This paper from the Lorillard Tobacco Company explores the reasons why women are a good target market for cigarettes. Specific reasons include the fact that more women are starting to smoke, fewer are able to quit smoking and women are increasing the amount that they smoke per capita:
"...The growing importance of the female smoker is due to several factors including fewer females quitting, more females beginning to smoke, and female smokers increasing their daily cigarette volume....According to a recent HEW study, only 13% of adult women have given up smoking compared with 33% of adult males. Even assuming somewhat exaggerated figures, it is obvious that men are more likely to discontinue cigarette smoking."
Lorillard also thought that girls were an important target market because young girls were starting to take up smoking at a faster rate than young boys:
"And though one million adults are quitting smoking annually, teenagers are beginning to smoke in increasing numbers, with girls accounting for a growing proportion of teenage smokers. In the last four years, smoking among the 12 to 18 year age group increased from 14.7% to 15.7% among boys and from 8.4% to 13.3% among girls."
Here Lorillard ponders why fewer women quit than men: Their first hypotheses:
"One is the greater concern women have that if they stop smoking they will gain weight. This fear undoubtedly prevents many women from desiring to stop smoking."
This next hypothesis carries with it an implicit acknowledgement that cigarettes do, in fact, cause disease (and this was 1973):
"In addition, the first studies relating to smoking and health used male subjects. Because women were not shown evidence that smoking was equally deleterious to their own health, there was less reason for them to quit. However, recent studies have shown that as women's smoking habits become more like men's, women smokers become more prone to the same illnesses as male smokers."
Lorillard's assessment of the advertising copy for Eve cigarettes is also interesting. Eve was a cigarette with flowers printed on the paper around the tip, and was advertised typically with "cigarette packs frequently held in a brightly nail-polished hand against a background of flower/plants or in traditional feminine hobby situations..."
"This traditional and very feminine approach...is directed to the woman whose life revolves around her role as a women, being pretty, soft, and feminine and gaining fulfillment from acceptably female hobbies. Even the promotion offered, a horoscope, exemplifies women's passivity and lack of control over her own future."
Target/Women (Target Groups)
A cigarette positioned for the working woman, to relax and steady her nerves when the tension is mounting by serving as a socially acceptable tranquilizer deserves investigation. Unlike Eve, her cigarette will not symbolize passive femininity; unlike Virginia Slims, her cigarette will not be an overt demand for equality. She is liberated in her lifestyle and her cigarette is part of that lifestyle."
...The growing importance of the female smoker is due to several factors including fewer females quitting, more females beginning to smoke, and female smokers increasing their daily cigarette volume.
According to a recent HEW study, only 13% of adult women have given up smoking compared with 33% of adult males. Even assuming somewhat exaggerated figures, it is obvious that men are more likely to discontinue cigarette smoking.
And though one million adults are quitting smoking annually, teenagers are beginning to smoke in increasing numbers, with girls accounting for a growing proportion of teenage smokers. In the last four years, smoking among the 12 to 18 year age group increased from 14.7% to 15.7% among boys and from 8.4% to 13.3% among girls. The narrowing gap between the sexes in the early years is significant because it proceeds fewer smoking differences between the sexes in adult years.
Also, women are catching up with men in the daily volume smoked. Though women continue to smoke fewer cigarettes per day than do men...HEW reports that the percentage of women smoking a pack or more a day has doubled between 1955 adn 1966.
Hypthesis to Explain Market Facts:
1. Several reasons have been proposed to explain why more women than men are weither unwilling or unable to stop smoking.
One is the greater concern women have that if they stop smoking they will gain weight. This fear undoubtedly prevents many women from desiring to stop smoking.
...In addition, the first studies relating to smoking and health used male subjects. Because women were not shown evidence that smoking was equally deleterious to their own health, there was less reason for them to quit. However, recent studies have shown that as women's smoking habits become more like men's, women smokers become more prone to the same illnesses as male smokers.
As a result, many women now share with men both their concern about the effect of smoking on health and their desire to quit smoking.
...However, the problem appears to be that women, and particularly working women, have less success in quitting and staying off cigarettes...This implies that as the percentage of working women continues to increase...the percentage of women who smoke can also be expected to increase.
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this relationship betweenwomen's working and smoking as follows.
For many people, male and female, smoking serves as a means of reducing tension...HEW data suggest that women who smoke, and particularly working women who smoke, are more prone to use cigarettes as a means of reducing tension. They may be because working women as a group are subject to more pressures than their non-working counterpoarts and use cigarettes as a way of decreasing these unpleasant feelings.
Another hypothesis is that a working women is more likely to be concerned with her freedom and her choice of lifestyle. Since smoking is symbolic of this new freedom, it becomes incorporated inter her lifestyle and she may not be willing to give it up...
Current Female Oriented Advertising
...B&W uses the copy line "Lady be Cool" to advertise Koos filter longs in women's books. The visual is either a contemporary young women against a pastoral, natural gree background, or a plain pack on a green background. The ads have a clean, contemporary appearance which contrasts with the more traditional campaign for Kool King. Copy emphasizes both that extra length means extra coolness and that the appearance is stylishly long and elegant.
...EVE 100 MM Filter & Menthol
Copy lines include "The Lady has Taste" and "Farewell to the Ugly Cigarette - Smoke Pretty. Eve." The visuals show cigarette packs frequently held in a brightly nail-polished hand against a background of flower/plants or in traditional feminine hobby situations...
...The body copy emphasizes that since a woman likes to be surrounded by pretty things, the cigarette she smokes should express her love of pretty tings. And Eve is the first truly feminine cigarette with a pretty tip, a pretty pack and a rich but gentle flavor.
Eve's rationale is that smoking historically has been a male prerogative, and masculine cigarettes look ugly when used by a woman. Therefore, Eve is an attempt to make a cigarette that a feminine woman can feel comfortable and attractive smoking.
This traditional and very feminine approach...is directed to the woman whose life revolves around her role as a women, being pretty, soft, and feminine and gaining fulfillment from acceptably female hobbies. Even the promotion offered, a horoscope, exemplifies women's passivity and lack of control over her own future.
The Campaign line "You've come a long way, baby" hit the cigarette market in 1968, just has women's lib was entering the national consciousness. The cigarette is positioned specifically for today's liberated woman with a unique, swinging image...
- Lorillard Inc.
- Friedman, Valerie (Lorillard Tobacco Co.)
- Smith, Dick (Lorillard Tobacco Co.)
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and sm-oking. On.ce this information has Ceen absorb2d,
The Female Smo'-':er Market
At your request, I have sur~arized existing, inforz_atioz oLt
might pursue to successfully enter the -women'' s cigarette -
w e can concentrate on investigating approac`~es ~~li~at Lori' l]'ard
'UF : ae
c c: T. H.
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The attached docu:-nent ' demons trates r== L,.;o=ie-l; are spenc? ng
a growing share of the cigarett= .d;j'-- .`lf current t,-ezds v
con'ti'nuey women' may cor.e to dc_i-__e c~c__ette sales.
Source; RwT"' Vital Rep:ort.
The'rlost, loyal feiCl'ale smokers a'=C' i.=~ ~:..ork:i no ~u0M°it,, aild' th=Se'
.woman will soon ourriL-wber full t=~_ _ =e `'-;ers.
as a Socially acceptable tran,_i__ze', deserves investioatioz.
Unlike Eve' her cigarette will no_ s,.7=oo ize. Da'ssive faminizz'ty;
tnlike Virginia Slim's, her c',ga__=_e :;il E' not be an o ert deu:and . a.._
for e4ualitya She is liberatee L-L he_ li fe:style and her cigaretta
is part of thai ]!ifestyle,
steady her nerves when the tensie:~ is =a:~_ting by serv;~~~g
A cigarette p'o'sitl..oned: f or' the i+: aP_. to' relax and '.
with appeal to the smoker grou.Is «
to enable us to: define the wo-er~'s smck:ng ^ar'.-czt ia tJrms
o` smo?~ing, habits and lif.estyles,, cis . ocvE_ crea-Liv.z a.pp_oacIlies
We are worki'ng, with MEM in desi:gning a, technique
Perhaps groups of wozmeh taith`rat'ne_r s1'ilar lifestyles could
c_scuss their attitudes toward
Gc,7er tising,, and the part that s^'_-ir-3 p"a ;,.s in their day to
_- tion,, e_.p?ar atory creat- re -p. =~acha,s co-~~? d' b: d_~c~ss _~
_:_ovide directn on for cre~t_Y~.e, ac-o~t, and p_c
-a=1o:at is euide~...c3 by
cs s;1a:71n~, tb__ p`r-
c eZ-? :---? of i:::lcs 2.'n d fe"'3'Ies' T';'
-_0 __ ?«Q1C?"S c'' Lv3L`i Ci2'S pO'i ~~
T~ln t==ie', T~o'u'~'_r" t'fTc~" .. pe.'.;cel2~tCoe .^._ ~~__ Tti _o ' c'~r r,e'L= ~ 7 s=Cc:e i~
j Y ` y~ ~
~.''.(1_~~s n,..._'~.e'.s to ~.. exceed .. t.l. ~~ perc~e~*'~'a of .--Ie
i ~ :z3r-
: h:' def`i:aasl - - ~~
---_ inc?"'ea'sii._:xTJrJ?'"~-a,C,ce o= _.-_::_R _C
1935 ;-_o' oni v T'7' percc-ntag;e poiz__ -:,n
~ . ~ CIO of SrJk:--,S
., fa l.eZ. ; t aJ',
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2. G&~ shows on?~ j,~ a sl-i -ht margin by whic'-ri the percentaoec of male smokers e:-,cee`s
fem-ale smokers in 1970-1.M, and
the rT2roin for -~a'les e:I:is:.s on1yin the LcTi cateooYy.
ko:;ever ,, wom°n are mcre likely i.han' men to s-~o':e HiFi and'
Menthol brzn3s G
B'ecau e of the lo~,7 dai ly ~rol'~u~-ne of cioarettes s^oked' bY
u,om;en' co-mpar er-I ri t'L7, r_en (17`./~ Us o 22. 7),-'31e co_?,S'.L.mptlon
e-Yceeds fe male consL_Dticn in' the market ovzLall, aarticularly
as v. ale eons::~pti on i n t1h_ e i`enthol a.td i?IF i cateoori:es .
the LoFi ca~teoo_,~. ~ e-a'1e consul-~p L;' on~ is about the same
S-'_'JkE'_rS /Vol'`T,me C `x
Ma le F e_--a le'
52% 4 $/
5S' L. 9
5G . 40
41 ., .
48 52 '
Source: C- ~ 1970-1:71 Studies
1. ~'OV?ei2 are also ?:1o'''e lZ'_~~e1 y t'i'lc'?.n, fien, to smi;':,e !Ci7 CZj
c_ `` - 'ers 'bY
" v ~3
~ ~^+ J ~
J~._ S. 52
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4. The. growing inpor tanc e of the f em3le smoker i,s due to
several factors, includi no fewer f.e~^ales quitting, more
females beginning to smoke, and' female smo.:ers increasino
Also, women are catching , up with nen' in the daily volume ,
s2iiotied'o Though woL1e_'1' continue to s1'P_Ctie =e~iE'r cigare'ttE"S- per
day than do men (17'04 vs, 21, 7) ,, M reports tha t tb.z per-
eentaoe of women smoking a pack or mbre a day has doubled
bet:,een I955 and 1905 0
.5o i?yoothasis To Mplain. Mark.et Facts
1. Several reasons have been proposed' to explain why mor.e
wo,en than men are ei.ther Lnwillinfo:r Lna'o-p e to stop s:,t:o1-
~r'..y`s is the greater concern woman have L'~~a'L if, they Sto7 smcz-
-_ _'-._e: will gain we1.ght, This fea _" L._:do ibted1.V p':;eVtel'f ts
.__ 'w;,Ten lrom.desirin; to stop s:-:oki__g
2re' more ' likely to dis'cont1nue cigarette nokinb. +
their daily cigarette volume.
According to a recent H.cW'-survey,, only 131of adult women
.` have Qiven up smoking , compared Kth M% of adi?l tmales. Even
assuming So met-,~rZ..t exaggerated fioL?res, i i: is obvious that men
to 13.3°/, among, oirls. The narrowing oap between the sexes
in the early years is significant because it praceeds- =ewer
smo?tiino differences between the sexes in adult years a~
?n the last four years, smoking among the 12 to 18' year aoe.,
oroup increased from 14'a7'% to 15,7% among boys a-ri*,d from 8.4%
girls accounting , for 2growina proportion of teeZ),age smokers.
thouo'R ' o'i? e million ad~~~~lts' a'r ere C1LIZi=.t1'n Q.t1'nQ Sr'!oslg ng a'TL"L''::311y,.
teenagers.are beginning to smoke' l.n increasing Ylualbers, with
?` smoke h.e_1 ir-i hungry but 2.91 2.67 3.13
don': -. -_nt to : eat
worry about gai ni'no wzig`:t
TcL-' 1 ` FeL ale.
Smo' --s "~_o=-eYs Sko?;.ers
2'a5 2.67 3000 G~.3'.
T; , ga-,e up s.oking i'd 2,83 7.
' _..57 3' ~J6
5. k:__,.. -- t!1,.._l~~'~ -.,_ ...Ci:2t~"CZ'~ ~'-,1
.> e'.1. ='.'
S,o~_,r__. I-V?J' ;r757'5
'S: 6'r°_ 3 L'an~''e f rorG1'5 (?~ ~o`'eis co'''plFr e? y') , i`o o~. Cd3..~'i=a j._ ea co.:71
~" " - ~
Page 5: lce91e00
2. In addition, the first studies relating smoking, and
health used"'male subj ects, Because women were not sho:,-n
evidence that smo:king, ~ras equally deleterious to their o~:-nn
health, there was less reason for thieai to quito Hotjever,
recent studies havz show-n that as 'woo-2n"s smo'_:i:ng habits
become more 'li:ke men`'s,, Women smolrZers b2come more pror_z
to tIL-le same illnesses as male s:nok`rs.
As a resuLt,, many women now share w-ith men bath their con-
cern about the effect of' smo'1-ing, on health and' their desire
, to, quit smoking,
Total ~IaZe FemaZe,.
Smo'~cer s _ S-~okers Smokers
Smoriing,is bad for my health 3'.9i8'
- I would like to quit smoking 3.67 3.67 '-3 . 67
or quit smoking
I really ought to. cia do,in .. 4p0o 4.03
Sr.lo.king shortens a person's 3'.5s'
:;Scores ranoe from 5(agree complztely) to 1 (disagrez co:~p?2Lely).
Source: rIP.D §757a1 .
_=='eP_'tag° df -Workln~;r women jIh!o s~--..o.~:e has' remained Colns'ta=lt
tiiTn'ile the' percenLage of full tiWa ho-ant°.T.c':Cc r.a' who s m:~'-ka
L= -_clined from 32% in 19'66 to 27 o i n 11970,, HEU reports
3. Ho:-:ever,, the problemn appears to, be that jaoaaen,, andd particul a-ly
;. g womeny, have less' success iCI C1Zi tt1?'Ia and
S'tay7 L`g, Oft
!-= s -=lies tha i- as t.CT^c DE'rceR~~'j? C3Q' leL2 CC~1=1n``~
to i^c_zase (fro~.-t 25% i'r 1°40 to 437 in 1971)1, the percenta3,e
of N;.cman -w-ho s---.wke can also be exDactzu to increase.
ha -1a been prrJ7-'--ed' to e'1tiU'l ai n th!? s rela.`_1o':'`-
S.:?;~ C.orti;ino a~,` s_-ok~~n- , as fo11o'`rTs~,.
Fo:- .__-y pec pl e,, ,a1e and fe:_al ea, s
serves as a r.;eans of
Page 6: lce91e00
I smoke when I"m under przs sure
When I'm upset or ang-ry I reach
for something to smc,ze
A smoke often helps steady my
STo'-:ing helps n.e take my mi nd
off cares and worries
Sm.cker s Male
S7L o'ce_ s Female
4.17, 4.05 4.28
4.09 3.93 4024
3068 3'.55 3.79
2'0 77 _ ,
Source: MRD V:7575
^=Sco'res range froM 5 (agrez completely)
'FDv data suggests that women who smoke,
ing women who smokzy are more prone than men smokers to use
c'igaLettes as a means of reducing tension. This may be beca::s,
,vorki:ng women as a group are subject to more pressures than
their non-working counterparts and use cigaret~tes as aiaay of
decreasing these urpleasant feeling,s.
4. Another hypothesis is that aworkino -~~~o~^.an' is more li'Kely
to~ be concerned with ?:e°r frzedom and her choice of' lifes tylzo.
Since srE;o?.:ing is sy-mbolic of this new freedorr, it becc_:~es in-
corporated into her lifes +-yle and' she Tn!ay not be 'tiazllirg to
g_ve it up (Dr. boui s Bozzetti; Smoicers Research) .
-=enn t Fe-^a ie Orin~` ~dverti sinc,,
:_~;c? r °'.~te ~~~v°r =i'SiTia 1S d1L:eG't'eCi, exc1 uS'1ZTe ~'iy t0' P.erZ' ~2 a ` ,
Camels, '11-:=?Y-.looro) or to' both sexes e~ua",ly (e.go ri'~L =,
-nsC on)', While a bra,nd: _~y occasiozall~r urili ze fz~a? e
---- ?G'~rert- s?='- ?Tn selected ?'?edli3 (e.go Ko--2 Filter
Co Ca- '=C' o~ly t:JO c2c,are: i:.'e br,a'D-'.''..s have be?n' CtCe'v°..loped., e'xc1L1'3iv c-ly
(,Vir-j~~n13 Slz?=a,, Eve') o
1. .-, il L G x L-_rL (., J
ce' eool" ' Lo cC7ver tise' Kool Fl'.lte~r
s':)-o ir2?, vis,.:.a1 is eith2r a con t:eu ^Ora';y
y ^~^_~ ..; .~3?? agai tls't' a p:1'sto'-"aly na kt',1r a 1 gree n b-^cjLJ?"o~..t~?t', o= a
pank on a The ads have a cZea'n y fon'.-
tGn7 o=a=.j~ a'. _ _a..a:?c'? CO~=.t ~',.-~.5.t".s ' 44'1t:.h t}l + bore ti.a '~4 t 1 C'^.
to Il (d'isagree comp'Zete'ly)
and parti cuZarly w ork
Page 7: lce91e00
campaign for Kool Kinoo Copy emphasizes both that extra
length means extra, coolness and that the appearahce is
stylishly long,and eleoanta
The choice of women's maaazines and the contemporary middle-
of-the-road, approach suggests that the target audience is
primarily the young housewife and the non-professional work-
ba attributed exclusively to women smo'c-ers.
Because adverti sir~a ior Kool Longs is not directed exclusively
at women, the oro-:,i~ng, brand share (currently a't 1,57,) cannot.:
2'. Eve 100"MMFilter &iienthol
Ugly Cigarette - Smoke Pretty. Eve."' The visuals sho~.~a cigarette
Copy lines include "The Lady has Taste"' an-d"rareweli to: the =, .
a ba&:ground~ of floT,,re_rs/plants or in tradi ttonal feminina
packs frequently held' in a brightly nail-poli5hed b~nd against
.themselv'es have a floral design around the tilp.
ing an abstract of a very feminine woman's head. The cigarettes
The cigalrette pack has a' bright abstract _loral design surroLrnd-
h a pretty tip,, a pretty pack, and a rich but g~ztle flavor,'
The body copy emphasizes that since' a T~~onwn likes to be surrounded
by pretty things, thz' ci*garette she sr::okes sho-dld e_rp_ es s her
l cve of pretty th'ings o And Eve is the first truly fem? ~.?.ne cigare'tte
;vers rationale is that smoking historically has been a rale
===-coative,and ~~~.asculine cioarettes look ugly ~;h~a n use:: by a
Therefore, Eve is, an attempt to ma'~e a cig~rette that
n=ze Wot-aan can feel com-f©rtable and attractive s-~~~o'd^go
1'?j Z:C`o~l acceptably fe.~~..le hoo'''es,
=_~aS, is C'_reo'te'd to the' worGTI i-7:'lose !iL°' rcvo1vas a!r"ouC?d
` c'S' a +G"a'n, tJeir.o pretty, so'f_, c.U ~e~lni ?e a'nd o?~iu1-
----= --..=ditio_^al a2?'d very' feminine a'pproacla, awert?se-' 1L1 Wo_ea~ S
_ _ _
L~'en the _u`o:~o't1o~.~ o~Leied~, _eied, a ho?'oScopZ e.i_~~iir^?eJ Lvomzil'l s
0~S s~ T_ C. C~. control C:T?r her (':.,n ?, iL:Li?:e,
S s Deu`}n' lac'-~~~usl..e~' siL?C: =5 ii t~O~~_^Ci'On
!: i'v 7 1;ts s r'a r e has s'tabl~~ 1Z'ed a''i. Q'a,~ %3,, Q a2'~~ ~ CT; i.'Ct?' LZ1 Cei
G^_ =,or (.^'2 maZn',t^ol v'ersio..'P.,
Page 8: lce91e00
3. Virgin1a. Si ims
The campaign line r'Ycu''ve come a long way, bab,;" ";"" hit the ;
cigar.ette markzt in 1968, just as t~;o~~en~'s li'b was entering, the
riationa~ln consciousness. The cigarett¢ is posi'ti'oned special?y
for today's liberated woan_an -with a uziq,uz, s;a.inoing image, The
a.`~i's use hLT^_'GJ'r to i~~':l'..'_str'2t e..'_str'2te the point that' women L?o'w have a'
new lifestyle ::i`h better opportunity to exoress their potential
and their pz, sc._?!ality an d sarol:ing is one ieans' of self ehpresS,ion. '
In one ca!~pai~ this new reedom is contra~stzd' with ~ith~ pictures of
v-oaen circa 1900 who :-.-`Yz compromised r,~;hcn c`uoRt smoking. In a ~
related campaign the flavor (rich Virginia =lavor) and the physical -'
qualities '"(Iong, sliri)~ .aYe emphasized.
In addition to the woman's magazines, Virginia Sli'as also aduertises ~:,'
in Playboy, Ebony and the Sunday supplements .- This selection of
magazines is unique for a-~;oman''s cigarette, showing a desire to
reach working women and wouzien whose i;nter ests extend beyond the
Since the brand's s introduction in 1908, Cz'e share has g-ro.,-n to 1,27
0!.7'7, in the filter verszonand 0.5% in the menthol version.
' .' ,-e
Uirgixt~,a Sl, ms St~ "
1972 1971 1970
Filter 0.7% 0'. 6% 0. 6;,
Menthol 0.5 0.4 0. 4
Total 1.2' 1.0 1.0
1969 ~ 1968
0. 3% 0'.1%
=__c Gppeal of t"? rgir~-a Slins was exxpect.eC' to p_ra??el tst_ _~-~=-~g`
r , ,
c_ t:~e STOmen s mo~rz~..en+~, ~,;.c~i''.ch is n_ore in=1+~e_.tia1~~ in tne 1aTMOar
-- --- To tie%e=~1Tle ~,;iietha= this 1"eZa~_J,i s.o y~
; e_._S t5'a
=n indl_viidL'~d ldL'~dl ITIa"kei:s waS-lndeyed a-ainS= t'le n!ai.io'~Ta 1io'~Ta1 s'_Ta=e.
-- ---~_ of 120 and over were' coilslde'L'e d h,?:gH ai:c-T indices of under
.. . _._ -~ C.onJ~.1.. lo.:'T.. ~ ~~ . ~ .. . .. ~ ~ ~
`LiZ',at t~1^ ic1~=?~ri.G.et sizes ; g-:3.e_ally h'_ a , Qbe" "".'~ ..
a:'-°_re `.r~ ag_ 13 S!1L1S ~cd'' 'oett~?'b sha_eS1_nd_cLs' a-?d ra'rk-~,t siZ_j
j"''e l ! y !o:,ia- L^a-:-TCCeLs' where th'e s=?.ar'eS/li,:dlces were lo ie?r
T'nis _. _.- _-.,__5.__7 is, stro=}.-~-'r t^aPn the rei.:_t-ons'Yi? ' bei.G,TeeT1. P_rts.l~ip
v.- --- =>= S' _re T.o ~tso~al S'~a.re Size (-: c= t- S. PaD
(Av a=a,-, e7
- 79' (Lou;)
i . ?3