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Anne Landman's Collection

A Study of Ethnic Markets.

Date: Sep 1969
Length: 240 pages
501989230-501989469
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Abstract

This R.J. Reynolds marketing document shows how cigarette marketers viewed U.S. ethnic markets in the 1960's. While today cigarette companies are often cagey about admitting they target certain ethnic groups for their products, this document states right up front that "Since 1965, R. J. Reynolds has spent $5,260,000 tailoring advertising to the Negro, Spanish-Language, and Jewish special markets."

The document gives demographic information about the "Negroes, Spanish-Language and Jewish markets" in the U.S. and then makes general assumptions about these markets. In profiling the African-American market, for example, the document contains the following descriptions and conclusions:

"In the typical sociological diagram of American power and prestige, the Negro woman is at the bottom of the heap. Above her is the black male, then the white female, and, at the top, stands the white male. The majority of Negro women are still imitating the styles and attitudes of white women who are considered more sexy and attractive. The white image is deep inside them, planted there by a lifetime of exposure to white standards of beauty as reflected in the media. Now a movement is underway to elevate the Negro woman, to reshape her vision of herself from broad-beamed kitchen laborer and head-of-household to svelte femininity, to make her a target of male desire and to give her a separate identity that is black, warm, and cherishable. Although her role is beginning to change rapidly, today it is the Negro male who dominates the movement, venturing along new paths, and presenting an image of defiance and resolution."

[From page 62, Bates No.5019809291]:

Negro masses are only at a point in time where economic security is a possibility. They have only begun to feel the freedom of economic security. Quality rates as a cherished attribute. Negroes buy the best Scotch as long as the money lasts, most marketers agree.

[From page 64, Bates No. 501989293]:

The strategy for advertising the Negroes through their media is to create "Negro upscale situations" and to make these consumers feel that the advertising is directed to them. Negro principles should be used against the background of identifiable settings and situations in which they might find themselves. When considering settin showing an integrated football team at work). Effectiveness depends upon the degree of Negro realism captured in the situations in which the Negroes are principals. Negroes are primarily urban dwellers, and as such, settings and situations used should reflect this. Examples of urban situations that could be used are:

• A scene outside a telephone booth on a busy street;

• A night out at a cocktail lounge;

• Driving an automobile in a traffic snarl;

• Just missing a bus; and

• Leaving a motion picture theater.

Fields

Quotes

[Preface]:

Since 1965, R.J. Reynolds has spent $5,260,000 tailoring advertising to the Negro, Spanish-Language and Jewish special markets...

[501989259]:

Outdoor advertising is considered an effective medium in the Negro community. It allows for showings keyed to concentrated Negro population centers tailored for desired markets. Generally, transit is not considered an effective Negro-oriented media as seldom do routes have confinement within Negro communities. However, like outdoor billboards, subway station billboards in Negro areas can be very effective.

[501989263]:

Negro radio, of all media directed towards this segment of the population is undoubtedly the best, and most efficient means of reaching the Negro. This medium is universally available with several hundred stations throughout the country programming all or a portion of their broadcast day for the Negro...

In the typical Sociological diagram of American power and prestige, the Negro woman is at the bottom of the heap. Above her is the black male, then the white female, and, at the top, stands the white male. The majority of Negro women are still imitating the styles and attitudes of white women who are considered more sexy and attractive. The white image is deep inside them, planted there by a lifetime of exposure to white standards of beauty as reflected in the media. Now a movement is underway to elevate the Negro woman, to reshape her vision of herself from broad-beamed kitchen laborer and head-of-household to svelte femininity, to make her a target of male desire and to give her a separate identity that'is black, warm, and cherishable. Although her role is beginning to change rapidily, today it is the Negro male who dominates the movement, venturing along new paths, and presenting an image of defiance and resolution.

[Page 62, Bates No.5019809291]:

Negro masses are only at a point in time where economic security is a possibility. They have only begun to feel the freedom of economic security. Quality rates as a cherished attribute. Negroes buy the best Scotch as long as the money lasts, most marketers agree.

[Page 64, Bates No. 501989293]:

But perhaps one of the most important decisive motivatons of the Negro consumer is best reflected in the results of a regional study about beer among white, Negro and Puerto Rican consumers. Reaction to product benefits (lightness, body, color, etc.) were about the same. Difference occurred, however, when personal versus social motivations were considered. Negroes placed very little emphasis on the social interaction associated with drinking although Puerto Ricans placed much emphasis on it. On the other hand, Negroes placed great emphasis on the personal satisfaction of drinking beer and Puerto Ricans did not. Obviously the point here is that the personal satisfaction derived from a product is perhaps one decisive motivation of Negroes and any attempt to sell them had better take this into primary consideration.

The strategy for advertising the Negroes through their media is to create "Negro upscale situations" and to make these consumers feel that the advertising is dir- ected to them. Negro principles should be used against the background of identifiable settings and situations in which they might find themselves. When considering settings, the "outdoors" (hunting, skiing, sailing) is not felt to be suitable, as these are stiil considered unfamiliar to the Negro in general, and .part of the luxu- ries afforded only whites. However, there are settings which could be universal to both white and black consumers (i.e., Pepsi's commercial showing an integrated football team at work). Effectiveness depends upon the degree of Negro realism captured in the situations in which the Negroes are principals. Negroes are primarily urban dwellers, and as such, settings and situations used should reflect this. Examples of urban situations that could be used are:

• A scene outside a telephone booth on a busy street;

• A night out at a cocktail lounge;

• Driving an automobile in a traffic snarl;

• Just missing a bus; and

• Leaving a motion picture theater.

...Any good strategy will create the music for the campaign theme in the sound of rhythm and blues, which is the pri- mary ,format of Negro-oriented radio stations. The beat, the tempo, and the "feeling" of the "Soul" music is almost instinctively identifiable to the Negro ear which is accustomed to this sound...Disc jockeys, who for the most part consider themselves entertainers, often are the best for the delivery of commercials, provided they do not have a "screaming" delivery often associated with Negro announcers...

Company
R.J. Reynolds
Author
Holland, Gehrmann
Recipient
Presumed recipient, R.J. Reynolds
Region
United States
Litigation
Minnesota Selected
Operation/Project
Ethnic marketing
Type
MARKETING RESEARCH
REPORT
Named Person
Reynolds, R.J.
American
BAT
B&W
Liggett
Loews
Lorillard
Philip Morris Inc
RJR
William Esty
Parke Gibson & Assoc
Joesph Jacobs
Cencus Bureau
Fortune
Opinion Research
Black, J.
Harvard Business Review
Proctor & Gamble
Evans, W.L.
Center For Research in Marketing
Crest
Colgate
Commerce Dept
Amsterdam News
Afro American
Pittsburgh Courier
Ebony
Jet
Tan
Sepia
Life
Wook
Tuesday
List of Negro Publications
Business Week
Natl Housing Producers Assn
Greyhound
Basie, C.
WAOK
WERD
WIGO
Atlanta Daily World
New Crusader
Atlanta Inquirer
WENN
WJLD
Birmingham World
Birmingham Times
Birmingham Mirror
True Story
List of Chicago Negro Comm Media
True Confession
Southern Christian Leadership Confe
WCIA
Stokes, C.B.
Call & Post
Cincinnati Herald
WABQ
WJMO
KNOK
Post Tribune
Dallas Express
Fort Worth Mind
In Sepia Dallas
List of Detroit Negroes Media
KCOH
KYOK
Houston Informer
Forward Times
KPRS
Kansas City Call
KGFI
Stokes, L.
Los Angeles Sentinel
Wdia
Memphis World
Milwaukee Courier
Milwaukee Star
La Weekly
Wnjr
Katz
Nj Afro American
List of NY Blacks Media
WRA
WHTH
Norfolk Journal & Guide
Philadelphia Tribune
Philadelphia Afro American
Richmond Afro American
List of St Louis Blacks Media
List of References
Clay, W.
List of Ca Metro Blacks Media
List of Washington, D.C. Negro Media
UCLA, University of Calif. Los Angeles
Mexican American Study
Ted Bates
Needham Harper & Steers
Pepsi Cola
Coca Cola
Shaeffer
Kraft
Dancer Fitzgerald
Compton Grey Young & Rubicam
Louis, D. Albertini
Colgate Palmoltive
Caballero, E.
Petgen, A.
Medmark
Ny Times
Novella
Temas
Pimenta
Sullivan, E.
Velilla, M.
Persuasian Research
Ny Daily News
Ny Subways Advertising
Bacardi
Canada Dry
El Pico Coffee
Campbells Soup
Benton & Bowles
El Diario, L.A. Prensa
Vanidades
Tv Guide
Lis of Spanish Radio Markets
List of Spanish Publications
Gillette
Pulse Study
List of Jewish Publications
Fitzhugh, H.N.
General Longshore Workers Union
Richmond Chamber of Commerce
True Confessions
Consolidated Bank & Trust
King, M.L.
Small Business Administration
Carmichael, S.
Johnson Publishing
First Research
List, O.F. Major Negro Radio Markets
NYC Board of Education
Quaker Oats
Pulse
ABC
Best Foods Hellmans
Pan Am
Pimienta
List of Spanish Television Markets
List of NY Spanish Movie Theatres
Hadassah
Bnai Brith
Subject
Target/ethnic (targeting ethnic markets)
Target/Low-Income (Target Groups)
target market
Ethnic marketing

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nor since--to my knowledge--of any relationship between the use of Negroes in TV ads and sales stimulation. What the hell does integrated advertising have to do with motivation of sales? No one knows. And there is no evidence that there is any basic increase because of it". C. Influencing (Execution Development) To advertise most effectively to this market the key con- sideration is to determine the decisive versus the non- decisive motivations of this segment of the market. It generally is not as effective to aim at the Negro consumer as such, as it is to aim at his decisive motivations. The question, then, becomes what are his decisive moti- vations. Newly-acquired pride and self-confidence are changing his buying habits. Advertising must be structured to appeal to this pride, keeping in mind that this is a segment of the population which is only beginning to emerge out of economic doldrums. General media messages are aimed at the white masses who have "arrived" at a comfortable economic level. Negro masses, are only at a point in time when economic security is a possibility. They have only begun to feel the freedom of economic security. Quality rates as a cherished attribute. Negroes buy the best Scotch as long as the money lasts, marketers agree. most 9
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There are changing moods -in the Negro national community. In both fashion and outlook, there is no single Negro market and, as has been discussed, there are attitude differences between age and economic groups. One of the most significant changes evolves around the word "black". Blackness is more of a feeling than color description; and it is especially felt in major urban markets today and particularly among the younger Negro. The desire for blackness, or soul, as part of solving their iden- tity crisis is something that must be understood. A sense of identity is being accentuated because today, as never before, Negroes are taking pride in themselves. Another.motivatiQn is the emerging images of the dominant male and the romantically desirable female. As has been pointed out, Negro society has essentially been a matri- archial one with the woman of the house making most of the decisions. However, with more career opportunities available to the male than ever before, plus his increased education level, his role is changing and supplanting that of the dominating female; she is beginning to find her standards of Negro feminine beauty and has begun to strive to attain them. But perhaps one of the most important decisive motivations of the Negro'consumer is best reflected in the results of a regional study about beer among white, Negro, and 10
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CY Puerto Rican consumers. -Reaction to product benefits Differences occurred, however, when personal versus social motivations were considered. Negroes placed very little emphasis on the social interaction associated with drink- ing although Puerto Ricans placed much emphasis on it. On the other hand, Negroes placed great emphasis on the (lightness, body, color,'etc.) were about the same. personal satisfaction of drinking beer and Ruerto Ricans did not. Obviously, the point here is that personal satisfaction derived from a product is perhaps one decisive motivation of Negroes and any attempt to sell them had better take this into primary consideration. The strategy for advertising to Negroes through their media is to create "Negro upscale situations" and to make these consumers feel that the advertising is dir- ected to them. Negro principles should be used against the background of identifiable settings and situations in which they might find themselves. When considering settings, the "outdoors" (hunting, skiing, sailing) is not felt to be suitable, as these are still considered unfamiliar to the Negro in general, and•part of the luxu- ries afforded only whites. However, there are settings which could be universal to both white and black consumers (i.e., Pepsi's commercial showing an integrated football 11
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team at work). Effectivpness depends upon the degree of Negro realism captured in the situations in which • the Negroes are principals. Negroes are primarily urban dwellers, and as such, settings and situations used should reflect this. Examples of urban situations that could be used are: •A scene outside a telephone booth on a busy street; •A night out at a cocktail lounge; •Driving an automobile in a traffic snarl; •Just missing a bus; and •Leaving a motion picture theater. There should be no hard and fast rules for hair styles and mode of dress. Rather, each execution should be viewed individually to aetermine which would be most appropriate; whether models should have "bush", "Afro", or "straight" hair styles (each of these.are distinctively different); and whether the models should wear the latest Negro fashion (currently a dashiki), the latest Mod fashions or some other style.. The deciding factor in fashion considera- tions should be "good taste". Copy strategy should not necessarily be different from that developed for general media. This is particularly true as long as the benefits of the product the copy alludes to have universal appeal (taste, satisfaction, flavor, etc.). A change in copy is not recommended to CO 12
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s~w `%J include slang or "in" expressions unless there is suffi- cient reason, based on the particular situation developed.. There are different levels of "in" expressions which ofttimes can have a rapid change in usage, and such expres- sions could be misread as "patronizing" or have other negative influences. Rather than using "in" words or phrases commonly felt peculiar to the Negro, it is more important to correctly and tastefully execute the Negro's identification in the setting. The audio execution should provide the music and talent reflective of the media used. There are different "sounds" heard in radio today--rock and roll, semi-classical, top 40, good music, country and western, the British sound and mixtures of these. Importantly, there is the sound of the Negro's rhythm and blues, gospel, and the "Motown" sounds and mixtures of these. Interestingly enough, the rhythm and blues of Negro artists have been under- taken by white artists, and while some of this is very good, music in this "distilled" form rarely is heard on Negro-oriented radio stations. Any good strategy will create the music for the campaign theme in the sound of rhythm and blues, which is the pri- mary,format of Negro-oriented radio stations. The beat, the tempo, and the "feeling" of the "Soul" music is almost instinctively identifiable to the Negro ear which is 13
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accustomed to this sound, To use radio commercials and music that does not reflect this has to be less effec- tive than the blending of campaign theme music with the "black sound". However, there can be exceptions to commercials only hav- ing the "black sound". For example, the mystique of the Count Basie sound is universally motivating. Paul Moriat's "Love is Blue", another example, had a good play on Negro stations. Most important to advertisers was the result of the "EMBRA" commercial when played for ten Negro-pro- grammed radio stations in five major Negro markets, to determine how it might be accepted by the audiences. Air personalities and station personnel, including men and women, at each station listened to the commercial and overwhelmingly approved it. While some felt it was a good change of pace, others pointed out that the music to them reflected "Negro upscale", "class", and romance. They concluded that the EMBRA mood is universally appeal- ing. Disc jockeys, who for the most part consider themselves entertainers, often are the best for the delivery of commercials, provided they do not have a"screaming" delivery often associated with Negro announcers. Many ` companies provide copy to be read live; others provide 0 only an outline and allow the announcer to use his own -+ m 14 ~ a
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ability to communicate t~ie sales message. Both of these have proven to be successful. 15
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EXHIBIT I R. J. Reynolds i~_ NEGRO MARKET STUDY to Guidelines for Negro-Oriented Advertising A. Select models with extreme care. Skin tones and facial features must be given careful consideration. B. Models must be immediately identifiable. C. Individuals need not be chosen for their beauty alone. More important, they must be good representatives of the community. D. When preparing group advertising, avoid look-alike models. E. Circumstances, situations and photographic backgrounds must be created with realism andy believability to the Negro. F. Backgrounds, situations, and models must create a sense of pride and dignity, especially of the male image. G. Costuming should be reflective of the consumer whom you are trying to influence. H. Slang expressions and phrases, popular in the market, are not recorrimended but may be used with discretion. I. Relate product message with minimum copy that is easy to read and is in understandable terms. J. Consider image-building in preparing print advertising. K. Use language that is realistic to Negroes. Avoid expres- sions sions such as pale, lily-white, light and bright, etc. L. Once a Negro'campaign has been established, consider using one advertisement that reflects equal employment (A)
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EXHIBIT I (Cont.) opportunities. M. Scheduling radio commercials at key times is of prime k'- importance. N. When possible radio advertising copy should be kept to • a minimum, allowing the local broadcast personality to sell the product, in his own way. 0. When selecting music or jingles, avoid stereo-type quality. Select the "sound" that is reflective of the market. %O N ~O
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EXHIBIT II R. J. -Reynolds k- NEGRO MARKET STUDY Guidelines for Integrated Advertising A. Advertising must portray Negroes and identifiable members of other minority groups in a realistic manner. B. Models should be selected with extreme care, especially when choosing for television commercials. Facial features and skin coloring should be of primary concern. Extremes of either "too light" or "too dark" should be avoided. C. Unless it is a "public service" television commercial, it should be kept in mind that the primary audience is the majority population--white. D. Avoid showing Negroes and other minority group members in stereo-type settings. E. Avoid suggestion of "interracial couples" and social settings that would not be accurate portrayals. F. Avoid physical contact across male/female lines between majority and minority group members, unless in realistic setting (i.e., hand shake, crowded elevator, etc.) d 0 0 ~ ~ ao ~ 0 (B) o

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