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Lorillard

Chrysler Corporation, Petitioner, V. Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense, Et Al. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. No. 77-922

Date: 19790417/P
Length: 12 pages
03688464-03688475
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spider_lor 03688464_8475

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Author
Babcock, B.A.
Blankenstein, P.
Braverman, B.A.
Bryson, W.C.
Chetwynd, F.
Mccree, W.H., J.R.
Rolf, A.W.
Schaitman, L.
Area
LEGAL DEPT FILE ROOM
Type
PUBL, OTHER PUBLICATION
PLEA, PLEADING
REPT, OTHER REPORT
Site
N14
Request
R1-250
Named Person
Brown, H.
Brownell
Marshall
Moss
Rehnquist, W.
Document File
03688376/03688893/Litigation Volume IV 770168 Ftc V Lorillard Ad Subpoena Compliance Lorillard Ct Papers
Date Loaded
15 Mar 2002
Named Organization
Bureau of Foreign & Domestic Commer
Bureau of Internal Revenue
Bureau of Natl Affairs
Chrysler
Court of Appeals Dc Circuit
Defense Logistics Agency
Dept of Commerce
Dept of Defense
Dept of Justice
Federal Communications Commission
Federal District Court
Ftc, Federal Trade Commission
Labor Dept
Office of Federal Contract Complian
Supreme Court
Tariff Commission
US Court of Appeals 3rd Circuit
US Dc De
Litigation
Feda/Produced
Author (Organization)
Cole Zystra
Dept of Justice
Law Week
Characteristic
MARG, MARGINALIA
Master ID
03688376/8893

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f 417•79 ( Thr. Dnilwl Slrrtrx 1..18' RFC' ._ 47 LW 4,1145 m.. HIII Iu.IlnLlyt:~•I:IIaoLv,u:~th:.dl:l.nilla...... ludou.. 1 eix6 to rn;p6xri:r. thr ~nllal Ln . Gn tLo ~1 bri.iu u evlay TLIS rxn~ du.e Ilut rrvlnirc ns lo d.'trnuinr nluil;rrT nL..ut a ruupmvim:ul dlrrrtivr, frdi ~ml ap'urlos nmy nv:;lI mfurme- tiun o6teiarvl Juriug tlm uf th.~ir fw:rll~uE Fbr rhetrnl iu6l rr•Irt Ia', n¢: vr~~ bsr i: tLi, rr¢unlt t Ileb fodlide ag:urien fro;udivnlglug rormlu tyl.~' uf udurrwlIlul; Inl9r+a ;IicrL.vnrr ia inlL~lxvld, utly 'luVhknierd Ly Ia.r:' 'flmr, lhr ronlrulln;g la n tLis ru. ~ i..Ju~IL;r IlnUIYt'1' ;lim +" rlonnrn nyuletiuns, 41 ( Flt ip111191H tu tAlbu-0 I1PI5). .. Prnoid+• Ih;• rryniaitrdrgror of auWorizmi:nl f,v tlunwoq'.v proiw.:.l n'b=m.=, '1'h" ('ulnt Ihw tl;oy ;I:, ;,ut I..vu:r thc rcgulalims arr u+d wurlir:nrd dim9ly rr ludlnmrtly I+y Irvlrml 1LRielatemJ 6r inqw~iug thr aalLrmi~atLa; ro:luim nnvt nf : IIxl.1. (bugrecs o6rimlir lurmll lo xll.:e uulp tln~ Jieel..aavs rmtrluplnn.l by :.n,nl nrGou. .bJr. et 17@8_ (/thrrviA• tLr ap•I:ri.x ('uugn-F Inl:~lubd tu ruulrvl ruuLl errxly d:rir uN n rxmpliuus tu i I4Ri =in:Plr Ippmo:ul- gntiug vslld ~Ii.rlusumpR::lxlbua. FmJl.. IL.s1'uw1 IuJJe that ainrr 3111Ir•) oF the .Wu(udl Prr::.Jnr,.1.t n- quims ugsncy artiml to Im ' ill neonlaueo x'itL I:ru;' 5 1'. S. ('. $7tlti('JI(1), e mciruing wlvt rnu pmnvt uup dWi:uum tbat x'uuLl viulatr F 1slU+:' . ~'p.a av uv.Y1' nd:e: . I .......... lo .. .• u..lal. .nL iL:- l:Imnu.;uw, ;~.li..~.Ln. kr r . twe wkP-LnFn xLrtl..r nnuW ~6. .n JN n•rii m. n;. . u) B/uu, :drInnd: ;w. ,e . nnd ..... . ~IJ,-~M1.ma.: me. uur ;:rln-4ro Wur :II<L•.:n:ul I:. ILrnl'('('P mlooIxYu - mt "anllmrinJ Lp 1,11 xfur Purp:w nf : 1!R)$, Imwr. ~~•Imx mL 1 : Ih. nY~IInC~mo Ih"'wLI~; . nf.qntntun, iur.Jlrtlou. xnlL:vlry. r Illnitxti~ua~nr sLurov.rf aalutary riqLt" fur Iv;rpu of dm .bllnLllstvatlve 1'r , Lln Art. 3 1". H. (', ilxl rlar('I. Ax tl,u~ ('ourt nv- rrgul v. n:rt., ut 13 n. 411, t6a! iuqui vlr.r v.ry diR.mxt vJ.rndnua Iheu tlnnr pr ~In:~d in th:r iAUwt r ,1n- nl:uRlv :L: ml questln~ thr gr~; ral celLlitv r/f thne OFY'('P mgnlaliullF ur an:y ulh:^ nguletir:u+ pru;uvlusLd uelrr il'lll uf I:..onlirr~ 1)nlrr 1144!I. Snr du x :ridrr w6rlt.~ au }:A,.nli.:urdrr I .t Iafm ud:.l iI ; a h•gix lallrr r xrlu:ouL Thr 11:urY. LmutrliuY i w:ly tllat lilr llltt'('I'r:.gulellwail ve.hrrrvJulwt"anlLuriz;•"dteclueure aill;il:tll, rm~xuiaRrof:l'.xp, Nxn~J m: thie und..ram;dlnK, I I~iu tL;, ol;inion of tllc t'mut RtRI A NRAYtR4AA.anbinH'm.Df IFRAVCF.SCNRWYVD. t'111L/1'IHrRA&R4YNlD..nGA NI:LIAMRDI.P.dlAhimonlha Msp ev [rhlnmrr: RAMBARA AI LYr. 1111111 . Annlan: Arlnrnrv tlewrul INAIIL /1_ Mcf RH. JR . SJivmrGenerxl, W'll I IAM C. BRY SOV, A•.ieml In IEC lulimmr tknoA, I.FOVARD SCIIAITMAN, and PAUL RLAV AI VSTI:IS, )uar:.< C<V'+rlm<mm almrnep, wi;A Acr nn the [uiefl fnr ar.•ndrn:..
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-" 47 `LW 4444 (TGe Grdteal tisutes IAW \i'EE6 C 417 --1 ment of agenry policy eazlnut be the'Yuthoriz]ation] by lew" required by 11905. Tbie dieposition beet mmporte wlth both the purpasee underlying the APA and mund adminietrative prartice, Ifere important intrmata ve in conflict: the public'e ecce:x to intor- mafion in the Covcrnmrnt's filce and concenu ahout persoonl . privacy and busineea confidentislity, The OFCC:P'a regula- tiane atkrnpt to strike a Imlanre, In en.cling the APa, Con- grra made a j!tdgment that notiona of fairnen and informed adminietntive deciaionmaYing requue that agency d<ciaipne be mWe only after affording intcreetcd pexaona notice u,d an opportunily to eomment. With the ooneidmtion that is the nemteary and intended eonsequrnce of .uch procedurre, 0F(,CP re{ght have decLded that a different armmmodation wu more appropriate. 8 We reject, huwever, CBryeler'e contentlon that the Trade 8ecreta'Act a8orde a privare right of action to rnjnin dir ~- doeure'fn violatioa of the etatuk, In Cart v, AFh, 422 U. 8. 66 (1975), we nated that this Court hea rarely implied a private right of action under . triminal statute nnd where it hde done so "ttrere wae at leatt a atatatory baeie for infarring that a dvil uuee of action of anme sort lny in favor of semeono,"^ Ruthing in § IOVI promptc such an iid~•rrnee. Nor are other pertinent'clreumstnncrs outlined in Por! prrwnt hcrc. Aa our revkw of the Ieglalntivc hiaofy of g 1`KG- or leck of eeme-might suggrat, therc is no inrlivmiou nf Irci.la- tive intent tn nrrak a yrivak right nf artiua \lu,( inyn,r- tantly, a prin~a' right of actinn uoder 1 IOUi Is not "nrtrrn"ry to mekc effecUve the eungressinual yurpuec;' J.l. Cur Co. v, , BornR, 377 U. S. 426, 433 (1904) , for cu 6nd that ro,'irw of . DLAb drrLiun to dienloee Chrycler'e empluymimt dnlu ie av,ulablc undcr thc AP.4."' IV Rlllle Chrysler mey noE aeai7 itaelt n( any violetlunr nf the provufona of I 1005 in a sel!arntc rauPe of artion, any aurh violat)ona msy have a disposiCwr eBect un the uuGmnn of judieial review of agency action pursus:rt to 110 of lh< APA. Section 10 (a) of the APA plr,vides that "Is] Ix'rw'u nuHrring _legnl wrong bec.use of agency action, or adveleely el7ertrd or -Irggrkved by agency actlon ..., ie cntitled to judicial r.iew Nenof." 5 U. S. C. 1]03 ( 19Sd). Two rxmplimis W his general rulr uf revirwability.m s„t out in 1 10, Rrvienis rmt .val7ablr where °atatutea prerlude jurllrlal mvL'w" or whzre 'lgeney action u committed to agency diecretiun hy laa." S U. S. C. 1 701 (a)(1), (2) (1076). Iu Citia'ne h, Prrerrve Owrton Pnrk, lnc... Vofpe, f01 li. S. UYl, 410 flVll). the Court held that the Iatter, eaa:ntlun appllce "x7rrre'etaru[re ve drewn in euch broed ternu that in a giren raPr there is no I.w to apply."' Quuting $. Rep. No. 752. 70th (4c,g_. let Hem.,2B(19i5). WerewesimplymufronlMxiththeauthar- sAt tI g, ., C,.v (mnelr~- in nrulmn 'tl". ra,ip hd.l'n.e w n.n-,.a6" fntentm/'vm cs rnn,M"~ t6.n m,eFI unnrll.- In, m. WpmA.r\ finn vrd im m~fidm :md lu xek lin.l I'nn•'ninn i(,Lr rnpua nrc d-nianl." ld. ^ Cart v. A.A, e".' C. !L GL. ]9 (In:.i!. ine Mynnd,rtre rmnym.rn- Ibe Qe. v-CnRed $tnlm. 15(1 U-8. 191 (IW')t J. 1. Cme Ca-v. 9o.n2. S/9 U. 8. 426 (Ix l) , Tad d- Pn. ib, 6- Co r. RCp.AY, 241 U. P:p IDy0). ^Juridinlbn lo rrv nFVmy n nndor lLe APA u F,w"1 u"_8 U. g. C. j 1'ttl. W. Cduaw v. 6mL"r, 4% I!. & Tl f ID]i r (2ryrkr dm nnt qr. n tA'u Cnun, l td binw, pw l-t, rla6,e f oe am .vsp.dl, de. 42 U. S C. I'xn'C A(e) ei J i/ 1. 9. C. 1 a5ae. irslion in 5 CS S. C. 1301 to pmsrr.be reg'.Jnlians reFnrding "the tu=tody, uee and prearrrntion of lagencyl mro,de, pslers and property" it wmdd be difficult to drrive any etandanle limrting egeneY emidmt whlch mig6t cunelitutr '7sa to apply." )3ut our discuasiou in Part III demonstrates ~ that 119J5 and uty "acthoriala5on) by laa" ronkmpteted by that ece4ion placce eubstnnlivr limita on agnrey acti T3et'efore we conclude that DLA'e deciaion to disclosc the Chryaler reports ie reviewable agency arth., and Chrysler i. a persou 'adversely aBrcted or aggriev..d" within the mean. ing of 110 (e), Both Chrysler and the Gorernment agree that there is APA review of llLA's deeision. They dieegrrr ou the pmper sccope of revlew. Chrysler arguca that there 9muld he de nooo review, n'hile the Covernment contends that surh review ie only available in eatraordinary eases and tLie is not such a wew, Tha pertinent pravieians of q l0 (e) of the APS, 6 U. S. C. 17106 ( IV7G), provide Ihnl a reviewing rourl aLall "(2) hold unlawful aod act aaide ngency action, 6ndings, and mnelusim,s found tu yx, "(A) erb'itrury, eapririonna an abu®c of d'serction, or otbernise nut in aecurdnnec "lL law; "(P) unwarrankd by the fnrtF to the rrl.nt Ihel the farts are subjert to trinl dr nuvo by Ille rr.ie.ing courl" por the rnasnns previously Ft,vted, n-c t.9ieve any divtrxurr thnt vlob,n+ 1 I^(65 ie"inl i or~Imirc vllh In,d' aithm thr i n'ra rmlinuof" U-SC¢FI(3i21(A). Uenntnrevlahythc Distriet Court is ortlinarilv not nrmsssrn to deeidowhrllicr a or, mmrnydntFd d!eehoare rnos nto,d of 2 t9ni. The Ili,vlrt ///... ('olvt in tl:Lv eare ronrlndeJ thnt di.Josim of eomr of ~ CvyelerLP doruments n'as barrud by F I9q5, bnt Ihe Court of Apiwala did not reneh the L.~.ue We ehnll SSirrrfore oe<ate the Court of APfn'nls judgment and nmmand for further pro- ar.ling.P rons(stent v'uh (his opinion in order thnt the Court of Altpeala may ronsider whether the conlempleled discloeuree aould "olete the prd,ibltlou of I 1'JOS.'" S{um the iF'cicioh rl'Rnnling thl.v FuhPrsnllvf Irmll-tllr sco(e of 1 Ifxt.-xlil neerewrily Iun' mme „Ai+t u I thr I'wlx'r form of judicisl ra'lee' yura0arrt to t9tU1-?). x'e think it uuumnisery, and therefnro wiulm- at thn pn 'ut atage of thiF eaee for ue to exyrevs miy ndditionsl vir,rs on tbnt irsue. Vureted ondramended. \P, .h',nrr. S1.m.naz. euururring. I nvrr,-16u1 n-pd,n,tC Lrn).re.'d ~G.rhK ",f io6.rn,aNoo le ~in 'IInlhl hr Inu'itliln Ihc ' I. wing ul I81', R -C. § I!IIL",, i~d I Iherrfn,l'Inn'. Iln'i~l,ni len id~dn'(',nitl. 1) rrvtuN Ihr nwnlmr nnd a~ v„- nf tl,i' i-u.l I,nw.ilnl l(v thLF Mrryiam m~ Ge.n cr e,6,r un Ae, v..+l m. nd.nb o11:ALunn?lkPUidnn"ompL,n:o.ern.,n R4CPII1:t/]I119:11I nm. nl t lavl..in,l'lai tl~,.ne.m rhv WI A nurl,r pm,.t ,I"-u..-m- I I. ', I I II I r 41..a I,!"..ul m. 6 al mut c! I- d i n,nn .,( tte .imA,nl. M l.npuge Lri-e 4unqal n I.md ,L. .nltlmnirt i, uxuu yf 1 r!4[ ,~t~
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.i7 LW 4436 C.te United Shrtee LAW WEEK C 4-1 7-79 : corporations who benefit from Covmnmcnt oontracte provide equal employment opportunity mgarclleea of race or xa.' The ~U. S. Department of Lbor'e Office of Federal Contract Com. pliance Pmgame (OFCCP) hm pronlulgated regulations whkh require Government oontractore to fumiah reporta and other jnfurmatiun about thetr alfirtnative action programe end the general eompoeitiun of their work foroee.r The Defenae Logiatias Agency (DLA) (formerly the Defense SuppTy Ageocy) of the Department of Dcfense is the deeigd nated mmpliance ageney responsible for monitoring Cfiryaler'e employment practieeA.r OFCCP regulntiona.require that , Chrysler make avallsble to this ageney written alfirtmtive action progmme (AAPa) and annueRy submit Employer Information Report., known u F.EO-1 Reports. The ageney may aleo conduct "complianee rev4ewa" and "mmplaint in- yenti6ntiune," which culminate in Campliante Review Ro- porte (CRRa) and Complaint Investigation Reports (CIRs), aeepectively.• . Regulatione pmmulgated by the Secretary of Labor provide gor public diacloeurs of information from taeonkof the OFCCP and its nompliance agenciea Theee regulations state that notwithetending eavmption from mandatory diecloeure undcr the Frcerbm of Informar5m Act, 5 U. S. C. 1552, aretnrda obtained nr generated pureusnt tu Executive Order 11246 (w amended) ..-. ehal" he made wulablc for inspection and mpying ... if it i. determined that the requeated inepection or copying furthers the public iuterea0 uid does nut impede any of the functione of the OF(•CIP] or the Complianre Agencim eacrpt in the caee of records discloeure of which ts prvhibittJ by hw:'• • It fe the voluntary diecloeure contemplated by this reguletiori, u'er and above that merdeted by the FOlA, which is the ynvatnen of (Trydrda complaint In thu caee. Thie controversy began in May of 1975 when thc DLA informed Chryeler that third parties had made a FL4 r.qnestt fur discloeure of the 1974 AAP for Chryslere Newe.k, Del. uqembly plant and an October 1974 CIR fur the vme facillty. NYne daye lahv Chrysler objected tu relcaw of the mqueated information, relying on OFCCP'a dieclosure regulotions and onexemptionetntheFOiA. ChryaleralwrcGUestedampyof the CIR, einez it had never emn it DLA reapm:dnl the ` following week that it had determinrd that the rrynested material was aubject to discloeure under the F(ll.a, and the OFCCI' dierlnsure rules, and that hoth dncumenta would be releaseed five daye Iatar. On that day Chrysler fik.i a tnmplaint in the United States District Court for Delawere seeking to enjoin rrelea.r of the Newark dorumente. The Dintrict Cnurt grantal s lrmlwrary tEreeutfva Onter 112/6. 3 CFR 319 (t90Y19t5 CompI. pmhihur dGerimi®tieo on the Mw W'• emd. aow r mn n:d uhqn- d. nd pleyment or by m Gav..m.m ntr..uot. ." L'nder yvz r oue 1.7 n -Fscutive eNer. mon Gevemment gonn.rl. mue em,mi. . prei wbnba th• eaat-tor yrzee wt u d:erimi-te m eueh . n•M1ioa .nd b take .ElM1Uairn •rtuv to ennne eqnnl m,plmmmt npl"~nunliv. N'hh . pomnlp4cn ol Eea.n;ve Ordet 1137e, 3 CgR eef t1AVLln?n CNmB-). In 149}, Pts.idmt Jaan"n eatmdrd tha n9uireumY uf 16e ]sw5 uMer 1w proEibit dleeriminaion on Wr ben of ee.. . •u t7R Ileuta. so-lr (tvnl. • Tnr enn•enimee eA rtfer®eer wJl be to DW. •fd, Haa-1211, Eo-12f. 'Om teem "Jpl,.b.t .ay" pined rumney h the II,rly d.y ol rM N, I1ul u. dorriptiuo uf thr pml,r.ntrn ur se. aR"emm web ac P'YA .nd YWA. T6eo te•mnuloq mn'iml tu dmaribe 1Le pn:ml m vaey uqrvt. th.t Jw "rlpM1al'rt mnp" uf the Ne. Gwt rr..u, hy mmpurieon.. ~Inr bmth. •Id, 1awU3 W(un'/4 lbe tegnYtoN alw etate Ih=t F.FriI /eparta S6J1 ba deelsd, " id., 1 ee-eU.1, enE IhN AAI'e "m,..t te dit- doN' it ant fthw llmlhd meeptioro /d., H co-toi (L)11/. LO-iUJ. reetraining onlrr larring dixloaure of the Neuark do-umente and mquiring that DLA Sive five daye' notire M Chry+ler before releaxing any similar doeumrnte. Pursuant to lhle order. Chryslcr waa infonned on July l, 1975. Wet DLA had received a slmilar requrst for infonnnlion shout (R,ryrlrr's Hamtramck, Mirh, plant- Chryaler amendrd its mmp7ast and obtained a reatraining order with regard to the llnmdamrk discloeure ee w'cll. Chryelcr mar7o three ergnmrnta in suppnrt of ile prayrr lor an injunctiom that disclosurv was barred by the FOI.9; that it was Inromietent with IS U. S C. 11905. 42 P. SA. 3 C01%h~ 8(e), and 44 U. S. C. R 3:i6Y. which for enx of reference will be mfcrred to ae the "eon5dentiality datutea": tud fir.ally that'discloaure wes an nbux• of egrncy diumGon insofar ae it ounflicted with OFCCP rulre. The Dlstrirt Court held that it hed jurisdiction under 2R 11. 9. C. / 13.31 to subject the dieclneure docision to review under thr Admini.trative Pn* oodure Act 5 LC S. C. ¢p71tI-700. It rondorted a trial do not» on all of Chryslrr'a claims: both sides presented ezten.iva rxnrrt teatimony dunng Auc'let 197.5. On Ap.it 20. 1970fl the DisUlct Court iseued ih oPlnion. It held that rertain of the reqursted informetionn the "menninq" tablee, fell within Exemption 4 of the FOIA) The Distrirt Court reeaoned from this holding that the tubles may or must be withheldd depending on npplirshlz aTr•ney regulatiar,e. and that here s goveming regulnlinn required that the iufonnat,en be withheld. Puraunnt to 5 U. S. C, 130L the enahlilg etatra, which givice federal depnrtmrnt hesds control uver -depurtmrnt remrds, the Srrrrtary of Labor has promulgated a regnlation, 20 CFR 1 70.21 (e1 (1877), etating that no ofBcce or employee of the Oepartmrnt is ta violate IS U. S. C. 11905. That aretiou imlwree criminnl tanctione on Covernmcnt em. ployeea ahn make unauthorieed divlnsure of certain clas.ue of bdunnatlon auhmittrvd ta n Oarrnmvnt ngonry, inrludh'g trede nranla nnd em,fidenrinl atati>ticsl data. in xwnrr the District ('ourt rred € 190.5 ee not mrrrly a prohibltion of unauthuriu.rnl disaionure of ar ~.itive infonnatinr. bv Covrm- ment e'oployroa but as a rosrrirtion on official agcncy actione taken pnreuant to promulq:rlyd reg~latlcna. Both sides aplwalyd, sud the Court of Appeals for the Third Cirevit varnted thn Dislrlel fburCsjudt;mcnt. It agn'ed aith the Di+trirt ('nurt thnl thr FOIA daee not rmnlwl witld,old. ing of information that .'alls w-ithin its nine ranuptioru It aix•, like the Dix'siet Cnnr1, rrvjected Chqxlrvr's rrlianre on the mnfidrntialitpstobtlrs, cithr,r beceuse them n implird privatr right of action to Prnce.d under the atnwte, or becauce thx etatute, hy its terms, mas not a, pllrable to 4.z informa tlon at irane in this cax-It acr.rd uith ehe Di=tdet Caure that snalYels must proc.,d undrr the APA. But it disagreed with that eourte interpretation of 29 CFR 47021 (a). By the tern,e of that regulntion. rJle aPeeiGed discloxuree am only proerrilvd if "nut enthoriud by Iaw." the etandard of IS U. 5- C 11405. In the Court of Appeale' vdew, disclosures made pursusnt to OFC('P dierloeure rcRUlations are "author- imd by law" hy virtur of tho:w mgulatinns Therefore it held tAat 20 CFR p 70.21 (a) w® iuappliceble, The Court of Appealn also disagrced with the Dietrict CourCe view of the senlw of review under Ihe APA. It held that the Dietriet C urt ern•d in conducting a dc notv review; review should have been Iimited to the agency record. How. avrr, the Court of Appeals found that record inadrquate io this uee and directed that the District Court remmtd to the agency for •upplementatlun. Because of a ecnfiiet in the • Mannlne Ixhla en Swt. nf job I ltle• .nd nt the wmfier of penple ~ho pMnrm evh N,h. Q
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( The 6'nited Seuera §.AW WEEK C This oonclusion is further supported by the kgialative history. The FOIA was enarWf out of dieeptixfaclion with 13 of the Adminutrative Proocdure Ar.t, which had not re- wlted in u rnuch disclosure by the sgrncire ne Congreae later thought desirable.'• Statements in both the Sr'tute and Ilouee Repocte on the r%ect of the exemptions support the interpro- tation that the exemptiona were unly meant to pvrnnit Ofe agenay to withhold certain informntion, and wcre not mrant to mandate nondieclosure. Fur example, Ote Iloux Report ~ st.tee: .. . :`[The FOLS] sets up workable standards for the eate• garin of records which nwy be exempt from disclasure.... . . There may be.legitimst<reasone for nondisclosure tnd [thc FOIAI is designed to perrn3 nondisclosure in such aues. "[Thr FOfA] liete In a latcr subsection the epeci& ealegoriee of infot'mation which nloy be exempted from disrJowre." - . - We thereforw eoncludc that Congrem did not limit an ageney e dlseretion to ditc]oee infunnnat'mn when il en.r4v1 the - FOIA. It neeeeeerily follawn that the Act duee not aBord Chryeler any right to enjoin agency dieelaeure. III Qtryeler eonknde, however, that even if ita suit for injunc- tiva relief cannot be based an the FOIA, euch An ectian rwn be premiaed on the Tradr. Seerete Act, IS U. S. C. 11905. The Act providn: "Whoeva, be.ing n offirer or employee of the llnite.l States or of any department or agency thereof, pnblieha, divulges, dierlm..r, or makes known in any mnmter or tu .ny extent not authoriaed by law any infornlation cnming to him in the oourae of his employment or official duties or by reasan of any exunimtion or imrntigation mxle by, or return, rnport or record made to or filed with, such department or agency or ofiser or emplayee thereoi which information concerne or relatee to the trade serrete, prorearee, operatione, etyle of work, or apparatus, or to the identity, oonfidentlal statistical data, amnunt or source of any incomq pr'rf3ts, losee.v, or expenditares of any person, firm, partnership, corporation, or aeeociation; or permita any inrome return or copy thereof or any book containing any abstract or particulars thereof to be seen or examined by any person except ae providcd by law; ehell be fined not more than 11,060 or imprieomd not more than one year, or both; end ehdl bc removed from office or employment." Thers are nea•uarily two parta to Qtryelrr'e arptmvnt: that 11905 is applicable to the type of dlsnloaure• threatened in Ihie cax, end that it affords Chrysler e privete righ t of action to obtun injunetlve reBef. '(A) wuuN Rral Irade reertte or pririksud or molidealial eommer. Eal a 6oanew mlwmetim oWained !r® eay paem ,.,, f1., f 135f Id (2) BI. ergctm 3 of the antirul Adminrotntive Pletedura An prv.drd Ihel ao yemf ehould tanenlly P'N'edl or make ereJ.ble urpmirtim.l dar4 gtoenl Mar®enea of pdiey, Wer anA 6eal orden. Ex.eylice wr a,de br euttne "rtrtuiriur, aertry u he yuNie oterni or'nletioe olrly o Ihe mterml men.gement nf u yen.y." 'ITw onpual •vam ef 13 .ae •q led .ith pe.aee of the y01AA g,e EPA r. YieL, elU V. g& fg (Im3). H. R. Rep. No, t197, StIh C t.. 2d gne.,9, e-] (19ee) (®pheaia addrd/- gee ahw 9. pep. No. e13, e9rh Cone, lw f4en., 10 119651. Caneremuo A1n., the Ilouee eponmr u! Ihe yOfA, d.anibed tbe ermV tleae m the Nwy Ilnnr u iediuant .hut duvmmu "oyv be wiWhdd." 119 Cuue. gec.. 13a1 (19A6). A The Conrt of Aplunls he!d Ilmt ; 1!YMS 111 not nppfienblc to the sgr'np• discloeure at iasne here beceuse eucll disclnsure was "sutherisetl by Inw" with'm the mrfnling of the.lrt The court fonod the wurrc of Ibnt authnrization to he Ihr OPCf'P regnlatlone that DLA rellyd on in derid'mg to divlnee Infnr- metion on the Ilnmtramek and Sewark planla.'r Chryslrr mntrnde hore that these ageney rrgnistione are nol '7au" within the meaning of $ 1905, It has been established in a variety of contexta that praperly promulgatcd, eobetantive esrncy regulntions harc the "force .nd rffect of las."" Thie dnctrine le so well es6.Mishel that agrnry regulalions implt'menting federal rtatutee havc been held tn pre-empt state law under the Supremecy Cleuse'r It would therefore take a clear shoxing of eontrery legieleti•-e intent before the phraxe "huthorired by law" in § 190,1 muld be held to have a narrower ambit than the tradltional vndentanding. - '1'he origine of the Trade Secrete Act cen be traced tn Rev. Slat 3167, An Aet which barred unanthorizerl dixdoeum of speriged business information by Covcrnmcnt mvenue ofii- «n.'e There is very little legislative hittory concerning the original bill, which wae pamrd In I3GL It we.v re-suuarvi numeroue timea, with some modificalion, end remained An of Ihe revenue laxw un51 19i91' Congrecsional ataMmenta marle at the time of these rrnenactmente indirate that Congre•e waa primarily conrerned with unauthoriu.d dieeloaure of bur- .nren informatiun by feckless or corrupt revenue ngenta,^ for in tlle eerly daye of thr Rurrnu of intrewl Revenuq it wiu tlre 6eld agoute xho Aad aubetontial rontart wRh ounfutanlul hnanrial iuformation.° ./.1 CFR 1160 .Ml tn 9e.efH. •EE p.. Bntrolun v. Fro^eh, 13: l. g. U6, C5 n. 9(19)rl: Fai r, fmmi0,m:n S.1'm.Mi:etmn Sere, 3]5 L'. 9. 217, = IIA'.'J. t'e;hd Stuta r. Afrrakb, 361 Il. 8- 191.IW~ 119c01; Atetiroq T. R S.1'. R. Co. v. &a.Gtl, 30c U 5. f. t,171 1193TI. ^ Fa W v. D'eitrd .StW ra, .Trl'L'. g_ 215 (1963)', Free .. Blmd 2IA lt. E. 6&1 /19tQ1' Fva'%n t'Nain Commuaion v. L'nited 9aree, 3ta Il. S, 63I 11959). - Rern'.ue Art of 1604. rh. 173, 135, 13 F.t. 22g. . n'ITmleetvenlon•eeeudifiMeeisll.g.C.1-16(1&0) '. "]t alull be unlewfnl fin euy rollrcteq depurt rollmtor,atent, r4rk, o Mher olrire or pluvee of the t'nlteJ Stax to dinvlte or m m.ke Ima- w en1 me em pluve e .hsnr t pmrWM by lew fo am- vnen the op~r m, nak o nrk or uf Iny mrnufenurrr nr pnNurrr virifed by tiun in the ierh,rye uf bw afflrul duGee, nr fhe nmaimt, nnree of Imvmq profim, Ira+., etryndi!urre, or eny MnhWer Ihenr,f, at fnrth or diednwvl in any In e retnm. ar m prrmo .ny m n•py thermf o eny Lrok ~teinlns nn) elnlnetor IwnLaUn Il.mnl tu be 4 rd by any 4eteon nrepl u pm•'Ided blla.; and a shall be unlew4. 1.1 min (nr .ny pemn to Priut or puhlieA ia any mm .'hne n not proridfd by hw rny inwae, ptogv, k®n, or <.prnditur.e el'I+e^M in any Lm,n, em rn5 olfenre elphm4 the fen[alM W^vwn ddl be a mMemeumr end be punulsd by a fine not e.mdiM $1 " I or by knpwmment nct e.reeding o r, or bvth, at IM 3'wrrtiun of Ihe murt', and if IM oRmdrr M a ud~rer, o employ,e al tbe 1'nn,d 81.1. ka.hen G dienive,t fmm nlTn er aiw.harxM lmm emf.bw,em- wgee, r. p., 2L Cung. Rm.6E0.1 (1a0!) (gen. AWnrh) Inpm.ing mao un Ibal u:r.yr+i eonSaentiel infnmutinn h"to be mmed mTr en tM knder n.rriu M fmrly paid nvmue arente"); N, 6921 tSe. Se/kr) (mPo:M rttvNe b Ue'idk rurioei'y nl a rc•mue oGnr"). Are aten Cw{. CbLr, 39th Cou[.: lu gnu.,' (t6611 (R.p. Rrowe) (eepneeiM eonsrn that 1814 rw n prn.i:one wruld rlle. 'e.ery tink Petl> eEimr" to hlratiOte the.Raln u! pri•t t q. d'Ibn .e. rlnuelly nu 0.'.ehiMl n buiv ueeq.~rrary etxled br rhe Aet M July 1, 16E2, 12 Qat 432, We Eatnre tc .hieh the prznt Interoal 14.eoue Nervim an M Inml. Ae.areM1en mlon thet dnnM'he (lvJ war ei% ef the olrnnuce ef fAe 9mmu of Intenul Reenue.e.e ur. rkd am a the 6eld='weluding tbe e.rswe and Mlrrtion af tvu, the hareatinr, of .I>(eale, and punirhmenr far rnuN"-erd Ib: helanee N P IF OP
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47 LW 4440 ~ Tlee L'nited Statee L4A' WEEK l.. 8rsot by any means uiepositive, it doee ehnl rome light on the inlent of the eneeting Congrt•ae. See Red Llon Brvmd. aostinp Co. v. FCC, M5 U. S. 867, 9H0.381 ( I9fA) ; Federot Houanp AdminidroHow v. Ths Dadfnyton, (rrr., 358 U. S. $4, - OD (1959). In sum, we conrlude that I 19U5 dars eddreee for- nal ageney.ction .nd that the.pp.opriate inqniry ie whether OFOCP'e regu6tioru provide the "authoriz[etiun] by lew" requin.d by the statute. In order for A regldetion to frve the "force end effect of Iaw,^ it must have eertain eubetultive eharacterietim and be the product of certain prorednrel requieitre. The central distinction unong agr•ncy rrgulations found in the Adminis- trative Praavlure Act (APA) ie that bet.<eu "substantive rules" on the one hand and "interpretive rules, general etate. ments of policy, or rules of egrncy organimtion, prucedure, or practice" on the other.^ A"subetnntive rule" is not drfmM in the APA, and other authoritatire sources eaentislly offer definitione by nrgetive inferenm." But in .71nr6nn v, Ruiz, 415 U. 5. 199 (ID74), we uotM a chsractcristic inherent in the wntcpt of ."eubtantive rule," We dewrid..d e subelan- tive rule-or a"legislative-type rule," id., at 236 -ue one "eHecting inrlividual rights.and obllgntions" ld., at 2J2. This charonterietic is an important tooahslmie far distinguish- ing thoee rulrn that may be "binding" or have t7ie "force of law." Id., .t 235, 236. . That an agency reguletion is "eubsWutive," hoxrvrr, dcee nnt by itself give it the "force tnd effect of lew." The legiela- tive power of the United Stetee le vested in the Congress, and the exercise af quasilog(slative authurity by govrnunrulal departments and agencies must be rooted in a grnut of such power by the Congress and rnbject to limitationa which that body impoee.. Ae this Court noted in B¢ttertan v. Frnnru, 437 L'. S.416, 425 n. 9 (1977): - "Legislative, or substantive, regu4tions am'ieeued by an -- an the PnNie. Informerion Beniun uf the AJminwrmrive Peu.dnre Aer 31-JT (Jeee IOer) /18 U 9. C. I IDU6 em.ng Ihe "narly ]W etaruns" menrinont in IN Huue Rryon). Moit reonllY. 'm ile npwt m IN Govezommt in Ihe Sunehine An, . the Hmue Caramiu<e oa Corrranrnt Opentrwu oMerved: 'fT)hn Trde 9enm. Art, Ig U. g. C. I I9115, whkb rrhr.. ~mh b IN diwdaeux nf Inlormnlim vh<re diulwvn ie 'eot nurlwriv.I by Iav' would rwt permil th. .nLhtldiry nf inlorm.tiou olEer.w. me.~ind ro be dieeloeN by the Frad,m of Intormatxw An, ema Ihe Aerlnurc i. IAere uahneired by Ir>.. T6u, for reample, Q mnleeyl da na rilhiu IN br.ad trede eevms ea.mwun einN Ihe RM•en ol fnfomw alea A.w, eeerinn I91M woulE rrnljueli~ly w .irhboWmg, on IM urb.r Mnd, H aurered L.irhin Ihe In2e „«rne enmption of the Frmimm ~f ILdur aulinn Aet amt Iherefure eubjrcl lo divrlo:umr if Ih• e6enry drt nninPo thaz dh<•lwurr b In lhe publie Imemxr, neerbn Iaci m,.•r 1. nr,id.r,d tn ee.erteiu vhnWr lhe eRVnry'x forbldd.n Inrm d.•dwiue Ihe m:umu- (Ire." B- R. Rep. Po. em, 94L Caog., 2J Srw., at ?J 1191fi). ~ 6 U. 9. G 4 i59 Ibl, (d) (19"5) - e Neirhe< Ib,. llw.n ror Fmtr e<fon nmml,rnl m<xpo'~nd an rbr dl. linellun In prlo we h..e eive xht io Ihe aunrn+p fm. eral'. Manual ra theAdmmetn0.e PrmM, rniu+ Ae( fl0+b, - c nc Juetim Drywnrnent vu he..ily uvol.eJ m Ihe I~x~~Wnm prwe..lh,.t I®ultrd iu the A<I'e en mrnt m 19V0. Se< Vermon[ 1'uM.. A'ndwe Pevae Cory7 v. NRDC, a5 I/. 9. 519, 5rn ( I9'9/, poa.e R.a t- foo r. 8fe<rnaiane, 3b1 eCK (flUq; 6'n<N &W<e v. Lu<ra, 35t U. g. 91. 56 (1966), The hlanuJ rtfere to eubnrmtin ruln ae ruln tECt `mylvmml" IN •etnle •3vA rvlu luvr the lar.e .od LRrvl o! Ie..' Muxul. .l .tn e.9. In rnn mel k eutCale Ihat "inlerymtive rula" eud "ye.xeal tt.re- meafe ef Pollry" do a,x heve IN fana aed eR<.y a 4., taterp/enve . ruler sre ^.yy ly an egrvy to edvwe the wMie af Ihe er^~'rf aw- etruetbn ol IN nawr. and rvye .h:1 4.mwlaYlen.' Itid. Oeemt tta/mmta uf paiey ue 'pamen4 Yeued by ce egprp b.d.6e 16e .. yuhlie prnpo-.ti.elY a IN mnnner ie hirL IN ep.uq prepwm to em- dte A diecmvaerr pawer.' l6id. &s Jn ]rvl Aepwt ef Atlorrcy O.m•d1 Commntee ue AdminwlnIlw Ymadute Y! (1911). I 1 . egrn[y pursuant to stetuMry alrlhority end .. irnplr- nwnt the slelute, as, for example, the prox)' rulrs 1seuM by the Se vrities and ExcharIge Commiseion .,.. Surh rulee have the force and effect of Iaw:"' ^ Liltewiee the promulgatinn of theee rrgulatione mart eon- form with any procedural rcquiremenre imposrd by Cangmv. Marton v. Ruie, suprn, at 232. Far egrery dis<rrtion is not only limi4d by eubntenrive, stntutory grente of euthnrlty. but alsu by the pracedural reqviromenla wAich "assorr• fsirne® and mature oooeidrration of nllce of general sppiicolian" NLRB v. IFymnn-Cnrdnn Cn., 394 U. B. 7G9, 71H (IM'dl), The pertinent pnxeLural limitntions in this cace are thosc found in the APA. Thn rrgastinns reliM uu by the Covrrnmnrt in thh ra.w as providing "eutlmrizlntion] by lnw" within Ihe menning of S 19W cortaiuly sRectindividunl righta end oblignlioiv: thoy guronr the public'x right to iufumlelian In remrdk oSteinrd nnrIrr p)xorutitv OlJer 1 t2.tG and Ihn ron6,lrnliality rig5tluf tho..c who eubmit informtinn to OFCCP and its compllnncn agcnrles. 11 is n mueh rloeer queslion, howeveq ehether Ihey arc the product of e rosgmaional grant of Iryielslivc authority, In his publishwl memorandum setting forth the disnlosun regulnlions at issue in this case, the Secretary of Labor states that the auUwrity upon which trc mlies in promulgating the regrlntinne ere p 201 of Sxerulive Order 11246, aa amrnded. .nd 2J CFR 1 79.71, which pennite units in the Depsrtmrat of Lnbor tu promulgote supplrmentel dlreleeure n•gcintione mnsietrnt with 29 CFR pt. 70 and thc FOIA. 38 FM. Reg. 91D231B4 (f979). Slure materials that are exempt from disclosure under the FOIA are by virtue ar Part II of this opininn outside the amhit of that Act, the Government cannot rely on the FOLS as rongreseional authorizstion for disrlosum rrgulations that I'rrmit the ielcasc of infornmtion within the Act's niuc exemptione. Sertlon 201 of Executive Ordcr 1129 direct, the Secretuy of Labor ta "adopt such rulee and regulations and isue such onlers ae he deeme nemsanry end appropriate to achievx the pnrlmnca thcmof;' Bnt in onler for ench rogulntione to hhvr•n thc'7nrce and t'liert uf Inw,"it is nuredoary to eslablish a nexns betxeru the rcgulslivua and some debgation of the mquiyte legislative authority by Congrrss. The origine of the congres. iouel nuthority for P:eerutive Onh•r 11246 are somr.hnt obxvm and havr t~ern nnmdly drbetM by commentslnn and eourte." Thr onlrr itw•I/ae emrndrd rslabGehee e proR•.m to elimnrnlr emplayrnenE disrriminetiun by the Federal Gomrn- ment snd by thosr, w'ha benefit frum Covt'rnment eontrarls. For purpofes of thie onsr•. It is not nttvssury m dreide ahrllier Exccutivc Order 11246 es anlended is euthorizrrl by the Frderal ^ Qunriux II 9, Ihrynmeot af Jisd,e, Anomry Oroari'e Stanu"l ca ILe Adwb•evcrl.e Pronelurn A.i 30 n. ](16f), r'9ro, e a, C~ntmrMn M.4, rl Enam Pe.m.vieaniu.. 3erretuey rf /uAor, N: F RJ 159 (/-i9/, n-n. JnnuJ, YH L. A Rf (ln: I): llmenge on Ihn PAJu/, IVbin pL,n nnd P_ 991 b,Jom /he 9ulxomm- on IY9entim. rl Puw,n d IN 9erure I'nmm on tbe fnJieiary, 91. Cunr. le Sm (19rA) I Lu¢e, ]Te Bu;elm uf FintJa)'ment Quolee, 1970 w. L Aev. EU; LrLLm, Prd.nmul Tm.vwnt in lM B1ineJ llni4lint TrWu: Aa Annlre4 nf m, phdad. .IMna rkn, 6e Groen L. 14v. g4 /lwoll Nnln The Phi6delVbi. PLa: A 6iudy u IN Dyneplus nf FSwvtl.e h-er, 1B (LI. L. Rev. 11v IIWY): No/e, Llmutlve Ordrr 11116: Aatl-Il.rnml- aer:un OeJiyeli<e. Iw port.nmrat Cmtreere, N N. Y. U. L Hn. 560 (la9e). The Eeaverllve erdnr IIMt merey Latet that H 1 pramWpid •fu]sder end ps Inea cf IN authurilY vertrd "m flbe Pr<rideall a tbe United twtm by t6e Cceeriwti® ud rtauts a Wt UnNed 9Ytes• g ClTt m (ID01-196f Cbrnp.h ~ . . .
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ThP United Stnlrs 1 AW W'C'( 47 LW 4437 eimuf4"and the generel importance of thzm "mverer-FOIA" we granted certiorafi and nnn' vaeate the judament of seez , ge.. the Third Circuit md remand for 6xther proce'rdin 0 II We have decided a number of FOIA eesn in ehe last few yeen.' Althongh we be•'e not had to face equn.ely the qlmo- Gan whether the FOIA er propno vlpore forbids governmental egeneiee from discloeing certnfn classee of iuformation to the public, we have in the course of at least one opinion intimWd an annwer.' We have, moreover, consistently revognired Ihet the basic objective of the Act in diacloeure,^ In eontending that the FOTA bnrs discioeure of the rrqwmted . equal employment opportunity infurmation, Bhryeler rnliee on .- the Aet'e nne exemptiona and arguee that they require an agency to withhold exempted material. In this easc it reliee specifically on Exemption 4: °(b) [FOIA] does not apply to matten that are- `(4) trade xcreta and commrroial or finaveinl informs- tion obtained from a pere.nn nnd privileged or c'onfiden- tial .. . P 5 U. S. C.; 552 (b(4).. Chrysler avntenda that the nine. evrmptlons in grneral, end Exemptlon 4 in perticulec, rrflect a sensitivity to the privacy " intereste of private individuals und nongovemmental enlitiea. That eontcntion mey be tvuccdcd without inexurnblv raquiring the oonctusion that the exemptious imposc alfirmnlive dulies on an agency to withhold infurnmtion eouqht." In fart,that - rCampre 6'nMnpMuee Erertrir Corp. r. SrNr:+pre M1I^ T L 1190 ® (PAi 19t6)f rrrt deRml.4x1 V.5 m4/11r:]/. rilh.vrnr.. NerLwR ACo. w Rrkerd, S:J F. 2d 1191 fCAi I9rtl1; Crn.eat Dyenmrn Pory, v. Nar•ANl, SYL F. Yd 1211 IC~ 19]bl; Penn.al.Po, v. fl'(', 534 F. 2d ' 527 ICAS IY61Chrt R Pk "A: i Dnf llf/D r'aeereermne. v.rynrm-[ o, -C.8, App. D. C.-, 519 F.2rf 9,15 11!C51. •AZRB n. RubMn. 1ve nnr! RnM,.r Co., LTl U. V. ?14 11999); lkyarfinent of Air Purce v. Rwr, 4'li 11. S. &SR (Iii PAA v. Rndert- ern, 49'_` U 8. Y55 (1955); SLRR v. ,4un, RoeDVrk it Cu., CI ll. 9. 132 pWSL ReneFolbUrm Bdd v. Cmm.on AOoroft Hspineedny Cnrp., /'1 U. 8. ID9 (19]6); Renrryutiolnn BA s. Bmmervoff C/ofAine Co, 115 ll. g. t(19141; EPA.. Nbu,119 L'-3 43 (1973) . •"RuMrtbn Ib) of the Aet o ulee nine nmptlnm from mmrelkd dr.rbenree. 'Inen vemnl;on. an e.pnrirlr mnde e.eho-i.•, 5 u. g. C, /SSY (e). •nd an phinly iutendM In eel up mnrretG wmkehle •renderdr far delerminin[ vletMr penirohm molerinl maF he .ithlrrhl o wt be d.rb. 1." EPA .. Nink,l1o 1f.8, r8,'!9 I19l9) (empMe. •dded)i t• We oh•erved in D.paedrrnt of <Ae Air Fomt e Roeq 425 U. S. SR, Jel IIDre), tbet "d:viaurt, mt rrm u the domirurm nbjr.rim of the AeC" The Lge/etive Cbrnry t mpkra wioh rtfrmren to Cenrnw' drtire lo baen Ihe yenry'r pip on the drta uMal)'inf seremmmml drr'menukins. •Artrmmnllr briety repuinw m informM, intellirrnl elMnntq nd tM urr~ 'ytd';enaaftheelatnrerever/nnelhemWhyeldrprnmiryofnemfor- ytim veree .--. (T6e FOIA) prneidnr the nercnnry m•rhine.y b ' bZ yt9n the n'atlavy, of Gavemmrnt intormatian nr..xvey lo rn in. te" {l R Re N9r 89th Can ]d Pev IS t+ p o f rmdd etteton S 'oe...,,. (:g'8). •.illhdyh the thmry of an infnrmed eletnnte ie rit.l to the Frnrer npnxfun'of. demormrv, there u ovhrre in nur N••^ot le. a mlme vhirh •firmi pmvldee for Ihm rnfnrmnekrn" g. Rep. Nn. PIJ, a9th Cwg.i tel8em„ i (19&5). - n8s~ e. e, A A Rep. tia. U9], P9th Cons., 4d 8e.r., 10 (19G8) Imphseis added): •[f}rmP'ion 4) w.uld av-em the mnfidrmiolity of informnrnm aboinM by Ibe Cwetnnrent through VumJODUTirn or Ihranph mvrrial mbmiued enE dr'aum made ie CrnrMum mrh u the mMiolinn of Inb.rm.noge- pst ronlroeuein. it mempre enrE ma er61'J It wmJd nal ru nrly b.ede yub5r by the pemn from wtom's vae obminM by the Covem- wa .... if would ... Indudo Infamu mn whlrh ir sivm lo an .'.epsry \ tmedeaee, unee s eirirn mvt be eble In ranaEe in hb Goe- '~masn, ltaree•rr, eArre the Cavemm.nr Aae obliyated iree!/ tn yonJ mnelusinn is not eupporlnl by Ulc longungc, Ingic or Ii of the Art. ThoorgnninN,ionnftheArtiaetrnightforwnrd. Fnberctian (e), 5 C. S. C. 1552 (s), placos a general obligation on the agenry to make--informatlon availsble to the public end ects nnt rqMrific modes of dieebamre fnr ecrtnin clmxa of informa- tlen. Suheectlon (b), 5 LL S. C. 9 552 (b), whicL liste the exernptimte, simply etares that the specifin3 meterinl is not eubject to the disclnsure ohligstions set out in subectlon (a). By its ternu, subsection (b) demarcates the limits of the egeney'e obligation to diecloee; it does not foreeloee diecloeure. That the FOiA is exclueively a diselaeure statute is, perheps, drmonetrsted mast couvinringly by cxamining its provision forjudicial relief. Subseetton (a)(4)(19) glveefedetal district cuurts "jurisdiction to enjoin the egonry from withholding aecnry records and 1u orrkr the production of any agency recnrdsimproprrlywiWhcldfromthecompts.inen0.^ 6U.S.C. 15,52 (a)(4)(B). Thet provision does nnt give the nuthority to her disrlasum, and thus fortifiee our bclief that Chrysler, nnd enurla whieh have ehnrcd ite v/eer,hove inenrrect!y inlrr- proted the exemption prnvisians to the FOIA The Aet is an sed,m)rt to meet thc dr'wnnd for open government wl;ile prreervir.g worknhle coufirlentiality in govemmenlnl d.eisinn- making° Congrca appnv'ieted thnt wiLr the expanding ephrm af govrmmeetnl regulntinn and enlerprise. mueh of the infurrrmtlon within (lovenmlent filex he., hern enbmitted by privale en5tice eroking l.uvrrnmunt enntmrls or respnnding to nnroudlticnei rrportirg nbtil;aticns imi hy In•v. There was erntimnnt thol Cn;r nmr^nt ngr•noies shonld lrnve the latitnde, in cerlnin r' ,~.etaneca, to al!ord Ihr eurrfidentinlity dreved by thesc suhuLttnra" But lhe rongrn~ rn[ cancarn wae with the npencjr nred or preferencr for cmnfidrntielitv; the FOIA by li lf proGets lhe nubmater,' interest in eon5- denrs6ty only to the extent that this luterwt in endorsed by the sgency collrcting the informetion. Enlnrged um.a to governmerrtsl infonrration nodoubtaly aute ageinst the pricery concerne of norgovemmental enthiea, end en a metter of poliey rome halanring and aecammodstion mey xell be desirahle We eimply hold here that Congrese did not design the FOIA exemptione tu be mendatory b.rn to diecloeure.'r /aifA nM rn dieelorr d«rnenr. or n7oemadinn uArrA it rnnta, i exmtd be .Me in Am•or •vk oMµW v,ne." The ralbirM nrre . abeb,ury eoneeenl rlrh Gemplim 4% bring .eeprinn Ia the dieelosure rnandate ailhe FOIA afd not e hmitatian ra •FenrY dierretiae. °'Me V. Rry. 4o_ e19, Mnh Cnnp lA sa., 9 fI965): "It a nnf en fa•y Ink m b.rUnee rhe nyln.rne uneen.+q but il : not imleeohle one firher. It , nnt ne....n' m nnaude n.t m n,nleel e nf ~he uneneq the mher m, of nemriry,~ alMr he shnquN or mhtlunlwlly ruhorAWlyd. Rueener Irte in penraln ..nrkeNn formul. whhh nuarnp.ee, 6e6v.., md Pmrer.r ell lun.n.q 1'rt plerer emldreeir m rhe!ulltel rqnmihk d:elmum" rrld.,elY; n.ll,•vpru. ••Il 't minrmollva Iv thic rrxaed in mmpnrc the TO[J with the Pri. euy Art ot ]914. S le. 9. C. p.is3n. In tM Inuer Arr C,nnyrr.r, esplid^.y r es.'nrrto.irhhald ne,aN, el.wt n indelduel fmm mnt third rerpum p.nunkula he eu0irct gim hu permrvian E.xr. rmm Idling U/9 U.B. G I115], e acrlon vhirlr aufhml.n Ihe.Admluamrnrnr of rhe F.4A to uYr xmihiiart/ns memn q/n•hdlur nw-rrh and dereAepm.n Inlo pr .m dIm m . ' "Nmr.irhsrandins [mla]. fhe AAmioLn.mr nhntl prm,..,be mrb ri filet o, he m.pt de.m n,wry to pnA,ilm di.drcnm al any'mfunn!t®n nbtnl nr davelapM inrche mrdarl of reeavh nnd de..Mpmrnt .rliri- tln rnrdir thln nnino-rlrn Lf, /n the oprnlon af rWAilminirnroq tlv diw rloeure ol euch informntior wi i-
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47 LW 4442 ( The 6lnited Stotcs LAW WEEK C 41779 after this eareful pareing of nuthority did the Court find that the reguiatione had the force of Iaw and were binding on the tourfs unlees they were arbitrary or not promulgated pursuant to pmxribed pracedurra "Our duty u at an end when we find that the action of the Commission anks based upon findings supported by evidence, and wu nu.le pursuant to euthority granted by Congn:es. It is not for us to ssy that the "public interest" wfR be furthered or retarded by We Chain Arondcasting Regulations. The responsibility belunga lc the Congrese , for the grurt of valid legislative authority and tc the Cornm{adon for its exercise.° /d., at 2Y4. The Govenrment argun, hoxcver, that Ren if those reguln- Gana do nut havr tbe force of law by virtue of Executive 'Ordcr 11246, an expGrit grant uf )cgielativc authority for euch regulations can be found in 5 U. S. C. 1301, commonly feferred to ge {he "housekeeVln6 statuk;'~ It providee: . 'The head of en Executive departmer6 or militory departnlent may preecribe regulations for the gnvemtncnt of hu department the eonduct of its mtployuea, the dielribution and perforrnence of its hueinceq and the ouetody, use, and prearration of its recurde, papr.n, and property. This section does not authorise withholding information from the publio or limiting the avai)ability of renorda to the puh6c." The sntecrJenta of 1301 go back to the beginning of the Republic, when etMUks weee enukd to give heade of early Government depvrmenta authority k govern internal deplvt• mental aHair.. Th®e lawe were coneo7ideted into one statute ln 1874 and the current verdnn of the statute wae euected in 1958. Given this long and re4tivdy uncontroversiel hislory, and the terms of the statute ikclf, it seeeme to be simply s grant of authority to the agency tu regulate its own aRaire, What is eleer from the legislative hietnry of the 1958 arnendmellt to 13016 that this eertion was not inknded to provide authority for limiting the ecopc of 61905.' The 1968 amendment to 1301 wee the ploduct of congme- sional toncern that ageneiee werc inruking § 301 a. a source of authority to wit.Ahold informeticn from the public. Con- gremman Mole eponsored an amendment that added the laet renknce to 6301, which specifically stetes that lhls section •'does not authorize wilhholding informetien from the public." The Senate Report accompanying the amendment stated: "Nothing in the legislative history of fp 301] shows that Congress intended this etatuk to be a grant of authority to the heade of the executive departmena W withhold inlormatien from the public or to limit the wailability of remrds to the public." 3. Rep. No. 16a, 85th Cong., 2d cese., 2 (1958). rt8ee II. R. Rep. No. leel, &4h Cnng., Rd $a., I(1058) •'1'ht y. hee been nikd m dRre 'tao.kevprrv' ^•elu,e en.e,d b help Omenl Wa.hmgrm gel hie admmiarulnn mwerwvy by .peNng out the .ulhorily fnr e.autive alReiLL ta a'r uy ofim, aod f,k Covemrvnt doenmenb. Te documenle µvdvN ert ry,/.n pHeioiy lo IAe d.p~ le- /lay buein.r or (ie.ernment wEieh an nut restricted under other µaeiRe 4.e mr eler3ed a- m'Al+ry informatm or eerrelm of 4/w" 1Lr ierrlary of l.bor dld me eite 16s rr.lale r eulMrily fw rtw OPCCP d..-lcum ng,darinnr. YI y,dRe[~ 819lJ143 IIP7.]Ie•]3b doa nd mr.n, of Nune, llul d.elreuh rtryILIUM pmmulplnl m Ihe be:n W/ nl . ,.,s nf.rnnl,ry lurldA+.m. nnlln.nry, ar fmtilerwm" rur Ixmv+•, d 130 lel(tq(3) of Ibe Mhnlnnrr•nve 1'nw,lure An, e U. g. C. i r0e 1:1(C). It.ml,ly meam I W t dv.lile,rr pumwt m them k nol "eutbori.M by Iaw^ within Ihe mmrlirr of f 190.5. The logical mrolLry tp this observation is that there is nothing in the Iegslati.e history af ¢3U1 to indirate it is n substantire grant of legislative power to prvmulgare rulee authorizing the relense of trade eecrets or confidential busnese information. It is indeed a"hovukeeping sletute;' author- ixing what the APA krnu "rulea of agenry orRonization, proccdure or practiee" as appaerrl b"eubstmllive rclee."" This would suggest that regu]eGone pureuent to p 301 could not provide the "euthodz[etioo] by lew" requimJ by S 19(Z. But there is more specific support for this position. During the dcbatea an the 1958 emendmcnt Congressman hfoss as eured the tlause that the amendment would "not aRect the confidentiel status of 'mformetlon given to the Co.rrnment and carefully delailed in title 1$ 7.'nited States Codc, eeclion 19Ufi" 104 Cong.Rec.6550 Q9a)). The Government arguex thao this last etelcment is of little eignificance, beesuse it ie nnly made with rrference to the amcndment. Hut that rohe Congrtssrnan Moss's etatemrnt of any rubetentive import. If Congrezman bfoas thought that recorda within the terma of 11905 could be releusel on the authority of s f 9)l regulation, n-hy wae he (and pre- sumably tlle Ifousr) mnrerned ntith airrther the emrndment afiected I I90G! Under the Government'e interpretetion, rer- ordr released pursuant to 1301 arc outaide 11905 by virtue of the first eenknee of 1301. The remarks of e eingle legisletor, even the eponaorr are not controlling fn ane)yzug legislative history. Congresenan Moee's stakment must be considered n'ith theReporte of both Ifouwce and the etakmev4 of other ear:grcemmen, all of which refvk the (novernment'a interpretstion of the rc]stionship betwcen 1301 and E 1909.^ Of greekst signiAcanee, hoxever, "Thc Flnu.e Carnmittm oo fbvemnwnt OpeNiona rinN .ppmvinty u a6ervalire by legal r.terl.lAa •ff Tll) mnely givn del+rtmml hnde aulAaeny lo mgul.re .dhin Iheir der.m mle u1e .ay m.hkh rt,lun r fnr infnm,.•liun re to he dnn sllh-for n mple, ty mnrnreing rbe amhonty In deal wim mvh nqunla i the deprrtmmt bnd." H, It. Rep. No. 14s1, S5tb Cwg, 2d 3®., 1 (1969). It ,wled Ihet rhe mrnde'n of lu 61av[d W.beomouuee on Oa•xnrownt Inramnliuu wmly .[md Ihnt I9 :p1 1 wa.• nryinulL; edol'nd iu 1]d41u pmride v 4 Ilx•.l.v-u,dx. nlli,. [<. I•,,,R m Ibe Gorrnnnrnl drp,rmmnlq Iun thmneA munuee it Aea brenme rrumd Iolo a rleim of aullnrfly to .ilh- hold inf-6no." Id., et 12. Th.r art. In e x eNrcl in rhe hrule rtlvrl rnd thee gooredeMln'o 9ee,e. e. 9. R.p~So. 1591. fi51h Coos.. ^.d een., 2 (19b5) . IU4 Coog Rm. &51n IRep \Io..l, 65b (Rep_ Pesall), 15690. ISUAS lcdlwryy Eerww•n &n•. Hru.4n end John=lanl. •.Thrnnghaw IAe Ilmr drtae- n.f.rv,rn en m+de l0'8 rtnme, rhat mrluire the rllhholdmC af ntnrmelb4 .ud n lly m rn p.e mal Ihne elrtwe..rv nm in .ny dfmlN b.g 30t8. v. lON ConY Rrr. 9b1"n (19rs) IRey. nm.nl, 554?955e (Ra=-Slwl. It 1 tlev fmm Cn~gr.wman fl.w a mz< [ lwtl u of Wow ereluln. ` 161 Cong. Ree_ 9a4P-6551/ (1351 There w alxo freq,mnt rtferrme lo Iradr rele u nol being di,.luaM. aod ISe ronfidmllallly nf th.l ^ n se Irol being nRrcIM by § 3U1. H R. Rep. Ro Pat, Ailh Cantr.]dF. 2(19.WI: IOi Cang Rrc. e55V (I9S4) (Rep FeerAl, g58t (Repl wn¢hll. The fulloning errAmge bevr.w Congresmm Eledo, and th.. ,. aw, ,numn ive. "Mr. M}:AI)Y:R Mr Cnurman, I rhould like rM anmtbn ef IEe genllmeo Irum C.lifomu INr. ]fma], the epmuer of Ihe'nnsure I would like ta rvxd Ihmr prmgral'lu fn.m IAe.d/bnel vie.. I eubmillM b Ihe rryun whieh .en,wr „pon p.ge 1 or IAe rerntt. I nid. ~ ' mt is the Oovemnnnt Oprntioor Camudtr~ ee nn ~IIP fnuu,.ung In,y,l. nl "1. That delwnmmee end .pnnm of the fbvemmenl luve mmtrued f/JIIII to aullurw,hem to vilhhold mfnmanon from the pnbht and b pmil Ihe.vril.hl/lly of raaoMn W the Cuble. "0. That Ih'x'wlerynlal:,n : a err.inM eud enonmue interlueelisof the Intvnl of Cunxrm ro ff x'il wbirA merely .ullronted derdrnmt bnb lo mskr rRUleriwu govemint doy-Inday el+relion of the ienrt' M IV
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4•17•_ 79 THe Cnifed Stntra LAW Wr ; 47 LW 4443 IL the "huwrkeeping" nature of 9 391 itself. Un the baaia of thie evidence of legislative intent, we agree with the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ()rruit that "Ia)ortion 9DI does not authorise reguletione Ilmiting thee ecupe of ew tiou 19W." CArvlra Riucr Park "A;' lnr. v. HC'U, 61'J F. 2d _ 98fr, DL^-M3 (1475). There is also a proeedvrnl defect in the OFCCP dixtoenre regulations which pmeludeYrourtP from nRorvling them the force and eRect of Inw. That defect is a lack of etrlet ewm ;pliance with the APA. Rerently we have had occasion to esumine the rcquiremente of the APA in the context of "kgis letive" or '4ubstantive" rulemnhiug. In 4'ermunt Ynnkee Nuclear Pomrr Corpp v. Naturut Rcaourvra Drfenee Cm.na7, fnc., 435 U. 5. 519 (1978), we held that coury could only in "extraonlinary circumstances" impose procMurnl requirelnenta on an agency beyond those sperifit'd in the APA. It it within an agency'e discretion to afford parties more procrdure, but it is not the provinee of the rnnrtn ta dn so, In 9mrnonf Fnnkee wc reeogsized thet the APA'u"'e fonmds upou which opposing social interests and puliticol forces have rorne to rest"' ld.,at547(quotingll'onpYonllSuny¢.SfcGrotA,339 U. 5. 33, 40 (1950)). Courta unset that balance whrn they override informrd choice of procedures and impoee obliga- tions not required by the AP:1_ By the smnc Wken tpurte Lre eharged with maintaining the balnnce: enauring thnt egenelee comply with the "uutllne of mioimum essential righte and praeeduree" set out in the APA. H, R. Rep. 1ro. 19(t0, 79th Cong, 2! Sem., 16 (1946); eec Yermont Yankce Nudem Pomer Corp., aupra, at 549 n. 21. Certainly regulations subject tu the APA cannot be aHorded the "fome and effect of law" if not promulgated pursuant W the etntutory promlural minimum found in that Act" Section 4 of the APA, 5 U. S. C, 1553, Lpecifirs that an agency rhall afford interestrd per.ons general nntice of pro• posed rulemeking and en opportunity ta conrment before a aubetentive rule is promulgat<d" "]nterpretive rules, genera7 ment-a eo-nlied hmue6epin4 tnnelion; and 1MI f9mnll we nnl u- rmded to deel Rltb Wn aullorlly to rctraer or wnAlwhl infomnrinn or nmrde. '9 no. yield to the gentlemm frnm C.li'amin to elxle whnMr nr mt Ihme mrre pnime ae I hae eee rhnn rnrth In my edditimml ru Ihe . nPort vn Ihw ntrly el:,le clr,n lie md.r.mm4m m I. thc romenetw of the rudgnan or rhe n mbon or tM Goremmrm GIMr,nlnnr Cemmnrrc in repnrtmt uut rh4l~.tnant rea ee I imeqrret it" lol Cmg R« aH4 "hk. NOS9. TMI ® ror Q195a') femphuie eddedl rv gee. e, g,_ ,r/orta. e Rwt 415 1`. P. I?J 119WI; t'niled Srate, w. ARephene-LuAlun S<e<t Cory., pd U. F. 742, 756 Iplr2). ^5U.9.C.I551(10161: "(a) Thie neeliuu apUlia. afeoNmg to the pm.iemne (M1erenf, eenpt to tbe,rtet rhnt mem a .vlved- •() e mllltnry vr rorrcign sRuin hmd;nn of the t'nn,d walA. o "121 , mntler relnlirg lo vgenv) mtnagement nr prnonnel or to public p,olerb. In..oe. nnq ^ heneM1ln nr eontr . `Ibl Geneml o re or propr.ed mle nm.lnng ,haa be publtrhrd in the Yet •rJ kqEVr, unlea penom m6;al rherno ere nomed ,nd elther yer- nelb cervM u otl«w - h recluul nntire themor w rteordenee wilh Mw. TTe mlin ehnll irrludo- `(3) . n+leman of the time, plaa, erd neture nt publir We making pmeetEmpl • `(2) relerentt tv the legnl rulhnrity nnder ahkh Ihe mm Y prupnedi aad (3) olhrahe lerme or ruhnnna vf the yropmed rnle or e dxripieo . vl thr,ublert, .nd inun w.vlvcd. 2cept whem mtrs or hnrint e requiral by eratule, th: ru5e<etion don mt apply- '"(A) to aterprt4lha rulv, tmervl ,lalemenla of pollry, er rvls of ,tmp urynintim, p,aedvrS or pneeln; v. • etatemente of policy or rulra of egrney argnnirelian procedure or practice' are ¢empt from thesc require:nnnG. When the Secretary o( Labor published the regvlations pcrtinent in thie eeee, he stated: "AL the ehanges mede by this docnment relate eolely b Interpretive nrfm, generul etatemente d Poliey,rvldto rulee or egeney procedure and practice, neither notice of propoatd rule meking nor public pnrtkipetinn therein u reyaired by 5 U. 8- C. g63. Since the changes made by this dacvmenl either relieve restrictione or am inteqrrcta- tivo rules, no delay in eEective date is required by 5 U. S. C, 553 (d). Tlrese rules shall therefore be eBective immediete.ly. "In a.m.danec with the spirit of the public policy set forth in 5 U- S. C. 55.3, interested persons may eubmit w'ritten commente, sugNretioos, dnte, or algumcnta to tAe Directoq OBu'c of Federal Contract Compliance...." 33 Fed.Reg.3199,31:13 (1973). Thus the regula6one were easenlislly treeted ea interpretntive rules end intcrested perties wrrc not afforded the notice uf proPtxed rulerunking required fer euhstactive rulce under 5 U. S. C. $ 553 (b. As we observed in Raftertrm v. 8rancie, 432 U 541G, 425 n. 9(1977), "e court u not required to give eBect to an int<rpretetive regulatian. Verying degreee of defcrence ere accorde.d to administrative interpretations, based on surh factors ae the timing and consietency of the agencye peoitinn, and the netnre of ite evperGse." We need not decide whether these reguleGons sre propedy characteriu.d "interpretetive rvlea." It is enough that such regufatiuns are not properly pmmufgated as eubstantive rulea, and therefore not the prvduet of proredurea e$ich Congresa prexcribed se nrreseary prerequuitee to g7ving a regulation tAe binding eRrrt of law.'e An interpretative regulation or general ttato "In).henthe.µ,eyfuetoeJeaueebnds(endinmrmnl®thfinding anA e bief nelemenr of te.eorc tLerefo, a Ihe mlea i.utd) that notire .nd vnblie p,ceedun thereov an ®pnetimble, unnecar.ry, ot rontnry tolM publiFinteraL °(d Afrer nWke mryirad by thi retien, the ogmry Adl ti.x mrer- aled prr:'orn sn eppannnity to poriripere In the nrle m.king rhmugh eubma.ion nf wrinen dnta, aieve, er argrmenre .Nh or ,;rhnul oCpur lunity for eN prew-ntalinn, After comiJernllon of the ,derant metler pn..med, Ihe ntrnry rMll in.vrynmte in tle rnln rvloVinl a rzmeht pn. enl aeremenr of theSr bnxle nnd purlwee A'Lm n4a . minlnd by nenne to be made on the rmord,fter npponno2y lar or n6eoey hmringl M SW erd 557 0l tA6 tnle.pply id rad ar thi..ulwr,inn. "Idlrona 'rhe revnirrd phsrnnno ur e ot. Mmn mlm mle ehull he m.de mt k•n rhen 30 dnp drnrn ite elfertiae dnle, e.eepr_ `(1) . euh.rmtin ruk which tnnrs or roagnise nn empim or nlie.a a renn'rlun; •(2) inrrrprel,nee mrn orld aMemmrp or poriryl nr `(]I a olher.is pmrided by the egrmy for t"M en,r•r found end publuh.d wilb the We. `(d Eeh sgmey'hall rirm nn ii. prreon the right lo reltlim ror lheieNanre,.mmdmenLor,rl of, ml._ " _" - I'Thn rey,dm nt 1 n!m .. Rnrd Pnr4~ny Co. ,upev ve the pmdurt nf n af prorvlld ndrnn@mg and mmment 32Frd.Reg.loP9fIAl9);£1PnI.qey ISII?(19r0). We elea num IDec Ihe Cmvernmmr e rt;unee on PCC v. 8hreibeq 95t 0. g8 tID IIU6,5/, i, ni ln tAot evu ehe Coort hrld thet e F(x rule-tlue invmganev pn..•Mnq. wnuld be ry,b;ie nnlrm e Eeerrg enminer fwM 11nt "rhe ryibli inlems, the nmle'r duPtrh oI Lhe p,unnem . . . or the mM or i,,,ire l- .oulA or ernnl by .IveE w,einee- ,.,n.nenl wirn Ihe teem.nr ennq,e+.h.wJ Lrnm Mmnb,:dp-~M rwl ntirt+nur ne-.mn1i.. Tln. t'.mr In4/ rh,n ,IV IF.mel Gmn imry.r. ...AJc I n m4N ,Ir Iw , nf ,b. :. g.ben 1'nn,.eql 11e uwn nl'.w- nfl.rq.r Ix.weAonw~Y r'r. Y.ew.Pr Ym{er Vrrre p.,rn Coep. ..6mu.d Re.urcn plenr C'oun.d, /u,l:3 C.A.514/I9ig1. nere " wae ry, ,pr.( in Ihe enw r.ynnlint nu...ppneddiry N I yNb. \loR- errr, Ibe n.pnMlrnM LM m:ule a brpid rnlne.t tlet "aS tMlmM, aw1
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4-17.79 ~ TLe.lr4tirrd Slnrea LAW ltC K 47 LW 4441 Property snd Adminietmtion 9crvicrs Act or 1p4J,° Titlea VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1084," the Equal Employ- ment Opportunity Enforcement Act of 1972." or same rrtore genera! notion that the Executive ean impcsC lenwneble euntractud mquiremente in the exercise of its procurement guthority.^ The pertinent inquiry is whether under any of the ugueble etnlntury gants of authority, the OFCCP diecla¢u.e regulatione rellcd on by the Cavernment nrn res- snnably within the rontemplation of that grant of authority, We think that it is clear that when it enarted theec etaluhq Congrem wee not ecmrerned with public disclosure of trade cecrete or wnfidential busineee Inforrnatian, and, unless we w Pub. L No. El-15:, A9 Slnl. Y.7, ne nnweded,/0 U. 9. C. 91471514. T4e Act se smmded'u prelaecl with the followwg dHnnlloo uf pdky. "It : the intnnr or the Conemm i am Iqvtatio6 a prn,'ide far the tpvemment rn omical and e5icienl n)<lerr: fur ([) Ihe prwvR ment end eupPly of pervonel Cro{vrty erd nnnpemnel snine, melud'w5 retaled fwNnru euch .e c®tndin6inpectioo, ntorxge, i.ue, epMlo. fwv. prol'erryvk'nllfinrkm neJ elnnifinrinm, lrnn.r•,nnr:m nM ImIFn mgemenr nl.hlehment or punW or vnvmn fnr tmnrPOrtntnn or Gvr- ment permnnel .nd propeny bymolcr vehicle within eperlfie .reee, mengement e! Wblk u11GtY eenirr*, rcMinnN end mnvenlnR erlaldid,- mrnt af h enlcry k„vb, eetnM4lnwnl of fomx end prrcMana, and repneentelion hefore Fedemt nnd Sme ngulnlorv bodle,- Ibl lhe miliu- tlon of mdnbk property; (a) lhe dbpmil of rurylne pmreny; nrd (dPrervnLmangcmrnt° /UU.S.C.1n1. ' The An expll.illy rnlhorirer F.ei.-xlive nrden ' v ln nfeetunte [ib] pm ^ Id. SAall (el. IDoe. owAem nalhe Art w rhem e epeelfiu referevnb emplo;ment d4r6mimtlon. ' Inwer aurle have euxm~.crnd mnt I t`v5 (rl wae the nrl-iry mr prrdereean of Emvllm Order 119A0. Fnrmo v. PAJnddl'hin Hlertrff Cn, 39 F. PJ 5 ICA3 19/i11: Pu.:u+.. rernr Lunume,r, n.e..175 F.?d T.9 (CA51, ren. denbd, 1'0 U. 9. 977 (tnE71. Bot m. Ihr Tld:d Cbruit notM in Cantm:mre Avn. of Fmrmi Pou.•Vtnnn:u c Srrrlurv of ta6ur, HS F.Rd 159, 197 ICA9 19rp,rh-e ma¢nlbn~ were d/ra end m.,de wuhout eny anJyne of {Se a m beueeta !he FMenl Fmprny end Adminielmtive 9eniere Art end rbe Enrcur- ordm. h rent nn to halA, hawerer, tLat S 19fi (a) . emhority fnr el Ie.A en .epeel@ of Fylerutive Order 31246 on Ihz alo d that "n Y n rh, In mml ot llm C'MlN ffitlee to dl pmru rc ro,.e lhe: ir. aipplirrx ere mu n tt the bnF m r eeby ire raele end drley;nt ib pnqrrm. hy eenndiry rmn lhe Lbarlml e.nilnbte minaripnnrkne- " 142 F.:d, at 17U. r•frz 0 B. C. 94^tnlG m^nml-a-. X.Ix m xnn-n. .ci¢nitnmty. the punlion h.v muelly hrnn pm m lermr of whelher rinati.e Order 11]16 : l mnt with Oice rYler of rhe Civi: Rahre Ad of 19&. Eee, e. u. ontortov A.m. nf Embn Pmuryhmdn v. Srrewry oJ tn5,., 442 y.?d 156, 171-174 ulr0. Titk VI 6reme fedrrd qenllee that ere "nnpoweml to eamd Federtl 4naveiel u e to nny peMra or e<tWlry, by v v uf ar.nt. Inen, rbernnthoriry to prom ulpre n.Ya "whxh J ap be emvamr .itL .rorn2.m entP ment of lhe ebia<r.n ol lhe statute eulhorinnt lhe A.rviel eolaoa m eunneetuo with rhirh t/n n<t:m le 411vn.^ 9ueb raln mM be epproved by the Preaaent, .M Iheir enlurrremeol w eublr,w to e.- psnnet revlew. 'In tbe cr of anr .etion temwr.nng, nr refuriea a greet or continue, VMerce Mrcrm of Ialure lo enmply with e rtrluin- alent erprrd punrunnt ta thi .vtinn, lMhred or the FMeref del.rt- mmt nr qeney eMll Sk .eh Ihe rvmminrw uf rIw Ilmir mM ?erote hring IeMlclive lur4rlidmn c er Ihe pqrnm or .rtlvir„ ImnhM a hdl wrillen rtpon ol the einumlanree snd the Ifmund, fnr nnrh eeli®" gMan DS ol the flvd R/Rlnr Art of 196t, (1 U. 9. C. f9/411. EeeNtne Order 11&P eonrnim no prnvv{on fur ma¢rnlonet mria., end thenfon', nol pr.mmnlmrM pnnnant l0 1dn'-. Cf. fsrcnll.e Order 113n. 8 CFR 319 Il'N•t-19r13 C.a,p 1. Tirke. n uM Vtl eunltln m Nher mprno eublennve ddri ru nc" Proidem. " Tha b an ergumenl rh.v Cnnnn.• nnlfiM F.vrmive nrder I I?1a en atn<,WM wheu it rei^'led A rrce or emendmente In the Filnnl empNp ment DppartnAty Enrnreement Art lhal wen• dni5nnl lo eut bneY nn adrrmenve amion nRom uoder Ihe Frn.nive mder. ergee Fnr4,n e. feaiu lvl.+~mo~t Irm., 675 F. Rd ntn (C15L n'rtft dmied, 3X9 C. g. 9tr (Pl'17): Pomrr v. PSJMdyhiu 6/er.dr Ce., T9 D. 4d ](CAb lo-MI; d. Ynklna v. [uiev 9terl, 310 1'. ?. I II I Inml: Feanurtnvn Sheet nd Fube Ce. e. Aueyeq 3a11 u. S. .9u, /u7 tlA-JI . (JnekwnJ,.mmrring). wem to hold that any federal etatute that implies eome authority to oopect informntion must grant lrpialative author- ity to disclose that information to the puLlic, it is simply not poeeible to find in thesec etatu0.•s a delegstinn of the discloeure wthority n•acrted by the Government here." Tbe relatiunship between eny grant of legialalive anthority snd the dieeloeure regulations bemmee more remote when one examince {201 of the Executive ordcr, It epcaka in terma of rulee and regulations "nec®ary nnd appropriate" to achieve the purpoece of the Executive nrder, Thoee purposes are an end to dleeriminatiolr in employment by the Federal Govern- ment end thoee w!w deel with the Federal Governmen4 One cennat readily pull from the logic and purpoees of the Execu- tive ordrr any concern with the publich aaeee to jnfornlation in Government filce or the importance of pretccting trede secreb or eonfidentiel bueinr•m etatietica. The "purpose end ecope" eeetlon of the disclceure regula- tions indicatee two undalying rationelee: OFCCP's genenl policy "tu diecloee information to the public;' >nd ita policy 'tu couprete with othrr public agrnrirre se wdl ee private partiee seeking to eliminate diserimination in employment." 41 CFR Ii60-40.1 (1077). The Govemment erguce that "(t)ho purlose of lhe Executive Order is to combat dis- criminetian in employment, and a diaclosure policy deeigned to further this purpnse is coneistent with the Executive Order nud an appruprinte enh;rct tor re5u]ntion under ile aegie." Government Brief, at 49. Were e grant of Iegielative en- thority as e ha.sis for Rxecutieo Order 11246 morc clearly ident]Anblc, we might agree with the Govcrnment that thle "compatihlGty" givice tbc dirloeure regulntions thn veteesery Iegfslative foree, But the threed het.uen the.re rrgulatioes end any grant of anthority by the Congress is eo atrsined that it would do violnnm to rstahluhed p.ineiples of eeparntione of powers to denondnntc those partic'elor mgulatione "legis- lative" and credit them wilh the "binding rJfeot of law." This is nnt to csy that any grmrt of 1eRislmive authurity to a fedrral egeney by Congrese must be speeific before regula- tione promulgar~•rl punuaut to thmn un be biuding eu courte in a nranner akin fo statutte. R91n6 Is imPOrMnt is tl:at the revinwing court mawnahly be able to cundude that the grant of authority eontrnlyletre thc rr•gulatione laaued. Prizibly the beet illusbaGon renwins Justire Frankfurter'e opinion for the Court in d'ationnf E.oodrmlinp Co. v. C'nitrd Sfntee, 319 U. S. 1911 (13N3). There the Court rejected the argument that We Communicntinrs Act of 1934 did nnt give the Federal Cou mue Cmnmiwiun authority to iwwc regulntione govrruinF chain hmvlcaeting beyond the epc<ification of terh- niual, engintxing requlnanenb. Before rcaching that eon- clue n, howe er, the Court probed the lenguege and Ingle of thuCnmmunitvtiune Act and iue legi.lntlve hietory, Oldy - TM Cmvemment rirn Jmee v. Ro1A ParAieV Co., 110 U. g. S lq Sld tln7vl, for lhe prupmloon that "n hxe long Ma w4no.IMnd that ndrnln nG.e rT,y . enl w;•L lhv ra•nrid euhaenlive rnrnrea he- Ihe lorn nf lew"m(lnvemment Brief, et Sa n. 31. ITe hx.-Ltin deleentvm u that eane, tnvever, vv T'Ite eeple'il The ene wu wb+l.r mtr rrxo6UOn nnhe InLAlne nr Innee and nnnr.we preempred by thc Fedenl Mmt Lnlw,yion Act IF}tLU, the FNn:d Foeod, Dmy and Ce.melie Avt (FDf:A) and th. P.ir 6,k.y;ne and In/eling Act, The F]IiA wnvidn ¢w meet ot e m~-.l nroduet u miebr^udtd "(5) irm a Im<k'rbe nr arher nnlniner umna u beare n hbd ehn=ing , (11) • .c e eLlemnnt o( the u , rJimtily nf the m mle in tenne or .e;p3r~ -n.W muue Prmddeq TTeI rnble nalnra n.y M, mm, tM, nnd n ;u to e/mllpne ,lmgu mny be vJnbliJnd, hy npd.rtlnnn prnsriArvl by the ILxrelnry" gwlinn I ln) (51 nr the FStLt, :1 U. S. C I ull In115/. Thn is n dmiL.r pruv.lnn In tLe FD(7A.
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4-17-79 ~ The Uniterf Sfnee. LAW ' '':K 47 LW 4435 kg,nq, Inrhrdine tn,k .rMe xml ,.mfi.Mnn,,l redi•Ikel :Inlx. Pnd- ,a'emlr nr nmEdrnllnt hndnvs in o. 'lhnr I:Inl d,an nnt am log jnriNin n ro mbjeet rM ,fwionn deFxi nnder 1M Elwrin ntnl/elimu IImIiAg IM• r" "of the Teulr 9reretr Ant Adm'mulntin Pmrninre Arl (APdI. Ib. nl-r 1 omm trIA Ihnt ~ atldn of Ihe rnpvrr,.l lolofnm/h,n fdl wnhin P:+~mp n~rl a W Ile (d) Tb.rr: n6, n prnr.lnrnl d~+m lo rb. nFrv~P d'ed,m,m rrqu- PDLA, rtdfinr Io rmde nern/N nnd.omm.o-:d m fin,n.i.I LnL,m,rfrnn; 11160111 161 pnHmLs mnrnr tn,In nPnnhne 1M,n the h,rre and e9ert timt whelhn Ihr rnrwrmd Infnm,xrMn mt w Ivv1lhh,dd 1As or 4w, niare they w m D^,m,Jpnfrd ao lerl~rcr.r:.r nllo' wilhmrt deMlM,d w nppllnblr axeoq nnlinllonn; nd Ibm Amm n nynls/ mmn0inr with IM APA'e mP:l eM dun m .n,l Mnan, M ttvra (N QFII 170 .11 fnl (1g7T1) wIM1eL "Ixe. IAa1 m, nnlnr m"mnh^rc 5m, nd nurim of an n '. prolY""d nda,.,6nv +,•I an up4>nwdty . uf IM fkMnmrm of Lnbnr 4 In rid+/r 11 t'. 4 C. / Yxn, xmi nlhh b mmmrs/ brforc n".ul.r.nllre ml, ' b I'nnn1d¢m.l An "imerprc- Pn.rnla ehnllh.l d:rlmnlnw /f "Imi nllllwna.l M1r Wq" n.miml Iha ' Nli,i nx,lh,llm," eumol 1. Ihe "eulLnri[I+II„nl hy hw" mrnind Iq the inlnmw/lnn M wilM1hddl lemh .i,ln epp,nMl. nnd the Cam of the Tmde &..rvb AA. ApPea4 nnld the flwtrirl fnnn'x l"dem.nL F'I,Je „m-ina wirh 3. Irnwerrt, IA. Tndr Cwn1e Art dan not alfortl . yirvete ridn of Ibe Dinr41 Cmrn Ihxl rl. Fnn dm not n,min'I wilhhob/h,y of infrn anion to nlMn dtvrM.,lre In tro6lun of thr ulxrure NRUre fhu CuuM1 uelfon tAer falb aflbm itr nemPtGnw. nM tlrnl nm,lpb m,wt pm,aad Me hoplied a pnvelc rixM of e<tlon andrs a0 n„I elatnle "tAen mMrt rAe APA the Cnnn of .{q..,l. nerhnl n diRerml rorcLr t Iro.t . n.wlory b.e4 !or mfrrrine thm a i.il ra - d arlioo to the intemm.nre a!'!9 Cl'P STU=11O. In Ihe Cnm of Apl`n4' of w,me rort l.y u Gvor of rommne" Cort v. Aen. CR 4 g. a6. iB. wthorutd bJ' Lw' by vwue uf tMee rex,dutcn.. .. ..nr indinren nl 4xbdnti ent to arm e ynvnre rlght of anbn. Hald: M,d imonnxnlly, a pnvern rehe d xrinn un,kr Ibn Aet 4 not nre,z- 1. The Fn1A Y nellmivl n d6r11..,m Mnndr nmi nnnnb Irliri,nrr"' .,ry n, nukr egmive II. rontrmm w+i q,q..r n mv:w of DU'. na VrXIV li[hl d Nlinn tn ,nbin un rf dYVhwnn. l'he lane'uR, derLim, In dVb% Iwtititt.ere emplupm`nt dala inavaflablC under We bgiq and Afnory of IM R113 cAnw tlel iln pm.ieL.® rumplhw APA, aRriAed vuhrnl fmm d4Am,m .r anly mnnl to "'m 1,it Ihe npeey 1. Mnre thn Tmdr P.'nh Art eod en, 'entMrufariun] by 4w' surl tu withhold di iah.nnxrbn, anJw r nol mmnl lo mnnd.re w,o- m+ny01M by that Ael plxa rvhnamive fwha on qenry aLUrm, f)WS ie6un. CaoFm.innnl rvmern a,,, witL tbe aeenrui n,..l or yrtfm der4v,n tn d"rb,e re,itvnrr'r nwnr i mvw.ble egen0 arlicn and mre for eooEdenl.h[F; the Fn1A tn'meN pmna" Ilr i rmt m , Mlili,roer : a pemm "ad.ef.y affa.-IM ar naeriwad" wilhin lulityth man nfxlmlulity of pri.vle m1i1F+ ud.niniug infnrmrxm mhM Ihe ing or the. APAS podnen elluMing Ilz rieM of llMieul n+lrw d rv nf xlm tareM tbat th'u Aneml 'n endonrd ly' IM qm,g ndl. nlue Ihr bdnr- nvo.y vl'aln b.ah a p.noo. 5mm the Cu,n d Apl„nle :fd nat - vaflnn 1nrA IAe iuue wMAer ,tirlaum of ynirinner: ,Mnmeale wee bernd S.'fYe tlyr of d'wcla.nre Ilnmlmed in tAu eaxr ie not "m:rhnn.rd by thr TrMe &.rtre Art, Ihe mee he IemnndM w oMrr dw11k Cmrrl . 6,. 6w" wPhin Ibr mruning nf Ihr Tmdr 5rmo- Arl on /lr 0- Ihnt of ApPenb mey re.x{d,l whdher No too,rmpln4rf dierluurn wndd the (/JCCP rrgubliom n1iN ml hy nL1 . n lllr wv nf tAal vWLae tAe Art. autAmiu,timl. 6%y F. Td IITt, vanred and rm,unzd. ,..L., diaAranm made p,mn:ml lo f/FCCP d4d,.n" nypllm'vre an Nnlhine m Ihe'IYade 9rnmle An prm,yu eneb an mfemnm; nur a there f.) Tb Aet eddmwe Irnnrnl nw,lry eelirm e.rll ,le nrla of ' bdl.id,ul flueenmuvt rmlAovn•, :md ,hrn n,bing il l byblar 1 Iifory lo Aww ehat Cwvn.a- ln/emh.l thr pAnm'1nlAorieM hc Yw- to have a qa.Ll, limind n g,hnrmnl fean IAe InJ/rnm,l md~r- l etandlne Ih.t pmfemly pmmnlp,n,l. mlan.lnrire ayrnr> mml+rL- he.r q tF '"forn arad egert d law." in nrdn fnr e nWllxrnm ,n h:,vr tAe 'torrn nnd egM.ol lew;' e m,ct M n".ni m"hTi-I„f Irr-lypr" nik eRerr/np Imp.idnxl neMe nnd oldleallnm (n. M, Ihe menleri,nv . b Ihe mx n bar), ead lt m,ul be Ihe nn+lmt of a nmpnsanal gmot of bsrlntire enrlxv;lv. pmm,llpinl Im mafonniry .ilA nmpn„e,lnml . ~enlrimmenfr imla,er.l hy Cmre:rn. (611Te d"wF.nn rm,lnlinrn nf i.nw in Ihie rnw rennm hr h.rM .n lJPf of ~mirr nrdrr II"_/n. a.::n,•IIdrQ and n mxnb/i,m .Id•M1 pMnbr mi/n m thr IMlwr/n.nl or Ialnr tu I,n nnllen:r nrpl:4.nminl d'webn,e mndal6m ,vna.rrnl willl thr F'01.1. &nre mnmrinll thnl ater evmpf hom d'wbwnre mMr.lhr TnfA a A4 ,H ambll nf Ilmt Ael, the fmrrnmlrm n Imi ni)' on IM )Y/tA nr m,nrxA,n.l aulhonulim, foe d'o-rF.,rx nrmLlinm th.n prnnil /M' nmini.e nf inlnr mJbn within the .1rlb earmpl6,v. In order fnr nxnlxllurw eduptM . Imder 1"-01 of F nlrc tlnler 111i~wAirh el+nb in /r,mr, nf nlln anl modn/:w •ansnerv anA nplm,prinrr" /n erhinr 1M, E.m,Nrn tlydrr: Inlrlv,e, nl endine d:nlminn/.m by tAe F.kml .,rermmmt and G..l wbo dnl with o-rn harr Ihr "fnne eM rRer of lawf Ihrn ml Ix n . hrv, IM1r rvn,6,l„n. aml ,r e d~4qninn d tk nprLitr hw'eLaive anlhmirt h. f-nnema ATm Cmerna tartrd Natuln whiPo nrlmabl.' aull,no.ed IM ~alirr 0.drc f/he Federal Proynrly xmI Admmilnlim Frrvien Arl of Ifn9, Yllh. l't aad VII of the Cl.il RigA/a An of 1M4, end Ilv Fmul ESntJmmm/ (tiqwkuntJ &tforremrm Art of 1819, it w r not w nrned wPb pA,he dlatln.ne ol tnd. uerele or mnMdealul bnaiol. hlfurmnl:w, and A 4 00l 1%-.- blr to gnd he thrre nattm. a dekption of the dhdnnn aotLority a.ened by Ihe (kvrnlment ben. Abw, ona nnmt r.adily pull Aem tM kgir ud pnrla. d rN Exmldee th,k. om eamen wttF the pdr'e aema In hlornxt.,n m(tovrmmeM glew m tA. hnl•onaaee d pro4rlinf tnde enMa nr.wM1dntinl harhxi tlrf411s. fe) fepdalire axlbonty for the OfCCP d4M.nn wor,qtios ennot br found . h U8. C. 1 Jol, whieb autho.w hnda of C,eve/o- IDenl ILMr/menfa k 1'^w-rnl nwlnnlha, te (oerm nrrrvJ drMrt- mmlel aR.in and IAe rwlody and ,en M Itr rwadr, nd whieh Mnri,/n tha it daee ,wt au/horiw wilElnlding infmmalbn hwn IM PnMk or I'mitiqt Ihe asYability of n..,Na In rhn plblif. geelim fil : a 'Ymwkrcpint di emlwri[ing n,M of ane- nrpnslion, Tml erdurcl or pnrtin aa opfxwd lo'b,dwrnnll.e nJn." Then 4 nnthog b thp lep.plive haop' to Indinrr Ihar y8P u a n,laxn/bw anM of k5iintive flo.n to pmnule.re mhl wlho.i,inlt IM rn'rn[e of rrndn Rsnnnnn, J., ddbered Ik. nPinbn for v annnimnu Caort. Mxn- exxu, J, Rlad e(onrorrlrw arynion, hfn. 7csncs Rr.xnouler delivered the opininn of the Court. TAe expeuding rango of federal mguletory wtivity end growth in t8e Covernment ecetm of tbe economy hnve in' ere wd federal agencies' demand for informstion about the activities of private individuals and corporntiune. These de- vefopmente have peralleled a related concern about eecrecy in Government and obuse of power, The F Jom of Infur- mntion Act (hereinsfter "FOIA") was a respnne to thu eoneern, but it We nlso hnd c largely unforeseen tendency lu exece.rbate the uneoslncsa of those who wmply with gavem- menW demands fnr informntion. For under the }VIA third partiea hnve been able to oblain Govemment Nea mntaining infarmation wbmitted by rorporntione and individuale who thought the information would be held in con5denee. Thie aee befonge m a claa tL at hoe been popularly denom- inoted '4evernsFOIA" .uite. The Cfirysler Corporalion (hereinef4r "Lbryeler") ee¢ke to enjoin egency diecloeure on the groundn that it i. inooneiatent with the FOIA end 18 U. S. C. 11905, a e.iminaf etatute w'ith origine in the 19th eeetury Met prombee dieclonure of eMaln elemeu of busine® .nd penuual informetion. We agree with the Court of Ap peJe for the 7Tird Circuit that the F01A ie pure)y a dietloeure atut< and aHorde Chryeter no private right of action to anjoin egenry dieeloeure. But wu mnnot agree with tM{ aourt'l aonelmon that this dieelosure m"autbor(sed by law" withjn the meaning of / I Bp6. Therelorv, we veeak the Court of Appe.l.' jrsdgment xnd remand u thal it ean coneider wheNer the documente t ®ue in thia ctae fall witLin the tarnrdI lBW. . I A. a perty te numemue Governmcnt eontrruke, Chryeler ]e lequirtd to eompfy with Executive Ordere 11298 snd 11375, which eharge the Seeletary of Inbor with ensuring that
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"Thst n8san of tAe law wuuW break and enkr a harne, .. ,~; aeeele Fucp R fkvse eveo in a bedruum, uld listen to the 6 aonvcrR~tians of the occupants far over a month would be iuercdlble if it vere nt%admitted. Few police meae- ,~ ~ueea have eome to twr attention that more BaRranlly, i` ~;dehberataly, and peraistentfy vidste,l thr fmrdamentJ .~d F ' principle declared by lhe Fourth Arnendnrcnt ..-." Jbid. No Member of 16e Court dssgrted with this Fasraanent; J- -temugb a rnabrltl refueed to overWrn the eon n:4on berarrse - e the nelumonary rule did not Ihen apply to the Stalae While a. $ 6 4ue; ae the Cburtpointe out, ante, at 8, Ytat fuur Mem- Eere of the /ro:na Court Rdverkd b the leck of a`scardt war- ~RRnt v other proesee" to wlpport the wtry, 747 U. B., LL 133, (while the other three Members who tlixumed the iestle fuund tba pnIYL ahtlYity urdonNVer' aYrJ °Iw,O1Ll11g IrlIJIWt relying I M the 1Rnk of a warranl ") N's Rba hw that no J,rtlce run- . Idcmed a lnak-In Rbaeat aenle muet order eep1'R'sly eontem- i p4tin( physical eut.y an the pmmien. Under eny reMing of itha nm, It wnnW be taken ae wodatinir ofbriRl tleapae and bllrglary abaent apeeiEe authoriaatioo, Mme ®port.ntly, t6e fact thM Cmpe® dtedlrliae, with- om enmment tr explanalion, when 4 wae considering Title II I eannot fairly be {nterpreled as an amdqsernent of the 4un- tlanabhi pollae bJyvlor that had been condemned so thun- .. rlerously by Mr. Jual.iee Jaekron 14 yean tarller. My t®ptct . -far the lawmaking proarm feeeelo.ee the inferente that Con- ,t pea autlwriaM bugt.rioue conduct by such steJthy legida- BveAietnry..- '.,. ;.. . fy ~ "&eauer it i. nal nupportud by either the tevl of the statuM r the rraps of mlevant legulative hutory," I fear thnt the y Cnurt'e hohling may reAret an unar6eulatr.l prmumplion that P..tiooel police olhcers luve the powtr to carry out a surveiL Y' Lnre nrder by shetever, mmeans may be nrmssary unleac ta- 'A plicitly prohibiterl by tlre statute or by the Conetilution. ~ But surely the presumptinn should run the other way. r~ Congressionel ulence should not be earolrued to nuthorize lhe Z' F.xcutive tn.mlate atate criminal Lwe or to encroach upun ¢~ AaSV U. B„ M 116 (Fnlalluner, J., Qkamli.R pinal bY Bnnan, J./ l ~ YY.t 16U (DCrIgW, J., danliql. . . The (liwn upun 16, Cmeme' auY h,.rniea Ihn eletu,. w,,,,bl ~ be frNnud 'd nW III wae wt red te ue1Wa ,be <urhurirv ru.uvd a IW tse co.en,mmt m 16ir e.~. AN., at u-11. tM enume, if cwn„ _ fnt.ded b nneom "evwt th< mmt repreferr,tl< w,. fuf rnvru,a a y amaetim,' Irrin<, aryet eq U. 3, J 1.0 IFr.nYfuneq J., di..enl i,w), yp withhddW mme cf t4ae wn .nuld hadrN fruwale Ibe Laver ~ YVa pnrpa/. SW then. m r1Yan te ipu,e me1.n uleat IoCMarn~ ar b Vnnn Ih <unrfi.atiwu ett<a[in la 1M mpaneen d a.anWi; 4 rY riREw tl'sd'r.iAW p^rery. Br 124 Cmr. Ra. IINY-Ixlp (tkn. ,k M-(7aWn): sra raDrS at 11-12, 14. Lbqrs qu4n de.dY e9+<4A eahria wrtay< w p.).id. ,he mat a. eeeelir. me.aa of aaranir wrveie.np ratheriad bT'It,le III. TM ,r aeaN.hilltY at un.a blenor •WyPtii r., Ikaw mplaolN by wlr al kedle tnrpa-an W,mr b ertu .A lrrr„r:y IN r.a Isw ireturtewN vh.qe. l. e., R. Xry. Na. IaTl, ,.prq at 79; 114 (Lry . pee. 12b9 IBen TyAnpl: fd., rt IM (Bm. Bmtt); fd.. a Ilbl (R,+. _ YAdlaa)p U., u Imle (Ben. Muryhy). . CeeR,e•' prdiatine pmr'e,l awreet: .-, 1fd<phane taP apl*rmey a<euuat fer .aw beuaa. W aletln.,le ~ W'ei0.ate, a,N thir eu be .xtqpliebea . einvmnnnrte by '_ pYe'm.. l.p ,n t4 Gm n,,.ide the pmnim r tnr nw•<'1.. A,..+ain. b th R,ul retnrt nf thr Nerenel Comminiun na Re.ew nf FNenl ,ed ' Mate ta.r Reletint to Wraeppina a'd Ehetµrie gurreilhnee, anlY 20 . eat N uoe I1A1 eleerrvnie eu llamm ani,-„ e.rrund bel.,.n 1?te anE 197J mrdreE . tmpen^ry mtm:nn. Nae<,ol Wirteay Caeueiitnq 4 IIs4e,eS,vunllaueIaf19B1)... ~ U,Red3t.!<...Iimr,a.rvr'a p olSF.'N,Y611o.1]. eounlituliunNty pr~~tlrled privoryint[restn. Ihfurr mnfrunt- inq U,c ecrloun rwlstitut(mnd i.ulms rniraa3 by lhe (-mnt's re/ul- irg of Tltlr" vc shouW il siet uPUU an unmubi8nuns etam, ment by Congn•,:. tlwt thu enrt of palice emlduct may be euthurisnl by a eourt-and tLnt a rylrriGv .howiuK of necesvity, or at leart prebnblr eaasr, uolst ymade surh An nulhorication- Without e Irgislutive rtandad• that is buth rrplirit end epcclfie I vnull prc e that th's flsFrunt Irvpaml of the eitiu i a prlveuy 1 pr ICI'tevl Ci L'm(ndStutee 1\ eu York Teleyhone Ca. r¢y 434 C 8., at 178-179 (cTl.~va 7 dla- senlmg) ~ Gnu d Stnfea v Rnmrry, .uyra 431 L- 8 at 0.39 (S'Int2ws. J., diseentmg)." . . I leegcetfully dislent. . . LOL'6 RUPRKHT. Xevh. N J. forpemianoANnREn' L FREY. Annanl m Ibe 1u6rnnr Ilencral I WAllE H. ALCREI; Sdb.uar feneral. P/IIIIP R IItYMn]N. Au~^wv.Ulmncy Gen<rnL IENUM1I! M FEIT a.Q PAUL J 9R15R. Jmlvv Depnm.nl nw,npr, with him nn rAe bfirp fur tapuNcnl. No. 77-B3R Cbqekr Corporation, Petitianer,~On Writ rf C:rrtiorafi to - tr• the United Statee Court . Narold Smwn, Seeetary of of Appeals for the Third Ikfenee, et aL Circuit [April 18, 1979) BYOeb,u RIR,n,rr r. fnnt la n m- < C , mmI ver n•n o-d b mmplv v Ih Na+u rve lhdrn 119M a ul 11115, vN.h rMqahe 8<em lery uf ].1nr vilM1 mnmar Ilu, n,.P~rninm Om1 LrmS' !mm Oarem- mnd ,minrlr ymrNe ,ynel moplelmrnl appunnnnr remvnNrr af nre . Rm,lall~~m pn'umlanlr.l ln,- Ihe Deln'mm,,t uf L,Lvi lHllm uf FnArAl Canm,rr Cnmtdieocr Pncra,n. (@CCpI minirr Cmrrm. umt ,anmrwn m fumi,dl T,m nlnnr thrir n?nnnim arlirm p,o- Rmm rnd IM arnrnt ,rnrneuhMxi nf IM1rir work furn., eM pnmide thet ' .NwnMt.ndinR ^v'mp,ion InIm m.ndnnn,' dmM. m m,d.r IM Fne- d® of Infumudon Anl (FUTA), mronix nbl.inM M-um rn Fsmn Gre elnbr 1F_'.n dmll he mmk nmi66L Inr nuirerbn II n s dh1er- nIW thet thr meuvlnl iruprelun A,nhprs Ihe Ivbii. inlrn.r aad d,e. ew Imry.k :pnpfunrtimu, r<mlu In IN e,w• uf rrmn6+ Alarte.ure of ebea i. pdrnind by e,.. An.r Inr nrrv,nmenl „r Defnws IDfmu Iqi,lien Aren, (DLA/, rhe dnym,+l^d ,omplinnra p.,l,y InpnnLlr for rinR p•'il ,.mpln.nnenl pn<IwY... utemud prrtYion.r thnl ,Aird lenirn Md m.dr en FUTA mmeer for Ji.,hrrn<N eHuiu ImJetlWe Ilml hud b,r•n fnma,d tu IN ULl bpLlhlw,er, pewbur abin'teM to Mmw• uf IN nu,erub. The DLA d<lem,iivd uat rhe caerinY wve albin't b dminnue nndrr Ih, FnIA end tIKCF d.eha„re nJt., aM lxlrt'w,c< ,hm RIN e n.mrleint u the Fde,+l Ilutria Can e.elinr ,o e.y,m mMUe ~ rhe den~mente. h<ni:ner mntmEM, ' ler Wa. thet d:r~lavnn . L.rmd bY IN F(liA anA .u immuutml .ilh rhe Tnde Beerp. Arl, IS 11. 8. C. 11005, .biA mpup vlmlaal .neUmr an (-.o.vnment rmpbyen rha dYdar ur mb km.v, h rm• etanner or te rny rrtrnt "an, ntlhor- i.d bY 6.: mrain eh.er ef uform,lica .vbmnled lo e Co.vmmrnt e'/bnl"" opinan uf IN Cnert, wte, at r-9, 1a14, nth apinun af 14e h•.nce R.ewen, u4, at-. "b ,dAn/on ro Tlk 1II, IN Covernmmt <Irim, mlhmiry lor IN bsk-In uadn 1Le fnkrvl •ao-knod" suutq I8 U. 8. C. 131M , ud vd.r 9uk 41 af Ihr RJeN Rulee af Criminel Pewedum Bmur I brlix tbu nn. Ill hu p,r-.mWM tln Xeid of Amtronie ,u-ulnrce, M1 y oondVlve far me t6nt it nuwMm aullnnw thr emri,. Inrdvel m eh: ea,e r aru. of rwlin[ ,a eemdmpMaY onlr<. E1m if Cbng'r'ea hrA mree .wrud 'IM1ne Ilt, bmr.er, I.oWd oonellulw mn<lude that /Aem uther uwnrd iuatiflee4imu bu wTnJ bmYinF nM mlrriry ue uur<ilivR la Ni .ad Bnry p,a.om,r refer tu '.unnu' i.,ed bY a neeietr.fa ,ith Ihe a~uem.that thu meution wnWd p,nbeblY '<yuin <he poflae w find ,ome athervir Wer,I mme af mteriry the pmm:a: Nn rueb r. wu evidene.d by IN Dinrict Caun wheo u amAOn.ed tle<trwia ntrvrillante w thu rue. &e [meMY UnieW 9rau r. Tiw,q aRrn. 6R1 F.7d, u 844bee.
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mponei&lilY w out genereBy upmt until the 21hh Century. L gebmerksbier & F. IDlq TR Rureun Of Iniemul Rn-rnnr P, MA.t (tM). Agenle had the pnxer tn onler nny hwnr, or brr.iu,.w ,w1.Wwh. menl to lo+t for mmhle Prnpen' and ev Ine boaL of nrmrrnte. ]nfur- mMlon At. mllerted end praeeeJ An the field 11 u Iherefure not ror- prieing lofiad that wn6nninnvl mmmenrz durirrg in. pri,d luru.,d mr pntential nblrrn Cy'ynnle in the field and net on bmnrhe. out ron bdenlulLLy by a Wee6lrnglon.M.1 M1lvmurrnrv. "Sr. H R Rep. No. 3J1, stIh Cung- let Srw., AI21-12X (19191. ^The Tamt Carnmimlon nemle, lan eodibM ae 19 U.S. C {IJOf (1919), pruvidM-. Rt dell be onL•ful for any memlxr of the eomm:aim, or for any employee ageot, or terk of the awrm- any other oIRree m gpym of the t nitM 9tee., to tirulga or no ma4e kno.n in .ny ewnn ahuenr not W^'^drd for by Y.. In eny qreou, he Irade en.er. sr pmeew of any Rem, erm oopennerehlp, toepmntinn, or e,e:lks enmmntw or nrnlintiom m~drrrlM b the eommi d in aa b y nt Y k ,S ea o n h b M f d t M th N or d b ~leyes d tb Burau An eumine wrh imlividual repnne, nordull be y~nit any Maletw of dnrrcrtie mmmera to be publwhM I. eu.h mermer , y o avmm®x a y r~r en er tlm. At y e ,yp egraee epmrt tb pro.eimu of Ihu a.tim rhall be . mslemnw end be puaahtd by a has aot exre.dmg ll,olp, or by Impwrnment nct nmdp, me ywr, or betb, m the dtrretbn of the mun, and with {, .. dmder rhall also be dimstl from oesee on diwhaneA hm losmE. •Talel]V.g.C.117116pDbl~ aq eYl,itid'mformatima JumiaLM Im mredmce to the Bumru of lmdp ud I)omnlie Commrr.v by 'urdiridunla wrpomliur., .rd A. id te heW to be ernEdrnliel Nd eball he ueed on15 for the elntirtinl pmpm rm wkirb Y Y mplied. TM D'rnewr of the Rurou of Fartpn aad Fyrrntie C®em eben not permit anyone other than the e. m ft terarl the idmYty of Wa mdividual, earpantbn, or A. fumuhwg n'."1 F . emh deta' : 0 B.RAep.NalM,NpmaBg,rtA111. nL a Iftammbr 1, 199 upinivn, the Attorney Oerreral adveed the 417-79 C Thr lhlitrd Srnrra L.AR' ,K ...In 1948, Rev, Stat. 3167 wae consolidated with two other gtetutee-involving the TerRI Commieion and the I)eParb • ment of Commerce-to form the Trade &<rrte Acl." The Irtatute governmg the Tariff Cumminsion was very similar to 3167 St t d it B l: ltl b l d h , an e . ap c y oun mem Rev, xre of t e Com- mimion as well as Commtuion employeea" The Cammcrm IJepartment elatule embodied some differences in form. It nae a manrlate addrzeecd to the Bureau of Foreign it lkomeetic Commerm and to its PinMd, but thrrr was no yeference to Bunwu employeee and it containod no criminal rnetionf ^ Unlike the o1Ler etatutre it also had no eicep- - tion for dixtwura "sutharizwl by law:" in ite rRnrt to "cun- eolidate[]" the three atalutr=. Cnngrcze rnarted 1 19D5 .it eemntially borrowed the form of IG.v. gta1.3167 and the TariB Cmmmkveion etetute.^ We find nothing in the legielative hir tory of 11905 and its prrrlrreewrs which lends euplart to Chryelerb tnntention that Congrea intended the phrasr tharizM by law," an used in 11905, to have a special, limited meaning. Nor do we find anything in the lrghdnti, Idstury to nnpport the Cuvernmrnt'e enyye+liun Vol, b91fq5 dtR's not eddre® fornml aganry action-i. e.. tLnt it is t'a•ntinlly nn "mdi-Icek" etntute that does not bind the heads ofgnvtslunrntnl drpert- menta or egencies. That would require an expnnnire and Unprettdented holding that any egrncy aetion dirrr{rd or approved by an agency head is "eutborized by Inx;" regxrd- le® of the stetutnry authority for that action. As Attorney General Bmwnell recognived not long after E ttx15 xne c aetad, such a leading is dlt6cult to reconrile with Collgrr~' inknE to consolidnte the TuriR ('ummi+ninn And ('ummerre Department etahttn both of xh.ch ru lrtl nddrravd ® , p y ranking of5cinl, with Rrv. Stnt 3167^ It is alwl mrononter t taR.ry M the T1erw ry than he dwuW temN Simedl r lwund by I M. T6e Attmvq Cmval no1d: aiRe wr~r d the Cminim! Cadr dncr3m the Vrovieion u t ramlida- 47LW 4439 with a scttled understaudirrR-previounly Jrnrnl by fJle De- pnrtment of ]Vatie-tlrnt han been conGrmally articularzd and rellyd upon in Carlgrrm durlnq the Ieg,rletire eHorla in the la..t tbree deeadee to iucreawpublio nreex to Gnvcrnrocnt infnrmation.^ AlthouRh the exintanre of this understanding tmn nl thrR othe...er„ne rnon.rp- elrrvw~nr in the i~ru1M state, Cn.l. (N the tMee, two eeprev11 olrrnrM on pmhlbitlnne on be heade of agen- " e1 t/p. Atly-C -IC9, I67 (loanunbmiqed). 9,e e4n id., at Ttl (Atty. Oen. Bmmdl edvleing FCC CWirman to rraerd hinrrelr m bonndl. ^ ll re emptM the CroremrnenPe Irphbn, 19 Si. 9. S.C. [ m6S vwld mirlv be Irreleranl to the ir of pnblir am.em to tgeney infomutinn. The FOIA nrM elher mrh "oema° letiWurinn an rvm-N with fnmral e5mry er aR 1 eatent r egmey or deMrtmrnt or, put diRer- ently, thehend or an ng.nry or ,1e.rrmwet nthheltl Inlnmulion eovtvined vilh'm the totemmenW unife Aln It i.p but in mrvbk that a gc-mment empbtx rmrrld .dtAdold infamnlh,n whxh her eupron bed direered him to nkaee: and Ihex Aele are eimirly not ddrrv.rd to du- darure be It. go1ernment em)Jnyee that u not nnellnnM by Ihn mqdurng egenvY. '11rie : nm In acv that the a«inm. of indiridrul emN'nst.e might not M imnuent net the ,rr~s Irgelatlon Bnl nr.h nnlone a only lrrw,L,r A. they f n mimrM In the eannrin IAnmrcl.ea Then fnr , en if 119t65 w me nddrrwrl to fomnJ nl v n ae5nn apprnvM by IN, eeuney ur depnnmmt hnd-Ihere ~hould hnve been no con"re n Can4ne n4nling IM InrerrelnrlnnAdp nf { IM5 nnd Ihe n Iew4Lfan, for they wnWJ then addrcat lonlly Jrfcrunt typq or d.an In Iart, be Iq,dnlive hitnry of ell Ib- fi,vl n Ircblatinn of the irel 211 y.n viJr IhO rdnl n.hlp and a vnl u. renl aarmpll•n Ihut 11D05 eml:rvrn fmmvl Irercney ,ilConr unddantMl3,c rndme n5LSC.4Jm, thr,hoo.e .keeirineh.,1 .Rnn4 dq.,nmm,l he:ulr r,:.Wrlinl mrlmnti. bifry fnr drTnnmrnt n nr,l-, could nnl n -rrlv~ Ihe eonddrmlality nrvlarrcl Jul 119n5. Tbn IpM1C.nmrndmnntmrly rlcrifiM thm 9301 t, II . uJanuthe h.y In hl IJ infom, ~ linn See pp YL 211' f AI in 14W I. 1 mm C nnnl RId le M the Se nle Cnmenllee on Ile hMrcirrry eond.nM huFnP an be Wver of the Pnemem In wimhnm immormm . into CnnSrnre An wn of the wipu r Mnr, e lut . mmpd.A Of nll • n neline d4d~nne nf Onv .nt infnrm Rab Iff15 was Iia•J nn5 tEtm. Nenrinrz+ co S. 941 hefan Ihe Suhrarnmilrx on Cnnrnirutionel Righta of An Some Commitlee on the lodi.inry, h51h C ny, 2d &n., pl 2, it 9% (l9.SU) . Twn ynn bler IM Houw Cnmmnlrc on Onvnmmom Opmlinm rondmaM n rtu,ly nn rtnlnmry anlhnntln m,lrirtlng ,r rryuirin5 the nleue of infornulwn under be tvntmi uf exe.urive depnrrmemr or intlP peMent egenerte and .,to pm mt enrcng rh anatu "nlixting the .el46ilny of infnmrvlen to the puMir" rru IA U. S. CMI19Uf. Haum CunmNtee on Coverrrmnt f),crrlimr, Fademl ?rnrurl on the Avnilabitily of lNomutlon 4tlt (Cmun. pnnt ?fareh 19dp1 I{ IAlS denominsted u etalule proMbitNg the doelnrure of nnain infomsr'mn) -Ia lAA r. AehrLn•, !:d U. 6 2S, R14-:&5 (19i51, we rercgnlrM tbe intrnnanm of theee 16te In ttnqrvmr' Inrer deliMnlinn eo minq the FVIA. prtindvly in the eorriderunmn of this vr:ltin) Fs.ml+lian 3. That mmpliun exwpltd rmm the upentiun uf the FOIA vranen "qrai6eJly eampred ficm dieelmvn by nemte." An we notrt in IVOLntaon: "WMn the Bnm Cetnmitde an Onremmenl Dyentiora focwH BxartMim 3, it tmk eote that then an 'marly Iln erelvlee or pana Of wtnter .Aeh mtrits puMie .eera to rlwe Cerenrment remMe TMw reWd as M rrmdrkd by he Nblw reentriat pmeniom of flhe 101A7' H. R Rep. No. 107, PNh Cong, It Sm., to t19W L(HnPha- LL tldrd.l' !d at 595, In deennining that the natute at :aoe in Roberfaon, 19 Lr S. C. I I54e, wiNin FsemCtiun 3, we nhrrrveR that the nalure . An thee rrrror Bele and that IS. CAB ha2 brought the eralute no the e lenlinn Of tolh the Hurree and 8erurt CommiOen v an emyrinq c,rule dunng Are Asaringe on the FOtA. yd., at 241, au3 it, ll. In faet, during thuee bearinge 38 U. B. C. klWS was the maet fmlumrly enM rvnrietion on egmey or department dwloeure of Inlorrnunan Heerine an H. R. SU12 et d. b.fun rhe 9ubeomrninee of the Hn- Commrnn no (Invrmment Oyenliom, 69th Cang., lrt Ss., ]9f I19(s) (nlad by 2g ageneiee is wthonly for wWhdding mfmwlionl Amung IMe eitint he atatute u the IkVenmmt of Jmne It, at 29e ("eammrerul Infornurtion aivrd or armhlM In evnrw with delwnmenlJ runelimre mmt be withhdd punuant to Ih®e r.qui mrnle"1. &e eho A. at t0 (rdlowy betweeo ILp. M. and Aarl. Atty. Cen &IJeI; Atlumry, peneralf 41Q LZ

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