Low-Tar War . . . Philip Morris Thrusts New Cigar
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Length: 3 pages
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- Grubisich, T.
- NEWS, NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
- PHOT, PHOTOGRAPH
- LEGAL DEPT FILE ROOM
- MARG, MARGINALIA
- Judge, C.H.
- S, A.W. <Spears, A.W.>
- Master ID
- 03564283 Advertising Re: Gori Article Volume I - 760600 Thru 761000
- 03564285 'safe' Levels of Smoking Are Indicated in Report
- 03564290 Cancer Expert Urges New Effort to Reduce Hazard in Cigarettes
- 03564291-4293 Dr. Gori Address - (761028)
- 03564294 Summary of Newspaper Coverage -- Clippings Received
- 03564295A-4297 Etiology and Prevention of Smoke-Related Diseases
- 03564304 the Health Sciences and the Burden of Illness Etiology and Prevention of Smoking Related Diseases
- 03564305 Etiology and Prevention of Smoking Related Diseases
- 03564315 New Smoking Data Released
- 03564316 100mgs. Tar Makes News for Cigarette Smokers.
- 03564318 Today's True: Only 100 Mgs. Tar Per Pack
- 03564319 How Many Cigarettes Can You Smoke Without Going Over 100mgs. Tar?
- 03564320-4321 Only Lorillard Research Could Bring You 5mg of Tar and (or with) A Taste Worth Changing to.
- 03564322 New Smoking Data Disclosed.
- 03564329 Low Tar Makes News.
- 03564330 New Smoking Data Released
- 03564331 New Smoking Data Disclosed
- 03564332 100mgs. Tar Makes News for Cigarette Smokers.
- 03564335-4369 Low Risk Cigarettes: A Prescription
- 03564372 Low Tar Makes News.
- 03564374 New Smoking Data Released
- 03564375 100mgs. Tar Makes News for Cigarette Smokers.
- 03564377 Today's True: Only 100mgs. Tar Per Pack
- 03564378 How Many Cigarettes Can You Smoke Without Going Over 100mgs. Tar?
- 03564381 True Slashes Tar in Half.
- 03564384-4419 Low Risk Cigarettes: A Prescription
- 03564442-4447 Appenix Summary of Critical Values of Cigarette Smoking to Mortality From Various Types of Cancer and Illnesses
- 03564455-4490 Low Risk Cigarettes: A Prescription
- 03564491-4526 Less Hazardous Cigarettes: A Prescription
- 03564528-4535 Report to Congress Pursuant to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act
- 03564536-4538 The "Truth" About Smoking and Health
- 03564541-4552 "True" Magazine and the Cigarette Industry
- 03564554-4556 The "Truth" About Smoking and Health
- 03564579 Gori Article
- 03564584 the Uncertain Business of Testing for Cancer
- 03564589-4591 Untitled Document 03564589/4591
- 03564592 Untitled Document 03564592
- 03564595-4597 A.W.S. Discussion
- 03564607-4612 Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes Current Advances
- 03564614 Gori Article - Jama
- 03564615 Smoke Screens
- 03564616-4619 A Cigarette Study the Industry Likes
- 03564627-4628 Gori's Future
- 03564629 Tv Appearance by Dr. Gio Gori
- 03564630-4637 Interview with Dr. Gio Batta Gori
- 03564639-4640 Cigaret - Safety Report Stirs Sudden Interest in Lowest - Tar Brands
- 03564649-4650 Some New Cigarettes Cut Risk Greatly, Scientists Says
- 03564653-4676 Towards Less Hazardous Cigarettes: Current Advances
- 03564716-4719 Low-Risk Cigarettes: A Prescription
- 03564734 Low T&N Newspaper Article
- 03564735 Are Safe Cigarets Here Now?
- 03564737 Weaker Cigarettes Touted As Method to Save Smokers
- 03564738 Production of Lower Hazard Cigarettes Is Urged by Cancer Institute Scientist
- 03564740-4742 Dup of Id 03564726-4728
- 03564812-4813 Maximum Number of Cigarettes That Do Not Exceed Estimated Average Daily Critical Values for Selected Smoke Components
- 03564817-4851 Presentation for the National Academy of Science 761028 Etiology and Prevention of Smoking Related Diseases
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~ rusts i`N ew. Cigar('r-- ~iii~p i~~arri~ i % . r Iri the past 20 years-a period that has been coin- eident.with concerns about the hazards of cina- rettes to health-the company has risen from the American Motors of the industry to the No. 2 posi- tion, behind R.J. Reynolds, primarily through the success of Marlboro. There are two distinct smelis in the air liere--to- bacco and money. For its workers, Philip Morris built a S200 million' factory here designed by Gordon Bunshaft, the ar- chitect of the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington. For its scientists and other researchers, it built a cooly dramatic eight-story tower designed by Ul- rich Franzen. "He's not as well known as Bunshaft," a Philip 14iorris of f icial says, "but he's goo.d " Employees are pampered with amenities from the time they come to work, when they are issued a ration of one pack of their favorite cigarette. Ev- ery other week, they also get a whole carton. On their.lunch hour, they can browse in the company store, which is stocked with fountain pens, beach balls, jackets and T-shirts, all bearing a cifiarette . imprint. And of course cicarettes are sold at cost. Even some of the.harshest critics of smokinC, such as the American Cancer Society, concede, if grudgingly, that if a person is going to continue smoking, better that he or she smoke a low-tar cig- has arette (usually one with 15 m~s. or less). Tar implicated as acancer-causing agent: - Dr. Gio Batta Gori, director of the smoking an It's not exactly that being on the defensive has health program at the Natinnal Cancer lnstitute, ~ ' led to any great hardships for the industry, howev- er, and certainly not for Philip Dlorris. doesn t think any ciparette c:~n be called ,is safe as not smoking at all. But hc saYs: "I'm going to take 1 t~, G3 (11 c ~ ~ ~ By Thomas Grubisich. Wuhlntjton Post 9taV Wrfter RICH6TOND-Ben Soyars, a gravel-voiced vet- eran of the cigarette business who runs the mas- sive Philip Morris factory here, tilts back his chair and tells stories about the men.who made the in- dustry. Legends like K'irt Hatcher, the tobacco blender who created the mix for the company's Marlboro brand; the biggest selling cigarette in the world. "He had it all right in his noggin," Soyars says, paying tribute to the pre-computer days of ciga rette making. But ask him about the "major scientific break- through in Richmond." -%vhich is what Philip hlor-- ris calls its newest cigarette, Merit, and he pauses and becomes uncharacteristicaily circumspect. "I want to talk about this carefully," he says, "be- cause we're talking about the family ;ewels:" Merit is the newest entry in the low-tar field- the fastest-growing phenomenon in the tobacco in- dustry since filtered brands overcame their some- what cicct imaao 1.,C to .~ 20 ; >ars azo. o., _ . Philip Morris and other companies are heavily promoting their low-tar brands, not only to make money ia - 1 per cent share of the market means .sales of $75 million) but, perhaps more important- ly, to get off the defensive, where they've been since the U.S. surgeon general's report in 1964 lLink- ing cigarettes to cancer and other diseases. i _ . 1 141 "¢ ,.. T`' A~~~r~~I~.;~Ln~W1.'9ils~11.'.~"'~
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. 0 railcl..h1. ~ ~ /the bull'bv the horns and sav. ves. a nerson who'` /- smokes a cigarette of 5 mgs. of tar or less and lim-' its his intake to 100 mFs. daily probably wouldn't be'exposed to anv appreciable health hazards." The_tir_ leveT n1eadingloV-Wci9a~ettes ar nges from 2 to 12 mgs. One large section of the cigarette manufacturing and packing area, where tobacco comes together with paper and filter, is shrouded with a black plastic sheet. In a few weeks, it will be clattering away with the production of Merit. At preseat, the brand is made at the old factory on Stockton Street. . To make certain those machines will be operat- ~' ing on three shifts, Philip Morris has launched a `~29 million advertising blitz for Merit. It is spend- , ing another $11 million for street-corner-giveaways and other promotion. Philip Morris is not the only company engaging its such expensive hoop la. All the tobacco firms. in ~.~.~ an obvious effort to pre-empt their health critics, i are spending heavily to pro mote low tars. Adver- ; . t tising Age last December estimated that $200 mil- .4ion would be spent this year in advertising and ' promotion on the leading five low-tar brands- ' Now,Merit, Carlton,True and Vantage. . . ; -It is not hard to find out why. t----- A British expert in addiction, Dr. A. Hamilton ,, Russell, has suggested that any benefits from smoking low-tar cigarettes could be nullified be- cause they are also low in nicotine. Smokers, Rus- `~...~ sell said, tend to increase their intake to satisf ~y : See CIGARETTES, F2, Col.1 - ; DR.WILLIAi1 DUNN ... helping control emotions : He's Paid to Ponder Why People Smoke RICM10ND-Dr. William Dunn is chiei psychologist at the Philip Morris research and development center here: He is paid to ponder the question, Why do people smoke? A cautious man, Dunn offers this hypothesis: "The most important reason people smoke is to obtain the ef- fect of smoke in the body. We've done considerable research on just what is the nature of that effect. It would appear some- how or other-and we don't know how-smoke acts as an agent to assist in regulating the arousal of emotion. "We live in a complex civilization. The more complex, the more we must control our emotion. We are not allowed to fight p or to run. We must stand there and cope. w "We are constantly being aroused emotionally, but we have U1 to control these feelin.as. And the degree to which we control ~ these emotions, the better off we are in this complex society. ;a "Cigarettes, in my opinion, help control these emotions." Xh What if all these "benefits" could be achieved without a~ product that warns users it is dangerous to their health. "Whatever that is, I'd like to have a piece of it," says psychol- ogist Dunn: THOINiAS GRUBISICH ? V4 Doi , r6__ r
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r , F2 Sunday, H.y 16,1976 TIIE WASHINGTON POS'T ' I Low-Tarciaarette War Kages CIGARETTES, From F1 their craving for nicotine, which he thinks is more addictive than alcohol or barbiturates. But Philip Morris scientists say Rus- sell's research remains inconclusive. "Russell found that low-nicotine ciga- rette smokers consumed two ciga= rettes more per day than other smok- ers," said Dr. Walter Gannon, a Philip Morris. "That's not statistically signifi- cant." Predictably, the makers of all the leading low-tar cigarettes claim their particular brand is the best. But Philip Morris is making a more insistent, and unusual, pitch. It claims Merit is unique among the estimated 45 low-tar cigarettes on the market-a triumph of science, riot iust copywriting. Tbe triumph, the comapny says, is creating a low-tar cigarette that has flavor. . Low-tar cigarettes have been availa- ble for years, but failed to find any siz- able following, apparently because not enough smokers could adapt to their thin taste. Even Dr. Gori said low-tar cigarettes produced at the National Cancer Insti- tute's laboratory were "nothing but hot air." Most of the taste of a cigarette is in the edor of burning tobacco. The odor -actu:.lly :: mi:iture oi odors of vary- ing intensities-is trapped in the tril- licns of particles -of tar only a thou- sandth of a millimeter in size that ar en't entirely burned into gas. When tar is screened out by the filter, most of the flavor tends to get screened outt too. This is the problem that Philip Mor- ris claims it has conquered with the "Enriched F'lavor" process of Merit. Pressed for details about the science of the breakthrough, Soyars tilts his 'chair back again and says, "You better talk to the people at R and D." In the "Tower," as the research and development headquarters is called at Philip Morris, more than 300 college- degree-ladeu weL and women, many of them wearing the white coat of the scientist, have committed themselves to a product that bears the label: "Warning: The Surgeon General has determined that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health." One never has to look for an ashtray in the Tower. A handsome designer model is on the table in front of each seat in the conference room. Between each pair of seats. along the wall is a floor-model ashtray. And all the seats of the auditorium are equipped with an ashtray. On some laboratory doors there are hand-fashioned "No Smoking" signs, but only because ether or oxygen is used, not because some scientist ob- jects to smoking. The man at the top in research is Dr. Helmut R. R. Wakeham, Philip Morris' director of science and technology and the author, according to a company bi- ography, of a"setninal paper" called "Recent Trends in Tobacco and To- bacco Smoke Research." Philip Morris scientists, Wakeham says, broke smoke into hundreds of its individual chemical cornnonents. Us- ing an olfactometer, which rates odor by intensity, flavor experts selected those components of smoke that had the most intense odor hor flavor). Among this group, they further sin- gled out those components that not only were intensely flavorful but low in weight iand thus produced less tar when burned). Then the flavor experts tried to find ; burned, more flavor was able to get -1 through the filter, Wakeham claimed, ~ because the added chemicals didn't . carry a heavy burden of tar. Thus was born "Enriched Flavor," But was Enriched Flavor a"scien-- ~ tific breakthrough"? "We were there firstest with the mostest," Wakeham says. Dr. Gori at the National Cancer Insti-_ tute says: "It is a mixture of science . and hyperbole.. There are techniques of flavor fortification that have not been used by tobacco companies. But they are not so esoteric that these com- - panies can't use them: "It's possible the Philip Morris peo- ple have hit the jackpot by putting the right combination of flavors together. But you must remember, they are also spending $30 million in advertising,"-, he said. Officials at Philip Morris' chief com- petitor, R. J. Reynolds, in Winston-Sal- em, N.C., do not think they have been outclassed scientifically. A spokesman for Reynolds, which makes the top-selling low-tar cigarette, ' Vantage, said Reynolds has been the ,leader in breaking smoke into its cotn-- ponents, and has identified chemically 52 per cent of the 2,300 that have been : isolated. He also said the equipment.' Philio 141orris cttes-olfactomefe-s, o^,s chromatographs to crack smoke and mass spectometers to identify smoke components-has been used by Rey- nolds for years. To back up their claim that En-- richPd Flavor is indeed a scientific breakthrough, Wakeham and other of=- ficials cite a Philip Morris comn'ti.4- sioned market study which showed 0 that in a blind test of 3,000 smokers,: Merit was preferred more often than Ui other low-tar brands, even when the1 C~ contpetitor had 60 per cent more tar. *~b The verdict of the industry-watching ~' Maxwell Report, after a tally of sales ttr ~ the first quarter of 1976, was that, "Of ~ the cigarette introductions in the last few months, obviously Merit has made the biggest market impact to date and-- appears on its way to be a suecesstai';.~ " Yuhlishinry Firm Sold laboratory-produced substances whose b chemical structure was identical to or CLIFTON, N.J., May 15 (UPII-Auto- -closely resembled the structure of the matic Data Processing, Inc., has sold high-flavor, low-tar components of Science.& Medicine Publishing Co. to smoke. These chemical additives- Harcourt Brace Jovano.:ich. Inc. The called flavorings-then were added to firm has revenues of S'1.75 million in the tobaccos blended into Merit. the nine months ended March 3L W hen the souped-up tobacco was . ~.......=...1. ....sl'Na..l~...y,1a.. .._-.... .. ",.r..w.. .. .......~4~t..+~...~ product. ~,,....~~ ~ ~ i F~__ c, h,..