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Radioactivity in Tobacco Smoke

Date: 11 Jun 1975
Length: 408 pages
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A Division of Loew's Theatres, Inc. Research Center Library 420 English St., Greensboro, N. C. 27405 Cable Address'Lorillard' NEW YORK OFFICE . 200 E. 42no ST. RADIOACTIVITY IN TOBACCO AND TOBACCO SMOKE
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TOBACCO RADIOACTIVITY (WITH UPDATES) t
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June 11, 1975 This search covers: Bibliography on Smoking and Health - 1967-1974 Tobacco Abstracts - 1957-1975 Chemical Abstracts - 1962-1974(vg/) Tobacco; experimental and clinical studies - 1961,68&71. Health Consequences of Smoking - 1964,67,68,69,72 &73. Key words used: Lead Polonium Radioactivity Tobacco Indicates that this complete paper is in Section II. ti
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c 04993 ~uch_~g, 0. F~ ~ -R FRAGE DER STRAHLENEINWIRKUNO IN DER PATHOGENESE DES BRONCHIALKARZINOMS. (APROPOS OF THE ROLE OF RADIATION IN - THE PATHOGENESIS OF BRONCHIAL CARCINOMA.) Krebsarzt _20:91-4, 1965, German (Abs.) . - The author cites the experiences with miners of Schneeberg and " Joachimsthal to show that industion of bronchial cancer by radon and - radioactive dust in uranium miners has been known for a long tlme. While ~ this danger is restrlcted mainly to . the individuals, e.g. miners who-are in direct contact with the dusts 1n -. the minee "hot nuclei" or hot ' particles' from nuclear explosions constitute a more general threat to the . population. The presence of polonium 210 in tobacco smoke can also play .. a role in bronchial carcinogenesis in - smokers. Polonium can enter the -. tobacco plant (1) through the . - roots as lead 210, forming bismuth 210 . and ultimately polonium 210; or through the leaves as radon A, decomposing to radon B; and this ultimately forms polonium 210. other researcher cited by the author have calculated that the consumption of 2 packs of cigarettes per day for 25 years can subject bronchial epithelium to a radiation dosage of 1,000 rems. ----- FURNIC G. ; TaADER, M. olonium-210 content in different cigaret blends. Igiena 18(8):469-74, 1969. (Rom.) -. Many recent investigations have supplied evidence of the presence of Po-210 in tobacco and tobacco smoke, and a higher content in smokers than non-smokers. Po-210 was lsolated radiochem. from various Romanian cigarette blends, the - ~%-.' content being detd. by measuring a activity. The results ob- ', tained showed a variable Po-210 content, depending upon the . = blend of the cigarette, 0.04-0.29 pCi/g, of 4 x 10-18-3 x - 1 10-17g Po/g tobacco. (Abstract) - - - Chem• Abstr. 73(1):No. 1047q, July 6, 1970. tasz
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C 11 SiJiohiiy4 .J- TTea~~/t ~// 9.b(~'oJy aa~~y - /96y A 07867 - ' G_aldoa, A, TTENEUR DES CIGARETTES EN POLONIUM. . .L (THE POLONIUM CONTENT OF CIGARETTES.) 'Presse Medicale 73(19)=1142, 1965, . . . renc jATis-T- Extremely sensitive spectroscopic measurement of samples of American cigarettes has shown a Po-210 content of 0.45 ± 0.10 micro-microcuries, the largest portion of which passes into - the smoke stream. Assuming 10 percent disintegration of Po-210 in the lungs, the radioactivity in a person smoking ; 50 cigarettes daily could reach a value of 400 micro-microcuries. Such avalue - may not'be alarming, unless localized in a small segment of the respiratory : system. Properly prepared glass ' filters could retain large portions of Po-210. Another protective measure would be the aging of the tobacco, since the half-life of Po-210 is relatively brief (138 days). The efficiency of the aging process, how- - ever, could be compromised by the cigarette content of Pb-210, whose half- life is 28 years. A more complete . study should establish the influence of rain, sun, irrigation systems, and fertilizers on the content of Pb-210 and Po-210 in tobacco, - GIBBS, W. D. ; et'al. _~._-_--- oactivity of cigarettes. Res. Rep. Oak Ridge Inst. Nuclear Studies :105-7, 1964. Tob. Bibliog. 12(8):No. 781, Oct. 25, 1965. GIBBS, W. D. ; LUSHBAUGH, C. C. ; HODGES, H. D. .'_ $osslbility that tobacco contributes to human radioactive t: body burdens. Res. Rep. Oak Ridge Inst. Nuclear Studies, Med. Div. :125-8, 1965. -.~ Tob. Bibliog. 14(l):No. 66, July 10, 1966. . Radiochemical analyses for'OSr, 'nCa, °'Ra, and eK in nat- I ural and processed materials in Australia. J. H. Green and E. T. Pallister (Univ. New South Wales, Sydney). usiralien • J. Sci. 27(7), 199-202(1965). Radiochem. analyses are reported on tea, coffee, tobacco, and Sydney rainwater. One sample of Chinese tea had a "Sr content (2080 µvc./g. Ca) about 340-fold I that of Sydney milk in 1961. This reflects the greater fallout in tea-growing countries and perhaps a selective uptake of ~ . by the tea plant. The other samples showed m& tontents similar to those in flour from Australian wheat. J. F. KeHord
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c.,~ 6x; C~966~ ~ Polonium-210 analyses of vegetables, cured and uncured to-" -bacco, and associated soils. K. C. Ber er W. H. Erhardt, and C. W. Francis (Univ. of Wisconsin, adison). Science 150 (3704), 1738-9(1965)(Eng). The cured samples of leaf tobacco and soils analyzed showed small quantities of the element but . none was found in green leaves. Muck soils contained 3 times - as much rioPO as did mineral soils. The isotope and its percursors are not taken up by plant roots but rather by sorption in dead, moist plant materials at the atm: plant interface. ' Kathryn D. Kuck .7 65332a Polonium-210 in tobacco. -Blak Stuar[ C.; -Bretbl i hauer, Erich W. Radio . ea th Lab., Las Vegas, ;. Nev.). Radial. Health Data Rep. 1968, 9(3), 145-52 (Eng). Variations of t10Po content in tobacco, the amt. of r'0Po in various % fractions of smoked cigarets, and changes in the r10Po content of - mainstream smoke caused by variations in the smoking procedure were detd. The av. 01°Po content for whole cigarets was 0.483 . pCi./g. and 0.477 pCi./g. for butts. No pOPo enrichment in the butt of cigarets during smoking was found. The 110Po content , and conen. in mainstream smoke increased with puff size. FeliaSaunders '~ BLACK, S. C. (~polonium in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In "Radiatiori ;~ Bio-effects" Sum. Rep. :46. Washington, D. C., U. S. ~'I . Dep. Health, Educ. Welf., Publ. Health Serv. Jan. /Dec. _ 1967. ~ Smoking Health Bibliogr. Bull. :4, Oct. 1968. ------ P29624a Concentrations of n"Pb and r'"Po in human soft tissues. R. L. ~Blanhard (U.S. Dept. of Health, Educ. & tR•1Lrre, Public eaH-ItF-Serv., Cincinnati, Ohio). Health Phys. 13(li), 625-32(1967)(Eng). Concns. of 2'"Pb and p10Po in tissues from 20 individuals are reported. The tissues investigated were the kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, spleen, gonads, thyroid, and hcarl. The 2 highest av. r10Po concns. were 14.5 and 11.3 X. 1u-'r e./kg. in liver and kidney, resp. Av. conen. in gonads, Imig, and thyroid was about one-half as great, and the least amts. i nf r'°Po and r'"Pb were found in the spleen, pancreas, and heart. )li„her concns. of 310Po were found in tissues of cigaret smokers Ihan nonsmokers. Except for the lung, however, the differences ' tcere not significant. The iOPo/f°Pb activity ratio varied from <1 to>1 in all tissue types, except for the heart for which there were too few samples to be meaningful. The amt. of 61pPo unsup- pnrted by its f10Ph parent was greatest in the kidney. The dose r:ues delivered by the l10Po to the various tissues are discussed. :L^ references. . _ RCCY ~
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SmaAtq + Aa/ax C 29939g Polonium-210: removal from smoke by resin fdters. I rErich W. Bretthauer and Stuart C. Black (U.S. Public Health Serv., Las egas, Nev.). Science 156(3780), 1375fi(1907) (Eng). Use of a mixed ion-exchange resin as a filter for cigarets markedly reduced both the total amt. of SOPo in mainstream smoke and the picocuries per mg. of smoke. This procedure effectively minimizes exposure of the lungs of smokers to a irradn. . , . ~ ~ RCMH ~ The strontium-90 content of Canadian tobacco samples. John R. Brown and Anita A. Jarvis (Univ. Toronto). Med. Sero. J. an. 20(7), 613-15(1964)(Eng). The midrib was sepd. from the blade of the leaf of processed tobacco of Canadian origin and the samples were ashed. The av, bSr content/g. of ash derived from pooled samples of midrib and lamina were 6.96 _ and 12A ppc., resp. The Ca conen. was 0.108 and 0.235 g./g. ofash,resp. Although 10Sr was present in tobacco in measurable amts., it is unlikely that it will present any radiation hazard to the lungs since the estimated temp. of the burning core of a cigaret is in the range of 850-920°, a temp. below that of the . vaporization of Sr. BFJN_ , ; A 06625.- ~ Cafi Nd ,r.. an ITugnanl Lonati, R. ). ' POLONIUM-210 IN ITALIAN TOBACCO. !(Abstract) Health Physies 22: 18 - : 08, 1966. 83gg2radloac8ve substances In the effect of smok- . iag. Casarett, Louis J. (Dep. Pharmacol., Univ. Hawaii, Honolu u, awaii). Nat. Cancer Inst. .Lfonogr. 1967 (Pub. 1968), No. 28, 199-209 (Eng). Considerable attention has been ' focused on radioactive substances in tobacco and smoke from cigarets and the subject is discussed in fair detail. Bocks_. , Polonium-210 tontent of tobacco. A. P. Ermolaeva-Makov- skaya, L. A. Pertsov, and D. IC. Popov (Ins d a~atron Hyg., Lenmgrad). Gigiena i Sanit. 30(12), 40-3(1965)(Russ). The soPo conen. uf Soviet tobacco and ash averaged 4.3 X 10-u c./g. and 0.2 X 10-" c./cigarct, resp. Most of the Po passed into the smoke. The filters did not absorb much r1^P0. However, - since other carcinogens are known to be present the physiol. _ importance of the,Po content was not clear. John Howe Scott _
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FLAMAND, R. J. J. Y. G. Filter for tobacco smoke. BeIg. 647, 803, Nov. 12, 1964. -1 . A filter for removing the undesirable components of smoke is '- claimed. In a plastic tube capped with covers having entrance -: .;., holes is placed a cellulose plug with pores 100µ in diam. , a bed - of activated charcoal, a cellulose plug with pores 10op in diam., a mixed bed of anionic and cationic polystyrene resin, and a _- cellulose plug with pores 50µ in diam. The cellulose plugs . remove colloidal particles, the activated C removes hydrocar- ' bons and other undesirable constituents, and the_resi_n bed 2247 removes radio-active elements including Po anti Pb. One cart- ridgeissufficientfor 20-5 cigarets, 10 cigarillos, 6 cigars, or 6 pipes of tobacco. 64(6):8656f/g, Mar. 14, 1966. C.A 6~~ ~~968~ ~ 71224v Radioactive ingrowth of polonium-210 in tobacco ' . plants. C. W. Francis and G. Chesters (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison). J. g~"'fr: }'ood Cbem. 15(4), 704-6(1967)(Eng). nOPo is an a-emitting radioactive element found in tobacco and - thought to be a possible initiator of bronchial cancer in cigaret smokers. An evaluation of the ingrowth of ""Po in leaves of tobacco showed it to be derived from and in radioactive equil. .' with "OPb. Linear extrapolations of r`"Po ingrowth obtained by a modified Bateman equation indicated that 61°Pb entered the tobaccn Icaves during the growing season. RCJB • 64976e Polonium-210 entry into plants. rancis, Chester ~ W.; Chesters, Gordon; Erhardt, Wilfred H. (Univ. of Wiscon- sin, Madison, Wis.). Environ. Sci. Technol. 1968, 2(9), 692-7 (Eng). The possibility that root uptake of "^Pb from soils is the principal mechanism of r10Po entry into plants was evaluated and proved to be invalid. If the f10Pb in the plant is not soil- derived, the second most likely source is natural radioactive fallout, of which the most important component is from rainfall.. Material balances of the quantities of 2OPb in tobacco over time intervals of known rainfall indicate rains deposit approximately twice as much SOPb as observed in tobacco leaves, verifying the hypothesis that deposition of °'°Pb by minfall is the principal _ mechanism of fOPo entry into plants. RCLY 87 61hPolonium radioisotopes in tobacco and the atmosphere. 1 ~t, J.; Sackett, W. M. (Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, Okla.). U.S I. At. Energy Comm. 1967, (COO-1540.5), 17 pp. (Eng). From Nucf. Sci. Abstr. 1968, 22(6), 10756. ruPo, an a-particle emit- ting radioisotope, is a natural contaminant in cigaret tobacco. Upon smoking a cigarct, much "0Po is transferred to the lung where it may cause types of bronchial cancer. Pcople also ingest other Po radioisotopes through breathing, that may render the lO r~°Po from cigarets negligible. In this paper the relative con-lO tributions from these two sources is examd. T_ CNG 'f Q . 14 +nt. ~ ~
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/ ABSTRtIGTS C..P, ?o; 0 96P~ Tn• Or 44935h Tobaccocomposition. Arm rust -Rcruard t., Jr.; Caritlters,ValG. (ReynoldsMetaso. U.S.3,410,276(CI. 131-9), 12 Nov 1968, Appl. 03 Jun 1964-°8 Jul 1965p 7 pp. Tobacco is mixed with a shredded sheet material (5-35 wt. %) . eontg. a temp. control substance (75-95%,), asbestos (3-15°fo), and a vegetable gum binder This additive lowers the tenrp. in the distn. zone of the product 100-200°, reducing the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tile smoke; firms the tobacco ash; and, if made with rough external surfaces, filters the smoke, reducing its tar concn. A typical sheet con- tained AlzO~-3HxO 85, asbestos 8.5, guar gum 4.2, and glycerol ' 2.3 wt.~,'c. In an example, cigarets contg. 23 wt.% of the above material showed an active distn. zone temp. of 425° compared to 625° for the control. Activated alumina, and the oxides, hy- droxides, or carbonates of the alk, earth metals or Mg are suitable temp. control substances. Glass wool may be used in place of ~ asbestos. Other suitable binders are gum arabic, dextrin, Me , cellulose, or hydroxypropyl cellulose. AI eompds. also filter out radioactive elements, such as "OPo, from the tobacco smoke. R. A. Nelson ~ . . . . .. . _ . . _ __. . ..._. .._ F. ASH, M. 1959 Radioactivity of the stalk of tobacco plants grown in London, England, in 1957. Med. Serv. J. (Canada) 15(3):195-8, Mar. CLML 36(2):no. 17128, Aug. 1959. 181's $4q'+7h Uptake and distribution of polonium-210 and lead-210 in tobacco plants. Athal •e, V. V.; Mistry, K. B. (Biol. Agric. 1) I16aLlia At. es, ent., Trombay. India). Hadinf. Bnf. 1072. 17'6y 1~1-5 (Eng). The uptake and distribution of SOPo ;md it, lonr;-lival precursor Q10Pb in 2 flue-cured tobacco varieties (,1'unnarue Lrr6i,rnmr cv. Uelcrest and cv. Virginia gold) were ex:mrdd im mtricnt culture expts. The accumulation of these radb-mnlidc. was greatest in the roots. Over identical dura- . tium uf y,ru„ Ilt, tile extent of upward transport of p10Po and $10Ph wav reLUlvcly ereater in cv. Virginia gold. The distribution of I the r:rdi,mnolidcs in aerial tissues followed an acropetal gradient nrart+'.e~turr. thnt xrnl'o and 'rol'b couens. iu leaf tobacco used for ; cie'uet pr,rdn. would be reduced if leaves other than tile oldest ' .Irnir.:w hurvcxted. _ .. - . .-,-_. . / Polonium in cigarets. Spectroscopic analysis. Avi.i 1. _j Ynvin, Giovanni Dc Pasquali, and 1'aul Baron (Univ. o-(Illirtnis, y~ Urbana). Nalure 205(-1974), 899-91)0(1965)(Eng). Po, extd. I T' from w•hnle cigarets by a wet-asbing procedure, was deposited on Ag foils placed a few mm- from a 2-sq.-cm. solid-state detector. The detector was coupled into a low-noise, charge-sensitive prc- anrpliticr and a multichanncl analyzer. Thc effective solid angle was 3.8 t 10°fa stcradians; thc overall energy spread of a mono- energetic a-group was ~5(1 kev. Two sample-s, each cnntg. Po Q front 2 cigarcts of the samc brand (Ansric:m) hut from different O cartnns, hoth contained (1.45 t 0.10 µpc. (duee to uncertainty in solidangla•audinplatingcpicicncy)uercigar~t~.inaercnnentwith ~ Radford and Hunt (CA 60 9619b). In a 1'n a-spcctrtun, ao- ~ cumulatrd for fi hrs. from at-cigaret smnplc, tile location of tile I ~ peak curresp>rrded to all energy of 5.310 t 0.015 Mev., in ex- ~ ; cdlent agM'tr't'nt with the value of .5.3(15 Mcv- for rroPu. AI- I though all l'u isotopes are u-active, no a-activity due to any othrr I w I Po isotopes was obscrved, witlr an upper limit of 1 rjo• The umt. o( po per rc•gular size Amarican cigarc•t (~2 X 10' atoms) doas not I I fluctuate exte'nsivcly and possibly reflects the homogeniriug pnr. cedurc used iu the production of cigarcts. Preliminary expts. irt. 'dicate that proper glass filters might retain a significant part of i _the inhaled Po. The system described is practically fnr rd ~ i background, permits detn. and identification of minute quantitic~ ..~ of a-active isotopes, and can achieve (with some modification) . I . .. .„r..., m Innr'.C Robert A. Bleidt
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I968~ $303 Od Polonium-2ifliutobaccoproductsandhurnantissues. E. S. Fer i and E. J. Baratta (Northeastern Radiol. Health Lab.,hester, Mass.). Radiol. Health Data Rep. 7(9), 485-8(1966)(Eng); cf. CA 64, 18043k. "oPo concns. in tobacco . smoke collected using a smoking machine accounted for 11-30% of that in the total product depending on the type of filter used . to collect the smoke. The lung, blood, and liver, in that order, of smokers contained more ruPo than the corresponding organs . of nonsmokers. Analysis of tobacco products for mRa, +'OPb, and s~^Bi indicated that parent r'"Ra was not in equil. with its daughters SOPh, r1^Bi,and "oPo. High Pb/Ra ratios indicated r'°Pb reaches the plant via direct uptake fro n th if d } e so or eposi- tio_n from atm. 'n Rn. Richard F. Rily _ ~ - . Polonium-2l0 in tobacco, cigaret smoke, and selected human , organs. Esther S. F vand Edmond J. Baratta (Public Health Serv., Winchestcq ~hlass.). Public Health Rept. (U.S.) 81(2), .' 121-7(1966)(Eng). Filtered and nonfiltered cigarets, cigars, and pipe tobacco were assayed for radionuclide content. For all detns. except Po the tobaccq,ash was dissolved in HCI. U'Ra was detd: by emanation, collection, and counting of wRn. The ash soln. was passed ovet an anion exchange column to remove the Bi, and the rnPb pptd. as the sulfide. The sulfide was dis. solved, collected on an anion exchange column, eluted, pptd. as ' the chromate, and counted. The r'"Bi was eluted from the column, pptd. as the oxychloride, and counted.. The samples ' for analysis of u'Po were wetrashed with HNOr and HC10a; the soln: was made 0.5N with HCI and the Po deposited on a Ag disk and counted. The conens. in picocuries per cigaret, per cigar, -and per g. of pipe tobacco, resp., are: =Ra, 0.11-0.17, 0.74 0.096; r'°Pb, 0.33-0.49, 3.55, 0.41; r10Bi, 0.31-0.49, 3.55, 0.41; f°Po 0.32-0.48, 3.60, 0.20. Po concu. (picocuries/cigaret) in smoke and residue of a filtered and nonfiltered cigaret, resp., . was: inhaled smoke, 0.037, 0.082; sidestream smoke, 0.139, 0.091; butt and ash, 0.171, 0.172. Po concn. in human organss in picocuries/g. of wet tissue for smokers and nonsmokers, resp., were: liver, 0.0143, 0.0060; kidney, 0.0088, 0.0057; heart, 0.0019, 0.0010; psoas muscle, 0.0006, 0.0010; lung parenchyma, 0.0079, 0.0025; bronchi, 0.0128, 0.0099; lung nodes, 0.1070, ' 0.0380. C.H.O'DOnohue~ 19671v Lead-210 in tobacco and cigaret smoke. Esther S. ~ Ferri, and Howard Christiansen (Northeastern Radiol. Health Zab Public Health Serv., Winchester, Mass.). Public Health Rep. (U.S.) 82(9), 828-32(1967)(Eng). The smoke from 6 . brands of cigarets was analyzed to det. the amt. of lead-210 which could be deposited in the lungs. These brands included 2 non- filtered, I with a cellulose filter, 1 with a cellulose and C filter, 1 with a cellulose and C filter and tobacco treated for tar and nieo- tine removal, and 1 with a cellulose filter and pipe tobacco. The lead-210 activity was ;V50% of the polonium-210 activity, but about double the lead-210 in air. However, the radiation dose to the lung from lead-210 was equal to the dose from polonium-210. John A. Atmway.
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ABSTRACPS T.fl 9; ~i96s~ __ __ . ~ Poloaium-210 in leaf tobacco from four countries. L - . P. re o (NatL Radiation Lab., Christchurch, N.Z.). Scicncs - 2), 74~(1965xEng). Tobacco grown in the Vnited -( States, Rhodesia, South Africa, and New Zealand were measured for their r10Po content. Samples had been aged 1 year or more ' except for the New Zealand samples which were measured 9-10 -- months after harvest. A mean of 0.49, 0.754 f 0.46, 0.412 t 0.027, and 0.15 X 10-u e./g. was found, resp. These results are f in agreement with Marsden (CA 61, 9948f) with respect to '_ values for total no-activity of tobacco. _ Eldora Legatski `~ium-210 in soils and plants. Colo. State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. Radiol. Radiat. Biol. June 1970. 142p. C00-1733-11 • U. S. Govt. Res. Develop. Rep. Index 71(7-12, Sect. 1):588 , Apr./June 197L 2554 HILL, C. R. 'polonium-210 in man. Nature 208(5009):423-8, 1965. 3833 ' Lead-210 and polonium-210 in tissues of cigaret smokers. ~~ IJO'rT -Richard B. Holtznran and Frank H. llcewicz (Argonne Natl. I~IL . Lab., Argonne, .. Science 153(3741), 1259-60(1960)(Eng) ~. Concus. of "°Pb and "°Po in the ribs of 13 cigaret sm okers were - more than double the conens. in 8 nonsmokers. _In smob,r the fOPo:"°Pb ratio was 0.87 as compared with 0.62 in n„~ j smokers. The amt. of "°Pb in alveolar lung tissue uf suwk,.,l ;, was more than twice that in nonsmokers. Ronald L. Kathr, V 84248k Polonium-210in branchial epithelium of garet smokers. Richard B. Holtzrnan (RadioL Phys. Div„ Argonn e In Natl. Lab., Argonne, ,, coence 155(3762), 607(196i)(Eng); cf. preceding abstr. Variations in lung dose ests. of diffcrent lnvestigators are only partially resolved by differences in detg, 40Po cnnens. Addnl. analyses and autoradiographic studies 4 re suggested to det. the metabolism of S°Pb and °10Po and to es- O_ tablish their localized concus. Ronald L. Kathren _ O
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{{ea~ ~ ~ ~o9 re ~ b y r ' / 7 4V P S'& al:ny ~ ffea/~~ ,8, ~/9A~D'~e - Aw' C - INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH. ' ` - ''., Polonium (110po) in tobacco smoke and in the environment. )- 42nd Rep. Br. Emp. Cancer Campn. (Part 2)95-6, 1964. ~ Tob. Bibliog. 12(3):No. 3d1, Aug. 10, 1965. 'l6 D 06848 - .. . . . . .-_ . _:. . _ Jacobi, W. . DIE NATURLICHE STRAHLENEINWIRKUNG AUP DEN ATEMfRAKT. (THE EFFECT OF NATURAL , - -. -.RADIATION ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT.) Biophysik 2:282-300, 1965, German (Abs.) ~~ - .. D 06848continud ' (e) The natural radiation exposure of the human respiratory tract is caused mainly by inhalation of the hort-llved decay ~ with he RaF (PO pare -.-- iinhalation dose ' by cigarette smoking. (Author Abstract JJJI) dose rate is reached Sn the segmental and subsegmenal bronchi, where a mean natural radiation exposure of about 100 mrad/a or 1 rem/a must be expected in the basal cell layer. The results ard,scussed and com- 210 d t products of radon (Rn ) and thoron ' (Rn220). From the particle size distri- ` bution of the carrier aerosol of these . decay products, their deposition in dif- ferent regions of the human respiratory tract and the resulting activity distribu- tion is estimated for normal breathing conditions, taking into account the bio- logical elimination from the alveolar , region and the ciliary transport in the bronchial tree. The corresponding alpha- depth dose distribution in the bronchial epithelium is derived, taking into account the alpha-absorption and the variation of stopping power with alpha-energy. The re- sulting natural radiation exposure of the - bronchial epithelium is considerably higher than it was hitherto assumed. The maximum ..A06624-._---~--__ Kilibarda, M., Petrovic, D., et al. 0 AMINATION WITH POLONIUM217 URANIUt4 AND RADIUM-226 DUE TO SMOKING. (Abstract) , .- Health Physics 12:1808, 1966. J
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ABSTRACTS Polonium-210 content _of - -msinstream cigaret smoke. Thomas F. Kelley (Dio-Res. Consultants, Inc., Cambridge, Mass.). Snence 149(3683), 537-5(1985xEng). There are ronsiderable differences in ""Po content between the mainstream smoke from various brands of cigarets. Brand characteristics in . terms of "OPo content depend on the amt. of particulate matter in the mainstream smoke, and neither directly on the presence or i '. -absence of a filter nor on the nature or construction of the filter. : . Walter Tkaczyk J _..__.._ _._. >A09898 .~~ .. ._ I - Kol W., Raumgartel, K., and . reachhoff, 6-. ~ ~ DER POLONIUM 210-CEHALT VON RAUCHKONDENSAT UND TAHAK. (POLONIUM 210 CONTENT 0[+ SI4pKE CONDENSATE AND TOBACCO.) Umweltradioaktivitat und - ra enoeas un ir? quarter); _ . ,_~_ , e~rman (Abs.) A 09898 (continued) - • Two different methods were employed in the analysis of tobacco smoke condensates. The investigation showed that 1 g of cigarette smoke condensate (from about 40 cigarettes) has a specific . activity of 1.4 p cigarette polonium 210, so that a heavy smoker consuming 40 cigarettes per day may incorporate in his limgs 1.4 p cigarette polonlum 210 daily. This rate is approximately 100 times as high as in non- smokers. The rate is permissible under the standards of the Inter- national Coamission on Radiation . Protection but one is cautioned._. that the variability of polonium 210 content in smoke particles and aerosal components can result in an unequal distribution of polonium 210 in respiratory ~i organs. . ..... . _. / ~ 1111341a Metabolism of lead in man through measurement of~ lead-210, as a natural tracer. Lanzola E: Allegrini, M. (Ist. ~ . Ig., Univ. Pavia, Pavia, Ita y, roc., At. Symp., Enomron. Health Aspects Lead 1972 (Pub. 1973), 365-71 (Eng). Comm. Eur. Communities, Cent. Inform. Doc.: L•uxembourg, Luxemb= ourg. The level of lead-210 [142S5-0J-0] in human deciduous and permanent teeth, measured as the natural tracer Po-210, varied with the age and tobacco smoking history of the subject. In nonsmokers, Pb content was higher in permanent than in . deciduous teeth. In teeth crowns, Pb levels were highest between • the ages 10 and 20, and decreased after this age according to the Pb half-life. ln teeth roots, Ph levels were practically const. in nonsmukers, but increased with age in smokers. _ ~
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ABSTRAGTS h C 0.;0 6i," (/P,/ ~~ 0 05526 . Lerant. M. :.-. ST POIONIUM (PO-210) DER KREBSAUSIASENDE FAKTOR BEI . UBERMASSIGEM ZIGAREZ"rEN-KONSUM4 . (IS POLONIUM (Po410) THE CARCINCGENIC FACTOR IN EXCESSIVE CIGARETTE CON- SUMFfI0N4) Medizinieche Klinik 1Mun~erman (Ab S,~ - An account of the finding of B.P. Radford and V.R. Hunt of Harvard University (Kresge Center for Environ- mental Health) regarding cancer and excessive clgarette consumption was given. According to them, Po-210 . ie an important factor In the relation- ship between cigarette smoking and lttng cancer. Polonium is present In small amounts as a natural impurity : In tobacco. In a smoker who smokes .- two packages of cigarettes a day, the polonium which enters the bronchial mucous membranes produces a radiation of 36 rem -- at least seven times the amount of environmental radiation to which a non-smoker is exposed. A stmmmary is given of experiments ' performed by the two Harvard researchers establishing the polonium concentration in smoke, including the findings that there is a much higher polonium con- centration In the urine of smokers than In non-smokers. . . lncrdence and possible significance'of inhaled or inges[ed Po. . .,_ Ernest farsd n. Nature203(4942),23O-3(1964). ~10Pu,whicl ~i - is inha e in tobacco smoke and also in car exhaust when Ph -~ compds. are used in the gasoline, possibly effects cancer initir ' Hon. The tobaccos showing highest "^Po activity are th.nr . ~ grown on soil of low pH, and it varies from 150 to 5 X llt'"v in total a-activity/g. of leaf. °1^Po from natural fallout seems to -add slightly to it. Contribution from engine exhaust seems to ba ~ . . ~. much smaller. - N. (E . TA• _/o (/~66~ MARSDEN E. ~ome aspects of the relationship of radioactivity to lung cancer. New Zeal. Med. J. 64:367-76, July 1965. Tob. Bibliog. 13(1):No. 69, Jan. 10, 1966. 1892~ _k
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' 1447g Determination of polonium-210 in cigarets and tobacco. ' o es dos Sant , Pedro; Weinberg, Evelyn M.; Penna Franca, ~uar o s. Biofis., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Rev. Biol. Med. ' Nacl. 1970, 2, 73-7 (Port). The process of natural fallout II resulting from Rn emanation from the soil, its decay in the atm., and deposition of its long-lived daughter t"Pb are the principal . mcchanisms by which leafy vegetables and tobacco are con- ' taminated by "°Pb. By its decay, "aPo builds up in the v e- I : tables. The 2nPo contents of tobacco leaves and products we were dctd. Since r10Po is volatile at the temp. of a burning cigaret, ~art of its tnntent in tobacco '' h I d b k r~~ 1 ts ra a . e y smo ers. Po contents were detd. in various tobacco products manufd. in I Brazil. The av. contents of Brazilian cigarets are about the n ei sa r , rne as the values found in the United States, Argentina, India, and Pakistan, above the ones observed in Indonesia, Turkey, and Grecce, and below the ones found in Rhodesia,"Australia, J . and Central America countries. 3IYID/CJ11q t)-C!~. !7 . . .. A 02646-_ [ t/ e~~/¢ Ma`~PART IC LE CACTIVITY M . AND ~LPA FREE RADICALS FROM TOBACCO. Nature (London) 198(4884) 962-4, Jun 8, 1963.~ C ABSTRACTS -'--. -...":_..._ ..... _ _ ._ JM_TLE, J. B.; RADFORD, E. P.; McCOMBS, H. L.; HUNT, I V. R.; NELSON, C. -'y Polonium-210 in lungs and soft tissues of cigarette smokers. Radiat. Res. 22(1):209, 1964. Tob. Bibliog. 11(5):No. 506, Mar. 10, 1965. r-35146f Determination of polonium-2l0 in cigarets and , tobacco. Lo es dos Santos, P.; Weinberg, E. M.; Penns -Franca, E. ns . iop ys., io de Janeiro, Brazil). Reu. Biol. ; Med. NucL 1970, 2(2-3), 73-77 (Port). The content of z1^Po was detd. in various tobacco products, including cigarets cigars ' , , i , and pipe tobacco of different brands manufd. in Brazil. The av. < content of Brazilian cigarets is about the same as the values 1 . : found in the United States, ArgenGna India and Pakistan , , ' above the-ones observed in Indonesia, Turkey, and Greece, and below the ones found i Rhdi Atlid Cl I noesa,usraa, anentra __American countries ~.
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C 20; (I?a~) ~ 84247j Polonium-2l0-inbronchial epithelium of clgaret smokers. John B. Little and Edward P. Radford, Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass.). Scierue 155(3762), 606-7(1967)(Eng); cf. following abstr. Variations in lung dose ests. of different investigators are attributed to differences in ,detg. epithelial fOPo roncns_ _ Ronald L. Kathren ~, .,r Measurement of polonium-210 in human blood. J. B. tttl M nP s and R. B. cGandy (Harvard School of Public Health, Bo o Mass.). Nature 211(5051), 842-3(1966)(Eng); cf. J. B. Little, E. P. Radford, Jr., H. L. McCombs, and V. R. Hunt, Nerv England J. Med. 273, 1343(1965). To relate blood concns. of r'"po to smoking habits, samples of blood from 100 healthy men 45-54 years of age and who lived in one Boston suburb were collected. The av. concn. of "OPo in smokers was 1.72 and in nonsmokers was 0.76 picocurie/kg., a significant difference even though a 2-3-fold variation among individuals in each group oc- curred. Liver, spleen, kidney, urinary bladder, and bone at' autopsy also showed a 3-fold variation in concn. between in- dividuals. The blood concn. of "OPo in an 85-kg. subject rose from 0.98 before to 1.56 picocuries/kg. 12 hrs. after a meal contg. about 100 picocuries of '"Po. In studies on cigaret smokers, blood 110Po concns. fell an av. of 27% during the 1st week after smoking was suddenly stopped, then changed little during the next 4-8 weeks. Small differences in chronic environmental . exposure to lOPo can be detected in 10 ml. blood. Detectable~ concns, of Ra can also be detected in 10 ml. of blood. Dorothy J. Buchanan-Davidson LITTLE, J. B.; RADFORD, E. P.; MCCOMBS, H. L.; HUN,V.R. Distribution of Polonium 210 in pulmonary tissues of cigar- ette smokers. New Engl. J- Med 273:1343-51, 1965. Tob. Bibliog 13(5):No. 502, Mar. 10, 1966." 2452 -- 26478g Systemic absorptf( n of polonium-210 inhaled in cigaret smoke. f,i tle, John B.; hlcCandy, Robert B. (Schh of Yublic Healt ,T-, Harvard Univ., Boston, Mass.). Arch. Environ. Health 1968, 17(5), 693-6 (Eng). In 6 subjects who discontinued cigaret smoking for periods up to 89 days after F reviously smoking 1 to 1% packs/day, activities of "0Po blood declined initially at a rate of 4%/day from a baseline activity of 1.6 PCi./kg. Assuming that 1.0 pCi./day of iOPo I is initially retained in the lungs during smoking at the above rate, matntenance of equil. blood activity requires a min. ~ - systemic absorption of 30% of that retained per day. The est. is probably low because excretion rates would probably i decrease on cessation of smoking and diffusion of tissue p10Po into the bloodstream would also occur. Moet systemic ab- I . sorption of inhaled S10Pu occurs across the respiratory epi- ' thelium. In one of the subjects 95% of ingested "0Po was recovered in the feces. Decline in activity results from a ~ - combination of excretion, pbys. decay, and grow-ia oP r1°Po~ ' from S1°Pb which is also present in cigaret smoke J. . _ _ ., Bsymond Zehnpfennig
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MARSDEN, E. ' 7-A Tobacco smoke filter element. U. S. Pat. Spec. No. 3, 557, 802 to Larus & Brother Company. Off. Gaz. U s , , Pat. Off. 882(4):1455, Jan. 26, 1971. A cigarette smoke filter for removing Polonium 210 contained in cigarette smoke, in which finely divided aluminum particles are uniformly dispersed in a carrier base of high surface arez, the particles acting to absorb Polonium 210. (Abstract) ~961 100455t Radioactivity of tobacco trichomes and insoluble ' cigaret smoke particles. Mart Edward A. (Natl. Cent. -' Atmos. Res., Boulder, o o. . Nature (London) 1974, i 249(5454), 215-17 (Eng). sr^Pb [14255-04-0] present on small amt. Aitken particles accumulated on tobacco trichomes and, on ~ curing and combustion, was concd. in insol. particles which . deposited in the bronchi of smokers. The subsequent ingrowth of 21oPo [[3981-52-7] resulted in high local a-irradn. which may - be the primary agent of cancer in smokers. The av. Y1ePb activity of trichomes of North Carolina flue-cured tobacco was .- 3.2 x 10-6 pCi per trichome. In Players tobacco, 21^Pb contents • were 0.48 pCi per g dry tobacco, 1.46 pCi per g dry whole smoke ~. condensete, 52 pCi per g of nonvolatile condensate residue after distn., and ^-104 pCi per g water-insol. fraction of the condensate . s residue.__ MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA. ~~ Cigarettes, cancer and polonium-210. Med. J. Austral ~. 1:548-9, Mar. 26, 1966. Tob. Bibliog. 14(6):No. 617, Sept. 25, 1966. 297 ~~ A 06492 f M1chelaon I. ~ ~TfES: P0LMIUM-210. Science ____.143:917, Feb 28, 1964. . ,] - - .- MONTL A. Pb-210 and Po-210. July 12, 1969. Minerva Med. 60(57/58):2884, s Smoking Health Bibliogr. Bu11.:25, ~ Dec 31 1969 . i ,: _~goj
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C O.'Ov. ?3; iR?o - ---.. -- ' RAJEWSKY, g.; STAHLHOFEN, W. . Polonium-210 activity in the lungs of cigarette smokers. Nature 209(5030):1312-3, Mar. 26, 1966- tables. 2460 RUNECKLES, V. C. Natural radioactivity in tobacco and to- bacco smoke. Nature 191(4786):322-5, July 22, 1961. tables. Q1 N2 Plain cigarettes (Canadian, 74mm; American, 70mm) were ' ismoked to a butt length of 23mm and the main stream smoke col- lected ~ lected in Cambridge filfers, The smoke extract, ash, butt ex- - tract and whole cigarette extract (from comparable cigarettes; .' Canadian, 51mm; American, 47mm) were subjected to counting measurement of potassium-40 activity (45,000 counts/sample). ~ Percent recovery of activity was: in Canadian samples: 97. 1; in American samples: 88.8. Percent transfer 2023 I - _.-_ - to main stream smoke was, in Canadian samples: 0.41; in Amer--- -' ican samples, 0.75, The specific activity (uuc/g) was: in Canadi- an cigarettes, 34.0; in American cigarettes, 35,6; in Canadian main stream smoke, 3.62 and 3.23; in American main stream smoke, 5.49 and 1.57. It is concluded'that the amount of radioac- tivity taken into the lung from smoke is minute compared with the bodily uptake from the diet and is rapidly eliminated from the lung tissue. 2023 Polonium-210 in cigaret smokers. Kenneth W. 5 rable Francis J. Haughey, and Edward L. Alexander (Rutgers _ New Brunswick, N.J.). Science 146(3640), 86(19Crt). In a ' critique of the report of Radford and Hunt (ibid. 143(3603), 24i-9(1904)), skepticism is expressed regarding Nhe (a) designa- an in calcgf the m as the crit or 'lion f th hi l ithdi b g o u ronc a e ep . ~ min. dose from inhaled "0Po contained on particles of cigaret ~~ .- smnke, (b) min. dose estimate in comparison with that of the' International Council for Radiation I'rotection (ICRP), and (c) I - tot:d quantity of "0Po passing over the bronchial epithelia, i :which figure exceeds that recommended by the ICRP by a i factor of $. Reply. Bdward P. Radford, Jr., Viltna R. Hunt, ~ and John B. Little (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston,J Mass.). Ibid. 87. A reply to the preceding critique. Roy Solknt ~ f169'LOm l.eed-210 end poloniuin-12d conte_nts in certain ~ - typea of Czechoslavak cigarets. Inie , H.; Binchnf, k,l (Ustav Hyg. Prace Uranovem Prum., n ram, Czech.). . Lek. Ce.vk. 1970, 109(28), G54' (Caech). In different kjnds of the studied cigarets, s10Ph varies from 0.28 to 0.49 and "Opo from p,fg Ca0.45pCi/cigarct. _ _ . A,~nry,,k
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C Radfuni n-acticify of ctgarette-an$-pipe-tobacco ash E T . . . l'allisterand J, H. Green (Cniv. New South Wales, Fensington, .~.lIYC - •Tu +C~ru1J N h 487-8(19(y3) ra it 195 Th ti I . . a ~re . y ac y, ex- e a- v , pressed as Ra*^ a-ray activity, was detd. for tobacco of Aus- ~ tmlian origin. Por the 2 types of cigarettes the activity was 0.5 und 0.6 yyc. per cigarette and for the pipe tobacm the aetivity was 6.5 and 7.3 µym. for the ash representiog a°-:>g. +amVle. D. V. Ander. ~ 44103c Is there an y polonium hazard? Yu. D. Pa f v. r Med. Radiod. 11(11), 69-75(1966)(Russ). Literature ata con- ' cerning "^Po contamination and its metabolism are summarized. ~ The real danger of SOPo contamination in man is connected with .o tobacco smoking. It is necessary to examine the bfonchial ' epithelfum as a crit. tissue._ Pospisil Polonium-210 amount in tobacco. Determfaa8on of pafaniitm I t,i in the environment. Z. P, and Z. Knezevic (Inst. Hyg - Social Med. Sarajevo, Yugoslavia). Glasnik Hemicara Tehnal.y Bosne Hercegovine 12, 75-9(1963)(Croat). The amt. of Po-210 I . in tobacco samples was investigated- It was found that Po-21 I0 quantity varies around 3 X 10~ µc./100 g. Approx. 35% of j - . total Po-210 was drawn out in tobacco smoke. _ RCTT .-Polonium-210; a volatile radioeleinen[ in cigarets. Edwardl P. Radfard and Vilma Hunt. Science 143(3603), 247-9(196?).'~](G The tyn~accn and the smoke of 4 brands of regular-siztd America n cigarets assayed about 0.4 and 0.1 picocurie of S10Po, resp No significant differences were found among the brands or between filter and nonfilter cigarets. The 24-hr. urine of smokers con- tained tained 0.065 picocurie of "°Po, while that of nonsmokers con- tafned 0.011. It is estd. that a min. radiation dose of 36 r.e.m., ' or 7 times background, occurs to the lungs of an individual smok- ~ .- ing 2 packages of cigarets a day for 25 years; but it is believed ~ .- that the dnse could be 100 r.e.m. or more and that local doses in I -~ the bronchial epithelium may range to more than 1000 r.e.m. ov JJJIer a 25-year period. s'^Po inhaled in tfgaret smoke may act as an •' important initiator in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma J Thelma C. Heatwole RADIOISOTOPE REPORT } Polonium-210 relation to lung cancer sought. Radioiso '- tope Rpt. 3(15):115, Mar. 15, 1966. 2179~
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CA ~°~~ ~1~75~ 127453n Radi tiv T t f b - oac e ac or o to acco smoke. Nikolava IN.I]IL E. (Bu)g.). Gig. Sanit. 1970, 35(8), 89-93 (Russ). A review on ._1' . . tne aanger due to ""Po in tobacco smoke. 42 refs. , John Howe Scott . ., __. _. ...__ -, .., _- -~- 108989n~ ~ Polonium-2l0 content of bulgariea cigarettea in tobacco smoking-induced radiation loading of the lungs. o M. E.; Parfenov, Yu. D. (Nauchnoizsled. Inst. Radiol. iats. Khig., Sofia, Bulg.). Rentgenol. Radiol. 1971, 10(3), ' 163-72 (Bulg). The palonium-2!0 [13981-52-7) content of 15 different tobacco brands used in Bulgarian cigarets ranged from . 0.248 to 0.513 pCi/cigaret. During smoking, 0.07 pCi (18.5%) passed into the main stream of smoke and 0.093 pCi (24.6%) into . ,'. the side stream (cf. Mill, 1965). The butt, ashes, and filter .:; contained 0.112 (29.6%), 0.063 (16.6%), and 0.036 (9.5%) pCi ' 01°Po, resp. The theoretical 2"'Po exposure rate calcd. for a smoker of 20 cigarets/day was: 20 mrem/year to the alveolar '~ portion of the respiratory tract, 0.26-1.32 mrem/year to the basal ..:= cell layer of the bronchial epithelium, resulting from mucus - irradn., and 200 mrem/year to the bronchial epithelium resulting ~ from direct isotope absorption into the epithelium. P.Skrabanek~ ' 72072n Lead-210 and polonium-210 in Bulgarian tobaccos. NAG 4 ?ikolava, M. E. (USSR). Gig. Sanit. 1972, 37(6), 81-3 (Russ). ~/~. i arid °"Po levels in Bulgarran tobaccos were highly variable -~ depending on the region of their growth, but generally lower titan that in American tobaccos. Differences are explained by dii- . ferent environmental conditions and by different varieties grown. V. Chlumecka 72681k Lead-210 in Bulgarian cigarets and cigaret smoke. ~-_. ikalova M. E.; Parfennv, Yu. D. (Nauchnoizsled. Inst ~.IxNF. a m. a(liats. f:hig., Sofia, Bulg.). Renlgrnol. Radiul. 1972,- 11(1), 7-13 (Bulg). The i1°I'b level in tobacco of 10 Bulgarian cigaret bmnds ranged between 0.304 and 0.444 pCi. and was on the av. 0.375 pCi/cigarct. During smoking 0.0_33 pCi 'aPb passed into the mainstream of the smoke. The ratio of tuPo/ r'rPb in tobacco was 0.78-0.97 and in the mainstream smoke 1.37-2.08. The daily intake of "^Pb by smoking 20 Bulgarian I ~ cigarets was 0.76 pCi. Irradn. of the lung was 0.0008 mrem '!°Pb/year, 0.11 mrem "OBi, and 15 merm '4Po.^ J. J. Pohl ~ . . - .,..~ , (Northern Bulgaria) and for r1sPo 0.29-0.58 pCi/g. The I Q. t'sPb/r'^Po was 0.92-0.94. Resp. levels for varieties were Basmi 0.31 and 0.90, Bashibali 0.51 and 0.47, Virginia 0.61, 0.56, and .~: _,$alf Oriental 0.65 and 0.60. J. Po_hl . ~ ~ 135013v Lead-210 and polonium-2I0in Bulgarian tobacco.! Nikolova M. (Nauchnoizsled Inst. Radiobiol. Radiats. Khig., 1 o~ia; ~Bu)g.). Buig. Tyutyun 1974, 19(10), 24-6 (Bulg). ~ The r1ePb levels from leaves harvested in 1968-70 from 36 Bulgarian regions ranged 0.31 (Dzhebel)-0.63 pCi/g dry matter
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Ic Smo~;ny a ,~e~/9<~ B~6/.oyRaPl~y - l9a7 C c ososl --- °-- Valero, A. - -'1SSHUN SIGARIYYOT W6SARTON-HASIMPONOT. -" Etiologya. (6MOKING AND CANCER.OF THE BRONCHI. Etiology.) ~Dapi~m Refuiim 24s ,, 344-6, 1965, Hebrew (Abs.) - The author.believes that neither early diagnosis nor quick surgery will help the lung cancer patient. In his opinion, the only hope is the cessation of smoking. Of the 135 or more organic substances in cigarette smoke some . F e.g. benzo(a)pyrene and radioactive . Polonium 210, are destructive and may bring about cancer. Though tobacco has not been shown to be a direct cause of lung cancer in test animals, the statistical evidence linking cancer and smoking in man is convincing. Surveys have shown that deaths from cancer of the bronchi are far more numerous among cigarette smokers than among non- smokers or even pipe, cigar and narghile smokers. - I The work of Auerbach showed that the phenol found in tar causes . metaplasia of bronchial mucosa; this, : however, is reversed when smoking . is stopped. Also, a typical nuclei were found in the cells of smokers. Cells with a typical nuclei were dis- -integrating in individuale who had stopped smoking. This indicates that . the cessation of smoking may greatly reduce the threat of cancer. And since about 20 years muat pass before lung cancer results from cigarette. amoking, there is sufficient opportunity to stop smoking. The danger of cancer emphysema, and chronic bronchitis should discourage cigarette smoking. '~ 774nPolonium-210 urinalysis as an index of redium and/or radon exposure. ives, Melva V. (Philippine At. Res. Center, Philippines). PhiGpp- Nucl. J. 1969. 2(1). 170-3 (Eng). Urine from a man who may have been exposed to Ra, and urine from cig- aret smokers was analyzed for <lOPo. The man had a 2-fold in- _erease in urinary Po over the av. value from smokers. Thus, uri- nary nary Po measurement could be used es an index of exposure and • is comparable to whole-body counting. There was a relation be- tween the body level of P,o and smoking. The mean for nonsmok- ers es was 0.03966 pCi/24 hr and for smokers 0.1109 pCi/24 hr (cor- ~ rected for speciRc gravity). Dorothy J. Buchanan - Davidson
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~_75198z _Translocation and distribution of lead-21o and polou- fum-210 supplied to tobacco plants. so~ Tien Chioh; Fisenne, Isabel (Crops Res. Div., Agr. Res.-Serv., Beltsville, Md.). Rndiat. Bot. 1968, 8(6), 457~2 (Eng). r'°Pb and 21OPo were supplied to tobacco plants (Nirotiana fabacum cv Maryland Catterton) from soil, stem, and leaf surface to study the patterns of translocation and distribution of these elements. Test plants took up 21OPo and SOPb from roots or stems and the elements were ~-. distributed to various tissues. Direct absorption of S10Po is- -. therefore considered a major source of 21OPo supply, in adda. to , that from ingrowth of 10Pb in leaf tobacco. A higher conen. of . iOPb accumulated in younger upper leaves than in older lower y leaves, while a higher concn. of r1°Po accumulated in older lower ' leaves than in younger upper leaves. When the 2 elements were applied to the leaf surface, little translocation or redistribution of nOPb was found from I lezf area to the other leaf areas, but a very small portion of t10I'o applied on younger upper leaves transferrei to older lower leaves. 21OPo applied on older lower leaves, how- -ever, remained where placed. . RCMZ -17ti23y Agronomic factors affecting polonium-210 and lead- 210 levels in tobacco. I. Soil and fertilizer. T o, Tien ` Chioh; 3teffens, George L.; Ferri, Esther S.; Baratta, Edmond ' J. (Crops Res. Div., Agr. Res. Serv., Beltsville, Md.). Agron. :J. 1968, 60(6), 647-9 (Eng). An examn. of soils from tobacco- g producing areas and fertilizers com. available for tobacco pro- - duction revealed that a wide variation in the levels of nrRa, -~ r10Pb, and r10Po exists in those samples. Cultural practices and source of fertilizer may contribute to these variations. Radio- elements from fertilizer used for one growing season may not af- fect the level of these elements in the immediate crop, but will contribute to the buildup of the radioisotope level in the soil. _ _ . . 17624z- Agronomic factors affecting polonium-210 and lesd- , ~ 210 levels in tobacco. II. Varieties and curing methods I. . Tso~ Tien Chioh; Carr, J. M.; Ferri, Esther S.; Baratta, Ed- ' - mond J. (Crops Res. Div., Agr. Res. Serv., Beltsville, Md.). ~ r Agrnn. J. 1968, 60(6), 650-2 (Eng). Tobacco seedlings ac- .cumulated r'0Pb and pOPo to a conen. much higher than that . found in the soil. The levels of these radioelements decreased as °i the plants grew. Only minor differences were observed in har- ~, . vested leaves of two flue-cured varieties, i.e., Coker 319 and ~..~ Virginia Bright Leaf. The "0Pb and iOPo contents in the seeds ~ are much lower than those in the resp. leaves praluced from the - same plant. Neither of the two methods of flue-curing, viz., a ' dosed system with wood or an open system with kerosene, re- ~, .' sulted in significant differences in radioisotope levels of cured I .; leaf. r1oPb and r1°Po, if present in the combustion products of ' wood, were trapped in or exhausted through the flue pipes and were not deposited on the tobacco. Kerosene, because it contains little radioactivity, would not contribute much to the SOPb and I . f1°Po level of cured leaf when fully exposed to products of cont- . _ bustion in an open,system.__ __ - - - RCZQ
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C Gs; (/9~'s~ ~ 105409v Determination of polonium-210 in Indonesian tobacco by alpha counting Sumardi Scef an T (Lemba a l . . g Kimia Nas., L.I.P.I., Bandung,lTncTunesia). Majafah BATAN (Badon Tenaga At.'Nas.) 1973, 5(2), 11-25 (Indonesian). The report describes the anaL method of ruoPo detn. in some . samples of Indonesian tobacco based on electrochem. deposition - on Ag. The influence of plating time, ttoPo activity, and wt. of ~ tobacco samples on deposition yield on Ag were studied. The a - counting of the deposited ttoPo was done using a gas flow proportional counter which had very low background, i.e., 5 counts/hr. or lower. _: . 4 Radium-226 and polonium-210 in leaf tobacco and tobacco ioil. T. C. Tso, N. A. Hallden, and L. T. Alexander (U.S. ~ Dept.. of Agr., Beltsville, Md.). Science 146(3647). 1043- 5 I (1964)(Eng). Procedures are outlined by which the title examn. ,: was applied in May, 19(i4 to several U.S. tobaccos (1938 and • recent crops) and soils from 5 states. Tobacco contents of s°Raranged0.059(air-cured, 1938)-U.39(aflue-cured, 1959), and for "OPo, 0.15 (1938)-0.48 (1950, 1961) X 1U-1Q c./g. Locality, r culture (inorg. feeding), and curing may cause the differences. With other assays and calcns., the comparisons indicate that Po may be taken up from the soil and air, as well as being derived from the Ra. W. A. Peabodv Source of Pb-210 and Po-210 in tobacco. T. C. Tso, Naomi Harley, and L. T. Alexander (U.S. Dept. of Agr":,Teltsville, .' -Md.). Science 153(3738), 880-2(1966)(Eng). Plants were :, grown in a chamber with atm. "'Rn, in tobacco fields with dif- . ferent sources of phosphate-contg. fertilizer, and in a culture ' contg. u"Pb in the nutrient soln. The major.portion of "^Pb in the plant was absorbed through the roots. Atm. rrrRn con- tributed little to the t10Pb and r"Po content. The stage of leaf : development and methods used to cure the leaf affected the final '. amt. of ruPo in the tobacco leaf. _ G. A. Almagro ,41 *1, _ r Radfum-226 end polonium-2t0 id-Btirley ana cigar-wrapper i -. tobacco. T. C._L,;g, Naonti Harley, aud L. T. Alexandcr (Crops .~( 'Res. Div., U.S.-ITcpt. of Agr., licltsvillc, Md.). cToLacco Sci. ~A. ~ 10, 105-6(Pub. in Tobacco 163(8), 27-9)(1966)(Eng). The I- - level of r"Ra and "°Po activity in Burley and cignr-wmppcr tobaccos was within the same range as that found in cigar-filler, - Maryland, and flue-cured tobaccos (CA 62, 3077f). A lower MrPo content was found in U.S. tobaccos than in Rhodcsian ~ tobaccos, and a higher content than in New Zealand tobaccos; -_(Gregory, CA 64, 238iJ). A4M.Gottsch o
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`.]MOk/YJQ t~ /J/E'o)P~~f BI616•~(7Re7 Jl~!! '_' ~lrDQ r42150n Distribution of polonium-2l0 in mice following in- I - halation of polonium-210-tagged tobacco smoke. R. Soremark ~: - and V. R. HuM (Forskningradens Lab., Studsvik, Ay'Tpmg, 1 - Swed.). Arch. Environ. Htaftk 14(4), 5&i-8(L967)(Eng). i . - Adult mice were exposed to inhalation of ordinary tobacco smoke 1 hr. daily for 2 weeks, then for alternate periods of 10 '~ . min. to tobacco smoke contg. 1 mc. ltOPo and 5 min, to fresh i, '_. air, repeated 4 times. Two miee were killed, resp., after I5, 30, and 60 min., and 2, 8, and 24 hrs. by immersion in MerCf}- . . dry ice and sectioned, and the sections were exposed to dental I occlusal film for 2 months. At all periods after inhalation, the highest deposition of f10Po occurred in the respiratory tract and i stomach. After 15 min. to 2 hrs., activity extended to the I intestinal tract and kidneys, at 8 hrs. to the liver, and at 24 hrs. to the vertebrae. At 24 hrs. there was little activity in the blood and none in the blood vessel walls. Distribution in the lungs was not homogeneous. Activity in the gastric and in- _ testinal contents was partly due to licking of fur and not entirely _ .~ to clearance from the respiratory and oral mucosa. k , . Raymond Zebnpfcnnig - , •- / 191x Radioactive polonium-210 in tobacco, tobacco smoke, `.~ -: and human tissues. Slah~l ofen. Willi (Ges. Strahlenforsch ~. - n'hH Munich GeraTinZ9G8 28592 (Ge) Pdited by ...,,.).,-r. ` arhievelbein, Helmut. Georg Thieme Verlag: Stuttgart, Ger. A review of the published data giving information about the pres- rnce of ~"PPo in tobacco and tobacco smoke from difterent parts of -; the a+urld, and in human tissues. 15 references. ,1, M. de Hueren .- _.. . A 06444 -- --.S~tannar~da J. N. and Casarett, 0. W. . itnOla•1'lON RESEARCH. SUPPLEMENT . 5, 1964. Metabolism and Biological Effects of an Alpha Particle Emitter, . :POLONIOM-210. New York, Academic Preas, 1964, 442p. J 19388v Radionuclide toxicology laboratory. $t~ara, J. F. (Nat. Center for Radiol. Health, Rockville, Md'J`7LS. At. . Enagy Comm. 1967. NP-17514, 25-46 (Eng). From Nucf. .. Sci. ASstr. 1969, 23(6), 9832. Studies on radiostrontium metabolism and effects in eats during development and growth included: placental transfer of divalent cations; °Sr, "Sr, and r°Sr kinetics in crts; influence of diet composition on skeletal ; deposition of strontium; r"Sr dosimetry in skeletal tissues of eats; ' and Sr in tooth layers as an index of Sr skeletal burdens. Studies • on radioiodine distribution in guinca pigs and felines included . maternal-fetal relations to °1f in the guinea pig; distribution and ~ teratogenic effects of "'I in embryonic guinea pigs; chromato- ; graplric anal. of selected maternal and fetal guinea pig tissues for "`1 compds.; and radioiodinc metabolism in felines. Radio- l phannaceutical studies included: repressive action of alginates on -; Sr absorption in cats; localization of labeled tetracycline and 8brinogcn in infarcts and tumors of mammals; and °Tc-labelcd ' albumin in fclines. Studies on metabolism and assessment of heavy mdionuclides included: dosimetry of r'"Pb and uOPo in exposed populations and u'Cs and natural radioactivity in the Alaskan food chain. Studies on tobacco and tobacco smoke revealed that S10Pb, 90Po, and naRa were in equil. in tobacco; however, °'0Po contributed 10-fold as much activity as the other two isotqpes,to tobacco smoke.
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A ~ N N C
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Y AV IN A I DE PASQUALI G BARON P . ~ .. ~~ • .; , .; , • Yolonium in cigarettes - Spectroscopic analysis. Nature -205(4974):899-900, Feb. 27, 1965. graph. Includes spectroscopic identification and measurement of amount of $0210 as well as other polonium isotopes in cigarettes; ~ presents a fast reliable detection system capable of determini accurately minute quantities of Po210 (of the order of 10-2 c).. as well as of dt-active isotopes. 32 YOSHIDA, D. - . ` Determination of 32P-radioactivity in the tobacco plant utilizing Cerenkov effect. Hatano, Jap. Tob. Exp. b4a.. Bull. (71):121-125, Mar. 1972. table, graph, ref. (Jap.) Determination of 32P-radioactivity in the tobacco plant utilizing Cerenkov effect was studied. Radioactivity was determined as follows; 10 ml of sample was taken in a glass vial and measured the radioactivity by the liquid scintillation counter without addition of scintillator at 40 per cent GAIN and 50ti1000 of WINDOW. There was little influence on the radioactivity of 32P by the addition of various kinds of salts, acids and bases. I The radioactivity was increased with the addition of sucrose and ethanol. Radioactivity was not detected when 14C and 3H were measured under the conditions described above. Dried powder of tobacco plant containing 32P was ashed, extracted '' with diluted HNO-3. The extract was counted by the liquid scintillation counter without addition of scintillator. The radio- activity was about two times higher than the ash counted with G.M. counter. (English summary) cSinoin 4 Aee-0°94 B,i~,>y,ea~a6y-r91o ' C C. A ~8~ (/97-3)' 70-0113.=V.L.1. Roken, Longkanker en Radio• I .. actief Po moking, Lung Cancer and Radioactive Poloniumz10.j Tqdschriji voor Sociale Geneeslwnde I 47(23):775-9, Nov 14, 1969, Dutch- In the literature the presence of Polonium2to in cigarette tobacco has been reported. A survey of this~ ^` literature is given. From this one may conclude that ~ ~ Po210, detected in several tissues and biological fluids in ~ : smokers in higher quantities than in nonsmokers, could be a causal factor in carcinogene •sis. Further researeh la i .. urgently needed. (Auth. Abs) A 13378q Measuring the RaF (pnlonium-210) content of dga- rets. Zsoldos, Tibor (Egeszsegugyi Szolgalat, Mecseld Ero- banyasz_ allalat, Pecs, Hung.). Egeszsegeadomony 1972, 16(3), 266-75 (Hung). The M^Po content of several Hungarian i cigaret brands and the amt. of S1°Po inhaled by the smoker were '' estd. A detailed method of anal. is presented. The r•Po . concn. of tobacco was approx. 0.59 pCi/g and the inhaled frao- ' tion was 27.5% and 25.77e for a nonfilter and filter cigaret, resp. Radiation exposure of the smoker's lung was calcd. .. .~._._-._._.__.-..-.. _._ -.M.M.Naka9i
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C.,4' 83; (/9AS) Abstracts BOAG,`J. W.; et al. Polonium (210Po) in cigarette tobaccos and in the .~~ environment. Brit. Empire Cancer Campaign Rep. 43(Pt. 2):121-2, 1965. ~. Tob. Bibliog. 14(3):No. 231, Aug. 10, 1966. _- 12f00le Poioniam-210 in io6ac`cu aidiu~accu producta in `" Slovakia. Abel, E.; Sladkova, M.; Uralova, M.; Huszar, J. :z (Ysyk. Ustav ITyg., Bratislava, Czech.). Cesk. Hyg. 1974, , 19(10), 475-9 (Slo). The content of rsoPo in tobacco and tobacco ' products grown or processed in Slovakia was detd., the results , mdicating different cumulative abilities of individual types of tobacco. The av. activity of ssaPp in pipe tobacco was 1.10 pCi/g ::,and in the cigarets 0.43 pCi per cigarette. . , P. Rau Csc '175-1317. Martell, E. A. Tobaeco Radioactivity and Caneer : in Smokers. American Scientist 63(4): 404312, July- August 1975. ; . . The possible cancer risks and other consequences for health of insoluble radioactive tobacco smoke particles . and alphaemitting insoluble particles from other sources are discussed, after a brief review of the processes which ' lead to the formation of insoluble radioactive smoke - particles. Alphaemitting iOPb and its radioactive pro- '. ducts °1 °Bi and "°Po accumulate on tobacco trichomes; ; insoluble particles made up of a combination of fused . mixed_o_xides, resins,_ organicdnosganic polymers, and calcium metaphosphate are produced by hic'home corn- ~ - bustion. These insoluble particles, which are inhaled and I persist in the lung, the lymph nodes, and elsewhere in the internal organs are highly localized and are sequestered in i dustersorplaquesatsometissuesites.Theapproximately i ' I g of lung tissue surrounding such a cluster may be ' subjected to about 1,000 times the level of alpha I irradiation as lung tissue exposed to uniformly distributed i radioactivity. The resulting tumor risk is correspondingly ,'1,000 times higher. The distribution of these par[icles tends to be localized in sites which have been shown to be ~ important secondary ancer sites in smokers. Alpha irradition of cells from 110Po is probably the puse ofJ ' cancer and a contributing factor in the early development of atherosclerosis in cigarette smokers. 38545h Lung cancei indu~ in bamatera by low doses of alpha radiation from polonium-210. Lit , John B.; Kenneds. Ann R; McGandy, Robert B. (SchU u ic Health, Han•ard '. Univ., Boston. Mass.). Science 1975, 188(4189), 737-8 (Enel Lung tumors were induced in 9-53% of hamsters given multiplr d intratracheal instillations of polonium-210 [13981-52-7) m amts. yielding lifetime exposures of 15 to 300 rads to the lunR° Cigaret smokers have previously been estd. to receive 2U rads tt, . areas of the broachial epithelium from deposited polonium-21n ,This finding thus supports the hypothesis that o-radianoo ~ ; resulting from the polonium-210 or lead-210 present in cigarr -oke may be a significant causative factor in human IunR am Ifft ;c_an`rec. _ .___-~ ._ . . .. . . . __ ._.. . .
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~ ~ ~ a ~ __ ^ q 'I I 111' C ka TS I SI \ t*~ ~~ e< ~w ~ M1h9 xa~ ~ , -/ ---- !. y~ /6 /T /8 /9 TO .2/ 22 2d 24 26 26 27 Td 29 Bo ~~1 ~C V~ Dist¢~ctt eiyare~e b¢s bvi~ ed ~'eruard TJernrD6ouPfe~~d~z~J y y; A z ,~ y M zzzsti~,oo ~ W m a 4 C W m N z 0 < .+ N .r cD a) 00
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160•99-- -----_ ~- - 2a ~oloaiam-2I0 cootent in tobacco leaves in relation to their quality (class). Nik Iov_a, M. (Tsentur Khig., Med. Akad., Sofia, Bulg.). enl~ tgenol. Radiol. 1975, 14(2), 119-20 (Bulg). A study was carried out with the fermented leaves of 6 Bulgarian tobacco plants in which 21OPo and smPu were in equil. after the leaves were stored for 3 yr or ' more. During this period of time aaPo with tos = 138 days was equilibrated with its precuraor 2roPu with tas = 22 yr. For the anal. 5 g of tobacco leaves were •wet'-hurned with HNOz and - HC104; to the dry residue 0.5 ml of HCI was added and 21OPo was sepd. electrochem. on Ni disks and the alpha activity was detd. The results showed an unquestionable connection between the contents of 21OPo and the qual. class of tobacco leaves: tobacco .. leaves of higher class (1, Il, i.e. of higher quality) usually contained less aoPo than the lower classes (HI, IV, V). _ B ,Hadziia _ . , 202430q Synet`rgs[Ic effect arpolonium-210 and cigarette) smoke in rats. _BlaL4 , S. C.; Bretthauer, E. W. (Natl. Environ. ' Rea Cent., U. S-Environ. Prot. Agency, Lss Vegas, Nev.). U. I ~, S. Environ. ProO. Agency, Off. Rea. Deo., (Rep.] EPA 1975, EPA-680/1-75-001, 12 pp. (Eng). A method is described for .: etposing rats to cigarette smoke and for adding known arnts. of .:'. trapo `13981-52-7J to cigarette smoke. Known deposition of I 21OPo was 30%. A retention of Po was biphasic with half-lives of 4 and 84 hr. Bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were obsd. . :' There appeared to be no difference in mortality between the rats ezposed to cigarette smoke with Po and without. . i76-1011. Guerin. M. R. Dfsavsslon-ldenti6cation of :~ Carcinogens, Tumor Promulors and Cucarciraigers In Tobacco ~ Smoke. In: Wynder. E. Lc HofTmann. D.; Gori. G. B. (Editors). . ' Madifjdng the RL.k jor the Smoker, Volume I. Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Smoking and Health. New York, 'i June 2-5. 1975. DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-1221, 1976, ~'f pp.155-159. . , . . z ' The role of Polonium-210 in smoke induced carcinogenesis is , again in question through the concept of insoluble particles accumulating to produce high localized doses of a.radiation. ' Metals in smokes must be reconsidered as bioassay studies turn '. to inhalation models.7he form in which the metal exists is of ,' particular importance and will be very difficult to determine. ' Nickel present as a salt nickel carbonyl, or nickel subsulfide is an exsmple. Gas liquid chromatographic profiles ot smoke related samples may be compared directly with biological . activity over a series of variants to aid in locating organic compounds related to experimental caminogenesis. Profiles of organic gas phase constituents and of a nonpolar terpene enriched fraction of smoke condensate have been used to test the utility of the method. Subsequent structural identification allows determining whether the highlycorrclated constituent is capableofcontributingtothebiologicalactivityorismerelyan "indicator." Identifying a constituent in smoke must be consid- ered only the first step in modifying risk to the smoker. Subsequent work must go bcyond attempts to reduce that constituent. Basic research into the in vivo fate of these 'ronstituenti otfers the greatest promise of identifying smokers at risk. (Auth. Abu.)
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ew. p9; C.99 P) c~,o 90; ~i~~ ) Abstracts --- -89: 142667j Polonium-210 content of Turkish tobaccos. Aydin, Ayfer; Erben, M. Talat (Fsc. Chem. Eng., Tech. Univ. ~ Istanbul, Istanbul, Turk.). Istanbul Tek. Univ. Bu(. 1977, .30(1), 73-81 (Eng). ttspo was sepd. from Turkish tobaccos by a . self-deposition procedure (Flynn, W. W., 1968) on metallic disks :(Au, Ni, Ag, Cu); and then counted with a proportional a-particle counter for 7-14 h. 210po could not be detected in '. tobacco seeds. In plants, the maa. stoPo concns, occurred in the upper leaves. Cigar tobacco had the highest 210po levels and pipe tobacco the lowest. The av. overall 21oPo content of Turkish tobacco ranged 0.2-0.3 pCi/g. Compared with the 21oPo content of tobaccos from other countries, Turkish tobacco had next to the lowest valu.es. 89: 55634c Interactions between polonium-210 a-radiation, .benzo(a)pyreae, and 0.9% sodium chloride solution instillations In the induction of experimental lung cancer. Little, John ~ B.; McGandy, Robert B.; Kennedy, Ann R. (Dep. PhysioL, ,' Harvard Univ. Sch. Public Health, Boston, Mass.). Cancer Res. 1978, 38(7), 1929-35 (Eng). Benzo[a]pyrene and T1oPo were administered both simultaneously and sequentially by intratracheal instillations to Syrian golden hamsters in expts. designed to identify any synergistic interactions between these carcinogens. ,. Their effects were additive after simultaneous administration. A synergistic interaction between the 2 agents appeared to occur when benzo[a]pyrene exposure followed 4 mo after r1opo ' exposure. Most of this effect could be ascribed, however, to a . potentiating effect of subsequent 0.9% NaCI sdn instillations on noPo carcinogenesis. Thus, seemingly innocuous stimuli may potentiate lung carcinogenesis. 1'he implications of these findings in terms of the interactions between a-particle radiation and cigaret smoke in human populations are discussed. . _ 86: 1747m Polonium radioactivity in tobacco and cancer risks in smokers. Muramatsu, Susumu (Div. Radiat. Havards,~ Natl. Inst. Radiol. Se'i., Chiba, Japan). Radioiaotopes 1976, 25(7): 418-25 (Japan). A review with 49 refs.. . K. Torii 90: 18369v Carcinogenic risk of lead-210 and polonium-210 i . in tobacco smoke: a selected, annotated bibliography. Travis, C. C.; Etnier, I;. L.; Kirkscey, K. A. (Oak Ridge Natl. ` Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn.). Report 1978, ORNL 54I1., 31 pp.. .(Eng). Avail. NTIS. From Energy Res. Abstr. 1978, 3(18), Ahstr. No, 43595. This bibliog. is concerned with the possible carcinogenic risk to man from the presence of r1opb and t1oPo in tobacco smoke. It includes a data base on such topics as . background levels of s1oPb and 210po in tobacco and tobacco emoke, tobacco plant uptake of 2oopb and 210po from soil, . metabolic models, and dose ests. 'This data base should be of .interest to those concerned with assessing the health effects I resulting from the emanation of arRn from natural and technol. enhanced sources. - -
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TOBACCO RADIOACTIVITY (WITH UPDATES) . j' . J1
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promotere, 7cin Beas tumor ion of c if 21 Id ta a o eat i t 96b and cocarcinogens in tobacco smoke. ri M. R. (Oak Ridge Natl Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn.). Report 1975, CONF-- -750633-2, 13pp .(Eng). Avail. NTIS. From Nucl. Sci. Abstr. .'; 1975, 32(6), Abstr. No. 14594. Various aspects of tobacco .,'. carcinogenesis are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: role of uuPo and alpha radiation in tobacco carcinogenesis;role of nickel carbonyl and nickel subsulfide; gas chromatog. profiles of the gas ~..phase org. constituents delivered by different cigarets; comparison ; of chromatog. response with biol. activity; and idennf9cation of 4carcinogens,promoters~andcocarcinogens. 84: 28197c Estimation of rare and radioactive constituents ~ in samples of Indian tobacco with the aid of low-level beta-counter. P rka as ha, B. C.; Bhat(acharyya, D. K. (Nucl. Chem. Div., ia nst. Nud. Phys., Calcutta. India). J. ._kadioanal. Chem. 1975,_ 27(2), 345-51 (Eng)._ Nicotrana rustica contained aK, s4Sr, mY, and rare earth activity as well as • L1ePb at 4.04, 2.42. 4.52, and 0.052 pCi/g, resp., of cured leaves. In another investigation with N. tabaccum variety from Rajahmundri, ! Andhra Pradesh, contents of aK, s0.Sr, soY and rare earth . activity, and stsPb were 4.06, 1.02, 3.44 and 0.20 pCi/g of cured - leaves, resp. Thus, the amt. of Po which is presumably in equil. :with ziaPb in these 3 varieties of Indian tobacco.ieaves is very . small. . _ 85: 88329c Determination oY tbe poFerium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-amokers. Juan, . Norme B.; Cruz, Wyona; Ballelos, Emerenciana; Bartoiome, Zoilo M. (Philippine At. Energy Comm., Quezon City. , Philippines). Philipp. Nucl. J. 1975, 3(1). 243-6 (Eng). I The av. urinary level of 21spo was 0.5003 pCi/24 hr in smokers compared with 0.2313 pCi/24 hr for nonsmokers in the Philippines .' as detd. by the silver disc method. - ._... . ~ ' 85: I 19835w ~onfeat of pulaaium-210 in Bulgerian tobacces 1 in relation to their seasoning (age). Nikolov , M. (Ins It. ' Radiol. Radiats. Khir., Sofia, Bulg.). Rentgeno . adiol. 1976, 15(2), 92-4 (Bulg). The content of stopo and s1oPb in tobaceo leaves at different age (zreen leaves and after 4 and 8 months) was studied and it was ebown that rtaPo increased with time as a result of uopb decyy. The aint. of s1^Po entering the leaves was ne ligible and the basic source of stsPo in tobacco leaves was B.Hadzija_ 85: 139967u Radioactivity of tobacco. ~Bo~n_ev, B.; 1{ermuiova; , .•. P. (Vissh Inst. Khranit. Vkusova Prom., Plovdiv, Bu1g Nauchni 7}., Visah Inst. Khranit. Vhusooo Prom-at., Ploodiu , 1975, 22(q, 225-31 (Bulg). The apecific y-radioactivity in - tobacco changed at the temp. of incineration. A variation of the -I coeff. of mass absorption was obsd. in different ash samples of Virginia tobacco and the tobacco for prodn. of Ty-134 type ~ cigarets. A tendency for a decrease in the specific A-radioactivity was obsd. as the temp. of incineration increased. This wu i influenced also by the change of K in the ash and the variation i ~, of the nl8ag_absorption coeff. B. uad";;. I 8
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86:6g566v-Measuiement offpolonium eeflvity In IadianI . tobaceo. S. ingh, D_ R4_ Nilekani, S. B. _(Div. IiadioL Prot, I ' Bhabha AL Res: Cent, Bombay India) 1976 Health Phya 1 , , . . : 31(4), 393-4 (Eng). The rLoPo content of cigarets and tobacco' . . products was detd. and based on the data the rroPo lung burden J of an Indian cigaret smoker was estd. The mainstream smoke o If cigaret contained 0.0225 pCi/g, hence the lung burden wes 23.8 .''. mrad/day. This dose rate was 3-6-fold higher than that due to -.natural background of Rn and T6 in the atm. ~ .. 86: 129570r Upper limits of a-radioactivity per particle of d 0 k I gare e smo e tfo ro-Cam ro A; Flih R L (G .,.escer,..en. Electr. Res. Dev. ent., enectady, N. Y.). Health Phys. . 1977, 32(L), 39-40 (Eng). The Ist measurements are reported " of aactivity petilfikhlh -r parce o cgaret smoe as tey appy to te carcinogenic effect. The r1^Pb contents of, at most, a few .3 tobacco trichomes can be incorporated into 1 radioactive smoke ... par}icle. 87; 63832q Polonium-210 in cigarette emoke. At lve, V. V.; Shah, V. M.; Mistry, K. B. (Biol. Agric. Div., Bh abha At. _ . Iles. Cent, Bombay, India). Indian J. Enuiron. Health 1977, 19(1), 54-62 (Eng). Tests of several brands of Indian cigarets ueing a smoking srmulator device revealed the presence of t1oPo ' in inhaled emoke. While rr^Po intake by a person smoking 20 , cigarete/day was considerably higher than the quantity inhaled in normal breathing, it amts. to a small fraction of the maz. -. permissible intake through air of this radionuclide for individuals m the population at large. Av. annual doses to the pulmonary . . compartment due to smoking of 20 cigarets/day with the lung as ~the crit. organ were computed using the model set up by the Task Group on Lung Dynamics of International Commission on . ' Radioi. Protection; the doses range from 2 to 115 millirems/year __for different brands. -:Filipino non-smokers and smokers. Juan N. B.; BaOelos, E. (Philippine At. Energy Comm., Quezo'n ~City, Philippines). ~ Report 1976, PAEC(D)-76004, 4 pp. (Eng). Avail. INIS. .~ From INIS Atomindes 1977, 8(6), Ahstr. No. 296252. The average Y1oPo content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673 pCi/24h, 87: 18232h The determination of polonium in urine o was higher tha_that in_urine of nopsmpkers, 0.1677. __ _ _ 87: 196506h PoTonium-210: jead-21o ratios as an index of residence times of insoluble particles from cigaret smoke in bronchial epithelium. Radford, Edward P.; MarteO, Edward ' A. (Dep. Environ. Med., o ns Hopkins Univ. Sch. Hyg. Public ~~Health, Baltimore, Md.). Inhaled Part. 4, Int. Symp., 4th 1975 (Pub. 1977). 2. 567~81 (Eng). Edited by Walton, W. H.; . McGovern, Brenda. Pergamon: Oxford, Engl. r1oPo is found in ; bronchial tissues of smoken, and evidence shows that t1oPb is - present at these sites in excess of the Po. On the assumption -. that all Po ariaes from ingrowth from the insaoL particles, one ' may cale. from the rtoPo-to-r'sPb ratio the mean residence time of these particles. The half-life of 21oPo (138 daye) is almoat ideal for this purpose, and its a-radn. makes measuremen[s of very low concna. possible. This technique is the lat one available ~Ro assess residence time for inhaled particles in the bronchial .1epithelium, an important datum because of the vulnerability of rbronchial tissues to disease. Measurements from smokers and i nonsmokem showed that r1ePb from natural aerosols also is coned. at bronchial bifurcations, but little %wPo is asaocdW with ~ this sol. Pb. This fact makes ests. of residence time in bronchialepithelium of smokers (3-5 mo in these preliminary data) likely i to be low.
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3,410,276 5 6 employed the product sold under the designation Burtonite The second type sheet is generally'stronger and„ before No. 78 (The Burtonite Company, Nulley, N:J.). mixing with tobacco, should be broken into shreds andA small amount of a plasticizer.. namely from about pieces not exceeding v,.v" in length to avoid a rough-look- 1%d to about 5% by wcighh is advantageously incorpo- ing ash from long shreds. rated in the lemperalure control suhstance.sheet mixture G The second type sheet with asbestos fiber can be con- to improve shectt flexibility;. The plasticizer is advantage- verted to provide internalfdtralion and tar reduction.like ously a polyhydric alcohol; such as, for exampie, glycerol, the first type sheet by heatingthe second type sheet suf- or a glycol, such as ethylenc glycol or propylene glycol. ficiently to expose the asbestos fibers in the sheet. The The foregoing ingredients are preferably employed in shreds and pieces, of course, will be somewhat smaller the following proportions; 10 than the broken pieces of the secund type sheet thaU would Percent by weight not have internal filtration. Temperaturee control substance,, e.g., alumina tri- hydrate __________ ______________________ 75-95 Fibrous matrix material---------------------- 3=15 Vegctable gum binder________________________ 1-5 Plasticizer __________ ______________________ 1-5 The temperature controlsubstanee sheet is admixed with the tobacco in a proportion ranging from about 5% to about 35% byweighl of the tobacco, preferably about 13 10% to 25%. The sheet may be mixed with either regular tobacco The.see ingredicnts are admixed with water in an amount or with reconstituted tobacco. For the purposes of this invention the term reconsliluled tobacco refers to tobacco from about 5 to about 20 times by weight of total solids, partielcs or sheet prepared either Lrom regular tobacco made into a viscous slurry in any'suitable type of mixer 20 or from waste fines,, field scrap(farm damaged leaves), and dried at a temperature below that at which the tem- stems and dust,.whichare customarily cut or comminuted perature control substance begins to release its own water. and formed intoslrects and afterward converted to fila- Some fibrous materials are improvedin effectiveness by mcntss by shredding, or into-strips, for the preparation of vigorous shearingaction to fibrillatc them, asima blender, cigars,, cigarettes, andd the likc. Jordan, etc. Some gums requiie.heat and agitation to dis- - Suitable flavoring materials, humectants, and the likc,, solve, but heat degradation shonidbe.avoidedd may btadlnixed with the control substance as well as A preferred composition for the sheet of'.the invention with the tobacco itself. ia, by weight: The following examples illustrate the, practice of thePercent . Alumina trihydrate -------------------------- 85.0 invention, but are not to be regarded as limiting. Asbestos ------------------------------------ 8.5 30 Example 1. Internal filtering.sheet . Guar gum----------------------------------- 4.2 20 grams of alumina trihydrate having a fineness such Plasticiner __________ _______________________ 2.3 that aPPro ximatelY 90% is ' m' mus 325 mesh, and averag- 1"he.particle size.of the temperature.control substance ing about 25 microns indiameters is admixed with 2 is not critical, but particles should preferably be finer than 35 grams of chrysotile asbestos fibers, I ml. of glycerol and 325 mesh to avoid rough surfaces that tend to powder 1 gram of guar gum binder (Burtonite No..73). The mix- and that make the sheet less strong. Thus, where alumina ture Is made into a viscous slurrywilh 300 ml. water. The Vihydrate is employed, the average particle size may be slurry is spread on a sheet of polytetrafluornethylene about 25 microns. (Teflon) plastic provided with retaining edges, and placed Some of the combustion control substances disclosed 40 iaan ovcn at 100" C.. until dry. The sheet is stripped offare normally white or nearly white in color, and thus and cut into shreds like cisarette.tobaccoe may. present some difficulty with respect to inconspicuous The shredded particles are admixed im a blender with blbnding, into the tobacco- Jt has been found that this tobacco in the proportion of 0.25 grams of sheet per 0.755 difficulty may be overcome byineorporating in the control grams of tobacco, to yield &mixture whichiis combustible,, substance an Anorganicc or organic dye compound which 43 and thiss mixture was made into cigarettes; will stain the sheet product any desired yellow to brown Example 2 tint. Thus, ferric hydroxide obtainable, for example, by Prooeedingas in Ezample 1, a sheet was preparedfromreac[ing ferric ammonium oxal¢tcc with ammonium the foilowingingredien[s: hydroxide may be.added to the alumiha-asbestos-hinder- plasticizer slurry in the amount desired to produce the sU Alumina trihydrate ___________________grams__ 20 requiredcolorinthedriedsheetmade.thercfrom. Glass wool ___ _______________________do__ _ 2 The finished alumina fibrouss matrix thin sheet con- Burtonite-78 _____________________ ____do___- 1 taining a binder is quite flexible, but the small amounts Glycerol ------------------------------ do---- 0.55 of glycerine or other plasticizing materials serve to Water ______________ __________________ml__ 100 increase the flexibility. 55 This sheet was shredded and admixed with tobacco in -- Theree are two types of sheet useful in this invention. the proportion of 0.25 gram sheet to0.75 gram tobacco. The first type sheet, which.contains asbestos fiber, evf- Example 3 denccs reduction in tar of smoke plus temperature control 2000 lbs. of an aqueous slurry of alumina hydrate,, as- of the criticaldistillation zone. The surface afthe sheet bestos and guar gum containing about 10% solids were is rough with ashesto.s fiberss exposed and these provide Oo prepared from; internal filtration: Sheet with asbestoss fiber also makes a ¢prtaby weight slrnngcr ash thansheet with other fibers. Water ____________ 89 The first Lypc sheet is somewhat weak sa tha[ it can be Alumina trihydrate ___________________________ 10 broken up in regular tobacco cuucrs and handling appa- Asbestos _______ 1C ratus to a satisfactory lengthfor a good' ash..1[, therefore, O:i '---"----""---------------G can be fed in 2-3" strips directly to the tobacco leaves Guar gum __________________________________ 0.5d place before the cutters. G1ycerol ------------------------------------ 0.2911 any The second type sheet reduces the temperature without 31% formaldehyde preservative, 6 ec. per gallon of slurry.ta tar reduction (no internal fillration)... This sheet is pro- All dry components, alumina, asbestos and guar gum,~ ducedfrom the same raw materitdss and'in a similar man- 70 vere dry ground in a hammer m01 prior to mixing with~ ner to the first type sheet but generally nsing more con- hot water to improve the casting and shuett forming char-~ een[rated. and viscouss slurry and removing the .heet acteristics of the slurry. The slurry was made into a.sheet without scraping from thc drying surface. The sheet there- by feeding evenly ontoa pulished steel conveyor belf with fore is smooth onm both aarfaces and exposes very little a steam chest on the undcrside for drying; or bypassage asbestos fiber.. 75 through a hot air furnace for drying.
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' ,276 Unlte States Patent O Ce 3,410 d 3,410,276 TOlIACCO CO,MH•OSITTON' Bernard F.Armbrusf,.Je., Benton, and Val G..Carithcrs, Little. Rock, Ark., assignors to Reynolds Metals Com- 5 pany, Richmond, Va., a corporation of Delawnre Cootinuatfon-in-part of abandoned applfcafion Ser. No. 372,305, Juue3; 1964. This application July 23, 1965, Ser, No, 475,331 9 Claims: (Cl. 1af-9) 10 12 Patente Nov., 1968 from the nature of the substance. There also might be produced simultaneously polycyclic aromatic compounds which are known: to exert an anticarcinogentic action on known carcinogenic polycyclic compounds of similar chemical structure. Thus, the tendene toward formation ' uf harmful, products in the smoke can be favorably in- 8uenced. Methods have beem proposed in the prior art, whereby there are addcd'to tobacco in order to influence its com- bustion temperature characteristics, the oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of alkaline earth metals, or of magnesium, ABST1iACT OF THE DSSCLOSURE or of aluminum, Of these additives, the most e0lcient appears to be aluminum oxide, particularly in the form Tobaceo is mixed with about 5 to 35 percent by of its various hydrates,. The hydrates of aluminum oxide. weight of a shredded sheet material made of a tempera- 14 such as, for example, alumina trihydrate and bauxites ture control substance (such as alumina hydrate), a which contain upto 7590 or more alumina hydrates, are fibrous matrix material such as asbestos, and'a vegeta- capable of releasing theii united water at temperatures ble gum binder (such as guar guru). The additive has a starting at about 150' C., and it has been proposed to uti- lowering influence on peak temperature and firms the lize this characteristic by incorporating in tobacco such ash when the tobacco is smoked. The shredded sheet 20 alumina hydrates and activated aluminas containing ad- may have rough exposed surfaces providing internal sorbed water, as disclosed, for example in Patents 3,106; fdtration. of the smoke. 210 and 3;106,211. Thcse aluminass are all nontoxic and relatively stable under ordinary conditions of tempera- ture and humidity. They all contain definite amounts of This application, is a continuation-in-part' of copend- 25 sorbed or combined water which are readily releasable ing application Ser. No. 372,305, filed June 3, 1964, whemthe aluminas arc exposed to heat. In Patent 3,106,210.. now abandoned. there is further disclosed a fluffy form of alumina or This invention relates to novel cigarette and smoking bauxite wbereim the finely divided material is admixed tobacco having incorporated therein a combustion tem- with a wegetable or synthetic gum binder to promote ad- peralure control material in the form of a shredded 30 hesion of the alumina particles to each other. sheet. More particularly, the invention concerns ciga- Among the requircments for a material of this. tem- rcttes and tobacco products incorporating said novel perature control type is that the alumina and/or other tobacco, which upon smoking, reduces the formation substance be distributed amongg the tobacco particles so of harmful substances while improving the smoking intimately and uniformly that the temperature of the flavor thereof- 33 mixture is uniformly and effectively controlled during During thee past several years, there has been exten- smoking and that it will produce a strong ash from which sive discussion in medical and public health circles eon- the alumina and/or other additive will not seperate to eerniog the alleged earcinogenic andd other harmfull ef- an objectionable degree during the smoking process. Finely tects of cigaretees and other smokers`artides:.This dis- divided alumina has the tendency to segregate from itseussion has recently been supplemented by the report 40 admixture with the tobacco,.setning to the bottom of the of the. Surgeon General of the United Statcs, confirm- cigarette, causingg uneven burning. In addition,, the pow- ing that statistical evidence tends to show a higher in- dery aditives tend to sift out of the cigarette when it is cidence of throat'~ cancer and lung cancer in the case of handled'anespcciallywhen.it islapped. Most importantly, smokers,; and especially cigarette smokers, than is ttue a coherent ash is not formed, but instead the ash tends of non-smokers. These carcinogenic effects are usually 45 to flowaff. This can, of course, largelynnllify the effee6ve- asoribed'to the presence in cigarette smoke of certain ness and the acceptability of a finely diviefcd additive. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds contain- In accordance with the present invention, the afore- ing fused ring structures. Experimental studieshave in- mentioned disadvantages of segregation of the additive dicated that the carcincogenic compounds resulting from from the tobacco and the undesirable flow of ash, are tobacco pyrolysis are formed chiefly at temperatures 6o avoided by incorporating a novel combustion control above about 800'C: Below about 700' C.,, relatively additive with the tobacco in a whollynovelmanner.y small amounts are formed, and at about 600'C: and In accordance with theinvention,e there is employed pelow,, no aromatic polycyclic compounds are found in for incorporation with the tobacco a shredded sheet which 111e pyrolysis products. may be processed like the leaf'~ tobacco im most steps in ft is known that the smoking process is a complicated 55 tobacco andcigarene manufacture. The shredded sheet one and includcs$oth.pyrolysis and combustion, andd that additive of the invcntion comprises a temperature con- in every material pyrolyzed, whether tobacco or paper, trol suhstance, a fibrous matriz, and a small amount of there Is a temperature at which the maxinmm amount organic binder. This sheet and its preparation are de- of polycyclic compound is formed- so that as tempera- scrihed in copending application Ser. No. 372,369, filed ture increases; the formation of polycyclic compounds 60 Dune 3, 1964. Increases up.to a certain point, after which the formation The temperature control substance employed as a cotn- ~ ~ docreases. Some of the pyrolytic pro3ucts whichh fprmed ponent of the shredded sheet additive of the invention duringg the combustion process are subsequently burned i8seleeted so as to be more oo less effective in cooling in situ after being formed- a result which is influenced to enhance taste and other desired characteristics of the ~ too some extent by the peak temperatures reached, but 05 burningg cigarette. Among the more effective cooling ~ N the net presence of harmful substances in the smoke is agentsare those compounds which have large proportions the reiult of the total' smoking process and not the result off hydration or of volatile nontoxic anions. such as car- N of peak temperatures alone. Thus there is presented thebonates or which possess larf7e heat demand' for phase W possibility o0 incorporntingg in the tobaccao a substance transformations. These compounds must.. of course, not by means of which the rate of combustion nf the tobacco 70 be inimical to flavor nor must they generate obnoxiousean be controlled with concomitant lowering of distilla- or undesirable fumes whenn exposed to temperatures up to tion temperature andd perhapssume catalytic response 800' C. The greatest heat demand shot141 be preferably
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3,410,276 11 12 Example 6-Conversion of non-filtering to filtering 75476 to about 95% by weight of an aluminous.tempera- sheet ' ture control substance.united withh water; and in addition (b)) from about 3% to about 15% by weight of a siliceous Two parts by weight of the dried producl' from Exam- inorganic fibrous ntatrixx material; and in addition (c) ple 5, wac admixed with li part by weight of product fi from about 1Na to about 5% by' weight of an organic prepared similarly, but processed in thePatterson•Kelley gum hinder selected from the group consisting of natural blender for 5 minutes. instead of 1.5 minutcs. The mix- vegetable gums and synthetic cellulose ether gums; the ture of 25 lbs.. of 5-minute treated material and 501bi of fibers of said matrix malcrial having been treated to pro- 1.5 minutetroated material was thoroughlyblendcd and duce a rnughened fibrilated surface thcrcnn: then screened on a Tyler 18 '. mcsh screen to remove fines 10 4. The tobacco of claim 3 in which the fibrous matrix produced during the shredding prncess. The plhs 18 mesh material is asbestos. mixture when inoorporated into tobacco will not only 5. The tobaoco of claim 3 in which thebinderls guar reduce temperatures, but will produce a significant reduc- gum. tion in tar and nicntine. 6. Smoking tobacco having incorporated'therein fmm The ihternal filteringg type of sheet exerts an effect in 1j about 10% to about 25% by weight of the tnbaccnof tar reduction far greater than that attributahleto the fibrous shreds consisting essentially of (a)) from about rednction of the tobacco content of the cigarette alone. 80% to about 90% by weight ofalumina trihydrate; and Table 5 and the curvcs of thu accompanying.drawing were in addition (b) from about 5% to about 15% by weight developed by determining the mg. of dry tar per cigarette ofasbestos; the balance beingan least 1% by weight of a in comparison to the percentage of sheet additive. The 20 natural vegetable gum binder; said fibrous shreds having theoretical tar reduction curve was calculated by multi- been treated to produce a roughened fibriluted surf:rce plying the dry'tar from the control cigarette by the per- thereon. eent.of tobacco thai would be left after the designated per- 7_ The tobacco of claim 6 in which the gumm binder is cent addition of sheet. All cigarettes tested had the same guar gum. - initial weight,.and'were hand-made on alaboratory ma- 25 S. A cigarette comprisin-- a fi!ler of smoking tobacco ehine. having incorporated therein fronnabouG 5%to about 35% dt will be seen from Table 5 that for a level of16°h by, weight of the tobacco of: a shredded sheet consisting sheet additive,, the theoretical control cigarette would give essentially of (a) frumm about 75%' too about 95% by weight 13.9 mg. of tar. But only 9.7 mg. of tar was evolved from of a temperature control substancee selected from the TABLE'S Pmant' Tobeccu Dry Tar. $1nd of Ctgarett® 8heet Cantent mg.7clgarecta Addntre FWtor 'CUntrol--------------------- ------------------- 0. l.m lGa Tar eslculatiYl (fom twteent sheet luadbigs.._._. 8 .Yt 15.2 1e :8t, 18.9 4f .YB~ 128 32 .se* 11.2 ~Nun•Faterlhgaheet ............................... s '___________ 11. 9 IB ...... ...... 12.1 2{ 116 32 11.2 TntemAFateriu58heet ......................... g ............ 12.2 18 ____________ 9.7 24 ............ Y:8 92 ____________ 7.0 a cigarette with 16% of the internal filteringg type sheet group consisting o6 an oxide',, hydroxide, and carbonate of additive, representing a.reductiorrfrom the.theoretical of magnesium, and an uxide and hydroxide of aluminum, 4.2 mg.. tar, or about 30%. At 24% or 32% sheet load- and [he hydrated forms thcreof: and in addition (b) frrom -ings, the reduction was about. 4.5 mg: tar,, or 36% and about 3% to about 1585 by weight of a siliceous inor- 40% reduetion,, respectively, below the theoretical evolu> ganie fibrous mattix material; and inn addition (c) from lion. Thenon.filtcring type of sheet gave little or no re'- 50 from 1%nto about 5% by weight of an organic gum binder duction of tar below the theoretical valtie. The foregoing selected from the group consisting of natural vegetable . figures are for dry' tar (105' C.), thus having greater gums and synthetic cellulose ether gums: the. fibers of: -signlficance as.being undiluted with volatilee smoke frac- saidd matrix material havingbeen treated to produce a 4ons which do not contain carcinogens. roughened fibrilated surface thercon, and a cigarette paper_What is clairned is: aa wrapper. -Y.. Smoking tobacco having, incorporated therein from 9. A cigarette comprising a fifter of smoking tobacco about 5% to about 35% by weight of the tobacco of a having incorporated therein from about l0%n% to about Shredded: sheet'cnnsisdng essentially o8 (a). from about 25% by weight of the tobacco of fibrous shreds consist- 75% to about 95%ay by weight of a temperature control ing essentially of (a) frorrv about 80% to about 907aby substance seleeted', from thegroup consistingof anoxide, 00 weight, of alumina tribydratc; and in addition (b) from. hydroxide,, and', . canbnnnte of magnesium, and an oxide about 5% to about 15% by weight of ubestos;: the bal- and hydroxide of nluminum,, and the hydrated forms ance being a0 least 1% by weight of a naturafl vegetable thereof;.and in addition (b) from about 3% to about 15% gum binder; said 6brous shreds having been treated to 'by weight of a siliceous.inorganic fibrous.mntrix material; produce a roughenedfibrilaled', surface thereon, and a and in addition (c) from about 1% to about 5%by 65 cigarette paper wrapper. ~ weight of nn orgnnic gum binder selected from the group . 0 . - ~ consisting of natural vegetable gums and synthetic cellu- References Cited loseether gums; thee fibers of said matrix material having UNITED STATES PATENTS ~ been treated to produce a roughened fibrilatedsurface (~ thereon. 70 3,005,732 10/1961 Specht -------------- 131-17[y1. 2. Thee tobacco of claim I in which the fibr0us matrix 3,061,479 10/1962Mcrritt -------------- 131-17N material is asbestns. 3,106,210 10/1963, Reynolds et al.-------- 131-17 Q~ 1. Smoking tobacco having incorporated therein from 3,255,760 6/1966 5elke.--------------- 131-17 about 5% to about 35%'ly wcicht of the tobaccn of a shredded sheet consisting essentially of (a) from about 76 MELVIN D, REIN. Prfnlpry 8xwyiner. t
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3,410,276 3 4 In the range 200' to 600°C. in order to cool thrcritical adsorbed strongly and rapidly on smoke particles;.leading destructive distillation zone of the cigarette most effec- to the current belief that polonium in cigarette smoke tively. may act as an. important initiator in the devclopmentt of The temperature control substance selected in aecord- lung cancer. PoloniumI as an alpha radiation emitter is ance with the invention may thus include an oxide, hy- 5 considered very hazurduus,, prescnting, a definiteinhala- droxide, or carbonate, or a hydraled', formm thereof,. of tion danger as a potential lung carcinogen in an insoluble an alkaline earth metal,.or ofmagne.cium,,or of aluminum form of appropriate particlcsize, approximately 1 micron. or other cation which iss nonvolatile under the burning Published data (Science, vol. 143, page.247),,have shown eonditions. There may also be employed hydratedmin- that a forty cigarette a day smoker may develop localized erals capable of giving off their uontained water upon 10polnninm-210 concentratinnof tip to 1000 rem in various heating, such asvarious clays. regions of the bronchial in:e over a 25 year period. These temperature control substancess are prepared in Dosages of 1300 rem over a 25 year period can cause sheet form by admixing,a major proportion of a tempera- - lung carcinoma. A rem, is a measure of the r.idiatfon ture control substance of the character described with a damage done to living, tissue and is dependent on the minor proportion of a fibrous matrix material, anda,5 eoncentratinnn nnd disintegration rat: of thee radioactive smalh amount of a binder. The drrymixture is made into element as well as theencrgy of the emitted particles. a viscous slurry with water, and the slurvyy is placed on Thus, the literature indicates that for poloniam-210, 0.033 an impervious,, chemically inert and nonadherene surface picocuries per square centimeter dosage would be cquiv- provided with a retaining edge, dried, and the resulting alent to 165 rem over a 25 year period. sheet is stripped off. 20 As shown in the test data of Table 4, below, the in- The preferred temperature control substance,, in ac- elusion of alumina as an additive in cigarettes reduced cordance with the invention, is ahydtate of alumina the polonium in the smoke from cigarettes that would be whieh is capable of releasing itssonbed or combined taken into the.lungs by ahout.409b. Thus,.localized con- water upon heating. Thus, there mayy be employed the centratioac of the polonium due to smoke from cigarettes crystalline hydrates of alumina represented by the for- 25 eontaining the alumina additive of the invention would ntulas A1zOs.3HzO or Al(OH)s, These are dry, fine-now- be reduced to a value well below the 1300 rem considered ing whitecrystalline products available in abundance to be dangerous for personssmoking,two packs of ciga- from the Bayer, or Rayer-sinter process. Th^ combined rettes a day. water is releasable on hcatingstarting at about 150° C. . The fibrous matrix material is composed'of inorganic Instead of hydrated alumina; there may be enployed. 3o fibers, examples of which include asbestos„ or a ceramic activated alumina,which is defined as essentiallyy a mix- fiber made front alumina anik silica soldd under the desig- • tureof various transition phases oE aluminum oxide, such nation "FibcrfraX" (Carbotuv ndum Co., Niagara Falls, as gamma, eta, and the like, usually with bachmite N.Y.), or glass.wool. The fiber must be "opened up"'and (A1qO,.Hz0). Activated alumina is a material having a dispersed before use. Asbestos, for example, comprises large surface area per unit of weight, and a highly porous 35 fibers closely stacked together, and these must be sepa- structure. It is. produced by heating alumina hydrate to ratedd for example, by dry or wet hammermill separation. a temperature suftieient to drive off the great prcpondcr- For maximum effectiveness, the fibers must be treated so ance of combined water. It is capable of adsorbing from thaathey are reasonably separate with sufficiently rough or about 16% to about 20% of additional moisture, de- fibrilatecI surfaces to make a satisfactory bond (aided by a pending upon the relative humidity of the atmosphere.to 40 binder) with each other and with the temperature control which it is exposed. The adsorbed moisture is readily and substance to give good sheet strength. rapidly releasable at the elevated temperature which oc- The fibers should also not' be so long as to be difficult curs in the burning of a cigarette. As an alternative to to control with a doctor blade in feedin.g the slurry into activated alumina,, there. can also be employed activated which they are subsequently formed onto the drying belt bauxite, which is prepared from bauxite aluminum ore ih 45 or otherdevice. The fibcrs should not be so short as to a manner similar to that by which activated alumina is be incapable of effective bonding. In general, a length of prepared', from alumina.hydrate, and it has similar prop- about N'• to about.'h" is satisfactory:. erlies. Where asbestos is employed, it is preferably a hydrous Activated alumina has the additional advantage of magnesium silicate of the tubular fibcr type, an example . being an adsorbentt like carbon for volatile compounds 50 of which is chrysotile asbestos, having the approximate other thnn watcr. Il.cant thuss selectively trapcomponents formula 3MG0.2Si0a. This material has a fibrous crystal of smoke capuble of entering its pores. Its use as a structure.and asilky luster, is white in color, and exhibits catalyst or catalyst base is well.known, thereby providing very good tensile strength. There may also be employed yet another modifier of the components of cigarette crocidolite type asbcstos;.which is a complex sodium-iron smoke. It should he' further nuted that thee alumina tri- 55 silicate,.also possessing higlr tensile strength, and a laven- hydrates convert to activatedi aluminaa in the course of der color. exposure to heat, thus combining the greater cooling The organicbinder may be a natural or synthetic gum, power of the trihydrate with many of thebcnefitsof the term as employed herein including, for example, vege- activated alumina. table gums, such as gum arabic, gum tragacanth, and • In addition to the foregoing advantages, alumina and' 60 other watcr, soluble gums, which consist largely of carbo- alumina hydrates possesss another outstanding advantage hydrates and arc hydrophilic colloids..There may also he as additives to smoking tobacco, which is wholly sur- employed synthetic gums, such asdextrin,: and varibus prising and unexpected. This is the ahifity of thcsc sub- cellulose ethers, such as, for example. methylcellulose ' stances to reduce to a very low level in the gaseous cont- or h drox y yPrupyleeiLulose. These are obtainable in ayue- Q bustion products of the tobacco, radioactive elementc of 65 the type which cmit alpha radiation, such as polonium. oussolution, the methylccllulose solution having a vis- ~ IR has been known fon some time that tobacco leaves cosity of about 4000 centipoises, whilathe solution of the ~ contain minute amounts of the element polonium-210.. hydroxypropylcellulose has a viscosity of about'15,000 ~ an alpha-emitting radioactive element, which vaporizes at eentfpoisus. ~ about 100° C:,, or substantially below the eombustion 70 Wheres vegetable gum is employed as a binder for the N temperature of a cigarette, which is in the ronge 800° to temperature control suhstancein the sheet of the inven- 900° C. The elernent poloniiim (Po i possesses 24 iso- tion,, it is preferably apolysacchariderype„ such as, for 1;h topes,. ranging in mass from 197 to 218,, all', of which are example,, guar gum,.derived from the seedsof Cyamopds . radioactive,. The most eompwn form is Pdte which Lins retragonubolres, which exhihits a high degree of waler a haff-lifeof 138.4 days. pulonium isuapable of being 75 dispenibility and thickening power, Thus, there can be
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3,410,276 7 Example 4 These are examples of common fillers'that may be used with the asbestos matrix. (1) A stock matrix slurrywas prepared by blending two minutes in an Oster blender (a) 6 grams chrysotile •' asbestos, (b). 3 grams Burtonile No. 78 Guar gum, (c) 1.8 grams glycerol,. (d) 1000'0 milliliters distilled water. (2) To 250 milliliters of above matrix slurry were added respectively: (a) talc,. 15 grams (b)') kaolin clay, 15 grams, and (c)fcrric hydroxide, 155 grams (d)) silicic 10Q acid in the amount of 15 grams. Each slutry was then blended in the Ostcr blender. The four slurrieswere then cast on Teflon sheets and driedlat 105° C. in an elec- tric oven until dry.. The sheets were removedd after drying ®Itd examined;; the sheets were typical, pliable and ao- 1' ceptable, The novel tobacco additivetemperature ctmtrul'l sheet of the invention produces many unexpectedand advanta- genus effects. Inthe followingdiscussion, cigarettes made with a tobacco filler containing 23% by weight of the °0 preferred alumina truhydrate-asbestos-guur gum sheet of the invention will serve for purposes of illusltation. The most important advantageobtained in incorporat- ing the shredded sheet in the tobacco lies in a reduction of between 100' and 200' C: in the average prevailing 2'' temperature in lhee critical distillation zone of cigarettes containing the sheet, as comparcd with those which do not. This reduction effect is observed both in filter and nonfifter types of cigarettes. The following table shows 30 these average smoking temperatures for various types of cigarettes.made inn factory machincs and the temperature differences obtained with, and without the sheet additive. The sheet additive has little apparent effect'' on the peak burning temperatures, which.were about 850' C. for all 35 the cigarettes. TABLE I Averege TemparatureType n7 ClgarettY Act/va Zune Diaerence, TemQnretnre, ' C. C. Control, no 51ter_._-_- Bheet• no filrrrt ...................... 66s 4m __________ _______ 116 Cuntrolfllter____._- - ev5 --------- __-._- aMn6 alter_.. ... ......... ......... e27 910 8 in the neutral fraction which showed' a 26%decrease in the smoke from the aluminmshect cigarettes... The change in chemical character of the smoke may be partly attributed to the fact that the alumina dchy- drnles to a highly' porous and activated form (gamma and eta phases) during the heating., thus providing a possible catalytic action om thee chemical reactions tak- ing place during pyrolysis, and partly to chilling, con- densing, adsorptionn and'.internal filtration effects that pro- foundly alter conditions in. the critical distillation zones of the cigarette, and also permit.the more rapidly con- densedfractions to be pe-exposed moretimes to the peak burning temperature. Thus the presence of increased moisture and c«der average temperature duringpyrolysis,g coupled with the possibleadsorptive and catalytic action of lhe activated alumina ig conducive to the formation of different pyro- lytic products. Such changes are evident in Table.2. Des- pitethese changes then:is still a satisfying taste. Another important advantage of the alumina sheet lies in the fact that the rough-surface shredded sheet in admixture with the tobacco acts as an internal filter in the cigarette.. Thus it provides not only thermaf control and improvement', of chemical composition of the smoke from the standpoint of earcihogens, but by acting as a filler, therough-surface shredded sheet provides a nreas- ure of control af tar passing through. As explained pre- viously, the internal filtration is obtained by a rough sur- face on the sheet which may be.produced as such, or the snrface may be made rough by hammer milling.or break- ing in a double cone mixer with intensifier bar. The rougher the sheet surface themone cffbctivc is the filtcr- ingaction. The presence of futes in addition to the twisted sbreds,.to get into the interstices and exert a blocking action on thee flow, increases internal filtration. This is accomplished, for example by longer conditioning of the sheet as forme& by treatment inn the hammer mill or double cone mixer with intensifier bar. Theseinternal fillra0on effects are illustrated in the following table, which shows test results per cigarette made in factory machines in terms of changes in tar, nicotine, ash, and a'uflowrates,r with and without the adtlitive. 40 TABLE g.-TAB AND NICOTINE CONTENT OF SMOKE - WL 1n WtL ut Nlentina,. Air flaw TypeefOtgsrattam~ .e. No..pa~Ta*. w mp. .ar Cnntral,nonlter-------- L19 119 10.1 2d.e 2.4 22.5 Baeet. no altea---...-.. 1.26 260 IlA 13.1 L 1 IY.e CoutraLfllWr----------- 1:0f 9D 1.9 lae 1.5 12f. Bheet filter, .............. 1.11 211 10.2 10.9 0.8 10.1 This temperature reduction effect is attributable to as In the foregoing table, the measurements of number tfu high heat demand of the alumina trihydrate, which of puffs, tar and nicotine were made at a standard smok- is about; 900 B.t.u. per pound. Liberation off the water iag rate of 35cc:/2 sec., once a minute, to a hutt of 26 of hydration occurs at 250'-600° C., within the critical mm. for filter cigarettes, and' of 24 mm. for plain ends. pyrolytic range. Air flow was mepsured', in cc./sec. under 2;5 inch water Anotherfavorahle effect arisingfrom the usee of the /f0 draw. sheet additive of the invention lies inn an improvement The intcrnal filtration effect of the'shredded sheet is - in the chemicab compositiom of the smoke. The following indicated by the average reduction of about 45 ! in. tar table indicates that the ehemical composition of the smoke and 50% in nicotine as compared with cigaretics using has been appreciably altered,, particularly in the impor- plain tobacco.. tant basic and neutral fractions. 05 In terms of comparative mildness, the mildest was the TABLE 2rANALYSISOF FRACTIONS IN SMOKE cigarette employing both sheet and filter, while thenexte t~ mildest. was lloe cigarette empluying sheet and no filter. ~ fPareonLOfFrecLlanlnTV1 (1 d l~l[ tt ~ l es were res ec Th d d Btrong TypaotClgnrutte huolu4le Balta AcW Control, no Nter....... 6.1 9An~L i.o fllter......... 6. F Cunuolnttor.___....__ a.t1 si~eet mter.__.__.__.__ e:a 30.4 V.e 49.4 aS 9e0 5.6 4a.0 7.2 wfn~[ Neetr4t Acid Ito 31.9 1E.11 2R.a' tao 31.7 fz4 2an er an non-t cr ugem p - l o-atan ar tively, next harshest. Thus the additive of the invention rQ 70, can be employed in an amount sufficient to produce the tb necessary thermal control, while producing a mild satis- N fying flavor and a reduclion in tar and nicotine as great ~V as that of an ordinary filter. Of course, a conventional 01 With refcralce to Table 2.. the polycyclic hydrrwar~ filter could also he employed'to further decrease tar and bons, which would include the carcinogens, ara mainly 75nicoiine to new low levels, but it alone cannot provide
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. 3,410,276 9 10 the complex internal filtration effect of the present in- per minute, while the cigarette containing 0.75 gram vention. tobacco burned at the rate of 6.55 mm, per minute. In Another advantage in the use of the additive of the in- contrast thereto, the oigarette containing 0.75 gram of vention lies in' the fact that the combined water iat, the tobacco and 0.25 gram of temperature control substance alumina, about 10% of dry tobacco weight,, cannot be of the invention burned at the rate of only 3.55 mm. per. lost in storage- It it present to increase the moisture in 6 minute. the smoke, therebyreducingy the effect of any loss of Ass indicated previously, there can beemployed', in ac- free moisture of thee tnbacca prior to use. Normally cordancee with the invention, a non-filtering type of there.is a drying out of the tobacco in the cigarettes on shredded sheet, which gives the same temperature reduc- prolonged storage, regardless of type of packaging. This tion and mildness of smoke as thee internal liltering shcct, greatly increases the tar and nicotine developed in the10but no substantial reduction intar and nicutine content of smoke. The shredded sheet provides excess water in a the smoke. Nevertheless, the non-filtering sheet effects an combined storage-stahlee form which is available for equal reduction in distillation zone temperatures, provides thermal control and buntidi/icatiun when the dried out a mellowed smoke and prolongs smoking time. It is also cigarette isburned. The water of hydration helps com- possible, in accordance with the invention, to convert the pensate', duringsmoking, for any moisture previously 15 non-filtering type of~ sheet to the internal filtering type of lost from the tobacco. The additive permits a net re- sheet, if desiredi as enphtined previously; so that there is duction of'the amount oftobxcco present, but without present the advantage ofhaving toproduce initially only detriment to smoking satisfaction. one type of base sheet. In both cases, however, asbestos As indicated previously, the alumina present in the o0 is the material' of choice, since it provides a stronger tobacco additive of the invention acts to reduce b,vy some - sheet and ash. 35% to 40% the polouium contaminants in the main- The following example shows the preparation of the stream smoke. This is demmost.ated by comparative tests nonfiltering type of sheet,.usingasbestos, conducted on cigarettes with and without the alttmina, gxampie S. Non-filtering typee sheet additive, the lotter serving as controls, the cigarettes ~ being both with and without filters. Tobacco and smoke. 0 2.75 lbs. of grade 3K700 chrysotile asbestos and 2.75 samples were analyzed for polnninnr210, smoking two Ubs. grade4A700 chrysotile asbestos were placed in a 3 samples.of each of the mentioned types of'cigarettes. Theeue ft. Patterson-Kelley twin shell blender and blended results are set forth in the following tablc. for 15 minutes withintensifier bar at.2510 r.p.m. and shell TABLE L-POLO:IIUM-2I0 IN CIOARETTF. SMOKE 30 [Unit: PIe4Gurte9q,e.reignrrtt.) TypsofCia.ette Rtnin- etreem Side 8ttwm Butt Aah Tobacco Cnntre4,noflitsa--------- Q, 12e 0.110 Qlfl O.aSI 0.+e glwet,mfilter------------ e.a'Ia, 0.110 0.14 '. 0:m2 0.5] 35 Con6rolfilter ............. 0.0G1 0.1.19 ama 0.041 aae nheetaiter ............... 0.013 aaBU 0.ora 0. 045 0. 2s The results.indicate that the Po7!o content of mainstream (inhaled) smoke from cigarettes with,alumina sheet was about 40% less than that'~ from control cigarettes. 40 In order to determine the burningcharacteristics of thee tobacco mixtures with the additive sheet shreds of the invention, tests were carried out on a conventional smok- ing machine of a type designed to simulate. cigarette puffs at spaced time interval5. 45 Several series nf the cigarettes each were. prepared, and tested in the smoking machine employing a thin thermocouple drawn thrnugh thecenter of the cigarette at a distance of30 mm. from the burning end of the cigarette. The.matihinery was.adjusted for standard smok- 50 ing conditions to take one 35 cc. puff per minute for a period of two seconds duration fur each puff. The tested series were as follows: A. Per cigarette: 0.75gram tobacco; no additive; 55 B. Per cigarette: 1.0 gramtobacco; no additive; C. Per cigarette: 0.75 gram tobacco plus 0.25 gram of alumina hydrate-asbestos sheet. Theaccompanying.draw•ing shows a se0of curves com- paring temperature in degrees centigrade with the dis- 00 tance the cigarette has burned from the original lit end to the point at which the thermocouple was.inscrted„ 30 mm. from the originall end. The curves indicate that, for a givenn distance burned, the tempcrature at the point where the thermocouple isptaced, averages considera- O5 bly lower for the cigarette made with alumina-hydrate- asbestossheet material of the invention. The ash, more- over, remainsfirmi Thus, the cigurette of the invention provides a good ash,, a much lower temperature in the distillation and dcstructive distillation zone, and a greatly TO lengthened time of burning or smoking.as compared with an untreated cigarette. This greatly lengthened bura- ing rate may be seen fcom dle eurves of [hc.accompany- ing drawing. Thus., the cigarette containing1 gram of tobacco with no additive burned at therate of 4.37 nlm. 75 'IFeu ca r.p.m. r nere were men anneu t0 Ine blender u gutll gutn Hna ]uaes. or alumina hydrate.of minus 325 mesh particle size, and the entire mixture blended for 5 minutes. The dry discharge from the blender wasfed to a high speed,, multi-hammer, hammer mill, equipped with a 54 inch screen. Nine batches of the discharged dry mix was slurried in 4100' lbs. water at 130' F. containing 155 lbs,. glycerine. The slurry was vigorouslyy agitated 30-60 minutes. If desired, the dry mix may be slurried in water at ambient temperature and a1- lowed to remain at ambient temperature. Mixing time varied, up to 5 hours, according to which temperature isused.. The slurry properties were: viscosity about 4,000 cps. (Brookfield No. 4.spindle at 12 r.p.m.) at'160° F..or about.6,500cps. at 100' F., density 1.0-12grams per cc., solids content 10.8%. The slurry was spread on a continuous stainless steel conveyor belt 48 inches wide by' a suitable feeder doctor blade arrangement to give a film.of the slurry 37-40 mils thick end 44:45inches wide. The belt was then heated oa the underside with steam until the slurryy was evaporated to dryness. Drying required about 2.5-3,0 minutes at.230° F: and gave a dry product 5-8 mils thick. As the dry prod- uct came out of the.dryingoven, a cool.shower of water was sprayed' on the underside of the drying surface, the water being at 60-75° F. The: cooled product and belt were then subjected to a very small amount ofIive steam (10-20 ]bs, steam per 350 Ibs. dry product)'which im- pinged on ttie surface. This steam penetrated the product and condensed on the cold: metal surface: below to form a very thin film of water between the drying surface and the pruduct.. Although the condensed steam was rapidly absorbed by the product, the product was loosened from the drying surface and could be lifted therefrom without scraping using a doctor blade for lifling. The stripped sheet was then redried to remove residual moisture from the steaming operation. The dried shcet was further processed by placing 257bs. ~ in a Patterson-f.clley blender for 1.5 minutes to produee ~ shreds of the sheet approximately 0.5-0.75.inch in diam- 3 eter. This shredded product was then screened on a Tyler ~ 18 mesh screen to remove any lines and the plusI8 mesh.. N material was ready for incorporation with tobacco. This ~ shredded sheet was of the non-filtcring.type, reducingaver- ~ age active temperatures, but giving no significant reduc- hon in tar or nic.otine..
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Lead-21U in Toliacco and Cigarette Smoke ESTHER S. FERRI and HOWARD CHRISTIANSEN . MANY recent investigationss of cigarette . smokee have been concerned with concen- . trations of polonium-310and the radiation dose to the lungs of sinolcerss who inhale it (1, 2). To . aseertain if fnrther insnlt tn the lun,^_s oecuts,u study of the levelsofobtlher radionuclides, :specilical4y ]cad-21.00 in cigarctte smoke, was undertaken at the Nm•theastcrir Rnrlinlohricttl Hcaltl. Laboratory,, Public. Ifealth Service. . . Limited data by PLoltzmatt and Ilcewicz have indicated a transfer of ]ead -210in the smoke (3), nnd stable Iead in tobacco smoke has been reported slso by Cogbill and Hobbs (4). In- creased exposure of the lung to.lead-210 may result because the nuclide has a longer effective half-life with subsequent daughter ingrowLh. Calculations of the imount of lead-210 de- .posited in the lung, a critical' organ, were based on the ¢oncentratSons of lead-210 found! in the ~smoke of variousbrands of cigarettes tested at this laboratory. . Methodology . - ~- Six brnttds of cigarettes, varying slightly in physical makeup were chosen for the study. These cigarettes included two which were non- filtered, and one each with a cellulose filter, a Mrs. Ferri 'u assi.+tant director of Analytical Serv: ices, Northeastern Radiological I/ealth Laboratory, Division of RadiologicaGHealtA, Public $ealth Serv- ice, Winchester, Afass., and Mr.Ckristiansenis a graduate s0udentin the department. oJ epidemialogyy and publie health, Yale University Sckoal nf dledi- cine, New !(aven, Conn. This study was partly sup• ported byPublie flealthService Grant No. 3-T1- Blf-7A-01-.i2 (for radiation specialist training). 82s Pu61ic llrnhh Rrturrb - 00749,233 cellulose andd charcoal fllter, ncellulose nnd -cl{arcual filter with the tobar,co treated fnr tY- ..v moval of tarsand nicotine, and a cellulose filter ~ with pipe~tobacco. .. Lcad-210 and poloninnr210 bave..been (onml -1 in cquiliLrium in -tubucc,o (3) ; thetefore.,. 1.bo bistntd.lr21O was isolatcd and-dntermined n. nL measure of the lend-`310 nr,l.ivity.'1'he toharrn was wet.-asbed by usine nitri'n. and pr.rdhhu•ie acids, converted to a 1.8 utolar hydrraatloric acid solution, and the bismnth-210 was isolated by. - anionn exclmngo (.5). '1'o establish pnrity, decay of the ur-dnyy bismuth-210 was observcd. Gm- centrations of lcad-210 in total tobacco content of the cigarettes nre shoi. n in table.1. _ . . To deterwine the conrentration of lead-210: . in mainstream smokei,four to fire packs of e:Jrh - brand ofcigat-ettes were smoked by a smoking machino- under the operating conditionsde- scribed in an earlier study (M), and a.aonstnntbutt length was tnaintaiucd: 3.3 centimeters for filtered cigarettes (including filter) and 1.5 centimeters for nonfilteeed cianrettes. . . . Because lead-210 nnd bismuth-210 in equilib- rium in the tobacco may not esist in equililt-. . rium in thee smoke, thelead-210. was isolated by digestin~g the collection filters and the hydro- ' chloric acid trap w.ith nitric and perehloric acids. The lead-210 was isolated with added car- . rierby anion exclmnge, and time was nllowed for ingrowth of bistnutl>-210. The bismuth-210 was -~. collected with carrier by ion exchange, precipi- •_ tated, and counted as oxychloride (5). llecay of p this fraction was also measured to determine purity of thebjsmutl.-210. . To establish whether possible .m•ironmentnl factors influence the nnalyses, a series of air.
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A97a Fcbruary 27, 1965 .; N A T U R E ..,~;y.p an initially do-aurated solution of 10-' N potaasium l,.droxido containing about 8 mM nitrous oxide is irradi. by a single 2-pacc pulse. The oscillugrum shows.two ..,,npnnonta, one of which has vanished in about 100 p.sec, .h,lt• thn other lasts for a relatively long time. Tho fast ,,,rnponcuE is, we believe, duo to O-, and it lasts much ( t.maiurthan the O- build-up in Fig. 1 becauee there is t, nly a trace of oxygen in the solution, this having been i( t,~lvd by radiolysleduting the pulse. The peak „aliahes after two or three ptdseshave been given to an tti .._n.. .L• m....led e..6.,:.... TL.. L•-... 1:...•d .•.. e.•4 dee to O.-. It deelines a little by reacting'with the " . ., . Iracuof O-. formed, and then remains practically constant 0 60 inr' many msec. (.. Rb thank Mr:. M. C•. Ctrowley-Millingfor the design of qM iho fnet-ptilue circuitry, and Mr. Dieter Rebmann for help o .ilh its construction. .. . .~ m ~. : ~ ~ s G F AnA - .. . . . .... J. W. BaAo B. D. MPCnAEL sseeleetmn pub. a O:. OrJl,y,. "~a'h-M.9olun~m ' fai Wtrqn oxl,le en Were gellrF it the elbctmn 0,3 Irsec (W, 1Lrad to tln a the solution lacts with tl,f thej euction aior( li ,nr Irres for Ihr nochmntatoq 'rd at d3U0 .1 xenon binlp. a ihtegmtinl; sly indicut.l ice peok dn•• givee a lin„u at where th., 4 d on sevrnd etion for th• amdoxicnlly. estimate tln• e thc oxygrm ue constout, •rption sl.~- vice thnn n t sfiosra th,. JL ± it10 :1 ~ ~ Re»earchUnit in.Radiobiology, ~ - ~ Itrill.+h Empire Cancer Campaign for Research, . Mount Vernon Hoapital, , . : Northwood, Middlesex.. . - ~ 1,•+, l. W., and Adamr, e. E.,.SyMY. CeRee/er ]ladintiua8ietna6'. M.D, .anjarsoanospltel,Houaton,Texxx(1He4)+ •~ 1'ury.Y I, a., and Dorfmao, L, M., J. Pdfe. C6eM., A11.11e9 (1061):' 11. f I, li. J.. and non9, y. w.. J. dmer. CNM. Snt...$t.3UYO (1962). ~ P olonium In Cigarettes-Spectroscopic Analysis _r ' aLY1Lt-RADIOACTf{'ITY in cIg6lCttea has recently been nlt-asured by two groups. 'lhrner and Radley' suggested :~datt tt•Pb and S10Po are not present in the raw tobacco at . kvels of aotivity of the eameordkr as "°"Ra, and concluded that the additional a-activity taken into thelungs from the radium content in cigarettes is less than I per cent of thee atmospherioradon inhaled.by both smokers and non- ..Inokurs. Radford and Hunt$ hosrever, maintained that polonium is more.dangerous because:of its.volatility above Ca10' C.. They identified the 'tePocontent of cigarettes by obeervinga-activity of 138 dayss half-life,, and estim- in our experiment,, and there.is no apparent process which : nled the radiation dose to bronchial eVitheiium from oan vield'other nolonium isotoees in lureeamount. There ^•t•o inhaled in cigarette aznoketo beatleast seven times is nn aereement to within 15 ner cent between the activitv mu4 Irom baCkground, sources, and in localized arees of our two.samples and betweenn our samples and thosee of pmsibly up to 2000 times. - Radford and: Hunt'. Thouglrthia agreement may be The investigation recorded here was undertaken in fortuitous, it at least snggests that the alnount nf polonium order to: (1) identify apeetroscopically and measure the per regular sizeAmerica.. cigarette (about 2 x' 30'atnme) +luount of '"Po as well ea other polonium isotopes in does not fluctuate extensively, and may reflect thehomo- ritimtettee; (2)'.present a fast and reliable detection system genizing procedure ueedin the production of cigarettes. rapnble of determining accurately minuto quantities of : We have also performed a prelimintuy measurement of n'1'a (of the order of 10-'ppe.) .as well as of mixti.res of the polonium colleeterl.on-a glaiss-wool filter whenwholo " 1•m•rgics of unknmrn a-groupa to + 15 koV.: Two snmples,, although not alanaingl, can be a causo for concern if O~ "'teh eontnining polomum f om two cigarettes, were concentrated iin small areas of the respiratory systtem' Qt'1"nmu'ed- The two samples were prepared fromm cigar- We believe that theque.tions ofpolonium retention mtd ~ y"tlrs of the snme brand butt flben diffrrent cartons and localization am very importn.h and should be fully inveati- 't"rmbotli found to contnin 0--15± 0-10 µµe, per cigarette, gated. Wo-aLse have not yet investigated tito question of ~- at agre:ementt with Radfold nnd Hunt'. The quot'ed equilibrium in the cigarotte betweenf1ePo with. a hulf-lifo n"''nrtainty is mainly due to the rrncertainty in solid of' 138 days and one of its parents "ePb with a half-lifeN` 'I'0.'laand in plating ofTicieney. Backgmund wan 0-1-0-2 of22.yenrs. This question is.si;,mificnnt if ageing iato be ~ connts/lt and was lca.a' thalr 1 per cent of the enmpleo eonsidorod ns. a poesibleremedy. The dependence of aelivity. A puloniitmm a-spectrum necumnh.thd for 6 it f1ePo and '1'Pbconcentrntions on factors such as rnin', _ . _froln known sourcra of "'Am, "•U, '•'Po, and rt'Bi were uptake and retention of polonium in cigarette smoke are 'Iwvtforenergycalibratlion.. Thisprocedurocandetermine not available to test this asaumptione. Such a value, arlctrve leotopea'. . eigarettess were smoked in a stream of oxygen inside Polonium was extracted from whole cigarettes using a heated flnak. This preliminary measurementt indicates a uut aehingprocedure'. The polonium samples deposited that most of the polonium follows the smoke, in agreement ansilvor foile wero then placed at a distance of a few nun with the findings of Radford and Hunt'. If we nssume fmin a 2-cm' solid-stute detector, which was coupled that about 10 per eentt of the polonium content of the into a low-noise, charge-sensitivo preamplifier and a cigarette eventually decays in the lung, the amount of nmlti-channei analyser'. The effective solid nnglo wast+°Po activity at equilibrium for a person smoking 50 3•'J ± 10 per oent storudians. The overall energy spread cigarettes a day can reach a level of 400 pµc. Unfortun- of a monoenergeticc a-group was about 50 koV Alphas atolv biological data for the efficiency of the lung for the Blq. 1. Folonhlm o•epectrvm sacumelated fort h from a two-dprette umNe. . . . _ , . .. . ,~. ./f`~ .. from a two-cigarntte sample is shown in Fig. 1. ' The location of thepeak corresponds to an energy of 5-310 ± 0•015 MeV, in excellent agreement withthe value of . 5-305 MeV for 1jpPo. ' • , Althongh all polonivm isotopea aIS a-active, no a-"? activity due to any other polonium isotopes was observed, with an upper limit of' I per cent. This result is not sur-.:: prising since all poIonium isotopes whichh belong to the radioactive series.have too short half-lives to be observed
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, ~. . } . .. ~ ~ ~. ~ . , . .. ~ .. . . . ~ ~ "' A . ~ ~ . .. ' .. . . . Table 1. Lrnd-210 in tobnrcrr and smokr, by picocurics per cigarette (-{-'2 nlnn.lnrd devintiunn) I ~-ISr:rnd aud t•hnr:u•li•ristirs of cignrcttes~ C .-'.A nuulinrrrd_______________________________ 1S nunfillnrrd-__._..___-_-_-________________ C Ifilicrnd tcitl+ rnIhdn.,•--_.___-.__.-_____-.__-- ' ]Sfiltrrrd wilh e.•Ilolnsn;rud chnrcn:d_____-__-_ 1i finrred wlh ertlulosoat, d clrircuul,; rillcd r.'il.b - trrnladtobarro.------ ____________ . 1'uud cik: u:•tto I ', ALain,trrnna smnk,• . .l.oad-210 Nuuoher of UnnyNny Lrnr1-210 Nurnhnr nf nnnlY+cs 0. 40:1 f 0. 066 6 O.ILS.) h0. 036 4 .4'27~l, . 074 4 .IL11i} .f1153 5 .31LIt • 1011 G . 1121i-.li . 11117 4 .4H7f .064 3 , U401 . 1131 4 .32ri} .1950 3 .0snd} .022 303± .224 3 .0:;21 .02R .- F,fin+•rrd rrith.rrllulo.<qfillod witSr pipctobacco__ mrrl reagent blanks were determined..lViLlrout -ignitiug the tobacco and using the smoking ma- chine, air was drawn through 20ciaarettes of s each brand to substantiate the theory that lead . $out the tobacco, while it was not burning, was not con(ribtttinb to thee activity. • Siuce, le:ul-210 ttorlnally is found in air, - 12,500 cuhiccentimetersof laboratory air was also collccted directly on a membrane filter. This - volume of air is equivalent to the amount drawn through 20cignrottes while being, smoked on .: the machine. , RengentbinnL-s on chemicals, glassware, and membrane filters used were determined. As shown in table 2, the only factor to be con- lidered in calculating final concentrations of lead-210 is the reagent blank. Air passed through the cigarettes or collected separately showed no contribution to tlwblanl.. An in- h gron-tlri:n-ocedure was employed for all samples of collected smoke, and samples were allowed to reach greatel• than 00 percent equilibrium. - Chemical yields ranged from 86 to 99 percent. ' All samples, except a few recounted to observo Table 2. Lead-210 in air and reagents, in picocuries per cigarette (-}2 standard - deviations) .. . . '. - Lead~210' Air throughh cigarettes and re:+Rrnts.-____ Lnboratorr air and mngents.__---__-_ ltengoutA---__--_-__ ' 2n counting crror. o. 021 f a 006 '. 029 f .00f, .023 f .002 Vol. 82, Rir. 9, Seprrmber 1967 Number of analyses decay, were comlted for 900 minutes at a 37 percent efficiency obtainable with the geometry used (nylon ring and disk, mylar cover) on Geiger-11Suuller cnd-window low-baekground beta counters. Results . ' Comparison of the concentration of lead-210 w.itlh polonium-2100 in tlmsmoke ($) from the - samebrands of cigarettes indicated that with one esception,, brand I:, half as much lead 210 . as polpniutn-210 is inhaled ((able 3). klowever, the rnainstleanr slnotcefi•om the treated tobacco . cigarette, brand E, contained less radioactivity from lead-210 and polonium-210 than any of . the other brands. - A comparison of the amount of lead-210 activ- ity available in smulce from 20cignrettes with~ . that normally inhaled fcorn breathing is.sltown in Lhechart. Concentratimts'of lead-210 in air collected in the vicinity of thelabaratory have. . ranged from 0.010 to 0.041 picocuries per cubia . meter (B). If 20 cubic meters per day is the - average air intake from breathing (7a), then ... 0.20 to 0.82 picocurics of lead-210, or an average: of approximately 0.5 picocuries of lead-210,.are ' inhaled from air. Front four of the sic brands of cigarettes tested, intako-of lead-210 from smoking 20 cig- . arettes a day was double that ft•o;n air, and in . the two remaining brands the intake of lead-210 . from 20 cigarettes was about equal to that from normal breathing.lVith the lung nsthe organ of reference, this intake.was less than 1 percent of the maximum permissible concentration for lead'-210 in air forlargee populations (7b). Comparison of the "thr'rand nicotine contrnt 1 4 829
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of Smoke (8) froot fntn' brantls of c.i;;;[rnlte:+ iu Iintios' of lead-210 in mmokr of fi.c brnuJn thi,i slutly n-ith t1LO lead-`..~PO in the mainstre:un of cigltrctlcs to Ieud-21t1 normally inlnJ,~-l f i . -. stuoke slwsyetl lhnt nltlmu{;lt Lhe re.latioiisbip is in air naft rouslavl,.smoko front ciY:uettrs.Aritlt LtrI per auwtmis of tar and nit»t.inc alsn lmd hi};lirr cuncenlrat.ions of 1r`ad-210 (tnblaa4). ITrtwever, nl. Ihis I imc lye bal-e no.euidcnee ta demonstrate that lead-0100 is nllached to or meclmnically carried on the tar and nicotine. 2.2 2-0 Lung Exposure -. Bascd on thc concentrations of ]cad-210 found in cigarette smoke at this laboratory, dosage calculations with the lnng as thacritical organ were made using tbe.lnodel set up by the Task 1-8 . Group on Ltmc Dynamics (D). ('I'hc task group _ B is a constitucnt.of the International Commis- ~a`o 1-6 : sion on Itadiolo.-ical Protection.) Particle sizess in tobacco smoke ratrued from 0.01 to 0.25 tni- - crons (10). Using an avena,qe 0.13•micron par- . ticlo size, tho task hrnup's morlel states that of 100 pereent.of the particles inhaled, I percent is retained in.tbe.nasopharynocal compartment, .-$ percentin the tracheal and bronchial compart- ment, 45 percent by the pulmonary compart- ment, and 46percent.is exhaled. ' Lead was considered class W, falling within the 4a (IV-VI) group listed in table 3 of reference 9. Class tiV material has a clearance half-t.ime from a few days to a fe.vmonths. The model also states that for class lV compounds , 100 percentof the particles reaching the naso- plmryngeal,, tracheal,, and bronchial compart- ments is cleared to either the gastrointestinal tract or the bloodstream with a biologicaLhalf- life of 4 and 10 minutes,, respectively. Because ofthisshortresidencel.ime,the nasopharyngeaT, Table 3. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in main- stream atream smoke, in picocuries per clgarettc ' Total 7tntin of Cigarette lcnd-21o l.end- IPolonium- lcad-21.0 brand and pnlo- 210 2101 to polo- _ nium-210 nlum-2l0 ------- 0.129 0.046 0:032 0.81'i:1-00 C__-_--- -073 .026 .040 -53:1.00 17.'-'-:- -1:f6 .040 . Oat7 -:~6:1.00 $------- .0na -O:ilt -na7 -At:1.o0 ------- F L;,t - . - .0A3 i, . .105 : . -fi0:1-@0 tIhdnrencc 2. 830 Puhlir l[rnltlt Itelmrte 00749235-': 1.4 1,.2 1-0 r Picoeurlcs.ofIeaA-210 In 200 cigarettes to 1enQ ?10 In 20 cubic meters of nlr, \orm:d daily Inhalation ar alrIs 20 cubic meters. Air at Winchester, .lla5e-, conlnins a. daily avernge of0a picocuries nf leud 1'.10. ' tracheal, and bronchial compartments have been ie oredinourcalculntions. . Of the conrpound reaching the pnloionary compartment, 60 percent is cleared n'itb a. 90- day biological half-1ife. Table 5lists thoe dosage (depenrlentt on par- ticle size), of lead-210 plus dnu'0htcrs reachinl; thdptdmonary compartment from the various brandsof cigarettes by smoking 20 per day. Iu . our calevlations,the mass of this cotnpartment . has been taken as1,000grntns. At 300 days, lead-210 isin 95 percent etlu i l ibriumin the I Knly. - The effective encrg-y(dcfined in %ri)for the chain frotu lead-210 to polnuiwn-210 is 25 Nfer . I I I , .I ~ ~
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~. / C l First,. in order to determine whcther I species-specific G-6-PD of these inlcr-'i breeding hares can be distinguished'from eachothcr by clcctrophoresis; two males and three females of Lepuseurapacecs were compared withtwo males and one female of L.. tinrirhe.c: Regardless of sex, each animal nf both species demonstrated a single sharp band of G-6-PD at both pH's„ and that of L.. europaeus consistently mi- grated further toward the anode thanthat of L. tinridus The difference iit rate of migration was comparable tothe difference that exists between A and B vaniantss in man. Next, all available Fy hybrids. were examined. A cross between a male I L. timidus and a fiemale L. europaeu.r was represented by two males and Polonium-2lfl Analyses of Vegetables, Cured and Uncured Tobacco,, and Associated Soils Abstract. Ahalp.ris of the edible por- ttan. of vegefahle.c and smnple: of green leaf tobacco failed to sliowpoloniurn- 110. The cured satnpler.of leaf tobacco and the soils tlrut were arudy.zed all cnn- tained anall quantiries of the element. Maajk soils contained three times as ntrech. Po2r" asdid nritleraL soils.Solu- tionr used contntonly to extract "avail= able" forms of mony nlineral eleutents failed to extract adetcclable amount of Po'ra: Lldications, are that PaedO or its radioactive precursors are not taken up from tlre -coil directly byy plant roots but rather by sorption' in dead, Inoi.rt plant materials at the abnosplrere-planr irtter- two females of the same litter. Theacea . - sire of this litter was l il no onger ava - able, hut hemolyzate of the dam was used for comparison, The reciprocal cross to the above wass represented by one male. Neither hiss sire nor his dam was alive, As shownn in Fig. 1, the hemolyzates of each of the.e two hybrid males with the L. europaeus mother revealed a single. fast-moving band of G-6-PD identical with the maternal band. One male hybrid of the reciprocal cross fiada single slow-moving band of G-6-PD inherited frdm the L. timidusmother. Each of the two.female hybrids showed two bands of G-6-PD, the fast-moving band corresponding to that of their mother L- europaeu.r, the slow-moving band corresponding to that' of their father L_ tiinidus. Thus; sex-linkage of this enzyme was suggested.$USUMU GHNO JACKIE POOLE Department ofBiolo,Ly, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CaliforniaINGEMAR GUSTAVSSON Department of Anirnal Nutrition, Genetics, and Hygiene, RoyalVeteri:rary College, Stockholm, Sweden. References and Nntes 1. S. Ohno. W. aeCak, M. L. 6ePk, Chrnmw ,u 15, 14 (196y: S Ohnn. Ann. GeneL 8, 3. (1965). 2. V: A. McKUSick, Qvnrr. Rev. Rlnl. 37, 69 (1962): $. C. K. MmM1ai, J„ M. Trvjillo, S. Ohno, E. acutler. Ferr. Proc 24, 44n (1965/: 7, M. Trujiilo, a. Waldcn. P- O'Neil, H. a. Anstull. Srlerrce 148, I(d1.1'. (19fifi1; C- K. Malhai. 5. Ohno: E. acutlcr, Nr.mrr, inieress. 4. I. r;uxtarssnn. in Vreparatiun. 5. We tNank E_ neutlcr for adriee. 6. V. F. Fairtianks, and F,. acutlcq. Rluod 20, 591 (1962). 7. Supnnrted in nart by USPHS gruntl (CA- e513N) andby the 5wcdish Oamc Rescarch CnuOCil. CunviEUtion Nu. 514,5, . IDepartmcne M. Biology. 30 seMember. t965 17)B Mayneord et at. (Z)' suggest that Po21R in plants is derived from the soil, the air or from both. Po=20 may originate from the radioactive decay of in precursors such as Pb`10, . Rn-"-', or Ra"": tt may also originate from ra- dioactive decay of the daughters of Rn""" deposited', on the leaves (1)- Rad- ford and Hunt (2) suggest that Po=rn in tobacco may initiate neoplasms in the bronchial epitheliuni of cigarette smokers. Po=2a;; an alpha emitter, is volatile above 500°C-well below the temperature of a burning cigarette (2). ftt binds rapidly and strongly to sur- faces and thusmay be firmlyy attached to. smoke particles (2). In cats, signifi- cant amountss of: added Po"-tnwcre absorbed from thestomachs (3);, and, since the amounts of Po""inu vege- tables. passing, through the body could be vastly greater than that which enters by way off cigarette smoke into the lungs, it seemed imperative,, that the amounts of Po'1h in vegptahles be de- termined. - Air-cured leaf tobaceo,, grown in the summcr of 1964'in Wisconsin, was dried at 50'to 60°Candground to pass throuqh an eight-mesh screen. Samples of three different tobacco varieties and several soil typeswcre analyzed for Because the difference between the po=t0.. number of counts in the sample aml Edible portionsof fneshvcgetables thc number in the background obtaine.l were collected in the sumnler of 19640from any sample of the vegetablc`. and stored under dry ice for 6 months-Oeither inn the moist or in thedriedstale. Samples of these were thenn dricd'and~was lesss than or cquall to the standald analyzed for Po'"". Duplicate samplesWdeviation of the number of counts, xe were uoretld for 5morc months andNconelude that the amounts of Po=1O ln then analyzed. (r7thece samples aree below the limi4% t'( For analyses. 2-g samplesofplantNdctccliun (Table 1). As wemention.j tissue (dry weight) were digested with radioactivity was significant in one 1-t i@e (Vu.) L t) 5 5 b • Caeam nd liec wm. . notia weight wtere in the acc 91r. Tab in so: crops found sai1S- fivea the 15 age of doa a been Po°re the or would in the iarge{ (6), as ` centtal ~Table 2 I kaves, -sx /`f`t iat. one t's: etle 4ef hss-a Cuon V k'<sthT viioqua 3oldien Grove t'ilnrtpa F4HlRe 14sertc Cnon ~ lrryyl Catn ~ 20 ml of 12N HCIi for 40minutcs at sample of dry eigaretle tobacco an'J Jjr- '~ YnEC ~ SCIENCE,Vot- I` 60° to 70°C;.2-g samples of soils werc digested with 10 nll oF I2N HCI for thee same period. After digestion, the solution was quantitativcly transferred to a plating flask by washing with 0.5/y HCI until the final plating.volume waa 75 ntl. To eliminate the interference of the ferric ion. 0.11 g of ascorbic aeid, a mild reducing agent. was added to the flask. The contents were then heated (90' to 100°(7), continuously stirred for 44 hours, and plated on a silver planchet. The plancfieF was then re- moved, washed with distilled water, and air dried, and the Po=10 was counted in a solid-state alpha-particle counter for 4 hours (4). The background waS 0.02 ~t 0:01 count/min and it was sim- ilar for the blank- The.efficiency of the counter and the platingg procedure for a known amount of P0210 was 10.5 m1,5 percent. Although digestion of planl tissue or soil was incomplete -with hot, concentrated 1tCl, when known amounts of Pot11were added recoverc was quantitative. Analyses were made on. 30 samples of the edible portion of each of the following plants: sweet corm field corn (grain and leaves),, cabbage, carrots, red beets, cucumbers, radishes,, snap beans, and potatoes;,there was no detectable Po-10-. We then assumed that the Po*l" present in the plant tissue was not being released upon chemical treatment with hot 12N HCIi When a wet-ashing meth- od (HNO;), H_SOa, and HCIO.) (5) was used to conipletely digest I g, of dry sweet corn e ain, no Po-1D was de- tected. Using this method on 1 g,of dr)' cigarettee tobaccol we found a signifi- cant amount of Po210. Thee wet-ashint method gave results.similarto those ob• tained by digestion with12N HCI. We then assumcdd that thce size of the sane ple (1 g dry weight) was too small for the detection of P0210 in vegetable+However,, when samples of 2-, 5-, 10-. and 100-gdry weight were used, Ihe cnunt was. stilli not detectable- Known amonnts of Po='1°were added to thMe samples of various sizes and quanti- tatively recovered.. 0
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,-~ Table 1. Amountss of Po"^ in 20'vegelablc i lfCrc I ymtpics and their assooiatedsoils. Gi® tissue ~I for tnd one soil sample were taken from each The slandard deviation is the ratio of i th . c ferred t)-SS' e uc~,- acid, to the teated tirred silver • n rc- ',and unted '-unter i was 91m- Jf thc for a t 1.5 plant with nown ri'Cry nples the corn - Ll'd :ans. table ocm ein ' l teth- wa5 dry dc- dry nifi- hing oh- 15'e .an1- for 11C5: la, the )wn tcse nti. Irye squue mot or the number of counts per niinule to the time. The relative error is the rotio of the scandurd dCViatiun to the observedtrsulL The background was subtracted from the values. Sites Soil yu.) type Mean activity ofl Po^°= S. D. (pc/g) Son Tissue2 t.oamy sand 1.92 1+ 0.13 -0.04 .1! 0.09• 13 Silt luam 2:05±t 0.12 -O.tM±t0.09}5 Muck 5.92« 0.27 0.00 ~ 0.09t •Carrnts, anap bcans. t'Cabbage, cucumbers, nd beets, sweet corn. ; Curmts, onions, Yo- ntoes, radishes, red bccts. not in samples of as much as 100 g (dry weight) of sweet-corn tissue.. Them' were no detectable amounts of Po"-1U in the vegetable samples, whether stoo- age was for 6 or for 11 months. Table I shows the content of Po210in soils in which various vegetable crops were grown. More PoG1° was(ound in muck soils than in. mineral. soils. The average valueof Po210in6 five muck soils was 5.92 pc/g, while the 15 mineral soils contained an aver- age of 2.03 pe/g. The higher cnncentra- hon of Po=1° in muck soils may have been caused by an accumulation of Poztn or its radioactive precursors in. . thn nroanir• maftrr A IiArllu nrnrnrern- Would be Kn"a„ whichis KnOwn to be in the soil atmosphere in relntivcly large concentrations (10z to 106 pe/ma) (6),. as well as in the atmosphere in con- centrations of 50 to 200 pc/m' (7)- Table. 2. Amounts of Pb'- in cured tobacco leaves_ in green leaf tobacco, and in their rssndated soils. With the cured leaf tobacco. ene tiasue and one soil sample from each siu were tested; for the uneured tubaecaeii;ht fr,eue and three soil samples were tested. Mean activityy of PoIIO~ S.D. (pc/g) Site Leaf Leaf od after after 6months' ttmnnths` storage storage Ioed7eal tobacco Coon Valley 5620117 1t20!O.oB L01=0.08 W<stby 2. 2m .17 n,77~ .06 n.69~ .06 Viroqua 18 m.l7 1.29 w .10 1.54~ .08 Snldiers Grove 253± .16 0.34± .04 0:]4~ .n4. Viroqua 2.44~..17 1.29- .10 LSO± .10 Edeertcn 2.28= .13 0:98m .08 0.64m .t)sEdgerton 2:28± .13 0;77_ .04 0.g7m .06. Cuun Valley 2.?@S..t3-0,WS .06 Q17~ .01 Perryvilte 2:14= .17 1.33l: .Og 1.50±- .08 Coon Valley L76m.13 [.O3s .06 L13x .08 Uncured green tenf tobacco 3A6~ .17 0.011lt .09 0.00, .09 =e DECEMBER 1965 A Po"'n activities in samples of cured leaf tobacco and in the soilsassociated with these samples are shown in Table 2. The average amounts of Po-1° in cured leaf tobacco after 6 months of storage and in soil samples were 0.96 and 2.50 pc/g dry weight, respectively. All cured tobaccoo samples were ana- lyzed again for P0210 after lI months of storage, and thenesulis were similar. Twenty-one freshly harvested tobae- co leaf samples, 11 greenhouse-cultured and 10 field-grown samples, failed to show' any detectablee activity of Po210 even after somc samples were stored 66 months in a dry, ground state. A sig- nificanr amount of Po"-10 was found,, however, in the associated soils. Also fresh. 6luegrassleaf samples, harvested in May 1965, did not contain detectable Po=10, nor did the same samples 3 months later. Since freshly harvested to- bacco samples showed no detectable Po=10 evenn after considerable time for ingrowth, whereas cured tobacco con- tained significant quantities of Po=1°, it appears that Po"-t0 accumulates in the tobacco leaf during.euring- Analysisof dead tree leaves (7.2 pc/g), and of dead bluegrass (6.6 pc/g) showed that they had 7 to 8 times morePo=JOthan did cured tobaeco(Q.96 peJ g). These moist.samples were taken near the soil surface in the spring of 1965. Heads of dead cabbage left in the field over winter had in their outer leaves 5 to 6 times more. Po'-'° than did cured tobacco. A defutite' decrease in Po=1O content was found with increasing dis- tance from the outermost leaves. The first and second leavess contained 5.4 pe of poaSOper gram of dry tissue, where- as the fourth, fifth, and sixth leaves' contained 1.03 pc/g. The inner portion, from the seventhIcaf to the core of the cabbage heads. showed no detectable Po"-1D. Most of the Po"-r" inn the cab- bage heads was found in the outer- most two leaves. The dead inner por- tion of the cabbage.hcads should have also contained Po=1° if this element or one of its radioactive precursors was taken from the soil-. Therefore,, the sorption of Po'510or of its radioactive precursors may occur at the atmo- sphcrc-plant interface. There are then three kinds of evi- dcnce suggestingg that Po="' is not taken up from the soil directly by plant roots and translocatedd to other plant organs. First, no detectable qpantityof Po=1Owas found in the center of the cabbage heads. Second, common eatracting' so- lutions used to evaluate '-availahle'- forms of many mineral elements faded to extract from variousvcgetables a de- tcctable amount of Po2l°.. Third, even after sufficient time for ingrowth, there was no detectable quantity of Po-10 in green leaf tobacco grown in a soil medium containing significant amounts of Po2m. .. . A common extracting solution (0.1N HCI and 0.03N NHeF).for available soil phosphorus and potassium was used to determine how much available Po"Jo wass in the above soils (5); none was detected. Extracting solutions of IN ammonium acetate and l).2N HCI gave similar results, suggesting that Po"1O does not exist in an available form in the soil complex. - K. C. BERGER' W. H. ERIrARDT C. W. Fnwrrcrs Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin,. Madison 53706 Refaences aul Notes 1. W. V. Mazneord, R. C. Turner, 1. M, Rsdley, Nature 187, 208 (1960). 2. E. P'. Rzdford, Jn, and V. R.. rrunt, Scrence 143, 24]. (1964). 3. P. E. Morrow, F. A. Smith, R. J. Della Rosa, 4 I. Caserctt„ J. N: Sunnar4, Rndiarinn Res. SnPCf. 5, GU (q964). 4:.E. P. Rndford, Jr., V. R. HunL D. Sherry, RadinaanRw. 19, 298 (1963)., 5. M. L. Jackson, Sofl ChemicvJ AnalysfT (Pr[n- ticC-Hal4. Englewnnd Cnna,NJL, 193a), pp. 161, 331. 6. K. G. Vnhra, M. C. Subborea,u, A. M. Mohan Rao, Narure 201. 37 IlYbi), .7. W. Jacobi, BioThYS. 2erurdbr. 1, 175 (196]). A Work supported in parl by Ammcam Cancer Socicty amnt No. IN-75 and by Hatch Act fundf. • Present address: Terra Chcmica/ Intemational, Inc:, Sioux City, Iowa 51101. 3 September 1965 Cen(rifugal Homogenizer AbstracC Tissue can be homogen. ized in conventional ground-glass tis- sue grinders in conjunction with cen- trifugation. She method may be of speciulvaltre for separatrng sohrhle from insoluble material during homag- enizatibn of rLcfue. As yet only yeast cells aJrd spores of slime mold have been homogenlzed, but the method may he useful for many tissues, Tissue is homogenized by various mechanical devices including ground-O glus tubee and pestle grinders, Waring O ' blenders, Vir"Gis' grinders, French hy-~ draulfe presses, and ultrasonic vibra- ~ tors (/). I have developed a new tech- ~7 niqueof homogenization in conven W- tional ground-glass tissue grinders in N conjunction with centrifugation (Fig. 1). In the pilot model a tissue grinder was adapted for use with an Inter- 1739 I
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Polonium-210: A Volatile Radioelement in Cigarettes Rep:lnlod fmm Stien[e, 7anuarg 1'!, I9Cr}.. Vol. 143, No. 3603,, pagex 247-249
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~ F.,, ~."~ . '. ., .. . . .. . . ... .. .. . ' .. . . - . . .(~J)','I'nblvJ.ll~oinrlnd~•~polonium `310i1~t~l •escellnlrna, and charuoal Iill.er rvillt tlm &tbner.u . bn=t•~luuc::Irulnliimstuiu~IhCUewcrtasl:~,rronp Lrcntctl fm' Lbe rumovnl nf "t;tt•s01 and Iticoliue, monb•1 firom ihlalces determined in nn'earlier and a eelhifnse, filler vrillt liipe tollacco. - slwlr. (1)- Tllc rll'ectiru half-life of polonium- In smul:a fronL fivC l,raulls, thn 1Cad `21f/ ac- r 0 n.a~ ncsiuuedto beGl dny~s derived from tllctivlty was abont hal f the puloninm-210 act icily. .~.i5 d.r}• r•tdinnclice and S10,ll:tyblultlglcal half- Cempal'ell tritLt av.eraho levels of lcOrl-`L'10 ' lives..Ufbou„lt Iltaintalees of lcnd-210 nntl iubaledfromairinnnr:nadbrrnf8lin;;,thcintal?e .., :..._pnlonium ^10. dilTcr in most, cases by a fnclor . of lcad-210 fi•om fonrhrnnds of ciqarettes was of 3, we deutottsPrated that the radintion tlose .. tlonhlo the lead-210 in air, and in two brnnds to H1e lonh• is doubleddtm to iLhalntion~of lead- was about equal to the lcad-210,iit air. 210 and the subseqnent buildup of danglttels. A conslant relationshiP between leccls of ra- dioaet.ivity, tar, and nicotine content of the Summary smoke could not be tlemonstraterl.. Using a -.. . Tests of six brands of cibarettes have shown recc.nt•, model established by tLeIntet•nntinnal that Iead °10 is a component of mainstream Commission on Radiolonir.:d Prnler.tiou, dos- ' smOke. These brands of ci.-arettesinclitded two ages too thepulrnonary compartment, of thc ';. w)licli were nmltiltered, mndd mlecach with a respiratory tract were calculated, for eacll of .,. fY•llllloFe flllCr•, n Celltllbse alld charcoal Glter, a ` the six brands, for a person smoking 20'0 ci;m- I Table 4. Comparison of Iead-210 activity in mainstream smoke to tar and nicotine content of ' . . total etnSoke .. . , . .. - . . . . ~ Picocuries Milligrams pcr cignrcLl.a Pfcocuriosprr mOligrcun~. ~ Cigarette brnud of lcad-2I0 . . ~ iKr cigarrLte. Tar - Nieolinc. Lrnd-210 to I.cnd-210 to . - - .. ~ - tnr nieotinc Il____________________________ 0.040 -27.2 ~ 1.42 I.69X10-r 3.24X1o_r :. C___________________________ •026' 19:4 ' 1.0.9 1.34X10't 2. 4RX 10 -~ r_ _________________ .049. 20..0 . . 1.4.i 2'.45X 10-3 3. 38X 10 -t __________________________ .052 ~ ' 30..1 - 2.11 1.73X10-' -2. 46X :10-~ Table S..Dosagea of lead-210 and polonium-210 to ahe pulmonary con.partment from smoking . . 20 cigarettes a d'ay Intako (picocuries per day) t)osngo to pulmonnry compartment (millirema per year) for various.pnrt.iele eices . Cignrette brand Polonium- 0.01 r size 0• 13 i eiao (avcrago) 6.2J p size Lead -210 210 Lea d-2101 Polonium- Len d-2 101 Polonium- ~Lcnd -210~1 Poloniilm- 210 210 210 II A________________ 1. 10 ____ '73 _________- 43 __________ - 40 ________ II________________ . 92 1. 64 ' 61 59 l- 36 34 . 33 38 1 C________________ .52 .98 . - '34 - 35 ' 20 •21 . 19 20 D_______________ I .98 . 1.74 -. 65 ' 63 I 33 .36 - 35 si F_________________ . 60' .74 40 - 27 ~, 23 - 1b 22 1•5 F_______________ Normnlizudt_. ____ 1.04 1.00 Y 2. 10 1.00 -~ 67 68 76 86 ! 41 89 44- 21 . 87 ., 86 42 BO ' Lead-710.:mdd:mg htr.ra. . - r U.k:,qornlcidulionx were havod fint on.n n uxsumed intake of 1- 0 pic ocuriesper day. 1'Lis .do,e timu.wnxnd- junlyd tyttcard ar duwnw ard Gascd m t actunliu tnkcs.. . ( Vul. 82,. No. 9, Septem l.cr 1967' . . _ ~~ 831 .
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reiics prr rlny. Thenti rostdlat shon•ed Ihat llle radiatiolt doso- to the lung from iuhalatiunn of ]ead-210.in snnl:c plos thr, subsequent Ilaul;h(er ingrom(]t was cqual to thodoso frum po1onium- .. 210insmoke. - . REPEIIENCES -(1) Rntlfnrtl, F.. 1•., Jr., nntl Ittlnt„ V. n.: Poloninm (2) (3) 210, a volatile.rndio-clcment In clgnrcttcs- Sci- ence 1-13: 217 249, Jnn 17 196 1, Ferrt L`. S., and Rnrnttn 1.J.: Pn)nnhmt 210Jn tobacco, ciglrette sumkeInll sOlected human orgnns. Public Ilcallh litl:81~: 121-127, Ncb- runry l0ok,. Ilnltzmmn, It. B., and Ilcetvicz, F. Il.: Load 210 and polonium 210 In tirsues of'cigarette srrwk, ers. Science 1G1: 1269-1200, Sept. 0, 191;G. (4) CoSLill, ]i. C., and IlnUbs, kl. Transfer of metallic constituenta oE cigarcttcv to thr.mnin- strcnm smoke. Tobacco 1•14; 2¢20, biny 10, 11}j7. (5) Barnttn, E. J.. Fcrrl, IC. S., and. Rcavey T. C.: AnalYsiss of environmental nrlmOles: Sulrple- mentnry cheniral and t'sdlochemlcal proce- durer.. NflIt11L Itnpnrt./:n 4. NurlIu-e:a.rru Itn- rllologir.al liealltr 1.nLorntory, 1'uMii-1L-nll6. .. ...Rrrvirr,.W91n'In'a11'r,]In:s., (G) Sldcicn, It., Cre•firmi, .1. A., l.',-nurrd, L. L., and . PrlcuJ, A. U.: AlwnspGrric raA'.iirnr.livlly nnal- $siss and hwiru,nenl:J.iun al:dar.q rvpnrt 11. N4:It11L.IIclK:rt lir;-2, Nurtd,r;,<IArn 1'tadiolnr;i- enl IIru11L Lu6uruluryl 1'ul/lic lle:rll9r 8ervlec, \Viurhe,teq.Jla.cs., lU1ai: - - - (7) Inlcrnntionnl Cummis~inu nu' Itndinlugiual I'rn• teetion. Committce II; 1trPOrt nn M'rmisxil,le tlosec for hltrrnal radinlinn- Ileniltr 1'krs 3: 2-2,1t. Jun 1 nr0. (n)Jr lr (b) p r r,. (u)i pp:27-30 (rI) p 133. • . (8) 111LI1cr, h. dl nuu ll rnnUnn T 1'athto r ll,urrtp+ mnkrrs:.Ju ttLe fnclk plel.c Btmdrslligrst 8!/< 1i11-117, Novrmber ]•.H:ri. - (0) Intr`rnntion::I Ciuurniisinn. on'ItaqinloAlr•:II I•rv. . teetiUn: DCIrUSitlnn and rrlruWnn eendr7K fur . Internal tlosilnetry of the inuunn mspindury trsu3.IG-Lxrrtof'ILnk Grnupou LnnqJlymunlrx. ,. -. to Cm:rtnittcc Il. Ileullh 1'lrs+ 12: 1771 207. ~ . . Fc1lrllnry 7!Mn. ' . . .. . .. (10) Ilntttk; T.. B'., nnd Gro4u, 1'.: L'uunonary Gelaxi'- tiom and rutention of inl:nLv1 nenusul.r. Arva- :.. demie Press, Inc., NewYork, YOr'd, p. 0, agure ~ - 1.I. . . . . New Records System for Psychiatric-Hospitals - To simplify psychiatric recordkeeping, computers and telecom- munica.tions will be combined in a, five-Sbate system to be developed under a grant from the Public Health Service..The National Institute of Efental. Heal thhas . awarded $250,245 for the first year of the 5-year project. The grwtt will be made to the research center at.Itockland State Hospital and to the office of statistics and data processing, department of mental hygiene in New horir State, one of the five States which will participate in the project. Support for the 5-year period is espected to total $6,109,479- The other States are Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Illinois. The new system will be based on printed forms on which Ulle details of medical history; diagrtosis; and treatment may be quickly checked off by the psychiatrist. These tapes and disks can be fed into a com- puter which will print a narrn;tive description of an individual patient. Or, on demand, the computer will select out infot•mation for patient care, research purposes, program planning,, and hospital administr- tion Once codified,thodata will be available to participating hospitals and community mental health centers through telecommunications. Pulrllc 11.•nlJr Itcpnrb, 832
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NATUiRE noil, irrigation, fertilizers, otc., should.also Le invnstigat.od. lt ie also conceivable that proper glasa.filtom might retain I. a e(gnificant part of the inhalcdpolonium, aa indicated ~ by Radfnrd and Huntr and by our preliminary lqeasure- ment. Other polonium-abeot'bing materials euuh ee silver or niokol should also be considered. In any event, we stivngly believe thatu-spoctrosoopy, which, utilizes apparatus .. similar to that deooribed here, can be a powerful tool - in the investigation of all these questions.. It could nlso .' help in the investigation of radioactivity of polluted air from factory smoke and automobile fumes. Such an expcrimental system is practically free from background. It permits determination and identification of minute quantitiee of u-active isotopes. Counting,eflicieney of up to l00 per cent, and with no appreciable loss in energy resolution, can be achieved with the n9e'm of 2 solid-state detectors connected in parallol in a 4rt arrangement, and • aources plated on very thin foils. In short, a spectro- ' acopio aystem is unambiguoue and fast, and ies therefore ~~ . preferable to systems which utilize analysis by halflife. -. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Office of . Naval Research and the UI.S. National Science Founda- tion. ' ' . . . ...Avrvi I. YAvIN ... ' - .. (}ICPANNr DE PdBQIIASS . . " ' . . ' . PAIIL BAnoN . . - Department of Physics, . University of lllinoi9, . Urbana, Dlinols. • Turuer, R. C., snd Radfey. 7. M., Lsxed, i. 1197 (1900)'. . '' `'Raaford, jnn., E. Y., end 8unt. v. R.. Seitne4148. 247 (1961). - ' yar a mmpwhsnslYe dlecussivn uf eWtd-slate det2etare and chsrqe-eentlWae preamplifiers eee Aut. Ndd. En9. Zrmw., F6-6, Di9. 1(1991). • Hiologlevl balf-llvee me eome uther nrgans me ¢iveu In ICRP reuort on 9ermissihle dose from latemal radiation. HeoA6 P69r., 5. 219 111)(10). •'Hill.C.R-.Nninre,187:211r19ao1 , . . _ _ Synthesis of Substituted Phenyl-fbo-xylo- - ' pyranosides .. havnsrzuwazoxs into the specificity of a S-xylosidaee required the synthesis'of a number of substituted phr+nyl- .,. (i-n-xyloaides.. A very important methed is the Helferieh reaction in which the appropriate phenol and the fully . acetylatcxl monosaccharide srn heated in the proecnco of an acidic catalyst. To favour theformation of xyloside- a0etates with the. S-anomeric configuration, p-toluene- .- snlphonic acid and Q-tetra-O-aco8yl•xyloso were usedt. - The corresponding xylosidos were prepared by catalytic deacetylation of the aeetal.ee. 'Totra-O-acetyl-p-D-xylose was preparedacootding to '.. Vogelr and twice. crystallized frumothanol : m.p. 127°- y..128n , . . The xylosetetraacetate (31 - 8 g; 0' 1 mol. ), and the appro- priate phenol (0•4 mol.) were fused together and the molten mixture trcatod with a solution of p-toluone- sulphonic acid (0-8 g) in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic ..anhydride (05: 5; 50 ml..). The mixture waan heated under reduced preselrre at 100° for I h. After cooling, the resulting 9yrup was dissolved in chloroform (200 ml.), thoroughly washed with ice-cold N sodium hydroxide and water, dried (Na18Ot) and evaporated in autruu. The rosulting syrup was then crystallized from tho appro- pria.te solvent to constant m.p. and optical rotation. The ortho-substituted phenol, o-chlorophenol, failed to react in the presence of p-toluenosulphonic acid oven at hiFher temperature. Jcrmyn' likewise reporteinability to obtain o-chloraphenyl-tri O acetyl-p-D-glucneide by this method. However, we succeeded in obtaining the o-chloradarivative by a modified Michael syntliesia•. To a C/ solution of o-chlorophenol (8•05 g; 0+07' mol.)) in acetone (192 ml.), potassium hydroxido (3•30 g) in methanol (500 ml.) and acetobromoxyloen (20 g; 0•059 mol.) were a.lderl. After 5 h at room temperature the mixture wa9 F Table 1. Ae54TLATRn Q•D•%Y1OPT.an,,,,,,p - _ yet. wl M.p-veont p•crcxp1 114• ' -1&1' F.1$.O. Methanol c.4 m<reayl ll°` -48•2' Methauol 0.4 o-crcryl 112•-119° -63-6' Methaaol e, 2 co,a O0 emryl. Eth®ol6• e52 a p•chlorophenyl 129°-130' -48~6' C„ll„9,C1 Ethanol e, 2 m-chlorephenyl 10f1•-I09° -62-2• Ethsnol e,8 o-chlorophenyl I3o•-132• -76•6' Rthennl 0.2 I: found- e, erleulated 48 f' 69 D ~ e 6uo 14 ' S7 IWP tl 32 7 68', rt 82 54 47 6o. ' Table 2. 4-SYSUrrraxosafr . An.qtp ..,, . . x mtt. (-)B p l 4 e 1d C : u v Y p¢m.rl 162--183' -42-r s9 I60o il Faluo. Meth:nnl e, { e EPV f r v-crwyl lI5'-146' _440° 95 j 6a6 4} ,- Hethykthyl•e,2 aton c-meeyl 103• -48-0° , . 16thq1ethPl- !,Y 99Hrn vchloro•m•acesYl 178• " -SP6• C,.H„O,CI 8thylaeetata <,.2 se-chlorophenrl 149ti160• -47-6' Waer e, 2 e-eblaropeenyl 175°-11E• . -679• tw water r, s filtered and evaporated in twaro. Tho n..l r•. dissolved in chloroform (100 nil.)/ wnshal ui0. •---.-_ 5 per cent sodium carbonate elld water, drn.l tS..r,.:N evaporated in vacuo and crystallized from .,+I.n-•- Tha. tri-O-aoatyl•(3-D-xylopyranosidoeehnun p• h- were prepared' in this way (all rotations wrm ,tm..-.r for chloroform solutions). preyxirution of eubetitnded plunyl-p-D-r.y7.pr--w•-•.. . 1 g of Lhecorresponding aoetate, dissolved or.v';«.,- .. 10-nil. dry methanol, was treated with, 3 ml, rd. I--• prepared solution of sodium methaxido (0-5¢.•r.••.... in 100 nil. ofmethanol). After standing a L-+.l. room temperature the sodium was romovwl wdh ••--. excess of 'Dowax 50 TV' ($*). The tqlutiun. -" ''--- evaporated in voerae and crystallized from, a•++•c' ••• + vent. Table 2 shows the P•D-xylasidew pr.l+^•' ' rotntions were determined for methanol mdu"•+' . We thank Prof. L. Massart for his intr•nws ,,, u•• -- artdMisa T. De Lat for carrying out the `C- K. Pr H. • ld. Ctxvv,.. Laboratoritun veer Anorganisahe Schdkuudl• .1. . Rijksunivereitoit, Gent ' *: ' Montgumcry, R. M., Richtmcycr, H: S., .nd llnd.m: Ctiem. Sne., N. 94e (1942). i l r < Qr9nn Vogel A L d Tezlhoo7: oJPrddiea ,... (LOndnn,LOn9mene, nreen and Cn.,.10•v9).. nMAduetrutiJC6emB4e3U9551 •Jerm ,..,..,, \.t ..~,. . ) . Loontiens, F: 6.., end Be Bruyne, C. 8., Na+urui.e, 6L. - ' ThomPSOn. A.. and wolnom,111. L.. In NN1ndr o/t'aM+"-""" .~-. ti•' ` ~t ~~~ l l .. 4,215,edlt.b9wh1etler,RaL.•andwnifrom.n. Prere, Inc.,1963)• , n-... ~ III wa\'b•nl # .......er.. mnxima arr ' n,l.~r at whia i • • • 71.• Sr values r e..«'hWnlAw vain . J I M'M rstabltsl t.r tlrralyl pc ~. ~.,1 e1 vnriolu er Cd,na,ic ann _.. ±, u,d rrlla•rar.r • .•..ul.p-F nctually . . .. wn.ro-num rdrronic n - ••rtniulvs:n,ah -_ .'0+.: nrmeyl s}u , .. nt.tho oriE . f lluuvn-nq Fig- Analysis of the Absorption Spectrur^ ~ ~.,~ . . - a.'K l Compoundt Solutions of Uran ~ y eatra of Iwlutiotv nf u*""yT "` ° + a ' Txx absor tion a ~ ` p p botwoon 20,000 and 28,000 cm t ehom^`^^ 1 '~ ~ • I,s which have, at least to ourlmowledho, net. in the literature. ~ Indecd, if Av is plotted against dor+n'n+nn1 1.,+nd n' g-~r 't:aLMl r.erer , inr+l : h ta re o the results shown in Fig. 1 r I D Yield CArWII„',..
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in -Jhe Africa, ~asured Z De- rement rred. A rnr has sibacco, ,r grain 'oncen- eo' wrls United n RHo- ta-emit- 210 is .ts pres. sigrtifi. nent is s burn- adily to ains di- -port b)° vnountss mericam of the in ini- :cial in- (p a fewtobacco products manufac- base and screw top machined out of lOted in New Zealand were made by polyletrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and she procedure of Radford and Hunt presents only one surface of the silver 1/). The results indicated that the Po"-1O disc to the solution. The entire plating in the New Zealand products was less apparatus consists of a hot: plate to Ihan half that reported for the Ameri- accommodate four beakers. The beak- can products. For a moree thorough ens are fitted with polyethylene covers survey, samples of locally grown and with central holes for the glass stir- lmported tobaccos used in the manu-ring- rods which are driven by a top facture of tobacco products sold in thiss drive assembly. Plating is for 5 hours country wereobtained. On receipt, at incipient boiling point, the tempera- each sample was finely macerated in turebeing controlled by means of an a high-speed blender, thoroughly' energy rebvlator: Apart from simpliei- tnixed in a rotary mixer, and stored ty, this procedure has the advantage, ina glass jar. ..~;. particularlyfor carrier-free activitics, The hot'concentrated HCl-digestion that all operations are carried out in procedure (1)) used'far solutionofn the same beaker. Glassware and disc the cigarettes resulted in muchh until- . holders were decontaminated by scrub- gested material, and evenwhen HNOa ~ bing with detergent and rinsing in con- was substituted there were indications -centrated HCI and8nally distilled wa- Ihat complete oxidationn had~d not been ter. Silver discs were prepared for obtained, even though solution was..,platingby scrubbing with a mild abra- compiete. The following "wet-ashing" .~sive cleaner, rinsing in concentrated technique was therefore used on all HCI, and degreasing in acetone. . .. tamples. Two grams of air-dried sam- After plating, the discs were mount- ple was digested for I hour with 50 ed with ZnS' on Mylar and the alpha nil of concentrated HNOa in a 400-m1 aetivity was measured by scintillation beaker with cover. The solution wascounting. The counters were calibrated evaporated to low volume, and 3ntl by plating andcounting portions of an of concentrated1-1aSO4 was added. -Amersham standard solution of radium Evaporation was continueduntil the. .17, E„ and F in equilibrium.. Complete solution darkened. After cooling, 2 recovery of PoP10 from the standards ml of concentrated HNOy was added was obtained in 5 hours' plating, the and the solution evaporated untilwhitel supernatants yielding no detectable net fumes started to evolve. Two-milliliter activity when replated on fresh discs. portions of HNO3, HCI,. and H~O2.wereThe efficiency of the counters was 50 then added and the solution wasevap-_ percent within the limitations imposed orated to fumes- This step was re-':--by the uncertainty of the standard peated. Then HNO, was eliminated which has an "effective standard devia- from the digest by evaporating to tlon" of less than 5 percent. To check fumestwice with 2 ml of HCI and ' the overall recovery of the method, ttvice with water. The solution was tobacco samples were spiked with neutralized with saturated NaOH solu- aliquots of the standard, wcc ashod, lion; it was diluted to 200 mI in O.SM and plated. After making allowances HCI, and 100 mgg of ascorbic acid for the original Posta' activity of the was added. , - '--. sample, when significant, the recover- The spontaneous plating of polonium ies were 98.0m 2.0 percent,, indicating On silver foil at 95°C was initially no significant loss with the method. done in the modified latin cell made The mean of several rea ent'~ blank de - p g g ~ 3r a pe { r-__- . . . . . harvesl f"° a wuuumcmr uuuy uu.aulg, wt- auuuuulwus was j.u - u.n uuuuas pcr ' alloarl f:•'+al ule uul«rlu te,,ao.eu ty. uu+1 .u,a. u,o uds oeeu nuolr:.cleu •ni6.;nm6 •^cu rne plating cell was ptacea in -uunt au sample counts. rncmaea in -22-year {...- ^~w+ nu uowc.cl, ea.pauowu oa .u ..y Is l.y or .._ - - he lead, f•'° screw cap notatng, me sllveralse tne suver rost ana ena pnospnor, ap- ad fronrL -- "u lusa ur sample. ama pruumnt prun.ulawly ~ cuums per nuur. ~uuno- eaVe.i alp -++u• w•.Vn ntil°.1.6• uV1+lY5 GI. awu,,,.ywup y,,.ccwGU 4y •IC.tuyla ,.Y.e ,L . •'uaole ncre ana It was soon evtaent controt runs wnna rautum source ana 22. An, !-- °'• rrnprovea platmg ceu wouw atso oy voscrvaerons aa me uccay ar n d 1 --•'• nlrupq. ur -me ungmat ucaxer ute stauuatns wnlen nau uecn ptateu t hatfr':4 --•°~nrmg Inc algesr soauuon wltn a at eurerent nmcs curtngrne course or dioaetiat•, hJlder for the silver diso resting on these measurements. All observations M ff '- wawrn ot rnc ocaacr. or accay maaG on smnmruss ano sam- a^chokser (F'ig.. 1) consists of aa pteshave cfoscly contormed to the of P0'I' ~ Yr/L 1~FF taTOB¢R.1965 Po=1D half-life of138 days. The pre-_ cision of the measurement was good -" as shown by' the reproducibility of re- sults from several~ duplicate determina- -- tions,. . - Table I gives the resultsof the measurements; the error term given is ' the overall standard deviation incltsd- ing the uncertainties in the counting Table t. Polonium-210 radioactivity in kaC tohaccp. . ., . . 8umple . Tobacco Crop Radioactivity Nb. -' typeT -year . (tx/g) . Georgin 1963 0.700!.IW1 . 1963 '. •375 x .026 1963 .640 - .040 Eoslem North (:u.pfura ' 1963 .573 + .036 1963 .411 x 02X 1955 .511 ~ .011 1963 -_`372~.022 1963 A532.029 - " 1963 : _:,516 ~.032 ~ Yrrgrnla ~_ . ~ .. 11 . . 1961 ,348.!-.024 12 .. ~ 1961. .. .353. .L .021 13 - 1963 A63~.030 14" - -1963 '.641- .038 15. 1%3 . ;.A94±.031 16 1963 ~-,616t .038 17 ~ 1963 -'- A63 s .030 South Carolina-Pirginia (1:.1) 18 . 1961 A55 = .028 19 20 21 - 1955 . .500 ~- (129 sonrk Cmowla . Rlrodesia _ _ 1963 .842 ~.051 1963 : .750 = .046 South Africa : 1963 .: .670 x .042 22~ .. . ~ .:.'.1%3 ~ -343'±.023 23 ~- . . ' 1963 ".367~~.024 24. - ~ ~ 1%3 _. ,532~i.034 ~ New Zealand 25 1%2 26 1%2 27 ~1%2 28 . ~ ~ .1962 29 . ~~~ . .- 1963 30 1963 31 1963 32 ~ . - 1%3 33 ~1%3 34 1%3 35 1%3 36~ 1%3 37 ~ 1963 38 ~ 1963 39 1963 40 ~ (.{' 1963 41 fQ 1%3 42 1963 43 Cutters ~. 1964 44 Middleleaf~. 1964 45 ToplenC .~.'1964 ". .107 ! .009 -075 -009 ~ .129 i-~.011 ~ - _...134±.Oo9t .150 -.011 .078±.008 .149nt .0I1.221 ~ .015 .224 ~ .O15 .145 t .012 l34 ~ .071 .200 i- .015 .152 :t .011 •12@ S .010 . . .162 µ..012 .145~.at2 .1662.0t2 .181= .014 ,183 ! .015 •093 ± A09 .217 2 Al5 • Samplcv arc mainly fllm-cured tnlauco vlth aOme alr<urOd 0.lmples. t Burley. ....
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. rates, blanks, calibration, and recovery. These results show that the average Po''[n activity in the Nl•wZealand grown leaf samples tested is 0.15 pePg, compared with 0.49 pe/g in the . United: States samples. Our results' for -howcver, and they may make a brand African tobacco is approximately the welll be significantly less over a eoun- J same as, oralittle lessthan, United try withh a predominanlly insular cli - States tobacco., and Ihe' level in Rho- mate. desian tobacco is significantly higher .- .~ L. P. GREOOnY than that in, United States tobacco. Natinrrnl Radiation f.aboratory, quired to use a minimum of 30 per- Tobacco manufacturers here are re- i measured 9 to 10 months after har- _ ~- ._o...... . . . - .. . cent New Zzaland leaf in their overl all production. Ia practicee aboub 50 . percent New. Zealand leaf is used. They arefreeto blend, this as they wish, ~ Fig. I. Pal; ~.,...~'h .~ ~.ethylene holder fo silver foils: Table 2. Poloniirm-210 radioacuvity in man- of all New Zealand tobacco or all ufacrured tobacco products. imported tobacco if they so desire... ... Produch .1.Tobaccoblends °.(pcPe) -iurer and have been made from the - -Clsoreuq btends -. leaf samples listed in Table 1. The Blend A Blend B Blend C Blend D ' ...Blend E Uhited States leaf are somewhat higher growing area isNelson, at the northern than the mean value 0.37 pc/g for 15 end of the South Island, relatively near samples of post-1950, flue-cured, United the coast.. A po~ible explanation is States's tobaccos recently' reported (3). that much of the radon ditfusingfrom Although fewer samples were analyzed thc land's surface is dispersed over the for the remaining two countries, it sca. The resulting natural' fallout of would appear that the level in South the Iead-120 precursor of Po"-1O may These comparisons are in - approxi- Department of Health, mate agreement with Marsden's val- Christchurch, New Zealand ues (4) for total alpha activity of tobacco The harvesting period for United ~ Statess tobaccoo is from June to October of the crop year, depending on locality. _-Tobacco grown in the Southern Hemi- sphere is.harvested between late Janu- ary and early May. As this measure- ment program covered the period late 19641 to early 1965, all samples' were aged' at least 1 year from harvest, ex- cept the three New Zealand samples 1 from the 1964 crop year, which were 690 - About two-thirds of the manufactured Radioactivity products listed in Table 2 have been obtained directly from the manufac- .7865 .024 mwwreu rcewts ag,ce wnu caicur.rpu. .457.±,0Z9 results in those cases where informa- .,339'x.022 `. tion on. leaf types and proportion }ias. .228 = .015 been made available too us. The re- "Roll your awrs"' blends ' . ,~ Blend F . . ~ .174±,013 Blend G .108 ~ .010 Blend H .222 ± .015 -Pipe rnbacco blendS - Blend 1 - .123 !~ o] i -`Blend1 . . .228-.016 Blend K : _ .192~.015 IL Manufactured cigarettes ,. Brand A ' Brand', B (filter) Brand: C (filter). Brand D (filter) Brand E Brand F Brand a' - Brand H (filter) (pcLCigarette) 0.428 ± .027 .319 ~ .fr21 .452 x .028 344 _ .023 .275 -_ .016 .235 -.OIB .252=.016 .2J6-.015 -mainder of the manufvactured products listed have been purchased from nor- mal retail outlets. The lower level of Po"1" in New Zealand leaf is reflected Rehrensef }qd NWn 1. E. P.Radfard aud V. R- Hunt, Selence 143, 247 (1964). "' 2. S. C. Black. ^Law Level Polonium Determina-. tion of, Tissne and Urine." Univcrsity of Ro- ckcster RrporL UR.463 (t956). 3. T. C. Tav, N. A. Handan andL. T. Alexantler, Sdnrce 146.. 1043 (1%e); - 4. fi.. Masden, Nuture 203. 230 (1%4), 5. 1 thank the director of the labnratury, G. E RcnR for encauragemcnt: H.. J. Yeabsler, fnr val'uable guidance and helpful discnssinns; the7obaccu Rasrach, Sration of the neparnnent oG Scientifio snd Industrial Research and the . tobaccn rompwnics. A,ho kindly supplied satn- plcs ofleaf and manufactured pnrAuets; and llr. p. P. Kennedy:Pirecmr-General ot . Health, for permisw.n to publish. . 6 July 1%5 -Releaseof Dissolved Amino Acids by Marine Zooplankton Abstract. Marinee net Zooplankfon release di.s.sohtedamino acids into the water_ Relcase rates are positively eor- relatedwith temperature and can: be estimated byy the equmlion: Release rara (mllligrams ofalpha-0mfrto nitrogen per gram dry weight of zooplankton per_ day) - 1.0 X temperature (°C) - 5.9. Relra.ce rates appeared to be Im dependent of the tazonor»ic composi- tion of' the rest samples, which were variously dmninated by r-opepods,.safps, ehaetognarhe, coelenrerates, or radio- larfans. These amino ar-idr eoruNtute an tntporrant source of dissolved or- ganic ruatter in the sea. in the results for those manufactured Theorigin's of dissolved organicc mat- products,. notably "roll yoor own" and ter in sea water have been the subjecl' pipe tobacco. blends, where a relativelyO of much receno research and diseus-high proportion of New' Zealand leaF'Zision (1-4), A number of workers have iss used: It may be interesting too notekjl,reported the release of dissolved of- that the popularity of "roll your own'W ganic matter by phytoplankton, and it cigarettes has been a characteristic otN is this source that has received mosl New Zealand smoking.hahits. Q'attention (2). IDuursma(3), on the The reason for the lower level of other handi believes that dissolved m Po?r" in New Zealand tobacco is not ganic matter in Ihe Norlh Sea "mainly. fully understood. The main tobacco originates from particulate matter culr, - '6CIeNCE, VOL IN'
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C cigarettes a day or more-about 0.205 . percent per year (20)-would, on this . basis,, he aboul 1300 rem over a. '_i- year period. A dose ofthis magnitude , fromm polonium is probable only in - . localized areas of the bronchial tree, ' but the causes of lung.cancer maynot~ .: be identical in the Iwo cases. (partic- ularly in the Schnecberg miners whose deaths occurred before cigarette smok- Ing was widespread): because of the presence: of strong cocareino^ensin cigarette smoke (21). Because of the well-known synergistic action of ioni¢- ing radiation andcigareltk-smoke ex-.lracts,, or other chemical agents,, in ex- perimental cancer production (22), the . presence of these chemical promoterx migllt lead to cancer from radiation ..doses at leastt an order of magnitude less than bhefigure of 1300 lrem; A dose of 100 to 200 rem too the bron- chial epitheGtlm mayhe highly sig- nificant, ni.ficant, therefore,, and even doses at the lower estimate of 36 rem may not -.be negligible if the dose-responsu curve for cancer induction is linear fur alpha- emitting emitting suhstnncus. This general com- .parison is-independents of the relative ; hiological'effectiveness chosen for alpha .. particles. , - We support the vicw that oLher chemical factors, partir:ulaxly cocar- -cinogens, as well as physiological eL fccls; such as alterations of citiury ao- ' Ilvityby eigarelte snloke,plobahly play an i'mportant part in the genesis of hronchial canccr in smokers. Our present conclusiom is that Po"ainhaled . in cigarette smoke may act as. ~n im- portant iniliator in lhe protluet bn of hronchogenic carcinoma. . . , £DWARn P. RADFORD, JR. -Vtt.MA R. HUIa'r " Department n/ PBy.ria)nKy• KreCG'e Center /or Elf.virolunenrnl Hen/fk, - Harvard Sehnnl of Perbl]r Han(!lr., Bn.lfnn, Mnscnchtiseffs References end Notes 1. J. FrvW snd F„LOrcnE, imRar(Inrlon.Bietdey, A. . Hall+eneer. Ed, . iMCeraw-Hin, New Ynrk, I954), vol. 1, P- 1145. 2...P. W. Spiers and'R. r]. racscY Lnnc+t 1953- Ir, 1259 (la5)). l.. R, C. Torner and J.. M, Radley, (61d. 1960. 1, 119] (1960). 4. E. S. flarlow, Sefrnce 123. 226 (1956).. S. E. R. Rad[Ordl. Jr., V. R. )L,nq D. Shcrvy: Nmlinrinn Re.r..19, 298 (1961).. 6..AP Prnlitlcy Ttill'iDOre Filrnr Corp., HedforQ Mass. 7. W, J„ Mnsnw and R. D.Wiacn, Air Warcr Potlurion ], SGI (1953): . R. A. C.. HIW ing Nrw Engl;. J. Afed, 254, 775 f:1956). - 9. C, R. IIIII, N,.ru.e 187, 211 (1960). Ill. W- V;. Mayncord. R. C. Turner, J. M.. Rad- IeY. drid., P. 208. ' 11. K, W. &a:nulh, AAron. Jnneg. C/vrn, Rcdf- nJrrn,, 4. 147 l1963),. 12. A_ C. Cnsmbc.rlxin and F_.. D. Dyson, Brfc, J, Rndlol. 29,117 (1955), 1\: i. Shapiro, A,Jr. Enriron„ Htn114 14. 169t1956). 14:. Reporr of JCRP Commincc. Il on Permissihle Dose for lntcrnal Ra,/intion. (1959), Hemlrh Ph3s. 3, 1 (1960). - . 15. C. W. Labclle and H.. Dric,,cr, drelr. £nriran. 11,00 l 1. 423 (19w)).. 16. Dose caicula!cdd on the basis of retemion of 3.3 X IIY PC u1+ Yo.'° in 25 yevs, a volun)e of the bronchial epithclium of JmL and a n transil lime of the m urs shee[ ur 36 heurt lhis 6gure is Irom annD'siser. human, bronciul mva,s. now by Dr. FernarGAlb shrder of New Yark Universily. We are in-, debleil to Dr. AIt.hWFrr for making hiseal- hdal,uns a-latrle to os. 17., H, L. ralk,. H.. M. Tremcr, P, Kotio, J, NnrL G,no+. fna5.21, 990 (1959). 181. H. SikL Acto, Uniu Imer,,,. Conna (7nvoum 6. 136611950)p S. Pcllcr, /tu.rwrr BtpL 11- 13U (1919). ' 19. A. Pircham nnd lf. SiL1) An[. J,Carser 16. 691 (IRil), 2n. E. C. Hammo,rd, ^SmnkingIa rd¢tion ro mUrlality ar,d murbidl,y," paper reaU at rl¢ rPln~.l r :he 1... :.(.u en , qpYO<,a- linn, PorIWnJ, Om.. LcDcc<mbtt1.961, 21. g. L. Wvndeq Ana. AJed, Srrn,J,. A.pyl, 369. 63 (19ti0): F. J. C. Roe, M. H.. Sola- 1. Cnhco,. BriL. J. Cm,rrr 13. 621 11959). 22. l. C. Mm[mnL Aru. l. Cnuarr 32;.76 (IW9): P. Shuhik, A. R. GnlUfarb., A. C_ Riichie, H, Liuo, A'u)ure 171, 934 (1453); F. G. Bock and G. E. nloorr. J. N„rl. Canevr l.,a. 22, 401 (1959L 23.. Anulytical wnrk was dune by Clcment Nel- laO and Virpinia Gilmor4 Hnmam, lung, tiasae wasobtaiocd by, Jbhn R. Litrlcthrouah Ibe cnurlvs' of J_ H:.Ilyrimsznr, e( nc. Sfa.•a- ebuseus Geocral ilnsmul, Wc are indcbrotl tm Jacnh 5h[Liroand Itnhley u. Evani fnr valuable di.roseionr. Supnnrtcd by onmrset AT(30-1)Jt70 with the U.S.. Atomie CnerSy Comorfsslon: [ht l/P:rinr. Fonrf. HarvarJ rJm. •etlitY: rrant OH-001131.JJ frnm the Dir.fyicn Cf Oenw[imtal HeN[A, U.S. Putrlir HeahM1 SCrYi9e;iUd an in[rrualon9l prant from [he . Rnckefellcr Foundatiori. Inilia)', worK per- fnrmed while one uf us f V,R'.H I was a suFnlar of the Itadclilfs Inititute for In- dependen, Sn,dy: , 7.1 DecemCer T963 C
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tob Cafnlase 1'hotoinactivation ... (Nutritional Biochemicals, Inc.) was „RHereneo .na Na.. I a a fewu..., 5uanended in O.HI M nntn cium nhne. . f- M. ndmm, w+t sl.rr..,,,- re. r h....o_... C..IZZ tn `- .r prMCaurc ' Abstract. The enzymatic activity of hate, H 7.0, the concentratldn dur- R r St cr. Numrc nd, tzu p9ss); H jj n - st m t raouaynm.as ! Pfa nr r, h ~ ~ l o a . a 't rn0 resu . - . eatnlnsr i.r lost drrringexposure !u eun- ing the subsequent expostlre to light and W E Loomis, &de( - t P Q A es, 19091.pP la'Lr7a 1'lewZ Lillre oresenca of axYa•en. A hcine 0.01 me of cn>vme r>rr muldd,-r ' I ., .. ~.-._ .., . » ... ,. .,.. ,...._ ..thr . . . Chance and'A. C. Machly, Methoye E~ ~.sn halt rnar u neou.r~ uneou.r decline occurs inn the nb- The source of light was the sun. In- r• a nh ~~ Cvunf: 1,.T66 (1955). rOducts. . J„rrnn neak ar405 nanometecs. ~" tcnsities nbtainnd hv dirnrt ra d iatin». diatin» .,...,. .. ._..._ .n P .-~ .. . . wcre 99,000 to 170,000 lu/m2. A 5, Journal paper No. J-]Ug0 or the lowa ,tn;: ey, samp, --.._._. _.._ ..._.... ___...,....__ ...w. r--nrennids amomnanv chloroohvlb Wrxtten. filrr_r f2n1 wns nePd rn wn,.,- vr..;,,-. in all aerobic photoautotrophs able to the solution during exposure. This filter Part' ny NSF grant ('i19)95, iHtnrO 01 tUa: survive in nature (1). Carotene pro- absorbed. virtually all radiation below I Jane 19as .'_.. ~yintry were ` r+.h samp'° tects chlorophyll from photodcstruc- 390 not. Effects of oxygen during il- ' - tiun. Eyslcr (,2),working, with another lumination were evaluated by leaving FFFFt .r -high-speec norohvrin, reported that the catalasc the samples open to the atmosphere. gsired in a r activity of carotenoid-deficient seed- To obtain relatively oxveen-ftee condi- glass )ar. - Polonium=210 in Leaf Tobacc0 The not cc s was much lower than the catalase tions lin samples Were altccnately flushed , .. g activity of normalseedlings. Evidence with nitrogen containing no oxygen and from Four Countries „~eJure (1V '~'r cigarettes of the photodestruction of catalase by .: evacuated three. times. Catalase was . Abstract Tobaccos grown in th . r- vkihlc light is reorted here. ?'sassa ed accordin to the 1rJ maleri. P Y g procedure of , United States, Rhodesia, South A/rira, .Crystalline catalase from beef liver Chance and .Maehly(3) with the ,and New Zealand, have been measured'`j° subslitutt l ` ete ;cod+p , - " . -.following dilution modifieations. Nine for or their . polottiunt-2lo content Dc ti,d J ~ o so so TIME (MINUTES) determine the residual amou t f H O tl h' h - t..rolutlon darl n o can t ,. milliliters of 0.057M H,O•~ in 0.OIM tails of Ntee method oj measurement' 1ht"ned, eve potassium phospbate buffer, pH 7.0, -.aregiven and the results are listed. A . .~`ntpletc. Th ~was combined with I ml of enzyme-'mean of 0.15 "tshnii;ue wa picosurie per gr¢mm hat ° ~mplcs, Two preparatuonatzero time, and the re- been found in New Zealand tobacco; ,.:dige~ - action was allowed to proceed for 3- compared with 0.49 picocurie per grant CIc was minutes: At the end of the reaction °in United S'tatestabacco. The concen. t+ ml of concen time, I ml of the mixture was placed trarion in South African tobacco war ~ M'ker w[th in 10 ml of 0:4N a. This acid- approximately the same as fn United e`''Porated tc H_SO , denatured enzyme-H.O_ solution was ' States -. tobacco, but the level in Rlrn- ~: of concentra .. then titrated with. 0.002M KMn04to desian tobacco oppearedto be signih- I:vaporation y g er. ' Under vacuum;. 92percent of the aetivityof the catalase enzyme was re- The naturally occurring alpha-emin , tained after 30 minutes of exposure to . ting . radioelement polonium-210 is sunlighA Aerobic samples lost all their fou.nd in plants generally, and its pres- aD artivitvfirn•., h;o ~..»n»r.« e ..-e_ _ _._I___ -- _ 1 thcn added a Fig. I. Rate of catal'asee inactivation with ~incrc:uingg.- illumination time; a, initial tlcnnccntration of enzymce in pg/10 mlt r, ;+.mount of calalase destroyed at time t. .4201 i 0 60 120 ISO 240 tC hLLUMInqTION (MINUTES) urintlp)c0 density decrease at 'S nm d S a 24minule interval. was added. The sponta on silver fo done in the r - from a com) tte with th a Y `'yvhen the mal absorption spectrum- With pro- 13g-day po=r" to apprnach equilibrium jhe water ba longed itlumination,, all porphyrins with its parent onceremoved-22-year tthe screw cr would be altered. Icad?]0 present in the leaf. The 1ead: ; the remaining three retained their nor- andmanufacture This dela flows I . describex the loss of enzymatic activ- significance of inhaled Po=r° as anini- itg (4). We postulatee that the enzyme tiator of lung cancer is of special in- was inactivated through alteration off terest. ~one oF the four.r porphyrin moieties Tobacco is normally aged for a pe- within a.eatalase molecule, even though - riod of I to 2 years between harvest a . p w tc ngarettes and t etr assessment of the t h~ h h~ HCI, and L ferent kinetic attern from th . nd of concer 'and the solut fumes started (vrtions of H - The rate of enzymeinactivatton fol- cance because this radioelement is I[[[orated to ft lows that for a first-order reaction (Fig. volarile at the temperature of the burn- }Pcated. Ther 1 )... Concomitant with the activity loss,. ' ing cigarette, attaches itself readily to i fromthe d: _the optical dcnsit of catalase at 405, smoke (- y particles,, and thereby gains di- fumes twice t.. twice with am (its visible absorption peak) de- . rect accesss to the lung. The report by f.. . ralized a -~ clines as indicated in Fig. 2. The de- Radford and Hunt (1) on the amounls nrut . E. _' crease in optical density follows a dif- of P0210 in four- brands of American 1 t~nn; it was c - Inactivation of catalase thus occurs in visible light in thc.presence of oxy- gen. There was a simultaneous decline in enzyme activityand absorption at lhe 405 nm peak duringillumination. RUGER f.,MITCHELL IRVIN C. ANDERSON Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University; Antes - 210 in the plant may he derived from the soil or deposited on, the leaves a •'natural fallout" resulting from the de- caused loss was not so1 available her eay of atmospheric radon-222. Any (~that an im( Po"1D unsupported by lead-210 which ~ consist simp might be present in the plant at harvest i~eOntaining I would largely disappear by radioactive ~~ holder for ' decay during the agcing period. the bottom o . Preliminary measurements of Pogl"~ The hold~ SCrsNCE. VOL 150 1 1a-TOBER 1'.
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Radium-226 and Polonium-210 in Burley and Cigar Wrapper Tobacco T. C. Tso. Naomi Harley and L. T. Alexander' Polonium content in leaf tobacco varies from type to type (1) and from location to location (2). We previously reported (1) Ra-226 and Po-210. cnntent of four U_ S. tobacco types, including two flue-cured (type 12 and type 14),. Maryland (.type 32), and cigar filler (type 41). This is aa report of continued study of the content of these elements in three ~ ~ C ~~Materials and Methods other major U. S. tobacco types. Burley (type 31)., and; two eigarwrapper tobaccos (type 61 and type t CraD+ Reseaerk Di»rien, AgnrulturorRereorah. Se.»ee. fl. S. OrOoremrnr oj Agrk.dtu.q Bdt.r-vilfq Mary@nd;RmItA nd SoJrtx Laboratarv; U. S Arvms Enrr9y C~rn~mit+~on, Mrw York;' d SoiF Survey LaA+arory, Sel! Coweevution Serokc G. .S' Uepo.rme=t af Aprlculfbre, Behs- vAlq MnrY/uad; rrrPttYivrlY 62) were used in thiss study. The Burley tobacco samples.from Tennes- see andcigar wrapper tobaccos from Conneeticutt and Florida were either kept in sealed glass jars or were stored in tightly compressed bales which~were covered with paper and cardboard. These samples are es-sentially free from contamination of radioelements during long peri- ods of storage. For Po-210 determinations, to- bacco powder was wet ashed in nitric acid with lead carrier. Po-208 wasadded as tracer forcorrectiun of ra- diochemical yield of Po-210. Sulfates. were precipitated and chelated with EDTA.. Lead and polonium were then precipitated as the sulfide at high pH. The sulfide.was dissolved: in ~/zN HC1 and poloniumplated onto a nickel disc. The Po-208(Po-210 ratio was determined by alpha speetros- copy using,a solid state'detector. The gross alpha activity was measured by mounting the: sample with a ZnS coated mylar disc and counting, with a bare phototube. For Ra-226 deter- minations, tobacco was' wet. ashed in nitric acid.alongwith barium carrier and Ba-133 tracer:Burium and ra} dium were separated from calcium by precipitating with ammonium sul- fate. The RaRaSQ, was dissolved in EDTA and Hadium 226 was deter- mined by emanating and counting the gaseous daughter, Rn-222. The radiochemical yield of Ra-226 was determined by gamma counting the Ra-133tracer in the final sample. Results and Discussion Radium-226 and Polonium-210 contentnf these samples are shown in Table 1. It shows. aa slightly Table 1. Natural Radioacfivity in Tobaccos (A) (Bl AcFivity(Cc/g) ( (D) Measured Calc: Ph-210 Cale. Pb-210 Measured Tobacco . Year Ra-226 From Ra-226 From Po-210 (C/A) Po-210 Type Produced'(Aug.1964) (Aug.1964) (At Harves#) Pb/Ra (Aug. 1964) Burley Type81 1961 0.1i44 ± 0.004 0.014 0.49. 3.5 0.45 ~ 0.01' 1962 0.138± 0.020 0.009 048 3.4 0.46+ 0.01 , 1963 0.128' ± 0.011 0.005 0.52' . 4.0 0.51 ~- 0.02 Cigar Wrapper Type 61 1956 0.099-±- 0.006 0.022 0.29 2.9 0.25 ± 0.01 1959 0.183 -±- 0.028 0.027 0.28 1.6 0.27 ± 0.01 1963 0.186 t 0.000 0.007 0.29 1.5 0.29 w- 0.01 Cigar Wrapper Type 62 1962 0.418 ~ 0.012 0.027 0.16 0.38. 0.18 = 0.01 1963 0,470 ~ 0.020 0,017 0.46 1.0 0.46 -_ 0.01 r Er..r trrnu ore nne r tandard rukv drvlulion tatrd frmn rmv. +nea+u.rmnu oJ mck radiarn rurn2ir nnd nt leart tAier rnea.urernenlr af rackFaZIO rumple. (Tobacco Science 105)
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, . . :. . ,. . . _ . . Yolonium210: A Volatile a -mount of uningcstcL nr~terial rcmatns. 1 Neverthcless, we have recovered near- y ' Radtoelenrcut in Cihareltes ly 100 percent ofpolnnium added toAhstract. Pofo+unnr-2FR, rr'lrichh emits cigarettes during digestion. the same re- .alpha parrieles, is a rmtural contnnriaanr covery as thati for teerli and bones (S)... ' of tobacco. For anindividiral s,nol_ing Poloniumn samples were counted in gas- ~s ttco packaget oJ ei,4arettrs a day, the flow proportional counterss w'ith back-rndialian Aoseto brorreltial epit/ie7iuut ground, counts of alpha particles in the ~fronr Pa"' inhaledin eigaretfe suroke range of 0.5 to 1.5 count/hr. We have , probably is at least seven tDr:es that confirmcd that the radioactivity plated . frau background sources, and in locnf- on silver with the initial separation is ized areas ntay beap eo 1000 renr or Po'°by observing itss decay, whicfihas . moree in 25 years. Rarliatior frort this closely conformed to the. Po'"half-life source may, thcre/ore, be significmrt in of 138: days. -rbe genesis. of bronc6inl_cancer in This report dealss only with the ~ smokers. "polonium content of cigarettes and cigarette smoke. The cigarettes we used . Allhoughh it is well known that ioni¢- were four of thereoular-sized Antcri- ing radiation is carcinogenic in man can biands purchascdf in local stores. (7), there has been no cvidence that The smoke from cigarettes puffed radioisotopes in cigarettes are impli- artificially was obtained by drawing air cated in the production of lmtg.cndcerg through cigarettess conncctcd to aa filter Measurements of . potassium-40 and holder. This holder contained a fiber- radium isotopes have beert made in glassprefiltcr (6) backed by a Milli- tobaceo(2, 3) but these eltmcnts arc pore HA filter that retains 100 percent not-volatile at the temperature of a of the particles in the size range of burning- eigarette-600°C to800°C tobacco-smoke particles (7). The fiber- (4) -and' therefore cannot deliver any gluss prefilter aclually collected ncarly significant radiation dose- Turner and all of the smoke and was used to prc- . Radlty (3) measured total alpha-par- vent rapid clogging of the HA filter. ticle activity in raw tobacco and ciga- From tti.e-filter holder,, gasfirom thee rette ashcs,, and concludcd that the dose smoking cigarette was led through a derived from radon and its daughter trap containing, 50 mi nf 0.5 nnrmaf 'products would be less than I percent H_CI, then to a rotameter connected to of thnt of thr normal backrround' to a vacuum line. When the ciparcttc was the bronchialcpithcliurn. Our studics smokcd artificially it was in a nearly . were undertaken to reevaluate the can- vertical position, The vacuum line was centration of alpha-emitCing radincle- clamped off between putlk, and duringments in cigarettes. In our expcrimmilts each puff the flow rate wvs mainlainedwe havc found in tobacco significant at15 ml/see for 2.tn 3 seconds. The amounts of Po'", which we believe to puffs weree carried out every S0sec- he in equilibrium with its parent Ph'" onds for 6 minutes (or eight puffs); A substantial part of this polonium ap- thiss puffng pattern was the average of pears in cigarette smoke, and on thre that, observed without their knowledge, hasiss of certain assunrptions we ealcu- for u~ number of smokers in our lah: C, '- late that polonium may constitute a oralory,, and is similar to that reported -. significant initiator of ncoplasiaa in the by Hilding. (8). It resultcd in eonsump- hronchial cpithclium of a ci:gurstte lion of about 60 to 70 percent of the , smokcr. ' - - ~ cigarcttc, or somewhat less Ihan Ihat - -fhc methods we have used for sep:r observed i.n cigarettcss smokcd by rating radium isotopcs and Po"" havc hwncro suhjccts. Side strcarn smoke hecn de.erihed previously (.5).. Tlrictly,. tsmoke not drawn throughh the ei;- 'rhe snmplce is trcutedwith hot etinecn- arutte)') was captured by piacinc a liler trated 11(I (wePashing). .the polnniumhottle over the burning civarcltc. Air is plalcd'd onn sih•er: and Ihe radinm i.n-. and sntoke in, the bntlle were continu- ~ 8+pes are then eoprecipilated withIcnalh oudy drawn through thc same filtcr sult:nc antl hurium solfatc. We have sp'slciu ass the main,lrc:un smnkc, hut . ttut fonnd it ncccsary to mndi(y' nur the luhc frant the bottle was cktmpod ratninc proceJure in scpar.uing polo- only during pufling. when the luhe - nimm or rndirnn frNll eilnreltes; at- (rOmi. IhecigorcltC. w[~s' open. IIl this Ihou_h ttith digcstiou hy hat concen- way both side slre:un and maimlrcam C lralcd t!(1, +n!uticn ofeigarc!tes or •moke were trappeil togelher on the ash is incomplelc and a considerable fil!crs... t--~s>°e '..apY:-~ " .` In these art.ficial ' smoking 'expcn- . ; mcnls,, the following.-,Portions of the -`~ cigtretrc and smoke were annlyzcd'for y, poioniurac the ash and butt of the ett_ •- rette; smoke condcnsate on the-fiber- °. glass and HA filters; condpnsate that formed on the tubing and metal parts of the filter holder and on the walls of -the liter bottlr,, all of whichwerc carc-fully wiped aftcr the cigarette teas smoked: and_ theHCI trap through which the filtered air had been drawn. . Dlankk analyses on filters,trap solution. and wipings of thetubinge filter hnlder- and bottle' showedno polontumactic- ity with the exception of the fiberglass -- filters, which hadd approximately 0.015 pe of Po"": The HA filter and t-ICl trap.-_- showcd little or no polonium after - ~~ smokine, and in the results the content obscrvedon the' fiberglass (usually-about 90 percent of the total) was eom='Ybined with that from the condensa~c and HA filter. .. .. Table I shows the polonium content-. .of whole cigarettes of four brands:~ _Also Given are the contcnts.of the ash,~" butL anrL total smnkc when all of the'smoke, including the side stream,µ'as~ trapped. lncludedin Tahle I are theresults for mainstreamr smdke alone cot-. . Iccled in different experimenes. Table I indicatcs that only about half the polonium in the total smoke was in the mainstream when cigarettes were pufTr.f by our technique. When all the smoke was caplurcd, about 80 percent of thee polonium disappcurirtg irt the smoking process could be accounted for. Thcse resultc suggcst that must ofthe volatilc polonium is rapidly adsorbed on the smoke particlcs, althougha small'part cou~:3' he gaseous and escape our trap- ping procedure, includfngthe HCI trap.. tlecause of the nature of thesmoking patlern that was uscdt webelicve that the mainstrcam smoke is probably low in these experintents, compared to ac--` lual smoking, conditions. For exaniple- the higher concentrations in the butt ofhrand D. Table 1, indicate that these cigarettas were not ns enmptetetg•, smoked as the others. For this reason- no significancc can he attached to dif- rcrcnccs in mainctrcam contcnn between filtcr and nonfiltcr br:mds. 11'hcn cica- rcttes were smoked hy htunan subjects the: polonium content of the butt and nshh was lower than that of the arti- fici:Jly smuf.ed cigarettcs, nnd the pro- IporGOn (if polonituu lo.t frnm Ihe ciga- rette wns higher fnr ftller ci;:areltcs- Wc suspect Ihal thc amount of polon- 0or749Z42
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uranium; for example,, the' uranium - cent in pebbles and between 0.0045 igneous rock: One gram of uranium atite from thce and 0.013 ' percent in pellets (4). In is in radioactive equilibrium with 3.3 stic a t f d p a conten o nd pebblee phosphate field in Florida an early report by Moore (5), 3.3 pc - x 10 ~ g of Ra. Fertilizers containing nges between 0.011 and 0.032 per- of uranium (per gram)) was found in uranium and its daughters would con- .. -. tiibute to the higher level of Ra° in `.. soil. . . . . . . . Table I. Natural radioactivity in lobaccns. -' - The natural a bundanoe of Ram in Activity'(pc/g) Tobecoo type -Year (A)(g) produced Measured `Cale. Pb"0 RaeA from Ra°" : (May 1964) (May1964) Muryland r. Pennsvlvani .. 1938 0059!0038e a 193g 0.o59mo.txl6 ciyvr f_:enrsin 1950 0.31'20.002 C1Jton 1950 0.37i0.26 . only~ 1963 0.1l~o.Otl Grorela 1959. 0.39~0.002 (mincd) -1960'0.30!0.016 - . 1961 ... 0.30i0.00g . -1962. . 0.21+0.018 ' " 1963 0.3010.018 PbstNorth. 1955 0.1520.002 Carolina. 1956 0.14~0.000 .. 1959 ^ s-0.19m0.001 , ' 1960 .~ 035s0.007 - , 1961 .0.16x0.007 ' 1962 '> 0.14±0.013 .. - ' 1963 - 0.16,0.011 Table 2. Natural radioactivity in tobacco soIls. . a~Error terms are unqslandard deviattnn calculsted from R'n measurementk or each radinm sample radon, regardless. of origin, depth, or ' ` ntl at least three measurcmcrosef each Po°" sample. ( „ . . . - ~- intensity of weathering. The iadon- 0.60±0.10^0.54m0:06 "exchangeable radium, had been re- generating power of clay mineral in- - - creased with increased moisturecon- '-tent up to 19.6 percent. Very little. Activity In May 1964 . radon was released at moisture con- (pc/g) tents greater than 30 percent. Radium Ram Pon"' associated with clay' fractions of soil . . '-: was completely mobile. Even after the Qu ncy, 2. 0.67=0.04: 0.39-0:02 moverl, soils stilll retained a power to 3 0.61x0.07 0.46m0:04 - generate radon. As.shown in Table 2, : Greenev0le, Tennessee Arr-rnred . - . 003 0.27 4.6 0.15x0.01' sion. These data agree well_.with the ., . . -a1 0 . - . 53 1T! 0 - 32 0.03 0. .. . . v.. ..,...,e.... .., r..n rmdd 'n.nFt frn.n .nno,r, nf thn <nil cvmnlino denth- and ~ 0.41 ±0.01 mcmou ot anaryats: . . .. ~ ~ -0.11 ~ 0.46 13 ~' 0.13' 0.54 .. 1.5 0.48m0.ut The equilibrium activity ~ of Pb°O, . 0.004 b.sl , . . 2.7 '- 0:40xo.02 . which is a daughter of Ra" and a , 1 / ~ . 0:02 . 0.01 0.008 0.04 . 0.03 ~ 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.008 . 0.004. Dcscription ~ I ~~ Airruced~aree Wrapper cigar field - Waynesboro suu mam, conunumg y0-'" in tne sorl is not in equulonum . lrurley toDaecO, mgn avauaom . phosphorus 4 1.53~0.25 S.Oli0d1 with Ra', indicating the escape of. .. .. . O„= i.,r._ r6.. ~b.,,...d,a..' .. - Flue<uredarca ..r-:...va .... 6. experimcnlnl ne1G,. [t] Kg r,y. . . . my . p,an`a r~n per hectare per year for tobacco Photosynthesis in ehlorophyll-eontain- only .. 5~ 0.79w0.06 0.30±0.01 ingg cells was reported to be greatly Tlfton sandy loam„ 2-year rotatiov„ - ' stimulated b ex osure to betaand 180 kg.P,G, for tobacco only;. 6 ~0.76=0.021/.3710.003. - Y P ' field, - 205 ka P.Os so treated weighed 684 g as opposed to - experirttenol forr tobacco onlr . 7 0.64x0.0o 0.33_0.005 316 g, the weight of control plants. .. Norfolk snndyluam, continuing to. bacco,.225 kgP,Os YeerlY oaford. North Carolina C lorence, SouthCarolina 10 years continuing.tobacco experi- - menml field, 100 kg P,O, yearly 2-year rotation experimental field, 270 kg P;Os per year for tobacco only A seasonal variation in the Ra d 1.32s0.12 ' 0.40!0.01 content of the reservoir water and of 0 -'- plants was noticed' (11). Very wiilely 0.52!0.07 0.26_0.005 ranging values of radium were found ~ - I in various plant tissues (12). Brazil i,y.. 091±0.30~~ 0.55~:0.02 nuts, known to be able to concentrate t~ radium in the seed, contained more ~ than although the Sr1i1 3D Ol)O pe/kg , • Error termr are onet rtandard dcvlanan cakulated from two measurementa of each radium aamplc ,I and at teasr three measuremems ot each Panu ~nple, had an alpha activity of only 22,000 - 1044 Florida i Variations in the ,:] f results in Table 2 0.06 0.27 0.7 -- 030i0.01 precursor of Po'", may be ealculated'. 003 0.25 ' 0.8 -'0.25~0.01 a0~o ot from either radionuclide. If the Pb' -: soil~ is about 1 pc/g (6). In sods from North Carolina,. Moore (5) reported 54 and Os45 pc/g -Raactivities of 0 . (D) (C)... Catc. Pb'O(C/A) Measured:, in Cecil clay and in Durham sandy from Po°°Pb/Ra - Po''°' ~'.~-Ioam~ respectively. These were top soil °I I samplesand's were treated with hydro- - '- ] c o3e . 1.7o35mo.o3 :.at harvest calculated from Po°" is 0.42 ., -i1.4~. -° 0.42-0.06 . compared with that calculated from .0.28 ' 1.9- -. 0t25-0.03 `.- Ra"", one finds that'. Ra° is not the. 02 038 - '27 "' 033~0 . .... -'0 i tb only souree onoacco. ~ t f Pb ~ 0.37 ~ 19 ~-'-035~0.14 . - 0.41 1.6 - 0.39t0.03 ": The natural abundance of Rn"a is-.0•51 32 .0-4g-°-ot -50to 200 pc/m' (7). Caldecott and b0.0b '- 0A5 3'.20.43±'0.0 - 0.31 - --1.9 :. 0.30~0-61 Snyder (8) found that every one of - --- hundreds of soils they tested generated Sample . '. fluoric and sulfuric acids before fu- -
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C. C T 6.te t. Polunium content of American cigorettes andsmoke front eigarettesnrttficinlly pulTcd. Figures inpa,cnlbCsEC are.number of analynGs. . . Ash Butt ' 0,39(4) 0.035(2) 0.094(2) - OAO(4) 0.033(2) 0.15(2) Total smokc Total in ash, buu, and smoke Recovery° (%) B,anC A. non fLCr 0.19(2) , 0.15 Brand 9„nuu(lrer 0_260): 0_4, Brm,d C. (1/er 0.19(2) 0.3?. - Harioof total in ash, burl, and smoke to toral Ihwhola cif.iram_. lunt absorbed by an individual may.'bc depindent om lhe modc of pufiSng as . well ns on the fracliunn of total smoke inhaled. The alpha-cmitting isotopcs wee have investigated all occur naturally,, and '. presumably have always been present in tobacco. Absorption of Ph-"', the parent of Po-'", by the plant roots may be supplenmenled by foliar absorption :from "naturafl fallnut"front dccay of : Rrsr" in the atmosphcro (9). Front analysis of 5-year-old eigaretles, we conclude that the amount of polonium in fresh ivhnle cigarettes (Tablc li).is in cquilibrium with the Pti="' p.rrent. With respect to radiuru and polonium content, tobacco appears to he typical of plantsgenerally., asjudpcd by the tot:d alpha-particle activity found in, phmu by MayncordPt nl. (1t3). Thc rcrdia- tion hazard from Po-"' arises primanily becausc polonium is known to he com- plctcly volutile, ahovc 500"C (11)- or wcll:w below the temperature of a burn- ing cigarette. In atldi0ior,. poloniuiu bindk; rapidly andt stronrly to surfaces. , and hence a0achcsrcadity to smoke particles. Finally. its.intcrmcdiatc half- life of 138'd:n•s assures.nmplc lirtrc for translnc,rinn of particlcss to the bronchi to take place. - - ~,- The basic question which ariscs from our mcasurcntents concerns thCradia- tion ctoscw to the bronchial epithcliunr from Po"" present in tobacco smoke. To pul the following calcufatinns, in perspective. we estimate that the back- ground dose to the bronchial epithe- liunt is appronimnlcly 200 mrenr per ycar, or about 5 rem per ?5 vcars- similar to cstintatcx tiv Chanthcrlain.oml Dyson (.12) and $h:y)iro (/:4). In Ihi, extimatc u'e h_rve u.cil n relative hia- logicaf cfFCCli•~cncss (RRlC) of 10 1'or 81 90 82 88 Pu"" malii- stre: m smoke (PC) cumulated in these regPons:;,'~gnd on ihe''.-, mean residence time oecurrinc insoch cascs, 7hcrc is no.quantitati.e basis on which to estimate thesetso factors'ims hlrman lungs, 6ut it is -tikely, fronr'' our preliminary mcasurcmcnls of , po- lonium inn the bronchial cpithelium of 'z lungs of sntokcrs: that these local :~ doses may range frontt several hun- 0.10(3) 52 dred rem, to more than 100(l rcm,`in~ lhe case of an individual smoking-two - 0.12(2) 46 packs a day over a 25-yczr pcriod.,For example, in a 73-year old malc who died of cardiacfailurcc who had ~. 0.089(2) 47 smoked "one or moie' pack: `of cig- '' 0.070(3) 41 ane(tes per day for many years,' the polonium content in the epithelium of alpha particles, in accord w;ilPo recom- mendations of the lntcrnational Com- mission for Radiation Protcction (14). The radiation dose delivered by poloniuminhaied (rorn cigarelles: ean be analyzed for two conditions. 1he first condition defines appro.eimatelp', the minimum radiation dose to be cs- pected: in this case Ihe dose arises from particles carried across the hronchinC epilhelium in the process of excretion by mucus flw.vup pse bronchial trec- The smoke particles arc.c assumcdto bc devositcd by difPu- sion. lar_cly . on the alveolar epilhelium,., from wFicrethey are phaCOcytosed and'~ carricd up the. bronchial epilhelium. ( 1:5).. In Ihis.c;lse screstimate thae the mininium dose delivered by these purti- clesfur -nn individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day for 25 y'ea{s would be ahout 3(i rem (lb) or sevuln times the background exposure. This estimate does not t:ike accounr of the rndiation dose arising frortr. Ph"'" absorption in smoke. either front the bela panicles emiltcal by Ptr° aml Bi'":or from the polonium daughter which wotddd arise in, thce lungs from lead :rb.orption. In addition, this cal- culation ncglrcts the slo*ving. eRd,et of' smoke on ciliary actiou (17). which would prolong the cxposuretime' and inerc. %c Ihe dose. For these reasons% we hcliccc Ih:,( this c.ti,ualc is prob- a secondary bifurcation of the ri-ht ' lower lobe was 0.033 pc1em', ~"con3-d pared with 0.003 pc/cnr.in the tight main slcrn bronchus. "This'ntan-had . not smoked after hospitah aduiission~fOr snroke Inhalalion 11) days prior to ' death, and he had cvidcnce of', bron-'' -chialpncurnania at autopsy.so it is -probahle that equilibrium concentra-" lion ofi polonieim in the epithclium at the time he s=as smaAing .aas subslan- ` ,- tiallq. higher. Even so.. a level of 0.033' pc/cm' would give a doac of 165 rcm in 25 years. This figurc is a minimum . value evenn for this region of epithe- liu:u, and hiehcr values could alko be present in heaviersmol.crs. Further work will bc required' to dttermine these local doscs,, particularlv through . use of quantitative radiocraphs. -\b'ith regard to the amount of po- loniunt ahsorhed inlo the circulation . trom.lohacco smoke. corn)•cucd (o po- lonlum absorbed fromm other sourccs, it: is of interest that the urine nf non- , smokers con(nins very little poloniunt (a mcan of 0.0.11 pc per '_# hnurs for four suhjccts)'. On the other hand, ' three smokers wbo smoked an average 'nf two packagos of cig. rcllcs. a day' , were found (ohave an avcrnee poloni- 6m excretion or~ 0,065 pc per 7. houns, a nCarly sixfold difference.Thesc fc-'- sults sug!,est that the pofonium.-content of thr softt tissues of the hodv may bc significantly clevalcd in smokerc. A comparison of death ratcsof lung -- eaneer in smokers may, he made to the ahink con•cr,vativc. and the dose courd vvell-t:now-n bronchial cancer incidence he 1(ytt rcln or more fromthis pr.accss:Qin mincrn csposcd to radon daughtcrs The secnnd condition defines. thc(=(IR). We eatculate the lung-caneer do.e srltich might arise if local concen-%3rlcdh rate in these miners to he 3 per- Iruluonn of polonium occurs in varinus4giecnt per ycar.: their radiation exposure rcriona nf the bronchial [rrc. The radi-Nto the bronchial epitheliunt ooutd he ation do,c deliicred by local conccn-itiahoul 20:000 rem in the 17-vear in- ~ tr:,ldan. nf poioniurn frmn punliclcs in(n)aluction period (19), The radialion Ihc hrnnchial epithclium, wali iKCif, dose necessaty to account for the lung- - depcnd. pn the fraclion of particles ac- cancer death rale in ma)es smoking 40 2' .
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J `.~~ higher, although not significant, Po- ~' t 210tt idd conenn tobacco prouce In more recentt years than thuse pro. duced a few years earlier. Samples of types.31 and 61 were of known origin, and this trend of increase.in activity appearstio indicate a possi- ble accumulative effect of continued fertilization i¢t the tobacco field as suggested in a previous report (1). The twoo samples of type 62 tobacco :. wereobtained from commercial sources;.they may have been grown under quitedifDerent conditions which contributed to the wide vari- ation between two adjacent years. In general, the level of Ra-220 and Po-210 activity in Burley and cigar wrappe. tobaccos is within the same range as those found in eigar filler,. Maryland, and flue- cured tobacco (1).. The.type 61 cigar filler tobaccoisslightly lower in the average Po-210 content. Com- paring tobaccos produced, from dif- ferent countries, United. States to- baecos are. considerably lower in Po-210 content than that of Rho- desia tobacco and higher than that of New Zealand tobaccos (2)i. The Pb-210 content ofthose sam- plesat.harvest calculated from Po- 210 (Table 1) is not in agreement withthr buildup of Pb-210 from Ra-22G. These results confirm our earlier findings. (1).,, which indi- cated that Ra-226 i.snoU the only source of Pb-210 or Po210 in tobac- co. Studies on the source of.radio- elementsin tobacco are underway. Summary The level of Ra-226 and Po-210 activity in Burley and cigar wrap• per tobaccos is within the same range as those found in cigar filler, Maryland, and flue-cured tobaccos. Results obtained from samples of these tobacco types show a lower Pu-210 content ih,United States to- baccos than that of Rhodesia to- baccn, andd a higher content than that of NewZealand tobaccos. Acknowledgment We wish to thank A. M. Gottscho of General, Cigar Company; R. R. Kincaid, of North Florida Experi- ment Stution; and B. C.. Nichols,, of the United States Department of Agriculture, for their interest in this study and for helping to obtain tobacco samples. Litera4ure Cited 1. Tso, T. C:, N. A. Hallden6 and L. T. Alexander. "Radium-226 and Polonium-210 in Leaf To- bacco and; Tobacco SoiL" Science 146: 1043. 1964. 2. Gregory, L. P. "Po-210 in Leaf Tobacco From Four Countries". Sciencr. 150:74, 1965. (Tobacco Science 10G)
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jray or brown,, suggesting ineonlplete `T reduction of OsO,. For example, reduc- ~~ . tiun of 2-percent OsOr solution or O,O, vapor by thiourca gave.a brown prceipnate whereas thiosemicarbazide 'c- 1 aaee a black precipitate. i^ - 7ho properties of the reagents which . are required for the various histochemi- l cal methods impose certain limitations on this new technique. If, for exampte,, the productcofthe histochemical rcaa tion before osmication have too. great . an alfinity for lipid{ thc localization of the "osmium black" will reflect this shortcoming. In the continual redesign of reagents for perfecting histocherni- 4. G. F: Bah, and C. Mnbcrseq Expd: Cell samples of air-dried, finely cut tobaaco - Rev. 6, 5(iri (1954). S. w M Scl pman J S Hanker A R se:rman, were wet aahed in nitric acid with lead H E Sdbcrt l Cett n 1 15. 395 (196 ). carrier. A sample was precipitated as - 6. R Seam am ] S: Hemker, A M Sel p - man J.Hire n e'yrnra 9„59s (1961). ~the sulfate and chelated with ethylene- 7. L. ornnt in, l 8tophyr. B- cA'an. Cytn! 3, diamine tctraaceticacid. The lead sul- - 8(19 (195i). 8. G., E. Palade. !. Expa. Med. 95• 295 p952)L fidepreclpltated wa8 dissolved in 3N " 9( C W M Ad l Hifb CJh- ....ams,.s~ce.u.pncern: HCI,, and the Po°'° was plated onto a8, 262 (796^hG. F. Bah[;. Expn. Cell Rea. 9, 457 (1954). nickel disc. The sample was mounted 10. n.. E. Rcia. Organic C6etn+rtry nt Bi"alenr with ZnS hos hor; and the al Na r- Sul/ur (Chemical Pubnsbing Co., New York, P P P Pa 19671- .nt. 5„ p. 194. . ticles, a measure of PO'°, activity, were lt. M. Karnnvsky pnsonal communicatiun(196s). ,.. .. .. e,._..,._ __ ,:, e-n.__- r w,.,.._ counted. With thistechniuue the back- ` ehnrr- 9, 5" (1961). ground is0.0.1 count/min and the de- C 22 723 13: F. Moog, /. Crll arnp. Ph)•siol. , . (IV43). . - tectlon efliciency is 52 percent. The . u M M Narhln D'r. Cra mrd, T. P. Gold- activity of the blank (0.04 count/ steln A M Se1r8 an, l N emchem: Cym- r - dre 6, n95s1, min.) has been subtracted from all `. I f 15 M^ S B rstone, Y Hi..roche Cyroctiem. 9, PO" data. '' -cal methods for electron microseopy,.it 16. D• u. Sabatini, K. Bensch, R. J. Ba¢nttq may become necessary to incorporate 'l- Cell atn7. 17. 19 1196i) .1]. O. Bun and F. Bomemann Z A orp.~Ch.m. other groups for'sclective osmication in _65. 429 (19m)~; r C. lucmcrama. L lfuru c5rm. 11. 436 (1963y. partlealer InStaneCS: . ,. ._ - .` 18. W. Normann and F. Schick. Arrh Phnrm. JACOB S. HANKER,. ARLENE R. SFAMA.ti -u='. 20g (1914): F. C. Phillips, Z. Anorg. LEON P. WEISS, IIIROMI IJENO* ' CAem. 6. 236 (1894).. ' lA Sopportedby research gmnt (CA-024p8-101 RONALD A. BERGMAN from the National Cancer Institute, NtH, wc ackno.vledge the valuable assistance of Lionel ARNOI.D lt'1. $ELIGMAN'. Katznn in symhcs,s and characterizatiun or Department of Surgery,. - Sinai Hospital of Baltimore and the Departrnent.r of SurEeryand Anatomy,, lohnr flopkin.e University School of - Medicine, Baltlinare, Maryland _ . tEC reagentsHcrmme Dmochowskr, ,n hts- mchemistry, Harriet Sturm. Hannah Wassei- krug, lulia Sllhan, andRichard Shuycn In- termedistes for substrates were obtained etnm Cyclo Chemical Corporatiun. 192] East 64. Street Los Angeles 1, Calif. This work - aas presented in parr at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Histochemical Saciery n j 'Refareaces arW Nates~ at the Secnnd Intcrnarlonal Congress for tochemis[rY in Pennk- ~ Hictoc},eminry and C y 1. E. £eitler and G. F. Bahr, Expd. Cell. Ret.rl, 44 (t9511 e furt, Germany, nn 17 AuBmst Is6s: 832 (1956).u Permanent address: Third Deportmentt or A. C. 2. d Valentine, Nanve 131, rntcrnal Medlcibe,.Kyushw lJniversi[Y. KYUShu, Hl k B d; n M M riL e Hoit an 7.. 1. R. . c s, 5 . 18, 214 ()962): A. G. E. Pearsc, J. Ray. Japan. Mlcroaeop: Sor_ 81.. 107 (1963), . 27 August 1964 Radium-226 and Polonium-210 Tobacco and Tobacco Soil . Abstract_ Contents of radium-226 and po7bnium-210 in leaf tobacco and tobacco-growing .rnils vary wiJlr the source; The difjerences may rrndt from production locality, culture, and curing. The polonium seems to be not entirely - derived from the radium; plantsprobablyytake it up from the soil or air. tivity of K" (1), while recent studies tent of tobacco and in attempting to soil may contribute in part to this dif- mainly refer to alpha activity„ espe- establish its origin, we studied the nat- ference. SampleNo. 4, from a field cially off the radium and thorium ural radioactiviryin different types of continuously planted to burley tobacco,. ~ series(2): The report on Po"" (3)) is kaf tobacco produced in various years is high inn available phosphorus and of special interest, for this element is - in various localities. All samples InadOcontains 2 to 3 times moreRa°than volatile at the combustion temperature.e been stored in sealed glass containcrsCthe otherse Similarly, sample No. 8, , Earlicr reports concern mostly beta ac- leaves. In re-examining the Po"° con- North Carolina. Fertilizer added to the have been i'nvcstigatedd many times. 'terss of radon-222 deposited on thee than that of samples from Oxford,_` • Naturallyoccurring radioeiements in ~ up from the soil. It may also result ducingsoils:. The Ra"r content of soil manufactured tobacco and inn smoke from radioactive decay of the daugh- samples from Tifton, Georgia,.is higher of manufactured tobacco. Polonium-210- in tobacco plants is derived from either the soil or the air. It may be taken up.directly from the soil or may result from radioactive decay of lcad-210 or radium-226 taken 20 NOVEMBER 1964 or in hogsheads, without prolongcdesl from a field continuously planted to exposure to fresh air. Soils produci4 tobacco and fertilized with 225 kg of . tobaecos in 1963 were samplcd andN P_Or per hectare each year (200 pounds~ tested for natural radioactivity in Feb+tlper aere), also has- a higher Ra' ruary 1964. -- ~content. .. _„ . . For determination of PoftO, 10-y Certain . Quantitative measurements of Pb'° , j. made by counting the beta activity of _I - ita Bidaughter failed because of the ~ low activity,, hut beta activity data were . qualitatively consistent with the Po901 analysis. ' ' For Raua deterltiinatiun; 5 to 10 g of tobacco ash were fusedd with sodium carbonate along with barium carrier and Ba'° tracer. Barium and radium were separated from the calcium, and -_ the barium was precipitated as tHee chromateand dissolved in perchloric acid. Recovery was-' determined by counting the gamma activity of Ba'° in the final solution, and radium was determined by counting the alpha ac- tivity of its gaseous daughter, Rn°. . Natural activities found in the to- ~ bacco samples are shown in Table 1. Although lower than the others in '_ Raere conten4 the 1939 ttobacco sam-; ples also differ in type, growth locality, and culture.and curing methods. There is a difference in Ra° activity among flue-cured tobaccosfrom different , areas. Tobacco from eastern North Carolina gcnerally has lower Ra° . activitythan that from Georgia. The same tendency is shown in Table 2 in the natural activity in tobacco-pro- phosphate rocki contain
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Rauto.tr.r[vn Toa,tecu Rt.n.T' S-i.a.r;s 197 C hjtscrcks noa- can be detected ass a source of radioactivity inficld sur- vcvs an(1 ' the stnt~intical link betnvccn mutations c,f the rc+piratpr), tract and c.i,,;trc[tcrancer than pipe or cibarsmoking,ri[adc the stalk of thoplam tba ob,'i,us placc inAt'hich to seek the concentration ofraolioacti.e tuatcrials, aj tohaccn stalk iss not usuallypraent in cigar or pipe tohac'cn. 6 -' PoSsiWc Expbr,,tton of 6 DECAY CURVE oP LONDON- GftOWN TOBACCO STALK ASH 0 S~ r. 4 COFIPONENT5 PNE5ENT 1N' FALL-OVt FROM WINDSCALE REAC7OR. R C O SHOWN WnERC APPROGRUITE , N...a.. ~ Ja.wry 1e~d ~~°_ f>ew~+ _- _- _- - - - - __-- - p Mom tq57 TfP1E IQSa . The possibility- that the activity might be due to a heavy radioactive material suchh as uranium or thorium was elimirmted by spinning the ash onn brmnoform: This separated out a heavy deposit below and the lighter ash above the liquid. The activity was still present in the lighter fraction and no uranium was found in the htavy fraction. No alpha activity was found in the orioinal sample so the thorium and uranium series of elements were absent. The activity was restricted to beta and gamnwa rays. _ The possibility that theactivitv was due to strontium isotopes present in fall-our from test explosions was eliminated by separating our the calca- loids and other series of elements from the tobacco ash. None of these series was sgmflc'antlY radioactivc and the aetivity'had gone down the sink with the soluhle renutant that contained the potassium series of elh- tnents. This potassium containingremnanr vvas then recovered -from a furthcrsamplc and evaporated to dryness and the powder thus formed .ras hrund to be radioactive. This eonfirmed the finding previously madc
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W.t1t li! 1t'alrl ..., 4M...~..'Ai°...,~ . .}Q.-~....C ~ i. ! The Radioactivity of thc Stallc of 'I'olrneco Plautts (grown in London, ISrngl:md, in 1957) M. Asu•, :\1.R.C.S. 6n "Tobacco" an& in "Tobacco Science" in. 1957, Ct,,•hill and Hobbss published thcir findings on the metallic constituents of mainsorcam smoke. In the ntainstream smoke from one cigarcttc the metallic constituents trcighcd 0.13 mg. arrd Of this 0.134 mg. was potassiwn. - The radioactivity of this amount of natural potassium is 0:01 micro micro curie in the snrokc of one cigarette. The metallic constituents Of " mainstream smoke have an activirv of 6.67 micru micro curiess per g.. frnm' their potassinm content alonc. . . Under the draft regulations of the Factories Act recentlr published in Britain, a radioactive substance is defined as one with an activin- of more than 2 micro micro curies per g. The metallic constituents of mainstream smolcee are therefore a radioactive substance, The steaming of tobacco prior to its use, reduces its, radioactivitv hr 3j, times. This reduces theactivitt-of its metallicconstituentstn 1.9 micro- - micro curies per gram.. Steamed tobacco does not, therefore, produce a, radioactive inhalant andd is not illegal under the British RadioactiveSub- stances act Of 1948! - The reconstitution of tobacco, steamed to render it inert, is a.means of -- making it palatable. .. . . . : . I On the morning of the 27th September 1957, tobacco plants were gathered from Regent's Park gardens; London, Fnglknd. The stalks were ' separated front the rest of the plant and u'ere placed into an oven to dry. ' They were minced and sieved on to a hot plate and the powder thus formcd . was dried until it ceased'd to steam. - ~. This drypo,vder .eas weighed into standard packs and sealed to form samples for routine radiomecric comparison .vith other similarly . treated. ntaterials. . This unburnr tobacco plant wass as radioactive as ex-government - laboratory cigarette tobacco ash. The activity of these materials .vas - about one tenth that used to define a radinactive substance under the . draft regulations of the Factory Act and the sale to the public of such 2 radioactive substance would be illegal under th9 Radioactive Substances Act. . . . . . . . .. . , To confirm this finding I burnt the dust and found its radioacti.-itc to be about ten tirimes that of the background. One sample of this ash I sent to the Atontie Energy Division~of the geological sttrvev of Grear Britain, another sample of the same ash giving, the same count I left with - the radiotherapy department of a London Hospital, The assay of this ash was 0.03=, eL'„O„ on the 7th -\urcmber, 1957. At the end of Dccember I collected the unopened p<lcker, which h:tdnot ^ '\Icdiral Utticcr, Uclqrrnten2 of \atinnsl Hcahh and WClfurc. Pari6. (lnuri,r. 195
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Ylrmctr. SnuVicis, JnV ac.cr. hrCAa.tua-\l.tm:n 1939 bbeen assavrd in thc hospiral,.and found that ItS.aetlt9ty was approximately - half that tt9lcn it ttns. (irst prepared. I had it assal'rtl and its 0.021 %, eUsOa actiVitv shotscdcviLlcncc cincI2n of radiu-actirc dccaY or ucathcring in svhidr the sat.nplc c-ould, bac.e gathcrcd suflicicnr muisturcto give an ap_ . parent reduction in acticip-. Tn climinntc the possilrility' that the decrease in actirin• aas eatirch- due to treathcrirw, samples were examined bythc laboratory of the General Electric CompanY in England. The samples as sent and after drving at 300°C. werc assayed for thcir potassium, K.Opotash, rubidium and strontium contcntss specrroUaphicallY. The potas stum content was tom.lo.v to account for the radioactivity of the ash being ' due to the natut'uli occurring isotopes of potassium and rubidium known to be present in the ash. Standard es-governmcnt laboratory cigarettee ash, _. was used as a control. Previousspectrographic analvsis bvDr. Gaydon F.R.S., had been done on a sample compared by \lessrs.. Hilger and LVaa to a standard pow- der. Strontium and rubidium were shown to be present but eaesiurn was absent. The maker of the standard was found to be at the GencralElectrielahoratory. He first observed thee strong rubidium lines in tobacco a qaarterof a century ago and used its spectrum to demonstrate these lines. Through the eourtes}~ of their chief chemist Mr. R. C. Chirnside, a thorough and exhaustive determination of the actual amount of po[assium; rubidium and,stronrium was made by \9r. B. S. Cooper. In the Londbn grown santplc 8% of its.weight was lost when it was. heated.~ Its potassium content. .ras thus increased from 13.1% to 14.3% dry wcight. This expressed as potash K,O equivalent was a r'ise from . 15.8% to 17.3%. . . . . ' .... ~ In the case of the standard' tobacco ash used as a control3% by weight waslosc when it wass heated. This increased its potassium eontent from 9.5% to 9.8% dry or expressed as potashK,O equivalent from 11.6% to 12% K,O when dry. -- - The standard ash containc& 0.006%X rubidium and 0.03% strontium„ the London sample 0.004°;'' rubidium and 0.02%: strontium. -_ -Thus it is not possible to account for the radioactivity of the London grown sample of tobacco_ as due to itss potassium content. Its radioactivity __when first examined was equivalent to its containing 45% K:O. This , material a•asin fact more radioactivc than its n.rn weight of either a potas- - siimt or a ruhidium salt when directlv comparedradiomctrically. Also the actit•iry of the rubidium and potassitim~ samples was coitstant and that " . of the tobacco ash decaced, with a half life of about 25 weeks.~ This finding tlual'ifies-thar of D. K. \lulvant•, F.R.C:S., and other workers on the radiopctivitt, . of tobacco. Their findingx are that its acticity is due almost entirely to this plant being a potnssium concentrator. Thc highest eon- ccntrnrion of potassium is in [he plant stalk. Thefindinr bly [he geological sun•e~. that straw stacks 7ather than~ O ... C ~ ° i--I
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- to 24,000 pc/kg (13). The amount of radioactivity found in the nut endo- sperm indicated aa preferential rctcntihn of radium inn some stem tissues during, ~.theprocess of upward transfer to. ' leaves and to its subsequent release at the time of fruit formation. Drobkov (14) reported an increase in the intake of uranium by plants during filoomingg and maturation; he further stated that, while radioelements' are distributed throughout the whole plant, they eon- ccntrate' at the growing points, leaves, and fruit-bearing organs. . T- C, Tso Crops Research' Division. . .-AgiiculturalResearchService, . . . .- U.S. Department of Agriculture, ~- Beltsville, Marylaud 20705 N. A.. HALLDEN ' Health and Safety L'aboratary, . U'-S. Atomic Energy Cornmission;. - New York . - . . L. T- ALEXANDER Soil Survey Laboratory, Soil Conservation Service, , .. ` U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Reference, .nd Not., _the overall reaction (2). It appears that 1. D.K. Mul.any. Innce! 1953-11, 205 (195]);.the four-center exchange mechanism . P. w... Spiers andx. D- Pa.,ey. ihid„ a-..-was vhunted by thc.three-eenter mccha- i259. a K, C Turner and l. M. RaC1cY. tAld. If9a-1, I ni5m because of therapid attainment 1197 (196u); F-.Mars.tcn and M. A. Cotlins, of the dissociation equilibrium on the Nn(nre @a, y(2(196]): . 3.. E: P. Radford and V. R. Hunq Sot<nce tu,, walls of the containing vessels. Under 247 itv6q" those conditions the overall activation /- Z S. Aitschulrr, R.. S.' Clnrke, ]r., 8. 3- - voune. U.S. oew. Snr.~, rrofz,.. raPer- encrgy' is about 59 kcalPlitole, of which -. No. 3EaD (193s): - 5. R- B. Maore, l. Ind. EnR- Chem. 6, 370 52 kcal comPriscss half of the dis.soci . (1914). - <1 ation energy of the hydrogen (required 6 RePVrr nJ the Unired Naaons SrienaRc Com- and the remainin7 minee on the ERectt at Atomic Radlafion for the first step), g (NewYork„ 1962). kcal isthe' required activation energy ]. W. JacoEi, Binpln~eik 1, 1T6(1963). 8. R. S. Caldecott and L. A. $nydtr, Rodio- for the atomic displacement (second irnmyes rn rhe Bfa.ehere (Unir;, nf Minne- sn S[BP)• . '- - ts Press', Minneaputic, 1960). np. 3o-]6.. 9. A. A. Drobkov, DokC.Akad:.Nauk SSSR t7, . During the past 2 years the single- i29 (t9s7): IB: l. St9kl a s a,' - pulse shock tube (SPST) has been de- asa, ('enrrenbauwliseneshuJt 1, tIt P . a9uL `vBloped into an, effective tool for studics 11. B. K. Brnnn.,kii and tc.. a Kuna,fieva, of homo as hasc kinetics . Akud. Nauk SSSR Oiogeokhlm. Lab. r'r. ], geneous g P (3). : 3t (1935). - : One may thus expose a sample of gas ta R. S. Ru,.eu Ann. Re,•.Twnr t•hyet°L u. 289 :. the species of interest highly diluted _. U963). . : ~ ,.. . . ~ ( 13. W:. V; Mayncurd, R. C.-Tarner, r. M. Rad-With argon, 90 to 99 percent) to a tem- - 1ly; Nmurr 1e7: 208 ([960): . . . 1l. A.. A- Drobkuv, Sorter Agr.,n. v(9), as perature pulse of known intensity and (t949)--.-duration(dwelltime),.uadercompletely 15. We Nank thefolkw•inRton theii assistmxe: l. Anen,.J. M. Carr, J. F. Chavun, E. ':".homogeneous conditions, such that wall Hardy, S- B. Henddcks, C. O. lenscry R. R- effects are negligible. Indecti, the shock '.Klhcaid~. l. D. Miles, M. Meycr; J. M. Moselep, and B. C. -Nichols: atso John tube walls are at room temperature and ' - trarlq fur hit intmest In this refearch and _„e therefore' cannot be a' source of atoms, z'oaaba 1964 ~' as is unavoidably the case when the . . .. . ,,..-op- 6osr b,n,rc rnmeathrnnnlei, Vibrational Excitation in Some Four-Center Transition States . . Abstract. The rates of substitution of d'eureriumfor hydrogen in homogeneous gas phase reactionr between Dr and HX (X = H, Cl,. NH„ or HS) were measured at high temperatures bysingle-pulSe shock tube techniques. The magnititdes ob- served and their dependencyy on concentration indicate that the rates of exchange are much faster than would be attainable were the deuteriron to dissociate and the D atonu to react with HX by atomic displacement to produce H} DX. . Atso,, these rates were not [fntited by methathesis through /uur-center transition states generated bysujficiently energetic collisions between t{ie principaf reactants. _ The results are. compalible with rhee assumption that the rates are controlled by : the populations of D. in about its 6th vibrational energy level. - The model system for a nlethathesis lyced by the walls of the reaction vessel reaction in the gas phase is: - and to reach equilibrium rapidly, and . . - ~ `sn atomic displacement .. . Ha+D,~2HD .. . . .. .-H+ .DR~t-f---D.:.. D.-~HDfD;: Soon after the discovery uf deuterium , ,- ehisreaction was studied both in a D+ H,.-. D•-• H--- H-+ HD + H. fixed volume' and in hot tubeMow re- ' actors (I). This step, which designatesa chain Under these conditions it was dem- process, determines the ratee of ex- onstrated that the reaction involves a change. Thesecond step is the classic dissociation .; prototype for tke linear threecenter h H • H Ha>r2H ), t e one - ..-transltlon state (H •• for which theorizts concerned with ab- -- solutereaction rates computed their which is'rclativelyslow in the gas phase first potential energysurfaces and esti- but is assumed to be effectivefy"eata- mated oti an absolute basis the rate of to NOVEMBER 196{ the walls of the vessel, Several H-D ex- change reactions have been studied in this. manner (4). -' However,, when we first attempted to analyze the resultsfrom the pairs of re- actants,. (H: + D~)) and (HCI + D_),, we encountered perplexing inconsistencies. The rate constants calculated on the basis of~ a bimolecular procecsinvolving . a four-ccnter transition state were scat- tered to a greater extent than is general- ly observed for experiments with single- pulse shock tubes (see 5); the magni- tudes for these rate constants were. 10 to 100 times' larger than the maximum computed from bimolecular collision theory. Finally, the data obtained at high temperatures were not compatible with results obtained by conventional techniqucs,., in view of the lower ap- parent activation energies deduced from ourshock tube runs: . . Thekeye to the puzzle was provided by the study of H-D exchange between (1): + NH,) and (D: + HS) (6)., In both cases the rate of production of HO followed the relation: - d(HD)/dt s k(Ar) (Da), (1) " being zero order in NH, or HS, Hcnce, ., the step controlling the rate cannot he . the bimolecular encounter between the -principal reactants, In both cases it ::...OQ7'79!F+7-l-. tds
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19R 1.Irun,ti. St:ut~tct's Jno~u..at. ur'Cacauv-.\f %u,.n I9q~~. . that the actiritY could be Icachetl our of tobacco by stcamin~; it in c I,,il~:, lator. The liquor distillcd off frum the unburnt Fnlant m:ucri.d sa,.r,.uc,il to be radioactivee and the solid rernnant %cas fimnd: tn lic incrt. \116c liquor was cvapuratrd to dnncssi it Inst snme of its activit\•, ;r, if tl>n,,.J, due to an isotolic,.suclt as. iodine, that icotdd ecaporata. 11, XAl of Tivontokindlv examined a further samplc of tobacco stallc.r'; ar,,,r;in;tc the possihilltv that it %ras concentratiag up.caesiunt like it did rubidium. Caesiumcc Acas not detected from his santplunur n crr 7o rPr Ru isotopes that are.prescnt in fall out frorn test explosiuns. - ._ - -I The actual decar curve of the tobacco stalk ash wasthcrcf,,rc r~~:nlr~rrd %vith the rates of decay of the components released durin4 thc \I disaster in the fall of 1937.. There ~casobviouslp cloxe c;mrcyntc,mc bet.recn the~ dccav curve of these components and that acru.dlr frpnnd. ' The only possible explanarion that fits all the experuncntal farr, i, that - these plants growing in a. London garden were heavilY.contaruin.ucd by material similar to that released when the reactor at Windscale wn.c %a ron5. The.only-troubltdis ehat the plants were.picked before the Wind,c.dc acci- dent arrdd could not have been contaminated in this particular ac: idenr. Plants gathcred after the reported accident at Windscale were Ic„ radio- e aetiv.e than before the, accident and milk-samples from the London arc.i also were found after the accident to be free of activity. • It is therefore necessary to w'ithdra.vthe complaint I had.publi,hrd in the - British Medical Journal that Russian fall out was responsible fr,r these radioactive measurements made in London, unless of course the Russians were releasing vast quantities of material similar to that .vhich c,r.rpcd at Windscale. - -- Wheat straw from Rothamstead and other vegetation from the gardcns where the tobacco .vas grown decayed at approximately the s:mre- rate as the tobacco.Nb world wide contamination of this magnitudr b.rs becn' reported and we must therefore wonder whether contaminnri,mi frutn .Windscale occurred before it grew to such an acuce problem thar it was . detected locally at the plant. - ., The \Vindscale puff may nor have been itss first puff and it mnv have been puffino atcav merrilv for weeks before the faub na, dct.ctcd. This is'of cottrsc surmise but there was sufficient cwmplaccncc lni„r tu this accident to justify the need for medically qualified radio bitdl.r,ts to keep a carcful' yt'atch on the activities of thesc clever nuclear ph.~.•i,r,, if w'e aroto survive the rigours of the atotnic age thev have so .ur,, .,fullr -. released upon ns. An attempt must surely lie made nnse fur wcJ:•'.il. andl bir,luSi.call science to keep abreast of nuclear physics. - -: . The cooperation of all concerned in these grave ura1err, i,.ltr.ui:iidly acktiotrlcdred and rrithout exception ecerestep in the above rc,,.uah h.tss heen a free service rendered in order to solve the pruldent uf achc tlu'u• tobacco stallcs were radioactive• 00749253
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POLONIUM-210 AND LEAD-210 IN TOBACCO PLANTS 425 *aus. 96fi) s nf !Hi01 mri4 uum- rttrs, J. n. cml. I10 in 19. Varirtirs and curing methoda. Agroaamy J': 60, 6:.0[IV. T:q T. C. nnd FISF.NNE 1. ('1968) TranSlp[abOn and distribution of Icad-210 and polonium-210 supplied to tobacco plants. Radiation[lotany 6, 457-462. 20. WYNDr.R li. L. and HotmmANn D. (1967) Tobacco and tobacco smoke, pp. 49fr501. In, Studis.ri in cap<riiarntaf caainogenqu. Academic Prtas. New York 2L WYNDER E. L and HnrrbANN D. (1968) Towards a.lcxs harmful cigarette. Nafl. Canur lnst. Manngrap5 28, 262-203. 22. WvNDER E. L.. and HorratAtut D. (1969) . Carcinogcnecityof tobacco smoke constituents. Scienn 165, 312-313.
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422 V. V. ATHALYS and K.II. MiS77tY RESULTS AND DiSGUSSION Data on comparative uptake and transport of t10Po and P10Pb in .N. tabacum L., ev. Delerest and cv. Virginia gold are reported in Table 1. Data show that in both varictics massive accumulation of the radionuclides occurs in the roots and the quantities transported to aerial tissues represent a small fraction of their total plant content. The Tab/e l. Comparatioe uphake and nunsJprt ofT'°Pn and staPb by !ta° tabarcu oarieein Duration of radionuclide treatment =70 days rontainiug full-strcngth nutrient solution la.lxllcd wirb pnlnnium-210 or Icad'-2100 and grown to dirstagg whenin0oresccncc emerged. '1'he full-sircnglh nutrient solution containcd K+ 3-0; Ca", 8-0; Mg's, 3-0; Ni)s-, 10.0; SE)4-', 3-0; H_I'O,-, 1•0;; mcquiv/I. tngr.thcr with nticrnntdricnts Fe, Mn,. Cty Zn,.12 and Mo- The pH or thr solution was 5-0. This nutrient solution corresponded to the Long Ashtnn nutrient solution(s) ) modified to replace Na* by K+,(sl. The experimcnts were conducted in a growth room maintained at 23 f l"C and65 f2 per cent relative humidity. The plants were kept at 12.hr photoperiod and 800 ft-c light intensity. Separate experiments were conducted for each radionuclide which wass added in carrier free state to the full-strength nutrient solution. The activity levels employed were 7 uCi/jar of "oPo and 5 uCi/jar of 210Pb and five replicate jars were maintained for each treatment. Duration of radionuclide treatment was 70 days and trans- piration losses from the solution were made up daily with distilled water. Adequate nutrient supply was maintained; by adding equal volu.rres of the nutrient solution to each jar at weekly intervals. After treatment,, the roots were separated from shoots and the entraincd solution was removed from roots by blotting. The shoots were further divided into stem, various pairs of leaves starting fFont the base and inflorescence and dried at 90°C. Since the pair of sand leaves genescedbefore commencement of thc radin- nuclidc treatment, these leaves werenotr-nllected for asaay. For 2101'b assay dry plant sarnplcs wcre.packcd in pyrc-x vials;cnd its 47 kcVgamma peak was mcasurcd.(t) R10Po in plant samplcs was separated by its spontancous cle.r.trochrmical deposition on silver (hSCS from clear wet ashed extracts and its alpha activity was assaycd using a low background ZnS(?1g), scintillation counter- The nitrate free extracts were transfcrrcd In plating flasks in hydrochloric acid (pkf 0-3) medium. Ascorbic acid (0-l gJg dry weight) was added to reduce any Fe+s imthe extract and spontaneous deposition of210Po on silver discs was accomplished by heating at 80°C with continuous stirring for 2 hours. This procedure which was closely similarr to that nf FRANCIS rt al.t°t gave recoveries of 9II f 1 per cent in several trials. Since each plant tissue sample contained only one radionuclide, no inucrference from other nuclides occurred during radioassay. All radinassay data were corrected for reagent and detector background. , I present fin reported ea nutrient 5ol I that, nvc-: extent of ut as indicatct grcaterin c although tl dry mattcr- Data on tissues (Ta D°Po cone of leaves : leaf up th, cv. Virgin tion of sr, leavesthoa with progt less mark upward tr. The rclati nuclidc in rolc as thc The dis reveals a C Weight of dry matter, g Radionuclide content, nCi* Transport Varieties Shoot Root Shoot Root indext Delcrest 43-6 3-6 Polonirun-210 2-73 f 0•60 237-21 ± 31-60 1•14±0-tt<J Virginia gold 33•9 3•8 559 t 0•62 307-65 t 60-00 1•79 t 0-34 Delerest 24-9 1-9 Lead-210 2M7 f 0•91 4099-26± 86•87 0•49 t0-05 Virginia gold 25-4 PB 13-83 t 1 di8 2334• 10 t 198-20 0-59 t 0-07 'Average valuc ± S.E. tTransport index= Shoot content x 100. . Total plant content ~
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Radiation F°tany, 1972„Vo1. 12, pp. 421 to 425. Pergamon Press.. Printed in Crea~ Br~tatn:- -R • CO P 1 rePiq ,v. 7. (b'UY 91973 UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLONIUM-210 AND LEAD-210 IN TOBACCO PLANTS V. V. ATHALYE and K. B. NIISTRY Biology and Agriculture Divi°ion,Rhabha Atomic Resrarch Centre, Trombay, Bombay, India (Rsmaed 20)uly 1972; reaired) AtttAL4¢ V. V. and Mtsrav K. B. Uptake anddistriburian ufpolonium-210 andlead-210 in tobacso plants. RADIATUN'B6rANY 12, 421f425, 1972.-The uptake and distiibution ofpoloniiun-210 and its long-lived precursor lead-2 10 in two tlue-cured tobacco varieties (Xirotiana tabaeumL. ev.. Dclerest and cv. Virginia gold),, were cxamined in nutrient culture experiments. The aeeumulation of thcxec radionuclides was greatest in the mots.. Over idcntical durations of growth, the extcnt of upwartl transport of46OPo and tt°Pb was relatively greater i.n ev. Virginia gold.. The distribution of thce radionuclides in aerial tissuu followed an acropetal gradient suggesting thatY1°'Po and °10Pb concentrations in leaftobaeco used for cigarette production would be reduced if leaves other than the oldest pairs are harvested. INTRODUCTION between harvesting and smoking also contributes t IN aHn past decade considerable interest has to the polonium content in leaf tobacco. ts,ra,n,ta been evinced in the levels of polonium-210 and IIardly any quantitative data are available on t its long-lived precursor lead-210 in leaf tobacco. the accumulation of z20Po and Y1QPb by didferen Since 81pPo is.volatile at temperatures attained varieties of flue-cured tobaccoral and the - C in the smoking process('.1°) it is present in the distribution of these radionuclides in different main-stream smoke and is inhaled thereby leaves of the tobacco plant:(tsl becoming a source of radiation to the.tissues of .N. tabatum L. cv. Delcrest and cv. Virginia d therespiratorytraet.(ttl - goldarewidclycultivatedinIndiaforflue-cure Following the measurement by Ltrrce eial. (11) tobacco(10) and mature leaves of these varieties t of S10Po levcls in pulmonarytissues of cigarette are normallyharvested for cigarette tobacco. I smokers, several investigators have reported was of interest, therefore,, to examine the com- higher levels of this radioelement in lungs and parativa uptake and distribution pattern of . other soft tissues of smokers than in those of Y1OPo and S10Pb in these two tobacco varieties non-smokcrs.te.<•°l. The possible role of the The present communication reports ourstudies , alpha activity ofSOPo as an initiator of bronchial on thescaspects. cancers is, however, a subject of considerable eontrovcrsy.(1°Js,so-as). bIATGRIAIS AND METHODS While strong evidence is available to suggest SeedlingsofN.s tabacumL. ev: Delcrcst and.N. that absorption through the root is the major tubacum L. cv. Virginia gold weree raised fro m route of entry of EioPo in the.tobacco plant.tts•r^- seeds supplied by Central Tobacco Research t'> it hasbecn observed that polonium Icvelsin lnstitutc, Rajahmundry in quartz sand for four . leaves of tobacco grown in the field are related weeks and transferred to 1000 ml polythene to its content in atmospheric precipitation.(") jars containing half-strength nutrient solution The in-growth of polonium from lead-240 for a two-week period. The plants were subse- during the growing season and the interval quently transferred to 1500 mt polythene jars 421 F( ' ! . ' ~ tf % . I (t ; i ttt7 ' ( }}} ~ O a ~ E` i. ~t lt4f' (D N N tP ~
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POLONI1lM-210 AND LEAD-2t0 IN TOBACCO PLANTS' 423 present findings arc compatible with those reported carlicr forother plant: species grown in nutricnt solution.tsl. It.is also evident from Table I that, over identical durations of growth, the extent of upward transport of st"Po and atoPb as indicated by transport indiccs,.wasrelatively greater in cv. Virginia gold than in cv. Delcrest although the Shoot/Root ratio of the.weight of dry mattcr was.lowcr in cv. V i~rginia gold. Data on the distribution of 21OPo in aerial tissues (Table 2) indicate that in cv. Delerest concentration in leaves of cv..belcrest as well as ascv. Virginia gold. Our data on the distribution of polonium in tobacco plants under conditions of continuous absorption of the radionuclide through roots support the observation of Tso andFtsetvNECts) that. Pt"po content in the younger upper leaves of N: trsbacum. L. cv. Maryland catterton was lower than in the older lcaves. The present finding that distribution of radiolcad follows a marked acropetal gradient is not in agreement TabG 2. Diu.ibokan of +t^Pn in aerial tiamtt of ttuo tobauo vmirties Duration of1OPo trcatment=70daya. nrt nl taud Ilat" ation d' t' . •Iltr 21OPo content (pCi/g dry wt). Plant part Delcrest Vitginia gold Stem 38-8 56-3 I.eavef First Second Third pair 455-1 264-9 191-7 1157•2 266-7 839-8 Fourth n 74•2 191•5 Fifth 42'•4 124•8 Sixth 10-2. I86•9 Seventh 9.5 J68•9 Eighth . 9•2 159-1 Ninth 8-2 86•1 Tenth 6•3 176•9 Eleventh g•8 n.d. Inflorraeence 8-5 n.d. nd.=not detected. rtOPo concentration was highest in the first pair of leaves and decreased with each succeeding leafup the stem from the base to the apex. In cv. Virginia gold p3ants.the greatest concentra- "tion of 21OPo was also attained in the oldest leaves though reduction in radionuclide content with progressively younger leaves was relatively less marked probably due to the enhanced upward translocation of polonium in this variety. The relatively low concentrations ofYhe radio- nuclide in the stem are largely due to its principal role as the conducting organ. The distribution pattern of 51°Pb (Table 3) reveals a distinct acropetal gradient of radiolead with the data of Tso and FrsEN-w.tral who repnrted higher levels of this ra,l , lide in younger upper leaves than in older ~• •~.cr leaves of the tobacco plant. Our work in progress.also indicates a clear acropetal distribution of radio- Icad in the leaves of Red Kidney bean (PhascoGta ualgaris L.). The present findings suggest that concentra- tions ot 21OPo and its long-lived precursor °OPbinleaftobaceousedforcigaretteproduetion would be rcduced if leaves other than the oldest pain are harvested. Since the norrnal practice of harvesting flue-cured cigarettee tobacco in- volves collection of matured basal leavest10> any
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424 V. V. ATHALYE and K.. B. MISTRY Table 3. Distribntinn nf r1oPb inaerinl tisaves af tnu lobucco oadetiu Duration of"°Pb treauncnt=70 days Varieties 650-652. 14. TsoT.C ttaPb content (pCi/g (try wt). and distr- Plant part DelcrcytVirginia gold supplied 457-462. Stem 919-5 631-6 20. WmoeR Leavcs First pair 4104-6 3185•1 Tobacco Second „ 1071-7 1189•5 Third 489-7 315-8 Fourth 341-9 237-3 Fifth 269-5 218-3 Sixth 143-6 180-5 Seventh 145-4 '27•g Eighth 23-6 31•5 Ninth 22-7 17-6 Tcnth 15-4 9-8 InBorceccnce 27-3 68-3 recommendation for modification nFthis practice wtntld have to take into account its possible efCeetn on parameters such as colour and textura ofleaftobacco.. REFERENCES 1. ATHALYE V. V. and MisrRY K. B. (1972). Feliar retention, transport and lraching of polonium- 210 and lead-2 10. RadiationBorany 12, 287-290. 2. BLANCHARD R.. L. (1967)Cuncentrations of ssnPb and rr°Po in humansoft'tissuts. Health:' Physfcs 13, 625-632. 3.. D'SouzA T. J. and Mtsrav K. B. (1970) Com- parative uptakeof thorium-230, radium-226, lead-2I0 and polonium-210 by plants. Radiatiun. Botany 10, 293-295. 4. . FERSU E: S: and BARATrA E. J. (1966) Polonium- 270 in tobacco, cigarette smoke and selected human organs. Publie HealthRept. U:S: 81, 121-127. 5. Pitwrcts C. W. and CnESreRS C.. (1967) Radio- active ingrowth of polonium-2l0 in tobacco plants. Agr.. Food Chem. 15, 704-706. 6. FRANCIS C. W., CHESTERS G. and ERHARDT W. H. (1968)ssOPolonium entry into plants. Fr/mran..Scf. Trchnol. 2, 690-695. 7. _GnarnRY L. P. (1965) Polonium-210 in leaf tolsarro front fnurcouneriar..Srirnce 150, 74-76. 8. 1 Irwrrr P.,,). (190(i) .17mr( anrl trmlrr ctdnoa mrlhrnlr asrd in rhestmly of plant notrition, pp. 187-246. Technical communication No. 22 (Iteviscd' 2nd. ' ed.). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, England. 9. Hot.TZSrAN: R. B. and Is.ceam-.z F. H. (1966) Lcad-2l0 and polonium-:' - in tissua of cigarette smokers. Science 157, t 1?60. 10. INDtAN CEmrTRAO. Taewcco Cowrert-res. (1960) Indian tobaccn. Indian Central Tobaeco Commil- tee, Madras, 413p.. I L. Ln-rL6 J. B-, RADPORD E: P. JR., McCouns H. L. and HvNTV. R. (1965) Distribution ofpolbnium- 210 in pulmonary tissues of cigarette smokers Nero Bngl. J. Med. 273, 1343-1351. 12. MnRSDEN' E. (1964) Incidence and possible significance of inhaled or ingested polonium. Nbture 203. 230-233. 13. RAnsoxnElP.andHttNtV.R.(d964)Polonium- 210:A volatile radioclemcnt in cigarettes. Science 143, 247-249. 14. RADFORD E. P.,.IIuNr V l R- and LtnLa J. B. (1969). Carcinogenecity of tabacco-smoke con. stituents. Science 165, 312 15 TNaRovAL CouLECe or PuvstcuNs or LoNDON (1971).Smoking andbealthnom. Pitman Medical and Seientific Publishing Co., Lnndoq 148 p. 16. Tso T. C., HALLDEN N. A. and:At.exANDER L. T. (1964) Radium-226 and polonium-210 in leaf tobaeeo and tobaeeo soil. Science146, 1043-1045. 17. Tso T. C-, HARLEY N. and ALExANUFR L. T. (1966) 'SSource oflcad-210 nndpolonium-210in tobacco. Scirnce.153,.FR111 11212. 18. C,:cARRJ.M..PRRRIl'..s..aHttIlAttATrA E: J. (1968) Agronomic facton alfccting polonium-210 and lead-210levds in tobacco II.
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Smokl.,p Abcbim ( Ma,mheam rmoke collectw ) f 0.3M HCI.Sc•ebbo Figure 1. Apparatus for polonium-210 balance study ume of the puff. The puff is produced by a reduction in pressure occurring when the water column in a burette is allowed to fall. The volume of the puff is controlled by regulating the rate at which water flows from the burette.. The standard smoking procedure was eight puffs of two seconds duration, 36 cm' per puff, with a 60-second interval betzve=_n puffs (14)- This procedure was modified only in the ex-s periments on the effect of puff size on polonium- MouFh-piece Graduared Cyfi 210 in mainstream smoke. The arrangement nder of apparatus for collecting mainstream and sidestream smo?<e during balance studies is shown in figure 1. "Mainstream" meanssmoke taken into the mouth. "Sidestream" is smoke from the burning tip not taken into the mouth. The. scrubbers, which collected smoke and pa- lonium-210, contained 150 ml of 0.5 N HCI. The filters, which collected particulates and polonium-210, consisted of Whatman 541 pre- filters backed by 0.45 micronMetricel filters, type CA-6. A limited amount of data was. colleeted to check on thee puff volume of smokers. Thee ap- paratus used for this experiment is shown in figure 2. The procedure for measuring puff vol- ume was as follows: the subject was allowed to draw several cigarette puffs with the stopper removed ; the stopper was then quickly inserted just prior to a puff and the maximum height of the water column..read- This procedure was-- - repeated at least four times. Temperature measurements were made on cigarettes during ama'kin gking by use of 0.003-inch 146 Flher. 0.314 Hfl Scrubber ( Side,beom smoke collecter ) Cigarette Glass Stopper / - Water Fi~lled' Cylinder Figure 2.. Puff measuring apparatus diameterPt-10c/a Rh thermocouples and a 10 mV recorder. The thermocouple was inserted in the center of the cigarette (pushed into thecigarettc from the side): 200 mm behind the tip. The temperature wass measured as the coall passed through the portion containing the ther- mocoupie- The temperature of mainstream smoke was measured by placing the thermo- couple immediately behind the cigarette dur- ing smuking. . Sampling for polonium-210 in the laboratory air was performed with air samplers equipped with Whatman 541 prefilters followed by 0.45micron membrane filters. The samplers were Radiaiogieal Health Data and Reporta 00'7492s2
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Table 2. Balance study on arti0eially xmnker4 eignrellra for palnnism)-210 in p(;i/ciAnre111•' ! /0 IC D 4' ,E Figure 4. Variation or polunium-2101h mainstream smoke as a function of puff size ,r ..... 1..r ,.c..i.n,..uv. __ 7 ...................... . 3_----` ...................... x....-...._____ . 1 ............................. ___ e.i,m,e..__------------------ . • l'hr .,dnniun,-+_ 10 rantrnl e/ wi,nlo<iKSmllce hom Ihe enme nnck +vse 0./7ato. )OB. VCi/eiearctta. 63 +'e~nr le Is rmmcircx rrru.. loniu m-210 recovered from the variods frac- tions represents quantitative recovery of the amount in unsmoked cigarettes from the same pack, within the counting error limits. The effect of puff size on poloniu7n-210 con- tent in mainstream smoke is shown in figure 4. The smoking procedure was standard, only the volume of each puff being changed. The variation in puff size for humans smoking ciga- rettes.has been reported as 27 to 61 cnN (15). This range is indicated on figure 4. Data on puff size, using the apparatus stiown in figure 2, were obtained fromm three subjects,, as shown In table 3, and' are in reasonable agreement with this range. Iln(d AwL~w Hi/•N,rnm Mwin.n~nm '11n.1,•rn.rn,l aul;a.a1/ O.o0sf0.0on 0_zzlL0.olY0 n.nx„)n.nue 0.PIB10.0ap .nsf .ml .Oa7t .007 .31cI Obr .0211 .003 .IiY,L .a)1 .[s]i .011 .OVc .an6 .2]0} .0nu7. nr, / .nm .sn3 t .me :7sOx .mi . .wzd .ao0 .zTit .006 naBl 0ux .l6)3 .On O.lest0:0)0 ao7/30.Orr O.zz3~0.010 0.03]3.0.00Y. 0./8030_oli Table 8. Cigarette puff volume of laboratory personnel m Aeenpe BO H 70 The data in figure 4 show that polonium-210 content. not only increases with putf sizee but also the concentration increases. The routine smoking procedure was 8 puffs per cigarette, regardlesss of puff size. Therefore, if each of the puff sizes in figure 4 is multiplied by 8 puffs per cigarette to get the total volume inhaled, and the total pCi in mainstream smoke is divided by this volume, then the concentrations obtained are as shown.in table 4. A probable explanation for this effect iss thatthe ratio of smoke to air increases as the volume per puff increases.. 148 Table 4. Concentration of polnnium-210 in mainstream smoke (8 puffs) pufi ei.e le,eq Inhnled! vnlumn /cm') ]ot.) pCi ]0 pci/cmr O zs-----------------'- 200 a.00i. 0. oaaan a6..._._._'---"----- 268 .0R00 .000100 //------------'-'-'-- 332 .0H1 .000126 6z___________________ /96 .0763 .o001az I The polonium-210 content of air in the labo- ratory is Indicated by the data in table 5. The concentration ranged from 0.52 to 3.02 fCi/m". This suggests that the volumeof air used dur- ing smoking a cigarette would- contribute no measurable. polonium-210 to either the main- stream smoke or the butt of the cigarette. Radiological Health Data and Reporta- 0o749zs4 t -A 1
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I C;n fnrperiods.of 12 to 24 hours at flow rates of either 20 liters min or 100 liters/min. These samples were Ialern tu dctermine the contribu- tion, if any, or pnlonium-!1t/ to the cigarettess by the atmaspheria air drawn throughthem during smokin7,;. The ellicicncy of contmerci:d cigarette filters for removalnf pnloniurn-2f0 from mainstream smoke was delcrmined by removing the filters from sonic cigm•etteev in a puck, smoking the cigarettes by the standard method, and meas- uring the polonium-210 in the mainstream smoke. Cigarettes from the same pack were analyzed, with the filters intact, by the same method for comparative purposes. The three I t ~ ~ '. ~ common types of filters (cellulose, charcoal impregnated paper, and granular charcoal) were checked for filtration efficiency. Resalts The results of tobacco drying experiments ` indicate that a 25-hour drying time was re- quired quired to attain constant weight. The samples consisted of five cigarettes each. 1'he samples ~ were transferred to a desiccator and allowed cool 30 minutes before weighing. ISubsamples of the 25-pound control sample were analyzed for polonium-210 and also for ~, homogeneity.. Polonium-210 results of five random samples show an average polonium-210. content of 0-559 i- 0,010pCi/gram of tobacco. These results.indicate a high degree of homo- II genei'ty of the'sample. Two experiments were performed to deter- mine the extent of eln•ichmentt of polanium- 210, if any, in the cigarette butt. In the first experiment, a total of 12 cigarettes was smoked by the standard smoking procedure and the butts analyzed for polonium-210. In the secondd experiment, cigarettes were smoked and suffi-cient butts collected to give a total of 200 mm of length. Polonium-210 analyses on whole cigarettes were also made. The cigarettes weighed' between. 0.96 and 1.01 grams and the counting error was about 0.018 pCi/gram of 0.003 pCi/mm. The average.polonium-210 con- tent fortvhole cigarettes was 0.483 pCi/gram (0.0075 pCi/mm) and 0.477 pCi/gram (0.0076 pCi/mm) for butts. On both the unit weight and unit length bases, there wasno polonium- 3 C10 enrichment in the butt of the cigarette dur- March Marcn 198a A ing smoking. Thiss conclusion was further verified by collecting sequentially pulTs of smoke on separate filters, 'I'he results in table I show the concentralion of pnlunium-210 in mainstream smoke to. be constant, or within two standard deviations of the mean. Table I. Main®lream p.lnnium-210 aum a functinn nf puffff nhmbrr }ii~r IM,ifion r„n. cullc clcJ clcJ I~f'I~Inln t FJ 3 1 ~-s o-> t-N • a.olY15K.U.onn4 _naYrf nnoz .nali:e .nnn'1 .aouo- ouoz "e lona ol eii 51tcr p prrs occ°rad on r, mpo.itin6. The maximum coal temperatures during ma- chine smoking of 10 cigarettes averaged 720° C. with a range of 664° to 812°C. The tempera- ture of mainstream smoke is shown in figure 3 as a function of number of puffs. The smoke entering the mouth remainsats constant tem- perature for the first six standard puffs. The results of the balance study on smoked cigarettes.are shown in table 2. The total po- N ~ N N . . . . ,. „ Figure 3. Mainelresm mmnke temperature as a lunelfOn of puff number 147 l
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N y}~ ~,... t i:r,j ~e af ~99 i ~ tf'~ C oltmiunl-21Q in Tobacco Stuart C. 131ac1r and. Erich 4V. Brettl:auer' Reports ~ Variations of polonium-210 content in tobacco, the amountt of poloniun-210in various fractions of smclsed cigarettes and cha.nges in pvlunitnn-L10 content of mninstrcam sinokc causedl by variation, inthc snmking procedure have beeID determined. The average polonium-210 content for whole cigarettes was found to be 0.483 pGi/gram and 0.477 pCI. Franr for butts. No pulnnium-210 enrichment In the.butt. of ciea- rettcs dorinl±smokina was.foundl Poloniom-'L10 content and concentra- tion in mainstrcam smoke increases with puff sir.e. Thee initial paper of Radford and. Hunt (1) reporting the presence of polonium-210 in cig- arettes and the possible efiectss of the alpha particles as a cocarcinogen for initiating lung cancer in cigarette smokers prompted. many I experiments which have attempted to define ` the problem more exactly (2-11)_ Because of ~. the uncertainty in lung deposition, equilibrium IQ/ rates,, smoking procedures anddose cal'cula- tions, some disagreement about the significance of pol'onium-210 in tobacco has arisen (12). I' ~•. experimental program was undertaken to termine the variation of polonium-210con- ;tent in tobacco, the amount of poionium-210~ in various fractions of smoked cigarettes and changes in polonium-210 content of main- stream stream smoke caused by variation in the smok- ' iug procedure. I Methods I All.paper, butt,, filter, and tobacco sa.nples were wett ashed by the nitric- perchloric-acid' ptocedure (13). After plating on silver foil, the samples were counted in an internalpropor- p propor- tional counter operating on the alpha-particle piateau. Operating on this pkttcau, up to 6,000 dpm of beta radioactivity contribute no counts to the alpha-particle count of the foil. The two alpha-particle counters used'in this study had background count rates of 1.8 and 1.9 tounts/hour and had an efTicfency of 45.9 per- I pr. Black in prujecr director and Dlr.. Bretthauer u yreject chemist• Southwestern Radiological Healtn l.tFbratory,O Las Vegas, Nev. ~ March 1968 (I cent as determined by counting a calibrated aged radium D-E-F source. Reagent blanks, when run through the same glassware used for samples, contributed no alpha radioactivity above background when counted up to 70 ' hours: Recovery of added poionium-210, car- ried through the entire digestion and plating procedure, was quantitative. All samples were counted long enough to obtain at least. 500 to'ri rounts. A control rample consisting of 25 pounds of tobacco '..;Is preparedd forinternar quality control'. This sample will also be used to pro- vide aliquots for analysis by other laboratories. If the results are reported for cigarettes only, e.g.,, pCi/cigarette,, then a consistent weight basis is unimportant, but where com- parisons are to be.made between portions of a cigarette, or among cigarettes, cigarsi, and pipe tobacco, the weight basis becomes important. All results expressed as "per gram" are based on.theweight of the tobacco after drying under reduced pressure (15 mm Hg and'43° C.). In all experiments on smoking, a standard smoking procedure was followed using a corn- mercial smoking machine.= The smoking ma- chine is designed to take a constant puff on each of four cigarettes once each minute for col- lection of smoke. The volume of the pufi` may be varied from 10 to 65 cm' and the duration of the puff may be varied from less than one eecond to four.seconds,.depending on the vel- r%tmerican Smoker," Phip.ps, andHiru, Imc., Rich- mond, Va. 145 ,
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b Table A.Rdnnium-2t0. nn6lysis of laboratory '~ l~.Ih.~r~.~n n~rl. air 1'.~nrv.nlml'ilm Invi, • LV. b- ~od.u r fl r,Jiia 1-0 Ii nn.•). .. 91n; hiduvulrnun( 1?'rnhir L.a"mmntr). The polonium-210 content in the butts and collected ashes of cigarettes smoked by ma- chine is compared in table 6 to similar samples from cigttrettes smoked by laboratory person- nel. These data indicate that smoking by ma- chine provides a reasonable duplication of the results obtained from human smoking. Table 6. Potonium-210 content in butts and ashes after human or matnine smoking. c.tl.ar>- . V6. nber of eicarettr-._ n.at length nnml__._._ +~. N~nr_h(::/dnn..r.r._____ Putt-yCi/6ranl......... Numan emukcr' Trial : a 22-31 0 16:5 .f&9 Trial Z The poionium-210 content of various brands of ciicarettes,, cigars, and pipe. trtbaccoo is-shown in tables'.7 and 8- The pulunium-2f0carntent of several foreign hr:mdv of cig:[retlev is shown in table 9. The. cii;arettc papers from fuvr brands of cigarettes (100 of each) averaged only 0.003 pCi per cigarette, Brand Numbcr of eiq• ttee C rne.•uan (p(:I/clgem[Ir) '. C., .entr.tin~ (101i/pnln) ~ A----------- n ° ~ 7 O.M166 - 'O.M10630:OIS -------'---- C m .51u .e9e3 .0L/ .._____-_-__._ n l0 .527 ..5)e} .012 ______________ F% /U .56) .S66,i .01T -------------- F ' 10 .600 .6fiert .011 '°-----'_.° C lo , .59s .ss43 .015 -------•.----- eo .36T .122~ .019 ------------- 11 .191 ./303 .0[I Avenn-------- . J.620 • 3.elue ir 1.. conn[ivs ermr.. • Table 8. Polonium-210 content of domestic tobaccos Nu ber Number Nu.~.brr Tytt o( :. ~c l --- bnntle rle wa~n ~ir'RI (pCVA! Ciaamttes..... . 1 5 2 - 0.516 0.]ib-0.f.0u BmaIIClRara___- ' 2 t 2 .501 .eOL 505 we u~ 5 i. . I tob cc . P/ f •1 3 .d99 .Yt 5~0 nlsehlne mm.krr' Trial I 15 22-32 0,148 .52C Trial 2 15 ]t-32 0 A .16e 22 ~ AiJresoCi(rieen•t[e . r•rl7-----._-___ o.neaa.loe C~snCi/rnmU*lnari .9e0 1 1.06 rThe •nue nrrrokrr thnmen and machfne) .c•, vrd tur ceeh tri•I. ) r Table 9. Potonium-210' content of foreign cigarettes C ouni ry Brands aulyred Arenre (pCi/eta) '~ R•ela tpCl1c19) A.-enze fYCi/R)' Heape (6CiyR) Fnulend--------------------------- C.nuds r ~' 0.[5> 0.232-0.619 ~ 0.461 0.303-0.5e0 ____________________________ ERSnt_ i l .21f d91 .206- .22] .255 .223- .26e .. ------------------------- Finlnnd_____ ______________________ J . . .291 ------- .566 alf -.113 .630 ___._.iEt~ .7Gt Cennany_________________________ t .5[6 ----------- . se~ JePan__------------------- _______ ! .605 _es.- .890 .39e ~•.]ii .Mfli ___________ I - .5]1 -------------- - - 216 .- - . F.encc.-_------------------------- 1 - .626 - _............. .500 _ _ _____.. .. ex ------------------------ 1 . . •}90 ___________ 161 -------------- Hu..:n .............._._......_____ 1 .552 ___ ___________ . .600 -.___________. -------------- Table 10. Ef7iciencies of commercial Iftlters in removing Polonium-210 from mainstream emoke Ilrumi I Ty1r01frr xn xr,. Xli XL xr~t t•..n,mn„ .........:.........I~I .,... _ _.____ (`rnnhrw~__________ i'hnrn/W IMI+G rrllnlnnr lin. Ce11u1nM: erenular ensmod'; rcllulns tit~.. Cherc.~nl; eelliJ4..e: v.wnnlar nu,n•,MI ; lrn,o,..r rin.. _.. '~ telne I• r eeu.rriwr, wror.. / ~-vrch 196tD Cnnren[ranan ' withnul614n - (lrt:ycr..+i: Table.7. Polonium-210 content of domextic eigarelles , (non-frltcr type) Ceneenaw[ion [h GI[or+ (pCi/crnq •0.U19030.0012 .OtSOt .puu6 .0r5C; .00V0 .0165t .0009 .a1i6f .0010 .0179x .0000 m~mnvm n ss Sa 43 32E5 149
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I The effect of various types of commercial cigarette.filters on the concentration of po- tonium-210 in mainstream smoke i;sshozvn in thr data of table 10. hi.qrnaximl Any prngrum designod to moasurehumane rxposure frour vrnokinr; cigarcttes must use Komv unil'urnr refcrence method of artificially xmakinl:.the cigarettes.,,The standard method iuerl in these experiments is almost identical to one proposed by the. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (15) but, more importantly, It is a reproducible method and the polonium-210 analysis of various fractions of the smoked cigarette is in reasonable agree- ment with similar analyses on cigarettes smoked by laboratory personnel. This latter point is illustrated by the data in tables,3 and 6. An. unexpected finding is suggested by the fact.that there is no apparcnt.polonium-210 enrichment of the butt as the cigarette is smoked. We would have suspected such an enrichment, reasoning thatpclonium-210 vola- tilized by the hot coal would redeposit as the smoke cooled in moving through the remainder of the cigarette. Figure 3 indicates that the temperature of mainstream smoke is near room temlcrature despite the fact that it is gen- erated at a temperaturee of 720° C. Some of the possible reasons for the lack of redeposit of thee volatilized polonium-210 are that it was gen- erated as an uncharged particic which readily penetrated the€igarette tobaccos,, or that it was attached to very small particles that also passed through the tobacco, or that it was bound up in somee organic component of the smoke which carried it through the tobacco. The cellulose filters removed' about 52 percent of the polonium-210 while the charcoal, filtersre- moved only about 36 percent. This is similar to the etliciency of removal of particulate matter by each type of filter. Domestic cigarettes are fairly uniform in polonium-210 content, the range of the.average values being 0.375 to 0.609 pCi/gram. The range, for the cigars analyzed, was 0.284 to 0.811 pCi/gram and for pipe tobaccos was 0.235 to 0.540 pCi,igram. If polonium-210 con- ient.in iobaccos proves hazardous on further 150 experimentation, then tobaccos with low polon- inm-210 concentrations can be analyzedto de- termine which constituent, ¢:.e., species of to- baccoor type of treatment is rcepnnsible for the low value. 'Phis may be a desirable first step in minimir.inp! any hazard. The wide range (of poloniutn-210 conrent:rationv in fnr- eign tobaccos (lable 9) suy;y;cvtsthat there may be species or farming practices or treat• merrt procedureswhit:h modify the polonium- 210 content. Samples of cured native tobaccos from many foreign producers are being ana- lyzed to elucidate this point. In addition, smok- ing styles may modify the amountt of inhaledd polonium-210. Determination of the alpha-particle dosage to the lung of the smoker is, of course, one of the primary goalss of thisresearch program. Direct data which could be used to calculate a lung dosage is not available, but an estimate of the maximum possible dosage for a heavy smoker can be made, as a guide for other esti- rnates, by using some of the results herein. A l'ung, model isnot used becausee two important pieces of data are missing; i.e., the particle size of the polonium in tobacco smoke and the solu- bility of the particles. To obtain the maximum dosage, assume: 1. The average value for domestic cigarettes is 0.516 pCi/gram (table 8). 2. The mainstream smoke contains 0.076 pCi/cigarette for 62 cm' puffs (figure 4). 3. A subject smokes 2 packs (40 cigarettes) per day,. 4. Polonium-210 is retained in bronchi un- til decay. 5. One hundred percent of the polonium- 6. 210 is deposited in bronchi. Redistribution by ciliar movement and other processes increases concentration in certain areas by a factor of 10 ("hot Spots"). 7. The bronchial epithelium exposed weighs 20 grams (16).. Assumption 4 takes into account the pul- monary clearance classification of inorganic compounds proposed by the Task Group on Lung Dynamics for Committee fI of the ICRP (17). It is assumed the polonium-210, as. it exists in conjunction with the tobacco smoke aerosol, falls in class Y, avid retention. As- Radiological Health Data and Reports 00749266 1 I t t, 7
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i- sumptinn 5 reflects current thought in particle IC deposition; r.g., tho Task Oroup uses up to tt9.fi prrccnt ilepusitinn for• 0.02 MMAD ncro- sols (17), wlule Jacoln calcul.itrd 80 percent total dcpuAliim fnr muumbmodatoms (18). This implioa that the r.uiio,u,tivity addedd per ~ .. day will build up in the lung to a value equal to the radioactivity duy/y. The maximum dosage ¢ calculation is then: Dose - ('A) (p)' (C) (D) (E) (F) ~ (U) (H) (1) (J) I where, for calculation of the maximum dose, A = 0.076 pCi/cigarette (mainstream smoke concentration) B = 40 cigarettes/day (number of cigarettes smoked) C = 2.22 dpmjpCi (conversion factor) D - 1440 min-day (conversion factor) E = 5.3 MeVydisintegration (polonium- 210 alpha-particle energy) F= 1.6 x 10-° erg/MeV (conversion factor) G = 100 erg/gram-rad (conversion factor) H= 0.005 days.-' (decay constant) = x I = 20 grams (bronchial epithelium wei ght ) J - 10 -' rad,'mrad. (conversion factor) i0 which yields, maximum dose - 8.25 mrad/day The "hot spot" correction would therefore be ten times this value, or 82.5 mrad/day. A minimum dosage estimate for a heavy amoker can be made by assuming no buildup of polonium-210 in the bronchi, deposition of 25 percent, a 36 cm' puff size, and a "hot spoE" . cuncentration of 2.The.dose rate then becomes 3.2 x 10- ' t•ad day or 0.032 mrad/day. . The. range of dose rates thus calculated (0.032 to. 925 b mrnd;°day) can be compared to the bronchiaL dose rate, resulting from the short-lived radon daughters, calculated by Ja- cobi (18) or 0.39 to 0.79 mrad/day. These cal- culations imply that a two-pack per day ciga- rette smoker will add an alpha-particle dose rate to his bronchial tissue which is somewhere between 0.1 and 100 times the background dose rate. If the smoker's average dasee rate is near the middlc aff this range and if the relative biolotCical effectiveness for hroncho- genic cancer is as high as 10, then a si3Cnificanthazardt may. exist.. Finally, wc muyt compareamr rr~4idtls wit.h those of other wurkers in thef~cld r q., the data in references (1), (5) and (8).'thr valucs are not directly comparable because of differ- ences in smoking procedure. Using the d;d.ain figure 4 though,, an equation can be derivedto correct the data if the number of puffs and the puff size are known, viz: - fCi = (0.236X -5.0) (Y) where, fCi= femtocuries (10-" curies) in main- stream smoke, X- puff size in cmP;and Y = number of puffsper cigarette. Adjusting the data in the references by use of thiss formula results in good agreement among the various authors. Conclusions A standard smoking procedure is a necessity if results of cigarette smoking are to be com- pared. For a given number of puffs per cigarette, the amount of polonium-2100 and itss concentr~ tion in mainstream smoke increases with the sizeof an individual puff. Polonium-210 released by the burning to- bacco isnot readily removed from the smoke by either the tobacco it is moved through or,. to any great extent, by cigarette filtersof varionstypes. The assumptions and calculations made in this. report indicate that a subject smoking two packs per day of American cigarettes re-ceives an alpha-particle dose rate to his bron- chial tissue which is somewhere between a min- imum of 0_1 and a maximum of 100 times the alpha-particle dose rate delivered by the short- lived daughter products of radon at normaL atmospheric levels (18). There are so many un- knownsin this field that an attempt to use more precise figures or a given lung model would imply that we know a lot more than we do about the deposition of polonium in lung as a result of cigarette smoking. so / . Marcn T56s - _- 151
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A reduction in alpha-particle dose rate to the Iwrg tiasut;~ .':lu bc accomplished by selecting I>rcnnl- .eit.h a low pnlonium-Z10 concentration i{ it t:rn Lt• dentnnnllrntr.d that thiv cunc•.entra- lian iv u xt:lblc fcidure of individual brands. REFERENCES ' (1) RADFORD,.F... P..and V. R. HUNT. Polonium-210, 'A volatilc radioclemrnt in eigarettes... Science 143: 247-2-00 (danuary 17, 1964). (') E1SLEl(„ H. Polonium-210 and bladder cancer. Science 144:952 (May 22, 1964).. (3) SKRA))LE, K.. W., F. J. fIAUGHEY, and E. L. ALEXANDER. Polanium-21U in cigarette smokers. Science 116:86-87 ('August 6, 19G4). (4) YAViN, A. L,,G. DE PASQUALI, and P. BARON. Polonium inciharettee;n spectroscopic analysis. Na- ture 20:i:890-90n (February 27, 1965). (5) KELLEY, 'p. F. Polonium-210 content of main- stream cigarette smoke. Science. 149r537-538 (July 30, 1965). (6) GREGORY, L.. P. Polonium-2b0 in leaf tnhacro from four countries. Science. 150:74-76 (October 1, 1955). (71 BERGER, K. C., W. H, ERIiARDT, and C. W. FRANCIS. Polonium-210 analysis of vegetablee; cured and uncured tobaeco, andassociated soiis. Sci- ence 150:1738-1739 (December 24, 1965). 152 (8) TSO, T.. C.. N. A.. 11AI.LDKN„ and 1.. T. ALEX. ANDI!ilf. Itirdinm 221; mnl pnlnui:un •2)U In Iraf Ln-. hn tuharru anil. Sii,v,r r 1:4.:11b1S 1lb15(No- vrndvrmd 20, I(r64). (n) FF:Itltl• 1•i. ti• r.nd F:..1. nAhA9'•1•A. Pnlnniirm- 2111 iu bihnn.u, ri{ra.rnll.r xmr,k,:, :uid ~rd,-r4.vl )inman org,uis. Public I1caICh Rep 81:121 127 (Februnry. 1!/n6/. (lo). ItA.I1:WSKY, IS. and W. STAIILIIOF'F:N. Po- lnnium-2I11. arrtivity in thv IurrKS uf smokcrs. Nature 2U!I.:1:II12 .11J:1 (.Mvu-oh-26,, 19rG)._ (11) IIOL'f'LMAN, It„R.:md F..11. ILCEWICZ. Lrad'- 210.and polonium-210~ in tiiavucs of cigarotte emokcrs, Scicncc 153:1259-1260 (Septc•mher i), 190fi), _ (12) IIILL, C. lt. 1'olbnium-21U in man. Nature 208: 42:3-428 (Octaher.O0„ IJU5), (rd) BLACK, S. C: Low level polnainm and radiolead'' analysis. Health. Phys 7':87-9A (Derrmbrr 1961)'.. (14)' OGG, C.. L. Detcrminatium of particulate matter and'd alkaloids (as nicot',ine) in eiKarctte smukm J Aswx: Agr Chemists 47:a56 (1'Jfr4). (15) PFYL, B. 7.ur bestimmung des nirotins im ta- bakrauch II. Ztschr. F. Untersuch d. Lebenemitt 66; 501-510 (Novmnber 1933). (16): HOLADAY,.D. A,,.D: E. ILUSHING,.R. D. COLE- MAN, P. F. WOO,LRICII, II. L. KUSNETZ;, and'W. F. BALE. Control of radon and daughters in. uraniummines and calculations on biologic effects. PH$ Publication.494:14 (I957). (17) INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON. RADIO- LOGICAL PROTECTION, TASK GROUP ON. LUNGDYNAM4CS, COMMITTEE II. Depositian and retentiun mudels for internal' dosimetry oithe human respiratory tract. Health Phys.12:173 (Feb- ruary 1966). (18) JACOBI, W'. The dose to the human reapiratory track by inhalation of short-lived '==Rn and >'^Rn- decay products. Health Phys 10:1163-1''s74 (December 1964). Radiological Health Data and Reporti
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elecLmn Pube .,P5 . 'i . esee/emrdlnatc cm. 8olutiun: uitroos oxlce 1.-ere gener- the electron, -2 psec (see ..rad to thee the.solnticn. :ts with.thethe~ len in lw.-.±alr :es for the lchronlator, 1 at 4300 A :onon lamp. integrating y indicated e peak due ves a linear :whewfho l on several`ion for the radoxically,.. ;tSmate tho the.oxygene r.constant, ption spw-"- ice that itt shows Lhe !± 100.A iny a °--M'' wi°xm end ut per cni. no.,L9„ February 27, 1965 NATURE whtrn an initially do-aeruted solution of 10-1 N potaasium hydroxide uonLaining about 8 m.yI nitrous nxidu is irrmli- ated by a ainglu 2-psoc pulse. Tlm oscillogram shows two uompnnonts, one oil whiclr lws vanished in about 100 µseo, while the othur lasts.for aaelatively longtimo. Thn fast component is, webclieve, dun to O-, ar[d itlirstis.nmch longer tltian the Oa- build-up in Fig- I because theree is only a tracc of oxygun in the solution, this having been fornred by rudinlyeisduring thee pulse. The peak vnnishns al'CerLwm or three pulses havobcen given tu an initially do-acrated solution. The long-lived component iaduo to O, : Itt declines a little by reacting with the trace of O-,, fnrtned, mtd then remains practically constant for many mace. We thank bla. M. C. Crowloy-Milling, for the design of the faet-pulxo ciruuittv, and Mr. Dictcr Rebmarmfor help - with its construction. G- E- Anwxs J. W. Roeo B. D. 1tI1CnAEL Research Unit in Radiobiology,. British Empire Cancer Campaign for Rcscaroh, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex. • puaa, J. w., and Pdamx., G- E., Syma. Cetlvihr FadiutinxDidouv. At.P. Anderson Fosrital, llouston, Texas (1NC4h • Czap4l, O.. and Porfmau, L. M.. J. P6HS. Chm.. 86.118t/(1064). • Hart, 8. l., and Boa6. J. w-, J. Amen CM1em:Snc., 89, a000.( lU6-^). Polonium in Cigarettes-Spectroseopie Analysis Ar.raA-ttnnrowcrlvlsY incigaret.tes ha.n recently been measumd by two groups. Turner and Ratlley' suggested that "°rb and 91dPo are not present in the raw tobacco at levels of activity of the same order asYY4Ra, and concluded that the ¢dditionnl u-actfivity taken into thelungs from tho mdiumcontent in cigarettes is less than 1 per cent of the atmospheric radnn inhaled by both smokers and non- smokers. Radford and Htmt•;, however, maintained that polonium is more dangerouss hecanse.of its volatility above 500° C. They identificd'the 40Po content of cigarettes by observing z-netivity of 138 days half-life, and! estim- ated the radiation doae to bronchial epithelium from Z o inhaled in cigarette smoke to be at least seven timca t from background sources, and in localized areas possibly up to 200 times: . Thee inv«ntigation rccordcd hcrc was undertakem in order to: (1)idcntify spectroscopie.ally and measure 6ho atnount of 91°Pn sw well as other polonium isotopes in cigarettes;'(2) present a fast and reliable detection system capableof determining aecurately minutequantitiese of "OPo (of the order of 10'9' ppc.) avs well' aa of mixtures of a-active isntopes.. Palonium was extracted from whole cigarettes using s wet ashing,procedurer. Thapolonium samples deposited o.rsilver foils wero then phtced at a distance of a.fewmm from a 2-em' solid-state detector, which was coupled into a low-noise; chnrgn-sensitive preampllficr and a multi-churu.el analyser'- The effective solid angle was. 3.8 ± 10 per cent steradians. The overall energy sprcad of a monoencrgetio n-gruup 1.'as about 50 keV.. Alpltaa, from hnown snurues of =e1dm.. ""II, and '"Ri wcreo 4-6 14a 899 . anerey (?tov): 4-s 6a 1:A 146 52 64 156 166 165 170 .1P5 {'ilmnaCl No. 8ig, 1, Polontum a-apeotmm acscuumPae ted far6 h from a two-Ctgarette fromatwo-cigarettesample is shown in-Flg. 1'. The location of the peak corresponda to an energy of 5•310~± 0.015 IDIaV, in excellent agreeruent with the valuee of 5•305 MeV for 91OPu. Although all poloniumisotopesare a-actfivc, no n- acthvity dueto any other puluniu.n isotopes was observed, with an upper limit of I per cent. This,result is not sur- prising since all poloniumisotopes lehieh belong to tho radioactive series have toc.short half-lives to be observed in our experinreut, and there is no apparent process which can yield other polonium isotopes imlargo.amnunt, There is an agreement to within 155 per cent betiween the activity of our two samples and: between our smnpies.and'tliose of Radford and Hmtt':Though this agreement may be fortuitous, it at least suggests that thaamonnt cf pnlonialn per regular sino American cigarette (about2 x 10°atoms) does not fluctuate cxtenaiv.ely, and may reflect thohomo- genieiug,procedure used in the production ofeigarettee. We have also performcd a preliminary meaeurement of the poloniumcollectcd on a gbu<a-wrool filter when whole cigarettes were smaked in a stream of oxygen insido a heated flask. This preliminary measnrement indicates that most of the pulonium follows the sawku,.iu agreement with the findings of Rudford and Funt`... Tf a-c assume that about 10 per cent of the polonimn centent of the cigarette eventually decays in the lung, the nmount of 'r"Po ucLivity at equilibriumm for a person smoking 50 cigarettes a day cnn reuclt a level of 400 puc. Unfortun- ateiy, biological data for the officioucy ofthe lmlg.for the uptako and retention of polonium in cigarette smolm are used for enctgycedrbration. This prnr.ndure.etw dulervtirwenergiesofuukno~n 3 groupnto t{, 1LkuV. Tirosatnples, not. available althougki not each contai 6,g polunium from two cigarett.os; were. concentrated meastnrod. 'I'hu 6xn samples wrtre preparod from cignr- Wee believo th et2os of thewlnu..bmnd'' butfnun I(f, rnut. cnrtonss aud were bothfound to cnnhun 0-45 ± 0.10 pµc. per cigarette, in aRroemcut with liadtord and Ilunt'. -The quoted Uncurtninty is mninly dhe to thoe uncnrt..eiuly in solitL nttgle and in plating etiiuicncy. littelrgnnmtt ,n,s 0-1-0-2 conntaJli and a-ns Ibss than' I per cent of tile sample activity. A polouiiun u-spectrum accnmuhttedd for 0. h loonlizutiou nro very importnnt and slroulll ba fully lnveati- ~] gatcd. \1'n nlno hnen uot yvt investigated thcqucstioa ofCO equihbrium in the oiga.rette betwcen "'i'o w.ith a halGlifu ju of 138 duysnnd one of its parents °'OPh with ra hrilGlifocn of 22 years. Thi.. quoetion is signifit•ant,if u>;piug is to bo(p considered as a possibleromedy. Thn dependoncnn of n°Pn and r'^1'hconcentrettions on factors such as ntin', to test this. assumption•. Such a value, uliir.niug, can be a cause for concern if (Z in small areas oftlle respirat'ory syatem•. Q at tho questions of polonium retrnt.mn rmd ~
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j'~ ~i .! _. . , ,R s.~E . . @6Ji71j~='~i VA,iI: I NenUh Plyria Pergamon Press 1967. Vol; 13, pp. 625-Fi32'. Printcd in Northern.lrcland CONCENTRATIONS OF '-10Pb AND 210Po IN HUMAN SOFT TISSUES R. L.I3LANCIIARD [I,S. Drparlmentof Heallh, Education, and Welfare Public Hcaltfl Service Division of Radiological I Icalth. Radinlogical Hcalih Rcecarch Aclirilies Robert A. Taft. Sanitaryt:ngineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio (Receia'ed 12.Augnrt 1966; in rn+ierdfurm 12 Ortober 1966)' Abstraet-Concentrations of 2t^Pb and E10Po imtiisues from heeut}; indiriduals arc reported. The tissues investigated were the kidhey, lfver; lunc, panercas, splecn,gonads, thyroidaudhcart. Thee two highest average.R10Po concentrations were 14.5 and 11.3 pCifkg in ]ikn' and kidhey, respectivdy- Averay.e tontcntration in guuacls, lung and dtvroi,l %.'ns :.l.nut onc-half as gccat, and the least amnunts of210Po and 2tOI'b were found in the spleen, pancrras and heart. Higher ooncentrations of 210Pn were found in tissucs of cigarette amakers than nonsmokers, E>;t'ept for the lung, however, the differences were not significanc. The 2t^PofrtOPb acdi-iry ratio varied'from <1 to >1. imall tissuc types, except for the heart for.rhich there were toofc..'samples to bemeaningful. Theamountof2t°Pounsupportedb}'its't°Pbparentwasgreatestinthekidney:_ The dose rates delivered by the n0Po to the various tissues are discussedl C IKTRODiiCTIONTxt•: pCCWRRENCE of 2t0Pb and Y10Po in the environment.has,bcen recognized for more than 50 yr; however, not until the past few years have these nuclides been considered an im- porL-mt componentt of our background radiation. MORGAN et nl.tlthave placed. "-10Poim the "very hazardous" radiation materials group u•ith 42GRa, ~HPu and °"3r; and further evidence from the litcrature indieates.that, of this group, s1oPo may be the most iinportant to the gcneral population from the standpoint of radiation exposure. Measurements by STArtt.xorex(=tindicatc that the average dose from-t =10Po to the human skcleton is about four times that delivered by zZSRaphss 30 per cent of its short-lived produ cts. In addition to.this, SrANNARn and CASwRLrrt3i report that -1°Po.is five times.more effective than z'-sRain shortetaiqg the life span of both rat and mousc and aboun equally as etlective as. 2asPu. Concentrations of' the latter in man., however, are uorm:.lly veryy small seith rapcctt to the comuentrationn of "10Po.1=1 Pinally, the dose delivered, to the skeleton by °DSr has been reported to be considerably ]tss than that from~ zmPo, and with the discontinuation of nuclear testing, the importance of 50Sr should di- minish.tz•41 Acc.ording to this line of reasoning, the internal doses delivered by 2i0Po to the general poptdation is of impurtance relative to the other hazardous radionuclides in our environment. Skeletal concentrations of E1°Pband 43°Po havc bren rupurtcd by a number of investi- gators.td-bt }"iom thee resivlLt nf these investi- gntions, pariiceilarly that of Hot:nstns, vehosee study .cas the mostt extencive,tstone may concllide that the ske3etal -10Po/='10Pbratio is usually bet.veen O.a' aud~ 1.0, artd that tilteaverage =10t'bb concentration is abotrt.0.15 pCi/g of ash. Compared with the number of skeletal mca surcments,, only afcw measurements have been reported for 23°Pb and =10Po in human soft tissucs, and most of tltnse aree restricted too small: numbers of older adults.t?~',r.a) 'T'hc investigation described'belox• was per- fonne.d toobtain addiiionaliinfonnation on, the ~ presence of ='"Pb and. "-1°Po in tnan, torelate Q theseconcentrations toabsorbed doses, and to *J establish the relationship bctween =10Pb and," R10Pa~in human soft tissues- N
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628 WVCENTRATIOIS OL'"I"Pb AND 2toPo IN HU7.t.4N SOFT TISSUES Table 1. (Cortfd) Tissue „ Sex Age ampo (PGifkg) 2m1'b, (pCi/kg) vaFofxtnpb F 9 2.8 f 0-2. 2.4 40.2 1.16 1 0.12 M 6 0.8 f0.1 . 1.2 -10.1 0.67 t0.12 Spleen F 78 4.3 f 0:3 2.5 f.02 1.72 f 0.20 M• 75 . _ ^ ^ ^ . . .... . .... . ., .~ F 72 F' 70 3.8 -N 0.1 3.7 -t? 0.3' 1.02 + 0.11 F 63 2.1 ~ 0.3 1.5 4! 02 1.40 i 0.31 M 60 3.1 f 0.2 1.1 i0.1 2.82 ± 0.32 F• 57 3.0 L 0.2' 3.2 f 0.2 0.94 :L 0.09 Ff 50 5.0.f0.4 2.4 ± 0.3 2.08f0.3 3 M• 50 2.8± 0.2 3.7 f 0.3 0.77 f 0.08 F 48 6.1 f 0:5 6.6 s 0.5 0.937h 0:10 M 45 1.4 f 0.1 1.8 + 0.1 0.78 ± 0:08'. F 45 3.6 0.3 4.1 t 0.3 0.88- 0:08' M' 39 3.8 t 0.2 3.7 d; 02. 1.03 i0.06 M• 34 1.9 f 0.2 3.7 i 0.2 0.52= 0.06 F' 34 3.0 f 0.4 8.4 f 0.7 0.36 ± 0.05 M+ 28 4.2 -0.4 4.0 i 0.5 1.05 i- 0.16 F' 26 3.2. 10.4 4.0 1- 0.4 0.80 ± 0.12 M• 23 6.8 f 0,6 11.4 f 0.6 0.60f 0.07 F 9 1-7~0.1, 1.9d;0.2 0.90~0:10 Lung F 48 5.3 f 0.3 10.1 y 0.8 0.53 i 0.05 M 45 4.4 f 0.3 4.6 -,0.4. 0.96 :L-. 0.10 M` 39' 11.2 i 0.3 7.6 _ 0.3 1.47 1- 0.06 M' 34 8.8 i 0.4 9.2 i 0.4 0.9G a- 0.06 Y' 26 3.0i0.4 9.8=0.7 0.31 ~0.05 F 9 1.8= 0:2 2.0. ~_ 0.2 0.90 i 0.11 M 6 1.4 10.1 1.3' f 0.1 1.08 --,0.11 Gonads F 48 9.7 t 0.7 8.8 -L 0.7 1.10 + 0.12 M' 34 6.6 ~ 0.7 10.4 f 0.8 0.64 ~ 0.08 F• 34 . 8.2 } 1.0 10.6 f 1.0 0.77 ~; 0.12 A1' 23 6.6~0.6 4.6-~0.4 1.44z0.18 F 9 3.4 ~ 0i5 - 5.3 t 0:6 0.64 } 0.12 Thyroid F 48 10.0 f 1.1 11.0 = 1.1 0;91 ± 0.13 M 45 3.2{f 0.4 3.4-i 0.4 0:94 i- 0.17 M' 34 1.8 ± 0.3 2.4 .i. 0.3~ 0.75 -4 0.16 F• F 34 26 1.6 i0.2 5.6± 0.7 3.3 =0.3 12.9 _ 1.4 0.49„0.08 0.43 y 0.07 \4' 23 12.7' f 1.0 14.6 t 1.4 0.87 f 0.11 F 9 2_8LL 0:5 6.3~ 1.0 - 0.45i 0.11 Heart F 9 0.6 t 0.1 0.6 f 0.1 1.00 + 0.22 M 6. 0:4 }0.1 0.2 -_ 0 1 2.00 !1.00 .. . - .. Tabl j Tissue 9 Liver (17 Kidney(' { r.ung trl ! Thyroid .. 1 Spleen (I ~ Fancress ' ' Hcart (2. [ 1\ote. Er t F'4 sp` . analyzv concent liver gc: the kid: - . +rntheo- 1 tn the l' into an the sp] smalles. the poz the go: critical Whe . f data,t"~ 17 of both " in tlte: ( "Stanc'. consid, k equiva studicc: tbodys fractio: eonce: ItaPb : . cent, r' . report, equilil i somcu ' xOSCn • Indicates subject smoked I p.ack of eig+urttes or more per day at time of death. t_•nmarked subjects . howet indicatcs less than Ipaek/day.. - eonce: t Smoking history not available. O calcul Error shown is for a one standard deviation countingerror. - { 0To 1 7 MD. GC N ~ C02 ..~.;--.-...-..~.. ^ fi
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626 CONCENTSLATIOtiS OF 4101'b AND 21OPo IN HUTfAN soPT TISSUES r ANALYTICAL METHODS Theproccdure employed for the deter- mination of 2'°Po was similar to that7 described by IaftNTO:j°t The whole organ, or 80-i00 g of the largerorgans,prescrved by frcczing,, were dissolved in hot conccntratcd, HNOa and fumed in 72 % HCIOa until the solution became clear. The solutionw'as then ncutralized with 18n' PZaQH, diluted to IoU ml 16th dis, tilledrvatcr in a15ovnl beaker and madc 0.5N in HCI. Tt,o-hundredmg, of ascorbic acid was added, and the.solution heated to 85°C bencath a watch glass. The sample was then placed in a hot water bath at 85°C and a 1.5-in. silver disc (coated on one.side .cithpolyethylene lo~allow deposition to occur on only one side) tvas suspended in the solution on a platinum wire for 4 hr. During tl:e electrochentical dcposition, the solutiom.was stirred at 400 rpm with a.glass stirring rod; and the sides of the beaker were washed with distilled H2Oevery hr.. After deposition, the silver disc was riased; with distilled water an6 allmeed to dry at room temperature. The alpha activity of the 210Po deposited on the disc was measured in a losv background (0,2-0.8 cph) 'Ln5(;.Ag) scintillation eou nter. The amount of "-1°Pb in the sample was measured as follows. Tlte solution from which the 210Pobadbeen plated was stored from 4 to 6 months. The solution was then rcturucd to a 180-m1 beaker,. 200~ mg , ofascorbir acid.vas added, and the °1°Po.formed in the decay of s1oPb was deposited bythey above procedure. The amount of =tPPo obtained on thiss s_cond deposition was a measure of the R10Pb in the sample. The recovery of the 21OPo on the silver disc was monitored by spiking every tenth sample with a NBS Standard RaDBF solution. Rc- eoveries varied from 85to 101 per rent with an average recovery of 93 ± 4: per cent. Since eompletee destruction of the organic matcrial is realized with hot HNOy-HCIO,,., the rNahauve behvicen the 2t0Prn spikes and the 21OPo in the samples is nrost probable. The radioactivity of reagent blanks was, nott detectable above background. The "-1°Po was determincd as soon as possible after sample collection because of the.ingrowth of 21OPo from the 2taFb present. After the ='^Pb was determined, the =10Po concentrations were corrected for dceay and ingrowth to the time of colleetion.. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thc concentrations of 2°0Pb and =10Po were measured in tissue samplesfrom twentyindividy uals aged, 6-78 yr. Tissues, taken at autopsy, includcd kidney, lBvery, lung ()ight upper lobe exclttdingbronchi), pancreas, gonads, spleen, thyroid and heart. Irr most eases,, however, it was not possible to obtain complete sets of samples. - The analytical results of each sanrplee are grouped; according to tiaue type in Table 1. Sampless of the same age and sex are from the sarne individual. Concentrations arc given on the Lasis of ficsb tissue weight, and thc crrors shown are calculated counting errors (1'a).Smokers of one packk or more of ciqarcttr_sn per dayare indicated in the t:.blc by an asterisk, and no asterisk indicates either a nonsmoker or a smoker of less than one pack per day. Smoking informau`on wa.s.not avail'ablc.for the 50-yr-old femalt. The 2t0Po and "10Pb content in most of the individual tissue groups varies considerably;, especially in the liver and kidney. The con- centratinns within the pancreas, of different individuals appears to be the most constant of the various tissues. HtLL has reported that =tOPo im the panereas may be associawd with the insulin and is pnssibl}"bound tothe.protein througb the -SH groups."t Although the Pres°nt data are insufLcient in number to e\'aluatc statistic,lUy a cnncenn tration vs.' age rclatiouship, the data for organs with the largest number of samples does reflect a rnaxiinum concentration of ='°Pb during middle age (20-50 yr): This ia best defined in the data for the liveri the young and! old hadrelativcly lower conccntnaunns of a10Po and zroPb than the middle-aged. This relationship may, however, only be a reflection of several undctcrmined; paranteters;, one pnssibly being cigarettee smoking as it was ohservedd that the greatest muniber of individuals who smoked were mlddle-aSed. The average concentrations of "-10Po and etOPbimtbe.various tissues.are given in Table 2. The number of samples of each type of tissue
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' ..R.I- BLANCHARD_____._-. TaLk2. dfeanronuntratinn.°f21°PoandROPb S10Po concentrations within these tissu.es, it is in hunran soft tirrue necessary to make two asatmptions. Although jccrs ' Tissue :r°po (pC'Jkg) Li.•ej(17) 14.5*2.0 Kidney (18). 11.3 t 2.2 Gonads (5) 6'.9 * 1.0 Lung (7) 5.1 Z 1.4' Thyroid' (7)'. 5:4 :L 1.6 Spleen (19) 3.5 } 0.3 Pxncrras (17). 2.9 ± 0.8' Heart (2) 0.90 } 0.1 ss°pb (PCilkg). nopo/2i°Pb 9.2±1.1 1.9 f0.3 4.3 f 0.7 - 2.9 ± 0.4 7.9 } 1.2 0198 ~_ 0.15 6.4' i1.9Ot88 -- 0.14 7.7} 1.9' O169 ± 0.09 3.7' 1 0.6 1.31 ± 0.22 2.8-!- 0.4 1.25 d- 0.20 0.4 ~- 0.2 1.50 + 0.50 Nate. Ermrsare.one standard error o0mcan. Figures in parentheses indicate number of specimens. analyzed are shown in parentheses. The eonoentrationsof both 210Poand "-'0Pb in the liver generally, but not ah.~ays,.excecded that in the kidney of the same individuali as reflected in the snmer+hat higher average concentration in the livcr. The gonads, 1ung,andthyroid fall into an intermediate concentiation range ..hild the spleenls pancrcas. and heart contain the stnallcst'tissue c.onccntrations. These results and the possible genetic irnplicationsindicate that' the. gonads possibly should bee considered aCril6cal organ for "`10Po.0o' . When these results are.comparcd with other data,/z~-slit is cvidcnt' that the largest fractiorr of both=10pb and =10Pu in thcbodv is eontained'in the skeleton. Using the organ tveights for thc "Standard nlan" given by 1CIh1',tlrt) and considering the concentration in the heart equivalent tothat in the muscle, the tissue aiassstudied represcnts about 56 per cent of the total body soft tissue mass. Considering only this fraction of thee soft tissue mass, the tissue concentrations given in Table 2 for 210Poo and Y1QPb represent approxirr.ately 16 and 10 per cent, respectively, of the averace.skcletal burdcn report€d by I-Iot.TZV~N'stif 80 per cent of equilibrium is assumed. These valucsarc somctt'hat less than that rstimatrd by ST.axL- HOF&\t~l and; HoirzaAre1st. The difTcruncc,~ hosever,, can be attributed to the lower muscle concentration, 0.5 pCi/kg, uscd in thcsc_ calculations. To calculate the -absorbed dose from, the it is most probable that 210Po is distributed nonunifonnly in human tissue,M9tit wilb be assumed that the distribution within a particular organ is uniform since no information on this question is presently available. Thc second assumption involves the relative biological efI'ectSvenetss (RRI:) of the =90Po alpha partieles_ An RIiE of 10 ~rill be asnuned'y, although there is presently considerable disagreement on the .appropriate value. ,]ACOett'-' snGgests an RBE of Icss than 10 4ir inhaled radon daughtcrs, whereas other reports have suggested that the RBE for high linear energy tiansfcr radiation may hedome very large at low dose rates, approaching values of 30 or more for the conditionsof background rad'sat4un.na'-tst In agreement with this, STnxnARD and CASARETT have reported that the life-span shortening of the rat is considerably greater than can be explained by the administered dose relative to low linear encrKy transfcr radiationJ°' - For lack of better information, these two assumptions are used, and the dose rate in mrcm/vr is calculated to be rnurnerically equivalent to the concentration of 2"'Po in the units of pCi/kg oftissuc. Consequently, the dose rates delivered by =u'Po to tfir>e tis>ues may be read directly from either Table 1 or Table 2. The dose delivered by 21oPb and "10Bi were igroorcd because of their small conuibution relative to, the dose.frotn R10Po. Cuusistcnt nith the concentration measure- rnvnts diseussed', . above„ the largest dn>r rates in soft tissue occur in the liver and kidney, followed by thee gonads and: lung. Lt'shotuldi be emphasized, however, that in light of the above discussion,, these dqse rates may represent minimum values, The existence of unsupported "-'"Poin certain soft bumaru tiaucs has been reported by Iin.t.'P1 and Osuoxr&.18' In the last coLmnn of Tablc 2 are listed the avera.-e "-10Pof"-1OPb ratios for the variors tissues. The =JOPoj"OPb ratios varied from <1 to > 1 for all tissue typcs. The largest amount of uusupported 210Po appears to be in the kidney, for txliich the average't"I'o/="'1'b ratio tcas about 3. Except for the kidncy, and possibly the liver, thc average ratios given in Tab1L• 2 would sugges-t that 21ePo in I i (
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C 1 900 N A T U R F February 27, 1965 voil,, irrigntior[, fot•tilixern; 040., should also be investigated. It is.also conceivable that proper glass filtors might lrota9n a significantt partof the inhaled polonium, es indicated by ltadford and Hunt• nnd by our preliminary meaeure- ment. Other polbnium-absorbing materials such ae silver or nickel should also be considered. In any ewont, we strongly believe thata.spwarnseopy, u•hich utilizes apparatus aialilar to that desnribed hore, can be a powerful tool in the investigation of all these questionn.. It could also help in the investigation of radioactivity of polluted air from factory smoke and automobile fumes. Such an experimental1 syatem is practically free from background. It permits determination and identification of minute quantities of a-active isotopes. Oounting efficiency of up to 100 per oent,. and with no appreciablee loss in onorgy resolution, can be achieved with the use of 2 solid-etate dotectors' connected in parallel in a 4n arrangement, and sources plated on very thin foils. In short, a speetro- seopic system is unambiguous and fast, and is therefore preferable to systoms which utilize nnalysis by hnlf-life.. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and the U.S. National Science Founda- tion. An:v: I. YAvlx t"ir1oVANNI DBPA9Q,VAY.1 PAIn BARON Department of Physics, . University of Illinoi9; - Urbana, Illinoi9.. . ' Turner, R'. C., and Itadley; J. M.•.La d..i, 1197 (1000). • ' Radford, lun.• E: L' „xnd Hunt• V. It., Scienee.143,247 (1964). • For e comprehsn»IVe diecussion of eo8d-»tate tletectorsaud aharge-eend.die P[nxmOliftea eec luel. Rat. En9. Tmns., N3-8, No. 1(106p. • Bin1n~_ical' half-llven Yor sw¢e other or9ana aec A;ren In ICRP report on pevmienibh: dnee fram internar radladon. HeWt4 Ph9e.• 2. 219 119W). • nln.C. R..POl4re,187; 211 (19601. Synthesis of Substituted Phenyl-p-o-xylo- pyranosides INVaax1GA•rlo.ls into the specificity of a(i-xylosidnse required'the synthosisof a number of suhstituted phenyl- ~-n-xylosides- A very important method' is the Helferich feaction in which the appropriate phenol and the fully ar.etvlatod monosaccharide aro heated in tdlo presence n f an acidie eatalyst.. Teo favour the formation of xylosidb- acetateswith the (b'-anomeric config,rration, p-toluene- snlphonie arid and (i-totra-O-acetyl-xylose wero used'. The correspondingxylosides'wero prepared bycataPytic deacetylatibn of the acetateS.Tetra-O-acetyl(i-n-xyloso was prepared accont:ngg to Vogole' and twice crystallized from ethanol : m.p.. 127'- I28°. Thesylnsetot.rnacetato (31.•8g; 0, lmol.)andtheappro- priate phenol (04 snol.)wero) fused together and the molton mixture treated with a solution of p-tolnene- sulphonic acid (0. (; g) in a mixture of aoetic acid and acetic anhydride (85::5; 50 ml.). Themixtum was. heated under rcduced pressuse at'.100° for 1 h. After cooling, the ro®ultiug syrup'p was dissolved in chloroform (200 ml.), thoronghly washed with ioe-cold N sodium hydroxido and wotor, dried; (NarSOa) and evaporatod en, vacuo. The resulting syrup was then crystallized from the appro- printosolvent to constant m.p. and optical rotation. The orOro-substituted phenol, o-chlorophonol,, failed to reactt in tho prenoneo ofYp-toluonesulphonio acid even at higher temperat[me.. .Tormyn'' likewiso reports inability to nbinin o-ehloruphenyl-tri-O-onetyl-Q-D-glucoside by thin method. Howover, woe soccoodod in obtaining tlhn o,Chlorodarivntive by a modiGod Michanl synthasis•. To a snlution of o-chlorophonol (g•95 g; 0•07 mol.) in acetone(192 ml.), potassium hydroxide (3•30 g) in methanol (50 ml.) and aeotobrorctoxylesn (20g;: 0-059 mol.) woreadlled.. Aft<x• 5 h at.room tbrnpomturo the mixture was' Table l. AOnTSLATBP&-n.XY[AYrnAAnn,pp M t eolvanps , (a)~ylold OAn~yp~1••~• 11 tr C,He,O: MeOUnol e,s~• 48 ~ e•60a•0 dt as mwreeYl 112' -48•2• 37 f688 6j Methanol c•4 a-uraryl 112°q13^ -63•8` 22 f bfi•7 61 Methsnol c• 2 n-chlnro-,n-esnYl ]34°-186° -45.0° 82 f - CnunO.Cl Rthanol c 2 e - - - ., , !1 ¢chinro.ptmnyl 126°-190° - 48e• 64 f („Hl•O,CIi F-thanol c, 2 m-chlnroN,m.v1 1aA°-1nG' u-ahloroplwnyl 19a°-]92° -aA-O° -766' A. 90 f - 1 - &thnnul f. found. c, ealeulaLed e,2 - !r Table 2. R-1LYLVPYRAMUSrDxS Mwhentt. in)P Yield CAnalytlea.a.•• H ycrem'1 1e9°-163° - 420° 89 f 800 a7 c,eH„o, xethanm o,. . oo,o a. n,-ereeyl 146'-140° -45-0° 93 f 598' 01 MethylethYl- e, 2 aoreey]' reton 168' -OBo° 95 ) 585 17 yletfiyl- M~ e.2 t~ y-ddoro-m-ereeyl 176° C lloO,Cl EthYlscetate -39P6° e.E 79 i - - It e ra• vchlorM,henyl l59°-16R° -41-6' 72 f - - rr , atlii,o,01'1 HthyLecetate e, 2 r- - ur r m-cldarr.phcnyl 149°-I60• -47-8°' 81 f - -. tt' w.tei e; 2 o-ehlornphenyl 1]5°-17d° -570° BB f - - tt• \vater e,.2 filtered and evaporated in vacuu... The rosidun .. dissolved in chlorofotrm (100 ml.), washod with i•.-,... 5 per cont sodium carbonate and water, dried (\a,sa, evaporated in vacrro and crystallized from etlianol'. Thc tri-O-acetyl-3-n-xylopyranosides shown in •1'ida- e wore prepared in this way (all rotatibns were dotonrn.•-for chloroform solutions). Preparntion ofetetiacitv.trd phenyC-P-n-xylopyrorw+••i • 1 g of the corresponding acetate, dissolved or sunpniA••', •-I0-ml. dry utebhanol, was treated with 3 ml. of a tn.' prepared solution of sodium mothoxide (0•5 g of ra in 100 nil. of inethanol). After standing a few bcuu• •: room temperaturo thee sodiiun lvas removed with a..' :enr•.tu;x of 'Dowex 50 lV' (H'). The solution a,w / It ,-evaporated in oatuo and crystallized from a vent. Table 2 shows the p-n•xylwides prepar.•l. rotations were determined for mebhanol solntron 1. We t.fiankProf. L. Massart for his.interest m.lh, .° and Miss.J. Do Lat for carrying out the microannlpse+ . Q. K. Dr- Issrr.r II. VERSELR M. CLwevss.:•+ Lnhoratorium voor Anorganisahe Soheikundo.A. Rijksunivnrsiteit,. (3ont. •Mont4omeq', B.'JI.. Rlchtmever,.N. YL, und Hudeun. C. 9., /•~ (:hmn. Snc., 64. 690 (194.). • Voeel, A- l., A Text6sob of Prorliar,l Grpan& Ch6ntidr9. thuA •1 • (luudon, langmnns, C:eeu md Cn.. 145]). • Sermrn, x. A., Aualral. J. Chcm., 8. 409 (1955). • Loonticns; F. G., and De Biuyne; C. 8.. Nalurwisr.,51.96021Be^ •'fhompeon, A.,.nnd wulrrom, M..L., in AfrlhoC4 7 Car6MV•1nu...•'^' . 2,215, edit- by whietleq $ L.•and Wolfrnm,M. L. (\ev Y••r Y,., ." "- Yre.s.Ino„ 1B&5), Analysis of the Absorption Spectrum of Solutions of Uranyl Compounds Tn.:nbsorptionspoctraofsolntionsofunmylrornl-' "` between 20,000 and 2g;000 cm-t show lwne• b^' ~ which havo, at loast to our knowledge, not U.•n e'^" in the literature.. Indeed, if Av is plott,od.againstdecronsinF v,•l••• I" the resulte shown in Tig. I are obtainrel; 4v 1'"^r `~ .. 4BrA Febl 41o f0 SOe rr 1. Yottodelnter r. crnrro. in wav „..1•lien 113821"rn _ .. nunllwr at - Tlm A9 vah snnvu:nurnber t .:. I was ceta ....aa for urnny . ~11,d at varior n„- Vibronic . ..lu ruld othe, . 0, they act t^ „oa wave-; . :9; tLo vibron • i• c.-rtainlys< .thn uranyl •.nrlnn', at the •. 1. llolvever, b ar_ Q uao.....: l 9nq~nlhle,
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632 COt:CENTRA7'IOSSOF 41°Pb AND 41DPo IN HUR,SAN'. SOFT TISSUES 14. D. R. IDAVis and J. L. BArsww, Nature, Loru(. . 200, 485 (1063): ` 15. A. L. BAicnr.t.oR, R.. J. Pnnr.n•s and A. G. SEARLe, h'arv.re, Lond::201, 207(19G4)L 16. Report nf Committee II mr I'ermissible Dose for . Internal Ratdiation, HenltfiPhyt 3, 133 (1900)'. IZ Roportt of Cocnrnittee II on Permissible I]nse for Internal Radiation, HeuGh Phyt 3, 29 (1960)'. 18. C. R- Htu., Hea(th Phys. 9, 952(1963). 19. R. B. HoLrzslnN,. Hrolth Phyx..10, 763 (1964). 20. C. R. HILL, Naeae, Lnnd..187, 211 (1960):. 21. Report of Committee II on Pcrmissible Dose for Internal Radiation, Health.Phys.:3, 219 (1960). 22. T. W. BFPSL£Y and H. E.PALMER, Scie¢e 152, 1062 (1966). . 23. C- R.. HILL, Scicnct 152, 1261 (1066);. 24. C. R. IIIDi. Radiorrologica! Gonlentralios Procrsses(Pdited by B.. Anexo and F. P. HuNCArE) p. 297. Pergamon Press Oxford (1967). 25. E. P..RAOrono and V. R. Huar, Stianac 143,247 (1964). 26. A. C. BFRGER, W.. H. ERHAnnn and C.. W. PRAHr.u,. Science 150, 1738 (1965). 27: L. P. G~Roonv, Sciente 150,.74 (1965). 28.. A. 1. 1'AVtrv, Nature, Land. 205, 899. (1965). 29. T. F. KELLEY, Science 149, 537 (1965);. 30.. K. W. SxRAnLe, F. J.HAVOHer and E. L. Arxxntrneq Science 146, 86 (1964).. 31. H. Exseety Sdence 144, 952 (.1964). 32. B. RAjr.wsxY and W. STAHUlorEN, AatHre, Fpnd.. 209, 1312 (1966). - S THr: w.nt fission prc uscdd for rt . always a s ! or a failu : cause the either by. by the ge iodine is c excreted - 120 days.t- radiation . exposure. The ca fission prc inhalation e.g. 1321 a desirable t The long' 6ontamin: ?a'I, and •. uation of Health Phyti.
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630 ^ CONCENTRATIONS OF t10Pt. AND 21OPo IN SIUh1AN SOFTTISSUPuS Table 3. 7CRP m+d obrrroed zmpolzwl'b ratiat Organ of stupafztnPl, reference Fvalues (?CRP), . Oliservcd Lung 0.44 0.88 Kidney 0.18 2.9 Liver 0.18 1.8 Bone 0.10. 1.0..:-0.8!sl. soft tissue is normally supported'.by its long-lived 210Pb parent. Table 3 lists the.average observed=1DPoferopb ratlos for four tissues along with~ F valucs,i'tst dcfrncd by the ICRP as "the ratio at time t of the number of disintcgrationspcr unit timc.of . daughter atoms to the number of disintcarations per unit time of parent atoms in the criticalorgan"!t't The daughter atoms„ in this case, are Y1°Po and the parent atoms,=10Pb. It iss apparentt from Table 3 that, elcept for the lung, in which case the Fvaluc is low by otilya factor of 2,, the.F values given by ICRP arelosv by a factor of10 or more. Consequently, dose rates calculated on the ba,is of ICRI' data for the ztoPb_y°Po decay chain would actually be much greater than thnse computed. It would appear that rce;<amination ofthesc F values by ICRP is warranted. The source of the escaas "10Po is still open to eluestlon.'18SY) The ^_10Po in soft tissuc, including. the unsupported'`t"Po, is undoubtedly the result of either a redistribution of =10Po that is formedwithin the skeleton by radioactive decay of st°Pb or direct dietary uptakc of =1"Po:. Veryfew,, if any,. commonlyconsurned foodkeontuin either high 21OPo concentrations or. high E'oPof"-'OPhh ratios. Relatively high concen- trationsof xtoPohave been reported to be present in land, kidncy; c.zribouand reindeer muscle, and someshclaish.t_,t Cinsnpported 21OPo is found, lio):cvcr, in populations whose diet contains none ofthese foods_ Lcafy green vegetahlesprobulily contain the highest =10Po concentrations irn the dzily diet of most pupul- ations, but the =t"i'ofF10Pb ratio would not bce expected to be gruater thnn utrip'.t=0t Comsequcntly, it is dilGcult to. esplain soft liisue eoncentrationss of 2'"Poaon the basis of dietary intake with present 1CRP data. For example, assuming a zt-°Po dietary intakc of 2 pCifdrty,lst which iss probably sumcwltat high for Ohe."nor- mal environment," and that 6 per cent of the ingested 21OPo passes from the G.I. tract to the blood and 7per cent of the latter to thc kidney,tstl only about 0.008 pCifday will be added to the kidney. lf the ctTective half-life of 21OPo in thc kidncy is taken as 46 days,t"-tt the amount of 21OPo added, by tbe diet willsupport only 0.56 pCi in the kidney. I'urthermorc, if the. average concentration of ZtoPo found in the kidney is taken from Table 2, and if a kidueymass of 300 gttt/is assumcd, the averagc kidney burden will be. 3.4 pCi, of.which the.dict avilli conlribute only about 16 per cent. A similar calculation for the liver using the appropriate 1C:RP datat"-ltindicates that the diet willsupport onlyy about 4 per cent of the Y10Po liver burden. This, therefore„ would indicate either that redistribution of "0Po within the body accounts for most '-tOPo in soft tissue, or the dietary approximation or the TCRP data are inconsiderable error. Also using I1CRP data, Holtztnan has shown evidence that discounts the diet as the majnr source.of °tOPoin "norm- ally" exposed populations119j Thee high 21OPo concentrations artd "tOPol-"uPh ratios found in caribom meat, t'M and the high "-1°Po content't in tissucsof humans consumiug it,tesi suggest that direct dietary intake noay account for more ='°Po in soft tissue than is attributed by cal- culations based on ICRP data. HTitJ'`Al suggests that the diacrepaney between the ICRP rnodcl and thesc obccr,cd results.rnay be related to thr, particular chcmical fonnr in whiclL the dictary=10Po occurs. The actual extent to which each mechanisrn contributes,, rhe:rcfore, will not be known until additional dietary data arc accumulated and the movement of P10Po through the body isknown. -. RAnFOttn and Hu:vr were firstt too report cigarette snukr as a possible source of =t°Po to mtm.t"-st Following this initial report, a number of observations were madc of a'nPo in tohacco,/4 =s-"-sland in tobacco smoke,"'t and ou the uptake of=10Po-from cigarettcsmokc and itspossilile effect on m:m!-~so-szl. To. determinec thec elfecfsmokingmay have on the results.of thisstudy,.the smoking hislocics of the subjects were pbtained; they are desig- nated in Table 1I as previously stated, The Tull . Tissu< Liver I:idnc, Spleen Pancrc Lung Nura ' 60-yr to dc Tabk fomic Thet the a than Thel with have they AP in $ deter valut orga, that cont: of m ?10p1: smol. z1°pt. All trati stati TI lung than resui The trati prol deb:
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The 5trontium-90 Content of CatrFillliln "1'ob:rcco Salul/les Jon. R. IInowr"; rVt.n., PH.D., aad ArITA A. JAkvls•• The leafy nature of the tobacco plant provides an eseellcnt surface for the deposition of radionuclides present as aerial environmental contamina- tion. Jarl-is et al.'have shown that thermnnuclear fission products may appear in Southern Ontario within six wcekss of a nuclear detonation. The most important biologically significantt products are strontium-90 and caesium-137; iodine-131 is of little sicnificance in so far as tobacco is con- -cernedbecause of its relatively short physicaU half-life and the appreciable time elapsing between the harvesting of the leaf znd its consumption by the smoker. Cogbill and Hobbs' have shown that tobaccolcaf, as do other plant tissues..contains moderate amounts of inorganic and mineral constituents and that thc,e remainlargelp in the forut of osides and carbonates Ni hen the tobacco is.burned or ashed. largely These workers, usingg conditions approsimating to human smol:ing, found that "about 150 niicrog.rams of metallic cun- stituents per cigarette were found in the mainstream smoke of five representa- .e tive brands of cigarette on the domestic market. Of this quantity approsimatel}' 90% was potassium and 5% sodium --. vaporization of the more volatile components of the metals or of the volatile reduced metal itself appears to be the essential mechanism of transfer from the cigarette to the smoker". Ash' commented on the relatively high radioactivicy of the tobacco stalk and stated that this,was almost entirely due to thepresence of the naturally-occurring radionuclide potassium-40. He did not find any strontium-90 or caesium-137 during, the course of his analyses.. Runeckles'' considered that the total radioactivity present in tobacco smoke was biolo~ically insignificant. In this study too, the bulk of the activity ssasattributed to potassium-40, and no stronrium-90 determinations were made. The relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer has been demonstrated by Doll et ah', Hammond and' Horn" and by Dorn'. Their observations have givenrise to a great deal of wark tt3 determine the nature of careinogenic agents likely to be present in the.tobacco.smokeor in the tobacco itself. Lindsey" states that about 270 organic compounds and 15 elements as inorganic compuunds.have been reported to be present in tobacco smoke and that "mauy known constituents of tobacco smoke have not been tested for physiological action". The carcinogenic material in tobacco smoke has not been isolated ,virh any certainty and it is must unlikely that fission products in the tobacco plant are responsible for the relationshipbeas'een smoking and lung cancer. In vietr of the cnntamina- tion of the tobacco plant , ith radionuclides, however,, it is of interest to •Profcxsor of Physiulopical Hvgicnc; School of tlvFicnc, Vnismrsirv of Toronro.. "L.ecturcr iir Plntivl"gical Ih'llitnr, 3,hu.il of Ht'gicnr. l'oirersira- 4 Turunru., 613
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C 614 ~\ieurrat: Srnner< JuraN.lt., CnsA, o.a-Jut.v-AC(:UST 1964 dctcrminc the amuum, pnc.•cnt in % ariuus pares of the plant mnd to eontnicnt upun the rc.uhs. Jfcthorf. For rho purp:)sc of the present studY, samples ofprocesscd tobacco Icavcs ofCanadian uri,~in from the 1960 nnd 1961 crops werc nbtained from the Impcriaf Tobacco Compjrny of Cinadii, Limited. This material, %thcn cur, is uscd in thc manufacturc of ciprctucs. In the 1960santplcs no refcrctnee. was made as to tdlc locarimn in the grolcing plant from which the leaves u•erc ohtaincd and it itas undrrs:unAi drat these ..-cree pooled samples from material obntincdthrnuqldout thcQru%cing season. The 1961 .sanlples, however, .verc scparatcd Nvith respecr tu their relative positii n in the groNxing plant (top„ middle and borrom parts)~. For the purpose of analysis the skeleton of the Icaves (midrib) Acass sepnruad fronrm the blade of rhe leaf (the lnntina). The various samplesm-ere ashed andthc strontium-90 content of duplicate aliyuors masdcnerminedi using the methn& of Grununitt et alr•. Calcium determinations were carried out on the leachate from the tobacco ash, using a Unicam Sp 900 flame spectrophoronteter. Strontium-90 values werc expressed as i?uc. strontium-90/gram of ash andd as ,u,ac. stronrium-90/bram of calcium (S.LL). Deremtinations of the strontiunt-89 eontcnt of the ash were alsocarried our usingg the mechod described previously'.. . Results . The results of the srronuum-90 and calcium analyses fur the diffcrent tobacco samples are given in Table 1.- No strondum-89 was found in any Table 1- The. Strontium-90. Calcium and S.U. Content of Canadian Tobacco . Samples S~ear Sample Calcium I Strantium-90 Strontium-90 LLuc./gm. . grttJgm. ash -yµc ./g-m.. h as calcium (S.U,) 1960 Lamina 0.226 }- - - - - 11 11.86 - 52.52 0.226 10.66 46.69 Midrib 0.148 7.22 48.78 0.149 7.45 50.00 1961 Top I~antina 0.236 13.42 56.86 0.241 11.98 49-71 Middle Iamina 0.228 14.48 63.51 r. 0-239 - 14.02 58.66 Bottomlamina 0.253 t7.22. 48.30 . 0.230 10.58. 46.00 . Top midrib - 0.122 6.59 54.02 0.123 I 7.36 59.84 ~ '\liddto mfdnib ~ 0.081 6.81 83.96 i 0.030 - . I 6.86 85.75 , Bottom ntidrib r1,079 I 6.70 84.81 n.n]o 6 7O , a, 91
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Role of Radioactive Substances In Effects of Smoking Lours J. CASana-rr, Ph.D., Department of Pharrnacodogyi The Univereity of Hawaii, HanaZulra,. Hawaii 968£!Q C ` TIIE hazard to health posed by cigarette smok- ing has brought about an accelerated effort in recent years to identify tobacco constituents which mightplay a contributory role in effects which correlate with smoking. Since radiation has a well-documented contribu- tory role in carcinogenesis,.it is not snrprising that considerable attention has focused on radioactive substances in tobacco and in the smoke from cigarettes. The pertinent literature on this subject has been reviesvedrecently (1). The predominant fl-emitter in tobacco is %f0 (2, 3). Although other elements-might contribute to the total If-activity in tobacco smoke, onlySr00 has been reported to be present in appreciable concentrations relative to K40content (4). Of greater interest has beenthetobac.co contentof.t materials tvhich emit shorter range, more densely ionizing a-particles. Elements of the radium chain have been found in variable quantities in different types of tobacco (5-7). Divergent interpret'ation is exemplified by the calculations of Turner and Radley (5) and Marsden and Collins (8). Although part of the disagreement arises from differences in analytical results and procedures, a major difficulty lies in uncertainties about the, precise patterns of deposition and clearance of the components of interest. Considerable att'antion has recently becn directed to Po"°. The level of this element in cie rette smoke reportedbyRadfordd and Hunt (9) has. been confirmedspectroscopically (.10).. Attempts to arrive at dose-response, interpretation have been hampered by the lack of adequate information about deposition and clearance kinetics and/or an apparent reluctance or Q inability to apply data from animal studies with Po=10 and other a-emitters. O Further emphasis on the need for the use of such information is given by ~ the work of Little and coworkers (11,]°1), Holtzman (13), and others on (p the distribution of PoSO in tissues of smokers. Among the experimental ~ work on Po='0 are two volumes which contain a major portion of the work Gop I t~ / 7-Owe~.~CY ~ ~SS .~a~~ytFK( C~odRNfc ~. ~ ./l~az/o~o)0 ~~?n~e{l L~5^~~'st~(YP J~On®yRo~~+~, /1Io
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C SIRn?TIC.Nh90 Cn\TES'r t1Y CaNnnl.tN 'honscco Sn.avt.rs 615 of thi- samplcsexamjncd. Bothh the struntimn-90 and calcium eccntents uf obc Luninn were greater than thoseof the midrib ubtnincd frnm the sanlc atra uf the plant. The results giv.en in the tablc rcprc.entsamptestal:en fnnu agrcat numbcr of plants and canl thcrcGrrc, be takcn as rcprescntin" a rc.tvma4h- accurate indication of the gcncral dfstribution of thcscc matcrizls tlirnu[[luout the plant. The avcra,re strontium-90 content pcr gratn of ash derivcd from pooled samples of midrib and lnminn .vcrc 6.96iucc6 and 12.40 pnc,' and the. calcium eoncentration was 0.108 gul, and 0.235 gtn. per gram of ash respcctiveG4'. 1)iYCn59ion The results indicate that there is approximately t.vice as nmueh.strbntium= 90 inthen lamina as in the midrib of the tobaecn plant in the santplcs anaczed. The average values of strontiurm-90/gra[n of calcinm for the midrib,, ho.,, - ever, u'cre somcw•hat, higher than that for the lamina, 69.00 and 52.79 S.L'. respcctively; but the lower caleium.content of the midrib may have possiblr accounted for this higher S.U. ratio. These values are similar to those found in cabbage gro31'n in Georgia,, klan9and and Ohio in 1960'".. Although strontium-90 is' present in tobacco in measurahlee amounts, itt is unlikeh' that it will present any radiation hazard to the lungp. It has been estimated that the temperature of the burning core of a cjgarette isin the rangce of 850-920°, tvhich is bclbvv thee tentperatureof vaporizatioo of strontiunl and thiswill considerablyreduccthe amount leaving the ash and entering the smoke. . In recent years the habit of taking snuff has reassumed a certain amount of social importance and it is interesting to speculatee upon the radiation hazards of placing varying:amounts'of raw tobacco within the'anterior nares. ACK\OWLEDG£\lENT This investigation was supported by research grant no_ 605-7-134 from the Departmenr of National+Health and,Welfare: ' R£FERE\CFS 1. Jarvis, A. A., Brown, J. R.,and Arnott, D. R. Theinfluenee of age of radioactive fallout material upon its deposition in milk and vertical distribution in soil. J'. Dairv . . Sci. 47:68, '64. 2. Cogbilh E. C., and Hnbbs, ,V. F- Tobacco Sci. 1:68, '57. 3. 2.sh,.S1. \leJ: Serv. J. Canad..15:195,'59, 4. Runeckles, V. C. Nature 191e322,'61. 5. Doll, Richard, and Hill, A. Bradford. Brit. \led. J,. 2:1071. '56. 6. Hantmond,.E. C., and',Horn, D. J.A..\LA. 166:1159 and139i','i8: 7. Dorn, H. F. The mortalitv of smokers and non-smokers. In Amorican Statistical Association. Soeial Statistics Section. Proceedings, 1958. The Association,. R'ash- ingron,'59. -' e. Lindsec. A. J„ Tobacco and health. Charles C. Thomas, Sprinqfield,.'6'_. pp. !1-E'_. 9. Gnuurnittq tiV'. E., and dlilcon, G. M. Radiochcmieal proeedures for strontiumm and rttrium. CRC-688(FehruarY; 1957).. Atomic Energy of Canada L[d.,.Clialk River Project, Chalk Rireq Onr., and Canada Dept. of National ffealuh and Welfarc. 10. Kulh, J. 1.., and Sihulerr,A. R. Struntiunt-90 in mamand his enrirunrlunt. -2:3a8, '61. Final relrort: \l'D.99341 US. Atomic Lnergy Commi>sioni 0 Q ~ IA ~ ry CID
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R. L• BLA'NGHARD 631 dyy. te> "nor- of the. ly • ne}s • lcd to r xtopo mount -t only if the in the kidney kidney let' will similar apriate re trill 'o liver either : body or the tta are ' data, ,counts 'norm- , tt°Po .md in tcnt'in ~t that more )y r 1- c ]t LC ' related s•IL tire cnt to rcfore, :ydata f stoPo report f mpo rnrt, a f 21pPo ol:e,'s) smoke y have t5to1'1Cs desig- The I 2•ablr 4. Concsnhation of OOPo and"OPb. in.amWer us.. nonnnoLrr rsni•o (pCi/kg) °Ppb,(pCi/kg), Tissue PansmokaSmoker Nonsmokcr Smoker Livcr 12 $ 4 17: f 2 5.9 } I.0 9.8 -= 1•3 ICiducy 10'f 3 13 d;4 4.2±0.6 4.6 j, 1.4 $plcco.. 3.3 } 0.5 3.9 i 0.5 2:A -4 0.7 4.6 ~ 0.9 Pancrtas 2.6 0.4 4' 3.2 0.4 4 2:6i0.6 3.8~0.6 Lung 3.2}0.7 10.$1 5,6~ 1.9 8.4~0:8 Note. Errors are onc stundard crrar of the mcan.. 60-yr old male had stopped smoking 3}r prior to death and is trt•ated as a nommokcr_ In Table 4 are listed the avra,;tat: concentrations founutin the or6ans nllsmnker5 ;n.d non.niokcrs. The errors.shown arc.for one standard error of the mean. No comparison was rnadl tchen less than.fifteen samples.of the organ%rere available. The lung.vas included in view of its significance with smoking. The results.for childrens' tissues have been omitted from these averages since they may tend to bias,the eomparison. All tissues reflect higher 219Po concentrations in the smoker than in the nonsmoker. To determine the sigtlificance of this d[fference, t values were calculated for each of the Gvebody organs listed in Table 4. The t-tes.C indicated that of these organs,, only the lungs of smokers eontain significantly more 41"Po than the lung of nonsmokers (P = 0.001). 11'ith respect to L10Pb, the t-test indicated tltat the liver of smokers may contain higher concennrationsof ytoPh than the liver of nonsmol:.crs (P == 0.05). All other differcnees between tissue concen- trations of smokcrs and nonrtmokers. s.~cre statistically nonsic;ni0cant. The average concentration of s'oPo in the lung,of the smoker was.about three tinies.greater than in the lung of the nonsmoker. These ranlts agrcc quite }vell sriththose of Hrt.t..191 The significance of the higher lung coocmt- trations in smokers with respect toinereased probability of luug carcinoma is presentlgbcing debated.'7'2'.'x.a"-' .. COI<GLUS]ON - The results of this investigation emphasire the nccd for additional biologicali data irith respect to P10Pb and 210PO. Before-aecurate dose-ratc esnimates.can be made,.thc diaribution of otoPo within the organ or tissues must be de- fined and all appropriatc RIl1: established. These parameters rnay rtoGbe so important fot "norm- ally" exposed individuals, but theyy becotnc quite importantwlien the dose is being investigated for indi'vidualsof centain pqpulntions whose body burdens are apprnaching the presentlyconsid- ered maximum permissiblc level. The occurrence ofunsupported' z'0Po found in some.Imman tissues cannot be e-Nplained on thebasisofpresentknowledge. This is illustrated in tlre large difilrrnce found between ICRP and mea.urerl values of the uoPo/"0Pb ratio, which may be a reflection of incorrect values for biological half-lives. A great deal more information is needed to describe "-'0Pb=10Po dietary intnke, and the movement and re- distYibut~ion of 210Po in the human body. Until these' questions are answered, or much better apptnsimatiuns become avail:tble, thetotal tlbse delivered to man by 21°po can be calculated with only limited success• Achnuwledgemrnt-The author is. grateful to R. T. YA+c..cucm, Pathology Dcpartment,. Cincinnati General Hospital,...vho supplied the tissue samples, andiof tliis laboratnm•, J..\C. KcArua2v, s.ho prepared the.tissues.foranalysis, and especiallyto B. KAtw for his eneouragemcnt and support. REBI6HENCES ' I• K, 2:,,hloxcnt:,.W'. S. Svsnr.a and M..R. Foao, MealtlrPl!yt:.10, 151 (1964.). 2. 11. SrwnLHrr.n, Atsrtsrntnloj RndioactLily in Afns, p. 505. IAEA, Viunna (;1964). 3. J. N. Srnz.sexu znd G. \S'. CASnuarr„Rad Res. Snppl. 5 (1964)• . 4. R. L. Br.'.NenAsn lindirrnlogicalCmuenvalionProcerser (Lditcd b) g. /tnaxr. and F. P. IdttnGAxe) p.281. Pcrgamnn Press Osford (1967)'• 5. R. B. HuLrzstAn, Flunltl:Phye. 9, 385 (I663). 6. V. E. Guoos, E• L. Sarr>_ax and W. 5r.4us,uorex, r11omA'rrnuurgic Oy 32 (1963). 7. C. R.. HnL, .4'etrerr, Lund: 208,.423(',1965). 8. R. V'. OsxoRNsy.i\'ste.re, Lnnd: 199, 295 (1963);. 9. \5'. L. \LN-ro, Diolobdrnl Studies with Pulvrenm, Pindiurn, andPl::tnniver (Editeri by . R. M. Fns:)' p. 15. \1cCraw-11i1l„Kcw York (1950). 10. L. D..Snntur.rs, A'ncurq Lond.210,.434 ('1966). 11. licpnrt of Cornmiuce.ll on Fcrmtssrblc-. Do.c for Intcrnal P tdmtinn„Hcoli/t P1nm 3 151 (J.9G0). 12. \1°. J.tcoai 1Jrulth PI rs. 10, 1163 (11964). 13. C. S. NEARY, J. R. SnvAGr., H. y. Pvcns and J. \1'nrrrce, /nt. J.Rnd Rinl', 6,.127 (1963). t 1
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Table. 1. Polonium content of mainstrcnm.smoke (from clgarettes of one brand) efter various types of filterinF "Matcriul" is material trapped by the membrane. filter. Abbreviations: Rep exp, replicate experiments; cha, charuoal'; ecl, ccllulose;; rea, revn. // ~. Cigarelte . Mainatream iontent per Filter, per Rep Material eig:rrette (pc)Po:smoke type sample exp (mg). (pc:mg) /~ (No-) (No.) AveraBe S.E. None 20 2 0.0174 0.0156 0.0000 0.896 Cha t eel 20 2 .005Z .0078 .0000 1.500 Res } cel 20 2) ' Res + ccl 10 5~1 .0086 .0012 .0004 0.140 Res-i-cel 8 51 Content In resin - 8 5 0:0136 0.0007 I I I ion-exchange resin; the resin~ from some of these cigarettes was analyzed for 21OPo content to confirm our opinion thatt the polonium removed was onn the resin. In all instances the material deposited from the mainstream smoke on the membrane filters was analyzed for 210Po by a reported method (3). Of the 11 packs of cigarettes ased', by us,, ten came from the same carton so that possible variation in polonium content among cartons of the same brand would be minimized-a step justified by the lower polonium con- tentt in the mainstream smoke of this batch ofcigarettes. Our other analyses of this brand of cigarettes,, without filters, had shown higher contents ,(0.0263 pc per cigarette, in the main- I) stream). similar to those found by other authors.. The resin used was a 20- to 50-mesh mixture (1h1) of cation- and anion-exchange resin (4) intended; for water-demineralizer cartridges. The resin was removed fromm the cartridges and used as is. All results (Table 1) have been cor- rected for reagent blank values, back- ground, and recovery. They indicate thatt the normal filter on this brand of cigarettes removes 50 percent of the polbnium in mainslreanr smokc, and that resin substituted'for the charcoal removes 92 percent or more. The polonium content of mainstream smoke was so low that indirect methods were used to confirm these results. From one pack of cigarettes, five with the filter intact were smokcd through each of two tared membrane filters. The same was done with fiveeiga- rettes in which the charcoal was re- placed with resin. The weight of residue collected on the membrane filter indi- cated that it collected on average 3.4 mg more material from the mainstream of each of the resin cigarettes than of each of the intact cigarettes. In part this find(ng reflected the fact that more of the resin cigarettes was smoked (the length of their butts averaged 1976 40.5 mm against 44.2 mm for the in- tact cigarettes), but it may be that charcoal removes more organic ma- tcrial from mainstream smoke than does the resin. To determine whether the lowered content of polonium in the mainstream smoke was due to removall by the resin, the resin from the five replicates listed in the last row of Table1 was analyzed. The sum of this average value and the averageof picocuries per cig, arette, in mainstream smoke from the resin-filtered cigarettes, should equal theaverage number of picocuries per cigarette in mainstream smoke fromun- filtercd cigarettes. Failure of a t-test of this hypothesis to reject at the 95- percent level implied that we had ac- counted for all the poloniumin main- stream smoke. A similar test of the hypothesis that the second and third values in column 5 of Table I are equal was rejected at the 99-perecnl level. We.eonclude that exposure of smok, ers lungs to alpha activity ismarktt0) reduced -by incorporation ofan ion, exchange resin in cigqrette filters. T}iir conclusion is based on the reasonable assumption that mainstream polonium occurs in aa similar form in all domestic cigarettes. A crude cost analysis indi. cates that incorporation of resin would be a relatively inexpensive contrd measure: the 0.12 g of resin used per cigarette would cost about 0.5 cent per pack. Thistype of radiation control could Ix applied wh7e funhrr radiobiologic experiments are being d, signed to test the significance of the R1°Po content of mainstream smoke. ERtCH WLBRETTHAUEn SNART C. BLACR Sotnhwesrern Radiological Healtli Laboratory;. U.S. Public Health Service, P.O. Box 684„ ' Las Vegas, Nevada Aefarences aM Nnte. I. E. P. Radford and V: R.. Hum, reiener 1U, 247 (1961);, H. Eislce, lhfd. 144, 952 (19Rq; K. W. Skrable, F. J. Haughcr. E. 6 Ako- antler, ibid. 146. 86 (191i4)1 A.I1. Yavin. A'. rnre 205. 899 (1965); T. F. KWley. Screnrr IN, 537(1969)t L. P. Gre9ory, ibid. 150, 74 (196L; K.C. ner£er. W. H. Erhardq C.. W:FrouLL mld., p. 1738, . 2. "American smnker,^ made by. Phlpps an7Hird, Ricbmond, va. 3. S. C. 8fack. HeatrhPhys. 7. 87(1961). A Made by. Rohm and Hass: mention of mam. facturers tlaes not eonmilute eadorrement Iq the U.S. Public Health Service. 20 Mzrch 1967  Failure of Cycloheximide To Induce Tyrosine Transaminase in the Anesthetized Rat Abstract. /t was recently reported tAna cycloheximide, an inhibitor of p6 tein synthesis, induces tyrosine transaminase in the liver ol adrenalectomized rau. We have been unable to confirm thise$ect in the anesthetized animal and aur data sliow(hat cyclohexirnfde inhibits the induction caused by lrydrocortisone in adrenalectomized rats or by stress !n intact rats. The activity of tyrosine transaminase mal by puromycin. Moreover, Fialt U.-tyrosine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotrans- andFiala's data indicate that the anti' ferase, EC: No. 2.6.1.5) is markedly biotic enhances the induction of tyta stimulated in rat liver by hydrocorti- sine.transaminase by hydrocortisone. sone (/), this stimulation being due to We were particularly interested in de nova synthesis of protein (z)- It this report in view of recent dcvdnf• was recently reported by Fiala and ments concernedd with regulatory pnC' Fiala (3) that cycloheximide, an inhibi-Cesses affecting the rate ofsynthesis o) tor of protein synthesis (4), inducesCityrosine transaminase in rat liver. Fen' tyrosine transaminase to a value 250~lney (5). haspresenled evidence s[rP to 300 percent above basal level mCDporting the view that this cnzyme i+ 4 hours. The effect was observed inAJnormally repressed at the transaall.e' Lhe livers of both intact and adrenalec--l stepp of its biosynthesis hy a repr9k lomized rats, and the increase wasco sor withavery rapid turnover anJ blocked in the adrenalectomized ani- that induction by hydrocortisotte e0411d SCIENCE,. VOt. Iv 4 t fis. tasal .n it adran x,tmir q. T rhe t Ihrou from atal: prt5sv pprut of pr he p press modl resin migh lerer malia mg he a tcme &iala In rpcct al.. (, amic +drer nau and nedi. Con, Jiirn adm escl cnn mc 10 1 dt4 er Y trrc n.n t+lc: mdi .p; ru
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200 CABARL'rr on this element at the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, one appearing in 1950 (14) and the other in 1964 (16). ROLE OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES 1) Do radioactive substances, indeed, play arol'e in the effects related to smoking and in what termscan the role be defrned? 3) To what extent doestotat radiation dosenr dose ratecont'ribute.to effects relative to and in context with all'other contributions.whetherin tobacco smoke or notB 3) What is the mechanism by which the contribution is made to the disease proness4 These and other similar questions impose certain requirements and te- strictions on any further consideration.. First, a primarylimitation is that the effect under consideration must'beidentified aspreeisely aspossible. Selection of an endpoint or criterion of effect iscritieal to establishment of a role for any impinging substanca The direct involvement of a ma- terial in a6 disease process becomes less'subject to assessment the more dif- fuse and e neral the criteria of effect.become. For example, the association of "smoking"and"pulmonaly disease," although epidcmiologiealy sig- nificant, is too imprecise.t,o.allow for meaningful'assessment of the role of a.specific inatcrial in fundamental terms: Second,; it is virtually axiomatic that.in order to place a causal or con- tributory labcl on any material in a specific disease process, there must be a well-definedunderstanding of the initiation and progression of'the dis- ease. Without such an undelstanding, any relationship hetweema particular substance and the disease entity is largely suggestive. In short, it is un- likely that a specific "role" can be assigned unless there is prior knowledge of a corresponding niche in the etiolol,,ryand development:of the.disease. Thirdy with particular regard to radioactive substances, it is essential, to take eog°nizance of alI aspeets of the pharmacokinetics of the inhaled ma- terial, including site of deposit'ion, initial distribution of the deposited material, tlieredist¢'ibution and clearance patterns, and the time of con- tact with the tessuestructi2res of interest, particularly the respiratory tract. Only by full utilization of such.information can one approach ques- tions of the locus of initiation of an effect, the influence.on the progress of thedisease, and the relation of these events with the temporal and spatisl distribution of the radiation dose. RADIATION AND SMOKING RELATED DISEASES When effects. of smokingg are discussed,, three diseases are mentioned most often and appear to be most closely l inked to smoking: cardiovascular disease,, pulmonary emphysema, and' ncoplastic changes, especially lung carcinoma. Although a detailed review of literature pertinent to the rela- NATIONAL CANCEa LNSTiTQPr. MONOORAPB NO. 28 tions of radic eral conclusic role of radic mental work • With respe of nicotine ar, of tobacco sm to effects on t': changes as th monary injur smoke, produa cular system. Experiment maturely ocet poral advancE PonO given (1 nephrosclerosi pronounced'tl the dose or d arteriolar resl approximatel3 nephrosclerosi The radiatit from the circu burden (18) oi in vessel walls rat after inhal tion (fig.2).I enlargement (; single dose. It and consequenl These and ot compared to tl trate that the - ture cannot be realistic levels, based on curre! There is prol implicated ess e There would b be a source of TOWARD A r.EBe
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,ject, one .S effects related 'o what extent elative to and +moke or not$ made to the ments and re- itation is that.. y as possible. establislunent lent of a ma- the more dif- ie association 'logicaly Sig- of the role of wsal or con- here must be n o hc dis- a cular )rt, it is un- r lrnowledga the disease. ia essential inhaled ma- e deposited ime of con- respiratory roach ques- progress of and spatial SES mentioned lovascular ially lung a the rela- ROLE eFRADIOACTIVE sUIS9TANGne. 201 tions of radiation to these diseases is outside the scope of this.paper, gen- eral conclusions can be summarized as to the probablemagnitude of therole ofradioact.ive substances. Particular reference is made to experi- mental work with Pon°: Cardiovascular Effects With respect to cardiovascular problems,, the pharmacological effects of nicotine are classical and well documentecL Effects of other constituent's. of tobacco smoke are less well defined but remain as possible.contributors to effects on the cardiovascular system. One must alsoo view cardiovascular changes as they might represent sequelae or secondary responses to pul- monary injury. Radioactive materials, at the levels reported in tobacco smoke, produce no known, substantiated, direct effects on the cardiovas- cular system. Experimental studies with Po"0 in rats (18). have.demonstrated a pre- maturely occurring, generalized arteriosclerosis, with the extent of tem- poral advancement related to the size of the single intravenous dose of Po- given (1-20 µc/]tg). Of particular interest is the report of arteriolar nephrosclerosis at.a single intravenous dose of 10 µe(kg which was mora pronounced than at doses.of 1, 5, or20.p.c/kg. This finding sutceststhats the dose or dose rate is crucial in the production of differing types of arteriolar responses. Multiple doses of L5 µc/kg/month to a total dose of approximately 10 µe/kg resulted in a considerably less marked arteriolar nephrosclerosis (17). . - The radiation dose to blood vessels for the lifetime of the rats can arise. from the circulating blood which contains a significant fraction of the body burden (18) or from tissue concentrations including possible concentration in vessel walls. Examplesof this apparent concentration are shown in therat after inhalation (fig. 1) and in the rabbit after intratracheal insufda- tion (fig. 2). In addition to general arterioseleroticchanges, some cardiac enlargement (left ventricle) was observed at.long period6 after a10 µc/kg single dose, It was suggested that this was secondary to the arteriosclerosiss and consequent hypertension (16). These and other changes result from.dosages of Po='" which are extremee compared to those expected from human smoking, but they serve to illus- trate that the possibility of subtle contributions to effects o.^.the vascula- ture cannot be ignored. Although subject to further experimentation at-, realistic levels,.it is probable that the radioactive.contribution is not large,, based on current information. Emphysema There isprobably little dispute that chronic irritation of the lung can be implicated as a possible factor in the etiology of pulmonary emphysema. There would be even more accord that inhalation of cie rette smoke.ean . be a source of chronic irritation to the mucosa of the respiratory tract. 0 '8 NO. 28 TOWARD A LFPa. HARMFIIL C•I6AAF.TTE
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, y,e:ics examined For this rqr magnctitc unit is always ~j . ,p.ldally from the apatite rl,c Icpidoorncite unit. The ~~„nlt in all three species is , i„t ((i3 to 65 percent), the ,!c nnit comprises about 33 pen- , ,1 the fepidocrocitc unit con- ; ar most, 2percent of the min- ~ ,:r,nn of the denticks. How- .- t in.tgnctite: is the most exten. ., d,cdopcd mineral on the denti- , ,,cc. (Fig. 1), occupying about ~- .,,rn6 while the apatite mineral 1// .,•.•1 att mast,. 38 percent of the sur- . .fr.. The minerals recovered from i.., knticles of all mature teeth on '.w•r-l.Ila of adult individuals of A. .,...:!.m consist,, on the average, of -t of the apatite mineral,._6 mg .. ~•,pctitc, and 0.7mg of lepido- !r use minoralv found in the denticles .r-t ('hitonidae species have biologic ' ..t taJogio implications.. Magnetite !.;. f.-und in the denticles of two Chi- F({ iae speeies. (1), whereas the apa- ,,, nnneral and lepidocrocite are new ~ , .+.lon precipitates- The ideatifica- ...n nf lepidocrocite is of particular j~~=n,L., because this is the first time :I+ fhls mineral has been observed as Ci , '„dugic precipitation product. I t.".v Chitonidaein ourstudy have •,+ibpl.ttes composed of araganite. The +^w+ie+ ih the two Acanthopleura spe- •r. ss well as the girdle scales in the *4nn epecies;,consist also of aragonite. •'rn the denticle precipitates,, name- ^ rrugnetite., lepidocrociie, and the ",'dac mineral, are added, the chitons "tifte as a rather uniquee group of -'irnt,ms, in which as many as four ,,!;rcnl minerals can be precipitated '" Oe tissues of a single individual. . r hitdnjdae are common intertidally '"rr'utyY shores of the tropical and sub- .C1cal scas:for instance, at Barbados, '-'••nidae average 30 individuals and ""ny as 60 individuals per square "+'rL The mineral fraction of the "Ire dentieles of the standing crop 'f 1 hltunidae per square meter is esti- 'r'e'd to Consist, on the. average, of "'`ng of the apatite mineral, 150 °r °t magnetite, and 10 mg of lepi- i~lt`eitc-and of twice those amounts " ISe more densely populated areas. Itat ei6nificance qf chitons as pos- '''t conlributors of magnetite to ma- "Q kdimcntshasbeen noted(t). The""ile fraction of shallow-water ma- tcdiinents has been attributed to' ~slal remains of fish and crusta- ^'`e t967 ccans. However, our dam indicate that, in the tropics and subtropics, the apa- titic fraction of the shoal-water sedi- ments should be, in part at Icast, de- rived from Chitonidae denticlcs. Sedi- mentary occurrences of lepidocroeite were formerly attributed to inorganic sourccs. My work indicates that this mineral also is aproduct of biosyn- thesis; The amounts contributed by the Chitonidae to the sediments are like- ly too be small. Nevertheless, it is necessary to distinguish in sedimentary lepidocrocites between the biologic and inorganically derived fractions. H. A. LOWENSTAM Division of GeologicalSciences, California lno7ituteof Technfogy, Pasadena91109 Be&rencesand liotes. 1. IL A. Lowenstam,. 8nf1 GeaL Sue.. Amer. TS,A35 (1962p. 2 A. G. smaN . Trea(ke on trrvenebrnre Pafe- ontotoSF (Geo). Soc. Amer. aad Univ. of Kxnx. s- Lawrmep 1960), part 1, P. 42 3. Determination of the Onie point far a sam- ple of the mincralized denticks of C. sraae.l by J. C.nelsilb showsal5o that the material ismaanctite and not mayhcmitc (personal cum,nuniCanVn). t. T. H. Caref(wt, Pruo. MaiacoL Soc. London 36,. 203.(1965): 5. H. A. Lowcnstam, Science 137, 279 (1962). 6. N. W6labe, IGid. 124. 610 (1955); K. Wadu. Butf. Nur. PeuNfter. Lab. 7, 70) (196I). 7. S:. D. Luwenstam cvllected the chitnns from Vina det Maq Chile, and 1. Westphal aided in the collection off the chiton sumplesfrom. Palav, Carolinc IslandS. 8. P'. E. L/esautcls of the. U.S. Natinnuf Museum supplledthe reference sample of lepidocroci,e (cat. No. n9593p ftom Hurhavaen. Germany. The dahllitestandard, supplied by D. McCOn- pnsr- ncll, consists of dental enamel from a W3sconsin aetudon tooth InluHmn Ohia) ) wNchhas been chemicaily analyted[D. Mo 47onnell, Arner. Mineraluy-iat 45, 209 (1960)1. 9..The 2.fID4-A linc shown in the s-my diera= tian Pnttern of the rcfcra,ce sample (Fip. 311) . is not a recnrded mapnelite line. 10..The Ca and P contents were, determined with the use of ,he chemically analyzed dahllite asa rtandardahe F contnna was detcrmined withi > ftuorite standard. It. Cnntribution Nm. 1445 from the Division of Gentagical Sciences. California lnstimte of, Technolo$y. Supported by grants GP-321 and Cr-201S7 from the N:,tional Science kuundu- tion...I thnnk M. Dekkers and!A..Chodos forr technical amistanec. . 5 Aprn 1967  Polonium-210: Removal from Smoke by Resin Filters Ahstract- Use of a mixedion-exchange resin as. a fflter for cigarettes markedly reduces both the totalamounr of polonium-210' in mainstream smoke and tire picocuries per milligram of smoke. This procedure effectively minimizes exposure of the lungs of smokers to alpha irradiation. . Since the publication of Radford and Hunt's reporn on the presence of =101!o in the mainstream smoke of cigarettes,, many havc investigated the presence of' alphn-particle activity- in tobacco (1). Although alpha activity in tobacco smoke is relatively low, much interest hasbeen aroused in possible carcinogenic effects on the lung of the resultant irradiation, because of either thecumulative alpha dose or possible synergistic carcinogenic action with nicotine and tars. We have extensively investigated the concentration ofe3PPo in various s domestic and foreign tabacr:os. Our principal goal was reduction of alpha activity in mainstream smoke, with consequent reduction of the exposure of smokers' lungs tothe activity,, by sceking.species of tobacco plants hav- ing.muurally low contents of polonium.. Also we attempted to determine the form in which -°'Po appears in the smoke,; so that it could be controlled otherwise. In one experiment we used a mixed-bed ion-exchange resin in an attempt to remove ionized polonium from the smoke; all polonium appar- ently was removed. Other experiments indicated thatt commercial cigarette - filtcrs (cellulose,., charcoal-impregnated material, granular charcoal, or com- binations of these) removes 50 percent or less of the polonium. The following procedure was designed to investigate more fully the unexpected efficiency of - the resin filter. We used a domestic brand of filter cigarettes, the filter consisting of a chamber containing granular char- coal, with rolled-cellulose elements above andd below theehamber. All samples were smoked by machine (2). We used a set of parameters that we have adopted as our standard:: theyconsist of eight puffs, each of 35emaund 2-second duration, taken 58 sec- onds apart, The mainstream smoke was. trapped by a 0.45-µ membrane filter and a flask containing 0.5N HCIi ~ Earlier experiments in our laboratory Q had indicated quantitative removal of %I =tnPo by the membrane filter alonc 6" Our procedure was to smoke ciga- ~ rettes first with the normal filter in-~ tact and then with the filter removed. Ca'1Finally,. cigarettes were smoked in which the granular charcoal of the normal filter had been replaced with 1375 I
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` - -1 1 _&WMEENNSMEEW~ 202 CABAREPr However, t,itereis no unequivocal evidence that the levels of radioactive material identified in cigarette smokeca.n producosuch.chronie irritation. On the contrary, there is some evidence that much higher doses are needed to produce a detectable pneumonitis or.bronchitis For example, a minimal single dose.of about 1000 rad of X rays is con- sidered necessary to produce.radiation pneumonitis in rat, rabbit, and dog (19), and aminiunal.single dose of over 2000 rad is.eonsidered necessary to produce an acute response in human.lung (pneumonitis) (Q0). Single in- halation doses of Po31p in rats of 0.05-0.1 pe ($Y-$3) results in no lung re- sponse attributable to the radioactive material. No relation of emphysema was found with single intravenous doses of Po"° ranging up to 20 µc/kg (16) or with equivalent doses given monthly for about.a year (17).. Additional-dat'a with other radioactive materialsin human and animal studics could be cited. It is important to note that,, even for minimally da- tectable responses of the lung, dosage must exceed that found in cigarette smoke by very large factors. A crucial study would be difficult to perform because a nebulous area of borderline judgment would be required. From available data, except possiblyfor lymphatic reactions (16, 17), it.rould appear that radioactive substances would play only a.smalla role relative to the rest of the smoke stream in the etiology of emphysema. Carcinogenesis Conceptually, carcinoma can be considered to ariso from an "initiating" factor that induces a basiccbanbe in a.cell and "promoting" factors which create or provide a milieu in which growth and' development of neoplastic cells can occur. Evidence isample thatt radiation can induce cellular chang~c which carry the potentiall fortumor development. Citations are not necessary to document this fact whether the mechanism is a true induction, an increased incideneein a population, or the occurrence of a neoplasin at an advanced timacompared with the course of spontaneous tumors. Thus, increasing, the radiation dose through smoking can be considered to increase the probability of the occurrence of an initiating event. TGhat remains unlniown is the degree to which the probability is increased as distinct from all other contributions of other materials in the smoke. Another significant unknown factor is the pattern of dosee and dosage resulting from inhalation of these levels of radioactivity and whether the pattern can produce an increase in incidence equivalent to that.vhich might be predicted on theoretical grounds. PULMONARY CLEARANCE PATTERNS Consideration of any disease process leads one to the question of dose distribution of the inhaled material. Of particular pertinence is informan tion on the pharmacokinetics and particulate behavior of «-emitters, espe- NATIONAL CANCP.'q. INSTrrPrE y2ONOORApII NO. 28 ciall,y Pd3e. from studic resins as ca: materials sh Among t: particulate a-emitting tract struct pathway of the source course of c context of t In an Nal e(er, appro respiratory equally bet time in the 20 days in be calcul'at, figuration different fT Among I topes, savel tion featu: radiationc Po°'° behw or orally ( time follo- that the l physical5 establishec sorbed in - whether ii mass is to other matc Followi deposited ing mater cleared b found in ment of 1 at or nea illustrates area is hi concentra TOWAffilt
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U~ L) 0 ii Id 1800 FIRST CONGRESS OFINTERNATIONAL RADIATION UOTECT1D/Cr'ASSOCIATION of muscle of both species was 10 pCi/kg (wet). By C contras[y the S10Po content was much greater, about 200 pCi/kg. A definite scasonal dccrrase was noted in the tt°19s in muscle during the second half of the year. Similar variations were indicated for 21"po in ,r muscle and for =10Pb in bonc.. 'I'he fiigh levels in earibouu are attributed to thehiylL fallout lovels of thes< nuelides.in lichens, their winter forage,.svhich contain .- (in. dry vreight)6 pCi °S"PU/gand 12 pCi z1oPorg. The other animals exltibited: appreoiablylower concentrations in bone and muscle. lb'olf, .•'hich consumes lhrge quantities of caribou, exhibited acti.•itics in bone of l pCi/g,ashl about that observed in some Fskimo bone by Hill. The "°I'u contcnt: of wolf muscle was abuut the same as that of car8bou, 200 pCi/kg,.but tbe =itlPb wasonlys about I'pCi/kc. Similar, but lessdramatic.di[krenecs were observed ia.F+kimo placenta. Estimates o2uptake show, that Fskimos could acquire.sufhcient of the long-lived E10Pbto double the total skclctal radiation dose (rad) ) over that of Midwcsterners. However, despite of the high concentrations of dte rrOPo in meat, direct intake accounts for only a relatively small inerease in total dose. r 144 Polonium=110 in I.talian tobacco. N. CAnsr' and R. Duc1..Anu Losary Laboratori CISr,-Segmtc, Milano (Italy). Many authors have considered the possibility that naturally occurring210Po may originate a cancer and C also induce genetic motations. Polonium can be introduced into thc.organism in several ways: (1) through'the food in , Itich it canhcdound in an extrrrnely small quantity as it is,absorbed from the soil where natural radioactive +crics arc always present even im.srnall concentration; (2) as natural falloun as result of radbn disintegra- tiomescaping in to the atmosphere from the soil; (3) as contamination in smoke from tobacco. ' In the last case polonium together with the other well-known factors producing canccr mayact particularly ass ann important initiator in the prod'uc- tion of hroncliogcnic carcinoxna. A1any different factors are at stake in considering polonium absorption in man from natural radioactive series. Amongothcr things it ie nacessarp to determine whether rt°Po is nbsnnccd by the tobacco plant , directlyfrom thc soil or through the surfaca of leaves from natural fallout contained' in thce atmosphere. . It must also be determined how absorption drpmtds - on the temperature of burning tobacco and ..hatt percentage nf Po is retained by bronchiab eptthclium end thcn reckon the dose to the.organse etc. A simple mcthnd for polonium dclcnmination in most widcsprcad Italiam ciganettess is being set up. In the future natural radioactivity will be analyzed both in tobacco and tobacco soils.Thc eiearettesconsidered are the "Nazionali" and "Alfa". The techniquc used consists in a wet ashing procedure instead of asbing alone in order to avoid pulonium evaporation. 1= 2 g cigarette tobacco samples arrdigrsted with hot conccntrated HCl and the solution obtained is them placed in particularplating ccll'at 95°CI Within a fr.v hours polonium is plating utr silver disks with a 36 mim diameter, the aulution huirig agitatcd for the schole period of time. For the setting up of tlr° method several detcrmina- tions.were performed of the alpha particle cnergyof the clcctrochemical deposit w-ith a solid-state detector, and clwrgc-sensitive preampliher and a multi-channel analyzer. The hackground is, in this casc, 0.1 = 0,15 counts1hr. ' ' An, accurate detcrmination is carried out of the chernicalseparatinn yield and of the measurement effrcinncywith s1uPo calihratcd soluiions. Most mvasurements are performed by a ZnS (Ag)scintillation counter with a particularly low 11ack- ground of 0-3'pulses/hr. A75o blank lests bavee an activity equal to this value. The counting efn.cicncy is determined by ealibrated sounces of ~sPu and elcetro- lyiically dcposited.uranium. The results are listed in the present paper. 745. Contamination with polnnittm-210, uranium and radittm-226 due to smuking. M. batasnxnA, D.. Parnovtq D- PA~ov and D- Dlvatc; Uepartmen.t of Radiological Protcction, Institute of Or.cu- patinual Ilcalth„Beograd', (Yugoslavia). The content of polonium-210, uraniumand radfum.226 was exarninedin Yugoslav well-kno.m cin:.rettess and tobaccos from regions where tlie best Yugoslav tobaccos are produced. At', tlu: salne time in dcte.-mined grou ps of smokersof thae cigarettes and non-smokerss the mentioned radionuclides. in urine were studied. - The distribution of polonium-210 in smnke,, ashes and fag-ends ofbigatcttes as a function of tempera- ntr:ewnsparticularlyexatruned. ValueSfurpolonium- 210 faund in some cigarettes rangedd frum.0.4 to 0.6 pCifg, mdiutn-?26 below. 1R'rsCi/g and uranium under5 samma/g of tigarntta. - Analvzingg the distribution or polonivm-210 the anthurs conclude that about 40:per cent af polonium- 210 is to be found iro the smoke of eig,.rcttes. The urinary. polonium-21d0 values in smokers and non- srnokers are different; but there is no significant sta+istical difference betw,ccn them.. li 05 146 \vil: Iitlm:t[t DAtIL, State ' Conce were me srmle d, Colorad• 5-13 tir beef anci tion ofc could p, the tot: result it sosRu. The 9eS8itice by las(:, tionship 3311, am Duri: - yeaxlinz s.-as gen backgrC same p w<re h levels i deer th} 0.012 r; 147 Pr, and c Stati, Kitw- Labo Ph.f Tro:: Two tion at \Yest C Iabarz mental ln tt grarnrr. 0-32 Ia envirot and fal: Idont. and di torio^ : detaile. Consurn var)in' profess the ra!
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206 CAaen.rrn (Y8) IIF.pnau;.A. C.: Oa.cigarette smoking, bronchial carcinoma and cillary action: Accumulation of cigarette tar upon artitlciallp produced dedllated islaads in reapirntory epithellum. Ann Otol OG:.110-130,195Q (30))liousorv, P. E., and CA®eserr, L..J.: ln Inhaled Particles and Vapours. Oxford. Pergamon Press, L'181,, p 107. Tllw.13iD A r.FFS I F Icus.- I the ra FnR."nE and'.1
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` 204 {)A8AREIT At otherlevels of the tracheobronehiolar tree, similarly inordinate doses result from thee ciliary clearance patterns. Bronchiolar branch points receive a higher dose than might be predicted. (W).. This result's.from the passage of material overoasurface at the jnncture of bronchioles which is narrower than would be accounted for by customary calculation but also from the change in mucous flow as described by Hilding. (W) in which material can be caught up in eddy currents. Other related sites of high dosage are the "faults" or nonciliated patches of bronchiolar epithelium. Another source of dose to the basal layer of the.bronchiolar epithelium is not considered in any conventional dose calculations. Transport of material from alveolar regions to regional lymph nodes places sources of radiation doses in small areas of ]ymphoid tissue in juxtaposition with small bronr.hioles and in lymphaticvessels near the bronchiolar structures. Lymphatic trarnsport has been demonstrated for polonium (22,28) . and the lymphatia contribution to epithelial dose has been well illustrated for Puos:particles (;9a). In addition to the points given above,.preeise values for the several patterns of mucous movement and velocil.y of movement are not available. Thus, calculation of the "dose" with which to relate effects is,, at best, a rough approaimation. Finally, it should be mentioned.that other areas of systemic distribution of radioactive components of cigarette smoke might receive.some attention. Oneesample is the lymphoid tissue, which is made up of radioeeauitia*e cells, and the vascular deposits.illustrated in figures 1 and 2. Other possible sites are the kidney in which most polonium is deposited in theprosimal tubules (fi-. 4), the biliary system which cycles significant quantities of Po?D (fig. 5), and hair follicles (fig. 6) ($7). Bn summary, it cannot. be concluded that radioactive materials in cigarette smoke do not contribute to those effects.thought to be related to smoking. However,, current information suggests that sizable direct con- tribution cannot be claimed in comparison wit.}lh the potential contribution of other elements of the smoke. Chronie, subtdecontribution is possible, but precise mechanisms are unknown as.are the necessary facts for accurateassessmcnt of dose. Finally, other systems might be examined more criti- cally in view bf the systemic distribution of the radioactive materials. REFERENCES (1) Wrkna& B• L-, and HoeruwarN, D.: Studies in esperimental enrcinogenesis..ln Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. New Tnrk,.Academic Prexs Inc., 1967, pp 404470. (Z)' ltuxecxj.es, v. C.; Natural radioactivity in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Nature ( London ) 191: 322-325. 1961',. (8) Aex, M.: Cauad \ICd Serc 715::105,.1859. (4) Tso, T, C.: Botan Bull Aced Sinica 7: 28-03, 1(100, NATIONAL CANCERINe'r1TOTis MONOOnAP$ NO. 28 (5) Tusna, clgarei (g) PALf.taTi tobace (7) CuaaTa Calt (. (8) Messos: from t (B) 8.eroae in cign (10) YAVra;., acopic (11) IdaTxs,, tion o: Med z (12) Lrtsl.x, eilift", (15) Hor.ranc. Scienc Natler (15) Sraxaei of an (16) Cwssaei Res si (17) - : 5:s47 (18) SrANxi retent (19) Wwsaetc logic c (20) Report, Effect (21) ssnxe, 21a 8. (22) Cws~ S retent mecAa trntlo: ) ( (24) !a rab Mossow. (25) inbale CAawaer (ts) (27) Snhale Moaaow tLelo• surra, scerr, etudle H52A (28) CAS'ae grapD Q 210. R ~ ~ ~ TOWABI7AI ~ ~ ~
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dioactive rritation. re needed ROLE oF nAnIOAC1'iVt9 6IIneTANCEa 203 cially PoPO. Although muclr of the available information has been gained from studies in animals without the complicating feature of tars andresins as carriers, severall points about the patterns of clearance of these materiulssltould beusefule ys is C°n" Among the many reviews dealing with deposiPion and clearance of , and dog particulate material may be cited examples of a few wluch deall with :essary to a-emitting heavy elements($F-26). The dosedelivered to respiratory inglein- traetstructures depends on several faetors: tlro locus of deposition,.theL lung re_ pathway of clearance,, the rapidity of movement, and the relative size of physema the source (ion, sma1D or large particle) at the onset and during the. 2O1''0ll`g course of clearance. Several reported observations arerelovant in the 7)' conteat.of this.paper. ' f animal In an NaC1 vector particle size range of about 0.05K count median diam- ially de- eter, approximately 50% of the inhaled polonium is deposited in the :igarette respiratory tract of rats ($1-.~£) and dogs(47)which is divided about perform equally between upper and lower parts of the tract. The bioloa cal half d. From time in the upper respiratory tract is about. 8-13hours and approximates itwould 20 days in parenchymal regions. Although a mean dose to the tissue can relative be.caleulated based on these data and assumptions,of the structhral con- figuration of the respiratory tree,, the true dose to specific areaswill be different.from the average dose, often by decidedly large factors. Among the observations previously reported for a-emitting radiaiso- 'iating" topcs,.several are worth mentioning to illustrate some of the microdistribu- sR~ i tion features which must be considered for an adequate assessment of` ~pla~stic radiation dose in relation to effects. First, it should be pointed out that cellular Po"0 behaves as a colloid in the body .vhether administered intravenously ons aro or orally (28) or inhaled on an NaC1 carrier. With extended periods of a true timee following administration, the colloid is presumably solubilized so ,ce of a . that thee polonium form is a more diffusible,, nonparticulate one. The taneous physical form in which this material exists in tobacco smoke has not been can be established. Although at elevated temperature polonium is probably ad- .tiating sorbed in widely dispersed fonn on small smoke particles, it.is not known ility iewhether it remains houndin.vivn or whether an effectively particulate ; in the mass is formed on deposition,, either by recombination of polonium with. ~seand .. other materials or coagulation of smoke particles. Ly and. Following inhalation of f°insoluble" polonium colloid,'a fraction of the Ient to . deposited material is very rapidly distributed systcmically. The remain- ing ing material, that deposited on large bronehiolar structures, is rapidly - ~ cleared by the ciliated epithelium. Particles deposited in alveoli are found in phneocytic cells within 2 hours after deposition. In the move- .ment of phagocytic elements from the alveoli, cells and particles collect at or near the site of the bcginning of the ciliated epithelium. Fid re 3 f dose , illustratessuch an accumulation (fl8).Obvlonsly, the dose delivered.tothis oMa- area is higher than would be predicted from calculations based solely on ' BSPe- ~ concentration and tacitly or overtly assumed uniform distribution. 0 Q ~ 70. Y8. ~ TpWAaD A LESS nARELFIIL CieAnWTE ~ ! ~ C m ~
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1 at physical trainul~' . illstitutions, tth, -IJ'. '1.. thoai r trnlprralrl . PN RSFSR, Ko.U3. m temperatury lnego vozrasta ~peratnre in Institm.ie•uv !gienicheskoe normir~- ld ` Y efygienir e tpotootdelitel'nye vozrasta (RefUectory° ry Skin Reactions of niya organizma ning). Sverdlovsk. . Phyalbl. , Vol. 871. em.. V.ol.55, p.590.. rived 15 February 19r:_. I f.t-t :, t'.p , f, r; ' iqdl :ril it + yll;rr•nrr Srrhslrralihlir.rr nf Opliizuol Air Tcmrperahrrr• in (.rvrnn.~irnrt.e mrd lfasir llal'lsnl, l'resr'haol bf.c(!lulion.. C. A. SrvrYukova Thl• nptiinal airtrmprrattmr levelswere deturmined for gymnasiums and music halls of preschool institutions. As criteria for their assessment the author chose the bodyand skin temp.lrature (forehead, chest, back of hand and foot);e thedifferencesin the tempvlature levels of the skin onn the chest and; the foot, the fluctuation of individual lndices of the skin temperature of separate parts of the body. The optimal air temperature levels for physical exercises of children in gymnasiums were set at 17-19°.. . POLONIUbI-210 IN TOBACCO (,roprosu p soderzfu:nii poloniya-210 v tabake) ~. A.P. Ermolaeva-Makovskaya. L.A. Pertsov, and D. k. Popov . .. ... Lenincrad.Research insutute of Radiation Hygiene '.. 1 Much research is being done on the damage caused by smoking. i Formerly,.the high incidencc.of malignant new growths in smokers was i relpted to the presence of chemical carcinogens in tobacco, Including ,. u-benzpyrene. The most recent research has demonstrated that tobacco also contains radioactivee isotopes which are the decay products of radium and which are introduced into the lungs with the smoke. There are conflicting reports on the.carcinogenic danger of polonium-210 (Pox1u) which is present in tobacco products. . - Po=tn is a long-lived (Ty = 138.4 days) daughter product of the decay of radium-226 (RaRZB). The natural content of Razal in soil is responsibie for the permanent presence in the atmosphere of the gaseous product of its . decay, which.is radon. After transformations along the series of short- . lived intermediate products• RaA. Ral3.. RaC'. RaC1, RaC", radon is converted into the long-lived lsotopes RaD (Pb"n, T y' 20 years)• RaE(Bi110, Ti = 50 days) and RaF (Potl°). As pointed out by Gross et al. , these decay-products of radon, formedin the air, settle on rain droplets andaerosols and return once more to thc earth. -According to some authors, . for instance Radford and:Hunt• PoZ10 may stimulate the formati~on of bronchogenic carcinoma; according tothese authors, the concentration of Po=10 in certain kinds of cigarcttes is 3.9-4.8 • 10-1z curie. This opinion is based on thee followi~ngg considerations. The dose of a-radiation from Po=1" (inhaled in tobacco smoke) on thrbronchial epithelium of heavy - smokers (30-40 cigarettes daily) may be 7 times higher than the background - dose received from natural radiation, provided Po2ln is distributed'uniform:- d uniform- ly over thee surface ofYhe lungs. However, if it forms. °hot" spots,. then the c C
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C HOLEOFRADIOACTII'E. 6IIB8TANCF.6 205 . - ite doses (5) TIIa[+an, R. C., and RADanY, J. hf.: Naturally occurring alpha activity of I points cigarette tobaccos. Lancet 191 : 1197-1198, 19fi0. `rom the (6) P~uDrea, E. T., und'Gnue.D, J. U.: Radium a-activityof cigarette and pipe- tobacco nsb. Nature (London)195: 4R7-S88, 19GL which is (7) Car.TTEeana, R. K., Bs.uenJc, P... Guosa, M. N., and CHA'rreeaee, S. D.: Sct but also Cult (India) 31: 18Pr189, 1906. '- a which (8) MeneonD, E.,, and Couxvs, M. A.: Alpha-particle activity andfree radicals of high (9) from tobacco. Nature (LDndon) .198: 902'-964,1963. RADeoaq E. P., JR., and Hoxm, V. R.a Polonium-210: A volatile radioelement -helium. thelium (10) in cigarettes. Science 143: 247-249;.19G4. Ysvra, A. I., Dn Pasquwu, G., and Bwnoxe, P.:POlonium in cigarettes-spectro- port of (11) seopie analysis. Nature (London) 205: 899-900,1965. V. R.: Distribu- and Hnvr P DScCouas li. L. RAOrroaD E: Ja R . Lr[Tra J urces of n with ., , , , . ., , , , . . tton of polonimu-210 in pulmonary tissues of c}garette smokers. New Eng J Med 273: 1348-1351,.1965. uctures, (19) Lrmm, J. B., and RAOenuu, E:. P.: Polonium-210 and bronchial epithelium of and the cigaretteRmokers. Science 155: 606, 1967. ted for (1S) Hoxmracen, It. B.: Lead-210 and polonium-210 in tiasues of cigarette smokers. Science 158: 1259-1260,.1901t (14) F'cns. R. M-, ed:- Biological Studies With Polonium, Radium and Plutonium. several ailable. (15) National Nuclear Energy Ber: Div. V1-3,1960. SxercivanD, 7. N.,.and Cesanc.~rr, G. W., edt: Metabolism and Biological EL'ectN ot an Alpha Particle Emitter, Polonium-210. Radiat Res.Suppl 5, 1964. best, a . (16) Cdswnarr, G. W.: Pathology of single intravenous doses of poloniu.n. Radlat r areas I{esSuppl 5: 246-321, 1964. smoke (17) -: Pathology of multiple intaavenous doses of polonium. Radiat Res Suppl which 5: 847-360, 1964. (18) SrAxaAxn, J. N.: Distribution andexcretlon of polonium-210. ITI-. Long-term 3t2 .t l 5: 07-79; 1964 at Radiat Res Su th I i d di t ib ti . pp on an n e r retent s r on u IO (19) Wenasta, S.,. and C1rL+s, 0.: Radiation pneuiunnitis; eapenimentul and patho- which logic observations. Arch Path (Chicago) 30: 440-460, 1940.. fi 6) (L0) Report of NAS Subcommittee on Inlialattion Hazardss; Committee on' Pathologic g. Effects of Radiation, NAS Bulletin, 1056, p 452. (21) Beaar.,.8 L., and DrYASqctA,. A. C.: Distribution and excretion of polonium- als in 210. 8. After inhalation by the rat..Radiat Res Suppl 5: 133-147,.1964. tted to (t!) CAasae'rr„ I. J.: Distribution and excretion of polonium-210. IX. Deposition, a con- bution retention,., and fate after lnhalation by "noseonly" exposure, with notes on mechanics of deposition, and clearance and comparison of routes of adminis- tration. Itadiat Res Supp15::148-165, 1964. ssible, (23) -: AII. Autoradlographic observations after inhalatlon of polontum-210 curate in rats. Radiat Res Supp15.: 167-201, 1964. . ` Critl- is. (24) Monaow. P. E.: Some physical and physiologicalSactors controlling the fate of inhaled substances. I. Deposltion.. Henlth Physics 2; 4F.0-478, 1960. (E5) Cssenrrr L. J.: Some physical and physiological factors controlling the fate of inhaled substance®: 11. Retention. Health Physics'l: 379-386,1960. (26) Monnow, P. E., Grna, F. R, and Joanaox, L.: Clearance of lnsoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract. Health Physics70: 543-555, 1964. 4913. In .1--470. iature L\. 28 I TOWARD A LE98 RARbIFUI. CIGARETPE _. . II ~ 4$'7) SKlM F. A., Moaaaw, P. F.., Cmn, F:R., Der.ns Roen, R. J.,.CASeasrr,,L. J., Seoar, J..B., Mosann, D. A., and Srwnawan, 7. N.: Distribution and excretion studies in dogs exposed to an aerosol containing polonium-210. Amer Industr Hyg Assoc J22: 201 -208, 1901. (28) Cnsescar; L J.: Distribntion and excretion of pDlonium-210. V. Autoradlo- aruphiestudy uf effects of route of administration on distribution of polonium- 210. Radiat Res SuppbS: 93-105,.190L O O N C
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or 25 years. On tilc ' ~ lotal a-mrtivitv in smoking of 5O.cigarrttts ff~ ver. these aulhnrs rff... i.n Ihe 1lUtgs and un ssential for lhr . ' •ncram{ IWdlv.y.. but . rtopra in certain kinds td 9avrra,^~ccnncrniralinn. - lishrigan-6lrs is iscsen44 • 10-" eurie/g. 'idos nn prnof irf ihc of lobaccnsmokco t of 1'u31n in Soviet . :rs from smnkvd . imated accordi'nglo - _ pacity of 1'ot'"of i'in other ra-emitters.tlurium, an addition of . of the apparatus. Aced in 100-150 ml of .. Palonivm was deposited The measurements e the deposition of Pno on . I with a nitrocellulose te 5uspensiirn was - d Po on a foil from the Measuremvnts of lbr- o-artivity of the nickel foil wcree taken with an . o-atlachment P'-348-2. 'i'ho scintillator was zinc sulfate on a 1'loxigtaa substrate accordrnl;to Spirin. The radiochemieal purity of polonium preparalionswasc.hcc.k:ed by maans nf.an a-s.pectrnmeter. No other a-emitters were deteclcd in addition to polonium. _ . TAxLr t f:nnrcnr elPonvrn Seviet anJ fnre,8n clgareuey. . Brand of clRarcrrca 0 Ncrgh, ..f a cigaren X 1ft CnmenrufP lu-"cnae/8 . Euviet dkarenee t.u4,21D,2 0,9 . 3,t:r0,J Lu -. , 1,6rD.1 1,1 3.v.u,[ 1.0 3.810.3 0.6 3.8.0,2 0:8 3,710.3 3.0 S.UYU.S 0,85.6.D•t 1.0' 3.8,0.3 1,0 3.3a0,U _1.4 3.2.0.2 . rmei8n etgarenc. 0.83 . 6,2 N,1'. I,fl 5.3.u,50.95. 6.140.3 1.0 5.020.3 0.85 12.a.0,1 0.9 13.2,0.7 1.0 10.7.rU.U 1•0 8.9.0.3 1.0 17.8su.8 .,2 4,0 4.5 2.] 3•x 8.3 4,6 5.0 7.0 3.8 3.J 2.3 Tables I and 2 list the.mean results ofthree analyses in each case of the determination of Po41" Contents in crrtain.grades of Soviet and foreign cigarettes and tobaccos. 'Cheaverage Po210 concentration in the Soviet cigarettes and tobacco was found to be (4.3i 1.0)• 10-I1 eurie/g. Our results for Po210 Inn cigarettes are practically the same as those obtained by Radford and Hunt. Po2fn concentration in the ash of cigarettes and tobacco is (0.2t 0.1)•1.0-t1 eurie/cigarette. Consequcntly, this product is almost completely carried away by the smoke. Table 3 lists information on the capacity of cigarettc fillersfor the retention of Po210. . Thus, the filtet's retain only about 17% Polt^ from the cigarette smoke. The bulk of PoQ10'is not combined with the tarry substances liherated by tobacco in the course of smoking. Table 3 shows that approximately 20% of Po210 absorbed by the filter is can.binedwith.tarry substances, which fs 475of ils total content in the tobacco. Po21" accumulates in cigarette ash, J75
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lhv rquilibriumounre.nt.ralii,n brinf; Iht•same as in thr tilha.rrn. Cunse- quentlys-the i'n2t" in rif;aurltos is in equilibrium with Irnd-210 (1'b2/") libt•rntcd ou thv surfacc• ctftc,bucco leaves. Pbj11 is fnrme•d in eir from radmr rmcmatin/; frnm thc s.+il. fn conclusinn, it is use•hd to nolc that 1'nx'O is nr,t limitod en lc,b:acr•n. f'n.tr inst:wcr, we dMCrminrd it in lca as (9.4 t 0.•l)- 10 " curic-/q- TAFLe 2 - - - ~ f.emtenb ef Pn11° b~ snvien or.J loalr." ~e`nacrn TABLE 3 i.,t 5 cemae or Irn° lci °eune/g [untent uf Po a' in d8arene and filren 10 cigarettef. ],0 S•6 0,6 1,0 rnmrm ,~1 Pn't' 4r ~i cmiid g 1 2,:h0.1 ~ a '7•7c0•B ~ arliv,• ! . _ c,7a0:1 5 e ~.:. 'd.'2.0.2 7•VaU,S !. f:.ol'ers 7 S,A.I,} B 2•Yf0.3 8 2.sco.6 ItlIi1.R t0 11 2,8aU•1 2.9.n,9 1'ubl:r 12 11•4,O.R .: $1rl,a Si4nr in the .ame flnen altcr cnractinni wlth cme:r 0,13 0,8 0,15 0.18 ..Pubtic~:. G1'on5 Conclusions at••••- Ac ' ' 1. The mean concentration of Poi10 in cigarette tobaccoo is . ~ ~POlO1fl' 1^0J • 10''a curie/g. ~. .. -~ . I ~. A. 1'. F. .n the course of smoking. Po21n is carried away together w•Ithh the fv t ' irQ~ emoke 4. Cigarette filtcrshardlyretain any Po2'n - < ~ Tt', a'~ 5.Po21tlhas almost no connection w+.th the products of dry drstlllation~ . to f-1'd ~ ~. of tobacco. it BraJe of tohaccn '. in flltcn fram I mmked ci8arenea
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loc(r1 dose may 1bc I onn-t e m or mori in tbr rr u r sv r+f :.5 yfalrn. On the' - 161 auhe+ h•,nct Tutnrrund li t Ilr•v„ who dbtrrminr.rl lllc U+tJ a-arnivitv. 10 .' I - a-atl ' unprnl~rsard Inbnrcu ihr [{,.u'c41rs, ronsidrr lh+l Ihr smokin4 nf 5(/ rlgarrltes S - auhsr per day dnrs noli ronslilulr a radfological dangt'r. 1lowevrr. Ihos, authors I . I _prepp pruvidi. nuo irdurnlution on Ihv fe'acllnn, ofTox"' :+bcnrhrd in lhr• lungs and on . Its distribution in Ihr latter. '1'his information iss rsscnlial fnr Ihr . ralculatinn of dos,~s. I ~ tAntt Marsden ranorted findines similar to that of Turner and tladley, twt - . kinds of nihlyd out that the cnncenlralion nf o-actiivr isnlnl•r; in certain r'i"O I h , .. v p - ('nl+:rrr•nnndrif!:n-vllc:i~EFavvl'allimeshiqhcrlhnn11~1vavrra~eonnrrnlration.. - •f hO lvo r'll ...• rnrt<'r-Ill 1'at~i np:"f d-nf I ive 1 sntr+pes in 1t1'i I1511 rl j!a 1'1 1 U•N Is 1ft- 111-" rurii•/g hrlt inrcrtam,kindsofci.~,nrvtlcsit risr.shr4J .1011 rurie/g. At•enrding to M1fcr rsdvn, 1hcavailalile iuformatiun provides no pronf of the oareinogunic crfect of irradiation due to the inhalat ion of', tnbaccrn smoke. It was of interest to determine the concentration of 1'o2r" in Soviet and in fnrviqn eigarettes, as wrLD as in ash and fillors frnm smnkvd eigarottes- Thr amnu.nl uf 1'i'oZ1n in tobaeeo Was estimnlcd aecnrding to : Stepanov, whose melhod is based on the specific capacity nf I-'oz.'" of .. spontaneous deposition on nickel,, which is not found in other a-emitters. The carrier for polonium is its chemical analog, tellurium, an addttionof . which.prevcnts the absorplinn of Pu by glass walls of the apparatus. Finelyground tobacco from 10 cigarettes was placrd in 100-150m1 ~af 2 N flCl cont7aining2 gciYricaridand1 mg TeCI.. 1'oloni.um was deposited . on a nickel foil whlch was placed in the suspension. The measurements were taken on the 2n scheme. and in ordcr to ensure.the deposition oP Po on one side of the foil onlq, its second side was coated with a nitrocellulose varnish. The exposure timee for the nickel foil inlhr suspension was established experimentally, the rate of deposition,ofPo on aa fnil from the tobacco. suspension being shown in the figure. , Tal deterr . rig;irr cigara result by Rar tobacc ney,. Rote of deq.sirllm of polonlum from reluceu vmrani•n, on a nickel (nil - . I - ng+re ue. •arnnr.vnyt,', -- ciRarcnn 'nrug.' • nlan word„ having no.rW+ivnthipto the Engli+h -dmg,'1 •. s ia/ n!C fe Io ?7 7f ' almos on the Tht Tha• bt fobarc of 1'O2 •1 aofe y?.~'
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POLO':VIU'M1I-210 IN TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND HUMAN TISSUES a E. S. Fcra'i and E. J. Xaratta' Using a "smoking machine;' tobacco smoke was collected. It was found that polonium-210 concentrations in the tobacco smoke accounted for about 11 to 30 percent of that found in the total product,, depending on the' type of filter used. Analysea of human tissues indicated that. the lung, blood, and Iiver,, in that nrdeq, of smokei-s containedmore polonium-210 than the corresponding organs of nonsmokers. ~ i i • The possibility that polonium-210 in tobacco may be implicate t in the origin of lung cancer prompted studies on the levels of this and re- lated radionuclides in several brands of cig- arettes (111). To determine whether the polo- nium-210 was present independently or in equi- librium with its precursors, radium-226 and d-210 levels were also measured. In addi- on, selected sampless of human organs from smokers and nonsmokers were measured for polonium-210 concentrations to determine whether a difierencecouid be detected due: to smoking. - Products investigated Various major tobacco.product typeschosen for the study included nonfiltered cigarettes, . filtered cigarettes, and. cigarettes containing tobacco treated for removal'of tars and nico- a tine. Although normally considered a lesser health hazard to the lungs, cigars, and pipe tobacco were also assayed for purposes of comparison. . + Mrs. Ferri is the assistant director, and Mr. Baratta ie the director of Analytical Services, Northeastern RadiologicalIfealth Labnrutory, Division of Radiologi- cal' Ilealth, Puh:;r Nealth. Service, Winchester Massa- chysetts 01Q19G. I 8eptember 1566 Methodology of ana.tysie "Classical" separationswere performed on tobacco ashed at.4G0"C- for the analysis of ra= dium-226 and Iead-210. Radium-226 was de- termined by emanation, collection, and~.count- ing the gaseous daughter, radon=222(J). Lead-210 was.isolated using an anion exchange resin, precipitated as a chromate, and the in- grown daughter, bismuth-210, counted. Lead- 210 wass also determined by collecting the bismuth-210 on an anion resin,, eluting, pre- cipitating as ann oxychloride, andd counting. Purity of recovery is ascertained by decay ob- servations. - " Because potonium-210is volatile at dry ash- ing temperatures, samples were wet ashedwith nitric and perchloric acids- The resulting solu- tion wass made 0.5Nin hydrochloric acid, and the polonium-210 wasspontameously deposited on a silver disk (li). Purity and activity were observed on an alpha.spectrometer. All samplesanalyzed for poionium-210 were electroplated on silver disks from a hydro- chloric acid solutinn.. To evaluate the plating efficiency, a known amount.. of polonium-210 tracer was added to previously depleted sam- ples. An average of 96.9 -3.6 percent plating efficiency was obtained. The recovericsfrom 485 I
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e tobacco. Consc-f8t)A1 'f11E EUI't'LIRIAL 130ARr) lead-210 (Pbz1a) . , . - - - - - arC•d In air from -I-hr puhlicatimI nr this paper is especially topical since the press. has ,rrrrnldy liven spreading conlradic.tory tmdinaecuratc information on the limited to tobacco. 1 di•grrr of radiation danger dnc- to smoking. For inst:mc,-, a translatcd. 3-i'a curie/g. I; rcviowarticlc in the magazine °Nauku i 7,hiz-hn'"= )1.004) cnntaiins an. '-- , Ir r ronrnus. st drmenl lh rl the smok.in(; of nnr packrl of ciga.rt ttescausrs the If rrd,alir n.of the snwkrr's lunfs wilh a dnse of -l5 1 r m. Actu.tily,, this <I+sr will h ivr hvrmn ret vivcd by s person who syslr.m rlro.rlllymnkes. nnc. p.n.krt of r rg-tnrltr•s tl.nly ovci .l p.•r7ad nf sf vvrttl dnz..rtyr;rrs.. In vie•w , .~ nf Ilrr pr-rsonco or lho carcinogenic hydrocarbon 3. 4-benv.pyrena in tobacco Forelgn srnokv, there are no reasons to ascribe the j principal rolo imlfic.undeniablc torsenrof.Po11e carrinngenie effect of smoking, to the radioactivity in the tobacco smoke. 17l'curl./g j- At Ihr same time, information on Po°In content in tobacco smokrgiven in ' (hr litcr:dur.•, for instance, in the paper under consideration deservIes , 8,2'0•7 1 . . 6.4.0.8 . i „ 9,9ao,s 6.4ao.t . '' . 9.2,0.2 7-0t0,R I 5-4.1.4 ' . 2.920.3 2,9s0.6 i 2.8 0.7 z.9.a-g 17.4 a 0, s ( yr c6 ~ senon ~er in tany su6sunrer l 0.15 0.18 srriou5 attention because it points to the possitrility of simultaneous cocarcinogenic effects, not only from nonradioactive, but also frnmradto- aclivrfactors. The specific part played by each one of these carcinogenic Weaors re<lull'es lurtncr atuay. ~ ~ . .. ~ - .. . ; , BIB4IGGRAPHY Publicalionsin Russian . 8lcpanov,, B.A.-In; Sbornik radiokhimicheskfkh Idozimetrieheskikh metodik, p-97, Moskva.. 1959. - . Sigoryanun, A.S. and V.D. Spirin.-Pribory I Tekhntka Eksperimenta, ...No.5; p.93. 1962. Publicaftions' in Other Languages - . G7oos, E.E.L-$attler, and W-Stahlhofcn.-Atomkernenergie. Vo1.6, p. 32. 1963. .. , M.ars.den,. E. and M.A. Collins.-Nature (Lond.), Vol.198,. p.4884. 1963,. - . Radford, E. P. and P-V. Hunt.-Science, Vo1.143, p.3603. 1964. Turner, R.C. and G.M. Radley.--Lancet, Vol.l, p.119T. 1960. Received 25 December 1964 acco Is together with the of dry distillation . • tTha Ia a pupul.r admce mag.zfne-)i , , . . , . .. I . SUMMARY - . . . . .. -. . . ' .. . . . . Pofoniunt•2I0 of Tobacco ' A, P. Ermolaeva-Makovskaya, L, A.. Pcrtsov, D, K. Popov ,• . +) The paper deals with Po210 content in certaimsorts of Soviet-made and foreign cigarettes and tobaccos,, as well as in cigarette ashes and filters. I/ The average concentration of Po01p in Soviet-made cigarette tobacco amounts to (4.3 i 1.0)- 10-10curie/g3 In the course of smoking Pop1O is removed from 377
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the tobacco together w.ith'the smnkr. rihe concentralion of f'n=In in the aShes' . of cigat'ctlr lohacru umnurd.y to (0,2d ll,l )- 10' 13 curie/g. Thr Yo'In content. In the filli;r from snernknal ci(;nreltos equals 0.6 • 10 10 cur{e/fiiter.. The cn„nr-,_u,J~f.~,s d.. ,,.,e -r,i„ tt.+a -.+-f. . UDC 340.6.614[(05)(051) CENTENNIAL OF T1lE FIRST APPEARANCE OF TIIEdOURNA'L !'ARIi1fIV Sf/1l1iDNOl MEDITSINY I ORSIICIIESTVENN01 GIGIENY" . (R slolelfyte 7'ykhodrr zkurrurla "Arkhir sudebnoi luedilsiny f abshchesh•ennai gigieny") - E. 1. Lolova,Candidate of Medical Sciences (Moscow). The political and social oppression inRussiaduringthe.l~B60-1870swasa tremendous ohstacle in the way of progressive representatives of the Russian iutelllgenlsia whowishedo to improve the health conditions of the population. Every step they took was the result of an enormous effort,, in their selfless struggle against the indifference and direct opposition.of the Tsar's officials. Despite this, Ideas of public hygiene became wide• . spread throughout the countrys These ideas conquered'the m inds not only of the physicians, but also of representatives of other groups of the Russian intelligentsia. The general and medical periodicals published.d articles on the tasks of hygiene and its role impubltc life,, on the relation- ahip of hygiene to therapy, the prevenfiooof disease, public health activi- ties of physicians, etc. The magazines "Sovremennik, °"Otechestvennye Zapiski, Delo," and"Russkoe5lovo°publishednumerousarticlesonthe t r hardships of the people and on the poor standard of their health. Thewell- known work "Conditions of the Working Class in Russia" (Polozhenie rabochegoklassa v Rossii).by V. V. Bervi-Flerovskii was published by the magazine "Delo° as a serial, chapter by chapter. Much attention was paid to health problems by the revolutionary democrats N. G. Chernyshevskii, M.A..Dobrolyubov and D:I..Pisarev. - In. 1865. ., Pisarev wrote,'... Hygiene, or the study of conditions necessary for the preservation of health is at present of outstanding Importance in the eyes of every thinking and knowledgeable pcrson. - Complete indifference toltygiene is becoming less andd less possible every year forthr various branches of the national economy. "-~ Questions of public-medicine and hygiene were fairly well represented in the pages of the Russian medical journals °Moskovskaya meditsinskayaa gazeta, °"Sovremennaya Meditsina, " etc. The.leading Russian scientists considered it distinctly possible that the practical application of the natural sciences would result in an improvement of thee health of the public.. Nevertheless, most physicians were not trained in the practical implementatton of those hygienic measures which were being advocated by the progressive scientists and phyaicians.. - . • t'Arehlvea of Forens/e Medicine and PuAllc Hygiene.-I . •• D,l. Pbusv, 1zEeannye pedaguglcheskle vysWxyvanlya (StlCCltd Pedagogleal Wrlnnps), P. ]20, 1938, . 378 Al. N. F tr,lilH'') Ili edu.•cd n,n rorndl I I,ens isKun' :IIVI I tnb I I!•r!•rt' thr )nt. whl!-le :/pp in thnGeu' "Arkhlv° of the M.ir, cdite-d hv tlrldr•t9aklOw'.tnG G, I posi!tllm al. self a Grn journnl t:r. . th!•mnuth this suhj!• in 1f115 tVli to "Arkhi• V.O. 1'ori The lol / ~ markedly whom wer that in a r --' useful of : I medicaL p called °PL -related to by the pro ; - Russian h_ (! M. Ya. Ka lhee clinici . of public I statistics. ~ regularly From t of develop I -andthefr. This trenc ~ - because it The journ descriptio r of geogra( ..-originateci "' ,-in the 166 ; _ problems I O ' Sbernik evc Med/clne a ` ( 2emn.a I1A - ~.~...-. ' .. 1 ~. ...
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6!Z%/, tLJ/Iz _~~ 1 /9 (
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. x ed' e~t. Re.e rotle C Lipnld T,ep t5 wlla/lr.n hrNe- tAltrrC aNd,. 0.$N 0 deyen seetly.J. r Claerene Nn/Ner. ]ecwd F/IIM Flw rA1N. qwn Ak Solenpid Vele. FIf/N w• Gue.., Figure 1. Flow diagram of the smoking maohine r Poloniuna-210 in cigarette smoke and residue With the smoking machine, material balances ~r polonium-210 were obtained on four masor ~ ands of filtered and nonfiltered cigarettes. M The unsmoked cigarette was.analyzed for polo- nium-210. The smoked cigarette was analyzed for polonium-210 in the (a) smoke inhaled, (b) sidestream smoke (smokee not inhaled), (c) unsmoked tobacco and ash, and (d) filter. Each analysis was performed on smoke and residue from one package,, or 20 cigarettes. To normalize the data for varying quantities of tobacco in each cigarette, the results are given in picocuries per gram of tobacco (table 3). No attempt wass made to determine the polo- nium-210 expired in the exhaled smoke or reaching the mouth or lungs. via the inhaled smoke. .All brands tested showed approximately the same activity per gram in the total cigarette. However, quite diverse activities were evi- denced.in the inhaled smoke portion. With the exception of a filtered cigarette containing pipe . Table.ll. Polonium-210 m.terial balxnce, pCi/g tobaeeo • Polonfum-al0 concentratlon, pCVa aempl. Nnn- 5iter FJler lyve Cellulnae. ~ICellulorx. Cellulnee eherecel, I oi~ trCnted i tolr Toteleiqerette._;....____ 0.411 0.403 0.410 ~ 0.351 lnheled emnke...________ O.IYJI 0.081 0.0e5 I 0.109 (22,270) i (11.Or/._)I (40_2 e) Sideetream etnnka________ 0.100 U.13] 0.106 ~ 0.116 (2~.5~ ) MR_99) (eo.9'r: (3R.4~) But[enduh _____ 0.157 0.208 0.115 (40.7%) (3S_ 9%) f50..J9o) (3R.Rq) Filter___________________ 0.055 0.031 (13.2%) I I (B.8%) ~- Fieterial6elenen,7!_---- 3.135.dI 00.5f5.RI1021;0.3I1W.li5.R •NumG<ra n pventheeee ere pereennngo nr pdnnjum-RlOreletlve to thet c( criaina produet. e Inrludee Glwr. • Tutd enor. term le pne eundssd Jevistion. tobacco asa filler, the filtered cigarettes con- tained 33 to 50 percent less in the inhaled smoke than did nonfiltered cigarettes. The ratio of sidestream to mainstream smoke in the nonfiltered brands appears to be close to unity, whereas the filtered brands demonstrate Ml " September 19v'G{g7 II
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l tivity of upper and lower surfaces of tobacco leaves, and stated that the effect of polonium . fallout is minor compared: with activity derived from the soil through roots. Gregory (G) stated the same uncertainty as to the derivation of lead 210 in tobacco but suggested an insular or coastal region for growing mighthrcatly dis- ~ r burse the radon, which emanates from the soil,• and result in less fallout of decay products for that area.. The values obtained for radium 226 and polo- nium 210 agree with those reported for various domestic tobaccos by Tso and co-worl:els(7). Lead 210 and polonium 210 were not in equilib- Table 1. Radionuclides in tobacco, picncuries per cigarette ({-2 standard deviatione), per cigar, and per gram of pipe tobacco . Type ' Radium 226 I i.ead 210 1Bismuth 210 'Polouium 210 Ratio of lead too radium Cigarettes: Nonfiltcrcd,brandA----------- 0:15 t.01(1) 0.44f.04(3) 0.43±,04(5) 0.,43;h .04(3) 2.9 Nonfiltered, brand B___________ ..15 t, 01(1) .42f.04(3) . 40i.04(4) .37t. 04(8) 2.8 Filtered,cellulnse------------- Filtered;celluloseauduharcoal__ _17 f.01(3) ..12 }.01(1) .33f.04(1) 2.49 .31t.04(4) .49f..04(2) .3^_1.04(13) .48z,04(2) 1.9 4. 1 Trestedicharcoalandfilter_ ..11 f.01(2) '.33 .33t.04(2) .34t.04(3) &0 Pipe tobacco, 8ltercd__________ Cigare(SY ineheslon 7 8 am ) ..li f.01(2) 74 2 10 '.35 " 35t.-04(2) ..34f.04(2) 3.2 gy . gr s ___ Pipetobacco(regularcut):---------- .. ~. ) ( .-096f.01(1) 3.55 •.41 3.55t.05(3) 41±. 04(2) 31.fi0t.05(2) ..20t.03(2) 4:0 4.3 ' Number of samples in parentheses. VACUUM LINE FILTER CIGARETTE HOLDER 1ASH.AND BUTT RECEPTICLE FILTER ' Assumed from bismuth 210 concentration. LIQUID TRAP]S ml. 0.5N HC/ o° c: Jl Q © ~ /tl (O W O ' . OPEN AIR - M;h Figure 1. Flow diagram of smoking.machine at Nnrtheastern Radiological Health Laboratory, Public Healtlr Service 122 SECO RI ND~ FuOw~METER LTER VACUUM ~~ LINE TIMER~ SOLENOID VALVE El Public Hcalth Reporu I
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. ,. - . ; ~ _. ~ ~7, a- Figure 2. Smoking n.achineat Northeastern Radiological Hcalth Laboratory, Public Health Service rium in the pipe tobacco. Tlusmay indicate that the tobacco preferentially takesup lbad 210 and perhaps reaches the market before nquilib- rittm can be established. On the other hand, thesubsequent'"aging"time for cigarette to- bacco of approaimately 2}~earsallo.ry lead 210 and its daughters bismuth. °L10und polonium 210to reach equilibriuiuL Ute of Smoking Machine -IQuclides.tluat are.volatile attlte temperature of burning.t'obacco are of primary nttereat as a potentiallcealtlrhazard.. Before thislmzard can be assessed, it is necessary to determine the amoiuttt of radionuclides inhaled in the smoke and deposited in the mout.h, bronchial tract, and lungsof the smoker. To collect the smoke.that is normally inhaled, a"smok-ing machinc" was designed and tested atiourlaboratory (figs.1,2). Thepolonimn210 Vol. a1, No.,2. FdLruury1966 that has volatilized and the smoke and tars are collected on two filterss and a hydrochloric acid trap. Thee airflow is regulated by a solenoid valve that intennittiently connects t'lle system toa. vacuum line to simulatepuII'inb. The four primary operating characteristics of the smok- ing machine are: • 10 puffs per cigarette. • 3 seconds per puff_ _ • 26-second'intervalsbetween puffs. • Flow rate: 18 milliliters per second, stand- ard temperature and pressure. Sidestreanrn smoke is collected by placing a bot- tle over the burning cigarette. A filter, con-- nected to a vacuumline, is attached to the bottle. Thus when smokeis not beingg drawn through 0 the cigarette, it collects on the filter in the p vacuum flask. - - ~. The smoking machine was compared with the. ~ actual smoking of three persons. The polonium 123 CR
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. t:dinv of 2.1 to 3.7. Again the pipe tobacco. lillrr rxhibils arlivitiust9oye to aa nonfdtered ei1'SU"rllo. 1)isllvbution of tho-e polouium in thv .':iri„ua rrvidue. of nonfiiteretl ciy(:trettess nl:rrt.~ tvvil witil the findings of Itajewslcy and St:thlhlefen (8). It would, therefore appear' that different filtering mechanisms, whether of vt.ilicinl material or of the tobacco itself,, and possibly the cut, are contributing to the varia- tion in activities found in inhaled smoke: Poll,ainm ?1o in kuircan organs To determinee if poloniurn-210 from smoking concentrates in various organs of the human body, specimens of soft tissue and bone of smokers and nonsmokers were analyzed and compared (table 4). Samples were obtained through autopsies at.local hospitals, and smok- ing histories were available. Soft tissue chosen for the study were lung, liver, kidney, heart, and , psoas muscle. Blood drained from the heart was used for fluid tissue, and spine for the skeletal tissue. The age of the smokers rahged from 36 to 80 years;, of nonsmokers from 47 to 76. Smokers, as referred to in table 4, were com- posed of thosee people smoking one to three Table 4. Polonium-210In human organs Tivve packs of cigarettes per el;ty for 22 to 40 years,. and 10 cigars per day for 1[I ye:u's. Our tests111f11('ate thc hnw, Irlnod, and liver of smokerx,, in that order,Z-ontain murc polo- nium-210 th:m the correspondin(f, organs of nonsmokers. The poloniuln-2100 in tht: kidney; heart, muscle (psoas),, and bone (spine)„ ap- pears to be about the same level in smokers and nonsmokers. Measured activities and' ra- tios of the lungs of smokers and nonsmokers are comparable to values obtained by Rajewsky and Stahlhofen :(8). - Acknowledgment The authors wish to. acknowledge and thank Mr. ,Iohn Apidianakis for his invaluable assist- ance on this project. REFERENCES (1) RADFORD, E. P., JR., and V.. R. HUNT. Pa)o- nium-210, a volatile radioelement in cigarettes.. Sci- ence 143:247-249 (January 17, 19f4). (2) YAVIN, A. L,. C..DePASQUALI, and P. BARON. Polonium in cigarettes,,spectroscopic analysis. Nature 205'899-900 (B'ebruary 27, 1965). (J) HOLADAY, D.. A., D. E. RUSHING, R. D. COLE- MAN, P. F. WOOLRICH, H. L. KUSNETZ, and W. F. BALE. Control of radon and'daul•hters in uranium n)iness and calculations on biologic effects, PHS Publication. No: 494. Superintendentt of Docu- ments, U.S. Government Printing. Office. Washing-ton, D.C. 20402(1957). (4) BLACK,. S. C. Low level poloniumdetermination of tissueand urine, Report No. UR 463. University of Rochester;. New York,. N.Y. (October 18, 1965). (5) MARSDEN, E. Incidence and poszible significance of inhaled or ingested polonium, Nature 203:230 (July 18, 1964). ' (sfrGItIR4 c0 countries. Seience 150n791(October 13965) (7) TSO, T. C., N. A. HALLDEN,, andL. T. ALEX- ANDER. Radium-226 and polonium-210in leaf tobacco and tobacco soil. Science 146:1043-1045 (November 20, 1984). (8) RAJEWSKY, B. and W. STAHLHOFEN. Pnlo- nium-2'10 activity inthelungs of cigarette smokers. Nature 209:1312-131's (Mareb 26, 1966) i Ceneentration. pCi/100 { wet tiune 6maker Nonemoker SmuAe,/ nunemo\w LunR 0 663 12^ • 114 ) O Srt W (71 2 103 ST .-_.-_.-.--- Lirer............ . . L25f.25 2) /1 . . l.oat.le Oo) . . 1.21 ~.32 h dr ) .. 0..82 )5 (12) 0.902-19. (10) U A4i.30 Slo.ele (p as). .I 0.093.026 (4) o.o9t_ozs (u 003.eS alwxl . 0.192.07(8) O.S3t.0+ (S). aa~.J3 n <Cp it t )_ 3.103.70 l6) 0.29t.07 (12) 3.05t.3B o.2at.m (E) (10) t 0tf.28 0.92 t.3v • Fi,vnee in nnrcntAesea .ee nvmbee 0f eetnplee .n.lye.d. • Totn1 error term i. one.t.nn.rd a...ieuan. 488 C O ~ IA C,J ~ O Y+ Radiological Health Data.and'. Reports
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Ihr v.:fl'i/nlx media denlonatrated.th:tt there was nn silrnilir:lad luuv ol' polunium-21f1 du.rinhthe . plaling praces.. r;.,iirl.x uf n,inlli.~i.e . . 'I`able I ilhl,tl:des; that the parent raditlm- 220 i:a not in cquilibrium with its dau/.htcrs, leud-'210, biRrnuth-210, and polonium-210. '1'he high lead-to-radium ratios indicate that ]cad- 210 indepcndently reaches the plant via direct tl.ptake from the soil and/or deposition from the precursor radon-222 in the air. The deriva- tion of the lead-210, and consequently polo- nium-210, is uncertain:Marsden (S)., using autoradiographic techniques to measure sur- face act:ivities of tobacco leaves, has stated that poloniumm from fallout is minor compared to uptake from the soil through roots. Gregory (6) suggested that in insular or coastal grow- ing areas the natural radon emanating from the soil was dispersed, resulting in lower con- centration in that region. R Table l. Radlonuclideain labocco products (eigatette,eigar, pipe.tobacco) -- TYCO ---I Cle.r<Nr..J!C' •rR nttC I Numitrer..........-- $nnfiller .............I Filter crnwn:l----------- Celkdroe.nud tlorrud..-----.. c<imue!_chxrenel, lrlatM-....-°-- C!llulb:e. plpe. lulwRO..-.---- I -- nadium- j L!!d-Rt0 I Polouium-I lxed-g10/ 2[9' - 910 ,redmm339 . i O.44 0.l] 2.0 11.15 I, 0 42 2 o.3T I 20 0.17 II 0.33 0.32 1.9 0.1+_ p 0.49 0-.8 4.1 0.11 ' 0_e3 f/.3f i, 3.0 0.11 ~ 0.35 I 0,34 i'. 3.2 %8crams......-I O.T{ I 3.55 I 3.60 I •.0 rq~< tnl,.rla: eC~ ie --ueguioi lGt---------.. 0.10 0.41 I 0.20 I 4.3 The values for radium-226 and polonium- 210 agree with those reported by Tso,. Hallden, and Alexander, for varions domestic tobaccos (7). All cigarettes and cigars show lead-210 and polonium-210 to be in equilibrium. Thisis probably the result of the approximate 2-year "aging" time employed in processing tobacco for cigars and cigarettes.. The sample of pipe tobacco showed only about 50 percent equilib- rium. This indicates the possibility that the brand chosen had been "cured" and "aged" a minimumlength ofLintr. ;ontl harl liren on the vendor's'.shelf fur a shorlI liure: ' .Srno7cirl!f uinchiae Of prim:rry intcrest axia hr:lhh h:rzard from smokirtg :u•e those nuclitlr•s wliich are volatile at the temperature of burning tnbacco. hefore this hazard can he alssessed, it is necessary to determine the levels of activity ip thee smoke, and thus inhaled and/or deposited in the mouth, bronchial tract, and lungs of the smoker. To collect the smoke :is normally inhaled, a smokingg apparatus, (shown schematically in figure 1) which simulatessmoking, was devised and tested. The polonium-210 which has vola- tilized, and the nicotine and tars, are collected on two filters (glasss wool, and 0.451, Millipore) followed by a hydrochloric acid trap. To simulate puffing, the system is connected to a vacuum line and airflow is regulated by flow- meter, vacuum gauge, electronic timer, and solenoid valve. The smoking rate was set at 10 puffs per cigarette, with each puff of 3 seconds duration, and 26-second intervals be- tween puffs. The average smoke flow rate was 18ml/second (at.standard conditions of tem- perature and pressure). Sidestream smoke is collected by placing a bottle over the h.urning cigarette, and a filter, connected to a vacuum line, is attached to the bottle. Thus, when smoke is not being drawn through the cigarettc, it collects on the filter in the flask. A comparison was made between the butts and ashes obtained from filters, nonHlters, and . treated-tobacco cigarettes smoked by the ma- chine and by three individuals (table 2). The comparison indicates that the smoking machine is a good approximation of actual smoking and can be used to determine the distribution of radionuclidess between cigarette smoke and residue. Table 2.. Pereentage poionlum-210 In cigaretle bulls. ashes, and filters from smokers versus smoking machine 7Ypa er cie.rette Fercent polonium-tID Nonfiltlr..d _ Fltu,ul.mulu.iiaaRi,e.-~ .................. i.eaed, intmdin. filter--------------------- 8mok.r. sof8 5139 • Cuuntin, < ror z. 2 et.ndirtl tleviaion....prened u prcent. Smukinlr meehlrN .rtg Sl tD suta 486 Radiological Health Data and Reports I 1
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Poloniuni 210 in Tobacco, Cigarette Smoke, and Selected Human Organs ESTHER S. FERRI and EDMOND J. BARATTA T HL POLONILTivL 210. in tobacco may be im- To determine lead 210, the tobacco ash was plicated in the origin of lung cancer (1,$). dissolved in hy drochloric acid with carrier pres- Speeulationonthispossibilitypromptedastudy ent, passed over an anion exchange column to at the Northeastern Radiological Health Lab- remove bismuth, and precipitated as the sulfide. oratory, Public Iiealth Service,; to determine The sulfide was dissolved, collected on an anion the levels of polonium 210 in severall brandss of exchange column,, eluted, precipitated as the cigarettes. The levels of lead 210 and radium chromate, andcounted. The inb owth of bis- 226 were also measured to determine whether muth 210, daughter of lead 210, was observed the polonium 210 was in equilibrium with these for calculations (as outlined in personal com- precursurs or was presentindependently. Sam- munication from Paul B,. Hahn, chemist,.North- ples of human organs. were also analyzed for eastern Ratliolovical IIealth Laboratory). polonium 210 content to determine whether a To detennine bismuth 210, the tobacco ash difference could be detected in the concentra- was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, carrier tion of this.radionuclide.between smokers and added,.and thebismnth collected on an anion nonsmokers. column. Itt was eluted, precipitated as the osy- kad'ionuclides in Tobacco The tobacco products chosen for the study included nonfiltered and filtered cigarettes and cigarettes t'reated for the removal of tars and nicotine. Although. not now normally consid- ered as great a health hazard to the lungs be- cause of the method: of smoking, cigars and pipe tobacco were also assayed for polonium 210 content. dfethododogy o f an¢L,ysrs. The following methodology was used fordetermining radium 226, lead 210, bismuth 210, and polonium 210 in tobacco: Radium 226 was determined by dissolving the tobacco ash in hydrochloric aeid, and the nucl ide was determined by emanation, collection, and countinoofthegaseousdaughterradon222 (3)- ohloride, and counted. The decay of the 6!day bismuth 210 was observed for purity of recovery . (personal communication from Hahn), Becausepolonium 210 is volatile at dry ashingg temperatures, the samples for analysis were wet- ashed with nitric uuid and perchloric add; the resulting solution was made 0.5N in hydro- chloric acid. The polonium was spontaneously deposited on a silver disk,: counted for alpha activity in a gasRow proportional counter, wrd checked for purity.on an alpha spectrometer (4)- Itesults of analysis. Our analysesclearly demonstrated.that daughter products lead 210, bismuth 210, and polonittm 210 in tobaccoaie not in equilibrium .vith the parent, radiutn 226(table1). The high.lead-to-radium ratios in- dicate that lead 210 reaches thetobacco by direct uptake from the soil and aiv rather than Q Mrs. Ferrii.rachemiss, and Mr. Baratta is chiel of AnadyticalServices, Northcastern RadioLogical Heallh Laboratory, Division of Radiological Health, Public Aealth Servicc,. Winchesser,. Mass. merely as the danghter of rachum 226 in the .4 tolx cco. bA Marsden (.5) conducted experiments withW autoradioerapltic techniques to measure.the ac-0 W Vol. 81, No. 2, Fcbnunry 1966 - 121
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210 in butts and ashes from one package (20 cigarettes) each of thenonfilter; filter, and treated-tobacco types smoked by people were rwmparedwith the but'ts and ushes of cigarettes' processed in thesmokiner machine (table 2). Our comparison indicated that the smoking ma- chine is a good approximation of actual smok- ing and can be used to determine the dist'ribu- tiom of radionuclidt•s, between cigarette smoke and residue. Polonium 210 in Cigarette Smoke The technique used for determining polonium 210 in the various fr•actions: of the smoked cig- arette includes plating the radionuclide onto silver disks. To evaluate the efficiency of plat- ing, the procedure was studied, and the follow- ing plating efficiency readings were obtained: Sampie Piatvrsq e/(ciettcy (percent) Standard --___---- - ----- 99.5 Total cigarettes------------------------- 94.5 100 0 Traps --------------------------------- . Butts and usbes________________________ 93.5 Average 1-2 standard devlat4onn--------- 96.9~3.6 Beforeplating,.200 counts per minute of po- lonium 210 were added to each cigarette sample previously depleted of the polonium. The re- coveries from the various mediita demonstrated that there was no significant lossofs polonium 210 during the plating process. Table 2. Percent of polonium 210 in ci;; arette butts, ashes, and flters from smok• ers and the smoking machine Type of eigarette. Smokers Smoking machine Nanfiltered__________________ 48 47 Filtered, inclttding.filtr.r.._____ 50 53 Treated,including.filter____.__ 51: 50 With the smoking machine, material balances for polonium 210 were obtained on four major brands. of eigarettes: filtered, nonfiltered, fil- tered treated tobacco, and a'filtered: brand con- taining pipe tobacco. The unsmoked cigarette was analyzed for pnlonium 210 content. The smoked cigarette was analyzed for polonium 210 content in the (a) smokee utiutled, (b). side- stream smoke(snoke not inhaled), (c) un- smoked tobacco and ash, and (d) filter. . Each analysis was performed on the smoke and residuee from 20 cigarettes. Several other brands of cigarettes were analyzed for polonium 210 content in.t'l1e total cigarette and in thein- haled smoke. The reported values.represent the maximum total activity inhaled in the smoke (table 3). To normalize the data for varying quantities of tobacco in each cigarette, thee re- sults are givem in picocuries per cigarette and - picocuries per gram of tobacco. No attempt was Tab1e. 3. Polonium 210 material balance in 1 cigarette and in 1 gram of tobacco, in picocuries' tigarctte________ Total Inhaledemoke___----- Brand B r Brand C' Brand D4 ~ Brand E t Brand F• Source of sample Ciga- Gramof Ciga- Gramof CIGa- Gremo ' Ciga- Gramof Ciga- Gramof rette tobacco rettn tobacco rette tobacco rette tobueco rette tobacco 0.370 ' 0.411 ~ 0.320 0. 402 0. 430 0.560 0.340 0.410 ~ 0.342 ', 0. 357 .082 .091 I .o4B .061 .087~ .102~ .037 .045 .305 .109 . (22.2). , (15. 1) (18. 1) (11.0) (30.7) ~ Sidestreamsmoke----- 091 .100 105 .133 -------- ------- -139 .168 '~ 111 .116 (24. 5). (32. 9) (40. 8) (32. 4) I I Buttandaah______ 172 .191 .124 .157 ________ _______ _171 .20G ~ .110 .115 (46. 7) (38:.8) - (50.3) (33. 2) i Filter________________ _______ _______ .044 .055 - - -- ___ ------- .030 .031 . (13..7) (8.8) slanca M ~ -_____ percent_ ' 93.4' _______ 100.5 F______ ________ _______ 102.1 _______ 104~ 1 _______ t Percent activity in parentheses. 4 Filtcrr.d,., cellulose and charcoal.. A Nonfiltered. t Filtered, cullulosc and ehareoali treated. + Filtered,cellulose, t Filtered; ccllulose, pipe tobacco. 124 00749306 Public Hcah4 Reporte
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made to determine the polonium 2100 content in the exhaled smoke or reaching tlmmoutlr or lungs via the inhaled smoke. Comparison of polonium activity in smoke and residues of filtered and nonfiltered cigarettes showed that variations in the portions inhaled have no bearine on thetotal activity in the cigarette. For example,, brand F, containing 29.8 percent less activity.in the total cigarette than brand D, showed more.activity in.the in- haled-smoke portion. SimihtrIy, the inhaled smoke from brands. D and B contained'about the same level of activity, with about a 23 per- cent difference in available activity in the total cigarette. It would therefore appear that dif- ferent filteringg mechanisms, whether of artifi- cial material or real tobacco, and the cut are contributing tothe variation in activities found in inhaled smoke. Although most cigarettes contain a miature of tobaccos, an average of 0.43 picoeuries per gram of tobacco was obtained for all brands,, which comparosrvell with the average value of 0;49 picocuries per gram re- ported by Gregory (6), for°burley01 grown in the United States. Radford and Aunt (1)) reported an average value of 0.425 picocuriesper total cigarette and an 85 percent material balance on smoke and re,sidues... We observed an average value 15 percent lower (0.37 picocuries per total ciga- rette) for all brands tested and material balances of approximately 100 percent (table r3). If all analysesof inhaled smoke from filtered ciga- rettes were.averaged andnormalized as pieocu- ries per gram of tobacco, a value of 0.079 would be obtained,.compared with 0.091 for nonfiltered cigarettes-a15percent difference. In the same manner, if the residues(butt,. ash, and filter wheroapplicablo)e of filtered and nontrltered cigarettes were compared, about a 20 percent difforencewould be observed. The greatest variable between types of ciga- rettes appearsto be in the side.stream smoke,, which in filtered cie rettes is 40 pecent higher. Thus the question is raised whether the filter causes thee tobacco to burnn at a greater rate when it is not being puffed. In this laboratory we observed, with human smokers, that.a back- stream of smoke was visible from the mouth end of the cigarette after the smoker had finished a puff. The stream appeared to be much heav- ier and of longer duration from brands B;. D,, and F than from brands C0 and E when all the brands.were smoked by several persons. If thiss also happens when using a smoking machine, some residual backstream smokeis entering ass mainstream smolce.and could not be considercd as sidestream smoka. This could'account for the variations of higher activity in the sidestream smoke and less activityiu the mainstream smoke from certain brands. Average Calculated Dose to the Lung Tobacco smoke has bccn found to contain paa•- ticles ranging from 0.01µ to 0;25w in diameter (8). By usingg thiss information and assuming that particles less than 0.5µ in diameter liavee ready access to the alveoli so as to provide aradiation dose distributed uniformly through- out.the lung lobes (9), dosesforthe.whole lung as a critical organ were calculated(Y0). Cal- culations were based on numbers obtained from thee smoking machine. We assumed that each day a person regularly smoked two packages Table 4. Dose of polonium 210 to the lung by smoking two packs of ci,qarettes daily - Polonium. Dose to - Actus.l 210, lungs, ActuaUintakc, intake of Typeof cigarette picocuries millircma uiiurocurhs E1TC' inhaled per per year per week (percent)) cigarette. , . .. Brand B (nonfiltered) ------------------------------ 0.082 73 2.39X10-' 3.4 Brand C'ffiltered„uullulosek------- -----............ .040 41 1.37X10-s 1.9 Brand E(filtcred, cellulosr..and charcoal th•eated)___-__ .037 33 1.04X10-' 1.5 BrandF(filtcrcd,.ccllulosu,pipciohacco)------------ .105 92 2.94X10-3 4.2 I Maximum permissible.concentration of poloniwn 210.in air per lxsaun in the general population, with lung as the critical organ-7.06X 10~ microcurien per week. 3avaca: National Bureau of Sn.ndlrrda Handbook No. 69, August 1963. O Vol.. 81, No. 2, Fehruary 1966 i
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t Pzocddd pour apportor une grande purotd & la fumge du tabac et disrosi_tif-pour aa miso_en oeuvro _ 8 ". V.s.T._._nIa-2_-y-_r•, rr T Y C , Raouli'Julea, Joseph, Yvon, 4hialain FLAf+fAND La pr6sente invention est -relative A un procddd 1 IC pour Is miso en oeuvra du dit pi'ocbdd, '.. ni&re 8 ca quiello ne prdsento plus aucun inconvdnient pour la eantB du fumaur; 1'invention vise sussi le dispositif pour apporter une grande purotd & la fumBe du tabac do ma- A Dfune manibro cdndrale, il ea4 admie quo 11habi- -Euda de fu.-ner est ndfaste pour Is santd et les eutoritds "m6diealas admettent que le tabao, 8 11€tat do cicsrettoo " an particulier, dont Is fumde est inhalde, eat trba donCe= reux pour les voies respiratoires et le coau_-. 11 a.deJA dtQ mis on avant quu le cancer d"os pou- mons eat oept fois plus dlavd chez le fumeur que chez Is hon-fumeur. Un tucour trouvant una certaino satisfaction ~ fumer, no pout, sens uno Crando volontd, ni sane courir lae l) .1
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28FEfi1967 a~ V l.\ V Y.w A-a YJ a. iJH J.~ MINISTER6 DES AFFAIRES ICGNOMIQIJ¢S ET Df L'Et1ERGii Lo Mfnisha dn Affalror Eoono.nlquce at do I'Env{ta,. VN la IoI du 24 ma! 1854 aMr lu brevefs d'iinxminn ; V Vu le pracla•verbal drerr! k 12 m8i 196 4` A 14 '+wgrotte du Qouvarnoment provinoial du Brabanti ARRf:T1E : Mtl:la 1. -- fl ert deuv,t a N.t°,$g:pu1,Jed.xea. BI:AtdAND, 95A,Avenue Lancaeter,Sruxellea 18, fiepr.par Ys P.Haneeene a Bruxelloa, • an breror dtnvsmfoa pour:'Proch db pour apporter une grande purotd d 1a tum0c du tabac et diapoaitit pour oa miee en oouvrae Altlele 2. - Ce brevee lyd en dNlvnr xmn exmnen prtalabk. 4 xsf rlaquex ee p6A.r,, smu purande sob de fa rdalb4de la Inuvearul ou du nrerile de fblverufon, soll de fexapdfude de la dciaiprion,.e1 sanf pr!/bdice du droif des Ilerl ' ANprdunr arn'Id deuKUrora Jufnr un d'es doubles de la ap(cipcnrlon de f/nvenrJon (mLntafie dsscrlpiiJ srdreruuellenun7 desr6u) algnlx par flnrtrerrl' er ddporta d fappuf ' di ta denmwle ds brsver. ~.pF fC1ENCE AND INVfiN1wN Bruxe/kf,,ta- 12 novembre 1'9a 4 iAR DCLCGATION SO{CIALi t -. G OtrMen G.Fd.
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of filtered or nonfiltered cie rett.es. Wo also assumed ana~verageof 1,200 gramsfor the total _ mass. of the right and left lung, an effective half life of 18 days (1Y), a 100.perccnt fraction inhaled and reaching thee lung, and that polo- nium 210 equilibrium had previously been reached in approximately 78 days of priorsmoking. Based on these assumptions, the calculated dose was 41, millfirelus per year from the cellu- lose filteredbrand; 7.3 millihemsper year from thenonfilLered brand; 33 millirems per year from the filtered (cellulose and charcoal) . treated-tobacco cigarettcs; and 95millirems per year from the filtered cigarette containing pipe tobacco (table 4), These calculated intakes are 1.5 to 4.3percent of themaximum permissible concentration for polonium 210 in air per per- son in the general population,..vitlt the lung as the.orm n of reference (:f0a)~. Hatch and Gross (8¢) have stated that 75 pe r- cent of tlminhaled rnat.erial is. deposited in respiratory uptake, 50 percent in the nasal chamber and upper respiratory tract, and 25 percent in the lungs.. Half of the amount in the lungs is cleared from the lungs inls} hours, and the remaining 12.5 percent is transferred from the lungs to the bloodstream. Therefore„ these dosage fie res could be high by as muchas.a factor of 8. It is important'.to note the above calculations refer to the average dosee over the entire.lung tissue. Other authors(Z) have pointed out that nonhomogeneous deposition may result in localized doses mnch greater than reported in this paper. Polonium 210 in Human Organs To determine.if poloniurn 210 from smoking concent.ratesin various organs of the human body, specimenss of hm=s and other soft tissue of a smoker and a nonsnolcer «-ere.analyzed and - compared (table5),. Soft tissim.chosen for the study a-erelilver, kidney,, heart, and psoas mus- cle. Lungs were diFSected into parenchyma, nodes, and bronchi. The, age of the smokers ranged from 36.to 75 years;.of nonslnokat5,52 to 73 years. Smokers asreferred to in table 5 were composed'of cigar, pipe, and cigarette smokers. The quantity of cip;arettes smoked ranoed from 1 to 3 packs a day for 22 to 40 years and 10 cigars a day for 10 years. 126 Table 5. Polonilmi 210 in human organs, picocuries per gram of wet tissue of snrok- ers and nonsmokers _ Specimen Ec, o Ec = ~~o z` '~ z 7,e ~ M z I Lung: Parenchyma_ _. 8 0.0079 ~. 1 0-0025 3.16 Rronchi 7 .0125 4 .0090j 1.29 Nodea_ 7 .1070. 4 .0380 2.82 .0143 3 .0060 ~ 2.38 Kidne.y 6 .0088 3 .0057 1.54 __________ Heart 6 .0010 3 .0010 1.90 ___ Psosss_____________ 3 .0006 2 .0010 .60 1 Average values. Our tests appeared to indicatethat the level of polonium 210 is higher in four of the five orgpnstested from smokers than nonsmokers, except. for the psoas muscle.Valttes for lung parenchyma agree .rell' with the values obtained by Little and associates(12) for smokers-and nonsmokers: We realize that in some instances the sample population is not large enough to yield significant results and can demonstrate only a trend. Summary and Conclusions The polonium 210 in tobacco may be impli- cated in the origin of lhng cancer. Speculation on thispossibility prompterl a study at the Nnrtheastern Radiologicall IIealth Laboratory, -Public HealthSorvice,. to determine thelevels of polonium 210 in several brands of cigarettes. The levelsof lead 210 and radium 226 were alsomeasured to determinc wlletherthe polonium 210was in equilibrium with these precursors or was present independently. Samples of huulan organs were also analyzed for polonium `_'10 contcnttodetermine whcther aditferenee could be detected in the concentration of this radio- ntlclidebetween smokers and nonsnmkers. Pnlonium 210 and associated radionuclideslead 210 and bismnth'>10 were found to be pres-ent in tobacco. Considerably smallCr quantities of radilun 220 weretdso found. Our tests indi- cat'ed that lead 210.is deposited in the tobacco independently of radium 226 and its daughter Public llealdl. Reportn 00'749308
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riaquee inh6rente 1 un 6branlement de son syattme nervoux provoquer un er:~t plus ou moins rapide do 1'uaagc du tabec. ' Won a d63a oong6 do pourvoir lea cigarettes dlua filtre A base celluloaique, mais lea expdriences prouvent ryque eea hltrea ne peuver.t retonir lea hydrocarburea, loa ~`aroduita:llimicuca divers et la radioactivit6. Lea dEchets de la combustion du taboo at 8ventual- de.lea ratonir _ais sussi lea quantit6s appr6ciablas d'616- taba0, ont et6 ddteryin6s en laboratoires,.il convient donc pyridine ®t autres ;.:roduite provonant do is distillation du dena 1}organiama, c.:...e lea hydrocarbarea divers, nicotina, lemen6 du papier qui sont inhal6s par un Sumeur et d6pos6s Wents rodioacti.^s. Lca essaia eftoctu6s montrent qua la redloactivitf 'aoit 7 tole plus Cue Is redioactivitd naturelle. C'eet ainsi du taboo pout atteindro 36 unit6s R A D pour 50 ci6arettes, tiAre plaatique d'.--a qualit6 admiao par la F.i,.O. (Foundation stitud Wune car---cc::e filtrante compoa6e d'un tube 1 en me- aniona forts. Lo diax sitit pour Is miso an oeuvre du procdd6 eat reprdsent6 A-.-tre d'exomple au dessin annoxd et est con- quo celle des 5R A D admise par Is Convention Tnternationale pour la protecti: : ccntre lea radiations. Des el~=:ts radioactifs rares Ont 6t8 d8ce16s dans la fumEe du ttbac et r.ota;.:mont Is polonium, Is plomb radioac- tit, ate.. Suiven- 1'invention, 1oa SumGoa du tobac sOnt Sil- tr6ee d'abord par rs.e masse do cellulose, puia'par du charbon actif et onfin par ::r.e ceuche do r6aine polystyrEnique en milieu humide &'a t:elangd "d3xed-bede du type & cationa at qu*il eet dfiterr_i: 6 4ue certainea concentrations locales dana .1'or6anisme du :u=eur atteignent une dose 200 Sois plus forte
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AUriaultural OrCanisatlon), obturd par un couvcrcla 2 compro. nont pluaieurs trous 3 pour la paaeage do le fum6o dono Is cartcuoho; alora qua 1'extr6mit6 oppoo6e eat fena6s par un fond 4 maintena par Eoudure au autro, rbalia6 6galenont en matibro plaatique ot pourvu do troua 5 do pasaage arin quo la fum6e filtr6o at rofroidie atteigne lfembout du;orta.. cigarette (non repr6aont6) dons lequel eat gliaa6 la dit : tube 1. Une premibre filtration oat eoaur6e par une rondolla 6 an colluloso poreuae do 100 micronsi.& finoaee croisaonto. Enauite oot diapoo6c uue coucho 7 do chorbon actif doatin6 ~ re0.enir loa d6chets d1hydrocarburoe et do produita chimiquea ae hv uvont dana la Tum6a at ainai 6purer cotto darniuro. Pour reteuir Is chorbon actif il oat pr4vu une ron- dalle on ae11u1ose poreuoo B do 100 microna qui autoriaa en m8me temps de parfaire Is filtration et arrator Soa dachote colloi'doux lea plus fina. EnTin, ontre la dito rondollo $ ot uno rondollo 9 en cellulose do 50 microns eat agencde uno coucho 10 do rdaino polyatyr6nd.que an milieu humido L lit mGlont;6 "tbixod-bodn du type A cstiona at aniono forts. 11 exioto uno trLo grando varidt6 do r6sinea'dt6chqnCOO et dtabaorptiona, do acrto quo lfinventlon pr6voit auaai Is m6lanCe Au cocabinaiaon doe r6ainoa du Crovpc pr6citg. 9uivant quli1 fout ou non ionicer lea 61Caonto rrdio- actifo, pr6olablement A Is filtratlon, lvon comprond qu'i1 oat poesiblo do prdvoir dee 616monts magnutiquea, do t elle corto quo loa particulea m4talliquoa radioactivea ooiont focilomont 6chanC6ea ou abaorb6aa par Is lit mdlanC6 doa r6ainee choioioa on tenant compto do lo quolit6 doe tabaco utilisdo. Uno cartaucho, suivant l1invention, oat copabla,aano rion enlovor do l'ar6um du tabac, do donner uno Crando purat6 A Is iVmdo, aana oucun inconv6niant pour la oontd du f,umoub.
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bismuth 210. For the varions brands tested, the.aetivities of polonium 210 in the total cigar- ettewere of a$out, the same level, lvit4 one es- ception: the celilulose plus charcoal brand was 300 percent higher than the average of all brands. Becausepnlonium 21.00 is volatilee at the ln:m- perature of burning tobacco and subsequently is.inhaled in the smoke, a smoking machine was devised for determining amounts inhaled from various brandk. Values for polonium' 210'in inhaled smokerangvd from 11 percent to 35.7 percent of that in the.t.otal cigarette. Average dosages to the lungs of a person smoking two packages of cigarettes per day lcereealeulated to be far below the maximum permissible con- centration for polonium 210 in.air per person in the generalpopulation. The intake from a cellulbse-filtered cigarette is 58.5 percent and from a. filtered treated-tobacco cigarette, 45.1 percent of that. from a. nonfiltered' cigarette. To detennine the feasibility of studying the distribution of polonium 210 in selected tissues and organs of the human body, random speci- mens. of lung, liver, kidney, heart, and psoas muscle were obtaiaed from smokers and non- smokors. Tests indicated higher levels oF po- lonium 210~in the organs of smokers. REFERENCES (1) Radford, F;, P_, Jr„ aad'~ Hunt, V. R.: Polonium 210, a volatile redioelement In cigarettes. Science 143: 247-219, Jan. 17', 1964. (2) Yavin, A, 1„ Pe Pasquall, G., andBaron, P.: Po-lonium in cigarettes; speMSoscopic analysis. Nature 20u:899-J00, Feb. 27, 1965. (8) Aioladay, 1). A., et al.: Control of radon and daughters in uranium mines andIcaleulations on biologic. effects. PHS'. PnLlicationNo.. 441... U.S.. Government PrinLing Oaioe„ ivushington, D.C.,.19a7. (4) Rlack,8-C.: ).owlevelpoloniumdetermiuationof tissue and urine. Report No. UR-403. Uni- versity of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., Oct. 18,. 1958. (5) 3taryden, F,.: Incidence and possible significance of inhaled or ingested.polonium. Nature 203: ?.30-233, July 18, nN'.4. (6) Gregory, L, P. r Po7onium 210 in leaf tobacco.from 4 countries. Science 160: 71-70, Oct.1, 1965. (7) Tso, T. Q, Hallden, N. A., and Alexander, L. T.: Radium 226 and polonium 210 in leaf tobacco and tobacco'.soiLSeience 140: 10i3.-1045, Nov. 4, 20, 114, (8) Hatch, T. P., and Gross;. P.:.. Pulmonary deposi• -tion and retention of inhaled aerosols. Aca- demic Press, New York;.Hg: 1.1; (a) p. 132, 1904. (9) Casarett, L. J.: Autorndlographicobservations after inhalation of polonium 210in rats. Radiat. Res Supp 5:.187-2P3 (1964). (10) International Commission on Radiological Pro- tection Committee II:. Report on permissible dose for Snternal radiation, Rlealm Pbps 3: 115-16; (a) P. 77,.June 1060. (11) Casarett, L, J.: Depositionj retention, . and fate after inhalation by ^m~sronly" exposure, witL ' nutcs on mechanics of deposition and clearamrd and comparison of noutes of administration. . Radiat Ites 8upp 5: 14&-18:i' (19G4). (19) Little,.J. 8., et al.: Polonium 210 in lungs nnd soft tissues of cigarette smokcrs. Radiat lins 22: 209 (1904). Cutting the Death Rate Frem Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer tests for the more than 8 million American women over 25 who areadmitted to hospitals each year will be tllefirst major goal' of a multimillion dollar grant program. Within the nest.3 years the Public IIealth Se.rvicr, expects'to achieve this goal as the number of hospitals providing this service to all women patients increases each year durin ;this period. This campaign to climinate deaths from cervical cancer is the first direct action proa am to result from recommendations of the. Presi- dent's Commission on IIeart Disease, Cancer, and' Stroke. Hospitals providfinl,; carc for the poor and medically indigent will begiven first consideration in the awarding of grants:. A supplemental appropriation sia ed by the Presidentprovides'$5 million in grants to be awarded to hospitals during the first year of the program. This.amcunt is expected to be increased' by $2.5 million the following 2 years. Vol. 81, No. 2, February 1966 127 I q
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Bruxelles, la 12 mai 1964 P.Pon. Rnoul, Ju1ai, JoaonM, Yvonp Ohialein t'LA!•L1NIl f,; ;. ..
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Is romplncer oprlSa 20 A 25 cieerettoa, ou done lea outres csaaia eSfoctuda, il y e lieu do joter Is osrtoucho at do cae, 10 cigarillos, 6 cigarea ou 6 pipea. ' G47303 11 va cependantldo aoi , que auivont los premiera Ven comprend, que Is cartouche no doit psa nd-, cesseirement Stre dispoedo done un fume-clEorette oa pipe, mais quo llon pout tr&s bien directoment pr6voir que Is car- 'poat6ricure ost on tonba d1onbout pour Is ratonue entrs 1ee oiCeretto g llextrdmitd o.nt6ri.euro, alors quo l1oxtrdcit6 touche e11e-m£me eat aeenc6o pour retonir par example une dents, ainai qufil oat d1oilleura connu. chsqua pcquot do cizarottoo, uno ou pluaioura cartouchoe. I1 est ainsi po3aiblo do pr6voir directement dane Winvontion a 6t6 ddcrite ot illuetrdo A titre puren:ent indieatiS et nullement limitetif, ot il va do aoi qua de norabreuzea nodifieations peuvent Stro epport6ea g sea dds teils sons alGcsrtor do son esprit. R E V E N D I C A T I 0 N 9. 1•, Proc6d6 pour epportar uno crende puret8 & 1a !'umdo, coraat6rio6 on co.quo 1iaap6,ration do Is fumde du tabac, ovant diontror done 1a bcuche dU tumeur paesc aur eu moina un filtro au milieu dtune couchc do r6sino poly- etyrdnique. tum6o event 11as::iration par le fumeur aubit une filtration 2•. Proc6•dd auivant 1, eeroct6riad on cc qua 1e par pessago dans de ~a colluloee, done du charbon actit,et do lo rdoino polystyrGniqu.e an milieu humido A lit m61an66 "bilr.od-gad" du typo A cationa at anions forts. - du tubo cat 6j;alemont porfor6; dana le f ond du tubo eat obturd par un couverclo pourvu do troua alors quo le fond 3'. Dispcsitif pour Is mise an oeuvre du proc6d6 euivont 1 ot 2, caract6rio6 an ce qu'i1 cumprond un tube
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'3 t I I G4'78U3 sgened une xvndelle do cellulooo au-deosus de loquollo oat emmagesin8e de ls Heine polystyrdnique, couche qui ost sd- par6a du cherbon actif par uno rundelle cellulosiquo, une troisibme rondello cellulosique Stant prdvue imcaGdietemont soua le couvercle. 4. Dispositif suivant 3, caractGrisB on ce quo los =undelies de celluloue sont du type poroux d 100 micron3. 5. Dispositif suivant 3, caractGriog on cc quo le irondalle situ8o contre lo fond du tube cat cunstituec do :oel1ulose porouso el f0 microna, Bruxelles,le 12 mai 1964 P.Pon:Itaoul, dulea, Joseph, Yvon, Ghiolain P'LA.~LINll
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I et aL (1966):. 'Morc importantly, measurements of this type proveconclusively thaT+rvr.PO does not enter lhr plant per sebulenters as "",.Pb either by plant uptuAe or by depasiiion in natural radioactive fallout. Acknowledgment . - This invesligation was supported in part bytle . Ch FX American Cancer Society, for which the authors ex• press their gratitude. . -0 a - 3 Literature Cited Francis,.C.W., Chesters, G., Flniversity of Wisconsin, Madisoni Wis., unpublished data, 1966. c ~ Jackson, M. L., •'Soil Chemical Analysis," pp. 332-5, N.J - Prentice-Halll Englewood Cliffs 1958. m z ., , Radford, E. P., Jr,, Hunt, V. R., Science 143,247 (196i): Radford, E. P.,.Jn•, Hunt, V. R., Sherry; D., Radiarirm Res.. 19,298 (1963). •- - Rt S Tso, T. C.,. Ilallden,. N. A., Alexander, L. T., Scienrc 2 4 8 12 146, l043(1964). flavc ) 4 8 1 0 Tso, T. C., Hallden,.N• A., Alexander, I. T:, Scienrc thec aPD (tP0 [ 1Pb)r L 7 153,880(1966). . . . ousl a a e xID . . . I Pp - PD . diver Figure 1.L inea r pl ots of %t^uPoi . ngrowt . h in tobacco Received fw review November 25, 1966. Accepted cann 13 leaves May 22,1967. . . ) . . . cursc Mdle Klus unN"a mad prolc (Pipl 1460 t merc fMd. the L (Ptpr grite IKaz el al their Su umin mine IMIt l r%rer dude Iwt rr,,ct M:ua 1151t IIk h +.id: "di'l -/.32, O ~ hMl ln ~ 1ornf ~ Cb N C ture I'ulln 706 3, AGR. FOOD CHEM.
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3A 30 3C °l°°rPoContcnts^ in Pc./G.,. Ihtcrmined in" Dec. 1965. . Mar. 1966 - June 1966 . Aug- 1966 0.80 t 0.09 1.56 t 0.13 2.02 ii 0.15 " 0.76 f 0.09 . 1.30 t 0,13 1.60 t 0.13 1.86 t 0.13 0.58 t 0.09 1.62 t 0.13 2.02 =t 0.15 fornrd .Inlalfl, lorm,rd to fam C du, 0.60 =h 0,09 0.52 ~ 0.07 1.47 t 0. n Table 1. Ingrowth of "Oe.Po in Tobacco Leaves 1.71 ~ 0.15 2.54 t 0.15 2.01 f 0.15 2.76 t 0.151.73t 0.15 2,01 t 0.15 1.25 t 0.11 1.86 + 0.15 1.41 t 0.13 1.93t 0.151-93 t 0.15 2.10 t 0.15 4A 0.58 =h: 0.07 ~ ~~1.34 t 0.13 4g ,. 0.75 -L- 0.09 .-~ 1.41 t 0.13 . 4C -1.56~--I~ 0.13 . 1.1Jt0.11 5A 0.85t 0.09 1.32 t 0.13 5B 0.82t 0.09 1.12 t 0.10 5C - 1.10 f 0.11 1.19 t 0.11 • Sa,nples A, B, and C are diRBrenr plants taken from the samc site. • S,.ndard deviation in pc./g. determined from (aounts)"r (time)-') twrranged is .. . , . '..do + TroNPo - XPLNYeC aPtir - 0 dr which is a linear differential equation of the first order m which the final solution is: _ Nry ' )kPb .p rQ lFM_ e-xP,(~ + NP°X-1.wt XPO - kPb By multiplying this equatiorrn by e'v"r one obtains the a4uation .V..e"vaf - 1]-F-Nro...(1) - XPO - J,Pb.b which is in the form of a linear equation y= mx + c where y= NPe~~ expressed as number of atoms of . n,oPo/a'g:. tobacco,, x = Y•Pb iearo-~..)r _ 11, Aen - APn Suhitituting 7tPb 9 8.6 X.10"da5-rand aPa - 5.0 X day-r, s= 1.76 X 1Q'rQe °"` 1" - 1], which is d,mensionless but a function of t. m= Npb andc= 1.49 t 0.13 1.51 t 0.13 1.51 f 0.13 1.58 t 0.131.34 f 0.13 1.81 t 0.15 Np;. If the major portion (>95%) of the S10„Po in the leaves of tobacco is derived from 'rO;zPb, plotting the iitgrowth of 210°,Po with the above equation should give a straight line intersecting the x-axis.at the latest date of entry of '210arPb into bhe tobacco ]eavessince x is a function of time. - The ingrowth of Y10s.Po in leaves from five tobacco plants were plotted according to Equation I using data from 7abli: II;; t is expressed in days and t- 0 is taken as July 1,.1965. Figure 1 shows that a linear relation- ship exists Uetween x and y within the standard deviation of counting for each of the five samples. Thus,. °10°,Po in the tobacco-leaves is.derived from and therefore in equiiibrium wilh 910.rPb. The intercepts on the X-axes (Figure 1) indicate that "0°zPb had entered the tobacco leaves before October 1, 1965 in four of the.five tobacco'sa.mples. Sample. 3 indicates that °10aPb entered the plant before November 1, 1965.. Extrapolations of this type are subject to error; however, in four of the five cases the calculated finaidate of "^aePb entry into the plant occurred during the growing season, which is in agreement with Tso t V d\11 Table II• Dates of "°wPa Analysls In Cured Tobacco Leaves Ti Time Time Time,. Sample Dec. me. Days March . Days 7une. , Days Aug.. Days O is IM lB 10 163 23 266 23 358 26 422 26 10 163 5 244 16 351. 26. 422 3B 10 - 163 1 240 14 352 26422 CO . C 4B SB 16 10 163 163 23 10 266 156 23 21 358 356 26 .. 422 26 422 ~ VOL. 15, NO. 4, JULY-AUG. 705
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Table Ill. Content of 410Pm in Greenhouse and Field Cultured.Plants Grown on a Variety of Soil Types. Type of Leaf Fertilidr Time after r'oPo Content, Tissue Treatment Harvest. Days pCi/C, 2 5 9 0 6 8 2 8.5 5.6 ~ arious n 2 to ,r both plants Since ncipal estiga- aer of rain- lipore le size culate ra1 J- th of am- plot- Greenhouse Cultured Tobacco 0 0.04 t 0.04 Tobacco Tobacco 80 341 0.05 t 0.04 0.04 f 0.04 Tobacco 341 0.04 t 0.04 Corn 286 0.00 f 0.02 Corn 286 0.00 ~ 0,02 Corn 286 0.00 =L 0.02 Ryegrass^ 100 p.p.m. P as. MAP• 670 0.09 f 0.06 Ryegrass^ . 100 p.p.m. P as RP• 670 04 nk 0 0 06 Ryegrass= 100 p.p.m. P as RP 670 . . 0.00 t 0.04 Snapbeans 65 p.p.m.. P as MgAP+ 690 0.14 f 0.06 Snapbeans 65 p.p.m. P as MgAP 690 0.18 f 0.06 Snapbeans Pea vines 150 p.p.m. P as MgAP 690 346 0.16 f 0-06 0.02 f 0.04 Tobacco Field Cultured 0 0.02to.n4 Tobacco 186 0.56 t 0.07 Corn 188 1.15 f 0.09 Cam 188 1.19 f 0-09 Corn Soybeans (stems included). Soybeans (stems included) Soybeans (stems included) Pea vines Pea vines 188 200 200 200 1035 1035 1.65 i 0.13 0.61 t 0.06 0.58 t 0._07 0.71 t 0.07 0.84 zEm 0_07 0.65 ~ 0.07 • Bth cutting. ~~MAP rs munammunium phusphatc. ' RP is rock phosphate. • MsAP is mugnesmm ammonium phosphate... of "°Pb found in rains.occurringin the early summer is not known to be a seasonal effect. The measuremenp of appreciable quantities of st"Pbin rainfall strengthens the hypothesis that natural radioactive. fallout is a feasible tnecltanism of i30Poentryinto plants. Verification of Rainfall as the Source of 31OPo in Plants. From the data cited above apparently root uptake of soil - q / "°Pb is an unlikely mode of entry into plants while r+oPb watef ainnl Itonli :tants • I^Pb plete absence of iOPo in the edible portions of the vegetables testedi while all tobacco leaf samples.contained appreciable quantities of ""PO. Theleaf tissue of the corn described in Table Ill contained appreciable amounts of =t0Po. In general, the accumulation of "0Po in plants is confined almost sulcly to leaf tissue. Other notdeafy vegetable tissue including rad- ishes, onions, and potatoes contained little or no detectable rt~Pn. Leaf tissue of all plants examined contained 90Po and this phenomena is in no way confined to tobacco. Further support for this conclusion was obtained by determination of the 't"PO contents of the leaf tissue of corn.,.soybeans, O pea vines, tobacco (Table 11I),, bluegrass (6.6 pCi per gram), O alfalfa (5.11 pCi per gram), and'oak leaves (7.12 pCi per gram). ~ Furthermore, detectable quantities of '"Poo were found ~ in the outer leaves of cabbage left in the field over winter ~ (Berger, Erhardt, erul., 1965). The.-"0Po in the cabbage heads ty was 5.4 pCl per gram in the two outermost leaves, approxi- Zh mately I pCi per gram in the 4th,. 5th, and 6th leaves, and in rainwater is a feasible source of -t^Po.in plants. To.evaluate the latter conclusion, the asoPo contents of the economic portions of a variety of field crops were determined (Table IV). These data were used to assessthe effect of plant part on 'toPo ingrowth. I A wide variety of soil textural classes wereusede in these "`''n't ezperiments, and; the "0Po contents of the soils were I(a remarkably constant ranging from. 2.0 to 4.4 pCi per gram on- ( with a mean value of 3.1 pCi per gram (Table IV)..Of signi- 3n uf t ticanee, in,the °10Po contents of the tissue, is the almost com- Volume 2, Number 9. geptember 1968 693
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zt"Poloniurn Entry into Plants Chester W. Francis,' Gordon Chesters, and Wilfred li. Erhardt' Soils Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.. 53706  The possibility that root uptake of't10Pb fromsoilkis the principal mechanism of P10PO entryinto plants was evaluated and proved tabe iavelidi If the 410Ph in the plant is nol soil- derived, the seaond, most likely sourct:.ii; natural radioactive fallout, of which the most important component is from rain- fall.. Material balanccs . of the quantities of %t°Pb in tobacco over time intervals of known. rainfall indicate rains deposit apprnximately twice as mucti "0Pb as observed in tobacco leaves, verifying the hypothesis that deposition of P10Pbb by rainfall is the principalimechanism of 21OPo entry in plants. B ecause of the implication that R°°Po, an alpha-emitting and volatile radionuclide,.in tobacco was an initiator of neoplasms in the bronchial epiihelium of cigarette smokers (tloltzman and Ilcewicz, 1966;, Radford and Hunt,. 1964), it was decided too investigatettie source of this radioactive element in plants. It appears that ""Po, being volatile at the temperature of a burning cigarette,, adheres readily to smoke particles,, and thereby gains direct access to the lung. Polo- nium-210, with ahalf-life of 138.5 days, is.a member of the r'"Ui radioactive dccay series and itsimmediate precursors are R10Bi and "OPb. The. chemistry of Po. is not well under- stood, although it is known to be amphoteric and to have . stable oxidation states of +2 and +4~ A numtxrof researchers have investigated the role.of •'°Po as a possible initiator of bronchial cancer, but because of the lack of asatisfactary model.,, it has been impossible to deter- mine theaocumulation of °10Po in the lungs of tobacco smokers and the extent of the radiation hazard (Holtzman and Ilcewicz, 1966)l The,studics of Hill, Osborne, rrab (Y9b4) revealed thau concentrations of rAOPo in normal bone and reproductivee organs of humans accounts for mean dose ' Present address, USAID/IRI,. c/o American Embassy- rates. of several millirem per year, and 21OPo often occurs independently and att considerably higher activities than its precursor 2"Ra. The. radioactive disequilibrium described above can only be produced by the.accumulation of a radioactive isotope be- twecn "0Ra and Y1°Po in the --U series or of ='°PO itself, It is suspected that this accumulatiom may occur by deposition of °"Pb through natural radioactive fallout on plant' tissue which humans consume (Hill,. 1960)i. However, aOPo analysis of edibleportions of vegetables failed to show detectable quantities of 21OPo while.cured tobacco samples showedrela- 'tivelyhigh concentrations-i.e., 0.34 to 1.50'pCi per gram,, where pCii is picocurie (Berger;. Erhardty et a/.,.1965). Tso, Haliden, et af. (1964) reported that the st^Poin tobacco was not in radioactive equilibrium with°R6Ra and hypothe- sized thati its source was °'"Pb takemup from the soil. Francis and Chesters (1967)') demonstrated conclusively that ""Po im tobacco is ih radioactive equilibrium with. r"Pb and the question of the mode of entry of %t"Pbinto, plant tissue is raised. Thus, SePbb may enter plants by uptake from soil and/or deposition of 2t^Pb.and precursors from natural radin- active fallout. Thc phenomenon of natural radioactive fallout has long been recognized (BIilTord,.Lockhart, et a!-, 1952; Israeli 1951) and is caused hy the evolution of the inert gas"'Rn (a daughter product of ""Ra with a half-life o0 3.82 days) from the soil into the atmosphere where it decays to its daughter producls. ]xad-210, having the longest half4ife (22 years), tends to accumulate and apparently attaches itself electrically tosntall dust particles of <0.3 p in diamcter (Kawans and Nakatanii 1964).which are believed to be removed~ from the atmosphere by rainfall (Blifford,.Lockhart, eral., 1952)..This report is a result, of a survey to determine the mode of entry of2"Po into plants. L'S[7erUnenta! Collection and Storage of Samples. Soil samples from the Ap horizons (plow layer) of vegetable and tobacco producing soils were collected during the summer of 1964. All snd samples were.air-dried, passed through a 20-meshh sieve, and stored in glass bottles. Edible portions of fresh carrots, snapbcans, cucumbcrs• red beets, cabbage, sweet cornl.onions, potatoes, and'radishn 00749321 Brasi I ia, A PO,. New York 09676 rPresent address,. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, t University of Maine, Orono, Me- 04473 19t Wi Th lau loh wh oth to pris C cor the 80` R on fror the tion H,S slor P. n p051 PC ads: (201 ules. flask 1.9r toth; Plan lure cedu ensu: with Ph: emiw in dil in 0.: "0Po vidin creas, Th of ta water Any (0.1 t the A ac'epn slirrir yith , using dctect F_, )t{oln dt'terr I 690 Enrironmental', Sdence and Technalogy
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fC~ Radioactive Ingrowth of Polonium-210 in Tobacco Plants C. W. FRANCIS' AND G. CHrSTERa Polonium-210 is an a-emittingradioactive ele- ment found in tobacco and thought to be a pos- sible initiator of bronchial cancer in cigarette smokers. An cvaluation of the. ingrowth of fl°,°Po in leaves of tobacco showed it to be de- Radioactive ingrowth as used in this discussion is an increase in the concentration or'A;,Po in tobacco leaves during, storage in a noncontaminutingg environment. Previous investigators (Radford and Hunt,. 1964) have . suggested that P1O„Po is.in radioactive equilibrium with "°aPb in cigarette tobaeco. An attempt to verify such . an equilibrium was unsuccessful hecnuse the activity of •me?Pb in tobacco tissue could not be measured and no evidence of a'1082Pb -+ P10e.Poradioactive equilibriumm in plant tissue isavailable. (7so et al.., 1964).. :- An investigation was initiated to evaluate the extent of '1"„Po ingrowthh in tobacco and to determine the ~ possible existence of an equilibrium between '1°eaPb, and '1qnPo. . , .. . .. . . Procedure The "Oe.PO was released from plant tissue by the wet ashing procedure described by Jackson (1958). Care - was taken tovolatilizcall HNOa.to prevent interference . in the subsequent plating of 810e.Po on Ag disks. .. Poloniune-210 is the only a-emitter which sponta- y neously depositseleetrochemicallyon Ag.in dilute HG (Radford et al., 1963).. For trace amounts of nPe.Po, deposition is independent of HCI concentration pro- viding it is in excess of OAN, and the rate of deposition is increased with.increaaed temperature in the range ' 35°toT00°C. - , The plating of e1"e,Po~on the Ag.disks was accorn- plished by heating at 90° to 100° C: in 0.5NHCl solu- tion with continuous stirring for 4 hours: Reduction of _ Fe*' (which decreases plating.e07ciency) in thesamples . was accomplished bythe addition of 0.1 gram of ascor- bic acid. At the completion of theplating.time, the Ag disk was washed with water and air-d'ried t thea-activity was counted in a Molechem Model 30 solid-sa:e semiconductor a-detecton. Counting time was a ' minimum of 4 hours. Detailss of inethodology,, re- producibility,, and precision are described by Francis and Chesters (1967): . ' Results a.rd Discussion - The. l10.,Po content of cured tobacco leaves was determined at intervals.of approximately three months for a period of one.year (Table 1). All tobacco was grown in Wisconsin duringg thce summer of 1'965and cured under natural conditions in the fall or 1965. Department of Soils, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. - I Present address, USAID/fRI, c/o American Fatl- bassy-BR APO-New York, N.Y. 09676. . rived from and in radioactive equilibrium with amqPb. Linear extrapolations of'1°wPo ingrowth obtained by a modified Bateman equation indi- cated that 01°. Pb entered the tobacco leaves dur- ing the growing season. . The tobacco plants were harvested between September 5 and 10; on December 6 they were taken from the tobacco sheds of their respectivegrowers. The leaves were randomly selected from individual-plants, dried in a forced-air oven at 80° C., ground to pass an 8-mesh . screen,.and stored in airtight glass bottles. Increasing concentrations of "OSiPo were found after stomge, . thereby proving the existence of P10e,Po ingrowth from some radioactive precursor. To determine the radio• active precursor responsible for such rte.,Po ingrowth, .- one must considerthe decay chain of 'a'cU and estab- lish criteria for the existence of an equilibrium between . ""NPo and 10e,Pb. . - . In the.zae.Uradioactive decay series,. !1e`rBi is formed by the loss of a(3 particle from °'erPb. Approximately -1007 of the ""eaBi decays by t9 emission forming • Se 'Sc '1"h,Po which undergoes the loss of ana.partide to form a stable lead isotope, fp6eP6. rearr. Pb A -_tm ir° B i p un P .y aa 22 ye.r. c. , 5.0 dnys 6X10-sy° - o w hic] 35.5 d.r. in wP men-I 2.6 X tea Yeers 'f a m'ap 9.18 mlhu4es b - Ne, By , equat Since the halt lifeof =10eaBi is 5.0 days, the activity of S0„Po in tobacco leaves 20 days after the entry of "OnPh. (61psBi has reached 15/16 of its steady-state value) will' depend on the concentration of "°wPb and SOrJ'o Nilel whict and their respective decay rates. . .. wher, a d .n„P" a,c Pb Pb . " P P ra " -%'"s ffi .. 0 eq 0 e. e. _ 22 years 138.5 days Since Subst Jimcr dNrs __nPJVee, or Nrs= Nv°iR xv.e dt ' Q where Na6 is the initial r'"uPb concentration and a i~ the decey rate constant. - t~ CO Also, dNr° ~ ke~hs, - hroNr. where Nr- is tig dr concentrationofSer.Po; substitutingNp,,¢ x^:forN.IQ0 dNr° ~ ,~tbNvee-x~"'~ - ar°Nre dt Sa 704 J. AGR. FOOD CHEM.
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A number of pretreatment methods were evaluated to determine "0Po in soils including concentrated HCI digestion, NaCO, fusion, and H>SOt-HCIO4-liFdecomposition in Teflon beakers. Only the H,50.-HCIO<-HF decomposition method in Pt crucibles was satisfactory, giving average ra covery of added 21OPo of 100.2% with standard deviation of 2.9 %.. It is important to note that' 21 Ap horizons of soils analyzed showed detectable quantities of 2A0Po and averaged 3.1 pCi per gram. ' Polonium-210 contents of rainwater were determined by evaporating 4-liter acidified aliquots to approximately 30 ml. and transferring too the platingg flask withouf predigestion. The 30 ml. of concentrated sample was approximately 4.8N with, respect to Ht50,,, which was shown not to interfere withh the plating procedure. Recoveries of standard S1°Po solutionss added to 4-liter acidified aliquots of distilled and deionized water was 90 and 91 °j°, respectively, and was considered quantitative within experimental error. Resultsand Oiscussion Source of '1°Po in Plants. Polnnium-210 may enter plants by uptake from soil and/or deposition of °'°Po, and radio- active precursors from natural radinactive fallout (Hill, 1960; Tso, Harley;, et al:, 1966).. Francis and Chesters (1967) have shown lhat "Po per se doesnot, enter plants and entry is achieved as its precursor tt"Pb. The conclusion by"Fso, Harley, er al: (1966) that the principal mode of °iOPO entry in tobacco plantc was through root uptake of "°Pb was based on the observation that tobacco plants grown in an atmo- sphere containing 500 times more 22%Rn than normal atmo- spheres have only twice as much 4VPo in the leaves. On the strength of this conclusiony plants not exposed to natural radioactive fallout (principally rainfall),, but grown in a soil medium should have similar 610Pocontents to those exposed to natural fallout. To test these conclusions, the 21OPo contents of tobacco and other plant leaves grown inn soil under both greenhouse and; field conditions were com• pared, In soilicultures in the greenhouse, little or no evidence was found for direct plant uptake of "°Po or YOPb as shown by the absence of 910Po in the tissue at' harvest time and after allowing sufficient time for ingrowth (Table 111). The small amnun[s of SPPoin the snapbean tissue grown on magnesium ammonium phosphate as a P source may be slight evidence of""Pb uptake. However, if direct uptake of 210Pb werea.prin- cipal mode of entry, in would be anticipated that the plants receiving large increments of rockk phosphate would be the nnesmnstlikely to showSOPo ingrowth; rock phosphates are known to contain as much as 350 p.p.m. (260 pCi per gram)) of "4U (Osmond, 1964). This evidence shows that direct uptake of 410Pb from soil is not an important mechanism of enlry into plants. To test the importance of natural radioactive fallout as aa prime source of 2'0Po in plants, the same plant species which, containedlitde or no ""1'o when grown inn soil culture in the Table 11. Recovery by Wet Ashingwith H,SO,HCIO,HNOt and HCI Digestion of Z1pPo Added to PlantTissue "0Po in ""Po Tissue, Added, itopa Recovery of Added 21OPo pCi pCi. pCi' Wet Ashing p0 % 1.5 11.4 12.9 14.1 124 1.0 11.4 12.4 12.2 108 3.5 11.1i 14.6 11.2 101 0.5 11.1 11.6 11..1 100 1.2 10.8 12.0 9.9 92 2.6 10.5 13.1 10.1 96 1.2 10.4 11.6 9.4 90 Average 101 Standard deviation 11 Blank 5.9 HCI Digestion 5.9 5.8 98 Blank 5.9 5.9 6-0 102 3.2 5.9 9.1 5.0 85 3.0 5.9 8.9 2.9 49 3.0 5.9 8.9 5.9 - 100 3.1 5.9 9.0 4.5 76 3.6 5.9 9.5. 4.6 78 2.8 5.9 8.7 5.4 92 Average (excluding blank determinations) 79.5 Standard deviation 16.6 greenhouse were randomly sampled from field plots in various parts of Wisconsin. Soil contents of ='°Po ranged from 2 to 4'4 pCi per gram,.and the values were in the same range for both the greenhouse and; field samples. In leaf tissue of all plants sampled,, ingrowth of P10Pohad occurred (Table III). Since uptake of S1°Pb from soil is insignificant and the principal component of radioactive fallout is precipitation, an investiga- tion of the "0Po activity of rainwater was initiated. Rainwater samples were collected during the summer of 1966 (May 23 to August 15); After acidification of the rain- water, 4-liter aliquots were filtered through a 0.22 p Millipore filter to provide two fractions-namcly; dust of particle sirc >0.22 µ, and the filtered water containing any particulate matter <0.22µ. In rainfallss of sufficient quantity, several.4- liter aliquots were filtered and the radioactiveingrowth of 51°Po from, 90Pb measured. By determining the "°PO con- tents of these aliquots over several intervals of time and plorv tingNrdt'PO' as ordinate against XPb (ePP°-aPtrlt _ Il XY° - XPb X 10°as abscissa, the concentration of 90Pb in the rainwater was calculated from the.slope of thc straight lines obtaincd (Francis and Chesters, 1967), where Np, is.nurnber of am11" of aOPo at time r, and Tn° and kPb are the decay rate const:mt• for Po and Pb, respectively. The concentrations of found inn the filtrate fractions of rainwater for the following rains in 1966 were: May 23 (6.8 pCi per liter), July 14 (a° pCi per liter), and July 26 (4.6 pCi per liter). Because onb onee year'sdatas were obtained, the higher concentration o( of r kno n rain fal Ic V, Fro t'0Pi in ra the 0 . Port Q Thes ~ xmp, 1D A (~ expe rem; r.J wilh 692Fnviennmmlal S[ien[e and Technoingy
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=cur, 3n its only e be- itself. sition tissue alysts :table rela- ;ram, Jaek othe- ancis =1°'Po d the ;ue is t soil adio- long 1951) ghter e soil iucts. ds to small stani, phere I isd ='aPu were collected during, the summer of 1964 from major vege- iable growing areas of Wisconsin. The samples were stored fur 6 months underdry ice, dried in an oven at 70° to 80° C., and ground to pass an 8:mesh screen. 7'ttcI samples were re- laincd in sealed glass bottles. Tobacco samples were collected during the Iate.summers of 1964 and 1965 from the two major tobacco,growing areas of 1%'isconsin (surrounding the cities of Edgerton and Viroqua). Ihe.1965 sampling was made at two dates, August 20, and a later date between September 5 andl 15. The early harvested tobacco samples were divided into two subsamples, one of which was subjecledd to air coringin Ihegreenhouse and the other to drying at 70° to80°' C.. The samples were ground to pass an 8-mesh screen andi stored in sealed glass bottles prior to analysis. Other plant tissue samples, such as bluegtass, tree leaves, corn,. pea,. and soybeanleaf samples were collected during the summer and late fall of 1964 and 1965, dried at 70° to 80° C., and ground to pass an 8-mesh screen: Rainwater was collected in a polyethy.lene-lined tubloeated nn top of a 20-foot high building, to avoid contamination from. dust at ground Ievel. To avoid further contamination the tub was only placed outside at the onset and for the dura- lion of a rainfall. The rainwater, acidified to0.03N with H:504, was filteredd through a Millipore filter (0:222 p) and stored in 4-liter aliquots in glass containers. Pretreatment Procedures. Total 2t"Po contents of soils were.determine& using a ntodification of the silicate decom- position procedure of Jackson (1958) in Teflon beakers. Polonium-210.was removed from plant tisue by two nteth- ods: PlanO tissue (2 grams) was digested in concentr:ued. HCI (20 ml.) with continuous stirring at 60' to 700 C. for 40 min- utes. The digest was transferred quantitatively to a plating flask (a 100-m1. cylindrical flask in whicha Ag disk of diameter 1.9 cm, wasntounted~over an opening 0.65 cm. from the bat- lom)by washing with 0.5N HCI toa final volume of 75 tnl. Plant tissue (2 grams) was sub,iected to wet ashing with a mix- lure of concentrated HNOi, HSO„ and HC10a4 by the pro- cedure described by Jackson (1958).. Care must be taken to ensure that all HNO,.is evaporated because of its interference withplating efficiency. Plating of Polonium-2Y0. Polonium-210 is the only alpha emitter which spontaneously deposits electrochentically on Ag inn dilutc HCI, and the deposition is believed to be anodic even in 0.2N acid solution (Bagnall,. 1957). For trace amounts of ""Po,.deposition isindependent of HCI concentration pro- viding it is.in excess of 0!IN and the rate of deposition is in- creased with increased temperature in the range 25"'to.100° C. The following.procedure was used for plating and counting of 21OPo on Ag disks: The sample (soil,, plant tissue, or raiit- water) after pretreatment was transferred to the plating flask. Any Fe+Din the sample was reduced with ascorbic acid (0.1 gram)) because Fe" interferes with 21OPo deposition on the Ag disk. The deposition of ""Po on the Ag disk was accomplished byheating.at 900 to100° C. with continuous nn the stirring for 4 hours. After plaling, the Ag disk was washed acing with distilled water,.air-dried, and the alpha activity counted 1! soil using a Molechem Model 30 solid state semiconductor alpha, an; detector; counting limc was a minimumm of 4 hours. Evaluation of blelhodsPor Determination of 21"Po Content in lliologica4 Maferiads. To evaluale the procedure used for the delermination of 210Po in soils, ptan t.tissue, and rainwater, it' is essential to know the overall efficiency obtained for the entire. procedure (pretreatment, plating, and counting) and the recovery of P1OPo.added to the various samples. The tcrm clliciency as used inn this discussion is the sum of alll factors which may atfectt finall counts and includcsrecovcry by the pretreatment and plating procedure and the inherent qualities of the detector when operating optimally..lf recovery during pretreatment and plhting is quantitative and the count- ing equipment is functioning at a constant optimal level, then the efftciency terms will be constant for all types of samples. The efftciency term was determined by treating SOPo stan- dards by the wet ashing pretreatment, plating,.and counting as used for analyzing 21OPo in, plant tissue (Table I). The average efficiency for fourtdals was 12.17. with a range of 11.4 to 12.6% and a standard deviation of 0.4% representing a relative error of 33%. The deviation associated with the counting of samples,. (number of eounts)""(time)-', was larger than the deviation found for determination of the efficiency term, Thus,.wilhin experimental error the efficiency term was constantL - Because the efficiency term was used to determine the quan- tity of a'"Po, it isessential that tests of its constancy be made. If a pretreatment and plating procedure can be devised which provides essentially quantitative recovery (or constant non- quantitative recovery) oB 21OPo added to plant tissue,., soil, and rainwater samples and 410Po content5 determined'using 12.1 f 0.4% as the efficiency constant, then additional proof ~ is provided that the efficiency term is indeed a constant. Any deviation in "OPorecovery in excess of the standard deviation of counting (number of counts):"'(tinte)" usingg any tech- niqtte on any sample is an indication of nonquantitative re- coveryin the pretreatment and/or plating procedures. The recovery of 21OPo added to plant tissue samples of known $0Po content (determined by wet-ashingg in H>SO,- HCIO,-HNO,) is shown in Table II. Recoveries rangedfrom 90 to 124%',with a muan of 101 i-. 11%, indicating that the melhod is essentiallyquantilative. However, the concentrated HCI digest method gave erratic recoveries ranging from 49 to 102 7 with a mean of 78 and standard deviation of 17% .indi- cating.nonquantitative recovery either during pretreatment or plating (fable 11). The standard deviulionz,, expressed as relative error for the H,SOr-HCIO.-HNO;z and concentrated HCl pretrcalments, are 10 and 21 %, respectively., For thisreason the concentrated HCI pretrcatrnent method was deemed unsatisfactory for determination of $10Po in plants even though it has been used extensivelytin the past (Berger, Erhardt, et a6, 1965; Radford and Hunt, 1964; Tso,, Hallden, et af:,.19&1). Table I. Determihalion of the. Efficiency Constant Added "°Po, Counted SOPO, D.P.M. C.P.M, EfBciency, % 0.0 0.04 O 25.3 2.93 t 0.11 11.4 O 25.3 3.12 f 0.12 12.2 ~ 50.6 6.27 ~.0.12 12.3 50.6 6.43 ;1- 0.12 12.6 ~., Average efficiency, % 12.1 N Standard deviation 0.4 Volume 2,. Numinv 9, Septomber 1968 691
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Table IV. Contents of T1PPu in Field Crop Samples Harvested in 1964 i. 'aPo Content of Soil,, pC5/G. Plant Species Type of Tissue Time for "0PO Sngrowth,. Months °'^Po Content of Tissue, pCiJG. 2.04 Sweet corn Seed 12 0.05 t 0.05 4.38 Sweet.cotn Seed 12 . 0.03 t 0.03 3.78 Sweet corn Seed 12 0.02 m 0.02 2.44 Snapbean Pod 7 0.02 t 0.02 _ 3.50 Cabbage Ituterleaves 12 0.00 t 0.02 3.60 Cucumber Fruit - 7 0.03 t 0.03 3.04 Cucumber Fruit 7 0.00 :1: 0.03 2.20 Beet Root 7 0.01 t-0.03 2.64 - Carrot Root 12 0.03 -60.05 3.30 Tobacco Leaves 10 - 1.26 t.0.11• 3.46 Tobaeco Leaves 11 1.61 * 0.10 2.72 Tobacco Leaves 11 1.21 f 0.09 3.54 Tobacco Leaves 11 0.80 t.0.07 3.38 Tobacco Leaves 11 0.82 f 0.07 ° 1965 sample. theinner portion of the head from the 7th 1'eaf to the core Three leaves were used as a composite sample from eachh contained no detectable S10Po. plant; one leaf from the top,, middle, and lower sections of The ability of different plant parts to intercept rainfall is each plant. the most7ikely explanation for the differences ofR10Po content The August 20 sampling was divided into two subsamples: found in the dif3erent types of tissues. Thus the leaf tissue, leaves which were stored in sealed gla.ts containers after forced which has the largest surface. exposed for interception of rain- air drying at 70" to 80" C., and leaves whichh were air cured fall,.contains the highest concentration of "OPo. The amount on the plant stem in the greenhousee for aperiod of 11 months: of "DPo in different types of leaf tissue is in large measure This method was used to evaluate the effect of air curing on determined by the length of time required for the plant to the concentration of s'°Po in tobacco leaves. The"°Po reach maturity. (Table Ill)-i.e., corn (growing May to analysis revealed no significant difference in II10Po concen- October)'.containscomparatively) more °1"Po in the leaf than tration after air curing which is in agreement with the ex- tobacco.(growing July and Augusn); Inability to detect quan- trapolated S10Pbentry dates by Francis and Chesters(1967) titiesof °+"Po in edible portions of vegetables is probably a indicating that the °'°Pbhad', already entered the plant prior result of °10Pbdeposition on plants by rainfa0i rather than to curing. uptake of 21OPb through plant rnots. Such a phenomenon alsoThe "°Po and -'OPb concentrations of tobacco leaves har- explains the lower concentrations af ?0Po found in Mewvested from the sites A and B are shown in Table. V'. Tht Zealand tobaccotham in tobacco from continental areas l10Ph concentrations were calculated from the fOPo analysis (Grcgony; 1965). King; Lockhart, er a!. (1956), by determina- in a manner similar to that used for determination of "°Pb tion of the 9{°Pbcontent of rainwater in manyy parts of the concentration inrainwater. Obviously a rather large increase infall f A Th S° 20 e re ler ugust Pb concentration occurred a . world, concluded'that island and coastal sites were subject to in less natural fallout fran precipitation than inland sites or distribution ac Viroqua, Wis., between August 20 andSep. sitess in the path of continental air streams-e.g., Samoa; an . tember 10, 1965 is as follows: On August 21, 22, 26, 29, 30, island remote from large land masses and subject to the wash- and 31 precipitation was 0.10;.0.04; 0.44, 0.23, 1.14, and 0.1'- ingeffect of daily mins,, showed the lowest 21OPb content in inches, respectiveiy;, and on September 5, 6, 7. 9, and In rainwater. precipitation was 0.10,. 0.06, 1.25, 1.79, and 1.40 innce+. Another question which arises is whether sufficient 410Pb respectively. The tobacco samples al site B were harvested un is present in rainfall to account completely for the 40Po in- September 5 and those at.sitc A on. September 10. ( r growth in plants. To test this, an experiment was conducted Assuming that YOPo content uf rainfail is'4.6 pCi per liter at two sites near V iroqua, Wis., to determine the extene of (the lowest concentratinn found in 1966 rainfall analyzed7, anJ ' rainfall interception required to account for the 21OPb content the tobacco plant under investigation occupies a space of 4.5 of tobacco. At each site three plants were randomly selected sq. ft (36-inch rows spaced 18 inches apart), and iisleaveshatc at two sampling dates. At site A the sampling dates were a dry weight of 45 grams. (detcrmincdfrom a plant growuin August 20 and September 10, whilee at site B, 4 miles away,, the greenhouse which was considered to be larger than an! r 5 1965 lant harvested from the field) then for cite A thexvrrag 'c d' 6 20 S Inc is : inc. PC acc Au: inci Sep rair and cep: is 6. A cepi that all c colh intet Wis. repG flectt Lirer Oagt PF ilerg 17 eptem r, . p . . ~ e an the sampltngdales were August ~, 00749325 , " 694 Environmenta Svic°ce and T,.chnWce Iy
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. Gb0-1540-5 . an r.]iF,i*•a ..~,..,Y:i~~ c£-- I te r ::en oC ~nts pa ,10 _a . ss i . rnf c anso ,.y_'ks c° brcnc::_el 7:olOfliu:"'1 io?:''C - c;:ivc contributcor.a °rum t:,:.,a- two sou_oss _., ,- .ia::de 7 {e1 l~ l .,... 1 nati ' " - LEGAL NOTICE . ~Tu. nPN. w. VrewM.. u. a1,Oo.erv.nl epnreM .nrl. prluer w umm /OY.,.w w buul.au•y w. . .[ua M.emll m W camml.Yan i .• Yw. Yr..rr.mrurr.yrt..nmYnn,..prv..ed m maleJ/.W, r..pwr:m Yu.wv~ ' rydY: WmqNrwe.. o.wlWneee d W lu(ameua caemep 1. w. nppR, a[ YN w... J.qlaac~YM.,.r ...O.Ieo;eeprreee41Y1d.edleWer./urlq.Iml/n41,rf. yrInYlYe r..u-rr•, q• 4..unee uY ILMlltl.e nO,l..1..1 m W..u.e e(. or W Ym.R. nW uR IrW W ' j W df YY ObeW lbe. eqen0e. 0.14N. ur pime.. y~luee! In.~l. rport• . N..M u N. .En.e. '•Pre^ ~rW. c. Mlvl/'ar W Commlumn^' Yrlub. .nY .. Nye. CY [a r v/.Ye Cuqml.elM, a nylu)ee uI .ue\ cun nEbr~ NU..a~wl W{ v\.mp4.)ry..yyy,.eYnel.y.Qpm0leaw,o eaplnYnN.velleMln.Wrp.ep...., • ClennWU., ec prJadn t~'we Iq yry L(arNllm pur.um/ lr ~IY.muln/mMI W eale.el au w Ce¢01.ay..r. Ne .mpnYO.p yV4.u.F ewb.ele.. . . . ., { . ' ..
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Table V. Contents of Tt0PO and ""Pb in Tobacco Leaves. Analysis P Analysis 1P Sample No.° Sampling Date "oPo content, Date pCiJg. t"Po content, Date pCi/g. tLaPb ContenL pCi/G. Al August 20 March 3 0.43 - July 2 . 0.41 0.39 A2 August 20 March 3 0.47 June14 0.48 0.50 A3 August 20 March 3 0.28 June 14 0.31 0.36 A4 Sept. 10 March 3 1.71 June 16 2.54 3.75 I A5 Sept. 10 March 4 1.73 June 16 2.01 2.44 A6 Sept. 10 March 5 2.01 June 16 2.76 3.86 BI August 20 March 10 0.44 July 2 0.47 0.51 B2 August 20 March 11 0.33 July 3 0.43 0.56 B3 August 20 March 1.1 0.30 July3 0.35 0.42 B4 Sept. 5 i March 22 0.34 June 21 1.49 1.75 B5 Sept.5 March22 1.17 June23 1.51 2.10 B6 Sept.5 March 23 1.41 June23 - 1.51 1.70 • Letters A and B indicate sites. and,numbrrs indicate leaves sampled at two dates. ' Analyttd at different times to allow t"PO ingrowth. - m each ions of unpl'r~ fot~ r cure nonths: ring on srcPa :oncen- the ex- (/967) .t prior es har- V. Tht nalysis f auPb ureau. ain(all 1 Sep- ?9, 30. ;d 0.12 nd t0. nehes. tcd on increasein rtvPb content between August 20 and September 10 is 103 pG5 per gram or 91 pCi per plantL The rainfall (6.67 inches) over an area of 4.5 sq. ft. is 71 liters and contains326 pCi of 1ePb. Therefore, the rainfall interception required to account for the increase in "°Ph, of tobacco leaves between August 20 and September 10 is 28.2";,.For site B,.the avcrageincrease of rt-Pb in the tobacco leavesbetween August 20 and September 5 is 1.355 pCl per gram or 60.7 pCi per plant. The rainfall (2.07 inches) over an arca of 4.5 sq. ft..is 22.1 liters an~contains 101.2pCi'~of aroPb..Therefore, the rainfall inter- ception required at sitc.B to account for theincrease:in "PPb is 60.0"Je. Although no reliable data: is available on the degree of inter- ception of raihfall' by a tobacco crop, the calculations do show ihat.sufllcient •'aPb was present inthe.rainfall to account for all of the iOPoin the plant. Furthermore, the tobacco samples collected at site B were not subjected to the high rainfall intensities thatl occurred from September 7to 10 at Viroqua, Wis., and.consequentlya greater percentage.ofrainfa8 inter- ception would be expected at site B than site A, which is re- flected in the calculations shown above. Literature Cited - Bagnall,. K. W., "Chemistry nf the Rare Radioelements," pp. 3-24, Butterworth's, London, t957. Berger, K. C., Erhardt, W. H., Francis, C: W., Science 150, 1738-9 (1965). BGfford, I. G., Jr.,. Lockhart, L. B., Jr., Rosenstock, H. B.- J. Geophys. Res. 57, 499-509 (1952). Francis, C. W:, Chesters, G.,.J. Agr. Food Chem. 15, 704-6 (1967). Gregory, L. P., Science 150, 74 (1965).. , Hill, C. T., Nature 187,.211-2 (1960). Hil1,.C. R.,Osborne, R. V., Mayneord, W. V.,^The Natural Radiation Environment," pp. 395-405, Univ: of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964.. Holtztrtan, R. B., Ilcewicz, F.. H., Science 153, 1259 (1966). Israel, H., "Compendium of Meteorology;" pp. 151-61, Meteorological Soe. Boston,,Boston, 1951. Jackson, M. L., "Soil Chemical Analysis," pp. 283-4,, 331-4, Prenlicc~Hall,. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1958. Kawans, M., Nakatani, S., "The Nntural Radiation Environ- mcnt,"pp. 291-312, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964. King, P.,.Lockhart, L. B.,.Jr.,. Baus, R. A.,. Patterson,.R. U.. Jr., Friedman, H., BhOord, I. H., Jr., Nucleonlcs 14, 78-84 (1956). Osmond, J. K., "The Natural Radiation Environment," pp. 153-9, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964. Radford, E.. P.,. Jr., Hunt., V. R., Science 143, 247-9 (19(i4). Tso, T. C., HaBden, N. A.,. Alenander, L.. T., Science 146, 1043-5 (1964)., Tso, TZ': C., Harley, H., Alexander;, L. T., Science 153, 880-2 (1966). Received fdr reoiewAprit 18, . 1968. AcceptedJufy 15, 1968. Inuestigorfon supported in part by American Cancer Societv Grant No. FN-JS and by HarchAet Funds for which the authar express their gratitude. Volume 2, Number 9, September 1961 695
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, ".,.W.rI -.•,n~:;• 1,•, N.' .. WV f/ ,! ^ /TI t ~rAi `- C00-15! 0-5 Pi. 'i'v-,:'"CG by J. Frost and ?d.T4'. Sackett . _ . j;'7Cttc ___ ~-_LCt It is p.-'ru]:7iv no'ia' ~t . . •'°. . . c3u..a of lunS cr,ncor. Tl-.is can b~ c' r:Ilsr_t:~r: to t- r ,,.rc17o' .. :_c - ' -.: .., . _ .. ,.. .... . ' .~ . :,,: R1sc rre..,:.n. 1n ~gG-•_., rbaeeo ea„?.oviida c :e. ebtsins by „,oK -rg ,, aro rr:ch ~. F n. F'17,r an3 Pn;i--r. . r. ,~t are from 1-.5 eV(8) ani a..ic',G r.ne- _ s ;i-e o n order of 5::1Co eF. Ti,u. ~Y , i ot: ., , ~ sux.f:cient to '_~rca?:: ].05 to1C6' rhcn._c.,l -,cc :,lyto. . -.s c° . Zv-orn..l ri t.c`_ono o'~ra, :ca:.-nns. -~ Y, ce. = 0`7ri , spa.,ial itarast 1 rC:.uu^. O_°' ._t$ --.. VC.I-'.. 1 ty a .,.•rc r 0^o C, -.._.... .. i.s be,lo., ':ho t-rmoeratur- of bi:rri'^„ c•<garettW, 6C~GO C- BC0oC.• . The st~d_e : cic.:..._ _%cd '_^ °-..s ra:...r vo_fy tRa .s:onnts of ?o' 0-n: ci;= ,...tetebacco rr.,. . ..,_ ry ~.._°cr.: .. ~.,~ and Gre~ . . €..a u .. x.,..n. ~, .. ..,__-_.,. :;r.-~ orf, . .,°e . tccn:^.r,a1a ..'ee.-_.. .-_-..-, .._ _. :ha .. ' one naa:r_i].y reca°'n,:. ths -.so r __-:e. .._ro.:~. ;, ... ... :n nr:2r to ir-st:.:•s cor:- eaigEbti.,:cf ... 1oi] :ccc c'lo „ 're;t ,i .,hir.gtic .., ;,cs r.dor.ed (2r. gr::`ss of , cr.rcao ~as trn _d' 50'r;,l'. o.: conuc.^.,.=atcd _.. F- CJ-a11 •hc:akrr ar:.' ciFea`.=ci_'o. ~~ :aa;t one .,z. __, so-'_tii o,- -..__ .. e:v°ccr~tsw. tr.. s 2'o^.avol¢~:':: -na ~ ra- o° ec::.^er.tr,tz:d r-Z50, 2v=-fcrr,tic .as c nt,~r.+:ed +7 til ,.'r.e .,o].Lt`-on .. . . . .. . _ .. .'. . :. t~ ~ 9t'_ of v`G:`.ccCitratGil L:iG''sfl &Sha: tflC ^Oiyllti0^ •:n. .-;oY*.:tBd ^'.C:O .... . . .tCC tiftVr coGli1a:r 2 _ !rl .,..'.i]C:... of !tiI ....... -•.UZ ~ . t-.c:::ec f-.:. ]':e wa?+cr_t.o'n ...^ centinn:.3 to ^c:,..s. . Taia: _top ti.-a I . - /: iIn
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_.. ,._... _ . . (2) ~ t arxd~ a ;r L'si.~.:e 2 ~:;a pc rcion•-. c° t ^;. au ..;:0 'c"ton^ nY~ ~ up to 200 ;n_ o.r., i, a." ar ~ .. .:. aGi;id to rC'CUCH any iel•:'ic ie'le to. ...,.;'o'_utkt;l".a. a nolrlca teccti; carl nn . nar-'..u :.-. : . . :.- : :.. ,.t.-- c..• . , by ,hc sno .' n:~cus Pl~ut'1;t, r cc: r cas Enc ..c cr (7}. CoX:?onu:'tal .asn;:aa o° _z;,r. v'~ . ..aapositSc:: •.Las cs _:~doia a., Y,et.f. --, COoC'..w 1C~.5.. ..n a iac_1 -8 : s~a'-ex bat: ,, .^'r.ace,;ner fo_1 .:az~ _:.:$a-3 I^to :.: cficf=cn. v,:lic-n ey.posec'onl;• o:<e •.. . ~ solutior.. A;.soa' the _.:-•_., , .. . .. a~nole~ for c.n e:ec+..ic --'- ~ , ~.. - . . , hcL::s. ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ -. - . - .. . _.. . . .. ... . .. ~~ Seoke sa.,,1~2sa a '_s ~r :e:: o.-, _ _ . w.'~ . . . . - ~ . . . •.e~.. J a-- . . -.._ . .. - _ _;cle.;. . :. ~_... . . t..r.s~. ._lt2r t'rLa -.ec..._A by f_br:r .a_tc-r ~., . ..... .,_~ ... ~ { .. . ' 1 ~ . ~ ' ~. .~e~.. 1'~ .. ~ ~5._n1 r:af:'sa les.an9 :3 „oa.c';i..:a ence: _ae::r o, •- _e. cr:~ 3 .. OSi: OJ(. _ s; - - Pt:4rT' i.r =, l+!ic 'l~':' &Ci.f..- uG ~ _ . ~ .. .. .. - . ~ ~ €3£.]:GrJly v.lta a f.. ~... '<~ ~ : ~ ~ .. . .. .. MIC . ~ ~. all aRfili.zdQ I'GP :C _ . . ~.... "yn ssirt~ •,e •r are , ._'cc-: _. .,..:coL,r, o:aY 11 ~e: and a vacL un pUr, e i: te _ t:era eec:- 4ea 51. ;.t'y ~ l b .. ^ air sw^t'a1es. r
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-,i W<3CJ3 , ...an:ear.t ront~I.,_r;• ?.09±.C5 nr:m c^ Ur'.j8 ~.~•.. u3.::. This . •Q.7~.JfJ J'p '~.ai~ ( : 1 _G:9C~s i. :r1.1.:.1. IP~ ....... •-This a'.rs retnrm1nmc:. i~•nn aar',pics corr`.ainune,~ c'r_no:an a(nou':,t of i-o .,t'so7.oaical va.s ne,r.y nilli.c: o;L',u n olr. ,.rd pr._G rd;r'ce,~ a :...- , st%te of cecu-_ar c,aiabsil . This alutAn(:c •;,Y.,-., :.:..3rL...j of rat:: of . L'c.. aec~_,F. irn order l jc. ;_zl to tcc r.! + atianc= a 3a~.,,e,:er is r.q, for sseular a.;uiliir_•`_ ~rl '~o occnr, theo fir s t pcm•~nt ~•ns:. ..~ae c:x lc :~ est t half-iif„ .._ ~:?e se--ics. ~na su_f-.'-ar.',; ti=:.aa mus.t s_ , __or ,..e :irst- p,~^a. 2R:^:r,1ts o' all '_±., c=ns.:~^ra Cac,.._t te n -hal_-?~1ve cf t?:e lnn,r_est-1ivod .,..=;. lluri-:' sect-l~_ on..y :a ar::oun-;; of the first ar.ci 'ant cle-en2s lnat:',eenc~:>n~;,~, at:',een ' remain car.::.amt. ?10 }'o' ~a the rate of der.a~r is rrorcrt`_.TM:ca to t,c ~-cu:t o_' .,.., tte-~, thl,> r._sulo in~~ --X'. T.rc, -~rr b- -io:- _ae ras:_.. is _•. 3 -Xt.:C. t= C,.. V= do, the, emc;:nti, a'r.;; ==No- C i•"o c~1 t. sc ratc cf ra::ioae'Livr;, 3..J t+vy .^1'e Lr.. r-.ap^etaec in. ter.ie •r-. ~t - , .. .. . . ~ ' . . . o'' the half-life t1, tP,C V'I'V -or an -..-Ql ._^.ber ef ._uC?s be~ F-, . . . . . .. ~ . ^ea CEd to nsi; t~ct :,tun:;c:r. ht tx,. No - 2_ r.d lzi 7.' 2 _ . ..693 or .i:q3. , .:Imn secular -equil:;:riur.he rate of ~t`~:onof the' "m, >: . cen;;i.tar atc;e is ecual to thc.e r~tie .. ' u<:ca:r n_' p: rent ators or Xltiy"• . .t~S. . . ".' .~1 k::2 =A~:'3 r.tc...aain ne>. %7LjCc'C ^X.0210 M:o21G. :oi.II--~- t..~~ 7,~ x fi.u.:i~ x 1Co.~ '- _ ,7w2 V- o ::•usr'lt is: _t; . ~ . 'y,n r..:. _ ~. .. - .. ' . lL.E : ii ?'r . . . ..; u ..T: is' :riL :._ao oe s'utr : ;,210.- - mhe-r.:Bcrrr. 1.G9 ' .: rx .7L'2c _'-o.:i1 a'ttif .. . . x. . . _ . . . ~ ~ ~y ~h fn of CaCOJ -r 0',j7 ec,•ahzre.,.rc is n' o<:ets•ics.; 1 tic :..sic _ 2 . C ~ .. . ~ . .. . . .. :~~ . ',.y~f 00'74!93~0 , ry
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~ad?rd.~~ -'i-.~resu:t. ane ..':.,„n~..in _s.i?:.-_. r..-isv: .,,~~~ _rie_ :~ •.. "C1J. i:n=' «ilLaeii tn iG0 :'q? -v .i?. .r.C?: ic'_r.e i04 0'" ,,., : an.a.' th':r+ value's;~ill bo :nse.d _n e1i :.s].ci:'.aa_oa;. h p-:roes, -° i:(y ... .:`iCLO r }'- f e~~CD' L-, _d °1i~ - _~u f w as used. TY cz_asC'te, :~ vms. ~ .T"~ tf:.l" C~Ua-rc ~=0.ihdst).OI] C: -.!1: 7.Uf.'_CC6. . ,--0L Po2=-0' conte:atcf smmkee asnlas B and 0 1- : '' - --cxa ".c......:;e ^c ~~t o-^ t-'3 Po2i0ad eres to,.nesRc're~ ='t'clcs and .rilte_ . it ,.a., t _ca;?-it~ t7:a pD2iD -1argee poresize glass °iltnr sr_d ..:- reta:c-J: -3ecause of this aru t`-~:m. -fact `iie.t $hs~s _= ter ~rcc'_:I n..-. ....ti:e: glass£i2tar d.i.sce_ded, thus '_csi ,F ~^.-L ait.._ iro`-0+ ti~-7 -r 'semvle ,..n..r-e S.O-,-,ancifll'srs~d o: L1te c=:.e r:_::=- ?etY of these ^:ere iissoZved, t^..., o= Pr,^10.. .11 .,= r+e°e oount-,don e"'•:+ciear ~-.J" , Vl,`,ridoG, CrDpD'^ti0: i2~ CCAi::t•-''.r 1.-1 E:1 ..~='1C1"v^C ^"^C^ 4i i.J1. - .H...~lv~-a 'ted . .. In orl:Li to CG ...1.^.. tfc'J b. ^n'd~.OaCt:^•1 " Oo'_Ea ...-a dae to ..4 . - '~' . . . . , . _ { .,a_:•oi aome sac:;-,.., an' acm_ o_ c- ~_..;srds. ?O210 ala!. . pcr,trs v. •or.. . . ,~ cone cr.a k'.iclcu- _-stti :12 ^_......:ei analyzer 'n ee,ju: etica 'rat9 ; . . . ' .. . . . . -an 'Jr'..BC Ci=cai:.:tiY:, 5y ~t~•"i6. Tt.e =1pns ans..-io.c of ~_o ' .8 L7^_i~~i:~3 CCr~•.., :Onl~~l~. vL .:oGel.' '~30 _. G.~ . . - . . > . . . ..... . . ~ ~t'.~,-KV :r~-. .~~vlts are _'r_o:-:n i^ , °~ . . . . . - . .. ._ . . . .. .. -o ~ . rc ,e 12021C, in aige.cttas -,;.ch t.`:c Po:or.w^i a r.:~ccn eD:a••e '. ~ . D ~ .. . . - _ .. ..~
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r . .y'~~'t f , r••?..: (b3 x .n ) ~ hritim i0.th T4n: 22, . ~6hr~ :! it ICTi W: `' [ ,A ~~~e [uziz [li~ . - . ,If~•:Gt is -'acmM,i tist Or-r:•:.on•r:r~.z~u.:~ o: . .. •, I it n+;. Lo.~ : i ...;t C.1.; r c . of .,_}i-.s . ta.vii'.;/ t'• t^.in .., ~~pc:scrn to.obt =tnic. ;ri;ch i;n2IG 4~t-.a'_'~, r.T~c tc . . _ ._., ;,. .... . . ~ ~, .... mor )r c_f~c.: c;s p,s T_va te.: y r.. •:,r nc't _ o,'_ L.. ie ~ to ~ ti~ :tn.::._-vof :['A hIIj?33 ll~& 1'. ^ ' c:.a.~ _5 _::~. Hl' I'i:. ,i1~•~ P+ 4 °'oziC and'~ l.- = tr^ 11021C. I" it~ i•?c~:~., ..-v._ 'n +r~- Lsn•!y . ::oz~ .o'so yt ..... . . .. t,i:°~.r.i= ~'. ci _e oa i.i..c t..o^pyere ,., ._.. 16• oY. .: c- •f` r
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(9) 's:i :?iL ....':i'iliJ".::s n . -.. .. ~.. .,_, . .._ . ~ . .. °..C1lv' I . f,P C3i.~ v~31.,_^f. if -J"If,~f.. .. ~ ` `•T b_.i li ~ 1'O.'rl~' rnP .._,. n° E•:. _. '.. ~~ Table i2I t u.:rva ., uf : c,:1C~ .. , .~: .- .~ rro,l-cr.. ~ ~ • .. :~.. - . :?r.J.. ... L'].. O_° -1: ~-y.,... :
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. . . ... t1r`"22 (l.;%Ff :.•r,^V :.tu' i'.oler.. _r: ir, ti,. ~~j: ~ ,.. ~~..~1 ~-`. .. . . . . rte t.!':anl'yx -il) . }~icor.-222 rieeayo Gc : i,2~C'.tn t::: . ns it d~c::.y.o .(s A, r ~;;e.2:~''a210 Eulio out c.rI tP.~: ;?a;.,.., i,ead-21C ,.., eV:;7 sp :yU21G .T.acstis allaAvin(; ;.`.a F7o21C'a.~0 r:rcvr :o eq,.v.1i'riL.,v,. ?Cleniur-2_G; otita the lGCV83o Darinp : th.y c,rri^.procc.;, 1'~...tirg ~en;/ r~,nths, ..._ through the ,teia o; t.:= to:>-cco plant~ anci/o: dy r:otif aus-c-t.L tc::zir. In.tYa_ sat o£nt_ cer_triJai~ticns of . at t:esa;ce t_r..e al]. }x_o.~:,1a a°e bresth:.^g in polo7i,.i:. _a5ioysotopaS '.w--• to tnc Uron¢isi~!7 apithelicr: t:h._ra' t~r u•.d--,.:c c..cny (1)? btxt the. &lvaoi,:,. ,.itinexi~ura. =ran •.:th..^.t -==,a_:ooytosod a.^.:= ca.`:^tc.d :th sc:oko c_•tielcn- and to 'eie,.,:cs:.te:c .;f diifusinz, Org'-1y..c.. •being volatila at t`-c .'e;:;.=:r»tnre oi a~ e':Z-retite,:o oniun in the air c.•ere cete_7.:insd. _npen:ii:; reealte. 5i'to:int of a_r filtered inarBesaZ 1.~ Ct::'ia ='+ou7_•+ lEVel c+_'. T:^_s 1w ,. a-e c:r d.-asrr. tY:_euZh~at ,_ r_cc o' L~~~_: ;.e.r s,1r_c~:e. ks t:e 3- °~cC r•.tc o.' c, ros-.:ioz .•:ou]a ~cc_~e:`acual t.. ut ~~ te cP ac- ' t= J . _ Geca :9 ra Sso en'_ :.TO,zntc° "eti'rit;' ~:a-.:i.:. .... cbta:.•.::3 a„ ..._„ sit 3&L.Len ~ ,1~cLr `..-c x'i'e J s: (yr:e t:^at al r *3r•;ies l..r -. ~. ~ ti oi~;otore~ in °..ong~ to t::oL_ of : 0~34~- -d~ 21C :n -C . i:a^c^, ..ha PU r-.CO: "ro21C t-oc ircV) h a_:.•e, oif bs::. -,•^aoa.ted :U li`J" scrYc ;n _Prl Yo`1'" zeri~a.. TY.ere rrea '_;cle . 0 c reca;% -o '.'0210 ~ ue~ lg ~~stcd b~ : .. 1U t ~ I ~n ~ ' R" '..,ir_:;5 Krti-.. 4S :•e nt ,x 1_4ed , e18 ~ + , . r `~ o o Yo szov;. up U c.ur^ t_... ..- -`• F,so it p~~aes ttro:,,~ *..a fi~t..r~ zehrl'..harefnre i:?':c P: a r.otW .a;. .. 1 f : , •a..
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4 n )f " .~ 1 I =mr~o ~,tL c,_ ~, ^eD ~ - . . . ~ . - . . . . . - . . . . ~ T: Y !' ~..... n_ =.nd ., ~ _ _?r:i.... .^. -. -..C.'.. .. ~v . . o- C.U2 ('.12 C.C3 .,.~. 0.37 ~ Ja%,4 ...._7 ~ C~ . . .C~ _...,°CiD .. - . ~) 0.25 .
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v; 8655 Clreraical'dbslracls 8656 Vol. 64, 1966 Tobacco plant alkaloids. G'. S. 11'in.(A. N. 13:rkb Inst. Bio- reduced tnoisturu stress. l..~io1d-r,ruavn Ae:dn eNlnutbo-spray eLeut. Slnxow). 1'hnrruneic 20(9l); 7_4-0(l7hifi)(Gcr). By caused iueronsccdvcl;crrtlve gru.rlb Lut dld vot :dlcr the repro. ICt'tlillg tlifulinOOC to ripellill/( plPnts uf r\"i(nlirtnrt tRhaeurn it dUrtiy[' {ItOwlh. For datCs proWtt tllldt'0 VSlrc'ntc' dVsVrt eon- nan•h11nw~n tLttt it p:trtiivp rt I in tht '\: ntetahnli.am. in rom riit.ions,. (or tuKarbeals ald for er•tpcs, maturatfon. of ILofruit' C p;lrl•.unaulh lhe other url,-tnsthrsecel w t lowrst inmirotiue enn- was prnlunyed In tru rte•d plants.. 'Phe Ie:d t(mp. of treated [cnl (.1',n nud n contrrn uf Yb;'5 prntciit);'.; the seed Ittt was not o' plants was fnereased relative'to that of control pl:mts. radinactivc. Isulata•d prutcins afrtahaccn sravl were rudioactivc,. liarold J. Perkins lheintensity bviue.dcpvndent nu the Icngtlt off exposurc.. In Effect of the glycol. oxidase inhibitor, u-hydrozy-2-pyridine- sinntltancuus fcediug nf' nicotinc and dduramphenihol radioaetiv- methanesulfonic acid, on the stonratia apparatus.. Igor Moura- ity uf the protein was reduced, apparrntly attributable to the vietL (Fac. $ni., Lyon, Frauoc),. Cantlil. Kr+rd~, 261(;.1)(Gfoupe intcrfcrcrsc with nnrmal protcin synthrsis: _ 11),. 444i J(1)u:i)(Pr). o.llydrnsy~J.pyridiucrnclhanesulfonic George M• Hocking aeid (1) (4-3 g-/1.)'.suppresscd'stom:tt:d upeniire in Lrurantherrranr -Polonium-210 analyses of vegetables, cured and uncured to- lnnrsbe iu rvaponu to.lipht, or to.lbe ahsrnre of Ct1: iuthe dark. bacco, and associated soils. I:. C. Burger, lV. H. Erhardq.and Hrnvever, Yerrrtrinn Denrnbuv~Ca was insensitive to 2-4 g: I/I., C. W• Fraucis (Univ. of Wfecmtsin, Madison)'. Srirnac 150 show'inq.aspccirsdiflrrrnceinIscnsitivity Glycolicacidadded (3i1R), I73iL9(1JIi5)(Eng).Thc cured samples of leaf tobaccoo to I prevented stomatal npcning,in these 2 species. The latter and: soils -.ulyzed xhmvcd suull quantities nf thoelcment Imt b results are ctmtrory to. findinv.s (Zclilch and Walker, Cd 61, none wasfuund in qrecn leaves. Mueksoils cuutiriued 3times 16-F:rBe)lun tobacco plants. ' BPJF' ttsmuch-103'oasdhlmint•ralsoils. Thcisotopeanditspercunsors Effects of NaCI on the sago pondweed.. James W. Teeter arenot takenn up by plant roots but rather by sorption in dead, (Utah State Univ:,.Logan). J. II-ildli(e lTanagernent 29(4), 538- . moistplantmateriidsa[the.arm.-plant.interface. 45(:19Fia)(Eng). Poluniogetdn petlinalus at several stages of- Kathryn D. i:uck growth were subjected to various NaCI solus. and plant gnowthFactors affecting the levels of nitrate nitrogen in cured tobacco-and reproduction werrstudied. Tnp water treatment produced leaves. G. M. 13'roaddus, J. E. 1-ork„ Jr., and J. M. Muscley tnax. vegctative growth and seed production. NaCI (9000 (Am. Tobacco Cn.,. Richmond, Va.), Tobacro .SCi. 9,. 149-57 ppm.) completelyinhibited' the growth of 1-week-old plants. (19fi5)(F.ng). Using a raptd.and precise method fnr NO,-dctn.. Plants 4-8 weeks of age could produce new growth in 12 0D0 in cured tobacco loaves, a widc variety of'tobacco types were sur- ppm., but 1u:000', ppm. NuCI reduced growth completely and ' veyed, e.g. fl.uc-eured (from various sources), burley, Colombia, proved fatal' to utatryplants. Tap natartrcatmerrt pr.nhrccd Greece, cigar tobaccos, etc. The wide variation oil 10.7 amongo the max. sccd gcrminatinn and 3000 ppm. NaCi rcduecdgermi- and within tobacco types appearstoresult primarily fromen- natiomby 50 s. At 15,000ppm., NaCl inhibited germination, virunmental influences,. esp. the availability ob fertilizer N.. but a 15';c germination could beubtained if the seeds were placed . NOy- appears to be the principal source of oxides of' N in thee in tap tvater following the NaCI trcatmentl for 2`J days. smoke, but the.content of NOt- does not appear to have a domi- Herman S. Grnninger, Jr. nant influence upon smoking quality. A. M. Gottscho - Quantitative microchemical method for, determining sodium The composition of cigaret smoke. XV. Phytyt esters from chloride injury to piants. L. K. Thomas, Jn H.S. Safl. Park. Turkish tobacco smoke. Alan Rudgman and Laurence C. Cook Serv., Sci. Xevts. \o. 3,?3-32(19U5)(Eng). Roots, lerves,, and (R• J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., \Finston-Salcm, N. Car.). To- soil samples of' Sentucky blbc3rass (PooG prulensis) were analyzed baccaSc4.9, 158-G5(:1005)(Eng): ef. C.1 64, 3980b. Snroke con- for Cl - with 5% AgNO, Samples tchich shmred excessive ppt. -densate from 47,200 Turkish tobacco cigarets was fractionated', formation. compared tnthe conthols,srerrconsidered. Cl- pos. by liquid-liquid partition, crystn., and column cllromatographyd Uniform leaf andd root segments were treated with a drop of' , to yield a colorless oil' (0.6g.) avheae ir spv-ctrum indicated an AgNOr and; observed under a microscope. CI'- contentl was unsatd. ester (I).Sapon. of I yielde& phytol (II) and an acid', detd. also by squeezing the leaf and root contents into Ag\Oa. C fraction (III) III d•as treated with CH.N. to yield a Me ester For soil C1- detn.,.thrsmllwarshaken witF 30 ml. of H,O and fraetiom(IV) which was studied beforeand after catalytic tlydrtr a 3-mI. aliquot of the elcar supernatant was analyzed.. Esamn• genatiutt by eolumn chromatography, vapor phase chromatog--of tlle roots, by SquCeZingl out the coLteurs gave better resul6 raphy, and mass cpectrometry. Indicated aspresent in IV were than direct testiiegpf the segments. Ecamn. of tite leaf'segments Me esters of satd. Cu-n acids; of monounsatd. C,,, and Crs or their contents was unsatisfartory due to rapid blackening of' acids; of a diunsatd. Cis,acid; of a triunsatd. Cu, Cu„Cte. and the leaves with Ag:COv andd due to chlorophyll interference. Cra acids; plus Me esters of others probably brancli-chainedPrelim ary study of 7 unhealthy scals mdicated that the soil in - acids. The ratiq of satd. to unsatd. acids in IIR was apprnx..2:1. all~cascs, and [issues irv~ cascs aa^crc CI- pos.No corrclation be- . A. M. Gottszho e tween tissue CI- content and plasnolysis of the leaves was Incorpo[ation of two,radioactive amino acids into the nudein observed. The CU-eontent of the soil and roots lndividually, in acid fractions in tobacco leaves infected with tobacco mosaio30dcad sods„and 20 control sods did not lead to cancrctc conclu- virus. Akiyo Shigematstt (Qapan Anti-Tuberc. :lssac:, Tokyo),, sinns. Definitc information .ras obtained when the soil and, root Tosltina Mizusatva,, and TokuzoHirai. Viralogy 28(2), 330-7 Cl- content were taken together for comparison. Of the. 30 . (19G6)(Eng), Tlre incorporation~ of aspartic?l/' acidd and glu- dead sods, 28 were Cl-pos- and in the ^-0 controls onh"'2 were tamic-14C acid'inlothe nucleic acid fractions of' tobacco Ieaves-pos. No difference im the Cl~ content of; roots and! soil of the uninfretcd and infected with tobacco mnsaic virus (TM\')Iwas J~nadand'uuhealthysudsarasobscrvrd'. T. N. Pa[ta6iraman dctd. through a short incubation period. R~AextdA with phe-/ nol' front TMC-infccted.lcaves was sepd. by passage throtlqh { Filter for tobacco smoke. Raoul J. JI. Y. G. Flamand. Belg. methylated albumin column, into 4 S, 17 5', 19 S, 23 S, and'28 S 647,803. Nov. 12, 1964, Appl. Dlay 12, 1964; 7 pp. A filter componcnts. The sRNA, D\:\, and RNA of ritiosrmtcs were 1 fUr'rentovittgthe uudueir•tble cmnponcnls of enlokeii claimed. . sepd. from the tnixt, inn siru•,le ru startiug with.lbw sult conen- In a plhstie tube capped with covers having entrance holes is :Cnncns_nf the sl2Nal andof the17~ SRN.\, as dhtd. bpabsorb- placed a cellulnse plr.c.,.vith.pores 100 n in diam., a bed of aeti- :.anee at 260 rny, were increased markedly by infeetinn. In this vatcd charmal, a erllnlbse plug, avith poros 100 µ in diam., a c:we,'H tvas incorporated mostiyinto 17 S12N,a, bnt alsqi'nto mi.ed bcd of anionic und cationic polystyrunc resin, and acellu- ` the other RN-k to a Iesscr extent. Clutamic!'C acid was incor- lose pluCc witlt pores 50 p in diam. Thc cellulose plur;s remove poratc& mainly into the sRNPA andl the ribosomal'R2iA' in-eolloidal partielcs, the activated C rcmovcs hydrocarbons and hcalthy Icaves. lu infcetedliaves "C radioactivity was found', other undesirable constituents, and the resin bcd removes nadio- mainly in thesRN:Y and less itethe other RNA. In both healthyaceivr dcmcnts includiiog Po and I'b. One cartridge is sullicicnt I' d didf glutamic C arid into ribo f 21Y5it 10iill 6i dyii3f tb anscasc leaves incorporation o--or cgarcs, cgaros, cgars, urp ooacco.. sotnal RNA as.rs markcdly supprrssud if actinumyoin D wasiaken . S. O. Jones up simultancously.. Ilowcvcr, incorpor.ttion.into sRNA was in- hibit,d less by aclinoutycin.. Rlnsticidin S had no inhibitoryG See also: Plant-Grnteth Rcgulaturs, Sectinn 71. Ferliliz cliaVt oil tLu mctaboliynr.nL RN:\ uo hcalthy leavcs. \Vhcn ap- Soils, an.l Phutt Nutrition; Buctlun 73. 1'ulyosYphrnols of plied to'1'ill\'-iufected leaves it crmauecdthc ineorporation of western red eedar (Tltuja plicaCt)-etructntre uf plicatic acid glutnnti,-OL' acid iirtn the ribnsmmb l itNA, revr:rsiug4he supprtss- (Gordner) 36. 1'aper and thin-lub•+'r ehnumalucerphyof alk:rlords inec[Scct of TMV inh•ction. 1(C\"K front roots ofJnteorbi:.a. palnmlh('Cic.zyn.ki) 56. Ilhyluchcm. Antitranspirantss as a research tool for the.studyof the effects - study of ,1'nrdntmia lnrcieutu (Glizin):5o. Iulruerllular distribu- of water slress on plant behavior. JGI, -md\ 1 hljnkod- tiuuof rtb nuN a.e aclt tty in pea r e t. (1 yud n) 56. .Sgnrose ! Iltrybtr(10.6retaUuic.Juu.'dopt) Lr!%aoreXet.rrr/i25, andagaropteltnmLelidirri..ndPrrrilirir,gr(L.uehrva)56d l>Iq. I(ItIGi)11u1). \Vh u't r ipniymtr di'ptr,mn uf tcrtatc AulhnaglYao.idt- d vmut hinrres lr ns ( 1L,nt) Sti SlaM1dd. aeryl tlv t b rs w n.'pr rY d(I j t rtal st hds) uu la tvt v d urtton a1L Ilmd.tlYu t lu-st rr ldi dA.dol I I,lyr .W a ntr nt r f SnlLukm sta,rr h r l. b u",,,uul Ir llnat thc nl m tl tOf lr..tl ! t I tnlv rc dr lrn•rrnr r ( .lt s n',r) 56 7 ly *u-c'h ui I.' f'u ...... l Ilnw rr- muiuedh npcn tudrr und'fur h m:vr. prnods th.tu did tlit .v „f <an- h strncuu.. alhciduti11n by' cbrm. nath„rls. _osulu by p, nn,btto-- trol pLott•. •1n-ttvd plauls 1ha'd iuof t--'drelatrvv luraidily levtylaflrrn ,tnd unlhylatnru (J.tmek j 56. 1'h in ce euhuUtnees -1•hcvt restdts.m.ty t spLrin tha rncrruz, I 1 h b-wnll . b.'~rvr I tusic ero funeus bwhulrlta wrr il I.rvrs, uf IP r.. hrurHlrnsit tnrMCUriuItr.tthd1/6uun I:ap'ndilurt.ifll-Ilbylr'nvd.heau (1'i f:ari)62 Ium:u ,flu.inv.bycllntaaltftwhusl'rrptl!• plants av:ts i8f.,, Icss [hwt th.tt uf ruutnd, 'Che gl rwlLlutd tle- llrrnl ddAfile. (Aruail uiiwv)' 62, Ihslribulirm ofS in p:r.uera• velnpmcnl nf lrvatvd pl-tula iu the IiJ/I wn+ suclt ts to suggtst vegcl•tlii u, fuddeq. nnd budy nf. slitcp(liruwkuv) 64. Spveilie 1 V• ad (G :111 eN` nn m: rcs of Se ('.P pa at: of cn 113 It4 ra•, fu di: co te: inz (E in+ be pr Qtl ba (C (1' wt ba In m: pc' us an in: M 24
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I , RQ U-238 SERIES , Th-2 32 SF RIES~ U-235 SEr~IE~ ---,-----,----~--G-_.._~ -r---r----~- I ... ... ~_ . _1_..__-~ .~.--- -; i I ~- 1 -,,- ?0 22~~ { ~~ -i - F'n•219 ~5.9as ~ 1 f l ..1-- f'J~iJ' LSa~i6 , .~--- I ;621i ; I 3eti.~ ~ ' .t:. . -. _ + \ ) ~ t jT• I ~ (1 ~.lJrd: i . . J , I I
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(2t). Calcularea dozei-debit in organul critic se face cu ajutorul relatiilor de mai jos-(23) :-: - : .. . .. - ~ ~D(rad)zl)•Iw.•_`EF('r. w •~ D= J1o e' x dt (rad) D(rad'zi) = doza debit data dc L10-"Ci ; - . fw= frac(iunca din activitatea incorporata care ajunge in organul critic . (activitatea) 1{S n rr m v s H p z /1 0 o ro dd dy a dI adsasr I p 7 J1'~~ 37 ~ y~.^x a . .a a j•s'~ ~ srId y tTvPp'lu'msron'~°Pd'nrfiMaiJwi. t.ufin~ I Ce' r'0Po p DO9'ie aarmvw/wrun. , i , . F;g. l. - Continutul dc r1aPo 6i 21"Pb tn organismul uman. . _ EF = energia efcctivi a radia(iei ]a o dezintegrare : . . - T = perioada efectiva in organ ; - . ' - W = greutatea.organului critic; - . ~t= timp dupa contaminare Si To supravietuirea organismului in zile. , Pentru 1.10-° Ci se calcu)eaza urm3toarele valori:' 1.10-6 Ci produce 3,7•10r dezinlegrari/see. I MeV = 1,602.10~ crg. . - t1 rad = 100 crg!g (esut. 8;64.10' = numaiul secundelor dint,r-o zi. - Deci, doza-debit in organul cc contine 1.10-4 Ci va fi calculati : . 3,7•104 •1,0-10-y•A0-r-8,69-10M•YEF -- IEF l. D (rad/zi) = 51,15 = w w r poza in organul critic dupa incorporarca a 1.10-8 Ci va-fi' data dc o rclajie mai complet"a, in care se cuprinde si doza-debit de mai sus : r r gw.SEF T~ o.amt 1w•T'•ECF t. DQuCi)=al la - dt 7381 /1 -0 °°' l d , ~ e = -e • z x• ra w o ' W Astfel,, de exemplu in os, EF pentru =10Pb si produpii de filiatie, are valuarca 29,.iar pentru ""Po arc valoarca de 280 (29); dozele Ia o incor- O C ~ purare unica ob(inute penlru 1.10~ Ci vor fi urmitoarele : 471 w CR ' M+ 1 I r ~ --- ---
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'k ~il',.1,'. IGIENA vol. XVIII, nr. B, anul 1969 C i1 Continutul de '-10Po in diferite sorturi do Yigari , Gb. Furaicl, Maria Toader . . ~ Institutul de lgien8, Bucure7ti ' \umernase eercetari efeetuate in ultimul timp au scos in evirlenlz pre:enta md:- zilur ^3OPo 6i "°Pb In tutun 51 dn fltmnli de lig5ni (1-i). Cu arcastiocazic s-a-determinat un ron(inut supcrior dc sr"Po in orFansmul fum9lonilor, comparativ cvi cel al aefuma- torilor (3-17). Unii cercet-atori IcagS nreste rezultate de incidenla crrscutaQ a cazurilor de eancerla (umatori (I6). CalcuHndu-se dozde dee iradicre in canalde-haversicne din ns rcali:ntc dc vitrc continutul radioactiv natural (dc cxrmplu ; 0,034 .pCi 0°P6 sau s1OPo,'g os), 5-au g3sie ~alari de 1a,8 mrcmlan (1(f. 17.).. Comparaliv su doza dali de continulul natural de r`rRa (5,4 mrcrn:an) sau sBRa (3;6 mrem/an), doza rcalizati de r5tre s-"Poo este de aproximativ 2-3 ori ma.i mare. (5). ~ - Exparienlele efectuate cu o,.mab`.n3 de dumat" aupe:mis s5 se stabimleascS citeva date reftri<oarc la continulid de Po qi Pb radioactiv existent in fmnul de jigatA(1. 4). Asefel, in fumul de tigare inhalat ae deter:nini in raport cu lusunul are, 22-30^/e r`°Po: $f 10-_0s/a n^Pb. Prezenla filtruluiIu tigara reduce eu. 60°lo cantitatea inhaiati de radionudid, retinfnd. -in porii sai 10-30°l° din radiuaclivitatc. Prin analize sislcma- tioe s-au gisir 30-50"!r Pa ji Pb in cenus,a dc tigaril ii ^_0-i0°/e iq Qumu7 secundar neinl.al at. ' P.ezullalere publicate in ullimii 3 ani'i in str6in5ate, ne-a obligatt sa detenninim cnntintutul de S10Po 6i in divcrsc sorlurP dc tig3ni romanc}ti. Accasta [u scopul unci juste aprecieri a lpeti<olulul pracaului dc e..ntaminare a aeruluiprin volatilizaacs Po din tutunua de ligara ara la lempcratura aproximalio5 dc 900-SOOo. . 1•1ETODA $1 MATF_RIAL S-au utirirat cite 20 g tutun din di.crse tig3ri de pe y'saia (tabcl), care au (avt mineralizale separat,, pe cale umcd-a, co HNO, concentrat si apoi HC1O.. Dupb alte prelur9ri chimicq s-a dopus Po pe disruri de \i (d9-ZY). Discurile au Oost mSsurale rdiometric In un conlor proportional cu circulatie de gaz metan, tip F.F15I cu 0 dicicnt3 de 4501. 6i un fond de 0,38-0,51 inrpu~suriimin. Scnsibiliialea dc dolernsiaate . n a lost dc 0,23 pCi iroPa/probL REZULTATE Rezultatdc vbtinute ji prezcntale in tabel anta ezistenia unui' con¢inut variahi[ de P1OPo in rtulunul-tigarilor rom3noyti, osclind inlre 0.04 yi. 0rS pCi/g tutua. Din analiza acrstor rrsultate se remarc5'5 faptul ci im lutunul tiga"ridor Select se R+ceyte o cantitatc rdativ micfi (0,032 pCi'g), inn timp cc in tutuuud {igSrilor ~.'vfira- Is~;i continutul in paloniu eali7 aproxiinativ de 7 ori mai mare (0,247pCi/g). 469
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Ana dnm 7.mlral-Riinf.~rn-Tn~aiti,6rles Kni..o.r-Franz-Joveph-Spitstla iu \\'icn . (Yorstand:Pritn.. Dr. Dr:Gxon¢ }'tmns)~ . . Zur Frabe der Straltlencinwirlcung in der P,utlrugHncse tles. d3ronchiallcarzinorns. Von G. Pucsss fangs des 16: Jahrlnmdcrts crw.lhntc sic Anuccor..c in ciucrSchrift ur: vos Hoctt:N-nEm rvdrd die Schneebergcr I3crgmmmakranlchcit be+c.hricben,.:ut- 13el:nnntliclt svurdon radiogcnrLnngcntumoncn achon lange vor der P:iddcclatn~,;, der ioni.ierenden Strahlnn b,col3achtot. Scbon, in dcm Scbriftcro tles 1'+rc.tcLtstrs dcutung zulcommen diirfte. bisber angpnomtnen wnrdu. l)cnu ,cMbrond " vorr wcuigcu Jahrcn tlcrr _lu.it•hcin batte, alsob ionisicrcaidc SttalIlen nur die iingehiiriacn cinm' rcdntiv Iauiunn IIerufsgruPpe gefSlrrden.riiiden, liaben ncucre,nnch mc.nigcr UrL•:uunte Ftnschwr- gen gezeigt•, daf3 den leanzerogcueu Strnldouoiutvirlcungen cine vicl grei93ore 13e- biolegic zu dicscr Frngc ciircn wesentlich grSlScrcu Beitrag zu lcintcn hati, a1n6 diesem Gebiete nmien Auftrieb gegelicn. Andrarseita scheint es, rlnitdia Ylrnhlrn- imnmrcmbetricdigcudcn Tltcrayieer<acbuiseahaben der Ursaclicnfor.ehunttauf Das rnscltc Amvachsendcr lirlcrmnl:nnocn an T3roncbiall.arr.inomcn uud din uocl'i nrEt':wi.ie.i . 2u dre=crZctt.,vurdc rnSchnccbcrg btlbtr mbecbaut,, dcn 11 crt dv.; ~ Urens,knantc Nan noelr niclut. Hsnrr~Nc uud HrSSn (IK70) kuunmt dus Vcrdu ust - •• di lu t:h l li i d l r l l t Ii b d h I i6 zu, e au c a s arz nom rr amgon.u.u ze er ..um zu a cu, or wnu- r r, A.nc,l, a;r d;n 7Tranrhn Anrenn,nn nirhr.lnelafolln:,, „nu.rdc nnrl, rlrr L:nr,lrrl:,uu. flomcID.uuf elas lufinlicreu von I3nduugn.s rwtd radinnl:Livrm (;rslaiust:uHb boruLt, . noch ein Z"cifcl bcstnud, dnf3 dns gchiiiifte 1"orkonmrcu von 13ronrllinll;arri- lero Leben=dnucr ergab sich ztt nur 4'3JaLrcn ge~cniiGcr cineur Ilurrblclluil t cun 59 Jahroir hci deniibri-~,cn )?imcohncrn, tCritirro llitteituu~~rt t~rtt folp;{rtr dluut rnu'ISr:uTrr, und R'or.nu[cn~.. Nnchdcm von Idiuit+rhrr-und patholofr,ivclic•r tioile kaum an den Bcrgarbcitern in 4tS,1%~ dee_lutol.acn l.un~Zenlc:u'zinonte ftutd. llirc mitt-~ gefunden wttrde. Alnilichr Bihmdc li, onm anch aus .ionchimxtiml cor, wo 1.iiitl' votl Schncrbersy dic nicltt' im Bcrgli;ta t:itig • wnw•n, kcin aineigor l.un,rnlunior . Berg;trtlcitrrn 62% Lungonl.anzinorno gt•fundcn,. u':fbtn•nd hci 36? 1•antmlim'ru hnlicrtem radionl.tivcm S•loffc. hvnvi+rbru~ haltc Sc:umonr. Lri 1:1i SehnrrbrrI' t'r alaticen Lloutente und invbrznndr['c dnv R.adnn, rlnmuln noch R.ndiunrrm:wntirnv genanut,entdcelamnrden,hiinftcn xirh dic l;ruci~c fiir diclatu"nlnli"dlc drr in- nfr 1l.nmonl:nvltatmoglten,enntle. r6rrit ats nm cUC dnflrmmMcrt,rcunn tltc ratw,- fole c die Bcstat.igtucg durch das Ticrecperiwcntl. Ilom:cl. (1937) . brarlElc'1-ioro li in die SchncebergerGrnbcu und bonl.nchtate nuc•hboi-dicsendnn.auflrrten vun 0 . ('I , i.u.,.,r,,,f,.. rz..,,„-"1.- c„l,,,,,,a .~,,,,l lei.,..,,1 rrncet t,l.t,. Q m \Iittcihmgen sohon zunt I:Inssikchrn Bc+lnud tlrr Kn'lL.,for:cliun{t ziihita. Aiiirfte weniscr beluurnt icein, dnlStlns gleiclte Prolilcut unch dtnu Endn tlr, %srilou W KreVs0.rr-L ~ rat,i,.,C I v R:CrIV~rF 'kiMkk voL.~.o 19L.5 7herrt-• -11 rc;:r.rit:rcd in thi# c, 0 ( y c,',7y- o 13rgebnis dtmdt L•'iuatmrnlasr;cu eom Hadum nrvirlcn Icumdcn. l5°+il,roudW dicav
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DISCU77I Continutul variabil de. "10Po in diverse. sorturi dc (igari se poate explica printre altele Si prin operatille de prelucrare la care este supus tutunul. Astfcl se pare ca tutunul din tigarile Select este innobilat Si pir- tial denicotinizat; in timp cc tutunul din tigarile Mariiye;ti nu este pre- lucrat $i innobilat. Tobrtul ! Conpuutul de Po'10 to 1lpirlle romine7tl c,UtateatidnlI Euea el.bv l.ta.ta) I'AHhltalw mSImLL I Imafm If AcLlrltats ukv4tl Ma/r SunB etal°n 't'Am -3,12 •10' 1 -41 -10' 45.1%. Surs>r etalon d.p.m. avPu - 46d.p.m. 20,5 45,2 ao Mbrbqe{ti 933 g . - 20 x 0 4,6+0,4 242f0,00 0 0,054 Carpati , 20 x 0,93 g ' 1,i2t0,7 , 0,OgIa+0;07 0,062 . Select 20x0,93 g 0.6f0.1 0,032f0,04'. 0,342 Virginia 20x0,81O g 2,i1.-L0,21 0,102i0;013 0,660 Slnaia 20x0,810 g ' 2,41±0,21 0,148f0,0t3 0,060 k ` Prezenla acestor cantita(i de ""Po atrage dupa sine un proces de cantaminare a aerului inhalat de catre fumatvri, dar pi a aerului inhalat de catre eelelalte pcrsoane prezente Si nefumatoare. Consumul zilnic a"0 de tigari Mar35e5ti fara filtru determina volatilizarea a 1,78 pCi S10Po: In plaminul fumatorului patrund zilnic 0,89 pCi "-'°Po, iar in aerul din vecinatate se vor raspindi0,3rJ pCi "1OPo. Aproxitnativ 0,49 pCi ramia in cenusa de (igara (scrumul). Contaminarea umana si distributia 210Po $i =10Pb la fumatori gi nefum"atori a fost studiata dee numero;i cercctatori. Un rezumat al rezul- tatelor obtinute in acest sens este dat in figura 1. . Conform normclor republicane de protectia muncii, in pla"min se pot depozita maximum. (C:M.P.) 15 nCi, ceca cc sr realizeaza numai dupi aproximativ 40 drc ani de consum zilnic a 20 de tigiri Marage$ti, insi fara a avea locmetabolizarea 210Po depus in plalnin. Intrucit poloniul este metabolizat in organismul viu, acest dcpozit radioactiv se r5spindeste in intregul organism 5i apoi este climinat.. TotuSi,: in conditiile mentionate nu este de ignorat procesul dc contaminare radioactiva prin fumul de tigara,, intmucit =10Po inhalat ridici valoarea fondului de iradicre naturala al organismului, dupi cum vom vedea in continuare. Rczul'tatele determinarilor din prezenta lucrare sint apropiate cuceleu comunicate, dr exemplu in S.U.A. (1, 4), unde s-a gasit un continut . mediu de 0,2 pCi ='°Po/g tutun, adici 0,-4.10-1°g ='°Po. In aceste conditii s-a calculat pentru un fumator a 40 de tigari zilnice o iradiere a plaminilor de 73 mrem,/an (1, 4) sau la 25 de ani de fumat continuu se poate deter- mina o iradicre de 165 rem (Il). Doza mentionata nu trebuic neg]ijata, intrucit statistic s-a constatat ca la 10-15°/n din cazuri se pot genera forme maligne. De exemplu s-a constatat la on continut corporal de 1-10.10-o Ci ='6Ra ca 34°/° din persoanele contaminate contracteaza leziuni maligne 470 00'?'4 g350 i [ l 1
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A. KRATOCFIbPlL ~ l:elnnihn•. . . . . _ . ' li~rr¢ Ic. ll.: 11n,,.Krvl:pr'+I,G'm• t..lull.•..lsrrlin 1!IG:S.-Iie•nrr,L A. unfl R'oLUr•ten A.: l.rllr. 1arI~:I~~i:.~L., al. ioq (/Eliil )-- I~arR= 1:.: RtrnLlhuschi{drn tutd 6trahlemchuti .rl.n.hriLrlt Sr..SfL 1\'i~u I!I6:6 -Frr'uxU. uuJltlui<n~reu.L: \'nrtra' nuErlnr Ip.97:..,nng dcr i4rlrrrni1 liik'~hru. IlilnlSrn~r.rIJ,.h:dL S:l ttlour;t 1:1GJ. - H1urH~Y.. \V.:..\tumJccnuanoteiu .L a1uL11'I:w)" - 1•iiKN .1.: )Irdl Klivil:. _:•, 6tl (I'1"f).--It_ruFUr.n LL m:rl'.F(bs~n V.: ~cicnce 143:2~17117411., - It~t.n;e~,ih' IR.. tii•ulcnnu .1. tmqlhsllLac lL: Yuturtria+.8i, 17~: I19'J)'.- . Itu.viv'di:i IJ.. tisirriw I•:. uuJ Kbu.wSiu.lli: %arIir. IitrLa(un.rh. 2'3; 31i0 ('d9?G): __'ScmaGU A.: V"ol'i1rng :wf drm hudluquiuutii6or rnJiimlatii'c !"trlikn]- ISad S,-lucal6uch J>Zn!1.-So]utt'.n- - lna u:rs h-: V"nrlr:rrv:uddrn: Gulluyuiun: ilL.r r:,di,:al.ti.r- I'a.4lcel, ID:rd:Hc]nralLach 19=iJ.-- . Sru•un.K.l1'..iltin'nu:a9r-wulAt.cs,tsnvr•11iL-w:c1-llt;tAf(111s])~-TsoT.C.,ifwct.- nY.x \.':1. uud .1i,taesuttu I.. •I'.: tit~irurr 146 . 116f]i (1U6~t).. , . _., Au..d¢r 11. l•uivar.-itiits-Frnw•nldinil: iu.\Cian (\"ur..thn'1: I'roL Ilh'. A. 11't'.ua.rctc). Tlterapeutisclle Ergehnisse Leirn primSlretr Karzinotn der Vttbiute Vinr A. la.t•r'nm.,R 'f.l.oel, dbr .r~rlic;;audon '/.u,amnlcm+lcllt,ng ' ist ca, das cigctlc Material kritisch zu prfifbn un'I nus den TilgeLui,rn Hiclttlinien fiir dase n"citcre therapentinchc ~un)'rLtu zui;;rn-iuncts. In drr %cit ron 1034 6is 1'J:iti, e-lanf,cten_ twclu :Cuseltcidnng der sclumdcren Fnrr.ilvewc nnd jonet' Ii:u'ziuunlc, bvi dcucu.,ich tuchl nichcrfcatstcllr•n lia8, ol, d:i, ltiarzintnrn caudcr Scheidc odor der I'ortio ausEcgauaen aear, nur 51 eindeutig primiirv Ic:rziuomc der \':rRinn zur RcoLac•htnng, I)ics sind 2,3% Rllar in dicsem %eilr:nunhcobnc•htetc•n Cc•nitalknrrinotne. IDiesc erolle Seltenhcit derprim3ecn Srlit•ideular6~c sr.ird nor•h lceilicr untrr.,trichrn„ cr•euu man..nurdiein diesern 'Leitruuut LeuL:tc•htctmt Zerviiknrzinomc Lcriiclcsic•hli~,M1, dcnn auf 5DKarziomo der%orcic cttlliillt uur eiu SelteideulcreLs. . . " AlsN ur:iichliolto Fulctoren fiir dic lilutsteluutg von Scheidculcnrzinomen werden h;infi'„ Srliciilenprulap:c, 1)rockge;chlriire von I"ossaren unrl hHnfi~r, GeLRrten an~-,efilLrl- T3ci Jor Duru6cieht rlcrAnnrnnr,ennncL dicsnn Tierkmnlrn leonntett wirnnr Irr•i je.ciner Paticntin ciurn jahrel:tnh bcratehendal Sclleidenprolap; bzw. a'iu u•it' .Dahrrq bcsteheudu, liohuuu;;s--rscltlviiF mit, dem Auftreten des liarzi- noms in Itmi.<:llcn '/.usamntcnhane hriuecn. llic durehschnittlichc GeLurtena.ahl cutspraclt mit 3,5 Gabortcn der Norm. . 1&•ider AllvrsverLeiluR„ des Sc6eirlcul<arziuoms lirll sic6 ein 1-Tiiufloicoi(s-gipfol int 5. 7~ Lehcn.~dozcRnium erlunucn. 1)ie• jiing.tc Ynticntin war311, die iiltestc 44 d:dtrc nlt. . 7n -iil „ ........................ I1 „ iill--ti'•) „ ....................... 2' ., ao r!t „ .................... .. 34 50-5!t• „ • ..................... 22 11 •111-I!1 " ,• .... • ............ ..... 12 Aflrf'nt•rtirilirng ' " 31/-311 •1'~ahrr.. ....................... 3 Paticutinncn
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:nr;,~tnourniru• . I:rlt r~:ntf r:nri cri-,.,liirrlrnnti 11r,_ru in dir . `I-:rhnl:plihuizo -Frd:ri„1. 6ftl%nurI rtar urnl Ili~~'rl.. G.itr•.r-~~it. n~.l,mr•u i!4r~ \\:'nrr.r.lu ,L~r I'fl:rnzc ;w.rrdrr I•a'rlte d:w I:Icii~rdrrlr 't"l'6 :rirf. ritrr~u ':-tilralil~y-, dr~r itlu~r 2191 iu -to1'n ~'rrn:curlr•IL :\wlrr•r~~•tIS uclitnvu rlir I.Ilittr-l' :ut, rIr.r alurv~-!rh:i- '.-ri+chru I.ufi ILuI,ru auP, drnrh dr~;;t-rn %"rfulI iiI-n' I.u .\, l::t I,'_II•ir:ltl:, ll, olnl'w cutalrl'd. I:cii rlrr 'follrlmrulr:r di~r 6runnrurllat rllcn .liu/ I,i+ IiI/bY' U, Vrrl'IiiiV IiIII Jl ,ir:Ii rl'n,'I li,lroninni. utni kl.•in.tr. -I'eilr~Iu~tt dr'.<r.1:7„~rr .r-tir~n siclf hnint Lulivlirrcn rlr~ I:aur•In-, :tnr 19nnw~!iial-pitLrd ti-_t. \:u•h Juu herrc•b- , nnu;;rn [an It.euruttu uud IlrN•lr Ic:uui ,riutr z-~GtttlrLuuq 16i•i our,.iv :urL•F trnm- meurn I:nrr:.inu t:uu :; I'ii:r~keLeu %i':;nrr.t':tru, luln l;r,•im 16+ude von !3 •l:tirn~iuni . BrnncliiulrpitLrl cinu f)u.+i: hi.k zu Irturu:p•uu LmrirN -n. .UM6tig; i,t Wr:;rr 11'ert ' urn,t.ritheu, da:utdrno .luoriren (S-ratt t:l.. PLrt~r.iveV nuJ .\t.t:'sasD cal:rine r•u.:r.; ,y;eringen:: Uoai. crrre6neten. I't•t'rotnliblr IVfi~n~t rlircr.r!u:fundctuc 1'„I,mii+rokrtn- . autlinIfinu ;utrir cuu cl1-n I.c,chaffc•nLt-il rler 19rurlru= nb, nuf tndr.-liotn dir G:6,11c. . pfl:utro.ttiii•It-t,.ttorluf Tstl ntd \litnrln-iti:c ftiu_c::ir-r•n Intbctr. CIIUor lilrt'iii•k- siclNiounri ck'r suhtnn r;oik IntnorM bclcannncu ,c~hiicllic-licu 11-irknugcu knnu'rn- '.gc•ncr Knhlr•ual~ar;sen.,lF,ffu itu'!'Nhnkrauwh ~~irtf utatr tculil anurhnteu miL xrn, ;6tLt dic. v.-Slrahhutg ,dc,'1'uluuitun', inrl3iuuc cinouticnknrzinugunts<c (K. If. P•.u't'c) '... w~irksam, ht. - Somit v'crcci+on 'I~unrinanrlv.r uualrltiirwi,r l:nlvesneGun,,rn uun flrn r'cr,eho ~ tleusteu Suitcm Rer nutdfio $rrichmiton zvi,uht•n dc•r uouru lint,cle:klnnq, dr~r ..~ Strnhlcubinlugic ntul der Prr,ftltylane ciosBrour•hinll:urziuom'. ~ Schliclilieit K•i nucL dlie~nalVelicgeutdu PraYc ge,uwiff,. oir :tuclt.~thcrnlruni`r~Irc Bostrtlhdnuwn der Limga tm mtllpnvn \ruLidriuntcn ffiLt'cn: kiiuu;vtr. Uirm•- Fragn kuntt nllerdiuq,, ~uu:olrl aufl'drruurl der ei'n=chliigirr•n FitclilLtc-r,rtttr t!ic :otf: tlerBsseis ciaener lirfu.lmturgm} verneiitt tcenkn. So w-un.h•u con Pretu uwl HoFBavsuia Putientennnit I'nennwnien Qie~e,,r•n _\utibit~tiea rcfraktatriraren, . rpntgenbentrahlt,a und 1}ei l;einern, der:elLnnist spatlcr cin maligncr Lun«ennunr:r nufgc•trcten. f)icsu lurPalmtmgen bereah0pn cuts zu deen: Schtufi, dM bai korrukterBcstraldung.tcclutil: tmtl Do,,ictnmoruit tlir,ur Gi•f:ihr, obuohl =ie thcor~-ti+t~l: denlclanr .viirr, in der Pcaxiv niFht rurcchnet mcrden rnull-. • . - Strhnn vcit:Innguan i-t Lclcannt, dn13: dnrclt dua T'.o6nlicren von Rndnngns tnul rn8inaet.iven titaulLteilahrn irni Ft;utberglrcut Broncliusknrziunuru vcrurznclrt :Nt•crdcm komteu. Wr.tlrrud diu;o Gefalrr aber nut cincun begrcnzt'en Petsonrnkrcix - Lcccltriiulct: ikl, Ihcw'irlcun die bci den :Ttomrtestis entstchcuden „hci6on TCilcltt•n" - oinc aClgcntciuc Clc•f:fhrdmtg~ . Pi•r \nybrttis v-un Pulunitnn 210 iut'fnbakt-;ouclr ~ ' lmtceist tliu Rolle der i.adionktivit:it auc16 bci clrr T::ntstehmt^der Brone-ltia- '..knrziunntu der P,aucltcr. `IILe nrductnun of }.ruuehirtl'enucer by radon and radionetir riusG in uruninm mir.era is rnrn- `nisedsince a long timu. 11'.ltilc tbiv thnn, is restricrtcd to a 1Bnited number off porymns ,.Lot grsins" frall tlu6mr t•Xplosiiins emixGitutrn more generalTlm }rrescnm of poluniutn ' tll iu tubaceo amrdm rc:-vnla the ituvulvcmr..t of rsdianotivitly ulxu inclrr. Patho~Fr•nn4ie uP bronchial euucrr in nuwl:rn. . . .
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J.S 11'rltla'ir-•~,. inn %u.:numruhiur,r 'ilil rlrr v vlt" •ituu ~ur6r mrr-h Ilr:ur r1wuerlirL aqfl:inudLfr. Sueb der P:rddorltuur drr hr-niaurh uit_dr. I. rnn+ rrur dicnr:e zu oiuonr tiir' Itliri~n I:oh.luft :;oicordr•n GtuliauCilmn IluLrlnnuld d,....ltuurnK'- uarru n. IS. alliin anfl Jrnn t'ulr,r;idr:.l'Lilir-au nirlit woniL,r:r ala :3.lti t-r:tunrnh,•u im I3olldlr,. iitdrm~n oft. r,liuelu•nninL: und nlinr If,~rl1c 1.>ialrlig un_1F rlcr 8rlrncrLrtia•n I:r_ fn6run;•- ~n ~rnrl,ritvt q'mvlu. ti,e i,t r•s zn erlJrircn. dnld dii•L A_ IS: A, noch iul :1n;'itst. 19w; cirn ei~rn,x 1~% mlrn.ium ii6nr ..(.:.:'mulhoil:",hnlrinul SiritvrLe.it im rndiOnlalicon lfi.rchnu"vcrnn.laltrlo. -ll'iihrr.nd dir oroiibntrn \fitloqun."on nnr dic .lnnvbori_nn"rinsr Dr>Viuuutw ]3cruf.rparic zu butrrffrn +obiaurn, cn~ii„rn ,ice sirli atif Grnulli; drt• xpiitct•on Ent1cisklungrn cou cicrtridtun•t• Rcdcutuir~- llrmt dir iu dt•n lctztin 2 l.)rzennir•n erfolgbc lirschlkBnm; der I:ernencrgir Lringt cinvm stlindi;.cc;erhsotidcn 1'cr- srmenkrrin in mitti•1iLaren edrr uumittclbarcnI:rndalat. mit r:ulinuktiven Sloffvn . -mnd (icran Strnldnngr•n.. ])ic liutilr•rkunfg drr Fernslraltnne dcs. l rqii. dnrch HkuN und S•nmisFaasv im Jahre 1!):35 und dic ]:utn-ivklung dcr Iwnux•nlct+rrou und Kcrnnvaffen itaihrc•nd dvn Zlrsitcn lYclbkrier_cs markirreni dia ccicht.i;;ntcn Ab.cehnitte dirsorEnt,,•irlalimF. Schon tceniae Jahrel nach drr Aufnahme der Atomtosts durch (lie im, Bvsitzo van Krrn,raffrn lfcfiiiolliehcn CrofimiinlLtu cc[ztr. . _ cine intencin-e Yorsrltnng.triti;_kcit nuf detn Cebict des.radioalctiven Fallont ein. ' BesnneScrr: Bedeutuctr• f'iir dns Problem rk-r litrtstelmrng von 13ronchialknl•o.inomru, enlanf;tcn mbcr rlie ,.heiBcn 9'ci1chcn` ("ltotlIrat'tlildes"), jene hoch~~rarli.g radio- aktivcn Teilehen. die ah Ac•rusol in der Attnos'ph3i•e schwchcn und mit dcr-afcm- luft bis in rtieLungennlVrnlruvordtin,qcn kmmten. Hie Etkcem4nia, daB dieaer Cefahr ninht nnr c•in licstunmter 1'cr,naenl:rris, sondern jodermnnn anrsae*etzt. _ ist, rii cia :Snspnrn fiir dice beson&rs rcgeRorschcrtiitigl:cit.auf dicsem Gebiet geteescu sein. Liese innnl cinem rrst'en \irderschlag nxd dem .,Iiolloctuimn uber radioaktive Partikel", das 11151f,in Bad SclsNc.ilbach, aboehalti•n Nrurde. E.= handelt sieh bc•i diesen Partikeln um sehr aktirc Teilchen, die vernSntlicll im. Feucrball der atome_~plbsion cntstandbn sind mtd cerschiedene radioaktice Elcmcnte ent- halten. Ihrc Verteilung . unterliegtft betrachtlichen Sch~sanlitmgen,., doeh findet sich nach Re7E«-srY ii und lIitirbeitern dur.chschnittlich ein-derarCigos Teilchcn in 500ana atmosph5rischer Lufit- Drili ein Teilchen in cinc Lungetmlvcrolc vor,, so er7talt die Schleiinhaatt an dieser StelIe die erschrockend holie.llosis von 30.0000 bis 50.0O0rad pro Stiunde (K. Soir.rFtzatEYia; II. CFMuEn u-a.j, Es uutcrlic•gt.Vohl keinem Zweifel, daB die IIntersuchungen uber die „ltcif3en Aorner" namentlieh im Hinbliek avf die alteren Erfahnmeen mit dem SchneebengerLim'gcnlarebs hesonders intensir durchgefiihrt wurden. So wnrc]e auf die Tatsacho vurn:irson, daB bei d'en an Iiaraitmmen erkrankten Bergarlicit.crn am Epithel der 13ron. cltialsclilcimb:wt mit einer I)osis von rund1Ci00 r/Jalrr zn rochncn ist, was liei einer angcnomrnenen Bemdst3tigkeit voli 20 Jahren cine Ccsamtrlosix von 30.000 r c•rgibt, also grii6enordnungsmiil3ig die gleiche Dosis rcie bo.i den fieif3rn Tcilthen. Be.trachtet man den Schneeberger Lunrenkrebsi als Modedh•ersnclt, so kommt man zu der SchluGfolgerun•,' da6 von den Luif3en Teilchen grtmdsatzlich die glcielicn Ccfahrcn droLon und daher com kreBsproplrvlalaischen Standpunla ans die restlose und dauernde Eiustelbmg dcr Iiermt-affentests verlnngt .verdon LnuB. . Der ATaclnecisvon Polonium °10 im Tabakranebi hat class glciche PRr}blemm aber unerwartetericeisee vmt einer ganz anderm Scite her uufgcrollt. Polonium, auch Radium. F genannt, ist c•Sn a-StraLlrr mit einer IIalbwcrtszeit von 138 Tagen, dessen Anrcicherung in der TabalcPflanzc crst in den letztenJalaen Lelcannt
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D (Pb) = 57,8 (I-c'r0'xs) = 57.62 rad - D (Po) = 5,16 (1-c-0°O) = 5,15 rad in care : h•• = 0,03 (pentru Po).Si 0,08 (pentru Pb) - W = 7,10' g. T= 2,4.10'z (pentru Pb) Si 20 z(pentru Po) t = 50 ani = 1,825-10` z. Incorporarea continui a radionuclizilor pentru 20 de tigari furnate zilnicr va determina acumularea a 0,89 pCi =10Po, iar doza cumulata zilnic in os vaatin;c valoarea de.5,15 rad/]0-6 Ci sau pentru activitatea adusade fumul de jigara doza realizata va fi137.10-9 mrad/zi. Se vor acumula - ast(el ziltrtic pina la 50,0 mrad/arl *i 1,25 rad/25 de ani. Doza biologica data de efectivitatca corespunz3toare radiatiilor aa corespunde final la 12,50 rem/25 de ani. Radioaetivitatea Iw ahsorbit'd.gi care va provoca in organul critic o doza integral°a totali D, dupu absorbtia corespunzaloare a energiei, va fi data de catre o relatie de forma : . . -. . . .. .. . D , . . _ D.w . ... . . ' rW- D(tµCi) 73,81.1w•T•J;EF(;t-eea°tfl,In cazu) inhal"arii, calculul doze; absorbite trebuie sa se efectueze In functie de citeva particularitati. Daca fa este fractiunea de radioactivitate inhalatrn ce ajunge in organul critic, valoarea Ia (absorbtia prin inhalarc cc va provoca o dozA D in organul critic de W g) se va obtine pentru compusii soluhili prin urmatoarea relatie : - D m D W . . . D(1µCj) 73.81-fa-T•Z,'EFTrebuic avut in vederc ca in cazul inhalgrii compusilor insolubili'L plaminulpoate fi considerat ca un organ critic important. In aceasti situatie, doza pulmonaraDp, realizati de catre I RCi inhalat, va fi dat5 de formula de mai jos : Dp = 0,625 - 5,1 - 10-=~'.EF Sr e-a.asazdt + O,1n6. ri,1•10 2~ tr'e-0•aeasdt r r o r J,o _ °EF - 10' °'-f,6 •T, +1 - e-"•b4$ir)+ 0,99-T -'l l - e -0•69S T JJrad/µQi. Acestc calclule au in vederefaptul ca in pl45min ramin ltimp de 130 de zile 12,5°~o din substan(clc solide inhalate; 250,'o sint exhalate inrediat $i 62,S0;p sint exhalate in primele 2-1 de ore. Seadmite ca masa p1amP- nului adult este de 10s g- Pent'ru particule inhalate de diametrul 0,01-0,25u s-au calculat si dcterminat in cazul nuclidului Po-210 urmatoarcle valori : Ts =84 z c Tr = 138 z;i Tb s 90 z. La incorporarcazilnica de 0,5?-1,10 pCi Pb-210 5i 0,7;.-2,10 pCi Po-210 se caltulc•aza pentru plamini o iradiere de 19-73 mrcm'an, atribuit3 nuclidului Pb-210 Si produ;ilor de filiatie $i15-76 mrem%an datorita Po-210. Prin cal'cul se pot determina valo- rile dozelor rcalizate la inhalarea a I pCi/zi dc Pb-210 sau Po-210 cu. diverse diametrc ale particulelor de aerosoli Si anume accstc valori sint 472 00'74935z
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100,000 0 0 0 J W Z 2 ~50,000 U \ :; • J . : . °o 1.0 . 2.0 Mev Fig- 44. Spectrum of the most radioactive cigarettes. . I00,o00 W -Z -p. LO " 2.0 Mev Fig. 45. Spectrum of the least radioactive cigarettes. 106
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date mai jos:' Diamcl,u b_, 0,13 39' mrcm/an 0,25 36 mrrm;an 1; 36 mrcm;on . ~ 21 mrcmlan ~ 20 mrcm/an - , --aizat faptul cA la -000' se volatilizeaza din cenu$a 78-79",~. t, iam la 600' se s-olatilizeazi 9a-96"io (24). La temperatura ~iatilizeaza -10°fs din materialul umed„ iar la 300°'se volati-- ::inmaterialul'n umcd $i 39°/c din cenu$a (24). nr. 13, p. 625.. 16. BLA\CHaRD R. L. -_Ra7ioecologicu! canc.. Processes', Pergamore Prca.,New Yoak. 196G, p. 251. 17-. YUdLECH. l.. - Radi.rt.. Rri:, 1967, or, 31, p. 760. ' I8. FURNICA Gll_,.TO_\DER \L4RIA-lglsn.. (Ruc.J, 1969, nr. i,_p. _27. 19. BLANCH-.. ARD R. L. -Arwalyt: C'hern., 1966, nr. 38, p_ .189. 20. ZSOI.DOS T., CSOVARI S- .- Arta CAim„ Acad. Sci. I4ung., 1967, nr. 52, p. 349. 21. ABE M., ABE S., TAI:I- MOTO L, W:\T.\N.4BE H. - Ann. Rep. Yat. 1n.rt. Rndiol: Sci. Jap., 1965, MIRS, nr. 5, p. 13. 22. A.LE.A. - O.?S.S., Evaluation des risques pour la protection du public en cas d'aceident nudeairr, A.LE.A., \'icna, 1963 (STI.'PUB.'12i). 23. C.I.P.R. - Radia7ionnaia Zascita, G6satomiz-da16 M,scuYa, I961. 24. CLEARY J. J.. HAMIL- TON E. I., - Anal>st, 1963, ar. 93, p. 235. - - Articol inlrat in redac(ie Ja 18.7St.1966 - -- SG..:_ :=dioaeiive Lead in Environment and Human Body Nud. Energy : Infarm. C' .. -,-_rmvia, 1967. 6. GLOBEL B., MUTH H., ODERHAUSEN' E. - Strolrk•,u/r: ,. I96u; ar. 131, p. 218. 7. HOLTZMAN R. B.. - Ifealth Physicx. 1963, nr. 9, r:,Si. 8. HDLTZ\LAN R, B. - Scinrre, .1966, nr. 133, ,p. 1259 :. 9. HOLT- Z11.L\ R.. B. -.\'aturr, 1966, nr. 210, p. 109£ 10. HILL G R. - Yuturr,. 196.i. nr. 208. p. 423. Ip. LITTLE J. B., \tc CANDY R. B. - Nature, 1966, nr. 211, p. 842. . 12. LITTLEJ. W, EDWARD M. B., RaDFORD P. - 1i-ur. Engl. J, ,7Lx1.- 19W, NcwYork, p. 273. 13. HOLTZ1fAV: R. B. -.Radioactivity in \Ian' Cb- c. Thom". . Publ., \esv York, 1966. 14. HILL C. R.. -.,RadioecologicaI cunc. Processes". Perga- _ mon Pres,New York, 1966,. p. 297. 15. BLANCHARD R.. L. - Hhh Phyr., 1967. DIiG'. LOVATI+'- Laburat. CISE (3lilanno) . REpp., 1967. 4. FERRIE..S.- BAR:'_ -- Publ. 117th, Rcp., 1966, nr.. 81, p. 121. 5. JAIVOROWSKI Z_ - TH.'~.' -.. BLACK S. C. - Scierr_e, 1967,, vol. 156, p. 1373. 3. CARFI N.. 0,01 . 66 mrem;an BIBLIOGRAF~IE ~~ 1. F_ _ :iiRISTIANSEL7 H. -- Pub1. Ifkk Rep., 1967, nr. 82,, p. 828. 2.BRET- lndkde de clasilicace c 613.84:539.16 C pra-scnce du nudide Po-270'danc Ic tabat,. re_spectivemcnt dans la fusnct de cigarette. et_on' a tonslate i tctte occasion un taux plus cleve de Pu-210 dans lbrganisme des De nombreuscs redarchei efferw{es ces dernicn temps ont mis cn. cvidcnce la. DE CIGARETTFS. RPSUME '- _Gh- FvrnicB, .Sfariu Toadrr - LE TAUX DE r^Pu DAN$DIFFERE-VTES SORTES
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Radioactivity of Cigcsrettes f'V. 1). CiGh.,. C. (,' Ltaehlratt;;/r, and Il. 1). llnr(p;v.v . A study of Ihe rndioaclivily ofL1 hrnuds of eigarettes was dnnn wilh the (1HIN4In•.v-Ievcl,:nupfe rnuntur.'I'cn eartnnn nf eaclt brand_ renioved from carlirne; and pnr•k.rge,. were rrwnled fur lolt(P0 uvuutesand 20(Lchanm•1 ;;mmtnui ray syicvfruacro ~~binirmd Por encrgy rxn;;e1 0-Q4 Mev, (1-1 ft Mc.v,al-_.0 RTev, onrl Q-4.1] Mev for ench brand. - All cignrettes contained "'fi (.1.4ti Mevi and `°7Cr (0.Riif? Mev) as was expected. Other de6nile peaks seen in all cis;vrt te;: . Rnergy (Mev) Isulopv 0.os-o:09 = -Th 0.135 0.180 0.235 0.300 0.350 -^'rh . 0.510 _ . many 0.96 ""Ac 1.78. '="Bi 2.2 2"•TI 2.6 m,.t'1 Inntitute. This.:vrmple of Lar contained minute cuununfaof ":'Cs and '"K. No other iatliuiucohopes svm•e detcrtldde. '1'hi.s would iadi~atv Except', for the very prominent 0.135 and 0.51 Mevpeak..s; all these gamma rays.areconsistent with the pre~ence of =';Th and 2":Ra and their many daughters. The 0.•510 Me, pcak is prnbablydue to a num- herof ficsion products. Inarldition, tFw Q8:15111ev peak of "Mn was present in nine brands anra was especialiy.proniinent in two brand's manufactured by the s;ime company. Antimony-125 (0.43 Mev)) was .;, seen in 12 of the:l4 brands- If the data for all brands are nnrmal4audd on the '°K peak, the totaf activity per pound nf tobacro varies hy a factor of about 2 frnmthelenst to the most radioactive brands. The two must highly radio- :active brands are manufactured by the same company. Figure 44 shows a spectrum obtained frrnn the mostt radinnrtive ciRaretles and 'Fig. 45 iss the spectrutn of the lenst radinai-t'ive brand. . A gamrna-rayspertrmn was obtainerl frum 1t10 grams of cigarettetafvuppiierl hy. I7r. f'nd lioliiland ffau. Ralpc of thu Nntional Cuncer
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r En' cc sent, on a isole radiu-chimiquemcnt It radionuclidc Po-2f0 a partir de divcrscs cigarettes roumainn eI on a d'etermine de ceste maniine Ie taux respeclif• m mesurant .Pactivite alpha 4 un compteur avee. circulalion de gaz m~thanc, type E.H.-51 Les r2sultatsobtrnus indiqucnt un taux variable de Po-210en fonctiunn de It nature dr la cigarette, oscillant entre U:W ct 0::9 pCi:g ou presentant des variations du poids de 1.10-1e a g:10-^ g Por g tabac. - ZUSAM.4IEN.FASSUNG ~ . Furnien- 1laria 7oadec - DER s'OPa-GEHALT VERSCHIEDENER ZIGARET-. : , TENSORTEN . ` Zahlreiche in.letzter Zeis durehgel-uhnte Uhlcrsuchungcn fSrdcrlcn dat Vorkom- - men des Nuklids 010Po im Tabak bzw; im Zigaretlenrauch zutage und rs wurde bei ' diacr Gelcgcnhcit ein hoherer cruPo-Gehalt im Organisnsus dcr Raucher ofestgestcllt. s - In dicscm Sinne kunnte auf radiochemischem Wegee das Radionuklid s'sPo in- verachicdcnen rumanischen Zigaretten nachgewiescn werden, indem derart dar GelsaH. i duech Messen dcr Alpha-Akdvnat, vcrmiucls tinn Zahlers mit Sumpfgauirkulation '.t Typ p.H,-511 ermittdt wurdc. Die erddtcn Ergcbnisse dcutrn auf einen uneerschiodli- • ehen S1°Po-Gehalr hin,, in Abhangigkeit von der Art dcr Zigaretten, ur.d dieser schwankt awischcn 0.0-f und 0.?9 pCiig odcr - drm Gcwichte nach - awischen. 4.I0-ss und .. g-10-sr g Po/g Tabak. SUMMARY - ~ Ch:Furnicn, bfade 7oadrr --'°Po CONTE_VT IN DIFFERENT CIGARATTE BLENDS Many recent investigations have supplied evidence of dJie presence of l10Po in tobacco' and toba<co smoke, and a higher content in. the organism of smakers. The radionuclide 1ePo was isolated radiochemically from various Romanian oigarelte blcnds, the contcnb bcing determined by measuring alpha activity in a methane gas counter F.H..SI. The results obtained showed a variable f10Po content, depending upon. the blrndof the cigarette and oscillating between 0.04-0.29 pCi'g•~ r or 1.10' - S:LO^s' g Po.'g tobacco- . . pE31O91E - P, Q'yptur.a, Dfapua ToaJep-CQAEPi7+AII11E=aaPo 13 P,13VI11911bIF. COPTAX iL4- Ii11POC \Snoro•uscaemsue nccae~ooauan, npouanexemnre a nocie;tnee upexn, nr.tnnstast c)- . nteereooamte naysc-tuAa Poao a maGane ss, cooruererneuuo; U a TaGa•nnoa p,uxr, npnvrss 6wao 1<ouorarupoeatto st yseawtemse r.oiuvecroa eoxepa<auerocn u opraunastettypautua Po=to. B nrou nanpauaewnt, anropu su7,ean.ur paxnoxrsnmveckros enoeo6oss paAnouc- s:7n1 Po=tn Irn paaauNUWx nannpoc p5'Itt+neHOro npouatm],croa, rrpttveM ern 6ontlenTpaunN onpe}ean]acn nvress n3Nepeunn a:w•pa-ar.niuuocrn1 na c•ter•nn:e C 4npn}'nmtnen npnpo7,- noro raoa 'LRna P, H.-51. 1fuaC-teumjc pe-g.n.raruu nona3uan pai9muloe coa,epacanue PO=so, u aanltcnerocrn or coPTa ua's"pun•t,. uoropuc. tcoacOneran or 0,04 p,o 0,29 pC[Jnrin, no uecy,. -or4.10-° -3.1U-1/ r Po(P ra6atca. I
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i ;that'l no apprecialdr amnmits of radinactivily are ingested as a resttltt nf Cigauetta smokin;;. i'rcliminmy studies dune wilh the 6RINS low-level whole-lbnrlycounter em 120 normal adult mcn (51 nomanoLor::, 699 smokers) show no dilrerence in whule-body activity • hetwcen smokers and non- smokers. The variat'inns in cigarette radioactivity ftean one brnnd toan- other are probal}ly duc t'o(1)t.ohaccns of different age; (2) geo- graphic area in which the,tnhaccn was grown. - Possibly sonie cignrctte manufacturers dnnot age tnbacco so long as others. This youngg tohacco would contain fairly short-lived radio- isot.opes'that would have decayed below detectable levclsin nlder tobacco. Also, since fallout levels vary from year too year, this could account for some of the,ditlerences.. Natural radioactivity and fallout vary from one geographic area to another. This could al.o be responsible for the differences in radio- activity of cigarettes. Studics of samplea.of the 1964 tobacco crop are under wayon, samples obtained from 21 different arcas throughout. -the tobacco-growing region. Analysis of Wounds and Tissue for Plutonium R. J. Cloutier and C. C. Lush(taugh _ Because plutonium decays primarily by alphaemission, determin- . ing the amounb of plutoniu.m,ima wound contaminated with it is very difficult. Some success in monitoring wounds ha, been achievedhy measuring the low-energy X rays. emitted with abnut 0.01 of the decays. The low-energy X rays are usually measured with a thin ,- NaI(TI) crystal..' - . As a resultt of an accidentali explosibn in a chemical processing plant.this year, con'siderableplutonnnn wasembedded in thc thmnbb and index Hnger of a technician. Ttw irzuFuo estimate of plutonium in . the thumb was 40&miorot;ram... The index finger was estimaed lo. • contain three micrograms. Berause-of the drep distri6ulion ofembcd- ded plutonium in the thum6 and finger;, dehriding the mcilerf:d rra+ ' impossible. Thethutnb and finger were nmputatedd to prevvnl thcplutonium from relacatinF to Dhehcones of the body: The ampulcrl'cd /~ appendages were sent to the Division for plut:miumanalv~is and fnr [. p histolorir examination- - - O Superficial czlcrnab counting of the tissuee after division inln ~ 107 ~ CJb cc 1
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shown bi „hole-bodc counting of 69 adult male srnokers.' Further- more, we were unahle to detect by external counting any unusual amount of gamma rudioaetivity in the mediastinum and lungs of a j heavy smoker who died with primary bronchogenic carcinoma. How- ever, cigarette tobacco does contain many gamma-emitting radio- i isotopes, which vary widely in amount among the different brands even from the same manufncturer'r The search for gamma.radioac- I tivity in cigarettes was extended to include study of fresh burley, f!, flue- and fire,cured tobacco as obtained in wholesale markets 5rom 21 tobacco producing areas in this country. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained as ~ previously described. Routine counting time was 100 min. These spectra were compared ~ with those from cigarettes and found identical qualitatively, all gamma peaks in cigarettes being present in crude leaf tobacco. When results were expressed per gram of dry tobacco, quantitative differ- ences in most gamma peaks were noted between cigarettes and leaf tobacco; types of leaf tobacco; samples of the same type of tobacco grown in different areas; and different brands of cigarettes. However, the burley tobacro samples mntained less 54Mn than other types of tobacco regardless of the area in which they were grown. The 10K con- tent of burley was, in general, higher than that of other tobaccos but varied from sample to sample by a factor of i,6. Flue-cured tobacco contai ned more `Cs and "hin than fire-cured. These radioisotopes are present in f-lue-cured tobacco in amounts higher than in burley by a factor of about 2 regardless of the areas in which they were grown. Typical spectra obta ned from these samples are shovm in Fig. 65 A, B, afed C. The dilemma posed by the presence of significant amounts of gamma-emitting radioisotopes in tobacco, but not in tobacco users,' appears to be resolved as Radford suggests' by the boiling points of the isotopes tentatively identified as being present(Tabfe 15). Cesium-137 and "'K are the only ones of these isotopes carried over in tobacco ~ smoke. Manganese-54 is probably a tobacco contammant introduced ~ in the drying process like=10Pm' This metal would not be released in cigarette smoke because of its greater than 2000°C boiling point. The absence of gamma-emitting isotopes other than 1M1PCs andiOK in tobacco tars- is therefore expected. These observations suggest that tobacc 1111o and its products are not a major source of environmental gamma-ray isotopic contamination of man. 09esV400 126 10,000 ``m_ ~ ~.~ Mev 2.0 Fig. 65. Gamma-rcy spentru e/ fresh 6urfey A, flue-cured B, and fire<vred C, tn6acuo showing fhe increases in irofopic conlominofion asaociated with roba,co procasing. 127 ~ ~ + ~ Lr w Ir ww~e~ ~ ' - - . -- 9 F -- - -- -- ----- - ----, . . + ~ I c .
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La tencur des cigarettes BN POLONIfI.:1 Lcs.gmndes statisliques.Eta; iice danc diverx pays ne laissent aucun donte r p:c fr`.nce signifiaativcmen tfaativcment ptux Eltrre ^ren- ehique chez Ic: C-r.m-'•s P:•;;e::rr l. rparctt_•.., que chez I_si fun:c-.us c',, .~` -s ou Ies nnn- fumeurs. Mait. Ies rechereJns deainfos '< ela- blir la ou les substances cancE.rietnes du tabac ne sent qu'9 )eur °febut: CerMincs observalionx semblenl indiquer que t'effet cancCrigbnc pourrail ttre delerminE par des dlEments radioactifs. 6^etteurs dcs radia- tions a, comme.le plemb 210'(Pb'1°) et surlout le polonium 210' (Pop10). Cec dernier 61t<•ment radioactif serait; d'apr2s RAOeonn et HuNr (S-icnce, 1964, 143, 247): d'autant plus dangereux. ., .Iest volatile au- dessus de 500°. D'a,^,:es ees. r-:-'drs, la radio, ..activitd de I'EpithEliumbroncY,ique provenant: du PoP10 inhaLt avee la fumEe des cigarettesr est au moins 7 fuis.(el danscertains segments -localis6s petlt-etre 200 fois) plus importante que la radioactivitE provenant d'autres sources (.. background sources aw desaulcurs anglo- saxons). Tout rEcemmcnl, YAVtN,, de PASQUALI et BARON (Nnrure. 1965, 265, 899), ont misau point' une technique de mcsure spectroscn- pique extrBmement sensible pnur la ddtection des radiations a. Cette technique a pcrmis ..d'Hablir sur deux Echantillons de cigarettes am&icaincs; uae teneur en poloniumm corres- pondant A0,45 ± O;10 micro-microcuties r par dgarette.. Yavin U. ses. coliabor'uleurs oat confirm6,, d'autre part, tess observations de Radford et Hunt,, selon lesquelles, la pius grande partie de t'isolope passe datrs la fltmde. Admettant que 10 % du PniO contenu dans lcs ciguretles ce ddsint'cgrcnt dans Ies poumon5. coaKrsrrnvpa tvcs I:ea radinaclivit66 chcz one pcrsonnc fumant 50 cignrcllcs par jmlq. pnurrait altcihdreI'n valeur de 400 ppe. • Unc telle, valcur, Qcrivent Yavin cl ses collahoralcurs, n'cst pas alab LES fACT1E ~~... . ~ -. CT RP mante, elle doilt nEanlnolns itre prise strrieu- sem:,nt en consiilfration, lorsqu'ellb se trouve de Ia mort: EN 1 IncallsEc 3 un pelit segmenlt du systc`me res- piratniro. Nouscroynns quc lc probkme de la r6lenlion du Po"0 ct cclni de sa localisafion (chex les fbmeurs) sont lrrs imporlantx el qu'ils e0o Dan. t+•1 arlirlc; rta dr la S,~rurit dcvraicnl ctre soigncuscmcnt eludiEs .. ` Il semble qttc des Oltres de verre cnnvena- Ia ilan nlurtalit? irdnutill t Ic., chillrrv rnp blemcrt prEparEs, pnurraienl relenir une partie E n~~ rltrt. (w,u rr, non ntgllgeable de Po"". ifne autre mesure de protection strait le vikillissement du tabac, on 40 indiqurnmmort. %•. II c4 a-rni qu la demie-vie do Po''O Etanl relativement courte (138'8 jours), itait de -AS '- rnntrr mais la tliininrrtion s pourtant 1'efficacitE de cc dernier proctd8 peut ltre compromise par la tencur des ciea- reltes en plomb radioactif (Pbr'0), dont la demie-vie estde vingt-deux ans. La pr8sence de cet Emetleur de radiations a dans le tabac a EIEsignalCe sans @tre I'objet d'trne etude md- thodique. On devrail t!iablir l'in(fuence des pluies, du sol,, des syslemes d'irrigation. dea produits fertilisantss sur la leneur du tabae en Pbz1°ct Po-1° Dc nombreuses recherches sont sans doute ,nEcessaires pour Etnhlir dEfinitivement la'rEa- 1i18 d'un rapport entre.l'e0el cancerigene du , tabac et sa teneur en 61Cments radioaclifs. Mais Ila courbe catastrophiquement ascendante de ',la frCquence des cancers bronchiques et les rdsultats decevants de leur lraitement,ne per- mettent de n6gliger aucune indication d'un Evenluel facleur Etlolog7qne. A. Geroos. 1. Un eurte earrespund L la quantitf de ndin- nuclbtde, drmt le nnmbr< de dtsinMpnUnnr pnr scrondc en fanl ] 3,700 x10 ra. 1-v sr~dhlm- c(ppc) crt dom: le..l. 3 3.700 x. 10~~ P g.xtw . pnr eccnnd>. et parallidnmaut u e, ainsi qur p*mr ltJ6~ mini'ere eat Jv2k'~de 21 %+^, ~ Inirnx„ tLr minier (r,mont.. le P; inLlnlilo n r Gr p 1955, (i0?P I'..r-: s-xt . mitdtr m,'m,. rdro • e:tra-nlini!•n. dn di-, fc cmi, qu, r1 laicar les factrnns rliio sOrntllx l/t' `Inlt pa` rubles dono Ir uwnd, gni;' a crt , tard. dr- 16• arrnndl..~-n,. „ft - tagr, chaqq,' .una~.r p 8nnn miniirr developp,L.rivrs B'ol m ~~ ,. 1-s~nn Ir .,n G,,.,. „dMb . .
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LEAF TOBACCO TABLE 15 Energy Probable Boiling w 6) (tikv) Irurcpe Point ("C) O 0 r 0.09 Thorium-232 4230 z 0.135 0.180 0.235 _ Ceriurn•144 Rodium-226 Leod-212 2417 1140 1515 V m a e ~ 0.300 Leod-214 1515 i 0 350 Lead-214 1515 0 . 0.510 ' Many - i= z 0.662 0.835 . Cesium-137 Mangonese-54 670 2152 w r w a: > 0.96 AcGnium-228 3000 O 1.46 Patossium-40 760 1.76 Bismuth-214 1470 ~ 2.2 Thollium-208 1457 _ 31: 2.6 Thallium-208 1457 1 ~ REFERENCES . I 1. Radfard. E P., Jr. and Hunt. V. R. Polunium-210: A volatile radioelement in cigar- ettes. Science 143. 247-249. 1964- 2. Gibbs. W. D.. Lushbaugh• C. C.. and Hodges, H. D. Radioactiv'ity of cigarettes. In: Research Repon. Oak Ridge Institute of N uclear Studies, USAEC Report 6R1N5 49, 1964, pp.t05-t07. 3. Berger, K. C., Erhardt, W. H., and Francis, C. W. Polonium-210 analysis of vege- tables, cured and uncured tobacco, and associated soils. Science 160,1738-1739,1965. Whole-body Retention and Distribution of Manganese-54 Chloride in the Rat li', I). Gibbs, A. Hendrix,'° ond H. D. Hodges Interest in'"!ttn was aroused by the highly variable concentration or this isotope in crude tobacco and cigarettes, which raised questions concerning the location in the organs of the body and the turnover of 'Summcr student trainee i9C66G00 • t IC0 •1. I.V•3mglkpCARRIER ......................... "~.._.. I.v. I mq/k9 CARRIER _ •••• "•-•-•• 100 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 IC II 12 13 t4 , TIM€ (DAYS) Fig. 66. The effert of route of administrdtinn anddpsa of tarrier upon s'Mn whofe- body retention in the rqt, greater than trace amounts of this metal in smokers and other users of tobacco products. Little is known of the role and fate of this trace element in normal man and experimental animals' but previous whole-body retention studies have indicated that retention is neither unusually high nor prolonged in disease and that ga.strointestinal absorption is relatively low'2 and greatly affected by carrier ntetal. Most studies have suggested that no particularorgan has an unusually great affinity for this trace metal but Cotzias' has observed cohort red-cell labeling with r''iSin after intravenous administration. These conflicting but provocative observations led us to investigate whether this element was applicable to diagnostic radioisotope procedures such as red-cell survival studies. Manganese-.54 chloride was injected into male albino rats accord- ing to the schedule shown in Table 16. They were whole-body counted immedia:tely after injection and then at approximately daily intervals for 14 days or more. The animals were randomly selected, killed at intervals as indicated in Table 17, autopsied and tissue samples were 128 129
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thr• h% l. tht•tit;tI r:dursohtained from the formula, Y=t1 - e "'1 C lurt t . LtP.err 1• the whole-body retention, X is the thyroid . •ind k i>,hebioio(;icalelituinatinnconstantforinori;aniciodine j>.i,m: n_, inrJngical half-life of 12 hr for inorganic iodine. The:lopes .t ftt lwt hrr iatl rc'l;res*iun lines are not the same as those calcu- ,n t•d from t hc nhserved duta hecause the formula erroneously assumes uW rvl~ase of Itormona or nrR;Tnicallv bound iodine from the thyroid ;,I:rnd In hy} rthrroid states in which there is an increase in the REGRESSION LINES BETWEEN WHOLE-BODY RETENTION AND THYROID UPTAKE HYPOTHETICAL ZP i~ I 1-0e ii, °80r /// 08° w60 w W Q ~4 B ~40 O m ,~, 20; 0 M20 3° 2 60 80 x° THYROID UPTAKE (%) Y=(I-.e"xt)X+100e'il1 A.At one biological half-life Y=0.5X+50 EXPERIMENTAL 20 40 60 80 THYROID UPTAKE fela} Y=aX+b $ At two holf-.lives D: At 24 hours Y=0.75X+25 ~ Y=0.835X+24.6 C. At four holf-lives Y=0.9375X+6.25 E. At 48 hours Y=L16X +6.6 fig64. Hypotheticol and experimental regression lines for whok-body retention p/otted against fAyro7d uptake. Hypothetical: A. of onebielogicoihalfdife Y~ 0.3 , -50, 8. at two haH-iives Y = 0.75 X+25, C. at lour hag!-lives Y= 419375 r-6.25. Experimenra/: D. o/ 74 hr Y=0.835 + 24.6, F. at 48 hrY•-/•16x-6•8. sscsULoo 124 n I r'1 thyroid uptake, there is also rapid turnover of thyroidal iodine . ir..: release o/',th,yroid hormone with a longer biological half-life nar inorganic iodine TABIE 14 0 Hour I Hour Scattei eneroies (200-300 kev) 93.5 :L 9.5 97,8 - 2. i Peak a-e.y~es ,30o-400 k.vl 19.3 - 11.8 90 :. 5.1 G~mporienn :} c,,,,rviag rerei obtulned immediordy und I hr o9er udministerinq the dose ..7 "t'6 The valuef ere percenloge, of the connting rore at• nined nt 2 hr fur xach ronge oi energ.er REFERENCLS l. Morris; A. i.., Jr., Lushbaugh, C C., Naves, R. L. Kakehi, H., andGihbs, W. D. N'hote,body counters: Dinrrnqctic-level counter !rr Research Report for 1964, Medi-. cal Divisimi, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, USAEC Report OR11'S-09. 1964, pp. 115-122 - - - 2. Gibbs. W. D. Hot-patient counter. iu: Research Report for 1962, Medical Divisiort, Oak Ridge fnstitute of Yuclear Studies, CSAEC Report ORINS-42, pp. 45-47, 1962- 3. Lushbaugh, C. C. and New, P. S. Clinical applications of whole body scintillometrs. 11. A eornpartson of three diSerent methods or determining retention and thyroid uptake of orslly administered 1°'. Los Alama; Scientific Laboratory semiannual report LAMS-2445. pp. 348-360, 1960. 4. Lushbaugh, :. C. A universa'ly applicable method for assaying thyroid-function In vertebrates. Nature 198, 862-864. 1963, The Possibility that Tobacco Contributes to Human Radioactive Body Burdens W. D. Gibbs, C. C. Lreshbaugh, arsd H. D, Hodges The correlation of cigarette smoking with lung cancer has led to a search for carcinogens in tobacco. Although carcinogenic tars are known to be produced from the smoke condensate. Radford's findinK' of"0Po in the urine of heavy smokers as well as in cigarette tars s,,g gests that exposure to radioactivity from tobacco or its by-products may also play an etiologic role. If so, the necessary contamination by radioactivity is not measureable by external counting techniques as 125
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COO-1733-i 1 POLONIUIY-R10 IN SOILS AND PLANTS by Wayne R. Hansen ----LEOAL NOTICff ?9h(i repurt war prepsredas an unt of • spcersored by thc Ilnlte0 Stales Oovetnment Ne ~ t1u Onitsd States nor the lfn!:ed States Alamir Er Co:nmisaion, no:. eny of rhi,G employeen, nor en I thclr tontractors;. subcomreelorr,. or their mplo' mr.l:ea any warnnty. erp:e.e or impiied, or assuma. leCal llsbllity or. respunstbility for the accuruy. t ptet5neis or usefulness of any informetion, appm prJdLcl ur Gro[esJ disdoseR, or reprefents U.at i'J' woW d rol Infrin6e priratelYnwncd riphu. Spet ial Report on U. S. Atomic Energ< Commission Contract No. AT (f 1-1) -1733 For Research Entitled "A study of unsupported polonium-210 for ion exchange in soils and uptake in vegetation" Directed by Co-principzlInvestigators Robert L. Watters and James E. Johnson Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 80521 June. 1970 DLSTIUxU'f10\ UY T1lIS UUCU5IMNT IS UNLL4
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e iti tll ~ TA11LE 3 etl . °0A 2-nctivity of various materials ~ ru('n1bl~ 1fICu o nctivity/ci8./ ~ mg- K/cic:( t l • Sample Ash ~- % in~ u.°b ~ r^A activity/g• cigur/Ib. tou/ cigorllb tua/' t~ d 4 t°.b1 ~ (~°:0) nsh Ib.JCOffce ~ lb. coffoo ca i ¢ l: PI'C ... N,µC .. . . n rali0q . .or 79C2 ~ ' American r.iFnrctlTS. 13-08 16-40 109-6 20-71 .. ' ^ 13-95 ' 9 - tnJinn cipnnatcx - 12-78 . 0.00 8•88 . 64- _1 6 9 ~CIIOCICd . ~ Aua linn mdl et ci nrs 23-00 17-40 ' 153-8 - 338•8. 506 ntuated' ,,, i . { I q , . 4nstnr C:ORm, Arnhmn blend 4~31 30-00 ' 200-6 3922 5~0 3137 1^ - 2641 2112 ug Lplr 'rloctin 11 Cbineee tea 1 18-70 5,64 _ . g. , otr tbe ~be,. 120 . vmber- er 1962 ~ ~ } "Srand 1+•Cs ADLE 4A content of rain during 1962 ;,mtony ) , a tests '-tiTitiu (/ RninPall th M pSr - nvCs .. nnCs °Sr a»Ce } 3 Ill beta un "In. hlm . µµCPitre pµC/litw r°Sz ' - mC/kmr mC/kmr ' April . ' 3-95 10020 ' 3-02 8•38 . 2-74 0.30. 084 ~itie5 in uay '.10'-63 269-N0 2-27 1-26 0•55 0.61 0-34 C8 C)OSe June 0•16 408 ' 2~74 8955 1.98 Insuficinnt sample . 1.95 - 1-01 0-13 . 0•i3 dl) and Jiily. . . ' 4•3? 109-60 August `1.61 2,33 1-44 0-18 ~0^25 npbota . September . 340 86-30 ' 2.70 2-71 1-00 0-23 , 0-23 riation3 . October• 086 21•83 Rnvember• 0-41 10-41 '-- '5•52 7.•15 1-29 . 082 _. , 1-03. Decclnber" 4-49 114 . - Averege - 1•34 - rette) 'Rn ~ Conditions dry and hot during the three manths and ideal for evnporuHon of xnmplea in our collecting bottles. TABLE 4B t°Sr and tr'Cs content of rain during 1963 Rainfali' , treC,y . s..C -S '°Si btonth In. Mm. S r µµC(litreµpC/Rtre -Sr mCfkm• mO(kms Jenunry 5-46 138!60 3-07 3-17 --- 1.03 0-42 0•44 February 1-96 50',25 3.32 3.85 1•16 0•16 0•19 3 March Apry' 15-27 9-39 387•60 238-30 2-24 3.07 1•37 2-93 2.25 1..30 086 0•31 p-63 0.54 62 May 8•30 210`40 0.91 1-82 2-00 ' 0-19' 0.42. 3 June 10-43 264-70 2.05 2-18 1-06 0-54 ' 0-28 52 July. , 2-64 67-01 . 2-35 2-57 1•09 0•16 0•;7 71 AuBust ' 1060 269'•00 2.00 3-78 1-89 0-54 0.51 September 0-97 24-62 5.31 6•23 1-17 0•13 0•15 Octobcr 2-45 02'23 2-50 2-37 0-94 0.16 0.1s Rowmber . 1-63 41-40 3•02 6.01 1•99 , 0.12 0-25 alyses December 10•69 279-15 4•35 8-47 1-48 _ 1-21 1-81 colYe6 I Average 1 45 lb U¢ IPe to ,dUct3 TABLE 4C "Sr and r"Cs content of rain during 1964 !unril -Ireh ; . Rainf.il -S -Sr Ir4k A'l/e3 • t b(onth In. Mm. r µµCflitre pµC/litre r°Sr mCfkmr Q. rnCfkmr P lb- cQ of January F L 0.71 1-45 1A.03 36-83 6•5l 2-43 6-66 1-21 6'15 2•11 0•10 0•08 0•12 0.•19 uring c ruary 3.taroh 6-75 171-45 1•82 1•75 0.96 0•31 0.30(~. ler April 5-49 139.34 1-50 2•191•48 0•21 0•30 (*]- '. lr. _ ~ . \o. 7 1 Auat. J. fici.r lydl. 27t No. 7~ 201 ~
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- 137Cs, . 236 ~.adiocllcmical Alial~rses for 90Sr, Ra and n. k' 'aK in Natural and Processed Materials , lIt Australia Department of Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry, University of D:ctoSoutA Wales, Sydney Je 11. Green aud E. T. Pallister : , introduction . The results presented in this paper are an extension of those previously -sent out from the Trace R.ariio- aclivity Laboratory (Pallister and Green, 1903, 1964).. These'supplement theectensive surveys of 9°Sr and Is'Cs precipitation and distribution reported by the Atomic Weapons Tests Safety Committee (Alsop, Gibbs, Dforoncy, Stevens, Titterton, 1964 and earlier; Smathe and Davis, 1962) and of 1311 levels by Bonnynan and Keam (1963)i - '. We have carried out full'~ radioehelnical identi- - fications and anal!csess of90Sr, "elta and 40K together in some selected materials,, e.g. tobaccos,to extend the previous results for natural radium a-actit'itc in tobacco (Turner and Radley, 1960;, Pallister and Green, 1962) and coal and water (Pallister and Green, 1964). A comparison of the amounts of each consumed' can then be made. ' . Experimental . °OStrontium Analyses Samples were ashed in a platinum crucible and 10 g. of the ash was.taken for duplicate analyses. The'Harwell standard procedure was followed (Bryant, Morgan and Spicer; 1959). InerG strontinm'Was added to carry the¢n5r; isolated andallowed to stand until'the6"Sr-8°Y equilibrium was reached.-. The 8DY -wasseparated and counted as yttrium osalatc and the hall-life, 64 hr., indicated a satisfactory radiocbemical . • separation. ` The (5-actirity was determined with a Philips low-backgl'ound counter. Bael:gronnds were con- 8istentlly 0'94~ c.p.m. with an inactive yttrium carrier sample and 1''18 c.p.m. for caesium carriers. Total elemental strontium was measured after a preliminary separation of mixed strontium and calcium oxalates. The st'nontium was then found by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (David, 1960). eOStrontium and 18TCaeiumanalyses of rain trater Rain water was collected each month in blac.k polrtbenefunnels and white polythcnc containers to Which had been addcd 10 ml. nitric acid and 20 mg. of caussimu, strontiuluy cerium and barium carriers 6:usi. J. Sci.,,Val.. 27, No. 7 (Crooks et al., 1900 ; Osmond etal., 1959). Samples wcre obtained from Iiensingtun, Gladesville and Diona Vale in the Sydney area. The Harwell pro- ceduressl~erefollowed. P-counter and self-absorption calibrations' were carried out with the aid of standardized solutions.supplied by the Itadiochemical Ceutre, drnershaal, England. Fall-ont per unit area of the earth's sm'face was estimated by calculating the total specificactivity from the volume of water actually'collected and: computing thefallout per unitt area from an accompanying standard rain gauge. S°Itadium analyses The basic method of Goldin (1961) as modified byPal7ister and Green (1962, 1964) was used for all samples., ' 4nPotassium analyaes- - Total potassium was determined'by atomic absorp- tion spectrophotometry (David, 1960), and the'bI`i contribution was then calculated fromthe known isotopic abundanec. $um°le TABLE 1 e°Br P-activity of various substances ~'Se 8t+btc Br "8r e'St . MVC79 mq19 4VCAbo tea 44c'/G6. G Ca fib.co6'ee ;L+b1et ' Tce la chin.ae 664 2081 17•76 966'3 Tcs 2 cli neet 6.64 667-6 17 78 ' 917.6 To 3 A k d 4-77 Y1L8 6.26 E68-7 Au pac e Tea4 Au-L packed 641 2116 8.59 6WI6 Tes G Au.t. packed 6 6s 24B•6 9-97' 611.9 Tee 6 6.?1 836.7 4-71 520 5 Caifeet1yA¢kM 4 _ 81 Avst. pecked 8974 4-74 B1•71 Am' n'n ~ 1so8 1P8a 1.16 - r A+mlralian 17-78 eisor¢un e 11-22 2-55 ~ l+anemesi 76-46 ahleV b lp 8.79 1.64 Bnnemcnt 75•46 teblcte (2) 7-64 1•64 : Nut euie ln Auaralie. e: Yurahafcd In the U.S.A. In 1961 avd 198]- ,Y- 1-1 199
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7- )tf(erences~ . ~ -. - •~ . ' Atsor, 72. J. L., Gtnax~, W..J.. T1nno..rr~, J. R.. Sru:rrsc. D. J., ~ nnd Ttrrrznnun. E. W. (10C3):'. A„et 2t, 342~. .. Bovmraus. J.,, and Knea, 1).. W.. (IOG3)~.: Awr., J. 5~:., 25, 74. Bnt'ANT F: J., hfm<osr.y, J. R„ Frrvr.,ws,.D. J., and TtrreBrntt, E. W. (1963): Auat•.J. Sci., 26. G®. BRYANT. F. J., MOItUAF,.A., alld SPIcFn, G..S. (U)$g) ; AEISE- 3030. ..Cnoosx. R. Id., Frsau.a, E. M. R., Bnd Ftsncanas, C. J. (10G0): . ARRli~bi624. Devrq D. J. (19G0): Nalurr, l.ond.,. 187, 1109. r. Cor.uxN, A, S. (1961);. An¢!. C/um., 33, 406. . y.. rept cat( Alt] effet The first A_KZAAS 31eda1 will be presented at the Hobart Congress in August 19C,5c Nominations should IZAWA, hL,.nlld TOUnOTA, H..(7f101); J.l{MlI(Uirm Hes., 2„20, P It. G., OWr:.a, M..J.: Hxwcx, C.. and hlr.AD, A , , Osnoxn (7usq)': At:IC1+.R^_aos. PAC:.ts1'ru, H. T., and CnEIIU, J. H. (1!162).e Nature, j,-nd 195, 487. s 1`,.ct.sren, li: T., and GuseK, J. H. (1964): Natmq yW 261, a13. RAnrotw, E. E4, and Hv:,Z, V. R.. (10G4) i Stience, 143, 247. Sav^ntr., L. F.., ILUe:mct', P. T:. and Dwrls. P'. S. (19G2)'.: i 6. ~ STCW6nS. N. G.. OSNOSD, R..G., A1SnEnr E. I\f. R.. and QWEqy hL J. (1930) e ASIaI: HR'/IS H700. J~V Tcnne.n, R. C., Bnd RAn[,r.r, J. M. (1060) : Lonul, l, 1IOZ .a The November and ]Jecemher(1964)issues of the Journal contained notices of thetlNZAAS Dfedal, "' be submitted to theIIonm•ars General Sccretarp on or before ]6 February 190. The~rules for the Medal are, ' ~ . ~ . . - • There ahall be. an 3N7,AAS Medal which shall be awarded for services in thee advancement of science in 4usGrulia.or New Zealand. For this purpose the word 'seience' shall include all the subjects included'in the various sections of A2:ZAAS.. • Services in the advancement of science shall include research achievement, or adntinistra.tion and organization of scientificactivifiies, the teachinaofscienee or any other servicess which havee advanced science. . . • The award shall be madeonlg to persons who normallp reside in Australia or helrZealand, L 202 _ • The Medal may be awarded at eachCond ess: .- • Idotniuations for the award of the Medal maSbe made by any blentber or Fellow of ' ANZAt1Sand, supported by at.least siz other Members or I'ello.cs, and mustt be submitted in writing to the General Secretary at Ieast six months before a Cong-ress. ' .. • An ANZd:.1fi. Medal Committee consistingg of seven memhors of the General Comnuttee, and appointed by theGeneral Committee, shall consider nominations and make the selection .. for the award. . _. . .CD W M N Aust, J. Set., VoL 27, a`o. 7 ~ ! i ~ tiimt liiuln (Lundun : IintKfrwor6ha ) ~ reoo \at. fn t Gut: shoc T] r.os~ Jcat rea, poin St at Stat shou touri Fest were Pria: Sit deve Decl Fo rePom and.' (R.S. Its b recol bovn suita also t recre -xher. futur Ilasu. and pondi of tb. On Area PurL- da.l,
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iil drinkiuf: w:iter, 400 ppC/li19e and the itltitke is thep I L . .. one-thirtietll of tlle m.p: The 1°Sr and s"Cs analytical results for mnnth ly- eollections for the two years from April 190_^ to April 196-1 are listed in Table 4 assd the estinulted eorrespondin{; surface fallout is shown graphically- ia Figure ?. The results iml:lso fiable show conceutratiop yle.aks for. °pSr and "'Cs'in October-December 1904 smd Novcmber-D'erenlber 1963 and these are rcf)ected in the }rraph. These peaks's may be aecentuated by evapuratiun losses from the collectors dm'ing hot dry periods.mld bydust. deposition on thecollecting funnel. I3oacever, they probably do show the expected increase in these monthss aftor the 120 megatwl test.s series in Novara rhemlaya in Septemher, Aov.ember 1961, . and in the April-November 1800 Clrristmas and Johnston Islands (37 megatons) and augvst-December 19GSNovaya Zenilaya testis (180 mcgatons). The sum of the'"8r and 1"Cs activitie8 listed here iss alacays lesst,ban the masimulu beta activity reported byAlsep et a2. (1904). , Average ratioss of 137Cs to BOSr specific aotivitiesin 7962and' ]963 are 1•34 and 1-45. These are. close -ehon•.7evels of'0Sr'<ehich arr. similar to those.found in to the values reported bySten-art et al. (1959) aud flour from Australian wheat (Bryant et aI:, 1903)1 to the mean ofthe values given by Izawa and Toubota - This is so althouah the ratio of total strontium to (1961)) but they do not show the large variations Sample 'li'en I (Chir.ese). 960 31.37 19.1 Tea 2 (Chinese) 317 . - ' - Tea 3. (Australiarr 364 - peckod) Tea 4 (Australian601 - packed) Tea 5 (Austt-nlian. -.812 - - packed) Tea 6 (Australiwn ` 520 - packed) . Coflee I (Australian ,21-2 3922 2-3 . packed) Amorican cigarettes 0-3 20-7 -. 0-62 AustltAian nigeretto.s. e•2 8-9'. 1-3 Australianmidgetcigare .-- 339 1•52' Australisnlarseciesrc - _ - 3•71 Table 5 gives the results of comparativeanalysea of the.three nuclides. °OSr. epT a.nd s2sRain t.ea_ entien and tobacco. The sit•;nificanceof the resultson Figure 1 - tobacco }vill be discussed elsewhere with relevance to r•rCc (e)ead eOsr (0) fau-oat in s-ain• expretawd as mCJkms. our earlier results and the presenee.of decay produr,ts. --~---- TAIILE~2~. rteRs a-actlvity ot varlousmntcrlals C . C /IL. enRer A•A uuC /elearette µµ 4uCls. al', leic_.T jib. tcn (%) eyilllbrlurn - at . t eVUilil.riu~n eVUlliIOrlmn Tea 1 8-b{ 0.70ohii ,%s oorc~o 4131 0-12 An4iau Llaed Australlan 17-40 999 allnurt elsara Amcrican 1008 " 4•]? ciF~mlLeaAuetralian 12-78 9•10 CfKnrclt8 19 10 2SG ' - Austrnlin 16•6B - 8'D9 BnrCCel9er total calcimnm is lower in our particular samples than Siven by the latter. Sample No. 1I of Chinese tea has a 90Sr content. ' - (2080 µµC(g. Ca)',ahieh is about~.330tilnes the content Activity (itµC/nr. or µpC/cigarette) Results and Discussion . Tables 1, 2 and 3 giw-e the results for 9°Sr,. =r'1Ta and '°Ti analyses of various processed materials in . Australia. Alh samples e-ere, obtained locallc at random. Table 4 contains theresults of theradio• cllcmical analysis (not the total p-activity analssis). of rainwater inSsdney. ,. _ . - . Apart from the.tea samples, the results ill. Table.1 in flour. ~~ .. . .. - , ~ . . ~ ~ - - ~ - TABLE 5 Thetea samples al•e quite a different matter. Comparlson of ^sr, r^lc and =•rRa eorttents tLnes the level in the milksamples referred to. A Ilospitn2, Handicick, for atomia absorption spectra- ~1rough estimate of the lna.imm~r ansuunt in n pot of phol.umrtric measurements ; for the assistance of ~ Austnslian tea is found thus r 13g,3 tea in 1.; litreshlrs. A.. Ilolrrahdo-Salomon in thc "Sr analyses during ~ of boiling a:'ster,, if the tea has. 520 µuC. per lb., her secmldrnentfrmn the YhilippinesAtomic linerE,'y ~ amounts to 13 µµ0/litree of tea. This is. to be com- Comrnission ; and to Dr. D. J. Carswell and Cdr. J. W pared with the maximum pernsissible level for "Sr Illslson for rain sampling. . ' expected in, tea-eromngareas' and perhaps a selectiveThe authors.are grateful to the.SSdney City Council .. uptake of BOSr byy the teaplant. For tea parked in for cont.inued financial support of this research ; (Z Australia the highest figure (321 µµC/J. Ca)) is 53 to Mr.'K.. \Cym)e, Special Unit„ Prince of Wales Q - et ai., 1963). The results indicate the greater falloutAcknowledgements . - of Sydney ntill: sampled atthe endof 1961 (Bryant from 92"lta in human lung tissue., ~
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vcuk* mvtor L.. e r nnt aurlt ,..~ ~ usc.l. wirnt u.,. 'eaw,vl. ... leith ,.II ,,. - 'L'iu,lny,. 'anln' uf e 1 . wh nnuru,. ond ,,:. 11. ,aU pliuu-,.r -holo4nu„ :mr[p6tt i, n, positio,n ,e Ilo .vh,dJ a,r in a phnr., 9 reeorJ'et us esany:tliameto.r ,.t - x 50'amn. 0 variiuu•- showsfiun .nd a homn d a scmi- L' and_ l--. Begr .in rs,t L,t• field Icu., , 1201ontr se produer containiny; . the illnm. enrre:,pon,l adA anta;a, rl engrmtm. are epaerd g pow-er uf mask, aud for everv x 1DE .. October 30, 1965 NATURE . ~~ ,t, . poir[t sourca L' in tho: centre of tho illuminator w,e,liu[ninntns the code-plate, through the sa[ne lons 1',. 1, ..rvvs in this arnn as a ficl[L Icns. Tho codo-pll.to,o ia. tlrr illuntir[ntor', is an embossed plastic phtto, which ,~t..n. thu codo-word' inn the fomx of groups of 7uminous arnmgPd [[t ono or several arrays: It is advan- to uso self-ehocking codes, in which every word srunu number of corlo-points.In tho oxnmploo nro aix posit.ions,. of which two remain darkk and Thisl codo ha.a 0:6f 1.2 = 15 . w'ords. T wo I 4 u [ P bM t - Lrnitions havebunn added. These do llot't ou[dributo 1 tho diucritninatlon of charact'erv,, but improve the ~ to-noiserutto, as.eight points have:to light up for enlid chnractor... + p[ d[o mnking oftLe mas0er hologram all ectgrams iti h.,v,txlr awith oke distoictvu~oco e-waxrd,s hi~htuisr .., Y. ~ u.l by a mask. Bnt ae each code-word illuminates f rIT w bnlo area of the hologram, a further mask must be ,.d ncar the plane of the photographic plate,.whichcuts ,.,t the light except inthe area of the engrams ~hich are i ,..ato at anyono time. This.makes it posstbleto observe , t.•.ndo of optimumillmnination, whiutl postulates.ahoutl f .-tu,.l light sums onl any engram from the eharacter and ! tmm its code-word. ~ IlL.ck-on-white letters are less suitable for dlscrirnina- , tmn then their negatives, becausothey have too much in ( .,,mmon;; all their white area. But this disadvantage can eliminated by a further mask, in t.hee plane of the I L1dugrntn, which cutes out all undiflkacted light. By i Ilabirwt's principle this turns a charar.Ler into its negative. ~ "u•h a mask can be easily made by' expnsing; a phot'o- craphic.plate through aolear u•indow simultaneously to ,Jl illuminator points: ~ .Utcr M.N successive exposures of the photographic f PLtto, whichh add up to a conveuient medium density, f`t dw master hologram is.made by processing aad printing ,t, preferably with an overall gnmmn of 2, and the print ,a put back in the original positiou. In the readingall u d while the r tti ill i f th t i mn nu or are se u po ntlsourcesO o e -,, trlwlo code-plate. is covered up- A lena. 3 is used for abservation, which produces areal' image of the code- pbtto. If now the.recnrding.medium is dragged across.the uindow, whenever a charaetnrvor a.variant appears in it, ita code-~ord will Haah up. Itis x.dvantagooue to arrange in the httsgo plane a.nask, which is aa replica of the.uodo- (ilato, with very fine holes, so as to exeludee all but the aignalling light.. This mask, too, can be made photn- graphically. A methodof reading tha, codb.words is to eumup all the light which appe.tts in mmzone; correspondingto one , position in the code, and guide. it to a separate phnto- .kit), -E- N.. and Vpatnleks. S.,.J..Ont. 6ce..dmer., 53.1377 (1993); 54, eleetric dotactor. Each detecLor is fitted with a level lxas u9s4); 55, Dea (19s5). dimriminator, so as t.o reject spurious signals belowa ' StcokC, 6. W., OyEfcr oJ L'o4sren<mvl Non-oohern,l EUdrammpnc{ic Radm- fntv. 3li26 n (1Jtl5), wltlt Fvlconeq 1). (3., Ptiynr~ LUfen; 13, C9rtSlR level. Ti Itia method i8 simple; . bnt it has only 3ea (19aA);15, (19D5). 0 © ~ POLONIUM-210 IN MAN ~ c0 ' By ©n- C. R. HILL W .. Physics Deparrment, Insedcute of Cancer' 0.ecearch,. Belmont, Surrey ~ TT isw•ell known tluct the ntuwsphera contains approci- the equilibrium amount of ti6e fivo-day p-emittor radium 1 able.quantities ofradou ns a reault of emanation from E(bismuth-210)' antl some of the 13R-day a-nmiLtor the materials of the Earth's crust. Until roccntly, how- radium. F(polonium-2l0); and those therefore also take sver, little interuaL has tx+on takonin thefate of the long- parGin the fall-out process. lived rvtdionuclides praducotl in the atmosphnru by radon In addition to this natttral process ofproduction,f dtway. RadiumD (lead-210)',has almlf-lifaof twetty-two polonium-210 rne y be,reloased into the atmosphere by a yonrs, mach longer than the twouty-thirty day mean nutnbnr of artificial mcans- Considorablb quantiticss are rosidonco tiinefor aerosols in the troposphere, nnd it is thought to have been,mloased by the yPndscMnaeeidont t.horofore roturned tu the surface of tlreEnrtll as a natural in 1907(ref.. 1). It is being used as a sourceof thermal eampor[out of fall-out. During rrsidetu:e,itr the atmo- poxvrinlitu•tlrsutollitosandthcrohalrecentlybooninterr sphetv,, sttfHcienttuno elapeAsfor tho growtil of most of oat in tlte possibility that a certain urnount may have bem 423 modorata diycrittlinatingg power, because if the characters n.rn not clearly distinut, somo.light' might show up in the sarne zone iit tho code-words of other characters. One can rnduce this by making the code-words of eharar.terss wliich aro, not clburly dist.inct as different as possible. 13ut the maximum of diserimination is achieved by ra somewhat. more complicated npparatus. In this thee imago ot' the code-plato is projected on tho, scrcen of aal imago camera. Tho codc-words flash up at intervals cer- respondingg to the time allotted to each letter, during 10L -30 per cent of this'pnriod. In the time between flashes all code positions aree scanned word by word, and pointss abovoe a cortain level of intensity are transferred to a rnemory organ„ such ae a core store. But unless the £ull number of points appeur in a word, the rccord; is erasod.If thefull"number is counted,.the code-word is transferred to the computer. The greet discriminating power of the holographic method stemsf'rom its high angular resolution. Assume, for oxamplo, N- 35, M = 20, M.N - 1050- The groupp of four engrams correspuufling to thee charaoter presented tothereader receives 1/30 of the,light, nnd can diffa'act, about 1/35 of it, altogether about, IO-' of the total. (Not counting, of course,, in black-on.white records, the tm- diffracted light wh9ch goes into the zero order.) Of the diffracted light, under the proper conditions, tlhatia to say, when the ongramswere taken with about equal light suma frorn the letter and from the code-word, one-quarter will go into the reconstruction of the uode-word.. One half appears in the oLject, another quarter goes into the 'twin' image of the eode.wordi which,, however, is washed out by iularmodnlat;on with tite character, and is uselesss for recognition. Butl the useful quarter is concentrated in extremelysm.lll solid angles. For example,, if four or six identical ongrams, are spaced out by about 25 mm, the solid angle in which the nlajor part of the lightcorret spund'ulg to a codo-point is concentrated will be of the order 10". Lot the Gght of, say, 10-4 of the total be distributed among ten code-points, this meanss that. 10 ' of the light appenrs in one, code-point, in a solid angle which is pnrhape 10-r- of the solid angle covered by thewhnle code;a concentration of the order ten. ltloreever, this estimOtO.is somewhat pP.sslIIn3tlc, because it takes no account of the confirmation oFt,he character by the engrams of sliglttly diffcrent variants in tho same laycr. Im conclusion, there is good reason to believe that a single hologram may discriminatu between all the numerals and the letters of ttiee ulphabet, each with 30 variantb. ' Oatror. D...Pmure,lD1, 777 (t D4H);,Pmc. Roy. Soe., A-197- 475 (194s); Prne. 344(1llG1) 69 I
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VOLR09 ' the Uhit,•.,I ium-210 nl~u )ai-'tlur iv h crnb; o v rmty nf into human lat wo 1Wt" ith observc,l' ity ratio In tary and aro ncentratious' at the'dail, in the food :ill probahly upported hy. )al excretion t consuming ato samplraR values wcrr. 3-2 pc./day, :utee, Holtz• itA apply, for an Eskimo ndoor might lelide. It is 1ocontentsy-wator) are velyl and so n withfood pointed out: ntrations of a lnight be ium, a con- ccoC •y be itions. in a in, with the: uot indicate . JLont major ju not sup- lenrr, based a onlyt that'. aceos might ;ncidonce of )Ionium-210 nwked in a Lar brand of ± 0•07 pc. -he original in Table 3; 1 Hunt arc n6 tfm main appreciable nain-atlnam e. the t cartlednt out I,p. Merx, Samplrx • then derroanl hloric aeld, nml dee epiked-with 'd by *Cpla6in90 unttu. nslue a belluw+ Id.1.09 g1 butt'-Onc9 a9nhtutn In experiment', 'atepe. Sfain-ia moulh) w:e+ [ s CnmbriA4e .lox.6 pcr aut dlusldn (ezpt. :yer cct.•I mb Ilten and' ollea'. tlowlnRLydro- thn fllterA, etill .e described b, rva.soa9 October 30, 1965 NATURE Tabl6 2- PorAlrlum210 CusxsnT nr VanrUna CrnAABTIE TOBACC06 No. of Origin of s,uuple t.mplur °TO netlWty (pe./kg). Mai Mln 3fean United 8tutca a 650 300 510 Cent. aud b. Anmrica E 1,500 200 070 Shudeela 3 700 600 650 AeeGalla 2 690 610 640 [nJla and Pakletun Si9 Y50 410 Indoneela I - - 230 3'urkcy and Greece 3 - 280 210 240 Table3. b'A'r® Or PateYrUr-21D IN SuOSUm o6 CrusnsiTSs (Percentages of totol i ni tial ly. present) Preeent mcavurcrncntr Itndford andHUnf° Component Expt.l (notipe). Expt_. lixpt.3 (WliPe)(filtertips)) (flo tire) (Filtor ttpe) ]fnlman•am 12 10 6.5 23;26 22~18' 1'I ~a S - - 3.5 - - Si e rtream 22 , 26 60 21: 2Y 27; 24 Outls 35 34 347 3U:25 24;,98. Axn Total!rerwerY 16 9•a' 18 90 19 p0 7:11 81; 9/l 0; a 82; 88. amoke, is oonfirmod, although the actualfractions found in the present expnrirnentsare somewhat lower, possibly ae a result of dilToroucos in smoking conditions. Im a separate experiment,main-strea.n srnvkeg from cigarettes from the same batch was weighed aft.er nnlleo- [ion on Camhridge filters and found, in two separate fneasurements, to amount to 0-032. g per cigarotto os col- locted or 0-021 g after drying at 100' C.. Taking the polonium-210 content of main-streamsmoke ass being about 0.05po5 porcigarette.(frorn, tfm foregoing measure- tnents) it is evident t'hat the specifia polonium-210 m-radieantivity in the condensed smoke.isof the orrlhr of' 2 pc./g. 7Rn radiatinn dose rate at the surfaceof a thick (thatt is, > 100µ) slab of such material would be 0,1rad (or D rom)per year and less for thinner alabv. This ig of interest in consideringg thee possible occurrencoof high local dose ratcs in ttrs human lhng,as aresulta of accumula- tion of smake particles; since. tho fnrcgningdnse rate is in marked contrast with the valuus of frnm anveral hnndred to more than 1.000 rems in twonty-five years suggested by Itadfoni and Huutl". For such, high dose rates to occm it would seem to beneeessary to postnlate.a mechan- istn far selective clearanco Lrom tl.e lung of the. hnikconstituents of t}tee condensed smakee relative to that oUpolnnium-2101 Such.a nrochanism would notonly have to slmw aa high~ degree of solcctivity but also. on the evidence givonlater for retention time in the lung for the polonium-21U, xould noed to operate,ratherrapidly. Norrnad humun ti.v.vuvF_ A number of ineasurenuents have been reported of tlleo cuneentrations of polonium-210 and lond-210 in normal human tissuesy although, apart fromthnse by Oshornel' and btahihofenr0, most havc.been concerned only with bone end tsetha•r'•'^. Tn view of the. 425 results prosontod horc, I have mado two further sets of monsurenlonts on hrtman tissuos. ln the firutt plar•.n [ have oxominod the polonium-210'luvols (uquivulont to lood-210, nsthc samplcs wore sovenll years'old at thetimeof measurement) ia bones of ton different Canadian Eskimos. `u'ocondlyi I havnmadn comparative measuro- monts of polouiulu-•510 on soft tisaues of tavo groups of individuals'known to buamn-smukers and regular cigarottee smokors respectively, all ofwhom diod sulliciontly sud'- donly thatt their smoking and other habits would not lwvoboon upsot seriously for more than a few hours before death. Dfoasuromonts wore made without subdivision of the tissues exceptin thocaso of tho.right lung, whoru the bronchiall tree and samples of peripllcal' alveolar tissue worn dissected nut~ and measured soparately. In three casnvs tho secondary bronchial bifurcatiuns were dissected out (to include about 0-5 cm of bronol.us abovue and below the bifureation)and; moasur®d separately. The results of ineasuremont®.on thn Eskimos and on the efFect of smoking aropresented ii. Tables 4 and 5 respec- tively. Thomeasuraments on the Eskimos can becomparc.d with values found by other investigators forbonn of 'aorrnal' European and Vorth American subjects (sllewn in the same Table). From this it will be seen that the Eskimo valuessrango from'norznal' upwards by a factor oftwenty or more, and itt is itlteresting,that the high values occur in subjects who had been permanontly resident in the Anetie evhile several of the others had been living in southern Canada for some time prior to removal of the bone (eithcr.at.autopsy or in the course of thoracoplsxt~)', The high values found horo seem to be consistent.with myobservations of high leveJS in reindeer meatt and tho lmowm high meat diet of Eskinlos. (Note added in yreof. Recent measurements on fresh placental tissue samples derived from nihee northern Canadian residents whose diet irteluded leindeer or carihon rneat have shown polonitun-210 concentratdons Table 4. LSA1F210 LCVr.L9 IN BnNr:9 nr OANATrAN T5Nnre9 (Messued'ae pelonlum-°_1U Na years after co/leotion)'. . . . Ceee Orluln aadnqe of rr-Pb nctivity No. nubjcct (whcrn knewn) (pc.PrC w-ct bone) 1, fgloolik,N~W.Territory42 710 2. 3 - Carberry,.3fnn. - e] .. 980 6 4 wlnnfpe9. Dlan. 80 13 6Edmanton, Alta.. 44 21 6 Pakat'nwegau, Mvn 21 91 8 Nekon Hcutu, Stau. 25 42' u Nep,oY 1Wuse. fLLau. 17 40 10 - - 1o0 •• 6ta~tc~e, refus~9 i Ci4 dand and United 15-37 Table 5. PerANIrH-2111 TISNVn LRYnrA rn 9nORRn6' ANn NON'9MeRCR9 A e and ^'Pa Activity (po.AW tlneue): Actl.lty r.tioa e mx of Bronche ~ 'Menn lung I Itronch. tree/ sub]ect Lh•er tree Alveolac (npprox.). %Idney Canad LunnNYer Hidneylliver alvenlae. Cigarette emokcre 23 M 7•7 6-6 7:2. 68 138 40 0.88' 1•8 0•0 22Sf 28 8-0 111 8-0 21 3.6 0tr36 095 0-6 62 DI 27 10-2 15.6 12-9 245 - 0Y8 0.00 065 6a M 2s 6-6 OE 6-6 22-7 4.1 0•20 10 1-0 Menn 20 r•8 9N 8•6 206 3•Y 0•43 1-V2 074 i Nan-emokem O8. P 7-6 2.0 1.2 1.6 6.7 - 0,21 0-76 1•6 68 F 123 1•2 2•0 1•6 - - 018 - 64 F 1P7 1-0 1-9 1.9 11-4 1•7 010 0~58 1•0 63 F 13-2 I 1-6 1J Y4 79 - 0.11 OUO 1•2 17 M 1&e 4-0 8.8 3.9 lU5 4•0 090 092 - 60 67 F 22-6 7-7 10-2 9.0 383 - 041/ 1.7 0tr75 ffienu: 14.8 ®.1 8-4' 82 16 2•8 0•25 1-07 0-76 Mene,ncd ' Pb/'OPc rallnA 6/.i 1.0 - 0•7 - 06 - ' Min 0.1 - 0.5 ~ 01A - Menn 0-47 . - 0•6 • - 0•31 -
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0 426 N A T U R E October 30, 1965 vuL 209 twelve times greater, on average, than thoso found in (1) In bone and livcri the preeoncoof polonium-210ninn other subjoots's from thoe same area.) appears to Iw duo to the quantitative retontAon of the From the moasuromonts on emokors and non-srnokereproducts of decay of loed-210.in the tissuo,.sincetho two (Table 5) the following points emorge: uuclidos occur in equilibrillm. In kidnoy and- ovaries.. C (1) In both smokorsnnd non-smokars the ratio between however, the polanium-210 ie significantly in oxcoss af grossspecific poloniunt-2100 activity in tboe bronclriuli equilibrium and is presumably prosotlt largely as n result tree and that in alveolar tissue is closo to unity for any of activo uptake of polonium frotn the blood. The die- individrrsL erirnlr.ation betw-oen' the renal cortex and medulla is in (2)'. In livernnd kidney the levels of polonium-210in agreement with aninnrl data and with a single previously smokers aro little, if at all, greater than thoua in non- published case of a human subject°- smokors,.whereas in lung tissue a difference with n fiactor (2), The expused/norrnal ratio for polonium-210 in a of between 2 and 3 seems to oceur. This is perhaps best tissue is much higher for bone than for most soft tissues. soon in, comparison of theactivity ratio'lung/livor' for This presumably roflects.the known fact that an approerv thetwo groups. The correspondingg rat.io'kidnnyJliver' able traction of the radon produeed in bone by decay of may herebee regardedas aa control pararheter indicating radiiun-226 dors nat escapee but decays thomm with the variations ocourring between two tissues neither of which oventnal deposition of lead-210 and polonium-210. (The is dirrootly concerned in the exposuremechanism of interostl high nhxoluto and relative levels of peloninm-210 in hair (inhalation). may' be due to.snperfic.ial contamiilation by radon deoay- (3) In my samples thepoloniom=2I0 content of the products in the atmospheme of the hunimzing faotory.) average smoker'a ]lutgg oxcncdss that of the avorags non- (3) The actual distribution of polonium-2l0 amongg the smoker by. 5-4 pc: (assuming1 kg for tlie total weight of the soft tissucs does not seem to be strongly dependent on the lungs), which is the approximate content of the nuclide origin of the polonium, Itt is of particular interest that in the main-stream smoke of a hundred cigarettes. Assum- this observation appliua also to tho hmg: this could be a ing a oonstunption oftnronty cigx.rattes por day and fortuitnus result of thoinhalation of high concentrations retention by thelnng af halfthemain-streamsmuko; of rculon and: daughters, but otherwise it suggrhte thatt these results suggest a rctcntion time for the polnnium-230 much of the normal polorumn-210 content of the lnngg in the lung of thoordcr of ten days. originatesinternally rather than as atmospheriomateriali (4) For the three cs.v~sof smokers where bronchial that hesnot boon cleared physiologically'. bifurcations wore dissected out andmeasumd separatelyy, (4); Inreiationtotheradium-326contenfoftheekeleton, thoe polonium-210 in each sampln (of weight between 5 the S1Opb-41OPO levels in the soft tissuess of tlieexposed and 15 g anfl e.mh'.consisting of several biSrreations) did subject aro seen to be considerably less, by afaotor of not un any cuse exceed the amount to bee expected, from about 70, than thosn in normal individuala- This is in theaveragee value mesanred for the wholee bronchial tree, agreement with Holtzman'a predietion" that the normal by momt.han 0•05 pe- individual acquires onlg a vcryy small fraction of his In view of thcpossibility' suggested by Redfordt^ that poloninm-210 burden (at least insoft tissues) ss a I•e8111t of even such a small quantity of activity mightdead to high decay of skeletal radium-226. dose rates if it wero cnnr.entrnted! into a sRlnll area„I have Measurements have also been' made of polonium-210 C oxrmtirtr.d autexadiogrnphically soate vacuum-dricd in the tissues of anumbe,• of subjects having rn.ditmt-226 samples of epitHolium, taken from bronchial bifureations burdensthat had been acquired some twenty-fortyy in smokers' lung_ s: In the specimens examined so far I years before their' death. The results, which are given in lmve not found xtaatisticallysignificant eoncentrationsof Table 7, ehow a lovel of polonitrm-270 in soft tissue, for aa a-activity gmatcr than 0'Ol pc:/cm';and an appreciable given radium-226 burden, that is considerably lr.ss than part even of this activity is probablyy attributablee to that in t.he more recently exposed case- Thissituation bawkgroru.d frum tho glass platess used in the initial is cansistent with the oldAr radium depositss being less axporimonts. subject to loss of radon to lhe blood, but it could also be My failume to find appreciablooxeess polonium-210 explained om the basis of high, inhalation of radon and activity in bronchial bithrcationss of cigarette smokers, daughters by the more recently exposed eubject. either when messnrod av gross tissue ooncentrations, or If the commonly used value of 067 is assumed for the when exan.ined autoradiographieally as.mtrface activity, fract.tiort uf radorl 222produced in benothat escapes to is in eontr.-tst with Radford'a observatiow of hot spot the blood,, the data of Table 7 may be used to. calculate activity'° and alsou- t.h his.lator observations of puloruurn- the rate of uptake of rndon-2'l2 into the blood that would 210 activities up' W 1-25 pe./g.in bronchial epitholiumrc. hyitse.lf maintain thenormal concentration (10 pc./kg)of Subjects trrifh hii(h skeLetal6urdena of radiutn-226.. The polonium-210 in the liver. A value ofupproxinlately decay of rndium-226, present in the human skeleton as 0•5 pe./miit is found in this way. u result ofuithertmtural or abnormrl exposum, londs eventually to the formation within the body' Of a certain Tabtu.6. PuxoYtUH-21e ASp.LeW pe6 L~ LS rF TID6II[E OF A AAnro>r- investigntion of tho offuc6of difforences in thoroute of their +vlministration to the humen body. 1 have reoontly had occaeion to oxamino post m.rrtem a subject who hurl )mon employed as a nuliwn-dial painter until six weeks bofonn ],nn doat.h;, which res.dtnrl from acuW rayoloid leukacmia. ]lor body-burdon ofrndium-226 proved to bo 0-02 µc.;woll bolew the maximum pcrmie- erblc levul, but about otm.thousand times above normal. '1'hr: levcls. of polonium-2U0 and lond-210mcasurcd 'u. varioue orgatw ntl tho'timo of death are shown in Table 6, ~ buth rua nhsnluto amrmntsund as ratios W thecorre- epending avoragolevols that woe have measured in normall individuals• Soveral iutnrosting,points ornorgo frorrr these figures: amount of lend-210 nnd he desOendants; It wdl be showrl m,pa ecttytty '•Bb v"Tn •'•PU retl0 later thnn in the normal subject this souncoie of little Tldeue (pe.lk¢).otivitymtio expnecd: nermn11' importance, butl.in subjectss with high radium burdenb it Llver 1B~U 1-0 16 can constitute the nmiu sourco oftheso nnclides and is Lung - 8ldney enrtex 960 0-18 40of ihtemstthorcforo an providing an opportunity for au %iduey madulls 200 0•.iB 40~ Spleen 34 2.0 1! n.-nrid 60 a-ss a 1'hyrola 11 - e AAreval. 70 - - geom¢ 21600 70 $~ BoneJ"8a 4.000 - 1.000('••B+I Tnfile.]. RanluN-22e nr BnYs AND I•Oinnrax-210'nr Lrrstr m6 IsUP vmnALV Wlrtt'IAA'a-EaYA9LISErn BAnIVY IiIIrLSaeAPproc sue af •°na in bone "•PO In Ilver Itsuo: (yenvwj C1 (pcjke , wot) . (pc~(ke uwct) . arer r'•pol 20 e•000,000 40 2Yn0000 311 ~,V00.000 so BO.nan D 90.000 v,ooo 2p00 Lt00 70 (nonml) ] IU (normai) sU(nonna0 No-SO Isdota poloninrr known fc soft tissu this way common certainly rather of The reasr although with prot In this whothert grazing ar liirte prote several a- samples s insulin,as on the pa on a mtil~ grade of F Tsble A16umin (oI- linemo~obin nelatine (pua Fmrinn¢en (C Insulin (<rssi Luulin (cry-st Insulin (ens4 In.u1W (myst. Ruw bovwine r The diffr other bovi origin' (Lh, different a source.of s the varioe highest cor activity or• n very cla protein, hu some assoc: exist. Suc implication isotopee, The selan ~ dictated to . post-mortgt ., from comp: and others ,' the outlines part played . radioactive The come ~ m:m; betwe a co.nmurut i. indicat.ee th: 6e(ptisttlOn C i thutthie is burdons seer Irossihilitdesr ' tnd inhalat qtdium Dy 1 0 Lst-mention Q, fund, and tt ~ eontration o bcen measur The vario ( ix:tmoon pol ~ Kingdom , ~ C,ntndian $s a high diet: ~'~
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V OL 206 lottium-210 tion of the ice tx-o ad rirs, t o vcs of aea result The dis- ilulla is in previously n-210 itn-a ;oft tissues. an appreoi- ,y decay of e with the -210. (The 210 in hair don decay- g factoryth.)'. among e lent mlthe ,terest that, could be a centratlonN _gests that f the lung io material re skeleton, ne exposed a faotor of This is in the,normal ion of hiss a result of lonny- ^~210. ra~``~~ 226 rent$ rorty. .re given~ in :issuo, for m y less tharr 's situati4n being less ald also be radon and Cet. ned for the escapes to -,O calculate that would o pc./kg) of nroafmately tia 5000 October 30, 1965 NATURE Ieolatsrl protziva. One of thobiologieal properties of polonium that is.often overlooked, altliough~ it has been known for some forty years'", is that it is a'seeker'' of soft tissues rather than bonn, nnd it is in fact unique in this way amongtlhe a'-amitting heavy elements- (The comrmn occurmnce of polnniem-210 in bono is almost r,ortainly not a result of its ownn chemical nature but rather of itss desaent from t.hebone seeker laad-210:) The ronson for this behaviour is not fully understood, altlmugh it is known that poloniurn may hee associated with protein, particularly in thee blood'o•'O In this connoxion it seemed of intorest todetcrmine whethert'hopolonium-2L0 that h„s been shownto occur in grazing animals may be present hr nominally pure crystal- line proteins extracted f'rom their tissues. The.resnlts of sevoral such~ measuremr.ntson commercially prepared .9amplesareshown in Table 8 together, for nne of the insulin samplbs, with corresponding measurements both on the pancreas fro[n which the sampln was derived and on a multiply reorystollized: fractiom of the commercial grado of protein. Table 8. POtcuroa-210 Comraz'rs OF sossa PvaE PRO2Ems raPoactivits Protein BYDDIier (pe.(kp) AlbuMn ('cryetall ne bovine) A•n.g: 23 HnemoRlObin B.P.H. 90 Gel"liue (ponder) n.D.H. {e NlbrEnog¢n (bo mc) b.P H 120 la&mn (erYStnu n.liuvine)'. B.D H. et0 Insnlln (crystalhne be ins.) Boots 1,670 Iusubn (crystalhne tiovine) Burronghe welloume. 000 In+Win (crystalline tioviue) Burrnuqhx v:ell°ume: 370 (mulnply recrysta111zed). Aaw buvine Ganemre (dned) RnoronRhx welnomn 25 The difference iii activities between the inscdins nnd the othor bovin , o Proteitrs mig I Y hd simil reflect a dlfferen ee in origin (the three commercial iueulins, although from differentmanuf"acturers,.were all derived.froma common sourco of supply of pancreas), but it is of interest that, of the various proteins exnmined, insulin has much the highest content ofl--- SH groupR. The.reductlionin specific activity om multiplee recrystallization appears.torule out a very close association bctween the polouium and tho-e protein, but the poesibility is novorl.helesa suggested that some assoeiation, in which -S$ groups are irn-o1Ned,,may oxist- Such a situation would evidently have in,purtant implications for the microdosirnetry of the polbnium isotopes. Lrst-montiomxl of those is of r-omparablo.importanco with fouud in hummn tissues, together with some of theirfood, and that only if ono ,bssumcs.an atmospheric con- variations with, envii•onmental conditions, und I havee centration of the nuclidta soc-nral times higher than has discussed the origin of themuturial and someinformatiuno been measured by most observersF-•. roluting to its physiological and biochemical hehaviour The variations, by nnn order of magnitude or rnern• which suggests that its distribution within a tiiasum may ,.,.b..di,,., .. xrn r:,..)...r...~r~..e :.. ...........)•rr..:...d s.,. ~..,t......._.. .....v__,., n..-_.°.------ -r:._---------' 427 graziug oil poor, slowly growing pasture. Apart from in the Arctic, such conditions might also be expected among the herdsman papulations ot' aridd rrgions- such.as thoseiu Arabia and East Africa, anctit is.of interest here that wo have found high levels of polonium-210 in camels. Cigarette smoking dbes not seem to Irad to nbnormal levels of polonium.210'.in tissues otherthan lung, and tno lovels.here, exnmined either as gross tissue concentrations or, so lier as.I have been ableto discover, as localized conecntrat'ions; are not srrehas would lend.to.nbnormnlly high radiatiun dose rates. However;, thopossibility of beingablh to observe localized concentrations of smoke particles in the bronchial epithelium by virtue of their association with a radiouuclide is of eonsidernble interest, regardless of considerations of radiation dosre to the tissue, and would justiFly further' experimental effort in that direction. The qnestion of the part played by physiological uptake of lead-210'in prodnringtissue cormentu-ations of polbnium- 210 is still not r•.omplotcly settled",fe. Evidence from work with experimerltall animals, as summarized by the IInternntiona.ll Commission on Radiological Protection', indicates thabthe steady condition reaohed! follbwing prolonged ohroruc.ingestion of an equilibrium rruxtmro ol' lead-210 bismuth-210 and polonivm-210 woult3 be one in which li ad-210 was considerably in excess of polonium- 210; the predicted rl°pb :°'0Po ratius.for bone,.liver. and kidney being 400, 32 and 25, respectively. FValues for thia ratio between these tigures and unity would still be consistent with thee data from the Intornntinnal Commis- sion on Radiological Protection if a fraction of the.decay products of lead-210.was.retained in the tissuewhcre it had been formed whereas values Icsu , than unity could only be explained by an active uptake of polbrriunr-210 into the tissues (or, posstbly, by redislribution of polonium- 210 between different ttssues=r)I in fact, I have repeatedly found values for this ratio considerably Irvs than unitV in a number of soft tissues and consistently close to tu.ity for bone. It appears, therefore, that, under the.conditions we arc.etudying,.there may be a true uptake of poloninm- 210 into certain, tissues independentlv of lead-210, while in bone the initial uptake is of lead'.210 and this is followed by quantithrtivo retention of decay produot5. Although this articlo iss primarily concerned with polonium-210 it is of iirt'erest that at least four other isotopes of polonium• all a-emitters; are narmnlly present in the human body:polbnium-218 (radium A), polonium- 2J6 (thorium A), pnlnniurn-214 (radium C').and polonium- 212 (thnriunr C')- Owirigtotheirshort half-livea, directt measurements of the tissue. devels and distribution of these isotopes have not hitherto been possible, but experi- mental data obtained with rxts=' indicato that adosera.te to the kidney, dne to polonium-218 uud polonium-214, of thee order of 1 mnrd/year may result Lnnc continuous inhalation of radon at aconcentr:ation of 10-r0 c./1. On the basis of the behaviour of poloninm-21!0 the corre- sponding dose rate to the gonudsmaybe expected to.be of a similar order of magnitudr. Conclusion 00749371 that this is. nornrally the principal nourco of such body- Thoobject oftho work described in.lhiu article is. to hurdons saotns to follow frorn Holtzman's analysis of otlher define the part played hy polenium-210 in contribrrtirrgpossibilitios•, including decay of skeletal radium-22G to tho.biologically effectivc radiation dose received by man and inlmhdion of radon-222, radium A, B aud' Cand in a variety ofenvinnnments. In the£oregoing.I have radium D,. PJ and F; in which ho) showed thn4 only the reported the gross eoncentrntinns of the uuclido that are DiscussfonThe selection of data presented in this,artiole has been rliatatod to a nnnsiderable extent by tlroavailabilitl-v of post-mortom and other specimens and istherefores far from, comprehensive. Nevertheless, from these results nnd others.previously reported in the literature, atleast the outlines of aconsistent picture can be obtained of the partt played by the sub-seriess radium D-F.-F' in man's radioactive environment. The eorrospon<leucu, both for grazing auiina.ls,and for man, between tho levels of polunium•240in the food of a connnu.uity and in the tissues of its members clearly indicates thatingestion in food is an important route for acquisition of body-burdens of the nuelide. Tt1e conchlsion .~.g1,..•.. ...•.. wuoou w....w ...D...V,.oa ,... +.. nwuv Wn,.c„ w~o MtO nLUr muOty. uowavOq ra ut uru, uluntl la.r a. 0`•~~Canadiar.Fskinma,nroprobablyduetothodnttorhaving eomparisomoftllophysicnldoseratesofhiFhhnenrenergy -(seo)'. a highdiotary content of moa4derived from animnls transfer radiation that we have measured with other, -
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C C 428 N A T U R E October 30,1965 va,:oa predominantly low linear energy transfer, sources of backgrour.d radintion; in othrrxrords, the problem of relative biological efYcctivelwse at very low dose. ratos. Itt thenbsonco.of bettcr evidence we ma,ysimply nssume a rolativu biological effucbivenoss o810'for the polonium-210 a-pnrtielo, in which cuue, by a convenient arithmoticnl accident, our tiasue concentrations expressed: as pc.fkg 6ocorne equivalont to mrcm/yoar. This is nhnostcertainly a very poor npproximation tow}ratever tlie,truo position may be,.and it should be point.od out that somerecerlt reports=•-'" have suggested that the relative biological effectivencss for high linear energy trar•efer rmiiatiotl may become very Inrgo at low dose rates, t.miding towards values of 30 or nlore for the conditions of background radiation. On this basis pnlbnium-2d0 mould evidently constitute.a major fraction of background:doso to man, tdle total of which is geuerally considered to beof the order of 100 mremfyear. I thank Dr: C. F. J. Baron,. Dr. D. H.alor, Dr. L. A. Barror and Dr. F. D. Sowliy forr arranging the supply of poat-mortem material; Prof. K. Liden, Dr. J. K. Mietirz- nen,. Dr. O. Paakola and Dr. P. M.. Bird fortho Arctic epecimens; Prof. J. E', Roberts for the camel bones; Dr. 1. W. Hughosand the British American Tobacco Co. for help in the experimente on cigarettlee smoking and tobaccos;; andDr. G. A. Stewart, of Messrs. Burrougbs Wellcomc Oald Co., for assistance with the measurements on iusulhls. i am iiidobted to sevoral' of my colleagues.for their helpful advice, and to Mr. Howard Dawson for carrying out.most of'thomoosrremmifs. Finally,.I thank Prof. W. V.-Maynoord for his support and advice. ' CmnAs,.R. N.. st af:. A.li:R.B._R 2952 00rdt). • Burton. W. ll., aad stcwnrq N. 0., NMUrq I86. 581(1980). • C,unbrar, It. S., rt¢i., A.E.R.B:-R 489E (1903). • Pnttereon. n. L., nnd Lod:h,[f, L. B:, In TAe A-nturetROdiaNa. Nnoiann- nvnt. cdlt. by Adau,e, J. A. 6., anG luwdcr, W. M., 388 (pnSV;.Prcn,. Qlrlhago, 1904). • LQR.I'.-Report of Cammittes !d (Per¢arnon Pma, 1069). • 1111110. . R., NMUre,189, 211 (1U60).. ' Chcny. It. D., Nntura. 203,139 (1984). • Holtrmnn, n. II., IlenlNPhve.. 9, 386 (1008), •HOIt~•n~n, it lt., in TMNaturu! RmliMim. Snnirnnmen4 edit. by Adems, JI A. H., and 1.nwdcr, W. B[.,;'27 (L'hicago GnIr:.Prwa,190fp. •• Bndfonl, E, r.. and 1lunt'6 v_ 1t-, sniincs. 14.7, 247P9a3). •` Msr,dcn, b)_, Nature, 208, 230 (1064): '• Ualwrne. )t. V., Nfaure,199, 295 (1903). •' Stahlliore.n, \V.. A••eBrment orR,+dimdivily in Man. S, 505 (Internatlonni, Atomic SnerEy Agemp', Vlenna,.I9U5): •' Hun•t, J. BI, .SCience,132.1668 (1900). ' A, Setenre,140,.1337 (1963) '• Llttle, J. B:, ct al., Rod: Fen..22, 209 (Abetrsct 110) (1964). +•Flnk, lt. M. R(oloptcatJtudier with Polonium. Radium and P(u[awiaui (McOraw-11i11,.1060). '• Lacaea.gne, A.. and LattAS, T.,. RuR. d'lliet. AppliQUfa E In PAY^at et a In (1954). Putbol.,1, 279 ^Thnmas, R,(1., Rad. Rer.. 9uDr. 5,'_9 (1964). •• Feldman, I., nnd Saunor, P.. ROd. Rer., Suyr. 5, UO (1984). e' HiLL. C. lt, I[rntlA PBy,.. 0, 952 (1998). " IIoltzmann. R. B., IIta/W PAye., 10, 763 (1984)... ° Morkcn, D A, Anur. Msd Arruc hadud.lltulih:90. 509 (1959). ••Nasry, C. S, et al, rnLnn J Rnd R(o1., 8 127 (1963y.. •• Daviea, 1): 11., aad Rnteman. T 1-. Nntw 200,.485 (t96s).. •`Batchelor, A. L., Phllllya. R. J. S',, and 8 aele, A. (i.. Nafure, 201, 205(1064). " Bla Jc, S. C..IIa•f0 PNp., 7,87 (1901).. PATTERN' MEASUREMENT By Da. A. WARD and G. W. McMASTER Radiation Laboratory, Onlverrity of Strathciyde P ATTERN meesurement is a rapidly growing develop- meat which is likely to affect a number of very different.fields of study to a muoh grentcr extent than has pntviooely bwn the case. The torlnas usedbero to.desaribe any teehnitple in whieh, an instrmnent (usually of an plectronic and optical nature) is used to sean an image or a pornianentt photographic, rooord of an iruage, store the inforlnation obtained tiom the scan and finally annlyse thi@.s informatiom in terms of a series nf parameters thequsntit4tive values of which describe the features of the ime„n which arees.centfial,, or at least of interest. Clearly such instruinonta morely carry ontt essentially thosamc function as the combination of the hurrmn eyee and'part ofthef hmnan brain. Indeed, those engaged in the field of pattern nteasurement de,nlop a very healthy respeet for the flexibility, speed and selectiveness of t,ho human eyemrd brain in, recognizing patterns. Uhfor- twlatclu, as.nro all know, the hunutn cge and brain are subjcct to fstigue; the brasin isezsily distracted and fu,ds it difficult to remember u'itheomplete.clarity the details in dif&.ront parle of tlic sunro phntograph and in wmparinga series of siinilur photographs. Bearing in miitd the enormous capacity of a phutograph to record porrnanlont7y +uid conveniently the essential data in an intago, it is.midvrstanduble that most instrumonts in pattcrn monsurunletlt aro designed to scam photographss rathor than the original intago. Progress at Strathclyde Nearly three yer.rs ago rearuxch and developuient..vore bogun' harn.to prorlncn a nerieeof instruments for pattern measurcmetlt. After a number oC abortivestarts using eloctro.tnochanical dovir.es of a fairly olaborato nature, the first of theso instrurnotds has beeu cornploted. Tho.probleniin nll instruments of this type, or at leastthe mnm problem, is to build into tile inett-utnent a very highdcgree of stability~Fmrt-termstability over periods less thanasecond and also long-term stability over periods of the order of days, weeks or even months. Unless such stability is prosentthe.advantngxs of the.instrumcnt over the hutlutn eye and brain are lar'gely lest. There issimply na room for erratiomikimwn errnra in the three processes of scanaing,.storsgo and analysis. Otherr factors involved include the total number of points into which the photograph can be divided, the geometrical shape of the scan, the rauge of grain densities that.nu•y be cncountered, the spend of the.acarr, the speedi capacity and perraanoncy of storage of information obtained from thescan, the speed of extraction of this informariouand the flexibility and speed: of itx analysis. This. does not rs)must allthe praet.ioal factors which are encountered; for example,.it is qnitu important ta have visual monitors at different parts of the systemy not only to check for aatisfactbryoporation but also to permit satisfactory adjustment of the syeteut to deal with partlcu- lnr types of images. To satisfy the demands of stabilitry', speed and flexibility aro'Imvo found it nccessary to develop purely clectronic(,optical systnms. The particular insthmrnent described hern (Mnrk 1) is mndo up of thraeunits which cnrry outt the functions of scanning, sturagoand analysis respectively. The scaruling unit, .vhich will be described in a littlemore det:ail later, inwt originuhinstnument designed byonrselves in collahora- tibn witl• C.~'oncral' P7lectric Cc., Ltd., who built it for u' using modern, fnlly transistorizcd circuitN. Thostornge unit is a Laborr 512chnunel nnnlyaur ttscd in itsmulG- scalhr mode of operntion, tuul we exploit t3rcco of it~ facilities forrccording the data ntored in its magnotir memory unit. '1'hese ttiree, Lu;ilities ars a poper- tapo puncher, an electric tyl-n•writor and a'Polarotdnnnlara,which phot.ogrnphss a conveuinntdisplay of the etored data. The analysis unit is a Ferranti Siriw oomputor. I I f i S f No.6009 Retiu-nin flying•epot the face of (tlte photo( slide. Eac, measuring: videa a cu light passh pltruuey: C current int and 128 de osaminod. integer Wh: ,it this poii: suldee of g wide limite these 128 eoi'respond rastor of p have from liue's in et orraruined r points vary stzo af the r ing a oonve' ation in thr can be var setting'up dure, a dis ment whicl the photoF picture obt on the face late what i instnrmant the.output , of the resul analyser. . ently inth part of tht tion can b. inforrnntio. it embodie: the probler tioning her osaillatorir and in the : is nsed'whi xpot.oB ligh raster) and amount of rumainss ve: In using total of thir nnitland oxviewetl a s viulving mo 512 poiilta. correspond:t iustnrment the. l.aban of these 51 they am p i operatione I area on on ~ Purrrtanent: 1 Q 1'hia entire . (=.1Gatun slii I a r'nrranti Si ` 4 I lw data Cloarly t ' ~L in. a IHri'iN
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424 N A T U R E October 30r 19fi5 vot. Paa produced by activntiartoCstablolead or bisnluuh in nuclear wcapon.o.plunluun. Lxcept,.possi4ly; intlllo stratosphnro tho, nat.untl saurcu of thoe nuclitlu is prodomilpant at the preselttt time, buFthiemay not always ronu.in the case. Burton and Stelvart in 1036„ measured Llmconcontra- Itionof n.dium D, E and F in grorutd-lovcl air and in rain- wator at H4rhvu1lr'andtlmir figpres show an annlml deposi- tion rate for radimn Dbf about 1-7mc./krnr (mf. 2), which is nearly half thecmTr.spouding nrualt raLu for strontium- 90 recorded at the eanto.sito during the past five yearar. Thn cuncentretietl of raditun DD in ground-level air appcarss to be dopondontt on lbtit'udb, being highest in temperate latitudes and also boing generally higher in the northorn than in thosorzthorn humispltero•, possibly ass a result of the diffarvnoo hx, cxposod land massos. Disporsion as an atmospheric acrosolia well known to boe ann effeetive' means by whioh, many traco materials may gain entry to t] 1o biosphere. Lead, bismuth a ndpolonium may all beabsorbod by humanbcings as a result of irilralation and! alsoto an appreciable extent by npt.akn through the gut': it is therefore of interest to know to what extent human beings may be exposed to these nuclides' in the environment and-whethcr, in faat, they are normally present in human tissues: From knowledge of the energy and linear energy transfer of the radiation emitted; by the three nuclides radium D,. E ar[d F; itappears tliattherespeativo biologically effective dbses produced per disintegration will be in the approximateratios. 1: 10: 1,000 (assuming nn, RBE of 10for a-particles), It is radium F(polonfum-210) that is of primary interest, therefore, in thopresent context, although it must be bornoin mind that iLs ac0uali presence and pattern of distribution in the hrunarr body may be determined very largely by the.bohaviour of one or morn of its rnrlinactivn precursors. Hun1Mt and anineaE foodadoff.t: Polonitmt-210 has been observed to occur onn expased foliage, and particularly onn grass, in amounts that aro directly relat.ed!t.o local rain-fallF, lrt ttigh' rainfall districts in England and Wales concenNrationa above 10,000pe./kg of dry grass are not uncommon„ with the eurious consequence that a load of hay can hecomn legally classifiable aa a'radioaotive substance' purely on account of ita,natural radioaativity. Concentrations of the order of 0,000pc./kg have also been fuundto bu coLtunonill slos>growing planta suoll sa lichens, both in the Uhitad'. 7iingdom and also in Lapland and the Canadian Arctic, whcrn they form an importan4part of the winter diet of reindeer and caribou. Grazing animals are found to t'akouppolonirun-210 in appreciable amounts, and coneentratiuns greater than 1,000.pc./kg havc boen found'ia some animal tissues both Table 1. PVIqN1IIY-210 CUMxn'r rn Vnal0e5 HUYAF p![D ANffiAL FOUDS'. w m u• Malaria . No. mmplee Po eMe. natiy. (pc./k6) rb : Pa aCtir. ratto tlrnee (Oried)U-%. 24 400-1e.00t1. 1-5 Dry lickm (Cainpiaci e&pane) U.K. 2 y,9s0:f0,000. ] Dry livhen (Cladonra ulpearrfi) ]ay- land 9 6.600-8.100 Dry liclr<n(Clodrminalperfrfa)CSnada Pldiblo Rrnen vapetablee (U.K.) 1 5 a-90 i 1_3 Gtrrata,nad potntecs (U.K.). Dreads nnd ceseals (U.K.), 2 4 ] 1-7 Urfed mnk powdcr (U.K.) 3 2-0 Beef and lamb muscle (U.%.) 2 9"3 ]luuf and lamb livcr (U.K.) 9 4-10W llaef and lumb kidney (U.K.) 3 4$-270i P05-1 Lamb kidney (N. \Yalee) 6 t1o-1.tl00 02 Relllmc a (Laplliml).ruumu®r killed g 16-60 - Llver 6 35o-760', - Kldney 4 11tHY9. - nanc 6 520-3,60n - llemdeer (canada. N.w. 7brdturr) wlntcr klsed Musela' 2 200:210 Rlver 2. 2,400: 6.000 Kldney 2 4,200 : 2.300 9plem 1 f/A0 Cnmel tana (lnrdan) 2 100 : 1 600 1 - li,er Iwru- Bcorlandl l'ACk lcn ( a.K.,. h'.. und'W.:e0Mt4) . 5 , , l.aW 400-900 O l 2 (:rnb (U.K., 9S cuoeL) . Plankton(S..PadOe) , 2 1.90~0u0~ - in thc Arotic and in high rnihfidl aruasi of the United liingslom: Biologjcal cot[centratiou of polbnium-210 aleo occurs in sorru. nnn'inoo organisrns Mld in particular in soanoe varieties at' platlkton', cortnut shellfislt and crab. Llvidontly, theroforo, thmrois u considorablo varioty of ways inn which the nuclido may fuld its way into humall ond aninml fondatuffs, andthc amomltss that we have measured i1] a mmabor'of thoso', togothor lvith observed values of the lead-210.: polouittm-210 activity ratio in cert.ain cnses, are shown in' Table 1. '17ie data of Tnbin L are somowhnt.fragmontary and are characterized hy wide variations in the concentrations of the nuclidr.s, but it may' be concludcdthnt tlrodaily intake of both poloniulu-210 mid letvl-210 in Llto food cou.prising an average mixed westorvr diet. will probably bein tho, range 1-10.pc. Tltis.ostiaiate is supported by measurements we have made of the dail-yfaccal excretion oflcad-2l0 by a tllirty-year.old nutlo subjectt consuming an ordinary 'English' diet. For six separate samples collected at intervals over five months the valuees were betvrecn 1'7 and 6•4 with an average of 3•2 pe./day. From similar meastnements' in the United States,. I1oltz. nrun has obtained; . a value of 1-8 pc./day'. Evidently a considerably higher figure might.apply, for example. to a connoisseur of sea food, whiloe art P]skirno on a high meat diet based on wiirter-killled reindeer might ingest of the.order of 100:pe./day of each nuelide. Itlis to be noted that the polonimn-2i0 and lead-210 contents of drinking-watelar (other than tmtreated; rairt-wator) are only of the order 0-01.and 0-05 pc./1. respectivelyr'and: so would probably be inaignificant in comparison.with food as a source of ingestion of the nuelides. Tobacc0 and cTgareAee srmoke. It has beeu pointed out by Radford and I4hmtthat appreciable concentrationss of poloniurn-210 occur in tobacco onld that, as mightbe expected from the known volatilityy of pnlonitun, a cnn- sidL•rable4ractiolt of the activity in the tobacco may be tranSfcrred to the inhaled amoke10. I]tave rneasurod polon6nn-210 concentrations in a number of cigarette tobaacns of different origin, with the results shown in Tablc 2. These figures do not indicate any striking differences as between t.hee different major tobacco-producingareas aud, in partictdar,dn not sup- port the suggestion recently made by Tiaredenr', based aprya.rnntly on total a-activity measurements only, that differences in the poloniuno-210 content of tobaccoss rnigbl be related to geographical variatinna in the ineidence of lung cancer. We have also investigated the.fate of the polonfum-210 which is' present, in a cigarette when it is smoked in a standnrd smukirtg procedimnt.. Using a popular brand of t-.igarutto which was found to contnin 0•49. ± 007 pc. polonium-210 per cigarette, the fate'e of the original activity in thrca experiments was as shown in Table 3, where the previous results of Hadfold and Hunt are stlmtnarized for comparison. IFu'ill be secn that the mnin conclusion from the earlier work,, that art appreciable fraction of the polbnium appears in the main-atresm lhr • Apart'frmn a limited number nf'i -epectroer.npy neurementes pOloNnm'Ln~ determin'ttlnna mPnrtcd in this artidc hhve been carricd ouL Ly the methad rlcscohed Fc. }tlaek(ref. 271, (/vUOme (mL 1 Y).mA nthera. 6amPlrr wet asLcd nalnc nilrio nndnerehlotlcaride anu Imwninm le thmt detsultcd electrochemicJly, an Lo sllver from a eulutiun in 0 5 N lydmchlnrfe aeidi end anenvardee-mtmtrd.. YicPl Is chceked usluq dmdlcatc enmPles eplked wilh n nd;rcd "OPIH°oY4 eoluean end IenA-21U cau be estim aled by replsno/ pnltabnlum-910 frow tlm.xnlnuon a(tor an Inlcrval of eevc[al mcntlu. 1 9u,uYinB wrte carricd enl undcr the follewinC condal...... inC 6 bnllor tylie ' mGirtG mncbiita: Inalal ciFUruttu lnnrth 70 mm, wciqht 1.09 g;bua lenetl, 9a4nm: pull volume 35 ml., durallon _ U.ecp,repcatcn oncea minulr te t'otnl le pnllk )Nr.r c ca cttc: horirananl'emoklnn positiou. In erpztlmonl Nb. 3, Gllcr ttpe m~ etlrA to Ilre crearrrnnt nnht4 sdlnalvn tayo. TIOUr v'dmwn Inlo L6c mouth/+ neam nkm( d,atJn vrtlon nmrmal em f :. . N tLrJr ^e ' Na.3pa' '1'aWU 2..' P Origln o Unlled Btat 1Hmt- and x lnraded. Anetml4 iMOnea~l. I Turkey end Tsble ; CompcLenl V nin rtream n`m 91~leetteam llut4 A•Tetalreta.+ ' snloke, is c iu cha pm tla a lestllt In a ee cigarottes ~ lion en C . atoasurem< Iccted or t polunitrm-^ about 0-05 mente) it x-radioacti 2 pc./g. T (that is, > (or 1 rem) interest in local doso: tion of smc rnanked em to more th by Radfor occur itwoism for se collstituent polonium-2 to show a evidence gi polonium-Y Nornnm! , havc been 1 luld lead.21 from those concerned t ( Ape and eex of sOa)LCr. clsaretln eowke, 22 x 5a ]t T[esn Non-emnktn. 66 p 44 E 69 B 17 67 F a d n Sn tl v 1 to tl . II t cdc i -1 N w,m cl Wtor a WLmGride• 01 alt h1d 1 nl .mnr h ml 31 or to esh 4rill , ncld in .[h t 1 1'dnm d 1 d c 1 t i ring 6 per ant n dlaxldn fexrr- 51 Tn D SW~ t. ' k[r m l 111 ~I 11 _ tl tqtl i vey and colleeen 13I enl cr in lw x r[Jur xnsh 1 nttl, s In xl.rlea 1 dluned bY tw C+ 'britlae 1Yltrn A InPan In0. crA intilh thrpr ,llul(cx lectiim rvabnldi rviuua Bi.Fn.l)'nrintbctwo9lurnoNy.(exVta.Se . aumkc wn.a rrenvrrrd lrnm the tlltera bv ge rle.trtrl'OIUNOm-YlUleatin¢tLiup firrctinn Ihl o fontnatc:. xnsrn[rnr a.2vW3). Fallo+' ntly Ilnwin6 hiNrw ur Ce tlcectll,ed In laill r V! McaenrM epb/rrb
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.~~ o[ b e nlore e bod y ln w rot JiRe F aus gl9 )dic 'ho wec( ame. ad- ingle s all inglc ~nccs same iHer- lanJ: ands because other cells may be important in forming the anti- y proteins. this connection differences in the ein of yG-antibody formed for two rent baptens by aa single rabbit , have been reported (14). Also,. Sela and Mozes (15) showed that the na- ture of the carrier protein ofthc anti= gen affects the protein type of yG- antibody formed against a single hapten. The' diffcrences could be due to the production of antibody by dif- ferent cells:. The differences im gel patterns of H- chains from antibody of the same spec- ificity but from different rabbits could be due to a variation in the relative distribution of these different anH- body-producing.cell types in individual rabbits. 0. A. ROHOLT D- PRESSMAN Department ofBiochemisfry Research,. New York State Department of Health, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Ruflalo aererenrn. end Nofer grotip only one member consumcd Icss 1. Nomenclature according to Buff. World Neulth OrgYn. 3Q {47' (1964), 2. 1. Rejnek, J. Kosrka, 0. Kntynek• Nnrure 109,. 926(~196G). 3. B. J. Davis, Ann. N.Y. Acad: ScL. 121, 4W (196!). 4. p. Kohplt. C'. Radi'imski, D. Pre9smaq J. Erp. Med:. 122, 785 (1965). 5. -. Scienre 147. 613 (1965). 6.,R. A.. Reisfeld, U. I. Le.wis, D. E. Wnliams, Nature 195, 281 (r962)y Chemfral Pormurc- non Jor Disc E(ecvophoresls, (Ccmal Indus- trial Corporation. Betheada, Maryland, April, 1965). 7, O. Roholt and'D. Pmssman. in preparation. 8. C. Tanfurd, Physical Chemtstry ot Mucro- mnfecWes (Wiley, New York, 1961). 9. Since the clectrophoresis was at pH 4.3, an additional carboxyl group would add only a fractlonat charge and an amino group a whole charge. 10. R. A. Reisteld, Sl. Dray; A, Nisonvn, Im- munochemirny 3, 155 (19G5). 11. S. Cohen and R. R. Perter, B/ochem. !. 9e, u964). 278 12. S. Utsami and, ~ F. Karnsh, Biochemistry 3, 1329 (196C). 13. D. Precsman, Ann. N.Y. Abad: Sd. 101, 253 (1962); -, A. L. Grossberg, rJ.. Roholh . P. Stdos, Y.. Yagi, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Stl. 103, . 582(1963): 14. A. L. Groasberg. 0. A. Rohott, D. Pressman. 6iurhemisny 2, 989 (196]); M. Sela, 11 Givol, E, Mnres, Biochim_ Biophys.. Aefn 78, 6,19 (t96]). 15. M. Sela and E. Mozes, NIH Informnrlon Ex- ch'ange 5, Sai. Memo #75 (t966). 16. Suppprtcd in part by NIH grant At-03962. We thank P. Maenza for technical assistance. 21 March 1966 ~ >and- large e H- esent 1 of that grecs f H- 1 and In (i) sittes ences ue to indi- : not iding aior' San ' dif- nding aious ce of 3f re- much tction uring con- (12). each thus leavy vould pam- with erenl -anti- :es a ith a hains s fe- than anti- :teri: e I~t : fu, ~ +here ff• chain utinn L. C) Lead-210 and Polonium-210 in Tissues of Cigarette Smokers Abstract. Cancentrations of lead-210 and polonium-210' in rib bones taken flom 13 cigarette smokers weree about twice those in six nonsmokers, the poloniurn-210 being close to radioactive equilibrium with the lead-210, In alve- olar lung ti.rsue the concentration oflead-210 in smokers was about twice that in nonsmokers. These differences are attributed to additionalfntake by inhalation of7ead-210. - . Because of the correlation between the smoking of cigarettes and the pres- ence of somatic effects, such as carci- noma of the lung, many studies have been made of the carcinogens present in the smoke. The presence in tobacco of the alpha-emitting and volatile radio- nuclide "-1UPo has lead to several studies eorrelating the distribution and concen- nations of this nuclide in the human body with cigarette smoking. Thus ftadford and Hunt ('.1) reportedthat inn the bronchial epithelium of a heavy smoker thee activities were such as to produce radiation levels of 165 rem over 25 years. On the other hand,. Hill (2) and Rnjewsky and Stahlhofen (3) estimated the doses to be less than 1 and 0.15 rem/year, respectively. Hill (2) and Ferri and Baratta (4)) also showed the e1°Po concentrations in Ihese and other tiisucs to. be higher in sntokers than in nonsmokers. However, because of rthe' relatively short half-life of this nuclide (,198 'bys), its precursory, thelcad-210. with 1.sEPTEMBER 1966- a 21.4-year half-life, is also of interest. This nuefide decays by a weak beta- emission to the 5.0-day 2t°Bi, which in turn decays by 1.1-Mev bcta-emis- sion to 31OPo. The data we present demonstrate that, in skelctal tissues; not only are the coneentrations of =1UPo greater in smokers than in non- smokers,, but in both skeletal and lung tissues of smokers.thc concentrations of 210Pb are also greater. Moreover, in bone the R11Po is in radioactive equilib- rium with the e1°Pb. Lead-210 is also shown to be pres- ent in the smoke,, an association not unexpected since stable lead is known to occnrin smoke (S) and Nusbaum et al. (6) have shown correlation be• than 20.. Activities were determined by wet- ashing the materials in nitric and per-chloric acids, converting the solutions to 0.5N hydrochloric acid, and plati'ngg the 21OPo upon a silver disk. The amount of polonium was determined hy cmmtingthe disk in a gas-flow' internal alpha counter (7).. This measurement,, along with a re- plating of the 210Po grown-in for sev- eral months from the L1°Pb in the orig- inal solution, and application of the radioactive parentdaughter relation of - the Batemann equations, enahled deter- mination of the activity of each of these nuclides at the time of autopsy or surgery. The average errors at the 90-percent confidence level, based on counting statistics, were about 15 per- cent for 211Pb and about 20 percent for 21OPo. Concentrations of 2"nPb and "'°Po in-bone are presentedin Table I along with sexes and ages. The groups are matched by age but not by sex; this mismatch should be examincd furthcr. since,, as noted earlier (7, 8), the sket° etal 210Pb content of women appears to be lower than tha2'i of men. Within this particular small group of nonsmok- ers no statistically signi8cant difference exists: The mean concentrations of both nu- clidcs in smnkers,. 0.285 pc =1°Ph and 0.250 pc -10Po per gram of ash,, are more than doublethose inn nonsmokers: 0.135 pc -10Pb and 0.090 pc S10Po. Student's r-test shows the mean values in the smokers to be significantly high- er than in the nonsmokers (P <-005). In smokers the E10PO is nearly in radioactive equilibrium with its parent (210Po : 210Pb, 0.87 nt .10);; that the two arc closely related is shown by the correlation coefficient of 0.83 (P C. .005). In nonsmokers a ratio of 0.62.m .14 exists, suggesting a deficiency- in content of the daughter; the atest, however, shows the two means too be not~ quite significantly different (P < ,10); the correlation coeffic;ent.of 0.61 is also low. The previously reported (7) concen- tration of "1°Pb in trabecular bonc (mainly rib and vertebra), 0.184 S tween concentrations of lead in honep0.018 (S:E.) pc per gram of ash, is and cigarette smoking. Osignificantly lower than that in smokers Our measurements wcre made on'J(P<.005) and probably significantly rib bones and alveolar lung tissuetaken1%0higher than that in nonsmokers (P < at autopsy (or surgery) from subjecls.05), These differences.suggest that the of known smoking habits. Individmds-j previous sampling of the population smoking more than ten cigarettes dailyWwas of a mixture of smokers and non- were classed as smokers, but in our smokers.. . 1259
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- INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH : ROYAL CANCER HOSp1YAL .9n counties might be expected to be more stable over the years than values for individual county boroughs. Att'ention hass been directed to the possibilitythat the preparation of foodd Mith waters of different constitution may lead to significant differences in th, composition of certain items of the die.t.. Interest has been focused mainly on the ' composition of tea infusions. A detailed study has been made of the movement+ of a variety of inorganic cations between the tea leaf and the extracting liquid, ' under eonditions.approximating to normal domestic practice and using a range . of solutions for extraction to simulate the different compositions of natural ,-drinjcing waters. Apart from providing a guide to the fate of trace metals im ` waters during the preparation of tea infusions, this stud}' shows that, over the -. normal range of calcium concentration-and pR conditions found in natural .caten, there is a net loss of calcium from the.liquidinto the leaf amounting to 30 to 50 per cent of the calcium present in the water. The mechanism of this effect has, not yet been studied in full but the calcium uptake appears to be accompanied bvv a reduction (amounting to about 200.mg0 per_ litre at maximum Ca uptake) in the weight of organic materialss extracted from the leaf- An analysis of the polyphenolic fractions.present in infusions prepared with water containing.different calcium contents has so far failed to reveal any marked differencesin the composition of thesee fractions. Polonlum (st"Po) in Tobacco Smoke and in the Environment 'Following, the suggestion by Radfond and Hunt. (1964) that the naturallv- occurring radionuclide ar"Pois present in cigarette smoke and might give rise to substantial dose rates in certainn discrete areas of the bronchus in smokers, investi- gations of this possibility were undertaken- It was confirmed that a single cigarette contains 310Po to the amount of about 0-5 pcand that about one-tenth of this quantity is present in the main stream, (i.e. consumed) smoke. Concentrations of uoPo were also measured,, post mortem, in several differentt organs taken from cases of sudden death in both cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The concen- trations in the bronchial tree and in alveolar material were very similar for any given individual, either smoker or non-smoker, but the-lungs of smokers contained on average about three. times the amount of activity found in non-smokers, the difference amounting to about 5 pc in the whole lung (equivalent to the activity present in the smoke consumed from 100 cigarettes). Slightly greater n"Po concentrations were found in liver and kidney of smokers than of non-smoker~, but the difference may not be significant. For three ofi the 3moker+. separate measurements were made of small portions of bronchus taken from the region of the secondan= bifurcations but in no case was the activity in thesee purtinn.in excess of that expected (on the basi:c of the average for the whole lung) by more than ll•05 pc. This finding does not rule out the possibility uf high coneen- trations existing in very small areas of bronchial epithelium (as claimed: by Radford
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1SRITISH EMVIRh CANCER CAMBA1liNl POR RESI6ARCIt and Hunt) and an attempt is now being, made too tookk for such localised concen- trations by means of autoradiography-.. The possibility of demonstrating the exLstence or otherwise of a process of localised concentration of smoke particies in the human lung is clearly of importance regardless of whether any radiation damage may be.caused by the radionuclide concerned,.. ' .. , Attention has also been given to tlre possibility of high tissue concentrations - of aOPo, and thus,high dose. rates, in Lapps and Esquimaux who consume large amounts of meat of animals which graze on arctic lichens. Lappland reindeer ... meat and lichens have been shown to contain considerable amounts of °0Po originating, presumably, as "natural fall-out" of atmospheric radon.deeay products, and l'evels.in tissue samples from ten human subjects (Esquimaux) so fas examined ' have shown concentrations up to'fifty times normal with correspondingg dose rates _ up to 700 m.rem/year (seven times the normal total natural backgroundd dose rate and some ten times greater than thee highest that has been reported for artificial U4Cs, which also occurs in abnormally large amounts.in aretic'residents). . - . ~ In spite of the apparent importance of t1OPo as a contributor of background radiationn dose to man,, little is known of the nature ofthebiochemical association - of polonium in the body beyond the fact that, unlike most of the ,other alpha- emitting heavy elements, it is not a bone-seeker. In an attempt to see whether polonium might be associated with -SH groups-the xraPo concentrations occurring in some commercially prepared, nonunally. pure, bovine proteins havee been measured. Appreciable levels have been found, particularlyin three separately manufactured batches.of insulin (which has an unusually high content of,-SH , groups) and in one case where the raw pancreas was also available for measurement (by courtesy of Messrs. Burroughs Wellcome) a concentration twenty times ` greater on a dry weight basis was found in the insulin than in the raw material. Dosimetry of Cosmic Radiation , Calculations of the total tissue dose at sea level from relativistic cosmic ray particles havee been carried out, using the results obtained earlier from a large, water Cerenkov detector. Dose rates from the electron-photon component and muons havee been estimated separately as 21-5±2 and 4-5 f1•5 m.rem/year,, making a total dose rate. of 26~L1•5 m~rem/year from these sources (or about a.,', quarter of the total background radiation dose rate). Work on the component ~ due to cosmic ray neutrons has shown that this is much less than the figure of 25 m.rem/year (att sea level) that the reports of some other workers had suggested,, butt more precise evaluation of the actual values and their variation is still of importance. A new tissue-equivalent proportional counter, of increased sensitivity, is therefore being built for the. purposee and the possibility of using photographicemulsion techniques is being investigated. O O ~ ~ . ~ ~
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Table 1. Concentrations of r'"1'b and ^"1'o in rib bones of cigarctle smokers and non- smokcrv. '""Po-°"fb correlation coH6cicnts:c nonsmokers. 0.61; smokers, 0.83. Cnncentratlons Subject in ash (pc/g): -nopo.:n"pb C 'aNe, sex) - v"Ph n,Po 56, F 57, M 50, M 47, M 76, F 61,F Norrsmokers 0.071 0:021 0.30 .111 .030 .27 .117 - .109 .93 .166 ,074 .45.171 .180 1.05 .172 .124 0.72 Mean z S.E. 58i-4 0.135±.016 0.090s-.0250.62~ .14 Smokers - 76,.M 0.178 0.156 0.86 72,. M .187 .199 1.06 48, M .227 .1230.54 51, M .233 .181 .78 60,M .233 .13R .59 58,M .252 236 .94 55, M .283 .383 1:3553„F .289 .245 0.85 52, M 303 .238 .78: 53, M .336 .275 - .8249,.M .341 .067 .20. 4B, M .352 .601 1.71 54; M .502 .417 0.83 Mean ! S.E. 56 ~ 2I).285 ± .025 0250 ± .040 0.87 ~ .10 The much-more-lilruted data from lung tissue appear in Table 2. At 5.9 '. pc/kg, =1"Pb in heavy smokers is about ' ,4 times that in nonsmokers. (In these ', Cinstances -r^Po was not determined be- cause more than a year elapsed between autopsy and analysis:) Itt is of interest that subject 22 had a IeveD about twice that of other smokers; this finding may reflect the fact that he had' smoked to the day he died,, whereas the others, by desisting about a year before death, had'enabled some clearance of the =10Ph. The correlations between cigarette smokingnnd the concentrations of nuclides in the lungs and skeletons of these subjects indicate that smoke is a significant source of intake of these nuelides. However, if we assume that our measurements represent the whole body, the known levels of afoPo in smoke (1, 2, 9) cannot account for the higher skcletal concentrations of this nuclide in smokers. If we assume the validity of the exponential model for mlclide metabolism described in the T.C.R.P. report (10),, in which reten- tion in, the body of the =1OPo from smoke is 40 percent, the effective bio- logic half-life is 25 days (10), and the intake of ='ollo is'0.036 pc per cigarette or 0.720 pc per pack [estimated from Kelley's data (9), which appear to best reflect acquisition by smokers], then a one-pack-per-day smoker accunl.ulates at equilibrium only about 10 penf total-body StoPoo fromeigaretacs-only a small fraction of the 600 pc (approxi- mately) in an average man (1d ); even 100-percent retention of the =10Po in the smoke from, the daily smoking of one pack ofeigarettes would lead to a maximum botiy content of 140 pa.. On the other hand, measuremcntson five setsofcigarettes smoked by the method of Kelley, 2 cigarettes per sample, show (Table 3) that the 21nPb activity averages about two-thirds that of the -rnPoo in the smoke.. (Differences between the. amounts of 211Po found by' us and by others probably reflect small differences in procedure;; a more complete report is in preparation.) Thus, if we u.see two-thirds of Kelley's rz1opo activity as a minimum for 210Pb activity [his' values appear to be some- what ]bwer than most others (1. 2„ 4)]i with an estimated biologically effective half-life of 1600 days (12) for "-tnPb, and conditions of intake similar 4u those of %111Pn, a onc-pack-per-day smoker (at equilibrium) accumulates 430 pc (estimated)) of ztopb more than does a nonsmoker. This' argument is analogous to an earlier statement (11) that, although conccntration, of aloPo in tissue is important because it pro- duces the actual dose,, very little is acquired directly from food, water;, and air-an amnuntt about equal to our estimate from cigaret¢es: Its precursor,. ""Pb, is usually the primary nuclid6 available to and stored by the body' (11). If the rib.is considered to represent the skeietonl the radiation dose to the ~ 1 t k 1 f a m0ker f m the aC ns ro f b l n Table 3. e1"Po and "Pb (t'br ei¢arette) in five samples of cigarette smoke. Avcrage ratio ~ S.D.,..66 m .23.. a°Pa (x) f10Pb (PC) n"Pb : e"po. 0.023 0.017' .16 .027 .01.8 . .66 016 015 - 94 . .Ot8 . .006 . .31 .020 .013 .65 14C, 20 mrem/year; and external sources, 100 mrcm/year (13). Thus, doubling the dose from the 210Pb-dcray chain would increasethe skeletal dose by as much as 30 percent;:on the other hand, if the effective dose is that de- livered to the 10-µ layer of surface-' cells of the bone, the increase in effec• tive dose from smoke would be only about 8 percent.. Our data demonstrate that, when one assesses the origins of these two nu- clides in the human body, serious cotf-. sideraRion should be given tothe smok• inghahits of the populations concerned. This consideration is particularly im- portant in epidemiological studies of low-level radiation, since the 210P@b serics: contributes a substantial fraction of the skeletal dose resulting from in- ternal emitters; if not of the total skele- tal dose. Conversely, because of the tangible contribution of cigarette smok- ing to the skeletal dose,, the incidence in smokers of diseases attributable to radiation (such ass osteosarcoma and leukemia)) deser+ess more than passing interest. . RIcHARn B. HOLTZMA~' - FRnNK H. ILCCwtcr- Radinlogical PHysicsDivisfon, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Soudi Cn<r Avenue, Argonne, 1llinais 60439 Rererencs aud Nater . 1. 1- P. Radford and V. R. Hunt, Sclence 10 247(196C). 2 C. n- Hill, Nature 206. 421 (1965), 3. B. Rniewsky ar.d W. SmalEaten, Idid, 1rr 12t3 (1966). 4. E. S. Ferri and E. 1. Ranna, PubRe Hrn4r. ReRI. U:S. 81.. 121 (1966). 5. C.. Co¢biu and M. & Hnbb; Tn6ero14i(19). u (1951). 6. R. E. Nushaum, E, M. aua T. C. Gilmnvr. S. L. IDIDIU,. Arc6. Emlrnn, . Xeulrh 10. =- --— m 2 vco Table -. Concentrannns o s e e O a no P lune' tissue of cigarette smokers and non- stbBi--tnLO series, Inratlioac[iVe e ui- 7' R. B. Holtzmon, Healrh Pkyr: 9, 381 ' Oa`t' smokers. 4 a. -. ibid- 11, 477 (1965). )ibrium with 0.135 pe of 2"'Pb perQ 9T. FrCeney, Scumce 149,.537 (19651. Sub)ect 10. lurern. Cnmm. Ratlinl. ProtecNen t19ya. ^"Pb gram of bone ash,, is about 50 mrem/O Cnmmiuee 11,. rlenla. Phyx. 3, I(19601. Age - Sea (Pa/kg) year-bf a total skeletal dose rate of~a 11. R. B. Huhcman, ibid. 10, 763 (1964). " 12. -, ibid. s;.315 (a96i):. Non.rmokers about 185 mrem/ycar. In this calcula-,0 13. Vnhcd Nation,: Report of rhe Suiemlfir mrrreo nn rkc EOen.r o). Atarnru Rn•linn'" F- 2.4 tion it was assumed that the relative(e] Surnl. r6.(.452r6)'(1963), pp+2n7, 414:8 I 53 49 M 0.6 biologic effectiveness for alpha particles.l Rowland! in Argorme NminnalLab. Ra4M' Smokerr Pbya Div. Annucl' RepL ANL-1tM0 Ow''- 50 M 10.0 is 10,, that the dose is homogene(Jusly!A p. 65. 64 M 4.3 distributed, and that the doses contrib- 14. w°rk nerl°rrnea ander the surnica ar'° AEC. we rhank wllliam Lester far rupl" 53 F 4.3utCdby the various sources are1'-'ORa- mee bonc specimms and case hi4aricr. 56 M 5.7. 2-sRa series, 15 mrem/year; 40K and an lune 1966 1260 SCIENCE, Vof- tr' ~ Alpha peerc' Pmtftl Abs rhon's srrlrmv parahn in(r'rlc lins). rriden lllr/ G Fcnunr nIS.4ess globuli on tlo. Jacrd duclioi fintmH In a (1) fc preparc lnto n and B Jld no proton, author: and to sensitia n1f15 il e1 i0em injccllc n_ glot I had Injectic serum mcreas nf pan ]+r re; LL'fum sJ pen 159.5 aad 6, cvnlly Irun of 14 aht fraparz mamgr 11s pr brming nn in C.Gons d. lfo y of +hqunr 1hr:r `vti/cct ^lu t •14ve.) .4 •kir sefl.rr iad /4Vrt
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achea 4 C. R~ Hill, Nutu.e 208, 423 (1965). r n. Rxl=~ky and w: Sunlnorcn, Ihta, 209, le 1). -1112' (1966). n has 6. E. 9. Feai and'E„ r.. Baraua, Pnbtlc Nenlth GRrpr. U.S. St,. 121 (196ti): ' two ~r . ,NnvemECr 196fi" tBe-'+ t);eir Little and Radford's demonstration tof~ M that their data and conclusions (1), Awpo 4 showing the existence of areas of rela- t in- esti- these dose r to -lobe eries ured leiial dose dose 1 by rake `rom in- the Ra- rasi9 mu- neat t re- i[h- s r o His- na s of ere- ab- rble ath wed act. ade IR. ) tivelY high levels of 2I"Po in human ~ lung tissue, do not disagree (despite /, appearanees too the contrary) with those of Hill (2) and Rajewsky and Stahl- hofett (3) is significant. One should t note, however, that the discrepancies j are still not fully resolved either in the '' light of existing data or regarding { some theoretical considerations: First, the autoradiographic meas- urements by Hill (2) on specimenss of vacuum-dried epithelium; fromm brorn chial bifurcations taken from smokers, showed an upper limit of o-activity of. 0.01 pc/cm', equivalent to a concentration of lesss than 2' pc/g. This upper limit is thus quite a little lower than the average value of 4.5 pe per gram of wet tissue determined from similar specimens by Little et al: (1). Second, this latter specific activ- ity of epithelium is'higher than that of dried smoke, 2 pclg, as shown by Kelley (4) and Hill (2) ) and confirme& by us; it could be explained by pref- erential retention of thee nuclidcin the tissue over other components of the smoke, but this point is not established. Finally, thc origin of the high levels of 210Po (up to 7 pe/g)(I),.especially iil nonsmokers, is of interest since the location at the bifurcations indicates that it' is acquired by precipitation of that nuclide itself, or of itsparent -t"Pb, from inhaled air. Thus these tissues;, if they weigh 0.1 g and the concen- ttation is 4: po/'g, might contain a total of 0.4 pc, a quantity representing the total weekly intake of =tvPo or I Il day's intake of =t"Ph. Consideu- J tt phystcal half-hfe, 138 days. Cleanance i ' ng that only a small fractuon of the activity, say 5 percent, precipitates in ' these areas, the rate of build-up of '1"Po would approach the rate of its t processes operating on the deposited materials would make this build-up still J more unlikely. On the other hand, build- ' tip of "-t"Pb presents these difficulties to a lesser extent, not only because of the `, higher concentrations in the atmosphere (0.02 pc of-t"Pb per cubic meter com- t paredto about 0.002' pc of -tnPo) but ,. "'T also because off the much longerr half- sa. /life off the parent, 21 years. Lead, te- 11) however, may be more mobile in soft ~3. tissues. s5 1 3 FEBRUARY 1967 lt appears from thesespeculations that more.evidence.isnecessary'because of the high concentrations of ""Po with the consequently high radiation level. Detailed and careful analyscs,, similar to thosee of Little et al. (1)„ and autoradiographic studies of the distribution of =1"Pb in the lung could perhaps establish the existence of high localized eoncentrationsof='oPo. Such studies might also provide insight into the. origin and metabolism of =10Pb andY11Po. RICrLARO B. HOLTZMAN Radiological Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 SouthCass Avenue,. Argonne, Illinois RererenKs 1. J. B. Little, E. P. Radford, Jr:. H- L. Mc- ComEs,. V. R. Hunt, Ncn Enri. 1. Med. 373, 1143 (1965). 2. C. R. Hitl, Nnture 30E. 423 (1965): 3. B. Rai~sky andW. 5tshlhnren, ib:d. 209, 1312 (1966) - 4. T_ F. Kelley, Srimc. 149, 537. (19657. 29 December 1966 - cannot,, in general, be distinguished from line broadening (4). The interpretation of their infrared absorption data is also erroneuus, Coles (5) has pointed out: "The syntheticcar- bonate apatites have infrared spectra very different from those of other apa- tites: Distinguishing featuress are the strong carbonate band at about 1450cm-r and lack of resolution of the main POt-a band into a doublet."' By "main PO,-s band,° Colesap- parently means the pronounccd absorp- tion at about 1050 cm-1. A similar lack of resolution has been observed in the absorption band at about 600 cm-', and was described by Zapanta- LxGeroseral. (6): "This band [635em-11 is only very weakly present or even absent.in the spectra of synthetic carbonate apatite, staffelite (carbonata F-apatire), and biological apatite. This absence is bclieved due to the presence f h i " b Uo t e car onate on. ! It is this reduction of resolution (ab- Infrared Absorption of Carbonate Apat-rteTertuine and Posner (1) have con- cludcd that the inorganic component of rat bone is composed of a two- phase mixture of crystalline and amorphous (noncrystalline) calcium phosphate. This they have done through consideration of a. "splitting fraction measurement for the 600 cm-t' phos- phate ion antisymmetric bending fre- quency in the calcium phosphates." They' state that they "found a straight linc correlation between the' degree of this infrared splitting and percentage erystallinity (weight fraction of crystal- line apatite) in synthetic samples con- taining thesetwo phases." They refer to these synthetic substances as hy- droxyapatite even though the substance of bone is' not hydroxyapatitc (2) and state that carbonate apalites were ex- cluded from their investigation. Their basis for excluding the carbonate apa- titesiis related to the size of individual erystallites in rat bone. There is no fundamental theory that will permit one to deduce the chemical composition of a crystalline phase from a knowledge of the size of the crystals, as Termine and Posner have done. Elsewhere Posner et al: (3) ha4c at- tempted too determine the ^degree of crystallinity" of bone mineral by meas- uring linebrotdening of x-ray diffrac- tion maxima, but incipient line splitting sence of splitting) that Termine.andPosner (1) used as a criterion to indi- cate the presence of an. amorphous phase in rat bone, although the same' reduction of resolution occurs for a holocrystallinc, mineralogical carbonate apatite (6). Furthermore, although bone has beenn examined by both electron microscopy and electron diffraction by' several investigators,, no one has pre- sented direce evidence of the existence of an amorphous inorganic phase, either phosphate or carbonate. Thus, Termine and Posner have wrongly assumed that ratt bone is a simple hydroxyapatite (instead; of a car- bonate hydroxyapatite)) and have used a measurement that is spurious when carbonate.apatite is present. They have' furnished no evidence that an amorphous phase is present in bone. DUNCAN MCCONNELL Ohio Stute Unrversity, Columbus 43210 Referenses t. J. 0. Termine and A. S. Pnsner. Soienoe 153, 1523 (1966). 2. n. MIConnell. ibid'. 6UE, 241 (1962): Clin. Orrhnv.. 23, 253 (1962); Amer. Mrneral. 45,. 209 (19t0), 3. A- S. Posner, E. 0. Eans. R. A. HarMTl. r.. Zipkin, ArnG. 0,.1 Riol: 8. 549 (1963): 4. O.. Md'nnnclt, :bid. 10, 421 (1965). Q I 5. ]. L, [nlea thesis. Univcrsiry of Utah (196T).Q 6. R, Zapnm-LeGerus. 1. P.. Lea=rns, E Kline, O. R. Trnutz, J. Drnt. Re.s. 730 (196). 46 ?B November 1966 . ~0 In our original report (I),, we did%j not assign. either structural or chemicalVl identity to the poorly crystallized, apa- titirfraction of bone mineral,, since the exactt nature of bone apatite isa matter of considerable debate (2). In 607
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:Xw,gma" mqi .as . r . . mr,liC r. . , ,r. - oYllilr8f m IiY1 EAfi $i nh 'k 2^R^_-2fHr (1955) L ..f IE t s J~I l1q/ ~,fj LLL,, tJ Sjt%-i F, t ll til i t ' ~}ormnufdir und cs .vcrdei ... cinu•ickung.ai i +C: f Aus dem, Hahn-Mcitncr-Institut fiir Kcrnforsclmng, Berlin .. Abteilung Strnblenphysik • Die natiirlichc Stra111ea1cinlvirlcnna auf den Alcm(ral:t* ~. ~ . . .. _ ~ Von ~ .. . ~ .. N'. JACOat Mit 5Teatabbildungon i I i rs i am ' . .. (&inyrganym mnl3. alni 1965) !:] '1.Einlei(ung' . .. ?°:; " Die natiirliehe. Strahlt:ncimvirkune aul den Afenschen ist einer der wichtie tcn .Anhaltspunkte fur die Festsetzungdcr hoclistanfissigen StrahlenbelastunZ von. _ beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen und derBeviilkerung. Der At.emtrakt. _ nimmt dabei im Vergleicb zu den andcren Organen und Geweben desmenschlicheri . _ 3iorpers eine Sonderstellung ein, da irdu]ge der Inhalation der naturlichcrweise in der Atemlaftenthaltenen kurzlebigen ZerfalIsprodukte des Radons (Rn = Rnr==) ; nnd Thoruns (Tn = Rn220) insbesondere das Epithelgewebeder ]3ronchicnwidder Trachea einer erheblichen zusatzlichen a-Strahleneinwirkung ausgesetzt ist. ~iDiequantitative Ahschatzrmt; der Inlmlationsdosis.im Atemtrakt stollt jedoch. _ auf erbcbGche $clnvierigkeit.en, dad deAkafivitats- iind Dosisverteilung der Rn-und Tn-7.erfallsproduktc im.Atietntrakt nicht nur durehh ihre Abscheidung in dcn ein- - zelnen Rcgionen des Atcnrtrakts bei der Inhalat.ion,.sondern auch durclt die Transport- und Ausscheidungsprozesse in der Limge entsclieidend bestiutwtwirdL " Ferner ist die Absorption der. a-Strahlnng in der Schlcimschicht und dom Epithnl- geme.be der Atemwege zu berucksiclitligen..... Diesc Faktoren mi¢den bei den zabireichen vor 1964 durchgefiiluten Ab- eehntzungen der Inhalationsdosis dw-ch Rn- und Tn-Zcrfallsprodukte (tigl. u. a. SnApueo 1956,. Scunwua et' al. 1967; CxArrnsrzLArrn et al. 1956, HntrTQVIST 1956, - AURAND et al. 1957, JAauar 196`L) nicht oder nur teilweise beritieksichtie . Bei denn angewandten AbsdratzungsverfaLren wurden.st•atische BudiuEvngenvorausgesetzt', und clie mittlcre LungCndosisbzws dic wittlcrc.Dosis in der Tracheaohne Beriick- ' sichtigung der Schlcunahsorption abecschatzt. . - Erat 1964 hnbcn gleirdizeitig ALTSHULER (1964), J.acour (1964) und THOMAS ^ (1964)) den Versur.hh gemacht, die Akticit:its- und Dosisvert.eilung itn Atetntraktbei Inhalation von Rn-Zcrfallsprodul:t-en auf Grnnd einer dynanuschem Analyse • unterBeriicksichti6ungallerohenemrahntenk'+.ktnrenzucrmittelnund,gelangten . dabei zu.Nreitgehend iiberoinsthTUUenden Schlu6folgenmgen. Tn der vorliegeuden Arbeit wird die v-om Verfasser angegebene Analysein enceiterter und vurbesserter ~ ' Enveitertes Mnnuskript eines Vortrags auf der Tagung der Deutschen Gos `e119chaft f3i _ Biophysik in HomburgJSaar vnm, 23; bis 24. Aprd 1965. . . 3 T-=K:A: actigen Annl_ der einzelnen 2. Akt t7ber die ~ ~ zahh'+ciche~'tf, ' inderbodmu ' slndinTab-' Tabell RaB (Pb= RaC (Bi"- RaC' (Po= RaA (Po° Rn (Rn= RaD (PW RaE (Bi' RaF (Po- •Iyr (Rn ThA (Po' ThE (Pb -.'... ThC (Bi= ThC' (Pd ..~T1.C" (Tll `In1-_ gen eom ra- nulaidcn w~ ~ Rn, Tn unr~ Aktivitat ir. , bezug amr d ~ CD -4 k Entschc und ThB- I fily die Lw. ftir die Znb mal'en Atem der Lunoc~ Ffu' die sustand, dir
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-Diu naturliche StrahlencinieiFkring-rRrtden-Atemtrakt'- F'orm auf die nntCvliche Inhalation von Rn• und Tn-ZerSallsprodukten angewandt, und csiverden die daraus eich crgcb.ravlen Folgcrungen fiir die natiirliche Strahleti- - einwirkunga.uf den menschlichcn ALerntrakt diskutiert. Ausga aspmtkt ei.ner dbr- artigen Analyse bildet die Kenntnis der Aktivit5tund des Vertcilungszustandes. ~ der cinzeluen Nuklidein der Alemltrft., ' -2. Aktivitut rtnd l'erteilungszuslaaid der Rn• und Ttt-Zerlallsproduktc in nunnaler LtBt Ober die Aktiviti[t der Rn- und Tn-Zerfallsprodukte in normaler Luft liegen "- zohlreicheAlossungenvor..Dicresulticrendenllitticlu•ertederspezifiscLenAktivitlit' - in dcrbodennahen Lvft, die den folgenden Betracht.ungen zugrunde gelcbt t+vrden,. sind in Tab. I zusammengestellt (vg1. JACOnr 1962, 11963). Die.geriugcn Abrreichun- - ' roon Rn; Tn.und ileren$crfailsprwlukLert isder bodenwl.en LuJt. Rn (Rni49) ~ RaA (PoY1B)~ RaB (Pb°u). ' RaC (Biara) RaC" (Por")~. ~~ -RAD (Pb:'e). -~RaE (Ri=uo) RaF (Puma). . Tn (Rn>a^)~. ~ ThA (Pn'"). ' ThB (Pbf9).- ThC (Bienx) .. - ThC~ (Pon1)., .. THC" (TP3°6) , Zerfallsart I Iialb.vertezeit spez. Aktiv. (pCifm=) 3,02 d 100 I 3,05 min 100 26,8 miu 100 19,7 min 100 1,6-10-4a 100 10,4 a 5,0 d 13s d 55 a 0,16e 10,6 li 60,5 min 3-10-'a 3,1 min * In 1- 2mHdheuber dem Erdboden. TriiPrfreier Anteil (°lo) 100 1 0 0 gen vom radioaktiven Gleichge..icbt z.vischen Rn und'seinen kualebigcn Fu1ge- nukliden vvrden vevracblassigt. Da in gesehlnssenen Rhumen die Aktivitat von -Rn, Tn und ihren kurzlebigen Zeri'allsprodukten v.um Teil ein Alehrfaches ihrer ~l - Aktivitut in Freiluft rrreieht durften diean~ennmmcncrr Werte \tininral.eertein bezug suf dre mittlere Aktivi~tat der Atenduftt darntellen.' 5 ~-, .t i(1 .. Entselicidend itv die 6trahlcnbclustung ist die Inhalation von RuA, RaB„RaC und ThE. Denrgegettiiber istt die Inhalation von Rn,. RaC', Tny ThA, The' + ThC" ° i i .. rc_ .a.e.. r.._...... i.a.._.:--..,. ,.1...,. R..A-a...... \i't.. -+..b. ,.:,.A Mtr Ai- o-l, -fur die Inhalation von RaD und RaF'(Fo21O), zunral deren Aktivitat in der nor- r . alcn Atcmluft sehr klein ist und die biologische Halbwertszeit dieser Nuklide in m ' der Lrrlgemlehrere Tagenicht tlbersteigt- - r :~,`~ Fur die Abscheidung.der Zerfallsprodukte im Atemtrakt ist der Verteilungs- zvstand dieser Nuklide in der Luft von besonderer \irichtigkeit. Die bcun Zerfall Tabdle 1. Nittkre apr:ife.cd,e A/diritiir nnd zniHlerer Anteii trGgerJreeer ~dtome
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von Rn bzw. Tn gebildeten Atomc der Folgenuklidc licgen zunachst in Form freier Atonle bzw. lonen vor. Ihr 'Diffusionskoeffizicnt in Luft bctrao 0,05 crnT16 (CHAMEERLALI et al. 1956). Da es sich hicrbciI - im Gegonsatz zu den Edc7gaseq Rn bzw. Tn' - urn Schwermetalle handclt,, lagern siclrI dieso Atome innorhalb kurz.ar Zeit an das in der Luft, stets vorhandenc Aerosol am. Bci normalen Acroaol. verhultnissen lictr3gtdie IIalbwertszeit f{ir die Anlagerung der tr5gerfreiun Atome an das AcrosolIetwa 1 min (JACOnr 1961,.1963).Dcr int station3ren Zustand resu!- e tierende mittlereAnteil der trigerfreien Atome bztv. Ionenn bei den Cinzelnon. - IQulrliden ist in Tab. 1 angegeben. Danach licgen i]n ll-ittcl zwar nuch anuahernd100%d der TIvA-Atome und etwa 25% der 1LaA-Atonle in tr:iocrfrcicr Form vor, OillusiOntkoelnxientlM-6eml/5] ra q ,aun~ • M°NXFN nal(196]] a xNUM<Nn,KE1/'. Y. .ry jedoclt sind die Atome der foloenden Nuklide in den Zerfallsreihen praktischIallecan Aerosolteiluheq, angulagcrt. -. Die Abschciduog der anl ACruscl angclugerteui Zcrfallsproduktcitn Atcnitrukt hangt von der GroBenvcrtcilung, ilules Trageraerosolsabs l;x- perimentellc Untersuchungen uber diese CroBen- vcrtcilung des Tragcracrosols von RaB bz7v. RaC mid ThBbzw. ThC in normaler Luft isvrden iu, den letztcn 3 Jahren mit Hilfeverschiedenor hfethoden durchgefuhrt, deren Ergebtisse Lr Abb. I aufgctragen sind. Die DleBpunlcte von MollREx und STrBRSTADr (1063) bcruben auf n1es- sungen der elektrischen Beweglichkeit,, die von ScavuANx (196:3)au£Abscheidmnessungen in einer Goetzschen Aerosolacut.rifl]go. Fernor ist der mitt- lere Diffusionskoeffizicnt der Trii~ertcilNhen v~n V . ~ 1 R.1! M...ll~ll .,..A Ato C4.-,...- .V- °n m wt I mo rw auf Grund zahlrcicher blessuneon der Dilfusions- 7etlehenradius[myli AAL.1. ar8oenlelte{IUnS ~es natiML:Ka,n ~+5uaemsoty.en Ran b=x- RaC abscheidung der Teilchen in durchstromten Roh• ren angegeben (JAConr 1961). DieVerteilung er- streckt sich iibcr cinen Bcreich des Teilchcnradius von etwa 10 - 150 mEe, dem ein Bcrcichdes Diffusionskocffizientcn der Te9ehea von etwa 10-°- 10-'Cltlp1a enl.spricht. Der 50%-Wert der VerteihmgliegE bei einem Teilchenrndius von etwa 40'mu0 bzrv. einem Diff_ usionskoeffi-r.ienten von 1• 10-s em'js: Die t7bereinsti]muungg der Erbebnisse trotz der versehiedenen , 114eBmethoden und:brtdich versehiedenen Acrosnlverhaltnisse IaBt darauf schlie6en, daB dierelative GroBencei.r.ilung des Trageraerosols von RaE bzw. RaC und ThB bzw•. ThC in normaler Luft nur geringenSchwa]lkungen unterarorfen ist. " Bei der L]halation von Rn- und Tn-Zcrfallsprodukten sind somit zwei Kompo- nenten zu berueksichtigen: Tragerfteia radioaktive Atomemit einem Diffusions, koeffizienten von 0,05 crosjs und angelagertc radioaktive Atome, deren Triiger- teilehen eioen Diffnsionskoeffizir.nten von 10-6 -10-i cmEjs besitzen. Bei der fol- 1- gendcn Diskussion der Abschcidung von Zcrfnllsproduktcn in donI vcrschicdcnen Regiouen desAteintrakts evrden derin Tab: 1 angegebeneAnteil der tragerfreien - Atome mtd cine relative GrliBenl•orteilung dos Trageraerosolsentsprechendder . ausgezogenen Kurve in Abb. I zugrunde gelegt. Dic n '1{,Ile-lelin. Vbcr (lie Abschei Atentraktt licgcn nu! ]]ielten bci Messungc~ RaB bzw. RaG itn g .. bcubachtete eine Cr norma]cr Luft und c -Rrhohung bci Filteru.freier radioalctiver' : _ et al" ( jtfndelll der ]ilenschli. ergab sich cinc.Abscl aktive Atonic, jedoe rnittderen Diffusionsh : auf Teilchen nlitt ei 3fittelwcrtdes natiii Abb. 1), so ergibt sicl _ - phasevon etiva.0,06 die Strahlcnbehhstun : produkten praktiseL verursacht nird. . Ansonsten liegen ; ^ von Rn- odcr Tn-Z~ :' der Anteil_trugcrfrei - legerter Atome brka - I produkte in den eitrn an diecon FIxDEls: Theoric der Abschei Dieser Abschatzr. modell zugrunde ge': vorsieht, vou denen die respiratorisebe 2. Atelnwegeund ihre tionslage entsprcchc Landalilschen \Iodt~ ein Lungenvolwuen . Ferner vavrden fo1gAtembcdingu o•en :_ - o.= 151/min; Aten LAl:naln. (1950, 19t - Inspirationsphaseu ' liugcnden Pausen v( - _ Die Absebeidun, im wesentlichen du efickt), SedimcntaUi ~ 0r fi'u die angegebene ,1 rechneten \Yerten a- tA
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i F 7 r . .. . .. _ . . ' {V: Jncoar, , . _ . .. . . 286 mit cinem Radfus r>- 0,114 wesontlich zur Abschcidung bci~ und sind dahcr fiir - dieAbscheidung dcr ]cn.rzlcbigen Ru- und Tn-7.crfallsprodukte im Vergleic}t zur ' . ALschcidung durch Diffusion nur von,geringer 13edcutung. . Die Abschciitung.durch Diffusion ivurde.nach dor von Goltrn.FS und ]iErYEDy. .. (1948) abgelciteten Torme] fiir die DiflusionsaliscLeidung in zy)indrischen,Rohron Tabelle 2. LuiJcnrnode]!'(nach LAnaxun)'. , 4 i egion rtzahl Dtvch mess¢r [ crn] ~'~ge [,ctn] i Obor. ASChe [cm°) Vnlu. '' mmn . [em°] Ru~'t~Ons- merkmal 1..Trachea - 1 1,6 12 00 24 Konduktiee 2. HnuptLronchien 2 1,0 6 40 f0 Zouc mit 3. Lobare Bronch. 12 0,4 3 45 5 Ciliarepithel 4.. Seglnentale Br. 100 ' 0.2 1,5 100 b 5. Suhne~ment: Br. 800 - 0;1L 0,5 200 10 6. Tervninale Br. 6. 90` 0,06 0,3 ' 3400 I 50 I 7. Rrsp'uator. ]ic 2'- 90` 0,05 0,15 4700 60 P,cspiiaton. S. A7veol. Duct. 5- 10` 0,04 0,05 300U0'I 300 . .anc mig 9. Alveol. Sacc. 5• 10' 0,0 4 ~250000y 2500 Alveolem r ., " (Inspirationslage: korrioiert auf ein Lungenvolnmenron 3000.cm`) " beilaminarer StrSmtmg berechnet (ygl. auch FD~cas 1964). Danach betragt die Abscheiden•ahrscheinlichkeit po, die die Anzahl der im Rohrdnrch Diffusion ab- geaeliiedenen Teilahen'im \rcrhultnis zor Zahl der einst'.r6mendcn'I'eilchen angibt, ~ po-4,07-xT/`-2,4-a-0,446-x4/° fur z < 0,0196 bzw. . , . (Sa) . . PD y 1- O,SiL91. • e-'~"4 z- 0,0975 - e"14•' s-_0;0325 • fu 01 0 D b i e-1° z (1b) t . . r x> , 56. a e ist - . x=n-L•Df2v=2D[f~ i d b ' .- - (2)) - e nzusetzon, wo ei D er DiffuFionskocft izient drr Teilchen, L die Rohrl3hoe,. vdcr LuRdurchsatz, q+ der Rohrdurchmesser und~ t= P/v die rnittlere Veric'cilzeit der Luftin dem R.ohr mitt dem Vo)umen V ist. Die Ahscheidecataist somit't eineFunktion des PrndulctsD• l(Diffusionskocffizicnfmal \'erweilzcit)i - . Die gesamte Abscheidewahrscheinlichkcitp+ in oiner Region i des Atemtrakts ergibt sich durch Konrbination der einzelnen Abscbeidewahrseheinlichkeiten fur Diffusion~yS„ TragheitP2, und Sediment.ation p'~ zu _ . Pf=Tn+ Pa+Ts-1~D'Pcr-Pio-P{r'PSi-p`n'PiT-P~. : (vgl. LAxnxrri,.19u0). Die Abscheiderate Rr in der Region i,.die die Anzahl der in - dieser Region abgeschiedanen Tcilchen im Verh:~ltnis zur Gesamtzahl dar einge- atmeten Teilchen angibt, isvrdee naah dem von Leanexc. (1950) angegebenen sukzessiven VcrfAhren berechnet. Dieses \Perfahren beriicksichtigt die Vorfiltenung In den vorgeschaltetcn Re tonendes Atcmtrakts wahrend.dcr enizelnen Phasen . derAtemporiode. Abb. 2 zeigt die.t•csulticrendeADsaheidcrate nn geaamtcn Bron- chialbaum (Region.l - 6) und nn Alveularbereich (Region 7 9)in Abbangi~+l:cit vom Radiusbzrr. Diffusionskocffiiient der eingcatmeten Teilchen. Im IIronchial- batm dcr I rcich durel aeigt {aein, Absck Ir I zelnrr freier lurtg' zngrn traoei rate i _51vco teruni :~ gegen 4tnm, haltni, maler die er (rgl. L• irn Be: Lcuuni Di, Ergebr Atenit: die vor sinnvo in Tah. Merte Region bereich 11 Die tigen e; \\ ert d Inlralat filtcrunn in den bei \Tas
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Die nat(Srlidw Strahirnoinwirkung nnr dcn Atcmtrakt -• 285 rm fraicr OJ 0 Zly nnerlhalb Aerosol- n At:ome rd resul- iuzelnan nahcrnd )rm vor, uklide in dteilchen ~lagertcn von dbr ab. . Ex- GrSBen- zw. RaC urden in hiedener nisse in kte von auf Tfes- die von r in einer ler mitt- hen von tcl -ts ffut ." on Roh- lung er- enradius reilchen liegt bei .ten von iedenen hlieBen, taG und: ist. Iiompo- Tusions- Tr3ger-- der fol- iedencn erfrcicn end der . 3. Regionale Abscbcidm~g der 7.erlhilsprodnktn im Atetntrakt Vber die Abschcidungvon Rn- und Tu=Zet•f.allshrodulcten in1 ntensclilichen Atcmtrakt liegen nur wenige direkte 1lfessungcn vor. AuxnvD ett al. (1955) or- hjelt'cn bei Iltessungcn an verscbicdencn Orten Werte fiir die Abaahoidcrats von . RaB hzw..RaC im gesamtien Atcmtrakt zNvischem 20 nnd 40%. Sn,trrno (1950) beobachtete cinef',esamtabschcidcratc von 20 -- 30% fiir RaB bzw. RaC in norrnaler Luft und von 70 - 80% , bei vorherigerFilterung der Luft. Die starke Erhnhung bei Filtcrung der Luft ist auf die Zunalunc des rclatiken Anteils trager- freier radioaktivcrAtome zuruckzufuhrem. Ferner liegon Uutcrsuchungen von (7fuatssFnt--+rs ct al. (1950) iiber dieAbschcidungvon ThB in einem naturgetrmren liodell der mensehlichen Trachea vor. I3ei eiuean Afinutcnvolumenn von 15 ]fmin ergab sicheineAbscheiderate in der Trachea von et.ra 15%e fiir tragerfreie.radio- aktn-e Atane, jedoch nur etwa0,04n/a bei ThB-markierten Teilchen mit einem nritEleren Diffusionskocffzienten von 3• 10-" cm'js. Reclinet man letzteren 11'ent . auf Teilehen mit cinem DiHLsionsleoeffizient von S• 10-s crn2fs um,, der dem llittelo'ert des natiirlioli radioaktiven Aerosols in normaler Luft entspricht (vgF. Abb.. 1), so ergibt sichcine Abscheiderate,in der Trachea wahrend der Inspirations- phase von cta•n 0,06%. Cuerzxt:Ri.Aix et aL sclilossen aus.ihren Ergubaissen,,da(S die St+ahleiibclastung der Trachea und Bronchien bci Inhalation von Rn-ZcrPalls- produkt.en praktisch allcin durch die tragerfreien RaA-Attirne in der Ateniluft verursacht wird. Ansonsten liegen jedoch keine direkten Messungen der regionalen Abschcidung von Rn- odor Tn-Zer4illnprodultten im menschllehen Atemtrakt vor. Da je.doch dcr Aril.eil tragerfreier Atome und die• Griillcnvertcilung des Trageraerosols ange- laprrtcr Atome bekannt ist, bcsteht die \ISglichkcit, (lie Abscheidung der Zerfalls- produkte in den einzelnen Regionen des.mcnscltlichen At.emtrakts in -Anlehnung an die von FIrDErsE~ (1935) und sp5ter von LexnnuL (1950,19G3) verbesserte Theorie der Abscheidung von Acrosnlen im Atemtrakt abznsehatzen. Dieser Absehatzung wurde.das von LAN DAxL ('1950,.19G3) angeo bene Lungen- modell zngnrnde.gelegti, das eine Unterteilung des Atemtraktin ncun Regionen .vorsieht,.von denen sechs auf die konduletive Zone (BronchialP,aum) mrd drei anf dic respiratorische Zone (itllveolarbereich) entrallen- In Tab. 2ist die Anzahl der Atcuncege und ihre Dimcnsionen in den eire.clncn Regionen wuhrend der Inspira- tianslage ent.sprechenddiasern 711odu1l angegeben. Gegeniibec demurspriinglichea Landahlschen Dfodcll nurden die Dimensionen im 9lveolarbcreich geringfugig auf cin Lungenvolmnen von etwa 300&cma s'ahrend der Lrspirationslage erweitcrt. Ferner ivuaden folgende inu'tfit.tel fiir den erwaehsnnen 114ensehen zutreffcnden Atembedinevngen zngrmide gclegt: Atamvohuuen V- 1 1;: )\finutcnvolumen e = 151jmin;. Atemperiode s= 4s (Atenrfreduenz f S min-r). Entspreehend LASnwuu (1950, 1903) a2trde angcnornmeny daBsicti die Atemperiade auss einer Inspirationsphase und F,kspirationsphase von je 1,5 s Dauer und dazndschem . l~iegenden Pausen von je 0,5 s Dauer znsantmensetzt. .. : Die Abscheidung an den }p:inden der Atemwege nnd im Alveolarbcrcich,crfolgt - im wrsentliehan durch drei Prozesse: Diffusion, Trsghe•.itsabsalicidwrg (Aufprall- . effekt),Sediment.ation-Dic _lbschciilungdurch Tr+aghrit and Sedimentation wurde fur die angegebenen Atembedingungcn ans dcn von LASVr.rm (1950; 1963) be- rcchneten Werten abgeleitet. Jedoeh tragen dSese beiden Prozesse nur boi Tuilchen
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1 sind (Iaher fur m °Sleich zar -y und KEAliEny drischen R.ohren Jolu- men cmi) 24 10 b ~ 10 60 Funktions. merkmul T.onduktiee Zone mit Ciliarepithd 60 P.enpiralor. 300 Zonc mit 500 Alccolen run 3000 em°) ach betragt die :h Diffusion ab. reilchen angibt, (2) die Rohr]ange, !ereVerweilaeit. : ist somit eine ]- les Atemtrakts nlichkcitem fur i'Ps ~ Anznhl der in :ahl den cingt+- ) angegebenen ie \'orfilterung eelnen Ybasen ,samt.en Bron- Abhungigkeit Im Bronchial. ----- - pie natunlicbe Strahlencinwirkung suf den ALclntrakt ' .287baum sink.t die Abseheidung ulit •r.unchmender Tcilchengr8lle infolgeder Abnalime der Dilfusionsabseheidung zunachst ab, durc6llftdLcin breites Minimum iln Be- rcich,von r = 0,01 - 0,2ft und steig4dann infolgeder zunehmcndenAbschcidungdtuch Traghcit und Sedimation ~%viedurum,stark an. Einen cntspreohende.n. Verlnuf zcigtt die Abscheidung im Alveolhrbcrcich, wobei jedoch bei, extrem grofion undkleinen Tcilclren die Vorfilterung im Bronchinlbaumzu ciner starkenAbnahme der Abccheidcrate.fiihrt. .. In 1'ab. 3 istdie result.ierendc Abschciderate dr.t' %crfallsprodukte in denein- zelnen Regionen r1es.Atemtraktsang orc:bcn. Dabei~wurda jeweils derAnteiltruger- freier Atotne (vgl. Tab. L) und die in Abb.. I aufgctragene l.nittlere CrSBenvertei- lung des-Trageraeroso]s. dieserNukliilc - zugrundc gelegt. Daraus folfit,daf3' fGr tr ocrfrcie At.ome ('I'hA) dieAbseheide- .. rate itn IIronchialtiaum etwa 80°/,,,, irn Alreoiarbercich jedoch infolgeder Vorfil- - terung nnr noch etwa 3% betragt.. Dem- geo nil:ben wcrdcn von den angelagerten Atomen (RaC, ThB, ThC) nur etwa 4e/n im Bronchialbaum abgesehieden, jedoch etira. 30% i+a Alveo]arbereichzuriick- gehalten. Fur den gesamten Atemtraktero bt sich bci Inhalation von RaB bcw. 1xaC und ThB bzw. ThCeineAbeeheide- rate von etwa 35%, wobei etnva 0,05 n/o anf die Trachea entfallt. Da die GroIIenver- teilung desTr.[geraerosols dieser Nuklideim Bercich des Abscbeidenunimums ]iegt- (vgl. Abb.4 und:2)] ist zu erwarten,.dafidie ermittelten Abscheideraten in nor- . maler Luft von dm SrUichenAerosolker- hnltnissen wenig ahh5ngi,~~ sind. s s„ leilcnenradivs Ahb, .?- AtrsdmfArrale vnn Arrnsoinn im mcnech- lichen Atemtrak[. in Abh:im_ibkcft yondcr Tcilchcn- gr(,ae (Mn rar LindnNsches LunremnudEll: V=] 1. . • - 4 c: V - 15 t/min) . Die Ergebnisse der Abscltatzung.stehen in Einklang mit dm oben erwahnten Ergebnissen der ecperimentellen Untersuehmtgen der Abschcidcrate im gesamten. Atemtraktund in~der Trachea. Es kann daraus derScliluf5 gezogen werden,.daB die vorliegende.Abschutzlmg,.die auf demLauduldsehen LvngmuuodelDaufbaut,R sinnvoll istund zu weitgeliend richtigen Ergebnissan ftihrt Es sci betont, daf3die in Tab. 3 angegebanen Abschcideraten in denBronchien';rahrsoheinlich Diinimal- wertc darstellcn, da in Wirklicltkeib. keule Streng, lantinare Stromung in diesen Regionenvorliegt. Andererseits ist zu erwarfen, dA die Abscheiderate im Alvcolan- bereich itberschatzt wird. Die vorliegenden Ergebnissebeziehen- sich auf ?<Iundatmung twd beriicksich- tigen eine Vorfilterung im Rachenrannt von 10% bei tnagerfrcicn Atnmen. Dieser t1'ert diirfte sieb Lei,TasenaLmmng auf ctwa 240% o erhohen, xas jedoch nur Uci der Inhalation v6n ThA und RaA von Bedeutung ist. Dcmgegcniiber ist die Vor- filterung des Ttageraerosols iln Nasen-R.achen-Rnum sonrohl bei 11und.als auch d beiNasenaWntmggeringnndhatdahernurgeringenEinIluBaufdicAbscheiderate -4 in den nachfolgenden Regionen des Atemtrakts. - . ~ Cj Cn -G7 a 757137, z`7 1, v . . .. . . - . . . . _ .. ~ F_ . - 4. ~F.'. olflus{unahoenizirntr<m~r~sl -Atlminn 19cscnl/ ~ u..a.o- , nen~m ~ 1 - - ; / / -. ..1 I \ 9,OMn2n _ / ; t iracMa ~ 1S ~ !1 ;.s .:~~
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. 1i'. JAeoer: Tahclle 3 .' A7ifl4rcALeeheidemfender &tfrzlcLr'srn Rn- xnd'.Tn-Zer/atlsprodndYS Deifnhulutlon normuler Gv/t aowvie A7iue4ocrte von Citiaryaschu:indiykeit and Transit.eit in de» vetseA:eAenen Regionu: drs Alcnurnkls 1.Trachea 2.Iiauptbr. S. Lobare Sir. ' 4.. Scgment. Bc. 5. $ubsegm. Br. e. Term. Br. 8 4 8 13 20. 35 Abscheiderate It (v/a) kiaC 'RaA I RaB I ThBf ThCF• 1,5 1 2 3 5 10 0,1 0,08 0,15 . 0,3 0,5 3 0,05 0,03 0,07 0,15 0;4 S Ciliar, gesch u ind. (cmJinin) bd.iedcn u'erden, IL bercich.ausgesehieJ Jlrm"chialbaum au: /lnnahme istjedocP . . DieAktivit4:tsi gesehwindiokcit dei Ciliargewch.e i ndiekc $ronchia2Uaam ab. i`763) bctr9gt siei ndttlere Dioke der I m5d den oberem Br• folgt eine Schlvimal in '0bereinstummun. r- n. wvcaiar- I -$iolo 1l ll • t9 i ' l ~ . o a m er ze t Sh cinem eru aC lSenen ,, 25 30 30' berelah S. . ~ ~ . . , . _. _ . ., . (50°,o AnssclVuiduy uher n • " ~ $ronchien klein ist .,..,..1 .,. ..I, -) r $ B' b hl eun u Sc und Ciliargeschn'ind Atomtrakt ~ 8ff47 h l : ` 34 " 34 ( ahl der AtRma•ego, g a • 100'/o tragerfreie.Atome. . . .. . bewegten $ohlCimsel •; 100%sngelagcrte Atome (nur 7Yggeraerosel). ° . . _ . C.eht man von d 4..CiGsrtransport und Ausscheidung im Atemtrnla' _ aus, so ergeben sich geschu~iridigkcit: u2 Nach ihrer Abscheidung werden die Zerfallsprodakte bnv. ihre Tr'igerpartikel '/ beiden Werte stirrum von den irn Atemtrakt abl`aufcnd'cn Thansportprozessen erfaBt. 7)ie im.Alveolar- F a r 3 t " t i z ncn o wa e e . bercich abgesehiedene Al.-tivitat n-ird zuni Teil dirckt resorhicrt und'~ gclangt.in den rr genem \i'ertenY dor C5. Blutkreislnui Der restliche Teil wird in nochh ungel.larter 1['else moglichern~eise ~~ ~ reich. Als \6tttehcer unter ,\titrvirhungphagoz.-tatiserYrozesse - in dem Flii.sst keits(ilm aufdcm Vp= 0,S crnrtnm, u3 . Alv.eolarepithnl zu den terminalen Bronchien.transportiert,.no er von de,n Ciliar. Schlefms Tt = Ltfuf. ; transport crfaBt .eird. Letzterer Anteil u'ird ebenso u7e die dnekt im Bronehial• ,, ~mitr. T,. _= S nun; 1 ba.um abgeschiedene Aktivitat in,der iiber den Cilien des Bronahialepithels liegen. :.s Eirten Anhaltspm' ,. denn vislctiscn Sclileixndedke den Bronehialbaum herauftransportiert. Wahrend, ergeben dieUntersue'. dieses Transports zerfiillt ein Teil der radioaktiven ~Atn~ne des 2~ uklids,. der Res4 /// der Lungennktirittitl erreieht den Rachenra.um vnd wird durchVersehlueke.n in den Tfagen-Ilarm-Trakt ~ mit einem mitd8crep fibcrfuhrt- Abgescben von der Inhalation sehr kurzlebiger Radtnnuklide (tciez. B- der Lunge«vrden in 37u4), ist somit die.i~u stationaren Zustand sich cuistellende A6tivitatsverteiluug ~ it5t U t h t kti b~ c r s a c e ,.- imr Atemtralct verschieden von der primziren \rerteiluno Ue{~ der Abschcidung und __' ~~~ Aerosols inm I a.,>t,,.rrp.v,es,::. ~ 1.Ausschcidungspbas_ Dies{fektivc Avsschcidun ageschsindiokeitaus.der Lunge bei Tnhalation, von. .nat'urlicheln, mit ThB markieitem Aeroso]'wurde von Aunasn etal (195^.) direkt~~n Brmiehlalbau~- _~ gemessen;Uci drei 1'ersuchspereonen ergabsich iibereinstimmeud eine biolobisebc . '' : Halburertsceit von Tmol = S'h Di etma 90% der im Atemtrakt zuriiekgcbaltenen _~ aus den obigen Retr:;Aktivitatim Alfcolarbereich, abeeseldeden tverden, gibt dieser jVert die Aus• -_ j ~,cs1,Ch.Dauzx~eifelb sclwidunesgeschrrindiokeit van ThB bzw. ThC und RaB hz.v.. Rac aus dern t scin mu6, folt,rt us m 0 ; AlveolarUcreicli (Region 7 - 9) an. Daraus folgt, daB von den im Alveolarbereich _. t O Te, a. 70nmin. --~&bgesehiedenen RaB• bzw. RaC -4lmnen nun etu-a 5o/p, hingcgen bci Inhalation ~J QDie aus dieseu >Jb~ • von ThB ettva 50 % der. Atome vor ihrent Zerfall aus dem Alveotarbereich ausee- 1'. ~ zelnen Regiouen-sind i r W ~ . ~ - . . . ~ . . . rA nu o er(
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Dia naturliche StraLloncinuirkimg auf dcn Atenrtrakt :.IIalbwerLezeit Fif A,uscheidung,uber Iualbarim) kt u'e.15'agerp a r t i kel Dia int_4lveolar- md gelhnat in den - miSglicher.veise :eit~bn auf dern r i(` .l'cm Ciliar- dctirn Bronchial- ialepithcls ]icgen- 3rtiert. Wabrend ~uklids, der Restrgen-Darm-TtaktuuTclide (wiez. B. :ivitatsverteilung Abscheidung und :i Inhalation von , aL (1957) direkt I cine biologisch e uruckgehaltenen ' Wertdie Aus- '. i . RaC aus dem Ah-eolarbereic /111h - n bci Inhalation arbereich ausge- aebioden werden. Im folgcnden wdrd angenonrmen, dali S0% der mts demAlvealar- bereich ausgeschicdenemAtoma dirckt resorbivrt und die restliehutt50°fo iiberdmt I3ronclualbaum ausgcschicden wcrdcn. (vgl. ICRP-Empfclilungcn 1959). Lctztcre jnnahnte ist jedoch nur bei Inhalation von ThB von Bedeutung. ' ' Dic Alctivitiitsvcrt~eilung im Brouchialbaum hflngt von dcr Vcrschicbungs- ~eschaVindigkeit der viskbsem SclLlcimdecke auf den Cilien ab, die 'nn folgenden als -Ciliargc5chw'indigkcit bczeichnet nvni. Sic nimmt mit zunchmender Ticfe im 1:3ronchialbaumm ab. Nach PitOFTZ (1953), nALaAMir (1956)und I$t.DiNTc (1961, Sy63) betrngtsic in der menschliehen Trachea 'nn Mittel 1- 2cm~min, Die plittlere Dicke.der bewegten Schlhimschicht nLnmt von etwa 10 /< in der Trachea und den obcren Bronchien auf wenigcIRin den unterstcn Bronchien ab. Daraus folgt eineScbinimabsoudcrungsrat•e.am Ausgnig der Trachea von . . L• 10-3 - 10- 10-3 enr3 ~min = 7 - 15 esn3ld bt Obercinstimmung ruit dem Ergcbnis einer direL-tcn Messung dieser Grofle bei . einem envachscnen hfenschen (IIn.Dr.u 14161). Da die Oberflaehee der oberen $ronchien laein istim Vergleich zu derjenigcn der antcren Bronchien,, mulE der SchleinrfluBimobcrcnAten.trakt•vutahemd'konstant sein, ZtviachcnSc111eimflu6sund Ciliargeschwindiglieitt ubesteht die Beziehung sL.= zt •=r g:i ' dr' 'W (=r = An, zahl der Atemwege, (pr =.Dm•climesser der Atemwege, dt = mittlere Dicl:e der bewegten Schlcimschiclftin Region i). - Gcht man von dem kfittehvcrts= 7.10-' em?fmin = 10 ciu'(d und d= 10E6 aus, so ergeben sich ftly die aberen Brunchien somit folgende 1Certe der Ciliar- geschwindigkeit:: uz = I cmlmin; ua.= 0,5cm/min;5 u,i = Q15 em(min. Erstere' beiden lrcrtc stimmen mit den Angaben von BAaCr-AV (1037) iibe.rcin und Legen etu•a einnn Faktor 2 iibcrden von DAI1ipTtbi (1056) undPRnFTa (1953) gemes- . sencn. R'erten.der CiliargesehwindigJ;eit vom0,4 bzw. 0,25 cmfmin in diesem Bc- reiali.. Als. llitteiwerte k.onnen danach nno nomitmenwcrden: rcr = 1,5 em•(min; ver= O,S cu./min; vs = 0,3 cmIminy. uq = 0,1 emfmin.. Diee mittlere Transitrcit des Scltleims. Ti= Ltlui (Lt = Lange der ?.tcmwegein Regioru i, vgl. Tab. 2) betrag,t somit: Tr - S min; Ts.= S ntin; T3 = 10 min; Tq = 15 min. Eincn Anbaltspunkt iibcr die Cilinrgrschwnindigkeit in den untcnen Bronehien crgeben dic Untersucllnneen von AtsERT et al. (1955) iiber clie zcitl[cheAndernng der Lwtgcnaktivit.ut bnim \tcusohen nacli Tnlmlation von radioaktivem Eisenstaub mit einem mittleren Teilchenrndius von 1-^tt.. a0 - SO% der Anfangsaktivit-at der Lungc murdet in eincan Zeitraum von 2,1- 2;4h ausgeschieden, n•5hrend die - Restnlctivitat betrachtliclt ]nngsamer ausgeschieden .curde. Da ein erheblicher Teil dieses Aerosols im Bronchialbaum abgesehieden wird (egl. Abb.2), niu6 die 1. Aussclteidungsphase annuhemd der mittleren Transitzeit des Seblcimsi:m ge- samten Bronohialhaum entsprechen, d. h. ess mu6 5' Tc ~$1 - 2,411 sein. Da 4 r-a :, aus den obigen Betrachtmtgen ~ T;rr 40 min folgt, betragt somit Ty .I 7'6 a 1,5 h, Da v zweifellos monoton im Broncbialbaum abnimmt, d. h, ur: xs - u.,:us sein mu13, falgt uy a= 0,02 cmltuin bzw. T6 x^_5min und ub a: 0,001 cm1min bzw. T6 ~ 70 tj r Dioe aus~dicsen>,7bcrlegungen folgenden Niittehe•erte von U.mnd T in den ein- zelnen Regianen sind in Tab. 3 zusatnmengeste0t. .
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"I n n f I ' ' bic natiielichr.9trxhlca,ci,ns'irkang mrfdmrAtcmtt6kt 291 4. Glicd die.radioaktivaNachbildung nus.dem in der Zerfalisrcihevorberge)ten.den p*uklid xn, . . . . . . . Der Aktivit:itsflu6 cincs Nukhds in der Ticfo x ciner Region i betrii.-t s/(x) ' ~-zl•vt!•rcTt-a/(x).DaanderMergangsstellezweieraneinandergrenacndr.r Re- gionen ti und (i + 1) die Bedingung . . ; -- s1. (x.= L) =al+i (x erf-,,llt sein mu6, lautet die Randbedingune fur das Gleiehungssyst.em (4);: z/'ue'n Tt'ul (A) ° zt+r•ut a'n.gt+r'at+a (0) . (5a) ' Dabei ist zu beriicksiehtigcn, da6bei dt:mm jcwcils betrn.ehteten Isluklid der in die terminalen Bronchien (Region 6) cinstr8mende Aktivitats6u6 durch~ den AktivitbtsHu6 aus dern Alveolarbereich (Region 7 -9) gcgebcn u-ird..Nirnmt Innn an, da6 50% der aus dem Alveolarbercich au pesehiedenen, Akticitat iiber den tkonchia)baum abtransportSart werdcn (vgl. Abschn, 4), so folgt sornit fur i= 6 a1:9 Randbedingung: . . .. . '. . . . . ~ • (r•e)=0,5•Ae,.•Aat.. - (5b) Dabei ist Aetr entsprechend den Gla,.(3)einzusetzcn. Die mitilcre Flnehcn- - aktivitat (Aktivitat(Fl'sclncncinheit des S'4andepithels) des jowciGow3 Nuhlids in der Regionn i lietr5gb y 0 ..robei fur at (x) die 7.iisungen des Gleichungssystems (4)) einzusetzen sind. Dieaus.den Gln...(4) und (6) folecnden Werte fiir die•ruittlereFlachenalctivitate auf dom \M1'andopithel in verschiadenen Regionen desBronehialbaums. sind in . Tabelle 4 lfittle.reFluchenaklirildtdcaBronchin6epifhels bei InhaLrtiorv.vanRn- und Tn~T.er(nlLvprrdirklan-(apezifiscke.Al.-lirilal der Atnmlujt'10-r Cijln' pro fnlrsdier(em NvkLid; t• - 151/min) Inhal. Nuklid Gespeich. Nuklid Aiittlere b9:ichcnaktivitiiE (pCi/em°). 1Yachea I~lanpt-Br.' Lob. Br. I Segm. Br.l Subs:.Br. I Thrm. Br: RaA RaA 1,5 2,1 3,0 2,3 1,9 0,18. . RwB 1,6 2,4 2,7 1,8 1,3 0,09 - RaC (RaC')'. 1,5 2,1 2,2 1,4 0,9 0,04 RsB RaB 1,6 2,7 3,4 3,0. 3,3 0,31 RaC (RaC')'. 2,1 3,3 3,8 2,7' 2,9 0,15 RaC RaC (RaC')'. 0,7 1,3 1,8 1,6' 2'1. 0,23 ThB ThR , 28 37 41 30 26 3,0., TOC 22. 33 37 26 22. 2,5 ThC ThC 4,0 6,4 7,8 8,2 6,1 0,7 . RaA + RaB RaA 1,5 2,1 3,0 2,3 1.9 0,18 , +RaC.. RaB 3,2 5,1 6.1 4,8' 4,6 0,40 i;.Gleinhgesr. IiaC(RaC')i 4,3 ~i 6,7 7,8 5,7 5,9 0,42 ThB + ThC ThB 25 37 41 - 8o 26 " .310 1. Gleiehgew... TbC 20 '39 45 32 _ 28 3,2 G i: I _. a :rs
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Iw • Rw, n. ..Aw, a1.= 3e+da, .,. dw Ia Ra, a. An,.aiv ° A A• a1v 7y.+~u + du, I . c + c AC,atv=~An,atv- . k+A.~. xt+7..~. .~- (3c) Da RaC' kurzlebig ist im Vergleich zu RaC,, ist ARac•, atv.= ARaC,alv;' ent- -spreehend ist ATnc,, alv = 0,64 - ATne, aiv. . . . ..b. Aktiviiiitsverteilun„im Alemtrnkt' - Die Aktivit.ntsvertcilungin den ciuzclnen Redionnn desAtc•mtrakts ergibt siolt aue der BilanzzwisclLOndcr durch Abscheidunb,.Cili:utransport und radioaktive Nachbildung.ingefiiltrten Akd.ivitfltund der d.urch Ciliartransport hzw.Ausschci. dung und radiu.akt.iven Zerfall nbecfilllrten Al.ti4itat des betrnchta.tcn Nttklids in der Zerfallsreihe. Im folgenden Trird der Falfder Daur.rinhaln.tion bci kous•tanter Inha)ationsrate I=v.• a betrachtet (v =TSnutenvohuncn,.. a= spczifische Akti- vitfit des Nnklidsin der cingcatmeCen Luft). Dnboi wird angenommen, daB in der je}veilss betrach6eten Region cinc homogene Abschcidung des Nitkiids auf der ge- samten OberIluehe dieser ReUioa st,2ttfiudet. Dn die Abscheiclung im .i'esentlichem durch Diffusiotl crfo)gt, so daB keincbeeorzudr6e Abscheidung an den \'erzweignn_ grn der Atemwege anftritt, durft.e diese \roraussetzung weitgehend crfiillt acin, a) Alvealarbcreieh (Region 7-9) Diee gesamte Absebeiderate cines I\TUklidsim Alceolarberr.ich bctragt R.tv .= B, + Rs + Ro (vgL Tab. 3). lst IA, Ig, Ic dieInhalationsrate, 7, .',t, 2B, ,1C die radioaktivc Zcrfallskonstante von RaA bzw. ThA, RaBbzlv.'1'h13, RaC bzw, TLC und 1.Llv =.1m2(T,/z plvl (alv) diee biol visclie Zerfallskonstante fiuden Aleeolar- bereieh, so betr5ot die imstat.ionuren Zustand erreichte Siittigungsal-ticitat - AA, atv., As, alv, Ac, atv von RaAA bzw•. ThA; RaB bzsv.. ThB, RnCbzw. TNCint. Alveolarbcroich: . . 6) BioncliiaiGaum~ (Region 1-6) gewicht aus den Difl'erentialalciehungen (i = 1- 0)'.: .. aktivitat ac (x) der cinzelnen \ukiideine der Ticfc x. der i. Regionim Gloich- ThA,.RaS bzw...ThS3', RaC bzw. ThC in dt:r Regiom i, so ergibtsiclrt die Flachen. Cdtartransportsin der Re.gion i, R,cl; RD;,, RC3, dfe Abschciderate von RaA bzw. Schlelursehlcht. Bezeichnet O; dieCberfl5ahe, ui die.mit't7erv Geschlrihdigkeit des Bronehien ist die Aktisit5t pro Flacheneinhcitt in der_dariiber hinwmr~lcitenden Enteclmidend fiii dic Strahleuholastungdes Epitbel~owebes der TraclLnaa und ~"'(X)~ LR.u ~ s ., ) O +uidx-AwaAt(T)~-0. (4a .. ~ . . . ~-Ia•Rm ' den,(m) . O~ -F; ul - ~ - Zn • aat (x) + ;tn au (T) = 0 . le • Ra - ' daa, (z) '" Ot + ai dx -~'C ' nCt (x)'+ J•c nm (Y) = Q• Dns 1. Gdied gibtdie durch Abscheidung, dns 2. Glied die durch den Ciliar• transport zugefiihrte Aktivitat, das 3. Glied den raclioaktivcn Zerfall undd das 4. Glicrl die rndio vuklill an. . Der Aktivitat gionen i und (i ~ Dabei ist zu die tenninalen11ktivituitsflu6 at -ans daJ3 500110 dt Bronchialbnum a7s Randbedin.-i Dabei ist A;. aktivitilt (rlktil der Repgion i be u•obei fi:ral (.x) Die aus den suf dem R'anC ThC RaA + RaB +B®C L Clcielwew. ThB + ThC i. Gleichgew.
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N'-,JAOear: TsbcBa s Aklivildf.n:rAeilren9 i+n mensc7iliehvr Iarper bei InAul.rtion t?tm Rn- und Tn-Zer1n[Jsprodukte. . fepr5: Aktiril&i der Alemlurlt 10-' Ci/ln' pro itthalicrf@m Xuklid; o- 15I/minJ RaB ReC ThB T6C RaA + Ra8 +RaC i. Gleichgew. ThB +ThC' i. Gleichgew. Gesycich. NuWid Aktivitat(IrCi) Gesa2nt- kbrper I Rn.a 0,0035 RaR 0,0035 RaC (RaC') 0 0030 RaB , 0,022 RaC (RaC') 0,022 RaC (RaC') 0,016 ThB 0,54 ThC 0,54 ThC 0,051 RaA 0,0035 RaB 0,0^_5 RaC'~(RaC') 0.042 I TBB I 0,54 ThC 0,59 * Bins]die0lich Anxsheidnngen (Kot, tlnin). ~ AktiPitutsanteil (°p). ~~. Bronehial- I Alvcolar. Rest- baum bereich kbrpers 42 13 9 Tab.4 fur die einzclnen inhalierterr'Nuklido 2usanunengestellt. In Tab. 5 ist die Gesamthorpnraktivit.iitund der rclative Anteil der (3esamtkorperakt.isitat ange- gebcn, der int stationaren Zustand ira BroneLialhawny im AlveolarLercich und im RcstAorper (einscld. _7usscheidung; Kut, Urin) zu enrartcn ist. Die angcgebenen Absolutwerte der Aktit-itat bcziehen siuhauf eine vpezifisuhe Aktivitatdcr Atem luft von 10-° Cijma fur jedes inllalierte \ulaid. Aus den Tab. 4 nnd 5kanmsoinit5 die zu cricartenrle Aktivitatsx-crteilung fur boliebige.Aktivitaten und \TUk1i.dmischuugen in der Atemluft ermittclt u-erden. 1}ir dic numerische.Berechnung,wurden fur zr, O+.und'~yq die in Tab..2 anKegebenon Wertedes Landaldschen Ltmgernuodells eingesotzt. Die Werte fiir Rl, act bzw. Tt = Ltwslund i,iv =]n °I2'rl:• b;on (alv)'. N.urden nus Tab. 3 entnominern. Ans Tab,.5 folgt, daB Lei Inhalation von Ra$, RaC und ThC etwa 5 - f0% der abgeschied'enen Aktivitat in ticn Rcstk6rpar gclangen und etwa 80 - 90% im Alveolarbereich zerfallen. Bei InllalatiouvomRaA isthdolge des gr6(3eaen Anteils tragcrfreier Atome die AbseLcidune im Bronehi:dbaiun erheblich groBer-als bei RaB Lz.v. RaC, sodaBdcrrclative Antcil der drn-ch Yerachlueken in don3fagen- Dnrm-Trakt uberfiihrten Aldicitat enlsprocliend groBcr ist. Bei Inhalation von, ThB, das vorwiegend im Ah-eolarbereichaLgeschicrlen u'ird,, werden infalge seincr langen Ilal6wertszeit etwa 60% der abgesehierlrnen ThB-Atnme vor ilrrem Zerfall aus der Lunge ausaeschicden, so daB in.diesem Talle aucly dieStrahdenbclastung anderer Organc-insbesondere dcr DIiere-von Bedcutung seln l:ann. Die Strab- - lenbelastung des Atemtrakts durclr Inhalationvon. TIrA ist auchh hef einem groBen ThAfThB-Aktivit5tsrerhaltnis in dercingentmeten Luft vernach][issigbar. Da bei der la'ssigbarisbg, . Atemtral.;ts d ThC (+ TLC`) Im Ahrooh. veOlargcwebe_Q lerdcn ITulelid-lungbetr5gt s, .. %Vobei vnanv die ~ n,it~.frtihercn C :Die.Tiefem :.fder a-Absorpti - vermoo ns vo: . i{Ig4). Es sw' vitat gleiehm" Schleiludecke -Bronchinlepitl . ser Sclhleimscl im Bereich de . und nimmt au. chien ab. I'eri in der zplind: so ergiht siclL an eincm Punl nfitte der ScL: dl a wobei a die der Scbleimse' des GewebeS.(ti verniogen von . ist. Die resu ThC (+ ThC') auf et.ragen. L• . weite Lr Gewel Q ri*aehden b O epithel - insb, ~ der Basalzellet:
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v.d Tn-Zcr[uilsprcduk(en Gd; ya 151 ftninJ / \ it ~cit s nnteil ( ~~) 1h-eolar- Aerst- bereich kdrper` b3 47 45 87 84 88 39 34 80 ` 53 81 82 . 5 24 35 3 8 3 57 02' 10. 39 _ 38 '11t. In Tab. 5 ist die :Snccralptivitiit ange- cenlnrbcrcich und im ist. Die angegebenen Ak( at der At'em- ivitatsvcrteilung fur fterenittelt werden. Tab.2angFgebenen :rte fiir RI; ui bzx-. 'ntnoittmen. ThC etna 5- 10% L cttva 80 - 90°, lmles groBeren Antcils blich gr5fter als bei ckenin don 3fagen- BciInllnlation von .erden infolge seiner )evor'iluem Zerfalli ` Stra}drnbelnstiung, in kann. Die Strah. hbei cinenr gro6en .•lllassigbar. 3 _„- ..- . . DionnLUrlidio Strnhlbncin~irknng aut den hlomtrakt - 293 . - '8• Dfetlrode der Bosishest.immune - . Da bei der Inhnlntion voru Rn- und Tn-Zecfallspt•odnkten die F1-Dosis vernach- lgs~igbnr istgegeniiber der a-Dosis (JACOBI 10(i2); wird die..Stralllcnbclastung dos. jitemtraktsdurch die Aktivitiitsverteilnng, von RaA, RaC' (bzw. RaC) und ThO(-I-ThC')'bestim)nt. . ' ' . Im Alveolarbereich ist-mit eincr annahernd }homogenen Bestraltluna des AI- reolargew•ebes zu rechnen (AURAND 1057). l3ci ciner Aktivitnt Antr, cines a-strah- lcndcn"ICuklids im Alveularhereieh u.nd eincrP.tiergic Is', der emittierten a-Strah- luno betragt somit die mittlcrea-Dosisleistung im Alveolargewebe dD. ~. (mradfh) = 2.1 • 10-s (d1eV) ' (7) wobei malv (Ee Masse des bestrahlten Alvcolargcwebes ist, die in libere.instimnwng mit friihercn Abseh3tzungen zu SOOg angenonnnen wurde. Die Tiefendosisverteilung im Bronchialepithel wurde unter BcriiclcsichGie ngder a-Absorption in'der Schlcimschicht und dcrEnergieabllanoigkeit des:a-Brems• verm8gens von Gewebe berechnet (rgl.. JACOBI 104). Es u•urde angenoiutuety.daB die a-Akti- eit8tgleichm36igin der \fitte deu viskosen ~E: Sahleimdecke vcrtcilt ist, die uber d'en Cilien des a Bronclualepithels entlangstromt. Die Dicke die- K s ser Sahlcintschicht betragt im 111itt'el etwa 10,u im Bereicll der Tracheaunda oberen Brqnalrien und nimmt•auf lvenigeFr in flcn terluinalen.Bron- V chien ab. Vernachliusigt man die a-Absorption g' in der z}-lindrischen Luftsavle'e der Ateenwege, so ergibt sichdie a-Dosi=_leistung, im Gesvebe an einem Punkt im Abstand x senkrechL von der \Gtte der Sclilcimschicht zu Re dD. _ r Sa (r) dr a (8) dr -( p•r x wobei a die. Fliichenaktivitiitt desNuklids. in der Sehlciinschieht (vgh Tab. 4), pdie Dichte 0 scnm an.r t r.~ ec.(c) tue~ev.(]] 1radA.a,aHr PaC' C') c ~n ao ca~ co GewebetAle Dy 1 I,l Abb.3. a-Tlefandoele.+erleilunE Im Aran- eMalcplLL¢1 bM eiter F1flcLennktivitit vonl PCl/cma 1taA, naC', Pd" bz.r. ThC' des Gewebes (p =1 gf etna), 12a die a-Rciehteeite in Gewebe und S„ (r) idas a-Rrems- verm8gen von Gewebe bei eLier Energie . ~E(r)°E.-' S:(r'):dr' •~e 9asau mJy~r.i6) .nHa.ec[51 (9) ist. Die resultierendc a-Tiofendosisverteillmg fiir RaA, RaC', PuSO und ThC'( } 1'hC')) in Cewcbc bci ciner Rlifchenaktivitat von 1pCi,lem' ist in Abb. 3 aufgetragcn. Danach nimntt die a-Dosisleistung :amahernd.linear biss zua-Reich- x-eitein Gewobe ab. - ' - ATach den bisherigen Kenntnissen ist fiir dic biologische lZ'irkungiin Bronchial, epithel- insbesondere auclr ftir die. C:ircinogeuese - die Dosisleistung im Bereich der Basalzellenschicht entscheidend- >.)ber die Lage der Basalzellcnschiaht in den G7 -f ;3 z `ti
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{v-.IA(%n41 , verschicdenen Bronchien liegen jedoeh nur wenigoquantitativeAngaben vur. Nach TfIqL1;n (1050) und At.TSnol.r,u et a]. (1964) betriigt der mittlere Abstand der Basalzcllschi.cht von r1cr,5'eltlcixndeuke etwa 60 - 90,rr..in der Trnclica und dcn $auptbronchicnl 50 - 7L'.fe in dcn lobarerr Brollchicn, 40-- 60/<in den segmen, talen Bronchiemund sinkt auf 20 - 4014 . im Bereich der terminalem.Bronchicn ab. Die Lage derBnsalzcllschicllt in den einzoLlou Re.-innen ist in Abb. 3 eingetragon, Aus Abb, 3 folgt somit, da6 die a-Strahlang von ]E.aA und Po41p-die Basalzell- Rcllieht in der Tr:n.chca,, den Ifauptbronchicmund'den )obaren Bronchien praktisch nicllt erreicht, so da6 sic entgegen flvheren Annalinlen (ClrAnnsLna.nrr et a]- 1956. RAnFOICU et nl. 1964) in dicscmBcrcichen Uiologscll weitgehend mncirksam sein durfte. . . . 7.. T-alurliohc Sta:~hlcncinwirkung dureh.Inhalation von km•nl.cbiven Rn- und TmZednllsprodukten Aus der mittlcrcn Fluchonaktivitat der cinzelnen Nuklidc auf dem Bronchial- epithcl (Tab- 4) kaim miL Hilfcvon Abb- 3 die iuittlerc Tiefendosisvertr.ilung im, Bronchialcpitltel fur beliebige Aktivitat und Nuklidzusanlmensetzurlg der Atem- lnft ermitLelt werden. Die mit.tlere. +sinl..+a1:.,i.ro„a„ i I Alveolardosis.folgt aus GI. (7), wobei die +.. ~ ~. ltktivitatiAU Alveolarbereich entspre- .,n i-1 . ii I ehend 7.'ao. 5emzusetzen ist- 3 b. y, , B,. ~ Br. Regian Abb. 4. Nittlem namrnehe ctralOrn,lwlnatnng des Alveulargewclres wtd4er IbsNrrnmt b+den nrnucl:ian. Curcb lulialnlluu von Pn-'LerGnlgvuduiten 9 A Abb. 5. Annlere unlurllcbc RtrahlenbCluelun¢ dex' AlseNargewrbes und dcr I3a.ululleo in dcn nrouoltien durcL Inhaletibu von in-S,rtatlsUroduk[cn In Abb. 4 istdieresultiercndemittlcre a-Dosislei;;tung irn Alveolarbereich und ,in derBasalzcllschielrt dt•r einzclnen Bruncliialregionen angegeben, die infolge der natiirlieben Inltalation von kurzlebiopn Bn-Zcrfallsprodukten zu ernarten ist. . Abb, 5 zeigt die entspreuhende Dosisvericilung.flir die Iuhalation von Tn-Zerfalls- -prudukten. Dabci wurden die in Tab. I angcocbencn Tfittelwerte der spezifischen Akticitut der eiilzeblen Zerfal)sprodukGe in der bodcnnaltcn Luft (Frciluft) zu- grunde gelebrt,. Die zugchorigen\R[erte des Dusisleistungsacquivalents in (mremIa) •:nWi c,.,.m mW.:;L., .o., rna o 3or„m3 n,c '`j 3ncum3 1 T r I i l Lr6ebell Ylel, Qr - 10 fu Sdulcn in A die Un+iclxci erocben sicll 1- Die n, d(e Inllalat: relativ G'erin ao^o dcr ge 2. Die dc 50 mrelnja i 3. Ein at lebioen Rn- 9nt Dies et' arbeitern (.. -eutstehen..I zellen in dr bzu•. OQ6 - ~ Strahdenbel: Bronchien a scllcideraten zug<nnde lit 4. Fi:r d sich ein \'i'c ]cisttmg:, dic ergeben wiit 5. Die St Ausnahme. t RaB und R vollst.nndip : lich erst in : Tab. 3). Ers gionen des .: a-Strahlung hocllstzuliiss uber allf t?rl worden, dati 'die Inhalati. und den B sch;tzenssl, .. transportv, -scheidend is'
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Uic natPirliche Strahlcncin~irknugauf den Atcmt.akt . -' 295 itaur. orgcbcu ich durcliMultiplikation der a~Dosieleistung lnit dern QualiU.itslaktor SO fiir a-8trOhlung. Die verlikalcn„ gGstrichelten Linien an dcn einzelnen Siiu)en in. Abbs 4 und 5 gebcn den Schw-ankuno bcrcich der posis an, der durch e der L' Aus Abb: 4 und~ asnizuilsehioht verursaoht wird 5 it dcr La l c i . g ren ~ e Uns -men. -die ~ n ab•A ergeben sich folgondc 5ehluBfolgcrungen:. .. ~ agen r ,,... ,,,...•...., _.. . . ...... .•.. ---- ..Izci]- - . dlc Inhalation von kurzlebll,cnRn 7crftllsllrodu6ten verur;acil4 Infulge der aiseh. rcllt/v gcringun ThB-Iionzenth^atinn in I'rciluft enttallt nur ein Anteii von 10 his et al, 20°fe der gesan,ten Inllalatlonsdosis.auf Tn-Zcrfnlla(lrodui.tc. ICSam '1 2. vie dnreLL inilalatlon ncqtuFrc n11L4lere HR'Cela[aa515A•~sLUPb nwvUg4 VbwYf -g0 mremfa im Ubcreinstimmung nlih.den Ergebnissen lnlhercr Abscllatzungen. .3. Eiu ausgeprfigtes 1Masimum der Straillenbelastung hei Inlmlatiua von kurz- lebigen Rn- und Tn-'Lerfallsproduktan tritt im Bercich der mittlerem Bronchien auf. Dies erldart die Tatsache,.da(3 die mcisten Lnngenkarsinome von L'ranbcrg, chial- arbeitm•m („ScluleeUerger Lungcukrebs") in diesem, Bereich des Bronchiatbaums le in1 'entstchen. Es istmit einer nlittlen;li, naturlichon Strahlr.neirnrirkvul; nuf dieBusal- ltem- zcllen in den scSlnentalen und subsegrnentalen Bronchien von 6U'- 90 mradfa bblere bzw. 0,6 - 0,9 remJa zu rechnen. DicserWert ubenstoiat mn ein .lluhrfaehes die ci die .. Strahlenbelastung, die bisher anf Grund vereinfachcnder Abschakzungen fiir die :slue- .. . . Bronchien aneenolnmcn a-orden war. Dabei ist zu bcrucksichtigen, daB die Ab- soheideraten in der Trachea und den Barnehien,.die der vorliegenden Absclydtzung zugrunde l[even„eller zu niedrig als zu hoch sind (vgl. Abschn. 3)'. 4. Fiir die mittlene Strahlenciimcirlcung auf dietrache.alen Basnlzellen ergibt - sich ein Wert von80 nrremfa in n-eitlgehender tTbereinstimmung mit der posis- - leistung, die sichh aus der? bseb5tznngslncthodc von CuaarnLnuerw et al. (1956) ~ ' crgebeal xvnde. -- 5. Die Strahlrnbelastung der Ba,al¢ellen in Trachea und Bronehion ist - mit Ausnafune der tcrminalen Bronchien -- im iyesentlichen auf die Inhalation von RaB und RaC zuriickzufiilrren; da die ilillaliettenRnB- und RaC-Atome nahezu vollstandia an Acrosolteileilen angelagert sind, werden sie primar fnst ausscblic6- ]ich erst in den temninalen Bronchien und; im Alveolarbereinh abgeschieden (vgl. Tab.3), Etst durch den Ciliantransport I;olangen dieseAtome in die oberen Re- gionen des.Bronchialbaums, ~o sie zumTeil zerfallen und die emittierte RaC'- a-Strahlung die Strablelrbelastung derBasalzelien bcwinkt. Bei der Festlegung,der + hSeLstzuliis.igon I£ouzenEration ~ on Rn ZerCallsproduLten in Luft war deingogen- :w- : nbcr auf Grund der Unter uehuneen von CanxisF.xn.u.r ct al.. (1956)nngenommen _~. .-n ~:_ c. .,-1,...n,.l....k.. ,1.... ~R.....l.e ...A R .. •.1.: al-~S-l, n . d.. nh ... .... ..,... .. 1....•.......- "°d"' die Inhalation tra=crfreer RaA-Atome bostilnmtt a-]rd'y die direkt in der Trachea •ua v -a und den Bionchien abficschicden wcrden. Dlee vorlicgende dyuanlischc Ab- - - 1 r t u ~methodc mci-t edocly daf3dleseAnnahme nicht zutrlff~t und der Ciliar- sc la z n S. a 1 , .• transportvan RaB und RaC aus tieferen Regiunen des. Bronchialbauuls ent- schcidend ist:. _ --~ . g. St.rahlencinnairknne dnrch Inhalalion con RaF (PoY10) in Freiluft hctr.to^t die ]nittlcre spezifinchc Aktiv.itut von RaDetu•a 0,02 pcifm' und von RaF etwa 0,001 pCirnr' (vgl.. Tab. 1)- Dat•nus folor(1t mit v= 151flnin ~26m°fd eine natiirliche Inhalationsrate von etwa 0;4pCiJd fur RaD und
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' W. JACOUI: 0,08 pEild fiir RnP;; gegeniiber eincr natiirliehcn Inhalat.ionsrate von etwa 2000 pCifd filr RaA, RaB und RaC. Naeh Ilotmznreac (1tIG3)rnrnerdcu e.tjra b0% des natiirlichen RaD-Gohalts inr Alcnsehcn clunch dircktc Inbalntiun von RaD und der Rest irn wesentlichcn durch Nahrung und Trinkwnsser dcm nrensehliehen .. . Korper zugcfulmt, wiihrend die RaD-Bildmrg im I{Srpcr (lurch 7.crfn]] von inha. liert.enr Rn und scinen kurzlebigmn 7.crfnllsprodukten vernacldiissigba.rist..Da die biologische Halbwertszeit von inhalicrtem RaD und RuF in der Lunge in der GroBenorduung von mclireren Tagen licgt, ist' somit dienatiirliche Strahlenein- nirkung auf dnn Atenttrakt r3urch die nonnalc Zufuhr von RaD und Rap ver- nacJrl3s^igbnr gcgcniiber der Slralllencina9rkrmg dhrrch Ililrnlution kurzlhUiger Rn-Zerfall=_prodnkte: RAnaoan et al. (1904) habcn jedoch kurzlich darauf hincwiesen, daBbeimr Rauehen~ von Zigaretten eim erheblic}ier Teil der natiirlii g -hen RaF-Aktivib3t iur Tabakvenlhmpft und inhaliert wird. Dabei e'iYd pro Zig:rrette im Mittel 0,1 pCi RaF eingeatmet. Bei einem mit,telstarken. Rauchcr mit einem Verbrauch von 20.Zigarettenld crgibL sieh somit eine RaF<bnhrdationsrate von ettra 2 pCijd'y d. h. etwa das 100fa che der RaF:Inhalat ionsrate bai Nichtranehern.. ZuisclLen Rauchern und Iv`ichtru u chern waren sorn it.ertwbliche.Unterscbiede irn RaF-Gehalt der Lunge zu enrattcn. R 4Dt'oRD.et,al. stellten bei Hauchern eine mittlere RaF-Ak_tivitat im Lunnenparenchpm von 0,005 pCif~ Gewebo fest'im 1Terglcich zu 0,0002'pCi/g Ge- webe bei Niclttrauchern. 11LvrNeORD et al. (1964) cnnittelten bei Lungen von vier Rrcrachs en rcrachsenen, deren Rauchgetrohrilreiten nicht angegeben n~erden, einen RaF- en, Gehaltvon 0,001 - 0;004 pCi/g Gewebe (ilfittelWOrt 0,003 pCifg) fest(vgt. auch . SxnaLUOFEN . 19Gd). I7ber dieRaF-FI$chenaktivittit auf dem Bronchialepithel liegen rmr z.vei lYerte von RADFORn et aL ~(19G4) vor; beicinem 73 a alten Mann, dertYrglich ein Uis mebrcre rackehcn Zigaretten gerauchthnttc, a-urden 0,03 pCi/cm' an einer Z'erznei.gung der oberen Bronchien urrd 0,0DII pCi/cros-an einer Hauptbronchie gemessen, In Anbetraebt dieser wenigen bisher vorliegendcn esperiment.ellpn Datennrurde der Yersuch gemaclrt, die Aktivitatsverteilnng von RaF im Atemtrakt in gleicller Weise wie bei der Inhalation kurzlebiger Rn-Zerfallsprodnktc abzusnhdtzen. Es wurde angenoinmen, daB die RaF-Atonte im weseutlichcn an Rauclrteilchem ange- lagert sind. deren Radius (eu:sohlicgliclr Wasser) im Bercich von 1-- 10frc liegt. Nimmt man cinen rnittleren Teilohenradius votl 2,5p an, so folgt ciue R.aF- Abseheidcr;ttc im gesamtcn Atemtrakt vnn etwa SO%,. wovorrdie Ralfhe auf den Alveolarborei.ch entSallt (vgl. Abb. 2). . Nach iKoxxow et al. (19oG)betraet diebiologische Halbwertszeit a-on. Po in der Raninchenlunge bei int:ratrachealer Injektion~ voiv Po-Ilydroxytd-Kolloid bzw: von an Silberkolloid adsorbiertem Yolonimum im\littel etwa 5d. YJbertr5gt n7an . . diese.n {\'ert auf die PoInhaJation heim Rauchcn, soergibt sieh bci einer R _ aF- IrOralationsrate von 2 pCi/fl eitrer mittlere RaF.ttktivitat im 9lveolarbnreichvon 0,006pCi/g Gewebe. Dieses ErgeUnisstanunt mit den erw3hnten ecperimontellen ` Befunclen annahend ii.bercin. Danaclt~ist zu ern'arten, daR bei cincm rnittelstarken Raucher die mittlere Alveolardosislcistnno durch RaN-Inhalat:ion 0,5 - I mradja. --- bzw. 5 - 10 mrem/,a nicht itbcrstcigt. Unter Bcr9lcksichtigungdos Ciliartransports und der Ausschcidungvan RaF aus dem Alccuiarbereich in.den Bronchialbaum ergibt sich bel eiuer Iuhalations. ..v Die rate von 2 pCild ein GrofSenorrbmnE 10_. Alvcolunbcrcich. Dic (SrOgG) hci cincm Ei: obcren Bronehicn, ] _ irD Gegensatzzur Lcvnrzun en AUschcrcchnen. Die.mitt1cr baums diirftc daber an Z'erzwciguugcn. : einoebettetist,folgl die a-Stirahltrngv.url biologisch ucitgeher Bronchien ergibtt siilenbelnstuno de.r B IIShe wie im Alveol Inhomogenit.atsfakt die naturliche Stral Zerfallsprodukt.e iil RaF in dasBrom RADFORD Slea~t jedr' etwa in dergleiche mit einer stiarken A Die vurGcgendr epithels im I:crcich Rn- und Tn-ZerfaP. Bei der tuittlcren natiirliclte Strnhlcr 0,9 rem/a. Es ist ~ RaA - RaCe in dc Faktor 2 holier ist mittleren natiincel und subsegnncntal~ Die iibrigcmK( strahlung, kc+smisr produkte) be,irdto aller Organe des'1 trakt.s.sind soinit r um ein Viclfaches- und Geti'eLe des n werter, da gerade wirkung-en am sta' Inhalatiou cancei' S'chadigunaen des O . chemischer Stoffe' ~ SioPnrsf6, nd. ^_ 1A ~. ~ CD
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t t i F it -~ 296.. ~.\1C4ACOm: auftreten,und durch rlnsRanchen verursacht werden und die zu einerAbnahme der Ciliaraktivitut und des Ciliartrn.nsports flihren (FAt.tc at a1..19L9„TitE>tnn aA.al. 195'J). Elne Beurtcilung der biologisclcan Bedeu6ung dcr natiirlichen urnri zivihsa- torischcn Strahleneinx~irlcung nuf den Atemtrakt - insbasondere im Hinbliek auf die Carcinogenesa.im At.emtraL't- kann d aher nicht ianliert erfolgen, sondern muD das Zusammenwirken aller zirilisationsbcdingten schadigenden Ein(liisae beriick- sichtigen. , . . . _ .. ' . ... . Zuearumcnhlssung . . . . Dic natiudiclreStraldrncinwirkung auf den menselilichen Atemtrakt mird ita wesentlichcn~ durch die Inhalation der kurzlchigen Zerfallsprodukte des Radons (Rnx"r) und Thorons (Ru"0) xenusaoht. Ausgclrend von dcr Cro6cnvcrtcihrng dos natiiilich radiual.tivcn Aerosr.ls uud dern Landahlschen Ltmgenmodell ivird die Abscheidung,der Zerfallsprodukte in den cinzelncn Regionen desAtemtrakts ab- gesehntzt. Die result~ierende Akti.•it,iit,sverteilung wird unter Berucksichtigung des Ciliartransports und der Lungenausseheidtutg ermittelt. Diee zugeh8rige Tiefen- dosisverteilung iw Bronchialepithel ivird anaeguben, .cobei die s-Absorption in der Schleimsehielrt und die9bhangigkeit des a-Bremsverniu6ensvon der Tf.nergie bertielcsiehtag8 werden... Es. zeigt sich, daB die natiirlichu Stralllenein\eirkung auf das Bronchialepithel erlieblich hoher scin durPte, als auf Crund der bisherigen, stark veteinfachenden Alischatzun.-en nngeuonnnemwurde. Dic maximale Dosis- leistung ist -un Bercich.der mittleren Rrnnchieu zuerwart,cny wo mit ciner inittleren natiirlichen Belastung der. B4tsalzcllen von etwa 100 mrad/a bzw. 1 rem/a zu iecltnen ist. Die Ergebnisse werden aneh im HinBliclc auf die Inhala.tion von ku"" heim Rauchen diskutiert. . - : .. . - Summary - The natural radiation esposureof the hunaanrespirat.or}-tract is.ntainly caused by tlteinhala4iom of the shorti-lived decay pruducts of radorr. (RnF2r) and thoron (Rnt20),. From the particle sizc distribution of the carrier aerosol of these decay products their deposition in ditTerent regions of the htunan respiratory tract and the resulting activity;' distribution is estimated! for normal breathing conditions, taking into account the biological elimination from thealceolar region and the ciliar transport in the LroncliiaLtree. The corresponding a-depth dose distribution in the bronchial epithelium is.deri.-e.d, laiking into account the n-absorption and the variation of stopping power idth a-ene.rgp. The resulting natural radiation esposureof the bronchial epithelium is considerably higher than it was hitherto assamed. The maximum dose rate is reached in the.segmrnt.al and subsrgmcntal bronchi,.whore a mean naturalradiation expusm'e ofabout• 100.mradja or 1 remfa must be expected in the bnsal cell layer. The results are discussed and; compared witTv thrRaF (I'o;10)-inhalation dose bycigarctte smoking. ~ -. 7.itcratur - AnBEr,r, R. E., and L. C. Anxsn: Cleanznce of radioactivedust from the human4ung. Arch. industr. Ilnalth 1:, 99 (19u1). ALrsuvtr•a, J1.,.N. nsrios, and M.. %rccuxrn: E=timation of lung tissue dose from the in- ~ helntion of rndon'ard'daugfiters: Hfith. Phys. 10, 1137 (19G4)l . . ApnANn-7+ prro?nlr _, U. Fsn drr Lttn )t.axcwr,? ,1. Ph}s: CdlA>rxLRr-, produet )]AL33A~I)f, - in thc t'.' FALw.II.I. cilintcd ly_.nncc>. liehrn I GuaxLSr,' rroc. n lirt.ur~c, ' the resl Gu, 475 - PLagnr )IOLTTIA~ Fstiin:: Nrl.revtsR'ikecl 1CRP: Itt 195'3- - JACOBi, V echlac - pic n: lnstnn - Dic n+ -Thed dreav IaruAiv.. Bioph. - Partic by th. IIiopl: \twsrr.or- alpha Scm7• Alv.cr.n.~ \fonns.. Griit3~ \10RRO" parti• I'BOEr3, Co. 1' ItADFOR.' Scier• SaenRAV i rclar a . SclwxA O SaAPIRf 14,1 G8 W i:
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nn ' 11'. ,7aCOn7; Dienalfi'rli.,m• ~tr^t'a~ncino'irkung ntdden M1li+mtrnkt . . n .. ymlwe. tn . llmdel. lifR 1981.rw+a. SS~irv: 1:11„1 79G9: c, o n - . . e n f - --D7enxunm+~n. en n Th-~_A, .Ra-"26andltsd.aughtcrgin tLu Ituninn lmdc 7+~: ofradianctivity in man •'I'ro f B~ --_ . . . . . _ . .. ..:~t :-.BinphSeik 2• 301 7f. S7A77L]/Or/'y 1(! t of thc nntural n t L ~^ ~ - - ' ' R'xsur:u.311 DL..lf.l,. Fena.nnd ]C$o1'u.': }:~mf ofair. - up. t+' 7,271 (1964). - epithdlum. J. nnt. Cnneer ln.vt. 27, g79 (19:i9). Pollutnttls an ciliutedmucus-secrelipg ' ]"uosias..7.:Am~u.c.o.ormuctnauotnoftllcabsorbcddusctod{ccpithclium~oCtbaMSpirnlorys~w"r nrt.r i+.ltr+lution of dnu~htcr produclx of rarlon Ann' ocr HI I ' Prfv.-Duz. Dc lt'..Cncont ~ / Halin--llcitncr-Insnhtt fur 7ternfarsolmno •i Abtciltmg Strnhlcnphgsik Ans dem TSsss Plaurk , 1 Reilin 39, Glicnitkcr S1raBe 700 - - Institut fur' Zu3n 1Sirku7 -Photochemischc [l, 8, 12] als prima iintersnchungen vr \Virknngg von F2rb: teruperattn•- [75,. ]( daB Farbstoffe des $ensibilisatoren det deshalb:.von Intere: ihre Os Abhii.ngigk~ Literatur hierzu ke; Nachunscren P den photiod}-namiFc die Abtotmiaarateb desYsnralensnur s< halten des Mttby-le: tericnkultiuren bei - $estralilt utan B sind, in Gegerimart so zeigt sich, daB fa F,ichtabt.otung durr sprechcndc oxgda4i\i'ir ptvften Fu! i dcrphot:osensibili.sit Dimethylfuran [l4]. nin [5]. Bei Arbeitc paratur [B] beolinel nahmen. 0,2 -- 1 o,%t Akruptot•) fnigende7 _ $-.lfet 1 i oxg-, S-iso-? : I'soralen.. . - ~ Jeuet[s 1 g Fur+ ~ ~ 100 cm3 Afethanol g, ~ CO ~ .
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Die naturliche Sttnldmmin.. irkung nuf den .itemtrakt rate von 2 pCijd ciao- mittlcrn Rnh'-F1Cwhennld.ivit;it in den ]3.onchicn Von der .Gr811enordnung 10-4 pCifcros tmabhangig Von der Anssc}rcidungsrnte nns dcrri Alvcolarbercich. Dieser ]t'ert lie,-t erheblich nicdrigcr nlsdievon Ranrosnet nl. (SOgO) bei einenr"Tinze]fall g<anrssene F15cl+enaktivital. an einer ticrzwcigung dcr '-ubcren Bronchicn. Bci <ler InhaMon von RnF im 7.igaretteuraach i.et je<loch. .--i>» Gegcnsatz zur Inhalntion vonkurzlebigcu Rn-7.arti+llsprndukt~en -rnit ciner ,: .. bexorzugtcn Abseheidung,und Anreiclierung an \'en.wcid tngvn tier :ltemeeege zu "reclmen. Die mittlere Fl:ichena1;tivitut in don einzelnon Rc};ionen desBronclrial- l+nunas diufte dahec z<rcitellos erkehliclt kleiner sein als <lie lokaleFlucher~lktivit.at an ti er'zNceignngen. Sufern dasRaF in det Sehlcimhavt auf dcrn Bronchialepithel ,-cingebattet ist, folgl.aus Abb..3, dal5 inr ISereich.der Trnclrcaund ohcren Brone,hicn die a-Str•rhlung von RaFdie Basalzcllsclticht nr:•rktisclt nicht crreicht nud samit biologisoh Nvcitgchend vnwirksam ist. Fi;rdcn Bercich der segmentalrn-tcrntinalem Bronchicnergib,t sich bei eiuer RnF-F7€ichennkt.i.-it.:rt v on 10r° pCiJem- eine Stsah- Jcnbelast.ung der Bas:.lzellen von ctwa 2 - 10mremfa, d. h. etwavon glaicher I38he nie im Aiveolarbereich, Aitch we.nn man int 2•`allc der RaF-Inhalntion cincn in Rechmmg stellt, dGrftc sorni4 auchbei Itauchcrn Inhomogeni1.59cSnkt•or cou 10 die natiirliche Stralileneinu-inlumg durch, Inhalation der kurzleLigcnRn- und Tn- 7.crfullsprodukte iiberrriege.n, sofern kcine nenncnswerte direkte Aufnahme von RaP' in dan Bronehialepithelerfola.. Na.nh vorlaufigen Untersuchungen von RAVaoan liegt jedoch,die spezifisehe RaF-Aktivitatt in broncbiiilen Lymphknoten ct..ca in der glciehen Hohe:u•ic im Lungenparench}qn, so da(i ..ahrscheinlichnicht rnitciner starken ?lnrcicherungvonRaF"im Bronchia.lepithel zn reehnen ist. -9, SchluLt6emcrkmr~ ' Dic~vurlicgende TJntsrsuchung zcigt,.da6 die. StraltlenUeiasHnngdesBronchial- cpithcJs imBernitd+ der mittlerrn Ixrunchimn dunch die Inhalationn onkurzdeUgen Rn- und TmZrrefallsprodukten eqkeblish hbher ist als bishcrangenommen teurde- I3ei der mitflcren :lktivitlut.M dieser Naklido in k-reiluft'ergibt <ich cine mittlere natiirliehe. Strahlenein.rirl:une auf die Basalzcllen in diesm Aereic•h von O,Ghis 0,9 rcmJn.. Es ist jedoch zu beriieksichtiocn, dafi die sprzii'ivchc Aktiritrit, t-on RaA - RaC in der Luft geschlossener Raume im RSit.tel minrlestcns urn eincn Faktor ^ hdlrcr istals.in Frcituft (vgi. Hor.2Qvtse 1ll56). Es ist daher miteiner mitllcren~nat'urlirhen StrnlJcncinulukungauf die Basalzellen in den segmentalen and subseqnrentalea, Bronchicn von etu•a 1- 2 remfa zn rechnen. Dieiibrigamlionrponcnten der naturliehen Straldcneinu-irkung (y-limgebungs- strahlung, kosmiscbe St.rahhmg, innere Bestrahlung durch KQ°; RaY6 -F~ Zcrfalls-. prroduhte) betrirken demg,egeniiber• ene weitgehend ho3noerne Stra)ilenbelastung, nllerOrgnue des 3Se+schcn von im \litt'el etwa 0j - 0,15 remfa. Teile.des Atem- trakts sind sonrit nattirliehericeise bercits eiue.r Strahleuein.cirkung ausgesetzt, die um ein Violl;rches ubes der m,turliclien St'.+n6lencimsirkun~ miGdie nnderen Organs und' Gcrarbe.dtts menschliclren KSrperslicgt. Dicse Tataxc•lie ist umso Lcmerkens- At-eroer,.da gerade auoh der Atemtrakt, ziv-ilisationsbedineten„schadigeudcn Sur- wirkungmn ara st.iirksten ausgcsotzGist. Dies gilt nichtnur in betun auf dic d'irrkte Inhalation cancerogener Stoffe, daruber hinnus sind }•ichnehraucb rlic alll-emeinen Schddigunger< <les IIronoliia)elrithcls zu berircksiehtig,en, dic d'urch.die Iuhalatirnn chemischer Stoffe, Wic aie in stiititisehen Gebielen nrit st.lrker Lnftvcrschumtxuug sloyhy.ik, IId.O 22
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- Die.natutlid,e Strahluncimcirknug.nuf den .1tCmtrakt ' -- '. 299 cr Abna.hme -RF;Nf:It Ct a], tmd zivilisa- tI ek auf on ern muB (isar,beriick- akt wird itn dos Hadous, 'rtcilmlg des. ell' wird: die mtrakts ab- ~htigungdcs rige Tiefen. >sorptiom in der Energie .rirkuns au{ bisherigen„ male Dosis- cr mlttleven 1 rernfa. zu :Iatlon von inlycaused tn~ oron he, ,[eoay : tp^aot and ennditions, >n and the -.islribution rption and I radiation Is hitherto. rcef;ment.d or 1 rctnla compared htng. Arch.- 4om the in- AtytAlcD, K.,,W. JACmu und A. Scnn.vn: 1)her dic Rostinunung der Retention radioaktiver Acrosolo.im me.nsehliahen At++mtrakt. Natnrxissr.ncehnften 42, 398 (1955). ~,.U. Fraxt;, \i'. JACOn[ und A. Scunnnn: Untersnehwtgen zurl'rage dr.r Strahlcnhalaslmig dcr Lungo bci Anfenthnltin r.t[lonhaltiger Atmospblire: StraldentheraPir 1111, 315 (1957). Bnaer•Av,.A. F.., mtd Ii. J. Fitanxc-n: Thcaata of cacrelion.of india ink injeetud'into the lung. - J. Phvsinl. (Lnnd.). 90, 482(11137). (`t, }.9nE6LAIX, A. C., arrd E. D. Dvsos: The dose to the tiacheaand bronohi from the deeny products of v.dlin and tlroron. Brit. J. Radiol. _4,.317 (1956).. D,u,trA.nt, T.: A method for detcrmination in vivo of the rate of cilinry hent audtnucons flow in the trachea. Acta phvsio1. scand. 53,.1 (19:ii). FALS, Ii. L„ IT, M.Tr.ratr.n, and. P. Knnx: Effect of cigarcttc smoke and its constituents nnciliated murus-secretinr opithelium. S. nat. Canccr.Inst.,a_3,.999 (19a9)l ~rDErsE., R':: t.'ber des Ahsotxen klciner, in der Lnft suspendierter TeileLen in der mensch. ' lichen I•untrn cei drr Atmmtg. Pflug, Arch. gcs. Ph}~siol. 256,.307(1995Y Cbm+LEn', P: C., and nl.1+e.~N ens: Diffusinn.from a stmam flowing through a cylindrical tube. Proc, ro}'- Irieh. Ar.ad. A. .5"..163 (1949).. - ' Htenrno, A. C.: Experiment:.l studies on somc little.understnMl aspecta of thee physiology of the respiratorv tract and their dinical importance..Trans. amcr. Acad. Ophbhal. Otoluqvnc. Co, 415 (1061).. '- . - Fhagncytosis, mueous flow and ciliary action. Arch. envirnnm. Hlth: C. 61 (1963).. - Hozrzaws, ~R. B-: Measnremcnt.of the natural contents of RaD and. Rall' iu liunra« bone -. Estimates of.chole-body burdens. Hh.L- Phys. 9;.385 (1963): Heozt7vtsr,.B:: Studie~ on naturallyy occurring ionizing radiations. 5tockholm- Almqvist u. R"iksulls Roktryckcri Ali 1956, ICRP:. Report of commitec II, permissable dose for internal radiation. Empfehluugen von 1959. New Tork-T.nndon-Paris: Pergaunon Dress 1959. . Jyt;onl', \\'.: Die Pvilagenatgvong natiirlichen Radionukliden anAecosnlpartikel und 5iuder- schlugsdemcnte in der Atmoxnh3re. Geofisica pura e appl. 50, 260 (1961). ~ Die natiidicho Rndioaktidtiit der Atiuosphiire und ihre Bcdeutung fur die Strahlenbe-lastung.des lfensohen. Berlin: Halm-3Teitner-Institut, Rerieht B 21, 3ldrz 1962: - Die natiirliclte P.adioaktivit:it der:1tmosph3re. Biuph" ysik 1, 175(1963): - The dose to tllc human respitator~° iract by inbal9tioni of shorC-livnd Ru2==and RnF00- decay prodnctk_ 111th. I'liys. 10, 11.(t3 (1961)i H. D.: Bemoral of airborne droplets by the Immnu respiratory iract.. RnR. dlath. Bioph.s. 12, 43 (1950). Particle removal by thee respirnt<,ry s} stem; notee on the removal of airborne particnlatcs hyy the humasrespiratorp tract:.vithqarrtiatlar reference ~to the role of diSusion. Bull. \7wth. Binphys. °_o, 29 (190). NaYSEOxD, W. V., and! C:,R_ Hv.L:Total counting and spectrosnopV intbc aesessmenG of alpha r dio'..ctivit;' in huma.mtissues. Sn:.'}sseesment of radioactfivityy in man": Proc:of a Sympus:.in Heidelberg9964. Voli 1,.291. \Cirn: IAEA 196-1. 31rw.xR,.Rr...S:: The long. SpringGcld,'fll.: Cltas. C. Thou,as 1930'. ]1lonses, V.,. u. K. STIERSTADT: DieVerlcilung dor naturlichen TCadioalrtivitat au0 das. Grd6enspektntm drs na.tiirlichen .Serosols. Z- Physik I:$ 276 (1963). \lonaoar, P..R., and R. J, DELLA RusA: The fate of Po;10-ealloid and Po"°tagged silver particles folla.cino intrnl4vchual administration to rabbits. Rep. iP.-473, 19.56. _ Pnoerz, A. S\'.: Essays on the applied physiology of the nose. 2. anB. St. Louis: Annals.Publ.. Co.1953. - RAneoan, B. P... andV. R. Hu*r:Polonium-210:A volatile radioslcment' in cigarettes. Scienar 14.1, 247 (Jq64), . . .Sc3ntAps, A., K. Anaesn, nnd R'l Jscost:.The imlwrtancruf radon and its doca',- products in - relation to the normal radiatibn dosein humans. 73rit.. J. Sndlol., Cuppl. i, 114 (1957). S[nCMA1cI:,.G.: InvrAtigations of radon dtuwahters. T- Geopbys..Res. IB, 3867 (19631. Sn.u•rxo, J.: Radi:.tion dosage from breathing radon and its dauahtcr+. Ard'.- industr.. Hlth. 14, 169 (19u6): . _ . . _ ' 22• Set I I r. it ri_ ~. 'Sz6T/
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IId3.VIE1d:TEL7AHR 1966 Ber7chte ..'y`r~~...w.....__..,.~.w~. '' - . . ..: __ ..._... _. _ _ ~ _ . ~ ll'll~ I ' ~ ) ' ~ ~ ` > T~,I\Cij I 11UI 1 (()I Y MAUI 141Iln N1I ,,... IU\rI I IuH1H1 UI %I11 iH IN I II UM W ELTRA DIOAKTI V ITAT UND STRAHLENBELASTUNC
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-0 } V3 i ~~ ~ 1 ~~ll 11~ l ~ I800FIRST CONGRESS OF IN'1'1:RNA1'1'~. r 1DIh'1IOSi 1•ROTECTION ASSOCIATION of muscle of both species was 10 pCifkg(wct). By contrast, the S10Po content was much greater, about 200 pCi/kg. A~dcfinite seasonal decrease was noted in the atopb im musclce during the second half of the ycar. Similar variationss were indicated for tt°Po in muscle and,for ztuPtl in bone. The high levels in caribou are attributed in the high fallout levels of thcsc nudidcs indichens, their winter forage, wlrich,contain (in dry wcight)6 pCi S10pbfg and 12 pCi =1°PO(g. The other animals exhibited apprcciably lowcr eoncentrationss in bonee and muscle. Wolf, which .'tonsumcs large quantities of caribou, exhibited - aetivities.imbone of I pCi/g ash, about that observed ;. in some Eskimo bone by Hill. The 2t°Yo content of wolf muscle was about the same as that of caribnu, 200pCifkg, but the E10Pb was nnly about 1 pCifkg. ~ Similar, but Iesss dramatic differences were observed in Eskimo placenta. . .. Fstimates of uptake show that Eskimos could acquire sufficient of the long-lived 2j0Pb to double the total skeletal radiation dose (rad) over that of Midwesterners. However, despite of the high . eoncentrationsof the rtOPo in nmat, direct intake accounts for only aa relatively small increase in total dose. . "744 Polonium-210'In Italian tobacco. N.Cc.art'andR. Duon.u.r Lonnsy. Laborato6 CISE, Segrate, . - Milano (Italy). Many authors have cor...idered the possibility that':naturally occurri ng 21°Po may originate a cancer and also induce geneticc mutations. . Polonium can be introduced into the organism in several ways: .(1) through the food inwhich it can be found in an - eztrcmely small quantity as it is absorbed from - -tlme soil where naturalradioactive serirs arc always presenn even in small concentration; (2)as) natural fallout as result ofraddn disintegra- tioneseapinginto.theatinospherefromthesoil;. (3) ascontamination in smoke from tobacco. . In the last case polonium, together with the other . well-known factors producing cancer may act particularly as an important iuitiatnr imthe produo- tion of broncliogenic carcinoma. . Manydifferent'factors. aree at stake in convderinG rpoloniunr absorption in mann from natural radioactive. '. series. Among other things itis necessary to determine whether 410Po is absorbed by the tobacco plant directly from the soil or through the surface of leaves ' from natural fallout contained inthc atmosphere. It must also be deterrnined howabsorptiomdepends on the tunperature of burning tobacco and what . percentage of Po is retainedby bronchial epithelium and the.r reckon thr., dose to the.organs, etc. A simple method for pnlonium dctcrntination in most widespread Italian cigarettes is beiugset up. In tlre future natural radioactivity will be analyzed botlr in tobacco and tobacco suils, The eigarcttrs considered are the "Nazionali" and "Alfa". Thc tcchnique used consists in a wct ashingprucedure instead of ashing alone in order to avoid polonium evaporation. I= 2 g cigarette tobacco samplcs.are digested with hot concentrated 110 and the solution obtained is then placed in particular plating cell at 95"C; \1!itlun a few hours polbnium is plating on silver disks with a 36 mrn diameter, the solution being agitated for the whole period uf time. For tiie setting up oG the method several detcrmina- tions were pcrformcd of thc alpha particle energy of ther.lectrochemical deposit with a solid-state detector, and charge-sensitive preamplifier, and a multi-channell analyzer. The background is, inthis case, 0.1 = 0.15coumsfhr. An accurate determination is carried out of the chemical'l separation vicld and of the measurement elficienoyw'ith =tOEu calibrated sNutinns. MosP mcasurements are pcrforrned by aZnS (Ag). scintillation counter with a particulnrlylowback-groundof 0.3'pulsr-cfhr. Also blank tests have an activity equal to this value. The counting cfficiency is determined bycalibratcd sources of2ssFu and electro- lyricallydepnsited uranium... . The results are listed; in thc prescnt paper. 145. Cnntamination wilh pnlonium-210, uranium an~' radium-2266 due too smokine. M. Ptcmnxnn, D. PeraovtC, U. P.csovand ll. Djuatc, Departmcnn of Radiological Protection, Institute of Occu- pational Ylealtky.Beograd (Yugoslavia)'. The content of polonium-210, urn.uum and radiurn.-226 u•as e.amined; in Yugoslav well-known cigarettes and tabaccosfrom regions svhere the best Yugoslav tobaccos.are produced. At thcsametime in determinedigroups of smokersofthesecigareues and non-smokers the mentioned radionuclidesin urine were smdied. - ' The distribution of poloniutn-210 in smoke,.ashes and fag-ends.of cigarettes as a function of tempera- ture .rasparticularly examined. Values for polonium- 210 found in some cigarettes ranged from 0.h to 0.6 pCifg. radium-226 below 10-t2Gfg and~ uranium under 5 gammafg,of cigarette, Analyzing the distribution of polonium-210 the authors.eondude that about 40per cent of polbnium- 210is to be found in the smoke of cigarettes. 7'he ur;oarypolonium-210 values in smokers and non- smokers are diffcrent;, but there is no significant statistical di/lerenee between them. .. 146~ \9: hum: D.vu State Conc wcre m mule t Colora, 5-I3 G beef an tiomof could I the 1Fnt resulo ~ 3°sRu. The sensitis by leat 'tionshi tstI, at Duri ycarlic was ge: backgr same I were l levels : dccr t}, 0.0121 147 Pr and Stat Is'.ttA Lab Phy, Tror Twc don a; WesF. f Labor; mental In grama 0-32 Ic cmiro: and fa' Inforn .and di toting -'detaili" eonsur varyin "profcs> the ra
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.a 7111• 1S A%INCJ.I I'Ilcll(1SUHl Fi.A11I Itl Ilt! N..111n\/11 LIItR.1.lt1UI MI111t I\I It t1.Ltrer6rrr.utbr Abenrle.e( a.~ /au.~am~ i/r ALrIrStltmualmmun( xurYt /n rmcnrom r1a/6aaAsmu[A.sit SL6e.61[.6ylaarrA/[<re..! S.ar natlr Len 4rleen /al(rnCrn Y[rraX.re. lu [/orr cue Yttr.m ../S] Sr.rArlr6r:eo Aeor<nxn( ~rrA a ul eee epr Le ellte i]..eAe nlt .6(e e6errreaen {e/e ee/er, l.r le irren Sc4..c6..rrc41.! [[ 5c6[IC[ a.: 5rl4atbla[.. s o([tpa .[rA61. ll la . . a9=ett•tn ,~ Ulr 5[r.ei "...~ mrr ernem m..rnlrrr. .Eer ec misll] [e...aeue a.em . - Yrluln[a 1[r L6trnar nmpe..aar er: Letue(r D..eL. r ait re Aetaealary .u.uma. FlP6•'.n ~'..Iker.a.c/6et -SL nin Uacrr L[r A6felrel/xn(: - nn/r[n.ng...Ll /u acmeur . Sn. 6rt.'S nl.r. mrr. .r.rae. ..en v...rr..[6r. ... .[..[61[e[m.. v[r.[. .1. ar[tpa ..([ .[.a. (.1 4...ra.n Ae..Gnuet ... aaral6.rN.on an .r..2 cuuvA..r 6<mmi•. a.r u Cle . le.: Sr[ua.pa. ue..reeaa Sero( r nr...nr[ tAee. zt. Dat uu.ml.e......nrrn..'...Lmrmrp. er....n.rn. re ..r(.ue.r.... wt.. r.a.:r. .~ .{e\1 mlr /er Slfie](4[1. Is {etY\rxe( .snmr. penet[. ' ~-z.umnsnniu..(/ir vnn<erenant .a.mee.... ....e.t . .. ' Trmp.r.tp /e( Lprn(r . (. mC 'O , DYtc.matcr .ea srl![:a.6r16a1 - i1 m. Q' -- ne.ar .r. .6r[nru.n(1 - ' . s..e._. ~ . usn.ex.(.. .1 ea . .. ' .. . . . ~. . ..
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A 09886 Sung, S. 5. and Lazar, P. ETUDES DES ENERGIES DE TRANSITION ELECTnONIQ,UES BANS TROIS FAMILLES CHIMIQU?5 (.HYDROCAR3URES AROMATIQUES, . METHYL-BENZACRIDINES EP' hIErHYL- BF.NS.AN'THRACENES) EN RAPPORT AVEC LE MIUVOIR CARCINOGENE, (STUDIES OF THE ENERGIES OF ELECTRONIC TRANSTTION IN THREE CIEMICAL FAMILIES' (AROMATIC HY'DROCARBONS, METHYL-BENL- ACRIDINES AND M6THYL-AENL:NTHRACENES) IN RELATION TO THE CARCINOGENIC POWER.). Comntes Rendus des. Seancess do is. ocTo lFee=iolo ~Se. etTea'F371a es.$S(lO):1654-7, ~anTBy T96 ,~renCh (Abs.) This Ss a continuation of work .. reported earlier by one of the authors on transition energies delta-E 1 and delta-E 2. SinCe there wxs~a strong ...oorrelation between delta-E1 and delta-E.2 values, the present . emT pRaslcwas on delta-E 2 values for their clearer res`uS~. When the 3 ~ families.were compared, the averages ' of the delta-E 2s did not differ .' striking"T-Tn the 3 families whether . dealing with carcinogenic or non- carninogenic subgroups. The poly- cyct.ic hydrocarbonsy however, showed , . a much greater dispersion (variance) of dclta-E 2 valuesthan in the other „ 2 fa_M=es. This is attributed to the fact that these compounds have verydifferent molecular structures, being constituted',by bhe.addition oP 1 to 6 benzene rings whereas the other 2 families have similar molecular skeletons.. However, one significantt difference„ was observed between the 2 subgroups of'the famtlles. . The carcinogenic hydrocarbons exhibited values clearly less die- persed than the noncarcinogenic, the averages, however, were not significantly distinct. The carcinogentc methyl-benzaaridinea and methyl-benzantliracenesaveraged significantly less elevated delta-E 2 values than the non- . .. carc nogenlcy although the d1e-s persions wene comparable. _ olJjw., Baumgartel, K., and schhoff, G'. DER POLONI'JM.210-GEHALTVON . RAUCHKOND'u.SATUND TABAK. (pOLONIUM 210 CONTENT OP SMOKE. CONDENSATE AND TOBACCO.) Umweltradtnaktivitat und cra en e as un., in3 Quarter)o _~6~. e^msn (Abs.) . A 09f,98 (contlnued) ' Twodi.fferent methods were employed im the analysis ot tobacco- . amoke condensates. The investigation . showed that 1 g of cigarette - smoke condensate (from about 40 . cigarettes) has a specific activity of 1.4 p cigarette . polonium 210, so that a heavy . smoker consuming.40 cigarettes per . . day may incorporate in his lungs 1.4 p cigarettepolonlum 210 - . daily. This rate is approxiLnately100 times as high as in non- -. smokers, The rate Ss permissible . under the standards of the Inter- - natlonal Commission on Radiation . Pratection but one is cautioned . that the variability of poloniu® .. 210 content Sn smoKe part±.cles , and aerosal Components cam ' recult in an unequal distribution of polonium 210 in respiratory . f organs, , . _ .. . A 09906. .. . .. .. Citallenge. ' . , TOBACCO ~ RESEARCH FI@IDINOSAfi;:'COID TO AMA. Challenge :1 page, Sep 1J[iR. A 09926 Sims, P. and Grover, P. L.'-QUAiYPITATIVEASPECTS'OFF THEI4:'PABOLI3MOF 7,12-DIMETHYLDENL(a)ANTHHACENE BY LIVER HOMOC.ENATF,S ?+ROhT ANIfMLS OF DIFFERENT AGE, SEX AN'D SPECIES. Biochemlcal Pharmacolo 17(9) Tr41=E; -ffe_p 1 .8- . .. . . A09932 Kershbaum, A,. A COMPARATIVE STUnY OF CIOARETTE, ' CIGAR AND PIPE SMOKING EFFHCTS ON BLAOD.LIPIDS, CATECgOLAMINE EXCRcPIONANDINICOTINE'CONTENT OF THE URINE. ActaCardaoLogica 23(4):317-29, 1968. A 09946 Alvares, A, p., :ch111Lng, 0., Levin, W„ and, Kue'tyman, R. ALTERATION OF THE MICROSOMAL HEMOPROTEIN BY 3-RMPHYLCHOLANTHiENE: EFFECTS . OF ETHIONINE AND ACTINOMYCIN D, Journal ni Pharmacology and F _ me~~nEa enaDeu cs r63(2):417~-24, 6. _ A 09963 K1ho, Y. ISOLATION OF POLYRIBOSOME FROM TOBACCO PLANTS INFECTED WITH TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS. ~Ja. ne~se Journal of Microbiology 1212J:211-7y Jwi S9U, A A A f F
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-lra f a bol„rs d to h,r re- Dur. )'C Usn uC rr.q. 'C. 71s )wcd ht t arou:,d Aets pr(e entirtl, tttern{ ir : Crysuh lies w'cre r growih le boron etragoml larly pre- (99.99. hiomcuit held at r21o3 y cryslab distdtidc ~ ) 100 :on kb and f the cle- ted at 40 a 5-hout us subui. aure wat element. of I : 3 h' 5 kls wat ature xae r 3 hour. :r coOiiPg 'C. Suct rystallint. 7itfraclion arabfc to -metnb(r• JrCCCS51lb >u.h the.( of sinstt not singk ~f crysul ame aag. Ge orJcr- Ccll .Crr en~e 'ucls fnvd'ernlanitun rtgerlCe Ih 'i0 transparent crystals, With larger .. Raet•nns •na Noree : lyzed. It was then possible to make a rtystal fragments of SiSe IT, uniaxial t. t.t. s... snw<rman and l. R. snvlen, rnarx- - direct comparison between the.amountse in¢rference figures were observed in Chem. 4. 129 (t965): of Po=10 and particulate matter in 2. w„ nOSSem, H. Fischer.. E. GruncC Nutur- a`reement with the tetragonal structure. wu.en,chalten 23. 7440 (1935); E. ]inn and mainstream smoke.: Eleven popular K. Lnosen, Z.. Physik. Che,n. Leipzig A 194 brands of ei arettes were tested. These In gencral, crystal fragments were col- 301 (1935). ''g . #le~_ , . ` 3. W. H. Zacharlasen, PhYS. Rer. 49, gM included one regular-sized nonfilter,.One (1936); 1. Chem. Plna. 4, 619 (1936). rC ular-sized filter, and one kin sized With sulfur-sclcnium melts of differ- 4. R. W..G. Wyckort, Am. l. sur. 9.44g(1925); g g- ,. nonfilter cigarette, andeight king-sized ~ ent Compositions, the immersion method Z. Rri>t. 42. 189 9 (1925). 5. T. F. W: bvuh, Arn. J. S°!. 1l, 350 (1932):~ - indieated mean indicess of refraction for 6. W. A. Doliate; Z. Kn:rr., in preas. filter cigarettes. Cigarettes were pur- SiS-: ll and GeS, II of 2.24 and 2.40, . 7. G..E. A. Schulce, Z. PhYnk. Chern. Leipzig B chased on the open market and used 14, 215 (19J4)- regpectively. g: F. Dachine and R. Roy; Z. Krist. 111, 451 from freshly' opened packs. They were All crystals of SiS. II, GeS_ If, and 9. ( E19c )-t.tord.. u. 0. Hutman. P. lol.nsen, smoked to approximately equal butt tnixed compositions essentially behaved l. Re,. taar. mrr. sm. C63; 59 (1959). lengths,, which required fewer puffs for ( W. iybsy Weir• G. l. Piermarini, Ser- rcgular-sized than for king-sized ciga- , yr insulators having electrical resistivi- 10, S. e„~ 168. Block, C. 947 UCs inn excess of 1010 to 10" ohm em.' lt. We acknuwtedge with rnnnksihe eHorts of rettes. ' . - C. T. PREWITT C. L. Hnov<r and his sta6 who carried out The articulate ~hase of mainstream the pressuttsYntheaee, a1e efforts of B. G. P p ' H. $- 1rOUNG Hoeve whu measured the indiasof refrac- smoke was trapped on Milliporee typeYentral Research De artment, ...: - uon. nnd the ,~ismnte of E.. P, Moore with AP fiben lass refilter discs held in a P the x-ray worY. Cnntrihurion No. 1081 from g P Experimental Station, E. I. da Pont Le Nernours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19898 the Centra0 Reseurch Depanmeny. Expcri- ,: rnental Stattun, E: I. du Pont de Nemours' and Company. I June 1965 ner. Smoke from test cigarettes was . passed first through a fiberglass filter and then through a_Millipore filter- Polonium-210 Content of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke type HA, of 0-45-µ pore-size--which .- .. -' is assumed to act as an absolute filter - Abstract. When eleven brands of cigarettes were smoked in a standardized for smoke particles. When both filters manner, diQerences in the poloninm-210conrenr of variores brandswere /ound, were weighed separately, it was found The differences were not directly related to the presence oJ afflter or to the that a minimum of 96 percent of the con.riruction of the filter, but wererelated to the amount of particulate matter particulate phase was retained by the in the nrainstream smoke. ... , . fiberglass filter. Cigarettes held by a Polonium-210,., a radioisotope thatemils' a-partlclcs, is a natural conthmi- nant of cigarette smoke. Radford and Hunt (1) suggested that Po210 is an - important'factor in the genesis of bronchial cancer' in smokers.. These authors measured the PoR10 content of cigarette smoke, whole tobacco, and samples of bronchial tissue. The validi- Jy of their conclusions regarding both the quantities of Po'-'10 found in the. lung and'd the importance of the role of pon° in tumor initiation has been discussed (2, 3). Radford and~ Hunt's data further revealed a markedd dif- ference •between the Po=10 contentt of mainstream smoke from filter and' non- 6lter cigarettes. Michelson (2)poiP.ted outt that the difference was substantial and might be related to the action of dgarette filters in removing portions of the particulate phase of the smoke. 11' has also been suggested that Poe1° might explain the increased incidence of bladder cancer in smokers (4)- Because Po"-1° may be a significant factor in the initiation of bronchial cancer in smokers, it is important to 6ave more accurate and extensive in-(ormalion aboutt the quantities of I'o='9 in mainstream smoke. Further- more,, if there are real differences in E, Vt1L. ld 1 M IULY 1965 •- -.. latex diaphragm cemented toa small the Po-1° content of smokeamong glass funnel were smoked in ahori- cigarette brands, they would probably zontal position. The latex diaphragm be due to the action of cigarette fitters.. provides a. leak-proof, distortion-free The characteristic of cigarette filtersmethod for holding cigarettes and does which makes them effective against not affect smoke ffow, A falling-wa- Po'1U should also beinvestigatede ter-column apparatus provided suction To resolve these qttcstions,, cigarettes standardized in35-m1 puffs of 2-sec- were smoked in a standardized man- ond duration at 58-second intervals. ner, the particulate phasee removed and The criteria for puff frequency, dura- measured, and the Po"S0 content ana- tion, andsize arethosee set forth by Table 1. The Po"°contenl of mainstream smoke of various brands of cigarettes. For each anal- ysia two cigarettes were used: Except where indicated, nine pu(fs were used fur each cigarette. Brand B C D E F G H I J K modified Unico filter-disc holder with reduced dead space.Efficiency of the 0 filter was checked inn the following man- 1Qo,of -'Averagebutt analyses ' ~ length (mm) 34.6 (32-36) King-sized frlJer elgaretre 6 - 34.3 (33-35) e Plus or m(nus tnndnrd error.. L 54puffs fnr eaeh cfgarette. was 9.25p the rangc wes vine u+ teo. Range Radioactivity of . mainstream smoke ., per cigarctte . (pe) Regular-sited firter cigarene ' 32.2 (30-34) . .029 i .n023-} Regular,sized nonfiIrer cfgarette 30.9 ' . (29-32) -043±A032t King-sized filter tigarette. p . 32,1 (31-33) j 029 * .0020. 32.4 (31-34) P, A32±~-0023. .34.4 . (30.36) (D. .031 ~.0025 34.3 (33-35) W .0332.0021 32.2 (31-34) 03si'.0019 35.4 '(34-37) ~ 0 34.0 (32-36) .03g =.003 . . Ring.rized nonhher cigarette ,U42 ±- .0021 .044 T .0033
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Particulate matter Ratio of radio- per cigarette . -: activity to : - (mg) amount of par- . . ticulate matter Regldor.rized Jil(er Ngarerre 29 ~ 10.5 Regular-si¢ed rron(dler cigarette 43 :. 14.9 King-sized Flrer cigarelte ' ~ C ~. ~ 29 . '. 11.5 D 32 . ~ ~ 9'.5 E 31 ~ ~ 13.1 ~. F 33 - ~ ~- 11.4. ~ ~ 38 ~ -- i ` 16.4 H 38 15.2 -~ I . .. . 38 .. `:.~.16.5 King-aiped noRfiller cigarene 42 .. . 1 ; 17.1 - King-siZed'fdrer eigarette . ' 44 '163 the Analytical Methods Committee of the Tobacco Chemists Conference (5). After the amoking seqpence', thein- ' in- side surfaee.s of the funnel and the -' filter chamber were wiped with a small piece of filter- disc, and the material -`. thus obtained was combined in the plating procedure with that retained . on the disc. The Po=1ncontent of the j. tobacco from whole, unburned' ciga- :rettes wasalso determined.. Tobacco and mainstream smoke retained by filter discs were p"repared for counting in P the same manner. Tiobacco or filter discs were wet-ashed in concentrated -_ HCl at 60°C and then transferred to a plating chamber constructe& from a nursing bottle which held a 2.5-cm ~ ' planchet cut from milled sheet fine- , I - ized water and air-dried. Satnples were' . counted in agas-flowproportional counter with a background of less than 0.8 count per hour. - There were no significant differences in the Po'-1o content of whole tobac- co between the brands tested. The ' amounts of Po'30 found were very 'T11ole 2. Correfation between the PonO content and particulate matter of cigarette smoke.. silver (6). The contents of thee chamber were stiaed for 4 hours while being. heated in a boiling water bath. The silver nlanchets were rinsed with deion- similar to the amounts reported by Radford and Hunt (average for tobacco from regular-sized cigarettes, 0.39 pe). In confirmation of the work of Rad- ford and Hunt, Po=rv was found in mainstream smoke (see Table 1). How- ever, the quantities of Po'1a were con- C lower, amounting to about :, C Rhree-eighths of the amounts reported'by those authors. Differences in the smok- .g ing methodscould account for this dis- ~ crepancy (7).. Thesc differences are con- : sidcrahle and are as follows: gas-flow 2.76 2.88 25'- 3.37 2.36 2.89 2.31' 2.50 2.30 2.45 2.66 1he method most widely used in sltlol, ingmachines: Determinations of poen therefore shouldhe made according lo this standard method ralher than by a method which does not approach tiK manner of human cigarelle puffing. As shown in Table 1, there are rnp, siderable differcnces between the main. stream smoke from various brands uf cigarettes. These differences are sl,lir. lically significant wherever'two meant differ by more than three standard cr- ; rors. The values are not related to the size of the cigarette tested, nor arr - they directly related to the presence or absence of. a filter. There is, however, . a marked relation between the Potti ~ content' and the amount of particulate matter in the mainstream smoke, a, shnwn in Table 2. The mean ratio of rate, 17.5 ml/sec'as against 15 ml/sec; puff length, 2seconds.as against'2to 3 scconds;.puff frequency, 60 seconds as against 50 seconds; number of puffs (regular-sized cigarettes), 6 as against 8; butt length (regular-sized cigarcttes), 33.4 mm as against 24.5 mm (esti- mated). When the smoking method and the puffingg sequence of Radford and Hunt were simulaled, larger amounts of Poe10 were obtained in mainstream smoke than under the conditions de- scribed here, but the total amounts reported by those authors were never quitee reached. The PoP°4 content of mainstreamsmokem apparently depends ttpon4he manner of smoking. . - It is generally accepted that the 35- ml-per-minute,. 2-second-puff sequence imitates closely the dynamics of hu- man smoking. Pfyl (8), in 1933, was the first to recognize the need for con- trolling puff-rate, volume,frequency,, and time. Bradford et al. (9) made the first attempts to regulatethose' pa- rameters . to approximate' the manner of human smoking in order to he able to make in vitro data valid for an in vivo situation. Bradford measured the smoking characteristics of a large num- ber of smokers and foundd on the average that 35-ml puffs of 2-second , . . duration were taken with a frequency n. Honman. Adv. caneer Re,. s, 249 n9w.r" of one puff per minute. Other workers O' J' R. ive.some and C. H. Keith. rnl6ara` Stl. l, 59 (1957). reported similar average volumes of O 8. 9. Pfrl. z. unfe.r. irbrmm. 66 son nonr 32 and4U ml (8, 10). Wolman (I1) ~ 9 mm !Hd¢dEne. ~ rin. 28, r , a36 (>936). R~ accepted the conditions described by(5le. RbidB.zUer', A(1H,lRiesmeyer, A..a, tlnrnlK- Bradford (9). Schutr and Richards Cdtl. w, Woiman, l. Anrer. M.d..isspe.1s1, *1r (12) also found similar averages in tC (IV53). 12. M.. o. 8churr and l. C, Rkhards, Tdbu.+ ~ studying the smoking habits of 20 male Set. r, 13 (1957). L . subjects. Designers of smoking ma- 13. A73. E O(19sg).,'Kccne and R. C: Lkrrr, fbld chines have been aware' of the need 14- saproried m pan by P. lodllard Co.. Vork. 7he technicel au/sance of R. D+t'f to imitate the manner of human Pnerwn 1. gratrrntly aekno.ledsed. cigarette puffng (12, 13),, and this is 9 lune t96J Pr dud% Gnec three /ourt V: .ilhi .txu. fenu doph posst 40, o1Ha' ahic rcplr ponc (3). A! 46 fi rom: wou: mosc bone sene (iler dopl most speet ehic only 71 f~gur (he \inef ing s mad ill a: *erc einc rtan, an i coq, rr p eom. T reM than four s38 . . . . . . . ~ . . - . . ~ . . . . SCrFNfF. VnI- tar 30 1 Radioacttvhy per smoked etgarette (10rpc) radioactivity to particulate matter u 2.64~. With the exception of cigarette D, all of the values for this ratio are within 13percent'3 of the mean~ ratio. It is reasonable to assume that a n¢• lation exists. between thePo']o con. tent and the amount of particulate mab ter, because the polonium is apparent- ly adsorbed on smoke particles during the combustion process. Brand char., acteristicsn in terms of. Po"tn contem appear to depend on the amount of particulate matter in the mainstream smoke, and neither directly on the pres- ence or absence of a filter nor on the nature or constructionn of the filter. THOMAg F. KELLET 9ia-Re.rearch. Consultanf.c, Ine.,. _Caanbridge. Massachusetts 02141 , References and Nnrea l. E. P. Radford, lr., undV. R. Hont,. Sdrw+ 143 247 (1964): , 2'. 1., Michelson,. (bid.,. p. 917: 3. E. P. Radford, Jr.. and V. R. Hunt, IAV 144, 366 (1964): K. W. skratlq. F. J Huuehey- £. L. A/esandcr, Ibld. 10. rs ' t L .(1960; E. P. Radford, Jr., V. R. Hun. R. Little, ibid., p. 87. 4. H. Elsleq. Srience 144, 952 (1964). 5. C. L. Osr. L. A:ruc. OQtc- Aae [Aemfm 47. 356 (1964). 6. E. P. Radford, Jr.. V. R. Huni D. Shetn: Radintlnn Re.r. 19. 298 (1963). 7. E. L. Wvn,ier and D. HnRman New Enrle'J WYnder nw. I. Med 261 54a p9eq):' E L.
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The New.England Jour~.~aI -le . of NCed.icine Qoprri6At,. 1NS, hry the Mauachveetb Medical Soeiery . Volume 273 DECEMBER 16, 1965 Number 25 DISTRIBUTION'. OF POLONIUM'1e IN PULMONARY TISSUES OF CIGARE'I'TE. SP^IOI~IiRS* JOHN B. LITrLEy M.D.,f EnwAttD P. RAnaoeo, Ja.,. M.D.,tH. Lovts McCoMSS, M.D.,§ AND VILMA R. HUNT, B.D.S.¶. . . .'-- BOSTON C IGARE'I'TE smoke contains trace amounts of MATSxurs an alpha-partide-emitting radioactive element, . ~ . .. polonium"O (Po'10).,' a naturally occurringg daugh- This investigation is based on lung specimens from ter isotope of radiumaaa In establishing whether 40: different subjects,, of whom 36 have been studied this source off radiation exposure may be involved, in . in detail. Of the latter, 31 were whole lungs oh- d[c initiationn of bronchial cancer in smokcrs, an im-tained at autopsy,, and 5 were surgical specimens - portant step is to show that pulntonary tissues of from patients who undcr.vent elective lobeclomics -smokers, particularly certain regions of the bron- or pneumonectomies. Among these patients 25 ehial epithelium,.contain more of this clement than were currently cigarette-smokers, 2 currently pipe those of nonsmokers. Because polonium has tfle smokers,, and 1I formerly a cigarette s[noker, as well property of binding strongly to solids, it is a reason- ~ azThe lin ral datason eachsub'ect includin smok- able hy~ otitesis that a major part of the. inhaled ~ ~ ' g Pd°O may remain attached to smoke particles as ling histories, pertinent autopsy findings and causes they are excreted. On this basis analysis of pul-'of death are presented in Table. l. Histories were monary tissues for Poii° may also offer some infor- lobtained from hospital records and the attending malion concerning the dynamics off smoke absorption 'physician and in most cases by direct eontactt with and excretion in human lungs.. Present knowledge the next of kin. All current smokers had smoked - of thcsee turnover processes is largely basedond ani- continuously for periods of at least twentyyears, up . mal experiments. _ . until a maximum of ten days before death or sur- The The nonsrnoking interval indicated in Table 1 The present investigation was undertaken, there- represents the time elapsed between the moment fore, to measure PoS10concentrations in various pul- -eigarctte smoking was stopped and death or sur-- monary tissues of smokers and noncmokers: Fromgical intervention. . .. such measurements estimates may bee obtained of . . . , the radiation dosee delivered to the lung and bron- MaT7toos ' . . chial epithelium by this eiement.. Equally important, Autopsy Bpecimens however, these measurements offer an opportunity • . . . to evaluate the dynamics of pulmonary turnover of The average elapsed time between death and au- _ smoke itself. . topsy was ten hours. With the exception of Cases . . . 1-13 whole lungs were obtained directly from thc •rmm the newrt,nent ar rhy u-a)°m: Harv,rd School of pubcc . autopsy table and brought immediately to our laho- llr,hh, and Ihc Ihpar[mvnt °[ 1'athnloey, Hzrveed Medle.l Seboel1 sarrnrtrd hr• cnm.zct (AT ~I7o-tl-svo) .r,m the Ueit=d s-arce ratory:. In Cases 1-13 an additionalpcriod up to I:nersr ~•••mh•iaa, hY ernwr (MTLRH-27-01) [rcrn the twen[ tour hours cla>sed aftcr autors dnrin thi~ snrcv. of sut. snria~, Unhm SL+w, rubhe IRxllh Ser.ice, and by Y- 1 Iy: R •^•Iituti•,nal seant frmn Ihe anetelener Foundation. time the lungs were kept under refrigeration at 4°C. Q. FAaknnrl prohn°r ol radiu6iolo;y, 1[arvnrd Schowl of Public Heenh; can.••Ir.nt in radi°lagr,. ntn,rooa~nnn ceaerat Hmpiml. Lungs either were dissected immediately after dlry O r• .r.nl6~ne: nc~lmb .,i>ry~lUniv~t~nr°~~tci~u[ ~tn nc~~u R~roinreai- were obtained or were quiek frozen and subsrqucntlp ~ r 1tW.r,,,rrH, rrnreme a: yhpialasa tl.•.•rd sehool of dlssected after carcful thawing Ad:: I l ruhh) , within ten dnys. in 11. . ~ ta....... h .,„.„;,.[e ~n pmholnqy, Harvard Scho°t .t Puhllc: Heillh.most cases several tissue samples were obta~ned 6-m:t ,~ ~hl-11,1ro. re>arrhtdin.. 'n[,ai°olnsy, ttar.=ra ht~d,ral seh•MI„ n1od various arts of the bronchial trec, for histnlnLir fi ,,nn ....ur, we,r lindn:rr. veo-,an. Adiafnl.rrmioa P ~ LHesr.,r° anwe;ae iu phn;^loes Itan'ard School of rubl[c tteahh. examination. Thesc samples were taken either just ar t
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Polunium-210 in Bronchial Epitheliutn of Cigarette Smokers The bioingie significance of radio- ctivc. polonium in tobacco smoke has -been widely debated since the original . report by Radford and Hunt (I). Hnltz- man and Ilcewicz (2) have mentioned sonic. 'seemingly conflicting evidence concerning radiation doses from this - source to bronchial epitkelium.. 'Their paper for the.first time indi- catcs that„ in addition to "-toPo, tobac- co smoke contains some of that iso- tope's grandparent,, long-lived lead-210; and that, in rib bones and lung parcn- - chyma, ""Pb was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers of about the same age. We agreethat this means of ex- posure too environmental s1oPb is im- portant, and results of a few studie.s of smoke in our laboratory roughly . confirm theirs. Indeed 2toPb in smoke may be more significant than their data - imply. . .. ... -"Because Holtzman and Ilcewicz's mainstream smoke samplescontained much lower amounts of "-roPo than we and others havefound, their estimates ' for inhaled ']oPb also may be low. 'As far as radiobiological implications are concerned, however, it is the C amount of 210Pb present in the bron- chial epithelium of smokers that is of . greatestt interest; no evidence is yet ..-available.. The presence of s1oPo in "hot spots" that we have reported (3)) at bifurcations of segmental bronchi may . depend on the presence of aroPb,, en• vironmental sources of which may ac- count for the atoPo found in epithelia of nonsmokers. - In view of the potential importance of such hot spots in smokers' lungs,, we wish to comment on the wide dis- .crepancy between our estimates of radi- ~-~ ation dose for small regions of the bronchial epithelium and those report- d ed'. by Hill (4) and Rajewsky and Stahl- hofen (5), which are mentioned with- out comment by Holtzman and Ilce- -wicz. We believe that the apparently ' 100-fold difference in estimates of dose largely results front differences in the techniques of nieasuring epithclial =1nPo concentrations, and that,, if care- fully analyzed, the results of all three studies are compatible. ' Bronchiul specimens may be divided into three components: bronchial wall and submucosa, bronchial cpifhelium. and superficial mucus.. Our pertinent findings from detailed analysis of pul- monary tissues from 25 cigarette smok- ers (3) are summarized in Table 1. 606 Table L Averagee concentrations of °nPo in tween those we have found in trachea various components of bronchial specimens and in segmental bifurcations (Table 1). from25 eip,areue smokers. . In private conversation, Stahlhofen has . - °"Po in ' Location - - wct tissue . concurred lhat the results In the two '1 Rove (pc/g) laboratories actually agree closely. Be- Bronchial wall and aubrnucosa Supencoial mucus ' Bronchinlepithetium:Trachea , ' Lobar bronchi • ' Seamental bifurcations o.aoa .013 .12 .19 4.5 cause of the high background in their counters, Rajewsky and Stahlhofen could not have measured the 2toPo coneenttation in epithelium from in- - dividualbifurcations, and thus esti- , mated local radiation doses in these arcas. The estimate. of a maximum dose ` The P°oPoconcentrations in bronchial of approximately 200 rem/25 yr to wall and submucosa and in superficial ~ the bronchial epithclium of lower-lobe . rtiucus were very low. Most of the ~ bifurcations of smokers in our series measured activitylay in the.epithelium, ~(3)fs basedd solely on the measured ' yet theepithelium accounts for only concentration of "nPo in epithelial' 2 to 3 percent of a bronchial specimen samples: This highly localized dose by weight. Thus it iss evident that the should not be comparedd with the dose e1aPoconcentration measured in a: to the whole lung, as calculated by whole specimen. of bronchus may ap- Ferri and Baratta (6); nor does it take pear low, but, ass most of the activity into account radiation arising from is in the epithelium, the epithelial eon- "-10Po in the mucous layer, as -isin- centrafion may be higher by nearly two - cluded in the theoretical model of Rad- ordersof magnitude. For thisreason,s ford and Hunt (1) and used as the the local radiation dose to the epithe- basis for the doses estimated by Ra- lium would be correspondingly higher jewsky and Stahlhofcn (5). On the basis than that incurred if the activitywere of our measurements in superficial mu- distributed uniformly throughout the 'cus, we feel that this latter component entire specimen. . .. .- -.. ` is very small compared to radiation re- Hill (4) analyzcd whole bronchial ceived from the isotope deposited with- specimens weighing 5 to 15 g and in the epithelium. " containing, several secondary bifurca- ' Another problem in any analysis of tions; he found' the average =toPocon- bronchial epithelium is the rapidity of centration in smokers to be 0.007 pc postmortemm changes in this tissue„ His- per gram of tissue. Applyingous aver- tologic sectionss obtained within cven a age results (Table 1) to a large speci- few hours of death often show 3oss of men similar to Hill's, of which 2 per- considerable areas of epithelium; there- cent by weight was epithelium and 5 fore we have used only specimens ob- percent of the epithelial surface rep- tained directly from the autopsy table resented tips of segmental bifurca- when autopsy quickly followed deathh tions,, we would expect the average con- and when histological controls showed centration in the whole specimen to be the epithelium to be reasonably intact. 0.012. pc/g-in reasonable agreement Hill and Rajewskyand Stahlhofert made with Hill's measurements. no mention ofthis point. Rajewsky and Stahlhofen (5) have We hope that future investigations analyzed pooled samples of epithelium, and estimates of doses, particularly separated from bronchial wall, taken thosc evaluating the importance of from "the bifurcation, the secondary -toPbb in the bronchial epithelium of bifurcation andparts of the trachea." smokers, will allow for these factors. The anatomiealsources, and relative ' - Joxr? B. LMts l.it that showi tively lung appea ofH hofen note, are st light some Fir urcmc vacuu chial showe of 0 conce This lower PC pe from (/). ity of dried Kelle, by us erenti tissue smokr Fin of =10 in no: toeatit that i that n from tf the tratiur of 0.4 lotal day's mg tt xetivit these ""Po amounts of epithelium from eaoh site, Department of Physiology, Harvard ! Physic ofthece samples are not statcd., bun School of Public llealth,. Boston. t/ 1'tocethe amount of tissue available frortr~ Massachusetts 02115 ' 'nater tips of bifurcations is much smaller0 EDWARD P. RADFOrm, Itt. more than that obtainable from the trachea.4 ,~Kettering L.aboratory, University of Pp of and adjacent bronchi.. The averag~- Cincinnati College of Medicine, tless. -rnPo content in these pooled epithelia(A Cincinnati, Ohio 45219 higher /~0'02 sam lcs was 8 X l0-4 r uar i p p per sq q. . Rererenen eentimeter of epithelial surface If wd.,7 ~ tared 1. E. P. Radford, Jr.,, anJ V. It, Hunt, Srlrar' •/b t assume that the average thickness of 2 143. ?Holtzman an d F. H. . Ikewrcr, r6/d r3r t the epithelium is 40 µ, this content 1239 (1966). represents 0.20 pc per gram of epithe- 3. J. n. uma E. P. R,drord. Jr., H. F-. su' ~'e` )IOmy a conecntration Intermedlah: be- Combs. V. R. Hunl, New Engr;.l.. Mrd 1t3 r'µuer . 1343 (196s). . . ac1ENCe, voL. +sr "scB:
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ose to 3be ries red lial ose ose by ake 70111 in- .ad- the Ra- asis mu. lent' re- ith- tof_ His- :11 a s of ere- ob- able eath wed tact, iade ions 'arly of t of rrLE , IR. L C, R. N111j Nature r°e,. 423 096s). - It appears from these, speculations r• B31Z ~~966~y and W: S[ahlhn[cn, I6/d. ]09; that more.evidence is necessary because 4 Q; S. Fern and E. J. Baratta, Public aenaJh of the high concentrations of =1npo RrPr,. U.S. 61, 121 (1966). Ro.cm6er 1966 - ,.. with the consequently high radiation 1 level. Detailed and careful analyses, I Littleand Radford's demonstration similar to those of Little et af... (1), that their data and conclusions (1), and autoradiographic studies of the Ihowing the existence of areas of rcla- distribution of 210Pb in thclung could tively high levels ofR1°Po in human perhaps establish the existence of high lung tissue,, do not disagree (despite localized concentrations of =1^Po.. Such appearances to the contrary) with those studies might also provide insight into of-Hill (2) and Rajewsky and Stahl- the origin and metabolism of 21UPb hofen (3) is significant. One should and P10Po. note, however, that the discrepancies . RlerrARD B. HOLTZMAN are still not fully resolved either iqn the Radiological Physics Division, Argonne light of existing data or regarding National Laboratory, 9700 South - come theoretical eonsiderations- Cass Avenuc, Argonne,Illenois - Firstj the autoradiographic meas- _ - urements by Hill (2) on specimens of .- Rerer`"": - vacuum-dried epithelium, from bron- 1:7. B. r-Ittle• E. P. Radfnrd: Jr., H. L. Mc- 'Comtia, V. R. Hun; New Eng7. 1. Med. 273, chial bifurcations taken from smokers, - 1343 pass): .. ., showed an upper limit of r.-aetlvity 2. B: Rajvwsky and W s,Stahlhu(cn' (bid: 209, of O.01 pc/cma, equivalent (o a 1312. (1966); : coneent2ation of less than 2 pc/g. 4,.7,F• Kelley' Snence 149, 537 (196s). . This upper limit is. thus quite a little 2° De""rber 1966 .. lower than the average value of 4.5 pe per gram of wet tissue determined .~, - . from similar specimens by Little et a!: . . (1). Second, this lettcr specific activ- Infrared Absorption of " ity of epithelium is higher than that of Carbonate Apatite dried smoke, 2 pc/g, as shown by ... Kelley (4) and Hill: (2)) and confirmed Termine and Posner (1) have con- by us; it could be explained by pref- cluded that the inorganic component erential retention of the nuclide in the of rat bone is composed of aa two- tissue over other components of the phase mixtureof crystalline and snloke,.but this point is not established. - amorphous (noncrystalline)) calcium Finally, the origin of the high, Ievelsphosphate. This they have done through of R10Po (up to 7 pc/g) (1),, especially consideration of a "splitting fraction in nonsmokers, is of interest since the measurement for the 600 em-J phor location at thebifurcationse indicates phate ion antisymmetric bendingfre- that it is acquired by precipitation of quency in the calcium phosphates." that nuclide itself, or of its parent =10Pb,. - They state that they "found a straight from inhaled air. Thus. these tissues,, line correlationn between the degree of if they weigh 0.1 g and the concen- this infrared splitting and percentage tration is 4 pc/g, might contain a total crystallinity (weight fraction of crystal- of 0,4 pc, a quantity representing thee line apatite) in synthetic samples con- total weekly intake of "-1nPo or 1 day's intake of =1oPb. Consider- ing that only a small fraction of the activity; say 5 percent, precipitates in these areas,, the rate of build-up of 01OPo would approach the rate of its physical half-life, 133 days. Clearance Processes operating on the deposited materials would make this build-up stilt more unlikely. On the other hand,.build, up of 21oPb presents these diiT7culties to a.lesser extent,.not only because of the higher concentrations in the atmosphere (0,02 pc of ""Pb per cubic meter com- pared to about 0.002 pc of "-1°Po), but also because of the much longer half- life of the parent, 21 years. Lead, however, may be moree mobile in soft tissues- tafning these two phases." They refer to these synthetic substances as hy- droxyapatile even though the substance of bone is not hydroxyapatite (2) and state that carbonate apatites were ex- cluded from their investigation.. Their basis for excluding the carbonate apa- titcs is related to the size ofindividual crystallites in rat bone. There is no fundamental theorythat.will permit one to deduce the chemical composition of a crystalline phase from a knowledge of the size of the crystals, as Termine and Posner have done. - Elsewhere Posner et al. (3) have at- tempted to determine the "degree of crystallinity" of bnne mineral by meas- uring line broadening of x-ray diffrac- tien maxima, but incipient line splitting cannot, in general, be distinguished from line broadening (4). kil The interpretation of their infrared absorption data is also.erroneous. Coles (5) has pointed out:'•The synthctic car- bonate apatites have infrared spectra very different from those of other apa- tites; Distinguishing features are the strong carbonate band att about 1450 cm-1 and Inck of resolution of the - maim PO.r-$ band into a doublet." : By "main POy-s band," . Coles ap- parently means thepronounccd absorp- ". tion at about 1050 em-1., A similar lack of resolution has been observed in the absorption band at about 600 em-1, and was described by Zapanta- LeGeros et al. (6): °Thiss band [635 cm-1] is only very weakly present or _" even absent in the spectraa of synthetic carbonate apatite, staffelite (carbonate- -, F-apatite), and biological apatite. This - absence is believed due to the presence - of the carbonate ion." . . It is this reduction of resolution (ab- sence of splitting) that Termine and .- Posner (1) used as a criterion to indi- . cate the presence of an amorphous phase in rat bone, although the same reduction of resolution occurs for a . . holocrystalline, mineralogical.carbonate apatite (6), Furthermore, although bone . has been examined by- both electron microscopy and electron diffraction by several investigators, no one has pre- sented direct evidence of the existence of an amorphous inorganic phase, either phosphate or carbonate.. . . . Thus, Termincand Posner have wrongly assumed that rat bone is a simple hydroxyapatite (instead of a car- bonate hydroxyapatite) and have used a measurement that is spurious when . carbonate apatite is present. They have furnished no evidence that an amorphous phase ispresent in bone. -- DONCAN MCCONNELL Ohio State University, Columbus 43210 ~ . ~.- netrrenan 1. l. D. Terminc and A. S. Posncr, ScJence 133, , 1523 (1966). 2. D. M.Connell. ibid. 136,241 (1962); Can.. ' Orrhnp. 2], 253 (1962); Amer. Mmerul. 45, 209 (1960). 3. A. S. Pusner, E. D.. Enncs. R. A. Harper, I. Zipkin, Arch. Oral Slok 3, 549 (196]); 4. D.. McCOnncll, ib(d. 10, 421 (1965). 5. J. L. Coles, lhesls, Unlvcnsily "t Utah (196]). 6. R. 7.apanra-LeGcros, l. P. LeGeros, E. Klina,n. R.' Traulr.. J. Denr. Res. 43, 750 (1963). ' 29 Navem6er 1966 . 00e.. _ _ n -a(~_ 4 In our original report~[(~1),wel did not assign either structural or ehemicall identity to the poorly crystallized, apa- titic fraction of bone mineral, since the exact naturee of bone apatite is aa matter of considerable debate (2). In :- a55 1 1 FQBRIIARY 1967~ . . - . , ; , . . . - ~ 607
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1344 _ THE'NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL 01; MISDICIINI:: TAnl.e 1. ClinicnL Datn nn Cnvr Studied in Detnil- Cane No. Snx. Ane " . SwoamodLevoRv Tar nwr or t.nwn errr.a 1 t c 63 tACRaOe! O/ YR. CI(IAanlYel~ DMORrn n..v . 1r/r >70 MoNlMOnINO INrrnYAr.ne- /orenurn 10A.yr Avmr.v nrhlung' 2 bt 42 1%r 1. ' +25 4den Rrsl, Iunge 3 M 70 1-2 >10 7dan FrcAh b,ng•. 4 M 55 1/e -t35 5nay, - Frr.la hmge 6 Af 57 S%r '> 20 3 dayr, . Fredrlunge 7 llt fie 2-3 ±50 l0dayr Frnhlunge B M 11 .. 1.2 .±20 4dayr Freth lunge 9 M 76 - yr-1' >20 *2 dnyr Freah luns• 10 M 56 ' 2 >30. ±2dayr FraL Lmge IZ M 52 1% 30' 4dan Fmh lung! 13 M 46 1% 2 >20 4hr.. Frmh Iung! 17 _ M 69 . _1 -1~ ' . >30' 3 dan FreshlUngt la M 51 1 30 - 2 days Freah lun3t 19 M 56 - 2 25 3 dayr Fresh lungt 21 F 75 1%t-2 50 *10da7r Fresh lungj 22 M 52 ' 1-2 23 1 2 dayr Fresh Imqt ~ M 35 I% f25 0 Fre.h lungt 24 M. 76 1 60 6-12 hr. Frtrh lungt 25 M 56 >2 >20 ]dayr• Frnh lung} 30 M 56 Ir/r . 30 2 dap Frnh li.ogi 31 M 42 1-2 20 7 d=ys Fmh lunst 32 M . 70 l%-2 >30 7dap Fresh lungt 31 . M 57 S§ 30. I dq. Frclh fun;t 36 M 10 . 1/ ' 27 1 dai. Frtah lungt LF 55 >2 >30 12 hr. Frvh Iungt M 72 (Nonrmoker) Fresh lunga 11 F 15 ' - . (Nonemoker) Fresh lunga 14 M 87 (Nnm m~kcr) Frcnh lung$ 16 M E7 (i•tnn mcker) Freeh lung( 26 F - 9n (Nammoker) Frah Itrngj 28 F 64 (Nonmwker) Frerh lungt 34 F 38 (Nonrmekcr) .. Frerh lungj 33 F 49 - (NOnrmokcr) Frntt lung; 13 M 76 (Rpcrmnker until 2 dayp before death) Frzrh lungt 20 M 74 (Stopped cigarcnes 16 yr. before death) Frbh lungt 29 M 66 (Fipctmoker untill day befure death) Frelh lungt aninocGon delayed 2-24 hr..uar autopq.. . tFraren immcdiatcly-dirseeted'later (see te.r). tDiueeted' immediaeely. . - before dissection or before the lung was frozen. Systematic microscopical and histnchernical exarnincr.- tionsU were performed on multiple epithelial' sections from 14 lungs; thesc findings will be described in detailin a future publication.The left lwlgg was used uni'fonnlyin these studics, except in a few cases in which it was specifically diseased and the. right lung only was available for analysis. With the ex- ception of Cases 1-13, 17 and 28 analyses were per- formed on lungs in which the hronchial tree had not been opened at autopsy. . Surgical Specimens Whole.ltings or single lobes were obtained duringelcctivc surgery in Cases 32-36. To rninimiic pnst- mortem changes, surgical specimens were dissected within hvcntyminutes aftcr removal, The bronchial tree had not been opened, and samples were dis- Urr... 16, Irn,} G,uur.wr & C•rr.r. nr nrarn 5n,uke;nh:dnrinn. puhnnnary rinhnli & cdnna . Alrnl/ollr unr .6dllr.. ,.A.d.ln.alhrr,atnnz 1'utmnnmr rmnhnrnc,, wiJ, cn.nnary hrarr riissv . Slatun aulrmAti2m.. .. .. Alcnllnlic. pa~{rnt 1,,,m,l drndb, Lrd; rhr..n;c pancn•atln, Dronchnpncumaeia, ..:d. alnrra. ' Runmrr.l c rm;d-/df.,rcaUa ruryam . . . .. FS6rnt dradan nrri.vl; emm~ary hearl duea.c. Alrnhnlic paricnp Fricdlkndcr'r pneumonia. . - Subarachnnia hrmovh..ge ' ' -- Acutce myocardlal inLrct - ' " Carcinnm= nF r;e141 h.ng ' mrnr .,161iinf=.ct , . ' ' Acute Aeme u,ypr=.d;aliinfarct . ' Carcinnmanflun.4-advanred huarl fa;lura„with acutc palmenary edcma. Acwn myoa=.diat infarct ' Aptrc rrpl4rmia - . Suldiual hemorrhagc Alcoholic patient; acute mynrard;al io6ra. . •. ? Dimecdng anenryruq',dratL during electlve surgery. '. Carc u1 mng. wim metanaees Surgical lpcdmen: right lung.aner pncurnooectomy; e r- Surgiol spec:m,•n:.ielt unprr inbe after.lnbeetemy; rsrci- ... Snrgmnl wadmcn;, left opper lobe afterr pneumnnrcmmr.earelYnml. . . Acute panereatitirp,comnary hcart discale;; pulmonary. edrma. I.euk.m,a ' ' CcrcLrnva.cnlarxrident - Cerebmea.~.dar acddrnr,. bronehopneumonii. . Acute intotinal nlntruclion Metarmtic c nn a f.r,.n hrent - 5 bmnrlh'cmrlreu:'righr middle lobe, after lobeetomy; Surxical rperimen; left lung arter pa,eumonrctnmy; undif- lerenuatcd earcmoma. Acute mrnordial infarct Acute myccardial infarct . ' Acure myacardial infamt I sected for Poi10 analysis before routine histologic I sections were taken. In 2 of these specimens (Caxs - ~33 and 34) relatively little normalhronchial tissue was available. qissectinn of Specimens ., . Pcribronchial lymplt nodes were removed from thr region of thc lower-lobe bronchus and, if necessary, the hilhr area.. Whenevcr possible, about I gm, nf lyinphoid tissue was obtained.. Samples of lunp parenchyma weighing about 5 gm: were dissected from areas as free as possible of bronchi. Parcn- ehynlal samplcscontained no bronchi largerthan I mnl. in exterior diameter and were taken from thr• pcriphcry of the lower lobe ind;, in 16 cascs, from the region of- the lower-lobe primaryst;qmental bi~- furcations. In 10 cases pcriphcraD parench)•mal avn- plcs from bolh the upper and the lower lobes Nrere obtained. To study in greater dt:tail the gross parc•n- vln lu:~ -.;11 hltlIllc pr• S:rtl N'henr ln\.ltr- Yhl- . :Irf910t Whcn areas tizr•rl qrnCSl; wa5 ' analr> snbm' formc careft curvc• ohtai mctel small samp the , iris s anal. Sii of 9t eentt lated lun^ of b detel Silllil lowe lnun its sl thicl strld . fron calc, the the subt coln tinn cisr valu plc nht: I
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i 1346- . THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OFh41iDICINS YAnl.e.2. Pofoniurn'N ConaentralinnJ in Pulmonary TiJJurr. C..n No. CoxccNT.wnoN IN.1•AaeN- UNYNA' CoN TI°Y IYYI'r11- •CIIIrfIr.1UL - pmliLr. rt °aNTRAI.t pfcnc irr! gi•r. e1~mr1 (/JlV[ n°°V(:IIIAL LrMTn Nunea ploec •fn/ [m'~ °t m[( (IIfVe s 0-0u .- 0.no7 2 0.013 0.025 . OA07 s n.oo2 0.075 0.013 "4 _. 0.004 0.007 . 0.006 6 ' 0+009 - 0.018 7 0.a64 - 0.010 e 01110 - e.uo9 9 0.005 . , /0.010 10 0.007 0.012 0.014 12 - 0.90 ' 0.020 13 ' 0.005 0 010 003 0 ' 17. . . 0L03 . --- . 0.019 IB 0.004 0.019 0.010 „ 19 0.007 0.007 - 0.015 21 0.003 - O.Oas 22 . 0.na 0.020 23 0.009 0.009 0.015 24 0.002 0.0025 <0.002 25 0.018 0.006 90 0.m7 0.605 - 0.010 31 0.002 0.0p8 0105 32 0.002 0.0025 0.003 33 0.006 36' 0.017 - ' 0.034 31 0.023 0.010 5 0.0015 0.001 . ' 0.007: 11 OA02 - 0:017. 14 - - 0.009 ' 16 0.0015 - - 0.004 26 0.002 0.004 <0.0015 28 0.001 0.0015 ' 0.0039 34 0.0015 -. - 35 . . . 0.0015 - 0A025 15 0.00P5 - VA07 20 0.0015 - 0.006 29 0.001 0.t101 0.002 CA•Nf.rNTnwe~ON'/w t{rnNOl11n1. 7.[ITIIr.1.IMMe .FTPM lIIUNC11111 IwIM[ FenNlalu pROHCIfV1 l.r)T-I:rrr2- F/4MrNT LerT-1.VW/:[ /:MrST ~r•~RG VN] alellneATlnl~ plrorY.in/ IrorurfeJ/ D Dicor .irr/ Diaa [ . :/ pirc.i.r/ a - Rm of u.[I r~.r- ol mu <m. .l,.rart o rm. t l ~ ( uvl dA. IllfYe (fllVC (irfV[ ]Yaue ]iJlMr . - 0.7 - 1.0 8.3 0.1 <0.2 <0:3 1.3 <0.8 <0.2 0.1 <0.2 0.5 2.9 0.2 <0.2 <0.2 0.6 0.5 - <0.2 0.4 0-8 0'.6 . 0.2 0.2 0.2 <0.8 1.8 0.6 9n <0.2 <4.0 <1.s - 0:1 0.2 0.8 3.8 - 0.3 - 0.1 <2.0 2.3 - - ' 0.3 <0.2 <1.0 . - 13.9 <0.2 <03 3.8 . 3.5 - . 0.2 ' 0.t 20 2.7 . <0.2 <0'.4 1.0 27 7 110 0.2 9.5 <0.5 4.2 . 6.7 0.1 n3 0.3 - 4.9 <0.2 0.6 1.1 - 5.0 -- 7.5 0.4 0.4 26 3.1 4.9 1.7 <0.3 0.4 <1.0 <1./1 . - <02 <0.2 5.0 5.0 0.2 <0.4 2.1 ' ' - <0.2 <0.2 0.2 1.4 <25. - 0.1 . <0-4 1.4 . 87 2S 7.8 - <1.0 <1.2 ., 1.5 - - 0.1 - - - 12.8 - <0.2 <0.3 - <0.2 <0.5 <0.2 <0d <2.0 4.5 <0.1 - . <0.7 <0.3 <0.3 <0.5 <0.4 <1.(/ <1.0 0.2 ' <0.2 -C15 <1.5 1.6 <0.6 - 0.6 <0.6 <1.5 6.8 - <0.6 <1.3 - <0.6 <0.2 <02 - 0.9 . - 0.3 0.9 <0.2 . 7.2 15 ' - 0-5 <O3 <1.5 1.5 ' ~ 0.5 . 0.3 <0.2 6.2 2.7 'Gleulated from mrface . . (r°o-leet), I fParcnehrrna frem region.of priman segmental bifureaeions. I - . . .. jvaluef giren for sin8fe bihurz6m• in each 1°be ailh highelt eoncelvralinn.. periphery, the results varied slightly, depending on the lobe' studied. In the lower lobes. Po?10 eoncen- ' trations were greatest centrally, in. thc region of the lobar bronchi and major segmental bi.fklrcations,. andd gradually decreased to a minimum in the most peripheral samples. In the right middle lobe (1 case) and. the lingular segment of the left uppcr lobe (3 cases), concentrations reached a maximum near the tertiary segmental bifurcations,, in 2 of the 4 eases' being Ibwer more centrally (though still higher than in the most peripheral samples). We have atlernptr.d to correlate concentrations' in the lrulglrarenchyma with smoking history. Thcrc was no correlation with total; . cigarcttcs snloked ex- presscd as pack years (packages per day times minl- ber of years smoked), or with the age of the indi. vidual at death. As shotvn in Figure 2, however, a trend toward higher Po=10 levels is suggested in the persons wllose daily eigarettc consunlption was hil;h- er. Correlation with daily cigarette consmnption,. ' but not with total eigarettcs smoked, is not un- expected, considering the rapid clearance time for particulates by the lung, as well as the rolaticcl)short half-life of the polonium isotope. Such rela- tions are difficult to establish, however, owing to the inaccuracies inherent in the next of kin's estimation of cigarette consumption and the lack of spccifir data in hospilal records. When parcnchymal Po='"was studied ass a function of time (one to ten days) since cessation of smoking a significant trend toward higher levels was evident only in those who smoked up until twenty-four hours or less before death or surgery, but the scatter was great. The parcnchynlal Po"O concentration in the patient who had not smoked cigarettes for sixteen ycars (Case 20) .rasvcry low (0.0015 picocuric pcr grant). Lymph Nodes . The concentrations of Po"" found in prribron- chiat lymph nodcs of smokers and nonsmokers alr
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POLONIIJM"" IN SMOKF,RS-3.1TTLE ET AL. C ~ rlnmal dixlrihution of Pn"-'", 4 to 7 contirtous I,.mnrhymal,sarnplcs were dissccted from 4 adriition- al Iungs, following the course of a bronchus from _ dir priihilar rc,l`inn ou[ to-dtc hutg pcriphcry. $:uuplrs of bronchial epithclitun were obtained ,lmnrver possible from the main-stem bronchus, lnt.cr-Inhe bronchus and lower-lobe scgmentat bron- rhi', as well' as from primary and seconctaryscg- nirntaly bifurcations i~n the upper and lower lobes. • 11'hun thre bronchiall tree had been opcnec, at: autopsy arras were chosen that had been minimolly trauma- tired and where the mucous sheet appearcd intact grossly. The epithelium, along with overlying mucas, n-as gently scraped oft with a dull scalpel and. analyzcd separately from the undtrlying wall and submucosa..Separate determinations weree alsoo per- fonncdd an samples of superficiaU mucus obtained by rareftd lifting off of areas of the mucous sheet with nrvedforccps. Samples of bronchial epithelium were obtained from areas averaging I or 2 square centi- metersexcept in bifurcations, where they were as, small as 0.1 to 0.2 square centimeter. In very small samples epithelial tissue was usually dissected fromthe underlying bronchial wall and, eartilagee with iris scissors, and the mucosa and submucosa were analyzed together. Since epithelial samples contained varying amounts of superficial mucus or submucosa the PoEiO con- centrations in bronchial epithelium were calcu- lated frotn the surface areas of the samples. In each lung the concentrations in mucus and in specimens of bronchial wall and submucosa were separately determined; these concentrations were in general similar to those.found in Lung parenchyma,,hut much lower than in epithelium.. The weight of the epithe- lium alone in a givensample was calculated from its surface area on the basis of an average epithelial thickness of 40microns - a value derived from the stiidy of histologic sections in the present series and from the figures reported by Altshuler ct al.' This calculated epithclial weight was subtracted from the measured weight of the entire sample, yielding the weight component due to superficial mucus or submocosa or both.. The Po"O content of this latter Mmponent was then calculated from the eoneentra- tions measured in mucus and submucosa obtained elmwhcre in the same lung. By subtraction of this value from the total activity measured in the sam- plc the Po°'"' content of dte epithe?ium alone was obtained. . PotoniUm"' Anatyses 'rhe, detoils of the radiochemical analysis and counting of radioactivity due to Po='° have previ- nuxlyY been described' f3rie0y, tissue samples were dlj-vtrd for an hour in hot concentrated hydrochloric .uid, after which the solution .vas diluted toIo0 iul. with 0.5-N hydrochloric acid and put into plat- u+g r'olls mnintaincd at. 90 to 95°C. This technic is specifie for polnnium isotopes, but, of the natural isotoprs, only Po=1° has a long enough half-lifc to be countccP one or two hours.after plating. ltadio- activity wass mcasurcrd in gas-flow proportional connters, with background aate.sof 0.2 to 0.6 cotmtss per hour, and efficiencies of 51 pcr cent for polonimm alphap.vticles. Counters with backgrounds of0.2 to 0.3 counts per hour were used for most epithelialsamples; these samples were counted for period6 of twenty-four or forty-eight hours in different count- ers for a total elapsed time of three to seven days; until a minimum, of 15 to 20 countsabove back- ground had been obtained. For samples with min- imally detectable.activity the count rate ranged from 35 to 65 per cent above background, and the stan- dard deviation of a particular measurement was roughly ±50 per cent. When the total net count was less than 15, and the count rate less than 35 per cent above background, the activity of the sample was considered not significantly different from zero. Determination of background count rates, as well as the counting of reagent blanks, was perFormed at regular intervals; these showed remarkably little vari- ation over long periods. . RnSULTS Lung Parenchyrna Polonium"°concentrations' found in lung parcn- chyma, peribronehial' lymph nodes and bronchial epithelium are listed for each subject in Table 2.. These are expressed as picocuries (10-" curies, or 2.2disintegrationa per minute) of Po'0° per grain of wet tissue... The average concentration in periph- eral parenchyma. of current cigarette smokers was 0.0074 picocurie per gram (range, 0.002 to 0.023) as compared with 0-0016 (range, 0.001 to 0.002): for nonsmokers. These results are shown graphically in Figure 1, in which the difference between smokerss and nonsmokers is clear. Parenchymal concentrations in the 22 patients currently smoking pipes were sim- ilar to those of nonsmokers (0.001 and 0.0015 pico- euries per gram). . - In 12 cigarette smokers samples of more cen- trally located parcndiyma.were also analyzed (Table 2),. Po"O content in these samples was greater than in peripheral samples in 9 of the 12 subjects and less in only 1: the average concentration in central specimens was roughly t.vicethat in peripheral sam- ples from the same group. In 10 smokers' lungs in which peripheral parenchyn.a from both upper and lower lobes was analyzed the upper-lobc parenchytna showed greater activity in 9 of 1,0 cases thuriqll the differences were not large (average concentration in. the upper-lobc periphcral parenchyma w'as 0.010 picocuric per grant as conrparcd with 0.f1011 pico- curie inlower-lobc parcnchy.ma from these 10 . pa- tients). In the 4 adtlitiontd lungs in which cuntigu- ous parenchymalspecimcns wcre taken along tbe course of a brouchus front theV hilar region to the
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POLONIUM'o IN SMOKERS-LITTLE ET AL. . 1347 Pa<a,.raan. rnecenn•rrow trte~a.iu/.m. - .ae .010 0 : .~ .ee ..e. .. .«. .. I . eutna:ns nou-anrnam auol¢na .on-srauwa /EmrIaNLL nR1aMER19nONOML marnc/nw ev..M wurs .l;l'. • ..«. . ~ .. : Ftovnc 1. PneX Coare.trationss in Peripheral Lung Paren- tAyma and Pnribroncrtial Lymph Nodee from 25 Patienta. Currently Smoking Cigarettat and from 8 Nonsmokerr. vach point represents average findings in aringie patient.. a rerulumereavaifable in the fympR nodtr (rom 2lungt , and in tAe parenchyma from I other lung. Pol.ontlmne . Coucvxn~nax -fiear.r:u/rm. .0251 .0201 .Ot5-1 .010~ -005~ • . BETWEEN 2 OR 1 ana 2 MORE PACKAGES/DAY SMOKED somewhat below that found in those currently smok- ing (0.011 picocuric per gram), the dillcrcncc was far lessmarkcd than in the lung parenchyma. There was noo currclation witlr total eigarcttcs smuked, or number smokcdper day, and little if any relatinn existed bchoeen Po'ta concentrations in lung paren- chyma and perihronchiat lymphh nodes in thee same subjcct (for example, Cases 12, 22, 25 and 37).. Bronchial Epithelium Tnough the Por10eoneentration inn bronchial wall ewas simiLvr to that present in lung parenchyma,-it was gencrzllF about two orders of rnagnitudee greater in brart-iAal' epithelium than in parenchyma or lymph roodcs. The individual results in epithelium from 5 different sites are shown in Table 2. The concen- trationss indicated for bifurcatlons of the upper and lower lobes, where several similar spr.cimens were frequently analyzed in eachlung„ were those found in the single.bifurcation in each region containing the greatest measured activity. Since parenchymal and lymph-node <-atnplts weighed.1 to 5grn- good ac- curacy could be ach;eved in measurement of poa0 activity in these specimens. Epithelial samples usu- ally weighed less than 25 mg. and contained much 1'ess total activity- The accuracy of each determina- tion was therefore considerably reduced, particularly in small bifLrcations. When no activity was ob- served, Po"0 was recorded in Table.2 as being less than the concentration that we should have been able to detect on the basis of the epithelial weight and total counting,time of the sample. - Measurable PoS1O was also present in superficial mucus from all smokers; the concentrations ranged from. 0.002 to 0.044 picocuric per gram of mucus, with the exception of Case 36, in which the. concen- tration was much higher (0.28 picocurie per gram). The latter result may have been due to an error in analysis. The rcults in mucus are probably the least representative of equilibrium conditionsduring life, owing to the rapid' clearance characteristics of superficial mucus and the abnormally large quanti- ties of mucus undoubtedly present in many of these patients at death. . When histologic sections were obtained at the ' time of dissection in the lungs in which dissection was delayed for two to twenty-four hours after autopsy thcyshosued varying degrees of post-mor- tern changes, especially loss of areas of bronchial epithelium. We shall consider in detail, therefore, the results. frour the 14 stnokers lunsrs that were analyzed or frozen immediately. In these cases his- tologic sections revealed minimal post-mortem changes and generally intact bronchial. cpithelitun. The anatomic locations of epithelfall samples, as well as the averases and ranges of Po=t" concer.- ttations found inn rpithelium from this,4'roup of 14 smokers, are shown graphically in Figure 3. With the exception of Cases 33 and 36 lohar and segmental. Flaunc.2. Pa"' Coneentratiom in. Periphrra! Lung Paren- rbyann ns a Function of Daily Cigarette Consumption in 25 Patients CurrenHy'SnlokingWho.Smaked until Ten Days or Less before Death or Surgical Interuentioa. also showa in Figure 1. Again, considerable inrli- vidual variation was evident. Though the average level in nonsmoken (O.00u3 picocuric per gratn)was
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642 NATU R using bothtlne graphite rod and Tnsla discharge techniques, ' tvore unsuccessful. '-. . ' Although no directmcasnromemtts of the power supplied ' to the plaama by oach generntor havee yet beon made,. ' approximato-valucs tvorc obtained by n load substitution mothod: thepower dissiputed inu dummy load, a graphRe cylinder of thu dimensions.required to produee the same Innd conditions as theplasma itself, was determined by rnensuring the oquilibrium tcmperntnrre of the graphiteIond in a slow stream of nitrogCn and assuming, that.the power supplied wascqual to the rate of loss of heatt by radiation (convection losses arn comparat'ivclyy sanall). '1•leis method hasbeen shown by Reed°.to give results - which agree well with those obtained by using the con- ventineml water-cooled calorimeter. Theontput from generator Nb. 2 was about 13 kWwith gonerat'or No. I on (Fig, 2): and 10 kW with generator No. 1 switched off. Similar meassurements on generator No. I indicated nn out.putpower of approximately 7 k\ir. '- - . There appears to be no reason why still lower £mqnrnciess should not be used provided that: (u)suitable means.of iuitiation are incorporated, either by the use of a high- ~1lequeney pilot plasma as.in the present.work or possibly by pressurereduction as, apparently used by llymshits; (b) the.size of the plasma.torch is increased. . . - We acknowledge the assistance of A:. Wilkinson (photo- grnphs)',. J, G. Brett (construction of quartz and glass apparatus) and C..Teo (clectronics)',. . . . . . . -. I.J. FLOYD ' J. C. LF:wrs Allen Clark Research Centre, ~ . The PlesscyCa..,.Ltd.,. . Caswell, Toweester, Northanta. " Division of Molemdar Science, - National Physical lsboratory, " Teddingten, Middlesex.. .- C' • llued, T. B., J.:dDD. /'1<4a., 92, 821 (lee1L •• •• ' Rcbcua, J., C:R. Amd. Sci:. Paria, 253s (1s62). • Liirnner, A-. end Hus11£ar, F., A•ne., IneE: derortuut. and ANroruul. Aleurie Proyulaioo- CanJrrmnce, L'dnrurta Syrlayr, Murrh 198J. .' 8rrcnowekl, C. R'., znd luunroe, A. C., Ineern. pnion Pure und dpy. CAwn. HvmP. "AibA TGmPeruinre TecA„nlerY" Sm+V~. Cbli7arniu. r96J, W-R4 (1964). • Reed, T. B..Inhrn. Set Teehncl., No. 6, 42 (June 1962). `w'iietuauu, W. U.,Itadr•neLtd.(pervuunlwmmuvleation). -• Dymehllq B. M., end KoceteklL Ys. P.. Sooiet PAtn.-Tnl. PAyr-, !, 12m (]D65A .. . • Reed; T: B., I4e;. Spi. 7aM.um., 30, 620 (1eEb). - .., . _ - RADIOBIOLOGY . , . . . Measurement of Polonium-210 in Human ' . ... Blood Puzoxm6i-210 isa naturally occurring alpha•emittiug isotope of the uranium series derived from .decay of its long-lived parent, ]cad-210. Polonium-210 is pre6ent in moet plants and foodntnffs, as well as in hurnan tissues''-`. Body burdens of this isotope am usually determined by . measuring its acsivity in tissue samples orurine:,.,: Tissue smnp[es other than teeth are not readily available during life, however,, and 24 h m•ine culloetions may be difficult to obtain and process, yet are often necessary to qunntify urinary excretion. We have found that polonium• 210 can be easily detected in 10 ml.. humn,e blhod samples by a simplo radiochemical and counting.techniquc. The measurement of polonium-210concentration in blood may thus be a pracHicaU mothodof estimating, body burdens of this isotope,.as well as of itspamnt Icad-210•. As tobacco suaoke has been shoavn to contain trace amounts of pnlonium-210% wee have related blood concentrations to amokirtg habits in a group of middle-aged mon. Tien rnl,. samples of fresh clotted blood were weighed and digested in 30 ml. o(' bnt concontruttid hydrochloric aoid, placed in pllating cells with 0-6N hydrochloric acid and " CIGAR- CIGAR.a PAST NON- - ETTE PIPE SMOKERS SMNCERS SMOKERS SMOKERS . - . 81r. 1. Polod~~iam F,relthr u m~64 yeac. uraye. blood umD1ee 50 mg asoorbic acid, and the polonium plated on to silver plancheta','.. The planchets were counted for 48-72 h in low background gas-flowproportional countere'. Poln, nium-210 conuentrations as.low as 0-3 pc:/kgblood conkl be reliably measured by this mcthodL. Blood sampleswem obtained from 100 healthy men between the.e agns of 45 and 54 years, all of whom resided in one suburb of Boetan. R.vr,~.e- Detailed smoking histories were obtained from thea•. - men, and they were divided into four groups: eurrent' eigarettee stnokena, current pipe and/or cigar smokern - only,, past cigarette srnokers (had been regular smokerr until a year or more previously), and individuals who hs.l . ncvorarnoked• The results are preserited in Elg.. L. The avernF,• ' polonium-210 . concentration in smokers was 1-72 pc./kgblood, compared with 0•70 pc./kg inn non-smokerg: Al- though a significant differenceesisted between blood', concentrations in cigarette smokerss and non-smokrr. (P < 0-001), a two to three-fold variation among individaab., was present in cach group. Such, variation has also.berno observed among polonium-21O coneentrations in pul- monary tissues of differentlindividuals': In addition. we have examined other body tissues including livcr, spleen, kidney, urinary bladder and bone obtained ntt autopsy from ten cigarette smekere and four non-smoker:. Average concentrations were very similar to those n•- cently reported by Hill', but Ilp to a three-fold variation in eoncentratiorws in each, organ was observed among individuals. . T11e variation in blood concentrations may in part result from dietary factors. As $ill has pointed on4 polonium-210 concentrations diffor widely in vorino• loadsfmffs;, beef and lamb kidney and certain shell fLA, for example, may contain relatively large amounts of thr isotope'. lIn a prclirninary study of possible.dietary effn•l.C several binod samples werrodrawn from an 85 kg eubjcet before and after a menl containing about 100 po• ef polonium-210 (,'L00'g of beef kidney). Blood poloniurn--^I('' concentrations were 0-98 pe-/kgbeforeg the maal'und re.' to a maximum of 1•58pc./Jrg 12 h after the moal, which suggests that a significant frnction of the isotope ptcwmt in food is absorbed into the blood. In soparatn.oxpuriments in four heavy cigarette emokrra-m blood samples wore obtained before and atregular iuucr-vala aft.,r sudden complctecessatimr of smoking. Pllool polbnium-210 concentrations. fell an average of 27 ¢'r r.ent during the frrat week after smokingg was stopP"d- but. thereafter changed very little during the next 4-a_ weeks. 's..suer- _. j„ additio m!,^°d.d by • tlnd cigaret . , I,r fday per olrvt"l fron ...Inusdr•r- T - ddionncosir ~;10'.am be d ~ tudividuale, ~ . lay.linoo to ,odividuals I -~ of pnlottitrm ,•xry•ritnents ., ~ fnund in 10a aa,dysis of e tunful in es' tnpps other : U'othartk ~ .ity of Cinc munta on Tl tis work v ,,iateScrvi grent from ~ lt"partmeut - flarvard Sc .~. Boston. Afa: - Hn1,c.a,S • nolnman. R- .• Wttle, J. a, • •asaool ~l6a. •brkrun, 3.,. • Had[ocA, lum. 'Llule•J.B. I . Bnyl. J. 5I Caes: I1 V owL1SDC doR,vnhu.ti ,.•rtain ooer tiun of oees ., Ntilmens. , f the ordt ptc./kg)' in in ~ udand un'estigatlc rnribouu s.ni lindillg coa. 1'rndletou ncuumulatk through sr.contamiuat erganism9, urdcra of f wtrroundlni During tl .' cu,-sium-13 ridlly in tl -orllcr in 1 -chmstd at '~.tilkin (exa tvuecntrsti d,-icrminod t•f-irt•wh fi niqutre. A •'r,unincd e( caosium Tkis inher el^•c/ea as pn,viouxly The eaes pri,narily the radio+
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1348~ ..~ . THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OI+ MEDICINE -' ..Dcc. 16,. 196-, furcations, from 10 of the 11 specime.ns,, hldtbr __ A. MevhShM aeonutos eoncentmtionss were gcnerally lower tLann in thre lungc , . - that were frozen or dissected immediately aftcr cul '- I topsy. We believe that even in thc latlcr cases. I poloniinn may have been lost from local "hot sprnts" because of thcdelay bctween, death and auto sy ! . p . No correlation existed between number of eiGa- reltes smoked„ or time since the last cigarette,. and the Po"° levcls in bronchial cpithclium. Similarly, 6i there was noo correlation between parrnehymaland 9 = 4 u 3 ~ . ~ (tl.o-7.(1) . . . . r•e~e Y 2 1 . k ~ I tN.2-L-rt fN. 0 (<IA-13.0) E Frouna 3. Auernge PofD Concentrations in Brosr4f.6 Epi- thelium )rom Various Regions of the Bronchial T ree of 14 Cigorettt Smoksr.r. The figures in parentheses are ranger. For the purpore of these averager,.sampfes inn which no activity cvuldd be rr.ea- sured'(see Table 2) were conjidered ar having zero activity. In bifurcations the averages are of concenerationx found in the single bi/urcation i¢n each lobe with the F.ighed measured actioity: „ bronchi analyzed were all from the lower lobes. Poin0 activity was observed in. epitheliurn from 5 of the 8 main-stern and 7 of the 12 lobar bronchi ana- lyzed• With 1.exception.tke concentrations in these regions ranged from 0:1 to 0.6 picocurie per gram of epithelium. Activity was found in segmentall bronchi from 8 of 13 lungs; epithelialconcentratior.s were 1.0 picocurie per gram or greater in 4 of these broncili,: butt were similar to those in lobar and main-stem bronchi in the other 4. The levels were considerably higher, however, in segmental bTurcations. Po310 was found in epithelium from upper-lobe bifurcations' in 11 of the 12 lungs and in lower-lobe bifurcations in 9 of the I I lungs in which they weree analyzed. In 9 lungs in which bifurcations from both upper and _lowerr lobes \vere analyzed 7 showc.dactivity in both regions. In all 14 lungs the average PoiO concen- trafion in segmentalhifurcations from both lobes was 4.5 picocuries' per gram. Po610' in epithelium, from individual bifurcations, however, exceeded 10: _ picocuries per gram in 2 lungs, and ranged from.4.5 to 10 picocuries per gram in 7 of the remaining 12 -epithelial concentrations. In tls 2 pipe smokerz epithelial Po"o content was similarr to that of ciga- retlesmokers though the . parencltyrnal eoncentia- tions were very low. Signi6canq though low, levrels of activity were found in the lobar bronchus anN 1 bifurcation of the single past'smokcr (Case.20). .. - The.difference between these results and those in. bronchial epithelium from the lungs of the 8 non- smokers is.not as clear as.thesesults in the lung.paren- ehyma. Though in no nonsmoker was activitc found in segmental bronchi or uppcr-lobe bilurca- tions,. and in only 1 case each was there activity in main-slcm or lobar bronchi, significant Po'-10 was found in epithclium from lower-lobe bifurcations. in 4 of the 8 nonsmokers. In 2 of these the concen- trations were similar to those found in many smok- ers, but in the remaining 2, only low Po21tl levels were observed in I of 3 bifurcations analyzed in . each case. Obviously, 'cigarette smokingg may not be the only environmental source of Porso for bron- chial epithelium. i ! . Dtscussrox ` I id i h sev t cnt that utnan lung tissues conta{n arreasurablb amounts of the radioactive isotope poto- niumr1O. In general, this clement may enter the body in two ways. In the first, "unsupportcd" Po'r" or polonium not present-tvith its long-lived parent, lead"O, may be taken into the body directly. Be- cause the half-life of Po't0is only a hundred and thirty-eight days, expostrre, totheo isotope would have to be fairlyy continuous for a steady-state concentra- tion to be rcachedd in tissues. On the basis of pre- liminary measurements of lead0°O we believe that most of the Po"O in smokers' lungs comes from such , unsupported Po"0 present in cigarette smoke. Sec- - -ondly„ when lead='° is present, Po"O may arise in `-I the body from a decay of this elemcnt.* I.end='ois ;( present in many foodstuffs, as well as in thc air iti low tbnccntrvtions.lItsmajor' mute of entr is y spccimcns. Oprobably the gastrointestinal tract, frotn citlrrr in- It is evident front Table 2 that considerable vari-d g.cstedfonc6 or swallo.ved: mucus from the Imrgs We . i ation in epithelial PoSO concentration was pre.sent-I <pn,a „ nee lnrt en n,rrtr. nf. rndi<,es.< rlrn,r,u. ,Irr~.,-d tron. ammng smokcrs. In addition, howcvcr, rf P":+ ir nrr.cnt „cm le. Inns-s..d'.n,rrne. Ir,d"^ (Pln•u:a i e..mer rrnnl. rqniLb.l o I variation was found among different bifurcations iu fZb.,naa,..~b.,naa,..naa,.. .hhmu,.ir rln pe fn ,.. n .hen ihe rmr f Ih~ of Prn.h,r.rn., of n~w t+O- { fr I. the samr hm andloba rr"nu n. I rt r u t I er~• e,rr.t<rn -r I I.,,.X1.11 g . ~ro~t e•• 1 1, I rl. hnlr-bf. (, hun it 1 nnA . In thc I l additional lun,qs frnm cigarrttc su\okersn-•w n ik I I 'v r Ild, .•:.Y IhI cr I I.,,Ir.• I err <x....... . (I,, I ~. n ttcr I{Is no-. I. - r I f' ^ I in w'bich do!ayrd disscctinns w•crc pcrformrtf (l:asc•s .+ m< h~ns sm~~l~~~u..., h., n c..t eM n Um' ol Ihe c 4,rcuc le .. ,4~ellY Ihe 1h •v< rl 1. L 1 r d . I to 13)'. G'U'1°' achvily \Y'as foml{I in segmculal bi- ..hr° rAe nlpren< huru, •.nd u r.rnM °lr m the rn.nke nd .n4nG.l:, - t) $E6A:ENTRL BIF1hiCAT10/1 UPPEa LOeE 1 ~ ~'-- E. 9EOMENTAL EtFLae4TION' '~~ IAWT LOBE
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v°l. 273 No. 25 POLONIUM"' IN. SMUKER5.-1.1T7'l.i? E"1' Al.,. .~ ~ 13,19 C fw.lircre that thr. Po"" activity in softt tissues other d,an tile lung mayariseprincipallv from.this.source; rd10 levels in liver, splecm and kidneys, fur ex- ample, are similar in smokersand nousmnknrs.° Like- aiw, Pn°"6 in nonsmokers' ltmgss may alsoarise from Irul:m 'I'hough some pulmonary Po"° comes from normal environmental sources, such as ingested or inhaled lrad"0; the present studicsindicate-that ci;garette smokc is a significant additional source of this isotopcc in tile lungs. . . polonium as a Tracer for Clearance of Smoke Particl°s In Human. Lunps . if we assume that PoR19 in cigarette smoke re- mains attaehedd to the, smoke particles, we may in- fer some of the chamcteristics of particle deposition and clearance in httrnann lungs from the pattern of polonium distribution in pulmonary tissues off smok- cts. Tho-e relatively low Po"1O concentrahon in lung parenchyma of cigarette smokers, for example, sug- gcsts that the majority of inhaled smoke particies is rapidly cleared from the lung. The average excess Por'0 concentration in lung parenchyma of cig- arette smokers as compared to nonsmokers was 0!Oi0 picocurie per gram, on the basis of our findings in central and peripheral samples. This excess would represent about. 10 picocuries of P0210 in both lungs, at any given time, or tile amount deposited from smoking of about 7 packages of cigarettes.'•° Turn- over of polonium in the lungs is therefore a rc:a- tively rapid process. As discussed below, Po910 clear- ance appears to occur priinarily by way of the mucous sheet. On the.basis of ourmcasurementsin mueusfrom personss with no lung disease who smoked until less than forty-eight hours.before death (excluding- Case 36), and on the assumption 'i,at each lung contains less than 10 gm. of succriic.ial mucus, the total Po"°' in tile mucus of both lungs at any given time would liee less than 0.4 picocurie - a quantity that would be deposited frmn the smoking of 6 cigareltcs.. Though the furdings rele- vant to superficial mucuss in these specimens prob- ably do nnt duplicate in vivo equilibrium conditions our results are consistent'wi4i the rapid mucus transit and clearance times calculated for human luings by Albert and Arnett.T.The distribution of polonium activity in the lung parenchyma of cigarette smokers suggests that either ilepositionn or clearance of smoke is not uniform. Iie- cause deposition of cigarette smoke' dependss on dif- fusion it should be relatively unifornr within the IunG. The linver po{onium content in peripheral parenchyma, therefore, probably reflects a more rapid dearance of smoke from peripheral lung.g tissuc,, into the bronchialtrec, than from moree central tecgions.. l)nexprcledly,, the lymphaties apparently do not have an important role in clearance.of smoke partlcles, or at least in clearance of the isotole itself. This con- cbsion isbasrds on the nhscrvatians thntt pcribron- chial lymph noclcs in smokrrs cmttaitn'd relativrly little 1'0"° and that tile cm,rentrations in smtikers were little diffrrrnt from thosae founcl in persons whohad ncvcr smnkrd. Pinally,, the obsr,rvalion that blood of ciSarcttc stnokers con4ainsonly about 0,0016 picocuricc per grain of Po7'0 as compared with. o.n0fl7 pii:ocnrie per grain in non.smokcrs; despite a low urinary clcarance, indicates that only a vcry small fraclion of inhalcdPo"" in cigarette smoke isahsorbed into the bloodstrcam. In summary,, then,, cirrtrnncee of the majority of inhaled cigarcltc-smokc particles appears to be rapid and to occur pri- marily by way of the bronchi. The epithclialmcasurements ineGcate that Po°rO in cigarette smoke can be absorbed in measurable quan- titicss into the bronchial epithelium. As previously pointedoutjA high local concentrations within the epithelium would be by far the most important factor contributing to a significant radiation dosc to bron= chial tissues. Itt is logicalthao Po"" deposition from the mucous sheet should occur in epithelium from bi- fureations, because at these points the flow must split and move laterally to tile wall of the single bron- chus-60 In the region where the splitting takes place, a tleadspot or eddy frequently occurs,, and material contained in the mucus may morereadily penetrate to thee underlying epithelium. It is of intcrest that Auerhach et al." found the highest incidence of premalignant changes in the bronchial epithelium to occur at bifurcations. The widce variation in Po='O concentrations in segmental bifurcations is not un- expectedi considering the normal anatomia andphys- iologic variability and the varyinG degrees of pnl- monary disease and post-mortem changes present in many of these lungs. . The observation that PoT,10 was also present in some:epithelial. samples. from nonsmokers indicates that cigarette smoke is not the only environmental source of this isotope in bronchial epithelium- In general, however, the levels were much lower in epithelium from nonsmokers than in thosc currently smoking cigarcltesino activity wae found in any epithelial sample from 4 of the 8 nonsmokers. The Po"0 activity measured in bronchial epithclium of nonsmokers may arise from lead"", and specific physiologic factors relevant to each subject may de- termine thee accumulation of localized concentrations of Po"O or lead'/O from sources other thann cigarette- smoke. Radtation Dose from Po'^ tn Bronchial Epitheilum Althnughthe epithelial concentrations measurcd may not represent equilibrium conditions.during life, wee may use them as a base line in calculating the radiation doscfrom Po"° to local areas of limn- chial cpithclium. Owing to posl-mortciit chanSn•se primarily some loss of epithclimu, one would ex-
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. no.soac AuousT 20.~ 1966 - N AT~U R E. 84.3 . on to eilrvr br 48-72 h era'• Poloblood cotdd ntplce wen• ages of 45 , of Boston. Crom these os: curmut tr 4•r+ ar ~ et:N ds.w11C hall he average 1-72 pc:/l:g okers. A1- reen bluod un-smokr,a individunls a also been' la in pul- r addition. ding liver. btained at n-smokera. + those. re- 1 variation ed among ,y in part nnted out. ' n verious aheu tl: h, unta of tln• ary effects. kg subjiat 00 pc. of onitun-2'10 3 and ro»•• sal,, u9+ioh tlo pn"umt e srnoke•rr. nlar` tg of , xl p •r a stopp•tl, next 4-tl ; - ' - ~J. B- L[xxne -.Thu potassium content of the occuns is ten to several - 'R.. B. Mc(3exns - hundred times gmuter thau of freshwater. The value in grant from the Roekefeller Foundatton,. - may be much lower than.that obeerved in surface watcra.. Statn Services, U.S. Public Health Service, and by a effect possible in the oceans, the effective concentrations . counts on several of these samples hn his laboratory. loveln of ouasiu*n-1$7 b«caune the.ycnllcct the run-off from This work was supported by a, grant from the Bureau of large areas. Conversely, because of the large dilution ity o£ Cmcrrtrlatt College of Medicine for confiirmng ourdo riot possess largedilution oapacity may contain higher tqpoeothorthanpolonium-210'- ~'-'. .. ; concentration of caesium-137 in salt and freshwatrr-Wa thank Dr. Edward P. Radford, jun., of t1ie.Uirivor- However, the possibility exists that dosed lakeswhich . useful in estimating body burdens of alphn-emitting iso- rm4t appear to be appreciable, dit7.reuces between the Analysis of emall blood samples, thereforo, may also prove depth•. Judging by the limited dntu uvailable, there did a:perirnents, detectabloconcentmt.ons of radturn weree caesium-137/1. (ief. 4). Profiles of oaesium-137 activity tn fotmdin10-ml.bloodsamplesf}omtwonormnlindividuals• nce.an water have slxown decreasing nnncentration with of polonium-210 or its parentisot'opos: Inn preliminary sampled' in mid-1963 indicated an avorage level of 0•6 pe- iilrlividuals.possibly exposed to high environmental levelss in Lake Humnr. 8ur6uen wet4¢s of the Pacific Oceat. ilocunbudatuctcdinIO,mLblood; samplosfromexposed intervaltheeoneetttrationinlukesandriverrointheviciuity individnals.. The values reported hero should serve. ea a of Chalk River:, Ontario (presumably unemrcaminatcd by &Wnlino to evalbato concentrations found inn blood of reactor wa9tos), was three to four times greater than that L eh+nrari from the lunge en the mucoue shoot and swal- uro sparse.. However, mont.hly moasurements rn a o luwcrlt+. Thoe pmscntt results indicate that such small Huron showed averagn coucentrationa of 0-4 and 0,3 po.Jl. ditfurencosinchroni¢.e.nvironmentalexposuretopolonium- during 190[f snd 1964, rospectivclye. During this same that ctgarotte amokors mtmn nn cxccss of about l-b in the aquattcc food chmn (thatts, the trophtec luvel).. pe,/day per twenty cigarettes, much: of which may bePublishod valucs of cacsium-137 in salt and G.~shwator k ingesed by the general population, it has bcon estimated potassium); (3)~ the position of tho fish in question pt addition to thepolonium-210.ttot7nally inhaled and aceompanying level'of potnssiorn (ratio of cnosimn-137: Departments of Physiology and Nutrition. .~ . -theoceana, based on a large number of analysea; is fairly S h l f P bli H l h ' c oo o u c ea t Hnrvard • ,. nonetant, and is given as 380 parts per million (p,p.m-) Boston, Massachusetts. The few mensurementx taken in the Great Lakes show . ~ tNl, c• H.. Nnrure, eoe, 423 (iat5). _ values of a few p.p.m., with smaller lakes and rivorsin ' Iloln4nan, R: II., IienlrL PLyL, a, 385 (1ae3),. - . the area containing somewhat, higher amomlta'. Amounts ^ utue, a. B., a ut., nadim. ttce., za, zoe (lsa4t - • in closed htltess in this region andfurt7ror north are an • aslferd Jvn, E: P., Huut, V. S., cnd Sherry, D., Radia[. Rer., 19, 299 ftssaS- - order of magnitude higher, with values approaching V.ckeun, a., .ud nnlvhW, c. w., Hwd{APhye-,12, 481 (19ee). - marine concentration in somoinstanees+- The concentra- .- '6adrurd, juny E. P.. aud'8uu0. V. S., Sdmur,14a. s47 (15aa).' - tiUna of rubidium and stable oaosiurn are several orders . utsnol . J od~ra e: iaa$ (ieedi.meemmh., n- [., ann [mnt; V. n., n•r,rlower than that of patlassium in both salt and freshwater . - , ana are almost mstgntncant•+•. _ .:... . ._ . . . -„ - - ~ - ~- . ~ The ater concenGratibn of Cacstum-I 7' in rns .wa r Caesium-137 in Edible Freshwater Fish fish, seerr in Table 1,, probably reflecta,, in the first place, r.hu h;uho. nno ,.,m_r3•1 . nnrucci„m rntdn nrosenfr in fresh- . - - rl.y ..r un.r .e rnrgnry .uurne,. ut waterr- The.trophic level is.also a£aetor-as shown by tftee determinations made of the atr+o¢tium-90 occurringin highe r caasium-137 concentration in canrivorous fish as . certain ocean species and.to some attempts at thaovalaa- opposed to plankton feeders and other non-carnivorous . ti f i 137 t "'C f th i il on o cans um cnn cnt (? s) o e snmo or s m ar lo - fish, in both saltt and freshwater. Thewer concentra- specimens. Hasshen andMiettinen' found concentrationstione in lake perch and emelt may also reeult from younger af the order of nanocuries of caesitrm-1'.37 per kilogram ugt, at eapture as.well as different feeding habits. (nc./kg) in freshwater fish, These weretaken from lakesThequcstion nowarises as.to what offc.et thopnxenee in Finland during 1962 and 1963 in the cou[so of an of relatively high concentrationa of cacsium-137 in fresh- i nvestigation into sources of cacsinm137 other thankLhbi - .F,aferflslrrrtayhaveontheavemgointraeymnanengs naribou and reindeer meat in theLapla[tder'u diet. This _ . futding could havo been predieted from the earlior work of xe~hle 1. ~ c.asmt[-te7 axaPoxsscor vv aeax .x~a Psa:awwrra Pr.a C'ondloton and Honson', which demonstrated the rapid ' roaca.wsn aerwaax 7wxn.nr .xn APRIL tse5 nccumrdation of caesium-l37 by various aquatic forms. -c Pora..Ium "'Ce - through several trophic levels in a' froshwater pond scectee• Feodtnslwbue (W'!kn (a/kanala g- eontaminated with caesium-137. Caesium-137 in thesee wefwelsht) wetwelsh0.. . .. ' w mn urganismss was fnnnd to reach concentrations several ~t.w. orders of magnitude greater than those found in the 1'e7i nout'-~r..r°t`oro'uT . 8.8 a . 2 40 suerounding water -- -2.9" -'0 - sa7 11107 a-ss - as9 Durin the fitst '3 months of 7965, theconcentrationsof Mh° taa , g ,. i... .. . - IAYe 3.25 cacaium-137pmeent. in frcahwatorfish available commcr- ' 1.1e7 x-s7 .-47E eiully in the Chicago area were similar to those found 1dAttoa.h ~ Paatlnn - 1 g~ j si $9s - •wrlirr in Finland (Table 1). The.fish (which wem pur- Ea5 at5 73 chusud at random in local food markata)) wero boned I'°f°tt"h••. '-' p~ . ene . 126 t~. lihots (oxcept for smolts) mtd ready to cook. Both the smeiia ,°'. .' . 327 ^w 12a Q_ bucerttratimt of cacsitun-1377 and of potassium-40 were •877 ii-v . ale ~ d.~torntined by gununn-ray slmct'rnmotry in 1-2-kg eamples ar.rlne as~ 49a 8.3 ~ or fresh fish using conventiouallow-background toeh- plomaer liottam [eedar. - mmlu.er,etc. C~ uiquuu• A numbor of varieties of ocean fish woro also uenhut -.eareworoa.es 5-za n•& ~., - e:urnined and' ~~ nllowod t reciabl lower corwerttrutiuns ncean peeeh Plnnktna,unnelidt - 98 a•es 1oa + PP y 5e 9-11 rao ~i uC caesium-137 butsimilVlr Potossium levels (Table1), oc«„naiaeh GrnW«oae •' 43 ' 4aa . la-a This inherent difference between' salt mtd freshwater ttadm,,:k , ee ao2 1e4 ~. , vul.non ,. 71 5-51 4R2 sf~we eta regards tho coutout of ceu+sium-137 had been rAU aa a•17 to-s '-. ' , 1'roviously noted by tliisunen and Miottincn'. ltedmevaer „ - 12 -1•76 6.8 Thacacsium-137 concentration present iu fish duponda o+amTitant+tiw~,~rawaoti ii~iuii:~iiy i ahet~aio auhn,o wiur .ith uiy ' priuutriiy on throo f tctora: (1) the concentration of DrMI•lon wnh fro,xa, ,o-,,..e.t wn.. the mdionuclide in the water 9nvilnnmmit p 2) the t.'t1arN4"n"'e' le "+.,u.t tD nnply asn+.Q on aeh vW othee antlma wPller ( ) tMntM5ehlnyumllon.
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1350, THE NEW ENGLAND JOi7RNAL OP' At1iDICINE INc. If, 19t,; 3 I peet that any errors in such a calculation would lead to a calculated dose lower than that actually rc- ceived. If an equilibrium concentration of 10 pieocurics per gratn is diseributcd in a volume of bronchial epithcliurro (levels of 7.5-P1 picocuri^c pcr gram were mcasured in bifhrcationsfrotn 7s.(r:;ccts7 in this serics)I, and 80 per cent of the cr-crtry IG~orn the alpha radiation (5.3 Mcv., with a range in tissue of about 40 microns) iss absorbcd ims this volume, the total radiation close to the tissue in twenty-hve yearss will be about 20rad, or 200 rein, on thee basis of a relative biologie-effeetivenesss factor for alpha particles of 10. (Normal background-radiation ex- .posure to.the bronchial epithelium during this petirvi would be in the order of 5 rem.') Ti:isca.lb:iauon is , based on a homogeneous distribution of Fo"O ra- y dioactivity within thcsmall epithelial volume and :. must therefore be considered a nrinimum dose- It is possible that localized "hot spots" were presentt even within the small tissue samples that we havce measured; in this case local radiation doses would be ~ considerably higher. It should be pointed out, how- ever, that the relative importancce of localized ir- radiation in the production of bronchial cancer, ass compared to irradiation of a large volume of tissue, is not yet well understood. Certainly, dn the basis of our findings in lung parenchyma andsuperficial' mu- eus of smokers, the radiation dose from Po"° to the lung or bronchial epithelium as a whole would' be very small as compared to normal background ra- diation. - The best evidence available for the importance o6alplia-emitting- isotopes in the production of bron=chial cancer in man comes from recent studies of; underground mine,workers exposed to moderately~~ elevated radon concentrations in the. air.1°•'8 The, latest report of the continuing evaluation of urani-i . ttm miners in the Colorado Plateau" has permitted an estimation of the close-response rulation between exposure to alpha radiation and the morrtality rate for bronchial cancer. Direct comparison of mortal- ity rates between the general smoking population and thcu miners is not possible. because the age distribution and smoking histories are not given.. The best comparison is within the miner group itself. The radiation exposureshavc been given in "work- .l ing-level months." Altshuler et. al.' and Jacobi'• have calculated in detail the radiation dose to the . basal-cefU layer at various sites of thee bronchial epitheliutn arising frotn inspired radon daughters. Al- though their estimatesdcpcnd on many assumptions they ineficatee that the highest radiation dose to local- ized areas of epithelium would be about 1 rad of alpha-radiation exposuree per working-level month. This highest close would apply only to small areas of the setinncntal bronchi where the epithclium, is thin. From the data of Wagoner ct al-'t dw incidence of bronchial cancer in the lowest exposure group (less than 120 working-level months or less than 120 rad of added expusurc)) is found to be only h:di that observed in tlie srcond exposuroe group, who rrceivcd local cumulative exposures of about 2100 rad. It i, clcar„ thercfore, that relatively sinall inerements iu alpha.+:zrliation exposure to a loca3ized region nf h,,~nchial epithclitun can significantly affect thc inri- dence of cancer at that site.. A direct ajilylicatiom of this dose-response relation to the doses arising from Po"0 in the cpitheliunr nf smokers is not possible, however, for three niann rcasons: too much unecrtainty about the de(;rcr uf linearity of the close-response curve at low drxa;{r levclsrcmains;s there are dillerences in the latcnt period and types of tumors found in mine workcrsm as i' cotnparcd to smokers, and longer-term follow-up i Irn the tniners may reveal a higher incidence of bron- chial cancer; and,, finally, in- comparingnonsmokcrs I, with smokers, we are- assessing, differences not onl} t ~in exposure to alpha radiation but also to all nthcr+ componentsbf cigarette smoke. - . It is unlikely that alpha radiation is the solc factor responsible for bronchial tumors in smokers. Otheragents.in cigarette smoke may well contribute signifi- cantly as cocarcinogens, and the effect of a small radiation dose may be considerably magnifiedby thractionof these agents. In this connection, the hiCh: . i incidence of bronchial cancer in Newfoundland fluorspar miners is. of interest." We estimate that this incidence has been about 1 per cent per year fo, men having a cumulative radiation exposure of ap- proximately 1000 working-level months- If we as- I sume that the agedistribution and smoking historia are comparable, the incidence of bronchial cancer.ap- ! , pears to be at least five times as high among the Newfoundland fluorspar miners as among the Col- ~orado uranium minerss for similar radiation expo- ~sures, Although radon anditsd daughters in the air I~ are common to both, the dusts in the mines from L the two areas are. quite different; in the Newfound '- lancf mines consirlcrahlC flunrspar dust, but nn ;u-- . senic or uranium compounds, was found in the air. Thegreatcr incidence in thesee miners than in tln• +' Colorado miners suggests that an additional factor ~ or cocarcinogen is present, and the possibility that - fiuorspar itself is the cocarcinogen is under investi- j.- gation.'" 1. Because of the uncertainty associated with dosr "estimatcs to bronchial stem cells in both minerss and cigarette smokers it is premature to assert that Pp="" . is or is not likely to be the major factor ininrhir- tion of bronchial cancer in smokcrs.. We shotilc4likr to emphasizc, . however, the point tha0 it isnni . particularly rclevant to compare these localized eadi- ation doses from alpha emitters to external x-m, . or gamma-ray exllasmr to lungs. Since it is hi,hl.probable tliatt the relative biologic ¢ffectircness of a4 . pha particles in producin}; lmig-term cffcclson..'rll' . populations is very grcat,, at least ten to nrruM times greater than external gamma radiation gicrn 00'749424 -
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" nt 1: b ri9inal Articles ::rGtt,)t ; '. ~ erir t { . ntrv. tt ~r:dth e~ - or voa-. 1 fe, rai),~a ti ional fin: ~ ;hc latter ! e concr. 'C. rc•Yersp. Kd oouo- .. eontryat rn dta!,y L~.trialized in uralel- betwem cnre~ :king- sharply dealh in rountrits- ~ i U F.'.i•t9\f Q~j f Systemic Absorption of Polonium-210 Inhaled in Cigarette Smoke John B. Little,. MD, and Robert B. MrGandy, MD, Boston The kinetics of the change In the concentration blood. The R10Po in the mainstream smoke, ot polonium-210 In the peripheral blood of six of even10to 20 cigarettes is.small compared ' dgerette smokers has been studied up to 89 days with the total amountt present in the blood,. ~ after sudden complete cessetion of smoking. Cir-a?id systcrnic absorption must be estimated cutating polonium-210 tevels declined an average t4g; alter three to four days, and 20.5%elter centration by indirect . means. A8 . thee blood =1UPo mrt- d 11 to'14 days. The results indicale that a major on has been shown to be about 2.5 haction of the isotope Inhaled'ind cigarette smoke times higher in smokers than in nonsmok- Is absorbed directly Intothe blood stream. we have followed the time course of the change in blood 2t°Po concentration in cig- T HE PRESENCE of small amounts of the naturally-oc.-curring, alpha-rmitting radio- nuclide poloniwn:210 in, cigarette smoke offers an unusual opportunity to studychar- acier'v^.tics of pulmonarydepositian and elearance of this heavy metal in mam. Stud- ies. of the concent.rationn of this, isotope in variouss pulmonary tissues have shown that the total 210Po content in lungs from cur- rent cigarette smokers is about five times greater than that in lungs from nonsmok- ersYa In terrtlss of the ='OPo initially rc- tained.by a heavy smoker, however, much of the inhaled activity must be rapidly cleared from the lungs in order to maintain such an equilibrium level.t Clearancre of ?0Po in- haled in cigarette smoketnay occur by way of the bronchi (carried up in the mucus flow and swallowed), through the lymphatfits, or d'vectly into the blood stream. The present investigation was underlaken to estimatethe degree of clearanm into the Submitted for publication May 9, 1969; aec•ep4il May 21. Fromthe departments of physiolocy end nutrition, Harvard Univenity, school olPub6r Health. Bn4tw, Hcprint requcst5 ta Uetenrhnentof Physiolugy, 605 Hunlinetun Ave• Bostin 02115 (Dr. Little)'. rrPoralnd a d Healdrt s of the o im r- •rkt~ ( nize ne I healthtt es when etudents to prac- tw. MD 7e, Mass . I . W.t']be' cd Coun, 1967. I arette smokerss after sudden complete cessa- tion of smoking. The results suggest that direct absorption into the blood stream rep- resents a major mechanism by which this radioactive heavy metal iss clearedfrom the ltmgs.. Materials and Methods Six subjects, four men and two women, were used in this investigation; all had regularly smoked 1 to 11/a packages of cigarettes per day tor several years prior to the experiment. These subjecta wereinstructed to continue their usual smokingpatt.ern through the evening of the "0" day, but to smoke no further cigarettes after retiring,-and to adherc as closely as possi- hlc to the dietary regimen they had maintainedd while amoking.. The subjects were all know•m wAt to the authors and were observed closely. We, therefore, feel reasonably certain that these experimental conditions weree met. IIasclineand subscquentblood specimens were always drawn at the same hour (4:00 to 5; 00 rnt). Disposnble plastic syringes were used without anticoagu- lanta The technique of measuring s10Po in 10 ml blood eamplos hass previously been described.4 Thirty milliliters of concentrated hy'drocll7oric acid were iaunediatelyatlaod tothe blood speci- mensbefore e7utting. They were tuh.rquenlly Arch F.noirnn Hrnlth--Vol 77. Norr 196R
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. '. ABSORPTION OF POLONIIJAf-21o-LfTTLE & MrCANPY - . 695 PO tl,lg9) In B)notl~Samp(es Time (nays)iAlter Lo.nltlete CesiaBo° of Smoking• 3-4 . 6-8 _ 11-L4 1820 28-34 42-59. __ 6489 . 1.65 (97) 1'..47 (86.5) 1.33 (78:5).. ... 208 6 (122)/ 1.38 (81). ~- 1.29 (78.5), 1.26 (76.5) 1.23 (74.5) 0.96(59) ,.. . ~^.1.59(]00) 1.39(89.5) 1.39'(87.5). 11.27 .24(]9); ... ... 129(91) 1.21 (76) 1.09 (68.5) 1.11 (70) 0.90 . ... .. 083 (54.5)t , 1 02(97) . 0.98 (93.5) 0.8] (83). 0.90 (85.5) 0.89(85) 0.62 (59) 0.59 0.54 (51.5) (519: . ~0.93(104) 0:78 (81.5) 0.79 (89) 0.68 (76.5).. . .... ... ... (99.5) - (86)(84.5) (79:5) (]8.5) (66.5) blood can be made from the initial slope of +^.c;al - the curve in the Figure if we assume that urinary and fecal' excretion rates continue unchanged after cessation of smoking and' 4rr,n Q1at noequilibnztion of other soft tissue - t>at, storess with the decreased blood levels oc- f cas- , curs. To do this, we must know the amount . of "-°°Po initially retained in the smoker's lung each day and the total amount in the blood compsrtmcnt.. A4easurements of } =1"Poin mainstream smoke (that inhaled)'P avernge about 0.045 pc/cigarette. If we as- h. . t ll d alne sume that 100/4, of t ls v9, rmtla y re in the lungs, the subjects in the present study would he expected to retain about 1.0 pc/day from inhaledcigaretke smoke. . When smoking' was stopped suddenly,, our rwlts indicate that the blood ="1oPocon- centration initially declined at a rate of 4% per day. For an, individual whosebaseline. i. hlood concentration is 1.6 pc/kg in a vol- i ume of 61 this representss a loss from the' , ~ blood compartment of 0.38 pc/day. On the\\ bnsis of the above assumptions, a minimum. systemic.absorption of 38~0 of that retained. each day from cigarette smoke must have occurred while thesubject was smoking in ~ -order that the equilibrium blbod coneentra- ttinn be mnintained. The actual percent absorbed into the blood stream isprobably higher than this minirnuln estimate for several reasons. First, . it seems likely that excretion rates wuuld de- "-a I crease in relntion to the falt in bloodconcen- tration and that diffusion of ti+sueR1OPo into the blood compartment would also oc- cur. Both, of these occurrenccs would have the effect of decreasing the.apparent.rate of 21°Bo loss fromm theblood necessitating an , increase in the estimated percent absorbed ~: while smoking- Secondly, initial retentionn in the lungs is certainly less than 100% of that inhaled, and two reporls°6 indicate that the =1°po in the mainstream smoke.of one ciga- rette is considerably less than the average value of 0.045 pc used in the above calcula- tions. It appears likely, therefore, that less than 1.0 pc/day is actually retained in the lungs, and the estimated percent absorbed would be increa:.rA onthisbasis. As all of the above variables act to increase the min- imum estimate of fractional clearance into the blood,., actual systemic absorption of =1UPn in cigarette smoke may be considera- bly higher than 3890 of that inhaled and re- tained. Absorption could occur directly across.thebronchial or alceolnr walls, through the lvm- phnlics, on by way of thee gastrointestinal tract.. The surface. available for dire0tt ab- sorption into the alveolar rapillarfes is much, greater than that for lymphatic. absorption;, and furtliermore, =30Po concentrations inperibrnnchial lymph nodes of current ciga- - rettesmokers are generally similar to those in nodes fromnonsmokers?, As's for gastroin- tt5tirerl absorption,, eaidcnco from laburato- ry animals' indicates that only about 5 % of Arch. F.nrrirnn flra!lh--Vol 17,, Arnu 1968
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Vi,f 271 Nn. 25 . POLONIUM"a IN SMOKERS-1.ITTLE ET AL. . 1551 C ,nntrly orchronically,'"r small radiation doses from partscles will be considcraLly, nl,on elTective . tl„n a comparison with the sparsely ior .11 g eltc- -. rrnma~m.tle radiations would suRgast. Psnthel.morc, it is unlskcly that there is a threshold: . dose btlbtv I.,hich no effect would hee produced by a1ph1radi- ahnn; on this basis any dose; no matter how c,r.ail, i C wouldhave a certain probability for tumorinduc- tirnl. Finally, recenl preliminary studies in animals indictrte that alpha radiation may be a,nn:cil mare (a,tent cardnogen in the produc.tinn of certain skin cancers tltan more sparsely ionizing radiation (in this case, protons):'r As for the distribution of Po'1° within thelung,e the high levels found in segmental bifurcations are in regionswheres bronchial carcinomas frequently arise. The relatively low concentrations in lungpa- renchyma indicate that significant localizatinn doesnot occur in the alveoliy and, indeed, parenchyxnal tumors are relatively uncommon in cigarette smok- en. Lung, cancer in males is. reported to occur about twicc as frequently in left-upper-iobe segmental and lobar bronchi as in similar areas of the left.lowcr lubc.`"'19 Auerhach et al.,'r however, found the inci- dcnceof premaliGnanl changes to be only very slightly higher in the upper-lobe hronchiof cigarette smok- rrs. These findingss do not eorrelatewith the PoSfO levels that we have observed though the difference' in Pot10 concentrations in bifurcations of the uppcr and lower lobes is not as, significant as it appears because of the wide individual variation. The values ,qken in Table 2 are for the single segmental bifur- mtion in each lobe with the highest PoY°O concen- rralinn; in most cases only II or 7 upper-lobc hifurca- tions wcre analyzed, whereas levels in 2 or more lower-lobe bifurcations were frequently measured. It lras beenn shown in animals.that ionizing radiation may I/otentiate the effeetss of directly applied com- ponrnts of cigarette smoke in the experimental pro- duction of malignant skin tumors.'°' We conclude, on 9se basis of the available evidence, that radiation fron, Po"° may be an important factor in the ini- liatinn of bronchial cancer in cigarette smokers.. SUMf1ARY ANU' CONCLUS[ONS The alpha-cmitting radioactive isotope polonium"-to prrsent in cigarette smoke was found; in higher con- rrntrations inn lung parenchyma, pcribronchiallymph nodes and brnnchial epithcliurn of 25 persons cur- rvnlly scnokingcigarettes than in thoseof8 non- snlokers. From its distribution within thee ltmg,, cer- 41i1r dlar:utcristics of the pulmonary deposition and rlrarance of inhaled cigarette smoke may be de- tennincd, The clearance of the majority of smoke particles appears to he rapid and to occur primar- ily by way' of thee bronchi, but absorption of Po"° into bronchial cpithcliilm doess occur. By far diee hiqhcst local mncentrations of Pu=10 were found inbronchkal epithelium from segmental bifurcations, and with continual exposuree to thc isotope, as ex- perienced by cigarette smokers, the cumulative local radiation dosc to these small regions of bronchial tissue may be quite high. On the basis of these re- sulls, tve believe tlsat Po""may be an important factor in the initiation of bronchial carcinoma in man. We arc indebtedd to Dr. Richard H. Ovcrholt for provid; ing thee aureical specimens,, tn Dr.. Jonas Hallgrimsson and Dr. Bcnjamin Castleman; of the Massachusetts General Hoc- pital, Dr. Gustave .f.'Dammin, of the Peter Bent Brigham Hospitall and Dr.. Harold J. WFiite,s of the 'Wcs4 Roxbury Veterana Administration Hospital, for providing the autopsy specimens, to Mr. Clentent Nelson and Mr. Shaun Flaherly for technical assistance with thee radiochemital analyses and It, Mr. Ed,nond J. Baratta, of thc.Northeastern Radiological Health Laboratory, Winchester, for help with preliminary Po"' analyscs. _ .. ' - . . _ REFERENCES 1. Radford, E. P., Jr., and thmq V. R. Pninnlum-210: .olacee mdinclement i° r,_vnreetu. Seiener 143:2V-249, 1964. 2. Altshulcr, 0., NCSOn,. N., and Kucchnco,. M., Estimaiun of lunc tis.nc dme from inhalation of rad°n and dnugbtm. Health 2'Aynu1a:11J7-11G1. 1904. 3• ltnt!iord, F. t', Jr., lfunt, V. R., and Shrrrr, I). Amlysis 1 1-.r::, and hnner for alVha-emiuinH elemenb. Rudiutio° Rerearch t4::i's-7I5, 1945. 4. Hollan+°, R. R ncPb (Ran): in inhahiranu nf. Cari6bean uland. Henl.h Ph„in f1:477-4au. 1965. s, Lione:. J. B., Radfnrd,, E. P., Jr., McCambs, H.. L., Hune;. V. R., ahd'.Ndnun. C- PnloNhm-210 in IunRa and voft tissues ol eigartnc ernnkcn. Rndimion Aer.a-rch 22:209, 1964. 6. Polyd°ro•i,. M Attempt m.demrmine remnninm uf mbaccoamure hy : m. of ,t,embrane fillcre_ Im Rricieh Oreupananal ttvgiene Snriery. lnhaledPnrricle, and Vapera: Prerredinpr el an inter- neoRnl p~dnrn reoni_rd. 6r rhe S.,dery. O.fdrd, Z9 Ara.- I Gpr. f96U. Edited by C. N. Davics. 495 PP Londa°: PerSa,non, 1951. Pp. 342-147. ' 7. Albea. R. F:., „d A-n, 1.- C. Clmramm ar odmuti.e du.t Frnn..tnng. ArcA. Indut. Henfth 12:99-1pb. 1955. 8. Linrc. 3. B.. MeCandy. R. R... and Radford,. E. P.. Jr. Un- p°bnshed d.aa-9. Radlord. E. 1'., Jr., IFrnt, V:. R.,. and Unlr, J. R'. Pnlonium•210 in ara,rtte rmekrn. Sticnce 14i:87, 19G4. to. hil.lins. A.. C. Plucocvtmi., nnw, and ciliary . actinn. Areh. EnaJ.nnmen(af Henteh t:5613,~r1963. 11. Auerbaeh O., Stuut, A. I'., nammond, 11. C., and Carf,nkrl L. Cha„arc In. 1„nncn;xl enia,ecum In datinn to ciqarcuc arn46,R d d in rnladon tc lu„g c~,.<cr. Nere F•a.-hAfrd. 265:259-2G1; 19G1. 12. Waponrrq L. K., Archcr, V. R., Lnndin,. 1'. E:, Iluladay, D. A., nd L/oyd. 1. W. R dt:,dm, aa .1 I,rns an r mm~nr eanium mines. Nron. 8ne /. Afed.~tl]~1111-180. l9r.u. c t3.. de Vill'un, A. JI.,, d winrnh, J. P. ~L, g c n .r 1n e numeear minins I. Radf.6u., nnd mnrtnli,yenperience. .. 8.ir. 1• I d,ut Afrd. 21:91-109, 1964. {4. Jacnbi, W. D°tc .u human rnpiramry tnct by in6aLnnn nr d,ertdi.edi -Rn- and -aRn-deraY preducn. rlenlrh: PA~,iu lg: 1t67-n75. 19G4. . 1s. de Vimerr.. A. 1• Pe..unaT e mlnic mion. „ o, r Cnr n, ' °n 16, Res•^rt /.1 RID; .n,,,,, .c m Ra.6uugiml' 1. tecs:n., ulRa,InlnRi~~l Ubns andn Mnnare- ,rnu. lleoAA 1'A,rlrr 1:357J04. 1'Hit_ 17: Linninc°u, S. W., feaseVb. J. 1{., ]{akco C: 1`.. md Fnu.bee. nl li.. S. O, .Pnn.nl r8cca nl m Nc- prnt n, and 40 Me. . nha p.nielee en ~nnduaion ot m.e,Rnant nVl.isnu in moun- sk{n. t oo Anr. A,Canrer Rrtrar.A 6:41. 1965. 18.. Ilrrman, D. L.. and Criueaden, ht. Diseributien u1 P nary Irmi rareinu a"n r laviun m time s d/termine.l Lr his„xllemirnl erdmisluor. J. rNut. Canrrr fmt.. 27:19°7-1271. 1761. 19. Ochv,er, A., Ocb.nee; A.. Jr., it'Dnuldrr, C., d Rlali.rk. J. nrm,ch,.ge„io e ~ mmn. ni.. ef C6.n P:I-12. 1960, 20. Raek, F. 6.. and~MM•re. O: f:. Ll. rcinnRenie anivitr nl riRarruo- \e canddnsate. 1.. Elrecr / trau,na aad rnnmte x,rraaiacnn. fm Nat_ Canrcr tut. 22:401N11, 1951
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digcatM fnr one hour at 60 C and the polonium plated onto silver pl.mchetq. In the prrsrnt ettidy, the phrnchcL .vrrccuunted in low-back- ground (0.4 to 0.5 counts/hr) gas-llaw propor- tional counters for a total of 144 to 1G8 houra each, and the ahmd:rrd dnviation of a particular mrasurement was ±10%.. AB.SOAPTION OI' IOlON7UA7.270-L7TTl.S & AIrOANDY ConeentraGqt . ~ p0 in . SSS(((...• (pc/ke~ in Bfooo Sam' Ite.sults The results of these experiments are presented in the Table. The baseline con- centrations from which percent declines were calculated are the arithmetic averages of the levels found in twoo specinlens, one drawn two or three days before and one the day smoking was stopped. As it was not pos- sible to obt•tin specimens on the some daily schedule for eachsubject,h the data inthe -Tablehave'beemgrouped into eight time in- tervals after cessation of smoking. By three to four days, the blood'-f^Pn concentration had declined in all six subjects, thee esti- mates ranging from 78.5% to 93.5% of base- line levels. Beyond three to four days,, the concentration declined less rapidly, the val- ues for tl5e' 11. to 14 day specimenss being 76.5% to 85.5% of the'baselines. ' The average results for each time interval expressed as the percent decline from the baseline level are plotted as' a function of the nonsmoking interval~ on an nrithmetic scale in the Figure. The slope of the linee drawn through the three to fotu day data has the value 4%/day and represents the average net rate of loss' of "oPo from the blood comlk7rtmentl durinKg this interval. The data'for thelatcrtime intervals in the , Table are incomplete becaust.twoof the six subjects resumed smoking after 14 days and another after 60 days. Unfortunately, the ' return to smoking occurred sporadically and gradually, beginning' with one or two, ciga- rettes per day. We were unable, therefore, to gain any meaningful estimate of systemic absorption by' measuring blood =10Po con- -centrations atintervals after resrlmption of smoking. - -_ ' Some estimate of the normal daily vnria- 'tions in blood =11`Po was obtained in three of the'.siu subjects...Seven samplescacll were drawn at varyingtiines during an interval of - ten months before smoking was stopped from subjects No. 3 and No. 5; the -1ePo levels wereremarkably conctant ranging from 1.48 to 1.59, and 1.01 to 1.13 pc/kg re- aubjcct . - _~--~ anU Sev 2.3 3.4 ~ f~-_--.. 5 1 M 2 F 9 M ) 1.72 1.68 1.65 (97) 1.a7 (BL. 1.59 - t.~- ~~-1.29 08.5) 1.58~ ~ ,.59 -7 1.59(100) 1.39 (87.5) 1.59' 5 M Av % of baselineJavel - ~. 1.31 (82.5) 1.07 1.02' 1 02 (97) 0.98'(93-5)' ----------------- 0.77 2.01 . '; o.93 (104) 0.78(E7.5) •riguresinparentneses are % ofaveragetlasellnel tThis vxlue eccludvd from average. - rTwo samples obtained on different days durini timr interval. , . . . „ .' spectively. On the other hand, the concenl trations in three sarnplcs obtained severy] moinths after rrsumption of smoking in sub, ject No. 6 were 0.81, 0!96 and 1..03pc/Frg, The. inconsistently high 18-day result from subject No. 1 is unexplained but may have resulted frorn contamination of the glass- w•ear.with a.st.andard solution. (7ommenl : blood can be made fr the curve in the Fig urinary and fecal e unchanged, after cess that no equilibratiw stores with the deer' curs. To do this, we : j or "-10Po initially ret f lung each day and t] blood compartment ~ An estimate of the minimwt percent of I ='oPo in mainstream inhaled =1aPo which is absorbed into the average about 0.045 ' stune that 100% of t Thc mean, decline in eirculating ^•-pG after acute complete cessation ofi cigarette smoking. IDO d~---r--r--~-i 0 20 40 6o .80 TIME (DAYS)'SINC[ SMOKING STOPPED Arrh £rudron HrnLrlr-l'o1 17, Vnb 1968 '~ in the hurgs; the.subjf would be expected t day from inhaled ci; When smoking wa, ( re_sultss indicate that (F ccntration initiallyy d, per day. For an inr'. blood concentration ume of 61, this repf blood compartment t basis of the above a systemic absorption r each day from ciga: t~ occurred while the r orderthat''the equili thin be maintained. The actuall percr blood stream is pro minimum estimate fc it seems likely that e crease in relation to -
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'n+!" ~~l ory, Univerat AB.S'1'HACTS 209 ) -F n conventiooxl stered baeterV :ia and reduci~ ve enterie.hyr, diet and xatQ xfiolcbody a- on In f00d a~ CcrrnfreerniR mfree tnice ~ sumption a1tg ,1 tract am q, (Supported 1? g 11'holnp„dr Montreal Gry ster School pt rer nuclei VLThree nudey oluBle prote'iy ing the periq+. =oht}jSc protric cvcC curm :nlute amourA reas DNA and 'uradiatiuD, ac result of theot componanls q d A. SALLCsr! lury, Atgonnr, ring in.cultun at the effect i dose as.loR a, P. Thrree groury nidine. Fifttta md 300 r (ec- irradiatiba, nF, InftCr N'Crl rF ection was n- a overshot Oe_ d received 130W evels arrr ao< iumber l+Lch'. ...,.~, ....,. or unlalxlr.d, and these and thee percent mitotic figures labeled at each inten'allverc plotted ag.insf~ time. Estimates of G.+ M made from these currvesshoW thnt mitotic. lagtn the dnodcnal crypt cells of the mouse increases with dbse and that the delay of ce119.which were ia (;, at the time of irradiation was longer than for those.vrhieh e~ere in the S period. A com- i,zrisnu of these data with those of previously. reported'~ cxpcrnnents indicates that duration of mitotrc lag is dependent on dose rate. (Rbrllsupported by U'.S,.a.E.C 1aS. Culloidnl.Pinperties of Plutonittmtin Dilute AqueousSoIutiom. Aarsva.Li?Detnnon• and }`• hl,]J-E5'rFALL* (inlrodhceekbv M. Rr. Rosenthal), Division~of Biological and! Medienl Re- q,an.h, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. . ' Bv tneans ofamultrafiltration technique the colloidal propertics of Pu(dV)"° in solmions suit- a hh• for injecGon llave becn,investigated as a funetiun of pH, time after pH adjustment, and n.lstice ermcentrations of Pu and eooqdexing cito•ate ions. Polvmerization is increa=ed with in- m.a~ing pH and depressed by a large molar excess of', cittmle. Dilferencesin the rates of plnnodzation nnd depolymerization are demonstrated. The rate of depolymerizalion is.directdy I,n,podioml to citrate concentration, ttme,.and ociditp..'1'hc polydisparse nature of Pu(SV) eol- (aids is shon'n by kinetic dialysis studies, which demmtstrate the presence of srveml difTusiblh A,cries..Apparentdiserapnncies between valuesdor thefraclion,of diffusible Pu obtained by the uhmfiltrntion and dialysis methods are related to reversible polymerizatinn. (Work supported hp I'SA.E.C.) .. . . . 119_ Pofmdum-?10 in Lungs and Soft Tissues of Cigarette Smoxers. Jons B. LrrrLa,! EDUAnD P. Ruuroen, Ja,• H. lnms MeConms,* V2LeA R. Hvs,' and CLL11r.XT NEL.SOS' (introduced by f ~rry D. Samuels), Physiology Department, Harvard: School of Public Health:: and West Itoshury V. A. Hospital, Bostun, Massachusetts. '. Fresh nutopsp specimens of lungs andl other tissues from five non-smokers and twelve chronic r,ntnArrs who smoked untul 1-10 days prior todcatho have been analpaed for Po -210. Po-210 levels in prribrunehial lymph nndcs in smokers and',.non+smokerawere similar, averaging-0011 pe/gm .ct tissue (rnvge:.0000-0.020). Po-210 in lung parenchynla showed con=iderable variatinn within 'the s+me lung,,and thee acerage level in ssnakere (0.005'pe/gm, range: 0.002-0.020):.-as 4 times tf•at ofnon-smokers (0.0018 pc/gm,ranger OOOh-0002). Areas of bronchial epithelinm of 0:3- 10 cm' ,ere analyred separately, andadjaceut: sections were obtained (or histological ex- .miRation. In theepithelium.of proven non-smokers little or no Po-210 has thus far bee.n found; in smolers, however, the average levels per gram of tinue were 4J10 timess greater than in vnokcr's parenehyma. Average valucs (pc/Bm) for twelve smokers were; major bronchi, 0.028;; apgmental bronchi, 0.053; upper lobe segmentalbifurcations, 0.189; and lower lobebnsilar seg- tmmal bifureations, 0.318. Range of Po-210levels in epithelium of segmental bifurcations in .nmkrrs was 0-125 pt/gm. Findings in other tissues of threee smokers andtlro non-smokens, thu=s far aualy'zedare: lower thoracicvertebral body, 0.019 pc/gm (0.012-0.(127); renal cortex,.0.012 (0.o0S-0020); liver, 0.012 (0.0050.021); spleen, 0.002(OA01-0.003); and urinary bladder, 0.001 f0A00"a-0.002)..F.xcept for411e pulmonar?• tis=ues,.no difference in Po-210 levels between srrtokers .nd non-smolrers has yet been observed, although urinary excretion ofPo-210 iss higher in ano•kers: Thefraction of tissue Po-210 supported by Pb-210 is under investigation. I^0. BrcrnsstrohlungFfhciencyof Sr1°'t Y'r in Bone oss o Function of'Body Size. R. D. LLOrn, C:1l'. MASS, D. R. ArrrEnros„and GG. \. TArws, Radiobiology Division, Anatomy Depart- mcnt, Uni.'ersity . of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. '. ' }a'alnntian of the bremxstrallhmgg efficiency (]i-ray photon output/KC relative tothat' m.rrder) of iirdividual beagle bones.labelled wit.6Sr° [RudtnLion Res., 19, 1, p. 220 (1963)] has
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696 AIISORI'TION OF I'OLONIfIdI-210--L7TTL1; fihfcCANb Y , , ingested 210170 is absorbed across the intcs- ists in tobacco smoke is not known b ~ o s o m a a oo samp wcree e polonmm.2l0 has heen followed up to E= t sinoma of the esophagus i h - e g t and five months, respectively, after days inn six cigarette smokers after sudds; smoking was stopped, The "-1DPo twncentta- tions were not significaldly different from the last values shown in the Table. This obsefvation is oonsistentwith~ previous find- s ings in 100 middle-ngeiI meninn which the average -1oPo blood concentration in current smokers was 1.72 pc/kg,., compared with an 'r averaged level of 0.91 pc/kg in past cigarette smokers and, 0.76 in subjccts' who had nec-cr smoked-4 ThechomicaL formm in which polonium ex- complcto-e cessation of smoking. V;irculatin;. "-'uPo levels declined an average of 14% aft, cr thrco-to four days,.and 20.5% after 11 to 14 days. The results illdicat'ee that a major fraction of the isotope inhaled in cigarette smoke is absorbed directly into the blood stream-. . .. This invetication. ~as s,ppo!{ed in part by Firb lic Health Scrvicc rcv.~arch grant ES 00c102, theia-u: for research and learhing of the llepartment oi ]iu" trition, and by an institutional grant from u,e [iovkefeller Foundalion. Refcrences 1.. Little. J.H., et al: Distn-bution of Palonium-210 in Pulmonnry Tissues. of Cignrcttc Smokers, New Rng JMed273:1343-1351'(De< IG)196d. 2 HOl, C.Ii: Pu7nniom-210 in Man, Nnture 209:423-128(Oct 30) 1966- 3. Rajewsky, B., and Sta)rlhofen, W.: Polonium- 210 Aetivityin the Lungs ofCigaretteSmokcrs, No- fure 2i]9d712-1393 (hSarrh2G) 196(i: . 4. Little, J.R., and MoGandy, R.R.:.McaNrement of Palon+um-^_10 in Humna Htood, Naturc211:842- (Y13 (Aug 20). 1966. 6. Radford, E.P., Jr., end.Irun4 V-R.: Poloniinn- 210:. Volntile Radlaclemoott in Cfgaretleq, Scicnee 143:247-=49(Jan 17) 1964: . . G. Kelley, T.F-: Polonium-210Content i1r Mnin- stream Cigarette Smoke„ Science 149:537-538 (July . . 30)' 1965. 7: Fcrri, E.S., and Barntla„ H.J.: Polnnium-210 in Tobacoo, GSgarrtte Smoke„ and Selected Human Or- gnns, Public HcaltIl Rep g1:141.127(Feb) 19G8. 8. Holt¢man, 1tB., and Ilcewicz, F.H.: Lead-210 and Polonium-210 in. Tissucs of Ciearette Smokera Science 153:1259-1M0 (Scpt 9) 1966. 9. Stannardy J.W.: Distribution and Eacretion of Pu/oniurn-410: 1. Comparison of Oral end Intrave- nous Roules in the Hat,. Radiation. Res. suppl 5. pp .49-59,. 19Gd. ' 10. Little, J.B., and Rsdford, E.P., Jr.: Polenium- 2100 in Bronchial Epithelium o[ Cignrcttc Smokem, Science 155:Pi0G-607 (Feb 3) 1907:. Arch Encirun Ilralth-t-oi77; Nao 1968 . exponential function resultss with a T,r_,of cancer remains to be evaluated. The fitzdy~ d 140 days-approximating the physical half- that a coneiderable frnetion of the i-wtr,k, ~ 5pees andstrains o[ life of 210Po (138 days). As Iloltzmane has is absorln.d', directly intoo the blood strey.r- l cendeney to develop tumn reeently shown that.lead.210 is also present however, indicates that systemic absorpticy ± s, in the prevalent tissues in cigarette smoke, the rate of decline in ac- of at least one potelltially c.arcinogenic Co..- % tn this development. Wc tivit over this eriod is more likef due to a .i oft continuous ra[ Y P y ponent of cigarette smoke occurs in tnart scurce . combination of excretion, physical decay, s . -~ ynplanted In young adult and grow-in of R10Po iromitslong-]ived Wru°ary . indaoing eancers . of the { speales will also produc parent lead-210. Insubjects No. I and No. 5, - The change in the blood concentration ar ~.elop spontaneously. Ti additi l bl d It n bt ' d tinal wall. In preliminary experiments, we seems reasonable that this clement ut have confirmed thigs finding, in man,; in sub- serve as a modcli for pulmonary eje ject No: 5, more than 9'> J of ingested ='ul'o mechanismss of other heavy metals sur ,'~ was recovered in the feces. For these rcaa- lead-. As far ass cigarette smokers, 0i )~ sons, we conclude that most systemic ab- selves, are concerned, highly localized ~, S sorption of inhaled R103'ooccuts directly centt:~tions of 210Po have been demonstr~,;_,,, j across the respiratory epithelium. . in bronchial epithelium from smokefyl,s_ j When the results for days 29 to 89 are but the role that a-radiation to the epitt,g, ~ plotted on a semilogarilhmic.gcaph, a simple llutn may play in the initiation of bronehy '~ ~ sarcoma. Radiatior i c en q override expected dilterc' species and strains. The ceptible to lung cancer, only slightly susceptible Thcre appear to be opt renges for carcinagenes scured by biological var IN EVERY species the prevalence of c,an' cidence tends to var~ cies" tendss to develop gans. Although the g epecies is probably ". physiologic, environ other factors conditicc of tumors as to histc sues or organs affdct are the ttunor=_ of int example, pulmonaryleukemia in strain A., in BALB mice, all r viral factors. . - In all species, how sive and perplexingr Submitted forpublira-ed April 19:, From the L,ibaralory cpr Comrnicsion, and th New England ih[rrone~ licad bcforx the Amw gists and ]iactariblogrsL firprint rrnun-,'ts to 1P4 Pilgrim Rr1h R.nlr+
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f.nrnrrP.lsr.lhdr•rururr(Ph"")drrkrrh=mrs/osrndrFnkfnrlirl'illicrmiif{IgrnrZrXnnr(lrm-Knnsurn7Mrvf. Klin',5n (PU:J) Nr..'.T IJiI ~ , .. C...,_'~- AM RANDE DER PRAXIS Ist Polonium (Po210) der krebsauslosende Faktor bei ubermaftem Zigaretten-Konsum 7 'Von M. Lorant ' E. P. Radford und V. R. Hrmt') haben.einen rorsch::ngs- wahrscheinlich auth eine Dosis vom 100.rcrn annehmen bericht ihrer Untersuchnngenn uber den krehsfSrderndenS} kiinnta VorausgegangeneUntersuehungen lassen ver- Faktor bei iiberm56igem Zigarettenkonsum ve~ifent- licht. Sie stellten fcst, daR Poloniirm (Po°10) - eines der seltenen frei vurkommenden radioaktiven Elemente - wahrsdteinlich eine wesentliche Rolle im Zusamrr.e:Licng von Zigaretten-Rauchen und Lungenkrcbs spielt. P.oio- nium, das a-Strahlen aussendet, ist in kleiner,Mengen alsnaturllche Verunreinigung im Tabak errc!•.:~.i!en. Be1 einem starken Raucher, der taglich 2 Pakete hrt, sendet das in den Sdrleimhautgeweben der Broncinie:: z 9-' gelagerte Polonium eine Strahlendbsis aus,, die minde- stens siebenmal hoher istals die radioaktive Ein.rrkung, der einNidrtrautherdurchUmwelteinIlusse ausgesetzt ist. Polonium soll entschcidend an der Bildunip. von Zell- . wucherungen im Bronchinlepithel beteiiigt ;ein., Cl^wohl ` bereits seit langerer ZeiB bekannt ist, dau'ico'-i--.,eade Strahlung Krebs verursachen kann, stellt dieser neue ' Bericht zum erstenmal die Vermutung auf, da6'Radium- isotope imTabak eine Rolle:spielen. " Polonium verdampft bei der Temperatur einer glic.r.;en- ` den Zigarette (11i2.bis 1472 Grad Fahrenheit) und wir:i mit dem Rauchinhaliert.. DergroBte Tell wird von Pha- gozytert au6genommen und gclangt uber die_6ronc'r.ial- ~" sdtleimhaute.in den Rachen. / Genealogisch ist Polnnium Torhter eines. 31ki-lsotop(Pb"10) und Enkeltodrter vonRadiu.m (Rz°'";. Das Ele- ment kommt in allen griinen Pflanxen vor, woese durclr Wurzeln und Bl:ittcr absorbiert wird'y ist aber keineswegs , , mit den Riickstanden bei Kernwaffenversuchen ver-- - . gleichbar. Die radioaktivc Halbwcrtxc.it von Po!hc. ;m i ' . betragt 138 Tage - sie laQt den Partikel.u grntigend 'Lelp sich in den Bronrhien festzusetren.. Die niedrigste Dosis, die diese Teildien beii einem Rau- , eher, der wahrend 25 )ahren taglich 40Zigarelten konsu- - miert hat, ausstrahlen, liegt bei 36 rem (Ma3einheit fur . die biologicrhe Wirkung ionisicrender Strahlung); dies ist der siebenfache Wert physiologischer Stralilenbela- wo.man ~ skungg durch UmwclfcinFlus<c Dle S hatum tr:i t aber g g c .. konnte. .. Es zci,da6 'der m gt sich, also gro[ite I, - weder der Strahicnintensit:it der I'b,"'-Absorptiom i nium messem ' O Teil des verdampfenden Polonium vonn den Raudr arti- RauchReehnung, nooh der Beta-Partikel, d3e I'b~10 und0 kcln.absorbiert wird. p Di°10(Wisrnut) auKStrahlen, oder audt dcrPolonium-Toch-tj - ter, die in den Lungen durch Blci-Absorption entsteht.t~ Den Gehalt an Polonium [n Asdic und 5tummel maschi- ' . , DicAutorenbetonendeshalb,.daReineStnahlnnbel.atung~ nell gerauchter Zigaretten war hiihcr als bei, Zig,aretten, von 36 rem schr konservaF:vangesetzt istt und ma rad'rvon Mcnsdren gcraucht wurden; amcrikanische For- ' ' ~ s<her nelimen deshalb an, daR der Prozentsatz an absor- n.r..nme.t °i.rnnrot°sy, Rresre e.°er. t.r. r._ hiertem Polonium von der Art des.Rauchens ebenso wie 'In.r..,muaw.,.nv.h ~,.r,,,°rnnuat nr.rm, ;,e~.,i,+cr,.t,ecu~.rtn. von der vieot,cdes inhalierten Rauches abh:ingt. ' muten; daQ Pulbnium sichan bcsonderen Stellen der Bronchien konzentriert und die Srtliche Dosis hier von einigen 100 auH ilber 1000.rem ansteigen kann. Im Gcgcnsatz zn anderen radioaktiven Elementenim.Ta- bakblatt hat Polonium~ besondtre Bedeutung, weil es.bei der Temperatur einer brennenden Zigamttee vcrdampft. Friiir,ere Untersuchungen in Gro6britannien Uber radio- akt~ives Kalium (iKaO) und Radium-Isotope im Tabak stell- ten fest,, da6 dielsotope bei dieser Temperatur nicht Fliichtigwerden und deshalb keine entsdreidende Strah- lendosis aussenden konnem Mit'Vorrichtungen fur maschine8es Ziy,arettenrauchen wurden vier der gangigenamerikanischen Marken.unler- sucht. Die Konzentration von Polonium im Rauch war bei Filter- und Nithtflter-Zigaretten beinahe gleich hoch. Versudrer Jede Zigarette wurde zu 60 bis.70°° abge- raucht, und zwar alle.50 Sekunden ein Zug - also 8 ZUge in 6 Minuten. Zigarettenrauch gewann man durch das Ansaugen von Luft durch, die Zigarette, die an einem Filter befestigL war. Die Filtereinrichtung enthielt ein Fiberglasvorfilter, an,dessen Rudcwand sidth ein zweites Plastikfilter befand. Dieses zweite Filter hatte einen sol- chen Durchliissigkeitsgrad, daBalle Partfikel in der Gro- Benordnungg des Zigarettenrauchs darin Festgehalter, ~.'0urden. Von den Filtereinrichtungleitete man den von. .-'artikeln freien Tabakraurh durch. eine Flii.ssigkeitsvor- lage mit einer Savrcliisrmg.rurd dann zu ciner Vakuum- einrichtung„die zwischen den einzelnen Zigarettenziigen abgrklemmt wurde. Aller Rauch, der nicht durdr die Zigarette gezogen wurde (Nebenstromrauch)sammelte sich in einer Flascfle uber der glimmenden Zigarcttc. Zuletzt wurdem Asche und Zigaretten-5tummel sowie das. Raudikondensat an FiberglSs, Plastikfdter, Ruhren- systernm und den Mrrtal.lteildren der Filtereinrid.tung nach dem Grad der Verschmutzung.unlersudrt. Die proportio- nale Zahlung erfolgte in einem Gasdurchstrom-Mcsser, .80 °/n dhs im Raudtprozc6aufgegangenen Poln- itnr.
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C . \1nCrlin:.59 fr964jNn27 pir rra{te., ob Polonium audi Ih den Kreislauf gelangt,, wurda rbenfall5 von Wissenschaftlrrn der tiarvard-Aka- dcmic fiti iiffr•ntlidies Gesundheitswesenuntcrsucht..F.in Vergleich der Polonium-Konzentration im UrIn bei Nicht- Wenn heute der Begriff „Arztredtt" vielverwendet w'trd, ktinnte man meinen, es bestehe ein besonderes, nur ur den Arztgeltendes Recht, dasdie rechtlidien Frageo- seiher gesamten Berufsausubung umfasse. Allerdings gibt es eine ganzeAnzahl solcher Vorschriften, die sich nur mit dem Arzt und seiner Berufsausubung befassen, ahnlich wie sie etwa auch fur den Rechtsanwait 'z. 3. Rechtsanwaltsordnung) und andere.Berufe bcste::u;. - ~cidem Beruf desArztessind u. a. die Bestallungsorii.cng fur Arzte, die Landergesetze uber Benrfs.-.-.cr::etungen zu nennen. Das ganze arztliche Berufsrecirt kann rnan ak ein Arztrecht im engeren Sinne bezeichne,. In einem weiteren Sinne - und so wird d pr B e. ;: l i r meist angewendet - verstehC man aber unter Arztceult aud5 solche Rechtsvorschriften, die an sich fur alle Staatsbur- ger gcltcn, die aher durch die Art der 5rztlichen Tail,>kcil undauf Grund der Rechtssprechungeine besondere Aus- pragungerhalten haben und die fur den Arzt wichtig sind. Dabei handelt es sich z. B. um die Haftung des Arztes fur seine berufliche T5tigkei6 Datur gelten Vor- sdiriflen des burgerdichen Rechts, die ebenso iiir den Rechtsanwalt,, den Architekten oderandere Berufe An- wendung finden, Es sind' allgemctne Rechtsvorscrriften, die dann gelten, wenn bestimmte Vertragsvorschriften verletzt werden oder wenn eine „unerlaubte Ha:cdiung" i. S. desBurgerlichen Gesetzbuchess begangen worden ist. Auf dem Gebiet des Strafrechts sind vor allem die Vorschriften ilber Kotpcrverletzung oder fahri5ssige Tdlung anzufuhren.Erst dann reehnet man solche Vorschr.ften zum Arztredtp wenn es sich um Bestimmungen handelt,mit denen der Arzt geradrdurch seinen Beruf in verstiirktem Mat2e in Bi•ruhrung kommt. Auch sor.st stelit naturlidi derArzt rvie jedcr and@re Staatsbiirger im Rechts:ebcn, doch diese Redushczichungen betreffen iftn z. B. ils Kraftfahrer, alk. Mieter ciner 'Nohnung, als Vertragspartner einer Sdtutz,.Artzrcdrb Begriff urtd Rcdrtngnmdingcn.- rauchern und. Rauchern ergab bel le6zteren wesentlich crhuhte Prozentwcrte. Es iat anzunchmen, da2 starke Raudier mit ciner weit griiQeren 5trahfcnbclastungrech- nen miissen als Niditraudter. Ansrlv. d.Verf:iMiBmcf Lorant, 21 Crnnge Purk, Lortdon W:5 Lebens- ader Feuerversicherung und nicht in erster Linie a's Anzt. Als Arztrecht' sind danach anzusehen alle Rechtsvor- -schriftcn,~ die ausschlie[flirhoder iiberwiegend fur denArzt gelten (Arztrecht im engeren Sinne) oder mit denen der Arzt: durch scinen Beruf' in verstarktem Ma6e in Be- rGhrung kommt. ' Rechtsquellen des Arztred.ls _ 1. Befugniszur Rcdttsetzrrng u) Gesundheitswesen: Weder auf dem Gebiet des Ge- sundReitswesens im allgemeinen, zu dem alle den Arzt betreffenden Vorsduiften gehdicn, noch auf Einzelgebie- ten des Gesundheit'srechts steht dem Bundin der Bundes- republik Deutsdiland ein ausschlie6lid:es Recht zur Ge- setzgebung zu, das dieBefugnis der Lander zum Erial;entsprerhender Vorschriften ganc aussc#dief3en wiirde. Lediglich,, soweit es,sich um „Ma(3nahmen gegen gemein- geEihrliche und ubertragbare Krankheiten bei Mensdrem ' und Tieren, die Zulassung zu Srztliclren und anderen Heil- berufen und zumHeilge.verbe,. den Verkehr mit Arz- neien, Heil- und Betaubungsmlttcln und Giften" handelt, stcht dem Bund nach Art. 74 Nr. 19 des Grundgesetzes die sogenannte konkurrierende Gesetzgebung zu;. d. h. die L'ander haben auP diesen Gebieten die Befugnis zur Gesetzgebung, solange und'soweit der Bund von seinem Gesetzgebun/;srecht keinen Gebrauch macht (Art. 72 Abs..1 GG.). Der Bund hat in diesem Bereidt das Gcsetz- gebungsrecht,, soweit ein Bcdurfnis nach bundesgesetz- licher Regelung besteht, weil eine Angelegenheit durch die Cesetzgebung einzelner Lander niclit wirksam geregelt werden kann oder die Regclung eincr Angelcgenhcit durch einLandcsgcsetzdiclnteressen andrrerL:irrder oder der Gesamthoit becintr:ichtigen ktinnte oder die Wahrung der Rechts-.,undWirtschaftscinheit, insbesondere die Wahrungdcr Einheitliehkeit der Lebensverh5ltnisse uber 107 1
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C i 982 ash to zinc aulphido = 1-2 and using the method just discussod'. Table I gives the resulta of the motwuremonntx.of thn thorihxn-228'and radiam-2`16 activities. The polonium- 210contont of the samplo wae also dotormined and was taken into account when detertnilring the activity of raditun _26 and thonium-228. The background of the ZnS (Ag) was alsotmken into account. The radlum-226 content of the samplca.was measured in eomparison with the emanation method with an electrometer arrangement and two irmi.ntion chambers in compensation. The values woreidentical within the limtito ofreacollable error, which are t30 per ennt for both measuring methods, and the values are in good ngreoment with those of Itajowskyy Muth etal."-•,.Lncas eCud."- The thorinm-228/rndium -236 ratio is 0-4 and is identical with the measurements of Lueae, Wallace. Stohney, and Ilee'wiez' and; Mayneord'. Thetherium-228 contont per ),+ram af bonn ash in 5 x 10-1^ c. and is identical with the value published by Lucas, Wallace, Stclmey and Iloewioz", who determined the thorium activity by a chemical precipitation prucedltre. 41°PL.andrr°Po eonten.t in human.bones. The lead-210 activity' of femuraud tibia human bones which wero stored for two ynars was also determined by silver-plating and counting the a-ray activity, being as high as.3•2 >i 10-'4 e./g.of• wet bone". This is in the same order of mag- nitude as the values published by Holtzman", Black•, Hursh10,. Hill and Jaworowskirr. N A T U R E June tl, 1963 ,Jot, t„ Tahle?• NarVEAE •r°Pb and r*•PnI CnnrrsT.iN IIuwnn RnNns(Fr:xra ANp 'PtNr1) ' Eachvalueis2tm.avcrwneof20sam~dex . Fb Pb P° n•POa eunteut/g cuuknWg ecntent/N wnlvnt/gash wct bone ah wet bonn Average selue Mean-annare error of the measuremeat Memrsuuum varianeeof the binlogleal'. . ,eriabillty 1•1 3-2 1.3 8•1 30.1 }08 ±0-1 ±08 t0P4 31-7205 u,PoPnPb - 1 ± t•U The next.prablem to be investigated was theratiorof ]ead-210 and polonium in humamn boness invivo. The poloniurn unnt.entt wass estimated by wet ashing of the femur and tibiairrunediatoly after 9oction. Table. 2 roveals that.load-210 and polorumn-210 are hn equilibrium in these bones in the living organism. This was stated already by Holtzman for the iliac crest,, ribs, vertebrffi and jointsr. rr•Ra coretr.nt in the human 5ody. The radium-226 contentof the whole body ash tested was measured' by the emanation technique, Our average value of the rariinrn-226.tbtal body contentwas.0-47 x 10-1° c. which is identical to the measurements of Palmer and CZucenr%, Walton et ad.r', Lucas•° and Steluleyr•. We also n.easured the distribution of the total radium content of the indivi- dunlkinds of tissue and organs'•'•'•. The radfitm-220 content of human skeleton ashwos 1-2 x 10-r• c. radium- 220 per grain of anh or 33 x 10-1e o./g wet bones respeo- tively. The average value of rndinm-226 content ot humm soft tissuofor muscles, liver. spleen was. 1 x. - vel ~10 r• c./g t ss:uo or 1 x 10r' c.fg of ash I re5,+ori). These individual measurements were Rummarizedd to give0 39 x 10-'° c. of total rndimn-226 content for th,e standard man identical to the measurement of the wholi• body ashi mentioned here. There are obviously 85 per cer.t of total body content of rndium-236 dietribnhdd in t,heskeleton; the residual 15 per cerit are located in the soft tissue. These resalts are identical with rec,•nt publications of Mavaeord', Ilnrah ec a1,10 and Lucnau; The tissuee was ashed in a'Vitrcosil" crucibla, the inaid,.. of wbich was. coated with quartz. Tlte natural radiuro- content of the quurtz determined was negligibly low,. So contamination during the ashingprocednre is below th,• limit of error. 'P9ble'3. AU601tDFD,DOSC.Or'rnL NAT1lRlL IlAllIOAITtVB hIICLIDEF ^•1{A, Ta AND "•PU i:: HuanN Donrs is xn.ns am AXNtltr Ahsorbed dbee In bpn» Natural radioacti.e uudide. (mradeh'6eq. "'En (nnd 6ne-third of the ehnrt-nved Uroducta).. 0+86 . r••Th (in radlnactlee equtlibalum) a'g ruPO 8.10 Table 3 shows anestirrlntiun of the doseabsorbod inthe human bones basing on our measurements of radium-225. poloniurn-210 and thorium.229. It iss evidentt that, t.he dose of polcatium-210 absorbed is about four times thab~ of radhnn-220 and its dnughters', and also four times.tlse value of tharium-228 and its daughters. For this estimation we aesmned the natural ieotopus, to be distributed homogeneously over the individual bonesand no geometricaA function was taken into account. If we estimated the dose absorbed of radio- thorium. we assurned the. 0-52-thoron tb rh'xintegrate completely at the same location where it is built up by its, parent thoaium-z. The retention of radon in bones is assumed to be 30 per cont. •~rrmer, n- e„ J. M•, •ad xayae°rd, \t-.. v.,.. R,rt. J. Radia., a1. 5e7 (lss8), 'ASnth,.H,..and Obertmuseu, E_ In Prw-. 6ieA rnttrn. Ctiny. FadidWK and~Urbav u 5chw'arr+•n.b,:r6'D[euche.Rnrl",n,~ 961~1.1eme, Stuttgan~. • stehu:emn, w,,.r.,,:.g•,ral nianert,t.on, ~nkfurt (in men•ration), • Mnth, R., RnJewsky. B.. Hantke, H..J.. and Aurand, K., AW HA PAyn. £. 24A.(IDR0). • lfnotke. 7nan0uml Dissertation iPra~fLrt a:]f., 19.",9), • Leavs, HL F•, wallace, 1). E., Stehnep A- F., aLd Ileewitr, F. If. (Orivatee communtcatton). ']icyncord, w-, P„ Cl:n.. RadinL, %I, No. 1(Januaq- 1900)L • Anltemaa„A. D:, ASb-6199, 94 (1960), • Rlwk, R. f,., HunitA PhVS,. 7.87 (10e1L. - ,• Ilmah, .1. ]s., s., lae, 1ees (1n6o). 'r Hill, C. R., and Jaworowskl. Z. 3•, Hulure,190,.868(19G1):. "Palmer, R• P., and Qucen, F. B.. Amner. J, Ruexlprnd-, F9,.S21 (19a9L . "\Ynltnn. -4., Salu6imuV, It.. and Eu1D• J'• L., Ilurt(4PAbe:, 1, Ce3 (1959):, r• Lucas, Fl. k'., dd'L-0'L97, 55 (1001). ° fitCM1nev, .4-.F ,.nnd Lvcaa,.H. F., Pem:rf,d rl.rxn( AE°m(t ErurpP. Prm. Infern. CCmil., Cen<va, Auguat 1955,11, 49 (CUited Nntinnn, New Tcer,.. leSC)• ^RUrah, J. T., nnvxas, A., and Biltz, E,.,DR-581 (1000). '•Pnae, F•, Sattir.r, r. Ln and StahID6icn. N".. Afemkernrnerpiey 8, 82(p963).. '• ih,,nholt,.l'. N.,.Analyii[al ChrmiNry,:B. 1898 (1D57). ALPHA-PARTICLE ACTIVITY AND FREE RADICALS FROM TOBACCO By SIR ERNEST MARSDEN, C.M-G., C.B-E, F.R,S-*, and MICHAEL A.. COLLINSt Dominion Physical. Laboratory„ Lower Hutt, NewZealand Ne.•{Bea JI .,,. Ivrrri led ta ..rnll,h•a with s oted by Tn qo -ann' bri\ing I i„nud woll-kn ciplrotte: mlaining: son ilont thos~ 5t Thisle i h`• paper rrft N'iret recsrd nud thus calc ur in smoldng. 1.•.ingnxpired an, not cxpo: _(1;000 litres c dity, bnt only tn.that of the htres:. inspirnt as 0-1 pc.Fl- t of 0.5 pc- inst If we c•on: ' produuts intht nnd the parti (hs described rotnl'rndiatia n0 10pc. per the radon gic. thnt prnport pnrtionlarly h iirto his lungs- proportion of. Thns is is Rnod to look i hn dupowifad m.'ntfion one t L,nd-210, and hnt.vnen ash o nctivity from „f magnitude in theorigins activity per ; it,f.nlf,.may Ilc 1 uat of poloni ment was ma ~•qnilibration I lle observatl erowth of fu:: paront of pol lwon volatiliz rtto' glow oft( nnditbe condtho cigarette, m,t.v,, ho\vevv,•rltpemture, Ift'OCreP aCCor The r9a6Gr j nvhing arisee { x-pnrticlcre,in 1 e tleingme:01 mat•eriala. ar nmge of the oq:proximate " ' sllunre roota CZ ( r.i;lnrette ma i 7•hn rqn ic gg 1RfiLLY' dco to roenlts of oxporimonta carriad out by in the process of the smoking,of, sny, 50 cigarettes per day W L.'fut•nor• and Radlnyt' itl haa Rannrnlly 1Nsn nusumad of the me:t rndioactiiie brvmds uf English eignrotl'• My' u low atomi thut.thcradionet'ivity oi'snroko front uignrottus in unlikulH tested by them, it would ropraaent mt intake of 10 pic'••} of we to oonntituto nn y rudiolo •ical hazard. 'pho ox oriments curius lc~of nulnn, whereas tho m*ora o dnil intnkr• ; 'rgher Prop indiaitrd,foroxtunplb,tht iftlioradun-222prosnt nndin from thu atmosphere by tho gonoral popSlntionyemnker : tobaacos•bhe cquilibrium with radittrn-226 in tdto tobacco wetva inhaled and non-Smol:er,, was statod to be npproximatoly 2 000 f' `hondinqly a i lu.vu.enrrcet • uvcct worker. pc., Uhutin, 0-1 po:(]L frum 20,000 litrv•epor pr.rr;on. pcr'l4 h- wo atatcd ec In tho courso of work on the radioactivity of varioun uould be ne Te,t1J ngOm, MidWCSes.mic Physice nlvislnn, Nnlinnn] Phynleal T nhorntnrry~, erops grown on radioactive soils in certain eormtritY.
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964 NATURE 7une 8, 1963 veL.,sa rlrenivud by thn hmg }vnllqand yeh. ono w'liich could' possibly bee related irt part- to tho inherent a-activity' C of tdw tobucco. It haa beon known for some timo nowr•• that fl'ue radicals arn prosontt rrr tbluu:r.osmoke; the important role in tdre prirlmry mar.lmni»ms of radiation action which such active radicals lnay play, for exalnple,, in init.iating carcinogenic processes, is also becoming recognizedf. It has been showzl" thaE tlu, frne radicals in amoku have a wide rtwlgoo of porsia(oncy or lifutimes and for arbitrary convenience wee willl heree defnlo stable radicals aa those which have a life in excess of 30 soc at room temperature. Ingrnmr has attributed tlut free radicalb in tobacco emokee to pyrolysis.. It is possible, however, that a-radia- timt damago froln the. internal acticityt is a secondary producer of free rarlicaLs. W1r snvfxmL sacP. lutcrnal ' a-activity ofI producing, extunsia•oe biological uff'octs. The smoke from the vmrious's tobaccos mentioned here and listed in Table I uns coller.ted hydirect.condensation on a surface at the temperature of liquid oxygen where it. fol¢ned a yellow powder. This material was packed into sannple tubos for the electron spin resonance spoetrn- matsr without allow'ing, the temperature to rise abovc that of liquid oxygen. The number of stabloe radicalss was obtained after returning the'e salnple to rontnn tem- peraturo for 30 see and then refreozing.. The oxygen for burning the cigurettes(and their papor).wasobtainod by lighting them and! sucking air through them at a constant ratotoobtain approximately the average burning temperature when usedl by an habitual smoker (thatis, they ,rere nut puffed). This.ras donoin order toreduceo the variatinn nf' free radical concentration with burtting temperature. The existence of such avariatiun is shoaxt in.the.Sootnotcto Table 1. Even with thispre- caution a.large variation of the ordor of 20 per cont in the wmber of 1"rerradtr.als was recorded over a number of 'sperimcnta. This can' only beatt•ributed to variation in the t.emperature.of bunring caused by chemical and'moistum factors. The .,alues ahown im Table 1 for four different tobaccos.are averaged over four tests in eac.heaseand are probably correct to 10.pereent.for comparison purpusex.. Frnm Table 1 it can beseen that the variation in stable fi•ees radlcals fulluws diiectkv the variation in a-actic•ity.. If differences due to pyrolysis atrd genefia chemical typee are aliminated by conaideringg separately the two tobacco types usod then a more marked correlh- tiont between a-aetin-itv and both stablo m1d unstiablR rarlinalv appears. Tbn rrsults indicatethat a large number of very unstable, aetivo'e frce.radicals aro presentin smoke Table 1, 1' ar.a RAIIICAL pallnVLTraN IN TLRNi 0r TD'IAL u-ACrlY1rY (T'AAt'. OF Toatcco. USED TAA 0~ g at nmuko p,:aR ' Aslt rnw eandnnsafe q tohucoo ToWu atable 5uutltAnmrlwnIIrurlllaaTp•pC 1 9.U. 10 3•4' b6 2 10. N•6 1•8 1^ V1r81niaa Type a )^.^-6. 2.e 1•0' .. 4 1N. 14 1•e 0'9, 19w bnrning ttmperndlro ror these esPerlments nve mcn mcd ffi0° C. xI[hnllFll l lnml ~?'n'nrf. nl Xllj5lttl)' n,wCr tllnl)'v'raluro tllan t111611e11rV. JloletatE lov nt. 190° Cbf 1 Imd '1'..roro 15 nec ceia nnd Jnnd 4 v¢ro CO pcr eenl;', ) and ° Itavn n somr>cLat larucr OruPOrlinuof 41,uriinn IBmt 3 nnd 4' (aun0 pcr ccnt aa uuailutl id) Is'r cenc of the l'AA ). ln n sucrlid exluvlmen4 vllli' tppe ! toW,eeo ull n IluminR temperatnre af USe° C(cfL tl5o° L' alwve) [he tutal ra,licnls were iucicased 50 pee cent. condertsateand which may be carcinogenic.- This fact and thurapid decay of active materials causes us to doubt some of thoresulta of alleged'tnuuour-producing experi-ments using moro stale smoke condonsate.Our results so far from specially made standard size unblortded cigarettes; are recorded in Table 1. T}wtobaeeos origiuatnd front widel,v' separated countries... At tho' time of'these latter experinlentss we did not have some of the higher activity t.obacaoss referred tn here;'. but thcro was sufficiant range of activity to illostratq the'posxible effoct. We aro urranging to collectt tobaceoa of the same genotie'typo grown om different. soils giving a wide range of radioactive pick-up. This,,with a refinement of experirnental snmkirrgtechrliyueg should ss:~sint suck investigations. It may be that the radiation effects either directly or' through radir•.al production are not tho main factars in- volved' irl lung cattcnr induntion but it is not unrcasnnnhle to supposee that there will be considerable differencess between tobaccos of different variety and strain,, and the pir.k-up.of n-active nuc.lides may he.genetically connected. It, hns' hce.n lnuntl in other stlwlicx with othcr plants that thero.is often such linkage. In conclusion,, we consider thatt a further examination of the effect of a-radiating nuclides in cigarette tobacco is called for either by direct effect or indirectly through radica.l prodllCtion. We t•hankDtr. N': H. N^'ard,, director of the Laboratory, for facilities and encoural{ement,.and Messrs. W...D. and H. O. Wills of New Zealand forsuppl,v- ing the material. ' Turner, It. C., eud ltedley, J. M., lancet, 1107 Wiay 29;1B6%. °SChranh, A., Anrand, K., xnd.,ncnTi, W., l)rit. J. Rar((nl., Snppl. 7;.114 (105]). *Merneord. w.. v_. AflLC. Rey:-AnLendiz B(1900). • Lyonn, ]l. T., c/ at:, Nnturs,181, 1009 (IB58): • ingram. 1). ]. E., Free RadicWe, 243 (puttenvorth,.195e). •AUenl.n. 9•. and Ineram, n. a. F... Fre.e Rd(euN In 1RnGgi,vf Vyerem., 215 (AC:demic Yrvea, ffie. gork„190I). + nuchesnr, l_, a nl., rsnMna er CeophMe_ Arta, Pa, 200 (19a1): QUANTAL ABSORPTION AND THE ELECTRORETINOGRAM Ds. T- P. WILLIAMS' Psychology Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island W HEN a flash of light• is delivered to the eye, some of the light is absorbed byy thophotopi{,rnlcntl molecules of the receptor outer segments. The rletnilod nature of this absolption procose.is.dictalstl by tdtc qtranttrm t}iuory of light: first, becatlso light iss corpu::cular, thcro must. bm a distribuGion of nbsorbcd qunnta ovnr the reeeptloru bning stimld:rtc•.d: second, a photopigment molcculo in the outer segment must absorb eithorn lvholequantum or noqnantunt at all. Onc of t.ho physiological consoqtmneea of thi s absorption of light iis theproduct,ion of an clnctoical response. the ~ uctrurut ino};11uu (El2G).. This is a gross.response which. mramnubly. mprrecnts n au,anlntiou of individual electri. cnl ronponscs prodncnd by individtinllrotinnl components. Thinr nri.Pcll• prr•svnte tdra )rypothasir+'t.hat• tdlo individunl olectrical responr+es nre related, in some fairly direct wa-y, to the individual acts of quantal obsorption. In•order 10 implcment, this hypothesis, n mathematical model ie constructed which, first,, calculates the distribution of absorbed quanta over a group of receptors. Next, the number of qunntu in each outer segment is related,, by ocrt.ain uv.,u.nptions.. to discretoe inerelnents of eleetrieal response. the stnnmation of which is taken to be the overall ERG response. As presented hero, the model is used to calculate botha- and b-w-nve magnitudes aR functions of input intensity. To fncilitntn thme dnscription of t.he model, the te,Tlt 'Ircoptor-unit'will'betlxcd to lv-fcr to' thnt chain of retinal components which cnnnh.orb quanta and prrldner both a- and b-wave rer+ponur:s. Hencr- thn aimple/+t receptnr-nnit lnobubly inclnde.x inmer nnd outor sngmenln and bipolnr coll. - N6. 4ea4. A large n i,llposcdnnif, nnlts.. For a atlalogtte of , '1'he dttratiot eutUF sCgnler ql.antalm; a is used'here r,nlculated dl il)ldttple abg p-vclue; tJti, not apprecia 'Phntsueh is Under an unlikely ths nunrber of , huletion des, this function q quanta abs< ho possible. nrunber of r number of ¢ To accompli regarding tt generators. It is aseu produces onc absorbed in supported b been found t This snme to the b-w-tu produced'fo number, thep absorbed. E nbsorptions That is, thg+eneratoris, b-wave gene observed eo: b.lvave magt Using', the. the Poisson the irldividt input, Q. T. thenc are the input... In F 7 e. 0 ~ ~ .. c Yllc- 1. Coro
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. va~• ) oa 1 No. aaea June 8, 1963 N A T 11 $ E g63 ; content of en was I x rospcctively. unarized to te' 9r the of'c whole msly 85 pcr dietributed'are located with recent md Lucaetl. r, the inside ual radium- bly low. So. is belowthc. \Ucr.rDEV'.erRA.. . AINC]I .1 dnre In tMMe unCely'enr) o-e5 e.9 s1e orbed in the radiunt-226M nt that the r tiinesthat lrtimes the ral isotopes , individual taken into d of t•adio- disintegrate' ilt up by its in bones is ~O]C; Stuttgsrt. u preparatiau). EadtA PAbA..2, t959), ., P. U. (private 1. 1). 9, 521 (195b). v,1,.909 (i 9L9). c Erve.vv: Prrc. om„New 1ork. rir, B. 3?.(nM8). CO ,tos por dny h cigarettn of 16 pinu- laily intnke ion, smokrr ,atcp. ^•A00' n,{ 14h. - ofItIarnou+ t countrioe,, wo woro led to try ci),rnrotto.tobacco leaf and fotmd sotno A ehnck wns natde by meaeuringtobncco nshond nlso. wunple.s with sevon4 timf-s the a-activity of thn.maxiumtm the annw asle when mixed intimately With known pro- qrwtnd by Tumor and fiadloy; for example, wu found portions.of: (1).larnpbincli, Lbnt is; frrtelydivided curbon,. annte geving 16 pe.:/g for ruwtobncco• Later we also (2)) ntie.ronixod inactive culoeunm carbonato emd compurueg iblmd wull-lutown bnrnds, not confinod to the lower tbu total a-activity of tho mixture with that from ash price cigarettes, onthn Unitnditingdom market (probably xlono. Iln tl.o mue of (1) the activity of the mixturvwas conte.iningsomog of thu tobacco im (Inestion) and uhich in general of the ol'dhr of 25 pnr eentt less t.h:m that eorm- proved much momntdionetivo (for example, 4.4 pciJg)i tltantktosocited (nwan of 1 8po.jg for the English ci{;or- ottos). This led eua to esomino other factors dealt with in, the paper raforrod to. First regarding ra'edon., tlus hxs a hul'f-lifn nt 3-A dlrya and thns only a.entall fraction.ofthat inspircd,.nuturally' or in smoking, will givo radiation insidn the lungs hnforo Iming.expired'undisintegratod. 'Phus thu heng .v,rlla.. r.tc., nre not nxpnsed to the fulli radon radiation of all the 20,000litros of air inrpirr.d and espircd per person per da,y, butmnly, ii1 effect, to that af n vohrrne of air aqunl to that of the lung. If'this be taken na 5 litrrs (total 6 litms, inspirutory capacity 3-6 1.), and, the radon in air as 0!1 pe./L tho total radiatiort would be of theordet•of 0-5 pc,. instead of the 2,000 pc: troferrod to from radon gas. If we consider the average build-up oflradon daughter products in tho air, the absorption of these on dust particles' and tho partial'rotention of these aerosols in the lungs(as described by Schraub eb al.2) we ueay it.for thatt the'e total: radiation absorbed in the lung may' be of thee order of 10 pc- pcr day. This same argument would apply to the radon given off with cigarette smoke, except,.perhaps; that proportionately more radon muy be absorbed,, particularly if'a.smoker draws thesmoke.and condhnsate into his brngs.. Also thene.maywell be a larger equilibrium proportion of A, R, and C products than in atmosphere, air. Thus it is morn to thn non-gn?eous products that wr. need to look in the condensate from t,moko nnd which ma. Y be deposited on lung aslls, etc. and Radley mention ane. of Lhuse.that is, polomtun.210 with its parmnt load-210, and conclude from thonqnevnlhnr.n of activity between ash and raw tobuccu.in tcrms.of uslr content that activity from polonium is notpresent to within an order of magnitude of that of the ultimate parent radium-226 in the original tobacco. The approximateequivalenee of aetivity por gram ash, as between raw tobaccoand ash itself, may actually bo evidence of considerablovolat.iliza- tion of poloniunt (rxm Tablo^., lac: czt.),.since tho.measure- mentwas made after 28 dapein both oases, that is, after equilibration of tho products to radium C. Moreover, the obsorvation that even after a year therew-as little growth of ftu•ther activity im thoash indicated that the pareat of polonium, that is,.radioload-210, may'also have been volatilized. This may not be surprising, asthn'.eigar- ette glow, often attainsa tnmporateree.af moru than 860° C and the condensate may svoll carry itnway. 1'rosurnably' thn cigarettes.in the experiments oflTurnerandRadk•.y may, however, have been achecf at a somcwhat lower temperature, though they may well glow in the ashingprocess according to oxyge.n availability. The reason for this conclusion of loss of activity on ashing arises from consideration of thelawof absorption of a-par6icles in the layer ofmatcriul thax-radiation of'which is being' measured- that is',, in tho cupsalrs used these materials are greater in thickness than the maximum ranSO of the a-particles. The tmnge, on Brugg's lnnv, is approximutoly related to the integrated and u-eight.-d square roots ofthe.atoueic weights of constituents of the cigarottematerial as a wholoe and of the ash respectively. Thn range in thu raw tobacco with ita hiFhcr' propnrtinn of low atomic weight carbo'trand hydrogen will boless in terms of weight per unit area thnn in thoe ash with itss higher proportion of licnvier ntom. Thus, vvith raw tobar.ruy thn a-pnrM1icl,,n et.rikiny tho acr„rn will be corre- spondingly emnllervin nuueber. It muy bo that the authors' hnve corrected for this effect, but it does not appear to bno r-o stated antl'fnr evallurtion an exact chemical umtl•vsistvould be necessary. a(rondingto thoactivity cedculutudfrom thu nah contnnt.. 'lhis rmry have boen contributed to by n. smaller Iigh4 umis<,inn por scintillation because of a black hackgt•ormd.. In case. (2)') equal or a little mon: them proportionality was'. formd according to the tobacco nsad and the rrunet•al content of its ash. Similar tnsts c:uriod out with stareh,, sugar uroa, nte.,.ahmved less effi)et thtm lampbinck. Unfor- tmnately, ihcilitics for exact analysis of the ash were not rcadily available„ but thn'e nmun featttre of the result established. '1'Ints. if in the reverse case of extracting' ash fr'orn raW tobacco, rather than adding law-ntomic- weight material to thc pmviously proparcd ash, pr»portion- ality of activity to ash contentwas obtained:xs in the cases cited by Turnerand ltadley, there must have henn some long period activity which was volatile end tncen away in the smoke and condensate apart altogether from any shorter•livcd pooducts of radium and thoriunt, that is, A, B and CG products, which may have been carried over and of which our own esperimenta have givensome evidcnce. Moreover, thee case of the emanating gases thoron and actinon therrv9elves,, which emit a-particles and which tvould bo given ofi under the same conditions'as radon, diffors from the latter im thatwith half-life periods nf 56 see and 3-7 sec respectively, they are likely to give a considerable measum of disintogtation insidee the lung, before being nxpirnd in the air along witle which they tVe carricd'while in addition their a-radiating active deposits and recoil atoms wuuld'be dnposited on the walls ofthof he n g.' run . ng. :4foatiobnccos carry oonsrdsrahlu tbori products. eontr'ibuLing say 50 per cent of total a-activity; whde we have found that actinium is taken np into certain varieties of tobacco on soine suils,in excess of the fowperocntof activity normally associated! with utaniiun sources. To obtain quantitu.tive measurements of theso effocts would' uivolvea moro thmough.investigation, and considorations such as thoso advanced by Mayncord':Anothrr reason to suspect apossiblehaaard of inspired' radio:wtive.partic,les from smoko is that arising,from con- sideration of tlee increasing use of somo vorv-high- aetivity tobaecoa which mrr oxumhmtioxn of imported leaf revealed. Thero was some'.goncral degree of correspondonce ofhmg.cancer statistics with the importation figures of the prrvions dnandp or car. of somo of those hieh-activity' tobuccos. Although thero areothor contributory factors in more modern industrial conditions itt is quite poaviblo that thern may hn soma causative factor involved. in which cncno there is hope of eliminating such suspected tobaccos. This would reduce the allegedd possibloo risks to those who are habitual smol:nrss of nxcessiveo ntunhors of cigaretto9 containing appreciablo proportionsof such tobaccos in the bland usud', Moreover, if polonium is suspect then the ago of thetobacco when smokod mustt be takxn into'. a<:r.n,mt., as this, togetlaer with radimn rather thaa thorium contont, would be aa factor in, con- trolling the.amotmt' of r:tdiolead-210 prununt and thus that of the rc-rndiatin~ poloniurn.. Murooveq, uptake of rndio- activity unsupported radium D issuspected tinder certain conditions. In addition, ftwtoas of prnnavriny which may affuot tlw tuu.purotorn of tho cifiamtto glow would have an intluonee. as also erwh factors asci;tarnttofdtars, etc. It should at this atago bo clearly stated that we mnke noQ claimsto+uttnnco proof of carcinogenic aotion of radiationQ ftiom cigarotto tobacco, but moroly preserita cnse~ for further examination of thequcation Irythnstnwith'the~ necessary facilities.. Actiua Itodicutx. Thoro is, howovor, possibly a more~ important factor in- tho l.mg cancer lmanrd of oignrott~ • sruoking than that of the actual a-radiation diroctlyN
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C or of social responsibility and, in particular, whether Jthore iethnt training of character which is needed not . only in social or intelincth.al fields but also m the vital . work of industry. Absence of a sonsoof purpooe may _ not be so widespread as I fear; n,w,y people arx in a botter position to jtvlge than I am, butt if theprobleat -. jea growing. ono it willl necd' dax:p study and that free public disc.wsion wFuch is po:ivible in Britain to-day and which can alone load to the development of . , selutiona. _ In another way, and one which is very relevant to thee officientoperation of the economy, therchas been amarked ' change in the U.S.S.R. Undcr Stalin thecontrnlization ' not only oflong-Lonn plans but also of much, detail .. was accompanied byy ruthless action if the performance of individuals foll badly short of requirements, particularly ,. if thiss might be attributed to disaffection or even dis- loyalty. There wasno doubt a control by a form of terrorism. Fear of making decisions, even relatively unirnportar.t ones ifther.e involved risks of making... '' mistakes, coupled with the beHef that a giganticc contral plan could cont,nl the wholeecunonry in dotail, led to . ytecisions by committbesat all levela. Tho result was delay and a good deal of muddleand'e inethciency. Docisions which should have been taken at lower levels were . ;takenn at higherlevels-sometimes att very highh levels- with with added strainson the occupants of higher poste. Since Stalia's death there has been far less recrimtina- tion and the abandonment of terrorism as a met.hod.of nnfurcing conformity. Decentralization and delegation ofauthorityaro the.order oftho day, and individualsaresncouragedto take responsibilit.y. Stalinism has.left INGESTED POLONIUM By Stn ERNEST MARSDEN, .C.M.G., C-B.E., F.R•S. .:. .- ~-- Fl Mbf Nf Nl Sl ormeryemer oew Zealand Council oucexrcence . RECENT papers by Hill, Osborne and Mayneord' of the Physics Laboratodes of the.Institutoof Canecr Research,. by Radford and Huntr of the Harvard School of Public Health and by Marsdon mtd Collicu+' of the .. Dominion Physical Ltibnratury,. New Zealand, have ' indicated'the extent and possible. hmntut importance of naturnlly occurring polonium-210. Ii. this article I shall ': record some further experimental evideneeof polonium ~ and its possible effects in cancer initiation at various :sites,, including tho l.mbr. and ulso in relation ta aertaut possible induced getvstic changeo: Polonium-21O'. Rsh is an e-particle-emitting nuclide . of halflife. 138 days. The amount present is normally ~controlled by its parent once rcrnovcd, RnD or lwd-210 of 22 yoars.half-lifr: The inter.nediate product RaEhas. . ahalf-lifo of 5 days andcmits soft.(i-rays. It is considored a-patYdeles can utiLiitte prote¢ttnolecular chnnges to an. ' that ext,~,tSar greater than thc proportiotu.to ionization they produce compared with 'e-ruyaa mtd 7- or X-rays. ' Polonium can cntcr thc body either through.tho water - cnnsumed, or as a contaminant of tho air inspirod, ( or as a trace constitucnt.of foodstuffs.via radioactivo soilor from naturul fall-out aa the result of d/xintegrat:on of radon whieh has esculxd into tho ntmosphoru from soil. Ln the cFaco of drinking-wutor, thoatnount doos not appenr to bo, rulatinmlyimportantnxccpt for cnrtain nrtcsmn watura'gonerally-'also highly charged with radon. Noroml air is said to contuitrloinl'-210'to an aver+.gn extent of 0-003 pc.(lag,wlth upwurds of 0-0Oof this quunLity of poloniutn-210,. according to soason. Thix Gguro would correspond to somo 0-007 lxs. inhaled by an average persm, per day. , . . . ... . . i I a logacy which Ims not yotbeun wholly oradicated. Tho exercise of the power of donision by individuafv at high levels is noticeable. I eaw a good deal of it, but at lower levels there appenns to me to be st•ill' far too much com. mittoo work,, and too much passing down of detailed instructions. The paper work for quite simple matters soems altogether excessive. Moreover, when rrwn hm-e passod much of their earlier working lives working on eommittoos on tim basis of det.ilod uwtruction from abovc, it is not easy to change to a system which roquhros initia- tive, judgmont and the powerto take decisions. Indood, it mny be snme timee before all down the line thete are sufficiont..non who can take responsibility on their own shoulders, and the ntx,d for committees and dotailod inatructions may remain for some considerable time yet. There is no doubt, however, that thn.policy and thetrend are in this direction:- . - .:,.Perhaps it is a coincidence. but there appears to be to-day loss rigidity in the U.S.S.R. in matters of doctrine. Home owwnership through the co-operativo purchase of flata is encouraged, and is apreading. The desire to own a flat atal too have furniture that is different is acoompanied by a desire to have better and different clothes. All theso seem to me to beirrdications of a desire for aolf.expreeefon by individuals who arn rediscovering, the joys of ih- dividuality as well as those of community. They may have a long way to go. Perhaps we, in our educational system, also have some way too go. to rediscover howto inculcate a sensenf purpose in those who soom to lack . it,. and how to trairt-men and women with the character needed to shoulder the burdens of a world of growing comploxity. , .. .-. . .. - . INChDENCE AND POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANCE OF INHALED OR Twowidesproad probable sources of inspired polnnium, however, are: (1) inhaled tobacco smoke, when certain tobaccos are.u-sed in the cignrnt'te blend and in thee absence of a suitable filter; (2) the exhaust of motor-car potrol engines when lead compoundsare used for etilhanoement of octarre rating. These t.wn sourcca could assume varying relative importanceire difforont conditions and rogions, though too little.is known regarding tho magnitude of the latter. The.averageretention period in the lung of such inspiu-ed polonium is of Lhce order of 70 days but will probably vary with particle size, the nuclido prc8umably being more. madily removed bofo,,, disintegration when not associated with certain types of particulatee matter, for oxamplu, nrnoko eondensatie or car exhaustmaterial under certain conditions or urban pollution. - - .Tobacco . Thesorii+e of e-particlemeasuremnnts roportad in the papnr by Mursden and CoLLuu' and ethc.s have bccn extended with resrdts confirming the wide variation, mon- than 30: 1 in the activity of tobaccos grown on diffarenft soils, the highest about 15 pc.fgraw leaf (wt.oflatf tobacco.in one cigarette about 1 g).Thetobaccosshowug highest activity aro Lhosee grown on soiLs of low pH such as aro derived from radioactive older granites or grmm- dinritusoceurring in parts of' Southorn Rhodesia, North GZuconsland, and oLvewhoro. Tho. n-activity of a large rango,of pawntt granite matorials has boon moasured.and will ba roportod sola.rutoly. Thoy vary in total raactivity frout 150 pc./g to 5 pc./g, t.he granites with lowos4actGvity being, in genorul: those with kiss potash or soda granitee, and thie ex-t grnnites deria them sre nu emrrco. 'This of a-particle ~ the uranitun of leaching eighth of the . Tobacco pl Zealand Tobr usirtg 1ow-act ally onriehei -I.ranium ores regarding. hi; . regard to sci: example, of levels in tl: . dilthough mc w'ae not lBad ''Lotherores u the uptake occurrence c ..inmtvmyca . little eviden ". thorimn faa observation. .,9 reconnt on the quest from nattrra Dried comm partaof the against a p1 cases the le material pl: scintillation cigarette ty -greater tha are given in Cnuntry of_o Stuth lfrk \ew Zeatar 8. 31aVdeslGThnllend U.Bd..fEtit In generr higher prol . for atatistL know in , sample wa: The fore; weighing f content, n~ powdered : isnot givei Table 1. : of surf'ace, on the,stu cftbct of I activity tc activity de The fore averagee f C variation Q Rhodesia : %I A large pph tobacco k SO Zoaland, + .p. concerna, f.~ 4rmtative ! M abw select on the pl wril moist of crop _
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- - ton cIr - F Ir !n t_._ l O tu m O J . - C ;Slil1 -Stntcs has inrrvasrd: L„nt Fttilb: pcn anntltn "in 1910 . to 11Ibior 191i') " 'KcltN :mt. stafistics for thc llriitrtl f:ingdnnL Ntnr '7.tr.Jand cmtt An.(r:di:t arr illuarn.nd gr:qdunrll) in I^igs. I, 2A and213'. 1)aiailnd tab'lcs..,,• omino•d br~ c:utsa thcy nftrn ncrtd undurr t•til)Inmiainns rn.inn, t.n the matuy spccial factors imoA•vd' . 9iRMr:.nOrSED OE6Tn HalES rROM C E - 50 ` eli 918•PD' 936-1C .'qE-~~. pA6'~~1956-D to0o<co~19+n 1MD ,3]V '540 14i9 t nA. Stenaarmxe'to ro5o-]2 uc>.moae ) O Rc. 1'. $asr eunrcs frmn rcpur[ of Royal College of Physicians. h1 N.n1CAt.... f OuHNAl. Yt_ r4 li ~ . .._ n , . r+I) r a.:... . f"IT~ . .- . Ftc. 2A. Austtalian figur~s not stattdnrdistd, number of cigarettes smoked per day inereasrsl in these groups. . 4. Among Uranium mine workers,. particulnrly' . those, of a few decades ago, beforee thee position tsas . fully recognisedd and conditions of centilation anicli- ~. orated, lung cancer ensued in the ntajoritcof rninets, and to an extcat trhich could not be atdribulcd to . cigarctte sntoking. There appears also, to be an escess. lungg cancer rate amomg .vorkers with chrom- . -iunl ores and chrominm chcmicals. 5. Lttng c;tnccr occurs anwng ttooc-vnokrrs, and , to an extent of about 10C,0 of. cnrrent total 6e;tuesS of ' incidence. . ~ . . _. .. . 6. Lung cancer death rates for moderatc pipr and cigar smokers are little greaterr than fotn non- smokers, although the benzopyrenc' contcut for example of average pipe andcigar tobacco is much higher than in normal cigarette type tobacco., Oral cancers have declinecb over the last 50 years. 7. Lung cancer death rates are somewhat higher . inthosc wlio iuhalctobacco sntoke than in tltose ccho do not inhale. Therc appcars to be a real but not From titcse' xtatisticss and fntnn odlcrs,, the follon- ing deductions ntay be rcadily dr.twn and'd any Ihcory of tlie oriain of Ittng' eanem' Sliould ~i%r. rcasatablrI explanations of thesc factars. . L Even Tohen the so-called latcnt pcriod of development (10 to 20'vcars) is taken into,account thc lung cancer death rates havt ovor dte years `increaseti! seceral titnos. ntore stceplv' than the per capitaa consumption of tobacco in all fotnrts, and , signifirantly. trlaticvly motc than thc tigures for total constunp0ion of cigarcttcs. •I'hc figures arcc still rising - in almost all conntcies: ' ~ -2. In New Zraland, as an example, the prescnt deatlr rates front lung cancer arr six times; highcr for malrss than for fentalcs. 7`llc ratio aas approximatcly' -I' in 1921i 2ti; 2.1 for 1927-36; 4.6 for 1937-47 and since 1997 has not varicd apprcciably 1'rotn a factot:i very striking excess of lungcancer death rates of . ~ of 6. " urban comparcd tritb rtu'.al tlwcllcrs. Studicsb,v G~. 3. Two recent intporlitrrt rordicnh rcports by Dcan in South Africa, and Australia, anct by I:astcoit utcdical committccs ono in tl)c L'qittd Kiitpdour by In New $caland have indicated a laiger incidence of ". the koyal College of Phvsiciaue, ancf thcnuhcr in the lung cancc.r amongimmigrants frortt Europe tlcut U.S.A., llic Surn;coo- C;nncrahs Cnmutiucc•. ltave con- among thosce bnfn and rearcd locally. ' . dbtletld frotnm sl;ttistical ctirluuccnhai rig:uettc stuok- 8. Arailablc data sug,r,cst a small drffcc of as- ing is thc main caiusc- of lun,:; cnnrrr. 'PLa chief sociation bcttcccn cigarctlc smoke inltalation and arguntcul IY:us bcen ibc fie;nres shosvinyt ma.rkrdly urinary bladder cancer in the ttntlc, bu[ arc nutt inurnsiug mortalityin sclccird groupsas Ibc aecrage sufPtiacnt to suNporLa causal connection. - 00'"749441•
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.IUtV 2 ~ rj*, i ~~~~ ~ S N 7. tm.'d. f., 6}; 367 ~ ~~ (,,d ". tl 1~ A ~ No~doubt some of the variance is also introduced by thc diagnosticiana, licnedict and' Jaclcs (1951)) a t;ribute thee relatively highincidence' of mania in prinaiticee socictiess to a tend¢ncy' for local psychia- ttiststo usee that label for states of excilement which others would desaibc ass catatoniec or sc}tizoaffeetivc. - . Summary Ttental hocpitalisation ratcs are cov.tparcd for threc racial groups in Fiji. The Fijian rate is about half that of the Indians who in ttiin'tenti to be lower than the "others" category. Sinee 1:941, thc sex .. t'a•so has cltan.-ed from thvo m~alcs per fetnalc to an ' api7"oxintatc.ly cven rcprescntation.. . ]vtcwZealand has both a higher absnluteralc' and~ a Iriglter relative incrcasc than Piji.. Functional psy s choscs account for 77% of patients in Fiji, but only 26~ain New Zcaland. .-' ' . . - It is suqgested that these difl'ercnces are.primarily' roRccting the dcyree of Europeanisation of a group rathcr than iis tendency to generate "disturbcd" individuals. Acknowledgmnnt ' Thr author wishrs., to thank Dr D. F. MacGregor,Mcdiu.l Suprv'iutrudcnt of St Cil¢SS Llospitai, for his co- opcratinn and assistancc. _ References. - 1•. IIencdint, P. K., Jacks, 1., 1954. Mcntal Illntsa in .. . Pritnitivc Socictics. Piydiin(ryt. 17, 371. 2. Bcrnc, E., 1959: Difliosllics of Comparalirc Pvyrhiatry: The Fiji Islands. Antcr.J. PiyclGut., 116, 104- 109. 3. IIunt,. R. C., 1939. Sucib-crdtural Fartors in-Montal Disordcr. Dehn.. Sci ,.4, 96-106. ' 4. Murphy, If. B. M, 1959. Colturu nnd Mental disordrr _ in Singaporc: In M.h. Olulcr (¢d.):' Culture auJ a Mcnln[ Ilcalth. Nrw York: Marmillan. 5. Wittkowcr,. E. D., Frird, J„ L95II. Sontc. Prolllens ii. Transcnlturnl Psyrhiatry. htt: J. Soc. Ptpclsiat., 3, 245-252. Reprinted in hl-A. Uplcr (ed.) 1 , Culturc andMcntab Hraith. Ncw York: Mac- . . millan., .~ .. ~ . Soi-ne r',.spccis of the Relationship of Radioactivity to Lung Cancer By 5IR ERNEST MARSDEN, F:R.S. . ti2;ns of slbivinn down for sonic Groupingf. Thc main less than 1',000 in 1930, iincreased to 18,000 in duaculty in undcrstanding, thc position has been that 1950, 27,000 bt 1'JY3 and to the tatal in 1962 of no i:nol.nproccsses for the initiation of thc lun~ ' 4L000. This cstracordin.vv rise has no0 been eancerouss condition could be definitely traced, a]- renrded for cancer of anc othrr site. N'hile part 8icugh statistical evidence pointed' to an association - of thc risinr' trmirl for lur.g canecr is attributable s+•itil ihe r;rowth of tl;e cibancttc'smokin,.habit. Thus, to imptuvrmcnts in diaGnnsis and the cfianSing d l h ' During the past few years, there has been much'on "Smoi:ing and Hcalth", illustrate the position in 'discussion ofthef world-wide incrcasino mortolityrceard' to thcincrcaso of lun~ cancer' in the U.S.A.,, from Iwr~ cancer. In NewZealand, for instance, a and corrc.spnndin, figures showing sintilar trends 3.6 fold increase per capita over the past 20 yeans for could be qunted from other countries. . males, althm±~h the rate of increase may now show °Annuil lon~ cancer dcaths in thc U 5 A tv ;: et ete are traces of chesutcal carcinogens in tobacco as indeed there are in many other plant . product%,, the amounts revealed; . by chemicall analysis secm insufflicient to account for thee lung cancer hetr,r.s.obsen•ed. . j In the present communication, I desire toput forward evid.:ncc that alpha particle emittin; radio• actire products particnlarly Poloniuut art• present in - many tobaccos in quantities sufficient to suggesb that thcse may .ccll be responsible for most of tht- carrino- ccnic efPect, obscrvod and also that tltn:ae samce kind of radicnctivc products may entcr the lunG in tl.e otcbnasy air incpired in ecrlain tuodern vn.irnnmenls, i-c,, aj0art L"nm Ihc rccnit of cigarcttc stnnkiqi, If this 9tcnrc•y finds trasnnnhlv. I;encral scientific acct•ptancc,. (I:~n Ihc srav iss clear for considcr:lbll antclinr:uiinr if tht htn; cancer problem w.ith ceonomy of tdfort aud iiuonvcnicncc, ~ Thc foflmainJ;'oxtracts fronr thrt•nuchnGntc of the tn.ncil puhlicimd repor[ of thc rc•ct'nt U.S. Ctnnmitll•c• /YF~u7.e op-/a,7.lJ /J7ed.c4.f .--lZ -cvnQl . UoL age compositfnn and sizce of Ole population. the ' etidcncc lcases litttrdcnbt that a true increase in lunq canccr has taken place:' For comparison " Deaths front articoiuvclrrntir. cornnare and de- ' gcnvrativr disrasrc rosc funm 270;000 in 1940; to 400,000 in 1950 and to 5130,000 in 1962." ., "Sincc 1910, trhrn aunual cilarclti• constmrp- tion per pt•r~on (15. eears.and older) was.l-lo, {t ' ros<• in 1,350 in, 1930: 1•31n0 in _1410; 3;;i00 in 1950 and toa a peak of 4,00,0 in 1966. In corr- trast to thi., alctrp inrrrasc im ci~;trrtu• smnk.in~. pci capila ttRr of tnhaccnllt nUhcr fnrnts Ita<,Qonc 00 drncn• t'cr capitn cnncnmptin,n of ci~ar: dvrlincd 0.. from IIJ in 1020 tn 55 in 1962. 4;rnrsumptinnar .1 ,. . pipr tnbarrn. tcliit'hn•achcd'l a. pcak tn( ?!.Ih Itrr taar' ltetzon' in I!i.lll (vynit:dcnt in. sccip;hl In apprnsi- ¢ nl:[lely 1.100 cit:nvllrsl frll to a Ifttlt• mnrr tb:m ~. .1Ib jtcrpcr.nn in 1962. HL'.a• of ch(trin~', tnharra Q,.. :. A has drrlinrd Irot[t IIb Urr pcnntt in I!)(11y lo Slh in 19ii`?. 'Plu' rnu+nmplinn of all tnbnrrn IRt~~dnrts ' lrcr pirsnu agcd Ia rc:ns cmd mrr intltc L'uiitrcl rl-„ Nora" -
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vot. ?u... [icathl.. H~ xa1M at Det at. hlaH. I myah.-o,u nPl dnta... a m„n L.u. working t from ulint quires i.ut,. ,ns.. Ind,.,l1 he ~thon, „n, • >II their os r, andd rhrt,it,i ile timo.y,.t nd tho tmrtd >pers Lu 1°.. 1 of doctrin,,.. purchaw, of .e93r9 to oMn 3ccompnni. .1 ats. All ths, Ifexpres.vion. jo}s of in... 1''hey Innpeducatiw,nl over how toeem to h,ak he chatvcn,r - of growingg d.polonium, . -hen certain . the absencu ~r-esr petrol nhancemont mre varyutSuul regione... jttula of the ung of such ys but'willl presrunahly. ~ation whoa. ate matter,, Ist mat'oriul ,rted in the have been ation, morc an diffnrentt wt. of leaf'. _ros showing. ~w pH such s or grano- oaia, North of a largc 'astu~ a eutd'~ 1 a{ elty.t aet dtfetvity ]a granitos, July 18, 1964 .ntl thitss extends to soils. derived therefrom. Many gnuutae doriv.o most of their activity from thorilun; but: tlr.rr atrm mrm- in which uraniumn predomirmtes as a w,,,rtt,. This question has relevance too thoe proportion. „f m-particle contribution front polonittm, which is onoof Ip,• uranium serios.. In equilibr,um, and in the absence „fkaching effceta, pnlomum wonld contribute one- ,rghth of the tatal a-puticles frorn the uranium series. Tobaeco plants wcre.grown in a grecnhouse at the New r,rah.nd Tobacco Research Station, Motuekn, in.large pots, ,,.ieg lorv-acttvitysoil as controll; but in other pots artifici- aily- cnriched with finely grom,d different rndio.nctive up,nitun ores and also monazite. Orerseus ficld conditions n-garding high radioactivity could besimulatqd, bot.h in mgrtrd to soil and tobacco nctivity, and studies made, for r.,nmplc, of distribution of'activity in loaves att various {kt-ele in the plant so-called lugs, cuttersand tips- Although monazite itself (from Bryon Bay, Queensland) w,w: not readily taken up by the plant, yet in the case of -other ores in which uranium artd thorhun contrihuted, thn uptuke.e of uranium and thorium mcasured by the asurrcnce of 'doublea' (thorium and thorium A) was in m+.ny cases about proportionate;' that is, there was little evidence that mesothorium (Ra 228) was the only tlmritun family parent picked up by the plant. Further observations are in prngress. A reconnnfssance experiment wss made to throw light . ou thee question of the probable contYibution of polonium from natural fall-out.ahvorbed by the surface of the leaves. ' Dricd commercial tobacco leaves were taken and'squivalent parts of the leaf were placed with: (a) the upper surface eg8inst a phosphor; (b) the..lower surfare; while.in some cases the leaf was dried imtil brittle and t.he powdered - tnaterial placed against a third phosphor surface nnd ecintillation connts made. Alltho tobaccos.were Virginia cigarette type. 1'he thickness of the leaf'is several times greater than the range of a-particlos. Typical results aro given in Table 1... . Table ]. n-COrN"/a.rAav.50 cY' ADpox. Caentryoforlgln, IIptxrntdeor IAwereideof peruentagefram la,f~ IBaf tJfnr(umfamily aouthAnlea . 12 . . 5. . !0 New Zealund u . 8 sb 9. RLOdesla 91 ' 95 -60 . a0 VSA SEasterN rs: 15 In general the lower aide appeared to show a slightly higher proportion of thorium,, but numbers aree too smull for statistical significance. It would be interesting to know in which locality the particular South African sample wass grown. ' . -. . . . The.foregoing t.stswrere carried outt on board nhip and weighing facilities were not available to give moisture' content, which would ox7ect a-particle ahsorptiort of the powdered sample, so theactivity of the powdered leaf is not given, but it differed little from the mean, values in. ' Table 1. It ie oonclkded tlmt in spite of l.aesible effect uf surface waxes and small estinu.ted amounts of soil dust on the surfaces of the leaf, there is probably some.amall effect of polonium fall-out; but in the case of higher activity tobaccos it; is only a minor factor compared with activity derived from soil through the roots. . The foregoing figures are not to bc taken as representing averages from the conntries concenned' as there: is a large variation within each country, particularly Southern Rhodesin and Australia. -' ' A large n,unbcrof samples have been measured from tobacco leaf imported from variouss countries into Now Zealand. and rmule availublo by co-operating commercial eoncerne.. but.' ifwe are to attempt to givo.,.diablo repro, sentative figturs. systematic.sampling.rould be necescary, also selection of leaves from various soil types and positions on the plant from .chich the. leavess are taken, also the soil moisturn and clinutte conditions of the particular yeur of crop growth. For example, tho New Zealand figure quoted is mr average from soils derived mainly from 'Soparation Foint",, low potassium granito, butwith nn txlruixturu.of so-cnllod Motuuka g{•aval soil of Now 7oahutd grcywneke origin. Thoe purely gnu,ito soilss over +t larger part of the growing ama gave nn a-activit:y. of G pc./g andtho beu:kground y-radiatlon was 0-0060 mnul/h, while only a mile away over the soils on which tho•+aunple refennd to in Table I wiis grown thee radiation .v,a0010 mrad/h. - The a-activity of soils and tobaccowns formd to show correspondence. Thcro is also a probable influonco of variuty or genetic strain as.in the ease of wheat rcferred to in previous papers, although it is not so evident. whon using Virginia type cigarette tobacco only- Thore is apper"'ntly a preponderance of 'Hicks' varioty.gronn in Southern Rhodc•.sia,, a proportion of 'Burley' in the Llnitcd States andd a typoe called 'Virgini6. Gold' in New Zealand. ' each bred und grown with regard tio yield, quality m,d lotxil diseane resistance. Samples of the three varieties were groxn on thee samo ilfotueka soil in New Zealand, and the specific activities were measured and found to_ show little ~ differencc. .~ Polonium in Motor-car Exhaust It has longbeen.lcnown that' load proceesed. from most of its orescontains considerable lead-210 and consequently polu.utun.. Such lcad~ wass avoided~ for construction of electroscopes, etc:, in the early dayss of radioactive mcasurernentt. It is natural, therefore, to suspect that lead in the anti-knock agent, of petroll lead tetraethyl, might contribute polonium to thr.cmnbustion exhaust gases. Poloniumsalts are volatile, the chloride, for . cxample,at200° C anl,y. A test was made of lead from . lead t.,traethyl solution aa'uscd comnterc.ially, and thcrcm was considerable a-aetivityy when the.material was treated with fumingnitric acid before precipitation to remove org>u.ic components. ln a normal method af procipitntion the polonium remained in the org.u.ie portion and the precipitated lead was at first inactivc by a+partiele moas- urement, but grew in activity in the following mant.hs, showing that polonium was involved-. -- Ttvo sheetsof lead of differing origin, of age possibly 10-1b years, were taken from the workshop and were given a fresh clean machined surface. The a-activity was ineach case approximately 180 particles/100 cm•/h- A similar piec.e. of lead. age known to be.of the order of 1200 years, supplied to me by HarryI•- Dowsettof llowsett- Engimw,rhrg. Co-,, gave an activity of only 44 particles per 100 eme/h. These figures corrospond roughly with the.decay of lead-210 of period 22 years.. -. --By cottrtesy of Shell Co: of New Zenlond, scraping.v waree obtained of the inside.of the exhaust pipe of the C.F-R. engine used for testing loaded fuels. Thuu pipe was an old one taken out of service foru months carlior and had been sunronnded by water-cooling pipes. The scrapings' were measured for a-particles and displayed considerablo activity, corresponding when corrrcted for lead contx,nt, roughly 16 por cent,, to that of thee lead tetraethyl ,u.ed. . - Anotkurr test waa matle of the: serapings from tho inside of the exhaust pipe adjacent to the engine of a nuwmotor- ear. The car had been in nso for one month ouly ta:ing leaded petrol. The e-netivity was pronotmeed m,d has grown roughly 10 par cent in the four weeks which have elapsed since thosarnple was taken, indicating that much of the original polonium may luwa escaped into the air- being more vohatile . tlram t ho lead u•hich wlw more tt•,tdily deposited. To test whether the anti-knock prepurtioer might be due to the initiating action of a-partirlo ptnduced ionizettion or radicals, the Uominion Lnbnratory kindly prepamd samplea of lcadd tetmrthyl from thoe two isunplea of lead referred to alxrady. Tho lead tetracthyl'produeed had good anti4knoc.k properties in both awes, sowna till per cent that of rm.terial svpplied eomu,erciully but with the old lend possibly slightl?,' hvs et&•etive. Ifowevor, . thesee tests nced repeating in a few months' time whon _ Of}"J49437 F"
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232 N A T Ui R E July 18, 1964 Vo,. 203 :pnloninm may have groa-n, bat, they did show thatt lead significant.. The crude male'denths from lung cancer - tetsaetl.yl,, prepared fromold lead or from inactive ore, during tlhe years. 1957-63wem357, 338, 363, 342, 395. such as certain samplcs of galona whichworo also teeted,. 4388 and 401 mspoetibely. Australia has recently used can be uend for octann enhana•ment without giving seme 25 por cont of its large consumption of cigarette -,~ pulonium.to the car exhaust gaans. It.t should be possible tobacco from Rhodesia, phm that from North Queons- to design an exhaust pipe systrm which u'ill condense out land, both high nctivitytobuecos• The Amnn•imn fignmsthe lcud itself shouldthis bn.considereddesirablo for other are higher them Australian although tobacco' activity reasons. The average amotmt used appears to be of the is much the smne, but considerably lownr than those of in many oc ' order of 2-3 g lead per gnllon of potrol. 'Gruat. Britain, nv is the. average activity of its oigarette ~ the order c It may nowbe spocuh,ted generally and briofiy on the tobnccocorrespandungly. Grnat Britl.innowimporrssotne prodomiimr pn,•+siblo significance of inhaled or ingested polonium 30 per eontt of its tobacco from Southo,-.. Rhodesia and ~ thnt theNr - nf•glectingthoetfectsof other more fugitive a-radiating Nyusaland'nnd the activity of its oigamtteblends.was 'and also, t nuclides and also free mdicalw.in the s*noko.condw,sate, as foundL from examination of old cigamtteebaek to 1914, . s greater inc discussed in the paper by Marsden and Cell'us': Iit is to have incmased v.-ith the years and also tho number of +beenreeent apparent that unliko radium and stront5um-90, whieh, cigarett:<e: an.oked per head has increased -uE all countries. • Topsell of accompany calcimn to bone sites, polonium moves Ierore to In studyingcorrelations the dillletOty is(a)' latent period, appear to : .>' the soft tissue, and Osbonnc' has reported qua..tities in the (b)'proportion of activity duo tn polonium. It may well rnsrriagee, _ l.mg and neproductive urgans. The destructive power ofits be that the generally assumed la8ent pnriad, that is, 20 , An exar - a-particles is well illustrated in a photograph following yoars, is too high. "-' - ..of the digr the article by. Radford and Hunt', already rwferned to. Mention may hr, madee of the evidenco derived by G - lendssrpp - A man inhaling the smnke of 25 average 8ri'tishcigamttes. Dean' and D. If- Easto.ott", who fo,md higher lung cancer ~ rndioactiv a day probably deposits on hislungs and' trachea sotnerates among migrants fkon. Britain to New Zealand, - N- H- Tay ' 8'pe./day of polonium. whereas the total dietary intake of South Africa nnd Australia compared with whitee local . whom I radium is only about 2 pc-Jday excluding daughter pro- population,. Tl.is may possibly be explained in part during mz . dnets, and the latter is rnoree subject to excretion or by the higher radioactivity of avorage British cigarettes. }yo.conver . transfer to less hazardous body sitos. In passing, how. The correspondence,s quoted here, however, do not con- in which . over, mention mayv be made of the possibloingestion stitute proof of causation; but they arouse suspicion and dorivatiox of palonium when a certain popular breakfast foodd is are indicative of directions for farther investigations ond incidonce usod.. One sample of such gave nn activityof 1•2 pe./g of for remedial actions.- It is probable that even if polonium , of that c . which possibly 1/12 was polonimn. If 2 oa, of this were is not ahsorbed directly by plant roots from the.soil, since T derived f consuned each day, the crorresponding dietary intake fts compounds tend to have colloidal propertius, yet gEOywae.k -would be 5 pe. Bormerly thee use of suclh notivewhcat lsad-210 is t•rcoly transport.ed. Thus withinn two years of ~ tion is s senting the figures of imports of Southern Rhadesian varies considerably with different origins and possible I N or2a tobacco, we obtain a startling correspondence, with a lag use of older reclaimed lead in processing. Some, probably t I the ?of 10 years in cancer fig,uescorresponding to latent secondary, ores havebecn examined which show little t units of dcvelopment.poriod and delay in mannf,.cture. Howover, activity. :, .. l ~ntly sneh a correspondence may be largelyy fortuitous and Iltis not improbable thatsome lead octano agents may 1 Wrights, diagnosis hasimproved, and possibly one could obtain contain polonium up to -10pe./g. If 3 g pergallon are opened ~ much the same degree of correlation with fgmTsrelatung used this would correspundto. 30 po./gallon. Rouglily Semats: ' to use of certain leaded pntrols,, or even, as a friend converting this to content per litro of exhaust gases and eeremor facetiously pointed ont, of radio licener:-nurnbere, though assuminga rnan operates for S h/day in such exhaust, intcrnal - not over the whole period to 1963- say, 100 . times air diluted, one. may deducee that such a atn<+, sn The death rates of males from lungg cancer for South person inhales of the order of 0.12 pc./day. This is small the IIn Africa. or Now 7.aNand, Australia, United. States and compared with thatt of the average ciganettosmoko atinn a . Great Britain am.very roughly in the ratio of 22 : 30 : 39 :inhaler in Britain butmay bee mom comparable in some } byy rap; o. 60. These show a very general relationship to the other countries, o_a indeed might be inferred from the or cow , amount of polonium aetivity inhaled from cigarettes investigatiorwofPoche r-6 aE,l in Cormany. Tests of two co-oper consumod possibly if vo include a factor ur the United samples of German tobacco leaf gave values 0-4 of the seientu Stat,,s and Grcat Britain for thopossible cffect of lead average used in the United Kingdom-a sample of Russian work c from pr.troh The SonthAfrican tobacco scems to be.low similarly-but considerations ortsu as to particle size and At 4 in ncLivity',.though Lwu aamplns. have bonn tucasunxf- sites of deposition in the two otises.. However, the figmas, '" the Ta As to Sonthem Rhoon1,V desia„ I am infor,ned tha4t the male although an order ofmagnitudogreater thon tmder natural in the lunr cancer deat'h rate is the samo as the figure quoted conditions, are too uncertain for further spoculntion, and Qtalder fnr South Africa and New Zealamd, bnt am uncertain experimental data are required rolatu.g not only to sourerx 0 iu fhc mgardG,g age grouping„ In Now Zualnnd thodeaths of lead components, but also of tho.actual content of the %I t7+orni from lung cancer have followed.ttio gnneral world upward enrexhanst gases under various conditions of car opera-,ji Dow-n trend tultil1056, whon the curve abntptly lovelled off tinn, that is, 'ia$ing'. It would also.be well to investigate(D theH, . significantly for 5 yonrs. This may correslwnd to very the froe radicalspresont and the loworaliphatics which..1 th®e considerably inctnased use of local tobacco, less r+.dieactivo might be the sourco of curcinogens in conditions of(a b ox than imported loaf or manufactwrod cigarott+rs- How. inconrplcte combnstion. ~ ~t'o ever, during 1957-61 considorablo Rhodesian tobacco Eurthcr mention must bo auulee of poseible effects af In i was imported, some 6 per oont of total, and it may bee ingcsti,d polonium from diet. In a previous papor', the teEWs' interostang to note that thomaleltmgcamor incid~encoonse of n group of Niuoans.was discussod andnow f4rther % ork,, in 1962 and 1963 has again shown nn increase, probably biological chromosomal testsarus inn progress, also. an ' ~'0tlc since 1916 and ruving a suitable scalofactor points repre- in this article.. The load-21U in lead orna and compounds - wass nott considered a possibke hazard hr.cause of the gatherk.g,, which isloss ttn..n thee time normally allowed amount of dilution of its radium with thorelatively large for fcr.nentation, maturatiun, manufacture and retailing, emountt of inactivecalciiuu in milk normally conaumed 'polonium will have reached practical equilibriam, that . with it, butwhen we consider polonium the position is, within 3 per centwith such lead-210. It isnot known . could be different. . whether lead is selectively taken up from soil oomparod . '1'o revert to cigarette smoking,. as is well known there with, say,, radinm. This may well be sounder certain has been a striking increase in rates of diagnosed'death aeid soil conditions. Some.enrly results obtained by me '_ from lung cancer duAng t.he past 50 years, that is, some point in this direction`. 40 timea in e.e.rtain agegroups in Croat Britain. If we The possible case against lead anti-knock oompounds, snperimpose on the curve of increase among adult males etc.. needs much znore investigation than that.rooorded t1c_ I9/2 exarntrlation spnciul case including tl j or poloniun 1 p nonntef E 9 F.umheans- ktrge amom
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C ma•r,1965 ,. . Rclnbimrshiji of Rarlionc[iuity Co. Lung Cnnccr-I\Ii,tnnm;N * YEAR.. .. BIGURL .B- in unit volume or rnass, although there wcrc nrodi- Gcations'arising from the cncrgy of }:-rayx of difTrr-.: ing originating potential, or y rays frrnn various. - radioactivc nuulides and differing im wave length or„ . energy. Gamma rays or vcry hand X-ravs can pcut'- .e tratc. lhc whole body, Jj9 particles; areordinr tno sourccc can only lpcnrtr.~tc about lcm nf tissnc, hut the by'' far moro powcrfuV individually iotrizin.G radiations... tha a particlns could an1y penetrate about a fc%rhundncdtlls of a millimetre of tissue, ancl their study° was difficult with bhe mcthnds thrn avniLd6lc. \eve•r- theles., compared with ,6 particles the}• prodltce: an ionizing intrnsitc ncrr a thousanrl fold grcatcr Ipcr' unit lcnguh of ihcir'stqall track', and can evcn causcan ctcllablc holr puncturc of a thim filnt ofi matter such.ax ccllnphnnctlrrnugh which they arc eaused too pass. It isnnt suR1gcccc[l that this lattCr' effect has 'signifcmtcr to.our prc;cni problem, but it is illustra- - tivc of their pown- ancl pdssibilitissin rcgard, for' 9. The Surgeon General''sCommittce. in thc cxample,, to ccll and otlirr nicmhranes: . SA bi f jdh}il ... found noassor au.-mcnt wic Woud , The lt ucslirnn i+ whGthc•r a radiatin radinacti.c ~,i,h benefits versus hazards of stnoking a.+it may. 1>roducts can bc in sulTioii•nt cenccntt: tion. at sitcs, >ply t , o " thc sc - neral population. in thce bodv as to hc statistic:dlt• c•IPcctiec intuutour :, - .. . .. .. . .. . .. initiation. . . .. . It is ~.•cll cstablishcd that ionisinv radiatimr frnnl •Tlt,, r,uit of nu ~runrincnt of small amnunk nf j dioactive substances can producepronounced ef- zts on impact with living cells and apart f'rout lethal iects of massi.'e dosex and delayed clinical eancerouc owths in individuals,, they can produce non-lethall ann;nsome hren/ingcs and translocatinns an& also 'int or genc mtnations in thc cclli nudci. Thasub- 't ik a ccry ccnnplcx onn,, huC with thc iapid dc•rrlnp• 'u6 nf lcchniqncs an uncfcrstnndiitg of thr rcaction ;rowin- fast. `Ihe author clues not lyrofc.; to hr de adcquatcly to discuss the rclation of chronto- :r,r ^ene dama~cto the subsequcnt grotrtllnf a nuC.VhicLrccorditn• tir. 1'rofcssat' 1y. \1.. Sqtitltrn.< .t word loo<elyapplied to rnvcr a wide rangr nf thr '.rr con.cqqcures of'thv disarGanisatiou ot nurm:A (,u'th pmacs>cs: It in mrrrlv' prrsumrd that umw nscs of d;ntuiGc to rclls tln I+rodhcc snch oli>oig.m• :tinn. :md lh:rt coutinucd: alPh,t radial