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Archetype Project Summary

Date: Jul 1991 (est.)
Length: 14 pages
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Abstract

This 1991 report is the "missing link" in understanding why Philip Morris felt so secure in making the 180-degree turn from coveting the youth market to declaring, through expensive and ubiquitous multi-media campaigns, that it wants to cigarettes away from kids. It also explains why the other tobacco companies felt comfortable in doing the same about-face.

This report was the result of a 1991 PM project PM called the Archetype Project. The Archetype Project was an effort to discover the emotional logic smokers attach to smoking, and to find ways to exploit that to promote smoking.

Fields

Company
Philip Morris
Named Person
Feinhandler, Sherwin J. Ph.D. (Behavioral/Social consultant to tobacco industry)
Assisted PM by describing the social benefits of smoking. Work was seminal in
Kroc, R.
Maisonneuve
Mausner
Muller
Nucci
Platt
Robb
Robbins
Sarbin
Stepney
Varenne
Vontroschke
Weir
Wetterer
Xxgreg
Named Organization
Mcdonalds
Litigation
Stmn/Produced
Type
REPT, REPORT, OTHER
Subject
youth
youth
youth access
youth initiation
Youth Smoking Prevention Programs (Industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs)
Designed to stave off further legislated marketing restrictions

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ARCHETYPE PROJECT SUMMARY JULY, 1991
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PREFACE In order to acknowledge these functions and to set the stage for the Archetype discussion, an excerpt from his chapter "The Social Role Of Smoking" is given below: "There seems to be great agreement on the meanings underlying /~.. an er. Fein ~ of segmenting time and events and otherwise imposing order j on situations. ,)/ in nature. The ordering functions relate to customary ideas ~ j Personal functions include the management or enhancement of i negative and positive affect, the presentation of self and ! the preparation of self for possibly stressful situations. Social functions include the definition of social space by mediating and maintaining boundaries, the building of social cohesiveness by defining groups and sharing and exchanging within groups. Ordering functions deal with marking events, ~ focusing attention, measuring time, marking time out, and ~ filling time. i4 During the numerous lengthy discussions of smoking and its role in American culture, various functions of smoking were elucidated. Unbeknownst to us at the time, many of these same functions had been highlighted by a sociologist named Sherwin J. ' h dl smoking for smokers and non-smokers alike. Smoking in this society is informal, sociable, and a marker of time and space. Even the most virulent anti-smoker 'understands' the meaning of smoking regardless of his or her attitude toward it." "Through observational studies of smoking we have been able to categorize smoking behavior as having personal, social, and ordering functions. The personal uses are related to the notion of habit in that an individual learns to accomplish certain ends and repeats behavior for that purpose. The social functions are primarily interpersonal ! Personal Functions ! VQ hN+ jPresentation of Self. Individuals may use tobacco with its ~ ;related paraphernalia and smoking styles to express a ~ ;specific self-image. w sPositive Affect Enhancement. Smokers often smoke to enhance ~ ;positive'emotional states such as relaxation, gratification and stimulation. ~ 17CyQb1VC !l11C~i{. 1'iQ114yC1RC116.. .71UVJL1.lly G1161 11..:J Gt.l.C11%AQ111. f 1 \p7~(~~,,,' b f t d t h ehavior can unc ion to re uce nega ive ee ings suc as ~ fear, anxiety, stress, or anger.. . ~
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Social Functions Boundary Mediation. The circles of personal space or group space are formidable social barriers. No one steps up to a stranger or a group and begins a conversation without some sort of ice-breaker, an event or object external to the (1participants. LA smoker has a ready-made ticket into a-- circle of other smokers.) Smoking can aid in breaking down --^~ the social barrier around a group of people. Group Definition. Smoking as a common activity tends to reinforce and affirm the relationship among members of.a group and aids in defining the participants as a group. Exchange. The offering or accepting of a cigarette or light serves to cement and bond social relationships. Social relationships are most often established by performing acts or giving objects of minor, but appreciated value. To accept an object or a service rendered is to incur an obligation or a debt, which when repaid, establishes a pattern of exchange. Boundary Maintenance. People tend to evaluate their personal association with others according to whether the others are on the inside or outside of various social boundaries. Rituals of hospitality are essentially mechanisms for transforming a stranger into a friend, or temporarily making a member of a rival group into a member of one's own group. Tobacco has served to exclude people from, or to distinguish, groups--to maintain boundaries. Interactional Transition. When wishing to change the topic of conversation or proceed to another mode of communication, a Kikuyu speaker may say 'Let us now take a pinch of snuff.' Smoking behavior is often used to facilitate or mark a shift in the primary interpersonal activity. Ordering Functions ~ C Pacing. Smokers often use the amount of time it takes to smoke a cigarette to measure the duration of such external ~ events as, for example, co-occurring activities. ~' Focusing Attention. Smoking can add structure to tasks. Tt ~ has been noted that smoking is an aid to concentration ~ W Time Filling. To occupy oneself before the start of an W event over which one has no control, one may smoke a cigarette. ~ Time Out. Time out is a break or relaxation period from other activities. Smokers'may commence these other ~~ activities at leisure, with the act of smoking to mark time ~ out. Because smokers can almost always carry their cigarettes with them, they have a portable symbol of this 'break time.' They can mark a situation as their own by lighting up. Event Marking. Smoking often occurs before or after an event, acting to mark a beginning or ending. Smoking thus serves to frame the events and reflect the human propensity to categorize and organize events so that they are both bounded and sensible.
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ARCHETYPE PROJECT SUMMARY An archetype is a mental highway (neuronal pathway) which has been imprinted at an early age and is used each time we perform an action. The first imprinting of smoking is that adults do it, and I'm e e. In particular, adults do it when they're socializing (especially in the kitchen), having fun, or relaxing. (See Appendix A for examples) The second step is a type of initiation/rite of passage and may occur before or during adolescence. Typically two or more friends steal cigarettes from a parent and sneak away to a private place to smoke. More often than not they either get sick or punished (or both) as a result. (See Appendix B for examples) Important elements at this stage include: - an adult activity - a behavior which is morally ambiguous/an "adult secret" engaging in the activity as part of group a group/to a product which is hard to get your hands on risk of getting caught/punished belong to the getting "sick" There are numerous references to this aspect of smoking in the literature. Here is one particularly illustrative excerpt: "Law and the mores deny high school students the right to enjoy the pleasures derived from tobacco, gambling and alcohol. However, the mystery with which adults surround these areas of behavior lends them a special value which seems to act as a stimulus to many young people who desire to experience the supposed thrill of pleasures their elders deny them. Transgressing the restrictions imposed by law and taboo is a source of excitement, both individually and within the clique of the initiated. This kind of excitement, of course, does not appeal to all adolescents". (Stepney, p.328) As an adult, smoking reactivates this mental highway. Unconsciously it reactivates the strong emotion related to the initiation into adulthood. Does it do this each time we smoke? Yes, the same mental highways are used, but not all of the emotion is experienced. Other research confirms only occasional cigarettes are perceived by smokers as particularly rewarding (Stepney, p.340). We hypothesize that cigarettes smoked in situations containing elements from imprinting and/or initiation would be more likely to fully reactivate the mental highway (see Appendix C for examples) -7
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THE AMERICAN ARCHETYPE OF SMOKING Smoking is a social ritual which enables us to express and reaffirm our self image. When we smoke, we reactivate the initiation into adulthood which acknowledged our individual- ism and bound us to our peer group. Several concepts need to be discussed more fully before all of the implications of the Archetype are apparent: The American Culture American culture is a young culture which emphasizes improvement, achievement, freedom, self-actualization, second chances, impossible dreams, etc. Inextricably bound to these ideas is the notion of constantj growth, never being satisfied. In a sense, Americans are striving to succeed, regardless of how much success they have already achieved. Ray Kroc, the founder of McDonalds put it this way, "When you're green you grow; when you ripen, you rot" (Robbins, p.382). Ritua Many authors have acknowledged the ritualistic aspects of smoking: "rites always designate specific behaviors related to precise situations and rules, marked by repetition, whose role is not obvious" (Maisonneuve, p. 5) "The learning and perfecting of ritual acts may also serve to neutralize arousal and reduce strain during the process of conversion. Ritual activity may be required in the performance of new roles". (Sarbin and Nucci, p. 187) "By repeatedly performing a ritualized act, the smoker can structure his world and make it more familiar. (Feinhandler, p. 137) "There is no question that a great deal of smoking, although far from all, is part of a complex social ritual". (Mausner, p.117) "Smoking (is) a ritual to demonstrate solidarity with others of the same age who due to apparent repression by their elders attempt to distance themselves from adults". (Muller in Wetterer and von Troschke, p.38) We believe conceptualizing smoking as a social ritual is appropriate because: Rituals involve taboos• Smoking is part of a rite of passage Rituals are noted for their ability to reduce anxiety Rituals often reinforce social bonds Ritualistic elements can have strong sacred/symbolic significance
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Self Imag~ --Smokingqt'Srole in defining self image has been well documented. "There seems to be some evidence that the use of cigarettes is a form of expressive behavior which functions for many smokers as a part of the definition of self-concept". (Mausner, p.117) "The importance of smoking in defining self-images is also great. The majority of adult smokers think that a photograph of themselves without a cigarette would not show 'the real me', whilst a picture of them with a cigarette would". (Stepney, p.329) "It can therefore be assumed that smoking functions as a means whereby young people can identify themselves with these characteristics (maturity, strength, wisdom and attractiveness). In short, it helps them to identify and demonstrate their ideal 'self image "'. (Wetterer and von Troschke, p.68) Mausner and Platt (p. 12) describe a study conducted by Weir in which male models photographed with a cigarette were more often described as adventurous, rugged, daring, energetic and individualistic than the same models without a cigarette. Initiation Into Adulthood Robb has described smoking as one of several behaviors that are "anticipatory rites of passage". "Unlike fully established rites of passage these behaviors would seem to be directed not towards superordinate groups ,but to peers or to even more subordinate groups". "The anticipatory celebration of maturity, I suggest, represents a kind of attempted seizing of status in advance, a claimed achievement, not the acceptance of something bestowed..."(Robb, p.622)
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Individualism/Conformity Central to American culture is the dichotomy between individualism and conformity. According to Varenne (p. 57-59), "The polarity between individualism and conformity gives Americans a double message: 1. Be independent: achieve, be unique! 2. Be well integrated: conform! Because these two dicta are fused in American ideology, they are able to coexist with equal moral weight." "In the United States, having chosen to purchase the same item creates an immediate affinity among Americans if they meet." .' ."personal recommendation and word of mouth are the best sales techniques of all." "All this shows that in the United States, through exercise of original choice, people not only demonstrate their uniqueness, they also recognize and actualize their integration with others. They do this by making, acknowledging, and perpetuating social ties based solely on the affinity that arises through making the same choices."
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Recommendations Based On The Archetype: o Insist that smoking is for adults only / o Make it difficult for minors to obtain cigarettes -'/ o Continue to have smoking perceived as a legitimate) albeit morally ambiguous, adult activity o Insist that smoking is dangerous - Smoking is for people who like to take risks, who are not afraid of taboos, who take life as an adventure to prove themselves c o Emphasize the rituali EE7e-lements of smoking, particularly fire and smoke o Emphasize the individualism/conformity dichotomy - Stress the popularity of a brand, that-choosing it will reinforce your identity and your integration into the group. o Because of The American Culture, rest or reward should always be in anticipation of the next action, not a final reward o American identity should be the c ... growing, searchina. strivin \cr
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Ap,pendix A* Father rarely smoked, and often was irritable temperament and upset, but I remember an early time when he and his father-in-law were smoking together, very amicably and continued after a nice meal (usually they didn't get along well). The mixed aroma of pipe tobacco and cigarette were very pleasant and today I still like such aromas. I remember my Dad and his Pall Mall straights. I remember him looking young and tan with that cigarette always in his mouth. I picture him in white tee-shirt, dark tan and cigarette mowing the lawn and playing cards. I was 3 years old. My grandfather was gutting and cleaning a deer, lit a cigarette. I asked what it was, he told me and gave me one; it made me sick. I guess it was his way of teaching me a lesson. I remember being in the lunch room sitting on the floor. I was probably five. There were several adults in the room, maybe five mostly male. They were talking and watching TV, possibly sports. At least several of them were smoking. The smoking seemed to be, at least to a five year old, what was really the most important event in the room. Several times after that I remember copying their behavior, using crayons (crayolas) as my cigarettes. I don't really remember my first experience with smoking. My parents have always smoked. I guess what I remember most is my father who every morning, would go to the kitchen table, get a cup of coffee and light a cigarette. He always smiled and was very happy on most mornings. I don't ever remember him being in a bad mood. I remember my father in his orange chair relaxing talking to me and smoking. I would only change myself to be sitting on his lap while we talked. I was about 3-4 years old in the evening. My father and I were in the living room. He was seated at the end of the couch, • ashtray (glass) on the end table. There was a white china lamp on the table. I believe we were watching television. My father would puff on his cigarette and take the pack, slide the cellophane back on the pack, not all the way, then he took a lit cigarette, burned a small round hole in the cellophane. He then i~ would hold the pack up and blow smoke into the cellophane chamber O and tap the bottom to make the pack puff. This would blow smoke ~ rings in the air. I thought that was neat and got a big kick out ~ of it. ~ * Participants were asked to describe their first experience ~ ~ with smokin If the wanted to change an thin about the g. y y g experience, the were asked to note that also. ~ F,,,,
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Appendix A (Continued) I was about 4 or 5, my mom was in the kitchen cooking. I saw her smiling - it seemed to be like a friend she had with her. Her ash tray lighter and cigarette all together very neat. At my grandmother and grandfather's house in Brooklyn, NY. My paternal grandfather was visiting them and I was there. We were all sitting at a metal kitchen table in the center of the kitchen. My grandpas were talking over a shot of whiskey and a loaf of rye bread. My paternal grandfather was smoking Pall Mall cigarettes. I remember from the red pack. His fingertips were stained from the nicotine. I remember him laughing and teasing me a little to take a little whiskey and bread. I think I was about seven years old.

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