched3;'viForous ,~ 1; n a+~• smoking education programs. ,. ~. r,., J ; s,:: As a result, the Surgeon General was'able to ieporti `on anuar~ 11 ~ of' this 'year that `'`nearly"one out of four''adult men'i'has'given up cigarettes.°' . And that "if smoking, habits had continued at the level of 3 years ago, there would be about 3Y2million more smolters than ' there are tod''ay. ; - , r As a 'result of wi'despread pubhcit~, many' persons "aliparently already are aware of the smoking and lhealth issue. The committee feels,, howev®r; ' that it ",is 'd'esirable that the Federal Government-';' . upon, which persons"have 'come to rely for cautionary labeling af. hazardous substances~-should take affirmative -action which would' manifest its eoncerri. 'Moreover, while the committee believes that 'the indlvidual must ~ be safeguarded in his freedom of' choice-that he' has the right to ; choose i to smoke or not to smn:oke-we believe equally that, the indi-' i ' ' ,i~l j tu , ...,r,:;.i
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, k~, F' ;n • ~l+rl~ r r i r rx' ~rr: `- i r.+1~ ~~ ,.91j.. . ~'E:tit 4 EDERtIT~ GYIG~iRE~TT~ 'LAB~'iLIN'iC~ RTIST14 Ca 'A ... .. v s . Ar•,~, 51 s..rj,~ t 1:: ~ r vYduat .~Yas the'rYglY~ to ~now that "s'inokYn'~ ma~ be tliazardous to Wt~J . I:U :)lJSt)'. 1/iJ SS}f 9 lj~I ~j {~ V L ~?,~ U , -11011 f 1~,6y health1. .,1:1~. 7, i c , r r ~ ;, ; ~ '` Therefore the commYttee is satis h ed that the publYc' interesf requirES ~ t~e `inClusioli' af a fair and factual da~uti~onaryS state'men# on every r$U 717 ti 1 ( ~ ' " 1 ' , l::~ .1 Gt d L LL }~~ r ~, i. r ff4 l ur.1 s1 cigarette $ackage , r ;~ ~: ," . ~ ~, ~ rr h' c tioii ld ~b S l h h ~ nd"dir ct~ ~ c~ h uid ~t~ uc au ary s emen s ou s or a , an s e o e no~ pe ;yTeakened fYi it~ impact hy ail, qualifying adjectYVes~ such a's _ ' ; "e~cEssg'~e " "contiriii~l " or "rhabltu~l "' - To this end,; th® coYixmittee ; , , . hadl concluded that the follb~ing factual and succinct statement sh'ould .~. ~ now be prescrnbed:' "Caiition Ciga'rette Smo~~ ItVtay;BeRatiardbufs ' our ~3`iealth 07 ,r A :, t~~ Y • i 1 { r ~~ S° n r r r, r, e,, n r /~ r t, :~, f '~'here ~as enera~a reemen~ amon tlie wYtnEE~es a earing bef g g g pp ore , whether or no~~ ~tihe the committee ~ favored 'a' tvar 'ning requYrement ' y , , on, cigarette packages, that if the' committee took any action in this field, suchi a requiremenf ad 't&labeling' should be uniform; otherwise, a. multiplicity of',State and ldealyregulations perta,~?,~g to, label'ingg o£ cigaiette packages coilld create cbaoti~c' xnarketmg ,rjondYt,ions and; ' consuiY,ie r~,confusYon ,~,`~hi2s, the committee,'bil4', by: preemptmg the 1 field, precludes any, ~N ederal, State; or local arYthorit~ from requYring h e d i n ' a ~ sta t emen,t othex, t~aly,t at r cfuire s~b il1 relatingto; smolting by tb _ , 7it and h~etshA on ¢Ilg,arette~package9 ~~Y~~E 1H.FTC?4 s.Tff1 f.: 3f97r1 ~ l~j~tlrlFl}r'!~ ¢ y p t1 Yf) 19 'i''., t`'.FtT,tllJjl~fitfd+~'~~F3l~ ~~3t~ ~'s f15 s I t Jtt~ !~' 'lfl~' iT A~ERTI6INCt d I ~ 'F~ f ,i~~ ~irt)'l~f+~~1ft' ~r~! 13.t1; . r 1. , T r3`,( : ,".: , 'The'`tra~e'regu'latYOn rille adopted'b~r Ehe'Fede~ral Trade Com imissioYi ' would requzre''effeetive ~uly'1;'i965, tlYe YDCIuSYQII'of a warning,in a1T `ciga'rettes fif p`otential liazards"to'health nt1'volved in ad"vertising.d smokirii¢igarettes ! The `reportedl bill would supensedb the' 'Com-' mYss~on s rule; lbecause the `committee feels that' at the present time the necessxty''for, aLld tlYe .effeGtlPOneSS; Of~ thYS`re~uirement` has nott y been d@monstrat0c7.,t;ti.lR~ ,r'1.~.: 31i-.3'.rtGZ~tIJ :U3 S'aiJ1fS~, e: .li,)~itti `}C! 1i1~ years has been obj'ectionable,' ' Some cigarette advertising in past , particularly in its appeals to yoiYng',people w•.W..« However,, the cigarette manufacturing industry has, entered into an agreement under which all cigarette' advertisYng, will bp'subject to an. i i rn f d 'C J e ~" ~ ers n stered by the Eo uer ao~.ernor o advertising code a m New y, 'obert' B, IVleyner:' ,' All cigaretlf~e a'dvertYsing is required to be obert' R ' ;has the to Covernor NLeyn~er ;;who power to ~ submitted in advance" ~ , , , . . ; , t meet the , prohibit` any;`advertising whYch'}ie determines does,'no reqn, _ lire lne n ts _lirelnents of the'code. T,•Tnder,the code, Governor Meyner can,impose fizies of up to $100,0,06 ` ' ' 1Vleyner testYf'ied before'the committee for each violatiion. °.Governor that he interprets his' powers under the code very broadlg; aYid' that ' he interpiets the term "advertising" to include not only 'm.aterial broadcast on radio and television and printed in' magazines but also . to include the labeling on, packages, counter displa~?s ' and allll otlYer' materials which can be interpreted as promoting; the saie of cYgarettes. As a'result of this code, the character of cigarette advertising has '~ been altered since issuance of the Federal Trade' Comniissxon rule. ~ The Department 'of Health, Education, and Welfare is cgndueting' n k f l Qf d' , sY o : a~nd ie informatYonali an di• educational programs in the of Labor, and ' health, and H.R. 7765i* the proposed DepartmeiLts' , Heal:tIii, EducatYOffs~;and' W'elfare~l,ppropinatiion~ Act,~'1966, recently ~ ~ passed' by the House,_ includes an item of $2' million for carrying out .; " these pnograr Iis G W P.J ~ ~- , _.. . ,:..:. _ _ ~.;:....:5: . ~ PM Ma ~ ~•
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" FEDER•AL, CIGARETTE I6AB~I;T.1TG l .; AND' ADSt'ER''ISINGi ~ACT The foregoing counledwiththe compulsorywarnin Qn the packa , ~ , ~which'will be required urider `the hii11~ Ieads :the comzruttee to eqneluc~e „that' it. , is not' necessary . at : tlus ` time to 'insert `health . v~~arnin~s,~n ci arette advertising as proposedb~ the"Federal Trade'Commisslon. ' ~~cept for the provision that`.t1ie Federal.l Trade Comii~ission ma~ ,~.ot require healthl warnings in cigareftte advertising, the~Comrn.ission s authority with respect to falise and misleadiiig advertising andl other Vunfair or deceptive aets 'or' practices in commerce with respect : to cigarettes is not affected by the bill. jS` <<,-r .~ ~'he committee ~rnily believes at f~ie, k'ec~eral.~T'radla ~onw~ssion !s'hould regard as an •i~infair or deceptive " act or ~ practice' withiri e. ,rpeaning of., secti~ori .5,:~of ;,the Federal ,Tr.ade .Commission, , pny advertising, which affirmatively 'reprusEnts ; that 'slnoking , profmot~s good health or which affi~rmatively represents that PInok,g~ is riot a hazard to healthu r ~} rE; r~1j ~~'~~lr~;.;, As is the case in ~rogard to labe~in'.~g ot exgare~~e }pac~ages, ~~e :coni- inittee bill p'reompts all Fedieral, State, and local authoriti'ies •from requiring any statement relating to smoking and health in the'•adver~- tising of cigarettes properly labeled under the terms of the-commzttee <b111•• 7"J1~~' I~~f~k `SY:>4 ~aA:ii`iTlitl!' ;}i~ tfb:~~' u.ti Sda~~ C`4:31'l11I!~ d1ii6:.'}S~. $1J:~~,? r .efs.r ,rrE(t~:ff~.trrzil ar~Iliriri4 ,,•no ~a! .~•rol U~'r:,t,rrscr, •ro -~3~-toqrni .,o•ttrl~-lilcrsntlI ~.SECTION-BF-SECTION DESCRIPTION iJF`TRE BILL,,iAS. REPO14.'1"ED:' 1 'sttp e~ o1 1~}'.iUi~YJt av~l 1Sl ~.r13~1~ ~? Tl.ifo76tre .`~To IJ~~f-~ lri/11t1d1~~''sf1 rJ1~,1IHfiE;~e.S'sectawl $hort, title ;. ;lu~ ttr'4., 'j ra ~zrt'f,~ r d~.If {ilri4' H. This ,section ' provides that this legi~ationi: mag ; be ''pited; as i'tfle -~'Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising - Act.", rl Js 3l).3etu tjYiJ - ,Sectzon IPandzngs~ t'.it , ;`{d'':i k ir`~rIr~rsr~ttti~a I f;si~~F 2 1Arr~r l~~i~t jrJiari . :" In this secti`on't~he fiu~dings of C;ongress are oi~~~.li,;','.~ey are t~at (a) a Federal prograrri ~iealin~g, with cigarette jabeli~g a~d adver~ising is desirable to provide national uniformity iin labe~ng' and adPeytise- ments for the clgarette indust,I~y, , and (b), the production, proci~ssing, and distribution of cigarettes, the employment directly and ifld'irectly resultiug therefronii aad the revenues from taAes on' clgai•ettes;~affect ~eommerce'and the uational economgs. ylf;. E),iritUr „rr, ,kl;{~t sllf A~{xir. ~0rr.~ ~' f I~F ttgrrl~ti y'f~ Q~°~`~9C~£Y~)'t I~jr 1f ~r~~' ~a1S ,~'eEtacrn '~Jeclaratzon' a~ p aliey r Jt - rU ~ • ~ ~r ~. ~ i 7 ., f 7f,~ fl~+Gr'F "T.f)t. fl.1 ~t' c ,.This sectlon tirovides that it is thei.Dolfcv.ol the,(Joneress. -and the purpose "of th~' legisl'ation;," ta`o 'establish', a comprehensiue 'T er}en , , prograrn `to deal with ;cigarette labeling,aiid'•adver~usiug 'wsth respeot to ariy relationship bet~ueen smak~g and ~iealth, wliereby (Q~ ,~he public may be.informed of the pos,~sible hazard to healthi of clgarette smoking, through inclusion o; a warning to that effect on each package of cigarettes; and (b) commerce and'~ the national ec,~nomy may be (i) protected to the maximum extent consi'stent, with this policy.and (ii) not impeded by diverse, nonuniform, arid • aonfi~sing cigarette labeling, and advertismg, regulations with respect'to aliy xelations•hip between smoking and health.. , i~ x::r; ~fr: ak~it ~)t>~ €±.xrl r«~r11~~>~~tl"1' ;. se.ct2on'T'~ Defi7b2tw7Zs a 1. e;~ ) r ~ j~1~st7 t~!}.•9i~ i)t1t3 ~t(!i:jh171? . . : [i r . f~ ~ . q;..F !.Yn li 1~1'7d!re[h /;i •fYt ~"tn'T}r''1~' , This sectiion providesa4i`efulitions of certain terms .~listed below~ which are.sed'in this llegislation, (In this sectii?n-by se¢tion,liescrip;- tion, these u, terms are used as defined in sec: 4.) ;:r, {t,, (a) "Cigarette" is definetl to be any roll of! tobacco or ot~er suli- stan.~ce wrapped in paper or`in any substance other.than tlobaccoa, and intended for smoking,
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;,`FEDERAL CIGARETTE LABELING 'AND ADVERTISING~ :4GT' ;~~'t(b)i `"`Cbinmerce" fi'neans c013ilYlerce ,among,"f~e several StBtes or .,,. w rth rth foreLgn nations or many territory of the United States or u1 the ~;, , :DistrLct of ColumbYa, or'bet'ween, any such territory and another, or , =between any such.h territory and4 any State or foreign nation, or between .,the D!istrict of Columbia and' any State; territory, or foreign nation, .(d) Package means a, ack, box, carbon, or contamer of any ku~d, .. I 4t. . „~ , t `of'the United States. ~~ S ' `` ?t ~ ~~. (c), Terrltory ' is defined to . be any, insular possession of . the United States,, the Commonwealt}~ of, Puerto Rico, and any t'errit~ary arettes are ofifererii for saie sold ' or otherwise sold t, r`.f - COIISllTners. g' q,.:, r.i;: . t a r'a' , o 7 -''iI nr ,.:(e) . Person means an indiuidualy partinership, corporation,, or o er usmess or ega ent i p. i ~, , :, . ,'.`United' States" means' the States; `the District of Columbia,. ,:-,an , the territories and'possessions of the United States'i ' `. (g) Sale or distribution mcludes sampling or any otjier distribu- "S Ytion not for sale ~'Act"5Labeling>~ This section provides that it shall be unlawful for any person to ''manufacture; import, or package for sale or distribution within the United States any cigarettes unless their package bears the following. statement: "Caution: Cigarette Smoking May be Hazardous to Your Health." This stlatement would have to appear in print contrasting to the background on either of the two side panels of the package, or in the case of a cylindrical package on the side thereof, in not less than 101 ' point type on a 12-point body. In the case of boxes, cartons, or con-- tainers of any kind (other than the individual package containing cigarettes) such statement would have to be printed in print contrast-- ing to the background oni a side in not less than 12!-point type on a -14-point base. :,Sectiq7, 6-Aduer~2S27L(~( ,ya '<rt.[tfis,?. yt~, y'.,fiwey~, d;i ,}Y. 17t~}#I ^~. P4` 1~'.rl::, :_. ro<-Thi's section provides that nothing ini this legislation shall be' con- strued to limit or expand the authority of' the Federal' Trade Com- - mission with respect t'o the di'ssemination, in commerce of any false or misleading advertisement of' cigarettes. This section also provides "that the Federal Trade Commission shall not have'authori`ty in any rproceeding under any statute administered by it to require the in- : clusion in any advertisement of any statement with respect to smoking anil hEalth if the 'ad'vertised cigarettes have'been packaged in con- -formity with the labeling provisions of' this legislation. Furtlier,, no Federal agency could require any addi'tional cautionary statement' with respect to smoking andi health on any cigarette package labeled in conformity with this legislation. Sedian 7-Freemptian , ;. , This section provides that no cautionary statement with respect to smoking and' health other thani specified in this legislation shall be required on any cigarette package; and that no such statement with. respect to smoking and health, shall be required in advertising for cigarettes packaged in conformity with the labeling provisions of thi& v ; .. legislation. g ,. 3) ~ fA f~x3J. ~.i.k`~
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T'IA ' ' "1 ?II F "'{ (.: , ,: r, ; ..,.rp.~ '? LT"~"i/nni1 T.e,fi'i•:T'I7 FEDERAL:, CIGARETTE LABELI'!VG AND ADVERTISING ACT `'Sec~-~tzmt`8r-` Crzm2nal~penalty ir'rri yt * lrr ~ M,frSr l.-, ,Undei this section,, any person who violates this legislation would .;be guilty of' a misdemeanor and, on conviction 'thereof!, would be ;subj,ect. to a fine of not;more than $'10,000. ni~ tc~r:i ahs ~~ t'er~i c`:f +c1 ^d,~ , G',See~ion 9-Injunctimn proceedings #~.:,.. This se¢tlori would imvest 'the distriet eourts ,of ihe,United States with jurisdietion, for. cause'shorvM; to p'rev;ent ~ndtrain violations `of t1lis IegIslation'upori `the' applicatiorv of the Attornery General~ acting tbrough Uf.S jattorneys `in ~hely d~stri{cts~ : i };~ ;~~ i~4~~s~;~p~' ? ;~~' ~~tr~F .~ection 10---Ci arettes or ex art ~M, ±~n . c st_ !,: x i3:~;,t3, i'.This `section provides tlhat ciganettes' manufactluredy vnported, or paekaged (a) for export from the United States or (b) for delivery to~a !vessell or aircraft, as supplies; for consumption beyond the jurisdiction~ of the internal revenue laws cif'the United States sha11 be exempt fromi i the' requirements of this act. =~ However, these exemptions 'tvould not -extend to cigarettes manufactured, imported, or' packaged for'ship- ;ment to, U.S. militarg'vessels or shore-based activities wherever such -vessels 6'r'actlvTthes may be loL'8:ted. `!'tE~~t''"~3: .'sP~tl+Ptt+j39 ''!tff~f ixl: Section 11'-,5'e,parabilit'y ~ e1! ry1rF~!ti'~r; tr~r.y( ~~,rt w~kt~ts .ry~ '". Thls,'section'provides that If anyyprovlsion of th}s'le~islatlon.orthe :applfcatioli thereof ~to any pepsoni or, clrcunistainces is ,held imwalid', the other ,provisionsS of, zhls,.leglslation, anc~ 'the ~pphcatio~, of Z such pro~*ISIOn to gther peisams or clrculnstanees sl~aU not ,be affected ! >t X 1.. a :a .. .. L: i s3 f1~1.1 r9 tl~ereby Ay{rY v,ry t?j>~1 s°~''3 a~~ilt'~1~'tr ial+u , r~ fl? I?i Yd2fI~ #' ~i~~ =~J~i~~.~~#1YI~1 ,Section M'-Effective date "Under this section,,this legislatlon tvould ta1~e effect.'1i80 days'after. the date of Its enactmeIlt `i ! ~ lavl H yY` tr} *tstik ~i rtt i1~';I!i'tt 1.' t ' 3iY~~7''3U~4 ~~Piil(~tF'ti.a~~a: ~'1~'tt7l..tti...SF}.r'± ! .I~l': SS~~£/x».'Li{~I~YAf{3}Il.}'! PI GEN , CY tREPORTS ~tt t~f "K, f' ~?l3--•DEFARTINENT -OF' H'EALTH~' EDUCATIObi,' AND WELFAItE, JiJE'~EJ :, ~i 4.., e2.ttt 9 r~' <1 tF ti~tf~ '~ HOII.'C'RH11T HAIiRISy ~J.af 3 aE,'.~f3~ili7T 9Jtr~ l'fi Y@y'" f,_'tlSli 1`k^~IYtI!~ ~~f`.'f~~ ~~" Cluairman~; Committee on Interstate c~~nd Foreign Coznmeree, lot s:~l sl ~: ~~p I10USe of tLGprCSPntQtL77PS, <rq; f.; Waslzington, D.C: .-u r.3~ J ~-rcl zf ~ DEAR MR. CHAIRIWIAN': T his letter'is m response t9yaur ,requests of February 15 and, 18, for reports on H R'3014 (to be known as the Fed'eral Cigarette r.abeling and Advertising;'A,ct) `and ~i.R. 4244' (to 'be known as the Cigarette Labeling Act); "(VRe assume that H.R. 3014 is, intended to, stipersede R!.R. 885,` b~' the samersponsorr on which we were asked for a report on Tw'ebruary:l0.)' ~,,; ` ~'his report is also applicable to'H.R. 4007 which~ Is identicali ~withi I3:R. 3014 and is included alona with, that bi11 and H.R. 4244 in the announcement, of your forthaoming hearings. ` ""' ' `' ""' ° •'''`' : ~ i , fi ~ d' ~i r V. ;~:). . . - ,~. . s., .. . .., ~; . .>, s r~ ~ ~ .a . (s~ ~ f4fi:e r;`i'; .a . t~?, ~a{ftlrt l)trtta~b'-fa I. DE3CRIFTTON OF THE :,BILLSJ-,lh3 cs ft:_~T11ii qAL hi.R.'. 3014 andi HI.R: 4007 would IxsAe it unllawful to`mianufacture; 'imlport,, or' package cigarettes' for d'omestic saie or~'distributilon, or for shipment to U.S. military vessels or shore-based activities wherever located~ unless the package (define3i to include an;y' pack or box, . _ ,.: 4;, ~. I
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FEDERAL CIGARETTE L'ABELLXG AND' ADVERTISING ACT carton, or container in which ci arettes are offered or sup lf'ed' to consumers).bears the statement "Caution: Cigarette Smoking illay Be Hazardous' to Your Health.'3' , The bill preseribes,'in terms dasdussed f`jbelbw, the -type size and placement of the -required statement oh the ` Iabel., No regulatory agency would -be charged with enforcement `of. '` the biPll but actions for injunction_ by -,the Attorney General acting through the U.S. attorneys would 1ie and tl~e violation,would e a ~mnisdenieanor sub'ect to a fine'u to ~10;0~4',=}h+ ,,~.. , c.t,.~t7 c,•r rtti7: ~~ `, The bills wou~d forbid" a'nj~ ~ederal' agency from requirmg .any . . l l . . 6 . i '...t ., . . "~ditio'nal cautionary` statement on a~I~ages labeled 'im conformit y ~ '-with the biTl and! would deliy''to$'the Federal Trade Commissionn "' authorit~ to require that advertisementa foT'.cigarettes' pa~ekaged' in 1eotiformlty ~with the bill include health-ha:zard vwarnings;, although in r;othere respects'the authority of the Federal; Trade ConSmission `with iyrespectiAQ false or •misleadmg advertisembnts of cigarettes is cstated iao be •unaffect'ed' :' In addition, `the,bi'llsi in' section 7 headed :.`f Ir''re. jemption'.' and apparently, :intended to be applicable at State andi loc''al -leRel$ ,"~reelude ,any, requirement .for: ~, ;health-risk warning in ciga.- :~~ette, 'abeling other than that speeifie& in the bill and any health-risk warning, requirement for ad'vertt;ising for cigarettes labeled in con- formity with the bilQl ; :.. ~ y H.R. 4244 would deem clgarettes ~o be m~sbi`anded unless'e'acli ' eonsumer package (whether: sold ind'ivid'uaTly oi ' in e; carton or 'case) , has prmted on it'the nicotme'and tar'~ontent of the total number of' ,cigarettes''iti the'paokage;,'arid t•he"words''"~Yar` "n~'ng=Cbntents'1VI'ay B'e Dangerou's to' Health."' ~i1'he bill would niake cbminerce in, or manufacture for commerce of, misbranded cigarettes unlawful and Aeem it to be an unfair method of' competition and unfair and' d'e- ..ceptiFe practice under the Federal .Trade;.Commissinn Act, which would be applicable ta violations of the provisxons of :.;tb.e bill, .,.In connectibn with vesting administrative responsibility for regulation of cigarette labeling, in the Federal TFade,Commissiony the bill would "'aut'horize the Commission to cause inspections, analyses, tests, and examiuaations too be made of any cigarettes whieh it:has reason to believe fall within the' prohibition of the bill and to cooperate with Federall,, State, and' local government agencies and: with . others on matters related to the purposes of'.the .bill.,.l 1,{t ~y7,w~VA ~. !'II. DISCIISSIO"!d 4.;t1 ~ , . - . (T ,,, The basic r objeetxves-. ' of .~.hese bills, fau~ w arniirig of health risks -to. the prospective aonsumer af ci arettes, aro, objectives that this De- partment strongly supports. '~~he report. of the - Surgeon Gien~eral'a ;expert Advisory Committee om Smoking and ~ieal'th; which has becn. !accepted by this Departinerit, ,concluded, om the.basis of prolonge~d study and evaluation 'of many lines of converging, evidence: that `.t`Cigarette smoking is a`health hazard of sufficient importance in the 2Umited States to warrant appropriate remdiall action" (p. 33),, a con- clusion, with which we fully agree: Summaries of'some of the inajpr findings and' conclusions of the Advisory Committee and of this Department's existYng'azid prQposedi activities in the field of' smoking and' health arecont'amed in opr report to you, dated J!une22',,1Q64„ :on eight bills rela:ting, to cigarettes and other smoking products. ;; . The .Surgeoni General of the Public Health SerRiae appeared and te~stifiedd before 'you on June 23„ 1964 s i,r;c1'eI,) og crfl Ge.e:fr.~ me
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'FEDE'RAL CIGARETTE LABELING 'AND' ADVERTISING ACT ~. ~r Acting upmthe eall of the Advisory Committee for appnopriate 'rernedial!action, the Federal Trade Cormm;ission, after'hearirlgs; issued 'its trade regulation rule of June 22,1964, recluiring, that; in connection with the sale, offering for sale, and' distribution in commerce "'('as }defined in the Federal Trade' Com::mission Act) of cigarettes, 'al1' advertising and, every pack or other container in which cigarettes are `''$old to the consuming public, disclose "clearly and' prominently A 't,hat ciigaretltiesmoking, isdangeroiis 'to he'al'th arrdl maycausedeath •'from' cancer and other diseases." `,.While origi 'nally made effective Je;nuary 1,'1965, with respect' to labeling and July 1'; 1965, with respect' to advertising, the Federal! Trade Com.Tr.ission, as 'your commrttee' is 1'aware, has at your committee's request also deferred the'effective de;te' ^ of the labeling requirement to July ~ 1 in order to give your committee an'opportunity to consider legislation on the subject 'T~'his D'epartment, as the major Federal agency charged witL the protection of the public health and ais :the'' agency. responsible for the ` administration of the Food,. Drug,"aiicd C'osmetic Act, the Fed'era1l Hazardous Substances Labeling Act; 'and other consum.er protection legislation, believes that labeling 'and advertising should, in~ general seive not only as a' medium of ident'ification and market prornotioniof ya product, but should', in the' interest" of' honesty andl fair dealing, meither mislead nor fail to give'the donsurner the inform.ation concern- ing the product that he'needs in order',to make an informed decision. This is especially so where the product has a potential for harm;;.and' all the more so wherechildren~and young people are invollved r`'We do not share the view' of those who assume that,, since the heatth risks of smoking have been widely publicized, na useful function would be served by including an appropriate reminder of those risks im infor- ; mation to the consumer. We believe; rathec,, that not only speciEiie 'warning, but also other requirements'to pre~-ent"misl'ead'ing statements ''or omissions in such promotional''material, would help to roundiout our °e:fforts' kiyway of public info.:rnation and education to impress upon the t ublic the hazards of smoking. This is particularly true m view of the ~act, a fact especially significant for young, people, that, as stated in' ;:the Advisory Committee's report, the "overwhelming evidence indi- Qates that ,smoking-its beginning, 'habituation,~"and' occasional' di's- continuation+-isr to a'"'large extent psychologically 'and socially determined." ~' _. Tli'e considerations argumg± fon appnopriate `regul'atioii I in this field are, moreover, sufficiently compelling to make it likely tbat in the absence of Federali regulation the St'ates' or municipalities, or a number of'them, would attempt to fill the void. With respect to advertising, such attempts would' largely be abortive because of the territorial limits'to State authority, the nature of'some of the advertising media,, and the exclusivity o.f' Federal control over radio, and television com- munication. Biut with_ respect to labelsand labeling such efforts could be more effective, with results that, because of the diversity of regulation likely to occur, would tend' to burden the industry far more severely than Federal regulations would be likely to do. In the case of'a product, such as cigarettes, which is shipped by t'he'manufacturere int!o, every State by ' the milliorts of packages, uniformity of labeling requirements would to be of the essence. It is no doubt because ' of such considerations that section 7 of H.R. 3014 and H!.R. 4007 provides for Federal preemption of the field. I3. IRrpt 449, 99-5--+2'
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u {,IO' .LFEDERAL CIGARETTE LABELI:NG AIVD AD'VERTISIIVG ACT . - ., .. . _.. .. . .. _ :.i.. ._...1.- .. ~ .....~:'.:~~5 _ ... .,v; ...... M . .<•.. 4..°.. . ..,, ~ ? : ./ , . . ~;We are encouiaged by ,and welcome, t':e`currenteffort of'the in- : dustry at:. self-negulationy as evidenced in the cigarette advertising : code' agreed upon by the cigarette manufacturers, which also `covers labeling and which includes. not only, a statement of' standards but ;:provisions_for clearance with an independent code administrator' by <,nuembers of the voluntary. system, and for pecimiary` sanctions and publicity by the administrator, against violators of the' code: ; An ,,adeduate voluntary program might offer a reasonable ~oltition to;'ad- ,,Yertismg problems, and' we support efforts in this diirectiori. L"'QPe note, ,however; that the codl~, though progressive iin a numbe'r`~ pfl ways, ,stoPs short of requiring an affirmative health-risk warnin t ,. r ,p.Ne believe that regulatrony whether voluntary or statutor" shouldi -,extend both~ to labeling-i.e.., any' written, printed, or graphlc matter upon or accompanying the consumer. package and carton-and to ;advertising (other.-than labeIing)' in its' various''forins. l~urther,, :,without in any ve~ay, questioning the Fedleral ;Trad+e Commission's =regulatory authority in~.this field, we have concllud'ed, a's 'indicated to your, committee last year,, that remedial action in this field should, ;;with, respect to labeling at least, include new and specific legislation. „and that in our view the most effective approach to labeling regulation (with respect to the health hazard from cigarette smoking) is to bring, the labeling of''icigarettes, by appropriate amendtnient, under the Fed- erall I-Iazardous,.Substances; ;Labeling, Act, where, it'could be readily ; fitted into the regulatocy scheme of that act and its enforcement. (While it may be argued that cigarettes already fall within the scope , of that act, we believe that amendment of that act is desirable to avoid , controversy on this point and.tlo adopt the labelmg, reqw:rements; etc., the' specific objective ) Such regulation over. .the advertising of cigarettes as may be needed, .'should, we believe', continue to be exercised by the Federal Trade Commissiony whether under existing,llaw or under appropriate addenda to the relevant` prov.isions,;of the Wheeler-Lea' amendment 't'o •the :,Federal Trade Commission Act (i.e.,' secs( 12'--16) of the act, 'which now prohibit false or misleading advertising of food, drugs, devices, and cosmetics. ; . . . >:.It 'should be ;emphasized in connection with the',`abowe-stated proposals' that coordination between administration of'' the Food', I~rug, and' Cosmetic Act and that of'~ the Wh~eeler-Lea 'a¢nendhlent .has been achieved without difficulty under a working agreement .between the two agencies ' In view of'the above-mentioned considerations, while favoi•ing the 'obj,ectiveof'these:bill's to,convey to the eonsurmera warningofthe!.risk to health, involved in smoking, we have several reservations about ; , . the present bills. 1. In the first place, it seems preferable, from the standpoint of flexibility ini the light of' advancing knowledge, to leave formulation of the precise warning required to administrative -regulation, instead of setting forth the warning in the statute itselfl. We, therefore, .: suggest that the Federal Hazardous Substance Labeling, Act be amended to autho-r.ize us, on the basis of the current state ofknowledgef at any given time, to formulate by regulation an appropriate warning,. Should the situation cf`iange,,e.g., should -research, or technical im- provements in the course of tiirne dev elop a cigarette that would' justify a reduced' warning or perhaps even its omissiony either for all .,- . -- i. ..., .,

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