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Howard A Engle, M.D., Et Al V. Rj Reynolds Tobacco Company. Deposition of Claude R. Martin, Jr., Ph.D. Exhibits 1-4. (Exhibit 4 Is From Doc Id No. 51771 5520-7844. It Is A Composite Exhibit That Consists of Published Docs and Testimonies).

Date: 08 Jan 1998
Length: 2520 pages
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3 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I N D E X WITNESS: CLAUDE R. MARTIN, JR., Ph.D. Page Examination by Mr. Hoag 4 EXHIBITS: Deposition Exhibit Nos. 1 and 2 69 Deposition Exhibit No. 3 71 Deposition Exhibit No. 4 87 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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2 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 APPEARANCES, CONTINUING: For the Defendant R.J. Reynolds: MR. RANDAL S. BARINGER Jones, Day, Reavis, & Pogue 901 Lakeside Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44114 For the Defendant Dosal Tobacco Corporation: MS. MONICA MEDINA Martinez and Gutierrez 601 Brickell Key Drive Miami, Florida 33131 REPORTED BY: Laurel A. Jacoby, CSR-5059, RPR Certified Shorthand Reporter HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE 11TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN AND FOR DADE COUNTY FLORIDA GENERAL JURISDICTION DIVISION CASE NO.: 941-08278-CA , FBN: 614009 HOWARD A. ENGLE, M.D., et al, Plaintiffs, v. RJ REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY, Defendant. ----------------------------/ CONFIOExnat DEPOSITION OF CLAUDE R. MARTIN, JR., Ph.D. Taken on January 8, 1998, at the Sheraton, 3200 Boardwalk, Ann Arbor, Michigan, at or about 9:15 a.m. APPEARANCES: For the Plaintiffs: MR. JOHN HOAG Stanley M. Rosenblatt, P.A. 66 West Flagler Street 12th Floor, Concord Building Miami, Florida 33130-1809 For the Defendant Philip Morris: MR. STEPHEN MCCONNELL Dechert, Price, Rhoads 4000 Bell Atlantic Tower 1717 Arch Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • 4 1 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2 January 8, 1998 3 At or about 9:15 a.m. 4 * * * 5 C L A U D E R. M A R T I N, JR., Ph.D., 6 having first been duly sworn or affirmed, 7 testified as follows: 8 EXAMINATION 9 BY MR. HOAG: 10 Q Could you state your name for the record, 11 lea ? p se 12 A Claude R. Martin, Junior. 13 Q And have you ever been deposed before? 14 A Yes, sir. 15 Q How many times? 16 A My best estimate is somewhere around 75 or 80 17 times. 18 Q Those 75 or 80 times you were deposed, were you 19 always being deposed as an expert witness? 20 A Yes . 21 Q When did you first begin to be deposed as an 22 expert witness? 23 A The first time, to the best of my recollection, 24 I may be a little hazy on the year, but I 25 cn believe it was in 19 either '54 or '56 . ~ ~ J ~ HALL AND DEER w (800) 321-3904 00
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• • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q And who took the deposition? A You mean who was the attorney for the plaintiffs? - Q Yes. , A Mark, M-a-r-c, Edell, E-d-e-1-1, I believe Is the way he spells his name. Q And how long did that deposition take? A Well, the first deposition took one day. The second one took approximately a full day, and the lunch hour deposition took approximately one hour and 15 minutes. Q What was the reason for the lunch hour deposition? A I have no idea other than Mr. Edell requested for the judge to have a deposition, and during the deposition we revisited the same things that had been covered although more briefly in the previous depositions. Q Was the Cippilone case the first tobacco related case you worked on? A Yes, sir. Q And when did you first start to work on the Cippilone case? A My best recollection is somewhere around two years prior to the time of the trial. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 N
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11 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 that you were going to be called by them? A I don't recall. I don't think so but I don't recall. Q Prior to the time that you•were contacted by Arnold and Porter, had you published any articles that were related in any way to tobacco? A I don't believe I published any article-s, no. Q Okay. And the way you said that you may be remembering something you did that wasn't publishing articles. Did you do anything that would have been in the public that was related to tobacco? A Yes, I did. Q What did you do? A In the 1970s, I directed a research project for a full year for the American Cancer Society addressing adolescent smoking. Q In the 1970s -- would this have been early seventies or do you remember? A I do not remember. Q Is that on your resume? A Yes. It's noted, I believe, on the resume. Let me check. It is on page three. Q Page three and what paragraph is it? u, N J J HALL AND DEER W (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 Ln
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• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 10 MR. HOAG: Yes. Sure. (Recess taken) BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Okay. You said you were contacted by -, to the best of your recollection on the Cippilone case you were contacted by Arnold and Porter in Washington, D.C. Who do you recollect contacted you from that law firm? A The name of the initial contact, the attorney for the initial contact, I do not know his name, and he subsequently left Arnold and Porter is my best recollection of it. I don't remember his name. Q Have you at some point come to understand how you came to be contacted by them -- by Arnold and Porter? A No, other than they just called me on the phone one day. Q Did they explain to you how they got your name? A No, they do not. Q Did you know anyone at that law firm prior to the time they contacted you? A No, I did not. Q Did anyone contact you prior to the time Arnold and Porter contacted you to just let you know cn ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q So to put it in -- it would have been in the 1980s sometime, correct? A That's correct. Q And somewhere in the mid 1980s? A Again, I don't know the exact date of the Cippilone trial, so it was the two years prior to the commencement of the trial in Federal District Court of Newark but it would b,e in the 1980s. Q How did you come to be contacted to be an expert witness in the Cippilone case? - A My best recollection is that I was contacted by attorneys from Arnold and Porter in Washington, D.C. who were counsel apparently for Philip Morris. MR. HOAG: I'm still here. I think somebody else might have just entered the line. MR. BARINGER: Did somebody just join the - MS. MEDINA: Yes. Hi. Sorry about that. This is Monica Medina representing Dosal Tobacco Corporation. MR. BARINGER: Okay. Hold on. John, can we go off the record just a second so the court reporter can get this? Ln ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 w w w
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Tobacco Company, et al. That was in Chancery Court for Jackson County, Mississippi. Q And when were you deposed in the Cippilone case? A I really do not have the exact date of that deposition. That's a considerable period of time ago. It was prior to trial and there were two dates prior to trial for the deposition,,and then there was a deposition taken by order of the judge during the trial while I was testifying on the stand over a lunch hour. So there were three separate deposition dates. Q Okay. Approximately, what year did this happen? A I don't have the reference on what is the year of the Cippilone trial but it's a public record. Q Was it in the late 1980s? A Yes, I believe so. Q And have you seen the transcript from your depositions in the Cippilone trial, any of the transcripts? A I believe I saw the transcripts initially because I read them over for error and made corrections. I do not have copies of them, though. u, ~ J v HALL AND DEER v, (800) 321-3904 ~' w ~
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1 with a minimum of a full day for trial or 2 deposition. 3 Q Okay. So in other words, this deposition, if it 4 takes four hours you'll still be paid for, what, . 5 eight hours? 6 A That is correct. 7 Q And when you say $375 for deposition or trial 8 testimony, is that the actual deposition and 9 testimony or does it also include preparation 10 for the deposition, preparation for the trial? 11 A No. Preparation fee is $250 an hour. 12 Q And how long have those been your hourly fees as. 13 an expert? 14 A I believe those have been my fees for somewhere 15 between five and 10 years. 16 Q Now, have you been deposed in any tobacco 17 related cases? 18 A Yes, I have. 19 Q How many? 20 A Two. 21 Q Which cases were those? 22 A One was the Cippilone case in Federal` District 23 Court in Newark, New Jersey and the second one 24 was the case of Mike Moore, the Attorney General 25 of the State of Mississippi versus the American u, ~ ~ -j HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 W m
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13 • f • 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 these projects for all these other companies during that time, how did the amount of time you spent on American Cancer Society work compare? A It was comparable. ' , Q And how much time would that be? A One year. Q All of these projects -- wait. I'm sorry. Scratch that. So each of these projects listed from Ford Motor Company down to US Plywood/Champion Paper Company, they all took about a year individually? A That is correct with the exception, perhaps, of the one for the Federal Reserve System. Q Okay. And how did that work where you were directing the graduate students? A The way it worked is that we had a seminar which students enrolled in, MBA students, where the focus of the seminar was to develop marketing plans for a participating major And in this period of American Cancer Society came to participate. We agreed. And I approximately 30 or 35 students teams on developing a marketing organization. time the us and asked to had who worked in plan relative to HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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17 1 • it was accurate that was in the Lieberman 2 research stud ? y 3 A My recollection back some 20 years is that I 4 spent time discussing with'Mr. Lieberman how the 5 study had been conducted and the nature of the 6 methodology used. But again, that's well over 7 20 years ago. That's my best recollection. 8 Q Okay. So the study is -- your recollection is 9 that it's at least 20 years old? 10 A Y es. 11 Q And what was the methodology for this study? 12 A I do not recall. 13 Q You don't recall anything at all about the S 14 methodology for the study? 15 A Well, I recall it was a survey of adolescents 16 but I do not have and have not memorialize d the 17 particulars of the methodology that was us ed 20 18 some ears a o y g . 19 Q Are any of your opinions based on the Lieberman 20 research? 21 A Only in the sense that this provides a 22 foundation and background for a continuing 23 understanding of what are the things that are 24 related to the initiation of smoking behavior by 25 adolescents. • HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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14 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 the issue of adolescent smoking for the American Cancer Society. Q What did the American Cancer Society want you to do relative to that issue of, adolescent smoking? A The American Cancer Society brought us a research study and asked that we develop marketing plan for them to communicate to adolescents about smoking and smoking b-ehavior. Q What research study did they bring you? A They brought a national study that had been conducted by the Lieberman Research Organization who I believe had their major offices in New York. And what did that study have to do with the development of your marking plan? A Well, that study was one that identified what were the key factors involved in the initiation of smoking behavior by adolescents. Q And what key factors were identified in this study by Lieberman Research Organization? A The smoking behavior of parents and the smoking behavior of adolescent peers. There may have also been some data, and remember I'm trying to recollect back over 20 years, that involved the smoking of siblings within the family. Ln N J -Q HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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15 . • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Okay. Was there anything else in that report other than that? A Well, there may have been other things in the report. That's my best recollection at this period of time. Q And who authored that report? A You mean the report by the Lieberman people? Q Yes. A It was authored by the organization. I believe the principal in it, his name was Lieberman. I don't remember his first name. Q What was Mr. Lieberman's background? A I have no idea. I mean, he's a marketing research -- it's a marketing research company, as best I can recollect. Q Do you know whether he had any degrees in psychology or adolescent development or anything like that? A No. You'd probably have to ask him. I don't know. I don't have his curriculum vitae. Q Did you rely on this document in developing the marketing plan? A Not only did I rely upon it, so did the American Cancer Society. Q And they relied on you to develop the marketing HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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12 • h • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15' 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Well, there are no paragraphs but it would be about two thirds of the way down on the page. Q Okay. That would be the 1968-1979 time frame where you list a bunch of things and sort of toward the end it says American Cancer Society in there? A Well, I wouldn't characterize it as a bunch of things, but the American Cancer Society-is listed there under that time period. Q Okay. What it says under there for 168 and 179 is directed a program of graduate student development of marketing plans for major organizations. Among the organizations participating in this program were Ford Motor Company, Wolverine Worldwide, Detroit Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Federal Reserve System, Michigan Bell Telephone Company, American Cancer Society, Warner Vineyards Incorporated, AT&T and US Plywood and Champion Paper Incorporated. So this thing you did for the American Cancer Society was part of a program of graduate students development of a marketing plan? A Yes. It was a part of that. Q Okay. And compared to the time you spent on all HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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18 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Have you written or published any articles on adolescent behavior? A Well, yes. I guess you could characterize some of the articles in that way., Q Would you characterize some of the articles in that way that you've written? A Yes, I would. Q Which articles have you written that --• have you published concerning adolescent behavior? A The articles listed on page nine of my curriculum vitae. They are Research Validity and Resulting Public Policy: The Case of DiFranza, quotation mark, Old Joe, quotation mark, Cigarette Study, quotations, Proceedings of the American Association of Public Opinion Research, May 1993; the Efficacy of Statistically-Based Research: The Case of, quotation mark, Old Joe, quotation mark, Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, August 1993; Consumer Research Standards and Public Policy Formulation: The Case of Mickey Mouse and Old Joe, Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 21, 1994, pages 380 to 386. Pollay's Pertinent and Impertinent HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~_A ~ ~ ~ Ln w ~ N
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19 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Opinions: Good Versus Bad Research, Journal of Advertising, Volume 23, Number 1, 1994, pages 117-122; Checking the References: Adolescent Smoking Research Used in Public Policy Formulation, Proceedings of The Marketing and Public Policy Conference, Volume 4, 1994, page 2; Ethical Advertising Research Standards: Three Case Studies, Journal of Advertis•ing, Volume 23, Number 3, 1994, pages 17 to 30; The FTC versus Joe Camel -- Q That's page 10 -- number one on page 10. So the next one is number two on page 10? A No. The current curriculum vitae that I have, this is item -- the one I'm about to read -- Q I have it here in front of me. You can just tell me what pages it's on. A Well, you have a different -- Q We don't need to spend a lot of time with the cites because I have those. Okay. FTC versus Joe Camel. Any of the others? MR. BARINGER: Mr. Hoag, this is Randy Barringer. I think that Dr. Martin may have an updated version of his CV that's different than the one that you have and there may be just a little bit of difference in where cn ~ ~ HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 v, w ~ w
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16 • • .} • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 plan, right? A Well, they asked us to develop a marketing plan and I developed a marketing plan. Q Okay. And did they rely on,you to do that? A I don't know. You'd have to ask them. Q Did you ask them if they were relying on the Lieberman research? A I didn't ask them whether they were -- -I mean, I don't recall asking them whether they relied upon it. What I recall is that they came to us and asked us to develop a marketing plan and presented us with the results of the study that they had commissioned by the Lieberman Research Organization. Q Okay. And where is Lieberman based; you said in Washington, D.C. A No. I believe I said New York City. Q I'm sorry. Maybe I didn't even ask it. New York City? Are they still there? A I don't know. Q Did you have any contact with the Lieberman Organization before or after you were developing this marketing plan? A No. Q Did you review any of the data to make sure that HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 Ln N ~ J
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5 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q And what was that about that first time? A That time I was deposed -- I was the news director of a television station in the Wilkes-Barre Scranton, Pennsylvania market and was involved as an expert witness relative to news film of a riot that had occurred outside of a dress plant in West Pittston, Pennsylvania involving the International Lady's..Garment Workers Union and a group of security personnel that had been hired by the dress plant run by the buffalino (phonetic) family. I not only was deposed but testified at trial. Q And you were an expert witness there? A Yes, I was. Q What did you testify about? A I testified about the news film and the way we had gotten the news film, how my camera man . happened to be at the scene of the riot at the time and things of that sort. Q What do you currently charge as an expert per hour? A Currently I'm charging $250 an hour for in-office work and $375 dollars an hour for work involving either a deposition or trial testimony HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ln w N l0
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• • 1 2 3 4 5 "6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 21 Q Okay. Those are all on page nine and they're on page nine of the CV that I've got a copy of too. Okay. What courses in adolescent behavior have you taken? A No specific course in adolescent behavior. Q What particular studies of adolescent behavior have you done? A Beside the ones that I have cited on my curriculum vitae, I've been engaged in an analysis of the TAPS data from the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia. And in addition to that -- Q Tax data? A Excuse me? Q Tax data? A TAPS, T-A-P-S. And, of course, the studies and the work that was done in connection with the American Cancer Society. Q Now, the work that was done -- let's start with that. The work that was done in connection with the American Cancer Society in 1970s, you said you relied on the Lieberman research? A No. I did not say that. Q Oh, you don't rely on the Lieberman research? A No. I didn't say -- I said I could not recall Ln ~ -_j HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 u, w J~- Ln
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22 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 whether the word rely was involved in this. Rather what I said to you very specifically was that the American Cancer Society came to us and presented us with a study f3~om the Lieberman Research Organization and asked us using that study to design marketing plans addressing the question of adolescent smoking behavior for the American Cancer Society. Okay. Now, other than what was in the Lieberman study, what work did you do during that period of time to find out information about adolescent behavior? A I had extensive conversations with representatives of the National Office of the American Cancer Society. Q Did you speak to any adolescents? A No, I did not. Q Did you do any surveys of adolescents -- you yourself, I mean? A No, I did not. Q Did any of your students do any surveys of adolescents? A I don't believe so. Q And who did you speak to at the American Cancer Society? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 t.n ~ ~ J N Ln w ~ m
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23 • 1 2 A It's 20 some years ago. I do not recall the 3 A name. Had that person done surveys of adolescents? • 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I do not know. Q What was the background of the person you spoke to that gave you information about adolescent behavior? A My best recollection is that those -- the persons that I talked to were senior officers of the American Cancer Society and I believe they were in New York but I'm not sure. Q What was the nature of those conversations that you had? A My best recollection after 20 some years is that the nature of those conversations where they gave me their perspective on adolescent smoking behavior. Q Okay. Now, whatever their perspective was, you don't remember what their names were, correct? A No, I do not at this time. Q You don't know what kind of educational background or knowledge base they had for their opinions on adolescent behavior, correct? A All I know is they were representatives and officers of the American Cancer Society. Ln ~ J J HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 w ~ J
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25 • 1 behavior to the remainder of the student Q And did you do anything else? A What do you mean did I do anything else? body. • • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q In the entire marking plan•or was there any more to it? A I told you that my best recollection after 20 some years is that is the highlight of the marketing plan. There -- that was it. Q Is this marketing plan in writing? A It was furnished in writing from the student groups to the American Cancer Society. Q Okay. So the marketing plan in a nutshell was that you recommended that they go into US schools and identify opinion leaders. You talking about high schools? A Both high school and grade schools. Q You mean from grade one all the way to grade 12? A No, I don't mean from grade one to grade 12. But the problem that you have with school designations are that there are -- depending on the area of the country and the school system, there are schools that are designated as prep schools, high schools, intermediate schools, middle schools, junior high schools -- Q What grade levels were you referring to? Ln ~ ~ __J ~ HALL AND DEER Ul (800) 321-3904 ~ ~
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24 • 1 2 3 Q So did you rely on what they told you about their opinions of adolescent behavior? A I and the students involved in the project used both the Lieberman Research,results and the • 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 perspective afforded us by the American Cancer Society to devise marketing strategies to address the issue of adolescent smoking behavior. Q And what strategies for marketing plans did you and your students come up with? A I am relying now on a recollection that is over 20 years old, so I can only give you in a general sense what that strategy was. But my recollection is that we recommended to the American Cancer Society that they go into all of the classrooms in the United States and, first of all', in the schools have the teachers identify who among the students were the kind of opinion leaders within the student body and to enlist those opinion leaders in a program of designing advertising to address the issue of adolescent smoking behavior. The idea was that those students in the process of developing that advertising would then communicate about adolescent smoking (-n r HALL AND DEER v v (800) 321-3904 Ln w 61:b w
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20 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 these cites appear, and that's what he was trying to explain to you. MR. HOAG: Well, why don't we just get a copy of his updated CV sent to us? If you had I , one, why didn't you just fax it over to us. MR. BARINGER: He just brought it this morning. MR. HOAG: So why don't you f-ax it over to me this morning? MR. BARINGER: I didn't know that there was a request that I do that. MR. HOAG: Well -- MR. BARINGER: I don't think it's that big a deal. I mean -- MR. HOAG: It's a waste of time. I mean, just give me it. MR. BARINGER: Why don't you just go ahead with your examination and we'll get it to you. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Is there anything else other than the FTC versus Joe Camel which is on my copy of the, I guess, not updated CV that you've got that I don't have? Anything else? A Well, the other ones that I read to you. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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26 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Would you allow me to finish my answer, please? Just asking you as a witness for the courtesy of allowing me to finish my answer. Q We could move on a lot quicker if you'd just be , more specific with your answer. If you could just tell me the grade levels, we could move on. A My best recollection after 20 some years is that the grade levels we were talking about were approximately from grades five or six up through grade 12. Q Okay. So the students and yourself recommended to the American Cancer Society that opinion leaders in grades five through 12 be identified and then advertising be developed behaviors; is that correct? A No, that is not. to address Q All right. Let's start with the opinion leaders being identified. How was that to be done? A As I stated before, it was to be done by contacting the teachers within the school system and having them identify who were the students within the student body who were the opinion leaders. Q And once that was accomplished, the teachers Ln r v J F-+ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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33 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 involved or was the process the goal? A The goal, which was the goal of the American Cancer Society specifically, was to have adolescents not initiate smoking behavior or if they were engaged in smoking behavior, to stop smoking. Q Okay. So you and your students came up with a marketing plan to assist the American Cancer Society in developing advertisements that would automatically result in fewer adolescents beginning to smoke, correct? A That is incorrect. Q Where am I off base there? A You're off base on saying that what we wanted to do was develop advertisements to have students either not initiate smoking behavior or cease smoking. That was not the objective. Q Was the objective -- was the ultimate objective to have fewer adolescents smoking or -- and more adolescents cease smoking who already were smokers? A The specific objective of whole thing was to have adolescents not initiate smoking or if they were smoking to cease that behavior. u, Q Okay. And your marketing plan was supposed to ~ ~ r Qn w HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904
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• 31 1 to get some kind of a real world project and the 2 class would work on that real world project for 3 the one or two semesters that they took the 4 course; is that correct? 5 A Yes. That's correct. 6 Q Did they take the course for two semesters or 7 just one, the students? 8 A I don't recollect. I believe they took• it for 9 two semesters but that's a long time ago. I 10 don't remember technically what the enrollment 11 period was . 12 Q Okay. Now, what was the goal of this project? 13 And by that I mean, once they got to step three 14 that you were recommending in your marketing 15 plan and developed these ads, what was the goal 16 for those ads? 17 A I'm not quite following what you're talking 18 about Goal of what ads? . 19 Q Of the ads you're talking about that the 20 students were supposed to develop. 21 A Yeah, the students in the high schools and other 22 schools, yes. 23 Q Yes. What was the goals of the ads? What were 24 the ads supposed to accomplish, if anything? 25 A The goal of the ads was to have those students HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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32 • S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 work on them and as a result familiarize themselves with the issue of adolescent smoking behavior and then to communicate that to other students in the student body,. Q To communicate the ads or to publicize the advertisements to the other students in the class or in the school -- A No, sir. That was not specifically the• goal. Q -- the advertisements that they developed? A That was not specifically the goal. Q What were they supposed to do with the advertisements they developed, anything? A We had the hope as a secondary benefit that those ads would appear perhaps in school newspapers or on bulletin boards, but the major objective was to have those opinion leaders communicate on a personal basis to the other students within the student body. Q And what was the purpose of that communication? A The purpose of that communication was to have those opinion leaders share with the other students the information about adolescent smoking behavior. Q That's the process. What was the goal of accomplishing that process? Was there any goal cn ~ ~ HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904
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27 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 identified the opinion leaders, what was to happen next? A Next we were to enlist those opinion leaders in a program of them developing advertising to address the issue of adolescent smoking behavior. Q When you say enlist them in a program of developing advertising, you mean you as-ked them questions in order to figure out what advertising would work? A No. We were going to ask them to develop advertisements to address the issue of adolescent smoking behavior. Q Oh, ask the students themselves to develop ads? A Yes, sir. Q And was that the whole plan? A No, it is not. Q So what was left? What else was part of the marketing plan? A Then the next issue was to have those students who had developed those advertisements to communicate to the remainder of the student body about adolescent smoking behavior. Q Was that it? Was that the entire marketing plan? HALL AND DEER w `n (800) 321- 3904 r1
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29 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 out of this? A You mean by students in high school? Q Yes. A I don't know. You'd have to ask the American , Cancer Society. Q You never followed up on this at all once you presented them with this plan, correct? A It's not a question that I never follow-ed up on it. That was not part of the assignment. That was not what was requested by the American Cancer society. The follow-up and implementation was theirs, not ours. Q Would you have been allowed to ask them what happened or was that, like, confidential? A I suppose I would have been allowed. Q You just weren't interested then, correct? A No, that's not*true. Q You were interested? A I still am interested. Q Well, what happened then? A I have no idea. They never shared it with me. Q Did you ever call them and ask them what happened? A I don't recall. Q Did you ever publish any articles about this? ~ ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER '-' (800) 321-3904 W Ln w
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28 S • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A That is the highlight of the marketing plan based upon my recollection after 20 some years. Q And did they test this out? Did they do it? A I don't know. . Q Did you guys ever try to do it? Did any of you or your students ever try to do it? A What do you mean did we ever try to do it? Q Well, did you do a test plan? Did you•go to any school at all and identify opinion leaders and try to work this all the way down to your three steps? A We presented this to the American Cancer Society for their implementation. Q Okay. So you never even tried to test this out; is that correct? A I wouldn't use the term we never even tried.. That was not part of the assignment. Q Okay. So it took a whole year to develop these three things? A You sound like that is incredulous to you, but the plan itself was in much more detail and involved a lot of analysis. I have just given you from my best recollection after 20 plus years of the highlights as I recall them. Q Well, were any advertisements actually developed ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER -J (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 cn w Ln N
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35 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 upon the research information that had been shared with us by the Lieberman Organization and based upon the insights from the leaders of the American Cancer Society that personal communications were far more powerful and would have a better effect on the issue.of adolescent smoking than just advertising or doing some kind of impersonal communication to adolescent students. Q Okay. So one-on-one communication could have the effect of increasing the number of people who start to smoke, number of adolescents who start to smoke, correct? A Our objective that we had in this study was that to have one-on-one or personal communications from the opinion leaders to members of the student body that that would have the effect of communicating to them about adolescent smoking, and the objective was to decrease the amount of adolescent smoking among those student bodies. Q Okay. Now, these advertisements that the high school students were supposed to develop, how did you envision those being used, if at all? A We felt as a secondary benefit to the program that those advertisements would appear in school Ln r -J HALL AND DEER -_J (800) 321-3904 u, w Ln W
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37 • • P1 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 something that was more than just print advertising and perhaps it would include things like television, radio. Q What about sponsoring events? A I don't believe that we thought that there was going to be any sponsoring of events by opinion leaders. Q Do you believe that could have been a u•seful method by the high school students to like have an adolescent no smoking sponsored football tournaments or something like that? Could that have been of use or not? A My problem with this is the implementation. You understand -- what we recommended was that we went to the adolescent opinion leaders within the school to have them work on a communication project so that they would become familiar with adolescent smoking behavior and communicate that to the rest of the student body. How an opinion leader would be able to organize an event such as you have just described was not something that we consider and even today I would have a hard time understanding how those opinion leaders would organize such an event. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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39 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Yes. Q And how is that done? A In many cases in advertising there are spokespersons who are identi,fied within the advertisement. Q How about product placement in movies? A What about? Q Is that ever done? A Is product placement ever done in movies? Q Yes. A Yes, it is. Q How about having like a prominent star use a certain product in a movie; is that ever done? A In some cases it may be done. For instance, my familiarity with it is -- on that is somewhat limited although I have had discussions with the person who used to direct that activity for the Ford Motor Company and they would get placement of Ford cars in movies and on television programs and to the extent that an actor or actress might be portrayed as driving the car. Now, whether they actually drove the car or it was strictly a portrayal, I don't know but in that case, yes, they would be, I guess, using the product. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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43 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 '6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I think that you have characterized it correctly. The word may is very important in there. Q And, in fact, candy manufabt,urers do pay movie producers to have their products used in the movies, correct? A True. MR. BARINGER: Objection. Foundation. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Correct? A Do they? Q Yes. Is that correct or you don't know? A I don't know. Q The only product you know of is a Ford Motor Company product, correct? A Yes. And I did not say that they paid. I just said that they tried to get their car in the movies and in the television shows. Q In all your years of experience in marketing do you know of a single incidence where any company paid to have their product displayed in a movie? A No. I don't know specifically about of any company that paid to have their product in a movie. Ln ~ -J ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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42 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 was used, and do you recollect what type of candy that was used in the movie ET? A Never saw the movie ET. Sorry. Q Well, hypothetically, if a•movie like ET, which was a major box office smash as it were, had the lead character eat a certain type of candy, would it be a reasonable possibility that more children would want to purchase that particular type of candy after seeing the movie? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: Well, it depends on who the lead character was. Since I didn't see ET, I don't know who the lead character was. Could you tell me who the lead character was and then I might be able to give you at least some reaction to that? BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q ET the extra-terrestrial was the lead character. A It might be that children wouldn't want to eat that candy because it is candy consumed by ET or extra-terrestrial. Q To the extent they like the character, would it be reasonable to assume that they may purchase that particular brand of candy? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln N ~ ~ Ln w m m
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44 • 1 2 Q Do you know if any tobacco companies have ever paid to have their products, meaning cigarettes, • 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 displayed in any movies? A No, I do not. • I Q Can you think of any reason why they would want to do that? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: I don't know whether they've done it so I can't give you an opinion on why they would want to. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Well, hypothetically, if they have actually done that, can you think of any reason why that would make sense to do that? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: I don't think I can answer that question because I don't know whether they did it. And I just can't address your hypothesis. I haven't given that any consideration in the past. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Do you know if tobacco companies ever sponsor sporting events? A Yes, I do. Q Do they? HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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40 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Is that an example on a broad scale of using opinion leaders? For example, if you can get someone that is a famous movie star to use a product in a film, would that be an example of using an opinion leader to encourage people to use a product? A Again, my familiarity with this product placement in movies is rather limited but from a marketing perspective that's really not what's that's all about. Q Well, for example, in fashions, if a prominent movie star wears a certain article of clothing isn't it true that other people will start to want that clothing? A Not necessarily. Q Well, it's sometimes true, isn't it? A It may be true, but where is this person wearing this article of clothing? Q I'm not sure what you mean by wearing. You mean on what portion of their body? A No, where are they wearing it? What is the venue with which -- Q I guess, you know, an example would be the Annie Hall movie. She wore a certain type of clothing and for a while that, quote, Annie Hall Ln ~ J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 L, w m ~
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• • 46 1 Q I'm not sure how -- I will try to rephrase it. 2 A Thank you. 3 Q Does it make sense to expose your product to 4 people who have not yet used that particular . 5 type of product? 6 A Now, you're talking about product, right? 7 Q Yeah . 8 A You're not talking about brands. . 9 Q Cigarettes an roduct , y p . 10 A I don't think that it is a, you know, a very 11 useful strategy to do that or to attempt-to do 12 it . 13 Q You don't think that's useful? 14 A No. 15 Q Let's take the Virginia Slims -- that's a tennis 16 tournament ri ht? , g 17 A To the best of my knowledge, it is. 18 Q And the name of that cigarette i s 19 Virginia Slims, right? 20 A That's correct . 21 Q Now, what is -- that word slims, what is the 22 connotation for that word? 23 A I h id ave no ea. 24 Q What does the word slim mean? 25 A To me? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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38 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q It would be like too difficult for them to do on their own; is that what you're saying? A To the extent that I understand how things work in that level of education•,,I would envision that it probably would be rather difficult. Q And why would you envision it as being difficult? A Remembering that I do not have a -- you• know, working knowledge of everything that goes on at that level of education, but to have a student organize an event such as you described would seem to me to be rather difficult and -- difficult to obtain and enable. Q Well, hypothetically, if the students were able to do such a thing, in your opinion could it have been a useful method to decrease the number of adolescent smokers at a given school? A It might have been but I think more powerful would be the individual one-on-one messages that came from the opinion leaders to the individual students and that is the objective of and what we envision coming out of this project. Q Now, in a marketing sense for the general public, are opinion leaders ever used in advertising? v, ~ ~ J N HALL AND DEER ~Ln (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 a' N
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36 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 publications, on bulletin boards around the school and perhaps in the classroom itself. Q And what was the purpose of those advertisements? A The purpose of those advertisements was to communicate about adolescent smoking. Q But what was the purpose of communicating about adolescent smoking? A It is the same objective that was for the entire Q project and that was to have the students who did not smoke not initiate smoking behavior and those students, adolescents, who were smoking to cease that behavior. And you envisioned these to be print type ads developed by the students themselves, correct? A No, not necessarily just print advertising. Q But it would include print advertising, correct? A Perhaps it could, yes. Q Well, it could also include, what, radio, TV advertising they could develop or did you envision that? A We had hopes that this would be used in a multi-communication way. Q Meaning radio, television, things like that? A We hoped that at least they would try to develop HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln w m m
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4$ • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I've been told that young women are concerned about that; so are older women, so are young men and so are older men. Q Okay. Now, you're aware of the slogan you've come a long way baby, right? A I've heard that slogan, yes. Q It's hard to avoid it because it's been advertised thousands of times, correct?•. MR. BARINGER: Okay. THE WITNESS: Well, your characterizing it's hard to avoid it is not correct. Many people can avoid messages because they filter out a lot of the messages that are not germane to them. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Okay. You didn't filter out you've come a long way baby. You heard it, right? A Yeah. I heard it. Q And what way was it germane to you? A I remember hearing it. I, quite frankly, don't even recall what the product was that it was associated with. So it wasn't very germane to me. Q Well, assuming that the slogan you've come a long way baby is for Virgina Slims cigarettes, cn ~ J a HALL AND DEER r (800) 321-3904 v, w ~ N
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41 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 look became in vogue and lots of people wanted to copy it. A I never saw the movie Annie Hall so I don't know what you're talking about.•. Q Can you think of any instances where people in movies wore certain articles of clothing and then other people wanted to purchase those articles o€ clothing? A No, not right off the top of my head. I can't recall of any movie where the person wore an article of clothing and then people wanted to go out and wear it. Q Or how about use a certain type of automobile? Do you ever know whether that ever happened? A Well, I know that hope beat eternal in the hearts of the people at the Ford Motor Company that if they put a Ford car in a movie it would give them an increased amount of exposure toward their brand of car. I never recall in my discussions with the people at Ford them linking that to the participants or the stars in the movie directly. Q Okay. Another example that I just thought of. In the ET movie there was a type of candy that Ln ~ HAL L AND D E E R (800) 321-3904 v, w m cn
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34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 be of assistance in accomplishing that goal, correct? A That is correct. Q And at the time you submitted it did you believe that that was a viable thing that could happen as a result of your marketing plan? A Yes, sir. Q Pardon me? A Yes, sir. Q Okay. So at the time you developed that marketing plan you believed that that marketing plan could automatically result if implemented correctly in fewer adolescents at least at those particular schools smoking cigarettes; is that correct? A That was our hope. Q Okay. And you have no idea whether or not that occurred at any of those schools, correct? A I don't know. You could find out from the American Cancer Society, however. Q Now, what led you to believe that that could actually occur, that you'd get that result from your marketing plan? A Principally, because we believed in -- based upon our knowledge of communications and based ~ F~ (71 W HALL AND DEER oLno (800) 321-3904
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50 1 necessarily mean that that -- without having 2 studied it, that that is factual. Anybody can 3 give an opinion about that. That doesn't mean 4 it's correct . 5 Q You're listed as an expert for the tobacco 6 industry, correct? 7 A No. I'm listed as an expert in advertising , not 8 for the tobacco company specifically. 9 Q The tobacco company'hired you many years ag o to 10 do work for them, correct? 11 A No, sir. 12 Q Pardon me? 13 A No, sir. 14 Q They didn't hire you many years ago to do work 15 for them? 16 A I have never worked for a tobacco company, 17 specifically. 18 Q As an expert for the tobacco companies, aren't 19 you just playing with words there when you say 20 you've never worked for a tobacco company, 21 ecificall s ? p y 22 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 23 THE WITNESS: No. I'm not playing 24 with words. I'm telling you the truth. 25 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: • HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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47 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Yes, to you. A Slim means something that I am not. I am not slim. Q What image would be projected to someone who purchases a product called Virginia Slims? As a marketer, what can you think of as an image that would be projected to someone who purchases a product called Virginia Slims? A I've never studied that. Q As a marketer with all your decades of experience, do you have any opinion at all what image would be projected to someone who was being advertised to purchase a product called Virginia Slims? A That's a long and complicated question that you've just raised and we've move moved away from the tennis tournament. You've talked about advertising for Virginia Slims, and it would depend upon who the person is who had seen the advertisement and how they would react to that name and whatever messages there were in the advertisement. Q You are aware that young women are often concerned about their weight. You're aware of that, correct? Ln ~ J -J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • 51 1 Q Okay. On your resume, page five. 2 A Yes. 3 Q It says consultant to RJ Reynolds, 4 Philip Morris, Lorillard an4 Liggett Group 5 concerning advertising and consumer behavior. 6 Litigation involved a consortium of law firms 7 including -- and then you list one, two, three, 8 four, five different law firms. 9 A That's correct. 10 Q So but your testimony is you've never 11 specifically worked for the tobacco industry, 12 correct? 13 A No. I am under retention to a law firm, not to 14 a tobacco company. 15 Q But you are and in your resume it states a 16 consultant to RJ Reynolds, Philip Morris, 17 Lorillard and Liggett Group concerning 18 advertising and consumer behavior, correct? 19 A That is correct. 20 Q Okay. But you have not done any research.to 21 look at the Virginia Slims cigarette advertising 22 and marketing campaign; is that correct? 23 A That's correct. 24 Q No one ever asked you to do that, correct? 25 A That's correct. Un ~ ~ J Ln HALL AND DEER w - (800) 321-3904 c~n
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52 0- 0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q And you didn't think of doing it on your own, correct? A I guess so. It never occurred to me. Q Okay. Now, those tennis tti4rnaments, the tennis players in the Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament, they tend to be young women, correct? A Well, a young woman is a young woman. It depends on your perspective. Let me see. I believe one of those tennis players was Martina Navratilova. I don't believe she's young. Q Is that the only one you can think of? A Who? Q Is that the only female tennis player you can think of, the one that happens to be in her forties or older? Is that it for you? A No. Q You can't think of any that are teenagers? A I'm not an expert on the names of female tennis players. Q Right. But many of them are teenagers, correct? A No. I don't know whether many of them are teenagers. Q You know if any of the professional tennis athletes are teenagers? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 as a marketer with decades of experience what in your opinion would be the purpose of that particular slogan for Virginia Slims cigarettes? A I have not been privy to the documents of the organization that created that advertisement and I do not know what the purpose of it was. Q So I'm asking you based on your decades.of experience as a marketer and an advertising expert, what in your opinion would be the purpose or just what in your opinion would be a purpose for a slogan that says you've come a long way baby for the Virginia Slims cigarette product? A A possible purpose is that it would create attention. Q In what way? A It would cause people to look at the advertisement. Q Now, what message is being conveyed with the expression you've come a long way baby? A I have no idea. Q Does -- just nothing comes to your mind at all; is that correct? A Well, things come to my mind but that doesn't Ln HALL AND DEER -J Ln (800) 321-3904 w ~ w
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56 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Would it also make sense that it would be a device that you would use to encourage adolescents to purchase your products? A No. I think that would be•a stupid move on the part of a tobacco company. Q Even though most of the people who begin to smoke begin to smoke when they're adolescents? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: Yes. 'I still stand by that that would be a stupid move. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Well, what would you do as a marketer with decades of experience in order to get people to start your products who had never tried cigarettes? A Well, first of all as a marketer I would not engage in activity that produced, you know, cigarette smoking among adolescents who were under the legal age for smoking. I just wouldn't do that. It's unethical. It's not right to do. Q All right. Hypothetically, let's assume you're not an ethical guy. I mean, I'm taking your word for it and this is just a hypothetical. Let's assume -- let's not use you. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~ cn w
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55 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 merchandise that would appeal to adolescents, would that make sense to you from a marketing standpoint to sell the Camel cigarettes? MR. BARINGER: Obj,ection. THE WITNESS: I'm sorry. I didn't hear your question. Would you repeat it, please. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Well, hypothetically, if the merchandise that is given away for Camel'dollars is the type of merchandise that appeals to adolescents such as backpacks and things like that, would that make sense to you from a marketing perspective to sell the Camel cigarettes? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: Well, what would make sense to me if we're talking -- for instance, you cited, and I don't know what that merchandise is, but since you said backpacks, it would make marketing sense to me that you would have your current customers who are in a legal smoking age use a backpack, and it might be one of the devices that you intend to maintain your brand loyalty. That would make sense.. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Ln N ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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57 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Let's assume somebody else is not an ethical guy. Some marketer that actually works directly for RJR, for example, is not ethical and he wants -- he or she wants to market to those people that are just starting to smoke or who haven't started to smoke yet and want to get those people. to start to smoke. What would you do as a market•er, assuming that you're an unethical marketer, meaning not you, somebody else; what would that unethical marketer do to encourage people who haven't started to smoke or adolescents to try cigarette smoking? A Well, given your very lengthy hypothetical, my reaction to it would be, and the only way I can answer your question is that it would be dumb on my part to even attempt to do that and dumb -- leaving aside the ethical considerations, it would be dumb from a business standpoint. Q Go ahead. But assuming that you were going to do that dumb thing, get people to smoke -- teenagers, adolescents, to smoke cigarettes, how would you go about doing that? A I have no idea. Q Just don't have the -- with your decades of HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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58 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 marketing experience you don't have the slightest idea how one would go about doing that? A Well, in my decades of marke,ting experience I have never sat down and contemplated how I would engage in an unethical"and stupid strategy to try and get that kind of behavior. Q Well, what products are legally marketed to adolescents? A There's a lot of products that are legally marketed to adolescents. Q Right. What are some of those? A Happy Meals at McDonald's, bicycles. Q All right. Bicycles; how would you go about marketing bicycles to adolescents? A Well, I'd probably in this case try to contact their parents to have those parents select my brand of bicycle for them. I would also encourage and publicize the benefits of bike riding, although bicycles are a rather mature product. So my thrust would be very much oriented not toward the product bicycles but very much oriented toward my brand of bicycles to try and get those people who had already made HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln N ~ J Ln w CO N
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30 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A No, I did not. Q Okay. Now, were you paid a fee for this? A No, sir. Q This was just a class project and the class came up with this and you submitted it and that was the end of it, right? A No. I would not characterize it that way. Q Well, what am I missing? A Well, I don't like the word just a class project. This was a very intensive, complex assignment that was undertaken by graduate students and it was done as part of the learning experience at the request of the American Cancer Society, and we were not paid a fee for doing it. We did it voluntarily. Q Okay. So now this is a seminar that you taught; you taught it every year for many years, correct? A That is correct. Q You still teach it or not? A No, I do not. Q You taught it from '68 to '79, correct? A That's my best recollection from looking at my curriculum vitae. Q And your teaching technique for that seminar was HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ .~ ~
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59 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 the product decision to buy my brand. Q Let's take you -- remember hula hoops, right? A Pardon me? Q You remember hula hoops? A Oh, yeah. Q Okay. That was back in the probably late fifties or so when they first became a rage, and prior to that time nobody ever heard of, a hula hoop much less used one. How would one go about getting someone to try a product that they had never tried before like a hula hoop'? A Well, they probably -- I don't know how anybody would market a hula hoop. Hula hoops are in a category that are known as a fad. They came fast and left fast. They're a product that somebody started using and one person told another person about hula hoops. My recollection is there was not really a lot of advertising. There really wasn't even a lot of marketing that was done in connection with hula hoops, and they quickly disappeared from the marketplace when users discovered that they were difficult if not in some cases impossible to use. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 w Co w
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60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Okay. So you don't have any opinion on how that would be marketed. You just figure that's like a self-marketing phenomena? A I haven't really studied hul,a hoops. Q What products have you studied as far as marketing to adolescents is concerned? Did you hear that question? A Yeah. I'm trying to think and recollect. Q Okay. A You have to give me some time. I guess one that comes to mind was the one that was identified on page three of my updated curriculum vitae and that was -- an example would be for Detroit Coca-Cola Bottling Company. Q What year was that or what years? What period of time? A That was in the early 1970s. Q Okay. I'm trying to find that. Is this on page three? A Yeah. It's under the caption 1968 to 1979. Q Okay. I see. That was one of those projects with your class, correct? A Yes. Q Okay. And what was the marketing technique for that with Coca-Cola? N ~ I ( u, J v HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 w 00 0.
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61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A The marketing technique there was to examine the marketplace and to understand that there were different segments of the marketplace and to also understand that the heakvy users of soft drink happen to be adolescents. So to communicate to them about the brand name, to remind them of the name of the various brands that were being marketed by the Detroit Coca-Cola Bottling Company. That was about it. Q How did you do that or what did you recommend as the method to do that? A We recommended that they fashion specific advertisements designed for individual segments of the market. Q For example? A For example, we discovered from some research that Detroit Coca-Cola Bottling Company had done or had commissioned that there were differences in taste associated with different socioeconomic groups. Q Are there any differences in taste associated with different socioeconomic groups as far as cigarettes are concerned? 25 A I have never studied that. Ln ' ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • 63 1 Q Newport? 2 A Haven't studied any of those, specifically. 3 Q Okay. Are you aware that the more the cigarette 4 company spends on ads, the'lligher their market 5 share of adolescents? 6 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 7 THE WITNESS: No. I'm not only not 8 aware of it but I doubt very much that •there's a 9 correlation between the two. 10 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 11 Q So it would surprise you if there's what would 12 be called a quote, perfect correlation between 13 the two correct? , 14 A Yes it o ld u i , w u s rpr se me. 15 Q And why would it? 16 A Any perfect correlation would surprise me. 17 Q Why would that sur rise ou? p y 18 A Because I've never seen a perfect correlation. 19 Q Well, you know, by that I mean the pe ople who 20 manufacture Marlboro, Philip Morris, they spend 21 the most on advertising and they have the 22 highest market share for adolescents. 23 The people who manufacture Camel, RJR, 24 they spend the next most on advertising and they 25 have the second largest adolescent market share HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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• • 64 1 and on like that. 2 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 3 BY MR HOAG CONTINUING: . , 4 Q That's what I mean by quote,, perfect 5 correlation. And that would surprise you, 6 correct? 7 MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. 8 THE WITNESS: Well, nothing eurprises 9 me after being,on the face of this earth for 65 10 years. But indeed, you're describing 11 correlation of cigarette advertising that is 12 aimed toward a legal smoking market somehow 13 being correlated to the incidence of adolescent 14 smoking. 15 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 16 Q Okay. You're assumption is that it's aimed 17 toward -- and exclusively aimed towards adults, 18 legal smoking adults, correct? 19 A That is correct. 20 Q Have you reviewed any internal tobacco company 21 documents? 22 A No, I have not. 23 Q Not a single one? 24 A No, sir. 25 Q Has anyone from the tobacco industry offered to HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• 53 1 A I've never studied their ages. 2 Q Do you think that cigarette companies have? 3 MR. BARINGER:- Objection. 4 THE WITNESS: I have no idea. 5 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 6 Q If you were in the marketing business for the 7 cigarette company and you were recommending to 8 them that they advertise the Virginia S•lims 9 brand in tennis tournaments, would you want to 10 know the age of the demographics of the tennis 11 players? 12 A Not necessarily, no. 13 Q You wouldn't want to know that? 14 A No. I would be much more interested in who was 15 watching the tennis players. 16 Q Okay. So you'd want the demographic on the age 17 group of the people that watched the tennis 18 players rather than the age of the actual tennis 19 players, correct? 20 A Yes. I think that from a marketing perspective 21 would be the best way to go.- 22 Q And do you have any idea what the age of the 23 people who watch tennis tournaments such as the 24 Virginia Slims Tournament are? 25 J A No, sir. Ln HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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62 • 1 2 Q Is there any type of cigarette product that an adolescent would prefer as compared to somebody • 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 in their thirties?. A I've really not studied that. Q Have you read anything.about that? A The only thing I've seen is the -- I've seen something, and I believe it comes out of the TAPS data, and there may also be one ot•her body of data that I've seen that indicates that adolescent -- the brand share among adolescent smokers is rather skewed toward Marlboro. But the difficulty that I have with that is that I suspect and I have not studied in detail that Marlboros also have a large brand share among these people in the legal smoking ages. Q Do you know whether it's more or less in the adolescent age group as compared to the adult age group as far as the market share for~ Marlboro? A No, I don't know. Q What about for Camel? A I haven't done a study for Camel. Q What about for Kools? A No. Ln ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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. • 54 1 Q Now, using an example the Virginia Slims 2 Tennis Tournament, what is the purpose for 3 sponsoring -- for a cigarette company to sponsor 4 a tennis tournament? , 5 A I've never examined any documents for a 6 cigarette company and not specifically for 7 Virginia Slims as to what purpose they had in 8 mind for sponsoring such a tournament. • 9 Q Now, the Camel Company, which is RJR, the 10 company that sells Camel, they give away 11 merchandise for Camel dollars; are you familiar 12 with that? 13 A Not specifically, no. 14 Q Anything about that? 15 A Well, I know that there is merchandise.that is 16 associated with the Camel name. 17 Q Do you know what merchandise they gave away? 18 A No. I've never studied what specifically are 19 the various types of merchandise they give away. 20 Q Do you know whether or not the merchandise is 21 the type of thing that would'appeal to 22 adolescents? 23 A No. 24 Q Now, if, in fact, the merchandise that they give 25 away for Camel dollars is the type of a ~ ~ HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 w ~ CO
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• • 66 1 recollection is it was sometime in either the 2 spring or the summer. 3 Q And how long did that deposition take? 4 A My recollection is that it•took all of a morning 5 and we worked through what woul d be a 6 traditional lunch hour concluding somewhere 7 around -- my best recollection' s around 1:30 in 8 the afternoon. 9 Q So it was about five hours? 10 A I guess so. 11 Q Who conducted that deposition? 12 A A representative of a law firm that represented 13 Mike Moore, the Attorney General of the State of 14 Mississippi. I believe they were from 15 Pascagoula or some town like that. I don't 16 recall the name of the attorney. 17 MR. BARINGER: John, when you get to a 18 convenient spot could we take a five-minute 19 break ? soon 20 MR. HOAG: We can do that right now. 21 MR. BARINGER: Okay. That's fine. 22 Th k an you. 23 MR. HOAG: Thank you. 24 (Recess taken) 25 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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67 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Okay. Prior to the break, we were discussing the deposition in the attorney general's case in Mississippi. You said that took about five hours. What was the nature of your testimony in that case? A I don't recall all of the testimony in that case. I didn't review it in preparation for this deposition. Q Were you a marketing -- offered as a marketing expert, advertising and things like that? A Marketing, advertising, consumer behavior. Q Basically the same thing as for this deposition, right? A That is correct. Q What was the Mississippi attorney general's case about? A Well-, my recollection from the Complaint was that it's the attorney general of Mississippi was suing the tobacco companies for an amount of money for alleged injury to people who live in Mississippi. Q Did you review any materials in preparation for that deposition? A Yes, I did. Q What did you review? L„ ~ ~ ~ N HALL AND DEER ~, (800) 321-3904 ~ F,
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45 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Well, I've seen their name associated with sporting events, yes. Q Like what? A Virginia Slims comes to my•mind. Q How about racing? A I'm not an aficionado of racing so I'm not really conversive with the racing area. Q Have you ever done any study or review of the number of sporting events that the tobacco industry sponsors? A No. I don't have any data on that. Q Now, based on your experience as a marketer over many decades, is there any logical reason for the manufacturers of cigarette products to sponsor sporting events? A Well, there's a logical reason for a lot of people to sponsor sporting events. First of all, to provide adequate funding so that those events can be held. There's also the potential to have their name exposed to their customers in a venue that is different than others that might be used. Q How about exposed to people who don't yet use the product? A I don't quite understand your question. cn J J F+ HALL AND DEER v, (800) 321-3904 ~ W
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71 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 classes, how many documents does that entail? A That entails five pages. Q Okay. If we can have that marked as Plaintiff's Exhibit 3, the five pages of documents that you've used in classes. (Deposition Exhibit No. 3 marked for identification) BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Now, the information that you have that you're relying on that's about a foot or foot and a half high, are those articles? A They're articles, reports. That's the best way I can describe them. Q Okay. Can you just start at the beginning and read me the name of the first article or report? A The first one is an article called Checking the References: Adolescent Smoking Research Used in Public Policy Formation that I authored and which is cited on my Curriculum Vitae. Q Okay. And what's after that? A Hold on. Next article. Next one is the FTC and Surgeon General versus Joe Camel, Research Standards and Public Policy. This is cited on my curriculum vitae as a paper that was given at the Society for Consumers Psychology. The next HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln w ~0 Ln
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65 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 show you any of their internal documents? A No and I have not requested them. Q They're just not of interest to you; is that correct? A It's not a not of interest. I did not request them. They're not germane to what I do. Q You are aware that there are marketing memoranda, internal memoranda, from tobacco companies that involve marketing to children. You are aware of that, correct? A No. MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: No, I'm not. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q So would it surprise you if there are internal tobacco industry documents that discuss marketing plans for marketing to children? A Since I have never seen any of those documents, I can't answer the question about surprise or not. Q You were deposed in the Mississippi Attorney General's case? A That is correct. Q When was that? A It was sometime last year, 1997. My cn -J ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 W 00 W
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73 • • r • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 The next document is Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People, a Report of the Surgeon General, United States Department of Health and Human Services.',The date on this is 1994. The next document has as its heading 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey, Public Use Data Tape and contains the coding and the questionnaire that was used in the TAPS-study; that is Teen-Age Attitudes and Practices Survey conducted by the National Health Interviewing Organization for the Center for Disease Control. The next document has as its heading the University of Michigan News and Information Service. It is a press release which was released at 12 noon eastern standard time on Thursday, December the 19th, 1996. It contains a report on a study that was conducted by the University of Michigan. The next document is also from the University of Michigan News and Information Service. It was released on December the 19th, '96. It is about a survey that was done by the University of Michigan - concerning the rise in drug use among American teens in 1996 and was the precursor to a newa u, ~ J J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 w ~ ~
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74 • . • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 conference being held that day. The next document is entitled Teenage Smoking, National Patterns of Cigarette Smoking, Ages 12 through 18, in 1968,and 1970. It is from the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service. The next document is entitled Strategies to Control Tobacco Use in the United State-s: Blueprint for Public Health Action in the 1990s. It comes from the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. The next document is entitled Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The date on it is May 24th, 1996. It is Volume 45, Number 20 and concerns itself at least on the heading on the first page of World No-Tobacco Day on May 31st, 1996 and then talks about tobacco use and usual source of cigarettes among high school students, United States, 1995. The next document is Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. It is dated November the 8th, 1996, Volume 45, Number 44, and the heading is the Great American Smokeout, November 21st, 1996. Then later in the report it has a HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ ~ J J cn w k.0 00
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75 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 heading of State-Specific Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking, United States, 1995. The next document has two pages to it; the first page has a chart•on it that is entitled History of RJR and Youth Nonsmoking Effort Programs. The second page is the Cigarette Advertising Code, Article Four Advertising Standards, 1964; and that, ,in fact, is a two-page document that I just read to you. The next document is the cover page and page one hundred, and I cannot get you the specific page number. It looks like it may be 186. The cover page is the Economic Report of the President, transmitted to the Congress in January 1987. The next document has two parts to it. The first of these is the Cigarette Advertising and Promotion Code of 1990 and then there is the Code of Cigarette Sampling. Practices dated 1983. The next document is MMWR, May 23rd, 1997. The heading on it is Cigar Smoking Among Teenagers - United States, Massachusetts and New York, 1996. The next document is Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, December the 23rd, 1994, Volume 43, Number 50. The heading on it cn ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER ~' (800) 321-3904 cn w to ko
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69 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I brought a series of documents that I have used in -- principally, in classes that deal with teaching buyer behavior and the communications environment. I also brought, with me the -- I really don't know how to describe this but I'll read from what is underlined -- the Notice of Taking Deposition, so forth, for today which is a three-page document including an atta.chment A. Q Okay. And the other -- A I brought with me an undated copy of my curriculum vitae. Q Uh-huh. A And I also brought a listing of the cases in which I've given testimony, both at deposition and trial since 1994. Q Okay. What I'd like to do is first of all is get your updated CV marked as Plaintiff's Exhibit 1 and also the list of the cases that you testified in or worked in since '94, if we could have that marked as Plaintiff's Exhibit 2, and I'll just wait for that. (Deposition Exhibit Nos. 1 and 2 marked for identification) BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q The Notice of Taking Deposition with an HALL AND DEER w (800) 321-3904 W
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68 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I don't have the list of what I reviewed for that deposition. Sorry. Q Do you remember any of it? A Well, I remember it and some, of them are the things that I've reviewed for this deposition. And there are other -- there were a lot of various studies and documents that I looked at. I do remember reading the Complaint, specifically. Q Did you bring any documents-with you today? A Yes. Q What did you bring with you today? A Do you want me to read them off to you or -- Q Yes, please. A Okay. In the file I have the Amended Class Action Complaint for Compensatory and Punitive Damages; Howard A. Engle, M.D.;.Robert W. Engle, Raymond Lacey, Frosene D. Stevens, Arthur R. Reeves and Richard Starr. Q You don't need to read every name. You brought the Engle Complaint with you. That's good. What else? A I brought the Expert Disclosure of Plaintiff's experts. Q Okay. What else? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 w ~ N
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70 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 attachment on it, the attachment is a request for you to bring certain documents with you. Have you listed for me orally all of the documents you brought with'you in response_to that attachment A? A No. I have a group of other documents that are here that I have relied upon to formulate my opinion in the case. Q And how large are those documents -- or how many documents are there, let me put it that way. A I don't know the sheer -- I didn'thave a count of the number but I would say to give you a perspective that the pile of paper is approximately a foot and a half high or better. Q Okay. And these are all documents that you rely on or -- is that correct? A They are documents that I rely on. Q Okay. And is that separate from the documents that you said that you use in classes? A Yeah. Q Or is that the same thing? A Yes, sir. Q Is that separate? A Yes, that's separate. Q Okay. The documents that you've used in L„ ~ ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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77 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 of Public Attitudes Towards Cigarette Smoking and The Tobacco Industry in 1980, Volume 1, May 1980. On the second page it indicates that it was prepared for the Tobacco Institute in May of 1980 and the authorship appears as though it comes from the-Roper Organization. Q What's the title of that one again? A The title on the first page is A Study-of Public Attitudes Towards Cigarette Smoking and The Tobacco Industry in 1980 and it is dated May 1980. The next document is from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies,. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health-Service. It is entitled Advanced Report Number 18, August 1996 and it has as its heading Preliminary Estimates from the 1995 National Household survey on Drug Abuse. The next document is entitled Trends in Cigarette Smoking in the United States, Projections to the Year 2000 authored by John P. Pierce, Ph.D.; Michael C. Fiore, M.D.; K Thomas E. Novotny, M.D.; Evridiki HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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79 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 It contains an article Pollay's Pertinent and Impertinent Opinions, Good Versus Bad Research. The author is myself. There are no page numbers on this -- on the copy that,I have. The next is an article entitled Consumer Research Standards and Public Policy Formulations: The Case of Mickey Mouse and Old Joe, and the author is myself, and •this is noted for the rest of the citation on my- curriculum vitae. Next document is entitled When Medical Doctors Conduct Marketing Research, JAMA and Old Joe, the Camel. The author is William Krumske, Junior; Millersville University, and it is a publication of the American Marketing Association, Pages 405 through page 410. And it was dated the winter of 1993. The next document is the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Unfortunately, the copy I have, the date is off although it looks like it could be September in 1996. The title on the document is Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - the United States, 1995. The next document is entitled Teenage Smoking - - hold on a minute -- Immediate and Long-term HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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78 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 J. Hatziandreu, M.D.; Ronald M. Davis, M.D. is an article from the Journal of the American Medical Association. The date is January the 6th, 1989, Volume 261, Number 1, Pages 61 through 65. The next document is Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young People to Start Smoking, Evidence from California. The•authors are John P. Pierce, Ph.D.; Elizabeth Gilpin, M.S.; David M. Burnes, M.D.; Elizabeth Whalen, M.A.; Bradley Rosbrook, M.S.; Donald Shopland; Michael Johnson, Ph.D. It is an article from the Journal of the American Medical Association, December the 11th, 1991, Volume 266, Number 2, Pages 3154 to 3158. The next document is entitled Growing Up Tobacco Free, Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Barbara S. Lynch and Richard J. Bonnie, Editors, the Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths, Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine, the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994. The next is taken from the Journal of Advertising, Volume 23, Number 1, March 1994. It Ln ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln m N
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• • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 81 Prevention and Control Program, Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, LaJolla, California. There is no other citation on this , I that would -explain where it was published if it was published. Q Is there a year on that one? A Hold on. No, there's no year on it. There's a word count but no year. The next document has no title on it but it does say under the word purpose, this report is the latest in a series of cigarette sales, advertising and promotion that the federal trade commission has submitted annually to Congress since 1967 pursuant to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. There is no date on it; however, it does say in the introduction to this report that the statistical tables cover periods for 1963 through 1994. So we could assume that at least the publication appeared sometime after the year 1994. It is a Federal Trade Commission report. The next document is entitled Gallup Poll, November 1959. And that's the only citation actually on it. It is the data from the Gallup Poll undertaken in that month. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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82 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 The next document is a news release from the Gallup Poll News Service, Volume 56, Number 29. Unfortunately, the copy I have in front of me does not have a,specific date on it but the headline is Despite Increasing Hostility, One in Four Americans Still Smokes. The authors are Larry Hugick and Jennifer Leonard. The next document is a series of what appear to be advertisements and then explanation; however, these may have also been posters, and they are part of apparently the program that is -- I'm sorry. It is a booklet and it is entitled I see at the bottom a Parents' Guide to Reducing the Risk of Negative Behavior in Adolescents. It is a deposition document from the deposition of Kenneth Verner. The next document is entitled the Difranza/JAMA/Joe Camel Research: Let's Look at The DATA. The author is Joel S. Dubow. It is a paper that is in response to Richard Pollay's complaint that criticism of JAMA'S Joe Camel trilogy have been largely speculative and not evidence based. And it was authored by Joel S. Dubow and that is the only citation on ' Ln J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904
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80 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Patterns. So the title is Teenage Smoking: Immediate and Long-term Patterns. It comes from the National Institute of Education, United States Department of Health,, Education and Welfare in Washington. The date on -- and it was prepared by Dorothy E. Green of Chilton Research Services. It is dated November 1979. The next document is entitled Young Children's Perceptions of Cigarette Brand Advertising Symbols: Awareness, Affect and Target Market Identification. The author is Lucy L. Henke. It is from the Journal of Advertising, Volume 24, Number 4, the winter of 1995. The next is a document that is entitled Draft AAA and the specific citation is Parent Intervention to Prevent Smoking: Using Joe Camel to Teach Children About Smoking. The authors are Lucy L. Henke,-Ph.D.; University of New Hampshire and Michelle A. Wolf, Ph.D., San Francisco State University. The next document is entitled Are Adolescents Receptive to Current Sales Promotion Practices of the Tobacco Industry? The authors are Elizabeth A. Gilpin, M.S.; John P. Pierce, Ph.D.; and Bradley Rosbrook, M.S., Cancer HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ J Ln ~ m ~
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84 • 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 The next item is In The Matter of Mike Moore, Attorney General versus the American Tobacco Company, et al; Paul Fischer, M.D. It is Volume 2, March 28th, 1997. It is from his deposition and following the title page there is one page that contains in smaller type a reproduction of pages 237 to 240 of that deposition. Now, also attached as the,next document is State of Florida versus American Tobacco, Depo of Paul Fischer, M.D., taken on 9-26-96. This is a condensation of the transcript, and after that title page there are two pages that contain the first eight pages of the deposition transcript. The next document is from The Superior Court of The State of California, City and County of San Francisco. It is from the deposition of Joseph R. DiFranza, M.D. in the matter of Janet C. Mangini, Plaintiff, versus RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, RJR Nabisco, Incorporated, McCann-Erickson USA. After the title page -- and this is from Volume 2-- there is documentation as to when it happened that is associated with that. The next is from the same Superiorlcn N J v HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321 3904 m - 00
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85 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Court of the State of California, City and County of San Francisco. This is another deposition of Joseph R. DiFranza in the matter of Janet C. Mangini, Plaintiff, versus RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, RJR Nabisco, Incorporated, McCann-Erickson USA, Incorporated; Young and Rubicam, Incorporated. It was a deposition that was conducted on Saturd•ay, June 27th, 1992. The next document 'is entitled Reducing Youth Access to Tobacco. It is from the Journal of the American Medical Association, December the llth, 1991, Volume 266, Number 2, Pages 3186 to 3188. It is apparently a kind of an editorial and it is signed by a Ronald M. Davis, M.D. Also, following that is another editorial entitled Making Smoking Prevention a Reality. It is from the same Journal of the American Medical Association edition, pages 3188 to page 3189. It is signed by William L. Roper, M.D., MPH. Next is a series of materials that is from the We Card Program which has as a subentitlement State Law Prohibits the Sale Of 25 Tobacco to Minors. It comes from the Coalition - HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 Ln ~ J J ~ Ul ~ m ~
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86 • • 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 for Responsible Tobacco Retailing, Post Office Box 27879, Washington, D.C. And the next item is entitled a Study of Cigarette Brand Preferences Among Young Smokers prepared for Collier, Shannon, Rill and Scott, May 1997. It was prepared by Audits and Surveys Worldwide from New York City and it is stamped confidential. The next is a publication from the George Washington Univexsity School of Business and Public Management. It is entitled the Determinants of, Teenage Smoking Behavior. The author is J. Howard Beales, III; Department of Strategic Management and Public Policy, GW. it is Working Paper Series number 96-34. The next item is a one-page paper -- I'm sorry, a two-page paper that was prepared for me by my research assistant and under my direction. The first page is a listing of toys that have failed. The next page contains a listing of cartoon characters in advertising to adults. MR. BARINGER: That's it on all the things that you relied on, right? THE WITNESS: That's pretty much what HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~
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88 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 documents that would address certain areas that I wanted to look at. Q Okay. So some of them were selected by defense counsel based on a generic'Xequest you made; is that correct? A Well, it wasn't always generic. In some cases it was more specific and then they supplied me with the document. Q Was it a written or oral request? A Oral. Q Have you prepared any written reports for this case? A Only in the sense that there's a one-page document that describes what is my area of testimony and expertise. I don't know what you title that or what you call that. Q Your disclosure statement. Did you prepare that? A Yes. I prepared it in conjunction with counsel. Q Did you write it yourself or.was it written at least in part by counsel and you edited it? A No. I think it's kind of a joint work product where counsel and I discussed it and then counsel had it typed up. But it was -- it's my work product. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln r N
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89 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Okay. Now, do you have recollection to which of these documents and composites Plaintiff's Composite Exhibit 4 were provided to you by defense counsel but not speGifically requested? A No. I don't have a record of that and I don't recall. Q Okay. Were these the same documents you relied on for the Mississippi attorney general-case? A Some of them are, yes. Q Or not to that case? A I mean, as I recollect, those are some of the documents that I relied upon for the Mississippi case. Q Are there any documents you relied on for the Mississippi case that you are not relying on for this case? A I really cannot recall. There may have been something that was specific to Missisaippi; obviously, the Complaint and some other things, but the bulk of it would have been the same: Q The Engle case -- of course, that's the case that we're her e on today -- w hen did you first get contacted in regard to be ing an expert witness on the Engle case? A I think that was just a few d ays ago. I can't HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 u, ~ ~_A w
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• 76 1 is Cigarette Smoking Among Adults, United 2 States, 1993. 3 The next document is entitled 4 Cigarette Advertising and Promotion Code and the 5 date on it is December 1990 and it appears as 6 though this comes from the Tobacco Institute, 7 1875 I Street Northwest, Washington, D.C., 8 20006. The next document has a heading on the 9 cover page from the Gallup Organization 10 Incorporated of Princeton, New Jersey. It has a 11 title on it of Smoking Prevalence, Beliefs and 12 Activities by Gender and other Demographic 13 Indicators. The date on it is May 1993 and it 14 is indicated it was prepared by 15 Rosita M. Thomas, Ph.D. and Max D. Larsen, Ph.D. 16 presented at the 1993 AAPOR Annual Conventi on in 17 St. Louis, Illinois, May 20th-23rd , 1993. 18 The next document is two pages. The 19 first page says as its heading Som e Straigh t 20 Talk About Smoking for Young People, and it 21 indicates that it comes from the R J Reynold s 22 Tobacco Company. The second page is Does 23 Smoking Really Make You Look More Grown-up. It 24 is also from the RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company. 25 The next document is entitled A Study HALL AND-DE$R (800) 321-3904
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90 . • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 put the time on it. It's sometime in the period prior to the time that I prepared my statement but it is not a long time ago. Q Approximately how many hours, have you spent working on all of these tobacco related cases as an expert witness? A Gosh, I don't know. I don't -- I really don't know the total number of hours that have been spent on tobacco related cases going all the way back to Cippilone. I just -- I would be very hesitant to venture even a guess as to -- Q Approximately how many for 1997? A I would say that -- let_me see if I can,do it in some kind of a shorthand way here and recollect. MR. BARINGER: Use a clean sheet o paper. THE WITNESS: In the sense of hours, of 1997 I would estimate it's probably somewhere in the neighborhood of 200 to -- between two and 300 hours. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Have you done at least some work for the tobacco companies or a tobacco company since the 1980s up to present in each year? HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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92 . • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A No. I don't think Joe had been born by then. Q What year is your recollection that Joe Camel- was first advertised? A I don't know the exact date,of the launch of the Joe Camel campaign. The first time I heard of it was sometime after the articles appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association which is, I believe, 1991. So it somewhere predates 1991. Q Was any of your testimony in Cippilone related to whether or not the tobacco industry or any specific tobacco company markets its product to underaged individuals? A I don't recall whether that was a specific issue addressed in the Cippilone trial. Q What issues do you recall being addressed in the Cippilone trial? A You mean by me or just generally in the Cippilone -- Q No, by you. I mean by you. A My recollection is that the focal point of my testimony concerned itself with issues of advertising and smoking initiation. Q Can you hear me? A Yes. ~ ~ J F-+ HALL AND DEER u, (800) 321-3904 m
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72 • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 article is the Efficacy of Statistically Based Research: The Case of Old Joe in the Journal of the American Medical Association. This is`also cited on my curriculum vitae. Next article or next thing is a copy from the Journal of Advertising and it contains the article I wrote on Ethical Advertising and Research Standards: Three Case Studies. The next is also cited on my curriculum vitae. It is Research Validity and Resulting Public Policy: The Case of DiFranza Old Joe Cigarette Study. The next document is a series of advertisements for various products or brands that were taken from Life Magazine over the decades from the 1930s through the 1990s. The next document is entitled Teenage Smoking, National Patterns of Cigarette Smoking, Ages 12 through 18, in 1972 and 1974. It is compiled under an interagency agreement from the Division of Cancer Control and Rehabilitation, National Cancer Institute, NIH, to the Bureau of Health Education, Center for Disease Control. Underneath that it says US Department of`Health, Education and Welfare Public Health Service, National Institute of Health. Ln J HALL AND DEER u, (800) 321-3904 ~`' " LD m
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94 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 month of those two years when you were working on the Cippilone case on that case? A I don't believe I worked every single month but I don't have any records lsAt of that. Q Well, did you spend more than 200 hours working on that case total? A I really don't know in the number of hours. All I know is that I spent time over a two-year period getting prepared for deposition and trial. Q Do you have some ballpark-estimate of the amount of time you spent? A No. I'm sorry, I don't. I don't have those records anymore to refer to. Q What percentage of your income for those years that you worked on Cippilone was from the fees generated from serving as an expert on Cippilone? A I'm not sure quite sure what percentage you want. I want to be responsive. Q The percentage of your total income that came from fees generated from working on the Cippilone case during the years you worked on it. A It would be a ballpark because I don't have-anv ~ ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 cn ~ 00
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87 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I relied on. MR. HOAG: Okay. I'd like to have that marked as a composite exhibit. I think it would be Plaintiff's ExhibYt, 4; is that correct? And just have it attached to the deposition. Whatever is the most convenient way to get a copy is fine with me. Whatever the copying expense is, we'll pay for that. (Recess taken) (Deposition Exhibit No. 4 marked for identification) BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Are those -- that list of documents that you just read, and I appreciate the time that you just spent doing that -- that list of documents you just read, did you compile all of those yourself or were any of those provided to you by defense counsel? A Some were provided by defense counsel at my request. Q Did you specifically request specific documents or were some of those documents provided to you without a specific request for that document? A Many of them were on my specific request. Some were on the basis of a request of mine for ~ J J HALL AND DEER '-' (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~
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95 . • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 of my -- you know, I don't_have income tax records from back that far. Q Uh-huh. A But my best ballpark guess•would be 10 percent or less. Q What analysis did you do of cigarette advertisements? A For what? For when? I don't understand the -- Q Did you do an analysis of cigarette advertising? A Did I do an analysis of cigarette advertising? Q Yes. A Well, in the sense that I looked at the analysis that had been performed by Pollay in the Cippilone case, I certainly have looked at cigarette advertising. In fact, I brought some cigarette advertisements here which are contained in the kind of put-together Exhibit No. 4. And in preparation for the Cippilone trial, I did review, you know, advertisements for cigarettes that had occurred in the relevant period of time for the Cippilone trial. Q What was the relevant period of time? A Early 1940s, 1950s, 1960s. Q Did you do a systematic analysis of the Ln r J J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ ~ io
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83 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 that copy. The next document comes from Food and Beverage Marketing, July 1993. It is entitled was Joe Camel Framed? The•author is I Joel Dubow. As part of that article, there is appended to it and headed DiFranza, RJR Respond. The next document is RJR Nabisco's Cartoon Camel Promotes Camel Cigarettes.to Children. The authors are Joseph R. DiFranza, M.D.; John W. Richards, Jr., M.D.; Paul M. Paulman, M.D.; Nancy Wolf-Gillespie, M.A.; Christopher Fletcher M.D.; Robert D. Jaffe, M.D.; David Murray , Ph.D. it is from the Journal of the American Medical Association, December 11, 1991, Volumes 266, Number 22, pages 3149 to 3153. The next item is a cover page which is entitled In The Matter of Mike Moore, Attorney General versus the American Tobacco Company, et al., and it is from a deposition of Paul Fischer, M.D., February 19th, 1997. After the title page there is one page attached -- well, it's actually a page which contains the first seven pages of the deposition. cn N ~ J HALL AND DEER '-' (800) 321-3904 Ln m ~
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96 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 cigarette advertising that was done in the forties, fifties and sixties? A I don't quite know what you mean by systematic. Q You have a definition for the word systematic analysis? A That would not be the kind of terminology that I would associate with doing an analysis. Q What words would you associate with doi-ng an analysis? A Well, there's one way of doing it and that is that you could do a more -- if you want scientific type of analysis such as a content analysis. Another way of doing it is to review the advertising and to try to project opinions about the general tenor of advertising rather Q A Q than to look at the specific content of advertising. Did you do -- Those would both be somewhat systematic nature. Did you do either of those two? A I did the latter. Q You did a review? A Yes, sir. Q And what was your conclusion? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 the in
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97 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 . 1 A In the Cippilone trial? Q For the advertisements from the 1940s, fifties and sixties of cigarettes. A Well, there are two times I looked at this. First of all, I looked at the forties, fifties and sixties in connection with the Cippilone trial which is what I thought you were referring to earlier. In conjunction with the material that I brought here today from Life Magazine, I've looked at the nature of cigarette advertising compared to the nature of advertising for other package goods for the period 1930s through the 1990s and looked at each decade specifically. Q Based on Life Magazine's--- A Based on advertisements that appeared in Life Magazine. Q Okay. Now, you did the review of Life Magazine advertisements for the Engle case? A I've done it as a part of the research that I've undertaken as a result of my retention by Jones, Day including for the Engle case. Q Did they specifically ask,you to do that? A No. They didn't ask me to do anything and, in fact, did not ask me to do it for the Engle Ln ~ ~ J N Ln 0. N r HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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91 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I did no work associated with tobacco litigation from the end of the Cippilone trial until I was retained by Jones, Day, Reavis and Pouge in November of 1996. Q Now, I think you said, and if I'm wrong please correct me, you worked for a couple of years on the Cippilone case? A That is correct. Q What was the nature of the work you did for a couple of years on the Cippilone case? A Reviewed literature, studies, went to many meetings with legal counsel, proffered my deposition, appeared at trial and proffered my testimony and was cross-examined on it. Q And what literature did you review? A I do not have a list of all the literature that was reviewed in preparation for the Cippilone trial. That file is -- it was an old file and it's since been destroyed. Q For example, did you review literature related to Joe Camel? A In preparation for the Cippilone trial? Q Yeah. A No, sir. Q No? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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101 • • 1 A I don't recall. You know, I'm just sitting here trying to recall advertisements that I looked at a long time ago. I don't want to venture a guess on that without looking at the ads specifically anyhow. Q You have to see a specific ad to know whether or not that was ever depicted in any ad? A Well, the difficulty that you have is y-our description of young healthy people. Different people of different ages determine whether people are young or old, healthy, good looking, attractive, etcetera. Q Can you recall any cigarette advertising -- advertisements depicting unhealthy people having a bad time smoking cigarettes? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: Well, that again calls for somebody to come to a conclusion of what is unhealthy and bad. I know some people including myself who think tennis ii bad and there are some people who think currently that skiing is bad. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Okay. So you think that an advertisement that depicts people playing tennis might actually 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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105 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Did you review television advertisements that were used in the fifties and sixties, for example? A In conjunction with the Cippilone trial? Q Or any case. A Well, in conjunction with the Cippilone trial I do remember looking at a compendium of television advertisements for cigarette•s, yes. Q Do you remember Fred Flintstone saying Winston tastes good like a cigarette should? A No. I don't recall specifically Fred saying that. Q Do you recall TV cowboys like Steve McQueen smoking cigarettes and doing cigarette advertisements during his program? Do you recall that? A No. I don't recall Steve McQueen doing that. Q Do you recall he died of cancer? A Did he? Q Do you recall that? A No, because I didn't know he did. Q Do you recall the Dick VanDyke Show? Do you remember that? A Which one? Q The first Dick VanDyke Show. HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 n~, W
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103 . 1 2 3 Q you would like me to that I have here and look at the ads from the forties, fifties and let you know. But off the top of your hea4 you can recall ads . depicting or the content of throat irritation, correct? • 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ' A I recall that there were advertisements that dealt with the question of throat irrit•ation. Q Do you recall ads dealing with anything other than throat irritation in the forties, fifties and sixties? You know, things like satisfaction, you know, things like that? Were there any words like that used -- pleasure, things like that used in ads from the forties, fifties and sixties in cigarette ads that you can recollect? A I don't recall the words satisfaction, pleasure. There may have been and I would want to look at the ads. There is a point in time, it's more -- and it seemed to be more in the 1960s that the word taste seemed to appear in a lot of cigarette advertisements. That's the best recollection I can give you about advertisements, and I do not recall specific advertisements off the top of my ~ ~ J J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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102 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 create a negative connotation in the public who viewed the ad; is that what you're saying? A No, that is not what I'm saying. I am saying it is difficult to look at an•advertisement and make a determination of who the people are and what is the -- you know, what is their -- what is going to be the perception of people of that activity and then relating it to whatever the product or brand is that is appearing in the advertisement. Q Okay. Now, you did specifically recall content related to throat irritation in cigarette ads in the 1940s, fifties and sixties, correct? A That was more -- I believe, and if I'm not wrong, my recollection is it was probably more in the 1940s or fifties that dealt with --.`and the only one that comes to my mind is something that deals with throat irritation. I don't recall -- I do not recall the specific advertisement, however. Q Is there any other content you recall of the cigarette ads in the 1940s, fifties and sixties other than they seem to be advertising throat irritation? A I could go back and look through this file if L„ J v i . . HALL AND DEER '^ (800) 321-3904 n~i a,
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106 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A Oh. Q With Laura and Rob. Do you remember that show? A With Laura and Rob. That isn-'t the first Dick VanDyke Show, I don't•believe. I believe the first Dick VanDyke Show was with Maury Amsterdam. Q That would be the one. Do you recall that one? A Well, I generally recall it. I was around and used to watch it once in a while. Q Do you recall that Dick VanDyke used to advertise for cigarette brands on TV? A No. I don't recall that he advertised for cigarette brands. Whether the cigarette company sponsored that program, I don't know. I don't recall it. Q Did you review any of those TV ads? A Well, I did review television ads from that period of time in conjunction with the Cippilone trial but that's a considerable period_of time ago and I don't even have the ads in any file now. Q What kind of a message is conveyed when a popular TV star like, for example, Dick VanDyke back in the 1950s and early 1960s does cigarette advertisements on television? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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109 • • 1 A So that I -- most advertising and particularly for package goods does not address itself to the use of the products. It addresses itself to the 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 i brand. , Q Okay. So people -- I mean, manufacturers, they sell a product and they sell a specific brand of a product, correct? A That's correct. Q So they want people to buy the product and they want people to buy their particular brand of the product, correct? A Yes. They would like people to buy their brand of the product. Q And if they don't get people to buy the product, then they're not going to buy their brand, right? A But they may not be the people that are getting people to buy the product. Q That wasn't my question. If people aren't going to buy the product itself, then it's also true they aren't going to buy a particular brand of the product; is that correct? A That's logically correct. Q So it's necessary in one way or the other to convince people to buy a product and a brand;, HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• 107 1 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 2 Foundation Go ahead . . 3 THE WITNESS: Well, first of all, I 4 don't know that Dick VanDyke, did that so"I'm 5 assuming that this is a hypot hetical kind of a 6 question. 7 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 8 Q I know he did it but it's hypothetical,.yeah. 9 A All right... 10 Q For you it's hypothetical. For me i t's n ot. 11 A What do you want me to opine about_t hat k ind of 12 advertising? 13 Q Your marketing expertise about what messa ge is 14 being conveyed when a star like Dick VanD yke 15 during the fifties and sixties advertised for 16 cigarettes on television. 17 A Well,'the message that is being conveyed is that 18 Dick VanDyke probably uses the product. 19 Q Anything else conveyed by that fact to the 20 consuming public? 21 A Not unless I looked at that specific ad and had 22 data that would allow me to give you an opinion 23 about what that ad tried to -- did accomplish. 24 Q Do you know how much money cigarette companies 25 spend each year on advertising and marketing? cn N ~ J HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 w ~
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110 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 isn't that correct? A No. It is not correct. Q Is it your opinion that if there was absolutely no marketing,and no advertising of cigarettes that the same number of people would smoke cigarettes? A I don't know. I haven't studied that. Q So you have no opinion as to that quest•ion? A Well, it's very difficult to address the question the way you've phrased it. Q In what way is it difficult? A Because there are instances where firms have done no marketing, no advertising and have been rather successful. Q Well, that wasn't the question. That wasn't the question at all. A Then maybe you'll repeat the question. Q I said is it your opinion that if there was absolutely no advertising and no marketing of cigarettes that the same number of people would smoke cigarettes? A And my answer to you is I can't answer that question because I know from my discipline.that there are organizations who have done no advertising and no marketing and have achieved a HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln J
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108 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A No. I'm not privy:to their advertising budget figures. Q Is that something that's just unavailable to the general public? A I know that there have been some dollar figures that have been discussed by various people. Whether or not they are accurate, I don't- know. But I have not seen the specific budget• allocation of the various cigarette companies to ascertain whether those numbers that are quoted by people are accurate or note Q Well, as far as marketing and advertising go, is it true that the more often a person sees a-: message, the more likely they are to use -the product? A No. Q So then there is no point to paying for numerous advertisements; is that correct or not? A No. I didn't say that. I just -- you there's a point to paying for advertising. Q But it's not going to get people to use your product by advertising it more than once? A I think we ought to be very specific here-. Are you talking about a product or a brand? Q I'm talking about a product, any product. ~ W __j ~ v HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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99 • f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 for one thing Cippilone versus the other? A Some of the advertising that that shows up by my recollection in both of those but the advertising in the Cippilone case was essentially different in nature. Q In what way was it different? A Well, first it was advertisements that came -- that had been produced for the specifio defendants in the case. There were advertisements that were produced by the plaintiffs in the case that I reviewed, and so that is different than taking a random sampling of advertising as I've currently done out of the issues of Life Magazine. Q Okay. So what were your conclusions when you did the Cippilone analysis`of the advertisements of the 1940s, fifties and sixties? A My conclusion was that the content of the advertising contained messages that can be interpreted as indicating that there were health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Q What health risks were indicated by the cigarette advertising in the 1940s, fifties and sixties? A Well, there were things -- and I'm just now cn ~ J .,i HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln N W 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
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98 0 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 case. But in my program of review of documents, reports, materials, under the retention that I have from Jones, Day, Reavis and Pouge, I undertook at my own initiati,ve to gather and to look at the advertisements that came from Life Magazine. Q Okay. And you did that after they I guess the word might be contracted with you to be-a consultant in November of 1996? A Yeah. After they retained me in 1996 as a consultant. Q Okay. Now, I want to talk about that but let me first talk about the review you did of the advertisements -- cigarette advertisemente in the 1940s, fifties and sixties. What conclusion did you reach from that review? A Now, remember there are two reviews. So I've reviewed the advertisements from the forties, fifties and sixties both in conjunction with the Cippilone trial and then in conjunction with my current investigation under retention by Jones Day, Reavis and Pouge. Q Did you review the same advertisements for both things or were they different ads in the forties, fifties and sixties that you reviewed Ln ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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112 1 And did they increase the number of people using 2 their product as a result of the advertising? 3 A No. Their advertising in that period of time -- 4 the reason they commenced to do advertising is , 5 that they found that they needed to impart 6 information to people about the fac t that they 7 had some new brands that were on th e 8 marketplace. 9 Q But did they increase their sales a s a result of 10 the advertising? 11 A I don't know whether they increased their 12 sales. I know they were very successful prior 13 t th ti th d o e me ey a vertised. 14 Q You just don't know whether they would have sold 15 even more of their products had they advertised, 16 correct? 17 A No, I don't know whether they would have sold 18 more of their products. They may have sold 19 less . 20 Q All right. Are you of the opinion that as a 21 general rule people don't need or manufacturers 22 don't need to advertise or market their product? 23 A No I'm not of that o inion . p . 24 Q Are you of the general opinion that people are 25 oin to b -- th umb f le g g uy e same n er o peop are • HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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100 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 recalling. Remember, this is 20 some -- this is not 20 but it's a considerable period of time ago. But my recollection of some of those ads were things that addressed-throat irritation, the T-zone, things of that sort. Q What's a T-zone? A While I was around when those ads ran I didn't understand it then and I don't understand it now but my best guess is it probably deals with the throat. Q Now, did any of those ads in the 1940s, fifties and sixties that were cigarette advertisements convey a message that cigarette smoking was glamorous? A The difficulty you have there is that now you're getting into analyzing content. And I did not do a scientific content analysis so I can't answer the question whether or not those advertisements were glamorous because I did not undertake a content analysis'that would allow me to determine that. And that's very difficult, by the way, to do anyhow. Q Did any of those advertisements in the forties, fifties and sixties depict young healthy people having a good time while they smoked cigarettes? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 - v, ~ N P
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113 • • 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 going to buy a product regardless advertise it? A I can't answer that question. (Recess taken) , of whether you BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q I want to give you an example of a product, peanut butter cups. They're a product, correct? A That's correct. Q Lots of different people make peanut butter cups. At least more than one company makes them, correct? A I don't know. The only one I'm familiar with is the brand of Reese's. Q That's because they advertize but there's other ones who are around. A Strangely enough, Mr. Hoag, you'd be surprised that the Reese's Peanut Butter Cups are a product of Hershey Foods Corporation. Q Anyway, peanut butter cupsi is it your opinion that if no one advertised peanut butter cups, they were just there available to purchase, that just as many people would buy peanut butter cups? A I can't give you an opinion on that because I don't know. It's possible more people would buy HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ ~ ~ ~
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115 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 you manipulate one variable; in your case, advertising. Q Is there a difference between advertising and marketing? A Yes, there is. Q What's the difference? A Advertising is a part of marketing. Q And what does marketing include that is.not-partt of advertising? A Includes the product, includes the place where we sell the product, it includes,the delivery system for the product or the channels of distribution, it includes the pricing of the product, it includes all of the research that is undertaken to understand competitors, understanding the customer or potential customer. it is really everything that transpires from the end of the production line to the ultimate delivery to the end user and, in fact, reaches back into the manufacturing process and is involved in new product development. Q Well, does it include sponsoring events -- A Sponsoring events -- Ln ~ J J F+ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ w ~o
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111 • 1 2 significant amount of market share and sales. Q While I'm stating again you're not addressing my question at all, let me just ask a_follow-up to 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 what you just answered. W-hat products or services are you referring to that don't advertise or market at all? A Well, two come immediately to mind. One is a restaurant that I visited last night here in Ann Arbor. Has never advertised; does no marketing in the sense that you would interpret it, does no external marketing, doesn't even put its name on the door, does not identify itself as a restaurant or bar and it is probably the most successful restaurant in the Ann Arbor area. The second illustration that comes to mind which is one that existed for a long period of time for a company that was in the package goods business and was significantly successful is the Hershey Foods Corporation. Q You said they didn't advertise for a long time? A That's correct. Q But at some time they did, though. How? A They ultimately began advertising I believe in the late 1980s or early 1990s. cn ~ ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ w cn
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• . 117 1 and when they take their awards they thank 2 Virginia Slims on national television, that's 3 not considered to be advertising, correct? 4 A That is correct. , 5 Q That's considered to be promotion and marketing? 6 A No. That's considered to be promotion which is 7 a art of marketin as d ti in i p g a ver s g s. 8 Q Now, does promotion encourage people to purchase 9 a product? 10 A Promotion can -- promotion like advertising can 11 have many different 'r'oles, not necessarily 12 limited to the purchase decision. 13 Q But that is one of them, one of the roles, 14 correct? 15 A That sponsoring of events is connected to having 16 people buy the brand? 17 Q And bu the roduct y p . 18 A N o. 19 Q Oh, you mean you know for a fact that that does 20 not encourage people to buy the product itself? 21 A I don't know for a fact . All I can say to you 22 is that a major role fo r something like an event 23 sponsorship addresses itself more particularly 24 to the brand decision if it is connected at all 25 to a consumer decision but that there are other u, ~ J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 L, ~ ~ ~
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104 • • ilf • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 head. Q Do you recall any cigarette advertisement that created the impression or mentioned in the 1940s, fifties and sixties•that cigarette smoking could kill you? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: My recollection from being there in the forties, fifties and•sixties is that there were no cigarette ads that used the words this can kill you. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q How about debilitate you; any ads like that? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: I do not specifically recall any advertisements during that period of time for cigarettes that said they debilitate you. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Were there any ads showing people coughing that you can recollect? A There may have been some advertisements that addressed itself to coughing relative to this idea of irritation of the throat and things of that sort, but I don't recall specific advertisements that showed somebody coughing. HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 N 00
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118 • 25 _ cigarette company sponsoring a tennis tournament is going to encourage people to smoke cigarettes in general. You don't know. A I don't know but I've never seen any evidence that any cigarette company has encouraged people to smoke. Q Not even the slightest tiniest evidence? A I've not seen any evidence of cigarette companies encouraging the product decision. Rather it has been fundamentally oriented toward the brand decision. Q So in your opinion cigarette companies do not encourage anyone to smoke cigarettes in general,: correct? A The advertising that I have seen and any of the marketing efforts I've seen have addressed itself specifically to the brand decision. Q And you don't know whether or not that also encouraged people to smoke cigarettes? A Well, the consumer decision process is a rather complex process and advertising plays a very small role in that whole process, that consumer marketing strategy. Q So you don't know then whether or not roles that sponsorships can play in the 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~ ~
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120 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 those? A Let me try and understand what you're saying. You're talking about a talk show where somebody comes on from the Tobacco I4stitute? Q Yeah. Like let's say Meet the Press. A Yeah. Q Where they're talking about cigarettes and whether or not cigarettes-are dangerous-or whether it's been proven that they're dangerous. A And somebody from the Tobacco Institute comes on and converses with Tim Russert. Q Yeah. That's a good example. What would that be called? A I don't know what it's called. I don't even know -- in fact, I don't know anything about the Tobacco Institute and I don't know whether they have a marketing program. I don't think it would be under marketing. Q Well, having a speaker go out and address or critique health related research on tobacco products, what do you call that? A You call it people going out and talking about health related risks of tobacco products. it does not come under and is not a part of the Qn N ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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122 • • .~ 15 16 magazines throughout the country in 19s4. You're aware of that, correct? A I'm aware that it was issued in and around that period. I wasn't aware that it was 1954, and I 1 2 3 4 don't know where it was published or how many places it was published. Q Okay. And hypothetically, if it was published in hundreds of places throughout the country by the Tobacco Institute, would that qualify as marketing, promotions or advertising? MR. BARINGER: Objection. I'm sorry John, did you say by the Tobacco Institute? MR. HOAG: Yes. MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Would that qualify as advertising, marketing or promotion? A So this is a Frank Statement'that comes from the Tobacco Institute. It does not come under -- 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 that would not come under the marketing strategy of a firm. Q Well, what would you call it? A A statement from the Tobacco Institute, if that's what it was. Q And nothing else? 21 22 23 24 25 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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93 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Because I thought we faded out there. And did you do some kind of an analysis of advertisements, cigarette advertisements? A Well, I did an analysis of'a study that, purportedly analyzed advertisements, and that was a study that had been conducted -- a Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertising by Richard Pollay who was from the Univers•ity of British Columbia in Vancouver. Q You could take someone else's analysis? A That was part of my testimony. Q You didn't do your own analysis; is that correct? A No. I did some of my own but that was part of what I did specific to looking at cigarette advertisements. Q Approximately how many hours did you spend working on the Cippilone case? A I have no idea the hours. I know that I consumed two years, but during that two yearsof time I worked for other organizations as a consultant and, of course, maintained a full-time teaching and research position at the University of Michigan. Q So did you work -- do at least some work each HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~ Ln ~ ~
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124 • 1 MR. BARINGER: Objection. foundation. Go ahead. Lack of . 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 THE WITNESS: No. First of all, I don't know who paid for it•. Second of all, I don't know that'it appeared in hundreds of publications. I don't know how many publications it appeared in. I do not know what was the purpose of the people who designed the message and paid for it. I know that it is a statement and that's what it is, It is -- generally, a statement of that sort is not a part of a marketing strategy. It is rather a statement on behalf of either an industry or a group of individual companies or an individual company. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q You know, Tylenol, I'm sure you're familiar with Tylenol and the marketing that they did to address the concerns people had about possible tampering with their product, correct? A I'm familiar with the Tylenol story, yes. Q -- in most universities that teach the types of things that you teach, isn't it? (Discussion held off the record) BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Ln ~ HALL AND DEER 0~0 (800) 321-3904
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125 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Okay. I'm sorry. The Tylenol situation, how they dealt with the problems of possible tampering with their product is it uses a case. study in schools like yours,, isn't it, in colleges and universities like yours? A It's been used as an illustration but there are other brands which have faced a similar situation and which we also use in teaching. Q And that's considered to be'-- what Tylenol did was considered to be part of their marketing -- overall marketing effort, wasn't it? A It was part of their recovery effort and yes, but remember that when you're talking about Tylenol, in this instance it was advertising and in addition to that it was brand specific. Q Yes. And the Frank Statement was product specific, correct? MR. BARINGER: Objection. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q In talking about cigarettes? A I don't believe the Frank Statement addressed a specific brand. Q But it was product. It was about the product itself, correct? A As far as I recall, yes. Ln -J -J I . HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 ~
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114 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 it. It's possible less. It's possible the same number of people would buy it. Q So how could you know the answer to that question? 1 A By going out and doing research and conducting a controlled experiment. Q Has that ever been done for peanut butter cups that you know of? A A controlled experiment? Q Yeah. - A I don't know. I'm not privy to the data'or the research that's been done by peanut butter cup manufacturers. Q Has that ever been done for cigarettes? A I don't know. Q Is there any cigarette company that has ever decided let's totally stop advertising to find out if we sell just as much if we don't advertise or market? A No, no, no. You're simplifying this whole thing. I talked about a -- you know, a controlled experiment which would be done under scientific conditions and a very difficult exercise to undertake because it means that you have to hold the rest of the world steady while HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ w CO
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127 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 THE WITNESS: My recollection from the 1950s, and I was alive during that period of time, is that there was a series of reports principally carried, as I recall, in the Reader's Digest but not limited to the Reader's Digest that were appearing_on,newscasts and in newspapers that dealt with health risks associated with cigarette smoking. • BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Uh-huh. And the tobacco industry fearful of losing millions of customers, meaning that they would stop smoking, published the Frank Statement, correct? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: No. That's not correct and I don't know that the tobacco industry was fearful as you have characterized. All I know is - BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q -- tobacco industry internal documents, correct? MR. BARINGER: Just a minute, John. He wasn't finished with his answer, and I know it's difficult over the telephone. Go ahead. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q I'm sorry. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ cn N
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126 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q All right. And that's pretty obvious the purpose of placing those statements in newspapers and national magazines all over the country was to make sure people continued to purchase the product, correct? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. THE WITNESS: No, it is BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: not obvious. Q Well, what other purpose would they have for the Frank Statement being publicized, paid for in publications all over the country? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. THE WITNESS: I don't know what the internal purpose was of the people who designed that statement and paid for it; however, there are other possible reasons why someone would author such a statement and it could be something just as simple as to explain our position relative to our product. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Well, during that time, this is the 1950s when health -- had occurred and tumors were showing to be caused by cigarette tars. You recall that, correct? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~ ~ cn 0. Ln 0
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131 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 THE WITNESS: It would not be.of interest to me that the Tobacco Institute engaged in public relations activities on behalf of cigarettes. No, that woyldn't be -- that would not change my opinion. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Well, how about if they did that in order to keep people smoking cigarettes, the praduct, would that change your opinion? A Well, first of all, I don't know that they-did do that. Q Well, no. You haven't reviewed any of the internal documents, correct? A That's correct. Q And you don't plan to review any of those internal documents, correct? A That's correct. Q And no matter what those internal documents may say, they wouldn't change your opinion anyway; is that correct? A That is correct. Q Now, the analysis of advertisements that you've done since the Cippilone case, you said you analyzed advertisements from the thirties through the nineties, correct? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ ~ ~ Ln Ob Ln Ln
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128 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I don't know whether the tobacco industry was fearful or not. What I know is that there was a Frank Statement that was published or issued which was a statement of thq tobacco industry's position relative to cigarette smoking. Q Now, Tylenol, they published all over the country about their position about tampering with their product and what they were going to do to deal with that issue, correct? A Well, the Tylenol story is not as simplistic as you're saying. What Tylenol had to do was fundamentally change the nature of their product. In this case, it was the packaging. It may have changed the fundamental product itself away from the capsule, and then imparted information to the public through a number of different media including public relations_and specifically advertising addressing the fact that their brand was -- that they had undertaken to protect their brand from any additional tampering efforts out in the marketplace. Q They communicated with the general public by publishing statements in newspapers and magazines all over the country, correct? A Well, no. They communicated to the public ~ F- QTI HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 n,
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130 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 it is this public relations arm or whatever you called it. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Hypothetically, if the internal documents of the tobacco industry showed that that's exactly what it is, would it change any of`youur opinions? A No. Q So additional evidence or information really wouldn't be of assistance to you ln developing your opinion; is that correct? A No. MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: I didn't say that. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q That particular information wouldn't be of`use to you, correct? A The particular use of information that the Tobacco Institute was performing public relations actions on behalf of the industry, no, that would not change my opinion. Q And that would be, you know, on behalf of the whole industry and the product itself rather than merely a particular brand. That wouldn't be of interest to you, correct? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. cn ~ -4 -J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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119 • r 15 16 the buying decision procesb., decision process. I have not undertaken any specific study to address a thing like the Virginia Slims Tournament and its effect upon 1 2 3 4 Q Or any kind of a sponsorship of any sporting event, correct? A I haven't specifically studied sporting events of any sort. Q Now, are press releases a form of marketing? A Excuse me. I could not hear you. Q Are press releases a form of marketing? 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A Press releases come•under the aegis of public 12 relations and generally are considered to be part of promotions mix. Q Which are also a part of the marketing? A That's correct. Q Are billboards considered advertising or marketing or both? A Generally, billboards are considered to be a part of advertising. Q How about having people on talk shows to talk about your product. What about that? Like, for example, the Council for Tobacco Research; if they talk about the`product of tobacco is that promotion, marketing, advertising or any of 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln N ~ ~ ~ Ln 011 ~ w
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• • 129 1 through a number of different ways. Among them 2 were public relations statements, but 3 principally they communicated to the public 4 through paid advertisementig,on various media. 5 Q The statements they printed were paid for where 6 they published open letters to the general 7 public about Tylenol and safety, correct? Those 8 were paid for by them? 9 A Not all of their statements were paid for . Some 10 of them were public relations releases. 11 Q Right. Just like the cigarette industry has PR 12 releases that sometimes are printed in 13 newspapers, correct? 14 A I gather that the cigarette industry may have 15 some public relations releases but I'm not 16 conversant with those. - 17 Q No one's ever shown you those, correct? 18 A Not specifically, no. 19 Q So you do know that the-Tobacco Institute is the 20 public relations arm of the entire tobacco 21 industr co t?- y, rrec 22 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 23 THE WITNESS: No. I don't know th at 24. the Tobacco Institute's main role or what it s 25 role is or that it is -- and I do not know t hat HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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132 • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A That is correct. Q And what conclusions did you reach concerning those advertisements? A By looking at the advertisenqents. Not analyzing their specific content for an individual ad, but looking at the stream of advertising both for cigarette products and for package goods during the period from the 1930s through the early 1960s.there is at least a similarity in the nature of the advertising for cigarettes and other package goods. And, in fact, in some instances the other package goods tend to make somewhat more strident claims for their brands. Starting in the 1960s there began to begin somewhat of a shift in the nature of the advertising with cigarette advertising becoming kind of I'd almost put it becoming more blah or nonspecific, focusing in on things that are not well defined like taste while th'e package goods advertising for other products tended to continue to be in the same vein but certainly different from cigarette advertising. The other package goods in many cases tended to make claims and things that cigarette advertising did not do. cn ~ J J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 u, ~ u, o,
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116 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q -- as marketing versus advertising? A Well, sponsoring events is a part of the promotion mix. Q By that I' m not sure what yo,u mean. I s that advertising or marketing or both? A Sponsoring events? Q Yes. A It's part of the promotion mix as adver•tising is. Q Is that advertising? A No, it's not. Q Is it marketing? A Well, it's a part of marketing. The promotion mix is a part of the marketing. Q Okay. So you would not call sponsoring events advertising. You would call it a part of marketing, correct? A No. I would call the sponsoring of events not advertising but would call it a part of the promotion mix of which advertising is also a part and promotion is a part of the overall marketing mix. Q So if someone -- if the tennis tournament is called the Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament and it's listed in the TV listing as Virginia Slims HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • 123 1 A Well, I mean, I think that's a very clear 2 description of what it was. 3 Q Well, didn't the Frank Statement have the 4 purpose of assuring the geheral public th at the 5 cigarette industry had the health of the 6 American public as paramount on their min ds? 7 A I don't know what the purpose was because-I'm 8 not privy to the internal documents and•why 9 either the Tobacco Institute or whoever conveyed 10 the statement, what their purpose was. It did 11 appear -- I know there was a thing called-the 12 Frank Statement that appeared. I have not 13 memorialized what the content of that statement 14 was. 15 Q Wasn't the purpose to be able to keep selling as 16 many ci arettes as ossible? g p 17 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 18 THE WITNESS: I'm not privy to any 19 internal document of what was the purpose of 20 that Frank Statement. 21 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 22 Q Okay. So when the entire tobacco industr y pays 23 for an ad in national publications all ov er the 24 country, your testimony is that does not qualify 25 as marketing, promotion or advertising? ~ E-.a ~ ~ HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 19h. ~
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121 . 1 marketing effort. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ].1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 • Q That's not in any way marketing? A No. It'd probably be in the senior level management of somebody coming out and just explaining things. Q Okay. Now, you are aware that the tobacco industry has for over 40 years had an effort to convey to the general public and the news media that it has not been proven that cigarettes cause, for example, lung cancer. You are aware of that? MR. BARINGER: Objection. THE WITNESS: I'm not aware that there's a 40 year program of the tobacco industry as such. I'm not aware that -- I mean, I am aware that the various tobacco companies have made statements relative to whether or not there is scientific proo€;dealing with medical facts, but I'm not a medical doctor and I cannot -- I just can't address that issue. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q You are familiar with what's called a Frank Statement, correct? A I've seen the thing called the Frank Statement Q That was published in hundreds of newspapers and Ln ~ -4 v HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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135 • 1 2 3 4 5 Q THE WITNESS: No, I'm not aware of that. I would like to look at the individual statements and see if you characterized those 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 • correctly. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Those internal documents are available to you. I'm sure you could ask the defense counsel for those. They have those. But you previ•ously had told me you weren't interested in seeing those. A No. You're talking about external documents, not internal documents. Q There are internal documents too. A I don't want to look at internal documents. Q You don't? A No. Q Okay. Your CV says that you worked -- well, before I get to that, in November of '95 when you were contacted by the representatives of numerous tobacco companies, as cited in your resume on page five, what specifically did they ask you to do at that time? A First of all, I can't answer the question because I was not contacted by the representatives of tobacco companies in November of '95. Ln F-.J J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 ~ Ul W
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139 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A That's correct. Q Funding from RJR Incorporated. Now, how long has this been in existence, this study into public policy implications? . A Well, the study -- there are a number of studies all of which at least touch on public policy implications but the one of those which is more specific toward public policy commenced-in approximately, I think, 1995. Q Was that the earliest one, 1995? A There's three studies. Q Three? A Yes. Q And when did that first start, that study into public policy implications that you put in your resume on page four? A My recollection of that is that it commenced in either late 1992, the fall of 1992 or earlier in 1993. Q Okay. Now, this is separate and apart from your work as an expert witness then, correct? A Absolutely. Q Okay. And RJR's the company that contacted you about doing that? A No, sir. I contacted them. cn F-A _j _j N HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 &1 m w
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 137 A Yes, sir. Q Okay. Go ahead. A The four law firms, four of the law firms that are cited on this resume are law firms that were involved in the litigation in the Cippilone case, specifically Arnold and Porter; Shook, Hardy and Bacon; Chadbourne and Park; Webster and Sheffield. And they were represent-atives in the litigation for Philip Morris, Lorillard and Liggett. That's what that refers to. The second thing is that Jones, Day, Reavis and Pouge are representative of RJ Reynolds Incorporated and I did not ~- was not contacted by Jones,'Day, Reavis and Pouge until November of 1996 concerning this current litigation and other issues that they wanted me to consult with them on. Q Oh, okay. So it's basically for one -- two months in '96, 12 months in '97 up to now that you've been doing work in addition to Cippilone, correct? A Yes, and in addition to a lot of other things. Q Right. And for the month of November, December of 1996 about how many hours did you spend working on those tobacco related issues? c„ ~ J J N HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 m N
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141 • 1 A Well, I wasn't sure they.'d be interested, but academics who engage in academic research are constantly looking for funding and so I went to a former student of mine who was at RJR and kind of nosed around to find out whether or not I could get some funding for research. Who was the former student you went to? Kevin Verner. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A • 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q What's his position? A He's no longer with RJR. Q What was it at the time? A I don't know. He was stationed down in Salem and he -- I don't know what his -- you know, exactly what his title was. Q What did you ask him? A I was at lunch with him in Ann Arbor and after lunch I inquired to him whether or not RJR ever funded academic-research.-- Q Was Kevin in the Marketing Department for RJR? A I don't believe so. Q What was his degree in? A He got a degree out of the University of Michigan.__ I.don't know specifically what it was. He was an LS-and A student. Winston HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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140 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Oh, you con -- did you have a written proposal? A Yes, sir. Q And was it solicited or was it your idea totally? , A It was my idea. Q And do'you have a copy of that written solicitation with you? A No, I do not. Q Do you have it_in your files? A I don't know whether that's still around or not because the project was concluded and everything was signed off. I don't know whether I still have the written proposal. Q It was concluded. Your resume says it current. s A Well, but we're talking about the earliest one and that was the first one that I solicited. Q Okay. Then you solicited others after that? A That's correct. Q They didn't come to you and ask you to do additional work? A No. I went to them. Q Each time it` was always your idea? A Yes, it was. Q What gave you the idea they'd be interested? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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143 • <~! • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Yes. They responded back to the proposal that they were willing to fund it. Q How long -- how many pages was your proposal? A Oh, my recollection wae.three or four pages, something like that. Set out a lot of ground rules. Q What were the ground rules? A That I would be the sole person who determined what the research was, that the research was not a reflection of an endorsement of tobacco, cigarettes or RJR on behalf of either myself or the University of Michigan; that I would strive to present the results of research and name some specific conferences and journals but that there was no guarantee -- given the way publishing goes in academe, there was no guarantee that any of this would ever get published but I would make an effort to have it published; that I would solely be in charge of conducting the study and that RJ Reynolds would have no input whatsoever to the study. Q Now, prior to the time you wrote this solicitation, did you have some inkling in your own mind that the AMA research was in some.way invalid? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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144 • 1 2 3 4 A Well, I had read the articles and principally I'd heard about them in the popular press, and so I got copies of the articles and I read them, and I think the reason that I was stimulated to - , , - Y • 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 do that is because of my past work with the American Cancer Society and also my participation in the Cippilone trial. And so I read the articles and I was -- I formulated at least a feeling about the quality of the research that underpinned those articles. Q What was that feeling? A That they weren't very good. Q And did you convey that in your solicitation letter? A No, I did not. Q The reason you wanted to do the research though was to verify your-own belief that the research you had read from the AMA wasn't very good; is that correct? A No, that wasn't my -- that was not my objective. Q Was your working hypothesis that you would discover that JAMA article was not valid? A No. That was not my working hypothesis. HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 CO
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134 • 1 MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. THE WITNESS:--Well, first of all, I don't think the surgeon general made that statement. That's first. •Number two, the two are not related to each other, what the cigarette companies put in their advertising and what the surgeon general -- if that statement you said is the one that you think is what he said. 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ~ 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ' And then number three is that at the same time, at least in the late 1960s, there suddenly became the cigarette warnings both on the pack and then ultimately on the advertising. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q You are aware that during that period of time the cigarette industry itself, the entire industry, put out press releases that basically stated they didn't agree with the surgeon general's warnings, that they believed it hadn't been proven that any diseases-were caused by cigarette smoking. You're aware of that,: -- correct? A No. MR. BARINGER: Objection. . N ~ ~ HALL AND DEER ~-' (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 cn 4b cn co
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133 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Obviously, there is also one other change that occurred and that is the appearance of the surgeon general's warning in all of cigarette advertising which,also was not found . in the advertising for the other packaged goods. Q Well, and another change was in 1964 the United States surgeon general concluded that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer, cvrrect? A The surgeon general, I don't know whether he in '64 said that. I know that they -- Q That's my recollection about what year that happened. It might have been '62. I'm not sure. A Well, there was a conclusion by the surgeonn general about the health risks for cigarette smoking. I'm note sure of what the specifics are of the surgeon general's conclusion. I'd be glad to review that. Q Once the surgeon general of the United States concluded that cigarette smoking actually resulted in the death of thousands of human beings in the sixties, then you noted some change in the ads to where they were more about taste; is that what you're saying, the ads for cigarettes? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln cn J
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136 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q Oh, I thought you were because I was looking at page five of your resume which says consulted for RJ Reynolds, Philip Morris, Lorillard Liggett Group concerning advertising in consumer behavior. A Yes. Q It then says litigation involving a consortium of law firms including and it names five of them. A Correct. Q I assume that that's what you were talking about when you said you started working again in November of 1995 on tobacco related issues. A No. You have it all wrong. Q Oh, okay. Tell me where I'm wrong. A Well, first of all, if we look at the listing of the law firms that you have on here, four of them are -- Q I'm sorry. I didn't put it -- A Excuse me. Q It's on your resume, right? I didn't put it there. A I know you didn't, but you cited it in your previous colloquy with me. Q Right. It's on page five of your resume, right? Ln N J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 Ln Ir. m m
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146 1 • Q How long did it take you to do that? 2 A Well, off and on, I'd say about a year or so. 3 Q And -- 4 A Paid for the expenses and things of that sort. 5 Q Did the $90,000 pay any salary for you? 6 A No, not really. It covered expenses. It did 7 pay for some of my time. It paid for a research 8 assistant and paid for my travel to go•to the 9 various conferences and-to deliver the paper and 10 also paid for the expenses of my office which 11 included, you know, computer programming, 12 computer equipment, things of that sort. 13 Q And you said it paid for some of your time; what • 14 do you mean? ~ 15 A Well, I mean, you know, I took the amount of 16 money and out of it I paid most of the 17 expenses. I think there was a little bit 18 leftover that I used as just for myself. 19 Q After you completed the first study that you 20 requested, what did you do next? 21 A Well, next I figured I had a good thing for 22 funding so I went back to RJ Reynolds and 23 formulated an additional study and requested 24 some additional funding. 25 Q Prior to the time you requested the additional 11 0 cn f~ J J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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145 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q What was your working hypothesis? A My working -- well, there really was not a working hypothesis. The objective of the research was kind of, if you want, twofold. One is that I would undertake a study to try and determine what'other people felt about thei'° reliability, validity and so forth of the articles and whether or not these articles and the study that underpinned them were in line: with what are generally accepted standards for research within various disciplines. So it was going to be the -- it was going to be the evaluation of others; not myself. And, of course, obviously, the second. is one which is a little more personal and that is that it would allow me to get publication which is somewhat important to academics. Q And what was the nature of the,funding that RJR provided to you? A They sent me money. Q How much money did they send you? A They sent me what I requested which I think it was $90,000. Q That was for the first thing you did? A That's correct. ~ J J F.+ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ~ m kD
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138 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Well, during that period of time my best estimate would be that I probably spent maybe 10, 15 hours or something that related to Jones, Day, Reavis and Pouge. Q So it wasn't until you got into 1997 that you started to spend a significant number of hours, then? A Well, to me 10 or 15 hours is significant in my life. Q Okay. You already told me about your estimate of how many hours you've spent in 1997 and, of course, we're really just early into January of 1998, but how many hours have you spent in` January of 1998 working on tobacco related issues? A Some time yesterday. Q And today and that's about it? A Three, four hours yesterday and today. Q Okay. Now, you also -- under your current work that you're doing, on page four it says ,- and this may duplicate some stuff you've already mentioned, it says public policy implication and ethical issues associated with advertising research, includes analysis of Center for Disease Control study in adolescent behavior. ~ ~ ~ ~j HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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147 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 funding, had you already completed the first project? A Pretty much so. I was still delivering papers that had emanated from that,first project. . What information did you supply to RJR about your first project? A I didn't supply them anything. I told them that I was going to give the papers and where the venue would be where I would give the papers and, in fact, in many instances somebody from RJR -- in fact, one of my former students would show up and listen to me deliver the paper. I suspect that they used to get a copy of it because those would be available at the presentation. Q Well, when did you_ first__preeent_the paper? A Well, there were a number of different papers and different ways. The first presentation I believe was at the American Association of Public Opinion Research in Illinois. Q When was that? A Hold on. I'll have to get you the date. it- will take a few minutes. I'm trying to shortcut the process to find that date for you. Just a minute. That would be in May of 1993. I don't cn N ~ J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 c„ ~ ~ ~
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150 . • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I don't know what his position was but he succeeded Kevin Verner in it. Q Okay. And after you made that oral proposal, what happened? A Well, we had a discussion about, you know, what was the available funding, what was the possibility that RJR would undertake funding for this, and he requested that I write it up and send it to him to see whether or not RJR would indeed fund it. Q And did you write it up? A Yes, I did. Q Do you have a copy of that? I don't know whether there's a copy of that available either but I'll be glad to look through my files and see if it exists. Q We'd like to have a copy of that provided to us, please. A If I have it. Q Okay. Okay. So you wrote this up and then about how many pages was that? A Three or four pages. Q And who did you submit that to? A William Lindquist. Q And then what happened? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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153 • 1 Q And the funding was to pay for what? • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A There was no funding. Q Oh, no funding? A No, no money. Q You just orally proposed it to RJR? A That's correct. Q what did they say? A They said they would make their best effort t see whether or not they could first of all learn whether the data was going to be publicly available and whether I could get access to it and etcetera and that they would make an effort if there were any problems to have either their Legal Department or whatever get the data for me from the Center for Disease Control. Q And did you get the data? A Yes. And, in fact, RJR assisted me because they were able to take the data and reduce it down so that it was on multiple floppy discs so that I could bring it -- that I could then enter it on a hard disc of my computer. Q And you say this was either proposed in 1995 or 1996. You're not sure which year? A Yeah. I don't have any written record of it but it's in that period of time. u, _ ,... J J HALL AND DEER v, (800) 321-3904 J ~
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151 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A I got notice back from RJR, specifically from Mr. Lindquist, that they were willing to go ahead and provide the funding. Q And how much was the fundiizg? A The funding was $40,000. Q And what was the nature of the notice you received from RJR? A That they were going to fund it. Q They said we're going to fund you and nothing else? A Well, they agreed to a11 the terms that I had submitted; that I would pick the articles to review, that this was not a.reflection or an endorsement of the tobacco-products by the University of Michigan or myself personally, that RJR would have virtually no input to the research whatsoever, that I would be independent and conduct the research on my own and I would make a best effort to have the research presented at academic conferences and in-referee publications. Q Okay. And when was that first presented or published? A First publication of that was at the proceedings of the Marketing and Public Policy-Conference in Ln I.- ~j HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 ~ ~ ~ cn
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154 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q And did you use any of that data as a basis for any of your opinions? A Well, yes, because I've been spending time-when I have time available from'My teaching duties as part of my academic research trying to analyze that database which is a very, very large database that is projectable to_the US population. So I've run some of the data. I've not published any of it yet but I've run some of the data looking at elements that _are correlated to smoking initiation and things of that sort. Q All right. Do you smoke cigarettes? A Not now. Q Did you used to? A Yes. Q Have you -- you stopped smoking when? A Twenty-eight years ago. Q And when did you first start smoking? A When I was about twelve or thirteen, somewhere in that area. That's my best recollection. Q And when you started smoking at twelve or thirteen, did you keep smoking for a while? A Yes. Q How long did you continue to smoke? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 ' cn I : ~-A _j OD
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152 • Yti • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1994. I don't have the exact date. I'11 be glad to get it for you and I probably can find it somewhere but my recollection is it was approximately in May of 19'94. Q Okay. And was there a third project that you had a proposal for? A Yes, there was. Q And this is the final one? A That's correct. Q And what was that"and when was that one proposed? A That was about, let's see, about 199 -- well, I think '95 or.'96. Q And what was that proposal about? A That was an oral proposal. There was no written proposal. Q That was oral and what was the proposal? A The proposal was that I contacted RJR and asked them about the possibility of them trying to either assist me or on their own obtaining the raw data file, the TAPS_survey from the Center for Disease Control. Q And for what purpose? A For my,purpose of analyzing that data, to understand better adolescent smoking behavior. cn #-A -J J F-+ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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142 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q What does that stand for? A Literature, science and the arts. Q Okay. And what did he say when you asked him if RJR ever funded any researc4? A He said, yeah, we do fund academic research from time to time. It has to be something that is of mutual interest to everybody but, you know, we would entertain a proposal. Q Okay. And what was the nature of your proposal? A I went back and sat down, and I had become aware of the articles that had appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association and some controversy that had already surfaced about those articles and the research that underpinned them, and so I wrote a proposal to Mr. Verner at. RJR proposing that I would undertake a st-udy into the validity and reliability of those studies and the resulting-articles. Q I'd like to have_a copy of that solicitation if you can find it. A If I can find it I'll be glad to supply it. I'll have to look through my files and see if it's still there. Q And did they respond back to you once you submitted this proposal? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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155 • !i • 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Until 28 years ago. Q Okay. So you stopped smoking in 1970? Was it 1970 or 1969? A I'm almost embarrassed to say I can correlate it . to the birth of my youngest daughter, but I can't remember whether she was born in 169 or '70, but I think as best I know she's twenty-eight years old right now. Q Okay. So somewhere in 1969, 1970 time frame? A That's correct. Q You stopped smoking? A Correct. Q And you were born in what? A 1932. - Q Thirty-two. So you started smoking in 1944, 1945 time frame. And how much did you smoke per day? A Oh, lots. Q Well, when you say lots, two packs? A Sometimes three. It depended on the day,. depended on where I was, what I was doing. Q Two, three packs a day. What brand? A You know, I can't remember. I really can't remember what brand. I know I smoked a lot'of different brands at different times but, I mean, cn _j ~ HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 cn ~ ~ ~
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• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 156 I think I smoked -- oh, for a long period of time I think I smoked some Pall Mal1's. I may have smoked -- I mean, Lucky Strike when'I was in the service because they,were available. I mean, I don't remember the brand. It's a long time ago and I forgot about the brands. Q Okay. Why did you start smoking? A Why did I start smoking? Q Yeah. A I don't know. Seemed to be the thing to:;d mother smoked, my father smoked and my best friend smoked so I smoked. Q So part of the reason you did it is because you wanted to be like the adults? A No. I don't think it was being like the adults. It just seemed to be a kind of -- y guess a kind of grown-up thing to do but, you know, it was one of those things that was quite acceptable in my family. Everybody smoked in the family. Q Have any of your family members ever had any health problems that are related to smoking? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go ahead. THE WITNESS: That I really don't 1 v, ~ know. I mean, my parents are dead so,I guess', J Ln ~ 00 HALL AND DEER m (800) 321-3904
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159 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 fair assessment of when that was. My best recollection would be that it's in the neighborhood of the period 1994, 1995. I think the data collection was prbb,ably in 1994.- Q How did you come to do this assessment? A Well, a colleague of mine who's a former doctoral student of mine and I have been doing a lot of different kinds of research. And we had been exposed to a statement from a gentleman who I've cited in some of the research but who -- I- can't remember his name but he was from the Drackett Company"which is a division of Bristol-Myers. And he, at a marketing research conference, and this was not an academic conference but rather an industry conference,,: laid out a question about what was the viability of mall intercepts as a kind of surrogate,`which they are, for in-home testing. And that we were, beginning to test both_new product concepts and advertising in shopping malls. Not beginning, we had actually been doing it for quite a, while. But he questioned whether or not that was a proper venue for such testing since people Ln ~ HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 v, CO w
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162 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 the United States. Q Can I interrupt you for one second? I don't mind your answering it but I didn't need that large of an answer to that•;question. A Okay. Q But it doesn't sound like it's necessarily directly related to tobacco advertising. A No. It's related to testing of adverti-sing,. however. Q But you're saying it's related to the testing of television and radio commercials? A Well, in this case it's'advertising that is using that medium, yes. Q And you wanted to find out if by having people view this in a mall setting was it going to be different than if they actually viewed it at their house? A We actually had them view it at their house. We had one set of the sample view it at their-home and another set viewed it at the mall setting and we compared the results across a broad range of measures to see whether or not there was a difference between the -- on those measures between those who had viewed the advertising in a mall and those that had viewed the advertisinq HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln N ~ ~
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149 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 that there were a lot of references that I-was familiar with that either_seemed to be_second or third or fourthhand and that some of the references were very incomplete, that some of the references dealt with unpublished matters and that, in fact, I noticed that there were some of the references that at least on the surface appeared to me to be not only incorrect but perhaps invalid. So I put together in a brief form for myself to present to the representative of RJR in San Francisco the notion that I wanted to examine references in a number of different articles that had been published to begin to understand the efficacy of the citations that were being supplied in those articles. Q And you wrote this up as a proposal to RJR in August of 1993? A No. In August of 1993, I verbally presented this idea to a former student of mine who was representative of RJR. Q Who was that? A William Lindquist. Q And William Lindquist, what is his position at RJR? a HALL AND DEER u, (800) 321-3904 ~ w
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163 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 in their home. And we indeed not only measured it at that time, basically day after, but we measured it 15 and 30 days after t hey,were exposed to the advertising. Q Did you find any difference between the mall and the home with the ad? A Interestingly enough, no, we did not. In fact, things like decay and things of that sort were fairly similar. Q The court reporter on now or -- A She's here. Q But did she have to change her paper? A No. She changed the battery. She did it very quickly. Q Okay. So there wasn't any loss of dialog, I guess. This was •funded by Kraft. the funding for-that? How much was A I can't recall what the funding was in that. It was a process through the university. Q Okay. You don't know -- was it over a hundred thousand? A I don't recall. It may have been close to that. It was pretty expensive, as I recall. I mean, I realize -- I remember that the expensP cn ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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164 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 was rather high, first of all for the field service firm and the dubbing of the commercials and putting them into these programs and then the cost of sending those programs by express currier to individual homes throughout southern California got to be pretty expensive. But it was -- Q Kraft is owned by one of the tobacco companies, right? A I don't know. I just dealt with Kraft, Incorporated. Q Yeah, but do you know whether or_not Kraft is_ owned by one of_the tobacco companies? A I don't know. Q Hopefully, I don't have a whole -- very muah left to ask, so if it's possible for us to ' continue, I'd appreciate it. I'll try to get done in another 15 minutes. MR. BARINGER: That's fine. MR. HOAG: Right now I'm looking at my notes so that's why you don't.hear anything. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Do you recall when the ban on cigarette advertising, broadcast advertising went in effect? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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157 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 they had a health problem but I don't know whether that's related to smoking. They never said it was. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: , Q Well, to be more specific, any of your relatives ever contract lung cancer? A No. Q Why did you quit smoking? A I just thought it was a wise thing to do. Q Were health concerns part of the reason you quit smoking? A Concerns about health, also social concerns. Q And prior to the time that you quit had you ever tried to quit before that? A No. Q And when you quit, did you go off and on-back onto cigarettes or did you quit one day totally cold turkey and never had another cigarette? A Basically the way I did it, quit cold turkey. Kept a pack of cigarettes in the drawer for about three years, never touched them. Smoked cigars for a couple of months, found out those weren't particularly appetizing, particularly with breakfast, and quit smoking cigars. Q And did you have any difficulty quitting at all? HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 u, JN . o0 ~
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166 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 the warnings that are both on the pack and in the advertising. So,youu know, all of those are potential contributors to the decrease irf cigarette smoking. Q So in your opinion all of those things had some impact on the behavior of consumers; is that correct? A My opinion is that all of those could potentially have'an impact upon the downturn in smoking. Q Including the ban on radio and television advertising of cigarettes, correct? A That's possible, but it may not be a significant or a major factor in that. Q And then again, it may be a major factor, correct? A It could be. Q You just don't know? A No, it's not that I don't know. I've seen no data that anybody has supplied to indicate that that is in deed a fact. Q Okay. All you know is all those factors including radio and television advertising bans for cigarette ads occurred and then the number of people smoking cigarettes decreased? Ln ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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167 1 MR. BARINGER: Objection. 2 THE WITNESS: Well, I don't know that 3 it follows in exactly that order. I do know -- you know, I have not spent'a, lot of time 5 examining the decrease in cigarette smoking 6 data. However, I am aware that over a 7 considerable period of time there has been a 8 decline in the consumption of cigarette•s and 9 particularly in the United-States. 10 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: 11 Q And that includes a decline in the number of 12 people starting to smoke cigarettes, correct? 13 A As far as I know, yes. 14 Q In your opinion, does referring to smoking 15 cigarettes as an adult customer discourage., 16 children from smoking cigarettes? 1 17 A Could I have that question read back? I would 18 like to hear it. 19 (Reporter read last question) 20 MR. BARINGER: Adult custom. 21 THE WITNESS: It would be my opinion 22 that that could have a negative effect on_ 23 cigarette initiation or smoking by 24 adolescents . 25 BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Ln • ~ J J HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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• • 165 1 A Not the specific date, I don't recall. I mean, 2 I've seen it -- my recollection is it was in the 3 1960s. 4 Q Okay. And you are aware tha,t after the 5 advertising ban, the number of people smok ing 6 cigarettes decreased correct? , 7 A No. I'm not aware of that. I am aware th at 8 there has been a general diminution on -smo k-ing 9 behavior over a long.period of time but I 10 can't -- I cannot, you know, tie that to t he 11 absence of broadcast advertising by cigare tte 12 companies . 13 Q You don't know whether the decrease in num ber of 14 smokers started to become -- started to ex ist at 15 around the time that cigarette ads were banned- 16 on television and radio? 17 A Well, the way you asked the question it infers a 18 correlation, and the problem with that is there 19 were other things that were going on including a 20 widespread publication of risks o f cigarette 21 smoking, the beginning of social pressure both 22 in the workplace, in the home and elsewhere 23 about cigarette smoking. 24 And in addition to-that, we have the 25 surgeon general's report and then subsequently cn ~ J J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 ~ w kD
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160 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 were in a different cognitive state when they're in a maul as opposed to when they're in a home, yet the advertising in particular generally works in a home setting, particularly television advertising. So my colleague and I discussed this and formulated a proposal -- well, actually we formulated the study first and the dimensions of it and then completed a proposal`which we submitted through the university~to Kraft Incorporated, and they were willing to undertake the funding for the research. We then went into the marketplace for the research. And the first thing that we did was contact advertising agencies in Chicago to find out whether they could supply us with advertisements that had not been viewed -- either had not been viewed in the US market but for US products or whether or not they had advertisements they could supply to us for products or services that had either a limited local or regional exposure. We got some cooperation from two_ad agencies and were able to obtain two sets of commercials. We next contacted the Public HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904
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3 - 1 I N D E X 1 2 WITNESS: 3 CLAUDE R. MARTIN, JR., Ph,D. -Page 4 Examination by Mr. Hoag 4 5 I 6 , 7 8 9 10 11 12 EXHIBITS: 13 Deposition Exhibit Nos. 1 and 2 69 14 Deposition Exhibit No. 3 71 15 Deposition Exhibit No. 4 87 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 , 23 24 ~ ~ 25 _j ~ ALL AND DEER N Ln cn m N (800) 321-3904
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2 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 APPEARANCES, CONTINUING: For the Defendant R.J. Reynolds: MR. RANDAL S. BARINGER. Jones, Day, Reavis, & Pogue 901 Lakeside Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44114 For the Defendant Dosal Tobacco Corporation: MS. MONICA MEDINA Martinez and Gutierrez 601 Brickell Key Drive Miami, Florida 33131 REPORTED BY: Laurel A. Jacoby, CSR-5059, RPR . Certified Shorthand Reporter HAL:, AND DEER (800) 321-3904 I"
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172 • 1 those two cases. Q What do you recall about Hallmark Card advertising? A That it tends to try to characterize itself as somewhat emotional, plays on emotional themes, plays on a theme of high quality and by tising -- you know, when you care enough to send the very best and emphasizes the -- and is very,•very 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 - brand specific and emphasizes the quality and the equity of the Hallmark brand name. Q Okay. Now, those emotional themes that you're talking about, what's an example of an emotional theme as far as that goes? A I don't recall specific advertising of Hallmark. I mean, but the emotion is in conjunction with the cards themselves that -- Q The ads -- do you recall that some of the ads that were emotional depicted somebody receiving a card and having an emotional reaction to receiving the card? A I do vaguely recall that there was one, and I guess I could relate to this, that it was a card that a kid sent from college to their father. And I don't know whether that's emotional to other people_but if you're a father and-you have u, ~ J J HALL AND DEER ~ (800) 321-3904 c„ ~ o~
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174 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 your deposition? THE WITNESS: Yes, sir. MR. BARINGER: John, let me ask you one question about the exhibits since this is such an enormous stack. We have them -- the way they're stacked, they're separated by individual documents that Dr. Martin described to you. Do you want those left all as Composite Exhibit 4 or would you like the court reporter to number them sequentially for ease of use later on? It doesn't matter to me. I'm just thinking about if you're going to use specific ones later on it'may makes sense to number them sequentially instead of this thousand pages of Exhibit 4. MR. HOAG: No. Just a composite Exhibit 4. He's identified what they are and we'll just have those that way. MR. BARINGER: That's as fine. (Deposition concluded at 1:30 p.m.) * * * ~ ~ ~ HALL AND DEER Ln (800) 321-3904 Ob ko co
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170 • . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 you take? How many statistics courses? A Well, let me see if I can recount. At least two or three when I was in undergraduate. My recollection, i.n my MBA program there-was at , least one, maybe two. In my Ph.D. program, there wa. s a statistics course I took, an advanced statistics course; then I took a course in -- a statistics mathematical course•that went beyond just what is generally described as business statistics; and then at'Columbia in those days one had to be proficient in two languages, be able to read two foreign languages. However, there was a leniency that crept into the program and in place of a Germanic language one was able to select a test in advanced statistical and mathematical techniques, which I did since my proficiency with foreign languages is not very good. So that's about it. Q In your resume on page four-it lists consulting experience in litigation and there's several companies listed, and one of them is Hallmark Cards, Incorporated. A Yes, sir. HALL AND DEER cn (800) 321-3904 ~ ~
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• • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 CERTIFICATE OF NOTARY PUBLIC STATE OF MICHIGAN ) ) SS. COUNTY OF WASHTENAW) I, Laurel A. Jacoby, Certified Shorthand Reporter and Notary Public in and for the State of Michigan, do hereby certify that the witness whose attached deposition was taken before me in the above cause was first duly sworn or affirmed to testify to the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; that the testimony. contained herein was by me reduced to writing in the presence of the witness by means of Stenography; afterwards transcribed by means of computer-aided transcription; and that the deposition is a true and complete transcript of the testimony given by the witness to the best of my ability. I do further certify I am not connected by blood or marriage with any of the parties, their attorneys or agents; that I am not an employee of either of them; and that I am not interested, directly or indirectly, in the matter of controversy. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my Notarial Seal this __P day of Laurel JA. Jacoby, C'~R 5059,APR Notar~ Public, Oakland Co., Michigan Acting in Washtenaw Co., Michigan My Commission Expires: September 1, 2000 HALL AND DEER (800) 3'21-3904
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161 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Broadcasting Corporation and through the Rocky Mountain Network were able to obtain a 15-minute television program that was interesting. I was one of -- at least it was interesting to us initially, that dealt with a baseball team in Japan and its attempt to win a baseball championship and its subsequent failure to win that championship and the kind of patho-s and disappointment__that goes with that. We then because of the funding from Kraft which paid for us to duplicate this material, we then took and had a professional organization in southern California insert those commercials into the program. There were, my best recollection, three or 400 copies of that program that were made and there were four different sets of those because we altered the order of the commercials so that we would- address the question of commercial bias. Then we contracted with a professional field service firm who had a facility at a shopping center in Long Beach, California, and that was selected because at least the general profile of customer base for that shopping center came close to mirroring the population of. HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 ~ ~ Ij ~j
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1 . ~ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 r<-'N 13 .~,~.. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 © V 23 24 . 25 %...1 IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE 11TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN AND FOR DADE COUNTY FLORIDA GENERAL JURISDICTION DIVISION CASE NO.: •94-08278-CA FBN: 614009 HOWARD A. ENGLE, M.D., et al, Plaintiffs, v. RJ REYNOLDS TOBACC^ COMPANY, Defendant. CONFlOEfl]IAl ---------------- ------------- / DEPOSITION OF CLAUDE R. MARTIN, JR., Ph.D. Taken on January 8, 1998, at the Sheraton, 3200 Boardwalk, Ann Arbor, Michigan, at or about 9:15 a.m. APPEARANCES: For the Plaintiffs: EXHIBITS 5-f-IctZ MR. JOHN HOAG Stanley M. Rosenblatt, P.A. 66 West Flagler - Street 12th Floor, Concord Building Miami, Florida` 33130-1809 For the Defendant Philip Morris: MR. STEPHEN MCCONNELL Dechert, Price, Rhoads_ 4000 Bell Atlantic Tower 1717 Arch Street _ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania HALL AND DEER (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4 19103
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158 • • • 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A Not really. Q Why did you wait until 1969, '70 to quit, smoking? A I don't know. I guess I j'u$t kept pushing off the decision. I had been privy to a lot of the information concerning the risks associated with smoking. I guess I kept making excuses to myself, and finally in that period of time I just made the decision that it was, you know, a good idea to stop smoking both from the standpoint of risk and also because of a considerable amount of social pressure. Q On page four of your resume there's also a reference to a current project which is examining the variability of small intercepts and the methods of a test of new product concepts for advertising and testing. Are you still working on that? A No. That's pretty well completed. I probably ought to take the word current off there although I do have data from that that I-have an article I want to prepare, so it really is current. Q When did you start doing that? A Oh, hold on. I think I can at least give you a Ln ~ J HALL AND DEER `~ (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ CO N
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168 • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q And by negative effect, what do you mean? A It means that it could be something that adolescents might not want to engage in.' Q Because it's something that adults do? A That's correct. Q And that's even though one of the reasons you started to smoke at twelve or thirteen is because you observed your parents doing-it, correct? A No, I didn't start smoking because I observed my parents doing it. I said.to you that there was an environment within my home that was rather, you know, lenient toward cigarette smoking. Q Adult custom in your house? A No, no, no, no, no, no, no. No, no. It was also an adolescent custom in the society I lived in and in the time that I lived in. And my best recollection is that my best friend and I started smoking as -- not quite behind the barn because we didn't have a barn, but we both experimented because we thought it was kind of a thing to do. Q So in your opinion, telling adolescents that a behavior is an adult custom is a way to discourage adolescents from participating in HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ _j J F-~ Ln ~ kD N
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148 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 have the specific date but it's May of 1993. Q Okay. So prior to May 1993, had RJR been supplied with a copy or a summary of what your findings were? ' , , A No. They never were given copies or summaries. I mean, I may have sent them a copy of the paper after it was delivered when they requested it but in most cases they came, listened to the paper, picked up a copy at the site where the paper was delivered and that was it. Q Okay. Approximately, what month and year did you ask for money for your second project? A In August of 1993. Q Okay. And what was your second project? A Well, the second project was that it had become apparent to me that in at least -- not apparent. It became -- let me rephrase it. I began to notice that as I examined the articles in the Journal of the American Medical Association and prior to even talking to the people at RJR I looked ata number of other articles that had been published by people who I would describe as anti-cigarette smoking researchers. And when I looked at that I noticed J F-+ (n HALL AND QEER (800) 321-3904
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173 • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 a kid away at college, it is. That's what I mean by emotional. Q Now, those type of ads that convey somebody receiving a card and responding emotionally to receiving the card from a father -- from a son to a father, those ads not only encourage people to purchase Hallmark cards, they encourage people to purchase a card for their fabher,, don't they? A Well, the difficulty with what.,you're citing is that in some instances that may be one of the goals, but generally from looking at the research data at Hallmark most evident greeting cards are specific to an event sufficient as a graduation, an anniversary or a holiday. And so pretty much the Hallmark thrust of their marketing effort is brand specific to selecting-their brand which will provide a better message in conjunction with those events, holidays and so forth. Q Okay. MR. HOAG: I don't have any other questions. Thank you very much for your time and we'll order the standard, the minu-script, the disc. And I assume you're going to read HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ J J Ln ~ J
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171 • • • 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q What was the litigation involving Hallmark Cards? A Well, there were two cases that were relative to Hallmark Cards. The first,qf them was the attempt by a retailer in Denver, Colorado who it was later discovered was being funded by American._Greeting Cards as a test case to commingle other greeting'cards with those of Hallmark on Hallmark's -shelves.- Hallmark felt that this was going to have a major disruptive effect on their distribution system and also on their - presentation of their product to the customers. The case as best I know was-settled-out of court. The second case that involved Hallmark Cards involved Hallmark as a Defendant and Blue Mountain Cards as a Plaintiff, and it involved the issue of trade dress and-trademark infringement claims by Blue Mountain. Q Are you familiar.with the Hallmark advertisements, any of them? A Well, I'm familiar with Hallmark advertising in the sense that I had to review some of it in conjunction with the litigation involved in HALL AND DEER- (800) 3 2 1 - 3 9 0 4
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• • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 169 that behavior? A It may be a possible way, but I would not would not conclude that it is the only or even perhaps the major way of dYS,couraging adolescent smoking behavior. Q Is it also possibly a way to encourage adolescents to participate in a behavior? MR. BARINGER: Objection. Go-ahead. THE WITNESS: I_don't know. I suspect that it's possible that it might provide some encouragement but I think there are other things that are much more and have been demonstrated more powerful in causing initiation or continuation of-adolescents smoking. BY MR. HOAG, CONTINUING: Q Now, all of'your-advanced degrees are in business administration, correct? A That's correct. as Q Did you take any statistics courses during those advanced degrees? A Yes. Q What statistics courses did you take? A Oh, boy. Now you're really going back and testing my memory. Q Well, let me put it another way. How many did HALL AND DEER (800) 321-3904 Ln ~ ~ J
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CLAUDE It. MARTIN JR.' Residence: Olrice: Personal Information: Current Position: Previous Positions: Isadore and Leon Winkelman Professor of Retail Marketing University of Mkhigan ; 1116 Aberdeen Drive Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 Voice or Fax: (313) 971-1897 School of Business Administration University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1234 Voice: (313) 764-1391 e-mail (Internet): crmartin0umich.edu Born May 11, 1932 United States citizen Married (Marie) Six children & seven grandchildren Isadore & Leon Winkelman Professor of Retail Marketing 1952-1955 Radio & Television Newsman - Northeastern Pennsylvania 1955-1957 Night Operations Supervisor - Armed Forces:Radio & TV-Service, Los Angeles 1957-1961 News Director - WNEP-TV 1961-1963 Director of Systems - Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Pennsylvania _ 1963-1965 Research Assistant - Columbia University, New York 1964-1965 Lecturer in Marketing - St. Francis College, New York 1965-1969 Lecturer in Marketing - University of Michigan 1969-1972 Assistant Professor of Marketing - University of Michigan 1973-1977 Associate Professor of Marketing - University of Michigan 1978-1980 Professor of Marketing - University of Michigan 1976-1984 Board of Directors, Conuirioa Bank -Ann Arbor. 1983-1989 Board of Directors, Perry Drug Stores Inc. (NYSE) 1986-1989 Chairman, Marketing Faculty - University of Michigan 1991 Visiting Professor, Institut d'Administration' des Entreprises, Universite de Droit, dEconomie et des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille, ® Aix-en -Provence, France 1980-Present Isadore & Leon Winkelman Professor of Retail Marketing - University of Michigan
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FIVE-STAGE MODEL OF THE BUYING PROCESS Purchsss Intention AUuwaW a on~ T ~-. un°"nap°~°a Situational Need Information Evaluation Recognition Search ki of Aiternatives Purchase Decision
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L ~..~~ /~l~,G~'ii~ 0a~en`;o.~ /-R-9e CHECKING THE REFERENCES: ADOLESCENT SMOKING RESEARCH USED IN PUBLIC POLICY FORMULATION Claude R. Mardn, Jr. School of Business Admicsisaaaon University of Michigan 1116 Aberdeen Drive Ann Arbor,W 49104 Voice: (313) 764-1391 Fax: (313) 971-1897 Possible Topic Areas: Evaluation of Reseamh Methodologies Ethics Quality of Reseuch I 'AG0216038 ~
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Chemical Bank of New York General Motors Corporation Executive Education Seminars (cont'd): Consumers Power Company Southwestern Bell Telephone Company EDS BellSouth, Inc. National Bank of Kuwait University of Michigan Medical Center University of Michigan Libraries Sprint Corporation Also have served as core faculty member for the Executive Education Division of the Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Michigan in the following programs: Banking and Financial Services Executive Program Marketing for Non-Marketing Managers* New Product Development Daewoo Executive Education Program New Products & Services for High Technology Firms Excellence in Service Management* International Marketing for Non-Marketing Managers (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Beijing & France)* (*faculty director) Other Consultation (includes strategic planning): Old Kent Financial Corporation Michigan National Corporation United Michigan Corporation National Bank of Detroit Dow-Corning Inc. Time Incorporated Dayton-Hudson Inc. Bil-Mar Foods Inc. General Motors Corporation Rexham Corporation Realtron, Inc. National Decorating Products Association Burroughs Corporation (UNISYS) Michigan Bell Telephone Company (AMERITECH) University of Michigan - Offtce.of Continuing Medical Education Witmark Catalog Showrooms Selected Publications Attlcles "Support for Women's Lib: Management Performance," Southern Journal of Business, (University of Georgia), Vol. 7 No. 1, February, 1972, "What Consumers of Fashion Want to Know," Journal of RetaWng, Vol.47 No.4, Winter 1977. "The Contribution of the Proftssional Buyer to the Success or Failure of a Store," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 49 No. 2, Summer 1973.
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r U.S. West Inc. AMOCO Oil Corporation Consulting Experience - Litigation (cont'd): Abbott Laboratories Absopure, Inc. American Dental Laser Corporation Schering Plough Corporation Farm Fresh, Inc. Amers, Inc. Grauel Enterprises, Inc. The Colonel's, Inc. Anheuser-Busch, Inc. King County (State of Washington) Nutro Products, Inc. American Honda, Inc. Stroh Brewing Company, Inc. Franklin Credit Management Corporation Office Max, Inc. Volkswagen & Volkswagen of America OPI Products, Inc. Consultant to R. J. Reynolds, Philip Morris, Lorillard and Liggett Group concernin. advertising and consumer behavior. Litigation involved a consortium of law firms including: Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue (Cleveland/Washington/Atlanta/Los Angeles/Dallas) Arnold & Porter (Washington) Shook, Hardy & Bacon (Kansas City) Chadbourne & Park (Now York) Webster & Sheffield (New York) Additional expert witness testimony in administrative law hearings for 35 financial institutions, including banks and saving & loan associations, involving establishment of new offices or de novo institutions. Executive Education Seminars: Management Institute Michigan Bell Telephone Company Time Inc. (FORTUNE) Beecham Laboratories Charles H. Strand Inc. Hershey Foods Corporation Burroughs Corporation (UNISYS) Red Lobster Inns of America (General Mills) STP Corporation Unisys Corporation Rexham Corporation Lincoln National Life Insurance Company Diversey Wyandotte Corporation Southland Corporation Southern New England Telephone Company Bethlehem Steel Corporation MAACO Bell Communications Research (BELLCORE) Catho Progresso Profissional, Comercial LIDA (Brasil,,Argentina, Chile) Automotive Warehouse Distributors Association Allen-Bradley Inc. -3
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THE COMMUNICATIONS ENVIRONMENT MEDIUM
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1983 Directed a study into demand for the U.S. Olympic_ Coin offering. This project addressed the basic positioning of the coin and the advertising strategy for it. The project was funded by the office of the Treasurer of the United States. r 1980-1986 Principal investigator and director of research for a"project commissioned by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors to examine public attitudes and usage of U.S. currency. This project was coordinated with the Bureau of Printing and Engraving and U.S. Secret Service. The objective was to assess the public reaction to alternative forms of U.S. paper currency, proposed as a deterrent to a counterfeiting threat based on copy machine technology. Current Since 1972 directing a study into telecommunications technology and the effect on the buying and -selling of goods and services, including financial `servicea,.This research originated as a result of participation in a task force on new services taxonomy and assessment funded by the National Science Foundation as a part of an inter-disciplinary study of telecommunications and public policy. Current Examining the viability of mall intercepts as a method for the assessment of new product concepts and for advertising testing. (Funding from Kraft Inc.) Current Study into the process for the development of new service offerings among muld-national firms. This project includes an examination of the structure of firms as they-move toward a service orientation. Current Study into the public policy implications and ethical issues associated with advertising research. Includes analysis of Center for Disease Control study on adolescent behavior. (Funding from RJR, Inc.) Consulting Experience • Litigation: Outboard Marine Corporation Weber Marking Systems Inc. Booth Publications Inc. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company American Educational Subscription Services Inc. City of Adrian, Michigan Avon Products Inc. ' Automobile Club of Michigan Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. Inc. (7 cases) Continental•Illinois Bank Corporation Ohio Mattress Company (Sealy and Stearns & Foster Inc.) Dunlop Tire and. Rubb^r rc apany PepsiCo Inc. Nissan Motor Company (USA) (2 cases) General Aviation Corporation Hallmark Cards Inc. (2 cases) . Subaru of America Burger King Corporation Teledyne, Inc. Toymax, Inc. (2 cases) Coburn Optical Industries Inc.
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• Famiiy • . Friends • Peers EERSONAL -~ SOURCES IMPERSONAL • Physicians • Teaahers • Acquaintances • -Roie Models ~ Advertising • Public Relations ~ Saies Protmotion • News Reports  MESSAGE • Simple -1111- • Clear The "Kiss" Rule • Concise MEDIUM IMPERSONAL T THE RECEI VER'S DECODING THE NOISY ENVIRONMLNT
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r r Reviewer for Academic Conferences (1970-1997): American Marketing Association Academy of Marketing Science American Psychological Association American Academy of Adverlbiog European Academy of Marketing American Collegiate RetaWng Association Member of the scientific committee for the 1995 and 1997 International Research Seminars on Marketing Communications and Consumer Behavior. Invited to continue on committee for 1999 conference. Research Experience: Dr. Martin has authored more than 70 articles appearing in national and international journals. The author of five books and monographs, he also has served since 1978 as co-editor of the Journal of Current Issues and Research In Advertising. 1968-1973 Director of Research Group B. This was a group of department stores in eight midwestern and southwestern states who supported through the University of Michigan a program of basic research into consumer behavior. 1974-1975 Directed preparation of an economic, cultural and educational impact study for the State of West Virginia on the development of Blenerhasset Island. The study formed the foundation for a projected multi-million dollar development of the island as an historic tourist attraction. 1979-1980 Served as a member of a research group that examined household and business mailstreams in a major national study. commissioned by the U.S. Postal Service. This study was coordinated through the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. 1968-1979 Directed a program of graduate student . development of marketing plans for major organizations. Among the organizations participating in this program were:_ Ford Motor Company, Wolverine WorldWide Inc., Detroit Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Federal Reserve System, Michigan Bell Telephone Company, American Cancer Society, Warner Vineyards Inc., A.T. & T., and U.S. Plywood/Champion Paper Inc. . , 1978-1979 Principal researcher for the Federal Reserve System on the potential for the Susan B. Anthony dollar_prior to its 1979 introduction. This was a comprehensive study among consumers, retailers, and financial service institution providers. The study correctly predicted the failure of this new coin. 1978-1979 Co-principal on a project formulating a model for service demand at the Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. This national study was funded by a grant from American Express. -
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51771 5515 MODEL OF BUYER BEHAVIOR MARKEmNra STIiIB1U " OTliER STIMUI.i Product Economic Priae T ~icai Place P Promotion Cultural BUYER'S CHARACTERISTICS BWER'S DECISION Problem recognition Cultural o hrforma~ion h So ial Personal seavc Evaluation Psychological Decision Postpurchas® evaluation & behavior BUYER'S' DECISIONS . Product Choice Brand ChoiceR.. ' Dealer Choice Purchase Timing Purchase Amount
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CHECKING THE REFERENCES: ADOLESCENT SMOKING RESEARCH USED IN PUBLIC POLICY FORMULATION Abstract This exploratory study examines the attdbutions used in adolescent smoldng research, that could or have had an impact on public policy. Three articles from a total of 15 different author3 (1991-1993) were chosen; key ststements' having att:ibudon were selected; and the references cited, including in some cases second and third-hand references, wetz eumined. Thirty-three statements and their ittribudotis are examined for accuracy, full disclosure, and nature of the reference (e.g., facts v opiniotu; research supported v. non-supported attributions). Tbe conclusion is that the references are flawed and seriously uade=t the quality of adolescent smoking :eseat+ch prescnted. A00216039 I
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• . Claude R. Martin, Jr. Ph.D. 1116 Aberdeen Drive Ann Arbor, MI 48104 -~-l~JfiV EXH~ NO..,~ ~~g8 YEAR CASE JURISDICTIO ACTIVITY N 1994. Linens & More v. Lucas County, Deposition &- National Ohio trial testimony Amusements 1995 BQB Pet Supply, Federa - Deposition and -' Inc. v. Nutro District video - trial Products Flint MI testfmon 1995 Micro-Rim, Inc. v. Federal Deposition The Coloneis inc. District Detroit MI 1995 Micro-Rim, Inc. v. Federal Deposition The Colonels Inc. District Detroit MI Maximum Endeavors, Inc. v. Federal DeNusition 1996 Toyota District MotorSales, U.. A. Grand Rspidsv M1 1996 Qenessee Brewing Co., Federal Deposition d/b/a/ HlghtaNs District Brewing Co., v. Rochester, NY Stroh Brewin Co. 1996 Carmax (Circuity City Federal Daubert trial Stores, Inc.) v. District testimony. OFFICEMAX Inc. Richmond VA 1997 Franklin Resources, Inc. v. Federal Deposition and Franklin Credit District Trial Management` New York, NY Cor . st al. 1997 Mike Moore, Attorney General, Chancery Deposition State ot Court Mississippi v. The Jackson American Tobacco County Com an et al. Missisai i Ln Ln ~ ~
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DETAILED MODEL OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOR PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL Subculture Social Class SOCIAL Reference grouPs Family Roles & statuses Age& lNe cycle stage Occupation Economic circumstance Lifestyle Personality & setf-conaept v Perception Learning Beliefs & attitudes BUYER
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11 Books, Journals, and Monographs Journal of Current Issues and Research In Advertising, (19 volumes), 1978-1997 (co-editor). f An Introduction to Electronic Funds Transfer Systems, American Management Association, 1978. EFTS: Electronic Funds Transfer Systems, Stichting Contact- _ Centrum Levensmiddelenhandel, (Amsterdam), 1977. Research Study into Market Acceptance of the New One Dollar Coin, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1979. Telecommunications and Electronic Funds Transfer Systems, Publication TC-5, University of Michigan Program in Telecommunications_Research, June 1975. "Conceptual Development of the Situation and Setting in Marketing Exchange: Toward a Molar Perspective of Marketing,"-Researc6 In Marketing Volume 8, JAI Press, March 1986.
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r "Survey Implemented Market Segmentation, a Modification of AID," Proceedings of the American Institute for Decision Scienees, April 1973. "Double Jeopardy," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Fall 1973. Also in: Marketing Update, Harold Berkman; et.al., eds. Greenvale, N.Y.: Academy of Marketing Science, 1977. "Profit Oriented Data Analysis for Market Segmentation: An Alternative to Aid," Journal of Marketing Research, August 1974. "Teleshopping and EFTS," in Project Cable Faculty Seminars, Anil Telang and Kan Chen, eds. Publication C-20, University of Michigan Program in Telecommunications Research, June 1975. "Teleshopping and Electronic Funds Transfer," in Policy Research In Cable Communications, Report to the National Science Foundation, Kan Chen, ed., June 1975. "The Future for an Electronic Busin4ss Society," Business Horizons, Vol. 18; October 1975. ""The Consumer and Electronic Funds Transfer Systems," in Eliminating Constraints on Banking, Ph..., --. Mayer, ed., Golembe and Associates, December 1975. "The Elderly Consumer: One Segment or Many," Advances In Consumer Research, Volume III, Association for Consumer Research, 1975. Also in: The Elderly Consumer, Fred Waddell, ed., The Human Ecology Center, 1976; Lifestyles In Consumer Behavior of Older Americans, Howard G. Schultz and Glen R. Hawkes, eds., Prager Publishing Company, 1978. "Transgenerational Comparison: The Elderly Fashion Consumer," Advances in Consumer Behavior, Volume III, Association for Consumer Research, 1975. Also in: The Elderly Consumer, Fred Waddell, ed., The Human Ecology Center, 1976. "EFTS: The Need for Marketing Planning and Analysis," in Marketing EFTS to Consumers, Payment Systems Research Program, 1976. "Teleshopping: An Assessment," in The Retail Revolution of 1976, National Retail Merchants Association, January 1976. "SIMS II: Profit Oriented Market Segmentation for Decision Time Implementation," Journal of the Marketing Research Society, July 1976. "Profit Oriented and Decision Time Segmentation," Journal of the Academy -of Marketing Science, Spring 1977. "Consumer Demand for Electronic Banking," Proceedings of the 1977 Southwestern Marketing Association, March 1977. _ "The Situation Confronting Introduction of the Anthony Dollar," in rovernment Marketing, Steven Permut and Michael Mowka, eds., Prager Press Inc., 1981. "The New Susan B. Anthony Dollar: Hypotheses Regarding Consumer and Retailer Reactions," Developments In Marketing Science, Volume III, Academy of Marketing Science, 1980. "Temporal Incongruency in Consumer Behavior," Advances in Consumer Research, Volume VIII, Association for Consumer Research, October 1980.
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"Normative Models for Department Store Buying," Proceedings of the Southern Marketing Association, 1980. "The Non-Checking Account Customer and EFTS," in Marketing of Services, James H. Donnelly and Wiliam R. George, eds., American Marketing-Association, 1981. "An Improved Model for Media Audience Evaluation," Proceedings of the European Academy for Advanced Research in Marketing, March 1981. • "A Review of Situational Influence Paradigms and Research," in Review in Marketing 1981, Ben M. Enis and Kenneth J. Roering, eds., American Marketing Association, 1981. "Evaluating Classifications of Shoppers: Temporal and Enjoyment Dimensions of Patronage," Proceedings of the Patrona=e-Theory Conference, William Darden, ed., American Marketing Association, May 1981. , "Conceptualizing Elderly Buyer Behavior," Developments in'Marketing Science, Vol••me IV, American Academy of Marketing Science, May 1981. "Voice Analysis in Advertising: Two Additional Concerns," Proceedings of the American Academy of Advc, wsing, April 1981. "On Using Voice Analysis in Marketing Research," Journai of Marketing Research, August 1981. "The Attitudinal Implications of a New Brand Name," Advances In Consumer Research, Volume IX, Association for Consumer Research, October, 1981. "Collective Behavior in Consumer Behavior," in Marketing Theory: Philosophy of Science Perspectives, Ronald F. Bush and Shelby D. Hunt, eds., American Marketing Association, February 1982. "Message Characteristics and Audience Characteristics: Predictors of Advertising Response," Advances in° Consumer Research, Volume X, Association for Consumer Research, October 1982. "Two Copy Testing Techniques: The Cloze Procedure and Cognitive Complexity," Journai of Business Research, Summer 1983. "Demand Potential for Electronic Funds Transfer at the Retail Point of Sale," in The Economics of Distribution, Franco Angeli, ed., Centro de Studi sul Commericio, University L. Bocconi, (Milan, Italy), 1983. "The Cloze Procedure: A Clue to Advertising Likeability and Message Recall;" Journal of Advertising Research, June/July 1983. "On Building a Transition-Based Paradigm for Examining the Changing Household." in The Changing Household, Its Nature and Consequences, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1984. "New Service Development: International Research Report," Creativity in Services Marketing, American Marketing Association, September 1985. ' "Domanda Potenziale Per Il Trasferimento Elettronico Di Fondi Al Punto Di Vendita Al Dettaglio," Commerclo, Revista Di Economia E P4titlca Commerciale, Aldo Spranzi, ed., Milan: CESCOM, 1985. ` "
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r If , National Biographical Listings: Who's Who in the World Who's Who in America Who's Who in the Midwest Who's Who in Germany Dictionary of International Biography Men of Achievement Scholarly Honors and Awards: Alpha Sigma Nu (International Honors Fraternity) AJCU Business Deans' Award (200th Anniversary of Jesuit Education in U.S., 1989) O'Hara Award for Distinguished Service in Education (University of Scranton, 1994) Academic Background: Bachelor of Science in Business Administ^tion (1954) Master of Business Administration (1963) University of Scranton _ Ph.D. in Business Administration (1969) Columbia University Community Service: Organizatlona: Board of Trustees University of Scranton (1996-present) Services Steering Committee Marketing Science Institute, (1990-present) Board Member National Advertising Review Board (1989-1993) University Council (1989 - 1996) - University of Scranton Board of Directors (1970-1971) American Cancer Society (Michigan) Board of Trustees (1979-1987) and Treasurer (1980-1987) Catholic Social Services Committee on Real Estate (1983-1989) Diocese of Lansing American Marketing Association Association for Consumer Research American Collegiate Retailing Association Academy of Marketing Science Adcraft Club of Detroit Southwest Marketing Association European Academy of Marketing American Academy of Advertising Member, Research Committee, 1982-88 Chairman, Research Committee, 1987-88 Editorial Review Board: Journal of Advertising , European Journal of Innovation Management Ad hoc reviewer. Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research International Journal of Service Industry Management Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing Journal of Reqdling and Co4tiumer Services Journal of Business Research : ~
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THE FTC AND SURGEON GENERAL v. JOE CAMEL: Research Standards and Public Polic,Y Q - The Society for Consumer Psychology February 19, 1994 St. Petersburg, FL Claude R Martin. Jr. Isadore & Leon Winkelman Professor of Retail Marketing School of Business Administration University of Michigan Contact Address: 1116 Aberdeen Drive Ann Arbor, MI48104 Voice & Fax: 313-971-1897 'AG0216072 i
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10 "Checking the References: Adolescent Smoking Research Used in Public Policy Formulation," Proceedings of the Marketing and Public_ Policy Conference, Vol. 4 - 1994 (p. 2) "The Congruence of New Product and New Service Development, "Le Management des r Services:Apports Muitidisciplinaires"- Seminaire International De Rechere En Management Des Activites De Service, May; 1994, Aix-En-Provence, France: institut d'administration des entreprises (pp. S26-S4S) "Ethical Advertising Research Standards: Three Case Studies," Journal of Advertising, Volume 23, No 3- 1994 (pp. 17-30) "The FTC v. Joe Camel: Research Standards and Public Policy,'` Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the Society for Consumer Psychology, 1995 (pp. 1-8) "Advertising Effectivness: Stimuli Setting Differences," Proceedings of the International Research Seminar on Maeke•'n Communications and Consumer Behavior, La Londe les Maures, F-rance: 1995 (pp. 384-396) "Retail Service Breakdowns and Recovery," Proceedings of the gth International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades; September,199s; Milan, Italy, pp. B5.15-5.22 "Review of Retailing by Dunne, et al" in Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 3 No. 1, 1996, pp.58-59 "Level of Success. Inputs for Service Innovations in the Same Firm," International Journal of Service Industry 1Vlanagement, Volume 6 No.-4, 1995, pp. 40,57 "Retail Service Innovations: Inputs for Success," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 3 No. 2, 1996, pp.•63-71 _ . : "The Role of Advertising in a Service-Driven Strategy," in Marketing Intangibles In Business Marketing, A Report froni-tbe 3nstitute for the Study of Business Markets, The Pennsylvania State University and from The Center for Business and Industrial Marketing, Georgia StateJtJniverdty, Bob Donath. ed.. 1996, pp. , 18-21 "The Advertising Creative Theme: Service Constructs as a Foundation," "Les Apports Marketing, Production, Economic, - Straftie et Resources Humaines an Management des Services • SEminaire international.de rechere en management des activit6s de service, Aix-En-Provence, France: institut d'administration des entreprises d'aix-marseille III France, 1996, pp. 490-509 "Advertising in the New Service Economy: How It is Meeting the Challenge of Communicating the Intangibles," Development In Marketing Science, Volume XX, Elizabteh J. Wilson and Joseph F. Hair Jr., eds., 1997, p. 161
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10 design, conducting and reporting of research. Many of the scholars who evaluated the these articles seemed genuinely dismayed by the quality issue, judging by the comments which accompanied the returned questionnaires. As one observed: "it too bad it is a patchy, superficial research effort which is more concerned with advocacy than with finding truth." f A00216082
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: . atcNlLw ..[ouundi..oveo.or OF © . CHART 3 ,...... ........ ~.... . m Of particular interest is separate evidence concerning the DiFranza study which is ap- plicable to the assessment of speculation & advocacy by the authors. Documents from a legal discovery process, (Mangini v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, et al.), indicate that Dr. DiFranza predetermined the results of that study in an effort to generate media coverage. In a lc..cr to one of his co-authors (Richards.1991), Dr: DiFranza cites a previ- ous inability to provide reporters with "proof that tobacco companies are advertising to children. I can't point to any one piece of evidence as a smoking gun and say 'here, this proves it.' Well I have an idea for a project that will give us a couple of smoking guns to bring to the national media." Obviously, this raises a concern for the objectivity of the study and buttresses the findings of the evaluators (Chart 3). DiFranza also stated before the research study was undertaken: (a) "I am proposing a quick and easy project that should ptoduce...evidence that RJR is going after kids with their Camel ads" (Richards 1991, p. 1) and (b) "Survey results reveal that both the `Old Joe' character' and the Marlboro ads are seen by many youngsters to possess a number of desirable qualities. In addition, a significant number of youngsters see these characters as appropriate role models and would like to emulate them.... for the youngest children the Camel character was seen as more fun loving and more exciting than the Marlboro man"-(Richards 1991, pp. 2-3). Oh AG0216079
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6 CHART 2 : ...r......r © ...... .....,... ~ ..~i..../.ir.r. ~ ® I Speculation and Advocacy The American Marketing Association (Churchill and Perrault 1982) states that "good science and good 'speculation' are not incompatible,- but each should be clearly labeled so that the two are not confused." To address the issue.. of speculation and advocacy disclosure we posed three evaluative questions to the evaluating scholars: • To what extent have tne authors clearly identiGed any speculation on their pan? • To what extent are the claims and asseruons of the authors ckarly supported by the re- seaoch? • To what extent have the authors maintained an independent assertion and not demonstrated an advocacy position? The results (Chart 3) show that there is concern among the evaluators that all three re- search teams have not demonstrated independence and non-advocacy in their efforts, nor have they clearly identified speculation on thGir. part. The census of research guidelines show a consistent insistence on the need for claims and assertions by authors to be sup- ported by the research. In fact, this is clearly required by the Journal of the American Medical Association itself. However, the results from the evaluation_indicate this is not true for these ~luee papers z AG0216078 t
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CHECKING THE REFERENCES: ADOLESCENT SMOKING RESEARCH USED IN PUBLIC POLICY fORMULATION Ir In 1992 we undertook an analysis of three papers published in December, 1991 in the Journal of the American Medical Association [F`tscher, et aL. Pierce, et u1., and DiFraasa, et al.] which have implications for public policy formulation dealing with the issue of adolescent cigarette smoking [Martia, 1993s. 1993b, 1993eJ. During the coursa of those reviews a cursory r=a*++ination raised concern and interest in the quality of the refetences cited by each of the authors. It was apparent, on the surface, that in -some cases questionable research (including outright advocacy papers), unpublished papers, and erroneous use of citations had been attributed [also see: Krumske 1993J. For various reasons, unrelated to the merits, the citations have Seen left unexamined and uachallenged. T3at is the thrust of the effort repoited here. Our-objecdve was to formulate a preliminary assessment of the attribution used ia adolescent smoking research. For this explorato, J effort we selected three articles from the :past three (1991-1993) that have addressed the issue of adolescent smoking. The articles were chosen to represent differing thrusts by 15 diverse researchers. Within:each article key statements having attribution were selected and the references cited were examiaed. In some iastaaces the authors used second and third-hand references and, 'where possible, these were also examiaed. Our goal was not to critique the research in the three ardcles, but to examine the references offered for accuracy, full disclosure, and aature of the reference (e.g., facts v. opinions; :esearch supported v. non-supported attributions). The Candy-Cigarette Paper - The first of the papers to be examiaed was by Jonathon D. IGleia, Billie Forehaad, Janice Oliveri, Charlotte Patterson, Janis Kttperstaidt and Vicw St;echer entitled "Candy Cigarettes: Do They Encourage Children's Smoking?" which appeared in Redinsdru [January 1992]. This article reports on two studies of tne role of zandy and bubble gum cigarettes in the development of children's attitudes and behaviors toward smokiag [Klein, et a1., p. 27J. For each asaibutioafczferet+.x examiaed we first give the statement from the Klein, et aL article and then its reference, including the original reference aumber. Following that is our discussion of the nature and quality of the attrIbutions. 1. "Although smoldng prevalence rates have declined in recent yetm this is due more to adults giving up the habit than to youngsters avoiding it" (n2 - Potts Ii, Giles P., Herbcrt 1vI. "Adolescent Smoldng aad Opinion of Cigaratte Advertisements," Health Education Researcb , 1986; 1: 195-201J. .~ -
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• To what extent did the authors control for any differences in the results being attributed to variacions in administration? CHART 1 . t .o..,m Ots" w .~._............ m The results (Chart 1) indicate there are major concerns about the research design of all three studies. On the seven point Likert like scz! -., none of the studies received an evaluation above the median score for any of the six research design variables. Replicating and Evali•-`ng Research Evaluators were asked to examine the articles on the basis of replicadng and eval- uating the research. The issue of presenting findings that clearly can be replicated is a key standard of the American Statistical Association, American Economic Review and American Marketing Association. In addition, the American Psychological Association calls for sufficient information to judge the quality of the results presented. As can be seen from the results (Chart 2) there is serious anxiety on these two dimensions for all three studies. AG0216077 f
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14 . : number of cigarette ads in women's and youth magazines cannot be interpreted as causing an iacr+ease iasmolaag rates form these groups. If increase in cigarette ads followed changes in the smoking rates of youth or women, this increase may have been in respoase to increases in the number of smokers within aa particular marYet segracnt. 'Ibe larger the volume of ads may have been designed to stimulate brand switching in these existing smokeas" (Aibtight, et aL p. 232]. This admonition is ignored by Botvin and hif colleagues. Discussion It is difficult to sum**+•r ze or categorize the matetial presented above. First and foremost the reader is reminded this was an exploratory 3tudy designed to formulate some basic understanding and assessment of the referencing used in adolescent smoking articles shu could have an impact upon public policy formulation. BocviA, et aL ~ssues a call for "motz careful scrutiny by legislators. "[p. 224]: IQein detnaads'the "eliminatioa of candy cigarette products" (p. 30]: and Fischer's work has been cized by the FTC tnff fWall Sereet 7ournal. August 11, 1993] and the Attorneys General of 27 states MVall Srreec 7eaansl, September 22, 1993] in calling for a ban on ttie Jos Camel advertising campaign of the RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company. On the basis of the 33 statements from the three articles and their attributions, we feel ooa8dent in advancing a proposition that the referaaces are seriously flawed and substantively undercut the quality of the research presented The concern is that citadons, such as studied here, take on "a life of their own." In some cases we have demonstrated where opinions and conclusions, unsupported by research, now become cited and aeemingly bocome the f'outulation for use by advocates for and formulators of public policy. We propose to enlarge the study and to exai"c many mote adolescent smoldng papers to test the proposition. I . A00216053
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1991; StaAdora 1992; U.S. News & World Report 1992; Vesey 1992; Fara Warner 1992; Washington Times 1992); (d) the American Cancer Society, American Heart Association and American Lung Association formally petitioned the Federal Trade Commission to immediately ban the Joe Camel campaign (Cimons 1992); and (e) 175,UU0`children participated in a contest tided "Say No, Old Joe: `_by submitting poems, letters, essays, or posters (American Medical Association 1993). As already mentioned, perhaps the two strongest public policy outcomes from the three JAMA articles occurred later in 1993. First, the staff of the Federal Trade Commission, citing the JAMA articles recommended that the IFT'C seek an outright ban of the RJ. Reynolds's Joe Camel advertising campaign (Wall Street Journal , August 1993). Second, the Attorneys General of 27 states in September, 1993 formally asked the rTC to ban the Joe Camel advertising campaign, citing the JAMA publications (Associated Press 1993). EVALUATION PROCEDURE In 1993, when the calls for the censorship ~f the Joc Camel campaign surfaced at the FTC and among the Attorneys General, we undertook a survey of consumer research scholars concerning the Fischer et al. study. A random sample of 90 researchers who are members of the Association for Consumer Research were canvassed and asked for their evaluation of one of the three studies (Fischer et a1.,1991; DiFranza et al., 1991; Pierce et a1,1991). The evaluation process followed on a census of major research associations-and journals to ascertain their research guidelines. These included the fields of statistics, ad- vertising, marketing, economics, sociology and psychology. While some disciplines and . journals reported no official statements concerning research guidelines, input was gener- ated from the Journal of the American Statistical Association, the American Economic Review, the American Marketing Association, and the American Psychological Association. Also examined were the "instructions for authors" oi the Journal of the American Medical Association.. In particular the JAMA guidelines (/ournal of the American Medical Association 1993) call for the following: 1. The manuscript represents yAUd work. = 2. Authors will produce-- the data upon which the manuscript is based. 3. Only those conclusions of the study that are directly supported by the evidence reported should be given. A total of 58 scholars responded to a.questionnaire that employed a seven-point Likert-like scale (Likert 1932). The dimensions evaluated flowed fronct, the research guid- lines census described above. These can be categorised as: (1) efficacy of the research design, (2) the ability of others to replicate or evaluate the research, (3) the speculation or t Aa0216074
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THE FTC AND SURGEON GENERAL v. JOE CAMEL: Research Standards and Public Policy m Claude R. Martin Jr. Rarely have three consumer behavior articles` had such a major impact on •the formulation of public policy as the trio of papers published in December, 1991 by the Journal of the American Medical Association. The research was subsequently reported on television news programs and in every major daily newspaper in the United States. It also received extensive coverage in the primary weekly news magazines.. Then followed a deluge of calls for the banning of all cigarette advertising by public officials and editorialist, which continues into 1994. Almost two years later, specifically citing the JAMA research, the Attorneys General of 27 states and the Federal Trade Commission's staff recommended the outright ban of the Joe Camel advertising catnpaign. This was not in conjunction with a traditional standard of false or misleading advettising. Rather it was and is an unusual response to findings about adolescent consumer behavior research as related to the Joe Camel campaign. Such a crescendo of demands provoked our interest concerning their efficacy to support such major changes in public policy. ADVOCACY OF PUBLIC POLICY CHANGES In preparation for this paper, we reviewed 172 newspaper articles; 71 wire service stories; 82 print media editorials and 23 syndicated columnists. These included 32 spe- cific editorials calling for the banning of Joe Camel and/or a more stringent regulation of tobacco advertising (Atlanta Journal and Constitution 1991; Boston Globe 1991; Denver Post 1992; Fort Worth Star-Telegram 1991, New York Observer 1992, Philadelphia Inquirer 1992, Raleigh News & Observer 1992, San Francisco Examiner 1992, Syracuse Herald-Journal 1992). Among other significant reactions: (a) Senator William Cohen called for Congress to be involved in an effort to ban Joe Camel (Scripps Howard News Service 1992); (b) Representative Henry Waxman asked the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment to recommend strict controls_on all advertising and 4pecifically to prohibit the RJR ad campaign (Waxman 1991); (c) The Surgeon General of the United States, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Atturican Medical Association demanded that RJ. Reynolds stop using Joe Camel ( Brown 1991; Dagnoli 1991; Enrice 1992; Horovitz 1992; Lipman 1992; Kong 1992; - Roberts 1992; Snider AG0216073
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Tye JB., Wacnsr KE and Glaaa, Sa., "Tobaao Advatisiaa sad Conuumpdoo: Evidence of a Cansal Pteladonshjp:' Jm+; m1 of Public Nralch_ Feliev,19$7, $; 493•SO$ Wallack L, Cocbeu K., "A]eohol. Tobacco and Marijuana Use Among Yonsh: An Overview of Fpidaaiological, Prog:sm aad Poticy Tmads." HUIch EdnQltjon Ouu+sr1v:1987. 4s 223-249 Wsll Stroa Iewnsl. 'FTC SeaB Recoamaetsds Baa of Joe Camel Campsiga.' Aug= 11,1993. pp. B 1 and BS Wall Street IournsL "Asoraeys Geaeal Of 27 Snces Urge Fedent Trade Commusioa To Ssa RJ. Reynolds's Cijarecte AdversisiaB Staning' The Aaieaued 'Smooth C2arraefet' Joe Ca,ne[." Septemba 11,1993. pp. B-1 Www j(,$,,, Sa<tint Sntoicer Gia~rette Advertislng and Public Reilch, Washipgyop; Ampriup public HaJds Assoeisdoo.1986 Warna KB., "fobrooo 1adONry Rssponse Zo Public Health troocern: A Cauanc Aaalysis of CipresZe Adt,' Omnmivo 1985:12:11S-1Z7 Wscae: KYL. "A Bso on the Promotioa of Tobaoco Ptoduas,' New -n 1' CMl of Medicine 1987, 1S2 117-12t Whelan E34„ A Smeldnt +nn- Roev the Tnbsem ind ueerv .ece Aarav With Murder- -Pwwcohji, ('MF F. SdcJdy Co. 1984 I AG0216056
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advocacy_nature of the authors, (4) the quality of the reporting of results, and (5) the va- lidity & reliability of the studies. The evaluators were given the following admonishment when asked to review the assigned research: "What I am asking you to do is read the pa- per and then fill out the accompanying questionnaire that delineates major dimensions used by the professional societies in our field to evaluate research. I know this article could arouse personal and emotional considerations. However, I am asking you to disre- gard those and to evaluate it on a Fur y oro, fessiopal basis using the,gLidelinec ^ro- vided." It should be noted that all of the evaluators regularly serve as reviewers of jour- nal manuscripts within their discipline and all are well-published research authors. THE THREE PAPERS SUMMARIZED The Fischer Study Fischer, et al. investigated "brand logo recognition by children ag4d 3 to 6 years." Children were instructed to match logos with one of 12 products pictured on a game board. Twenty-two logos were tested, including those represendng children's products, adult products, and those for two popular cigarette brands (Camel and Marlboro). The setting for the research were preschools in Augusta and Atlanta, Georgia. A convenience sample of 229 children attending 10 preschools was used. Fischer, et al., claim the children demonstrated high rates of logo recognition and when analyzed by product category, the level of cigarette logos was intermediate between children's and adult products. The recognition` of the Disney Channel -logo and Old Joe were described as "highest in their respecdve product categories" [Fischer, et al., p. 3145]. The resoective categories are "children's brands" (the rDisney logo) and "cigarette brands." Although various news media, public officials and the Fischer research- team have identified the cartoon character erroneously as Old Joe, in actuality the long-standing depiction of a camel in a desert scene on the camel package is'Old JoC, Joe Camel is the more recent vintage cartoon character used in Reynolds' advertlsing for the brand. The Joe Carne/ reference is the _on+s used henceforth irt this paper., The data offered by Fischer, et al. show that the Disney Channel, McDorsald's, Burger King. Dominos Pizza, Coca Cola, Pepsi, Nlke, Chevrolet and Ford all had higher recognition scores than Joe Camel. The DiFranza Study The DiFranza, et al. (1991) study's declared objective was to determine if RJR Nabisco's cartoon-thetne advertising is more effective in promoting Camel cigarettes to children or to adults and to determine if-children see, remember, and are Influenced by cigarette advertising. The research focused on the recognition and appeal of the Joe Camel (again erroneously labeled Old Joe by the authors) advertising campaign among I AG0216075
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r "Bunroughs Corporation: Why A New Corporate Identity Program," in Crosscurrents in Corporate Communications No.1S, New York: Time Inc., 1986 "Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point of Sale: The Issue of Productivity," in Distributive Trades: An International Perspective, L. Pelligrini & S.K. Reddy, eds., Milan: Franco Angeli Libri S.R.L., 198.6 (pp. 209-229) "Le Management Du Nouveau Service Aux U.S.A. Et En France," in Contribution A L'Etude Du Nouveau Service: Concepts Et Pratique Manageriales, Eric Langeard, et.al. eds., Aux En Provence: Rapport de Recherche remis au Ministere de la Rechere et de 1'Enseignement Superieur, December,1986 (pp.101-111) "Item Non-Response in a Telephone Survey: Effects of Question Form and Respondent Characteristics," Journal of Marketing Research, Volume XXIV, November 1987 (pp. 418-424) "The Impact of New Brand Names on the Process of Inferential Belief Formation," Journal of Business Research, Volume 15 No. 2, Apri11987 (pp. 157-172) "New Services Development Among Successful Firms,"_ Les. Apports Marketing, Production Et Ressources Humaiaes Au Management Des Services - 1st Seminaire International De Rr: :..re En Management Des Actlvlta De Service, June, 1990, Aix-En-Provence, France: institut d'administration des enmsprises; pp. 160-181 "Communications in Europe: Global, Local or 'Glocal'?" Proceedings of the XVIIth International Research Seminar in Marketing, La Londe les Maures (France), May, 1991 "Restructuring Toward A Service Orientation," International Journal of Service Industry Management, Volume 3, No. 1, 1992 (pp.25-38) "New Services Development: Consumer vs. Organizational Firms," Lea Apports Marketing, Production Et Reswurces Humalnss Au Management Des Services - 2nd Seminaire International De Rechere En Management Des Activites De Service, June, 1992, Aix-En-Prova-nce, . France: institut d'administration des entreprises, pp. 150-172 "Service Innovation: Successful vs. Unsuccessful Firms," International Journal of Service Industry Management, Volume 4, No. 1, 1993 (pp. 49-65) "Research Validity and Resulting Public Policy: The Case of tite DiFranza 'Old Joe' Cigarette Study," Proceedings of the American Association of Public Opinion Research, May 1993 "The Efficacy of Statistically-Based Research: The Case of 'Old Joe'," Proceedings of the American Statistical Aaeociation, August 1993 "Developing New Retail Services: A Research Report," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, University of Sterling, Sterling, Scotland, September 1993 (pp. 154-171) "Consumer Research Standards & Public Policy Formulation: The Case of Mickey Mouse & Old Joe," Advances in Consumer'Reeearch, Vol. XXI - 1994 (pp. 380-386) "Pollay's Pertinent and Impertinent Opinions: 'Good' versus 'Bad' Research," Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 1- 1994 (pp. 117-122)
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the reliability and validity of all three studies. The reliability evaluations (5.4, 5.4, 6.1 re- specdvely on a scale of I to 7 with the higher score reflecting greater problems with reli- ability) shows concern for the consistency, accuracy and predictability of all three stud- ies' findings. Consistent with this is a perception of major problems with the each stud- ies' overall validity reflecting evaluations that the researchers did not measure what they thought they were measuring. CHART 4 ..on.a.MVnm,.. Rft...m ~I~I~I[IIIII • . . . Discussion It is-difl•icult to summarize or categorize the material presented above. One could question the time and effort spent in appraising already published article#. In many cases that would be so, but here we are dealing with three papers that have had and are having a major impact on public policy. Disturbing are the quality issues concerning of the re- search raised by the evaluators who used aceepted research gutdelines for their evalua- tions. The findings here demonstrate serious concern for (1) efficacy' of the research de- sign, (2) the ability of others to replicate or evaluate the research, (3)_the speculation or advocacy nature of the authors, (4) the quality of the reporting of_results, and (5) the va- lidity & reliability of the studies. This concern is amplified when the articles in-question constitute the foundation underpinning the formulation of public poliey. Our objective is not to support gr attack cigarette smoking, or even cigarette ad- vertising. Rather, our focus here has been on the,quality of the research (Fischer et al., 1991; DiFranza et al., 1991; Pierce et al, 1991)_ that fuels advocating policies as far- reaching as that suggested by the FfC staff and Attorneys General (Wall Street Journal , August 1993; Associated Press 1993). The outpouring of demands for the outright banning of the Joe Camel advertising campaign, based on the studies from the Journal of the American Medical Association and coupled with the evaluations hera, is a clear aignal of the need for -more rigor in the , AG0216081 ,,..
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Standora, Leo (1992). "Docs: Tune For Old Joe To Become a No-Show," New York Post, (Manch 10, 1992). 3 Syracuse Herald-Jourrsal (1992), "Luring Kids to Smoke: The Uncool Side of Joe Camel," (Match-11, 1992) U.S. News Qc World Report (1992), "An Anti Smoking Campaign Heats Up," (March 20, 1992) 14 Vesey, Susannah (1992), "Up In Smoke" Atlanta ronstiuuion, ("Pcach Buzz" column) (March 20, 1992) Wail Sneet Jorrrnal (1993), "FTC Staff Recommends Ban of Joe Camel Campaign," (August 11, 1993), B-1 and B-6 Warner, Fara (1992), "Novello Throws Down Ganntkt " AdWeck's Morketing Week. (March 'Ib,19Si2), 4 Waslun jton Temes (1992), "Camels 'Old Joe' Creates YounS Smokers," lettort from Louis W. Sullivan and Antonia C. Novello. (March 30,1992), E2 Waxunan, Henry (1991), "Tobacco Marketing: Profiteering From Children," Journal of the Atrrerican Medical AssociatioR, 266 (22), 3185-3186
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n; rueeinn- The Potts study that is cited does = address the questioa of ielsting smoldng decline to segrrments of the population. The Iaein resea:ch team does not report that (1) the data is asnribumd by Potts•to a population tnnd.study by Marsh (1984) and (2) it is_ a direct quotation from the Potts, et a1(p.1951T3e secondary sotncing of data is never acknowledged by IQein and his colleagues. 2. "Despite preventive efforts, initiation of-mbacco use among children and adolescents remains unacceptably high" [n3 - MacDonald D.i., Drugg;Drinking and dolescents Chscago,,Il,: Year Book Medical Publishea, 1984: n4 - Wallack L, Cocbett IC, "Aleohol, Tobsceo and Marijuana Use Among Youth: An Overview of Epide.miolog ical, Program and Policy Trends," Health Fducation Qua-e. 1987, 4: 223-249). Dh~~~.'en~ The MacDonald book-(a 258 pars on drug and alcohol abuse) cited by the Mein teata has only 12 hnes on p. 6 devoted to cigaretta smoking and briefly discusses a 1977 shifcia geader cigarette smoldna share urributed to Johnston, et al. [1982]. LaterMuDonald comments tbu "since 1978 there have been eacourtgt'ng d~ses in daily usage rates for marijuaa^ •ad tobscco" (p. 71. T1u ~allack and Corbett paper discusses the decline in smoking prevttleace races among youths from 1977 focwat+d, but cites a stabilisudon in the rase in the three year prior to their paper. They also cite the success of smolciag prevention programs among youth :. and embrace the conclusson of Moskowttz [1983] that< an tnd-smoldag ethos has evolved in American society [Wallack & Cotbett, p. 235j. The oniy discussion of "unacceptably high" initiation use is the itaamcat in Wallack & Corben (p. 224) that "the sutge in substance abuse by youths which began in the late 1960'-s and continued to climb to the late 1970's now shows signs of subsidence." By definition they include tobaccq usage among youths as a "substance abuse." 3. "...and apMxiaucely 3000 young people become regular smokers every day [nS - Pierce J.P., Fiore M.C, Novotny T.S., Hatziandreu EJ. and Davis ic-M., "Trends_ in _i- ~arette $taoidn~g in_ the U.S.," . . 1989,, 261: 6i-65'~. p~; Tbe riridon from the 'e~, ~t ~, arricle is acctaatie and is. a direct quote firom that papa (Piezoe, "et aL; p.6S] However, what is not disclosed by the I~eia team is the definition of "yotmg people." Pierce and his colleagues discuss the smoldng prevalence among young ppsorts (emphasis otas) aged 20-24 years and how it declined at a tate of .41 pett;wtage points per-year from 197!t to 1985, an , accumulated decline in smoking ptzwalexa for this age group of 4.5%. Importantly the focus of the Mein paper is on children, w adults aged ` 20-24 who are legally entitled to smoke. 4. "Additionally, as many as 90% of prescboolets recognim ` ues, and 55% thiak that they will smoke _tham as adults" [shtttm, St. Pierre, Lubell, EO., "Smoldng Awareness and Practiees of Urban Pct- School and First Grade Children," lounsi of Schoat Heahh, 1981, 51: .347-351). jbg,gssion; The dam cited from the Shtm, ct aL work is llttt acctnue. That dan show 59.7% of pre-sehooless say,they would use cigarettes in the future - the percentage is ;eironeous and the reference to ' AG0216041 1
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8 Reporting Results The issue of how the F'ischer, DiFranza and Pierce researchers reported results were examined by the 21 scholars using three questions, which again flow from the census of research guidlines: • To what extent sre the outcome measures clearly related to the variables with which the investigation is concerned? • To what extent are limitadons of the methodology employed reported? • To what extent are convergent results reported? KPONfMlO OI M889YION OOULA a.. CHART4 . • . . . . ..~...r.....rww •~.. The low scores for reporting convergent results (Chart 4) are particularly important, since the Journal of the American Medical Association (1993, pp. 154) clearly admon- ishes authors to give "equal emphasis...to positive and negative findings of equal scien- tific merit." The evaluation of the relation of the outcome measures to the investigated variable is also salient to JAMA, which insists that "only, those conclusions of the study supported by the evidence reported should be given.." (Journal oj the American Medical Association 1993, p. 154). Here again the litigation discovery documents concerning the DiFranza et al. study (Mangini v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, et al.) add to the evaluation results. DiFranza discovered that very few (13 of 167) young-children (grades 5 through 8) smoked on a regular basis or intended to begin smoking In the future (Co- Investigator letter 2 1990). In fact, children from grades' S-8, were omitted from the study. This was never revealed in the final paper. Also. DiFranza, in communication to his fellow researchers, says "it would be best to avoid parochial schools because their smoking rates will be so low that the brand preference survey will noc be meaningful" (Old Joe Study Protoco11992). Validity & Reliability The Journal of the American Medical Association (1993, p. 152) Is consistent with the all the associations and journals in addressing the need for reliability and validity in the research published. The results (Chart 5) indicate concerns by the scholars for both _j AG0216080
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students (aged 12-19 years) in five sections of the United States and compared this to data for registered adult drivers (aged 21-87 years) from Massachusetts. Subjects were shown a "masked" ad to determine whether they recognized Joe Camel. They were then shown a series of six advertisements and asked to answer yes or no questions about each ad's "appeal." Finally they were asked questions abouc smoking behavior and brand preference. The study concludes that Joe Camel advertisements were better known among the student sample than among adults, that the advertisements' "appeal" scores were higher for the student sample, and that more students reported Camel as their preferred brand. The authors also reached a conclusion that "Old Joe Camel cartoon advertisement are far more successful at marketing Camel cigarettes to children than adults" (DiFranza et al. 1991, p. 3149). The Pierce Study This article reports on a study entitled "Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young People To Start Smoking?" Using a telephone survey of California adults and teens, Pierce, et al. examined which cigarette brand respondents thought 'was most heav.., ..d- • vertised and which brand they smoked. The 1990 California data were compared to data from a 1986 national telephone survey on brand choices of adults. This part of the study was to ascertain the relative market share of both the Camel and Marlboro brands among "younger smokers" (Pierce et al. 1991, p. 3164). The article reaches a conclusion that perception of advertising is high among young smokers; market-share patterns across age and sex groups follow the perceived advertising patterns; and changes in market share re- suiting from advertising occur mainly in young smokers. The authors claim that "cigarette advertising encourages youth to smoke and should be banned" (Pierce et al. 1991, p. 3154). Research Destgn Evaluation Results The first category explored was efficacy of the research design. There were six sep- arate scales which emanated from the guideline census that were used to evaluate this di- mension. Specifically the reviewers were asked the following: • To what extent is thcre a full and unambiguous testing of hypotheses'1 • To what extent ue the subjects in the rasearch representative of the population to which generalisatian~ have been made? • To what extent did tbe authors build in neQded controls in thair ieseAteh dcsign? • To what extent did the authors control for any difteoeces in tha resutts being attributed to transient personal factors».that iis, the mood, stat"f-health. fatigue, and so on, of the respondents • To what extent did the authors control for any differences in the results being attributed to situational factors surrounding the measurements reported? 4 1 ACi021607.6
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i 51771 5558 i r 0 © Mi[SIt~'~'iKI'11M~~C'RVU lILlA %GAl+MYPi1MNtwcMarsumo 4me ~a7p". br',•pV aruvi •aww ..W~~ "Mou M~ 0
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10 'i'hus, the eitadon (second-band from Tye, et alL to Johnston, et aL) does not provide &m support for the 5,000-per-day estimate. 6. "Since tobacco companies are not permitted to maricet= eigarettea to children dinctly. advertising appeals are made indirectly. Tobacco companies sponsor sporting events; sell souvenirs; display brand- associated cartoon characters on billboards; sbow cigarette brands in movies desigaed for young people: and ignore the sak by candy manufacturers of candy cigarettes having oigarette brand logos, overlooldngcopytight in5ingements" jn11- Blum A., "The Marlboro Grand Prix: Circumvention of the Television Ban on Tobacco Advertising," N-w -ngl nd~ Jozrn:jgf M,edicitfe. 1991, 324: 913- 917; n12 - Ledwith F., "Does Tobacco Sports S onsorship on Television Act as Advertising to.Childrea?", ' jot,wnaL 1984, 43: 85-88; n13 - Tye J.B., "Cigarette Ads in Kid's lylovies," Tobacco Youth Rep=,19$9, 4: 1-2; n14 - Davis R.M., "Cument Trends in Cigarette Advertising and Marlceeing," N,m Rnglan ~ Tentnal of Medicine. 1987,316: 7?5-732]. - Dismssion; Botvin, et aL claim that the ci.garette eompaaies am circumventing the ban on matlceting to children by usinB-altaaadve, _: indirect modia. Zbe Blum artic.., matnly deals-with the spoasorshfip of a sporting event that might have dubious appeal to cMdrea -and a major focus Is not on children, but on the circumvention of the overall ban on television advertising of cigarettes.- The Tya citation is to an' aoti-smoldng newsletter and contaias opinions being ptosmulgated by Mr. Tye. The Davis study actually cites i.edwuh as his main attribution on this subject. Ledwith surveyed 880 students between two and three weeks after the conclusion of the Benson & Hedges Master Snooker Championship, televised on the BBC. Benson & Hedges was predominant in the brand Identified best latiown. A- second survey was conducted among a completely different sample of childrea following the Embassy World Snooker Championship and Ledwith found no increase or deerease-in the number of children recalling the B&.H.brand, but there was an laerease between the two samples in the nu..,ber of children recalling the Embassy brand &= 55.1% to 68.4% (a significant difhrance). Dubious is the ttse of the first sample as a baseline for the second sataple'spercecage increase in awareneas. However, especially gt:maoe to the Botvin, et aL "use of the referance is the fiilure to consider the-fotlowing fivm,.Ledwith [ p. 88]: '"Thcre is a need for further itrvestigatioo-to detetmine whether tobacco sports sponsorship not ottly_acts as advertising as,dafned earlier, but also persuades childrea to smoke. The studies (which are equivoal) as to whether tobacco promotion does encourage People to ' smok,', are no_~ t d~TdCtl3& reieyant to the que3- flon -n~f e27eCtS An Cn`flaien,." 7. "In general, research has shown that there is a relationship betweea awmness of cigarette advertising messages and adolescent smoidng and that dgarette advertising may impsctupoo childrrat as young as 3 yesrt of age" [a 15 - Goldstein A., Fiacher P., Richards J., and &cten D.. "Relationship Between High School Student Smoking and R~eoognitioo of Cigarette Advertisemeats," ~~~1 ' 1987. 110: 88-491: n16 - Chaptaan S. and Fitagetald B,. "Brand Pte ereacxs and Advert;sin; Recall tn Adolescent Stuoohem Sotne Implications for Health Promotion." Atneriean Journg( e(;Pnblie Health, 1982, 72: AG0216049 :
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JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING American Actclcmy of Advertising Vcttumr 23, Number 3. September 1994 SPECIAL ISSUE ON ETHICS IN ADVERTISING From the Editor ARTICLES AJ,vrrrisin;r Ethics: Emrrgin;; Mrthr.Js and Trends George M. Zinkhan RrsC1rch on AJvCrnsin;; Ethicr: f ast. P'CsCnr u•,J Funir: Michael R. Hyman, R':hurd Tanscy and James %V. C'.lark Ethical AJ.•rrtisim,; Research Sr,tnJarJs: Three Casr StuJirS Chude R. Maain, Jr. The Narrative ParatJi;;m as , PC•st.~ccnvr tior Intprovin^ Etiiicnl Evaluaaona of rWt•errisrmrnts Alan J. Bush and Victoria Dat•ics Bush Ethicnl Judt,•mrnts'c+f Political Tclc.•isicm Cc+mmr::iali tt Prrdictu;~s ot AttituJr TawarJ The Ad Spencer F. Tinkhnnt and Rccth rlnn Wcas•cr•i.arisc. Ethics in AJ.•rrti.in^: IJeolc~;;ica! Cc+rrrlates nt Consumer Prcceptic+t» De66ic Trcisc. Mic.':•icl F. ll'cignld, Jenncnnc Conna and Heather Garrison - SexualitvanJ Ethics in .il.rrticin~: A Rcsr.trch At;rnda and Policv GuiJrlinc Pcrsprct•.t•r Stephen J. Guald Ethical JtiJ-vmrnti 4 Sexual Ap}•c:& in Print Advertising Miehccl S. LnTour und Tunv L. Henthornc I(1 C1 17 31 43 59 73 , CJ9 t0 'AG0216057 :
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11 : 491-494; n17 - Botvin E., Botvin G., Michela I., Baker E., and Filazzola A., "Adolescent Smoking Behavior and Recognition of Cigarette Advertisements," lou**±al 3f AnPli ~~ Sociaj, Pcy,Gholggy, 1991, 21: 919-932]. DjscusSion: All of the studies cited did attempt to correlate between certain cigarette advertisements and self-reported smokiag behavior. Howevar, in the cited article by the same authors (Botvin: et al. 1991) is the following passage: "In response spe 'cafically to the connection between tobacco use and brand recognitzon, it could even be argued that persons who are more socially and cognitively macure would be expected to smoke at higher rates and zecogoize advertisements aaore_- accmately. Thus, in the absence of additional data to the contrary, . alternative explanations of the correlation between cigarette adveitisemeat and smoking onset can still be advanccd, unde=Bingr fhe srgument that cigarette smokiQj i~--,nmmQjBA'6vi ga _ ade..t• This couples with the quotation from Ledwith j1984] (citesl in .the Botvin, et al. 1991 article) that "I'he studies (which sre equivocal) as to whether tobacco promotion does eacouzage people to smoke, ~ directlv relevant to the Question of affec"tg en chilftn." Neither of these "alternadve" views seems to have been considered in the quotation orig3na11y cited above. l!m 3s nA t`DSearCh Citg ff to ,,,~fltfeR' the contention about 's-vear old children. 8. "Aitken and coworkers found that children as young as 6 years were aware of the presence of cigarette advertisements and that primary school children were able to identify correctly cigarette brands in advectisemeata when brand ideatificanons txrere deleted" {n19 - Aitken P.P., Leuher D.S., O'Hagen F.-J., and Squair S.I., _"Ghildren's Awareness of Ci Advertisements and Brand Imagery," R~ti loutr'1 of Addicno~n 987, 82: 615-622]. Discussion: Children from ages 6 through 17 were presented arith nine print cigarette adverdsements and simply asked if they lted previously seen the ad, when pointed to by a researcher. The percentsge of six-- year-0lds who responded a!&attativaly for the iadividwal ads ranged from 8% to 83%. T'hree of the ads (Beason & I;iedpe+.s, Marlboro, and Silk Cut) were altered to have the biand name omitted (although the Marboro ad did have the letters `atibot+o' s d a~ss the : basJcground) I. 1~e children were then ask~ed to kbzand names for the three ads in question. 3% of six yea olds ideadfiad B&W_ and Silk Qu and 8% the Marlboro brand name. Aitbea. et a1. found that primary school children were able to identify correctly ~the rigarette brands in the three advertisements.'llhere are some additional find'~ngs and comments summing from the Aitken, et al. paper. "In most cases, the number of childrea. who said they had seen the advsatisements increased as a function of increasing age" (p. 6I9). 'ihis might be reviewed in light Botvia, et al's own stmanent in Msbove canoernit~g social and cogWtive maturity. "Morc 12 to 17 year-olds were able to ' identify the brand name than claimed to have :seen -tthe pardcular- Beason & Hedges advetisemeat shown -to tbem....taoro children of 10 _ or above identi5ed the Marlboro advertisemanc than claimed to have seen it....however, the opposite was the dse fo=Silk Cut considerably more children in each of the six age gro said they had seen the adyenisemeat than were able to tdentit~r it"Aitkeo, ct al. p 621). This . seemingly cont;ovesting finding is dismissed by the authors as . N A(i02'! 6050 I
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13 developed an overall index of their exposure. The index consisted of a measure of the reading habits of teenagers reading various periodicals. weighted by the average number of advertasements in each petiodical, the number of advertisements - typically noaced, the proportion of advertisements viewed for at least S seconds, the -number of advertisements remembered in six categories of-advertisemeats for alcoholic beverages, an estimate of the number of tiaus the advertisements were viewed, the amount of attention paid;to these -advartisements, and the number of times other advertuements had been viewed for the particular beverage. ddose-rasnonss Z]ario~h,~in, was found between exflosvte to alcohoi adverrising and adolescent drinidng. in ndaitien. drink-ing,Whsiie; 3irss nd to bg1cas rriaeee to u.-te (.)WN _--_ --- *'levirion characters ceneLtnine sle~hoi. or vJ'ewjng~blic service announcements" (emphasis oaa) [ts23 - Aitken C.. Hocldng J.,° and Block M., "Teenage Drialdag: Does Advertising Make A Di$erenee?", Journal of C~mmunicaeQns. 1984, 34: 157*167). Discussion: In the survey, Aitkea and his colleagues do find a relationship between exposure to ads and liquor drialdng that is strongly positive, whilepar influence appears to play a bi er role in : beer and wine drinking. However, they also note that "the on of ausality is in doubt...advertising is not necessarily the causal agent in the zeladonship. Heavier drinkers maybe motivated to attend to alcohol advertising; so that floritive r+elaeio~shios msvbe dne *o _d nkers ` ME king ads rather than_ad" et;mulatinS elrohel eonnu ttt•nt;on^ (Aitken, et aL p.16S). Botvin and his wlleagues ignore this observadon. 12. "If the models depicted in cigarette advertisements portray the _ personal ideal of an adolescent, the self-image, as well as the self- esteem of the adolescent, can be enhaaced by adopting the smoking behavior. Some support for the modeling hypothesis can be shown through statistics on cigarette sales. In 1968, whea Philip Monis launched the fsnt major promotional campaign directed to women (Davis citation below), only 8.4 percent of, teenage women stnoked...today, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among teenaAc women is slightly higher than it is among teenage toen" ]n 14 - Davis R.M., "Cuzzent Tmnds in C3garette Advertising and Marketing," N~.W Entland Journal of Medieine. 1987, 316: 725-732; n28 - Albctght C.. Alamaa D.. Slater M.. and Maccoby N., "Cigarette Advrrtistaxots in Magaa3aes: Evidence for a Differucjal Focus on Women's and YoQth Magaziaes," Health EdLCatien ona_rterlv. 1988, 13: 225-233;_a6 - Johnston L, O'Malley P., and Bachman J., School Seniors. College Students. snd Youne Ad ~l~tE,, 1~9,,, -191i0. Public Health Service, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD]. Discussion: The Davis article cited does not ideatff the "first ms,jor promotional campaign" directed at women _in 1961, the citation is erroneous. While the data in Davis suggest~s, that prevalence of cigarette smoldng among teenage woto~en is slightly higher *= it is among teenage men, the overaU pn:valencc among high-school seniors fell from 26.9% to 18.7% in 1987. Lmportantly, A1ltrighc and his colleagues say "Conclusions about tlte causal, relationship between tobacco advertising and smoidng must be made cautiously. The I1tib816052 ; ,~: -
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: suggesning"that the Benson & Hedges and Marlboro campaigns have been considerably more successful than the Silk Cut campaign in paming bxand nuaes into children's memories" (Aitken, et al. p. 621]. 'I'his was never tested by Aitken and his colleagues. Finally the Bocvin _ and his associates ignore the statement from the cited AitJcea ardele: "This, of course, does not necessarily mean that advertisements for cigarettes induce children to start smoking" (AitJcen. ec al. p. 6221. 9. "Children and adolescents are responsive to the visual images and messages of cigarette advertisements. Advertisers present images of smoldmg tLat downplay health concetas and.iastead assoaate smok-ing _ arithpoative ataibutes. such as young people teagaged in,-outdoor or sflcial activities, sports or feass of personal achievement" f n21 - Warner K.E. "Tobacco lndusuy Response to Public Health Coocern: . A Content Analysis of Cigarette Ads." Health Education" C?tiarteriv, 1985:12: 115-127J. Discussion: The cited research by Warner is a content analysis of a advertisements that app~sr~ in ?"une for sclected years 5~om 1• 29-1984. There were only 9 ads that re resent""eu:raat" advertising, which is 1984. Thns, AQn+ja .c tsare ~ivA_ff nn adverdeinQ of 9-vear-oid vintaae for tkeir sac,t. Further is this observation by Warner [p. 125]: "Our small sample of 1984 ads, plus casual observation. suggests that the. eaa of the tar wars may -hive ended. The Tirrse ads sampled for 1984 reveal a sales s~atogy not ualike that which preceded poblic coacera about the ~teglth effects of smoldng. The scenes are. fi~oto tbe '.80's as is the product, but she themas are from the '40's: glamour, snooess, sexual amiaction, and sociability are back in; the explicit health'theme appeat'x to be out. Preceding this reversion to earlier imagery, the loa-tar• shara of the market fell slightly in each of 1982 swnd 1983. the 8rst decraasas ik 3he low-tar peraat:ge since low-mr oigtorecte~ were inaoduced.nGrno gt Iik ye,ae4lanaeon for these decTeseee is ee rin ging MdtigdQpg in the Is'ght-,, o~ker nopulation_ including, lss-_Igitiation of smoking by teen An optimistic reading of the .appuent new advertising saategy is tftu for the first time then industry may be directing much of its promotional effort solely to the role it bis long clmamed for cigarette adverdsiag: competing for ttiarsoet shast.s of a f#xed pie ('s.e., cot+ent confirmed smoke=s)." 10. "Carefully crafted advertisements using amactive model are likely to iactease the possibility that children and adolescants aill try cigarettes" (no attnbatioa and no resarch support for stitsment]. ~; Reid and Soley (1981] in studying the "de~tive° female toodd in advertising found that r the presence ±af women as decorative models in adverdsements signlficantly affects the rea:ogaidon (reall) of the illusuaaon or tnodei, but not of the written body copy of the advertisement. Futther they found "in an analysis alysis of both recognition scores (for the female decorative models dc copy)...automobile ads obtained _ better recognidon scores thatt cigatiette or liqnor ads, and liquor ads obtsinmd better reoog~ition scoees than cigarette ads" (Reid and Soley p.130). 11. "Aitken and coworkers, in a_study designed to assess tet.aage . exposure to alcohol advertising and its lmpact on teeaage driajdag, 1 I . AIG~621sos1 1
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10. "The meaning and significance of sm9ldag behavior va:iea with - children's cognitive development" (n16 - Meltzer J., Bihace R, Walsh M., "Childrea's Conceptions of Smoldng; Journal of Pediatric PSM,helew. 1984, 9:41-56]. pjscyssion: The citation from the Mc-ltzer, cc aL work is acciaate. Fiowever, a review of the article shows no mention of adverdsing as a causal factor for smoking.'Ihis is never considered by the Klein group authors. 11. "Ibe 'brand' names on candy cigarettes are believed similar enough to real cigarette names to warrant arademarkk infringement lawsuits" [Blum A„ "Candy Cigarettes," Nw-nland Journa ef-Medicine, 1980, 302: 972). Discusdo: This is a jg= to the editor from Dr. Blum, who is a physician and not an attorney. It is tnereZy-an opinion,-unsupported by research evidence, concerning andy cigarettes offered by Dr. Blum. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe Camel Paper The second of the papers examincd is by Paul M. Fischer, Meyer P. Schwartz, John W. Richasds, Adam O. Goldstein and Tina M. Rojas, entitled "Brand Logo Recognition by Children Aged 3 to 6 Years - Miickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel" which appeared in Journal of the American Medical Associstion (December 11, 1991, pp. 3145-3148j. This article reports on. a study that matched product with logos among children aged 3 to 6 years. Once again, for each atnibutioaheferonce ezamined we first give the statement from the Fischer, cc al. article and then its reference, including the original reference number. Following that is our discussion of the naturc and quality off the attributions. 1. "Some health experts, there, now believe that cigarette advertising is causally linked to smoldng behavior' (n9 - Warner K., "A Ban on the Promotion of Tobacco Products," Sm --En,gland 7o=,aL f -dicin - 1987. 152: 117-124; n10 - Davis RM., "Clureat Tt+ends`in Cigarette Advertising and Marketing," land Ionrnal 1987. 316: 725-732; nl l- Cent~a~sisease Control "Cigarette Advertising - US.1988, MMWR .1990, 39: 261-265). )b,senssion: The Warner:zferenee is aamally an editorial In which he claims a strong presumvitiYe ase favors the extstence of a causal liatc. Specifically he states "advertising and ptornotion__u+s pt+ababiy_ not the most important factors that inAuence children to start smoidng and chewing tobacco. Unlikepareatal role modelin~ and ~t ~ressurs= however, these factors co • ublic the u1d b<, a~ested by p po4(3ivaa CY• uniqueness of the damage wrought by tobacco and a strong ~resumptive case that advertising and ptr~otion to contribute to the uiitiaaon and mainteaan..ce of tobacco habus..."(p. 746j. Davis article never demonsaates a causal link between advertising and smoldag behavior. The Centers for Dlsease Control citation contains only one reference to a"causal link" and that is in the "editorial note" at the conclusion of the paper that states that cigarette advercising =y increase consumption by (1) encouraging children to experiment and L" A602'1B044 j ~
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The Adolescent Smoking Behavior & Advertising Exposure Paper The final of the papers examined is by Gilbert J. Botvin. Catherine J. Goldberg, Elizabeth M Botvin and Linda Dusenbury entitled "Smoking Betiavior of Adolescents Exposed to Cigarette Advertising" which appeared in Pvblic Henich Repots [March- April 1993. pp. 217-224]. This article reports on a study exploring the relationship between the exposure of adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades to cigarette advertising and their being smokers [Botvin et al., p. 217). Once again, for each attributionh+efetence "Ya**+ined we first give the statement ffom the Botvin, et al. article and then Its reference, Including the original reference number. Following that Is our discussion of the natute and quality of the att:zzbutions. 1. "Concerns about adverse consequences of_ciga-ette smoking and little meaningful reduction in smoldng onset tatts among adolescents have led to a growing interest in the passage of le ladon that would impose a total ban on ci advertuing" 5 - Public Health Service, Hftlthy °-~le 2 Nationet H-tth orion and Di = p~.we,~, nnen Obiecnves. DI1JiS Publicadon No. (PHS) 91-50212, OfSee of the Assutant Secretary for Health, Office of Disease Preveadoa and Health Promodon, U.S. Government Printing=Office. Washington DC n6 - Johnston L, O'Malley P., and Bachmaa J., Use Amon~ Pu lic Health Service, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD1. Discvssion: 'ile "Healthy People 2000" study notes that "in 1987, smokiag prevalence among people aged 20 through 24 was 3096, having decreased an average of .69 percentage points per year since 1965. At this rate of decline, smoking prevalence amopg people aged 20 through 24 is expected to be 20% in the year 2000. Because..... .1987 data suggest that a decline in initiation may have already begun in Pteviously resistant gtvups.: This data is-consutent with ihat offered in the Johnston, et al. study [pp. 5-6j. The interpretation by Botvia, cc al. that this reduction is "little mean.ingfut" is questionable from their own cited souzces. 2. "Tye and coworkers estimated that more than 5,000 children and adolescents would need to begin smolda= every day to maintain the current size of the smoldng populadoa" jn10 - Tye J., Wa:aer K., and Glantt S., "Tobacco Adve~siag and Consumption: Evidence of a Causal Reladonship," Je~**±±al of Pubtic Health Potiev. 1987, 8: 492- 507]. Discussion: The estimate of 5,000 daily smoking inidations is taken directly from Tye, et aL who rely on Johnston, -et a1. [1985] for undeslying data of 60% of smokers inidating that behavior asage 13. E=~..~t:on of the newer Johnston, et al. report (1991] Yv~tilable zad already cited by Botvin and his collesgues shows that 40.9% of children had first "t:ied" a cigarette by or before 8ib grade. Only if one nsas the definition of a"smokar" as any child who has ced with a cigaretce is there jusdfiation for the tzliance on the figure. . A00216048
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September 1994 _ Table 1 - Re:.earch Standards of Social Science Associations & Journals 19 Research Standards Association or Journal Sufficient information provided for judging quality of the results American Statistical AssoGation; American Economic fleview; Built•in controls American Psychological Association; Reliability American Psychological Association: American Medical Association: _ American Marketing Association validity American Psychological Association; American Medical Association; American Marketing Association Ou::ame measures are clearly related to variabces of investigation American Psychological Association; Full and unambiguous testing of hypotheses =- American Psychological Association; Subjects representative of population American Dsychotogical Association Results are generatiZable American Markgtin9 Association Convergent results reported and/or discussed American Psychological Association; American Marketing Association Claims and assertions are supported by the research American MedicalAesociation; American Marketing AssoCiation Reporting or discussion of the methodulogical limitations American Marketing Association Complete review of the literature American Marketing Assoc?ation Full details about the treatment of subjects American Psychological Association Speculation of authors clearly identified American Marketing Association 'Fu0 disclosure' to allow for reproducing study Amerioan Statistical Association; American Economic Review: American Medical Association: American Marketing Association t,te association or its journal has ovcrtly ;itatcd. scarch st.nndardg However. trrnm,anothcr pcrsprc. One perspective is that scientiGc and ethical ut,r+n• tive (iidnptetl hc.-e) the 1 i standards used are pri ards are separate issues. and an arcumcnt cnuld be marily 'ct.hicatl' in nature. 1'hrrc is the pc+sxibitity madc that what is nddresacd harc arc ycicntific rc; thatn rendercr+ulrivicwthcKhnrt~Y+rrtincsinthc•/a'1a cn ~ ~ -J P- Ln Ln m w Al30316061
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'function of the product category adverused" [p. 966). In this study the 9-10 year old girls were more influenced by adverrising for lipstic,lcs, which they could foresee wearing in high school, tlusn by advertising for diec driaks, which they did noi rurrentty see any beaePits. for. The obligation of Fischer and his colleagues in using this amibution is to position, through research evidence. advertising for smoking and fottseeable needs by adolescents. 9. "It has been suggested that children receive positive messages about smoking when they view cigarette advertisements and this may inflaence later decisions to smoke" (n20 - aiarlton A., "Children's Advertisement Awareness Related to Their Views on Smoking," Ha1thPALcation ?ournaL 1986, 15: 12-14). Discussion: This is an accurate reflection of the conclusionn by , Cbariton, but that conclusion needs to be examined in light of-the research offered. Chariton states "In spite of the fact that those childrea who currently smoked or had at some time in the past tried a cigarette were much more likely than those who had never smoked, to have a favourite cigarotte advertisement. Yety fXw _ a.f-thlm w smoked that hrand of eigamtte'! (emphasis ours). Of the younger group who said they *ed a specific brand of cigarettes, only 20% named the advertisement for that brand as their favourite. In the older XroW only 12% smoked their favourite advertisement brand" (p.- 761. Chariton also found that there was a link between the favorite advertisement chosen and the respondent's agreemeat. with certain positive features of smoking. Tbe combination of these two llndiags causes him to conclude that "there tre amany influences an ctiildten to ' start smoking, one of which =W (emphasis ocus) be advestisin~~gof cigarettes" [p. .77]. He concludes that children are idter^ssted in cigarette advertisements and "once their attention is caught by a particular poster or magarinepage, the subliminal message is also likely to be mceived by the children as to the possible positive value of smoking" (p. 77]. This statement has ao auributcon - associated with it Finally Charlton cites Fischer and Magnus (1981); Chapman and Ftzgetald (1982) and Monismith, et al. 11981) all of which he __cLims indicate that adolescents consider promotional advertisements as showing smoking as pleasant and ea oyabie, "although pexfiaps not execdng a direct iaflueace on tbeir aion of smoking" (p.-98]. All of this seetns to point to the specious nature of the conclusion reacbed by Charltoc and embraced by Fischer and his colleagues concerning the influence on later decisions to smoke by cigarztte adveniaemeats. 10. "Zye ehoice of children's products was based on published data describing children's markets" (n17 - McNeal J.U., Chitd Consumm, i.exington, MA: Lexiagtoa Books,1987]. DLjzL-aj=: 'Me children's products used by Fischer, et aL are: the Dirney cable channel, hambunea, pim, cola drinks, athletic shoes, and cereaL The products cited by McNeal are candy. m, froun desserts, soft drudcs, eomie boolcs, reootds, cassettes (p. 5~toys (pp. 5 & 12), hamburgers,, and the cable channel Nickelodeon. (p. 12].
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4. "As stated by McNeal, 'All of the skills, laiowledge and -behavsor patterns that together we call consumer behavior ara purposely taught to our children righ t along with toilet uaining, toddling and talldag" [n 17 - McNeal J.U., Ch i 1 r n as Qys'-rrrels, 1,eXiagton. MA: Lexington Boolcs,1987, p. 12). Diventsion: This starement from McNeal is an opinion, not uaibuted to research evidence. Zhe at-school interviews conducted by McNeal do not address the question of training, but rather seek to unearth purchasing behavior by children. 5. "Children aged 5 to 12 years spend $4.2 billion of their own cach yeai'' [n17 - McNeal LU., Shilaren as c: nsumers. Lexington, MA: ' Lexiagton Books,1987, p. 179]. Discussion: This statement from McNeal is an opinion, not attributed; to research evidence. 6. "By age 6 years, half of all children regularly go shopping by themselves" [[n17 - McNeal J.U., Shild se Com •-ttners.-. L,exiagton, MA: Lexington Books, 1987, p. 47]. Discussion: The McNeal study identi8es 52.7% of childrea by age 6 maldag "independent shoppiag tdps to stat+cs" ('Table 4-1, B. d7). The daa does not report on cl~ildren shoppiag "by themselves but rather independently who Mcbteal describes • as children P«forming as iadepeadeat consumers while shopping with parents. _ 7. "MarJcet resea:chers believe that brand awareness created in childhood can be the basis for product preferences later in life" [n17 - MeNea1 J.U„ Children as Consumers. L,zalAgton, MA: Lexington Books,< - 1987]. Dinussion: F.xamination of the pages cited by Fischer., et al. in the McNeal book and MeNeal's own references to brand awareaess ttuns up no such claim about long-term brand awareruss. On pp. 179-180. McNeal does state that "maay marketers try to develop awareness of an desire for their brands ot pmducts among children, ~ag that when the children are gmwn, the brands will be important to tbem." 8. "It hu been shown that children prefer the brands that they see advertised. This effect has beeA shoarn to even influettce their preference of products that they are too young to nse, such as lipsticks and diet soft drola"~n18 - Goldberg M,E., Gora 0. Y.. sad Gibson W., "TV Messages for Snack and Breakfast Foods: Do '~`b ~, y~ofluence Children's Piefesence?", ro~+•_±±el of o+aumer Regarch-:1978, 5: 73- 81; n19 - Goca GJ and Flozsheiai R, "M E8'ect of Commaneials for Adult Products on Children," Journal of Consumer Rg:eamh. 1985, 11: 962-M. Qjscumign: The Goldberg, et al. p'per does not reelly:say'children_ prefer the `~rands they see. Rather, this was a study of sugared v. healthy" snack and bce.kfast foods. `ibe children _e~~posed to the cammarcials far su foods nendad to cLopse sugary foods as mcal and smck choices„ No specific braad correlation was made. _1n the . * et aiL ease, the survey of Girl Guides dtd 8.ad- an effect of advertising on awareness. However, the anthots state `lA jeneral, the results also support the speci5c hypothesis that these effects are to some extent a I aAG0216046 ; ,4 r. . _
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.• JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING An of"nci-il publicatinn of the American Acnc!emy of Advertising Volume 23, Nurrnl•er 3, Scptemher 1994 EDiTOR: GcnrccM. Zinkhan Univcr+ity of Grt+rt,~ia RUSI1dESS MANAGER: Maltrlina J//iln:rm Uniecrrity t+f Huttstlm, Dtwl•ntt>wn- 0 COPY EDITOR raulcac H,sy,crt Unil•er•ity of Hcntatitn M: ric Rnicc Uni.•crNity of G.orLia EDITORJAL AND SUSI\ESS OFFICES: Jnl:R`.AL ow AmF.RTtsm. Dcrannice+t of Marketine Terry•-Cntlcl;c of ,°.u•inrsx Unilvn:in,r of Cxt+rL~i:+ Athcnr. CA k1C021i?r+8 (i0G) 5i2•?121 . . FAX: (7CG) 542•3718 ACVERTISI~G/rRO.%tOTIO` :ti1AhtACER Runald K. Tayllor .. Stlii•rna•urL University, John L. Grove G.Ueyw ~f }tt/.inc•. Shir,en+burie, PA 17257 ('rt"r) S3L1G80 FA(: (717) S3C-i CTS AAA rURLtCAT1ONS COM:vttTTEE Karbara B. Stern. Chair Rur wr., The Statc Uni.•er>ity sl0mcw Jcr.lm Kcish Adler rv,,r,-y -J. Krv7hcl C.imle Mackiin Michigan St.uc University Uni.zr<in• of Cx-onr:a Unnrrxiry of Cincinnaei Richard F. E3<Ittamiai Tin.-i M. 1.~..r,.~y Darrel D. Mucl::ing Arizclna Stuc University Rillrr Univcrrity Wa*hiny,~cl+n Statc University RnnaW J. Fahr Calc C. Otncz Uni.ernity of Minnemxa Univcrzhy,nf tllin/•i>< The JOURNAL tw AnVERTiSING is faihli.IlC/t (ltr the Anl4rican Acalt16Mm of f1\(VL;rriNn{: I,. CtC t R'.,. Suh+rirtion and tauk ixxue inlluitiC: JNsula !e Mnt tl/: Ctc rrus.4OA 11.0. f4,x 1826 ClrmM.n, SC ' 29GS;.182v I300344-24i1 or (403) 8SS-0401: FAX (S03) 3S9.iX2 A0021 &058 '
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hical Advertising Research Standards: Three Case Studies Cla.ude R. Martin, Jr. Demands for major changes in the regulation of advertisin,t= have come forth_as a result of the December, 1991 publication of th;:e articles concerning the cartoor charaNer Joe Came!. The articles all appeared in t!ue sar.:e issue of the Journal of the American htedicat Association and received extensive coverage in major newpapsrs crtd magazines. This paperesamines each ar:icle to determiree its canformance-with 15 ethical standards gteaned from various associations and journals; these standards represent the accepted professional norms of eonduc: fer social science research. There i.s also a eloserezamirtationr of one of the studies using diseovery material from a law suit against the R.! Rcynolt.'s T rm. Tt.is affords a unique opportunity to examine the eth:ca I standards used in that study. Fit:e reviewers from different disciplines were asked to independently eealuate each of the papers. The results revealed major concerns about the quality of eaeh study. When these reviews are laid against the ethical raidelines for social science research, it appears thPre were major jlcws in the-conduc: of all three. Particu• larly highlighted are ihe advocacy natelre of the research and serious questioris'concerning reliability and validity. Additional concerz ahout one of the studies is ra..a3 bv the litigation discocerv material, as there is evidence of pre•determined results, non•reporti.-W of conflictinq dQta, and 'adjuating' of the sam ple to produce desired results consistent with rescarchers' pre•c»nccived theories. < -de RMartin, Jr. ir the tsadure .n4.eon "•'ir.celmAn Ptstessor of I'~d Marketing in the School of Business Admir.istratior. at the Univ.rsity of Michigr.n. nat .t/.tdnrrtixiwd. ha r.1 LS.tu nrr XX///. Nu M qcp!.:#nb.v 1094 Introduction Dem.inds for mujor changes in the regulation of advertising havc come forth as a result or the Decembcr, 1991 publication of three articles concc.-::- ing the cartoon character :Ioc Cam.el. The culmination of these demands came in 1993 when the attorneys general of 27 states and the Federal Trade Commission's staff recommendrd the outright ban of a specific advertising campaign. The articles stimulating this regulatory activity appeared in the _ same issue of the Journal of the American Atedical Association (JAMA ) accompanied by three editorials addressing the question of advertising resu• lation. The product catagory that attracted such interest was cigarettes, and _ the specific advertising campaig7 was for R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Cnmpan}:'s _ •loe Camel series. Various news media, public officials and researchers havc identified the cartoon character erroneously as_Old •loe. In actuality tha_ long•standinF depiction of a camel in a_desert scane on thil'catriel packape`a Old loc. Joe Camel is the_more recent vintaFe: cartoon chn'tactsr used in Reynolds' advertising for the brand. The research cited in •lA,tifA was subsequently reported on television news programs and in every major newspaper in the United States. It also received extensive covorago in the major weekly no+ws tnagatines. Overall this is an unusual response to three advertising research articles and pre+- vnkcd.an interest in their efficacy to ;encrate, yuch pn avnlanehe of calls frr changing public policy. The speciticaoal ofthis paper is tnexamine each of the articles to determine its_ conformance withl cthical standards defined ns 'th^ accepted professional norms of conduct" for such research (Webster: Ninth Collrrciatc nictinnnrs•. p. 427). AG0216059 4 ,;-
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' Table 3 Pierce et al. (1991), "Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young PeoFie.... " RESEARCIi ST.INDARDS• REVIEWER A MARKETING REVIEWER D ADVti.RTISI\1: REV1E1, ER C CORi'ORATB S7RA11iGY REVIEWER D CONSU1fER 1tF.ItAVtOR REVIti1vER B MARKETt\(;/ AQVER77SIKf: Sutficient informalion provided for Judging quhlity of the results quiH-in conlrok Reliabilit v ~ Ya,udil v Oatlconte measures are clearly related to variables of inresti alion ~ tull arul ru>amb" ttsti af fir Ihcses tiub Is r ecenlatire of lation ResdUssre r~lie:/btt v Conrer eut re wNs re ted s~ad/ot dis~ca.cced . Claims and fK er1i1M1toce td ib Ihe research ,i Rt rti ord' ottbtlnethode ital6aritalions Com lett rer;ew of Ihe!Werature ~ Fuq dttails about the trta/menl of sub'ectc- lioa of mNborS cleart iden'tified ' «huq!dialosare" toaqow for rodurwr snrd. *A eAeck eurk Mldkalee Ibal a ree k•rrr eqreued conetrai aboul a p.rtlculat' ismne I C C
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Table 4 DiFranza ct nl. (1991), "RJR Nabisco's Cartoon Camel Promotes Came1......,• RFSI:ARCtISt'.1N1).1R1iS• RI:VII:wt:ItA NL~RKF.TI\/: Rr:vtl:%VI:RIt ~1QVERTISI~(: RI:v11:wcRC (;ORI'QRATI: STRAlT•.(:Y Rl:vltwt:RD (:()VSu\II:R 111:II.m()R RI:vIt:Wt:RE AIARKI:T1N('/ .111VF:1('I'ISI*%,(: ('r1/Y111e tlltr/clent infMrlNallnn to je r:11ilY //f 111e rrC1/11S ~J Iluill•iq Controls ~ y Reliaritit d Validity _ ~ Outcume uualsures nN ckarty related to rariablrs nf ionesl tiatl FW I»nll anaul 'Iesli. hr Aeses ~f V Y tiua'eds re talire of btiu n itesults nre neraitizaWe V CoAver t resnks WaMdPrr di*uMed Claias and asscrtisas ted br iile researrh ReportinR or diacussial of IUe larlitatiwls at tht nKlpodelaRr uitll, V ~ Coua kte reriew ot the titera are Fult delaits nf tae trea/wleal atsubiecrs insalred ~ LtiliNr M Adlars tJelrl, idenlirwd "!Fud dise e"!Re ' r+odnc it,it o( )slta ~ •\ cbcck ewk lMdkatos 1ha1 a rWer.cr espreaud conarn atwne a parlku/ar ts.ue 6995 TLLTS
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smolc3ng as adults is not cornect. Further, the Klien team does not aclmowledge, as does Shute, et aL, that another study by Tennant (1979] found only 15.2% of pn-schoolers "planned to smoke in the future" [Shute, at aL, p. 347]. The thrust of t.he Shute work is that pre- schoolexs "say" they expect to use Idgaz+ettes at some time in the futur+e. but offers no evidence as to the validity of that self-predictlcsn. In fact. Shute, et al. cite the numerous research studies (Green and Green 1975, McCoramch 1976] that have identified such factors as peer, pareatal and sibling relationships as the most powerful determinants of whether or not adolescents will begin to smoke. S. "Complex psychologic, sensory and pharacologic factors contribute to the inttiation of smolong behaviors" (n8 - Livson N. and Leino E.Y., "Cigarette Smoldng Motives: Factorial Structure and Gender Differences in a Longitudinal Study," cerna- • nel Journal of Addictions, 1988, 23: 535-544]. niscussign: Exa**+t"ation of the Livson and Leiao article reveal no such sntcmant or conclusion.'ibe closest such statemenc is a reference m"seven types of staokes exhibiting diffexing and distinctive satoldag modvadon patterns based on psychosocial, sensory• and ' pharma- cological factors" which is a secon.: and-atccibution to-Russett, et aL (1974]. 6. "Although children are often aware of the dangers of tobacco, ,' iaitiation and maintenance of smoking behavior results predominantly from social influences" [n9 - Mettlin C.. "Smoking as Betiavior. Applying a Social Psychological Theory," 7ourr,al of 1:iesit- and Social 8ehavior, 1973, 14: 144-152.; n 10 - Schinke S.P. and Gilchrist L.D.. "Primary Prevention of Tobacco Smoking," Journal a Schoot Heaith.1983, 53• 416419]. Discuttion,: The Mettlin article and underlying research does nst address the awareness of children to the dangers of tobacco, indeed the reseatch uses 97 college undergiaduate students as its subjects. Mattlut proposea a model that views smoldag as s behavior determined by an information consaruct, i.e., attitude. The Schinlce aAd Gilchrist article describes an experiment with 56 sixth-grade students in two Seatde schools where students received facu, problem solving, decision maldag, self-iasnvctions and interpersonal sldlts to help them 5romm using tobacco. 13e study shows traiaed students have stronger 2 comaoiameats to tobacco abstiaasct,-apara.froquent refusals of tobacco and less smok3ng than a control, uatmined group. Neither article referenced has more than a petipheral, if that, relation to the Mein article ciation. 7. "Parents', siblings', and peer beliefs mold children's attitudes; in addition, advertising and media have a substantiai effect.on - esrly thoughts and imapes about ciprettes", (nlO - Schiuke SP. and Gilchrist L,D., "Pnmary Ptovendoat of Tobacco Smoking," ImmaL4f Schooi Hesith. 1983, 53: 416-419; ttl l- Chapmun S. and Fitzgerald B.. "Braod Prefemnoes and Advatiusia` Recall iaAdolesceat Smokers: SomeImpliadoos for FIeslth Pramotion," ` . „gf ,Thtj111 1982, 72: 491-494; n12 - AlmoaA D., Slater , Albright C., and Maccoby N., "How An Unhealthy Product is Sold: Cigarette , AGD216042
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Table 2 Fischeret al. (199f). "8rand.Logo REcognition......,' I RIiS!•:.%RCII S'fANnARDS• RIiVIF.IVF.RA h1ARK1:77:IC Rt;VlElvliR B ADVERTISI~C 11EVIEIVER C CORi'OR~~TE ."AW.rV REVIIiwER D CO\SUa1t:R Nh;11AVIOR RI:VItEwER B ht.IRKET1~Gl ADVI?IRTISI\(; Sulftcicnl information providcd fur judginK quality of the re.ctths Iluilt-in controlc Reliabilily ValirNr -4 ~ t)ulcome measures are ckarlr rdaled lo variabtes of inresu ati.n d 4 4 taN aM unam ' tseus tesl' of 1tr tnlheces Y tieb' s reresehla/ive of ulatinn _ Results arr eneralir.abh -1 : ~ -4 ,(; cesallx re tcA AmIlor d fscuc<ed Chucasand asertions are su rted b. Ihe restarrh 11 Rt 1' or disclessiaN of /Me mtlhodo ical limilalinnc Comelete reriew of the literalure Full detaili atwut the 1rtalaxnt of std~'cds _ ~ alation of aalhors clearly itlenlified "Fulldisciesure°,fo.'a1Mw fqrr roducin study •A clkdk mark ladkates that a ceHemer tapreased t.ncecn rhont a paetlculae Issae
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REFERENCES : Scripps Howard News Service (1992), "Satator Wants Ban on RJR'='Old Joe" March ?A,1992 Snider, Mice (1991). "Doctors Turn Up The Heat on Snwking," USA Today, (December 11, 1991),1-2D San Francisco Famntbur (1992), "Just Say No to Joe Catael, (March 17,1992) _ 1992), A-4 American Medical Assoication (1993), "AMA Calls For FTC To Take Action Against Tobacco Industry Ads Targeting Youth," AMA News Release (May 26) __ Associated Press (1993), "Legal Officials Want 'Joe Camel' Banned," Washington: September 22, 1993 Atlarua Journal and Constitution (1991),'7;er Kid's Sake. Scrap Cartoon Cattlel;' Decatnbef.14,1991 Boston Globe (1991), "What's Good For RJ. Reynolds," (December 12,1991) Brown, David (1991), "Old Joe and Mickey Mouse Nose to Nose," The Wcshingran Post. (December 1 l, 1991), A-23 Churchill, Gilbert A. and William D. Perrault, (1982) "JMR Editorial Policies and Philosophy," Journal of ` Marketing Research, XIX (August), 283-287 Cimons, Marlene (1992),'?obacco Foes Seek Federal Injunction," The News & Observer, Raleign, NC, Man:h 29.1992.20 Co-Investigator Letters 1(undated) and 2 (November 11, 1990) trotn Joe DiFr9nu, research file of Dr. Joseph DlFranra discovered in connection with ManginI. Janet C. v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company; RJ.R. NABISCO, Inc.; McCann-Erickson USA, Inc.: Young and Rubicam Inc., Superior Court of the State of California, City and County of San Francisco, Case No. 939 339 (1992) Dagnoli, ludann (1991), "JAMA l.ights New Firc Under Camel's Ads," AdvertlsLeg Age. 62 (S3), 3 & 32 Denver Post (1992),"Joe Camel, Child Molester," (lutarch 15,1992) DiFnmu, Joseph R., John W. Richards Jr., Paul M. Paulman, Nancy Wolf_GEllespiF, Christopher F7etcher, Richard D. Jaffe, and David Murray -(1991), "RJR NSbisco's Cartoon Camel Promotea Camei Cigarettes to ChiWrett," Journal ojthe American Mediedl Association, 266, (22), 3149-3153 F.nritx, Dottie (1992), "Feds Walk A Mile To Ban Joe Cantel "New York Newsday, 0M'rch 14, 1992), 8 Fischer, Paul M., Meyer P. Schwartz, John W. Richards .Jc., Adam fl.' Goldstein, and Tina H. Rojas (1991),"Brand Logo Recognition by Children Aged 3 to 6 Yara." Journal of tke American Medfcal - Association, 266, (22), 3145-3148 Fo.rt Worth Star-Telejram (1991). "Joe Camel: Brilliant Campaign, Unintended Results," (December 17, 1991) Horovitz, Bruce (1992), "Most -Advertised Cigarettes Ara Teens Choice, Study Says," Los Angeles Times. (March 13,1992),16 Journal of the American Medical Association (1993), "Instructions for Authors," ' Jantaary 6,1993, Vol. 269, (1) Kong, Dolorea (1992), "Do Ads Lure Youngsters To Drink, Smoke?" The Boston Globe. (Apri127,1992), ' pp. 41-44 Lipman, Joanne (1992), "Surgeon General Puts Jpc Camel on the Endangered List," Wall Street lournal Classroom Edition. (Apri11992), 8 Mangini, Janet C. v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company; RJR. NABISCO, Inc.; MoCattn•8rickson USA, Inc.; Young and Rubkam Inc. (1992), Superior Ccurt of the State of CaHfornia. City and County of San Fnmcisco, Case No. 939 359 New York Observer (1992), "Commentary," (March 23, _1992) Old Joe Study Ptofile (1992), research file of Dr. Joseph DiFranra disoovered in.connection with Mangini, Janet C. v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company; RJ.R. NABISCO, Ino.: MeCann•8ricicson USA. Inc.; Young and Rubicam Inc., Superior Court of the State of Cali[omia. City and County of San Francisco, Case No. 939 359 Philadelphia /nqttira (1992),'Tuslting Butts to Kids," (irtanlt-1S.1992) Pieree, John P., Ell:abah Gilpin, David M. Sunuz. Elizabeth Whs1en.8ridley Rosbtaok, Donald Shopiand, and Michael Johnson (1991), "Does Tobacco Advenising Target Young People to Start Satoking?" Journal oJtlte American Medical Assoclation, 266. (22), 3154-3138 Ralel jb News dc Observer jRaleigh. N.C.J (1992). "Old Joe, 'Friend' of Kids," tMerch 12,1992) ' Richards, Jr., John W., (1991), Leteer from "Young Joe" DiFrutta, research lile of Dr. Joseph DiFranza discovered In connection with Mangini, Janet C. v. R. I-Reynolds Tobicco ;~npany; RJ.R. NABISCO, Inc.; McCynn-Fsiclson USA, Inc,; Young and R~bt.arn Inc., SupeeiorUoorCof the State of Califonnia, City and County of San Franclsco, Case No. -939 359 - Roberts, Sebnt (1992), "Surgeon General Wants to Snuff Out Joe Camel," Orlando Sentinel. (MaY 2S, AG021 so83 I
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REFERENCES Aitcen C« Hocking J« and Block M, 'Tomga DrialdaF Does AdYatisia; Make -A Di8•essnce?'« lQ=3l ef nenn~«icsrinnz 1984, 34: 157-167 AitJcea P.P« Last4a DS« O'Hagan F. J., and Sqaair S J.. 'Cbild:sa's A.vsrraess of Cigarattc Advriotemaae~t sod Hraad 1maSay: ~~'. ~a*R'~t: 19-87. 8Z: 615422 .. Albdtht C., AttM D« Slater M., and Maccoby N. `Cipt+stae Advrsdsamaot: in Magazines: Evidence for a Ditiesmuial Foaas on Woom's and Yonth Maxuhea.' $~I~h Fdne~rien Oumerlv. 1988, IS: 225-233 Alanaa D« Slat+er M., A1br1ght C., aad Maccoby N., -Ho.v An UAhnkhy Ptodnct it Sol& GSateae AdvettldaS ia M~oes.1q60-1985; . 19$7. 37; 95.106 Blum A, "Caody Cipnaoea,' ' 198G, 30V; 972 ,'Scbooi Bam C3psges Aftsr Pareats' CompLiats,' 1983, 1: 248 ."'Iba Madbow G-nd Prlx Czsomveat+oo 9t tha TeJavisioa Ban on Tobacco Ildvectisia8." N= lem1 of MWe1nm- 1991, 32{: 913-917 Botvia 8, Botvin G., bficbela J« Baker EE. aad F`ilsaols A., "Adotesceat_SasoldnB,Behavior and . Reoopddm oi Cipeeoe Adve&=keott," 1991. 21; 919 932 Botvia GJ» Go{dbas: CJ., Botvfa SJL aM Dnawbeiy L, "SmoHa: Behavior of A6oiaccros Exposed to CWK+eM Advaeddaf" 1993,106: 217-Zt Ceauis toe Dbaw Coated -"'CJpteae Adraliio= - US,1988. MWWR,1990. 39: Z61-265 mopmto S. ad F[Cqasld B.. "Bsaad Peeteleaxt and Advatdft Rees.li in Adolssoestt Sanok~ Some lsopliadoas tar tiealdi Ptvmoooa," ~~ t) et ianblfc;l 198Z. 7~ 491rt94 Cbaltoa A. 'Y3il6m's Advradeameot Awaz=ws Relutd wTbel<V'w~rs ao SmakinB." I=Ul, 1956,13:M14 Davis R.1y(. "Qa:+eot heodt in (Sytrcte Adviar" = aod MadcetiA=:' New Rng12nd 1 t nf Medicine- 1987, 316: 7?3-732 DTraaze. JR. Riduds J w., Paala,aa P.NL, woltd3itcapia rL. Fifxbrr C Jatte RD« aad Mmcray D.. "RJR Nabboo'= Caetooo Camel Peomoas Camei C'ipewes to ChOdeta,' Jooreal of tlhs Amsrkan X.eEWAssodsrJoR. 1991.266 (Zk 3149-3153 Dozaa G« 1979 Fiubar D.A. sad MaBaos P« "Oat of tbo Mowbs otBabas..3'be Optaions of 10 and 11 yeatold ChIldan Reped"m= *A Advatiant of Bpeeaes,' 1981, 3: 32-2,6 Fucha, P« Sdrwaa.1K.P., Richards J.w.. Goldstda A. 0., add Roin TM,'&aad Logo R+ecog=tldon by Childan Aged 3 ro 6 Yars -1VLckey Maese and Old Joe tbe CGmai ; J Zrt9diC1(~Ldm 1991266 M 3145-3148 Flay B.R.,'%lats Medis and Smoiiaj Cessatieo: A Ciitial Ravie.v," An+ericsn leun~al~j~re N~ich, 1987, 77:153-160 Ga:doerF. "Uodet S1eSe, CiBreeae Marioemrs Ft{~t Badc,~ . . 1984.19: 34 Goldberg ME, Oois 0. J. aod Gmsoo w« -TV MeaWS Gar St+aelt tad BMWast Foo~ Do Tbay la0ueooe t3~n's PselaeooeT, 1978, 3: 73~1 Gotdssaa A.. FisrSer P. RJehseds J. and Qaea D. Mabdanshin SenMSen ILSb Sebaot &wdeat Smoking aod Reoopirfoo ot C3peetse Adretdsea~aot;' mfll BL1987,110: S$ 491 Gara GJ. and P1orslsdao'R., '7be Effect of Coa+macats taf Add1c ftdum oo ChildRaa,' JmAMI Oj 19E3,1L• 96Z-96f Geem Lw. aod Gs+i.a PF«'Mm+aniendoa in SaW Systan: a Msfoe Sotoida= Bducatioa Mae Effoaive," Ffflcaam ENE-M .T;;..•."G;.r- ® US. Pu61io Healtb Service ® Pnblieuion No. 77-1413. washioqton: US. Go.etttmeot PtiaaaS Olrce.-1975, pp. 393-401. 443- 4S1 Hamiltoa J.L, "!ba Dmand far Cipeeeoes: Advenisin8, tba Hnltb Saee and the Ci;aseae Adve=tisln` Bao,- Aev-l~en- & tr~ 197Z, S4: 401 Johast4a L. O•1lWer P., and Bacbrsm J. D_ tr; --+~5 lldy,~~ nt Sp(M _sMftg ,nd Ye~_~ast~ ~9tst990_ Pnblie Aahb Sasaee, Nadaa4 TasBws oo Deas Abasa,-Rodt.rilk,MD lUda, JDw Fcseiw D..Ollvad J. PamaUos C, K.paesmidtJy aad Saeehaf Y«'"Candy Gowdoc _DO lbay FaeoaeaSe C6iidcm': Smoidar!', bdbjftJasu~y 199Z, 89: 27-31, &neaste W. "Wben Medtal Docsoes Caodoet Mab&B Rosanc6: JAMA end OW Joe: 7be Camel,"_ Febebrey,1993 AG0216054
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Leclceaby J.DF aod Plummer J.T.. "Advesrisiaj Stetnnlus Meastaemcnc and Assessment Research: A Review of AdvrstisFus Testina Models." Z`taMMr7Sares ad RearZh in Ad rS; 1983: 13S-16S LedMisb F.. "Does Tobacco Spans Spoasorahip on Tdavisioa Act as AdvadsiaS to t3~ildraa?". g~ 1984, 43: 8588 Lawit E,M, Caoce D. and Gi+ostm.o M. "Ibe EQ'aets of Govennmeat Re6alatio® of TeaoaBa SeaoJdng " Iem-tLl ef La wA Frmomics_ 1981. 70QV: S4S-S69 Livsoa N. and Le3ao E. V., "Cipietnd Smoldn8 Motivrs: Fsoralial StrttaQure and Gender DiQaeates in a- Detd~nal St4dy." 19$8, 23: S3S-544 .'. _ - ~d Chiago,1L: Yea Book Madicsi publisbor=.1984 Masb A, "SmoidnF i;ab3t or C3oice," $1y81;ft TxnQ;,1W. 37:14-Z0 Msrsa, C.R., Itaiemeb Validtty aad Resulting Public Proticy:'IbsCa:e of t!u DOcaam'Old Joa' C.lsarr.tse Smdy: Proaodta=s of the AAeaerla.a Assodatloo ofPablk Opinion Resatrt6. &Uy 1993 - --, llbe F.aLaey of Staotss3rally Bssed Reseaicb: '15a Case of 'OVd Jo4:r'ProceediaSs of the Amerksis Statisdnt Asodatioa, Aogust 1993 . -----.-~. "Oons®a Re.osreh Staoduda A Public Potuy t'armatadoa: The Case of wClcry Moute & OldJoe,' Adv.aeet is Cansamer RsseareJ, ,19" ' MsCoemielc P, 'fiait6 8&vsioo 5or Pre.Scbookrs," Fa~+~der~t Rerh ~ 1976.55 (1): 28-30 MeNal l.U.. LtsinBtoo, M/t Laoa`too Booia.1987 Meiaer 1., B~oe R~ Walsti M..''C3~fldeea's Caaeepa4as of Soorm~" t~ I et= ~'r,~ t~t~er^ev_, 1934.9:41-36 MaaLn C,'Smoioaj as Selvtvior Applying a SccW PsyOoiogfat Tbeocy.' Behjtjppr. 19T3,14: 144 Moofstnith S.W» S4m RE„ Se Pieae R.W. eod Ailes W.F,"Opleuoas of Seventh to Twelfth Gt4upasz ReBst'dLti The Etieafveoers of Peo- and AaRi,Smoldaf MasssBes: D~nr Edaasrfnn- 1981,11: 213-ZZS Mosco.via J.M., "Peevmdng Adolescaot Snbstaaba Abuse Tbeonj6 DcuB Addictioe,' ut'fl. Glypa. C.G. L.euloetryd sod Jp. Lndfoed (ad4 '. NmA Raseslreh Mooopapb 47, RoelcAIle, MD, Nviom! tnstiata oo Dtug Abow 3983 Piesoe J.P., Foee MC, )keamy T.S, 3bmfaodeta EJ. aad Davis It.M.'Teudsyt Ctpteaoe Smoking in the USm 1etmi ef the Ameirm Medkml A=dWj= -1989, '261: 61-65 ° Piau JP., atlpio. 8, Sorat D.W.WOalm E, Raftook 8.. Sb apLsnd D» snd^Jotcmcfa M..'Does Tob4ooo Advatisioj Target Yomg Poopk m SWtSmoloo1!"Jostuat ojtJw Muriran i[4dieat AtsoetoXon. Deoemba 11,1991. vol. 266, na. 22. pp. 3154-3158 Pons H. Gdes P., Flatbat boL "Adokseau Smoking snd Opinion of CGprena Advertisetttentt," Htaltlt Educadon Raoeateb,1986t 1:195-201 - Public Flesldl SewfCe. Heai_ Peeek^ 2AA6'- NuieB'1 ,Uplsh,, vennn,_n=,nd Dy' W ~Frev,entien Q11jaah= DFIILT Pubtieadoa No. (PHS) 91-30212, Otliea of tho Asdmat Saatetary for Hesith. OQiea of Dtsane Pisveotion sod Ha1qb Peoarooton, U.S. Govesotneat Pdmft OCioe,-Whs6ingooa DC Rtid LN. aod Solay LC.'Aootber Look at th6 'Dacoatire FMut1a UodeL• Tha Reaogaieioo of VLswl and Vesb.l Ad Compooeat:." ,19$1. pp.123-134 . "Rtsults fiom tbn 1987 Natloo.l AdoWaoeot So4oot 8edtb Steuay' BAW „ 1989: 38:147-1Si Rn:sell M,A.H., Pstm 1., and P,ral U.A., "ibe ihasifloatfon of SmoldaS by Faetoriil Savctiae of Modves," 1? ed• See__ 1974, A317: 313-333 Schinke Sp. and Giledritt LD. "P~ Ptwsaoioo of Tobacco Saroidn8: Otch_ 1983.33: 416-419 Schmalantae R., 1972 . Sboce RE, St. Piesrs RW., Labell. EG. "Smoir3~ A~ and Pwcdaes of U~.a Pte-S~6ool and Faa Gcsde aiidcm" 19a1. S 1: 347-351 Syme Sl.L aod Akday R,'Coateot of C3pntte Smoido~ hom a Soeial Prtsped~re,' Annuet Re~tev nt ftWLHujjh,192, 3:179-19! Teaoaat F.. "Awie+mess of Sobsooe+a Abme and Otbei 1ie41tb-Rdamd 8ebariois Among Pre-Scbool t]u7cleaa' 1979.9M 119-128 Tyc J9., "CJptM Ads in xid's Movies," IWWw $enomm 1989, 4: 1-2: a14 - Davis RM, "CmrmtTtands in Cipteme Advatisin; 4od Mnioetin:"New F,nr1iW jeeat„1 e[jKsUcIaL 1987, 316:7?S-73Z A00216055 [
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Advertising in Magazines, 1960-1985," Iournat c+f Communicarions. 1987, 37: 95-106]. Disu4sion: 'Ibe Schinke and Gilchrist study did ~ sest the impact of these factors on attitudes, thought or images. The Chapman and Ftzgerald article is a study of brand preference and advertising recall among 1,195 school children in Sydney, AustnliaU tt likewise did = test whether parents', siblings', andge er beliefs mold children's atanides or whether advertising and media have a substantial effect on early thoughts and images about ci~. The 'Aioman:~t ~i. artiele states that "the decision to adopt, matntatn. or quit cigarette smoking 3s influenced by a variety of physiologtcal, psychological, social and environmental forces." which atmibutable not to their research, but to Flay (1987], Sytae and Alcalay (198Zj and Warner [198Sj. Concerning the thoughts and images about cigaretteu affet:ted .by advertising and medis, they offer the conclusion that "in the face of increasing public knowledge about the health risks of smoking td tha shrinking population of curnat smokers, the tobacco industry has portrayed _ smohag in advertisemeats in a miskading manner." . However, not factored into the interpretadon of this study by Klein and his colleagues are the following from the Altman study; (1)"It is unclear whether the shifts in advertising themes over the pan 25 yesrs simply reflect a response to market demand (as the tobacco industry maintains) or actually preceded shifts in smoking behavior," aad (2) "It is evident that women and youth have rxeived special.aueadon b~om tobacco advertisers, akhough our data cannot directly link this ditfe:ential focus to stuok3ng in these groups" (Almoatt, p. 104). The statement in Klein is simply not supported by the three citations offered. 8. 'Me themes used in brand advertising not only sell cigarettes, they also sell the social acceptability of smoking" jn13 - Whelan EM., A , , moking Cun: Row the Tobacco industry Gets Away Wirh Murder, Philadelphia: George F. Stickly Co.1984). p~: This is = a research ti[ttd:in?, rather the stuemeat by Whelan (pp. S-6j is simply an author's opinion and is eot substautiated by research findings or an attribuable footnote. ' 9. "The Australiaa Council on Smoking and Hazlth zioted`Zhttt children ~"ueatly imitate stookers. Candy and bubble gum.cigarettes are pacinged to resemble real brands. This allows children to play at sa:oldaj aad thus be a real factor in the iaidation of tobzcco smoking as a sociaUy 'acceptable' adult behavior" [014 - Blum A., "School Bans Ciga~ettes After Parents' Cotnplaints," Medical Io2rna1 of ' 1983,1: 248]. 2jjMLjjkM: This piece is about chocolate cigarettes being withdrawn from a school tucJc shop after complaints from parents and the honorary secrctary for ACOSH. 'Ihepmcspai of the elementary school is the source for a statistic that children are constantly imitsdt~g smokers. T3e psiacipal is quoood as saying "for exampla, on a eold _ day. a child may put his Sngets In his mouth and then blow 'smolce;' saying 'see: I'm smokiag."' Tho citation offered by Klela aad his. __ colleagues t: basically rvated In the ~epdon of onse elementary school principal in Ausaalla. I . Afao21604s
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Jourrral of Advertfeinw _..aracters, to a produet is a task disproportionately do nnt repor't on mismatches (other logos to cigurettca favoring a cigarette mateh: (4) children were not in-- and other cigarette logos to non•cigarette productyi. - structed-as to what constituted a correct motrh: and Concerning the former. it was suggested by reviewer4 (5) the investigators may have also interviewed thc that what is measured here is not logo recognitinn, subjec•a. *leading to interviewer bias. A more fun- but simply a natural progression toward increased ,- damentai problem cited by reviewers is thut there is cognitive skill in matching. no basis offered for its underlying premise that early Beveridge (1950) instructa rescarchers to makc_u logo recognition leads to smoking. thorough -study of all fif the relevant literaturc, ee, The study found that brand logo recognition in- that not even one significant article-is missed. The creased with age and that, by age 6. recognition ofJoe failure of the authors to consider the basic-works in ~ Camel is comparable to the Disney Channel logo. Criti- recall and recognition (Bagozzi and Silk -1983: Finn cism by reviewors centered on a failure to stress that 1988: Mizerski 3982: Singh and Rothschild 1983: Val- ! six-year olds do quite well in recognizing'adult logos' - ontino and Blum 1961; Wells. Burnett and Morlar~.ty such as Chevrolet. Also cited was the statement that 1989 ) disturbed reviewers. Another area of concern: recognition of the Disney Channel logo and Joe Camel by the-reviewers was- a ci Wtion from McNeal (19617) was 'highest in their respective product categories' which is only Hs speculation about children's shop- (Fischer, et al. 1991, p. 3145). The reviewerr' criti- ping behavior and ii not a research-based citation cized the authors for failing to point out that the although it is seemingly positioned as such by Fischer ' - - respective rategories were 'children .~ .:. ands' and et al. (1991, p. 3147). cigarette brands' and that the Disne.• Channel, All of the reviewers criticized the conclusions ,NcDonald's. Burger King, Dominos Piua. Coca Cola, reached in the paper. These,inciuded conclusions that Pepsi, Nike. Cheurolel and Ford had higher recogni- very young children see, understand, and remember tion scores than Joe Camel. advertising' (Fischer et at. 1991. p. 3143): thtc meations concerning validity recur throughout the 'childr'n's knowledge of cigorette brand logos is most ,ws. Cited were the small size of the choice set likely the result of their exposure to environmental .nd the likelihood that. given few choices, the chit• tobacco advertising' (Fischer` et al. 1991, p. 3148): dran employed some heuristic choice rules and elimi- and that'R J. Reynolds Tobacco Company is as effcc• nation procedures which systematically biased the tive as-the Disney Channel in reaching 6-year old = resulta. One reviewer wondered whether, if the pic- childron'-(Fischer, ct_al. 1991, p. <3148). Ths review•- . ture of a zoo had been offered as a product category, ers describe these as :goinc tar beyond the r,ud.'H the subjects then would have matched Jar Camel to design or findings and clearly indicative of an advo• the zoo and what that result would have meant? An- cacy position. ` other reviewer s comment regarding validity states: 'You are really just asking the subjects'what is miss- p1erce et al. Review ` ing from this picture?' So, if the subjects correctly identify the product, they are identifying what is miss- This article reports on a study entitled 'Does To. - ing from the picture, a task right out of kindergarten bacco Advertising TargotYoung People To Start Smok. cvrricula.' Reviewers said it is an obvious violation of ing?' Using a telephone auraiey of California adults experimental design protocol to have the stimulus and teens, Pierce at al. examined which cigarette-. . material and the dependent mersure be parts of the brand respondents thought was most`'tteavily -ad. same image, separated only for the purpose of this vortisod and which brand they sntoked. The 190.0. study. California data were compared to data from a 19Sh Also of concern is that the authors go far beyond national telephone survey on brand choices of adults. , their basic methodology by inferring advertising roc- This part of the study was to ascertain the rolativc _ ognition to a simple matching exercise by children. markt : share of both the Camel and Marlboro brands - . Indeed literature (Lcckenby and Plummer 1983) cited amcnr'y6onger smokcrs" (Plorce eta1.1991, p. 31t}i ). - 'bv the authors,concludes that advertising recognition - The article reaches a conclusion that: (a) perception _ ires a compiex. multi•variable measurement. not of advertising is high among young smokcra: (b) mnr• _ niore simp3istic matching exercise offered by ket-share patterns across age and sex groups follow Fischcr et al. (1991). The authors ignore data show- the perceived advertising patterns; and (c) changcs :n; ,R improvement in correctly mt,tchin,; logos to prod- market share resulting from rdvertising occur mainl.~ cts among older children in the study and :ikewise in young smokcrs. The authcrs claim that'cigaret:•: ' u, ~ ~ ~ Ln Ln a% m I AG0296054
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ChueehiII, Jr. Gilbat A. dtarlsotwt Rat.reb (1991) 3th E4 Q+iear: T1+e Dryda. Preu Ciittons, Merlate, ?obaaoo Foes Seet Fcderal I:tjuoetian,` T4. Nerr E Observer, R.1e1ja, NC Ma:rh 29.1992. p. 4+O D.inolt, Judwn, lAKA Li jhts New Fite Under Camd's Adr."Adv+eAitinR.lse, 1991. pp. 3 t 32 Dea.it frrs Pnss. -Say No b los C.meL• Masab 17. 1993. p 1-E DiFt.as4 Joseph R, Joha W. Richards Jr. Patl M. Pautman, Naary Wo1f•Glllstpie, Christopher Flaah.r. Rhiatd D. J.ils, md David Mt+asy. "RJR Nabi.ads Cartoaa Caewl Ptamotr Gssd CiSaeeor to CNMe+i4"J.avwJ.JtiitAmfflesw J(sft.t Ats.el.d.e. D+oambac 11. 1991. vol. 266, m2Z, pp. 3149J 133 Daeanba 16, Fr-:as, Dotti., "Fsds Walk A M11s To Ban los Cae"" Ne. Y.nt Ne+alq, Mareti 14,1992 p. . j Fsssti Ad=6 'Piiot Ad R.eoSoitton by C3i)dem Akad 3 a 6 Ysds.' Jo•+ow yJle*.nkt s•r•oeh Qrtq.1981) VoL 2S, pp.16i-177 Fueha. Ped lrt. Msy4 P. SeJt.rertt, loba W. Rkbrrds Jr. Adna O. Ooldstem, aod Tlaa }i. ltejsR 'Snsd Logo R.oopdtim by ChilQtm Aged 3 b 6 Ysm' Js.rw.l.Jtlrs As.eriean J(isTJe.t Atad.d.o. Dooemiset 11. 1991. +oL 266, ao: 2Z pp. 3145,114i Hoevvits, aroos. 'Most -Advsedwd Cijarsttee An Tos Ceois. Sady S.ys.' z...twr.le. ?L.o„ Mate611r 1992. p.16 1Caaj, Deke.16 "Do AOs Lro Yeanptses To Defslc. Sao1sT Ti. saw Q1.1.. AlA 27.199Z, pp: 41-44 Loeimeby. Jeid std Joseph i'lomma. "/Wveedsbei Stiatdlus Msasatamat and Assasevsat Rasaei: A R.riw of Ad.aasims T.edoS MatMds. C.mrait ltats ..1 Ra..rei in A1sordAv. Je.r LiiL A Cl..d. Mmit, s8s. 19113. pp.13S-163 L..i9,96 Asdosa C. (AaLtaa Attomey Cst,aa of Statm ot Nw YMt). letts to Souot Johtt C. Det6etR Q!•MQj Joly & 1992 ~tb~i 204=6~aed~List.an Swat JConrsi.l C1.astw.6Aebw, ApA 1992, p. i Msda, Clasde R'Rasss.h Validty ad RssdWa{ Mli. P.lby: Zi. C.se of tb DiFM.aa'Oid ler' Satdp; pspt pwssat.d at th.1993 Ca.f.waes of ttia Mi~eeioa Maodaks tar itiblie Opieioa iR.us.es Mlsa*.ltt RieM.rd, wiwa MLaospnhe.do. pledings Vet~~ '~ •l 1 Pi.aR Jaha P. Elis.b.dt o0pie. David M. stos, sut.eati Wa.lsa. Srrm.y 1to.aook, Donald =Aepi..d.e Mieinl Jei..oft vo. T.looeo AdwttisMj Tvpt Ye,mtS Psopls te Start saeloitSY J.o.w.t .J qit As+.ate.w M.fl..l Ait.el.Ns. Woamba 11.1991. voL 266, ao. 2Z pp.31SW Ui Robers, Sdeaa, "SuReotl Ge+aa2 Wenrs to Sna!!Out-. 104 CatneL, Orl.wdo SeRtJnet, May 25. 1992, p. A-4 Siail. S.N. and M.L Rechuhild, 'ReooOiidon as a Measure of Laarainj froni;,-Television Contndaaals.' Jor.w*! Uk/.rk.riK Rer..neA, Vo1 20 (Aurast 1901 pp. 23S.24d Snider. Mike, "Dooton Turn Up The Heu on Smolortj." llLl r.4ry. D.oemba 11.1991. pp. 1.2D Swtdora. Leo. "Dow Tona For Old Jo. To A.com a Nosbo.r; New Y«.it Pos4 Match 10.1992. p. 3 • tlS. Ner. i W..N R"rt, "Aa Aa1i Smoldnj ' C@o=a,-V.lea~ Appcl aad-.MS. ~ 86uea, "Ad Reeopition trd RespONa SK' J•r"/.J4fAlrfrlit/K Rss..rc1t , (JoAq 1961) pp 13-21 Vssp. -liusetmal6 'tfp Lt Senoke: .tt4oa. CGwsehteioaL ("PearA $nss" aolnam) Mases 20. W.alSevtJses"•4 'b. C.etat 3s At.e Pisd Pipet. Rtameh Floedt," Daa= b411.1991. pp. 81 t B4 W®er. Pae., "Norsl3o 17ro.vt Down Gamttst,' .tlWsksM.t*r&jWak. Mareh 141992, p. 4 WssiLets. TLwv. "C.mels 'Old Joe' Cteares YeanS SarNrss,' latet fras LeaL W. Sullivan sad A+uatia C Nos11o, M.edt X 1992. p. 62 W.:m.e. li.ry. "fab.eati Maelvan=: Peo6rwtieS Ftviq Cilldr.e4" Jlrwwa IJ t6e .kw.rfe.w I[.b.l Arn.ei.ef.R. _ Deom*a l l. i991. rQl. - 266, tte. 22,ppr 31iS,S1S6 Ws~s, WIISstq, Jolat BYreta, ed SaeAen Mseisr0~. rt[wefefK: lMtoefrtss aw[ rnesle.t (1959) Nod Yat tMmdw•i{aa lee. Zridq, }ias, $, -WWFqo...1,---IwLorr.dsrl.a Law Lqw4 AaruoL 1992 a AG0216012 I
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a 0 0 ~ ~ w 0 J J 0855 TLLTS i
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: 18 . Journaf o(Adaertiaire;r . .dvocacy of Public Policy Changes Liprnan .1992; Kong 1992: Roberts 1992; Snid,~•.r 1991;SW ndora 1992; U.S. New.s & iVorld Re,oort i:v.3:.~; _ It is diffscult to quantify the news coverage and -. Vosey 4992; War,ier_ 1992)WaYltinBtpre Times 1992r. ;ubsequent demands for public policy reformulation. In Warch-. 1992 the Amorictzu Cancer Society. Ameri• including banning Joe Cantel. In proparation for this can Heart Asaociation-and American Lung Associa- paper, there were 172 newipaper articles and 71 wire tion formally petitioncd tho Fcdcral'Irade Commis• service stories reviewed which reported on the•lA,til.1 sion to immediately ban the• •Ioe Camel. catr.aait,n irticles. The follow'ng headlines arc representative )f the tone of those new+ reports: Joe Camel Is Also Pied Piper, Research Finds (Wall Street Journal 1?(11/91. pp. B1•64) Stud.•: Camel Cartonn Sends Kids Smoke Signels (Boston Herald 1?l11/91. p. 7) To Some. Cartoon Camel tsn't Funny (Seattle Post• •Intelligencer 1?/11F.1. p. 9) Ban: Health Groups Say Study Proves All Tobacco Ads Must Be Crushed Out (Detroit `ews 12/l?r91. p. 5) .Uso reviewed were 82 print media editorials and ?3 syndicated columnists. Of these, !here we-e 32 specitic editorial calls for the bann;ag of Joe Camel ind/or a more stringent regulation of tobacco adver• These include the Atlanta Journal and Consti• c(December 14, 1991), Boston Globe (December .2; 1991), Denver Post (March 15, 1992), Fort Worth Star•Teiegram (December 17, 1991). IVew York Ob• server(N-:arch 23,1992). Philadelphia lnquirer(Itaarch 15, 1992), Raleigh News & Observer (March 12, 19y2), San F, rancisco Esa+niner (March 17, 1992). and the Syrrscuse 1Yerald-lournal (March 11. 1992). Shortly after publication of the artielc:s, the attorneys general of 26 states began to lobby for more control over ciga- rette advertising and to call for repeal of a section of the Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (Zukin 1992 and Levine 1992). The New York Metropolitan Transportation Authcrity, citing the research in JA,LfA, banned 511 tobacco ads on subways. bu:es and trains beginning in 1993 (Harrigan 1992). Senator William Cohen called for Congress to be involved in an effort to ban Joe Camel (Scripps Howard News Service 1992), and Representative Henry Waxman asked the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment to recommend strict controls on all ad- vertising and specifcally to prohibit the RJR ad cam• paign (Wax,r,un 1991). Advertising Age (January 1992) cpIled upon RJR to drop the Joe Camel campaign. iurgcon General of the United States, the Sccre• , of the Department of Health and Human Ser• vices. and the American Medical Association de• -nandcd that R.J. Reynolds stop using Old Joe ( Brown 991•: Dagnoli 1991: Enrico 1992: Norovitz 1992: (Cimons 1992). Perhaps the two str -)ngest pub.',c policy' : outcomes from the three JAMA articles occurred lat.c:• , in 1993. First, the sta:fofthe Federal'ISrade Cotnmis• ' sion, citing the JA,tfA articles. recommended that the . FTC seek an outright ban of the R.J. Reys,olds's •lw Camel adveitising campaign (Watl Street Jourrta:. August 1993). Sec^nd.'the attorneys general of 27 atatcs in September 1993 formally asked the FTC to ban the Joe Camel advertising campaign, citing thv JA.1fA publications (.lssociated Press 1993). Evaluation Procedure = A census of major research associations and jour. nals was under•.aken to ascertain their research guidc• lines.'i'hose included the fields of statistics, advertis- ing. marketing, economics. sociology and psycholog.•. Some disciplines and journals reported no officin! statements concernir.g research gt;it:alines, includ• ing the American .lcaden'{y o(Advertisirtg, the lcur• rsal oJAdvc.•:ising: and the Journal ojCurrent lssurs -- and Research in Advertiaing. However, there arc guidelines available from the ,JourncZ of the Amer'. can Statistical Association, the rlmerican Econonac Reciew, the Journal oj,tfarketire Research, the Jour_•- nat o/:Marketinfi, the American Marketing Assr~art• tion, and the American ~PsycJtologicat Associatior,. "These -wcre combined with the 'instructions tor t:u• thors' of the Journal oJthe rtnterica.i Afedicat A:.so. niation. _(1993) to produce a compendiumm of 11 at,:n• dards upon which to judge social sciencybusiticss rc• search. In particular the JAdfet guidelines (Journc: ojthe Asncriccn Afedical As-soci¢tion 1993) calt for thc followins: 1. The manuscript rcpresilnts valid work. Authors will produce the data upon which the 2 . mpnuscript is based. ~ 3. Only thosc conclusions of the study that arc ~ directly supported by the evidence rcportcd ~ should be given. - Thafiftecn standards are-dctailcd in Table 1. wi:h reference to the professional nssociativns for ench. f t is omphasized that the standards citcd nrc thosc whic5 tn m N nGo21soso
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c--lernber 1994 - 22 b_.ertisingencourages youth tosmoke and should be banncd' (Pierce at at. 1991. p. 3154). The reviewcrs' tndings for the Nicrcc et a1. study show eleven standards on which the majority identify errors (Tablc 3). Thc consrnsus of the reviewers was tyat this study violates the basic rules for scientific research because the data reported are incomplete and non•comparable. In the 'results' scction of the paper. Pierce et al. ;1991, p. 3155) report several percentages dealing with brand identification. However. there are no sta• tistical tests of the differences cited; scientific research would call for determining whether differences are signifccant. There is no way to substantiate any of :his because the authors never reveal their undcrly- :ng data'(e.g.. we do not have data on the number of 12-17-year olds in the study). Reviewers made a simple, comparabin -valuatinn )f those data which were available. It shows results iirectly counter to those offered in the article. Using :he data in Tables 1 and 2(Picrcc ct al. 1991, p. 3156) 'or the only age category consistent across.thc data aaes 18•24), 70.4% of all smokers in the age category 'fy Marlboro as the brand they purchased, while nan 3046 of all respondents (smokers and non- .nokcrs) identified Marlboro as the most advertised ~rand. Conversely only 9.5% of all smnkers in the 18- 24 category idontified Camels as the brand }.hey -moked. while more than 20% identified Camci as :he brand advertised the most. This certainly does .wt support the authcrs' conclusion of'purchase p1r• sllelism' (Pierce et al. 1991, p. 31.56). Reviewers con• :luded that this begins to cast doubt on any cnrrela• :ion between the 'judament' as to most advertised Drand and purchase behavior. The rev,ewers criticized the extensive use of nc+n• rescarcn•based•roforences and of citations only from medical science and public health sources. The criti- :ism centers on the ignoring of the richness of litern• ture -and -research available from other disciplines (e.g.. marketing. advertising research. economics). Finally. the authors mislabeled the constructs they measured. One example is in the'comment section. .: here the authors' state that 'our results suggest that tobacco advertising is causally related to young people becoming addicted to cigarettes' (Pierce et al. 1QQ1. p. 3158). The reviewers noted that this study • measured addiction. The paper also offers a ~ usion regardinR'recatl' and'reeo{=nition" of ad- vcrtiscMcnts (Pierce ct al. 1991. p. 3157). Again. the viewers noted that this study never measured re• .11 or recognition. Spccifically, the study measured the judgment of the participants as`to the brand af cigarettes advertised the most - ecrti!inly this is nat : aidcd or unaided recall. DiFranza et a1. Study This study was subjected too the same evaluatit%: proccsses as the other:two,articies~ five independcr.t _,- rcvicws':subsequently cvaluatad against the set of cthical standards previously discussed. However, as reported earlier there is litigation discovery mater.at that provides an an added opportunity to consider the ethics of the DiFranasi ct ai. research (Manqini v. R.J. Reynolds Tobasco_:Company et al. 1992). It iA emphasized that the individual reviewers were not privy to thi3 material and it provided no input to thcir evaluations. The DiFranza et al. (1991) study's declared objccr tive was to detcrmine if RJR Nabisco's cart;oon-thcsnc advertising is more effectivc in promoting Camel cign• rettes to children or to adults and to determine if children see. remember. and are influenced by ciRa->' rcttc advertisina.-Tnc f+.•search focused on the recoo. nition and appeal of th~a Jac Camel (again errone• ously labelled Old Joe by the authors) advertising campaign among students (pfiod-12-19 years) in five sections of the United States and cotnparc-d_this tr, data for registered adult,, drivers (aged;-21•Si-years) from Massachusetts. Subjects were shown s'masked' , ad to determine whethcrthey rccognized-loe rame(._ They were then shown a series of six a.dvcrtisements and asked to-answer yes or no questions about each ' ad's "appeal,' Finally they were asked quest:ons,ibout smoking behavior and -brand preference. The study concludes.that Joe Camel advertisoments were yct-, tcr known among the studcnt sample than among adults. that the ndvertiscments"appeal' scores wfrc' higher for the stuscnt sample, and that more stu. dents reported Camel as their preferred brand. Tna authors also reached a conclusion that'Qld Joe Camel cartonR advertisements are far more successful at marketing Camel ciaarcttcs to children than adults' {DiFranza et al. 199 1. p. 3.,44i), _ The rcviewcrs' evaluations of the D'cPranza ct aL article;thows eleven standards an whiehthe majority of thc-rericwcrs idcntiGed errors in the reported re- search (Table 4). DiFranza at al. ( p. 3152) state 'the fact that chil• dren arc;more attractqd..tn she.thcmcs used in the Old !or cartoon character advortisementa ttiay alsn; _ cxploin why (the children) rrc more familiar with_ - them(theadvcrtisements).'Thc reviewers noted thae: A00216065 ~ .~ -
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, , :I Tf XAYir/4 .1 a ;,~ We believe he will agree to fr ~ every one of these StatelllelJtS We think we can show you a new method of aiding mouth health--a method so easy, so pleasant and inexpensive _that everyone can begin at once. Brush your teeth regularly, of course, but in addirien_, chew Oralgene Gum several times each day2 Ckaigene has a brm texture, is deiightfulty flavored, and containi srwugh dehydrated milk of magnesia to help 6ghc mouth acidity: -• ORALGENE doss three importerrr thinjr: I. Gives teeth and gums exercise that modetn'foods cannot provide. Ail chewing pum helps but the firmer texture of Oralgene is particulasty val- uable. I. It hetps ciean-the mouth by removing food parti•., cies that eveti your tooth brush sometimes mtsses. 3. Ic helps coriett mouth acidity all che time you are che.ving. Ask your dentist about all three of these imporrantpo ints. Begin now to chew Oralgene and get the advantage of this sary extra care fw your teeth. That's why we say-ser your dentist st least twice each year snJ ... . „0U01 #-A
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f'1
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I I •w•wn ga ~. M ~~N N --loY r atc'Ptc '++'tkt'lt jmPuwo1gt VNf1t re +Mh!»~rP+W9xwWmrniAtwmI.%'w& fwcMh•+t'MSI N 0 tid7PN981-'PW"O'd uauvi.
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PRIZE-WINNER Girl .. Dog .. Ci=arettc - Lucky Strike, of course. For "It's Toasted," a ln•occss a•hicl; is hrirate and cxclu- sive with Lucky Strike Ci,areUcs,I lllows delicate throats the full, abiding enjoyment uf rich, ripe-bodied tobacco. "Toasting"• renioves certain harsh irritants present in even the finest tobaccos in their natural state.'"fuastina " is your throat protection against irritation-against cough. So, for your throat's sake, smoke Luckies. OF RICH, RIPE-BODI•ED TOBACCO ITU TOAST110'r ' 0003 i1 /.-).3 /,3 lo -
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,, Septem6er 1994 - ^' .ing a quick and easy project that should prn- ducc...evidcnce that R,JR s going after kids with their Camel ads' (Richards 1991. p. 1) and (b) 'Survcy results reveal that both the 'Old Joe' character and the Marlboro ads are seen by many youngsters to possess anumber of desirable qualitics. tn addition, a significant number of youngsters see thesc charac• ters as appropriate rolc models and would like to emulate them....for the youngest children the Camel character was seen as more fun loving and more ex- pnrtv. but nevcr offcrcd the results from his uwn of the 167 children cited above. .1voidirsa Ccrtctin Croups. Dr. DiFranza, in comrn-.• nication to his fcllow rescarchcrs, says 'it would b,• , best tn nvoid parochial sichools because their smakin-l_ ratos will be so low thgt the brand preference survey will not be mcaningful' (Old •!nc Study Protocol 1992). Discussion citing than the Marlboro man' (Richards 1991, pp. 2- The purpose of this paper has t;cen an examinotisn _ 3). Again. the reader is cautioned that both of these of three articles that appeared in the Decembcr. 1993 ; statements were written before the research was un- edition of the Journal o/the American Medical A.csn• dcr:aken. ciation. The reason behin:d this examination were the _ The Paper before the Study. In the concluding sec- calls for major public policy changes regarding advcr- tion of the letter to Richards. Dr. DiFranza makes the tising. spccifi-ully for cigarettss, and demands that a following statement: 'There, the paper is all rcady. particular advertising campaign be banned. Indicr.• now all we nced is some data'(p. 4). The violation of tive of this was the accompanying editorial in JA:Ia the ethical standard for scienti ic research is obvious. entitled'Tobacco Marketing; Profiteering From Chil• Inflated Results. The DiFranza et al. study (1991) dran.' In it. Representative Waxman makes the state- concludes that Camel has a 32.8% share of underage ment that'the tobacco companies' success at t:,i*get• smokers. This cortctusion emanates from questioning ing youn; people is apparent from the data rc;.oncd underage smokcr s to list their favorite cigarette brand in this issue of the journal. :' Id Joe Camel has d_.-n - rexposingthemtosixconsecut,veadsforCa,nelr onstratad appcal-, and ;rccognition a,nstr.; .i intcrviow (Eisole 1992) Dr. DiFranzn admitted. youtti (Waxman 1991. p. 3iS-5). It is'ttotea that thc . nere K•ax a potential that kids were more likely to congressman also eeirnneously labels Joc Can,e! as say they preferred Camel. That (the question order) Old lloc. was a potential automatic bins.' L%'hcn five reviewers from differing disciplines wc,-c• onch of the papers. Non-Reporting of Contradictory Results. In one of asked to-°indepcndently evaluate his letters to co•authors (Co-InvestiFator letter 2 1990)_ there was major concern raised about the qu„tity Dr. DiFranza states: 'When kids are compared to each study.-When these reviews wore evaluated us• adults under 30, it appears that the ads appeal more ing the guidelines for;social science research. review- to people in :seir 20s than in their early tacns. This ers idantified major Qavs` in all three. Particularly was true of the remaining three questions as wcll.... it disturbing is the advocacy nature of the research and would appear that we have just disproved our theory serious questions concerning reliability and validity. ,that the ads appeal more to kids than adults.' At this Even more concern is raised by'the discovery matv point he proposes to redefine age categories sn that riat unearthed in uonncction w ith tho DiFranza ct 31. the dsta will eventually support the theory. study These concerns include use of pre-de• Omission o(Subjacts. Dr. DiFranza discovered that tarm-ined results. r.em-rbportinp of contravertina dnt,a. very fcw (13 of 16?) young children (grades S through and 'adjustinp' the sample to produce tha dcstrca R) smoked on a regular basis or intended to begin results consistent with the researchera' pre•concciveti sr'.oking in the future (Co•Investigator letter 2 1990).- notion about the subject ot tobacco advcr.isinp ar.ci In •fact, children from grades i-8 were omitted from children. the study. This was never revealed in the final paper Perhaps of more concerrn to advertising researctier,s despite the statamcnt by DiFranza ct al. (p. 3152) is the following statement from Professor Kennoth • 'thflt the average age forstartcr smokers is 13 ycars.' Warner (University of ".MichiRan School of i'ubiir A j.iM.t peer reviewer (Comments To Authors 199 1. HHealth) a wcll•knrown anti-amoking advocatc, in div• : -1 criticized this statement by referring to reports cussing the Joc Camel campaign: '6ut the definitive .t the Surgeon General in both 1980 and 19A9. and conclusive proof of thc levcl that would be re• 1'hosc reports found the actual menn age of smoking quircd by scicncc has never been required, by the nitiation to be about 18 years. Dr. DiT'rnnza dis- - policy community when it comes to policy about life, .utcd the methodology for the Surgeon General's rc- nnd death. They go with the best evidence :nailnbiv' A®0216069
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New Magic for Eyes Red '' and Yeined from Late Hours Now . . , a new.'eeiattiflE'Iotion thit rpllY daars, .vhit.na eyds tnade red and veined bylatehourt, owr•tndulaenee. etc. Works in taeonds or ittoney back. t4 in• nin~ thnuaands from boric and olddath• ioned tolutwnt. Restful. foothlnt; . . . ttainleas. seJr. At all druggist.'. 0008 ~ ia/~~i 136
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^S ..,e iavestigators did not control for such ccnfnund'sng inlluences in their research. Elimination of other pos- sible sources of explanation is necessary in causal research and jeopardizes the utudy's internal validity (Campbell and Stanley 1963). tUso cited was the sampling procedure employed. Groups of 60 students, grades 9-12, in 5 different schools were surveyed. Students ranged from 12 to 19 years old, with an average age of 16 years. The re• viewers were troubled by the non-disclosure of those who were presumably of legal smoking oge:18 years in Massachusetts. Nebraska and Washinston:17 years in Georgia: and no age limit for smoking in Nev+ Mexico. One reviewer pointed out that, even with being conservative (leaving out the Ngw Mexico sample) there were still 31% of the students in the study who could legally smoke. The 'appeal' score measures were described by reviewers as essentially forced response binary choices Journal ojAdrertiriru,•: of independent respnnsey, rigorous atatistical may not be valid, assuming the study used ca~:i a::• swer as an observation. In much the scr:e vcin, DiFranza at al. (taib{e, p.= 3151) report that "duo to encomplete questionnuirry.- , respondcnts for some questions may be lewer.' Tne.-- is no information given on this incompleteness. #'.~• viewers cited this as a critieal omission aincc it rr,:. cludes any judgment as to data reliability. The reviewers also sriticized the heavy reliance oh_ unpublished data (DiFranza et sl. 1991, p. 3149•50) and att what one rcviower--descn`bed as playing'fast and loose with the `literature." An example is the statement "peer inf :ence is virtually gone by the ago - of 16 years"(DiFranza et al. 1991, p. 3152). Thc rc• viewers were disturbed by ignorance of more thar. -; - sixty ycara of social science research documenting normative sociall influence among adults and aabeicd this as indicative of blatant advocacy by the authors. and were questioned as a method of assessing an DiFranza et al. cori_clude with the statemont, 'n1ir advertisement's'appeal.'The authors had apparently not read the vast amount of literature on scaling artd cjpts analysis. One reviewer described the use of such ry choices as naive and 'sophomoric' in level of :arch design. Included are two questions focusing on 'cool': Is the ad cool or s:tupid, and is Old Joe cool? (DiFranza et al. 1991, table on p. 3151). The authors report significant differences in the mean appeal score for teens and adults, but do not compare eithrr result to what would be expucted due to chance alone. 'P.:e_ study-provides further;_cvidence that tobacco advcr.- tisiny promotes and maintains nicotine addiction _ among children and adults'(1991. p. 3152). As throo reviewers pointputt the authors never studied addic'- ~ tion. Discovery Documents, DiFranza Interviews and Correspondence expected appeal score with random choices is 2.0, the . As a result of ths legal action undertaken against actual score reported for students is 2.1(1.4 for adults). R.J. Rc)atiolds (Mangini v. li. J._ Reynolds 't'obacco_ The authors present data regarding smokers ver• Company, et aI.), there is available a compendium of e sus non-smokers, but there is no definition of 'non• documents from the filea of Dr. DiFranza. These af-.* smokers' offered and the underlying data for non. ford a unique opportunity to examine the ethical stat- ` smokers is not given. Reviewers said that the authors dards used in this research effort. In sumrr.ary there have gone far beyond their data when they conclude are six areas of concern. and oach is discussed brier:y that'approving attitudes toward cigarette advcrtise- below. ments seem to precede smoking' (DiFranza at ai. Predetermination Qj-Results. Documents from tlo 1991, p. 3151). They cite a need for longitudinal data discovery process indicate that Dr. DiFranza prc-' which arr not offered. determined the results of his study in an effort to The authors did not repQrt which ads they tested. generate media coverage. tn a letter to one of his cr• They alsd did not report any analysis of the possible authors (Richards 1991). Dr. DiFransa cites a previ• _ differences among the six ads tested. Reviewers ob- ous inability to provide reporters with 'proof that served thalt it is unlikely that the advertisements tobacco companies aro advortising-tochildren.-1 can : • would be the same, except as an artifact of the point to any one piece of evidenca as-a smoking gun -ethodology. This omission precludes any riRorous -and stfy'hcrc. this proves it.' Wall I have an idea for :t 'uation. including replication efforts. Likewise project that will give us,a couple of sntioking guns -rn .re is no indication that the order of the ads-was bring to the national nscdia.' Th_is raises an cthicai randomizcd, a common practice in research me:thod• concern fcr the scientific objectivity of the study. Bus- -)Iogy. Without randomixation, the responses cannot: tressing this are the fel'.owing statements which p.m. be a•sumed tn be independcnt: with the assumption datc .the undertaking of the researeh; (a) 'I am ;rc+• ,, AQD216
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•- Y t THE GOUNTHY IS GET- . >; f TING 6AFK ON !TS`FEET Step ~Into tke Relo..ry by aAaktwA A[L[N'=_fOOT.EASt inyaerrSl.oer This aatiseptia powder relievee Ret, Swolkn irin Tirnl Smartin Pets , p p g. Feat It akes the trietian lroen Shoes. - L'ae it ia oue Shoa wlroa walkin or daeeing. ~wo Gnnvenient 81sa oa ~sle at Drug and De t. Stores Evarywh~erc. For l'reaSameand Walkio z Doll,ad. deese,At u.-4•sb ooT.Ensr,L.Roy.N.Y. At 1 en's FoQt= 1 ~.1i4 13~
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IV initiate regular use of cigarettes and (2) prompt former.staokers-to resume smoking. There is no empirical data to support thu_opinion. 2. "This level of advertising cannot be jtutified on the basis of brand switching alone, since only 10% of current smokers change brands within a'gfven year"' (n 13 - Tye JB., Warner K.E. and Glantz, S.A., "Tobacco Advertising and Consumption: Evidenc*: of a=Causal Relationship," Journal of Public Health Policv. 1987, $: 492-508]. pis ction : The "10%" reference is second-hand. Tj-e. at al. attribute this directly to Gardner (1985). Examiaation of Gardner shows that the 10% is an estimate by Thomas Mau of Lorillard based upon his experience with their brands. The focus of that tstimation by Mau is on the difficulty of introducing new brands iato the cigiirette product category and does not address the question of adverosing expenditure justiScaaon. Further examinadon of-thtTye, at al. a:ticie reveals the following statament: "Each year. more than two million chitdran begin to smoke and an estimated 30 millio4-iudults;attempt to.qbit, the irast majority unsuccessfully" (p. 493]. but there is no srtri~urion for the statement. Tye and his associstes also state jp. .499] that "the only econometric study to have examined whether advertising incrcases smoking by teenagers concluded.tbereis a causal relationship, albeit a small one mpet+centage terms." The reference is to Lewit [19811. The Lewis paper is not focused on this issue; but rather "presents the first set of esnmates of the impact of tbe Fairrless Doctrine and advertising ban policies on the demand for cigarettes by teeaagers itt the United States" (p. 546). In fact the reference to. a weak eausal felationship is not original research by Lewis but i reference to studies by Hamilton(1972j,Schmalensee(1972j and Doran(1979). There is however a research conclusion in the Lewit paper=ihat was not considered by Fischer or his interzoadlary iefer+ence. Tye, at a1. On p. 569, Lewit raises the question, the the percentage of teenagers did who smoke rise rather than fall?" He offers the following: "Between 1970 and 1974, the relative price of cigarettes declined by rou~y 6 percent due to a rapid increase in the Consumer Priee Index aceompanied by no change in the federal ~accise tax rate. Our regression results suggest that this should have caused the smoking rate to rise by 1.0 percentage points.'The net extrapolation based on these two competing factors. is an inefnse of .4 pencxntage poincs, which coincides with the observed inereased" [Lewit p. 569). 3. "The study design was based on the we11- ted marketing research concept of advertisement recognidon" ( - Leckenby J.D. and Plummer J.TN "Advertising Stimulus Measurement and Assessment Restarch: A Review of Advertising Tesua_ g Models," ~'-_tm~ent Issues and Researeh in Advertising,1983: 13S-i65). D~: The conclusion reached by I ,ukenby and Plummer in the cited work is that advertising recogmdon is w -.11-accepted. but not necessarily effective. Further they say "a good copy testing system provides multiple measiuiements because single measarements are netall taadequ~ate to assess the perfoimancx of in advertisement" ~p. 160. The Fischer, at al. statement implies that the study's methodology is somehow blueprinted on the L,eckenby and Plnmmer article - it is not. AGQ216045
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% ooo-iooKtNO hair alone won't carry you f to fame and soeial success. 8ut, uaques- 3ably, it is an auec in any aaao's career. 'or .vell-kept bair stamps him as a cJean-cut : of a fellow, properly respKtful of 4isa and his appearance-it is a definite asset i is business as well as his social life.-Aad yet : many a+en never think of it as a"plus"- cr aive their hair even the little time It needs health and Sroomini. ight, dry salp is often to bllme for dull, less, unkempt hair. And to aaksa your snlp • brina your hair back to lifs and lustre- -e is nothing like Vitalis and the famous ••Second W/brkout." _ 'italis and masaaSe quickens Ehe circulation Idood throuEh the acalp-rstorea the aoa namral, oourishinj oils-leaves your hair c and lustrous and sasy to comb and brush. •se dandru![ gns-and with it, one threat of ing hair. And yet there's no trace of that objectionable"patant•lsathsr"-1ook, just a healthy, JloodaookinS lustre. - Give your Js.ir a chance. Get a botde of - Vialis from your druuist. Start your Srst "60-• - Second aforkout" and keep ic up regularly. '-AiK YOUR BARBEA Wr. MI wa qh. I.d 4 is iw.w• ..a/rgv+rt. .-rr i. & .hr.oLf. ~wyww.-N vy 1t M Jr r. ai.ak h ai. ~ ~ ~.~. i .. w ALIS AND THE "60-SECOND WORKOUT" KEEPS SCALP HEALTHY-HAIR HANDSOME 0005- ~ ~ /.A0hfo
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Even -witlt a little titiu; like a L+xatieo, ducturs have a dunnite set of standard,t whicit Zuide tFtem in thcir choice. Bc,".rc titoy will give a 1•rxapve their approval. it mu.t mout ti:Pir reflnirenlcnti un titcsc sl,cciflc rl/int3: The dJt•tor sa.•t Ihat a laxatire shnuLl be: (h•pauJablc . . . Mi/J . . . Tlroruu:L . . . Titue•tc:kJ. T6c doctor tavt that a la.ativc >IwtdJ not: Qt•t•r•art .. . Funn a liaLit ... Cause tumac4 pain.... \au,cata, or utnct tba Ji;e.tiutn. \uw, harc's a fact that'r si;niiicant- Cx•Lax c1LCe'r:s un each of th"c sitoeifiea• tinns: \ut merely on two or tierce. But on all tltcse Iwints. No wonder so many pltysicians use Ex-Lax in their own familia.. No wonder t•.tiii;,.ns of careful tnotltcrs give it to their titilJren witlt perfect cutdiJcacu. Vci wrytJer dctt Ex-Lax i. uactl by natru jteuple tltutt.sny vtiter laxative in tDu world. luar first trial td Ex•Lux will i,o a pia•rsant - cxpcriencu.-i',w Ex-Lax is mild and gentle. - It is thoroughly cRcctive. It JtKr'nor ,rver• ae:. It Juus nut di.turb thc digcstiun: °- ' L•veryone lil.u; Cx-Lax-p;trticularly tite- -_ _ peungsturr. It rtstes just like delicious clwc• nt,tte. At all ~ituy'stores in lOc anJ 2Se~sltes: Or write f,~r iruu sample ttt Ez.4,axr Inc., Det<t. .\. L t l6, P. O. Box 110, T'imea•Plata Station, Ijruok:}v, \.-Y -- 0006 i I / 3~,, ~3( 0-
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Y Why do men In the Tropics look old at. ~orty 3 GIILEI: gods at twcntr-fivc, ouc the skin. It's so soothing uld men at forty. 'ILat't - that tiiousands usc It to-ruHcvc the penalty of living down near windburn aad eltaiqpIng._ ; the eqoalor. It givos you a smooth quick Thc burning tropical sun shave and its Llarid oils leave dries ulr tlic uuturul oilt of the your faco iu the pink of condi- skin, lca `tg the face like tion. parchment, which wrinkles No Lrusit,no latlter,no ntL- casil,v. In. Just wet your faco, spread Nomcn kuowtbat a dryskin on good old BarJiasol and wrinklcs easily. That is wity shava.-And lterc'a good nowsi they use creants and gentie $ariwol ir selling so fastwe've oils to keep their cootplexions been Ale to cut the price. " youtliful. The big 350 tube now-sells Mcn who do not want to look for only a quarter. We've made older than they are maintain the giant SOC tube bigger by the natural oils In their skins 25%. .1nd fur 150 you gct rve by using Burbasol. Thcy know double-lived, . scalpcl-sharp itt bland sootLiug oilr keep t1ro $arLasol Blades. Gentlemen, skin fresh, and tlio whole lace tLcra+'s the greatest shaving --looking alert and youthful. value in America`todayl You see, DarLasol doesn't dry =~~ ' No AUD_ 1N 1~ ' A ~ . . wte t. ~.w nRU.11a__ .. - -_ S1SJIVING~ ~•v -- '~- V FAtt ~tODLtiR~ _ 0007 ( I l-4©l3(o
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Septersber 1994 1~ ilodelphio 1nQuirrr(1992).'Pushing Butts to Kids '(Mareh 15). 7. .etee. John P.. Elizabeth Gilpin, David M. Burns. Elizabeth Whalcn. Ersdley Rosbeoek. Donald Shopland. and Michael Johnson (1991). 'Does Tobacco Advertising Target Young Peopt: to Start Smokiny'!' Jnurnol nj the American bf.dicol Asroc.atinn, 266. (22), 3154•3158. Ralait;hNeurs& Obeernr(1971).'OldJoe.'Frriend'of Kids: (`tareh Richards. Jr. . John W.. (1991). Letter ftom'YounRJoe' DiFranza. research Cle of Dr. Joseph DiFranza discovered in connection with rlan;ini. Janet C. v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company: RJ.K NABISCO. Inc.: McCann•Erickson USA. Inc.: Young and Rubicam ine.. Superior Court of the State of California. City and County of San Francisco. Care No. 939 359. Roberta. Selena (1992).'Surgeon Genernl K'anti to Snuff Out.Joe Camel; O,tandn Sentinel, (htsy v). A.4. San Froneisce Esaaeiner(1A92).'•lu-• 'ay No to Joe Camol. (March 17), e. Scripps Xea,ard News Service (1092).'Senntor Wsnt. Ban on RJIts 'Old Joe' Ottaech 20). 1. Seattle Part.lntellkernevr (1091). 'I'o Some. Carw on Camel 1sn't Funny' (December 11).0. Singh. Sur••+dra N. and Atiehnrl L. RothsehitJ 'I4eeo;,ni. tion sr a Measure of Learning from Television Commen:ials; Jmr.nal n(,No.4etintt Rrrrereh. 20. 235•248. Snider. Mike (1991), 'Doetots Turn Up The Heat on Smoking.' US.t T,day. (December 11.).~2U. Standora. Leo (1002i. 'Does: Time For Old Joe To Be:omn ra A"• __ Show,' .Vrw Ynrk Post. (March 10). 3. Symwv.r 11r,a1dJr.urnal (1992).'Luriny Kids tn Smoke: Thk t; u•~.: Side of Joe Camel.' (titareh )1). 9. U.S. News sto World Rrmrt (1M 'An;Mti Smokinj Catr.p:,:y. < Hesta LJp."_(Atereh ?A)1<. - Vosey. Susattnah (1°92). 'Up In Smok-: Atlanta C•+n.t.tu:r•ow. (*Peach $u:i eoluntn)(Mateh 20) 16. Wall Street dnurnal (1391). SToe Ciimel Is Also Aed Pip+r: il,•• ' seareh Finds.'°(Deeember 11). Bl lt 84. (1"7).'F'CC Staff Iiecommcn4a Ban of.Jo• CA.•r.P: Campaiyn.`(itvgust !1). 8•1 and B•8. Warner. Farta (1992).'tiovelle'17te.o+rs Down Gsuntl..t.' A1IV.•4,:- Merketin,K Wrrte. (March 16). 4. WnshinKtnn Ti,ers(1992),.'Camel!'Old Joe' Creates Young ers: letter from Louis W. Sullivan and Antwnia C. NoS•oi:!.. (March 30). E2. Waxman. Henry (1991).?obacco Market.inr. Profiteerin; F:*.r., Children ' Journal,_n/the Amnriean SfedieQl AssrKiatlt.n, 3.'.`, (22).3183•3196. - 11'cbstci s Nin th rVem Ceflts,iatc Dic•tio.ria ry (1990). Sprinyf eld: M,1t Morriam•Wobster Ine:. 4127. Kells.'.'Jilliam..John Burnett. rFnd 3andra \totinry(1?89)..1r%t~ -_ ti.inat: Prfnciplcsa.ul Practic+x~t, Nt!w York: F'ren•~;PP•)lal( lr.e %ukin. Helen E. (1952).'Brief Exlwsures.' Indr.,r r Rrp,rt. (August). 2. AG0216071 .'i ~•
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, i
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TA/Ltfl lMw4dd.•D@uT.Met.ANe~TrtialY~A.~LMlW4S.wi1~Y'J..~~If~•Awslc..M~n1Aw.Llw~ YaLNiNw!l,Da..iw ll,lffl,A•~W.~ISt ~ Ro.k..rA A ta.k.rc RakwrO M r~+wM~ c ~ .d d r .r r t.. .w~ ..~r..crr.,r. ...s TAtIAa rMlrrcl~+~,•J.r•ry~.e.r.rr.w.urwrAr«+~r.~, riffiq.,tt,o«...rr~l,l1ll,R.~laJISJ tic.w.rc..dM.r.rc..rC% A..r... ..k..c c .war w .tr"WAN ...~.~w r n. 0 ..rs a.rlr ZBSS tLLiS ,r,q~. ~. ~ bAftowd ( f
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M Journal otAduertisinW ..ric'.rs primarily as shortcomings in the scientiric Reviewer Evaluations : method. However, this goes beyond any mare seman• tic disagreement. To support the definition used here. Obvious space limitations preclude the reporting rd Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines the detailed evaluations of all five reviewera. How. 'ethical' as'conforming to accepted professional stan- ., ever, in the following s• ctions, the major concerr.H - dard3 of conduct'(1990, p. 427). A further discussion expressed about each paper are shared s.r.d the i:z Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia concludes that coneutrat~ee of each paper to the 15 standards is di,c•~ 'the empirical social sciences....including psychology, cussed. While the standards on which thc majority of impinge to some extent upon the concerns of ethics in the reviewers expressed concern abnu: . each of thet _ that they study social behavior'(1981, p. 177). And three papers are highlighted, there were no,instanses _, Garrett argues, 'no one can study business ethics, where a manuscript was not cited for concern about a casually without considering the professional asso• standard by at least by one of the reviewers. 1 'hc- ciations and professional codes of eonduct' (1963, p. yusstion of the advocacy. nature of reseerch is no:. 159). The position embraced in this paper is that addressed in any of the professional atandards, bu: what is `+eing used are ethical standards as defined the advocacy position qf_the authors of all threc'pa• above. pera was cited by all frive reviewers in the evalua. The three articles (Fischer at al. 1991; DiFranza et tions. aI. 1991; Pierce et al. 1991) were submitted to five researchers in the fields of marketing management. Fisher et ttl. Review advertising, consutaer behavior, strateg:c manage- ment & public policy, and marketing research, for This article reports on a study to investigate'brand their independent reviews. Thc reviewers. all from logo recognition by children agcs,3 to 8 yenrs.' Ci:il. different major universities, were a judgment sample- dren were instructed to match logos with one of := cted because they are full professors, actively en• products pictured on a game board.: Twentytwo logos . ,ed in research programs in their respective ficlds were tested, including those representing children's and all serve on editorial review boards for academic products, adult products, and those _for two popular _ journals in their fields. They were recruited because c;garette brands (Camet and Marlboro). The setting they continually practice and review research in the for the research was :in preschools in Augusta and " social sciences. They were not provided with the re. Atianta, Georgie. A cctnvenience.sample of 229 chil• search standards as discussed above, but rather were dran attending 10 pr.eschools wqs used. Fisher ct al. asked to e+aluat.e independently each of the three (1991) claim the children demonstrated high rates of papers on the basis of the usual norms for their disci• logo ~recognition and; when analyzed by product cat• plinea. The net result was 85 pages of evaluative egory, the level of cigarette lcgos was intermediate comments, both general and speciCc, concerning the between children's and adult products. The recohni• three articles. tion-of the Disney Channel logo and Joe Cansei (er-o- The reviews from these five were then examined, neously-labolled OldJoe-by the authors) was described and the author made a judgment as to the applicabil• as 'highest in _their: respective product cateRories' ity of their individual comments to the 15 standards (Fischer at al. 1991, p. 3145). gleaned from the various associations and journals to The summary of the reviews concerning the Fisncr determine which were covered in each of the inde- at al. article (1991) indicates eight standards on which pendent reviews.'ihe rule for applying the standards the majority of the reviewers identified errors in the was that there was a clear statement that addressed research (Table 2). the standard. For instt•nce, for attributing a concern Four of the reviewers identified as a problem tht about va:idity; the reviewer had to specifically men• uso of the -ecoi nition task. Among the specifics was tion a validity problem and discuss it. A table is pro• that recoqnition, used by Fischer at 41. (1991) to men• - , vided for each article to summarize reviewer judg. sure-knowlcdge of logoLtrade-eharacters, is subject tP .nent.-ta a_ddition, discovery material produced dur• cxtensive guessing (Mizerski 1982) and was heiFht- . _ litigation ag ~a nst R. J. Reynolds (Mangini v. RJ. enod by the conduct of the experiment. This latteV ~ ,molds Tobacco Company, at al.) allows a closer criticism is rclovant because (1) only cigarette use examination of one of the studies (DiFranza at al. was as',cad of parents when they considered grantir.;, 1991) and affords a unique opportunity to uxaminv pen.nission fortheirchildren W;participate:(2) a'don': tne ethical standards used by the researchers. lcanw'-.option wns not oftered;:(3) lantching legoNtrndt• I A('3~216D62 ;
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Never Wait, until a cold gecs a head u For it's so easy now to help p..wnt development of many tniserable colds. Get Busy at the 6tsc sign ofa cold- sniffly, sneesy, irritated feeling in y . nasal passages. Put a few drops of Vi Va•uo.nol up eaeh nostril snd jrrd the sti • ularing tingle as it goes right to work to Nature's defenses against colds. What's More, Va+uo•nol gives you derful relief even when your head is clogged up from a developed cold you can scarcely breathe. It clears y nose, opens up your head, makes bres ing easier. This Treatment is so highly succes because Vs•uo•nol is fpare/iza'•d medics -containing seveial essential relief.gi agents plus ephedrine--expirssly desij for the nasal passages,.vhere most c begin and grow. To escape much of misery of eolds, keep Vicks Vs•tto bandy and, use it esr[yl - Ln N ~ v N Ln (_n tp v 0014
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V .. THE EFFICACY OF STATLSTICALLY-BASED RESEARCH: THECA.SE OF THE "OLD JOE" IN THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERI C_AY; MEDIC,41.':ASSOCiATION 0.._ Claude R. Martin, Jr. Uaiversity of Miebttsn ICEY WORDS; validity, reliability, diselosure - INTRODUCTION Seldom has s,tuis*'~ay-based research re- ceived the amouat of attention as that which came troac three diSeraac research groups and which was published in 1991 !a the Joarna/ oJ t/te Aaurieee 1KsCleal AssoetaNoic. !J,lblAJ Immediately after publtcadoa there were .vide:pread calls tor tnbstantive changes in pub- lie policy cowud advertising in samrai aod aoe advattsiot campaign spedSaUy. The object of all this was the 'O!d Joa' campaign of RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company. As a netult, foar aaademie tesearebm wroe+s aslcad ro cmdelcala an rnults b~am of athree r~ao Q beJow. Initially we review standards -eseaaols ard the aaoaa of ocr evaluation peocasa. Lamr we summarie major public policy e6acses advocated as a result of tbeae t6ree JAMA » THE EVALUATION PROCESS A oecnas of nareaeeh asroeiatioai and joia- aats was aedescabeo to iaeestaie t#k3r ssse.cea guidelina. ZLaee ioe]udad t4m Belds of smdsdm psychology. Input was geaecated~ American Sladsdeai .lssoetalon, Aa+srkae AssoelateR for tablic OplwloR Research, Aimorkaa 8oo+anJe Rodsr, Jorra+sl of Martsata Rese.nlt, JeMraaJ of MarbsaGcs. American Marketing Assoel.doR, dod_ American tVWiofesfe+! Assodedoa. Also ac- amiAed wae the Olas»dons tor aWbaa' of dm Jornul iJdke Aae.rlcon J[e+lW Auooleafae - TOit pevduoed acompeodcum of seaoda:ds upon which oo jndSe socW . 1aeeooeJbu:mas ieatno6, Including tba advocacy aatan of reaeaeed.lo additioa, &raedves aboat av.ilability ot iaioco~a- tkan aoeoaAiag raaaaeh iasummook admalt, and davik of dam arlyaia arora addeeaaid aloot wich piovtsiom to auppoR repilcetion. Tba meae adelet In quaaioa (f7aeber. ec a!; DipeaRa, a bt: Yiace, at at;1991) %= sabmit- ted to Iacs reae.eobart io v.rybs social acleooa fmim (maikaft advee8sing amarA. ooonum belarrlar aad wepoeas aaasa) bam d0eft m.joc mireraitka Lor tbetr lndepeadeat nvfeMS. Tbey wee sot povided with tbe :eaaarb am- daedi aa diaouard above, but eabar aron aatoM to Ltdepandeatly svalaaoa each of tba tlaea pr- paes oa tbabasia at tbe woal aanos lar tb* die- cipliaea. All tour.ase experienced in inslyiical cabniqua and am revic.rafc for jo~aoals in cheir selected fields. The aat casulc.rvm evaluative cancaents. bodc ges,atat and spxifie, coacerning the three artielet evhieh waQ ebes eort+elaoed to t!>ssa staadarft FINDINGS t/sio~ , a eelep4oaa sarvey of Calitoenia adultss aad teoRS. Pigetx. tt al. rDoa Tobaoco Advertislag ' Tartec- Young People To Start Sm~'I wmiaed wlk4 eizasaete brand re- "aoeuu d,ooglu was mqet heavily .drrstisod and which brand they .s+moked. Tba 1990 Caiilarada dam ++roe+e oomrpn+ed ca daft from a 1M natiqedl ldephma.iamvay oa brrod ebotco ol addta. _Tltis objesdve_~r.= ~o aaoeqtala the re~dve marloet sharo # ioth the Camel =aad Martboriro brands amoar "youager smoJcrrs" (P.iaroe, a aL, p. 3164). The a:sick taaobrs a cone/asioo_dopesaapcfoa oiad00 b Aidh__ -mnong Jouns amdcaa; a~ieloet-sb.ee panxas aanss ase aad sa-pouptioUow the paroeiveld advatia, pma.rd ebaoges ia114orloet sbara resubing _ i;m tlvr~e$:l.4 -oenr-mltialy in yoacg smoima. Tbs Ru6aeg elft dia 'leipa+etea adra• dft aiaomnea yooa5 0 moloe aod =hould be baaoed' Viaa, si aL, p. 31S4j. - 'itie sqmm.ry oi tba wvtamws' fiediags on the ~mda~ dif~edp Mindy Is shown i~o Tabb Il._.vbae ~/ mal~s diaoooen oa that wodaed. ~a tlds teremcl~ tb~ a~ ~Jerm uaodatds - on sh" ftavrlowoci ideadfy-eracs:-;validicy and iei1@k-1k1; peDV~oo qtsdftiw~ bibrins- tioa to jtdja the qnaft o[ *a teaft buildias ia o! oeede+d ~+ocWOlcC dmeome meanM sslued a the votiwbta_ot ia~~dogC ~ aud ava~n- ~tte~ t~poedoS aad/~p~~emaiao~omv~ed< ~ aoacplllg'ra+~a.v ~~ an .dweaty podttou bIr tlm am6oea. Tbe ooo~~tttie nviaw~e~ rvas:diac dds soidtr vioticn t!r bade tda,rta•ao~e ra settr~.#he aata-tqco~tad aea a.•~male~a aoa noo- oon~Mb~e. In ws'r+ewrt~" sarhooc~.ia peprr'. >~oe, et at. Ip. 3lSSIMOM .abraai patomiqa dedcetf wii eeaoQ 31ewww, tbera :u~ an sfia~eiy taA. ocals m~ ~ed ~-- s~aos>ne~e.acr. tor qarlanptatc~ arliama ~;~ 'yfieee b ao
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r Aiizuski 1982: Yaleluine and Blum 1961; Welis, et a1.1989; and Finn 19883 disturbed reviewers. All reriewers criticirod the conclusions reached in the paper. These included conclu- tioflt that "vCiy young childrCe see. uedCritind.° and temember advertisiag" (Fischer. et aL. p. 31453: that "c>uMicsn's lno.rledga of ciptatte brand lotas is most lncely the szault of their cx- posure to eovironnaentil tobacco advertising" (::a,cha. et aL. p. 31481; and that "R. J. Reyoolds Tobaeoo Company is as eQective as . the Diswry C6aanel in reaching 6-year old chil- drat" (Fiuher, a aL. p. 31481. T1te revieMees deaaibe tltese as gDing far beyood the study's design or tinrdiegs and elearly iodintive o[ ao advocacy 1Mitim CALLS FOR PUBLIC POLICY CHANGES In the sama imae oI JAXA t6ae was an aeoompaayloj editoelal by Rapreseatabve Hesry Wamao (Waamao. 19913 .v6ich called oa We Houte Subcommittee on Health and t6e Eavitoataot in eeeommmd sttiet oont:ols on all . advrstisiag an4 to paohibit the RJR eampaign. _ Cooprssma Wamwq atates that "the tobreco compatiea' suae`a at mrgednt )'pount Poopb'is appateac liom dm:epa~tied in this Isme of THE JOtJRNAL' (Watoiao. P: 3185). He gots an to peovids 4is siimmary of tbe F7seam<. ec al. paper by atatinj that vmany 3- to 6 year old cttildtett . were )nst as eapdvamd by Old Joe Camel . promodag eigarams as they wa+s by UGeJtey Mousa ia adv.rIs.m.ats !ot the Disney channe/- (wauoa4 p. 31M 71m is na What Fishar. a al. ioood As we have previously diseussa4 we FLeber amn oepaetad that tpe reooptldon of the DIM7 CJrmAe1 loro aod Old Jas wm demdbmd as `bigbea in tbetu+eapoodve product ate8a~eks" Macba. a aL. p. 3143). Rsprommadvs Wwaae doea oot anat tb.t the ase 'ehildeea'a beandt" (We Dionay loso) aod "dpee4ta bnodt" ( 0ld Joe). He aho i8aoirs 69 taa thac tltan otba lo8as.rhioh 6ad Nghae eeooptdoa.ooree thaa` Old Joe. The aoap.om.n eoorJudoa tba 'ttia study by FlaebeR. st al. agteats that aiiootloe addiaioo may has !ts t~oots moch earller In cN!ldbood' tWumaa. a 318SI. Tla F1:cAer. a aL mdy did apL stody addietlon. In additbo to t6e Waxman aQoeL thae we:e also znwal am jor ali: tar changes in pnbijep iododis:a so padddoa the Feeesal Ttade Co~om~edoo dae.ading as itnoediaa b.n. oa tba OrlJes adratddog.Tbb was a combined request of tba Amafeaa Caaeer Society. Miaina Hnet Amoddion and Amaeiaa La= Amodaion (Ciaant 1992. D.prolt 1991. Saider 1991J The aooe*sya gasesal of 26 ttates rrquested a ropexl ot-a section Qf dte Gigareae Labeling and Advert%ting Act - io enable them to have more cont:ol over cigarette advertising (Zukin 1992 and Leviee 1992). The SnrBcoa General Antonia Novello launched a auionwide contrst itnoog elearetuary and junior high school audeats calling rac{etras, assaYs. poeans or dr- tooat -focused on a ehA"me pf "Say No, Old joe' jDeowU Fise Ttrst 1".3). T6a StnYeon General also joined the Secru#ry of the' Department of Ha.ltb and Hurrtwt Senicea-in Seman4i4g tha " R,7. Reynolds stop.apUtg Old Joe (Warltlnsro,r.- Mws Mardt. 1992; Bt+o.va 1991. F.arice 1992, Navvitz 1992, watiler 1992, Vesey 1993, tIS Nevs & World Rtprr }992. Lipauo 1992, Koog.299Z. Roberts 1992, Staodora 1992). There .va: eoretags Q!, the =4es id major aewspapers arith many accompanying editorWs l.doeryiog the Joe Camsl advertising jMarto. pp. DISCUSSION - We aes dea3la` with theee stadsdraIIy-based pape~s tbat h.va aude a mrjor iatput aa pablle policy. lt was tJs arsseeado vls.iis for public policy eb.un8at tejaeft a4nseWpg. sped0aay ltZr_ clget!enss. and deamatrds_shat a puticular ad _vertaing aaatpatpt be 6anoed tat prompted out LttapR Whaa foar tev~er~ bom diQaing dlr.lolbea wss atioep,auJodep;e,edan/y ardoara e each e~ r the +uisea ~abaae3 ~ he was a ~t ~ quileX W4ea 0aa MMws M aNn ~piast imE aweat guuldeliees !aa sooi.l aeja+os z~eeh >aas are ' aleWr ayior 04.rs in a8 dn+ee. We ala awdon ' >b.t riwlewrea wr= na ~Nee die aaatmdeds ~tiot p thdt avaloatioa,.bot •rer.a a4" to tawlew d~e pypas as WoaM a ior ~ Qon t cir.doa aboat. dit.Mpoo.tBCHaaQ1 of 14a reaaaeea aad sapNt qoeWOds cQueeroiq8 t.WbiLcy aad vaYdlqr<. ~oooeew b aat ~rith ioppoeonr' ar aaaeiauo6 eintsw arDOldaB or avlA CipRw adYaRabw. our ConCCen if Mtltthe olls~a~bdadtneaeeh ,. dt.i eaa ~<pablie Poiiey. lis.a droa i.n be .pptiea m otlKr laroaoa c.aegaeles. R~1t~ B.goUl. BieJLqd t. .r/ KoY J sOk "1t.e.11. Raosgniie.~.Ltd ~~hs~a.~~ar.C d Maaary of pr~Ol _ ~rs.yr.!' xarif*s .SRttisCf . (1li3) io1.2 us.3, 9p.l3-lyt Wvwi6 Ds.ld.'Old lo..a Midwy Iriew Na* ts Nw.'-TA.1YarAMj" t"K, Ua.mb.c 11. 1991. . aA-Z GmpbslL D.T. .ad 1.C adl.y. Eq..G.awJ .a QYf"s/f/t m/afI -bIll(N for RY/IIOh (190). Bannr iVMbM1*MMCMaipMsy A AG0216011
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suooesh' PALL JIALL FAMOUS CIGARETTES f 5AART PFnPLE EVERYWI IFRF are .vrlcoming the new Pall ,10all ... for its'ionger sizebcstows added distinction on this traditionaily smart ciuarcttc. But more important, as you will seo for,vottr- stlf, the additional Icngth travelt the stnoke funhcr, and enhances the rich flavor oi the superb Pall Mall tobaccos. Tharis why Pall Mall is a noticeably cooler and smoother cigarette. ••Will:l+ i..,i:\'ER PARTICULAR PT:OPLE COYGRI:G.~TE" . /L..rMN 1M..rww. dwrMn. Cbr C.. 0017 --~' `i lNr)
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way to substantiate any of this. since the authors never reveal tMir undertytng eata (e.e., we do not nave data on the number oi .2• 17 year-Wds in the study). A simple evatuaoon of a portion of data that can be made comparable shows results directly counter to those offered in the article. UsiAS the data (Plen:e, et aL. Tables 1 dt 2, p. 31S6j for the only eonsistetu a3e category aaross the study (ages :8-21 ). 7C,44 of all smokers in the age category idea* Maslboeo as the brand they purcltased, while less than 50% of all rrspott- dents (smolcus and eon-smoksrs) ideatiGed Marlboso as the most adverttsed- brand. Convtssely only 934r of all =Dk= in the 18- 24 eatejory ideatiiied Camels as the brand they smotre4 while mots than 20% ideotiAed Camel as abe brand advertised the most. This certitidy does aot support `._ aatbors' eooela:loo of "pcuehase paealleWm" (p. 3156). Reviewers concluded that this begiios to east doubt ao any correlation between tlie ")tdpaeet" as to mas~ advertitsed beaad ad paehrse behavior. Esandoloj the tete:vtee: for tbo artieie, te- viewas aiticiaed the use of ooe•data-based-evi- denea and of citations only lraa the modieal seisita and public health literatuee along with - artioles 6om the tobaxo industry aad =eoeial news media.'lbe aideism eenters on the lptor- Ltg of tbe ticboess of litaraatna aod e+eseareb available from other disdplioe sucb as markea- int. adveetiadmS wseauob. eoonotsia. e+e. Fjedly t6e aotboes eommit tba tmpsedoosbb "sLt" of mklabaling the eonsmvecs they mea- staed. Oaa aample is in the "ootnoteat" secdoti w6aoe ths aotboes' attia t4at bmr teatJts snuest that tobaaco advathlag is aosaUy telated a- yowtj people beoomias add3eV_ to dyeeeoet" (Piesoe, et aL, p. 31Sd). ?ba asviawetnt ooted tb.c tbis smdy never massarad addietiod The paper atso oQets a oatelatloo rasatft oea11" ad "ZeeaSdtion• d.draniseraeot: tPiaRx„ at aL, p. 31S7J. J1pfn, tlts teriewes s aomd tbat t5is amdy ttevar measured rseall or recognition. Speei6auy dte smdy aas i eaa me jWgM of the paeskipaats as to dte brand of dpseaes ad- vetttsed the atast - oensinly this is not ai0ed or ansided reo.G. plprMM. @r of, se~ The objeedve of tbe DiFrtttta, et aL (19911 study .vas to detamios it the Old Joe adveetis- iS it mae effeedva !tt peomotios Camel eipeattes m e6ildeea or to adnht and to detar- mins !f ebildoee sse, ramember. and am inao- etteed by dpaeme advatlsiagr'13e mouth to- ewsd on tlie raoopdsioo aad .pped of ths ad• vatisini e.otpsipt amottS atttdmt: (yrd M19 yaas) in live seedons of the United Stua and compared Gk.is to data for rriistrs.i adult drivea (aged 21•87 years) from Msssaehuseus._Subjecu were shown a"matked ad to determine whether they recognized Old Joc. 3fiey wet+a then shown a series of six advertisements and atked to an- swer yes or no questions. about each ad's "appeal." Finally they werd asked questions about stnokfaa behavior and-brand Pdecenee. Tlae DiFransa research team ootteiudes 3ltst Old lde adQertisemeats wrre bearr iatown areonS the . studeAt'sampk than among adults. that the ad-.. vrstvemeots' "apPesi" ;ooers wae 1tiSlrsc toe tbe student sa,ropie. aetd that more :mdestts reported' C4cne1 is their preferred biaod. The authors also reaehed a oonclusiao that "Old Jot Csntel ear- toon sdverdseraeot ALa tas mdee snocessful at marlcecirtS-Carroel ega+etus to children tlua adults" (D~T-earsu. st aL. p. 3149).: 3`bc summaty of tbe eYaluatioas by 36e in- depmdaot eeviawers IS-iarod in ralde 2. Ibae aa oloe.atsodaeds oa Which the aujodry of the seriawa: idcadtled ptobleaos with the tteeat+ck validity and ediabtlity,porisioo of iaAdatt in- toemation to jodSa itIte qua33ty of ilts rattkr. building in of needed oooorols: ootooma moa- sttres tNaoed to the varWkr of lnMesttgattbar tWl and mumbWnotts aslog olltypothe:= '~a1- iaM1iry of resulnt: suppaet toe elaitlts and assa- tioos; tall dlsdo"¢t and an advosaey position by tlx sttthoes. Among the Mreas of coaeesa sras`the srmt- O~It ~+e eatpby'ed. They Poiot a~t t4ac an tzadboktad Laatiao Of tba fo#daot sample Is pr+e- snmably of leSal amoldnS ase 113. yeacs ic ldaswcbusetts. NebnttRlta 04 Wash~toa: 17. yaaa in Qaoe;ia: aad ao itV litut (ac IWAft ia Now_ Maaloo). Smmsyied waio 60 aoadeota in each ;eade 9•12 •lrom 5 difiesenteaehools. Studaoti:aft-ed fivoi 12 so 19 years otd, with an aWnqe:a6e ai 16 yaaa.__ ~ 1i~s ~ ~ ~rsrAts a~oasnoioe~ ' is repotw4 bat the m~dal d.a la -aott- abobas i=aa`Stvm ad aa of'1nda- arooiasrs• Is oQffed. DMa,no; .e aL (p. 31511 : a.y''appevwlot aniudas toward eisaneoa;adrer- tisaoeAts_:eem mOeboede smoldttS.' 2he ra. vie,rers aorrJtttlo the Auhoe: go beyond their _ dafa ad iafe-r a loasi l4amatdy..rhieb b uot dte aae. ' TAe' DtFranr.a ve;eatchers do not rapat which ads they Mare4.ad do not tepoet aaaaysk oi ' iable es ait[ed5e: amooj dta a+ds lasud. li;aoboetMed ~ predndas ~ay sf~Qeottt ~+~+~. ~i ~P~aa aIIaets. Ahro ad was tbe.~ity ot asnaaittS iode- P0 wt+tn .P011504 oensI aslaotios ffie stuay tad adi a6 attsdrr is aA ob- aervsleut, ljlas.rlas tbotd-li u+e Mdleatlan that the AC.0216009
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YOWSAH! IT'S BERNIE WITH A BAGDAD! . The 41d Maestro cries out the BdCD.lD TuriCith TPater Pipe dur. ing hia r.cent engagement at the Mayfair Casino in Cie+retand. Ail youse guys and ~ou.e gals who are fooking for a 6ri.toss-lift that's differeru,'tnight get a hunch from Ben Bernle`e picture up above. 'IU. lAGDAD-.a.4.. s~ 9~~.wd {ifs. b+.rire k ~.k.e a Arawd aw.k.l )tUdn tiam, a eip.au , Eary pid..a.i l. aa1,'d..r_+rataT h[. u.pa Nu-.e dw•-VA h.r.} ..i~1e f. ~.w.w1i. -- S.'b{w.SACDAD~r7Cw...dh.ll1r.rk3w ..iti...elr Puf. Oa.r N.rTOdt $1. P.w paid. ~ TtlE U1t1AR'NOOD tO1trO1tAT30N, ~ + 7014 I..Jid A..... Ci.v.f.d. Oble r1a.w ...d .. i.}&a Twtiip\ Vata ' ~ Mp.r at $1.e0 .R17'Waw{iYM ptlaud . . . 1 1...f.+ Cl G.... 0 A.Mr (c8ac7: Olrsl. ( ~ e:w. + SoN..Rd K.. ~ 1 Ge. s.;uR ~ 0011 ~a /'iI /3(o
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efforts there were 32 specific edi:orial calls for the banning of Old Joe and/or a more suinsenc regulation of tobacco advertising including the Boscon Globe (December 12, 1991). attortsa Journal and CoAsltlrlJlon (December 14, 1991), Forr Worth Star-Tslttrom -(Deceaber 17.199 11. Syraeuss flsrald-Jouraal {'MarcA 11. 19921. Ra/sith News & Observer (Mareh 12. 1992). Denver Post (Mareh 15. 19921. Philadelphia Inquirer (March 15. 1992). San Francisco Esambrsr (March 17. 1992), and the New York Observer (March 23. 1992): DFSCRIZ'tION OF DIFRANZA STUDY The DiFsnu, ec al. (1991) scudy's declared objeetfve is to determine if RIR Nabisco's.car- toon-theme advertising is more effective in pro. motinq Camel cigarettes to children orto adults and to determine if children see. remember. and are influenc ,: by ciQareue advertisine. The re- sestch focused on the recognition and appeal of the Old Joe advertising campaign among stu- dants (ased 12•19 years) in five scccio~w of the ' United St;tes and compared this to data for registered adult drivers (aged 21-87 years) from Massaehusetts-Subjects were shown a''masked ad to-determine whether they reeognizad Old' Jos. They were then shown a series of six advnr. - tisentenes and asked to answer yes or no quea. tYons about each ad's "appeal ' Finally they were asked questioos about smoking behavior and brand prefe:oaee. The study concludes that Dld Jot advestinntettcs were better known 3monr the student sample than among adults, that the ad- vertisements' "appeal" scores were higher for the student sample, and thu more students saporu:d Camel as their preferred brand.'1he authors also reached a conclusion t.l "Old Joe Camel ear= toon advertisement are far more successful it marketing Camel cigarettes to children than adults" (DiFratt:a, at al.. p. 31491.. DISCOVERY DOCUMENTS. DIFRANZA INTERVIEWS & CORRESPONDENCE. As a result of legal aetion undestakett slaiast the RJ. Reynolds firm. there is available a com- pendium of documents from the Gles of Dr. DiFansa (Mangini v. R. 1. Reynolds ?nbaceo Cotnpany, et al.). s fa..e-~providtes~c~'u'it3`t ntoc'u'it3`tnt o`tnto 'd(ts' research whiehiobsattdatiyrcontributad to calls to'tnajor c adsruisin` 1. Documents from the discovary'pce • eess indicate that Dr. DiFrsnta pra- detersnined the results of his study in an effort :0 ge;:e.3te media Covera8e. In -a letter to one of his co-authors (Ric:iasds 1991). Dr. DiFransa ` indicaies an inability to provide -_ reporters with "proot that tobacco- coatpanies art atdvertutn; to Childreu. I can't point to any one pieu of evidence as a smoldn; jttn and say 'here. this provrs it:'. Well I_ltave an idea for a project that will give us a couple of sntoldn8 :uos to bring to the nationsl media." Certainly this raises an ethical standard of seiestetrc objectivity for the study. Buttressiag this cot>cetn is a detailed outline of the project that begins with the foUowin`: "i am proposing a quick - and easy projeet' that should pfpduce.-_evidenee that R1R is going altu- kids with . their Camel ads" (Richsrds. p: 11. After detailing hypotheses and the study design. there is a section on "results" which states: "Survey rcsvlts- rereai that both the 'Old Joe' character and the Marlboro ads ste seen by> many - youngsters to_poasess a number of desirable qualities. In addition:, a significant number of youn=sters see theu characters as appropriate role models and would like to emulate _ them....for the youatest ehtldrmrt the • C=tttel eharactr.ryPas seen as num fun loving and tnote exeitin= than the ' Marlboro man" (Richatdt, pp. 2-3). _ 2. In ihe eonclcidtng section of tha letter to Richards jp. 41;' Dr. DiFrusn _- makes ,the following 'statentent:- "I'here, the paper it all readyr. now all > we need is some dat:" T7Ce violation of the standard for scientific reseassh is obvious. 3. The DiSs,anza. -ct $1. study (1991) - econcludes that Camel tias'a 32.8% share of underage smokers. This con-- clusion emas;ues from questioning underare smokea to list their favsirits _ eipraue brand aftar exposing tl+sm to six consecutive ads for Camel. In an jnterview-{Sisele i992) Dr. DiFfaetza - tltat admitted "there was a potential tids were more 11ke1y To say they P+e=' - ferted Camet. 2bat (tbe question or=- dey) wara potential autonuie biaa." ; 4. Dr. DiFsWrs*s correipondenee (Co- - Ltvest#8ator letters i and 21 indiesre a pilorssndy found Canmrs advertislna j to haveM taa:uaum appeal among ~.. Ln #-A V v ~+ ~ v ~ At30--~•-----E :
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Q 0 s[NNY fRILOMAN. Michigan's famous All-Amerian star, now enaah at the Cotl"e of the City of New Y ork, says: "I prefer Williams Shaving Cream beuuse it sure softens my whiskers right down to the base-make them a cinch fur my razor to cut through. And believe me, a generoua, rofrwhing •dash of Aqua Velva after shaving makes my faa feef cool and clean all day." e a ~f~J $ji~s ~ © .r. ~ i ~ . . PAUL RUNYAN, foa_ mcr U. S. Proleaional Golf Chumpion, sayss I've tried 'em all and M come buck tn Wfllianuw t 'Twin-Aetinn' Cream svery 3ime for -cleanMr' ~ doser ehaves.". "E ® 0 ® ® n OUT COMES "STARCN"LIMP G when soaked with Williams ~ ~ MaM tM . .MN.1 A..,.a.wlaJwa P.s - nt, tellliew.s aA.dwa Cr..,w ha a er.at.r..M.ib t. /rld -.Mr Mn..Ni- w.ry w.n... . . . L N w.. tM ~anef•".rt./ r.or.M./s. e...Wer.r tw.w awy aMr pwNr en.wy twt..lr-. t. /t M.4wth wlt..- tM w1r ..t.r.Y7n 614,60 t. .h.w N t/M beM.r Nen nW. Try e tWe. "Twin-Action" Shaving Cream Softens Skin -Wilts 1Nhisker's Down to thoBase! !D "fTRANaLLR" LEWIS, former Worid'$' : Heavy.rafaht 1ti reatling Champion, soys: 'Of' all the ahaviny creams I've eavr- etiod, eone takps the 3ltareh• out af my _toueh, wiry whqkcls as auickly as 1t'iiliams:" =_ RILL TILlDtN, s tirttq U. S• Ch.mpion. IfKds: •'Wiliiams wilts every bit of 'stuah' out of my whiskers. My faee feets a lot cleaner and cooler, too, when I us. Aqua Velva after shaving." FEEL how touzh and hard your whiskers are. Yet, your raaor must cut thtough 40,000 ha'tls every day. No ttmtte: how tough your skin or how sharp your blaA-shaving will make your face sore unless you use a "twin-action" cream like ~ViHiams. - First, Willistns' rich, tnoist lather cuts thrmugh the n:ktural oil nnruntl cach wltisker-knoeks out every trace of a'stat'chy° stitiTtxs, . ' Second, it sttaks and softens the outer skin on your face=allows your blade i sharp edyp to penetrate -to the ba+w of each whisker. You get _ a clean, ctou shave without pulling or scraping. Complete your shave with a cooi dash ` of Aqua lrelva-cloeat porea, ?tithtr; o!t irritation, keeps skin fr~sh all day. -
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i "Sa1D"Yf5"TON~~`i;HT HARRY DANCED DIVINELY, but his =01CK MADE MONEY hand over fi~t, slick, shiny hair made him look but his bald head msdo hitn "look like a glamor Iwy. And bcsider, II so old and sugar.da<tdyish I was siniply couldn't bcar the thought afraid people `wouW think I was of that greasy goo lio used coming - rtlarrying hint to feather iny tiest. oRun our sofa and pillow. Dlatty'a -_, It miglit hs~~-e_ hcon ~litTe-rent"if be the timo I wanted to sny, "good had used Kremi with massage , gr'-', use Krumll" .ehen he did /tavs hia J.oir. TOM WAS WITTY, a barrcl of tun, _X<~k HEADS 1:LWAYS WIN, but I kept saying "no." Ilis"hot= _ they say, when the tcntot hair si.-mly got my goat, coin is tossed for luck. Any.ray,_ A little ICrcmi would have rtxed I said "yes" to George tonight, it. Lut ho insisted on using water and that mcan# goodbye to Totn, asa dressing-water that washed -fliekand Ilarry.-Ihatemessyhsir. awoy natural uils, Icaving Isis ltair I Itatc loaso dandruff atAd stray dry and stifT aud Iuipossibic to hairs ou a tnan'a coat. Gearge keep cosuLcd. wins. Ne uses Krotnl. hrcutl is the fautous toniotlreaiag that removes dandruff scales, chocks ekcessive"falliug hair and relieves itchiog scaih-and at thaaamatimo acts as a atarvcluus dressing without being sticky or gruasy. - Wuntcn tell us that E'.rcntl puts the hair In slJcndid cunditiun lur a purntancnt-snakcs pc.nwnctits look_loveligr. Atk fur Krcml at your drug store or Larbcr atop. Ktt;ntl Shampoo Is a splendid ally of Kronsi 71air Tunit. llladc Crvprrt nn 1t0'lMi'ccnt olive oil haKt•, it clcan„ hair attd sutllt, thorutiMltly and lwtvua hnir soft atd easy to tnatwgc._ KREML 0015 REMOVES DANDRUtF SCALES-CHECKS EXCESSIVE FALLING HAIR /* NOT GREASY-MAKES THE HAIR BEHAVE
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Y le Why not fight fatigue thc way fire;fighters do? Y oU'vC probably noticed at a stubborn fire how the tiremen take time out now and then for a ateaming hot cul) of coffee. During cold wcathcr, you',,e prob- ably thought that they dremk the coffee to warm up. And that's cor- rect. 13ut it's not the only rcason. Fire-fighting is harJ work, a nerve- wracking strain. And coffee relieves fatigue-eases 1ldrve tetlsloll-Itla{:CS aund and muscles morc alert. j IS TNERE'A ; COFFEE FESTIVAL IN YOUR TOWN? l.NinR 0li'b/nr.nl .Ln. .re f.awtnq, rJ.riwg f.Yrw .ry .nra M.rch, tA. 1.1..1 In eM..-rr.win0 davips aN i.:. Orwa..U.Nq tTi. MsI wrah- •O..f Y.o.dq s.O.a.Y.r/'ll RM It int.r.sNng. RlMlW 1!R rNtir Y twah. .». ,..n.a, Yr. M.fe11 -.-ILafeIw~ . ahk...vw/vt N «th .a.. 'r. "W..q.. aba... IvFriA a y M.Iw Awwrie.w e.llw p.w..... H. M. MwRI dM. Awwk.v p, " W N.v.•r e.w.ri../..Ih. iw Ms wvN DRA3': • COLpMD1A • CUDA • EL SALVADOR • NIC.ARACUA • VF.NE7.UELA Cllffec gives you a pick-up too. r\nJ that I/encticial lift lasts only two hours if ynn'rc like 97 out of 100 r/caplc.' Cn, nfcnursc, N•nu ctin enjoy cofFcc at Jinncr-und flrep. . , •MNK.I.urh..Mrr..vvp PAN AMlRICAN COfR! WRfwU. NIW YORK CITY RIGHT or WRONG? ww/•. Fe«r..... M qur r.oww. CatJ.._oa./ COrrEt CAIMS tNE N[RYp RigMf Q Wr.ngf 0 CNIN, far ftrrl.riri. b./ YNw Ma aalanvY af ..e qrtiwf +rMf.r p.qvr.-firawaw, w.viaw• tN CrNi..mhart.-ah.r olriwh e./1.s iv r./iw. Ihe wv.wr f., hvn.r w.wlvl aw/ PhYrkal r.a"iMlivw. ChvKh ~~fligh/~~ a...M. - t~Orltt D NAUtd0RM1b0 Ri.f,n p Wt.n.~ p Of ravru. rNl.. Ir a r6wvlvwl. Y.l ~r 1.. N.. Nwd.fa/ .w.. i.r It Rili...r:/.NpI iw5lnd a/ wNr.ly w11:w111 IM .vwtv d INi.v. at i warrNk hn. AwA.UVw Mv hka8w~.flMr.f taR....N Nf. Nwv ka•.tNNq a7 Larari.e - wt . . NrY.Ntavkal tra.iw. 0013-'.
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0 MRS., narling, thM- Cnttoil Iiatl crostnmcr aro swolf, but tlIcve isn't any use in trying miuc utr-I'il ixe Juwn with a cu!d tita higiit of tiic iia1L MR. i Nut if I can 110111 it! Whnt yon ncwtid is a falit1o !axativc to give yuu duuWu- quici:, two-way lielli-5al 1laluitica: r T- L MRS., Sal Itepatu;a? 1'NU.way Ituili? ufteu uicrunpsuiut a co1J. MR. I You liet! Fir,tt, Sa! Hchntica ir ticeUie in its laxative actiun, yet it aets Guit -uul! I dwA oaced tu tcl(yuu Uiut ri1KCd iK mig6ty inqyorfault in flghting a co1J. rlud sc'ccund. Sal IlcpaticiL hulpr Nuturo wuntrract Uue'aciitity that MRS. I '1'aku wro yourwVIf. I'd pndialbly (ta 4luwu with s e.+d4l if you hadu't ltaown - alxout tiuut'saliuu luxativc. Sal Itclraticu. It QsrtMndy c6ascs colds fastcr! MR.I Honey, you're tile queen oi the Ball. Talce.ltow! * A recent survey condncEci1 by acven loading,tnodicatl _jouenals shows that 7 out of 10 Jucturs prescribe a sulias luxutive, in trcuting colds. SAL_ H EPATlCA Get a bottte of this famous saiine iaxativl at your druggist's today TUNS /NI Dig aew pred Alka Show-1VuJueulays at 0 to 10 1'. al.. B.S.T. 1 0016
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.. 4 ® ® © ® Why? Because you'll like Philip Morris ... the arand flavor a~td ~irotna of the world's finest tobaccos ... the freedom from irriadon, "smokers' ' cough," and all such smoking•penal- ties. Philip Morris have been proved better for your nose .nd throat - suDeriority 31*j-, nizcd b eminent medicalaut~h_on-'t,,;_es. So ... Call for ` ~ Philip Morrts- AMERICA'S CIGARETTE .-..,._.V.. +{. -11zt c 0 ® 0 [a ®
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Evcryane knows Lydia Pstcs Pinkham and her fanwut 1'egttable Cnnt)wnnul. But few realize the courage it required to ufTer its benefits to womankinQ. For those were the days when women were not the equal of inen. When ntany thuugRt that the use nf ether was sinful. When the itlea of relicv. ing tht suffer'snK ul w.nten was tlisn+isxed with thc statentent: "Wurnen were tncant to suffcr." 1t took real litrtinule to tlefy thix tradition. !iut Lydia ('inkhaus knew the eH'rativeness of )wr comlwund. Vur murc Ihan ten years ahe hiul hccn giving it sway free to all whu ntotlstl it. For ten )'ears she hatl acen women ctmtc iti her duur, wunron harassed with the urdeays of their sex anJ pleading for relief. Virst her uwn neighlKrrs; then uromeu from all sectious nf her home town; 6nally travelera from the neiph!wring cities all arouml. So she hcgan to acll her preparation in order that she might have the nwnty to aJvertisc it to all women, and inform thent af its virtue:. N'hat a /imire that-areatatl! 'tb talk "in )nrhlic print aletut tite ordeatx that w•utnan face! It was unthiakablcl No wtintler thcy sang songs about her cnatlwund! liut then; tlte pioneer`ir always ridieulel. Lyttia l°inkhaat, however, wwtltt nut It discnuragcd. Slowly her efii,rta _hnrr f:uit. hlure and murc, wuntcn Lcgan to tell otherx how 1.)~tlia_ P.. 1'inkh:uu's 1'cttetattlc i'uin. puund was proving helpful and lbenebcial, how it enatrletl thcat to go smiling through the ordeals of their sex. - Today the cam.pountl is- in usc whcrevcr humatlt tlwcll. Increaxing ntilliuos ara :taing it grateftdly-Young girl: -t:rirts g ing ehe threshold tn wnm.ntsntxi, wivss,_}trejtiwrinL. titr iunthcrhual, women nltpruaching "uiidtllr.., aae." Anc1 Lydia !•:. 1'inkham's gettuine greatness is finally hcing reccgniixtil. Fue thrfe penerprincs nne wnmaa ha. NAd..mqher 6- tn Vi "xn/il. inF thnwFh" with I/Aa F. 14nk. hxuW. 't'eWahie Clm_ ~I.~ua./. It -haia \atare i.xw rp tlw tyelem, thn. Iet.cning tht in.e.nn(rrls' vhirh wtrrt be tmlvreJ, esleci.lly . 'i!uring '!'!tc '1 hrero Ordeals caf 1\'wttan I. /Lltewr /nxe Irir/dreJ w..r.{ew/. . . r-pre t. I'rrr.rl«y jer 8rer4erA...L .t. .Ipprvr.iJ..d •• A/alAh Ajr." y.,.rr...tir.«r..r ).,vtlia PinkhAm was a pio. neer. Sha lteld to her vision amd hattk.l to fuake her t!rennt cowe crue.- . _ `!'t.tay her wttrk is Iwing car. rieJ,nn iii a great ialKtratury octupying six _4utwtervt buih!- ings. Itut tlte real .,tnunttntent to her memnry coitisit+ts vf the millicrns of letters • written to her by wonFenin every walk of life-wot~tcn wliu3 ha.l fuGml relief front pain-.lettcr's- of gratitude to iNt< who fiad had tJt the cuurage tu dkiiy thht, ~ "women were ntcant to suffer.",' v One woman tells another how to go tsSmiling Through" wit ~otzzain,'t Vegetable Compound 0009 s,/ 14 f 3t~ Un tn W N
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Y EUT WAIT, CHILOREN-~• WNAT MAKES v0u SO SURE THIS IS MY JACK? i r +CAUlE NtS #NEM#OTTA7TLtw . TALE iRAY+.ANO MOM`S ALWAYS SAYINQ YOUR CLOTNES ARE FULL , AF [T++ICAUSE YOUR SOAf DOESN'T O9T'E/1l REALLY CLEAN-, ; 0 ® ® ® Ead ® 1 KNEW IT, MRS. KINNEY. WNY~ DON'T YOU 6E SMART L1KE MY MOTHER AND YSE FELS-NAPTHA ' 1 SOAP? SHE SAYS IT'S 60T . (K NA/TNA R16NT IN TNE SOAP N b1RS CLOTMif , WNITER'N NA! •NA! ,• ~ AN~YT~INg IT IS ~" JACKIE. s ~i'_\ ii T YES.TN!'f'Rf i011 TOu SIIf1E-PpR SNONfINs NtE KOVV TO 8E r.TNE 6RANOE3T WASNES OFMY11fE,! MIRMLATiR y NEY, YOU SISSIES! THAT'S NO GHOST- IT'S JACK KINNEY. TURN AROUND AND CHASE HIM WNOOVl1 ! SKATtS ~ 1'bt GONNA TtLL [vEitrE+00Y TO CHANGE TO FELS-NAVTIM SOAV! t1.NylMb fwt.-td! e.afwi ' eb.t )dt•NaltAa ioa0 iL a(.a ts0• - W.ada/.1 for d.i/uine siik thisilE. Aa wWag on h.edr lream. .v* N1ln'r.f'LA14 so"iaf ElYcetiAe, , with FELS-NAPTHA SOAP ! 0004 i i / 3 ~~3~
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'RESEARCH VALIDITY AND RESULTING PUBLIC POLiCY;. The Case of the DlFranza "Old Joe"-Cigarette Study Claude R. Martin, Jr. .- - University of 1Kichi=ao IhTRODUCTION In Deeember.1991 a consumer research pa= _ per produced a aescendo of demands to make ' significant changes in advertising regulation, in- cindinj the banning of oae campaign specift-, rally. The article by DiFranu et aL entitled "RJR Nabisco's Cartoon Camel Promotes Camel Cigareues to Children." appeared in the Journal of the Aeterican Medieal Assoeiatlon (JdMA). DEMANDS FOR PUBLIC POLICY- CHANGES Shortly after the JAMA American Cancer Society, American Heart Association and American Lung Assoeiation formally petitioned the Federal Ttade Contmission to immediately ban the Old Joe campaign (Cimons 1992. Dali 1991. Snider 19r, ; Senator Williant Cohen called for tJse settata to be involved in an effort to ban Oldloe Camel (Scripps Howard News Service, 1992); Represent;tive Henry waxatan asked the House Subootneniu+ee publication the on Health and the Bnvironmeet to recommend strict eoner9ls on all advertising and specifically to prohibit the RJR ad campaign (Wa:rnan,1991); Adver•tlsinr Age (January,1992) called upon RJR to drop the Old Joe cstnpaign; the atuunoys general of 26 states began to lobby for ntore control over ciprette .. advertising calling for repeal of a section of the Cigarette Labeling and Advertising act (Zukin 1992 and Levine 1992); the New York Mettvpotitan Transportation Authority, citing the research in JAMA, banned all tobacco ads on subways, bttus and trains beginning in 1993 { •Harrigan 19921; The Surgeon General of the United States, the Seaetary of the Department of Health and Human Services. and the American Medical Association demanded that RJ. Reynolds stop using Old Joe (tVashinrron - Times Mareh.3992; Brown 1991, Esiee 1992. Horovitz 1992, Warner 1992, Vesey 1992, U.S. News &-World Report 1992. Lipntan 1992, Kottg -i992.-Robetrss 1992. 5tandora.1992) ; i resoluuon was pa" d by a comrsuttae of the Chicsgo City Council condemning R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company for the Oldloe ads (CJrieago Trrtbsure 19921; these was a parade by physidans, and their families through the sheets of Chicago to protest Old Joe and calling for a ban on tltee ad campaign (Rseusrs News Serrice_ 1992, Associated Press 1992L' and the Surgeon General J' ntonia Novello in , collabotstion with . ehe American Medical Association launched a na. ' t sasooa e! • tionwide contes- ,..:-...~..: eraantary and junior high ; ..k:.i. • K j scttool scudants calling foc ~ lettess.-essays, poems or %;'~ -eartoons focused on a theme of `Say No. Old Joe (Detroit Free Press 19931. It is difficult to quan-< tify tha news cpvetage and subsequent demands for public poliey refonagla- doa. ir+cluding banniag Old loe. ' ' We reviewed 172 _ newspaper articles and 71 ,_ wire service stories all of which , reported on the Fscher. et al. reseatsh. To give a flavor for the repott- - ing ihe Iollowing s:atpung of hesdlines is oftered: -_ Joe Camel Is Also Pied Piper, Research Fittds Waii Street Journal (12/11/911 Study: Camel Cartoon Sends Klds Smoke Signals _.iloston Herald I1JlI/91) To Some, Cartoon Camel tsn't Funny Seattle Pott•Iateiligencer (1?J11/91) Ban: flsolth Groops Say Study Prores All Tobaoeo Ads Must Bs Crushed Out Detroit News j12J12J911 We al;o reviewed 82 print media editbeiials and 23 syndicated columnists. Of these editorial *#iaqZ9 SGGZ ?
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Y only pair of eyes you'll ever have. they re so alwd•IooklnEl ._ IIavo t6ant examined now. Only an Pnblio,hrd in 16e interaat df Lct. LlKE AN ACHING TOOTH : IF YouR EYES THRoBBED EYES UNEASY, TIRED. NERVES ON EDCE? Doo't iparo tAaowaret iop of eyaatnin. Mako aa appointneut )taro your eJes oxaminwl aow. HOR' L0.\G since you've had yrour Thcse scientifie ienfes, ground to eyes examined? your prescritxion, absorb unwanted Just because they make no shrrp liglu; =ivc yim tntve restful visiiro: protest, don't take for granted the Iloing incunqvicouuidy Aefk-tuned. ' cxamination ean show whether you Icr siRiun by lho'Saft.l,,ifc Lon. Co., arc usinR tltcm witlwut 118141,10 strain. tYow 1'qrk, '1'arunta, Landtm. Today i lirttt•filled world bringa light sltucks to your eyes eaoh wak. +, f3 +t,~ 1/ nn ernminntien inS moment. Light atrain may c€• cape your notice for a while. but in time it takes its toll in tired eyes, - fatigue and jumpy nerves. Leading refractionists proscriLe ~ Soft•Lite Lenses to, provide extra ~ finds yoar p~es sen. sirive to li`ht, you'll diseotrar n.w com- Jaa tuitJi SoJt.Lite . Lenses, Arnand to ~•ow l,rescription; comfort fur cyc~l Kenmitive tn light. rnutqt ram.tul...-sart: raut nateN vrcut° ...~ _ .. , .~.........~....~..~..... ~ . . Ger.7«e Wr.lJa /.an erw w..I. .wtY a tL• =r..t _wrtieal rIsa or nasA & i.w.l.. A.at.M. .w/av f-n K.G•t3-. Il..wa.+.. "ft4-11r .riMwl N..p.r Afll..l ..f.rti.ww....i d'wpe..l.~wMi.i.w..rrirla iw rwr.wa ..qwwwty. PR[fCRtOttO IOR COMFORT AND OtIT![R AtMtr/tRANC! • 7r.L I'nt.re4w 6rNf-tr.nsrp 1w o/rete7Ny trs.7wM !./i.L(b Iwnry. 4019 -1
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Ihree of fhe eountry's rmor/csl toshion modeis fYfANN fNAW /IOtENCE DOtNIN ' DANA DAl[ ~hen you ask for Chesterfields thc dcnlcr will say with a sniile..:TIiQy Satisfy. You will find that Cliesterfields smoke coolerf taste better and are definitely milder... fbr Chesterfields have the right combination of the world's best cigarette tobaccos. I . . IU ~• t...n.u MnOuTos.ctOCo.
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Chuae>ti11. Jr. Gilbsrt A, M.rk.dws Ras.reb (1991) Sth Frd, ChieaSo: The Dryda Pratr Cimont, Mariaus, '?obaoeo Foes Seek Federal Iqjuoetioo," lJv Nn.s & O6serwr, Rvsip. NC. M.eth Z9.1992 p. 20 Dagnolt, Jod,se, 'JAKit 13jht. Nsw Fus Under Caosl's Ads," Alnnsfriwg Ap, 1991, pp. 3 k 32 D.e.1tP'r.rr..a, •SqNo bJos GimeL" M.eh 17. 1993.p. 1-8 Dipr.esa, Joapb R.. John W. Riehard. Jr. Paul M. Pau1mso. Nrray Wo1f•GWarpda C6duopk.r FUoeher. Rlalkand D. l.Si, .od David Mmaq. "RJR Nabi.oo's Canooa Gmd PRVmoer Camsi C7prsw a Cliiirm"J..nrl.J4lir Aaawir.w x.lfo.l Asi.e(.ds. D.e.mba 11. 1991. .01. Z66, rp. 2Z,M 3149,3133 Dsosmba 16r Fario., Dotsl., `Wds Walk A Mils To Sas Jos CamsL" No. Y..d Nn.slq. MareA 14,1991 D. Ffn0. Adam. "Peiet Ad Raaopeitim by Cildna Aged 3 to 6 Ysas," J•wrs.t of I[a.+kd+q Sas.rre+i (Mq.19ft) VoL ?3. pp.16i-177 Fiuhsr, Pa.1 M, Msysr P. Seh• •. Jolra W. Ridatds •k, Adam 0. Goidst.m. and TLea H. Roju, '7rasd Lo6o RoooSai" by Chiklna Aged 3 w 6 Y.us." lowwal oJ eMt Awerican MaJesl AaadrdbR. Deoaaber 11. 1991. .oL Z66, m 22. pp. 3143-314i Horvvies. Bruos, "Most -Adv.esis.d Cijaruts. Ae. Tos Chder. Sady Says," Lr Awseirs ?7sas; M.ab 13.1992, p.16 Koai. Doi.e.s,''Do Ads L+es Yeanptas To Deielc. Smobr 7B.l aaw af.i.. ApeR 27.199?, pp: 41-44 L.eio.eby. Jola .ed _Jes.pb P1as..G •Adv.d8bg Stimnlus M.asarsmsat and Assissmsur Rwrei: A Review of Adwetisfaj Tsstloj M.lrods. C.nvar lsss.i ../ Res..neA iw AharQdss. Jads LsisL & Cb.B. M.de..do.. 19p. pp.13S•163 Le.io<. Aodr.a C. (Aaisaat Asomey Giaiesl of SwN of New York). Uoar to S+.amr Jsia C. Dotlan6 (R•MO.). Joy & 1992 ~ F~ a.d L3i6"~W.d ~ uSanr ~ it _~ J.r...t C7mr.u. dlJd.4 ApeR 199Z, p. S M.rds, CL..d. R. "R..ut.k Vslift ard Rwloiej Podb Polial. Ti. Can oI tts DiFksa pd Je.' o M~ei~om~~ ~ A.a.ea MisasRL BkAad. wiwa Mboompr.Veeka liWrw +n MeNcruenast Baor4"J.a..f y Y.ririwB. Vol. 46 No 4, (19W, pp. 3234 Pi.as, Jah. P, 1lfisab.A Oilpt.. David M. BUMS, Siio.bai WYdsa Br.mq Ra4eoot. Donald iSep.A and Miahad Jol.raw 'Da. Tob.aro wesni.l.S Tsn« Y...S r«pu ee Staet sssl3nSr Jas.anf .f A. Mut{.ro /l.fJn1 Dsaombe[ 11.1991. .ot Z66, ae. 22, pp.3114-313i Robrns. Sda;ia, "Svrgson CwNt.l Warw to Snatf Out Jos Came3," O.(u& S.nrliwl, May 25,1992. p. S~ S.N. and M.L RettitebDdr 'Raoopstdaa aE a Massms of Lsirafnj from-..Tslsririon Comm.Mai..' "l••r~at sJ4(.rytrri~s Rs.w+ei, VoL 20 jAuswt 19131 pA S3S,74! SAid.r. Ml1ca. "Doewer .Tnria Up The Heat on Smkk- .` VSA Toiq, '1>eandet 11,1991, pp. 1?D Standoaa. Lo,'Doee Tar For Old Jas To A.wms a No.Show." New Y.rrk reg Mateh 10.1992, p. 3 . lli. Nsrt'i Woiif lbpir. "M Ao1i Smoking Gsapi~ iLw Vp,"~p~ 14 Vsiwr~os. Appl and MJL sbxo, "A4 Rapopdtion and RMporos Set" Joava.l oJAJ•t.rtrMj ltsrwek , (Jmn.1961)pp.13-Z1 Va.oar. Sti.at~ssl. '~?p Ia Senoks." Artae+s C.Mweloir, ,('Arh Bsa" eoiasi) Meds 20. i992 WalsMd(Joaod, 'Jos Camd L Alw Pisd Pipm R.rara6 F1adt,' D.eab.e 11. 1991. Pp.81 t 84 Wasaer, Pan, 'Ttor.ilo 'lhtM Do.ra O0watlK' AJIYseR's M.rka/ws W.d; March 16,`1992, p. 4- WsUW" 7bes.'0mh_'Qld Jos`Ctear Ya" -amslp...''iMar.bam_.l.oWN -:W, SWWvao sad. #Uuoai4 C. N.v.tlo.lrltieh 34 1992, p. 82 Waos~e. 1twy. 'Tob.oo~e-IMi~ninj' Pselu.Wiaj *om Ciiiat.r„O J+arrw.t y.sJYe As.IrMS.w 1[.Oa.i Asael.d.o. DsasmLs 11. 1441. vol. W.arr 3YIIYrm, Je4saw"M 11011 i.lldrs ?r(aciatly. ~~„~~~~ !ae(fsss (1959) Z.tpis. }ids 19. ~ei.t h~pow.rs,' lwL.rt.OrrL. L.+r RynR AaSoK.19q2 I no0216012
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42Otr41:1! AINT A1SLt'FQ looK N E RE,GRAN PAPPY, WNAT WE-UMS SNITGRED FROM 'nAE TOLLI VER BCYS- KELLOGG'S ~AT•R1b 3W~0'TNr="RE6U Lx1t: WOI.IDER EF Z1i9T IVIEANS IT vJOULD IdAL' '~/ORE ~...~ CONGTi PA'1 , vr1 : WA,E A Puv. !- OLfl UGldt'rt1tN ~ A SFIOOtI~.t PAR?Y 51N~c6 : SHo' ! AH COULD GO FGR 'H"s vtTi'ElS EV'RY MAWh11N'! 'Too GOOD - mFt -mSlvt TbLL1VaRG 1! LOOK AT GRA9'PA iiE fsF{ORn H64_ ?IMt3 "~1-lEt E N ~ R~GUl-ARS• YES, folks, the modern idea about con- stipation is not to bear it first and try to cure it later. If it's th. ordinary kind (due to lack of the right kind of "bulk" in the diet), the better_way is to prevent it How? Eat a crisp, bulk-rich ,cKeal- KaLLOGO's At.L-a>Mri. Eat jt dailyI- drink- . GpINwM. 141f. by a.INn C.rNg . plenty of water, and join the "Regulars"! Made by Kellogg's in Battle Creek w Join the '-'Regulars" with. KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN 0022 3 /y1qO
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10HRID ~,: ..3. .. . ~~~' ~ ... ;V1, . TEST NO UNDER RM ODOR AFTERi A ~~ Apin.Yodeee proves its pew- treut-[eeo aNam. It is eoR, a to protect in diibeyit con- ee.:treoiy. Yodop ka.os no ditieest A aurw }uoenised siekty smell to taint yout Uib t;riAitK e..t, in tke Cdt. N.tkp~.ie.riYnak..wf.bek. TROPICS - ibbnn ttepiae ... Under k.r lOf.=lfer6CfJn.or2Sttube. direction. kRiw I`[. KX applied Me[ewn & R.Nin.. f sb _.' Ntsaeisrorttds iet~n tn ch. ~~ ~~ ~citATURt i biasGK ,Iqni ~eesWt... ..e a rcAt !7 1 i 98° ~ ~~~..~.~..~..~.. .~,.,,i:.... wass as t t.mia, saw `' ase DE0001EAn? CREAn1- •;'
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i vr vU-4/IJWA/t` •W !wlING IARSAs I ® `rOUR .lONY WNA~O;' FpR TNE'u' *CrOav. . 'Aw. qAO - CUT iT QuT YEf -Wi's _ A CMIP OaR THE OLD KOCY. MA. WA! i fT Nv TWIf TEA' TASTti DlU. ~ut / 4f rs~xif ~wr ~,~.~t~:, AUf~ CAUf i s C ul'E ~fA Af ~ a'M Af J w wflQE G0164 TO REfOuV Mtw~NOW. ~1l ID 0 at 3rONNSONS W/NNINC'a! ® ® -tiT- TWE MItSH MUmDLEf. MRLL - TNi uNIvIASITv Is fuRE OF THIS EVENT. vO" 7OMNTiON If TPIE @eST W lWE COIJNTWY IT'S AS EASY AS A-$-C TO-GET A REALLY GOOD CUP OF.TEA - A - ALWAYS USE BUBBUNG E3OILING WATER AND POUR aT ON THE TLtA. B- USE 1 TEASPOONFUL PER CUR PLUS ONE; PORT-1F F+OP. C - STEEP TO ANY STRENG'iH YOLi.PREfER.(MOST PEOPLE . WHO USE CREAM OR MILK GHOOSECA9-MINUTE BREW.) A~ I LOVE MY JOB, BUT BEING IN TOUCH.' WITH THE PUBLICAt1THETIME IS OFTEN EXHAUSTING. TEA IS SIMPLY MARVELOUS AS A PICK-UP TErA IS POPZlLAR-WllTH PASSENGE#RS --_PARTICULAi24-1y THE. YOUNGER Cf20WD.Ti:A'S EASY 70 MAKE-; ~~ AND EASY ON THE DIGE,STION,TOi MMiARtT i1NN/K,R w.-tEUTEp AIR UNiS ST6WARafriS THESE GOOD BLACK TEAS ARE ESoECuLLY SUiTED TO TNE vAtER1CeN TASTE: FOa ECONOMY AND FULL ENJOYMENT, BUY ouAtnv TEA. SIX GOOD TIMES TO ENJOYTEA BREAKFAST -TEA GIVES YQG A QUICK PICK-L/P-AvD R'S 90 EASY TO DtGEST 'ATltA.N.-TEA HELPS VOu TO WURK.3ETTER,TMiNK FASTER. LYNCiiEON - FOR A GOOD AFTER- TIOON'C Y1ORK. (,{iT TEA MR-kOD UP _ AT +4 RM.- SO REFRE'FHING-TEA CHASES ..'wAV 4 OCLOCK FATIGUE. i DINNER -TEA TASTEES SWELL AND MAKES f000 TASTE BiTTER.1 E ViNiNG -ENJO^I TEA PREELY- I TEA ;.ETS YOLU SLEER 0021
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•- Y BEWARE!o t this intiammation whero' gums ioin the i teeth which, FF \F.GLECTED, is often a i peesvrwr of ra.aRinp Pyorrhoa. OeIJ yearr ; da.r/rr can-help l'ytuncee; but you, your- self, can help guard against Ginsivitis._-°_ bM taMp'r"seve Y.wr lsrth" hqrew r Su many ptvtplc teJay are afraid of Gin. ; Fieitit with its sure, render, bleedins sum.. And they have a right to be if r warninp is unheeded! Clinical inrestiRs- : tion shuws morc.than 4 out of S men, ...men and errro )vaMF f./Es may have 4 OUT 5 MAY BE OF VICTIMS See your dentist every 3 months tor tooth and Rum inspectiun and rt[/ad.i!lyl+rush teerh and massaFe Rumf with Forhaa's T.Nnhpaae.-furmula of Dr. R. J. Forhan for maa.atrinp gums. A recent clinical in. eeaiRation showed oesr•9SD of GiaAi• titis patientswere remarkably helped in juat 3o days by (ullowing this method. And what a marvelous cleaner! Rrush• - inR with Ftirhan's not only helps brighten ; dull, dingy teeth to their'?+tatunl" lustre- _ hut it helps REatOVE ACID FILM THAT ia) tfFt FY STARt'S TOOTti DICAY. Get a tube of Forhan's TOD.tt'. Aete t,be di/- Jeve.rr. 3'1.. 194 at drug and deptutment atore.. VCerkwnd siae at 104 stores. FRFE 11 4 50; GuM Ma.,SnGEFz Ssnd empty tcrtor fron, 39' tirs tude Forhor,': lccthpc,!e to Forhan's, Dtpt. (-5, Nrw E3ri,n ~ ..rtk, N.1., crd ricrirr tF.,s won- derful 50' Gum Massayrr FREE_ ®
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j .: : Let a wonu be tLe judal ,V of tbe cigan'( you amoke Sen.itive In her 0 aeent of finea. alydr aunt+._ a v+ot- » i unerr±nt in herJvdpaai eipt i appqtenteaa/ iVebsar opn c6e¢ • lhe!r ceee beferi tair iut n'ere. Webstv ..hae iii eit/leott itqer/ sen vif 'fesi*K -attd its iana au a aipr wtU 6e .eedir ueod . !er Pro.e Webeget'e k siidneu and eerrt Kuttpw u aai eurrentkr to iu lul lfuvor. tt4*. s Havana lilkc ebwes lig6telve CYi10M.M/ee 80LOEN Vf090fi ..err* ftrlteN Cl4a..... 0«...e.......... .~ LaeY i.tn ....... 2 4
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THIS SURE IS THE BIG NIGHT OF THE MARDI GRAS, DON ! YES/ NEW ORLEAA/S' LOOKS FORWARD Tb, THIS NIGHT, JUDGE. MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE, CHU88lNS ?;, 1 i1 k~ar.1's~ 0 AND Yb11 $ET IYE ' GOT THE TOBACCO FOR THE COOLEST SMOKING THERE IS, JUDGE! r A 0 0 0 40 ® -.~~r, a ~~: ® /Y.1 SAY YOtf'HAVE! PRINCE ALBERT ' IS FAMOUS FOR tOOC SMOKING 1f1A' LETS THROUGH t300Dt RICH TASTE AND KEEPS DOF1'N SITE ,~.!/ © 0 IHAVE YOU EVER L KNOWN A TOBACCO THAT tOADS UP AS, NtCE:AND DRAWS AS EVEN AS PA. ? f <' , ;~. , , ~4' JL)L)& j~ ~ ~ D OJJ~o AFTER THAT HOT ~ MUSIC YOU CERTAINLY DESERVE A COCL SMOKE IN RECENTLABORATqRY "SMOKING BOWL" TESTS. PR/NCE ALBERT 8URNE0 - cvo«R THAN THE AVERAGE OF THE 30 OTHER OF TNE LARGEST-SELLING BRANDS TESTED-COOLEST'OF"j / GCYI1.41. I919. 11. J. J{rYMIJ1 ZWaKe1 C.nINan1. ~~'IptM•jII~7..~.C, CAN'T-SAY LHAVE. AND FOR /KELLOW MILDNESS, THERE31 JUST IVO OTHER TOBACCO LIKE : r^RINCE ALBERT, EITHFR ! ~~oo E HAPPIERSM OKING.1 HoT sMOKES ~ O 81TE THE TON6UE ~~IIII. P.A. SMOKES ~ Pipofais of fragrant COOLER _ 1` tobaes. ia.rsry h.aay AND THAT MEANS 1\ tift of hine. Albert M/LDBRf P ^' ROII YOtlR tMAKI~#'iMOKlf THE fAST WAY.,- •fMTH CR/MP . CUTrPA. ' AND Ti1fy7ER; T00: r 0 0 v ® 0 0 ~~Ka~rt;E AlfifKr' ~ ~ ;. .,, M1ic c- cr r ~F1ATin~NAl /// JQY SIYtt)KE r ~ .. .- ~ L4cN rasTE WITH 4 ~ MELLOWNESS -THATS P.A.~ ALL u[ OVER ( ~! 0020 /
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.. r Pluto Made a Lamb Out of a Lion ... in ONE HOiJR! t1LL•Let'seallitoRlI fccllikesomething MIARY:Fimrmxdown.dosr.tVoscillhavetwo the oat draRged in...,md this jungle getup houra imfore we hnvo tu leave. And a Pluto doesn't make mo fcd any Luttur. hiOhiNi11 will n,ovu you 7oaliag Vorids Lettrr in au hour. 1RILL A lazatival One horviArc you sure? Ittntwnriror ... this is a inMr- pucrada wc ru guing to. MARY: 1'ux. just give Pluto one hour - enJ tiw rwt of the evening-wili bo -. ' yuurs..lwu'11 wam Y/utY: btr. Iion. you're having the timo - DlL Mr. LeenA to you. isttbas. And rodrs of yout lifo right. I'll never lot -coastJpetion slow eas dmrn sgdn-now that I know abatt ose- 6our ro4ot. Get Plwo Water at yeer dnESiiCa sodaytar rerrl oa.-i,our rellsf.rheae.et- - you eeed a la:adve. Two dses._ 2 se aad $oe: ai seda foresin and ban ask fot a Pluto Hishbatl, t0e (2 oweu ia aglass and add yLia r.aw). P LUTO Water From f.rnous frensh Lick 3prings WHEN NATURE WON'T .`. : Pi.-UTO1 WILLI Make a Quick Comeback.,~ r~XF,4 I&A-~_ .~. 1/Ol/a_ - - AT FRENCH LICK 314R1li/t* N01EL ~l~aaaioRly b.v. eue tti•es yoa =a~ls, - soom wlc` -6rteA, dsll~r = s Dw" 5..lth 6aS, ~.c~-.[ftesi oNtr ri.ll~.~=eso aad (asaous ~uw Wst.r at ks soirtee. !'RENCH LtCK3PRINbt ~iORL• .. =ndr/CM t1O6 OA.... .,:,r. 0. TAOOt,t1. h... _. , J
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THAT NOON U0fd SEE~ N!S DENTISf ANODON,ITNINKYOU M/6A?.fI/LL HAVEA ' CNANI[.%, iME jOB IP- I- WELL IfQDAt'rYOUSEE ' you ~ BE7 ~ / iV/", TESTS SHOW TMATA4UCH BAD'BREATN COMEEfROM DECAYING F020 PARTICLES AND STAGNANT SALIVA AROUND TEETN TNAT AREN'T , ' `~ YOUR OENTIST? _1 KAY! CLEANED PROPERLY. I REraMMENO i9l, 42 :OLGATE QENTAICREA/Y{.tTSSPJ!CIAL , PlNETRAT/NG iOAM RENIOVES ~ TNESE OODR-BREEDlNG DEPOSITS: f'k~~,, AND TNATS WNY<.. f~" ® ® COLfiATE'S COMBATS BAD BREATH ...MAKES TEETH SPARKLE! ~j~ ••Coltate'sspecialEem.• tr.tias foam sets into wl" ~ the bidden crevices be. ; . ~ tweea your t.etb.»helps WWI your toothbrush clean out deayieR food p.r• ticles and stop the stagnant saliva odors thit eause much bad br.ath. And Colgtte's safe pulishin; agent makes teeth naturally bright and sp.r- klins! Always use Colgate Dental Cream-regularly and frequently. No other dentifrice is exactly like it." . .~..,. ,..., SUCCESS AWAYI l PLAY SAFE !_ USE COL6ATE'f~ BAD BREATH KESpS ` ' ""'-qM TW1CEl1~AY.I - ® 0 0 ~ Rt ~ T RIEiI,ON [?FF~lAt Ltt _~-h` NO BAD BREATH BEH/Nh Hl_t .,;f~1~l?f; L ft4'G ..SAllL €,! 0023
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-Aad Pipe Appeal puts you on tloe ritbt: track with the ladies! Fill that pipe .vith Prince Alberc, and you're sure of tmokin j; joy and comfort, too! 7 • LonQ known as;he National 1oy Smokc, Prince Albert is America's latgest-sotttng familiar red tin-sc your dealer's. smoking tobacco. Try it- and you'll see' why_! P..l. is rciUy rich sestiog.lt': mild and easy on the tongue. That choice toa bacco is specially treated to insure against toagut bite. fies Princa Albfrt-iti she ~ 14 /-5-/H
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M M .~ getg iiior6 'taiiwtdejhd teiief froiln hei I cldt~ a hiit i:; b}rr-i E ; '!TMt SONG lUCKEtN' "Itiy headaebe lfeEan to go. I went baok to the music calmer. Next day the song. 'Giva Him the Oo-La,.La; qlieked, thanks to IieomoSdtsee's beip il-I ® m M O.r4lAwn:u'.JrwriY.w.nim...Cd.t.nwWainwa.ir`Ni* edOw«"lOitWlil.b." ' Why BROMO-SELTZER does more for you than a simple pain reliever can It you get headaches often-if they last-- see your doctor. Most headacbes ~re simple - headaches. They may be :~ERV©US or ` DIGESTIVE. For these Bromo-Seltsot' givp . you more all-round relief. It coes all thls t 1. EASES PAIN-pleaeently, fost 2. CALMS NERVES-reiioves s_ troin 3. SETTLES UPSET STOgACk°- &Iillions have taken I3romo-Shctser for oves 50 years. Follow directions:on label. At c;•uEstores, f ountains. Keep it at home t ® ~ "1 TOOK tROMO•f[LTZIt" - "OverniClit to atiteasonC for my miuical, 'llu$arry 1\'at e Ltdy.' By midnight iny head throbbed I took BromoSeltse': It gives use {aore a/t.round relief.
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•- „ Co(/es AINf, Cerrrr„r el TAa Nt/r Yerk Hi.rOr/erat . SatietY. Nera yori CilY 0026 HOW TIMES HAVEN'T CHANGED! tvrry lun. ago cvury kitchen Iutd a coRuc mill sinrilar lu the museum N pirw al.-t•c. tY;ry! ]Sc•cauau freslt griudiug prwiucrd u Lettcr ctqr uf r•;f,r. T,ala\• at )•utR I/ClglriN/rINKLLIA SI' w•e freshly grind yuurctti(vt bul Lr I.11rr -Ilawks to A.Cr's Liyh xlrtt•d Irrct•isiun grindcrs. ILir rlwlm r•„IfrYY nr0 aulrl in the Lcwx, Ixc•ansu tliat•s w6t•ru ualure scals .'I II..• (ull• rirh ((:wur. Only ut the tnnnu•ul 4 (mrrluc.c i, tutturc•a xcat I:.:,•i, awt tlu-n uuh• by currcx•t griw(iug. Yuu at•luull;• uw lhu Ira;rout. .:. (ullc r..:r.tr•d tv(icc IK:ans gruuud riglrl Iwfurc;•uur c;•ca-tu tlw raavt 6...:... 6,r;nnrr,•uRcw IHrt.Iu tlris way y.w cJwuvs L. t fraLrr, htI!rr /htrrrt ` tLuu is posfible with coffca that is prc-yrouad at umc f:+r away factory. Tutr would uai>`~ct .csr cua,,v to bo [•slxasive, fer it`s tire pick of the piuutatiuna. As a tuatirr of f•ri•t it is antxxingiy tl+riftt•-tx•ransc we bring tbis rhoict: eiritcu dircat frum the nlaatutiona to you, eliminating many in- lK•lw•etint irrufits and extra hantiling rhurgcs, d+HAher trotablc c:tam(tlu of - Irow ASP rwlutrs tbc crnlt of living in rlmcricun 6dmcsl.1[akusir. Qur 7rtiud uute titut yuu•rc Luing to try reully jresk, t;rramd-lu-onler, ASI'-CoRcv1 , A_ T A L L A& P f 0 D D S T 0`R E S mUP mill 1,•rirHl4 t.dlw esaelly rigitt for )rour own par• Every 7th fa(11fly ut •lnrorios Iwi•s AdP Le(tae -dirnkia¢' TO tflit saeh and svery tasta, tiraro`sra -* distinetirt Wends !j/... s• t. ,d .•dGw ;..!-(:anrie, fur ltyrylar Poq nleJfam wore tLan SS million eups of it daily--sa17 tlauraru(s sav/t of AkC CoOoe .,. iSigLt O•Clur.k, miLl and tnelluw: IIed 40 rM •:.' r, ; ne f•a Urip t'4uLi e•rrra Jins fur t•aeutun i'ut. up to 10 eents a pouuJ by LuyinII tbis gloriously puo,i co((pr. Circ(o, r(a!r anJ tuR•trwlicd; iWl•at, v(prow and wincy. -2 / 1 i /W()
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of making tobacco better than ever ... and Luckies alwayTs buy the choice grades," says Roy Daniel, 29 years a tobacco auctioneer Simple as A H C are du reasons why we ask: "Have you tried a Lucky lately>" A. Uncle Suri s scientific improvements in soil, seed and plant•foods lnve enabled farmers to grow the finest tobacco in 300 years. B. Li'ke Roy Daniel, tae overwhelming majority of independent tobaceoexperts-suctioneers, buy ers, wuehousemen-snoke Luckies. Thcy isow Luckies buy the choice grades of the finer crops. C. The "Toasting". process, on top of 2 to 4 years' aging, makes them eztrt-mellow... cakes out cer- tain throat irritants found in all tobacco. A cigarette that offea the choicer grades of finer tobacco aops...plu throat proteccion! Try Luckies for a week, and y*u71 know why... WITH AtE.' WHO KNOW TOBACCO BEST -ITS LUCKIS 2 TO 1 0036 q la.a /H o -
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Much more than just a cleansing cream! One-and-only Luxuria has a bsauty-secret blend • of softening ingredients that's never been successfully copied. ~~. 1.00, 2.25, 3.50, Start looking as though you'd just fallen in love . . : and stay that lovely! Stort Luxuria flawless complexion eare, today. '
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OK WHAT WENT ON BEHIND THE ES BEFORE PEPSODENT GOT THE !RlZED A. D. A. SEAL': OF.ACCEPTANCE ! ttt'rtiottable aenttArice could stand u 1'o . p / g ~ under Such atrict teatu ... :. ~ PttSODFNT SPENT OVFR t1.e00.o0o To oLV~Lop ' ri13tNT PEPSDDEYT FORItuLAS Titt abrasiveness of every inKre- dwnt is tested to keep Pepso• irat among the kut abrutve of Jmtifrices. OLTSIDE INDEPENDENT LABOR. ATORIES DOUELE•CNECKED PEPSODENT FINDINCS These tests pnwd all elaims rnJ showed thac they ue con• servuive-and foyed. ~ ~.. . . PEPSODEtR MADE THOUSANDS OF CUNICAL TESTS... DENTAL SCHOOLS COOPERATED Reporti unlformy showed that Pepsodent dentilrrices are te• mukably efeetive-and f.ft. 0 0 AND THE PUBLIC PASSES ON PErSODENT. Fe/it Ut. yer-thou. sands of them - representinj t:h s eckedpall Pepsopdea fo74rtmsh for r6errixaetr. 0028 A11 three forrns~:of Pepsodent conta;nitigIritn.r now have A.D.A. Seal of Acceptance! , • Finally, after months of careful appraital,check. - the eeh Council•accepted denrifrices among t ing of everyiormula every clairn ttl3de insdvertis- lading sellers. ing...all 3 forms ot Peptodent.rere awarded the 2. bnly Pepsodent has all 3 tonaining iRtu+1 gtaed "Seal of ,Accepttnce" by. The Council on Pepsodent's patented, mo.r efketive ingrediente ental Thenpeutics of the American Denial Asso. i. Your dencist know•s hqtV etfecSive ItttuM is - tiuion. lfs the Veia oJ tbr Asreriwn Drst~! pr.Jd• is- described in "Accepted Dental Remedies" iiou, representing e3,000 dentius... your Assur.nce : Thit i vh~ we believe that;lnft F.pqlnrr PURtFtl° AU`YL suLlATl. of Sslet y is the ktnd•of dentifrice that deuirtr .vanc you to 4. Pepsod.nc, makes oo e~ a+aced advertisir use-Mhether you prefer tooth patn, tooth porwhe, ctatms• (In (aa, this advetn's'eTnent has been a or a liyaid dentiirice. Ptoved b~ the,Councit or:i,ental Therapeutics the American Dental Associadon.) SAFETY FiRST-Demaad Pep"deatS S. Pepsodent contains tso scractt. No oarc, t. e I. Pepsodent Tooth Pasce. Tooth Pow.. a ~~ ~ tler, and Liquid Dentifrice are snet- 6. Pepsodent Is unsurpassed In srraernvaxess.
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Y Dsar Bsn.x: Hey, you ~,;,p almost blbt ' is Of f l I siBht bs a•sitO d!~sr' ~nthusisstie but Bsasx surs turas sY wirY whisksr! _ Farasor!-I ~t•b«•••« Snto ss in .i o. Nws.etrt ov.rsl rthat a eiM runs into l.ss rs~ti~`t~~ a p,w..11y... landlordpOddlinf satOr• ..A~al.. ny So B.nox makss bsards 1I5 Ms ~s All I kno• is that thNs s,.k.p tn CK. CK. t t tdkO on rO Nt0 'A.ir w~~N , .hisksrs ooulda u _ or Slidss ' - ' r~ i"'"•'0'' at Bouldsr Das• Y throup 'ss liks S SrOasld .Ol• ` N~" Bsnox. mY bsndfaeter •• Yoy srf a...~.~.n .M.. t.ws- li!• shavsr. yoads Of thanks. Beards become %s water (and shavers ecstatic) with new y u th th. problem b..rd-+]s.n*: gtvs sup.r sh8"s-abs.r, quicker, lrstb.r-f.dingi 21.nht go.. Nsy" on...sy oA-no greasy fai ... just wah tkre~ spn-don, shav., rinfo. a.nsx won't dog rsor-iighi snd eiwmy, it rinsts inst.ntiy,..wen't rttm up rssor or dain. G.t it? Gst it today at your drug counter. Bristol-Myers' Brushless Wonder 0038
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•- • Have foe faced this Tanapax question yet? Ate you a Tampax user every month, or are you - still "a•ondering" about this modern kind of sanitary protaa• tion that is worn internally?.... In all bonesty may we ask "What are you wait• ing for?" A physician invented Tampax. Millions of women (yes, auually mil- Gons!) are using it every month. I c is sold in more than 73 countries. There is only one proof left for you--rry it! Here are the facts about Tampax. I c is worn without belts, pins or other suppores. Has only 1/1S the bulk of dic external-type of protection. Made throughout of highly absorbent surgi• cal cotton compressed in slim dispos• able applicators which make insertion quick and easy. Your hands need never touch the Tampax. Tampax uruaer dufe and cannot cause _ a bulge or edge•line. No odor. No need to remove in. your bath. Changing is quick; disposal easy. Sold at drug stores and notion counters. Handy to carry. Month's supply fits into purse. Stan using this month.Tampax Ir.corporated, Palmer, Mass. WW-" As.erhALe.ndws y yelker A.e.ei.ri.n TAMMX 1NCOtlOiATED, • ~LF&f." Llieer. Mase. Pleae and me in 01.ta .nflct a rrkl pacYaas of Taer.a. I e.dose 144 (saMe or eil.erl to ce.er cosr of aailina. Ske is aAsekN below. ( ) a[OVLAa ( I wRe_ -( ) JNNIOI Name Addrew Ct~ s:.:e 0042
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Oi]TSTi\N I)I~~ 0 M ;PALL MALL-the cigarette that's r4ally ; difjFerent-really "OUTSTANDING!" Pick up a PALL MALL-ste`the difference ° -feel the difference. Smoke a`PALL MALL :' and taste the difference. For PALL MALL's greater length of traditionally fine tobaccos; :. ~'iiters the smoke of this longer, finer cigarette .., gives you that smoothness, taildness.sAd. ;.` satisfaction that no other cigarette offers you,:. PALL MALL - the longer, , finer cigarette in the distinguished red packsge. 0047.
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Removes surface- ..~~ stains f rom the --- . teeth ... even tobacto stain5_ and tobacco breoth ! LR MYMSi!- (Rwd il 3nd tea7.!) New d'aetw.ry= '- piv.s reu mor.! Cl.ontin4, polishinp- pow.r qokx.. SeLI And weh a . pl.osont taA.. E}F.cpiv.l TnAy a MIraCIf Fattf. Gtt your pock of ueiltr todoy- "Dr. N:sl't" the nome to sayl :.... tN.f.w«.h.rWS Cw 0048
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Y THEY RUMBLE THROUGH THE N/ONT•..tollingthirry and forty ton=-6tfreight over roads clouded by fog, dogged with tra(6c• They are the kutg-distance truck driv ers. They get tired! For 28 days, 12 of them drank Knox Gelatine. What,happenedT 'oE-WpPWop_ 91X. SHAKE OFF TIREDNESS. On the 28t1iday, these asuntnJing resu!ta came to light. Every one of the 1 I men compFering-the test dcfinirc!y nnticedsirednett cut= •down! Fot 7,t6ere was a great improvcment..awNCh more stamina. 91"1<t TO CONTINUE KNOX. Two weeks later, 9af the 11 truck drivers were still drinking Knox...and definitely continuing.-2 more had stopped temporari!y...they _ still had pick•up from the original test, but they lvere both going to start apint -- 92% WOMEN LESS TIRED. Of more than 100 women in a11 types of work who completed the Knor test, 9 out of 10 said Knox gave them new encrgy! Scientific tests also prove Knox frequentiy more than doubles endurance fot women as welFks men. r,..T V_0 q(ip Nr.l Vr0 .ltalp twpN.rVt..s YetlR TIRED? DRINK KNOX/ Bs+ild NO yarr.nxlw.aa this simple way P:.1t 2 tw+rb:, , drink 4 envelopes of Krax Gelatine daily...two in morning, two at• night. Smnd 2 swrb: drink 2 envelopes..one in nwrning, one at night. After dtut, drink_rs tequired. tNt sttt)t is to drink Keaa Gelatine nj• regular 4envelope kitchen tiackiye,or{he nl.rfy. AnA aor'r /«aa. tirr) Little nwre new raoneleavinj j2..pvelope tlicitap. At ehan a pack of ciauena a M y ~°!~ r~oter i: Or write Kaoa.- Also ssnd - Be ar.r so drink plain, wEavored Knox fer ~Uetin F, Kno: Geluins, Johnstown, Gelatine jU.S.P.)...the sarNeatiatine used N. Ita DOpt. 71. foe o.er 50 years foe desren and saiods. NOX/ t0 iNINL aMOit titn~tr t s~~a1Me (M Knox is the only Sclatine Preh/ q intrcase t'i'4•/. Ke.a Oel.dae iaat4w 1/ trll.trawr ar ei enJurance• Each dose scsled in sanitst Natt wire• ttuw iral. ret the Iioaidabur* q~e aeia, !' -va.. . stk (x6kM. 1ltiuk -Kwa -i.a.rJiaqir. U 4 en.elope, protected rrari( yer toNir. buy the dtickem..t1r it aa.ie. .._..~., L~!'; .. ~..r- • ..~. ... . .T. _.r.. . •y.n..a. Bfi~T T/AEONESSlD/R/Nlr , _ 0034
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Gals greet Sood-lookini hair with open arms. For hair that rates receptions like this , . . for ba•u that's well-groomed, better-looking ... ii li use ~ s andth. ~ - ... 6D-Setond Workovt . Ask him about VitalWand tu individual, sanitary Sealtube applieaGon.?` Your borber is an expert. H. knows how to keep your hair handsome. stimulate your sealp. Y/Nr4 sfrr.lrr8r nr frbiN•Mren rratr w.rlu ~U .atVlYt,l~d~li,.aCGi~p..:7«o,p'1'tQ.tl~ ~'LOlmf~aoiilJ~ _ 50 secends to mossage-Feel that tingle! ThaCs the alcottol in Vitalis stimulating your scalp. Different from those ose dressings that contain nothing but oil! Won't dry your hair-The alenhol disappears, leaving a fine, o- teetive film of pure vegetable oiix that prevent drynesp.-At the sae time, you condition your sealp-raut ioose dandruff, holpYheqk exees= sive falling hair. 10 seeonds to comb-Man, whs: troominr! What natural lustre! No greasy look-Vitalis contains onl: pure vetetable-oils, no mineral oil. Get Vitalis ... any drug counter o: barber shop.
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0 acid r.bound. , • TUMS ore iike candy mints,=-.osy to take. Nothing • TUMS contain no` soda. ldo risk of overalkalisinp -and and h.artburn -fest i • TUMS neutraii:e txcess iocid almost Instantly --=r.liev- qat to mix or stir-no water needtd i• Night and day, at_ home or away, always carry % QUICK RELIEF FOR ACID 1NDIGISTION ~ TYMf AR[ ANTACIp--nOt a laaut3ve. For a laxatiie,- u.e rrala, -aopend, ~ able, sU-vnetabl. NR Tableta fNature'a RewdyJ. Get a Ybgbox today. 0040 - , i /~/N9
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.. Y B01) SwanSon picks his racing cars for speed- his cigarettes for slow burnin HERE THEY COME in a borrisune oE_AyinF diet sna 'a alit ieaond iFe:e aem mai• be dintbias iab olete'i squirting oil. Yoa ean almost hpr the high whine of the -hoods. brrdlinlt, aomerqukin j. -#yinY through 'lenw. moton and the rhriek of brakes:nrs buniinA tiw as they Bob Swanson likes a slower peee in his oR<time. Firher` streak into the sharp unbanked earvet. Yhey may call a lot. Smokee Caeqelr-a lot. He ex plaint: :=3 does'e like 'am "wfdsa racerr," but there t rP.ed ro banr underneath overhdatins in my cigarette any more than I like it in rhore toy-like hoods. Le.dint the paek in the Dietuee a racing motor. I aitkk to Gmeir.. I know they:m slowtr• above is veteran Bob Swanson, Pael6c Coatt champ. In ~bvntinB...miider and cooler." WITH BOB SWANSON. it'r aleeayr a rkrw.burninR Camel. "tltat rtower way of burnine makes a big diAennoe, t've kwnd." says Bob. "Gmeir.fe milder-easier oa my tbroat. They doai bother my nerves. They never tire my taue. And they give an extra amount of rmokin& too." Yet, speed is fine in the risht p1atY, but millions have learned that in eiParettes the coveted e=erar of rYCinerr, mildness (which ineludes fradom frwn irri• tation), and full, rich Aavor so with rtotwlirruirt Camels. MORE PLEASURE PER PUFF ...1VIORE PUFFS PER PACK! PER PACK! . f: .. .iiis;Yffft .. ~..amels --tle c~a•reffe afG'~o,rtl er~b'ac =In ment laboatory spes, CAMELS burni*d t; - 25% rlortnv tbut tM average of the I S'otber V : of-the latsm.tetlirts braodf -tatcd -a-slosst --'thAn arr of tlte111. That tticaAt, on the atlh. .al8o, a irtmitinj p1rl! eqHil to ` 5. EX°i'RA :SMOKES ~ 0035 j /Zdt.h4L
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. Got the 1C () I 1)1I miseries3 - See how Minit-Rub can help you e' Rub MINIT-RUS on chest and back. MIMY-RUi also helpr .oothe paim 1. fn e tnlnuf., Alinit-Rub bseins to tesulting from neuralgia,.eietiea, theu• stimulate circulation, begins to bring a matisT snd (uttlbeto.lry itt ; sensation oi warmth. That auick1Y hdp. MINIT-RU& is wond.rtui for both th1l- relieve auriace aches and pains. .. dren.nd adults. Greasolsst StainlwI Z. In a minvt., Atinit-Rub's wsl- Di..ppeersiikevanishiryarwnllYop't come pain-relieving action be~ins to fiarm iiMns. aoothe that raspy loul irritation. ` Get a tube oi Minit-Rub today I 3. In a minWo. Minit-Rub'c adlec . menda/ sopers begin to Mse that aasal stufhneas faoling. ~MOa1Or cMtll.w~~.-1 . t e 0050 ~ u i i-1l 0t
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28 • Journal oJAdwreirirt;,• g 1992. p. 43). aat ethiesl standards for ad+ortising research need to be codified and enforced if ws arc to have a creditable underpinning to public peNcy und tug'la• tory formulation? Certainly. there is nccd for an open discussion of such standards within the discipline. As a journal edi!nr for 15 years (Journal o(Cttrrr•ret Is• surs and Research :n At:vertisinr) this author rccog• nizes.thnt re%:ewers judicioualy examine issues such at: :•ali(:ity and reliability:n their evaluation of manu• ac.;pts. bui: many of them bring a different sense of rigor to those evaluations. A codification of at least minimal standards would benefit the discipline and authors alike by providing a common benchmark for- t:ie r eviewing process. However. what is more impor- tar•t is the +ery!serious nature of public policy formu• lation emanating from such research. The outpouring of demands fc-the outright banning of the.Joe Camel advertising campaign, based on the flawed research reported in JAMA. is a clear signal of tha need for rigor in the design and reporting of research. In brief. researchers need to earn a credible voice in pubflX policy debates by conducting and reporting valid. rc• liable research. References Adrerti.inu.4re (1992).'Oid Jot htust Go.' (January 13). 3. Appel. Va!entine. and h(iehael.t. Blun (1061). 'Ad Recopnition and Response Set.' Joumol njAdeertixintt Rrsrorch .(.7une). 13-21. Assneiat.d Pre» (1q2). 'AAtA Protest Parade Tarants Old .Joe Ads: Chicago: June 21. 1. (1993).'Lepl O'ricialr Want'Joe Catnel' Banned: Washington: Septetnber 22. ' Atlanta Jnurnal and Gwtetitutinn (1991). 'For Kiu i Sake. Scrap Cartoon Camel: (December 14/. T. , Bagazzi. Richard P. end AlvinJ. Silk. (1983`.'Mcall. Recognition and the hleasueetnent of Memory of Print Advettisetnents: Morkeei.ut Seienee. Z(2). 93• 134. $eve•e:dae. William 1.8. (1930). 7he drt n(Saicntiric /nt•ertit,eti..n. `ew York: Vint.ge Books. . Bnstnn C:nbe(1991).'What's Good For R.1. Rey~toldt: (December 12.1991). 6. Bnsaut Xernld (1991).'Study: Camel Cartoon Sends Kids Smoke Sigt:als: (Decentber 11.19010. Brown. David (1991). 'Old Joe and Mickey Mouso Noso to Nosa: The WaahinYter P•.e. (December 11). A•?»1. CampbelT. Donald T. and .lohn C. S4tnley (196.1). F•rp••rimrnMl and Quasi•gtlreriwenta( Deeigns for Ra•sen-c1t Bosten: HouRhten•Mi(flin Company. Citnons. `larlene (19tM1).'Torseee FeRa 11r:k Fadnral injunctinn: 0- The Raleiuk Netn & Obseraer. (5tareh 20). 20. 'wvestigttnr l.etlar Z(199Z), from.loa Difrenan. research Gle of )r. Jeseplt DiF-ansR diaesvercd in eenneatiott with Mansini. Ianet C. v. R J. RayaoldaTebroes Coenpany: it.1.R `AtIISCO. Inc.: :.teCann•Erieksen tSSA, Inc.: YounR nnd Rtthicent i,5e.. Suparior Court of the State of Gtlifornia. City and County of San Francisco. Case No. B:Il) 359. Commernts To Authori (t7J:).:•lanuseript sOC1666{by D+Prvir..:* ct al.). -es.erc:•+ fiie of Dr. •Joseph DiFrsnzs' dieeov.rad s.-1 conrnrotson with Mnneini. Janet C. v. ft. J. Raynotds Toba:r-. Compliny: RJ.R. `,1ti1SCO.1ne.: httCann•Erick.on LS.t.:n^.; You :a and Rubicam Inc.. Superior Catttte( tl:e State of C.i:• fdrnie. City and County e( Sen Francisco. Gase Nn. 930 =Zi. Dsgnoti. Judnnn (190I). 'rld:ldA Lights tiew pire Under Carnci'. Ads.' Advrrtisinu.Lx. (December 14. 1991).3 & 32. Danter t'e.•1(199Z):.1oe Camel. Child Molestet' (:•tareh 15). 9. Drtapit tiw•lrn(19'11).'Do YourXids KnowOldJoe:(Rkcemlarrr :2). 5. DiFrenzn. Joseph R. Jotis+ W. Richnrds .1r.. Paul M. Paulntn. - Nancy 19olf.Gillitsoie. Christopherfletcher. Richard D. Jnffn. and David slurray (1991). 'Rlft tisbiseo's Cartoon Crnkl r'romotes Camel Cigarettes to Childton.'Jnurnal.alth.•.t n.•.;. !- son Madical Asrxiotinn. 268. W). 3149.3153. Eiseh. Stell. M. (19<J2). 'Study on Old Jon Ads May Se Flawud.' iYinrt~n•Solere Jrwrnal: (.%1ry 24). 1. Enrico. Dottie (1902). •Fed• WalkA Slile To Ban •/oe Camel.' N..•u• York Nswsday. (March 14).$. _ Finn. Adam (1589).'E~int Ad Recognition by Children Aged 3 to 4 Years: J.wrnal.f.NarketinK Rr.eertih. 23 (1lay),16l1•177. Fischer. Paul \t.. -%(eyrrP. -Schwartz. John W. •Riehards.lr.. Adam O. Gotdstein. and Tina H.12oaas (1:191): Brand LoRn ftecoRn:• tion by Children Aged 3 to 6 Yean: aowneel..(th: dwA.•rirnn ` d/t-ditol ria+int•iatir.n. Z66. (23).-3t<3.31t8. Fnrt 1Vi:n1, Seor-TeTcttrnm (1991). "•/oe Ceme:: Brilliant Campaign. ` Untntlnd:d liesults.' (December 1 T). 16. Funk 6e Wot,mallr .Vru• Entyrtespodia (1981). vol. 9. New York: Funk & WaRnaGs. Inc.. / i 2. . Gnr'ett.'11+oenas 11. (1+St1.1) 8thic•s in 8uytnrmr. NeW Yerk: Sh .rcw' ' and Ward. Harripn. Susan (1i193).'Snuf!ed Out:' .Vew 1'ivlr Nvw.day. Wunr 27). 3. Horovitt. Bruce (1992). 'Most .Adv¢rtised Cigarettes Ate Teens Choice. Study Says : lww Anxatrr 7"iwRer. tvtoreh 13).16. J.wrnal a/th. ARterionn .Sfcditel AsuK•iati.,n (199.1).'lnsttucuonx forAuthors.' 260 (0.34. Kond. Dnlorrt (1992).'Do.1ds Lure Youngsters To Drink,Smnko." The D••.t.•n O&rb•. (April 2 7). •11 •44. Lecitenby. John and Josepl+ Ptutnmer (1983).'Advertisittg Stimu• lus Sfeasursntent and Assessment Rnearelt: A Raview of Ad• vertising'festinR Metkods: Curtent l.stter and Rasea•t•h in AdeertirieK. James Leigh & Ciavde Mertin. eds..133•1aa. Levine. Aridren C. (19921, Assisant Aweney General of Suk`ef KeW York letter te SeeuttorJohn C. Danforth (R-hlo.). July;: Upman: Joanne (1992).'Surtteon General Puts Joe Camel on the Enden3ered C.ist: tt9tll'Staes J.wriial Ctsrswwan Edit:nr. 1A aril). 8. - 3)anpini. .)nnot-C. v. 1t. J. dta}vtoWs Tebetes Gentrean}; 12.J.R NAB1SCn. Inc.: McConn.Eriekaon USA. Inc.: Youna e-d Rubicam Inc. (1062). Sucorior Cot.rt of the State of Cr"or-- nia, City and County of San l?t aneisee. Case No. 939 3:_. htcNeal. James t:. (1fl8T). Children As C.onnuiners. Leainrton. 51A- t.eainRtan B+wks. 1lizer+iki. Richard (1!Ni2). *Viewer 5liscomprehension Findings er.• 5lrnsuren'sCnt C end:J.wrnnl+.f tfarkrtintt.46(4).3:•0t. .Y.vt• }Sak Obrrrrr t 19!13). `Cetnmrntary: (htarch ?.'f1.1./. aoseph DiFrnn, ~ Old J•a atudy Prelile (1~:1. rn.eoreh fite af Drh diu:owred-in cannection'.wiih atnnRini..IRnst C. v. ft. .l. Reynolds Tobacco Campany;11..1.R NABISCO. ine.: hieCan4 Erickson L'lIA. ine.: YwnR and Rubientn Inc.. iiuprrior Court of the State of Calitetnin. City and County of San Frs+nri:tM. f:e.o Na. Jal 7.rA. " I Ati0216- 00~
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those approximately 18-to-22-yesrs- otd. The dowments show this was omitted from results because it was ineoasistent with a preconceived conclusion that the cantpaigtt's appeal was gmatest among children. In one of his letters to co-authors (Co- Inveui`ator leaer 2] Dr. DiFratus sutes: "when kids are compared to adults under 30. it appears that the ads appeal soone to people in their 20's thaa in their early teens. This was true of the retnaiainj three questions as _ wetL.it would appear that we have ' just disproved our theory that the ads appeal more to kids than adults." At - this point he proposes to redefine age ' categories so that the data will evetumlly support the theory. S. The discovery documents (Co- Invwstiaator letter 21 reveal that Dr. DiFtanta discovered that very few (13 of 167) young children (grades 5 • thru 8) smoked on a regular basis or intended to begin smoking in the future. In the final study ehildren fsota grades S-8 were omitted from the study. This was never nvealed in the final paper despite the j=tantent by DiFranss. et at. (p. 3152] "ttiarthe average age for starter smokets is 13 years." A JA MA peer reviewer (Comments To Authors 1991, p. 2) cridcized this statement - with reference to reports from the surgeon general in both 1980 and 1989 which found the actual mean age of smoldn8 initiation to be about 18 yeats. Dr. DtFransa disputed the methodology for the Surgeon Genersl's reports, but nevaoftesed the results fsom his own' study of the 167 children cited above. 6. Dr. DWransu in communication to his fellow researchers says "it would be best to avoid parochial sc-Acot: basuse their smoking rams will be'so low that the brand preferenee survey wilt not be meaaint(ul" (Old Joc Study Protocol). This is-anoMer indiestor of the advocacy bias for this study. A sumatary of the eshical standards perfoa- tnanoa of the DiFrana. at al. research teua is the following exeapt from a 1Ylaskinrton Thnes ed- itorial (August 4. 19921: ty e/mnjinj questions tkat didn't - jivc tkae the aiswers they wo,ued. by referring to people up to age 21 as "cisildren." by leoviAt some ineonve- nient. findin;s Ynpublislted. Dr. D1rFraesa and his cv-d+ttltors were able to coR+e up with the anaJcin= SLna they wonted. Among the wpublZrhed lGtd• ittts brought out by RJR: Dr. Difrodsa could only ftnd three nonsmoUnt sru. deAtl out of 740 ranarteAert srwoed who crpressed an iuueedon so insoks in the ncu year. Motlter: Roajhly 98 per. cent of the ttoar„tokers consider stnok- inj itAattractive. -INDEPENDEN1` REVMWS AND RESEARCH STANDARDS. The DiFraasa. et al..artiele was submitted to four rrsearchers in,v;ryut8 soeiai sciessce 8eids (tnarhetitlj ntana;etnent. advcrtisin8, eonstuner : behavioc, and scate=ic ros,aa=ement A public policy) ftottrdifferitt` major univetsuirs for their independent revievrs. They were asked to evaluate the D~ta:urs, et aL paper on the baas of the usuai eorms iot theit diaclplinea. All ftita ase experienced in analytical techniques and are teviewers for journals in tluit setected Selds, It - is nnphasized thst the lttd(ridual revieyrers.Kee not privy to the taatarial produced 4ota the legal iction destribe+d abova-and it provided no input to their evalw4oes. Tlu :followin` is a summary of asajor ele- ments found in the avatwuicyns of the DManr~t, et aL study by the four indepeodent revicweesi . 1. DiF:>n:aL et al, ( p. 31321 stata "the tao; that children are rnors attracted to - the themes itsed in the ald Joe car- toon cltasacter advertisements may alsc explain why (eha children) are : more familiar witlt them (the sdver- tiseme,ac=)." The investisators did ttot conubl for such cottfottnding.3Mw ettees in tbeir3esetnrll. Rlitnieatiott of other possible sources of explanation is ; necessary- ia causal reseateh (Chuztihiii 1991) and jeopardizes the -audy's intecnal validity (Carnpbell4 ' and stmley 1963). 2 Students In 5 different schools weee satveyed. with 60 students in each grade 9-12. Students ran8ed from 12 to ' 19 years old. with an average age of 16 years. Troublesome is an undisclosed iraction is presumably of legal smokiaga~e: 18 years in Massachusetts. Nebtaska and washington: 17 yeats in Geo~ii: and no a~e litttit foc ;moklng in New Mettieo. One reviewa points out that' - leaving ottt sha NeW MAtieo tatnpW- ~ _j J Ln cn _J Qh , AG0216004 T
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,.) , YoutL0V6 'EVERYSIP- (and each glass has a pus"!) :° sunsweet helps ;:.kee y you regular! pgi/NE $UNSWT FI In boRles or eens • Propand and distribut.d ly fho. makors of Mett's applo (uieo, a fp/s saue*, cider, vin.yars, and jtillu
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I trowbIe. WARNING! yR" .r+ i.r awar.ir, kAy...la !.la.. Vir -w.r.ieg ~iye.16 tb.t y..r ad' e..d. .tr.Mi.a. JERIf hu . .r.dd Lyreir"at tArt s1hm.s ta•s th. falr. il.e iWf .ad y.vrwRrl.tett6.n.l.rlb. ROUTS LOOSE DANDRUFF INSlANlL1'! Jius has "doubte-actlod". Its aoti- septic ingredieots kill t!n_daadroff .bacillu:*, rouc loose, unsightly daadruA~ i~notly. Jatrs also haa a special ingredient tbst stlmulates blood tlow, -gett at tbe v.ry root oj tbr troabis. For a heabhy,sca1p _- aad handsome halt, use Jsus every day. At drug counters every.vbere. Request it at your basber's, too! •rlu,..,o.......d.1...utk ...rts...w.u,.r ..rana*e w /M s.a..e iw1.N1w Intt..d• , Antiseptic, JERIS -HA1R TONIC • I FOR dEST RESULTS. . • • u.• JERIf Aeri.Mi. NOk anr • u.. J[RjS CREAM OIL ..•«r NA.r Myr . e+...s• «.a bA.tib ..«r r.r• JERIS SAlES COMPANY, !GS E.140th ST.. N V r
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4 : . Nera'u tbs OHLY SURE proven ,~. mathod usedfor.~- ars . by.big mills ... now ~° •ooid forhome usel :, . - ~- •One spraying rnothproofs ,,~• . -- ` :: for a Whole Yearl '-. There's one wnty you can be AsSOCO7TtY '.. stlltt moths.vill never• sat yot+r precioat ;,. woolen clothes, sofas and rnas. This is " ':: to actually motbproof the cloth itself with LUtvzx. s'•xvs7t's m.pic sprsy olso6nt- tsatu each tioy.vopebn •',: and makes the cloth itself motbproo[/.r e ":•; w4sle year. ?ens prove moths tvill somtait "'; sttidde by star•ation ratber than aat ior+ • tbin j treated with t.uivsx. Q~/ lust spray tbee gutneot with s nRVSx s,nd 6ao j in Its usual place. No motbbsll, dmphor or cedar odor. zAnvsx is sLriui snd rtriwJan _ Itcostsaowonto i.ar<vsx a suit than _ to get it dry cieansd. And twR°rsx gives twstrrvtt proaaion from moth damags: Only 790 a pint. i i.19 a 4eut: LARVEX l o/ ~s r t ss ~r~9 i llol~F. ~ a~ r. 0051 ~ j ~ ~.IJA -
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I .. r COtmS KmE iENETaATWS IOAM GfIS wt0 HIDOeN CREV:CFS d[TwEEfi tE.°TM_ MEt75 CtEw MY. DEfArkvi f0a! MRTktES _ sov stxrNAwr s,urvA moRS_atMat iME CAUSE OF MUCH QAp iR61TN I ® 0055
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I MARION: She said . marriage im't all DICK: So that'a what's wrong with her! peaches asd cream ... that Dick and I, Poor ldd ... no wonder ahe's been so would tif£ baoe tn a while. And this is it. ahort with me latelyl She's probably He i hardly spoken to me all day. Of been eating the wrong kind of food-and coane, I have been kind of e7abby lately. as a retult, has acid lndigesbon. Well H.m-m... maybe lu doesn t kaow why... ... we can fix that in no thael `-- OICK' Yea:'s ago, my doctor told me NIARICN',iphtllfps' ;is Just wond.rjull that double-action Pbillipi 'tilk of Mag- Almost by the time my head touched the aeaia is not only a marvelous lomttoe, pillow. I felt bettesl Slept Iike aIlitten but one of t>>Lfastast, most e$eottve ... awabaned this motdag with a gmt1., antaotds kaown to science. So Phillips' aot a scowl ... and, as you pin tes, MUI: of Magnesia is what I gave Marion. everything'a peaches and aearn #gaiat tn m w tn Gst tb. 300 bottlt: Co+ttiiat tbrte tie.et as a3trab as ebi 25t tiu. Also ia ooaveni.wt, ¢lisrsat-tut. io1 trblet Josm - 23Q e bos. 1ir. 1,40. t! .._f ~.. I , /i(4 /NP)
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order of the ads was randomized. a common methodology. Also stated is "the fact that children are,: mom arsraeted to the themes used in the Old Joe cartoon character advertisements may also ex• plain why (the children) are more famlliar with them (ahe advestisements)" (DWranza, et al. p. 3132). The investiptoes did not control for sach confounding influeaces in their research. Eliminadan ot otim< possible sources of explana- tion is neoeasa:y in csmai research (Chnt+cbili 1991) and jeopandises the smdy's ioteraal valia- iry (Campbetl and SoNay 1963). were de~ibed~by ~vie as toe+oed response . binary choices. Ooe reviewer deacribed uft such binary choices a; naive and "sopbomor3c" in levd of research dasisa. The aatlroes report signitieant ditiereawes in the mean appeal score for ieens and adults (p. 3151), but do not oom- pana either neaulc to what would be acpecod due to chance alone. The atpected appeal sfloes with random ehoiea is 2.0. the actual scaea sepocoed foc saidaut is 21(1.4 for adoits). ~ In much the aama veia. DlFraesa, et aL (abk. p. 3151) report that "due to incomplete quadonnaires, respondents for some qnesdons may be fewe[." ZUaa is no infocmasion given pn this incompletsaes:. RevieMeis cited this as a miiial omissioo since it peeeludes any judgmeat as to dara:eliability ' Finally. reviewers e:itieized the Leavy is- lianee on unpublished dam (DlFransa. at aL pp. 3149-S0j.'11ie nviewers wen disttabed by ipo• nance of moee than sixty yaes of aoeial science retnrsb documenting normuive social iailaeaaa among adufts. This was amdbuwed to sisaiSeaot adveeae,y.by the Difraaa teseatrheni. Fisher. e,~ t_t., $eYfew '11iis reports on an investigation of "braod loSo reoo=nition by ehil6eea aged 3 to 6 yoam." Children were in=truaed to matrh logos with one of 12 products pictured oa a=ame board. Twenty-two b`os wroee teemd, ineludius thoss mpeaaidni ehiidra+'s Podna~: adoit peodawm and those for two popular oipmtte brands (Camel and Alerlbonv). 'IUe aetdaS for dw sb- seaneh wme prenrboolt In Aagum aod Ati.a+t;, The summary 4f the findings concerning reviews off the Aga, eX a1. article (1lip1) is' found in Table 3. There `are_six staddards.oa which tbe-msJaityot the sevirtrers identified ef-; Mrs in tlte r~pOrttd-re~amn h: validityy and selia•- bilic~,.:~eodtl~atiQn-~` oi 1ushars4pecuialioa, outcoau raLtsd to variables of tovestiptioa, eapaetia j andke di~on oteonvaRenc results, sappoct for cWtqt -Md assertioos. and an - advocacy position by the autdai=. The smdy found that brand logo ree.Suition inoroased with aSe, add-by ags-6. recopidco of ` Old Joe is .oompaaabb so eha Dtehey Chanael logo. 4iddsaa focwted_on a tatime to steegs that silC ysar-Vd4s do "a in teoo- nizia~ "adult lo- St•, (e<S..ChsvMl4c.=Fiaqba recognition of the Dimer fhaoaei Jop and Old Jos --sveis -'Wihest,in;tbeir MMMd3M. Mdt1Gi damsmin ' (Fi:otw. ec aL. p. S1<5)., Us aw- ~ tboes' fall tsf steatt tbtt 1be '___ "_ ara "cidldrat's bxaodi" (tbe Disasy loSo) and "ciSsratte beaads' ( Old Joe). Ue reviewers were ecncaued that not piopoinxd was the ba that tbe Olraer Channsl. MeDonald"i. Bargsr Xtn j. t3eiMaat tiaa. _COW C&Jd, rOd. Xfke. Chnroltr °and PW Ni bad biSl~Or saeopidoa ssoeaa duta Old J4e. nC jCl? T0V*ft" *dtO coIca006 with *4 arp Of the 16009900 0& A fcmdmaW p[ob. 1am 8 that *M Is ao 100 oQated (ar Os mda- 1ft .pe+amtss dntaOY 3oSo aa0**1o+s k.ds to _ smioldoS. Atao of eoaoira is th.t t6a adtbaes So . far be'~otid tb*baW .~a.:hodolopr khaft ad-- va""; seoosnitioo~a a aim,Wd mmr eise by-dh0enw. Ii~ed liree:~e aod Plmmmac:19E3) d~ i** a~oca. cQOrlada dK aevdedain; seooSaidon is a eoamplmc, aOid- variabla snessat 1-1ot tbW woee aimpiado matehinS exercise offered by Fiichar, at aL {1991). vaiidity was queadmed by eacb mviewa. Among items dted was ds (1) small aisa aI tha ebaiaa 1 et a>ad=t2) *m tesv dW= gwiiabie- ebaa is a likelihood the aobjeets employed bearisde eboioe tittis Sod a>ia'eadoa peoee• dnret, sy:aastdaaIIy bi.daf tbansultL Tha anihoea _ijnowdats ~ lmpcvNW mmt in aoaeetly mrich oD ptOd1>m amooS Geodia. A coavoniaros sampb of 229 ehndeen oidac ehOdM la ilA atady aad.,~m.rlte do aot aoendia:10 peeac4ools was med. Fisber. ec aL, claim ft uhiideeo demoomatad 63jb taoes of logo :eoojniaon and wbes .ur]ysed by peodoct ata6oeye dro level of desnate l*oa .vas isoar- madine beewaar ehildeea't and adult peoduas. The recognition of the D/iney Chowe1 10,o and Old 1os were deraibed aa "highest in tbeir re- 3:lpw~e peodnes o.~aela" Mi:eba. at aL. P. npat oq Mimadmi irtadber ios" to dpraea ; -aed othw eigae+rde lo6ag so e peod- ~. Caarcaainj-~s tait~mer, it-.~w Sur g 0 a~ed tlais b Amply a as" pfpp~doo io*srd m- ^ ara~d oo~re ~1 iu a~ur,b3aS. s '>ba-failnen of tlte indbors im coiirtder me bok ueorlci M iaCatl Aid "coSAttioa ["low :. .dnd Silk 1953: Shoaod dtothachild 1933:° _ N A,i`s421 $010 i .~ ~
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Y CAN YOUR SCALP PASS THE teFINOERsRtAii. ( FN ) TOT 3"' (ie r.... r ~':6~'~~ ..,,; 0 , Tsr III farata0 your a.ad. ff lod ifnd of dryness, loose•utly dandruQ you n:.d Wiidroot Cr.am-OL hair tonit `Grooms hait... relieves dryness..: r.0ae•a loo.e d.ndruRi Contains soothint Lanolin; an oil resomblinC the natural oil of ?oar skfa r YOYk MAfR CAN LOOK LIKE THIS WITH NEW W9LOR~O ~` : A LimE WILCttoot CtIAM.OiG {fess i ioi for yoor bair. Keeps Toor hsir well Sroeemed aU day long, Leaves no traee of tAUgnssy, pk+stared down look. Makes your Oair look and feel good. NON•ALCOMOLIC CONTAINS LANOLIN! AGAIN AND AGAIN the eAeiee of man wAo put good grooming /hst-t0at9 Wildroot Croam-OiL No won. der when n.w users from coast to aeast- wereqoeuioned, 4out of S who nplied said tbey pr.f.rred !t to any ether Wlr tonio tAe~ A.d used before. A.k fer it at yoar bar. b.r or drug counter. 1M*qtTANTr t;man wom.n us. Wfidroot Cream-Oii for quiak grooming and for relieving dryness. Mso a- eailent !or training esil. dran's h.ir. TUNE iN ... 2 N.twork Showst "TAe Adv.ntwee of fam it»da^ fon. evenMp. CSt Netwerkf "KMd C}le T.N Tlme" fet. eperne.ns, NIC N.herk.
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. V Yes, "soaping" your"hair with even finest liquid ovcredm shampoos hides its natural lustre with dulling soap #ilm` ' ~- - • Halo is made with a new patented 7ng.dient. Halo-not a soap, not a crearn-cannot leave dulling ftlm! e So Halosaveals the true natural beauty of your hair the very first time you use it, leaves it shimmering with. glorious highlights. e Needs no lemon or vinegar after-rinse. Halo rinses away, quickly and completely! a Makbs'oc.anf of rich, fiagrant' lather, even in hardest water. Leaves hair sweet, clean, naturally radiant! e-Carriea away umi=htly loose dandruff like magic! e Lets hair dry soft and tnanateable, easy to curl! • Buy Halo at any dru`'oir cosmetic counter. Halo Reveals the Hidden Beauty of YQa,r Hct:r' 0045 J +l L4 (p,/i4c
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I 6 Safeand- - sure deodorailt ends perspiration troubles ! eTtot'EZ' actually ends under•arns perspiration odor -~,~ttY-suretr ~ ~ E'rtOurT-made by specially patented formula- really checks under•arm perspiration ! M ~ F7.uFPY•t.iCflT AND SOOTntNC-Etiquet goes on easily M-disuppesrs in a jiffy! No gritty particles! : %tAttt: F.CONOMiCAL TO RtJY-Etiquet won't dry out ~ ; iu the jar! In 100, 25e, 39e and 590 sizes. f Yn nAMecC TO Yotm CLOrni.c with Etiquet- ~ dte famous cloth-test proves! s T'a-.I-. SAFE-AND-SIIRE o~ DEODORANTs o W /:).(o MR)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 IN THE CIRCUI 7COURT OF THE 11TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN AND FOR-'_DADE COUNTY FLORIDA GENERAL JURISDICTION DIVISION >-CASE NO.: r9j-08278-CA FBN: 614D09 HOWARD A._ENGLE, M.D., et al, Plaintiffa, V. RJ REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY, I?efendant. CONFIDENTIAL DEPOSITION OF CLAUDE R. MARTIN, Taken on January 8,`1998, at the- Sheraton, 3200 Boardwalk, Ann Arbor, Michigan, at-or about 9:15 a.m. APPEARANCES: - For the Plaintiffs: MR. JOHN HOAG Stanley.M. Rosenblatt, P.A. 66 Weet_ Flagler Street 12th Floor, Conpo_rd Building Miami, Florida- .33130-1809 For the Defendant Philip Morris: -MR. STEPHEN MCCONNELL Dechert, Price, Rhoads -._ _ 4000 Bell Atlantic Tower 1717 Arch Street- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania HALL AND-DEER (800) 321-3904 cn m 19103 ~ a
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order of the ads was randomixed..a common methodology. Also stated is "Ihe fact that cWldren are more ataaeted to the themes used in the Old Joe cattoon character advertisements may also ex- plain why (the chi7dreo) ane more farailiar with them (the adve:tisements)" (DiFranza, et aL p. 3152). The investigators did not coaaol for such confounding influences in their research. Elimination of other poscble sources of explata- tion is neussr+r in causal research (Chuschill 19911 and joopatdius the saudy's internal valid- iry fCampbell and Stanley 1963). 13e advertising "appeal" score measures ware desaibed by revie.vess as forced reaponse binary ehoices. One reviewer deaaz'bed using , such binary choices as naive and "sophomocie` in level of research design. The authors sepairt , sigalfiuot dllieranoea In the mean appeal scam for toetfs ard adults (p. 3151). but do aoc oom- ehanee alone. The expected appeal score with random choieet is 20, the aeotal acaa:epocood for staadeatt is 2.1(1,4 for adaltt). -• In much the saaie vefn. DiFiaaza. et aL (table, p. 31511 report that "due to iacoatplete que:<lonnalies, eespoode+us for some qnestioas may be fewei.", Thae is no infotmaaan givat o0 thit inoontpkuasa. Reviewes eited this as a ei:iol amisdoa since it.prealuda aay jodgmeat as to data telisbility Ffaally, eavie.vees aitie'vtd the heavy za- llanoa on tatpnbltshad daoa (DlFransi, et aL pp. 3149-50). The nerie.rers .vere disturbed by ipto- sanee of more thao sixty years of aoeial scieooa research doeameodng aaemative social ioDoeaoe anaog adalts. This was amdbuted to sigai8ewt advocacy by the Dtfraaa eesat+eMe:. Elher. et al.. Review I1tis reports oa an invoaigation of "bwod logo naaogNtioa by ehildiza aged 310 6 yeates." Qdldtan.ere itmttetad to matrh logoa witb one of 12 products pictured oa a gaasa boatd. Tweuty-two logas was tsamd, iocludi thosd WIP 118 , - childron'= pa 4 1 - td..dak PevQeta+. and thote for two popular ciganae brands (Canst and IKaNboro). The aettiag (or dte te- search were ptr.asltools In Anguasa and Atlama,' Geoegle. A eonMeaienoe sampte of 229 dtildren atrendla=10 peaadrools was tt:rd Fisher, et a1., claim the eAUdeeo demonstrated high soet of bgo teoognitioa and whea amlysed by peodaa eategery. the bvel of eigme<u logoa .vas lata• mediate beti.aen children's and adult products. The recognition of the Di:ney Clrmutst logo aad -- Old Joe .re1e dasas'bad as "highat in thdr re- spective product eateiaries' (Fiselwi. et a(., p. 3 The summ}ry' Q( the finQitlgs concerning reviews of the:F;sher, et al: article (19911 is found in Table 3. There are -six stsndards o0 which the majority of the revie+vers-identified et- rors in the reported nsratt:h validity and tnlia- bJlity. ideeti£cation=-o!-authors` speculation. outcome -stilated to variables of iavestigatioo. t+eportiag an4/er diit4ssioci of uonreigenrnesttltst sapport; for IClaiass ud, assertions. and an advocacy position by the authora. •.. -The study fouttd'tttat brand logo recognition IrKSa,aed with aga, and by age 6. mogaidoo of Old Joe is oompatable to the QCsney Channsl 1ogo.0ideistri focttted ca a fiiZune oo tosss that sut ycar oldi do afe,lt in rpoosatr3ag "adult lo. gos' f..=.,Chevr+plet. Fsuher:+eseaehsrnt found ~oDgaiooo oLthe Disday Cuaeel logo and Old Joe :-ware `hiihiest tn-1ht.is'-manpadve =dncz Comw tFt>cuet, at rL, p.- 31451. ,Uw aw tlaes' fail aWo a~as that the ~psp at+e :'e4Odrat's bnmds"-(tberDimey logo) -aod "clga:etta brarsds'- ( Old Jos). The nvieare:s .Kre aanoqnued that-ttot p;opound was the latx that the Dit+vy C+Setnnel. JKeLleRatd't. Bsvssr JCta j. De~nliwr ~irso, Coeo lola, tep~ti, Nlkt. Cd~ev.nist tsld Ford all bad biytar sebogainon axta: than Otdlac. 'ibafon+r:+evie.vant were roaee;aed ,vfth the asa of tbe raoogttidaa task, A londameeir;l pevbm lem is tlrc dleet b ao basis os!'ated for tba tendc- lrfa9 pembe that eatir bgo >tieogaisioo k.m in A~atoidoboym ~g Atbeirbasic Mod-logyinfacringed. vatising aoo3stttioa to a dmple to>sdla= em- -aa by ddidteod tailaeal 1ieran (tAcJOaaby aod Plammar 19231 deed Wtlre letboea, aooeleda _ that : adveislttetg eeoiagaiBon #s s ooatpiaxt, maW- vasiable tnenswomem. not the aors simplistic atatshtn` suercka ` offered by Fiuher, a al. (iM Vdidity .va: qtrostioaMed by each rev$e•Kr. Aotoog icems dted srets stta (1) s+aall siu of tbe e.itolee fet_and (2) .vtth few ehoka ava~ tbats is a lifcdibaoA the sobjots employedd hateiitie eboioe tdes asd elitniaadoo poace- 4t~a, ry~a~Ay bia~ thamttltaf. _ 2M autltas igdtxe dam ab4arlug lmpeore- meot in aoereatty atatch togcs to pepdoett amooj older,eldldrat ia tbe smdy aaR[ IOoGMte do not report on asisaaat~a - other bgoa to eJgar~w 'anti other eigatette 11496 to t1".dperae ptod• - oas, Cancoraiag ffip~trraa, !t ~ saggared this Is simply a aararas prop+assioo toarard io- : aMqed Oognid.ve stlll #nateoca3ig. • The bJluea of the antbaes to ~asider ahe basie .raics in' loeall and "-WPNtioa j8.goai and Silk 1983: Singh and Rotbeblld 19a3: t I Ln N ~ v AG0216010 11
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~~ .~.~~e 0 O~ ~'~ zg~ ~ A~~ z~~ ~~ ~ THE TRUE STORY OF ANOTHER FAMOUS CLAPP-fED BABY 1 14 •r WAY tAdIC IN 1934...a special Clapp's Baby Foods test began in Westfleid. N. J. Little Gregory Hovendon, picked for this test, was fed Clapp's e:elwive!y! Here he is at4 months-chubby and perky-thriving on bispourishin=Ciapp's Cereals. Next month it's Clapp's Strained Vegetables Ior himl A SOUND MtND ... a healthy body! That was Gtrogory at 4 years! Far ahead In de- valopmont, he was living proof of what proper f.edingan do.He took to his Clapp's Junior Foods just as readily as he did to his Clapp'aStraitwd Foods. Never a futt, never a trteattiate problem. What a youngster! ..+-.e.a.. . .... . _ . ~ . ... ONE YEAR OLD.-aefd-what a fine:peci-' speci- men of_babyhood! Eyessparkiin;t Muscles }irm! Thoso delieiousCiapp'a straine4 ioups, truiu and vcgotabie3 certainly holped do a grand job! It was just gain and;rowth- month after month for Clappd'ed Gretory! No ups and dowas for bim-oaty UPS! A!•LRURi SPORTS ANNOUNertR 1 Pet- ' baps! -Pouneee-yaar.otd GregWa lovo of sporu.aad dadre to bea sponsoommetttator, tc8eet hisbrirmrting, robust hcaith! A good , pan of this Is undoubtedly dua:to his sx- ._ caRant early diet. He's a tino example that a cYoed eaby i* -o wertifee baby! P. S. Why not make your baby a Clepp.l.d baby, tw1 n.uswAmteut Eeas foees .
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Don't be confused-iasecticides and mothproofers are NOT the same I thing. To be AeSOitrrEtY SURE moths will >rever eat your clothes, sofas or rugs-you must make the cloth itself mothproof. And tbisls" just what LARVEX does-one spraying motbproofs for a whokyssr! LAltvEX'S magic spray penetrates each tiny woolen fibre and lnoth. proofs the cloth itself. Moths .vill commit suicide by starvation ratherthan eat anything aeated with LAkvEX. Safe. Stainless. No moth ball, camphor or cedar odors. LARVEx i:, comptetsty odorJeu.- It gives POSITIVE PROTECTION from moth damage. THE ORIGINAL MOTHPROOFER AlApt/1!%Yll I t ca s ts • no 111ore to LMlvsx a suit or cost than it does to aet?t:dry cleaned. TESTS SHOW PROOF. Cloth en fc/t Aas wer been treated vith twavtx. Cloth on riRht As,jeeNtredreravith LARVax. Nose how moth +torms re(use to sicLu.eaed eloth, ONLY 7!c A IINT. S1.I! 4 QU_ART. ALL ORUG, DEPAATMENT AND NQUSEFURNISNINGS STOSES. `- 0061
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5oak your plate or bridge in Polident fo keep it hygienicqlly cl ean, odor-free MOST DENTISTS agree that brushing cannot cure the unpleasaat oIIease known aa DENTURE BREATH. To keep dental platei clean, pure, iree of tell-tale odors, more d.atists recommend Polident than any othur den" cleanser. (ientle, easy soaking In a folution of PolIdent and water every_ day is a~te, sure way to avoid DENTU:RF 8-^EATg- and to keep your talse teeth ;psrk}tat bright with their _ori=inal aatural `look. B uy sn e0CROMIC&I can of Poudeat,rrorld's largest sellinC denture slearuer.' RufM~~e- ae.k Pla..r MNe. ~.AY-Rft..n .0inwa « wwe-in 0 b.dy deetiine aMwn e/ P.W.nt .n1 ..1.r. LOOSE FALSE TEETH? 11mPO11DEt1TAr# RECOMMENDEO iY MORE DENTItTt THAN ANY OTHER DENTURE CIEANSER m Amazing Ne Holds Tighter,-Wfly's thinh You ever ~r1ed than any JbW1 .IR n1911iT POLI•GRIP Mndc c=rd G~a ;,r,t<vd by POLInEFJJ I 0044 Lf / ! '.') / NA
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DOES L07"'~ MORs 4 • TNAN lCEMP,~IANR =xr'+r ..,K~~ U .. Handsome, hcalthyclooking hair needs a 'hygienic' scalp. And why not enjoy the Esrna advantages of Kreml Hair Tonic-it gives you your money's worlh! 0 Kreml contains a special combination ® longer with such a nice, healthylookiag lustre. But Kreml _ does LOTS MORE- orxER hair tonic. That's why it keeps hair neatly groomed ® V if.'_:rv-i{f[ ~ fVA;z Xl:,l47f; ;rs OF IHt; ///GN/ Y .S1'r G/A C /~ FC fiA4FZ 7ON'iC: ~J! of hair•grooming ingredients, which is found in so -- : W ~12rliER SMOl7YERSiY.f/RANOSG4l~Lb/f?frfY/rrf'uif~3TCA7 Kreml keeps hair perfectly groomed all day long yet never _ looks or feels greasy. Kreml always looks and fecls so ct"N on hair and scap. No grease comes oR`onatns yM l hhid! Kreml is great to lubricate a dry scalp! And if your hair is so dry it breaks and falls when you comb it-Kreml actually helps 'condition' hair in that it leaves it feeling softer, more pliable. Krcml also removes dandruff flakes and leaves scalp feeling so ALIVE. Use Kreml daily for better•groomed hair and a more 'hygienic' scalp. 0060
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PALL MALLS are good to look at-good-to feel -good to taste -and good to smoke! _ Pick *up a PALL MALL-- aee the difference -feel the difference. Smoke a PALL MALL - and taste the difference. For PALL MALVs greater length of traditionally fine tobaccoet- ' filters the smoke of 3his toager, finer cigarette ... gives you that smoothness, mildness and satisfaction that no other eiaarette offers ;you. PALL MALL-the l6riger, finer cigajette+ in the distinguished red package. tk W, ® OtTi' ' S'I A 0063
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1 One Permanent Cost qS...the TONI only $"L It's ama:ing! Yes, and it's true. A Toni New•Hoir•BeotAy Beekyl Fer Yeul Home Permanent is every bit as lovely It's24pagesofvaluableldeae Professional as an expensive beauty shop wave. The .seereta for eftoosing your most'ehars<aing Toni twins show it-and you can prove haintyle. Words and pictures on how to it today. But before buying the Toni lut atyleandsetyourownhaie.Seoresofother you 11 want to know - hair-beauty hints that will save you many Will TONI w.rk en rny hair? dollars. Just mail, a d-ime to cover aost, Yes, Toni waves any uat for kind of hair that Aandling and mailing..Addrea•your r.• "Hair Beauty on a Budget" to will take a permanent, including gray, ~e Toni Company, Dept. W, Box SSlI, _ dyed, bleaehed or baby-6ne hair. St. Paul, btinn. Must 1<te handy with my hands? Whieh Twin has the TONI? Not at all! If you can roll your hair up Lucerne and Suswtne `A(eCuliough, pie• on curlers you can give yourself a smooth; tured above, are we11-known New York profeuional-looktng permanent witkToni. artists. Sutanne, at.tlte ri;ht.It the Toni ... 7ust by following ahe easy dirsctions. twin. She, says ."htv "-'yni wave was Mew LnB wJlt it 1.k* rn.t soft and _natural-looking the 'rsry first day.. That's whr Lucerne says her nest Waving'iime is only 2 to 3 hours. And wave will be a Toni. too: ` during that time you're free to do as you pleise. Hew long will my TONI wave lost? Your Toni wave is guaranteed to last just as long as•a $15 beauty shop perma. aent-or your money back. Why is TONI a Cr.me? Because Toni Creme Waving Lotion waves the hair gentiy-leaves it soft as silk with no hininess, no dried-out brittleness evcn on the first day. Tun. in "Give and Take" 2 P. M.. EST. Saturdav. CBS Network la 4
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41 It's a fact! SKOL 6ltcrs sunrays pcrfectly, lcts bcnc6ciat tanning rays-pcnctrate to your dcti1xr sCin laycrs-guaruntccs you 4 lwnyor-fustirig tan. And SKOL liclps you gct a glorious, gulden-rich tan /astcr-painlCssly-wit)tout buming. Start using filter action SKOL today. for that radiant,suntanncd SKOLOOki •Antiscptic SKOL is a wonderful ycar-round malicincrcliust-rcl icvcs minor borns, roison ivy, ~r""U scratchu-prcvcnts A windburn and chapping! THE WORLD'S LARGEST-SELLING SUNTAN LOTION Ln
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. . , , pther f/we You ~iry - - a ® ® DrSchalls Zina pdds 0 =aotTor~l/, .7. 4 PAIN NRn : . ~`..~.W ATNIITPf !Ot}T- T rqp~N b~e.e er I/ALLNN ANCNf NOT, TIRtO ftET . M feedi ui p.. v.[ ~ . . Wap-mg. -i1F..Kea.r cr.. s~~ A... ..~ . «..., [. N EVER WAIT! At the 8rst sijn of sore toes or tender spots from ne.v or tight ohoes, apply Dr. Scholl's Zino-pada. They tasiantly End painful shoe friation, lift pressure off the sensitive _ spot aad stop corns tieJon they can d.velop! But-if you have corns, esliouses or bunions- ` theee thin, soft, eu.hionins, proteotive pads give you quick, soothing relief. SPEEDILY REMOVE CORNS, CALLOUSES : You'll marvel, too, how Dr. Scholl's Zino.pads sp.edily.remove oorns and callouses .rhon ustd .vith the separate Medkations inoluded. No other method does all thae things for yout Zino•pads are ent(rely ditierent In medibation, design, shape, texture, vastly softer and more effective than anything you ever tried. Don't stick to stocking or oome off in bath. At Druj, Sbo., Depattment Stores, Toil.try Couat.rs. Thoro is a Dr. Scholl Relief for thotn. Sold evorywhore. 0056
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contcains ViratoV iVAi; 0 N[W 1ORMNlA WfTN, ytRATOt• works wonders in clu loo4-s of your hair. !t /ooi!1-narurat .'. . it i0 n.cWal ...-sild it ats'rt ia Pl.rr. CONTAINS TRIPtt.A LANOtIN, TOO/ Special tombinsrion of the hnest intredients Jielps rclieve.loose - daadrufF, excessive dryness, s+arMOORNiao roR swsOOrWNas t lust rhe righi consisiency for year•round easy Aow--smootker application. W..Os r". • ' lt *Thii ipriel ranparad girvl "aar . , - lalif h-ir in plart withor.o J1Nfnru. "1 / 3 1 /L-1 (?
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0077
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WITH THIS AMAZING NEW PREPARATION rt Best electric shaves everP' That's what users themselves say about aea• satIonal Lectric Shave. Alore than 45,000 men have tried this remark- 'able liquid discovery - better than 4 out of S of them now sing its praiaes. Leetrio Shave can help you get a loager•laating, quicker, easier shave with any make of shaver. 7 tut spread a few drops on your face before shav. iag. It smooths the skin to overcome •"shaver drag," saves precious n»n• utes. It conditions face and whiskers for closer, more comfortable sltaviag FREE-ve'll aead you a seneroua Lottle of Leetrie Shave-enough for 30 ahaves- aLsolursty /ree. Just send your nansc and addreta to The J. B. WiUia+n. Co, Bept. LF.4. Glastonbury, Conn, U. S. A. (ORer good ia U. S. A. and Canada oaly). PROVED IN TESTS BY OVER 95,000 MEN! "With Leeteie Shave, I shave tnueh cteser and futer-aad get a eooier,-more eonttortabls sh.s in the bargain." writu F. F.ns. - etiager.lr., Newark, N. J. time with Leetris Shsve." reports I mako a big saefng In afiavin¢ f„ ~7 C. lt'sarer, Jr„ Orlando, Florida. ~.J "And th.rs i never any shaver pull or irritation." .: "I Iearaled how really quick and esmfortab}e electric shavinC can be, aven Jn hot weathei, when I started using Lectric Shavc," ayY J. B. Wines, Etko. Ne.. cn ~ 0065 °D
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~.. . M-~ e "EDGEWORTN ~ MY IN„4~PIRATION" ('~~mt,Ri«d c~rtdl I r ~ L1ll11L~i_Li11lii111,~ 0 ~ III ~ lft~Wkw I ~ ) [DOtWORTN IS SOl0/N A SEALpAR /ODCN N• Poeka Rvl9.! N. Cve f7at.,, , NO WvH.r T.wao J \ s Au*ci;v Aa As 4 Zr y In 102 aad 16 ..oa ot Vaaium Ti m IR J
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11 E5,ttt C ai PRELL REMOVES DANDRUFF IN AS LITTLE AS-S MINUTES! LEAVES HA1R IL(lCUQ1L~ CLEAN 1u~uAQiUU/ S-MOOTli You look reAient after a Prell shampoo! For this amazing emer- aid-clear Radiant-Creme eontains. ....L.... P~.....i... L.....d7.... d- 1 i.~ n s":f ff~1i .-.• •r - '-•----'--- _._-..__..~ ...~-----••_ • n .rca .a v~ V~a arW rr0 ~ i from embarrassing dandruff. Doc- `J - ' ttat eaves a~r re i.et an ree I I h d2 d f t ..A, 11P%-'- .m- .o .-R . . tors' sxaminations provrd that 1'rall removes unsightly dandruff Here s WMf !fq RiJertr f.y AbtM lnlf • t ~ R1Lpe oeodrvM'r e mest en rew eeu er fw +~st' i..e Ri.r` .A..r.. `ri* *rna,;= '' KosarAM'L.B.d"Mirsbiiw{'a-kjnds:.w. ; "14"•'t"•d'"e"R"s"moosmr a" "WL ; JYMIORr N. ler *et .al dM « bnle s. h;'_ . t Thet MII ~. Is sw. ew ih. N.ft ' to do after Prell-it's manageable, itasis Wo not.w.otsol, Ai. NNin's er•re:neae.l sleek, smooch. Fun to shampoo -1caP. Ma, Mhe ne. Rexe,vCr..a1 from that handy tube too-no t.(w "tM tMe.t ewr" 11 0 1 a.1 r ttMt~s-"t • slippery bottles or messy jars. Get in as fittle as 3 minutes, that reYu- Iar !'rell shampoos soaaol it. Ir.ll y.es ferther than any other known shamiao-cream or liquid-because it's concentrated for economy. And hair is so rary Prell today-for ALL the family! . . _ - .` h •% .. N.:...... ... 0054 . %:'- %:rA
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Y ,RALPH iELLAMY shows why actors' facts are eutra-sensitive. Rubbing off heavy .staEe make-up after each performance leaves the skin tender. No vvrondar so many Broadway and Iiollywood stars rely on Williams fos-eomfonabk shaving. Actors' faces are extrarsensitive THAT'S WHY RALPH BELLAMY SHAVES WITH SOOTHING WILLIAMS SHAVING CREAM w "Removing heavy stage make-up hundred years' experknce ininakin6 = leaves the face sensitive," explains fine shaving preparations. Ralph Bellamy, star of the Pulitzer prize-winning comedy "State of the Close, easy shevinp .Union." "But I can shave closeiy Williams is famous for its rich, as I like tivithout soreness when I use whisker-wilting lather. It soaks wiry Williams Shaving Cream. It doesn't beards compiercly soft-lets you sting or irritate: ' shave closely and cleanly without A shaving cream can be truly Een• scrape or burn. Pick up i tube of tle to a tender face only when it's Wil/iams Shavint Cream today. made of bland. top-grade ingred- Lether.t MushlessT If yovprefer ° ients, blended in precise amounts. . a brushlesf shave, yoa'll find the ` And that'c exactly how Williams is same luxurious shaving creasn qual• made. in Williams you enjoy the ities in the; new heavier, richer . uaiqub; bene(3LS of more than one Williams Britshless Cream.
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t .r 39;46$ DENTiSTS SAY ~;N ' ii~ "SM4KE VICEROY ClGARETTES" THE NICOTINE L^ ANO TARS TRAPPED# Sr THE VICEROY FuER CANNOrT REIIGH YOUR TEETH OR MOUTH~ %.r ® VrcER~Y e,s~fRr 741 s l. E.ch fuft of smoke psases throuSh scores "of tiny passages of thts a6sorbeta~ hller tip D~ity Yiceroy !tf l`rs cho urioke this ex• ciusive .vsy: 2. The sicotini and tars thus trapped cannot reach your mouth, cannot stain your teeth-the smoke is cleaner, coolce. 3. No tabacco crumbs can got in your mouth. 4. This hltat Is exrlxiit* as Is Viceroy's luxurious biend of tAe tobaccos. Get Yicero}s at your ' doaier't: You'tl be glad you did. 'N.Ii1~nu~n/w.w.li~ehwl.r..In Y,+arr.aYArM+rw~~tt~H~s4i~..
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Horieytreated, honey-sealed to make your smoking mild Good smoking is mild smoking. That's why Yctto-Botc pipes are treated with rcat bec's honcy. The minute you start to smoke, the honey starts to blend with rour tobacco. fOR __._ As the "cake" starts to form in }~our pipe, the honey mcl- iAtMf!'S lows it, too, and keeps it swcet: Thc ri¢ht ateount of honey ' OAf is spralrod and brusheJ into thase_ pipes with grcat care. The honcy rcachcs you fresh, bctatssc the bowl is sealed. i~t iAOK tor tne !loney Jeat in tnc 1'CUo• 'Sa }~LtlC g ~ ilolc at yost acalcr's:. yoa cay 6e sun rn. y ,, YIM U L•MIM st'. Yrll.daa k6 lt llkC! (.~ - ~~uAe~ r^kde /kira !l.w-rSaL STANDARD $1 ® this mark on slem Ye11o.8r Ie ~pipe-cfesnets SC IMPERIAL $1.50 ® this mark on ssem Run one throv h the stem oc• casionalb. to ~aeo ttic Yello- rRCmrcR as.w c,oj Iais morK on srem Bofe "Sp on" Ctcaner at ~ elScicaq. KAUFIILlNN BROS. & BONDY. INC.. 630 Fifsb itre., Nesv YonE. PiPt•Ms,ttrs tince 1611 C_ 0071 t,
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Neyer 'neglect a thorn, stab The tiniest injury can become in- feeted. Never take a chant:e! Cleanse the ynjury properly. Then put on BAND.Atay the adhesive band- age whose quality you can trust. It comes to you sterile. Keeps out_ dirt. Helps prevent infeetion,'avoid irritation. Coution: Remember, not all adhe- sive bandages are sAND.AID. Only Johnson & Johnsori raakes IAND•AID. AndonlytMND.Atobrin;syouJohnson- & Johnson dependability. •aAND•AID to th. RetS. Te.1e•en.ds.f - -J.hn.s i J.hn..n t.r ii..dM.i.e 6sd.p. . More doctors recommend BAND-AID than a11 other .'edbesive bondoqes tombined
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Yes ... but what a dangerous aionsttrl He can carry polio, and many other horrible disease germs, tYqht irtto your home / Don't give him an even breaks Fight bim! KIU him and many other insect p.sts with the=e superior Xnox-Out DDT house-- hold insecticides I THEY'RE MADE by Penntnlt, a reliable 9$-year-otd chemi- cal company and a pioneer in DD2', and other insecticides. THEY'RE TESTED thoroughly and extensively in Pennralt'a famous Whitemarsh Research Laboratorie.l THEY'RE AVAILABLE at better stores ev.rywhue. You can buy Kaox-Out in these two eat+y-too-us" torms: ,s,vi r--- r»- nox 5% DDT ut Insect Spray , R .t A dovbte-u.o sproy-1CiI I S IN AIA -kaoab dows aad kilta IIi.s and aa.qaiba. ICILLS ON SURFACES -leo.e1 a nord.rou. trawpareat Z $Ie oe watl. scr.eos woodwork. , , =iW for we.hs att.r apptieatioo. ~ .i Insecticide Powder SupplNd. Ir haady_ powder-biower ' paokapo that hetpi you (otes a kittiop powder d._sp tato qractts oad orerio" wrher. looth.om. bu9s hide. %Ut& bedbua.. moth., ast., : roaoh.r, at..rlLh, masy other ytas. lox 1c%-DDT v, \%ItI 1t , . ' + ,, N, . : ~,`,
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DOCTORS PROVE the Pahnolive Plan . . 4 Smoeth.r, Loss Ce.rse4eekino Skin was reported by the 36 e:aminin= doctors in almost two-thirds of the easu teatedt and the wemen were ail ages. from 15 to $0. So don't let your a;e diseouraFe you. Try the Palmolive P1aa! Cleerer-Actuolly Less Oily Skin for many who had just about Riven up hopa: The toeten tried the Palmolive Plan en all types of skia-and proved it resllv works! Reason enough, if you lonE for a lovelier complnion. to start yew Palmolive Plan teai;ht! - triyhler Celer-i.wer Tiny {Lteiahes was the thrillinF result for 2 out of 1 veaen tested. Yes, even tiny blemishes- N ineipient blackheads. often taused by impreper_ i I j elcansint-respond in mest cases to the PaInetive -I Plan! Regardless of previous beauty ean! HERES TNE 6ASY PALNoLVE PIAN! ~ Waah your face with Pilmolive Soap! Then. for 60 scvonds. nassa=e with ~ Paheetlve's s.ft. Ievol,v lether. Rina! Do this 3 times a day fir 14 days. This C eleansinp masaFe brinpsyour slin Palmoliw's full boawifyitj effect! (S: For Tub Fos Shower Ltotncmqor, 30 doctortti, luading 3kin tijtpcliali5!s tested tLc 14-Day Palmolive 1'laa on 12$5.romcu of all aaes-(rom 6fluo to fifty...N'itli all types of skin. Dry! Dit'y! Nonaal! YoGUs! OWur! dnJ 2 out of 3 o( these h•omen got noticcublc complexioa = irnprovcmoniin just`14 days! No msttcr,_ wltat skin carc they had used before. Reason cnoogltdor evcry a•omari xho . hmp for a Involier complrxiun to start this - itow -13cauty !'lqo witli 1'altaulit•e Soap! Y . Get the New, Bio, Tbrijty ~~ Bath Size'Palmolivc! -~,; :;:-
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ti /~ l~3 -
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..~-._-._. Z.+ 'I" --d''~ : 04fta~ "t Jdst happancd to remember ... I got a bowl of Wheaties and fruit woitinQ at homel" ' Many a champion loves his `youvitamitu,min~srbls,protninsend Wheatioal Relies on 'em, too, for a iood enerdyr Famous traipi~n~g d~ish, ~tood shnre of needed nouriahment. with fruit, milk. ffody+pur-iYhtollea Thae 100 o wholo whent Ankos offer -ta+la,v! "13roakfest -of Ch.mpiona"l ` .h 0084
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You can get QUICK BELIE.F for tir$d eyes .~ MAKE TNti SJMf'tE T-iit 7060 Put t.as drops o: bWrla.1I rnh .y....Th.n t..f TJe: 1Yes rs7as. F.st 199 .... r.lr.slttaQ..ee! IS KOttNEi Murino h a so!• ontitie blend ef s.v.n trnportant inOro• di.nts ... so sa.4 ... ao in0 s.asorit.m that eaw/ ta q.nd.... so soot.5fnq ... so ! I, 1 h M s qu es. , r.~ wq t . ert * asa4so of eyes that are ttr.d from ov. ~r• work. .xposuro to sun. rrind, dust 1or smok.. Try Murin, today. MURINE FOR YOUR EYES °~ 0082 r /a_[ /-(q -
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UtY:I thoulht it..ould be educational, mom -for you to be mo for a day. Not so much fun, is it ? MQM: Tuh, lamb? It's pure enirrry! I'm hot and prickly. I'm tired of wrig- gling around in one spot. My skin's so uncomfortable I could howl +us loud aa vou do: BAtT: Ses, mom? Those howls weren't just to ezerciee my lunp. In my own inf•rnt way. I was trying to tell you my skin needs Johnson's Baby Oil and Johnson's Baby Powder! M6M: Something special's called for, pot. But wby both f EAIY: To take 100:. perfect care of me, foing to be provd of mo-rood as pold and smooth as a 33andful of:ose petals! ' 0080 r,, [2 ~.1 MA mem. Pure, t<.ntle Johnsen's Baby Oil to smooth me over afGx my bath. More of it at diaper ebanEes, tti help prevent wha!`tay doetor calls "urine irritation." And you'd better get a BIG can of Johnson's Baby Powdor,mom--ior- lots of cool, soothina sps_inkles to chase hot•weatber `ehafes and prickN. i MOM: Angel, your htother's certainly been Uhind the times I Iwt a» out of here to I ean catch up-trfth Johnson's! #AIT: That's the spirit, motis! You're
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;7or SWE ET N EART S OAPIS EtFa x-~ at~er -{4as 2 GeAP, . ~ l. VI/O V o Disevvcr tlio luxury of Swr.etilcart 6atlts that lcnvc skin >s,-ft and lorely. For pure, ntil_d Swcetllrrrt's creanq•, fragrant esuo lather is swect and tcn• tle as a suwatcr brccza Yes, Swcetllcart's rieh exrrn Inthrr has a Jloatind li%t. G+unikMs hubbles bathc the outer purc upuniu;s . . . li/t off- Two Mort Advantages SwtQHEART users Enjoy! 1. ltXOUtf,Tli rRAORANC[ . . . delfeate, lwuutint, like rrry costly beauty prutwrations. 1 2. OVAL iNA1E...drir.s farter. Stays daintier-al.o helps avoid M•a.telul"meltcd soap." (fant away~-ilirt and dry tak;n flakcti 1'ictures taktn thrciu;,h the tnicru.culw prara tliiszutazfng action. Sn get :cotlc Swccttieart Snap. It nnw alK,i u.tiics in thc ocw, large buth .izt: -prcfcrrcd far ccnnomy by [nur out of fi%c cvnmcn in a tatIrrey. Enjny tltht lux. uri.-us iIatl1 {nap and sUvc n1ottcy, ttNe". . o And f.-r plir lovrly c-rutplrxinn, discurrr Se'oqtltaart's £tuatinp Lijt Jleauty Care. Ni ht anJ tnurnily,tuas-ayc_ynur ~a4eone tuinme wid1 5vrrctlleart'R e.rrra lather. Iiinrc with wsnn - then evld water. Yew skin Is elennsed . . . if/H/a~NlQI~_i. , more radiant. S H EART 7% e Soop >/oI A6RffS wil/t YoarA;, WEET 0074
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Y No soap stops-it long! Be SURE ° -with this LOTION deodorant Miss Stcnn, take a nntr. Ynu tno, jnnina 1'ou dmt't Iiavc tn bc an atitlotc to be ;uilty of ".1th6•tic Arurua." But pnu crrn avnid it ra.il;• now, with a Jisco.•cry• t-y Rarba•nl's skin tcicnuiat._a ncw. dif'crrnt JoodorantercatcdcxprcA.iy L,rmcn, -POR BEST RESULTS: in [.nTtnv (orm! rJoan. Ms%' to n+C- nn mu.e, nn„n"'! t'ani.ho. in•chiitlv yet fani.lic.- oNlor at lcnst =1 honra. Cn<ts liltlr; auk• a faa' ~h'npa a dn,v nccdcd. : (1l..nJntr7v hnnnJc.'t tn >i.•in and rhdha. Start using it todayl Prieo: 390 plus 1Le. shave with B81'baSOl Uso N alto for toethieg reiief of sunburn, win dburn, insed bifes, ilching. . ~ Ai4 /q,5
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.. 4 saAUTY AOVIsOA'. ~.: -w sdys ~. -.~ "YOUR SKIN GETS EXTRA DRY IN WINTER - NEEDS EXTRA SOFTENlNO" ~~,~. ' ~~'e •i Gx _ , _.. 1 KNOW.IUT-IOqK! MY FACE AND HANDS ARE SO:QY AND CNAPCEC AND REP,,(IOOK iW NONSENSE! INDOOR l ORY HEAT CHAPS SKIN, TOO. Our WAIT A MNUTE - I CAN MAKE YOU LOOK IOVEUER HERE-SMOOTH HINDS HONEYAVD ALMOND CREAM ALL OVER YOUR FACE AND NANDS. NOW- AND A6AINaEFORE YOU 6O DUT- J.- "ORS TONIGNT: s •+ .`'. -^~a V~ IN A JIFFY r_-1 NINDS IS THE MOST SeOT'NINfi LOTION _MY HANDS AND FACE -TO aAVt- MY SK1N!, At IY'S EXT1tl1 • CR EA MY, a EXTRA•SOFffiNING, AIICE. Z SEE YOU TDNIGHT: r4 . THE AYSMENT I SHOOK F1AiVDS WITH YOU, tKNEW YOU WERE THE OtRlW ME i YOUYE GOTStJCH SOFT:TINYNANDS ~ ,ir.• ~TNEY TNR1lLME ~TO matter how!tough the weather or how hard you 1~I work, you can have the soft hands that rhriil a man. Use Hinds Honey and Almond Cream to sase away c6sp= pinS-help tons down redness. It's extrs-cramy, extta- softeninS. Every creamy drop does chapped skin good. Coaxes back the softness that cold weather and indoor heat take away: A grand powder bass, too-not stieky. CSetiins Vitamins A and D. 51, $00, 250. and tOi. TRY HINDS HAND CR[AM. NEW I pUlCK•iOfTlNINO. lRAORANT, NOT STICKY. IN JARS-104 sad 094. ChaPtMnlt Dryness Reush skin, tilaw•r, annr Wearhenrd skin Hananails Calloused heels Powderbne A(cer•fhavios lotion Sodr•rub e7EDNtSDAY NIOltrS #V_N N!~'iliT BURNS AND ALLEN O00111 3AYft - "I YSE NIND=. TOot' Colaa+bii Neewrk Xwau to Cont 1:304:00 L511<. fee aswM/er radie SalelaM for eiacS bM Oa fear IaN etadea : FTF11PAIF FOR ~Y(1 HANDS AM+IUt.lV[f &61"_ _4TD fTAY MIDO01ft FEaL-SMOOTNiER AtREADY 0018
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nP © ETIQUET actually yqdi under-artn perspiration odor-sa/e!y-suretyi BTIQUET-made by specially patented formu!a-reat- y--ShSCh ^under-arm verspiration I • FLUFFY•LIGIIT AIYD SOOTNINC- Etiquet goes on easily-disappears in a jiftyl No gritty particles! 1'' V I - THE SAFE•AN6•SURE ' ~ DEODORANT' ~ ~ S'! ~ .MOlcE ECONOSIlCALTO BUY- 1 -_ ' .~1 :`,~~ Etiquet won't dry out in the jar! f ® NO DAMAGE TO CLOTHING when you use Etiquet-famous cloth-test prove.! ...wn.. u.. a .n. t 1 _ . -9-- /:) u ~A
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CiXCttut~ PRELL REMOVES OANDRUPF IN AS LITTLE AS 3 MINUTES! LEAVES HAIR 1l.nlLUUt* CLEAN' lLtt"A SMOOT#i- Th* *m*reld-cltar Rediont-Cr.m• -that's Prell! The sensational new shampoo-that leaves hair more radiant than soap shampoos, and removes unsightly, dandruff. Doctors' examinations proerd Prell removes ugly danJrulF in as little as 3 minu:es, and proveJ that regular Prell shampoos control it. MII oe.s /enh.r than any other known shanmlibo=cream or liquid- because it's concentrated for econ- omy. And Prell leaves your hair so sleek, smooth, MINAtrNLIL That Prell tube is extra handy, too-no messy jars or slippery bottles. Get Prell for the whole family, today! wITN PRtIL. hair rrdi so much better-rbien so radiantly-jrrtr so lo.•el}• and sofr. ilnd Prell leaves hair f.ukr to comb and arrange.
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Brushing Teeth Right After toting with COLGATE DENTAL CR-EAIYI STDPS BAD $REAT#1 and STOPS TOOTH DEcAY! Colgate Dental Cream in• stontlr stops bad breath in 7 ovt of 10 cases that oriCi- nate in the nwuth I And the Colgate way of brushing teeth right offer eating is Hse besthomemethod known to help stop tooth decay! IURf, WMIfE, tAfR COLOATf's WtIL NOV! fIA/N OR pIfCOLORI
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. i: taket rour brach away even to wateh him. Hadlong down the steep ride of the ncountain...ar.isht fo: a danAerou: edge. A Aarh of the pola...a doud of snow... a perfect ralemark rurn_.and there he aoer ...down, down...fager and fartor. Thati Bob Aoutdon. former Vermont champion. On rki; he'e one of Ne.v Enaland'r t.rir..r. Bu: in tmokintt, he'r sviedY on the r4w side. Aead what he says ra< rirlru. !n ryant laboratory tatt:, GIKFIS burned 25% dewr tbae,the aversga of the 1S ',otLer of the larBeit•teUios braodt t.ted- ,: :dowtie tLae .ny of tb.m. That mwnt, on the avoase,.a amok- ias #1.rr equal to 5 EXTRA S1ITOKES PER PACK! ObM.WL MN. L 7L aAV" TMr.w 01LMtl. wl.w.•r.ln.. N. ta for In -slu C.naot~ #[odntain Mri.l'lt.mwayr Frrncenia N~tdi, NL H, 1ob Daieielo% teli.rt) enioyr'a rtaaFbrrntnF G+nd. '7Vo speed (or me ln my Maokinj," wrs this ski tiuunrion. "Camels are ilo.rsr+burninj and aiw_me extra n>,iWftem sta ceelnett, and .atel Aawy" ~~E faster tht ltdnlt, the more fun in aki• smokoinw~hichthoAa.othatbaMbutnadaw•ar.` F." says Bob 8nurdon. Dut he has a dif- The extra miWnea, refrphing eooirtat. and Tanple on cigarettes. Vphen Bob 8ourdoe that amooth, mellow "Td•waik-a-miiafor" Ar aays: "Slow burning Is tnr guide to more mild. .ee of Camels are tonGrmod-by sacent widely neu, wtote eoohwat. and motr flavor." he't put- reported scientific waa, in which Cama4.:.-the tins the rump of aauai imokins e:pafeets on `sileaeetto of eoed:er tobateos ... burned- the the laboratory findinp of science. ilomeli of she aixteen of the IarSpt,eeilinp Fat burning in a ttiprens mmns iar. branda rtrt.d! (See Pwd .r l01rJ Nothing dulls the delicatcelemants.of cliqrratte So; change to slow-burninlt Camels and en. ; Aavor and aroma ao tuHflP at auau -heutL joy trrre p/oaMri and earir/ 3mokinR..a"aat, . Thcrc i little pleasure or tomfort in a 6ot. Aat -'on the'averaltee to five extra tmokes pet fweh. MORE PLEASURE PER PUFF C - t~e cr'~are~e ... NIORE PUFFS PER PACK! ~ am e ~.7 o Goft~er~~~ccv,r -0031 ~ / but chooses - - , 4. slow burning Camels _-%~ I:~ C-l'46
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0096 '; Ln ~ J J i-+ (J1 01 J l0
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. ~ia~'s ex~~a! AT NO EXTRA COST 1 cnU51t-PROUF BU\ ... to kccp yonr 'Regcnts frosli, firm and fit front one through tM•enty-l.I6Lft el1NQ/l _ `i OVAL 51iAPED . , . to make it gracc- fnlly slender and to give you a slower burning, ~d 66, ~i; cooter emokc . . ' ~... -ti, J.. ..~. -+~ ,7 2096 LONGER ... King Sizo to give yuu onc-fifth muro smoothly pleasant smoking cnjoymcnt- "t7r eXt7 fL: AfULT1PLE-BLETtDED ... an exclusi.•c process which brings you the world's choicest tobaeoo in perfect flavor iialanee-,l,(N~e7 GEE.InIlPop,thu. Prtcc. . . NT they coat no .tsora , tJ.are ordinary cigarettea.
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Here'o why.you•fet Am so uiakly when you tdte TMms Por sea. heartburaaaid 1a• digestiop: I. TLms nautrafi. ~sQS~r stotn.oh aeid ls: - s• Tunu e.lleve fo pnut of heartburn, ps without oven.IkaIising. 3. Tueu woths md settle upset stomseh. Get Tums todey: htt! osly - 100 a roN; 3•rolt box18f.;" j i f i /l t w.... f lSM r'10- .-.,d. : FOR THE -: TUMMY jo CONTAIN NO !OA • AfTER RREARiAST J TRY ONE OR TNQYM3 SEE 1f-10911111117 fEEt SETTER 0090 0 h,
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. st.b. with c.,. . T ex and Jinx say "See for Yourself how -o~=t ~ias POL.A.ROWSP~ r Try AO Polaroid Spoctglas todatt does away with Reflected Glacrei" ):vcr see rejlmnf glare? 0f course you have! Look at any sonna• flat sur: fico-snoa•, pavement. water-through ordinaro aun glasses. Note how the ra,vs of the sun reflect back into vour eyes. Then look direqtly at the same spot tbrougL AO Polaroid Sponslss. ] ou will bo amased at the difference. A1l tbe blinding discomfort of reflected glare is eliminated ... teveaiing un• suapected detail. Yet colors are shown in :beir true value. See tor yourself3 Nw dw Uaisu. P.l.nid PrtnWe Dl.alrs Ryt.eat! G6. -: AO POLAROID SPORTGLASES , FILTER REFLECTED GLAR E . _ _ •~_Z ~W ~ .' - BRIGHT STRIKES GLARE RAYS REFLECTED' REFLECTED GLARE. • SUNLIGHT , SURFACE MASKING SEEING RAYS . SEEING RAYS PASS THRU ,.....,~ , AOPOLAROID : SPORTGLASES FILTER 07rw«. a.... ~ American IV Optical COMPANY 85 tYS MARRZD~+\f~f,:,,,j?g SAfARTLY =rYLED. OPSICALLY CORRZCT. L. /-; i ILIr"1
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Baby's newly-awakened taste buds reallyd respond to the fourr flavor va rieties of Pablum, most w.idely-, used of all pre-cooked baby cereals 4 varieties at your druggist's or.grocer's i PF *O .• -~A, Nn b N1na.. tsile /a Ny 1 fstiusiw "Fbndydour" ipout preven/t snesY spilling . . . te.pi bebyt eereol /rerh.r ond sofer b#we.n /eedinqs. SbwN ad NaNh a MINwI Four wonderhd Ioblvrn* ~ Ce- reotb give beby .eriery. pivt high nutritienel rohrer so Ga- portenl through hii third year. r! ii.e br tNl's~Ykh ~e Nctp1? Oen't put U oUl Fte`f an.'roys /o help yqr, fwn with rovr °ttiAOltaH Sreb/fei. lOOk to Airw ` lor e.pert advke. pebhm is th. .riginel pn-c..i.d c.rnt ated. .nly by M..d Joh.s.e i Ce.. s;r.nvil/., led.-vr.rld lereevs l.r nverUlenel prdvtts 1.r inlenrs .nd sh8lren l4fF.AD I_j & /5-3
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r DintAxe shine Wonderful soothing sensation after shav- ing - Mennen Talcum for Men. Neutral tint won't show on your face. Helps hide nlck s and bleml:hes. too. Micro•pulvet- iud for bneness.'Try it! S~ops bodyChA For longer chafe-free comfort, dust your body with this cooling ta,leum after every bath or shower. Finest imported talc, scented for men. You'11 like it! - - M* 6e
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i Mo.oets si•Ky rttar.r.tk 7. Na Possi\io c.ts v.ittb This summer the "Nude Look" is the nea look. I:oep your legs and arms imnmacu. lately l1oirdroo with bnra. This amotinp, inowy.white --- eosmctic eraam, Sently, pain• lcssiy, qnickl removes hair G.low the sk~n line. Keeps c p and arms Lair~free n~or tiwe a rsor.$mooth on:..rins~ oR:'One applica. tion does the trick. In tuLos: :1* also Ai4.inw ...) 'At cosmetic eounton. _ ~~... AfiTA~ OM. 1>, Wq~Y( IL l. : -- LweM.ed i. leI u...~rr t».drmr *f t.i.l t.tt..f I.... 11i..,. Addr.r FROM A RAZOR : L R.oys leys Mir-hot l.per. 0083
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Now! Lose Weight. this Easy Way! ~.._ ._ Joanne Dru rolaxinr at her Enrino homo. Says Jnannc. "I can sinc,;rc!y rcaommand Ayds to anyonc who wauts to havo a lovchar firuru." Joanno blrs to pby thc-piano. "Tho Ayds ~~•ay b rcallv no r11ur~ n6 nll bttt !t doeit a Inp j,lL (rK w, s Ju:,m:c. It can do thu ranw for you. No Druqs . .. No D' •t ... Resvlts Gvarahteed 1 l;xccsi weight may ruin your health a• d your looks, too. L)wl,v nwvio stars ' lose weight the Ayds way-why ttot you? In fact, you_Inust lose pounds with the very first box ($2.05) or your money back! ProveJ by Clinical Tests. With Ayds you Ioso.R•e!Aht the way ' Nature intended you to-without dieting or hunger. A quick natur.tl way, clinically tested and approved by doctors. with no risk to health. With the Ayds Plan you should feel healthier, look better while reducing-have a lovelier licuro. - Controls Hunger and Over-eating. When you take Ayds before ntoals, as direoted, you can eat the foods you like. No starvation dieting-no gna.ving hunger pangs. Ayds is *,specially aade, low calorie candy fortified with health-giving vitamins and minorals. Ayds curbs - your appctilo-you auwn,aticnlly cat lcss-luso p•cigltt naturally, safely, quickly. Ayds is guaranteed pure. Contains no drugs or laxatives. New Loveliness in a few Weeks. Users rtport losing up to ten pounds with the very first box Othonsny they have lost twenty to thir ty pounds with tlc Ayds I'lan. . Viu11t'' 0086 . w S l. 1 M ' H E W AY T H E S T A R S S L 1 M ~ . _ f/tj"- stt~~ tii11~ .. ' = ttf . ~
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dee4 a - You should us. it: Two special tn• ; gredients in Aqua Velva help take care of nicks and scratches. The tin. - gliag is laroo/ of Aqua Vclva i action. You'll tik* to use it: In addition to the pleasnnt amma frntnd only in Aqua Velv;i, it gives you a fenling of well-being, a special touch of luxury after every shave.; 'PSAo .Wwte: Ci}M him the luxury lotion he ltka/ Gift 6otde, 11 ounces.
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-lfd qA%-M& $A-1* . . . .0e&l/1Gooa/ H C Fatsw t:v 811 the wuv froan Cleveland just fur thir datc.. . eurl it erill Lc his lua. Sho has iiad thrcc bues fu!1 of hi/n alrcaJy. In juxt u tuiuutc nwv, tvliun ha sugbmrty runuiug over lo thc St,rrk, shc'e vuiuo to plwd a- itcaduclw and inrift un hulnc ioslcud. Tl/err: it will not n+dy Lc f,vnwl rtight Lut gr.w!•LI•. Tuu l/uil, IrMI! I Io N'ur re:ally lrrctly crazy ulruut Ilcr... Still, if a Illall Iwsn't gnt scnsc enouglt to look after liia llreath (IIRt'1f (Ijp.l1cIWIty IIC'li likely to pay.- IlulitrMis (haid Irreath)• cun writu yuu right uut uf thu rucial t,ictur4. How About You 9 Unbrrtunatcly, yuu, y'uurrclf, may not Lrnutv...uuty nut even realize... whcn you're guilty. Tllerefurc, isn't it jtht clcwcntury wi.rlwu tu Lc catra oarefld ulwut uffcndiug tLia tvay? Be "extra careful" by using Liftcrioe Antidcl/tic night anil,morn• ing. A nil Llever, never, umit Lirtarinu Antitciltic before any tlatu wiun you want to 1io at your lxst. Ahutwt inr;luutly-thia clutr, rnul•: - ing antist:ptic utakes ILrcuth frcahcr,- . swceter, losr likch' to uffcnd. Yon go forlit witll a wontlrrftd fettling of . grr.tUtcr ur><nrancc that utliu•rs are - going tu liko vau. •Wlliie sulnc rares nf ilalitosis arc of systcmic oripin, mnst cnstla, eay Eotne ant6oriti,w, arc rlue to tlro baca tr'riu/ fcrtnontation of liny frwHl Iwr- ticlcr clinging to muutit surfaces. Liatarino Aiuiseptic ryuickly Ln1ts such ftumontatMm, thult overcoiiicr the udur,t fertttcututiua causes. LAaiDCItT IIII:t101.1r: tt. COA/l'.\NY Jt. Lweir, dlisxwrri REfORE ANY DATE EE EXTRA CAREiUL AEOUT YOUR RREATtf t~6 LISTERINE ANTISEPTIC P.S. F1ave you tricJ clie new Lisrcrinc'1'ond, Pa(e, d,e atinrr ).way Preacriprion for yourTeeth t
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0 r FALSE TEETH Often Have a-Certain<Odor! 4 ~ERUsHIH6a - ~ ti.~ . .... 3 f..k lbqt d.py-if .Mrrvfts .. 4"a... A 1w~At••.«! ks.w NNU tiw nw'1 .MM. . 1. . Fesk s.IV". .l ronw.wl .fw ww.t. 1°r. N~ O~Mw~ tarNM-tMwk. -i*?.Ni.*f. Without harrntul brushing, Poiident World's Larse:t Sellint elaans your falae tath=u no soap or Dentvrt Cieenttr toothpast. can. Potident is guaran- teed to be the afst, qutekat, sasi+at ~~~~ ~~ ~~" way ta' keep piates naturally w+hitt~ ~, tnab And odor-lrne or yoer moesy Doek. Get Pot{deat today. tecemmtnda by 1Aere Onntists ihen Any Oihtr _ ula.ols.3 ~
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Lose where it shows 1 ~ 0 Reducing Plan W.nt to toae2T ponds} Wont to h.v.'a 35• in.t.ad ef . 42.insy biytin! Tba'. .bat Il andy d ki.es'did t..iir.9uickty. Daintowir i 'Mb.r .M+ rq..r/... Ra.Y. 4r A.(ii... "You don's uarsr." "You denS caunr ooleries.•1 "It't a Jood-not a drug." Q,wn. W+4 "WATCN THE POUNDS OO sa Randr Nelson did; " says Ann Delafield. "b t jan to reduce tity way.; .._it's-safe, sound, scientilic. No unbalanced diet• ingl Pounds just melt away .,. as many as S a week. And theysuatuay, for my reducing Qlan is a lifetime beauty pian ... a pian that l sePs you slim and lovely once you've slimmed down. Start today. Your-tteerrst Resali drug store has my big beauty book plus a 80.day suppiZ of Appetite Ae• duoing Wafers and itamins:" --ST1fT TUIT-1iR flRS[tiMTWItIH" COMPAREI ,~ SO FEW CENTS A DAY foNh. ony • --V'A eoam1Ne ra dveinp and beatify You yet... 1. Big beauty book 2. 30 days' supplr of Appotite Reducing Wafers 3. 30 days' supply of Vitamins Sold at REXALL Drug Storer =veryMhere
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PEPSODENTI Gives You . Clean Mouth bte1ouvs' ~ 7hanks to oqAt, ptZtR~#RtrT discovery] ? N1'tL. N.w , Tht alanor your toath. tM hatir rN..ooM a~kn.hys ~~ yeu Ayht ind bnath and tooth do- ~ W : A d Mid U i ;. eay n toh at a • nt n - ~ v.ewlty prove Papoedant's ORAL y~ DtTBROtNT eisana ti.th elan- ut of any ladtng tooth Dut.! Your prnaf !s tta Clean Mouth Tute for hour. that you [ot aith P.paod.nt. Lewr Sros. Co. raeaditien.llp Euar- antoas your s.tbfaetion-or money rofund.d.
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THE EFFICACY OF STATISTICALLYdtASED RESEARCH: -,THE CASE OF THE "OLD JOE" IN THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 0 Claude R. Martla, Jr. University of Miehtsaa KEY WORDS: raldity, relidbiliey, dirdoaure WI"RODUC'IION Seldom has s tat+s^'•lly.based research re- cefved the amotuu of atteruioa as that which came fsom three different research groopt and which was pnbtls6ed in 19913a the Jorriwl oJ tArs AaurleeR AlelkQl Assoelatloa. (JAblA1 Immediately after pnblication there were Mideepread cs11s for snbstaodve cbaAres In pab- lic poltey towacd adveieisias in smatd and ooe '°`a~d`i°•~ t~pa~o ~~y.~~ of all Reynolds Tobaooo Company. As a tault, toar andetoia rraesahass .ven aslced to nadertam an ~teatlts fioau tlase am repoeted ~ Initially we review wada:ds for reseneh and the t:aaae of ottf evaloatjon ptvoees. Iaoes we summarize major pablic' policy changes advocated as a result of these three JAMA psPem THE EVALUATION PROCESS - A eemas of aeaeoeh assoeiatioas and jota- nals was oaderta8eo to ascettaia tAeir retereeh juideliua. Tbeaa iacJoded do Se1ds of siatistia. and pryeltolosy. Inpot was iaoessted trom the Asteriaett Stettttieal Assorledoa, American Asseebtlea for Pablk Op/wleR Researok, American Beoaante Rerk., Joarn.l of MerkstLts Research, JexroN aJ 1U"aft, American Marketing Association, attd A,esrlaar Psye/Felejteol AsseetatieR. Also a:- amieed were tbeInstroccious for awboa" of do Jourual iytlir Awafota AreOleirl AsrsebNeat' This ptOdtlLad a OOmpdtdjtttD of ~ OptUl maurik IYdo j the a4MOat;y~_t OsOm+e4. In ODaOI - - X tCaOatpi instramons, stimtlliL and denW of dam an.lyds wera addtested The rMme aedclo qttedoo (PlfeUer, a al; DiI'neQa, at at: Pkeoe, at a1:19911 .rets sabmk- tod to tota eeaambacs In varying soeial sdaooe fieids (111111111nift aereedsinS raenel~, eo13saear betnvior aad aoepotats strarasy) hom diCto~ ltt~ar ttoivetdties ktr tLelr mdepeodmt svviaMS. T6sy.varo eot pt~ovided with do ie.erneb aas• mtds as diseoped abova, but rathrwaes adosd to independently evsluate eaeb of do dtne pa- pats oa do bads of do usual noetm: for dteir dib-- dptiaes. All four are sxpatieneed in aaaiytical taclmiqoec and are eevkwas-tor jotanals in their - sejeeted tiald:. Tbn ro tonlt.weev evaluative oomromti, both sanot*i and syect5e, caocetntng the ahese articles Mhich'wa++athem oot:r.lated to tbese staadadx FDIDIIdGS VaioS a . atephona survey of California adolts and tema. Piaeoe, at 41 NToo Tobaooo Advartisiaj TatW~ Yooaj People To Start SmoideS?'7 exatd.ed abdoh-dmeloebeutd re- spoad.nts fta* %yt-m" l.avft .advnti.ed and whicb kraad sbey #moked. The 1990 California daot wm ooatp.eed to dm &om a 19E6 oadom! wlep~6oas ~wy on besod aboioer of kda;lts< Tlds objepdve .vas m vaarqln the relative ttaeloet slre4 ef both tbe Caxwl aod _ M4lboro brands amooj'y~ smokas• (Fiaeoe, a a1., p. 3 abt~. The ardok rs.ches a conclusion that poe~odpdoo of advaedft is NSh . amons young 4mcbm `notst-show plawas satoa aje and sot Seoapt foudhr tba pa+eeived advaeti~iaS pmeeum ~aQ ob.aVet is toaloeit Ase neqtltLtSSroati dd~reeds~t oaett;MIN11abp in yoauti ' smolom Tbe ant~oea~ m,dnt "dpM aftor-. . tlt~nooaeaSea Tomk tp staoba aad sboald ba baemed'~ R'jeteeatsl.,p:31S4~:: _ The waomary of the eaviawms' Sodiap oa - dta top adods diapolod ois 00" itt Tabla9l,w ba s*4 mids inraoooem on that wodaed. : Por this sewtati tbess' atz elaveb snetdaeds 00 .vb~e~t dts se~ewa~ tdaod~ aeza~ex vaudity - and sellabft pcovof sd&iaat kfoem.- d00 mJc14P the qtlft o<416 tMICIC, bdUlOg in or aOadOd tofltlalt iiOmOmO =NWWW i~fslit11a1RCd to 160 if~ -Ot b1~00'. ~s~ - _ ` ~.of :rralq~ spaCOiados~i ~ de.ely f~d~d~ ~ d~f~01~s OoQlp/~~ 1~I/jb~V dt~ aAd at! AdMOE~Gy pOdt100 b~ ib0 ajfbQt Its Consensus ftt ib6levjONi!* wif (hwtWf stndv V1oW00 Ut0 lm* sp1* -tar adm+Atia w ieMMIt, me aan:epoetedas. t~"Wplea.adl tao- oot~+e. In ~S ~id~' aec~ at toe p,apar. P,~nDe„a u. JV63fS3J iepott aeverat narcma6e1 daW- ws~ Otltod ida~: T1owsM . dtee+s as ar ~dt} uft tRft dI ois 'Lftid r- wlre~aar ~mooet,~ ap~oast.21M is so .
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KEEP REUEF '"YO'" New .OCKE. ~ - Beech-Nut Cough Drops in the handy pocket roll MEDICATED 1
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To 1 out of_ every 3 cigarette smokers: I your problem of and tars...with a T ue INTRODUCTION of the new KGNT tiprette - filterinr action that takes out Hp l0 7 rimcs fxw can mean a great deal more to you than just- ioGocco irritords than other filter cigarettes. "another brand or size of cigarette in the market." it represents an entirely neN concept in solvin='-' Your probkm as a sensitive sntokcr the problem of the smoker who needs rio/ health - Published medical reports have shown that. i protection, yet wants the full enjoyment of cisa. . least one out of every three smokers is serisitiv rette smoking. to the tars and nicotine in tobacco. ; There has never been a eigsrette like iCCNT... 1 f your smoking is assoeiatcd with a dry mouth because there has neXer been a cigarette filter like rough throat, nagging cough or s' . 'drusQad-aut'- KENT's "Micronite"• Filter-scientifically deve!• feeling, the chances are you are one of this largr oped to combine full smoking pleasure with a butveryspocialrroupoftobacco-sensitivepeopk , - _. ~ - Accordi,q to published medical repor[s, oue oul of every Ihree ernqkers is espsrially sensetire to,i/it tatt and nicolint in tobacco sru; 0100 ~/H /S7
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0106 C- /I f-, lC-?
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^lEfMT/YE IN i!'/LL/Nb ~wG1MG TYPES OWAr#49ffWY M07 fLNd! dN s0 SK.oWv coMalICT: ,.....,_ evtw iAT orWO& AWvcrs' wwvt fwmoo. ,Ati' - AMAZ/NtS l/NO -roGbfYl sRsrsocsss, arxcVirss.t-- - ,~~ae~~>sncw~r6~id ...AIfD oOA/LflLf /NTWf iY!!Y I/9pa"aarrrn.
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Y Do some foods give you HEART BURN?.. G.t wond.rful r.Ii.f with Tuxs. Tuxa ' soothtt n settle tho Yp.ot (aat.. \MOaOt~aVOM -~ v ~ K\O •~' ~~, 0 ~.,..~" tiZ._ ...,t•. o ie~ t .... ,. -.}. MOTMfNO WONIfS L/KR r(7Mf/
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v 10 ® ® HP ® it , .C . :r, are ''. Do one simple thing and Yto/1 worryin&. ; ~ Titke one simple ~ proeauuvn atid enjoy 1 smoking. t Fitt+r everry vigarout i yoa _$ntolke ... witk ? a Danfcotea Wolder, Olan T7,ia Jilter floes it ~ t•nrr eiaarrtte smnke must ' pas. tltrnngh Hds etfioient ~{ srystal Glter to 4e aleansed. Fittor turns 6(ock ilft¢r smoking t.aenty ei;arrttcs. erystal fiher is Llaok with tars and niartincihat mipht nQ,erwirr In; in yon. T7rfoar it aax,r attd pill in a fresh Fater. Ft,J Nt/ar,-rnuro, -- on}uyrrLf+ sutokiita Used and hijhlr recommended by taany physicians and dentists all v%ar the world. The smart, slim Denieotea (IoWer aomes in varioiis lengths. Rnishes and colors. 2.50 and S.SU including extra crystal fitera At storea evarywhcrr.
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iew vnope ror Sleepless Millions . LATqT MLpICALl1NDIHOE nEVEALED ...II you have trouble sleeping-herc's aews that promisem more ref reshing sleep tonight. a brighter day tomorrow. Iteccut medical studies indicate that a vital substance in your bloodstream may have a lot to do with how well you sleep. This substance, known medically as Glood su0or, is an important source ot aourishment for the brain. At bedtime, and especially during the krog nighttime hours withoutfood, your supply of blood sugar may become ssri• ously lowered. Thus, your brainand nerv.._ ous system may sufler from insufBeient `sleep food." You may feel too nervous to go to aleep ... too restless to sleep well. How you can help your body - get needed "slsep food" Drugsorsleeping pillsan't supply "sleep food."/1ad sweet, sugary foods aad drinks provide only a quick jet of sugar that is too quickly burned up. But here is a way -a dslieious, druglas way-to help your body get needed "sleep food."Thissleep- aid is a POiTOI4 "3ilaHTCA!"-a Lllicious drink maae w•ith Instant Postum and bot milk, taken shortly beforc retiring. Your 1'ostum "Nightcap" is good•tast- ing aad s.fe--contains no drugs to harm you. Moreover, your Postum milk drink gives you wily digested nourishment that is iloudy converted into blood sugar. Tiws, it helps assure the slou: 'nteadyjfov of vital"sleep food" to your brain.That's why a Postan "Nightcap" helps you get refreshing sleep-the kind that leaves you rested, looking and feeling like newc So safe, so sasy-Jry it! Every night before you retire, fix your- self a Postum"Nighteap." It's sasv-add a rounded tedapoon of In;tant Postum to a cup of hot milk, and stir. Try ihis for just 10 day3. Then, see if you aren't sleep. iaa better-feehpg frlsllei-Iooising like ° a new persont Get Instant Postum now -and start thc70-day test tohipht/ Are Posturn "1Kil6tco>yt" rsolly effective? Doctors have always known that a warm milk drink is an elTective aid to sleep. The recent blood sugar studies ofter ad- ditional reason why. ..is your own doctor can tell you. the Postum "Nightcap" is ideal: a warm, relaxing drink thatlartsa Qond ... and 1'ostum contains no caQeia, no drugs of any kind. Postam it an ideal nrs'altirru beverors, roo. No ca,firia-Ao druls -.no chance for "co$ss nerws." _rb2 "SLEEP•F00D" Nightcap 4rSIeP.pf2SS Millions ~
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•. Y NOW ! FAMOUS EYE COMFORT NEW SQUEEZE MURINE .~ IN THE BOTTLE JUST SQUEEZE ONE DROP AT A TIME...DISCOVER THE EASY NEW WAY TO SOOTHE YOUR- EYES... AN D SO RELAX TkNSlON ! Mere's comfort you can carry with you to refresh your eyes any time they feel bothered from close work, driving, smoke, wind or ~lare Murine's new aqueese . ,,,,,U~' bottle instantly dispenses one "~I' hrlVE .~.ILi__ •___ _. _ .I- .-.. •th..ett dresner tin_ 9e n.a l r"'ror rswr and ea.v to aoolv vou don't -.lL'Yz5 - even need a mirror. Pure, wfe Murine Aoata away discomforts as it soothes and nfre.has. Use it as often as you like to rest your eyes nnd so relax tension. Now ' s~uosso bottis can't spiil, won't leak, can't break. Get famous Murine - eye care comfort now in this new dispenser.. -.._, ----------------..-----..----. ~ Qd~f Ok44.aJ MBRINI /S ALSO Sr/LL AVA/LAILt IN FAMILIAR OLASi IOrfL[ WrN dlIARArO fn.w+v-rC...Ine.,Cnssa..u.f.a. tY! OROMfR. 'T•...TSlks ns US Pat 0ff. MurtINe fOR YOUA FYES" '
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.. , . . with quick germ-killin` action. I:ilis "Bottle 8acill_us" Listerine kills millions of germs as- toeirted with infectious dandruff, _ including the "Sottle Staeiilus^ (P- ovale).'This is thcaubborn.in_ vader that so many dermatologists ` call a causative agent of infectious dandruff. 1. ` Don't expect results overnight. '_You must be persisternt: use the ,trratrnent twice aAay'-,tss long as necessary. You wiil.be deliRhted to see how quickly Aakes and scales fiegin to disappear ;:. how itehinr icalleviated ... how healthy your scalp fee.ls. Remember, in clinical testq tvriee- . a-day use of Listerine Antiseptic brought marked improvement within a month to -76X of dan. .druff suiferen. - - When You iVash ilair To guard against :.infection, get in the habit of using Listerine Antfseptic every time you wash your hair. It's a wise precaution against Infectious dandruff as well as a grand treatment. Lambert Plurrmaedl Company Division of The Lambert Cam+ pany, St. Louis, Ivlissouri. E.ery w.at 2 di6.r.e1 rMw3. Redie eed T.i.a.toe' "TNE ADVENTYREf Oft OZZIE i NARRIET"-S.. yew peppr for Nn,.1 eed NeNon ~ 1~xostt Aakes and scaleit on coat shoui- 1 der-especialiy if they'peraist-msy, be iyttiptoms of infectious dandruff and - the millions of germs that go with it. J*'t delay ar experirnent with un. .-ttsd.methods. Oct rtarted at once with Listerine Antisepti¢-3nd massage twice-a-day and keep it up. This is the tested way that has' helped so many . may help you. ~ Listerine Antiseptic treats the in- fection as an infection should be treated
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.- ~4 ' t~Ss `a"Z ...r: ...a.~~ .. i:~ .z , f 'orTather's Day, . tfune 21... GIZIE~ DA,D - THE AV-fJRJ.1YS -,N1OS'1' .13E AC1TIT`UJ. PIPE ...IKs betterfor his `IieaLth! It'hrn you chooac a -ift fur Dud, con<idrr Uutft- _anut,.in_ fctcis. 4i,:cccv,•rnl Fry iuJrlurodrnl rescarch antl chccknl by uttxc-and-thnmt stpccinlisla; 1'ealed aauiuft sntoke frnm ciz.:rrttet nntl cistarx. i:aya'owlM f1lHlkc rnnl;tinnl 3 to 4 timcs Ira, hnrmtttl nicrllinr. mtiT irritating nc1d-tarn! Tralcd a;r.titist tmukc from 31 ulltrr pilk brundx. Kny.rwwlio sna>kc -~cas nMdrst.. . cnntainttl,fnr fe+r., acid-Icira. rtwunm c+:rlwt( TMvticl:x! Rr,tull: Whrn stnukrr. +uilch 10 K+t;•WcxKlir, lllro;U rawnttife'aud huykinrta, nnd uflcn-lintrx xn:okrr'e cou~lt, atrc rlitnioatnt. yire 1):id n pipr Ihis 1'aIhrr'al)a.-bul le surr it'!< at liaywtxKlir! All ISrinr didi.ird .. S 10.00 (Urinr bit matcltrs "tc•U - "` O ,N D .^ -'- -"-. E }. ~ ._ 7 ,'`J . ~yJa< .c"
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Prospec/s eirhtr ducked Jenkins or put ojl'seeinp him until the la.u adnwfc. Over-hearing a chance renwrk, ht was shocked fo learn why' they put him '(J. .. Now doors t_hor Nvre nnrr open b%re 0 r are open to kint ... He's toiat placts at lau ... and, incldrMally, he'a ror a girl who thinks he's pretfy nice. LISTERINESTOPS BAD BREATH 4 times betterthan chlorophyll F rw people are immune from •hali- tosis (bad breath). It comes and goes . .. absent one day, present the neat and you may never know when. Why risk otTending needleuly ... why takt chanees with Nsser methods when L'sterine Antiseptic is such a wondetnltl, M6htful, exaa•carejal pneaurlen against bad breath?. No cilorephytl kilts odar bacteria Uke tAis...4tstaatly You aca, by far the most common cause of halitosis is germs. That's right, genns start the odor-producing fermentaion of proteins which are always pattent in your mouth. Listerise kills millions of germt, ineludinrlarmsthatpusethisfermen- tation. $ashing your teeth doesn't give you this antiseptic protection. Chlorophyll or chewing gumi don't kilt gMrms. Listerina does. Ctinically prevat (our times . botter than tooth p.st. Thats why Liiierine Antiseptic tt-ops halitosis instantly. . . and usually for hours! And that's:why,Listerine Aeti- septic averaged four times better in stoooine bad breath than three tead- ing chlorophyll products and two . leading tooth pastes 7t was tested against. So, if you want really effective pro tection against halitosis... no mutter -_ what else you -!o .. . . use an anti- ' septic-Listerine Antis-optic, the most widely used antiseptic in the world. Lambort Pharmpcttl Company Divi- sion of The Lambert Company. St. Lo+lft, Mistour6 ,4USTERtNE ANTESEPTIC...the most widely used tintiseptic in the world . ~1 Iq l_5. 7
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New antibiotic way to fight 2. Kills germs 3. Speeds natural heaiing . - tandettes AntibtotlE`irothes tontain two germ killers, plus the some pain reliever used by many doctors ohel tonsillectomies. - Technically, it may Ix' callcd ''minor tare thtts.'tt". bat asa yCIM kninc• is that it'x taAamc with pain and yiht a•anttaxt rdicL ~CanJattcs Antibintic"Crachcx havc the c 1wN~cr __ to hrinlt you that rcllef. - ! C'c.~iltst' _ A7gr-v-than that, the t.c•o eRtctit•r'hntibiotics naturn tca /nF I~mccxx in cvcrc Candcttcx 'frnch.• kill ntanp harmtid :w~ `+! xorc ehirrat l;crmx-thvrclt>._rtws .linyr at, the ' ~ 1! ~I AYAILAetE ' ONLY AT aeua ftonEs , Landcttax tauc Itkc nrvn;tc candy, but <ion t It3 thhC(nol year. .. . thcv`work likc the {K>tcnt nn•dicine thcy nrc. `K.til, a tvackapc hnndy-at ' htxnc. at ywr nfliec, in vcntr twiekct. At the firxt~ipn of thrau irritatinn or urcvncxs, take Gtnc_Lcttcs. Ut crntm, if thsi_ xnsc throat pcr. - #ixtx.$CC S•ot1F11UQHK. .__- . • . . . . . .' _ _ . S C~ndettes Antibiotic Troches 0114 1/ii%o -
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Enjoy the dependable. relaaing hea( of a modern healing pad. Rubbetised Notthern pad jackets cover comfortabk •'cushionsd inner consuuction" ... 100% wetproof for added safely . . . EXCLUSIVE san&nsb covers resisl harmful baeteria and Serms- lasen odors. toot OiU packaged iq cheerful cMors and lalest fabrics. Ouaramood up 10 S years. AI betler stores everywhere. Iol TO1N NIT eteCTRIC iW tOV(iNW.#MO WAT016 t'AO 'HYY"-l.N e..-/Mte f.w... N.M~ MMMt Nwlb"M Cea1.fM. ;wM+er. . CNIM.Oft. #-M.rr Me 4w.1-s1.e iNr bM/M W..w..r. MniNe..r a*e V.Md.p.. . I / _-) 5-hnn
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Keep awake and alerf with'safe NoD`oz, ... it could save your life 1t/i6n9 r:ul ucrlr Yrru rb'rnr.V /ln /nallr•r hnr, unlolt >.Ir•rlr rrrn ~r 1. 11u1, av )rrur rIrrr lrrr r:ul 1r•11 irrtt, Nrrl/uz i>s 1hr .vrf. aay lu lighl Ihia "16igh:~:ty r~ pnu.ia•" nnI)•rr, rnnlain% a aafr an/l m r ur:flr. nnrrutU uf ralfi•inc, the talnc rrfrr.ltinb xlimu- Icult in r•n(fcc and tea. licttcr ycl, ntm-babit- frrrming NnU(is is fa>atcr, murc rrfiablr, and ra~ir•r to taku .% hilc you drivc, work, or study. !'. S. 1\'rrDnz is Ihe urf)• rrmrrkc fuGlrt so srif'c it is lr-pelly xdrd rm n NrrllrlfUfl 'Nrlf.i rrilGrrNf n Grc• ! oDo:, tAM H/O fl.y rawake teblet 1rNuct e/ yry.~ LariNrrn arriplinN. 1)nn'I l.rkr. rr r•lurnrr. 7nGr wfr• A•rl n.. Don't .cceor substrtutes' 0119 1 / ..2s 1/0
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RELIEF If Your FALSE TEETH Nurt.. Slip.. Don't Fst.. Chew t1-1 Comfort wati Softer EZO Dental Cushians Ortp: D*nfurt3s lelrnnere pulol[ar/ Helps Keep Seeds Out Helps EuePressureonCiums ME- E,Yp, i - .-+` Hetqs Plate Fit Sau` - Helps Prercat GiickinR Neel a sbiritr rriiier fOr JOrr i04YI lre~ Ar1 Jer New O Herry G~Nrgc Crl4iorl! AT YOUR FAVORITE DRUB COUNTER 6Ek 0120` _
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enjoy thE smooth smoking of fine iobuccos__ihe finest quaiity rnnncy ccfrl lwy 0 •s~° 4.~1 0 ® 1 - l~Ii/o~ness~l~v / -i ~ .~~~t. See how PALL MALL's greater length of fine tobaccos filters „~ the smoke on the way to your throat ~ 0 ® Liqnt a PALL MALL and natice how mild PALL. After S puffs°ef:.adi°tiqatf~r. your own tyei l7-{tutfs;'Aalt 1ttof/'s greatei 1~wW MALL's smoke becomes as it is filtered further can measure the extra IenQtli for .Ttra mildness_ of ffie tobaccos stif( trov-tls the stnOke through PALL MALL's traditionally fine me)'- as the smoke of PALL MAIL's traditionally line furfiher-filfers tht smoke and esokes it oaoccos. At the very first puff you een er., ~ tobaccos is filter.d further. Moreover, after {0 mild. PALL MALL-gives you a smoothnesi, mild. PALL MALL's cooler, tweeter smoking. puffs of each ci4arette ... ness and safisfoction no other ciqar.tte offers. wherever you po, notice how many pecp/e hore chanped to PALL MALL in the distinguished red poc4ope 0102
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Bayer Aspirilis single active-a.ngredient is ' so gentle inedical authoiaities- say it is probably NE SAFEST OF -ALL RIN -.R~; LIEWNG DRUGS ~ Ba.•cr Aslfiritt is ttot a utixtttrc of drtt_s. Itis straight aspirin...so fast aud so aTcctivc, all Ly itself, tltat it rtoeds n* added dru~a to briug rott rclicf fratr ordirtar}• acltcs attd paitts. Centfe rclid fruuf pain is ioeIwrtarnl to ronr licalth. Anl 1laycr Mpirin's rocurd uf safc usc Ly tnlliutu of normnl IH•uldc-a rocord uf wfotv bat scui Lc tualrlhcd Ly no othcr pain rclincr-sl,oN•r Iww gcntlc it is. So ?'fHfE I3EST :V PAINI.ElWVERS 8BARS TVE 11A1ti1E.. . gentle, in fact, that doctors preacribc it cvcu pritbal.lr thc aefca aud rnvst r.(licicttt uf n/l for small cliildren. Imin-rclir,•ine drbgs. 17rst relief is iny,ortant to voitr comfort So whcn .uit Imrc an ordinar,r Gcadarlic, aml vuur Iwatc of mind..lnd a Uaycr Aspiriu Itcurilic or neturalgic pain, takt 1la~%rr .1a• taLlet st•rrta to oIkintcQratc alwo#t instsotl.pirin. And reutcm6cr-if )ta% •cr Asioirin tIfks .ou takc it. 'fltia is onc rc:uuo a•hY l3a;•er uot relieve .•uttr paitt-dori C cxjvaisinttt- Atpirin tnn6iv jwt (rcl:Lcttor-faa<t. iFY llNM /u see wiur rL.rtar. lkcaasc /la%cr .1spirin gives you i*ho taro iml-urtanl thinrs %oii.ltccJ uhrn ~•ou'rq in-= pain-grntlc rctirf anJ faiit relicf~milliatts take it witb cutrfidtmcc. Aad highost mcdical aullwritict sar its an;Ic'artivr-inerrdirnt it ~ .COMPAREI Ores Mt A..deNie f.N.1 yw .err .~ e~e :1 e.. yt.~~ of repr-dro~ • I 7sayV Anaie 4YL1 in .ne*@. -eM ~ re. Ae. l.,t reeh e/ tA.w diAnhpef.,. - 0103 r:-' /iJ h-4
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. Now with s~ecial High Porosity Paper i - oftens "everY.puff A~- ~.. _
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(:rixp. Iidltt ertd dcllaiouK. 8peeiei K nppcnte to tne.nitttk.Wtitor. And it's rcndy with Rood protein when you're rendy: Not Aodnute lost! Ready-to-eat Protein for ready-to=eat People Kellogg's Special K with milk is one of the few good protein foods you don't have to cook Gives you the protein you know you -need at breakfast -more than any other leading cereal '1'ht• slwldirtq si•l uccde up to twirc n+ n+uch protcin i)vr puund of weiebt as y.:v• cnts do. AIl the protcin in Spceiid K is more "usnble" because it contains nn ndded amount or lysine, a vital protein clement. p „o .. ....e- e..•. .... New ntnlhcr* and everyone clsc on n hiqh• prntein diM find $pceini K-withsnilk a twn- i'cnient source of eatrn protein. This cnm• hinrntinn is`quiok to fix and invitinc to ent at brcakrnst ar bedtime. Eaey todiacsl. too. ®
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Y pe a er yurw. IWO UNHA~' - .. ~.. ~ Y with your stomach? For (.a retiof (ran aeid F~pppeMrton, koep Tvua handy in ck . N01~flNO ~IYa [Afl ~tlMtl. . ! ~ re. wrn irac.e~~r •` 9~ ; 0133 ~ /i -4 i.:o
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Our prescription: Dr. Seholl's Onixolt. ' A few drops help take the groan out of ingrown toenails- by softening the calloused tissue and the inmbedded nsil. Simply apply. And Onixol does the rest. D`-~ chol%s
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Proven ! Ounce by ounce, Sofskin gives more t`Skin-Softening" action - than ordinary lotions ! Ry thomical analyxix sI&A.in li,n(1 Cream cnntainx nuirc "Skin•tin(tcnin~" inQruiliviax pcr onnca rh:m on!inary Iiand Inrionx! iofxkin moixnirizcx drv -th3ppcd 11anda . . , mNithcx and tvltitcna rnugh, red. deteraent handx ... hclpa heal and prritccr "hurt" ttand,• !'Wxkin gi,•ex :,u.da,• ,,r(,twinn W 1 N T E R he,a~~~e itx x,it•,ial rnrichcil AL SPECI~ ~llirnts p~•n~•rr.~t~• ina:~nr!t'. - t•im~llirnts Y.1nny, wdu•i• nuirr Lcau6(ul handu 4 a I LAR fs i' f 4h t1 . ~ • .t;12t NOVN / c:m nmc lie ~•~~ur,+-t% ifh lusnrinux %ct incspcnxi%c PROTECTS ALL DAY • MOISTURIZES ALL N1G1-IT
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You've read about buke, you've heard about Duke the most revolutionary idea ~ince filter smoking began 10 DUKE IS KING SIZE IN THFi
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DUAL FILTER. 00 E-S gi! HERS AS NO SINGLE FILTER. CAN..:formild,full fl~ior! : Here's how the Dua Filter does it: . i3reyton's remarkable DyAI Filter delivers more than high filtra• : It comb::,es a unique tnner filter of A.,'[V:=' : .c^. It gives you the best of the best tobaccos ... the mi,dness and ~ l r GHARCOA: ... dcfinitety proved to make the s- ';:e tobacco taste that pay off in pleasure. Pick up a pack or carton of a cigarette mild and smooth .: .:T~al Filter Tareytons today-you'II see. with an efficient pure white RM,ttr filter. Togett :' they bring you ihe reat thing in mildness and i.r ; _,. tobacco taste! a ® EW /~y~Q FIL E~R j (.i / (~ 0 M ' tll: Ii,t it lt,'~t (;Iiil: i"tl; (itAI 1llifiG1 B ~:C, YU1 kk fliTf k f~F_IL[ Z M h; b a s. Ag .a a.. . ~: .
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The"Air-Condrfiotiod`pCl. ,~re~-~~r~ ~ is lowest in, .tars, lowest in nicotine, lightest in menthol, of all menthol tigarettes! SPRING MAKES IMPORTANT NEWS FOR SMaKERS'1 SiRINO'S EXCLUDIYE ELECTRDNIC f'RDCEti CREATEi NUNDREDD OF MICROSCOPIC OtENINGf_._ ,.. over the entire surfaee of the cigarette ... to "xir•condition" the smoke. This Icts air entnr the tobacco, at all points-for Iscttercombustion, ctcancrburningantlconlcrsmokiug taste.NowQndqf Snring tastes dclicious ... so fresh, so clean in cvety puR. Ask far Spring KinySia }ilter Cigarettes. 'e•rlrrs cverywhctr. THERE'S NIC7;-;;s•tiG S-G 1:Err:ES111-.:hsu A Product of P. lorillard Company- ir t with the finest cigorettes--tuough Lorillard Reseorch! 0127 4 iws. P. senu:.o co. .~t,1I 1~~
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.. r ~WHY MORE DENTISTS USE UWORIS Than all other mouthwashes com6ined! Makes your mouth ~ taste cleaner, feel healthier' for hours No Antisaptic ... nnt cven any oahcr IaaJinL mouthW-5sh ... yivcs yau thc wonJcrfully rufreshinL faeling you Let from t...voKts. in wcunJs, your mouth tust.s so sparkling clcan ... t..+vuuts clcun! it fcclx w much healthier ... anJ stavs that N:ry for hours. l'hcrc's nd-Jisul;rccahec mcJicinc tuste. no tclltalc meJicinc hrauth ... y¢t t.nvOnts kills milliuns uf uJur•caus- iny ycrms on cuntuct. ~S VO ~ A • Meuthwash and 6arpla Your Jentist will tall you_n clvao mouth is vasentiul tit yonJorad hyyirno. And (.AwOKis is u rlxkiatisccl.fclritauLi uith uniyttc rlcansing p(mvt lhat ... ~ C'Icuns ftHx) pitrticl¢s, itrthuritics out of your niouth and thruat. ' to Killx ntiNionx of oJor-causing gcnm qn contttct. + cloans nway odors. 4& Frcah4tts your brcuth. ~ lC1,vps your niouth lastiny clcan, fealinL hcalthicr for hours. Try t,.rvoKls! Yuti ll say ..."N(i N'on- dar muro dcntists usc t:AVOttiY than all uthcr mctuthwashcs cotilbineW: ' llsc hcst presnrirtiun fur your niouth ... scc your dentist fur pnHCssiuhal care, usc t..wut(IS cvery Jay. Your mouth fs:cla sparkling clean for I:ours -0113 0
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Research finds new fast way to shrink hemorrhoids without surgery TeCaY tMre's a tart hew .rnY t, MHntt ~~cmerrl>•td s~rure~.e,ry~, 7atn ana ~unui~. mediptAlANlw: Y1M >'A;O lenn4M~'e e! thb.. PAiO.f~YN%nMOiY~Y tYt/in j sRs/lflnk Mt11l~(IUptYe. l 1~ lenta M i~M tiYe~Y~ ~M ore~iaeta~~. ~rO/1Kf IAlT.7een ateetr wIn[ 77+el~fiO ~aeerfelw perY ~pR-<ewltrt~Tht~lin NpNetisi NAO - ro11N iv~n-~N NnR t P. y =Wt/e` , AYAIW6t NOM tnunlnleurn~~nw.iteriea . ar OhlinNnt t YMir_llnl/~{ItU'i. QCI_(A11Pr. Mor. serpetete rel(et aith~rut :urRRi'Y. Oat . ;. The PAZO- Formula .,w.r, n.. y.~.a «a... t...'.wur 0132
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"f take Bayer for MORNING HEADACHE!" 0 Y c i ~ 14 lAYER®BRINGS F~ ... the fastest, most gentle o to the stomach relief you t6an get from pain, thanks to . 1*4 4,-.? r -,.^J 7 - F-4A ~ ~3.../A DOCTORS % who looked Inside a living pertion's stomach saw that Bayer tabietf are NOTsvhole when they enter' the stomach.._.t but disintegrate on the -yvAy and enter in soft, tiny fiaksi ready i c to go to work INSTANTLY - to make ae you feei betterfaltl 0108 t Men who knorv mcdicine recommend Aspirin! In medical ieuntnis, cmictcnt tlnctort consistentlv acclnim napirin far its Frcat V anc) o l - wiu t . r IIro fi % a ucs. s - i ln net. spapersPuhiio hculth _oifcciais ,; laive repeatedW rocsnnme4ute<1 nspirin i as the ntre thiap fer~bsadachcs, muxvi- I ktr paina, fevcr,vf it cold. j Tq penonal iatervic~~s, #tundrt~k and ~ 'tMmclredi of cktctctrs ahicl-1hrl7 -rcc.itet- • cncnd astsit in. .\tui (or thc bc..t hspirin ~- : ti.lc+.erict icas r.•cr known%-tx surrj;eru bay Dnycr .lxpidn+ AM
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fruit. ja.1-0u e re=istaed tre0emer.. Have you ever wondered Why fruit tastes one way when it's just picked and stil:=another the day after? At Jell-O, we figured if lvve could ever find out, we.; could give you that just-picked taste in Jell-O Gelatin anytime. We aren't saying how; but we just' found 1_tiv1y., Now Jel1-O tastes `l'rte fr-uit, just off a branch. But before you even taste it you'll notice a differc:nce: The color's richer when you pour it from the box. give you the just-picked taste of fruit. u /.2 r,. /t, 9; So now there's somethin6 else besides fruit that can ~
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haLial!•-.3 f. 7 ~ ¢: © ..: tI ~ Z` ~ ..,......• tF~~~~ t ~.ini i~. ~tM i~ ~ki t1~;FS !it ~~bc,)cln(! i:-~t~ ~5€t1~' ~ ~ . ,,;j-, t~,;, •~r;trir.,r: ~,x iiF;,,,d s"; r~r~j~ ' r-* (l"yy~cc~ 't ~ ~~.3 ~7~ ~-
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V Acts lnstantly.... to give more complete pain relief from ense, 1..erv~ous ER THAN ASPIRIN OR PIRIN WITH BUfFERIN6 How Tension Headaches Start Nervous tension builds up In neek, and scalp musoies' Ttnsion puts pain. ful pressure on nerves and tiny bteod vessels in the head. Tension and pres• sure cause head• ache pain. Ansein tentains special tntdiatien (not found in aspirin or any buffered as• irin) to reisx ttnsion, release I -T-1 pressure and re. iitw pain tast. ANAC I N' relaxes iension, releaSes pr6ssure~ mlieves pain fast ! Tensc. nervous hcadaches need the special medication In AnaciOL blere sspirin or e.en aspirin with buffering eontains only one pain reliever and s[o specillteediystiqn_to relieve nervous tension. But Anacin contains a number of snedically pforen ia`ridi• ents - each with a speeiAe purpose. Anacin not only relieves pain Sn"iblq last but aiso contains special medication to relax tension and release painful proapute on the nerves - assuring a better 'total' effect - more eomplele re;lio[ irosa "in. Anao[n Tablets are w(er. too. They have a smoother action and do not'uptet.the stomach. Buy Anacin today. 3 ou t of rv ~ ..,. I recommend the ingredients in, doctors "emi,, " .Am.::-- a " pNaC1111 v:;Aar t*ciN-RSLgaP KotAt7AQMf . N~t3RAaai/A N*dJRIT1= i /n 10
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..-_'_ .. . ...>. . --~../..c.wla {I ...ESOee..Wai./PCa(Y...e. ~ Winston #astes gQAd L1KE A CIGARETTE SHOULDI Yes, Winston was the first to recognize that further improvement had to come in the tobacco.end, ahead of the filter?~iiTSTe•frl ND is WinatQn's exc.lusive', formula of rich, golden obaccos specrally processed ' for jitter sinokir:g. That's Winston's flavor secret- ; thesmooth,'satisfyins taste that miikes-Winston' -.America's best-selling filter cigarette. Try Winston! I 0 136 ~ /.~,9 /('O
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Watch "MEN INTO SPACt," ezading TV series, "4'ed: n: L. S./M. F. T. LUCKY STRIKE MEANS ' FINE TOBACCO C 4 6 • 0 [ T T [ [ ` ~ . ..._.~.r If other cigarettes could taste this good...they wbt,~, ~, Get this great-Luclcy taste. You'll agree; you Sc i ~ back to smoking when you smoke Lucky Stri~ ~ TOBACCO AND TASTE TOOl FINE TO FlU! ,v.. r. o. 1loJLtt of 0129 - ~ bc; /(, o
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® IM DUAL FILTER DOES ~ J ® u ~. . .~ ~-~. n2l M E3= 0 C M 0 0 Here's, how'1he 2W filter doe: it: S 1. It combines a unique lmr filter ' of ACTivaTEt) CHARCOAL ... aera"iteiy ptftd t9 make A-he smoke of a~+g4r_ift„ '~i 4nd smooth, . . V - 2. with an 0ficient pure white-Aw filter. - Together tAey__ bring you the 1W. JWM in milQness andfine tobacco taste1 ~- - TNE TAIEITAN 111111 MAAKS TftE REAL T81MQ! 0 .P . : E Filters. as no- single filter can.,. for mild, full flavor! You get m r thon just high filtration. Tareyton's remarkable M Filter selects n balonces the flavor elements ia the smoke-brings out the best of the best tobaccos. 0130
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he smoke to less than body thrnperaiure .. ,= : :.. ~^ i•r~ ~.::.~~..+1 Body Temperature The Spin Fittpr doas more than il) .rj ft Averape Temperature of Old Gold Spin Fiiter Sm . - raxt.w co. ;. ~ ?0, • , 60 ~ » rieA tasih of fina to6ateos-the best tatt•;nt in a rlGr oipit>ifs. - --and the cooler the smoke ...the better the taste! I E B E S T T A S T E Y E T I ~ raduee !ar and nicotine ... it aetuaf'ry improves smoking tasth. Every puff spins and cools the smoke to tess than \ / -body temperatura. You prt the fu8, F1 LTER °-CIGARE 0111 1 /11 -(Q0
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. ® tlt'roQuctot!avortakes ~ k th thugh rou~ T17~ ~ n . Arnazing cigar bre a .S44R ~.L ~ ~~' ?t` . ~ . . .~ ... .. :. ok ~ l ~o that tasce to a ot f tit~sand . troublM6 1611. t no1968 Ei Pr4ducto ., cigars have a~~te that will ta1ci you back those ten ycars.'A taste that El Producto smoktrs am enjoying right now. Today's El Producto is blended with specially selected tobaccos that took years of care ind patience to develop, tobaccos that--are Imported from around the world, Our own spccial ng ing a,nd curing turrts.them into aamoke that turns back the clock to the flavor you fondly remember. ' s El Producto ~igar, and take a giant step En y today bac~k to >~vor. How's that for real progress? _ El Producto...the cigar that takes you back to flavor. 0137 j /, !. /(_ 0-
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I took my doctor's advice ... and now- MYr. CONSTIPATION WORRlES ARE 01/ERI Doctors recommend Milk of Megnetia -the gentle itJxetire-anticid that gives complete but oorefrne relief. Tirovmnue of doctort-peneral practi- t4,ucrs, podiutrietan:, otrstetriciane and surytow1s. const to coast-svcre askeda "Uo you ever racommend Ntfik of IUaglrosia for ywwr patkntsP' The wvr• p•Iwhnh1a majority replieds '1'et!' Yes. doctors consickr 11t(ik of N/aFnciin clfct,divc and RcH1tlc hunikh even for Ld:nnix, nuUrmity nnd cur¢k-al palk-lNsa And nu ..oudcr! A.r a faratioc. Phillipx works )eisurely, Hrorouphly but couifortaWy. rwvar forace the system. Ar an aatocid. Phillips' rciievcs upset +twnnah. Rar. licarti„un and otfxr acid dittrcaor aavmtkinying catttipation. No ainglo-puryxrxo ia.rrt- tioa c+nn kiec mreh.irlm• platc. qee gantfc rrtlir:ff Ask your d.octort Xo homo shmtid hc w•ith. out Phillips' Milk of ItlaRncaih! PHILLIPS' MILK OF MAGNESIA , l zq /(V0
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I P&M 0 ® ® I hlilitllE~ `!lF!!'IlME;vts l:!'d, ~ Alltl ll[',i4` t:k h i#-li)!lj! `larihoro 1i11l's ~;itltc~r waN, vrilt f+f.t ,s [o! t4o fihe, SEE r :. IN L^ rl I f
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The trouble with . most foot arobiems Js , they don't come out in thewashe ~ Feel iich2 Are they o bit squishy, a bit smeilyZ Youre on your way to prdilosis. a problem washing warit - solve, kL t Mennen Quinsono wiiL ` N.w Quinsano Spray P6wdor prototts. comfons, cools, cushions. Your feet feel happier, dri.r; [r.#her than they ever have. Unlike sprays go that cover one bad smell with _ another, new Quinsono smeNs as fresh as your feet should. ' Quinsana Squoos. Powdor ~ roliovos othlete's foot symptoms. Quinsana foot D.odorant Spray eheeks foot odors up to rweniyfour hours. MENNEN QUINSANA- a step ahead in foot care. N /;L(a /('I&-
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b O t~;i Druqs ... No Diet ... Results Guaranreed! Excess .ri;i;t r::ay ruin your ceaith and your looks, too. :o•ri;' movie stars lose weight '-' - Ayds way- .n;• not you? In fact, you must lose pounds with the s,:; box ($:.98) or your money back! hc.ed •ov C!inicai Te,rs. With Ayds you lose weight ,.. :; \at::re intended you to-without dieting or A quick r.atural way, clinically tested :: a^a:oved by doctors, irith no tisk to health. :i:e Ayds Plan you should feel healthier, :w~ Lc::er -while reducin;-and have a lovelier firure. ;onvo:s Munper and Over•eatinp. When you take .k~d; before meals, as directed, you can eat :c,• foods you like. \'o starvation dietinr- .:io;naw!n: hunger pangs. Ayds is a specially made, :o:v ca:o::e candy for:il4ed with health-giving vitamins -., minerais. Ayds curbs your appetite-you ::::o:r.a:ica!i,v eat !ess-iose weight naturally, quickly. Ayds is guaranteed pure. c•.r.:~ir:a no drugs or laxatives. r;ew lo.e!inest in a Few Weeks. Users report i.n::e; up to ten poundi with the very fint box. la!:crs say they have lost twenty to thirty ;-o::nJ; with the Ayds Plan. , "I rccomrnend avds," ~ Want to -utye IIody I ltnarr '.d,• 1M. x Lsrac eolleetion of records. ITtviy „•ith her Cn•at Dvno, Aoncr. "1f ,.: •'.11nny steus tnku Ayds to I Qnd myr<if puttins on auiQht, the h r:nr !t'cs in trirn. Il ru:d!y kmM fir;t tLinr I urrn ru is Ayds," says £;urc 1uo.iu, s:im snd lovciy." lltdy. "I can .incarcly rcuuuwrunJ i:." Ilr Tniunrrinonco/frorn~netfanwtu - Ayt4 Aas hall>,ni ntany rstnnus rrnl!y- roi.e. "ltvcry stsr hss to take esra of tvmni .tnns tn a ioveiior fitcunr. 1t can JH•r 1Fsura; "says iiudy." Ayds helpe you do tiw samu fur yuu! At your iirug or sNm t!ru wsY -NnUrro intrnJutf-Yw+ to•"- dejwrtmcnt.turas.
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The first c after shave. Most after shaves are mostly alcohol. So they can make your face burn. Manncn Afta's the first creamy after shave. So it can't make youfiace bum. instead of drying your skin, it soaks tight in.and replaces the oil shaving scrapes away. Afta soothes your face. Which figures. After all, when was the last time you got burnt by something creamy? ` - 0144 cn ~ ~ ~j ~13A~,rC3
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0 Doctors Find Way To Shrink Hemorrhoids And Promptly Stop Itc6[cg,, " Relieve Patn In Most Caaee. - Science has found a rnedication with ' the nbility, in most cases + to ttop_ burning itch, relieve pain and actually shrink hemorrhoids. In cas: after case doctors proved,- whiM gently relieving pain and iteh- inII, actual reduction (shrinkase) took pioce. The answer is l'rr.raration Xa_ there ia no other fortitula like it ior --: hemorrhoids, Preparation H also soothes inAamed,Irritated tissues and - helps prevent furthar'inf.etion. In ointment or suppository form. t 5/3 /& 8 -
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Pall Mall Menthol lQcYs. Extra cool...extra mild It's extra long at both end,,,, ~~r1 C7rdinary Menthol li(ter F'(111 Ma!I Menthol rr) , ~ , Enjoy Pal) Mali quality witii Menthoi. Puff for puff,milder thar1 ever. " ® ® PU
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B TAKE THE ACTIVITY BOOSTER! - TiFtEND- m 0154 -c;- /10 & A
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When you'resuffering'from the fever and pain of VIRUS COLDS or FLU... ' Brings Fastest Relief ... the fastest, most gen.tle to the stomach relief you can get! Tc•t•cr. sore ihroat. hcacL•rt-hc• hat•kstrht•. mucculrrr 1C11Ct 1lH) (tairli- :ell :rc• c'Ircu:u•terirtirs of _cit•tts•e:urtt•el ceckls areti flu. anct at Ule Cn3t irulic•:nicru of :ut} uf thcse s}'rn(iunrt~,'t.rcr shnuid: ~ 1 Ge1 in touch with your doctor 2 Get as tnuch`bed rest as posslble- 3 Drink lots of fruit iuice 4 Toke Bayer Aspirin to reduce the fever and reiieve the pain '1'hc iur(xrrtanc•c of takin(; ]ktrcr.\slsirin at tllc fcr•.t sign vf a t'crkl ur Ihe t:emrcrt Ix uter•c»rirharizc(l. ]]cflt) tlisc:rtca, i( rtty;ltYYal. t:jtt t:utsc yuu scriuu. troulrlc ... (la e•KIx•ei;tlh ... fot' it eltrt .nilg tjst•c°.als tt~itlt irlsitliuut s(rccd, bul t•:en Icad to pncumuni:e. l:xycr Aspirin tnaktds yuu fucl hetttrr I:tst {a-t•an.c it -i•clicrrs achtx ~:r~5ti ir•iins tcitll astuuishinh s(x•ctl ancl c(uickfv rtxiuce•s ft:rct• us tecil. , I'ublie heaith crf(iri:els.-mcn trho /rt:nrc ntttilicicrc--hat•c xt:ue.•d ilrtt tltt• ane thice(; tn take lar tftc t••ctit•f tcl iaticlful tfi.e•/uctlta'ts 1r{ cvAtts or Ilu is a.c fiirirr. Atul 13:c; er A.Iririn In•ing. 1he, /nstrsJ rtaie•f ... tile /nxleat, ttuaa ~rrrNr•In•Jhr•slrrurnrh ruiitt[ }°nu t'atr ytt•t. o..•v.~w ~.~~ Nl.I~~~.•YI~a'Mww ~ ae~ow AS PfF'/N
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® 110 [Cl 0 0 and fiIst, cffective- relict` fiY/hl pAill Fur fast relief tromip3in of hca~lsshes, ernn• e1_oe cokls, rnlyettavtaas and painr uf srthril ir. ~ieur.lylis, bunids. IumLego aml tciaticas aw modern combination. Resistance-buiiding Vitamin C d aspirin in one lemon-flavored tablet remedies used to combat distress Is, none is more highly regarded thc gIHkJ aiJ st2nJ-by: aspirin fdus in C of lemon or orange juice. you can get GaIe~ts o/Gath ar/.irin ! Vitamin C in a plsa+nnt•to talY, /laoored taWet-vi•asplrin. in C helps defend agsintt cold ion. What's more, your bady more Vitamin C when your re- cc is lowered. T u the first sign of s cold, cough or hroit-LuiIJ up.your resistance I while you rclicvc discomfort. Take JouLlc•acting Vi•Aspirio as dirr.ctcd, eitbcr in taLlctt or JissolvcJ in water as a plcssant•tasting and cRcc{ive os- pirin g.rglc. Nctit iu Ix+i, if pusrildu. If cold or fever persists, call your doctor. Fast- Easy- Plslasant : No squeezing. No mixing. Each two tablet dosc of Vi-Aspirin contains Yita- min C equivalent tu that uf two lemu ts, plus the purest aspirin. Ask for Vi. Aspirin at your drug store. TWO TAIRLl7Tn CONTAIN AO.MYON VITAMIN O Ae TM/OWNOLe LfMON[a.- (eO Me VITAMIN C) r ® ~ 0134 /- ~ ~~ ~1 I!,r; 0 ~i...y. ~rUNly . ,y q
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the only tirr.ie Vi_ceroy runs out of taste... r 0153 Ln ~ W C, -~/icl6b -
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Yes, only more so. An appestat is hunger's thermostat in the brain. When it's turned up you're hungry and ne -' food. An active boy's appestat -is turned up most of the time. Nothing satisfies appestats ' and hunger as fast as sugar. Sugar is the fastest energy you can get. When i boy gets n rnid•the-refrigerator look in his eye drinks flavored with artificinl sweeteners around if you, during a hard d.+y's play, that's his appestat calling. It a boy around. He needs the energy of sugar: He needsd means he has burned up most of his energy.' And besides, the sugar in a soft drink tastes tiet[er lk Nothing answers the call more quickly than good old artificial sweetener, and it doesn't leave you with An sugar. The sugar in n soft drink, for example, or in ice - taste. = cream, or a piece of nke. Sug.ir is all energy, and it gets into So stay with sugnr..3t does things for you no ad the bloodstream fast-f<ister than any other food. sweetener can do. Sugar's got what it takes! That's why it doesn't make much sense to keen_ soft Only 18 oalories iior teaqwon- . and it'e all enorgy. *"A neural center in t/te hypothalamus believed to re¢ulate appetite."- Webater s Third New International Dictionar~y. m l . SUGAR INFORiVIATIC)N, It P.O. Box 2664,CrHnd Central Station, NewYork,!\.1' 0142 Ln Fr J J N
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box 2021, there's a reason :why:no one_e1sa can 4a. hat Lark does. We think it's pretty important. So we keep it in' our safe deposit box at I National City Bank. It's U.S. Patent No.3,251,365. And it'swhyLark is unique. In several thousand well-chosen words, the patent describes the world's only piece filter containing activated charcoal granules andtjowthis filter works. It tells about Lark's tiny chunks of charcoal with theirfantattic filtering area..: how they remove substances other fifters do not remove...about how - gives Lark a taste of. its own. If you want to know why Lark considers it worthwhile spending twice the cost ordinary filters on its filter, write to us* WE3 fl send you a copy of the patent. pretty heavy reading. But you wouldn't E=xpect us to make light of it would you? r all, more than a million peQpie like wr at Lark oes, t 1ryen. Wn 21. !0 C1Wr00 St.. N. Y., N. Y. 10006 0145 Ln _j N 00
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-i• ...• .I ~ . 0 0 B 0 M © ® El .: . P` Every mother should give her -"% family the benefits of_Colgate with Gardol and its defense against tooth decay! Colgate Dental Grearq _,( with Gardol helps stofs mouth odor instantly for ~ most people. _It cleans ' your breath while it ~ cleansyouurteeth. ~ i 0 -., _ A ~ . >f!s N In two-year clinical aats, young adults who brushed with Coipate Dental Cream averayed t6;; fewer new cavitics than those who uled a plain toothpaste. Of eoursc, nothing eomplewly stops decay, but you, too, may have%wer cavities if you start brushing regularly with Colgate Dental Cream. aceause Colgate contains Gardol to iorm an invisihle dufisnse to Nip light touth Jtvjy. You nn't see it-you can't feel it on your txth-but it's there to help Aj~ttooth deaay. Ask your dentist how often to brush your ta:th. And iix fewer cavities, brush with Colgate tkntal C'rrrm. Rcinan- ber. you Apht tooth decay with Colgate, help stop bad buath all day. Brush with Coigata haritsi Cream to FIGHT TOOTH DECAY! 1/iilo
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~old Spot ® 0 ® 0 u l't~u c .~.st t3t: !t~ Jti~t .1 t~.ui h i,S C:ulii aE,tit ctr~ thc tip ciS t[`~e iC,ltt'iFt' 1<<;'-ill(1`. V-t,iif i,t{'..'ti~ 1!l`.i.:fiflyl
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EE 119tcu t(w momcut ik teKe R(KUI to lct go... " Rct Irchind a nti(d tnxtin}t A:WG(:rcnptiitm (n,lij:ht nrrlarl: a•rajr(rcr, :%S(:>. unieluc DlcuQ er( lieir ijrtlH,rttA1 antl fhorcctlumcxliClnHacauti)(CSSes )ntt wilM 11arttr-:rlKl Ila tvrr ia the fcaznn e1St ; sultss tonti nueto xc+ar thcuc datx.' (:rt fietlind nn A&(; (:renallier (sheK-n aftua(.1lc). (!r rh4nKC a nr :uty nuc ninc ' uthcr.i.es ant( ih:qrcli.
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T+wo4nonths ago_ it was just a patch •-of dry, flaky skin. - -%Vhy did I ignore it? Dry, flaky skin.-. a persistent itch:.. a scaly ~ patch? Ask your doaor: youanay have the - Heartbreak of Psoriasis Afany people ignore a"harm• and scaling of psoriasis-or iesi ' patch of dry, Aaky skin, a your nwney back. lwnr% itch or a scaiy spot.- Tegrin speeds relief from IV= sYmptoms often lad_ itching. Works quickly to re• co the heartbreak of psoriasis. move icales. And regular use If you have any of thete skin helps`kap swta from coming ere6leeu. ask vourdoctor. And baek. Trv n..r Testrinr ask him abo,it Tegrin. No.v - •' * d T 1 di i l V egt n e cate medicated Tegrin guarantees New ' t'guaranteed! 3..vay relief from the itching ...it Now! For scalp psoriasis sufferes...new Tegrine Medicated Sh,ampoo! Washes away loose psoria.b ataks. leavas hair•cksnar and healthicr•looking. Gnaranterd or your money beck! q~,~aa
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A silly millimeter longer than the 100's.: It isn't much. Put V1laft'til you taste it. 1t's one better. ` 0163
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I I Vti',~.~y~C'~~'~~'
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Bull Dvrham. Filters are rolled ' thicker to _ _ saseko sbwer.-_ fo slow smoking ' it's like getting five or fix.xtta cisarettes in " -.v.ry paek. _ $3
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Bull Durham smoke: slow: So slow it's like getting #ive: ..i~L..'..~...~.i.«.::.~..,, some time with flavor. ` Bull Durham says: "Donit rush me." or six extra cigarettei irt .very pack. Try the Bull-and spend m 0168
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i r 0169 l, /;Ll /66 -
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. ,, I 0 ., r •.; give ;'°3sure and peace of mind Ad"ah' FILTER PIPEa 66•ba/M absorbcnt repiaceabte Medien File ten trap juices, tar., nieotine - keep your mouth aieaner, cooler. Chang. Alter and your pipe ib clean. Seleated, imported briar; nylon ; bits Ruaranteed bite•proot. Isr 0ess1//.1 sslsr esls4e. Mr/le MN/ss. !e V//U St., -_ M. V. tssll. Dql. 1.16 P/.s1s sseMU'YN 7si 11sNIn10]-' 0 1M111 M Mt01C0/1t1tOf IO IN t0e Ans Ms•MN{ssl 10 1a 134 ~ !4se1~s/e7 COt,AGRidT ~e•~ el..a If (/yi) e.tg A•aw, tt) X hs.y ArelrstOrwll~ tts0,% J $IJO r. Stnti~~ Sil rer I'ili),rre ~lfl0 '_ ~_ ~~ u.: ~ :Jt, aewil e.t t. 4 -• MEDICO • World's Largest Selling pipes~ ` 0160 T/.~/~
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Y THE NEW TASTE 4N SMOKING - The a.. ao1e taste. yet so mild and tlavorful you'/l Aave trouble keebin` it bom "her". YNle•Ish is siNe (er eN0 who like their saqking rich aW trtllNrernd. TO qsate this amket tash the tawl Is fxe;aAN with a sew•tOtnwis Aenay tihift. This Dn(Ns the snnN. SmOths IM taste. ° EerieMs fM iwer. te eMeNihe-1M Mmqerte0 - brisr bowl /t tfiwrNNesO qaiaAl twraovL AqilarOk ia a.arilty of sMya, $230 ql],30. hn Hwwt 0401 Mw M 1wOU f MNi 11ItNri fMNt. 7tl.lO•8O1,L P Ittir INC.. N.r. 5002=. O[Pt.Yt. . y o e.NPS.f IG1YlvoooIt 74 01161 tn ~ J J
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Cigars had a different taste ten years ago. i-t came from robacco that just isn't around any - more. Recapturing that tastc took als>t of time_ and trouble. But now, 1968 El Producto cigars _- have a taste that will take you batik those ten= years. A taste that El Producto smokers are enjoy- _ ing right now. Today's Et_ lsroducto..is blendedw-ith speciaily' selected tobaccos that took years of care and patience to develop...tobacccs thaTate; itttported from around the world. Our own speciai aging -and curing turns them into asmoke7tha; turna ' ... ... :....., ,... .q a back che rlock to the taate_- M.rmnn-1 .I Ir 7 ~a ' cigal and s:n joy the taste that's ten years behit,d the times. How's that for sea i progress t El Producto.=.the'ziQar that takes you ba.ck to flavor. - yae. ouu f(3n.lyZri)CTY1ber W Try the' 1968 El Producto ~"13 /bg
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.. " s bee pod coffee but it doesn't love you. Or it you sometimes Ito Wt had that extn cup. Then lCs2ime you tried new KAVA. II 90% of the harsh acids removed, and far less caffeine than rr coffee, KAVA Is especially kind to your tttnrny. You get less W tICYDiCk"... i common tiymptom of stomach dstree,f. 1 txre's heppy news. KAVA is great on flovor! Because bitter i re removed, KAVA gives you the smoothest cup of coffee you tetted. Deep, rich and smooth. Remember the nome ... KAVA. rnEqr priced in 2 oz., S oz. and 9 oz. jars. ar«...e...Mr Look at this acid test ... Ordinary Coffees [nnra ~ per turns color when dipped into a -solutMn tMt contains .- iCid. NoIe yoY Ne how 1i6nYf reicte: to the acids c'ont#HNQ in ordin.ry cNw"i... evtn de+ ~ af/eineted tolfees. qq ~ KAVAV i KAVA dip n ken pe0 w, Ordinary Coffees litnws pper thows far tas ehowe thkn OIf otker witees. f roof that KAVA is 90% ecid. free. TAis is why KAVA &Os you kss?.coffee kidikeck." Is kind t0.yow tuTmr. KAVA 0152 Ln v w cn
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Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous toYourHealth.
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• Y I Doctors find ~ WayTo Shrink Hemorrhoids Aad Promptly Stop itcbI116, Relieve P41c in Moat Caeee. Scivnce has found a merficaiton with the ability, in moat caws-.to stop burning itch, retiove pain ond actually shrink hemorrhoids. /n casu after casedocture tn~Yved, while gently relievinL paiu and itchinr, actuat reduction lshrinkaael-touk place. The answer is !'rrpor.itiaa RO-there is no other formula lika it fun cvfiwr• rhoids. Preparation It also soothes inAamed, irritatwl tissurs and helps prc• vent further inf.<tion: in ointment or auppository form. n 0173
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Revolutionary 3-layer tablet for relief ot IELPS C;~~ C)FCoNO V 1VTIES ITI (critical areas of colds infection) KSTANT ... ANTI-ALLEROENT ~ i PAIN RELIEVERS. ~ ,REVOLUTIONARY 3-LAYER TABLET DRISL.~N is the cxciuxivc 3-layer tablet 'discovory which for the first time makcs it pocsibic to unite ecrt>tin mcdically- ~+rnvcn inprcdicnit intn nno faSt-actinp uncaaicd tahlct! '1hc cxeluaivc nRtsrA>r formula cmuton ce ciupiienlcd. !'~i' l1~S F' tJ1 ~ J J N Ln J m tr WNEN COLbG EtRIKE, eaxtti- iAKE DRIfTAN.`Working' xinus pacsases become through'thc bloodxtreamr clogged whh 8erm-ln~kn ` natstsN ahrJtlkx all swot-. n#ueue .. . reaponsib/e for kn mcmt+ran6x.:Qromotec ~s much eolds suffering drainage. r_estores frec Hnd inircry. --- breathing. - ~ : "here's Not ing like DtR/S'~'r~11/. Decvvngest~rnt Tablets A SINUS C nutsrAN f)ccongcstnnt Tnblcts, working through efir:ctive Combination ot pain roliovcra: ReGEvcs the bloudstrc:lnt, hrinF clr:~m:ltic relief frnm colds body aches and pains due to coids,`reducoc fever. __ mi.crics. sinus congestion and")+ttllcn :Illcrgics: (;{) Vitalnin'C, tn help build--body resistance to u1tlsTAN...amazing mctiical:Ichicvcnlcnt...can- ctihls infcctinn. For quick rciicf, tu(_tlltls'rA-4 tains: (! ) The scicntific decongestant most prc- (yccongcstnnt'1'nhlrte, - scribed by doctors. Reaches all congested areas in Note, Tnday:nt<tsrny is widely imitated. Dut thu minutcs... shrinks swollcn nasal-sinus membranes tact is ... the cxclueivc t)rt/sTAN Tablet torn+ula' ... promotes drainage ... restoresirce brcathing- cwtnvr be duplicated. AtCept no,sutiftituutes! (2) An exclusive tmti-ailcrgcnt to block allcrgic ~~ `' pltls a hiShly =. rcactions oftcn :nst+ciatcd with colds, 0122 1 /, '~//~~
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.- r An •rntiperxpirynt that really workb! $utvcR underarm probl.mb for many, who had despaired of effective hoip. Alilchuwt A.N- penpirsat keept undsrarma abtolutely dry . for thousands of t{ratefut users witA eom- plae psntloness to normal aliia.~nd stoth- ina. Thi: new type of fennuits from a trustworthy 3S-yearold Iaboratory Is Suar• anteed to satisfy or your drug or toiktry dealer will refund purchase . So {et ths positive proaeotton of M cTtwt AN7. rsrspiraat. Liauid or cream. $1.00. 9Qday %upply.
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If youlre too old to have diaper rash..& it must -e e somethina eise. ,;n sweaty, chafedbodyareas.lt is_ exercisecaniuTpstopRrqtn' misery when complicated by ;~,~. irritation betore it starts. fungous tnfection. ~'r' Cruex absQrtts sweat {ane That's why It keeps coming Important faetor in the growth back even though you've tried of Tinea cruris fut~i) Its all sorts of remedies. Includin medication direct attacks baby powders and salves. They ru~ susceptibia fungi - may be okay for diaper rash. KMCruex spray cools; Qets into : But not groin irritation! Y„ ~ hrlyd•to-get4lDtices. (And you It's a body rash. It thrives tn = usingCruex 6e/ore and after - Now you can get rNief whh ° Cruexl. A spray4n powder spetifically made to fight this_ body rash. Cruex spray soothes itchy, Inflamed skin.Cushions against further irritation. That's why 't k f:<inQ r b o b on ma urn o y e _ IN rubbingdabbinQ,smeaNng or spr.adin`atyth ina on.) Crt,ili fpray Is.asyon _ youM't s(iiotkhands off. At Your oharmacv. : CRUEXO ' ., ~.. _. . Cruex.fGuaro~ 'aed to work or your money baek. 0164
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4 Does the tasi:e of your cigarettes fade in the stretch? 21 Viceroy oes the distance. The goo taste never quits. __ _.._. ............~.._~:~.~._.~..:.~.
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(iVY-DRY . CREAM or LOTION for' 1*i19am IVY IW CORL. .. ,_.Weft C~IOweil. N. b~ . Scientific tannic4cid trestment stops itch, dries up blisters. Gent1e and safe. A family favorite for over 20 years. At leading drug counters. - INSECT 81TES! SUNBURN POISON OAK etmil POISON SUMAC
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as r. y Y ( xl And you'll smoke Pall Mall Gold 100's. It's extra long at bjUb ends. More fine tobacco UW an extra long filter, too. So it travels the smoke longer.~ Filters the smoke farther. And makes It mtlder.- Puff for puff, milder than ever.• ' im : . •. , f~rp • • uf f , ' •milaer.; . ~ ~.~..~.. .~.,,. __..:,.. r ® a F i!(Etr4, fartltcr tc~i a s'tiilder smu4:c Ph.l I R1-'t( ( f:O( I) i(~O S
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u Taking a break ? V-8 Cocktail Vegetablv Juic:c.~ is a healthful blend of 8 vegetables that tastes terrific and is naturally low in calories. Only 35 calories a 6-ounccr serving. Remember, the time ~ to think of having••V_8"is before . you've had something else. , •' V-E' is a rcgistcred trademarA ot Campbru Soup Gornpan~
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0 0 ® ® ® .z. ,; . < You can ~take Salem out of the country but... 0 © i you c 't take the`cvunt out of~alem Super Rng Wherever, whenever you light up-Salem ` _Super King gently air-softens every puff for a:taste that's country soft, country ' fresh. Take a puff... it's springtime! L, ~ _j _j cs Try the -one menthol taste worth making7ong ' ~ 0146 5 /3 /6$ -
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'Thati why us Tareyton smokers would rather Fight than switch!^ , - ~. 0167
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I 'hillips 66 Trop-Artic•Motor Oti can be the most Important anti-smog device in your car. U.S. cars made today come equipped bsitive crankcase ventilation systims ;alves) to help control air pollution. t:r job is to recirculate engine blow-by land fumes back through the engine. relt and good. Ahese gases and fumes contain con- :nts which can form harmful materials qup your PCV valve so it can't function. ,Artic makes sure that doesn't happen. ks up these contaminants and holds so they can't settle or clog up vital en- gine parts. When you drain the oil, out go the contaminants. Other motor oiis_ do this-to an extent- but Trop-Artic has a big plus, an additive called Phii•Ad' made oniy by Phillips 66. It increases Trop-Artic's dirt-carrying capacity even ¢gyond new-car warranty requirements. So your engi ne stays ctearter, longer. There- fore, so does the air. . Chanpe to Trop-Artic-the Anti-Pollution Motor Oil-at any Phillips 66 station. And breathe easier. Free.let's-Ciear-The-Ai r-ONer: When you get a Trop-Artic oil change at any participating Phillips 66 station between now and August i 15, .1468, we'ifl give you your first quart ,f,r,e„-e. ACs one way to haip ciear the air. i
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51771 5774 . 0191
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vur mrnYZUig glory - It's our own delicious Egg McMufl`sns We begin with a fresh U S. Grade A_ L- arge egg, add a slice of lean Canadian hacon and finish with our rich golden zse. Then all this goodness comes to you inside a toasted,s muffin. It's a great viiAO day.McDoniid'4: ' Qaaiftyyomsaa 0186 . . L•aort MODvrn'aCms~ss ~:~ /7ci _
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' ArgoF'~~ B~~:~•~~ ~~~ ~ A.rOlo4_ Black Ccp :: - I ht• pipe [(II)ac'co that . \ , . , E , ~ . . r : ~3 .;fJfl, lI1Cl~Ol5 I"t~Ll ~`, li2 ~?1 ;ai ~ 4f ~ `,(~ })i~~~t`,I1,;? , O ul`,llil~ (tt1 . ;
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:arce of ail'ar'and nicoiine disclosuns in this ad'a either FTC RtpoR MeY 1971 or FTC Method. '*n f AII 8rands 5 Id• I "' ' o 5 . owest tar: 0. m~. tar. 040 17111. ricotat av. arpymee, fTC Reoort May 197t, ~ Id li h .o en 9 u:100 s-10 mq- tar, 0.9 mp.mcotmtor.pntiqarem by FTC Method.
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- ~, ~3/ -C 'Mia-vm"W,0
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Warning: The Surgeon General Nas Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health.
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I ht. They'(e on their nvm lonip , And a little doubl r,louds your smilc a1 yOu ctOScahr0 irleas ahrnil drinking are healthy and mature.'(I+, n'• • door behind them. You told them to have a good tim_ e. And chances tire hiswill be, too. you iiieant it. But now you hnpr, that their idea of a good 11 and when he chooses lo drink, it's a t1me is the same as yours He won't mix driving an(P?', Iir;'II vnit ttntit he's ot a(!e . Teenagers, especially in a group, nre often ter-npted . ing<And he'll reatize, without having to think it tf-ri : Ln r to do things they might not do on their own. Like ta -ang a how to handle this grownup pleasuie in a sensit+t^ J shouldn't cli ink when the know the moderate way ~ . y y We're sure you're concerned ihout this prc.Aem, . This mature point of view will please tis as .•~ I-A much at oul it ou won't have to worr jua is we are Qut •; Becausa sensibly and moderately are the onty, you cn y . . y iI ynii've shown yuur yutrngsier t,:er tlie years tha' your _ . like to see our products used. ~ ~ A Fathr;r's Day message from...SeagramJdistillers since 185; i CO Iv te1n,N^,pN..•qsn1.:NWrn.ampCt.•M.A;.Sn.,R..mOStdr•raCn,-3)9P.e.*.• r •. . L 0165
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I - t1c to low t,iF.
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Al t_v;(. Skn-softerting emoll!ents witippt:d, thc~n forrn the whippeci light r1!oisture in VJIr!E!,rE:r-~ C:rerne" ft4<~t:~ ~ ll~r L)oes it loor: tcrrrfic? Yc : Whipped ( :rclum ~. INI 'sk( ,I )p
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When E.F. Hutton. talks. beoble "Iicten, - 0179 1©,l `18
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. e< } irC-* t,.
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-j
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Jon" Ntw York, 1411 BfOidway. WwYOrk 10016:..': N 0189 3/7-9
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IN VANTAGE ® p ® ® I ® SURGEON GENERAt'SiMARNING:'Cigare-tte Smoke Contains ' Carbon Monoxide.~ ` '`'J1, .I" a
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NewAgfe-e Shampoo, helps stop the greasies -between shampoos. :- The "greasies"-ttut's oily. dinyhairtoo soon aiter shartvooing. This problem is common with all types of haic tt is usually caused by the build•up o, excess oil on your scalp that quickly spreads :hroughout your hair. ~ A' flml greesomtua gey deans the geasies esorn halr and scalp. After three years of lab• oratory development, a remarkable formula was discovered One which excels in its ability to gently clean both hair and scalp of oil and dirt. Agm IaseDs yow' hair deaner larges: Becatse Agree Shampoo deans both hair and scalp. your hair stays cleaner ~ longer and looks terrific longer. Ag:ex Pr'decred om twy Isadirtg shampoas. The Agree Shampoo formula was edensively tested. In several tests. women through• out the United States were asked to evaluate fkgree's performance.'fhe results were imqxessive. No lead• ing shampoo tested sur• pased tlgsee in overall performance. In fact. c: e n better than most leading shampoos. "With Aepm Shartpoo, I don't ltave to worry about the gnnsks between sharrtlxsos' 01978 S.C. Johnson er Son. Inc. Agree was preferred over the .leading poo. the leading balsam and prptain , baby shampoo. the leading pH shtsm• ,-shamnooj and the onginal herbtsl sham• poo. AIl together. thousands oi' women partic• ipated 1he people oJ the Hair Core ~Lob• orat0_Cies. .Per• sotxl` C;ore Diur- sion of Johnson Wax. belieue Agree is rhe/inest shdmnoo_ ocait• - in sirher able salons or reto:l stores TryAgree shampoo _,(or srou!sey.. . . AvNtabk In Reeula~ t.atrs liNnk: end Oily Flatr ~. Jormutas. tn t-+ ~ ~ ~ ts -j o, 41-b x.
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V GAS IN CIGARETTE SM4KE MAY BE A BIGGER PROBLEM THAN TAR AND NIC4TINE, AMERICAN MEDICAt ASS'N:TOLD: San Francisco, June 19; (As reportc by major newspaoers aridWiere services) The A.MA. Convention was told oy an important medicat resea rcher f rom one of the major U.S. universities that #he rea!_ problem may be i n the gas content of- c~g~refite smoke and Aot "far" ap-d nicotine., ONLY LARK HAS THE GAS-TRA-P~FILTER. - Lark's unique Gas-~Tra p~-Fil#er (U.S. Patent No. 3,251,355) reduc-es _-certain harsh gases by nearly twice as much as any other oopular-brend. The roductton taste no other cigarette can imitate, of these gases gives_ Lark -a smeoth Perhaps your cigarette should have the Gas Trap Fiiter. .-:~.} ..-.'w~...~'~i.~~:.al.r.:..,...._. .. U1 J CJ1 J Cola148
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.. + More Thoroughly, for a Longer Time Than A Non-Chlorophyl! ToothpEiste! ' In • Osmacop.•• tata w9tb actwi m.a, and tiw lonarraer;ind pcotatioe. >~ven (aton aad wom.a wbo bad tmploatitK -- at iM and o! foot heurs~lt w*a prpv.d. - Clinical Tests Prove It Works paste waa ptovad to aot iaor+r tAorvatl:ly, . br..th), Colpu CbloropbyL• Tootb, - $oiiv./oran+olernduetlonotbadbroatb! pbyU Too:hputw etaam yowr~w utb of with ~olaa~e~ C6loro~ ytl Toot1+ ta a high paasta~• of b.et.ria. R.mam, you r.duee thaM d.a~evetiva aeidi! ~ bu: baot.ria and aeida ai. a ebkl nu.a G'G~AIAl~iY 1~l~M TijP~ll/8~ R~`l>~~E`O Jua oea byshiat with Coipte Cbloro• of tooth Aaal:y. Every- ' _b, Cliniaal tat+ (aow publ:h.d tu a donfal proved! Her. b.ciontile proot that reR. i !r brutl~lna with Cetcato Chlosoobvll ~iU t:otbyut~a oaa du~a ~IL .rtim tur(et a.1au u a wbia teot~~ a! Even awee auM waa aukkly im- pasW can help your sAiidr.n Aavo - bsta oMmes toraound. baltby 9Waos! - YOU CAN PROYE1TS1/RSELF! No other Tootbpost. _ NAS MORE ACTIVE CHLOROPHYLL And You Can Ie Sun Colgot.': Is In Eff ective. Solabl:ldrm[ ~...~ ~ ~' CGiGAT[ Hu.."a« ~. M 8eulvir i..~:.~ TOOTHPASTE , H.ro 1: tfa p.o(I wM.e ..w:.m.wa1 et M.nd A'. M.iw "S• .ow CN4.» OAMc.Mrp T.eMP.M* an wh.4 w.h .H.r. 6. .dNiM wiib tN.ae hwft .d.rktr, rpMr fn.M1 YAw ".", 4n .w w.r...bfM M.rqApN M.w.YMr broad. Md wAi. IA. dilNfA?~N 91.M.r ._ MW~ 1 N Mn b.Ms. Y.o w.eT ". " A.pN" aIM C.N.l. qqWmMAT11 10.Myow.. 1Ae w.t.r r.a.Mt . d..r, dark p..e, aw.n fir ity4 a i~1 MN1 JM d"nrAl'll k".pla.ir f.wl..d-r..dr e. MIp y...tdnU bad i...M.od aMeiiA 0" diw.r.nl .. a/eba sor s Yo a Ge> Th s, f t!/SAW& o I oAb/o rnp bY// 44044.00S.41 ... wr Yh >h is Ns w, fxcl u s I ve A0 /go te fo rn r I/a ! ~-hi /s3 -
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tI didn't sacrifice eat flavor toget , lowtar. "The first expect from a cigarette is flavor. And satisfaction. rinding that in a low-tar smoke wasn't easy. ; . , ' But then I tned Vantage. Frankly. I didn t even kno«• Vantage was low in tar. Not until I looked at the numbers. ' s because the taste "That was so remarkable it stood up to anything I'd ever smoked. .~ ..~• _ "For me, switching to Vantage was an easy move to make. I didn't have to sacrifice a thing:" t'eter,ycceaa r , `e.~• York Gn: \ea• York t ,i Ln r v v r Regular. Menthol and Vantage 100's. 0190 & /7q
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SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Quitting Smoking - Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health. 0205
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WarninQ: The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is DanQaous io Your Health. C;arlton Box-Lvlivst Tarliit ig. No Brand Listed Lower Carltvn-Low~.~st Tar.1lemhvl Less th.n 0.S mq. tar, 0.1 mg. nicooine Carlton-Lowes1 ~'~'.~r 1 .'>M Regular & Menthol-6 mg. tar, 0.6 mg. sicotine ~ nrlto»i 100sReaulcxr &Jlenthol Lcss tar than n.tir 160 brinds-4 mg. tar,1.4 mg.:,icoBne 19th Consecutive Report:No Brand Listed Lower Than Carltor Carltvtt Box 100s Less tlsan 1 mg. tatr, 0.1 mg. nicodne Box King-lowest of a brands-ku than U.01 mg. tar, ' o.002 mg. ric. Carko i ~s.lo: ~ aa t,U ~ as ~. ••. o.os ~+K.~, w~ ~ ora Q s«w-~r. at s~. Soh IKk ~nd 100's Bm: l a~ •oi . t1.1 Aq aos~, ~o s Sdt het ~n110Ps M~nd~ai ~ A~'Yf. a4 ~p niew+w~ 0199° ~1~ ~ -
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0 0 0 Wouldn't ou rather be etti T ~- Y g ng fsad g~~~ng.) An~e~e$~S ~~vor~te c~ssvvofd gaine? suwat snuts.wrwn~.~«1w~w~~pw~ts./aisronxr.wowr.w/Nyi~+r.r~.w~nnrrrwww ® 0?03
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There s nothing quite aike it. Saxon Soothing After Shave. It's a pleasure to smell. And it makes your face a pleasure to touch. Because Sax is different from high-alcohol after shaves. 13 a soothing sensation. CoolFand refreshing. But'theres no sting- even if you're razor-sensitive.: . - The special Saxon condition- ers ers soothe,ii~ritation, relieve red, . ness, protect against.dryness cl through the day And the distinc- tive fragrance lasts into the night. Your partner will respond to the difference. Because Saxon doesn't just smell good. It makes your skin feel good. To you. And to her. In Woodspice and Golden Musk. 0204 i I z 1,415,
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SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking - Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema. And May Complicate Pregnancy.
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Carefu a your Iove 0 ® © 0 ® ® 0 w FFS.Y TT, rS^.iFia How ta:n you hide a love as beautiful as yourst'~`~ `, Every tiny twinkle of your eye, avery. soft whiiper, every quiet laugh reveals your happiness.:,And the ~ Keepsake diamond engagement rit~t$ you'wear '~ r sparkies, in approval. A diarnond so brilliant In'coJor, ' so flawless in clarity, so exquisite in cut = -~ it's guaranteed perfect by`Keepsake.~?! : "f Wheaton f ., ,... - Samara n r.: . Rfven <•-'•!. a ss.aaElMd U4i/1ltlftd Rlnp J , y,~; i r - - . _. . T.u R=`+1K _ HoWTO PLAN YOUR EHGACfMEMT ANti sYED ( Everythinaaboufj+lanninjyourenjijimtntandivAdi~ ( a boautifu110,yajf booklet:Alto vauibis info`~h+a diaetonds and styling. Gift offtr t<avou StNlroni };; ~ Keeptak. Bride's Book.,Send 23t.foi- pouaEit',a d?ndfi Name ~ Address , . _ .~. City _ , Keoosake Diamond. AfnN.a~o ' Find your K.ejsaki d.altt~• a 000:: td ( or call totl frre• dtro.21J4 ~ 1 'Escqfrom Hatwill anJ Alal 1.~ to show your love N u .i Ln ~ 0187 ~ /7q
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...~~~~,~..~.~.~.~. SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNiNG: Smoking By Pregnant Women Miy .Aesult in Faai Injury, Premature Birth, And Low Birth Weight. 0200
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t+++•~~W!'iw~wnwwr~wY.dfr~lsGwsat~c. .- 0 M F.+.c..~ I..
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Having a Canon personal copier at home can save your marriage. • ., u....\.w.. - . . _ _. rwtrr..r. ...w\....rr.w.r~...... 0208 M , A copy of what you ordered. What you got. When you bring home a Canon PC-1, you're getting a copier that's portable, needs no warm-up time, and is virtually service-free, thanks to our own singlacartridge system. That ctzaces originals of iecipes, school projetts, gceeting cards, /'~ ,.~.~.~ 0..~ invitations, and business documents And best of all, that ~,,,~~~ ~ ,, produces an indisputable record of your transactions. P_Fg,S,Q A[1~ GOPIERS fn~~ but ongrnnls \`Phich can save more than cime; Noth _
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0 0 i( 0210
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: Tiie a/Cf'oR7rE , • `Automatic Blan`rjp ,.~ Y ou 11 slee i bett h f j er t a, ~ while' you- save money ;:on-heating bi1ls.,' ' .. -~ Available in tashion colors, pecorator controls with ~ li9hted diai. Machlne washable a_nd dryable Luxuriuus ~. 100% Acrilan Acrylic fiber with 100'X% nylon binding Available in a11 l popu ar sises ULli -~~ v - - -IORTHER ' ~ =- - -~ - . <..- - N The No. l maker of Automatic ;'!\lorthorn Electrlc.Co:, ivlsion of Blankets. Q Sunbeam Corporatlon Chica o lll ' - , y ,. • 6062s , .. ;'. ' • _. ~ .. .. . ~ ' p.. ' 0178 sted a . .. I :',
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rv~u sEwamirc~ YOU Vb*'ve been bocking the nets. Ciashing into the boards. Chaigin~ down the rce after loose puotis. VI*'re O/ympic hoakey p/ayers. Bold, fie+ar/ess and caught fonever on the new b/ock of four V I/inter Olympic stamps. )bu'll a/so find daring downhill and crvss-muntryskiers waiting for starrips;n all. Even ifjooWre nota cnllector, this is an*Mng time tostart So hu . down to the fbst Offioe and end~ suspense . iL3'.Ao~sei/S.+nrks 0196 abng with flaw/ess figure skaters. All part of Zargest 4lympic issue ever, twierny- four colorful
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0 0 ® 0 6 ss 6E.ti :i+lvf Wuninpt The Surpeon f;oneral Has Determined That Cipuette Smokinp hOanperous to Your Hahh ® e
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Whenever you wanted to feel close to someone faraway, when you wanted to share a smile or just- felt like a chat, you gave them a call. You didn't worry about the call. Because you took forgranted - that you could reach whereveryou wanted, and that youtige t a clear4ong distance connection. ATdcT's Long Distance services have always been there for you to call upon. In fact, few things are as reliable, as dependable as AT&T. Only ATdcT has over 35,000 long distance ope`r- __ ators to offer any assistance you may need. Only AT&T lets you reach out anywhere you want. Not just coast-to-coast, but also to over 250 Zt9AS ATsTCommunieatfona countries and faraway locations worldwide. What's more, all these services come with savings: Dial direct stat8-to-state Sunday-Friday from 5pm-llpm and save-4U95 off AT&T'e Dsy Rate Friday from llpm-Sunda y` 5pm and nightly, llnm-8am. save 6030. (Different discouat~.~i to Alaska ). , - Plus, ~T has special that can helpybur14r~ .- You know wnth~ take these se someone well Reoch 0206
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0 0 ReF-REsVII FOR LESS ; SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking Causes lung Cancer, Heart Disease, ,E , physema, And May Complicate Pregnancy. _; 0 0215 ti V
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I ' I 51771 5804
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. .-,~.~...~.~..~,~.~.~.,.~.~ EW "IlHINGS WILL MAKE yOU. . VC/ANT TO TAKE THE.I~ OFF _:________...~~._... _.._..._._.r._.~.._.~ 0217
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In 198Q Owens-Corning changed the way people looked at insulation . ow..
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SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING: Smoking By Pregnant Women May Result in Fetal injury, Premature Birth, And Low Birth Weight, Mk's. suqaestud releil Krip. FWl rich fi avor, _ not fuli price. Ava11ab1e inKlnQs & RinQs Lighta. i KiaOs liqhls: 11 eq "ur° 0.1 mg naoWine-Kinqs:11 req ^ur:' 1.0 eq nicoainc sr. per croirene by FTC method. 0214 Ln ~ V v ~ +NwM.,,.MC I»o i0e
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L Lopus S!ySPLY 9RILLIANT WATCHES r I AG0003784 ,
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;Pr ju.f r.Nd _d eF F0ui ~
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129 , I. L1 ,3• r,) • - Clt a ® UJ .• . :2 -1 • :3 -A . cn,.% E3 1k, STl ~ ED "~ .• _ 1 tIA '% ~ ;a-- - L".t L:1 .. t23 .. r tIt ~ .• .. .• .. 0216 'I Lc }'!';tirv. Y'. ill Ols' ti, "k la
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OnAveryisland people neverthke arrytllingwit~ agonofsal .Atleastnotwith iasco sauce aroun( On Avery Island, Louisiana, much like anywhere else, people usually like to add a little seasonin€ to their food. What's different about Avery Island is that it's the home of'Pabasco' pepper sauce, ' replaceme~ntfor salt, on all sorts of dishes. ' Now, don t get the impression that Avery Islanders arefrom the burn-your-mouth school ol cuisine. Not at all. It's simply that they've found that -a fezwell placed drops of Tabasco'sauce car a10 ng wap tovvard enlivening the taste of every t-hatni from chicken pot pie to microwave voncorn. Without all the sodium of everyday table salt. So the next time you reach for the salt, take anote from the:gQod iolks of AveryIsland. . Reachfor the lively taste of'Pabasco° sauce instead. Tle h~ tute I dMasdsam Dofit keep itbotded up S?dir!s mi1s 6ooR/et e% btrnr. en„y ~,,,ya„y, qwry lsiond, Louisiana 70513. ®1990 TA$ASCO is a n3istsrsd bodsnian4 o/Mclthtnny Contpcn - ,v:,... ~ . and the pedple here have found it an excellent i1/9o
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Dry, chapped lips ire tender to the touch. Too sensitive to endurev beating from hard, waxy lip balms that drag and pull. These stiff sticks must ' be pressed on firmly. And that unnecessary pressure only adds to your pain and causes further irritation. Ctuisla Ino. li!! : FR~~AL ~ Fcr m fuU retlibs~i~e Btittik, s~qM+e ' 3.*ddress piy; ;lOC to awrMtt;se s hofldlin~to Blistikp~ t. lf8g~E 18~ Sw~itt OrM, o~Ic Brook, /U~52L Now f3iistik is even cteamiec 4rt #act, tttistotally new medicated formula is sotoftandsmooth, it actuallysaits oversensitive lips without hurting the t~urt.lt$lides on comfortably to soothe and help heal dry, chapped lips And it stays on to protectagainst sun, wind and cold. Sttck with a winner, New creamier 8listik.. . A soft touch for chapped lips. 0202
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® 0 0 He loves me. He' loves me -not. But one thing is sure... SURGEON GENERALS WARNING: Guittin9 Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health. N . yi If 0 Mon is lowest., M ® Witil a WAC that's r~ight. 1' --wil,w is iQ"tt /r.lairt7MM.M~Ie~ N0HnI "&Ioe** ~~ t Canton la SURGEON GENERAI'S WARNtNG: Guimng' Sm^' "' Now GrHdy Reduces Serious Risks r^ U^'• q "a•so 39•lv••.
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. b JUST ADD I AG0003788 ;
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PERCENT CURRENT REGULAR SMOKERS--TEENAGE, 1968-1974 BOYS
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I 0 C> N S08S TLLTS
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PERCENT CURRENT SMOKERS-TEENAGE, 1968-19?4 . 0Z85 TLLTS
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r %t JUST ADD ~ ('A~'a0003787 '
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. TEENAGE SMOKING- NATIONAL PATTFRNS OF QGAR>:.TTE SMOKING. AGES 12 THROUGH 18. IN 1M AND 1974 Compiled r.oder an fateraaeacy atreemeot trom the Divisioo of Cancer Cootroi and Re6abtlttatioa. National C.aoce: T"stltute. NIH, to the Bureau of ` Healtb EdocaUoo. Center for Disease Control. U.S. DEPAR?ME1PT OF HEALTH. RDUGATiON AND WF.'LFARE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. NA'I7ONAL INS1'1TtfPES OF HEALTH DHEW Publication No. (NtH) 76-931
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SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLIlVG SMOKING HABITS ~ OPA~YEN7'SpAg Mo~am'it 0 SIYINE OICE PARENT BOYR 15-16 PERCENT SMOKERS bZBS ILLTS NO SIBLING SIBLIIVG. O':DER ' SMOKES DOES SIBLING NOT SMOKE. HAVE OLDER SiBLING NO OLDER SIBLING SIBLING . SMOKES SIBLING DOES NOT SMOKE? 1iAVI: t)1.I7rR SIRt.ING
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Table A. TEENAGE CIGARETTE SMOKING Apa by Sax GIRLS SMOKING STATUS 12•13-14 15•18 17•18 TOTAL NEVER SMOKED OR EXPERIMENTED ONLY N 7i ~ N S N 1968 919 97.9 552 84.4 462 73.0 1033 68.8 1970 538 05.0 312 81.5 264 70.0 1112 84.0 1972 589 95.3 312 77.0 27r dd.7 1158 81.7 1974 405 90.2 250 49.3 228 62.1 973 78.2 EX•SMOKER 19d8 7 0.7 25 3.8 38 6.0 • 70 3.1 1970 8 1.4 15 3.9 22 5.8 45 3.4: 1072 11 1.8 20 8.4 30 7.2 57 4.7 1974 ?8 4.7 33 0.1 42 11.4 101 7.0 CURRENT OCCASIONAL SMOKER 19" 7 0.7 14. 2.1 15 2.4 36, 1.6 1970 3 0.5 1 0.3 5 1.3 9 0.7 1972 0 0.0 1 0.2 • 3 0.7 4 0.3 1974 1 0.2 T 1.4 2 0.5 8 0.6 CURRENT REGULAR SMOKER 1968 8 0.6 83 9.4 118 18.8 187 _ 8.4 1970 17 3.0 55 14.4 90 - 22.8 158 11.9 1072 17 2.8 Qa 18.3 106 25.3 188 13.3 1974 27 4.9 73 20.2 01'i 25.# ' 195 15.3 TOTAL 1088 900 99.9 e54 99.1 833 100.0 2226 99.9 1970 564 09A - 383 100.1 377 99.0 1324 100.0. 1072 507 09.0 405 90.9 415 99A 1417 100.0 1074 540 100.0 381 100.m 367 99.0 1277 100.0 CANw"T.wwp. Tr.pAom Swvqn - 1Mt. 1970, tf7=. 1974
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Background The widespread use of cigarettes among teenagers, with Its attendant health hazards, prompted four national surveys of teenage-smoking in the United- I I I States. The first survey was comc?eted in January 1968, and the last in January 1974, with lntermediate surveys in 1970 and 1972. A reportl on the results of the first two surveys has already been publlshed. Results of the 1972 and 1974 surveys are reported-here. The present discussion is based largely upon the 1974 results, with reference t4 those'of the 1972 survey, and earlier surveys, where appropriate. Mtethodol ogy For the 1968 survey, boys and girls, age 12 tb 18 Inclusive, were interviewed both by long-distance telephone and !n ft,ce-to-face interviews in non-telephone households. It was necessary to cu::duct,these face-to-face Interviews because it was not known whether there were differences:in smoking behavior of youths in telephone households and those in non-telephone households. The re;ults of the 1968 survey indicated that the additi:on of non-telephone households to the sample resulted in very little change In -the data•obtained from telephone households. For this reason, teenagers In non-telephone house- holds were not Included in the 1970, 1972, and 1974 surveys. All interviews were conducted by Chilton Research Services in Philadelphia. The surveys were made 1n the latter part of Decembrr and early In January. ITeena4e Smoking:__ National 0atterns of cl9arette smoking, a9es 12 through 1 n an -, DAEfi ft-bl3cat on o. HS ucat on an e are, Public Health-Servlce. hae
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There's another indispensabie room service ~ you'll find at fme hotels. At Amcricas finest hotels, they know more about servic- than just about anyone. So when it cante to choosing a kmg distanc+~servks, itt no surprise that ctieychose AT&T. Because they know you depend on AlN to pafam at your best. Whether you're taking advantage of twddwIde tekrconfi•rencing mocecpe~ttors at your servlee 24 houts a day, or the ease and convenknce of vour A?dc7 Card. When vou travel. no one has 1 tnorc a~s to he!p yau You 11 hnd tfte A7~TLrm~gDisumcssymbol at thousands of ,,, ~ distingulshed hotels across the country. So If you need 4 just ring. mom ATi~T _ 1800 551-3131. Ext. 2997. How can we hela vou?'" 0223 cn ; n/4/
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SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND COURSE NOW TAKING IN HIGH SCHOOL BOYS -40- I -30- 94 _•: :1 ., r!~~'r , I 0 15-16 17-18 COLLEGE PREPARATORY I GIRLS OTHER 'I'IIAN COLLEGE PREPARATON.V Z£8S ILLIS
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,_ . By conducting the surveys at this time of year, it was possible to maxinize the number of teenagers who could be reached because they were at home•for the holidays. For the 1974 study, Chilcon Research Services interviewed by long-distance telephone 2.553 boys and gi rl s from 12 through 18 .years of a,ge. 8etween.-.. 180 and 185 intervierrs were conducted for boys in'each age group and girls in each age group. As with the 1970 and. 1972 surveys, the 1974 study consisted only of long-distance interviews. Thus, this report and`the previous one`are based on results of telephone interviews only. Representative samples were randomly selected by computer from a data bank - that included all possible combinations of area codes,-telephone exchange:, and subscriber numbers, with a sufficient surplus number of selections to allow for the elimination of non-residence telephones or residences containing no teenagers. Standardized questionnaires were administered by trained professional interviewers and took about 15 minutes to complete. The respondents were classified by smoking.status lnto one Df five categories-- those who have never smoked, experimenters, ex-smokers, current occasional smokers, and current regular smokers. We defined these categories as followss Those in the "never smoked" category have never-smoked a cigarette, not even a few puffs. Those designated as "experimenters" have smoked at least a few puffs of a cigarette, bu`t hav,• not smoked as many as 100 - cigarettes. The "ex-smoker" is characterized as one who has smoked at least 100 cijarettes but no longer smokes the+a. This category 1ncludes ~ both ex-regular and ex-occaslonal smokers. -j ~
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0 15-16 SMOKERS' REPLIES GIRLS SMOKER. AGE SMOKING BEHAVIOR OF "FOUR BEST FRIENDS" NONE OF iO11R dES FPIENUS IS A RECUI NONE OI fOUR SES iRiENfUS IIAS EVER EXPERIMENiEO. 6Z8S TLLtS AT LEAST ONE Of FOUR eEST FRIENOS IS A REGULAR S.WOI 0
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thtn for boys. As far as older siblings are concerned, the female dominance again prevailed--in other words, If an older sister smoked, the teenagers studied were more likely to smoke than if an older brother smoked. Now, what about the proportions when parerits and older siblings smoke? If at least one parent and ore older sibling smoke, the teenager is four times as likely to smoke than as if no parent or older sibling smokes (27.9% and 7.2% for boys; 26.2% and 6.0% for girls) (Table 5). Ei a parent or.a sibling smoker In the home increases the teenager's likelihood of smoking, but not'nearly to the extent that i t dc __ when both smoke. In these 1 atter. house- holds, smoking is an accepted family pattern that the adolescent is very likely to adopt as he approaches maturity. In households where only one ptrent, or neither parent, is present, the data show the same pattern. However, the number of such ca-;es is so small that tables reporting them are not included. Smoking Cithavior of Friends In the '.974 survey, respondents were asked how many of their four best friends have at least experimented with smoking cigarettes, and, of those, how many had just experimented, how many smoked occasionally, and how many were regular smokers. Among respondents who, thr.msolves, smoke, an overwhelming ftlority (87") indicated that at least one of their four best friends is a regular smoker,"
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0 SMOKING BEHAVIOR OF "FOUR BEST FRIENDS" BOYS AT LEAST ONE OF FOUR BEST I RIENDS IS A RECL7.AR SMOKER 0- NONE OF FOl1x BEST FRIENDS IS A RECULAR SMOKER. NONE OF fI)UR BEST FRIENDS I/AS EVER EXPERI.%lEtTEU. .• t ~ .: 8Z89 TLLTS i
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For girls, the rates are 20.7% where both parents smoke, 15.1%, where one parent smokes, and 7.6% where neither parent smokes. Where one or both parents smoke, the proportion of smokers has intreaseu over°, previous years. However, the rates have shown no appreciable change in households whcre neither parent snokes. The smoking behavior of older brothers and sisters also influences teenage smoking. In fact, both boys and glris with older s4llings_ are more likely to smoke if one or more older siblings smoke than' if none of their older brothers or sisters smoke (Table 4). Boys who have older siblings who smoke are almost three times as likely to smoke as are boys whose older_siblings do not-smoke (27.C% and 9.8g). Boys kith no older siblings who smoke are mort: similar to those with no older brothers or sisters; 13.4% of these boys smoke. The findings for girls follow the seme pattern with a smoking ratc of 25.35 in homes where an older sibling smokes, a rate cf 10.0% in homes where no older sibling smokes, and 13.0% where there is no older brother or sister. These relationships have remained practically unchanged through the four surveys. Still another area of family smoking habits-was explored. ',lere boys more likely to seroke if their fathers smoked? Were girls`more likely to take up the habit If their mother smoked?--Did the sex of the older sibling who smoked make a difference? What was found was that both bc:ys and girls were mcre likely to start smoking if their mother _ smoked than 1f their father did. This was true more often for girls
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® SMOKIlVG REHAVIOR AND PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKING HABTTS ONE PARENT OR BOTH PARENTS SMOKE a sM NEITHER PARENT GIRLS 15-16 PERCENT SMOKERS NO SIBLING SIBLING OLDER SMOKES DOES SIBLING NOT SMOKE . HAVE OLDER SIBLING r'lw-h 17-18 t NO SIBL3NG OLDER SMOKES DOES SIBLING NOT SMOKE HAVE OLDER SIBLING I
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I" 1. Concern with the effects of smoking on the health of the smoker. 2. Concern with the effects of smoking on the environment, in:lioding other people. 3. The psychological and sociological utility of smoking. 4. Rationalizations that allow the individual to smoke in the fact of medical evidence. 5. Perceptions of reasons for beginning to smoke. 6. The stereotype of the smoker as being "bad." 7. Attitude toward control by parents and others In authority; need for autonomy. 8. The extent to wnich the individual has control over his own destiny. Factor scores were obtained for each respondent for each of the eight groups of attitude statements by assigning S points for "Strongly agree," 4 points for "Mildly agree," 3 points for "Neither agree nor disagree," etc. For some items that were stated negatively, the scoring was reversed, with a score of 5 assigned to "Strongly disagree." An example is the statement "There's nothing wrong with smoking cigarettes as long as you don't smoke too many." The mean factor scores are reported in Table 11; individual statements, along with distributions of responses, are reported in Table 12. Three statements from each of these factors were included in the survey.
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while a little over 10% indicated that not'one of their four best friends smoked regularly, and less than 210 said that none of their friends had even experimented with cigarettes(Table 6). Non-smokers showed exactly the opposite pattern. Only one-third said that one or more of their four best friends was a regular smoker, while almost one-half said that no friend smoked"regularly and another 20% had no-best friend who had even experimented. There is no question that smokers-have friends who smoke and non-smokers have friends who do not smoke.' Working Practices Approximately three-quarters of the boys surveyed said that they had worked at some time during the preceding year, and one- half of the girls reported that they had also worked during that time period. The proportion of workers was highest In the oldest age group studied - seventeen and eighteen year olds--(89.9% of the boys and 73.8% of the girls) had been employed. Even in-the youngest group (twelve, thirteen, and fourteen year olds), however, 63.3% of the boys and 40.1% of the girls hed held jobs in the preceding year(Table 7). A relationship was found between working and smoking--those who worked were more likely to be smokers than were those who were, nut employed. The'study showed that 18.1% of the boys who worked also smoked while about half of that number, 9.3%. of the boys who did not work were smokers. For girls, 203% of the workers said they were smokers, and 9.4% of the non-workers smoked..
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0212 i~/~~ -
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0 © © © © - YOUR 11EXTTRrP`lO THE SMRE COUM ALSO BE A TRIP DOWN MEMORY LANE. I While you may not find many general stores like this anymore, fortunately you can still enjoy great tasting coffee. Introducing MaxweU House'1892" Slow Roasted Coffee-a blend inspired by the good old days and made that way too. S Back then everybody took the time to slow roast their coffee. However, the art of slow- roasting is, sadly, an all but forgotten one. The truth is slow-roasting is the traditional way to bring out the full flavor and aroma of high grade coffee beans. It is time $s'OW well spent, though, as the result is an uncommonl @R4IhST~'~ Y , , good cup of coffee-one that is both lusty and satis- fying without being bitter. ~ ~ I Next time you are shopping pick up a can of 1$92t"Coffee and try it foryourself. S And even though it probably will come from a supermarket, the taste just might bring back memories of stores like the one above. , ( o~9vo w.aG..«.i toae.. Inc. 1 NIL .~.~~... .~~., . ~r. ; 0 0 0 ® 0 n 0 0 0 ® 0 0 ~ ® 0 k~ , I ~v a~ i y. 1 Elr ~ T' g~) ...... _ . ~ ~ 0 0 ® co ® 0 0 0 0 Q 0211
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~ expected, a larger proportion of non-smokers than of smokers admitted that smoking is harmful. Still, no re than 90% of the smokers accept this fact. Only 3% of all teenagers said smoking was not har;rrful, and 3% said they did not know. Prediction of Future Smoking Behavior In response to the question, "What would you say is the possi- bility that 5 years from now you will be a cigarette smoker?", a large majority of both boys and girls say that they either definitely or probably will not be smokers 5 years frorn•now (boys 85.7X and girls 84.5%). Among the non-smokers, only about one in fourteen say that they wio, probably or definitely be smokers, and even among the smokers, only about half sa.% "definitely yes". or,"probably yes" (Table 10). Dynamics of Teenage Smoking The first three surveys, 1968, 1970, and 1972, consist primarily of descriptions of teenagers, and their families, in relation to their smoking practices. By 1974, research had progressed to the stage where it was possible to explore the dynamics of the taking up of smoking. 9etKeen the 1972 and the 1974 surveys, a comprehensive study of how teenagerA. view smoking was conducted.2 This study resulted in the identificatioa of eight factors which may be described briefly as follows: 2Develo, nt of a Teena er's Self-Testin_g Kit (Cigar,ette Smoking), unpublished report preparedby ucat on an u c~ffairs, as on wor performed pursuant to Contract No. HSM 110-71-145, Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
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"Current occasional saroken" include those wbo 3moke less than one cigarette a week. ' Those defined as "current regular smokers" smoke one`or more cigarettes per week or one or more per day. Those who have never smoked and those who have experimented only were classl- . fied In a single category for purposes of anAlysis. The sample size In each category, age by sex b, smoking habits, is small. therefore, in analyzing 'the relationships betwe.:r, smoking behavior and other characteristics of the teen- agers studied, age groups were combined in order to have a more stable base for comparisons. Thus, ages 12, 13, and 14 were combined; ages 15 and 16 were combined; and ages 17 and 18 were combined. In aT1 but a few of the tables, the data are reported for these groups. Throughout this report, except where otherwise specified, current regular smokers are referred to as "smokers," and all others combined into one category of "non-smokers." Trends in Prevalence of Teenage Smo~king_ There was an Increase in teenage smoking between 1968 and 1970, but since then the proportion of those wno smoke has remained almost constantp. However, boys have shown patterns different fran those of girls. During the six years covered by the surveys, the proportion of boys who smoke at least once a week changed very little,-excepz for an increase 1A 1970. This Increase was most marked tn the 17- and _18-year olds. In 1972, this propor- tion had dropped back to the 1968 level and remained there in 1974. J4mong girls, however, there has been a gradual Increase in the proportion of smokers in every
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qW+_1. - ltt7+f li-+ . ,` 4 A At. .. ~ . . ~. -w.c, ~ .
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. tge groups. This has had the effect of practie~llly eliminating the differer In smoking behavior of the two sexes. tn 1968, the proportion of girls recc ing that they smoked cigarettes regularly was only about one-half that of bc By 1970, this ratio had risen to almost txo-thirds, and in 1972 to -about 85: The difference between the smoking behavior of boys and that'of girls had dl appeared by January'1974. These results are summarized In Table A.- Res - Family S•ructure Between fifteen and twenty per cent of teenagers live in a household where both a father a mother are not present (Table 2). These teenagers are much more likely to be cigarette smokers than those in households where both parents live in the home. Among boys, the smoking rates were 20.0% and 1b.1x'respectively; for girls, the rates were 23.4% and 13.45. These relationships hold not only for the 17- and 18-year olds, where it can be expected that some have left home, but also for the 15- and 16-year o1ds. . This relationship has remained consistent over the four surveys. _ - - :: Family Smoking Pattern Whether parents smoke or not influences teenage smoking and this is true'at all ages. For example, in families where both parents are in the home and both parents smoke, 22.2% of the boys smoke, yet when only one parent smokes, the percentage of boys who smoke dropped to 15.0%. and when neither parent smokes, the perrent- age was evci lower--11.3% (Table 3). There has been 1ittle change in the proportion of smokers in any of these home situations over the years of the surveys. ~ N N I
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Table A. (Con't) TEENAGE CIGARETTE SMOKING AoV by Sax BOYS, ' - SMOKING STATUS 12-13•14 161d 17•18 TOTA N % N % N % N NEVER SMOKED OA EXPERIMENTED ONLY 1968 876 93.1 465 75.2 344 54.7 1685 77 1970 512 90.5 268 70.5 178 48.1 958 72 1972 533 9!.1 273 88:3 211 54.4 1017 74 1974 496 90.7 253 69.5 202 55.3 951 74 EX•SMOKER 1968 25 2.7 34 6.6 71 - o i.3 130 5 1970 21 3.7 35 9.2 62 14.1 - 108 8 1972 20 3.4 50 12.6 56 14.4 126 9 1974 28 5.1 45 12.4 44 12.1 117 9 CURRENT OCCASIONAL SMOKER 1988 13 1.4 14 . 2.3 24 3.8 51 2 1970 1 0.2 3 0.8 2 0.6 6 0 1972 , 5 0.9 8 1.5 4 1.0 15 1 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 1.6 6 0 CURRENT REGULAf. . SMOKER 1968 27 2.9 105 17.0 190 30.2 322 14 1970 32 5.7 74 19.6 138 37.3 244 18 1972 27 4.6 71 17.8 117 30.2 215 15 ,• 1974 23 4.2 66 18.1 113 31.0 - 202 1 S TOTAL 1908 941 100.1 ai8 100.0 629 100.0 2188 99 1970 566 100.1 380 100.0 370 100.0 1316 100. 1972 585 100.0 400 /00.1 ' 388 100.0 1373 100 1974 547 100.0 364 100.0 365 100.0 1276 100 ChNww Te.nN. Te1epAwr fvrrqre - HN, 1970, 1977. 1974 CTI 00 N W
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How does the teenager react to control by parents and"others in authority? Although this, seemingly, would have nothing to do with smoking, data on Factor 7 showed that'smokers generally dislike restrictions imposed by adults more than do non-smokers. Finally, Factor 8 sought to discover how much the individual has control over his own destiny. Again, we would not necessarily expect a distinction between smokers and non-smokers, but such a distinction did exist. Both groups had high scores on these three Items, but more of the non-smokers believed that they themselves were in control of thee type of person they would be. It 1s encouraging to find that teenagers, almost universally, believe that smoking is harmful to health, and that they do not plan to be smokers as dduits. The findings also convey the warning that it is futile to continue to tell teenagers that smoking is harmful and that they shouldn't do it. They know that it is harmful. Most do not want to do it. The most effective thing that we can do is to help them to understand the benefits of smoking as compared with the costs and dangers so that they will have the facts they need in order to make a thoughtful decision as to whether to smoke or not to smoke. In furnishing informazion to teenagers, we must always remember to give prime consideration to individual differences and advise accordingly. Ln CO SP. N
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r '~O4t F,X/M 11/IIR'. Ixl~{S ~ a ~ --,CUVaI 4~7O 1 on 2 on 2 ., I 31wrequ• ~+ R~ ,_ RG'IFR Protect Your Littie ~ ` Pt11D~~ GI10StS and CsObliItS' ~ GIIfJ~Olf .rl[RYOO~f..~11~E~.dy~ 1 Flnh~i~ilt, dlc oa(sa uitdl-orendp.rum la ( every lllo../t or ~O'b~,O,~s• /1nd, htDep~ th1e .p~~o•wa W~lCtlt ~ M10 ~O~IY~ wIm EJltl~lttf prtllfi f~ ( leMJ. %I..l.w Fw.1. M. .Lr dw taJJww.«.a 1... aa.J«*a.USA ..w..k4 A.LQJ 1 w I .....n f..l.wy... w d.v C«ps ..J J . w.rJ.l.w ... k.el Mk» w..L.w.k .Jk..J. k.wd. wJ" a a+waa 6. L...r pr 0212 J."'s.'""..d6.1-......n... ~-ww"bJ Jill, ".+n..J...,.., c.r..a cMs ~ M w r c.i~. w $ 39800 11022 s r MNUACtuRltM C;oU10m f ~ ~,~.~! ~;; . on ycwx next purchast of "kiyin9 EVEREADY" A Cl-l • ~ ' flw..L.IJ1++...w 19511!'y... ~ f~ttpy0{/r ~S ~ ~~ R.pi.r w6 .8 w r.. #4 r..+6. c and 90plnf safe tll w J Aw....n ~, 0~ ~~~~ ,~~~ r Lr G.daJrrllSA wy~.W rtif---i7fi/ltt pK) RN.,~ /r1a.~sW.l.rrw~. ~w. ..J / . ~a+l ~~,, . 1 Caw~ rw ViRt/]/ NI yO1X ~ ~ ' ka..aLwJ.aMM.rJ4k+~aMpr . . SmOKC;JtttcfOfs ' JL..dJ.r.a.M1.r/1.Jri..wan4.F tach ytar`when you t .d....l..,.... C...p...~J~.r., changt your+dock. I t ,,,,,w ~..~~.....a ..n.+t., o,.../a.uc.+r..~.wrft S 3'980 15(!25 t f 17 J i.lf. 7f f. 'fY51 ~! kr 1.~. /sa wM i . ..... •. on your next puahase oE any 2 padca9ts of ENERGIZER'` &and Batterit: .• t
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w -ss+oking in the same proportions. While the reasons for the disappearance of differences between boys' and girls' smoking behavior are not lmmediately apparent, it is likely that they are the same as the reasons that account for the disappearance of many other differences between boys and girls, such as dress, hair styles, etc. In order to understand the phenomenon of :eenage smoking, it is important to recognize the differences between those who take up smoking and those who do not. Since adolescence is a period of exploration, it is natural for teen- agers to experiment with smoking, Just as they do with other "adult" behavior. But which experimenters become smokers and which do not? By the time a boy or girl is 18 years old, only about one in three is a smoker, although most have tried it. How do we explain the differences in behavior? One way Is to look at the differences between the teenage smokers and teenage non-smokers. Up until adolescence, there is no question that the family exerts the great- est of all influences upon the child, but, as he grows up, outside influences become stronger. How much does the family situation affect the smoking practices of the teenager? Several characteristics of the family were examined, and all were found to be related to smoking practices. First, teenagers In intact families (that is, those in which both parents were present) were less likely to smoke than were those In homes were there was not both a mother and a father. About one In five lives In a home with- out both parents, some because one parent !s diad or the parents divorced, and some, particularly the older teenagers, because they have left the family home and havE set up their own living arrangements. They have adopted a life-style.that is somewhat precocious; perhaps smoking is one characteristic Ln Co W Co
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~ that differ from those of his peer who plans to tenninate his academic tducation with high school. The high school student in a college prepara- tory course is less likely to smoke than is one who is in a,y other course. This is consistent with the finding that offspring of parents who went to college are less likely to smoke. Thus the theory that smoking is related to socioeconomic status is substantiated. The 1974 survey data went beyond those collected in the three previous surveys which described teenagers and their families in relation to their smoking practices. In the 1974 survey, we also sought to discover how teen- agers really view smoking. Eight factors, made up of thi-e statements per factor, were ident4fied. Factors 1 and 2 are related.to the co t of smokinn--Factor 1 to the health of the smoker and Factor 2 to the deleterious effect on the environment. Factor 3 explores the benefits efits of smoking; that is, the psychological and sociological values perceived to be related to smoking. In order to reduce dissonance,smokers who accept the cost mf smoking must rationalize their behavior. Factor 4 gives them an opportunity to do this. Factors 5 and 6 deal, respectively, with the stereotype of teenage smoking and the teenage smoker himself. Interestingly enough, the non-smoker was more likely to subscribe to the theory that smoking increased the Individual's popularity and attractiveness to the opposite sex. At the same time, the non- smokers were more likely to agree that a smoker is a show-off or trying to look grown-up.
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" four best friends smokes on a regular basis, while only one in three of the non-smokers claims a smoker among his four best friends. At the other extreme, one in five non-smokers claims that none of his four best frien;s has even experimented with smoking, while only one in a hundred of the smokers makes this claim. When we discuss parents' and older siblings' s:*nking patterns, we can talk about their influence on the teenager since, presumably, these older family members set the stage for him. But when we talk about friends' smoking, there is no way to guess who Influenced whom. Did Tom's friends exert pressure to get him to smoke? Did Tom urge his friends to smoke? Did he select friends bec they smoked, or did tF~:y select h1m because he smoked? Or do they show the same kind of life-style, congenfal to all in this group, that lncludes cigarette smoking? Tom cannot tel'i us; no one can. It is likely, however,•that Tom and his friends share a life pattern that includes smoking. One aspect of the teenage life-style is his working attitude outside the home, either full-time or part-time. Most teenagers do work at some time during the year, and they are twicts. as likely to be smokers as are those who do.not work. Perhaps the non-working minority is somewhat more protected, and less likely to have achieved much Independence. Those who work often participate with adults In a work situation, and therefore are more likely to experiment with smoking and other adult behaviors. Another aspect of the teenage life-style is reflected in his educational and vocational aspirations. The college-bound youngst^r probably has priorities
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While nearly all teenagers admlt to health hazards in smoking, many of these teenagers smoke. How can they reconcile their knowledge with their behavior? Factor 4 contains soee of the statements that teenagers use to rationalize their behavior. While the scores are relatively low, we find as expected that smokers agree with these statements more than do non-smokers. Almost two-thirds of the smokers believe that it's okay to smoke 1f you quit before it becomes a hablt; while only about 40% agree that smoking Is harmful only if a person inhales and even fewer (32%) that teenagers who srt:oke regularly can quit any time they like. The next two factors reflect stereotypes held by teenagers. Factor 5 is the stereotype of teenage smoking and Factor 6 is the stereotype of the teenage smoker. The stereotype of smoking as a way to attract the opposite sex, to be more popular, is held by the non-smoker more than by the smoker. The non-smokers.are much more likely to agree with each of these three statements, with a ratio of almost 2 to 1 among the girls. The stereotype of the teenage smoker (Factor 6) as "bad"--a show- off, trying to look groNn-up--is subscribed to by the non-smoker much more than 1t is by the smoker. In fact, about twice as many non-smokers agree with each of the items than do smokers. On the surface, Factor 7, which deals with the teenager's reaction to authority figures, has nothing to do with smoking. However, the teenager who smokes is more likely to indicate more chafing under restrictions imposed by adults in control. The smoker is much less
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Table 1. SIMIAAT OF TEENAGE SNOKINti S01S 61R1S 12, 13, 14 1S, 16 17, ld Toul 12, 13, 14 1S, 1R 17, 18 Total N : N I N t N 1 N ! N S N ! N = Nerer Saoked or Eaperlnented Only 1972 S33 91.1 273 68.2 211 54.4 1017 71.1 S69 95.3 312 11.0 211 66.1 1158 1 81 1914 496 90.1 2S3 69.5 202 SS.3 9S1 74.4 49S 90.2 2S0 69.3 22S 62.1 973 . 76.2 E.e-S+eoker 1912 20 3.4 S0 12.5 S6 14.4 126 9.2 11 t.s 26 6.4 30 7.2 67 4.7 1974 28 S.1 4S 12.4 44 12.1 117 9.2 26 4.7 33 9.1 42 11.4 101 7.9 Current Ocuslonal Sooker 1912 5 0.9 6 1.S 4 1.0 1S 1.1 0 0:8 1 0.2 3 0.7 4 0.3 1914 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 :.6 6 0.S 1 0.2 5 1.4 2 0.5 8 0.6 Current Regular S.oker (veekly .nd Daily) 1912 21 4.6 71 11.8 111 30.2 215 15.1 17 2.8 66 16.3 10S 25.3 1s8 13.3 1914 23 4.2 66 18.1 113 30.9 202 15.8 . 27 4.9 13 20.3 95 25.9 19S 15.3 Current Reyutar Smoker - l/eekly 1912 8 1.4 20 5.0 13 3.4 41 3.0 1.0 1S 3.7 12 2.9 33 • t 2.3 1914 4 0.1 a 2.2 7 1.9 19 1.5 0.7 6 1.7 7 1.9 17 1.3 £irBS TLLIS
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1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE 11TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT- IN AND FOR DADE COUNTYFLORIDA GENERAL JURISDICTION DIVISION CASE NO.: 19J-08278-CA PBN: 614009. HOWARD A. ENGLE, M.D., et al, Plaintiffs, V. RJ REYNOLDS TOBACCO COMPANY, Defendant. CONPIDENT1AL DEPOSITION OF CLAUDE R. MARTIN, JR., Ph.D. Taken on January 8, 1998, at the Sheraton, 3200_ Boardwalk, Ann Arbor, Michigan, at or about 9:15 a.m.- APPEARANCES: For the Plaintiffs: MR. JOHN HOAG EXHIt3l1~~ C--~ 3 . StanleyM. Rosenblatt, P.A. 66 West Flagler Street 12th Floor, Concord.Bui1_ding Miami, Florida 33130-1809 For the Defendant Philip Morris: MR. STEPHEN MCCONNELL Dechert, Price, Rhoads - 4000 $ell Atlantic Tower 1717 Arch Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 HALL AND DEER 0 F" ,Pb (800) 321-3904 F-A U7 co If
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" of this life-style. Another family characterlsa c that is related to teenage smoking Is socicroconomic status, =s measured by education of the parents. Those with better-educated parents are less likely to smoke than are those wit le.:s well-educated parents. This is consistent with studies of adults which find that the higher the educational level a man has attained, the more likely he is to have quit smoking, if he ever did so. In spite of the notion that adolescents, in rebellion against their parents, reject the customs and beliefs of their elders, they do not turn away from their parents' smoking practices. Parents who smoke are likely to have children who smoke. In fact, teenagers with two parents who use cigarettes are more than twice as likely to smoke as are those with no "rent who indulges In this habit. Teenagers emulate older brothers and sisters, too. A boy or girl with an older sibling who smokes is extremely likely to be a smoker as well. If a youngster has both a parent and an older sibling who smokes, his likeli- hood of becoming a smoker is amplified. In fact, he is four times as likely to smoke as is one who has no smoking example in the immediate family. Smoking appears to be one of those customs which families as a whole either adopt or do not adopt. Just as 1n some families a coffee pct is always on the back of the stove, tn some homes cigarettes are readily available for family members to help themselves. Teenagers not only have families who smoke, but they also have friends who smoke. Almost nine out of ten smokers acknowledges tharat least one of his Ln ~ J J F~-+
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~ Taele 1. S1MNNr 0F TFEIM6E SMOKINC (ton't) eOYS C1N lS 12, 11, 14 /S, 16 17, 1A Total 12, 13, 14 1i, 16 17. 1• Total N =- N I N I N 1 N ! N I N I N f Current Regular S.oter - Da11y 1972 19 3.2 S1 12.7 103 26.5 173 12.6 11 1.8 51 12.6 93 22.4 15S 10.9 1914 19 3.s se 1s.9 106 29.0 193 14.3 23 4.2 67 18.6 88 24.0 178 14.0 1-4 ter day 1912 6 1.0 10 2.S 11 2.8 27 2.0 2 0.3 12 3.0 14 3.4 28 2.0 1914 7 1.3 S 1.4 12 3.2 24 1.9 13 2.4 1A S.0 11 3.0 42 3.3 !--s per day 1972 7 1.2 12 3.0 11 2.8 30 2.2 S 0.8 16 4.0 11 i.1 38 2.7 1914 2 0.4 13 3.6 9 2.S 24 1.9 4 0.7 9 2.S 13 3.6 26 2.1 10o per day 19)2 6 1.0 29 7.2 81 20.9 116 8.4 4 0.7 23 5.7 62 14.9 89 6.3 1974 10 1.8 40 10.9 8S 23.3 135 10.5 6 1.1 40 11.1 64 17.4 110 3.6 N. S. 1972 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.3 1 0.1 01, 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 O s1 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 TOTeI 1972 S8S 100.0 400 100.0 388 100.0 ' 13T3 100.1 597 99.9 405 99.9 415 99.9 1417 100.0 1974 547 100.0 364 100.0 36S 99.9 1276 99.9 S49 100.0 361 100.1 367 99.9 1271 100.0 VVgS tLLtS i
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I" likely to say that he likes turning to his parents for advice, and more likely to say that a teenager should be able to do the things he wants to do when he wants to do them. Factor 8 represents another concept that has no obvious relationship to smoking, but has a more subtle relationship to It. This factor measures the extent to which the teenager wishes to control what happens to him, and the extent to which he thinks he can do so. While most teenagers have high scores on this group of items, the non-smoker is likely to have the higher score. He Is more likely to believe that he can control thee kind of person he will become, and he is much more likely to say that lie doesn't want to get hooked on anything, including cigarettes. Perhaps the smoker feels that he has already lost some of the control of his life that he might have had. Discussion Overall, the proportion of teenagers who smoke cigarettes regularly, including those who smoke at least once a,week, has increased from 12% in 1968 to 16X in 1974. This increasE has taken place almost exclusively among girls. Tra- ditionally, cigarette smoking was a custom-indulged in by men and boys, and was not usual among women and girls. About the time of World War II, however, smoking among women began to increase, but never quite reached the level of male smoking. In the late 1960's, men began to quit smoking, so that the proportions of men and wanen smokers approached each other more closely. We have already mentionr,d that the smoking behavior of boys did not change appreciably during the late '60s and•early '70s, but that of girls gradually rose. In fact, it rose to the point where, In 1974, boys and girls were
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*9 ' The fitst group of items characterizes the extent to which the respondents have accepted the information about the relationship of smoking to health. The mean score of 13.out of a possible 15 . shows a very high level of acceptance of health information. As one would expect, non-smokers are more likely to subscribe to the point of view that smoking Is harmful than are smokers. However, even among smokers, more than three-quarters agree that the health Information about smoking is true and that it can harm the health of teenagers. While the items In Factor 1 are concerned with the negative effects of smoking on the smoker, 4nose in Factor 2 are concerned with the effects of smoking on others. This factor shows the greatest , difference between smokers and non-smokers, with smokers tending to deny that their smoking may bother others. The item that most sharply differentiates the two groups Is "Cigarette smoking should be forbidden inside public places," with almost two-thirds of the non-smokers agreeing and fewer than one-third of the smokers agreeing. Just as the first two factors measure the negative consequences of smoking, the third deals with the positive effects. The smokers, of course, are more likely to indicate that there are positive effecL% than are the non-smokers. The statement that contributes most to the difference in means is "Smoking cigarettes gives ;ou a good feeling." Fewer than one in ten non-smokers believe that this can be true. Ln CO W UY
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I 51771 5848 •S? ..q tt.t tt • sop "i*d.oa;wi s.6ataasl. 0 ii 0'OOt ft . ' it 0•OOt tv t•00t K 0'OOt Nt Hit 0 OOt St 0•OOt U . It 0'OOt 00 t•o0t Ot 6•fi ftt 1161 .. ~ iri.u j . 0 rt t . 0 0•0 0 !•i t t•t i W6t o•0 0 0•0 0 . 0 s•t t o•o 0 s•o t zt0lt1•0 - j•las . 3 c•z a . 0 o•o 0•0 0 i•t : i.tee.l 3wa.nr3 0151 0•0 0 0•0 0 . 0 0•0 0•0 0 0•0 0 itft . 0 0•0 0 . 0 0•0 0 0•0 0 o•0 0 An"M - •.vn ,.1" S..6U.z *ut 0•0 0 o•• 0 . 0 $•t t t•f t t•t t zt~t o•• C V •. z 0•t t f•z 1 t•s 6 ~.~.~t t.r.ts.~o ts.+~ Wit 0 0 0•0 0 . 0 t•• t t•t z rt 9 zta . u o•i$ tt . 0t 0•t~ a 6•K It [•ts Ist *tit 0•OOt fc 0•0ot 11 . 0! t•1Q ft f•00 stt jtit I j I N = M S M i M 3 i tro .•i../.sri .1. r.lms J...n •i •1 A«t'a•i/ N '1.h14 L"13 M1•.S 1M.M J•••M +•q•i J•••r it"•w si•loK-1r] wlot a.VOK-al i •f jata.S iV" iawt•11 ,t 'tt 'it tt0e 14 swsW sV&A.d p"/ (1,•07 f11Mt 91f170ifS bLUylli 't •ta*S
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i 51771 5850 . Zt 0'00l 0 . cl 0'OOt ls . ii 0•00l 6it t[6l 6'K ft L'66 SS St 6•66 01 . U 6'66 c[t it6l 1r:01 . ~ l'f 2 . 0 f'll 6 . • f'll Sl t[6l S"tt c t I o•ot c : I 6•~ ! :ccl y .. 11190 - JalM .Avlabay 3w"n) 0•0 0 . 0 o•i t 0 9•0 l 0161 ••c t 0•0 0 . o . c•c t . t !'l t 216t ll4"14 - Js4ae; •a; :a6 )Us.rJ-) 4 0 0"0 0 0 0•0 0 . 0 0'0 6 1[6t 0•0 0 0•t t . t c•c t . 0 r•i c 1161 .10404 lNr015.330 3wi,n) . t c•6 f . t t•ct [ . c *•it ft H6t t•lt c . i o•ot c 0 c 0•ct ft 1161 J.11a.t-1r] . 6 0•99 « . tt c•99 K . sl i•sc [6 H61 t'u 6t t•it+ so 0 tl c•U ii . Ot 0•Ot !6 Z[6l A1s0 Mlus.tasa.l jo Pa J..5 JUay 1 M I N S M I M I M - i r 'f • "Aol/ PWIaS a+aNi .&woU +Wl1J ai•aq jufi4/ saqo.f-rl 11/101 j0 j+Rfi•i iwtl7 j.llos-ra a"j jal-r jay3t V7o1 j 0 1JV M !l 'St S10Y sjukU.4 YJoo! i11fIfM llttyOtS lIf1M3tlY1 •[ •la9l 0 :
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0'00l Mt 0'00t [i 0'00l Sf 0•001 tt t•00t N t'00t 50l 0'OOt tOl t-00t it 0•00t It 1•001 0l 0•00t '' 0'00t f[ t'00t SOt 1•0ot oit 0•0 0 0•0 1 0•0 0 i'it IF f S•6 01 6't 0 t'0t 1 S•f i 9•8 9 S'1 2 1 8'1 0 1'! t 0•0 " 0 0•0 0 010 0 0•0 0 1 011 1 0'1 1 •it I o•0 0 1't 1 0•0 0 t 0•t t c•t ~'0 0 0•0 0 0•0 0 010 0 0'0 0 0•0 0 0•0 0 0'0 0 G'i i 0'0 0 0•0 0 0'0 0 0'0 0 ;'Ol 1 l't 1 ['l S 0'0 : l1'! f 0't f 0'f 1 •i t i't t 6'1 1 1'1 1 0'6 1 111 S i•f •61 It fi 116 09 1•cY ti 0'tf 29 0•/4 61 [•.0 u •tt It t •a oi c'/9 6s t•06 Oi s'06 tf $•0t S6 S•[0 Sot i M I I i 11 t M = N i M I I j•1oNK-91 W1a5 Ja•aM 71/101 J.Sa6 )ua.je) JaVlcl/ ly0 i•imi-N] W1aS is"M 11/101 "I'l1•R J!VIcM J!Mqi ' )u.+~ jaSa'S )us,u.) Ja_ T>,(u0 riN ~t 'tl 'it 5100 , ()uaW'»uual fooO) S110Mi OMUIONS lrl/<1h/1 •'t •1"1 51771 5847 wlol Ml uoi1/" - A+OaS .A.1841lt 1664+e3 u6i LlisaA - JaJo+S J.1RUry 10u013 KN 1161 J81"1 I.../5.330 pwe) DlGl u&t j.las-3`3 uit ~tro twlet.p.er) j. Ma.j J.a.M
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Table J. P/UIENT/lL SMOIIUIG 11lIe1TS (Con't) (RotA farents •resent) TOTAL eOTs bN On1Y Fath_er C_u_rrent S_+oker __ __ _ Onl Mother Cur.tnt Sew4.r C~rrtnt Soolen TO1/1l Mother Never Smoked er Ee-S.oter TOTAI a.er Never S.cke1 a er EX-Smoker U = N ! t t N I N I N t N t Kever SwkeN or Experlantet Only 1f12 1eo 70.1 11e 74.2 -12e 74.4 50 ».S 109 61.7 te 61.9 61 70.1 1974 1?& 6e.e 16> >2.9 116 72.2 S3 14.6 108 t4.s 41 W5 6) 74.• Ex-Smoker 1972 23 e.6 2e 11.7 1e 10.5 10 14.) ls 9.3 9 12.2 6 6.9 19?4 22 e.7 24 10.s 11 10.e 1 9.9 16 11.0 e W5 e e.9 Current Cttallonal Srcter 1912 1 0.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.11 1 1.4 2 2.3 1974 1 0.4 2 0.9 2 1.3 0 0.0 1 0.7 1 1.e 0 0.0 Current Re9ular Smoker - Weekly ..-f 19)2 9 3.4 6 2.5 S 2.9 1 1.5 1 0.6 0 0.0 1 1.1 1!)4 S 2.0 4 1.7 4 2.S 0 0.0 2 1.4 0 0.0 2 2.2 Current Re9vlar S.oker - 0.11 ,s.r 41 1I.s 2e 11.7 21 12.2 I 10.3 33 20.5 16 21.1 17 19.5 1976 S1 20.2 32 14.0 21 13.3 11 1S.S 1e 12.4 S 9.1 13 14.4 TOTAL 1912 26e 100.0 240 100.1 172 100.0 6e 100.0 161 100.0 74 100.1 eJ 99.9 1914 233 100.1 229 100.0 1S$ 100.1 11 100.0 1tS 100.0 55 99.9 90 99.9 £585 ZLLTS i
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r Table 2. tEf11AM s1Ot1N0 A/O iM1Lr S1111/C1UtE cuts 1t. 13, 14 ts, 16 17, 1• Total •eth 2arMb 1nsa.t 1• No." OotO Oaresb 'Mt Msout Is Mor loth 2arenb Present In Na.n •otL 2artnts •ot hotont /s Ilo.o loth 2ar.nb Present in Mo.S loth Parents uot Msont /n fla.r loth lanntt h.s.et ts Nome •oM Parents Not froso*t io Mo.a 1 1. N I p ! N 9 a i N ! U I r_ I IItrK Se+OtN K Eioort.o.W Onl~r 1!1! 484 96.1 OS 90.4 tSf 7•.S Si 70.9 221 70.8 $6 34.4 !tt M.2 191 71.4 1914 420 10.1 IS 90.4 !11 14.• 33 46.5 1•1 64.2 41 tS.3 •1• )0.• 13S $4.9 ta-S.otar 111t 0 1.4 3 3.1 22 6.7 4 S.1 22 7.1 • 7.• 52 4.9 ls S.4 1214 2! 4.1 4 4.8 i! 6.4 14 19.7 35 12.4 1 •.2 li 7.3 2S 10.3 Cyrreat OcuSlanl S.ots* 1912 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.3 0 0.0 3 1.0 0 0.0 4 0.4 0 0.0 1914 1 0.2 0 0.0 3 1.0 2 t.0 1 0.4 1 1.2 S 0.3 ~ 1.3 CIArr16t ReP1at S.ofer - YtN1r il12 3 0.6 1 1.1 4 1.2 3 7.8 0 2.6 0 0.0 1S 1.3 4 1.4 1914 1 0.! 0 0.0 3 1.0 3 4.! S 1.• 2 2.4 12 1.2 S 2.1 Crrn.t 00"1ar SrotK - Oafty 1912 • 1.6 5 5.3 43 13.2 1s 20.3 SA 10.6 Zf 11.! 101 9.6 60 21.1 1914 1! 4.1 4 4./ 4• 16.6 1S 23.0 60 21.3 2• 32.9 127 12.2 31 21.7. ! ~ TOTALS 1172 S03 100.0 !4 100.0 326 H.1 if 100.1 312 100.1 103 100.1 1111 100.1 216 11.11 1914 4" 100.0 83 100.0 240 100.0 11 100.0 282 100.1 eS 100.0 1031 100.0 23! 100.1 w 9b85 'GLLtS
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i ! Table 3. NMENTIIL SatOKINi NMITS (Con't) (totA hrents Present) l0tS 17. 1s Never SakN or E,oorleentot Only 1212 1914 Ei-S.oler NNeither Currrnt S•roker • .er x- er - er .r o MAL Ea-Saokers MbtMr Never FatAer Never Never S.okN a = N f N i N t N II 64 59.3 11 12 61.5 13 1s 13.! 3 1f i4.s 3 Cvrr.nt Occ•tlasal S•roker 1ff2 2 1.9 1914 1 0.9 C.r.eet Ae6u1•r St'°`er - Yeekil 2 0 0.0 :974 3 2.6 Curreet b0lar Seroker - Oatlr 1i)2 27 25.0 1974 24 20.5 0 0 1972 1o0 100.1 ls 1914 111 100.0 24 •Ierunt•9et not co.puted .hen N/s less than 25. ZSBS ILLIS • 24 . . • 0 51.1 1 Ss.e f 11.• 0 1e.` 1 0.0 2.3 0.0 • 23 62.2 • 26 65.0 EttHor FaUur or Mother M. S. , N ! I 12 • 4 10.e 1 • . • 2 SA • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • t s.0 • 0 0.0 31.1 4 23.3 0 • 45 100.0 • 43 100.0 • 37 100.0 • 40 100.0 0 0 . . 0 1 9 ls . . .s . . i
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f T•ple 3. 11UlENTJIL SNORI4C NNITS (Co.'t) (6oth I•r.nts Present) lOtS 1), 1• both Cnl Father Current Sroker Onl /bMer Current Smoker Cwrtnt Smokers TOiAL er Never SaokeO r Ei-S.ok•r TOTAL • er Never S.oker • er E:-S.ok•r II i N ! M I N I 11 ! II ! N ! Never S•ole4 er E2oerlwt.t.i Only 1!)2 » SO.? » 52.9 29 50.0 a . 22 44.9 e • 1e 1114 40 49.4 34 N.o 23 sM 11 . 20 54.1 6 • 14 E:-S.ol.r 197? 9 12.3 16 22.1 9 16.0 . 1 6 13.3 4 • 2 . 1914 S 6.2 12 19.0 a 1e.6 4 . s i3.s 2 . ~ 11.s Current Occ•slon•1 Smoker /!/2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 . 1 2.2 1 • 0 . lf)- 1 1.2 2 3.2 2 4.1 0 . 1 2.7 1 • 0 0.0 Current Reyul•r Smoker - Yeekly Nl2 3 4.1 3 4.3 2 4.0 1 . , 0 .0 • 0 1974 2 2.s 0 0.0 0 0.0 . 0 1 2.? o • 1 _i i currtet Rr,v1•r Smoker - O.tly 1912 24 32.9 14 20.0 10 20.0 4 . 6 5.6 t 1974 33 40.7 1s 23.2 10 23.3 S . 10 27.0 2 TOTAL 1ll2 73 100.0 70 100.1 SO i0u.0 20 • 4S 100.0 21 • 24 • 1914 $1 100.0 63 100.0 43 10G.1 20 • 31 100.0 11 • 26 f1.1 • terte+it•yes eot ca.puted rAen 0 tt ies• tA•n 2S. 1585 iLLTS
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51771 5845 0-00t SOt o'o0t 1601 o•o0t 2S 0'00l ctc 0'03t 05 o•o0t ftc o'00t tt t'00t 1ff Kit 0'OOl • U 6'K SSII 6'66 [i l'OOl SOt t'OOl $9 i'ii S[t 0'00l 0l t'00t flf 2161 7ri01 91 $'ft [1t t'2w 22 Y'9Z 19 0'ft it f'tt 91 •'2 2 1't !l flit t'tll 1~ 9'tl 91t c'lt 92 i'ft is f'Ol tl 1'tl ft t't t 1't 61 2161 11110 - JB1aS j ' .11" )w.ue) S'0 1 9'l Yt 0'0 0 2'2 1 0'2 l Y2 l 0'0 0 6'0 f 0161 6 911 61 9'1 t 0 1 9 1'1 S 1'2 6 t1l 1 8'0 6 1161 f'0 ' l S'0 S 6't l f'l S 0'0 0 0'0 0 0'0 0 0'0 0 Eth+A - is1aS •vtebaf lva.uv) U61 9 l t 0'i tt 2'l l 0'l t l'c 2 t'1 l• 0'0 0 0't S U6siaK levo{ta30 S'1 it f'6 SOl !'6 S S'21 i: 0'Y 1 l'tt lt f'c t t•'S St )ma"o3 tlil 1'0 61 t'6 [0l tl'0t 6 f'Sl lt t'tt • S'2l 2o 6'2 2 S't tt 1161 0'tl Sct t'N ftY 2'f0 /2 6'9S tll 0'f9 tt t'01 022 0'tK /1 1'0i tl• ~afoss-rt 0161 0'!f f~l t''Sl IlY 0'cS ~f •'K pl S'iS YC "Ol 511 •'li N t'l6 690 =161 : M 3 Il s M I I 3 M ! 1I S .j i i ttr0 N'IVwljodrl .e NfaK ia"0 )w~ 9~ o{ )v~~j )w ftq o/ +~11 ~H ot "H Mt1 0/ O0M )aN •t )wsa~t iaaw,y ION •{ 6uasa~2 )wWU1 )~ o/ fw~t "y~.1 nq qwu• / 2 Ylo9 pwi.a Yloi qua+u Yloi •Ivsjet 008 qvuIt Yloi qwAwt r'IM A"jv6 ries 11101 Yl 'lt ~ ft 'Sl fl 'tl 'tl 71IQLNpUt 611MI1i Olfl/ Of/y011S llYlflli '2 alavl 4
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Table l. 2RUENTAL SMCRING NAlITS (Con't) (Both F.reets •resent) GIRLS 12. 13, 14 NeltAer t:rrent Sm1er IOTK `. ather ts-s•roser Fe ther Ea-S.Oter Ea-S -oters MotAer Never Father Nerer Never S.o1ed E1tAer Father or NotAer M. S. 1 t N I N I N I N I N I 4erer Smled or t.pertnente! Only 1912 1» 97.3 21 • 63 100.0 13 • 00 91.6 36 100.0 1914 lu 94.4 2' • 49 e9.1 te • 1e 96.3 19 E,-Sroker 1912 ~ 1.6 2 • 0 0.0 a 1.2 0 0.0 1914 > >.9 0 . 4 7.3 1 • 2 2.S 0 Current, 0cuflo~al S+oeer 1912 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 1314 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 t.rrtnt Resular i-cker - YeNlr 1112 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 1114 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 torrent ReQuler S.-c1er - Oa/1r 1g!2 2 1.1 0 • 0 0.0 1 • . 1 1.2 0 1914 3 1.7 0 • 2 3.6 0 • 1 1.2 0 TOTAL 1971 1e2 100.0 21 • 63 100.0 14 • 62 100.0 36 100.0 1914 11e 100.0 23 • SS 100.0 19 • $1 100.0 r9 •fercantsge+ !--t tR.wt" .i".n N 1s less tA+n 2S. 9S8S ILLTS i r
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i T.01e 3. PARENTAL SMOt1NC 1NlO1TS (Con't) (lotN P.r.nts Present) eors is. 1s 9oth On 1 Father Current S.oker Onl Mother Current S.ok r CYrTeAt tner Mother . S.okars TO?Al Never Smoked En-Se+oker TOTAL Never S.okeO Ee-Smoker M ! N ! N I q L N I p I R ! Never Smoked or Experteaented Cnlr 1912 10 61.3 ti 70.8 72 66.7 14 • 21 60.9 12 • 1f . 1974 42 60.9 u )t.l 29 70.1 1s • 22 ts.1 9 . 19 73 .1 Ex-S.wker 1912 9 11.0 1 10.e s 10.4 2 • 7 1s.2 • 4 • ~ . 1974 11 1s.f I 11.s 4 9.• 3 • ~ 14.0 5 • 1 3.8 Current occ.ston.l Sc+cker 1972 1 1.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 • 1914 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 ` 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 Cvrrent R.Suler Sro~.r - re.~l~ 1112 4 S.) 2 3.1 2 4.2 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 • 1974 2 2.9 3 4.9 3 7.3 0 • 1 2.3 0 • 1 3.4 Current ReSuler snceer - 0e11 ~9)2 ls 20.0 10 1s.4 9 ie.e 1 • 11 23.9 t 1l1~ 14 20.3 7 11.5 S 12.2 2 • 1 14.9 ~ TOUII 197? is 99.f 6s 100.1 48 100.1 11 • Ii 100.0 22 • 24 • 1914 69 100.0 111 100.0 41 1':3.0 20 • 43 100.0 17 • 26 19.f 6V85 TLLTS
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Table S. PAMENTAL :1qKING NANITS (Can't) (Soth Perents Present) 6INlS 17, le Netther Currcn S•roker at er er Mother .- :er EftMr Father or TOTK Ex-Saokers Mother Never Father Never Never S.oked MotMr N. S. N I 11 1 N I N i N I N t. Never S.okN or Gper/.Mtad Only 1971 04 7?.1 13 . 30 75.0 ! • 32 $4.2 20 • 1l74 7! 6f.! 12 20 58.8 ! • 38 79.2 4 • Em-S.oter 1172 1 6.4 1 . 3 7.S 2 • 1 2.6 • 1974 13 11.5 3 • S 1/.7 1 • 4 0.3 Cerrent Occ.stonel So oker 1911 1 0.9 1 • 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 1974 1 0.! 1 • 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 Current Ae9ul Sr¢ter - YNk er ly lfl2 3 2.e 0 • 0 0.0 1 • 2 3 0 • 5 1174 1 0.9 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 1 . 2.1 0 Current Re9vl Sacter - Oa11 er y t 1972 14 12 e 3 • 7 1).S ~, . 1 . 9 1 • 7 1974 » . 1t.• 3 2c.i • S . 10.4 2 ToTAL 1972 109 100.0 1s . 40 100.0 13 • 38 100.0 22 • 1974 113 100.0 1f • 34 100.0 12 • /d 0 100.0 7 •fercentetb not co.puted vAaa N Is *#est tAun 25. 098S ILLtS R %
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. Table ]. PAQENTAL SMO[iN6 HASITS (OotA Parentt Present) TOTAL 61NLS Neither Current Sroker 8011N at er er or a- er Both E1thar Fathor or TOTAI Ea-Srokers Mother Never Father Never Never Swoked NotAer N. S. N I N ! N ! N 1 N Never Smoked or Esperlrntod 0e1p 1912 365 ii.i 49 66.0 136 i9.S 20 71.i 1S2 92.7 17 1i.] 1974 144 iS.1 49 64.5 97 7e.2 39 e6.7 1Sf e9.! ]2 05.9 Ex-Seoker 19I2 !7 4.1 3 S.] 6 3.9 S 12.e 3 1.e 2 2.5 1914 2I 6.7 3 s.2 13 10.5 4 e.9 1 4.0 2 S.6 Current Occ•slonai Sroker 191? 1 0.2 1.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1914 2 o.S 1.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 C.rrent ae;./er S~cver - .aelp 1912 6 1.S 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.6 S 3.0 0 0.0 1914 1 0.2 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.6 . 0 0.0 Corrent Nequter S•roker - Datl'97t 23 S.i 7.0 10 6.6 S 12.• 4 2.4 1 .. t 1.3 1914 30 7.4 8.6 14 11.3 2 4.4 9 5.1 2' S.6 TOTAL 1972 412 100.0 $I 100.1 152 100.0 ]9 100.0 164 99.9 e0 100.1 1974 404 99.9 So 100.0 124 100.0 4S 100.0 111 100.1 34 100.1 Z98S TLLTS .t, I
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t.ete 4. 010ER S/sliNG S1rt[iN. NMtTS ;Conot) eoYs 1S, 16 Neve No Have Older sroNe On1 N.v 01d r Sf er On: Older Sfellnos One Or Nore nr ,me More M S.oke , S.oi ' Saok a S.okt N t N i ., N i N = N = Never yoked or ExOerfwented Only 1972 96 70.6 22 51.7 34 e1.1 17 6e.0 3s 66.0 1914 97 73.5 ls 53.6 34 es.o 9 33.1 2e 6e.3 c.-swk r 1972 14 10.3 4 9.4 S 13.5 4 16.0 e 15.1 1974 ts 11.4 R 21.4 4 10.0 4 14.e 7 17.1 Current Occafnn.l Smoker 1912 2 1.S n n.n 0 0.0 n 0.0 2 3 1 11)4 n 0.0 A A.~ ~ 0.0 A 0.0 0 . 0.0 C urrent A ew1.r S+cker - Leekly 1972 S 3.7 3 7.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 - 2 3.e 1914 3 2.3 2 7.1 A 0.0 1 3.7 0 0.0 • t ~ . C urrent Revvl.r Sroker - Daily 1972 1t 14.0 12 29.3 2 S.! 1 16.0 6 11.3 1971 17 12.9 S 17.• 2 S.0 13 46.1 6 14.6 1 oUli 1972 136 10A.1 41 100.1 37 100.0 2S 100.9 Sl 100.0 1974 132 100.1 2e 100.4 44 104.0 21 99.9 11 100.0 S985 TLLZS i
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0 Teple I. IA4EhTAL SMDRIN6 MASITS (Con't) (6ot1N Pertnts Present) toM Onl F.ther Current S.roker On) Mother Currert Smo/er Currsnt er er t er Saokert TOTAL Nertr SM/ed Ex-S.oker TOTAL Nerer S.oked E.-Saoker N 1 N t N I N i N i N t N ! N r S.okN s t.e E:oerlrstN 0n1y 1112 211 19.0 222 95.4 1S7 eS.7 6S eS.S 10! 15.2 41 7S.! 66 74.7 1914 1e1 69.3 164 19.6 i1S 81.6 49 75A fl 74.0 41 82.0 S6 69.1 E.•Smoker 1912 11 4.1 10 J.A 7 3.8 3 >.1 11.2 8.3 3 S.6 9 2.9 1914 24 !.2 13 6.] 6 4.3 7 10.• 11 6.4 3 6.0 ! !.f Curren= Occestont/ Yroter 1o12 0.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 1.4 1 1.9 1 1.1 11114 0.8 1 0.S 1 0.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Ieyvler S.roler - Yett1y lilt 4 1.5 4 1.S 4 2.2 0 0.0 2 1.4 2- 3.1 0 0.0 1974 5 1.9 2 1.0 1 0.7 1 1.s 4 3.1 1 2.0 3 >,1 r Current ReqVler Saoktr - 0eti1172 1 40 15.0 26 1.2 16 8.7 A 10.5 20 11.e 7 13.0 11 14.3 1f74 49 1!.• 26 12.6 1s 12.8 • 12.3 19 W5 S 10.0 14 17.3 TOTAL 1912 261 100.0 260 fl.f 184 100.0 76 11.11 11S 100.1 54 100.1 11 100.0 1974 261 100.0 206 100.0 141 100.1 4s 100.0 131 100.0 S0 100.0 S1 100.0 T98S TLLTS I
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f Taele 4. OlOER SIll1NC SNOKIhS PJIAlTS (Con-t) BOTS is. 1s Nare BotA Older Brothers and tttters Never Sroked or taperlnenttA Only 1S)2 1974 E.-Sncter Current Occislonal Sn+oser 19~2 19~~ Current ReSular :'caer - Weeily 1912 1914 Current Reqular iaoker - Daily 1912 1974 TOTAL 1972 1974 r.WI.r-3 jnu. 7-7K1• awNR9 .vun rvlpars ana M1tAor Slsten Do Not Brothers Do Not Ststers S.o1e S.oka N 1 N I d I N I 1I ~~.0 7 . 1S 51.7 22 01.5 11 • 11 ' 13 • 21 70.0 2 e.o 1 . ~ 2~.1 2 7.4 • 1 • 4 11.3 1 4.0 0 • 1 3.4 0 0.0 0 • 0 ' 0 • 0 0.0 1 4.0 1 • 1 ).~ 1 3.7 0 • 0. • 0 • 2 6.7 4 1`.0 • S 17 2 2 7 4 . ; • S . • . 3 10.0 25 100.0 10 • 29 99.8 27 100 0 is • is • 19 , . 70 100.0 •Percent.9es not co"tsd when N ts less tbin 2s. g985 ZLLiS OM Sib11 dr bth •.S. 12 • 14 • 0 . 0 • 0 0 . • t
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t Table 4. O10E0 S1et1tK SlOUMO IWlti (Can•t) •mrs 12. 17. 14 Ner:r SeokN or (.rerle,entN On1t 1911 1914 [i-S.cker 1911 H ?6 Ckrrtnt 0 ct.sfon.l S.o1er 1!.'. 1914 C or-tnt Newler S.oker - Weekly 1412 1f)4 C urrent Reyuler Sroter - atlrf12 11l76 r1Tu M%.e lota Older 6r3tA and S! ers ro ert • ster~a1e o , o ers e er One Slblin S/sterf 0• Npt Irotl.en Oo Nrt Stst•rs Senk• S.okes 9 or toth N.S. 11 ! M f U i p 1 U i 77 10.2 11 • 11 • SI 100.0 38 88.4 2? 87.1 • • le 72.0 52 16.7 26 e1.1 2 4.9 2 • . 1 • 0 0.0 3 7.0 2 6.5 1 0 2 8.0 2 3.7 2 6.9 0 0.0 A • 0 w n 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 • 0 n.n 0 0.0 0 . 0.0 2 6.7 0 • 1 • 0 0.0 1 2.3 0 0.0 0 • 2 8.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 ! 4 4.4 2 • 4 • 0 0.9 1 2.3 2 6.s 1 • 3 12.0 0 0.0 1 3.4 41 100.4 ls 51 100.0 43 100 0 31 100.1 10 • 2s 1m.n 54 100.0 29 . 100.11 • Iercenta9et not co.puted rhen 11 ts less tAas 25. V985 TLLTS I
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Te61o 7. PNIWTAL SMOKI4C NMITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) TcTAI lors N 1tAer Current S.wtcr ether • no er Mother -S.oker --TotFs I1ther FetAer or TaTAL Ea-Smiokers 1bNer N+ror ieNer Nerer Never Sooted Nother N. S. N I N I N ! N t R i Aerer Seoted or EGarlr+ente0 Only 19I2 73s e0.s SS e0.9 lOS N.S 36 e1.s 139 lS.] 61 67.1 1974 32s 18.3 6s 76.s 9e 71.s 3! 95.7 132 eT.s 42 es.l En•Saottr 1912 » 8.9 e 11.e 1s 10.6 2 4.S 12 )./• 4 S.) 1974 42 10.1 1 8.2 1• 13.1 S 14.3 12 ).6 2 4.1 Current OCUllcnel Smoker 1912 • 1.9 2 2.9 2 1.4 1 2.3 3 1.e 0 0.0 1974 1 0.2 0 0.0 1 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Reyuler 'wpker - Yeetl) 19/2 2 0.S 1 1.S 1 0.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 19)/ 6 1.4 1 1.2 1 0.7 0 0.0 4 2.s 1 2.0 C.r:-nt R.yuler S.nker - O.tlr 1912 34 8.2 2 2.9 1• 12.0 5 11.4 9 S.S 4 5.7 19)4 11 9.9 12 14.1 19 13.9 0 0.0 10 6.1 4 . 0.2 TOTAL 1972 416 100.0 6e 100.0 141 100.0 44 100.0 16) 100.0 70 99.9 1974 415 99.9 es 100.0 137 99.9 3s 100.0 1SA 99.9 /9 100.0 VS8S LLLIS
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Table 7. PARENTAL SMOKINC 1WlTS (Ccn't) (Both Parents iresent) GIRLS 1S, 16 Ne/the_r Current Sft,ker tOTQK eoER ta-Serokers etner Ea-5aoter Mother Never lbther E,x•5-•o er Father Never Never S.oked E1tAer i.tMr a NotlNer N.S. N I N I N I N I N I N t Never Snoked or EaperlTenteO Only 1912 101 e6.0 iS 87.8 6 • 40 90.9 21 . 1914 97 eS.e 1• • 2b e0.0 12 • 43 A9.6 9 E.-S+oker 1972 1 S.11 0 .• 3 6.1 3 • 1 2.3 1 • 1914 7 6.2 0 • 4 11.4 2 • 1 2.1 1 • Cur'ent Occasional Sroker 1912 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 1974 1 0.9 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 1 2.1 0 • :-srrtni peSullr Sroa• - ~eNley 19/2 ~ r.S 0 • 0 0.0 • 3 6.s 0 • 1914 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 • 0 0.0 0 Currtnt Nesuler S+eoker - Daily 1912 I S.e 1 • 3 6.1 • e 0 0 0 .s 1914 e 7.1 2 • 3 e.6 0 • 3 . 6.2 0 IOTUI 1912 121 100.1 16 • 49 100.0 12 • 44 100.0 22 • 1914 113 100.0 16 • 3S 100.0 14 • t! 100.0 10 •P::centeses not coaputed tiAen N Is less then 2S.' 8S85 TLLZS
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i 51771 5868 •sj wh fN! i/ pVOW Ni m > >ou a6qYSwti. • S • 01 • 9l • ll 0•00t u list o•oot ft 0•00t Si . ot 0 u list lYlOl 0•9c 6, list 0•K 6 • f . 9 uit lll•0 • J•wS .6116681 Suu,n3 . 0 • 0 0 0 . 0 0•f t flil . 0 0•0 0 0•9 j . 0 • 0 tlll Jpte6fg 3W.urj • I • 0 • 0 • 0 0•0 0 list • 0 0•0 0 0'v l • 0 • 0 list J4404 Iwo161330 3u.JJn) . 0 • j . 0 . l 0•t j fl6l . j l'0l c 0'Zl t . f j[st Jit11o.S1s3 . • Sl • 6 • • 0'jf Il flll 19 6 61 0'0f 0l 0 5 0 jl 1161 4103 "JYM/JaOtj Js f.p.i Je"11 •f M = M f N i ~ ~ U •i•a Ylol j0 N1o.S i'IaS s+ntlS Ioy 00 iJMAw1 iel/ sp wq{lf O0/191f K+0 simal !fso2 elars tjqi1S •~~.5 WlaWi sJptli ia sJ.Y%oJf .1+PtO hof •"IM Il 'tl S1OY O.MI SIIMt SII7101K Oltllflf 113010 •f 61911 ,
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, T•ela 3. PARENTAL SMOKIN6 1UR1TS (Con•t) (loth Parents 2rese-t) s1NiS 12, 13, 14 lot,A Onl i•ther Current SR+oker Onl Mother Current S.eker Ct.rrent Moth tr er • er • er Smokers TOTAL Never Smoked Ea-Snoker T0TA1 Never Smoked E.-Saoker N I N I N t N i N I N f N Z kN or Sm N e ever Eaporl.wAtN Only 1972 112 93.7 104 96.3 76 96.2 20 96.6 62 97.5 22 ' 40 93.0 1974 96 $4 2 A6 79.5 51 9).4 29 $2.9 SI r.6.4 22 ' 29 . 62 .9 E.-Se+oker 1912 2 1.7 1 0.9 1 1.3 0 0.0 2 3.0 1 • 1 2.3 1914! a 1.0 4 4.2 0 0.0 4 11.4 3 S.1 2 • 1 2.1 Current Occasional Sroktr 1912 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 1914 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 Current Rtgular S.oker - weH1y 1912 1 0.9 2 1.9 2 2.S 0 0., 1.S 1 • 0 0.0 1914 2 1.1 1 1.0 0 0.0 1 2.9 1J 0 • 1 2.9 Current Regular Ssoker - Oallr 191t 2 1.7 1 0.9 0 0.0 1 3.4 2 3.0 0 • 2 4J.. ! 1974 7 6.1 S S.2 4 6.6 1 2.9 4 6.6 0 • 4 11.4 10TAL 1972 117 100.0 10e 100.0 79 100.0 29 100.0 67 100.0 24 • 43 100.0 1974 114 100.0 96 100.0 41 100.0 3S 100.1 59 100.0 24 • 7S 100.1 Mercenti9es net com"teOwMn I Is ltss than 2S SS8S tLLTS i
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. t.ele 4. OLOER S1elING S1bIIiNC IWiTS (Coe•t) SIRLS 12, 13, N.e. Otaer l1rotMn - 14 Onix Ne. 10er S/st4ry Ontr 1yr0 Ib One or lbre None or rr n. Older S/bifiyt S.c1o S.cto Sroto S.oto I = N I S N ! N t ue.er S.otN or [puir."N !)t 222 !i.• 2! 87.! 62 96.9 1t • u 1S.• 222 l:.1 20 74.1 tl 47.5 20 • 53 53.2 t~-S.ot.r 1911 ) 1.3 1 3.0 1 1.6 1914 12 3.0 2 7.4 4 S.S CYRlOt Oc.Aflor.1 S.ob:r 11)2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 1914 0- 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 0 • 0 0.0 Cwrr*st R4yvlsr S.alor - Weekly Hn 1 0.4 2 6.1 0 0.0 0 • 0 0 0 1174 1 0.4 0 0.0 1 1.4 ~ 0 • 1 . 1.1 .. t Cwrrent "fer S.nler - Oa11r272 1 4 1.1 i S i i 1 • 1 1.1 1f74 9- 2.5 1 : . :i 1 • 0 0.0 TOTAL 1972 235 100.0 33 100.0 64 • 100.1 19 • V ff.1 1914 2241 100.0 27 100.0 72 100.1 20 • Sf 100.0 •IerttSU9es not coWVt.d AeO I Is loss tiWn 2S. TL8S tLLtS
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Table ]. ?ARENTAL StOcING IUlITS (Con't) (Sot1N Parents Present) , ~ GIRLS 1S, 16 Both On 1 Father Current Sooter Onl 1lother Current Seoker Current Smkers TOTAL tr ._~ Never Seoted Ex-Snoker TOTAL • er Never S.oked • er E.-Smo1er N ! N f N ! N i N ! N I N i lever Sroted or Earertsiented Cnly 1912 Sl 6e.e 56 51.2 39 83.0 17 • 29 65.9 12 C0.7 1974 40 56.3 44 73.3 7S 77.6 9 • 21 15.0 1S • 12 Ea-Sroter 1372 4 S.2 3 4.3 2 4.3 1 • 1 1S.9 1 • 6 21.~ 1174 6 A.S 4 6.7 3 6.7 1 • 2 S.6 0 • 2 C.rrent .Cca1sc-e1 t-tler 1112 1 1.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 . A 0.0 1114 1 1.4 1 1.7 1 2.2 0 • 0 0.0 0 . C.rrtnt Rt;uler :-o:er - Weetty 1112 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 2.1 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 0 0 1374 1 1.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 2 S.6 1 • 1 . ~. t C_rrent Resuler Sroter - Daily 1372 19 21.7 9 13.0 S 10.6 4 • e 1e.2 1 • s 17.9 1974 23 32.4 11 18.3 6 13.3 S • S 13.9• 1 . 4 To:u 1172 17 100.0 69 99.9 47 100.0 22 • 44 100.0 16 • 2e 100.0 1974 71 100.0 60 100.0 IS 100.0 1S • 36 100.1 17 •percenta9es not computed .A+en N 1s less thin 2S. L585 tiLLTS i
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` T.ple 4. 0l0[R S16tING SMUMC IWITS (Con't) BOTS 17, 1• N..e Otaer Bro N Ont M... Olaer slit.r1 Onl Nar. po . or 1br. • n. j One or Ibr. 'NoM ole.r Siblings S.ot. S.ote s,,,pk. yo,, S ~ N L p...r S.o:er or Eao.rlrntaN Only 19)2 7e 62.- S 17.2 30 62.$ 17 50.0 31 $l - 197• 84 60.9 - 11 ]9.S 26 60.5 lA 33.3 22 . 48.9 Ia-S.o1ar 1912 iT 10.- 7 24.1 e 16.7 s 1•.7 10 11.2 191• 12 •.7 • 14.3 9 20.9 4 13.3 10 22.2 •Current 0[t.fi.n.t ioltr 1912 1 ~.e 0 0.0 1 2.1 1 2.9 0 0.0 19M 3 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 2.2 Curr.nt 4 ywl.r Lot.r-- Yeelly 1912 3 2.- 0 0.0 1 2.1 3 e.e 0 0.0 f 191• 4 2.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 ~ 1 3.3 1 2.2 Current Re9vlar Saoker - a tl, :912 30 24.0 17 se.6 e 16.7 e 27.s 17 29.3 197• 35 2S.• 13 46.4 e 1e.6 14 46.7 11 24.4 lOTAL 1972 125 100.0 29 99.9 Ie 100.1 N 99.9 Se 99.9 197• 13e 100.1 2e 1C0.0 43 100.0 30 99.9 4s 9f.9 L989 ILLIS i
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i ?a01• 4. OlOER S1KUIIG S/1DKiNC WIITS (to.'t) 51771 5874 itRtS 1S, 16 Nt.• Both Ol r N ana S/:t rs ro •n • it.rs • S/ttKs Oo Not OroNu•rs Oo Not tA ro • Siftan S.ok• • r i.ok•t On• SIOI/nM or i•M N.S. M t M t "*tr S.oktd or [. )erlwtnted Oalr iyl2 1s . 9 • M Y f iS s N T 9 4 N f • 1914 10 9 . . i1 ' . i. E • -S.atsr 1912 2 . 0 1 3 4 S 14 1 0 . 191~ 2 ., 0 . . a • . 1 • 1 . C~r.:nt Occalon.i S.oker 1912 0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 . 1514 0 • 1 • A • 0 . 0 Currfet Reyular S,otsr • Yeskly 111? 0 0 . 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 . NN 1 . 0 . . 0 . . 0 . 0 . Currtit Rt9ular S.,lsr - Cattr f9)t 2 • ~ . 21 e 1 2 s f 2 • 191~ 2 2 • . . 11 . 2 . TTf M 19n id . )2 0 29 99 f 34 100 0 24 • ls~~ 11 12 . . 23 • . 22 , lt • •porKeQtaq7n flAt cowut1d 140.1 N t• 1•ss tNti 23. 1 J
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i Te01• 4. OLOER SIOtING SiaING 1UNITS (Coo't) GIRLS 17, 18 S Have Both Ol r roNen and Sisters ro en • sten o ro en • e er Ono Si01iny Sisters Oo Not RrotAers Oo Not Sisters Se~oke S.oka or RotJ~ N.S. Never S.wked or E.pert.es•a3 Only 1972 1974 j ' E.-S.rt.r N 2S 12 1972 2 1974 1 Current Occ.slonsl S.oker 1972 0 1974 0 N 69.4 S.6 • 1 3 0.0 0 1 Current Regular Saoker - Weekly 1972 1 2.8 0 1974 , 0 • 0 Current 1leyul.r S•oter - Osily 1972 8 19)4 5 TOTAL 1972 36 1974 iH 22.2 • 100.0 • •VercenU yes not co.puted when N/s less tNs-2S. , 4 6 14 20 • • • • • • N 7 12 • 51771 5876 23 eS.2 • 11 • S • 1 3.7 1 i 2 • 1 3.8 0 1 • 0 0.0 • 0 0.0 0 0 • 0 • 0 0.0 0 • 0 • 1 3.• 0 7 S • 19 20 • 3 11.1 • 3 11.5 • 27 100.0 • • 26 99.9 3 2 • • • • . . • •
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. Table 4. OLDER Sleliw SMOrt11G K1e1TS TOT)l cIRLS Nwe Both Older Brothers and Sisters ro 7.ers ke Sisters ke oth Brothers a Ne ther One Sibling Sisters Oo Not erotbers tb Not Sisters Suato Snokes or eoth N.S. 1! t N i N ! N I N i Never S.okel or E.perlmenteA Only 1912 16 e0.9 26 74.) 41 62.1 96 e9.7 14 90.2 1974 45 7e.9 26 S7.e 35 Sl.e es 93.4 Als 84.9 Ea-Smoker 1972 4 4.3 1 2.9 e 12.1 S.6• 2 2.1 1974 3 S.3 4 e.9 9 13.e 2 2.2 3 S.7 Current Ccc.slonal Soaker 1^72 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 " 1914 0 0.0 2 4.4 1 1.$ 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Regular Sm4er • Yeekly 191? 2 2.1 0 0.0 I 1.S 0 0.0 0 0.0 1974 1 1.e 1 2.2 0 0.0 1 1.1- 0 0.0 Current S.roker - Oa/ir 1972 12 12.8 e 22.9 16 24.2 S t.] 6 7.3 t 1971 e 14.0 12 26.7 20 30.8 3 3.3 S 9.4 TOT/L 1912 94 100.1 35 100.1 66 99.9 101 100.0 82 99.9 1914 SI 100.0 4S 100.0 63 99.9 91 100.0 Sl 100.0 8L85 TLLTS
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i 51771 5875 Tael. 4. OLOER SItIINC SP0[IHG HJ1bITS (Con't) GIRLS )7, 1s H.v. O14Rr /rotAers O.1lv H.v Older S/ Onl Hav. No - ne or re fone or n M Older S/01/sas Smoke Smoke Smoke Smoke a - S N t N I b ! Uiitr S.okeO or Eap.r/menttd Only 1972 90 6a.7 21 60.0 37 62.7 10 • 52 74.3 1974 67 62.0 2S 55.6 27 61.4 9 36.0 36 76.6 Es-S.oker 1972 12 9.2 2 S.7 2 ~.9 0 • 5 7.1 1914 11 13.0 6 11.3 6 1~.6 6 20.0 3 6.4 turrent Occasional S.oker if1t 0 0.0 2. 2 3.9 0 • 0 0.0 1974 0 0.0 0.. 0 0.A A 0.0 0 0.0 Current 2puler SMoker . Y.Nly 1972 3 2.] 2 5 7 2 3 9 0 • 0 0.0 1971 3 2.e 1 . 2.2 1 . ~ 2.3 0 0.0 1 2.1 Curren t Ne9ular Smoker - D./lr • 1972 26 19.• 9 2S.7 13 2S.S 10 • 13 18.6 1974 24 22.2 13 28.9 10 22.7 il 44.0 1 14.9 TOTAL 19l2 131 100.0 35 100.0 S1 99.9 20 • 70 1JC.0 1914 106 10r.0 45 100.0 44 100.0 25 100.0 47 100.0 •hrc.nu9es not co.put.d rAen N/s less tA.n 2S.
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f T.ele 4. OlOEN SIBt1NG SMOKiN6 NAB1TS tCon•tl TOTAL WiS N•re SotA 01der 6rothen and S/sters r •~Socke. Sisters • ro trs • e er One Slelfny Sisters 0n Not BrotAers Oo Not Sisters SwoRo S.oles or IotA N.S. • f N t N 1 N ! N I N•.er Sm1ei or E,per/.entN Only N72 66 75.0 23 65.1 36 51.7 92 !6.! S4 7e.3 1974 SI 27 75.0 40 66.7 6e 94.6 44 00.0 Ea-bvter 1972 ~ 9.1 4 11.4 11 16.1 5 4.i e 11.6 1974 ~ 9.9 3 e.> 3 S.0 a 7.7 Cerro,%t 0ccas/3..1 S.v:er 1972 1.1 G 0.0 2 3.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 1914 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.8 C,.rrtst Ie-plar yoler - Weekly 1972 ~ 3.4 1 2.9 4 6.0 1 0.9 0 0.0 1914 1 1.4 0 0.0 2 3.3 ' ! 1.9 O 0.0 ~ Current Neyvtar Sroler • 0.f 11r'n 1 10 11.4 7 20.0 14 20.9 e 7.s 6 8.7 19)6 12 16.9 6 16.) ls 25.0 6 s.e e 14.5 TOTAL 1972 !A 100.0 35 130.0 47 100.0 1C6 91.9 69 100.0 -191a 71 100.0 36 100.0 60 100.0 106 100.0 SS 99.9 0L85 TLLtS
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51771 5873 Table 4. O10t0 S111li1w S10It1UG NM11i (Co•'t) C!!LS is. ii wrs Q1jjr IrotMrs 4m1r Mate Older #tstttrs 00l4 - 14r. Oo ' Uw or i6r e e. e orl o~ M S ass at• Older S/bitnrp S.ok. 3.ok. Sab ~ rt i i M ~ M ~ N f N.r.r Srokod or c,v.rl.weted Only • 41 1 71 1972 100 70 0 is 60 0 31 82.2 if . 1914 102 . 70.3 17 . 61.0 39 73.6 10 • 315 69.4 tA-S.ottr i912 9 6.6 3 10.0 3 6.7 0 1914 i1 7.6 1 3.7 6 11.1 2 Current Ottastonal S.okor 19t2 0 0.0 0 C.0 A 0.0 0 /914 2 1.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 Curront Reyul.r S.ottr - Yettly 1912 3 2.2 1 3.3 0 0.0 0 :914 2 1.4 0 0.0 1 1.9 1 CYrreet t•pulor Swokor - Oatlr ~ 1912 17 12.4 • 2f.7 S 11.1 ~ 1911 28 19.3 ~ 33.3 t 13.2 3 T01t1 • Iq 109.1 1912 137 100 0 30 100 0 +s 100.0 2: 1914 Ns . 100.0 27 . 100.0 Sl 100.0 1f • x 100.0 •hrcontayos eot co.put.N Mnm 4 /• lest tM. 23
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I Table 4. OlOEa SIBLInG SNOK/n6 HABITS (Con't) 51771 5877 TOTAL 61R1S Have Older BrotAers Onl H.ve Older Sisters Only H4ve No Older Siblings One or l Saoke bre _ nt Snkt f or Smoko re None S.oke A i N 1 N f IL i N f r S.oked or rlwenteA Only 1972 425 84.5 68 69.4 111 81.9 47 77.0 117 82.7 j ,. 1974 391 79.1 62 62.6 129 76.3 39 62.9 _ 116 81.7 .oker 197Z 24 4.8 6 6.1 6' 3.8 0 0.0 11 S.1 1974 37 7.S 9 9.1 16 9.5 7 11.3 11 7.7 ent s/onai Sroker 1912 0 0.0 1 1.0 2 1.2 0 0.0 t U.3 1974 2 0.4 0 0.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 1 1.4 tnt Rtqular er - aceklr 1912 7 1.4 S S.1 1.2 0 0.0 2 0.9 1974 6 1.2 1 1.0 1.8 1 1.06 3 2.1 tat Regular er-Oatly 1972 47 9.3 18 18.4 19 11.9 14 23.0 23 10.7 1974 S8 11.1 21 27.3 20 11.8 Is 24.2 10 7.0 1972 50l 100.0 98 100.0 1t0 10A.0 61 100.0 214 99.9 1374 494 99.9 99 100.0 169 100.0 62 100.0 142 99.9 , s.,,~
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Tabl. 4. OInER SIRL :O16 S10[iRS NMITS E01S IyeO M 12, 13, 14 Hirt Aider Oeetbert An1Y H.r• Old•r t1e .rt i 010.r =/blleqs One Ar norn Smok. Raon. Saoks OrM Or More Seak. n r None S.oke I _. '! _ '! s N I e t Ne.tr Seoked er EaperlAentN Only 19)2 220 •1.R 17 60.I S! 9S.2 19 • 70 93.3 19)4 iN 93.3 ]2 M.2 SR •1.A 14 • 69 90.41 6-Smker 1912 2.1 2 7.1 1 1.6 0 • 4 S,3 1911 4.] 2 S.] 2 ].1 0 • f 7.9 Current Occ.slon.iSpoher 1972 1 0.4 1 1./i 1 1.6 0 . 1 ] i 19)1 n 01.4 n 4.0 ~ r...: 0 0 . 0.0 C urrent Reauler S.oker - veeell 19)2 A 0A 1 3.6 0 0.0 1 • 0.0 1914 1 O.S A 4.4 1 1,6 0 • 0.0 Current Requler S cerr • Delly 19)2 9 1.4 7 2S.4 1 1.R \ 2 • 0 ! 0.0, 1914 4 1.9 4 10.5 2 3.3 1 1 1.3 TOT1l 1912 235 99.9 2A 100.0 U 100.4 22 • is 99.9 11974 2'M 100.4 38 100.0 61 100.0 1 S • )6 100.0 M'ercents9 n rot ca.pu!ad rAee N!s less th.n 23. E985 TLLTS i
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J , 0 Table S. PApENTAI AND OlOER SItlIN6 SMOItINC HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) Bors HArE NO otoEN SIBLINGS I I N ~ ~ 12 11 14 IS, 16 ne or ot e t er , IIne or ot e t er Parents Smoke Parent Smokes Parents S.okt Parent Smokes Y~rNN YY,U~I . ~l 1e One or ao t er Parents Seoke Parent Smokes N ! N 1 N i M i N z N t Nerer Smoked or E.oerlme.te0 Only 1972 113 90.4 77 Fe.l 46 69.7 29 76.3 a.. Sl.9 27 77.1 1914 112 91.8 SS 98.2 40 70.2 40 76.9 14 61.1 29 72.S Ea-S.oker 1972 4 3.2 0 0.0 S 7.6 S 13.2 9 11.2 1 r 8.6 i97t 6 4.9 1 1.8 4 7.0 a 15.4 6 111.3 3 7.S Current Occasional Smoker 1972 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.6 0 0.0 1 2.9 191t 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 2.S Current te9ular : Smoker - Yeeklr 1972 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 3.0 1 2.6 2 2.9 0 0.0 ~ 1914 1 0.e 0 0.0 1 S.7 0 0.0 1 4.2 1 2.S Current Reyular ! Smoker - Oatlr 1972 7 5.6 1 1.3 13 19.7 2 S.l 19 27.9 4 11.4 I97~ 3 2 5 0 0 0 10 17 5 4 7 7 1A 2S 0 6 15 . . . . . .0 TOTAL 1972 125 100.0 78 100.0 66 100.0 is 100.0 68 99.9 7S 100.0 1974 122 100.0 S6 100.0 Sl 100.0 2 100.0 72 1C0.0 40 100.0 6L8S TLLiS
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Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMO[ING HASITS (Both Parents Present) - .-. ` TOTAL eorS yY,10 HAVE NO OLDER SIBLINGS y;-il-iq One or Both Neither Parenls Smoke Parent Smokes Never Smoked or EsOer/.entee Only 1972 197 76.1 133 88.1 1974 196 78.1 124 83.0 EX-Seoker 1972 18 6.9 e 5.3 " 197~ 16 6.4 12 8.1 Current Occasional SRoker 1972 0.4 2 1.3 1974 0.4 1 0.7 Current Regular Smoker - Weekly 1972 4 1.S 1 4.7 1971 7 2.8 , 1 0.7 Current Regular Smoker = Daily 1972 39 1S.1 7 4 6 . 1974 31 12.4 10 . 6.8 TOTAL 1972 2S9 100.0 1S1 100.0 1974 2S1 100.1 148 100.1 E88S ZLLTS
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0 Table 2. 1JXE!1TAL SMOKING NM1TS (Coe't) (lotk Parents Presen /t GIRLS 1?. 1e fotb Onl Father Current Seoker Onl lbtRer Current S.o1er Ctirreet TA T er k S d N Mother • er • er Smokers O L mo ever e Es-S.ok.r TOTAI M.ver S.oked Ex-S.oIk.r N ! N t N I N t N i 11 1 N 1 Never S.oiN .r Esyert.eatet Only 1912 46 93.0 62 74.1 42 12.4 20 00.0 1e 52.9 7 • 11 . 19)4 45 59.2 34 6e.0 23 iS.7 11 • 19 S2.• 4 • 1S SS. 6 Ea-Srok.r 1972 5 6.8 6 7.2 4 6.9 2 A.0 3 e.8 1 1914 10 13.2 s 10.0 ~ e.6 2 • 6 16.1 1 • S 11.s Current Occasl.nal Seoker 1972 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 S.9 1 • 1 . 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 turreAt ReSu1•f Snder - Yeekly 1972 3 4.1 1 1.2 1 1.7 0 0.0 1 2.9 1 • 0 . 191'4 2 2.6 1 2.0 1 2.9 a 1 2.e 0 • 1 3171 Current Reyr1•r Seqker • Oaffr. 1912 19 26.0 14 16.9 11 19.0 3 12 0 10 29 4 4 • • 1914 19 25.0 10 20.0 • 22.9 . 2 . 10 . 27.e 4 ' 6 6 22.2 TOTAL 1972 73 99.9 lU 100.0 se 100.0 25 100.0 34 99.9 14 • 20 • 19/4 76 1010.0 S0 100.0 )S 100.1 1s • u 100.1 9 • 27 100.0 ••tercentay.s not cab,.utN rMe 11 Is less than 25. 6S8S tLLTS i
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f Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKING HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) BOYS 12, 13, 14 %?y_ ~~I .~~'~ HAVE otOEN S/BL1N6S,1 1.11 1,I'lI At Least One Parent Snokes Neither Parent S.okes ~ At Least One Older yo Older ; east One Older No er Either Parent or Sibling Snokes Slbl'ng Smokes Sibling Smokes Stbltng Smokes S.oktng Status Sibllnj N. S. N 1v N I N N I N I Never Swoked or Eaperlwented Only 1912 S9 79.7 8S 93.4 23 79.3 64 98.5 48 90.6 1974 S3 71.9 73 91.3 32 88.9 6S 90.3 28 93.3 U-Snoke r 1912 2 2.1 4 4.4 S 17.2 0 0.0 3 S:1 1914 6 8.8 4 S.0 1 2.8 6 8.3 .1 3.3 Current Otcastonal Smoker 1912 0 0.0 1 1.1 1 3.4 1 1.S .. 1.9 1914 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0. 0 Current Re9vlar Smoter - Weekly 1912 S.4 a 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1914 1.5 0 0.0 2.8 1 1 1.4 0 0.3 Corrent Regular Snoker - Daily 1972 9 12.2 1 1.1 0' 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.9 1974 e 11.8 3 3.8 2 S.6 0 0.0 1 3,3 TOTAL 1912 .14 100.0 91 100.0 29 99.9 6S 100.0 S3 100.1 1974 68 100.0 80 100.1 36 100.1 72 100.0 30 99.9 0889 ILLTS
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Table S. PARENTAI ANO'OtOER SISl1NS SMOKI!/G HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) sorS 1S, 16 NAYE OlOER S16LitiGS At Least One Parent Saokes Heft*er Parent S:+okes tas One Older o er eas One Older o er Either Parent or ST1l11n9 Sibling Sookes Sibling Saokes Sibling S.okes Sibling Smokes Smoking Status N. S. N s 11 1 N S N S 11 t Never S•oked or EaPeri.ented ~a91tr Z 42 S4.S 33 15.0 22 78.6 43 1e.2 20 74.1 • iS7 3S 54.1 36 72.0 16 61.5 37' 78.1 16 • Ea-Sooker 1912 11 14.3 6 13.6 3 10.7 0 14.s 4 1.:e r 1974 11 17.2 10 20.0 3 11.5 S 10.6 0 • Current Occasional Snoier 1912 1 1.3 0 0.0 1 3.6 H 1.e 0 0.0 1914 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • Current Reqvlar Sroker - veetlr . 1972 3.9 1 2.3 0.0 ` 1 1.8 1 3.7 ... s 1914 3.1 1 2.0 3.9 0 0.0 0 • Current Re9vlar Snoker - Datly 1972 20 26.0 4 9.1 2 7.1 2 3.6 2 7.4 1974 16 25.0 3 6.0 6 23.1 S 10.6 TOTAL 1912 11 100.0 44 100.0 28 100.0 ' SS 99.9 27 100.0 1974 64 100.0 SO 100.0 26 99.9 47 99.9 to • •Percen:a9es not :o.puted when N ts less then 2S. Z885 tLLtS
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Table S. PARENTAL AND OLOER SISLING SMOKING HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) G:RLS 1S, 16 NAI/E OLDER SIBLINGS At Least One Parent Smokes N f h•r P t east ne er o der t Least One Older No Older Efther Parent or Slplin9 Sfsli•' Smokes Sielin'•Sookes Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes Smoking Status N. S. N i N i N i N ! 1! s Neeer Smoked or E.Perlr.ented Only 1972 42 67.7 1• 72.7 19 • 44 86.3 1! • 1974 34 61.e 39 76.5 16 • 34 82.9 11 E.-S.oker 1172 4 6 5 S 7 6 0 0 9.e 0 . 1974 2 . 3.6 6 . 11.e 2 • 9.8 0 Current Octasional S.oker 1912 0 0.0 1 1.S 0 • 0 0.0 0 1971 1 1.8 0 0.0 0 2.4 0 Current ReSular Saoker - Vtrt~lr72 9 1 1.6 0 0.0 1 • . 1 2.0 0 19 14 1 1.8 1 2.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 Cdrrent Regular Ssoker - Detlr972 1 is 24.2 12 1e.2 4 • 1 2.0 0 .. t 1974 17 30.9 S 9.• 1 • 2 4.9 3 TOTAL 1912 62 100.0 66 100.0 24 • 51 100.1 le 1974 SS 99.9 S1 100.1 19 • 41 100.0 14 • •Ptrtenta9es not to.PuteA when N 1s less than 2S. L88S TLLTS
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f Table S. PARENTAI AND OLDER S1IILING SMOKING HABITS (Con't) (Both Parentsfrtttnt) GIRIS NA9E n0 OtDER StfItNGS 1' 12 11 14 1S 16 17 ls ne or oth Parents Smoke Nt t er Parent Smokes One or ot Parents Smoke t ther Parent Smokes ne or oth Parents Smoke Nt thtr Parent Smokes R t N ! N S N 1 N i N S Never Smoked or E:perl.ented Only 1912 124 96.9 7S 97.4 46 15.4 39 88.6 36 61.0 30 e1.1 1974 11s 69.0 16 95.0 3e 62.3 4S 91.s 32 92.7 24 66.7 Ea-S.oker 1912 1 0.e 1 1.3 6 9.8 2 4.S 6 10.2 4 10.8 1914 9 7.1 3 3.8 4 6.6 1 2.0 9 11.6 4 11.1 Current Occasional Seoter 1912 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1174 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Reqular Snoker - IletklY 1972 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 t.3 3 S.1 0 0.0 t 1974 f 0.8 0 0.0 1 1.6 0 0.0 1 2.0 1 2,8 Current Re9ular Smoker - Call~'97t 3 2.3 1 1.3 9 14.8 2 4.S 14 23.7 3 8.1 1914 4 1.1 1 -1.3 17 27.9 3 6.1 9 17.6 7 19.4 TOTAL 1972 121 100.0 77 100.0 61 100.0 44 99.9 S9 100.0 37 100.0 1914 121 100.0 so 100.1 61 100.0 49 99.9 S1 99.9 36 100.0 S88S TLLTS i
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Tasle S. PARENTAL AMD OLDER SIBLING SISORING NASiTS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) GIRLS 12. 1]. 14 y1 HAVE OLDER SIBLINGS Y•/t L ,.•J ~ Alt eest One Parent1 /SAokes YNY Neither Parent S*okei/ / Js t Least ne ter No Older At LeestOne Older No bT ed Elther Parent or Sibling Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes Sibling ;wokes Smoking Status N. S. 11 S N I N >; N I N I Never Smoked or EaperlsenteA On1r 1972 6S 90.3 91 97.5 17 • 71 100.0 41 97.6 1974 SI 77.] 66 90.7 20 • 64 94.1 2e 100.0 E:-Swoker 1972 1 1.4 2 2.2 2 • 0 0.0 1 2.4 1974 4 6.1 2 2.7 1 • 3 4.4 0 0.0 Current Occasional Smoker 1972 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 1974 0.0 1 1.3 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Regular Smoker - Weekl rlj 9 ] 4.2 0.0 • 0 0.0 0.0 97~ 1 1 1.5 2.7 • 0 0.0 0.0 Current Regular . 1 Smoker - Daily 1972 3 4.2 0 0.0 1 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 . 1914 10 15.2 2 2.7 1 • 1 1.S 0 0.0 TOTAL 1972 72 100.1 9] 100.0 20 • il 100.0 42 100.0 1974 66 100.1 7S 100.1 22 • 6 t' 100.0 2e 100.0 •Percentages not computiA when N is less than 25. 9889 TLLTS
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. Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKINC HABITS (Cor.'t) (Both Parents Present) TOTAL eoTs ,,,J~~ yyy1j MA9E OLDER SI! INCS YI1 ~'. ~ '~ `~`~1 ~l ~ A Least One Parent Snokes ~Ile/ r Parent Spokts ~ s n er o er' ICE~Teiit Oee Q er o aer Elther Parent or Sibling Sibling Smokes S1b11n9 1eok!s Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes Smoking Status N. S. N i N t N t N ! N t Never S.oted or E.perleentea Onty 1972 126 60.0 1S2 78.8 51 63.9 13S $1.1 75 80.6 1974 119 60.4 133 73.1 62 66.0 129 51.1 S3 ee.3 E:-Smoker 1912 24 11.4 19 9.8 14 16.9 14 8.4 10 10.5 1974 21 10.7 26 14.3 10 10.6 19 11.9 1 1.7 Current Occasional Smoker 1912 2 1.0 1 O.S .2 2.4 1 1.8 1 1.1 1974 2 1.0 1 0.S 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 i Current Regular Sooter - Weekly 1972 0 .e 2 .0 0 .0 1 .6 1 .1 1974 4 2.0 1 0.S 1 3.2 2 1.3 0 0.0 Current -Reyular Sroter - Daily 1972 48 22.9 19 9.8 14 16.9 13 7.e 6 6.S .. t 1914 S1 25.9 21 11.5 19 20.2 9 S.7 6 10.0 TOTAL 1972 210 100.1 193 99.9 83 100.1 166 99.9 93 100.1 1974 197 100.0 182 99.9 94 100.0 1S9 100.0 60 100.0 0885 tLLTS I
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Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKING MASITS !Con't) (Both Parents Present) GIRLS 17. 1e NAYE OLDER SIBLINGS . At Least One Parent Smokes Netther Psr n w At Leat ne er o er eas One Older e er ETther Parent or Sibling Sibling S.okes Sibling Smokes Stblin9 Smokes Sibling S.okes Smoking Status N. S. N t N Z N I M t N = Never SnokeA or EaPerl.ente• ;;17r i 40 62.5 43 73.6 10 72.0 33 76.7 16 . 197 4 34 54.8 30 65.2 12 44.4 3e e4.4 11 E:-Snoker ;Q72 s 7.e 3 4.6 2 e.0 1 2.3 1 . 1974 9 ~14.S 3 6.S 6 22.2 3 6.1 1 Current Occasional Swoker 1912 1.6 1 1.S 0 0.0 1 2.3 O 0 1911 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.7 0 0.0 0 Current Re9ular Smoker - Weekly 1972 1 1.6 1 1.5 2 8.0 1 2.] 0 1914 1 1.6 2 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 Current Re9ular Swoker - Daily 1972 17 26.6 12 18.5 3 12.0 7 16.3 2 1974 1S 29.0 11 23.9 ! 29.6 4 8.9 3 0 TOi.1L 1972 64 100:1 65 99.9 2S 100.0 43 99.9 19 . •f 1974 62 99.9 46 99.9 27 99.9 IS 100.0 1S •Percenta9es not coPoteA rhen N is less than 2S. 8885 TLLTS
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Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SHOKING HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) TOTAL GIRLS HAVE NO OLDER SIBLINGS y^Jl~jJ One or Both Parents Smoke Neither Parent Smokes N Z N t Never Smoked or Experimented Onlr 1972 206 83.1 144 91.1 1974 183 76.6 14S 87.9 Ex-Smoker 1972 13 S.2 7 4.4 1974 22 9.2 8 4.8 Current Occasional Smoker 1972 0 0.0 0 0.0 1974 1 0.4 0 0.0 Current Regular Sooker - Weekly 1972 3 1.2 1 0.6 . t 1974 3 1.3 1 0.6 . Current Regular Smoker - Oally 1972. 26 10.5 6 3.8 1974 30 12.6 11 6.7 TOTAL 1972 248 100.0 158 99.9 1974 239 1G0.1 16S 100.0 6885 TLLZS ..t
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, Table 6. SMOKINC lENAYIOIt OF 'FOUR BEST FRIENOS' (1974) lOYS 12, 14 1S, 16 At Least One Is A Regular Sxoker I:one If ~ Regul v Sruker None Has Experle+ented At Le;st One is A Reyul.r Smoker N;me Is A teguler Sewker fion. Nat ExperianteJ N s N t i: t N t N t N t Never vm:ed vr EitOerlmerted Only so • 75.0 24e s2.y 133 9e.s ea 51.2 121 e4.1 32 97.0 Ex-Smo:er 11 9.2 16 4.0 1 0.7 29 16.9 14 9.3 1 3.0 Current Occasional S.roker 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 9.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Regular S+oker - veekly 2 1.7 1 0.4 0 0.0 6 3.S 2 1.3 0 0.0 Current Regular Seeker - Daily 17 14.2 2 0.7 1 0.7 49 28.S 8 S.3 0 0.0 TOTAL 120 100.1 267 1CO.0 135 99.9 1)2 100.1 1S1 100.0 33 100.0 .• t i68S ILLIS
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• 1ap1e 4. O:crN SIBLING S10KINr.IWITS (Con•t) TOTAL eors Have Older Brothers Only Hari Older ii:lers Onl Have No One or More nt n~ • or ~re ~,,; e-- 01der i1b11n9s Smoke Smoke yncke Smoke 0 1 N ! !1 N t N = Never Smoked or E,oerlmentN Only 1912 394 19.4 14 14.9 119 01.0 53 65.4 136 71.1 1974 375 71.5 58 61.7 116 e0.6 33 45.e 119 71.5 ta•Smsker 1972 32 6.3 13 13.1 :! 9.5 9 11.1 102 11.e 1974 x 7A 12 12.e is 10.4 e 11.1 14.2 Current ocusltnrl Saoter 1912 4 0.e 1 1.0 2 1.4 1 1.2 3 1.6 lM 1 0.6 0 4.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 0.6 Current ft"v1er Smo-er. - Yee-lr 1972 8 1.6 4 4.1 1 0.7 4 4.9 2 1.1 . t 1974 a 1.7 2 2.1 1 0.1 '. 2 2.8 1 . 0.6 Current 1eyvUr Smoktr - 0411~r 1972 Sa 11.7 36 76.7 11 7.5 14 17.7 23 12.4 1974 S6 11.7 22 23.4 12 e.1 28 38.9 1e 11.1 YOUtI 1972 496 100.0 9e 1C0.0 117 100.1 at 99.9 166 100.0 1974 478 100.0 91 100.0 144 100.0 72 100.0 162 100.3 6985 TLLiS
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Table S: PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKiNG HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) , eorS 17. 1a HAVE OLDER SIBLINGS At Least One Parent Smokes Neither Parent Smokes ' eas ne er o er Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes eas neUT der o er Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes Either Parent or S1311n0 S.ol/ng Status N. S. Never Smoked or EaperlwenteA Onty 1972 a 2S s 42.4 N 34 I 58.6 If e t 30.8 N 2e I 60.9 IL . I 7 1974 31 •7,7 24 46.2 14 43.e 27 67.5 9 Es-Si.oker 1972 11 1e.6 9 1S.S i 23.' 6 13.0 3 197• ~ 6.2 12 23.1 6 1e.6 a 20.0 0 Current Occas/onal Smoker 1972 1 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.2 0 197• 2 3.1 1 1.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 Current Aegular Snoker - ueeklr 1972 1 5.1 1 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1974 1 1.5 0 0.0 1 3.1 1 2.5 Current Regular. Snoker - Daily 1972 19 32.2 14 24.1 12 46.2 11 23.9 1974 27 II.S 1s 2e.e 11 34.4 4 10.0 TOTAL 1972 S9 100.0 se 99.9 26 100.1 46 100.0 13 . 1974 ES 100.0 52 100.0 32 100.1 40 100.0 12 'Percentages not computed when N/s less than 25. Z88S tLLiS
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Ta91e 6. SMOttU1G eEHAr.IOR OF •FOUR lEST FR1EtDS' (Con't) (1974) l7. 16 BOYS 1OUII At Least One Is A Re9ular SAroker None Is A Regular Smoker None Nas E.per'.ented At Least One Is A Regular Smoker Rone Is A Regular Swoker None Ma Eapertwente4 R I N t N 1 M f M i N I Nener Smok±d or E:perfnented Only 97 42.2 03 76.1 1e • 27S 52.7 458 e6.1 1a~ 15.3 Ex-Sroker 30 13.0 13 11.9 1 • 70 13.4 43 8.2 3 1.6 Current Occastonal Snoker S 2.2 1 0.9 0 • S 1.0 1 0.2 0 0.0 iurrent Regular Smter - Yeekir 7 J.0 0 0.0 0 • 1S 2.9 3 0.6 0 1.0 Current Regular Sroaer - Oa/1y 91 39.6 12 11.0 3 • 1S7 30.1 22 4.2 4 2.1 TOTAL 230 100.0 109 99.9 22 • ' 522 100.1 S27 100.1 190 100.0 •Pef[eftt[;es not covuttd when 1{ 1s less than 2S. .. t Z68S ILLIS
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• Table 7. WORKING PRACTICES DURING PAST rEAR (Con't) GIRLS 12, 13. 14 IS, 16 Morked• A11 Year vorkee Par of rear t Didn't Work Yorked• All Year Morktds Part of Ytar Didn't Work N z M i N I N t N = N f Never S.oked or E:perlment1d Only 1912 j6 94.7 176 95. 1 356 95.4 2' 7S 8 110 72.8 176 80.0 1974 32 84.2 160 87. 9 303 92.1 1 • 100 61.0 1]6 78.6 Ea-Sr.-oker 1972 1 2.6 3 1. 6 7 1.9 3 9.1 14 9.3 9 4.1 1974 2 S; 3 12 6. 6 12 3.6 2 • 19 11.6 12 6.9 Current Occasional Smoker 19)2 0 0.0 0. 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 O.S 1974 1 2.6 0. 0 0 0.0 0 • 4 2.4 1 0.6 Current Regular Sncker - Weekly - 1912 0 0.0 2 1. 1 2 0.S 0 0.0 4 2.6 3 1.4 1914 1 2.6 2 1. 1 1 0.3 1 • 1 0.6 4 2.3 Current Regular Snoker - Daily 1972 1 2.6 2 .2 8 2.1 S 15.2 23 15.2 31 14.1 1974 2 S.3 4 .4 1] 4.0 7 • 40 24.4 20 11.6 T3Tllt ,972 38 99.9 18S 100 .0 373 99.9 -33 100.1 151 99.9 220 100.1 1974 38 100.0 182 100 .0 329 100.0 24 • 164 100.0 173 100.0 •Percentayes not computed when N Is less than 25. •Elther full-time or part-tlne. L68S LLLtS
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I 0 eorS Total Yorted * All rear Table 7. YORKiNC PRACTICES DURING PAST tEAR (Con't) Norted•tart of Tear Didn't Vork Yorked' Yorked•Part All Tear of Tear Didn't Vork N i N I N I N ! N 1 N I Never Saoted or Eaperleented Only 1972 46 44.2 117 56. 6 27 65.9 128 S9.3 S64 72.5 322 85.9 1974 41 48.2 138 56. 8 23 62.2 121 63.7 SS7 73.1 273 84.3 Ea-Snoter 1972 21 20.2 29 12. 0 6 14.6 35 16.2 67 8.6 23 6.1 1974 12 1.t .1 28 11. 5 4. 10.8 27 14.2 69 9.1 21 6.S Current Occasional Snoter 1972 0 0.0 4 1. 7 0 0.0 1.4 12 1.S 0 0.0 1974 1 1.2 S 2. 1 0 0.0 0.S S 0.1 0 0.0 Current Re9ular Snoter - Yeekly 1972 2 1.9 6 2 .5 1 2.4 4 1.9 17 2.2 7 1.9 1974 3 3.5 4 1 .6 0 0.0 4 2.1 11 1.4 Current Regular Sr.oter - Oally 1 1972 lS 33.7 66 27 .3 7 17.1 46 21.3 118 15.2 23 6.1 1974 28 32.9 68 28 .0 10 27.0 37 19.5 120 15.7 26 8.0 TOTAL 1972 104 100.0 242 100 .1 41 100.0 216 100.1 77a 100.0 375 100.0 1974 aS 99.9 243 100 .0 37 10n.0 190 100.0 762 100.0 324 100.0 •Etther Iull-ttne or part-tloe. 968S ILLTS
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Table l OLMN SfNLtNG S/f3RINC NUITS (C..•t) i1RLS 12. 13. 14 Nave BotA Older Beoth.rs .M Sisters "T-ni 'rs T'.ok. Slst.n Smoke ro e,y . I ther Ststwo pt Not Orot.1.n a Not Stst.rs Smoke Saotes On. S/e1In~ .r Mt# N.S. a a s s N = ti I lt I ., Never SseueN .r tnwlMAte/ a1ly 2 37 ~ • is • !6 100 0 1914 23 . ! • is • 4) . 100.0 44 25 ".l 92.6 tz-S.nt.r 1!l! 0 0.0 0 • ; . 0 0.0 1 2 2 Hl~ • • 1 • ~ . 0 0.0 / , 3.7 Curr..t Ocus/.M1 Ssot.r 1911 0.0 0 • 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 fl~ . 0 • 0 • 0 . 0.0 0 . 0.0 C.rrt.t Nelplsr Smoter - w.tly 1912 1 !.s 0 • 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 1914 0 1 • 0 • 0 . 0.0 0 . 0.0 CvrrMt Newl.r S~yr • a+l, i~ii • . S.0 1 1 2 0 0.0 1 2 2 • 2 . 4 . 0 0.0 1 , V ~ TOTAL 1912 40 100.0 9 • le • u. 100.0 u 100 1 1914 24 13 • 22 ~ 43 100.0 !l . 100.0 •h.t..ts'ts .ot oo.OvW rM. 0/s less tlw. 2S. ZL85 iLLtiS t
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iaele A. COU1lSE NOM TAKiNC 1N Ni01 SCHOOL 60TS 12, 13, 14 1S, 16 College Prep. Other Than College Prep. 1a t Stated Colleye Prep. Other Than College Prep. Not Stated N t N V N 1 N t 4 i N i Never Sooted or Experlerntad Only 1972 62 31.3 4e 77.4 S • 171 74.7 92 57.7 3 . 1974 SS 83.3 38 90.9 5 • 157 7S.S 62 51.2 1 . E,-S.oRer 1972 2 2.8 6 9.7 0 • 29 12.7 20 13.0 0 • 1974 4 6.1 S 10.6 1 • 25 12.0 17 12.7 1 Cumnt Otcastonal Stoter 1972 3 4.2 1 1.6 0 • S 2.2 1 0.6 0 . 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 Current Resular Smcler - Yeelly 1972 1.4 1 1.6 • 6 2.6 4.S 1974 1.5 0 0.0 • 4 1.9 3.0 • Current Regular Sno4er - Daily .! 4.2 6 9.7 1 • le 7.9 34 22.1 1 • 197~ 6 9.1 4 83 0 • 22 10.6 31 23.1 0 TOTAL 1972 71 99.9 62 100.0 S • 229 iW.1 1S4 99.9 4 0 1974 66 100.0 47 100.0 7 • 20e 100.0 134 100.0 4 •fercentaqef not conputed rAen N 1s less tAan 25. 668S ILLIS
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f Table 7. MORKING PRACTICES DURING PAST TEAR (Con't) 17, 18 ' ' GIRLS Total Yorked. All Year Yorked•Part of Ttar Didn't Work Yorked. All Year Yorked+Part of Year Oldn't Work N I N i N t N i N I N I Never Smoked or Eaperteentad ~912 6S 61.3 147 67.1 8S 66.4 106 75.2 433 78.3 611 85.6 1974 29 S1.8 131 60.9 68 70.8 7S 63.6 391 69.7 507 84.8 E.-Smoker 1972 7 10.0 10 4.6 13 10.2 11 1.8 27 4.9 29 4.0 1911 9 16-1 23 10.7 10 10.4 13 11.0 S4 9.6 34 S.7 Current Occasfonal Sc+oker 1972 1.4 0 0.0 2 1.6 0.7 0 0.0 3 0.4 1914 0.0 2 0.9 0 0.0 0.8 6 1.1 1 0.2 Current Re;ultr Snoter - Veekly l,lt 2 2.9 S 2.1 1 0.8 2 1.4 11 2.0 6 0.8 1974 ) S.• 4 „ 1.9 0 0.0 S 4.2 7 1.2 s 0.8 Currtnt Reyular Snok:r - oally 1912 1S 21.4 ss 25.3 37 21.1 '21 14.9 82 14.8 66 1.2 19701 IS 26.8 SS 2i.6 I8 18.8 24 20.3 103 18.4 sl e.S •! TOTAL 197, 70 100.0 217 99.9 128 100.1 141 100.0 SS3 100.0 721 100.0 197y S6 100.1 215 100.0 96 100.0 118 99.9 S61 100.0 S98 100.0 •E1tAer tull-t ire or part-time. 8685 TLLTS
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f Table 6. SMOKIyG sEHAlIGR OF 'FOUR tEST FRIENOS' (Con't) (1974) GIRLS 12. 14 1S, 16 :.t ie.st une Is A Regular i*oker None is A Regular Saroker Nor.e N.s EDertftnted At Least One Is A Regular Smoker None Is A Regular Sewker None Na E,perfnented N i N i. N ! N i N ! N t Nerer Sroked or EiCerlrtnted Only 104 73.2 221 96.0 154 100.0 67 67.7 11e e7.6 gl 97.) Ea-Snoker 14 9.9 11 4.7 0 0.0 2S 14.4 6 4.4 1 2.; Cvrrent Occaslon.l Sroker 1 0.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 1.7 2 1.S 0 0.0 Current Regulsr Smoker - Yeekly 4 2.e 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current Resvlar Sn+oker - Oatly 19 13.4 7 1.3 0 0.0 S7 12.e 9 6.7 0 0.0 .. t TOTAL 1/2 100.0 2lS 100.0 1St 1G0.0 174 100.0 17S 100.0 44 100.0 E68S ILLIS
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e Table 6. SIIOUING l:n1YlOR OF -F01la SEST FRIENOS' l 77 (1974) GIwLS . e :oTTL A Le.st ine is :. Reyul.r S.oker Nune is A Regui.r aeoier ::one Nes E.verleented At La.t One 1. A Regular Smoker None 1s A Regular Seaker N,.ne n.s E.oerlnented N t N 1 N i N I N 1 N I Never Sroked or Eaoerlmented Only 99 45.0 100 •7.0 24 92.3 286 SM 439 90.5 221 98.7 E.-Sroker 34 iS.S 6 S 2 2 7.7 73 13.6 2] 4.7 3 1.3 Current 2 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 1.1 2 0.4 0 0.0 Occasional S+oker Current Regular 6 2.7 1 0.9 0 0.0 16 3.0 1 0.2 0 0.0 S~cker • Weeklay Current Resuler 79 35.9 6 7.0 0 0.0 1SS 2e.9 20 4.1 0 0.0 Snoker - Oe11y TOTAL 220 100.0 11S 100.1 26 100.0 Sl6 100.0 18S 99.9 224 . 100.0 Ti68S TLLTS
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Table S. PARENTAL AND OLDER SIBLING SMOKING HABITS (Con't) (Both Parents Present) y y Yy Yyyd TOTAL GIRLS HAVE OLDER SSeIinGS At Least One Parent Smokes t Least One Older No Older Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes y~ Y Nelther Paren Y V~~V At Least One er N• er Sibling Smokes Sibling Smokes lrT Either Parent or Sibling S.oktng Status N. S. N t N t N t N t N t Never SaokeA.or ::;.e•iwentee Only 1972 147 74.2 182 e3.S S4 7e.3 14e 89.7 71 94.9 1974 119 6S.O 137 79.7 48 70.6 136 $8.3 so e7.1 E:-Saoter 1972 10 5.1 10 4.S 4 5.8 6 3.6 2 2:S 1974 1S 8.2 11 6.4 9 1> > 10 6.S 1 1.0 Current Occasional Sw oker 1912 1 O.S 2 0.9 0 0.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 1y1• 1 o.S 1 0.6 1 1.S 1 0.6 O 0.0 Corrfnt af9uI S-:.er - Yfet ar iy 1911 S 2.S 1 0.4 3 4.3 2 1.2 0 0.0 191/ 3 1.6 S 2.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Curreat Resul Se.oker - Oa11 ar r9)2 1 3S 17.1 24 10.7 • 11.6 8 •.A 2 2.S .. f 1971 ts 24.6 18 IO.S 10 14.7 7 4.5 6 10.S TOTAL 1972 198 100.0 22• 100.0 69 100.0 16S 99.9 79 99.9 1974 163 0?.9 172 100.1 66 100.0 1St 99.9 51 100.0 0685 TLLTS I
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{ ! Table S. COURSE NOM TAKING IN HIGH SCHOOL (Con-t) GOTS 17, lA TOTAL College Prep. Other Than College Prep. Other Tren Not Stated College Preo. College Prep. Not Stated TOTAL 11 1 N 1 9 1 N 1 N 1 N : N ! Never S•oter or Experl.entN Ontr 1972 98 65.3 40 40.4 2 • 331 73.6 180 57.1 10 • S21 67.1 1974 A9 61.5 4S 46.9 4 • 301 73.1 16S 59.6 13 • 479 67.9 Ex-S.oker 1912 is 10.0 21 21.2 0 • 46 10.2 47 14.9 0 • 93 12.0 197. )s 10.9 13 13.5 0 • 44 10.7 3S 12.6 2 • ei 11.5 :ur*rnt Ocus/onel Smoter 1912 1 0.7 3 3.0 2.0 S 1.6 0 • 14 • 1 1974 3 2.2 1 1.0 . ~ 0.7 1 0.4 0 • 4 . 0.6 C%.rrt+t Repular S*%l,r - veetir 1972 4 2.7 2 2.0 0 • 11 2.4 10 3.2 0 • 21 2.7 1174 3 2.2 2 2.1 0 1.9 6 2.2 0 • 1n 2.0 Currint Regular Smoler - Oell~r ' ~ 1972 32 21.3 33 33.3 . S3 11.e 73 23.2 2 • 12e 16.5 1974 s-A 20.3 3S 36.5 • S6 13.6 70 25.3 . 1 • 121 ie.0 t TOTAL 1972 1S0 100.0 99 99.9 2 • 450 100.0 31S 100.0 12 • trl 100.1 1914 138 104.1 96 100.0 S • 412 100.0 211 100.1 16 • 7l`S 100.0 •Percenteqet not coeputea when N t3 lest tAln 25. 006S tLLTS
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t Table s. LEENACE C1G/1NETiE SMK11t; - PMENTAL EDLJ1T10N K iS 12, 13, 14 15. 16 No Coile9e So.e College Not Stated No Collest Sane College Not Ststed N I 1_1 I N i N S N f N i Ntrer S+eotea Or EaoerleenteA Only 19:2 21• 87.6 176 93.6 139 93.9 123 69.' 94 65.3 S6 )1.• 1974 189 e7.9 111 92.1 12: 93.0 116 66.3 103 74.6 34 66.1 Ea-S+roker 1972 14 5.6 3 1.6 2.0 22 12.4 22 15.3 6 1.1 1914 16 7.4 -10 4.9 1.6 22 12.6 19 13.6 4 7.8 Current Occas/onal Smoter 1912 2 0.6 3 1.6 0.0 0 0.0 S 3.S 1 1.3 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Corrent Reqular Sooter - Veekly 1912 3 1.2 0.S 1 0.t 9 S.1 3 2.1 2 2.6 1974 2 0.9 0.0 2 1.6 4 2.1 2 1.4 2 3.9 .. ! Crrrtnt Regular Syroker - Dally 1912 12 4.6 S 2.7 S 3.4 24 13.S 20 13.9 13 16.1 1914 6 3.7 6 ' 3.0 S 3.9 33 M9 14 10.1 it 21.6 TOTAL 1972 249 100.0 1dd 100.0 148 100.0 111 100.1 144 100.1 78 100.1 1914 2tS 99.9 203 100.0 129 100.1 17S 100.1 138 99.9 S1 100.0 E06S TLLTS
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t Table 9. TEENIIGE C1G/1RETTE SMOKlN6 - PMEK'AL EOIfU1tfON (Con't) L 12. 13. 14 1s, 16 No College Sono Colleye Not Stated No College Soa College Not Stated N f N f N f N f N f N f Never Sewted or E,oeri..entea Only 1972 248 93.2 170 97.1 151 96.e 163 79.9 9S 73.1 54 76.1 1974 224 e9.2 1S0 la.A 121 93.8 119 66.1 90 73.2 41 70.1 Ge•Smter 1972 0 3.0 2 1.1 1 0.6 e 3.9 1s 11.3 3 4.2 1914 12 4.e 10 S.: 4 3.1 16 e.9 12 9.e S e.6 Current Occasional Smo4er 197? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.e 0 0.0 1914 1 0.4 0 0.0 0' 0.0 01 1 0.6 3 2.4 1 1.1 C+rr*'+t Reqular S-c.ar - ffehly 1)12 0.8 1 0.6 1 0.6 3 1.5 4 3.1 0 0.0 1914 0.e 2 1.2 0 0.0 4 2.2 2 1.6 0 0.0 Ct•rrent Regular Smioter - Oailr 197t 8 3.0 2 1.1 3 1.9 30 14.7 1S 11.5 14 19.7 1974. 12 4.e 1 4.1 4 3.1 fj 22.2 16 13.0 11 19.0 ! ToTAt, 1972 266 100.0 175 99.9 1S6 99.9 204 100.0 130 100.0 71 100.0 1974 2S1 100.0 169 100.0 129 100.0 1e0 , 100.0 123 100.0 St 100.0 5063 TLLTS FiR S I
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Taole A. COURSE NOri TAKINC IN NIGN SCHOOL GIRLS College Prep. 17, ls Other Than College Prep. Not Stated College Prep. TOTAL Other Then College Prep. Not SteteA TOTtL N ! N t N Z N t N ! N t N T Never Smoked or Eeoerfeente6 Only . 1912 !9 74.8 72 61.0 1 • 327 82.2 2s7 71.0 14 • S98 77.0 1974 94 70.1 S1 67.9 2 • 298 7s.e 202 67.6 10 • S10 72.3 Es-Swker 1912 11 9.2 7 5.9 0 • 30 7.s 17 4.7 2 • 49 6.3 1974 16 11.9 1 0.3 0 • 39 9.9 29 9.1 0 • 6S 9.6 Current Ocuston.t S• oker 1912 0 0.0 1 0.e 0 • 1 0.3 1 0.1 • 2 0.3 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.3 2 0.7 • S 0.7 Current Rertl Smoker - Yeek er ir 1972 1.7 1 2.5 0 • 6 1.S 7 1.9 . 11 1.7 1914 1.S 0 0.0 0 • 6 1.S 3 1.0 9 1.3 Current Regul Smoker - Oefl ar y 1972 17 14.3 35 29.1 • 34 ' e.s s0 22.1 11s 14 e 1974 22 16.4 20 23.8 • 49 12.5 63 21.1 . 111 . 16.0 . . t TOTAL 1972 119 100.0 11e 99.9 1 • 398 100.0 362 100.0 11 . 777 . 100 1 1914 134 99.9 64 100.0 2 • 797 100.0 299 100.1 13 . 70S . 99.9 •tercenta9ef not cor~uteA .hen N ts less than 2S. Z065 TLLTS
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Table 7. YORKINC •RACTlCES OURiNC PAST TEAR OOTS 12. 13. 14 1S, 16 Yorked' All Tear Vorked•Part of Year 01de't York yorked$, All Year vorked'iart of Tear 01dn't Mork A = N Z N ! N I N ! N t Nerer Sooked or Eaoert.entid Only 1972 53 89.8 260 82.3 219 93.6 29 54.7 167 68.2 76 76.0 1974 $4 90.0 2Sa 90.2 184 91.5 26 57.8 161 69.1 66 76.7 EX-Souker 1972 S a.S 10 3.4 S 2.1 9 17.0 28 11.4 12 12.0 1974 . S 8.3 ls S.2 e 4.0 10 22.2 26 11.2 9 10.5 Current Occasional S.oker 1972 0 0.0 S 1.7 0 0.0 S.7 1 1.2 0 0.0 1974 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Current AegYler Swoter -0, Yeekly 1912 0 0.0 2 0.7 3 1.3 2 3.8 9 3.7 3 1.0 1974 0 0.0 2 0.7 2 1.0 1• 2.2 S 2.1 2 2.3 Current ReyVlar S.oker - Oa11r'72 1 1 1.7 14 4.8 7 1.0 10 18.9 38 1S.S 9 9.0 .r 197! 1 1.7 11 3.8 7 7.S a 17.8 41 17.6 9 10.5 TOTAL 1972 S9 100.0 291 99.9 271 100.0 53 100.1 24S 100.0 100 1C0.0 197• 60 100.0 286 99.9 201 100.0 •S 100.0 233 101.0 e6 100.0 • E1tAer tu11-tt.w or part-tter. S68S TLLTS
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Table 11. OYtUWICS OF TEENIIGE SMOIUNG Mean Factor Scores FACTOR INMdER FACTOR TITtE lOYS 61111S Nai-Snokers S.okers Total Non-Smokers Snokers Total 1 Nea1tA 13.21 11.74 12.98 13.17 11.94 12.94 2 Mon-Smokers'.6fyAts 12.41 9.30 11.92 12.76 9.10 12.2s 3 rosltlve Aspects of Smoking 6.56 6.01 6.00 6.47 7.48 (.62 1 llatlonalfatton 7.20 9.06 e.63 e.S2 8.80 e.s4 S Stereotype of Smoking 9.08 7.00 0.75 8.78 6.29 5.39 6 Stereotype of Smoker 11.04 A.S6 11.33 11.66 0.38 11.15 I Fee11n9 Toward Authority 10.99 10.26 10.e7 , 11.34 10.56 11.21 e Control of Fvture 12.91 11.95 12.75 13.17 12.17 13.00 .. ! tT6S TLLZS
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Table 10. POSSIBILITY OF SMOICINC S YEARS FRON NOV (Coe't) lOTS 0 17. le Total Definitely Yes Probably Yes Definitely Not Probably Not Don't Knor Definitely Tes Probably Yes Definitely Not Probably Not Don't Knov N 1 N t N S N t Never SoakeO or EjPerlnenteA ;;~lr j 2 '•' 204. 67.• 4 . 66 31.0 933 02 ] 17 . 4 197 11 14.3 189 66.8 2 . 63 35.2 e73 . e1.3 ls Ea-S.oker 1912 • 4 10 48 15.9 0 . 20 4 9 1oS 9 3 1 . 1974 2 . . 2.6 41 14.5 1 . io . s.6 106 . 9.9 . 1 Current Occasional Smoker 1972 1 1.3 3 1.0 0 0 3 1.4 11 1.0 1 1974 2 2.6 4 1.4 0 . 2 1.1 4 0.4 0 . Current Regular Smoker - Ytekly 1972 6 7.8 3 1.0 0 . 1S 7.0 13 1.1 .0 . 1974 4 S.2 3 1.1 0 . 7 3.9 i1 1.0 1 Corrent Re9ular Snoktr - Oally " 1912 59 76.6 43 14.3 S . 109 $1.2 72 6.3 S . 1974 So 75.3 46 16.3 2 97 54.2 so 1,.4 6 TOTAL ! 1972 77 100.0 _'01 100.0 9 . 213 100.0. 1134 100.0 24 .• 1974 77 100.0 .253 190.1 S . 179 100.0 1074 100.0 23 . •Percenta9es.not co.oute0'wAen N is less than 2S. 806S tLLTS ~
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Table 10. pOSS1el1TY OF SMOKI!IG S TEARS FROM NOY 12, 13, 14 1S, 16 Definitely Tes Probably res Definitely No Probably Not t Don't Uno. Definitely Tes Probably Tes :=tlnlteiy Not Probably /iot Don't Know N f N f N f N f N f N f Never Smoked or Eaperlmented 041 1971 44 64.7 476 94.6 . 12 19 27.9 253 76.7 1 . 1974 43 72.9 441 93.2 12 . 9 20.9 243 76.4 1 E:-S.oker 1912 8 11.e 12 2.4 . 0 4 5.9 4S 13.6 0 . 1974 S e.S 23 4.9 0 . 3 7.0 42 13.2 0 Current Occasional Smoker 19)2 1 1.S 0.6 1 . 1.S S 1.S 0 . 1914 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 . 0.0 0 0.0 0 Current Regul Snoker - ueek ar ly 1972 2 2.9 3 0. 6 0 . 7 10.3 7 2.1 0 . 1971 2 3.4 1 0. 2 1 . 1 2.3 7 2.2 0 . Current Reyul Seo4er - Dal1 ar 7r 1972 13 19.1 9 1. 8 0 37 54.4 20 6.1 0 . 1974 9 1s.3 e 1. 7 2 30 69.8 26 8.2 2 . TTOTAL 1972 E3 0 100 503 100. 0 17 . 68 100.0 330 100.0 2 a 1914 69 . 100.1 473 100. 0 15 43 100.0 318 100.0 7 . 'Percenta9es not computed wAen N Is less than 2S. L069 TLLTS eois
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Table 10. PosS1e1L1T1 OF SNORiNS S TEARS FROM NOW f t LS 17, 1e Total Definitely Yes Probably Tes Definitely Not Probably Not Oon't Rnow Definitely Tes Probably Yes Oetln/tely Not Probably Not Oon't Know N : N Z N I N ! N 1 N i Never Smoked or EaPeriwenled Only 1972 10 13.3 263 • 79.5 3 . 55 30.4 1079 5 89 23 79 3 1974 13 20.6 213 71.2 2 . 79 40.S 882 . 83.0 14 . E:-Seoker 1972 4 S.3 26 7.9 0 . 13 7.2 S4 4.5 0 3 0 1976 _2 .3.2 39 13.0 1 . 1S 7.7 84 7.9 2 . Current Occasional Smoker 1972 2 2.7 1 0.3 0 . 3 1.7 0.1 0 0 1974 0 0.0 2 0.7 0 . 0 0.0 0.8 . Current Reyular ' Scoker - Yorlir 1972 1 1.3 7 2.1 . 7.9 12 1.0 0 0 0 1971 1 1.6 6 2.0 . 1.S 11 1.3 0 . Current Re9ular Stoker - Oatl~r 1972 SQ 77.2 34 10.3 . 101 . 56.9 60 S.0 6 7 20 1974 47 74.6 39 13.0 . 98 50.3 7S 1.1 3 . . TOTAL 331 100.1 a . 1206 100.1 29 100 0 .• t 197~ 63 100.0 299 99.9 S . 19S 100.0 1063 100.1 . *P*rcente9es not computed when N Is less than 2S. 0T65 TLLTS GIR ,
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When responses were grouped by age (15 end 16 year-olds: 17.and 18 years -01ds), relationships 3tet~,reen Adolasfents_MOrkang and year olds) the prevalence of smoking was found to be atmost non- smoking held constant. Inrthe.youngest age group (12,13 _and 14 existent.' E-ducational Aspirations- ._ _ paratory course are much iess--i~tkely #o snwk*. The same `.-'ds true preparatury course or in some other course, -8oys In vflllege•pre- the course he is taking in high school. Thus`, the respondents who were attending high school xere.asked Knether they were In a college One measure of_a high.school stodent'-s-educational -ptans fs boys, only 15.5Y of those in college preparatory _courses smoke, -rh11e 27.4% of those in any other course-smoke._ Comparable percentages -for for glrls, but the differencesAre -not as - large. fimong high scl3oor high school girls are 14.03 And _22.1%'-(Table-8). Just as the students_=who have pl ans . for_sollege are not as likely Parental Education to smoke, those who have one or both parents who attended college are less 1ikely'to smoke. In famiaies-r+twere neither parent attended ys smoke, comp,ared wi-th 12.5% ift-=fam111es wher+s cotlege 18.6s of the ba one or both parents attended tollegt. Among girls, the proportlons of _ smokers are 17.0% and 12.6x,reapectively ~~4b)e g)., This difference is-- more pronounced among the lS--and 16-year olds than among the 17- and 18 year olds. . When asked "Would you say=sntokinq is fi.annful to be4lth?" a Perception of the Health Threat overwhelming maJority, 94% of teenaqers answered "hes." As was 0
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Table 10. POSSIeIt1Tr OF SMOKING S YEARS FRON NOM 'Con't) CiRLS 12, 13, 14 1S, 16 Dettnttelr res Probably res Definitely Not Probably Net Oon't Know Definitely Yes Probably Yes Definitely Not Probably Not Don't Knor * f N 1 R f N f N f Never Smoked or E:oerl.entoa ;;~1 2! 65.9 S23 97.6 . 17 16 2S.S 293 . 86.4 3 197• 46 67.6 439 93.6 10 20 31.2 230 78.0 2 . . Ee-Saoker 1972 4 9.1 7 1.3 . 0 S 8.1 21 6.2 0 . 1914 1 10.3 1a 2.• 1 . 6 9.4 27 9.2 0 . Current Occasional Seoter 1972 0 0.0 0.0 . 0 1.6 0 0.0 . 1974 0 0.0 0.2 0 . 0.0 S 1.7 . Current Reqular Ssokar - Yaakiy 1972 e.S 2 0.4 . 0 6.S 3 0.9 0 . 1974 1.5 3 0.6 0 . 1.6 S 1.7 0 . Current Regular Seoker - 0.11r 1912 9 20 5 4 0.7 . 0 36 Se.1 22 6.S I . 197• 14 . 20.6 e 1.7 1 . 37 S7.e 2e 9.5 0 0 TOTAL 1972 44 100.0 S36 100.0 . 11 62 100.1 339 100.0 4 . 1974 6• 100.0 469 99.9 12 . 64 ' 100.0 29S 100.1 2 •F.rc.nta9es not to.dtite• vAen N ts less then 25. 1 6069 ILLTS
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s Table 9. TEENAGE CIGaRETTE SMOKING - PARENTAL EDUCATION (Con't) eOTS I1. 18 Total No College Some Colleqe Not Stated No College Some College Not Stated Total N ~ N i N t N 1 N t N i N ! Never Swotea or EaCerlncatee Oelr 1972 106 53.0 13 61.3 32 46.4 447 11.3 343 76.1 221 76.9 1017 74.1 1974 104 S6.2 77 55.4 21 51.2 409 71.1 361 76.5 175, 79.2 9S1 74.5 Ee-Sewter 1972 32 16.0 1S 12.6 9 13.0 68 10.8 40 8.9 18 6.1 126 2 9 1914 20 10.8 20 14.4 4 9.8 So 10.1 49 10.2 10 4.S 111 . 9.2 Current Occasional Sroltr 1972 2 1.0 0 0.0 2 2.9 4 0.6 8 1.8 3 1.0 1S 1 1 1914 1 0.S 4 2.9 1 2.4 1 0.2 4 0.9 1 0.5 6 . 0.S Current At?u>>r S•cser - WeetilY 1Sl? 2 1.0 4 3.4 3 e.l . 14 2.2 8 1.8 6 2.0 28 0 2 1974 2 1.1 3 2.2 2 4.9 8 1.4 S 1.0 6 2.1 19 . 1.S Current Regular SSroter - Daily 1972 So 29.0 27 22.7 21 33.3 94 15.0 S2 11.5 4! 13.9 i8l 13 6 :974 S8 31.4 3S 25.2 13 31.1 99 17.2 SS 11.3 29 13.1 183 . 14.3 .. ! TOTAL 1972 200 1C9.0 119 100.0 69 99.9 627 99.9 4S1 100.1 29S 99.9 1313 100.0 1914 18S 100.0 131 100.1 41 100.0 37S 100.0 480 100.0 221 100.0 1276 100.0 V065 ZLLZS
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Tspie 'e. Cf;uiSE N01t TAKING IN NIGN SCNOOI (Con t) 61R1S 12. 13. 14 15. 16 COlltle Prep- Ctter Than College Prep. Not Stated Collele Prep. Other Tiun College Prep. Not Stated N s N ! N t N t U t N t, Never Sroktd or Esptrtmnted Only 1972 76 lS.0 62 e8.6 4 • 162 81.4 123 70.7 9 . 1974 71 56.6 47 74.6 4 • 133 75.1 9S 64.5 4 . Ex-Siwker 1911 3 3.8 2 2.9 0 • 16 8.0 8 4.6 2 . 1974 7 •.S 7 11.1 0 • 16 9.0 1S 9.9 0 Current 0ccsstonal SmOter 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0.S 0 0 0 0 . 19 2 1914 0 . 0.0 0 . 0.0 0 • 0.6 2 . 1.3 2 Current Re;-ilir Srottr - xeekly 1972 0 0.0 1 1.4 0 • 4 2.0 3 1.7 0 • 1914 1 1.2 1 1.6 0 • 3 1.7 2 1.3 0 • Current Regular- Snoker - Qai1r .. ~ 1l12 1 1.3 S 7.1 0 • 16 8.0 40 23.0 1 • 1l74 3 3.7 • 12.7 0 • 24 13.6 3S 23.0 1 • TOU1t. 1972 SO 100.1 70 100.0 4 • 199 99.! 174 100.0 1Z 1974 A2 100.0 63 100.0 4 • 177 100.0 iS2 100.0 1 . 'Perctntsqes not-eomputed uhen N Is less tAen 2S. 1069 TLLTS
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Table 12. OrN:.MICS OF SNOKING (Con't) Otstritutlon ol 2esPonses to Attitude lteis lOTS Sroiters Strongly Agree Mtid:y Agree Netther Agree Nor Disagree M11aly Olsagree Strongly Ofsa3ree N ! N I N i N 1 11 ~ FACTOR S- Stereotype of Smoklcj: Most 9141 start seolin4 cigarettes to attract boys. 23 11.4 29 13.4 24 11.9 33 16.4 93 46.3 lbst boys st•rt snoling cigarettes to try to,becoe+e 42 20.9 SO .,. 24.9 1S 7.S 36 17.9 SS 25.9 r+or! popu_lar-.. If you don't smoke tigarettes, other teenagers put y*u @own. 21 10.4 11 '+ S.4 10 S.0 31 15.3 129 63.9 FACTOR 6 - Stereoty=e'.of Seioker: Rids who smoke are shor-otfs. - 26 12.9 42 20.11 22 10.9 43 21.3 69 14.2 Teenage srotefs think they are yrcrn-uo,~b~t they really 37 -1e.3 43 21.3 33 16.3 35 11.3 S4 26.7 aren't. Teenage s-okers thlr.t they look coo1, but they don't really. S6 27.9 41 21.4 24 11.9 29 14.4 49 24.4 FACTCX 7 - feel/ng inrard Authority: - 1/eel good knowing I can turn to my parents for advice. 122 60.7 27 13.4 21 10.4 11 S.4 20 10.0 I wish 1 were older than 1 aw now. (Reverse score) S7 26.2 13 6.4 , 17 8.4 211 13.9 $1 43.1 A teenager should be able to do the things he wants to do S7 28.2 48 23.8 16 7.9 38 18.1 43 21.3 when he «ants to do thew. (Reverse score) .. ! FAC!OR S- Control of Future: I don't rant to get Aooted on anlrth/ny , tncl~.d/ng cigarettes. 103 51.2 29 14.4 21 13.4 22 10.9 20 10.0 I can control the kind of person I a111 becone. 127 60.4 29 i4.4 24 11.9 11 S.4 16 7.9 1 do not u.nt to be just one of the crowd. 103 51.0 41 20.3 26 12.9 13 6.4 19 9.4 EZ69 tLLt5 I
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c Table 1t DYNANICS OF SNOrIN, +Slstrlsut/on of Responsts to Attltude Iteft eOYS Sroters Stmnglr Agree Ni1dSy Agree Neither Agree Nor alsegret Ntldly Disagree Stron91Y Disagree M t N 1 N % N f N t FACTOR 1 - Health: Cigarette s-vokln9 can nana the health of teenasers. 100 49.5 1S 37.1 11 S.4 13 6.4 l l.S 1 Oellr.e the health Inlonu tlon about smokint is true. 117 57.9 Sl 26.2 16 7.9 11 S.4 S 2.S There's cothing wrong with swking cigarettes IF you 43 21.3 45 22.3 14 6.9 36 1/1.11 62 30.1 Mn't mte too many (Reverse score) FACT62 2- Rtyhts of the Ron-Seroker: Clgarette sroke sp+ells bad. 43 21.3 6S '2.t 24 11.9 42 20.8 28 13.9 Cigarette sroking shoul4 be forbidden inside public places 40 19.9 21 10.4 14 1.0 40 19.9 e6 42.• If I srote around o:her people, I take away tlelr right to 13 36.1 SS 21.2 20 9.9 28 13.9 26 12.9 Oresthe clean a/r. FACiC4 7- 9osit/.e 6ste:ts of Se+oting: Peaole srote cts.rettes to help thent think rore clearly. 21 10.4 20 9.9 2S 12.4 39 19.3 97 46.0 PcoPle .to Vote seen to pt were .t ease rlt.h others. 44 21.8 50 24.8 34 16.8 29 14.4 4S 22.2 S.roting clsarettes gives you a good feeling. 27 13.4 56 27.7 32 1S.t 29 14.4 38 28.7 FACT04 4 - pattonalt:at'on: It's okay for teenagers to experl:ent with ctsarettes 1t 86 42.6 49 24.3 17 8.4 19 9.4 31 1S:y ~ they quit before It becomes a habit. Cigarette s:oking is hirc+ful'only If a person Inhales. $4 26.9 29 14.4 14 7.0 3? 1e.4 6? 11.3 Teenagers •ho s.vte re;viarir can quit tor gocd any time 31 ;8.4 24 11.9 23 11.4 49 24.4 68 33.6 they llte. ZZ6S ZLLZS
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t t Table 12. 0Y'U1111CS OF SMOKING (Con't) Distribution of Resporises to Attitude Itero eOrS Non-Saokers Strongly Agree Mlldly Agree Ntltter Agree Nor Disagree M11dly Disagree Strongly Disagree N 1 N t N I 11 1 N t FACTOR 1 - Health: Cigarette sroking can harm the healt.~ of terr.igers. 619 16.3 194 18.1 32 3.0 19 1.8 10 0.9 I believe the health Information about smoking Is true. 19) 13.7 194 1e.1 42 3.9 31 2.9 1S 1.4 There's nothing wrong with smoking cigarettes tf you 92 8.6 141 13.1 S1 4.8 222 20.1 S67 52.8 don't u+oke tao many. (Reverse score) FACTOR 2- Rtohts of the Non-Swker: Cigarette Mke sftlls bad. 713 66.9 201 ls.l 63 S.9 60 S.6 32 3.0 Clgar.tte s~ck/ng shooid be forbidden Inside public places. 47S 44.3 19S 18.2 e6 8.0 163 15.2 153 14.3 If I smoke around other deople. I take away their right to 13S 68.6 180 16.8 46 4.3 S9 S.S S1 4.s breathe clean air. FACTOot 3- Positive Aspects of Smoking: People s-ise cigarettes to help them think core clearly. 60 S.6 130 12.1 147 13.1 2s2 23.5 4eS 45.2 Perple who szoke seem to be more at east with others. 140 13.1 208 19.4 216 20.1 210 25.2 238 22.2 Smoking cigarettes gives you a good feeling. 37 3.5 6S 6.1 124 11.6 178 16.6 667 62.3 FACTOR 4 - IlatlonaTltat/on: It's"okar for teenagers to ejperlrrent w1 N cigarettes 1f they quit before It becomes a habit. Cigarette saoktng Is harmful only tt a person Inhales. 362 256 33.7 23.9 309 153 25.0 14.3 e7 108 8.1 10.1 102 le7 9.S 17.4 a'14 3" 19.9! 34.3 Teenagers who smoke regularly can qrlt for good aNr time 162 15.1 127 11.4 11.1 7.7 231 21.5 469 43.7 they 1fke. Vt65 TLLIS
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Table 2. TEE.'IAGE CiWNETTE SMOKINC - pMENTAL EDtlCJlT10N L 17, 1s Total Mo College Sore Colle; e Not Stated No Colleye Soa College Not Stated TOTAL N I N ! N I 11 t N ! N = N = Never Smoke0 or Expertaiented Only 1972 113 6s.s 86 64. 7 4s 64.9 SS4 61.7 3S1 e0.1 2S3 d/.1 1150 11.7 1974 111 $3.8 82 64 6 2e S0.9 461 74.8 322 76.• 190 78.5 973 76.2 E:-Smoker 1972 1s 7.2 11 e. 3 4 sA 31 4.6 2e 6.4 e 2.7 67 4.7 1974 19 10.3 ie 14. 2 S 9.1 47 7.6 40 9.5 14 s.8 10-1 1.9 Current Occasional SmNer 1972 0 0.0 2 1. 5, 1 1.4 0 0.0 3 0.7 1 0.3 4 0.3 1974 1 0.S 1 0. e 0 0.0 3 0.5 4 1.0 1 0.4 e 0.6 Current ReSw'tr Snoker - Mee•lr 1972 3 1.4 4 3. 0 1 1.4 e 1.2 9 2.1 2 0.1 19 1.3 11974 4 2.2 2 1. 6 1 1.e 10 1.6 6 1.4 1 0.4 17 1.3 C.,irent Ilesular Smoker - ON1; 1972 41 22.6 30 22 .6 20 27.0 6S 12.5 41 10.7 37 12.3 169 11.9 1974 43 23.2 24 18 .9 21 38.2 9S 15.4 41 11.2 34 14.9 1N 13.9 .. t TTOTAL 1972 30e 100.0 133 100 .1 74 100.1 67e 100.0 438 ' 100.0 301 100.1 1417 99.9 1974 les 100.0 127 100 .1 sS 100.0 616 99.9 419 99.9 242 100.0- 1277 99.9 g06S ZLLtS CiR S I i
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%r 4SA. Of these friends, hov many have just experim ented? (CIRCLE CORRECT RE 453. How many s.oke occ 45C. And how many ssroke SPONSE IN COLUl4/ 1 EII.OW) asionally? (CIRCLE COkRECT RLSPONS regularly? (CIRCLE CORRECT RLS?ON E IN COL. 2 BELO SL IN COL. 3 BEL W) OW) « Cel. 1 1 ~ Col. 2 Col. 3~ A 1 1 C- _ Friends I Fxper imented , O eeas ionaliy . Regulariy None (43- 0 4 4 0 45- 0 One 1 1 1' 1 1 Two 1 2 2 l 2 Three 1 3 ( 3 I 3 Four 4 (NOi1 SKIP TO Q. 50) (Colitiana 1, 2 6 3 must w I in Q. 44) 46. Has this friend just experimented, or does he (she) smoke occasionally, or regularly? 47. OMT 47-6a ~ 48. OMIT 49-s0 ~ 49. OMIT 51-52 y 46- Fxperisien t ed -1-- Occationally 1 Regularly -4 I
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%r 41. ~+ tar did Pow father =o in school? . 42. 8ow far did your mother So in school? . 40- I No bi=b school Sor high school 39- 0 Rish school grad. Sor ,collese. . 3 Collete Srad. Post college irad. ?echnical/Trade 6 Don't Koov No high schodl Sa.e high school Aig.h school grad. Soae college 3 College =rad. I Post college =rad. ?.chnieal/?rade Don't ltrov 43. aKIT cc 41- 44. Bov fanP of your 4 beat friends have at least experi.eoted vith ...okina 'cigarettes? SKIP TO Q. 50 None sxpetimented 0 :'7kIP ?0 Q. 46' One 1 . 3wo 2 COMlIMTL Three 3 Pour ~ SKIP TO Q. 50 No 4 best friends 6 ( 42-
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Table la. OTtW!tCS OF SMOKiNG (Con't) Distribution cf Responses to Attitude Items GIRLS FACTOR 1 - Health: Cigarette smokin9 can harw the health of teenagers. 1 belleve the health Information about srok/n9 1s true. There's nothing wrong with stokln9 cigarettes if you don't smoke too many. (Reverse score) FACTOR 2 - Ri9hts of the Non-Snoktr: C17arette spoki sveils bad. Cigarette smoking should be forbidden Inside public places. If I sroke around other people. I take away their right to breathe clean air. FACTCR 3 - Positive Aspects of Srokin9: Peeple sroke cigarettes to help then think e+ore clearly. seople .ho srO;e seeM to be vore at ease with others. Srotirg cigarettes gives you a good feeling. FAC*CR 4 - Ratlonalltation: !t's okay for teenayers to expertnent with cigarettes If they quit before !t becomes a habit. Cigarette s.okln9 is harmful only 1f a person Inhales. Teenagers who seoke regularly can quit for good any time they l/ke. 8T65 TLLTS NON-SNbitERS Strongly Agree Nlidly Agree Neither Agree Nor 01sa9ree Mildly Disagree Strongly Otiadree N ! N i N ! N f N i s0A 71.3 196 20.2 40 4.e 22 2.6 12 1.1 •10 7S.0 179 16.6 49 4.5 28 2.6 14 1.3 111 10.3 14S 13.4 S4 5.0 199 15.4 S1O S2.d 7e1 72.2 iSS 14.3 53 4.9 61 S.6 31 2.9 504 46.0 199 1e.S 98 9.1 149 13.• 12e 11.9 004 74.5 143 13.3 38 3.S 40 3.) S4 S.O 62 5.7 144 13.3 1S3 14.1 288 26.6 43S 40.2 143 13.2 1e11 17.4 143 13.2 284 26.3 323 29.9 2S 2.3 se s.. 161 15.0 1se 14.7 674 62.6 391 36.2 258 23.9 86 8.0 121 11.2 22S 20.8 20s 19.3 ilS 16.3 128 11.9 208 19.3 3S7 33.2 1a1 16.8 124 11.s dt 7.6 210 20.2 412 43.8 t
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Q. 50 (COPR'ItM) . Cigarette smoking is harmful only tt a person inbalRs There's nothing wrong with smoking cigarettes as lons as you don't smoke too many . If I smoke around other people, I take away their right to breithe clean air S. :: yc.u don't smoke cigarettes, other . teenagers put you dgvn T. Snoking cigarettes gives you a good feeling U. Teenage smokers think they look cool, but they don't really V. A teenager should be able to do the things he wants to do when he wants to do them W. I do not want to be just one of the crowd %r Neither ; Strongly tMildly Agree Mildly Strongly I Agree 'ASree Nor IDisagree Lisagree t I _ .tee+ Diar 4 ke I I 2 t X. Teenagers who smoke regularly can quit 4 for good any time they like
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38. What vas the last grade you completed ? ASt: Evzmxr 34. Hould you say swking ir har*ful to health? 32- Yes 0 tio 1 D.K. 2 35. During the past yedr, that is, the past 12 months, did you vork all year round, or only part of the year, or not at all? All year .33- 16- 6th or below 0 7th 8th 9th 10th Ilth 5 ~ 12th Some college L__ Part of year ~---I (SKIP TO-Q. 40) all I S1CIP TO Q.37 Iiot at 36. When you vorked, di tise or full-time ? d you we+rk part- . 39. What course are you taking in school? Are you in a enurse that preparea-you for college or some other course? 36- 37- Part-ti me c:ollege preparatory 0 0 Full-ti me 1 - . ~ --- -- -------~ Other ~- - 37. What grade are you now at school? M.. Do (did) you attend a public, 35- parochial school, or sorft other 6th or below 0 private school? SKIP TO 38- ~ Q. 40 0 7th 1 Public 8th 2 Parochial 9th 3 Private ~ SKIP TO 10th 4 Q. 39 llth 5 12th 6 SKIP TO Q.40 College 7 r-n ~ J CON?IIfL'E Not in school ~ ~ Ln W N
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I . TSOM fVQI.Z CASA! t RLCIONt New England Middle Atlantic East North Central liest North Central South Atlantic fsst ,Seuth Cantral West South Central Mountain Pacitic COl4ltMISY SIZLs Metro Area over l Million Center City Suburban w Mstro-Area under l Million Center City Suburban .~. 1iNI-Metro Area -1S- i S
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Table 12. oYNAMICS OF SM01c1NC (Con't) Distribution of Responses to Attitude Items CI11LS NON-SIDKERS Strongly Agree Mildly Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mildly Disagree Strongly Disagree N t N z N ! N i N I FACTOR S - Stereotype of Snoking: Mo:t girls start s•oting ct9arettes to attract boys. 16S 1S.3 249 23.0 164 15.2 233 21.6 270 25.0 Most boys start ssoktng cigarettes to try to become 374 34.7 290 26.9 111 10.3 166 15.4 131 12.? more ooou aT-. II you don't seoke cigarettes. other teenagers put you down. 173 16.0 160 14.6 s0 7.4 171 15.9 !S• 4S.• FACTOR 6- Stereotype o.' SAOk!r: KIds.who sp-cke are shoy-o1ls. 405 37.6 260 24.1 127 11.8 161 14.9 125 11.11 Teen+ye scoters tetnk they are 9roin-vo, but they real:y S49 SO.t 233 21.6 97 9.0 116 10.7 aS 1.9 a Teena7e s^eters think they look cool, euc'ther don't really. 606 S6.• 220 20.5 77 7.2 !1 7.S 91 6.S FACTOq 1- Feeling Toward Authority: I feel good knMtrg I can turn to my parents for advice. 7SA 70.2 1S2 14.1 S9 5.5 S2 4.0 S9 S.S I wish I were older than fan no.. (Reverse score) 231 21.4 132 12.2 72 6.7 196 10.1 449 41.6 A teenager should be able to do the things he wants to do 129 12.0 20S 19.0 11e 11.0 273 25.3 3S2 32.7 .hen he wants to do them. (Rererse score) .. ! FACTOR A- Control of i:•ure: I don't want to qet hooked on anythfny, tncluding clgarYttes. "S1 81.9 66 6.1 24 2.2 24 2.2 11 1.6 I can control tJ:e kind of person I will becone. 6S3 60.5 230 21.3 M 7.8 So S.4 S4 S.0 I do not want to be just o" of the crowd. 626 58.1 198 18.4 de 8.2 e1 7.S 664 ).e 6T6S TLLTS I
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! FACTOR 1 - Heal M: Cigarette sroking can hanm tke health of teenagers. / believe the health lnforratfon about smoking Is true. There's nothing wrong M':h s-voking cigarettes If you don't smoke too many. (Re.erse score) Tab1.,12. DYNAMICS OF SMOKING (Con't) Distribution of Responses to Attitude Item GIRLS FACIUR 2 - Rlgbt: of the Non-Sroker: Cigarette smoke 9nells bad. Cigarette sr.oktng should be forbtoden lnsfde Iwb11c places. If I sroke around other oeopie. I take aw;t their right to breathe clean air. FACTOI 3 • Positive At;ects of S.roking: people iroi.'ct9erettes to Pelp tfe% thtrk rore clearly. P!ople who sroke teen to be more at tase with others. SR,oking cigarettes gives you a good feeling. FACTOR 4 - Ratlonallta!fon: It's okay for teenagers to e.pertment with cigarettes tf they quit before It becones a habit. Clgarette smoking ts har.fui only If a person lnhales.. Teenagers who tnoke regularly t4n quit for good any tlne ther like. 0Z65 TLLtS TOTAL Strongly Agree Mtldly Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mildly Otsagre! Strongly Disagree N i N f N I N I N I ~ 9C0 71.3 2S7 20.2 61 4:S 33 2.6 14 1.1 974 73.3 220 17.7 66 S.2 3S 2.7 19 1.S 1d6 11.6 186 14.6 70 S.S 231 18.1 639 50.1 854 66.9 197 15.4 74 S.A 91 7.6 S4 4.2 S]l 41.9 223 17.5 . 110 8.6 199 1S.6 20e 16.3 692 70.0 161 14.4 67 S.9 Ss 4.6 74 S.A 7S 5.9 1Se 12.4 177 13.5 140 26.6 Sl1 41.6 179 14.0 233 18.3 114 13.6 331 26.0 M 28.1 49 3.9 96 7.6 167 14.7 196 15.4 743 Ss.S 4E4 36.4 302 23.7 ` 112 8.8 143 11.2 2SS 20.0 2S1 19.6 206 16.2 147 11.6 234 18.4 432 34.0 1 222 17.5 147 11.6 91 7.6 260 20.4 St6 42.9
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• Table 12. OYNAMiCS OF SMOKIRG Distribution of Responses to Attitude Itesrs LiRIS TOTAL Strongly Agree Nildly Aqree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Ntldly Disagree Strongly Disagree N I N_ % N ! N t N t FACTOR S - Stereotype of SffoklnS: Most girls start sz-cktnq cigarettes to attract bcrs. 179 14.0 264 20.7 11A 13.9 271 21.7 3;a 29.6 Post boys start smokin9 cigarettes to try to becom 412 32.4 318 25.0 134 10.5 216 17.0 193 .15.2 rore pspu at r.~ ' If you don`t swoke cl9arettes, other teenagers put you down. 164 14.4 177 13.9 U 6.9 191 1S.S 627 49.3 FACTCR 6 - Stereotype of Smoker: KiAs who s.wke art show-offs. 427 33.5 291 23.1 1Se 12.4 206 . 15.2 iee 14.8 Teenage smokers think they ere qrorn•up, but ther realy Ss7 46.1 270 21.2 125 9.8 14S 11.4 111 11.S aren't.' Teena7e sookers think they iook cool,. but they don't really. 6SS 51.9 263 20.7 101 8.0 103 •.0 144 11.3 FACTOR 1- Feeling Tnyard Authority: 1 feel good knoyinq I can turn to •ry parents for advice. 971 68.3 181 14.2 14 S.8 70 S.S 7f 6.2 i wish I were older than I as now. (Reverse score) 278 21.• 1S6 12.4 , 83 6.S 230 18.0 S2s 41.4 A teena9er'should be able to do the things he wints to do 17A 14.0 231 1e.2 139 10.9 314 24.7 410 32.3 vhen he wants to do them. ;Reverse score) .• ! FA=MU a- Control of Future: / don't want to qet hooked an anytAlny, including cigarettes. 1048 e2.1 100 7.8 S0 3.9 47 3.7 32 2.s I can control the kind of ;erson I will becorie. 7d4 60.0 269 2i.1 103 8.1 70 S.S 6s 5.3 I do not want to be just one of the crowd. 743 Se.4 231 18.2 104 8.2 31 7.4 100 1.9 tZ6S tLLtS
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Table 12. OtNAMICS Of SMORI'IG (Con't) Distribution of Responses to Attitude Iters lOTS otal 0 Strongly Agree Nlidly Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree NI ldly Disagree Stron91 / Disagree N I N 11 N I N t N t FACTOR 1 - Health: Cigarette s*oktng can harw the health ot teenagers. 919 72.0 269 21.1 43 3.4 32 2.S 13 1.0 I 0!11e•e the health Infor.rt/on about s•roking ts true. 906 71.2 247 19.4 S8 4.6 42 3.3 20 1.6 There's uothing wrong with s+oking cigarettes It you 13S 10.6 186 14.6 65 S.1 260 20.4 629 41.3 don't s-oke too Nny. (Reverse score) FACTOR 2 - Rlghti of the Non-Smoter: Cigarette smoke spells bad. 761 59.7 266 20.8 87 6.8 102 8.0 60 4.7 Cigarette srokln9 06ul• be fo-h1JQen Inside public places. S1S 40.5 216 17.0 100 7.9 203 15.9 239 18.e It I savte around other people. I take away their right to 808 633 23S 18.5 66 S.2 87 6.8 77 6.9 breathe !lean air. fACTGQ 3-Paftttve Aspects of S-okiny: People v*se c/garettes to help then thlnk rvre clearly. 81 6.3 iS0 11.8 172 13.5 291 22.8 582 tS.6 People •ho vo1e set* to be more at ease with others. 184 14.4 250 20.3 250 19.6 299 23.5 283 22.2 Srok/ng r4varettes gives you a good feeling. 64 S.0 121 9.S 1S6 12.3 2G7 16.3 72S 56.9 FACTOR 4 - Ratlonalltathn: It's okay for teenagers to enpertment with cigarettes tt 418 35.1 3S8 28.1 104 8.1 121 9.S a1S 19t2f they quit before It secomes a habit. Cigarette 9c+oktn9 Is harwful only it a perscn fr.hales. 310 24.4 182 14.3 122 9.6 224 17.6 •3S 34.2 Teentgers who snoke regularly can quit for geod ar.1 tir:e 199 15.6 151 11.9 106 8.3 230 22.0 S37 42.2 they 1/ke. ZZ65 ILLIS
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I De_partment of Health and Human Services OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL YOUTH ACCESS TO TOBACCO 460340 . I
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C 3 INSTRVCTIONSs (ASK SECTIOlf l, 2 OR 0F MAIJ4 QUESTIONNAIRE NEVER (CHECK Q. i OF SCREENING. IF THLRE ACOORDING TO CORA'CT SMOKING STATUS ON PAGE 1 SECTION SNOKCm ('•!'O" TO Q. 2) IS I1O FATHER, SKIP TO Q. 53A) S1A. Hov vould your father feel if you •tarted ..okin5? (RfAD C110ICES) . S2A. NONE S3A. (CHECK Q. 4 OF SCREENING. IF TH DON'T READ Forbid it Strongly disapprove Kildly disapprove se indiflerent Approve Don't Know ERE IS NO MOTHER, TERMNATE DELOW) 53A. Hov vould your mother feel if you started smoking? (READ CHOICES) Forbid it -V RESPONDE!!T' S NAXE VE1tIF'! TELF?HONE NtM3ER, RECORD 3ELOW Area Code : EXCHAtiGE __ DON'T READ Strongly Disapprove Mildly disapprove Se indifferent Approve Don' t Know , THEN TEIWINATE. NU}AQ S7- i 58- THANK YOU VERY MUCH. IT'S SEEN AF SURE TALtING TO YOU.
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Table lt OYNAM/CS OF S101:INC (Cos•t) Distribution of Responses to Attltuae item JOTS FACTOR s- Stereotype of Smoking: Most girls stirt smoking cigarettes to attract boys. Most boys sta~sroktn9 cigarettes to try to Oecome cwre ooou ar. If you don't s•oke ctyarettes. other teenagers put you down. FACTOR 6 - Stereotype of Smoker: KIdt up.) s•+ote are shcme-offf. iee-aFe smoUrff tlfni they are yrown-oo. but they really a•ew•t. Tee-eSe •*oters tn/ae they look cool. tw t they don't really. FaCUR 7 - Feelln9 Toward Authority: : fp;i yood kno..ln9 I can turn to ••y parents for ad.lce. 1+Ish I r!re older than I as now. (Re.erse score) A teenager should be able to do the things he wnts to do when he wants to do thes. (Reverse score) FACTOR e- Control of Future: I don't want to 9et hooked on anytM ng, includlny cigarettes. I can control the k Md of person f+rtli become. l do not want to be just one of the crowd. 5j6S tLLtiS i Strongly Mildly Agree Agree N I N I 1es 11.3 217.- 20.3 397 37.0 2e0 26.1 1e6 17.4 1e2 11.0 IS9 42.9 2SS 23.6 529 49.2 260 24.2 634 56.3 231 22.1 761 70.9 179 16.7 252 23.5 120 11.2 193 1e.0 227 21.2 362 33.7 309 :o.A 6S7 61.2 220 c0.s S20 4113 240 12.4 i Non-Srokers Neither Agree Nor 0/Ca9ree N I Mildly Strongly Disagree 0/sagree 230 21.s 247 23.1 193 1e.0 106 9.9 153 14.3 136 12.7 e6 8.2 1e2 17.0 .3s 40.6 103 9.6 136 12.7 ile 11.0 114 10.6 93 e.6 7e 7.3 64 6.0 a e.2 e0 7.S 79 3.6 52 4.e 42 3.9 t0e 10.1 1e9 11.6 404 31.6 121 11.3 247 23.0 2b4 26.5 e7 e.1 102 9.S 214 19.9 67 6.2 64 6.0 6S 6.1 96 e.9 126 11.7 91 e.s
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22. Rov say sisters 12 Fejrs old and o:rer do you h.ve altogether, both living in your howehold and those not livint in your household? (IF "6 OR FpRE" RECORD (Sisters 12 and over) (IF "1ONE," RDCARD "u" AIfD SKIP TO Q. 26) I 23. What are their aiesi ;(WRITE-FJICR AGE IN COL. 1 DELO'W) (f'OR GCA SISTDt, ASK: ) 24. Does yourear old sister s.oke cigarettes? (CIRCLE CORRLCT RE.StOlfSE IN COL. 2 Et3AY) (IF RFS!'ONSE IS "TES," ASK:) 25. Does she smoke just about every day or not? (CIRCLE CORRECT RESrO!iSE IN COL. 3 aELOft) (RFpEAT Q.'s 24 AND 25 FOR EACF. SISTER LISTED AELON IN COL. 1) - Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 1 Smoke D ARerlsClrs_ Yes I No , D. !C. Y es No D. K. I . 1 ~ 2 s 3 S 7 i 2 1 1 2.1 3 S 7 I 3 1 1 i 2 5 3 S 1 1 2 1 3 5 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 S r 6 3
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Table 12. oTNANItS OF SlORtIN: Distribution of Responses to Attitude ite.r FACTOR 1 - qealth: C19arette smoking can harr the heal U of teenagers. I btliere the health inforation about smoking is true. There's nothing Mrony with stakin9 cisarettes if you dbn't s.oke too many. (Rerene score) FACtOR 2 - Ri9hts of the Nca-Snoker. Cigarette s•o!e smellt bad. C19a;ettt smoking thoad be forbidden 1nWs r-Attc places. it t sMoU around other peoole. I taFe away their right to breatht clean air. FACTOR 3 - lositire Aspects of Seokiny: People sroke cigarettes to help then think more clearly. oeoole rhe sooke see+ to be more at east with others. Smoking ci9arettes gives you a good feeling. iACTX 4 - Ratlonalisations It's okay for teenagers to experiment with cigarettes it they "it before it becomes a habit. Cigarette smoking ts harmful only tf a person lnhates. Teenagers who smoke regularly can "it for good any ttr they like. 9t6S ILLTS ' i1RLS SID1tERS Strongly Aqree Ni1d1r A9ree Neither Aor:o Nor Disagree Nilaiy Disagree strongir Disagree N I 11 I !1 I N i 11 I 100 51.3 61 31.3 21 10.8 11 S.6 2 1.0 124 63.9 41 21.1 17 !.9 I 3.6 S 2.6 37 19.0 41 21.0 16 !.2 32 16.4 69 35.4 73 32.4 42 21.S 21 10.8 36 183 23 11.• 29 14.9 24 12.3 12 6.2 so 25.6 !0 41.0 eA 45.1 40 20.5 29 14.9 1S 9.2 20 10.3 13 6.2 14 2.2 20 10.3 $2 24.1 96 49.2 36 18.6 4S 23.2 31 16.0 47 24.2 3S 16.0 24 12.3 38 19.S 26 13.3 3• 19.5 69 35.4 .• ! 73 37.4 44 22.6 26 13.3 22 11.3 30 15.4 43 22.2 31 16.0 19 f.• 26 13.4 1S 3A.) 41 21.0 23 11.8 1S 7.7 42 21.5 14 ».9 ~ .
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Y ASL OF ALL RESPONDERTS 30, 11ov, I' going to read some states,ents about cigarette s.oking. As I read each statemeat, please tell se vhether you asree, disagree, or neither agree nor disagree. , (RGD STATtMENT): Do you agree, diaagree or neither agree nor disagree? (IF AGREL, ASK:) Do you strongly aSree or mildly agree? (IF DISAGREE, ASK:) Do you strongly disaSree or mildly disagree? (If :IEITt{ER AGREE OR DISAGREE; ) 00 TO 11E.:? STASCtfNT - I ! Neither : Seronily. `lildly, Agree ~ Mildly ' Strongly Agree 'ASree Nor ,Dipa=ree• DSs.Szee1 ' Disa iee ' I A. Cigarette smoking can harm the health ~ ! S ~. . 3 2 t 1 1 of teenagers ; I D. CiRarette smoke smells bad ' S : 4 3 2 . 1 'C. • Most girls start smoking cigarettes to --- i S ~ • 4 . 3 . . attract boys ' ` ~ D. People smoke cigarettes . aelp them ~ s ` , 3 2 think more clearly 1 : 1 E. Kids vho smoke are shov-offs 2 ; 1 f.:: j~:..~. w:w.:ng a Cltn turn to mr ~. 5 ~ 4 3 2 parents for advice t 1 1 ~ G. I don't want to get hooked on anything, ( s 4 3 2 ! includtng cigarettes ~ l ~ . El It's okay for teenagers te experiment s 4 ~ 3 vith cigarettes if they q:it before ` 2 it becomes a habit. ~ ` i. I believe the health information S ~ about smoking is true 4 3 • ~ 2 1 J. Cigarette smoking should be forbidden ; ~ irside public places S '~ 3 ~ 2 ~ i 1C . . Most boys st,~ar~t~ smoking cigarettes to s 4 j L try to become sore popular 3 1 2 l L. People vho ssoke sees to be more at S A ~ ~ ease with others 3 2 ' ~ l M. Teenaz e smokers think they are S Z 3 grown-up, but they really aren't 2 ' 1 N. I vish I vere older than I sm nov. 1• 2 3 4 ' ~ 0. I can control the kind of person I S 4 3 2 _..~~. viil become 1 - 10 -
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%r (CRECK Q. 4 0T SCRLDII?1C. IT THE7tt IS NO FATH6R, SKIP TO Q.. 30) 26. Does your father ssioke SKIP TO Q. 29 citarettes? _ 24- Yes I o 0 No ! 1 D. K. I 2 27. Did he ever smoke ciaarettes? 25 SKIP TO Q. 30 Yes 1 0 No f i D. K. 28. How long sao did he quit? (READ LIST) 26- Less than l year ago 0 1 year to less than 1 L?.vears ago t yeara to less than 2 • 3 or ncre years aRo 29. Does he (did he) ss»ke just about every ds; or not? 27 Yes, every day . 1 0 No, not every day I 1 Don't Know , ! 2 (CcCx Q. 4 0r SCREIltINC. IF THDtE IS NO M7SSER, SKIP TO Q. 34) 30. Does your wother amoke citarettea? I SKIP TO Q. 33 ~ Yes No D. x. r 2 28- 0 31. Did she ever smoke cigarettes? SKIP TO Q. 34 _ 29- Yes 0 D.K. 32. Hov long ago did she quit? (READ LIST i I' 30- Less than 1 yeac ago 1 0 1 year to less than 2 years a,to 2 years to less chan 3 years ago 3 or more years ago 1 ; 33. Does she (did she) smoke just about every day or not? 31 Yes, every day No, not every day Don't Know 0 1 - 6
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vor I StCTION III FORlU SlOW ("NO" TO Q. 6) TO Q. 33C) 63- . (CHZCx Q. 4 OF SC1tLLR111C. ZF TALRL IS NO FATBlR, S 31C. Did your father know that you sanked? - Yes No , 0 D. K. 52C. H,ow did your father isel (hov would your tathar DON' T READ I have felt) about your smokins? Forbid it Strongly disapprovs Mildly disapprove De iAdifferent. . Approve Den't Know 0 4 S 'CHECK Q. 4 OF SCREIIQINC. IF TNERE IS NO MOTHER, TE .JC. Did your rother know that you seoked? iINATE SELOti.•) Yes D. K. 65- 54C. Row did your eother feel (how would your mother have felt) about your s.okinS? 66- Forbid it 0 ..~..._ Strongly disapprove 1 MildlY disapprove 2 Da indiffatent 3 Approve OOIf' T READ ! Don' t Know RESPONDQR' S NAME 'ltRIlY TII.tPlIONE NUlBflt, RECORD DII.O'W, THEN TLRKZNATE. AREA CODE QCtUNGE NUMmER TR#NK YOU VERY MUCR. IT'S BEEN A PLEASURE TALKING TO YOU.
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Preventing Tobacco Use Ainong Young People A Report of the Surgeon General U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nacional Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Office on SmotBng and Health R94 •AG0004430
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ti The task is by no means easy. This repor: ur.de.~cores the com.rtif.mlent all oi us must have to the health of young people in the United States. Substantial work will be required to translate the justification, the measLs, and the will into a world in which young people no longer want to smoke. I, for one, relish the task. M. Joycelyn Elders. M.D. Surgeon General iv
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.t CDC tlw...«.*am= ..w.. »mr4ow"N Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People AReportof the Surgeon General Executive Summary U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Office on Smoking and Health tn Fft w ,P cn P. I AG0004082
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Suggested Citation US. Department of Health and Hunurn Services. Prcunrtirrg Tobacco Use Aruoag Yowrg PeoWr: A Report of the Surgeort GeuenrL Atlanta. Georgia: U.S. Departtnent of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Office on Stnoking and Health.1994. lJ7 l0 Use of trade names is for ldent4fuation only and does not c....:titute endorsement by the Public ~ Health Service or the U5. DePartment of Health and Human Services. O1 AG0004083
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%V SECTION II I CU1tRD'R SMOICES ("TLS" TO Q. 6) (C1iLCK Q. 4 0T SCRLMING. IF THtRL IS NO FATHtR, SKIP TO Q. 533) 313. Aoes your father ks+ow that you saokei 523. Hov does (would) your fathe r teel about your s.okin&t (READ CHOICES) I Forr bid it I Stron=ly disapprove Mildly disapprove Se inditierent Approve [PONT ' READ Don't Kaov ~ L (C)LCK Q. 4 0F SCRLLNING. IT TltF.1 tE IS NO MOTHER, TERMINATE DELOW) S3D. Does your .other knov that you s.oke! r S4D. !bv does (would) your vother feel about your nokinit (READ CHQICLS) Forbid it StroftBly disapprove Mildly disapprove be inditlerent Approve DON' T READ ~ Don' t Know MONDLNf'S !M!Q VERIIT TLLt!lDNE t1UMOLR, RECORD DLLOw, TM TlJMTiATE. AREA CODL OQCMl1GL NtMER TRANK YOU VERY MifCR. IT'S DELN A PLEASURE TALKING TO YOU. 39- Ye. 0 I No i D. K. 60- 0 2 NO 1 62; 0 1 2 r 3 4 S
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.. ChiltoR Research Services . Study /9566 Ridnor, Peesnaylvania 19089 Decesber, 1973 MAIN QUESTION?1A21:E Sample • FOVRTH STUDY CIGARETTE SlUKINC /1MONC TEF.NJIGERS 6. Do you amoke citarettes nov' (1-S) Hello, I'• calling long distance from CRS In Phila. for the l.'. S. PtJaLIC HFA1.T1: SERVICE. We are talking to young people across the countrv abouc their feelings about cigarette smokin=; what_thev do about it and vhat they plan to do. Your answers will be kept strietlv confidential. anv in- formation you give us will be used only for research purposes. Neither you nor anyooe in your faailv will be identified in reroe•ing the results of our sur-VeY. ` ` t t"t Time In:. desan A . Tiwe .Int. Ended TEEJAGER 1. Have you evet smoked a ciRarette' ! SKIt To Q. 3 1 Yes 0 No ! 1 2. Have you ever tried or experimente with cigarette smoking, even a few puffa' d 7- Yes 1 0 SICIP TO Q. 17 ' No 3. When was the last time you s.-+ced cigarette (tried a cigarette)? a 7- One month or less 0 { DO YOT' 31 days to 6 months - , 6 sionths to 1 year .r~ More than 1 year More than 30 days but don't know hor long 2 3 4 4. (oesIT) ' s, 8ov old were you when tou first s.oked a cigarette? 8- (A`e) 9- 1 7. Have you smoked as many as S packs of ciRarettes in your lifetime? 11- o`E #6eS73151 Yes No S. About how often did you ssokc' (READ LIST) 12- CJD?R. Just abo+st every day 0 Every week 1 SKIP Every month 2 TO Q. 10 , Less often than ever,v month 3
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.. Tr+E SECRETARV os r+EALT.+ AwD rvuMArv SERViCES w.$«.«a?oF-- o c. tetei The Honorable Albert Gore, Jr. President of the Senate Washington, D.C. 20510 Dear Mr. President: It is my pleasure to transmit to the Congress the Surgeon General's report on the health consequences ot smoking entitled Preventina Tobacco Use Among Youna Pcoole. This report is mandated by section 8(a) of the Pu~'ic Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 tPublic Law 91-222) and includes the health effects of smokeless tobacco'products as mandated by section 8(a) of the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (Public_Law 99-252). The report was prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health. This report focuses on the vulnerable adolescent ages_of 10 through 18 when most users start smoking, cheaing, or dipping and become addicted to tobacco. It examines the health effects of early smoking and smokeless tobacco use, the reasons that young men and women begin using tobacco,-the extent to which they use it, and efforts to prevent tobacco use by young people. Smoking kills 434,000 Americans each year. Adolescent smoking and smokeless tobacco use are the first steps in this totally preventable public health tragedy. The facts are simple: one out of three adolescents*in the United States is using tobacco by age 18, adolescent users become adult users, and few people begin to use tobacco after age 18. Preventing young people from starting to use tobacco is the key to reducing the death and disease caused by tobacco use. This report documents that intervention programs targeting the broad social environment of adolescents are both effective and warranted. A great opportunity lies before us to prevent millions of premature deaths and improve the quality of lives. This report points out the overwhelming need in public health for efforts directed toward stopping young people before they start using tobacco. _ Donna E. Shalala Enclosure AG0004085 !
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. . ~- _ .._._~ F.1hIDtN_GS ALTHOUGH MOST STATES PROHIBIT THE SALE OF TOBACCO TO MIIdORS, THEIR FAILURE TO ENFORCE '1'F E1R LA WS WO UL.D P LACE 'T1MM OUT OF COMPLiANCE WTTH THE NEW FEDERAL LAW ALl bta tlrree Stacrs ban rls.e sale of tobaceo to nzinors under the age of !3 PL 102-321 requires States by October 1, 1994 to batt the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors under 18 years of age. All but three States have laws that ban the sale of tobacco to minors. %tontana is the only State without any law prohibiting the sale of tobacco products. Georgia prohibits sales to minors under 1? years of age rather than 13 and Yew Mc:oco only prohibits the sale of smokeless tobacco. (All other laws include both cigarettes and smokeless tobacco.) Three States (Georsia, Louisiana and Virginia) however, only add, ss the sale of tobacco products and not distribution. Since 1990. youth access legislation has been a dynamic area of chanFe: 33 States have enacted new legislation. States' youth access laws vary. Alabama. Alaska. and Utah prohibit tobacco sales to minors under 19. About two-thirds (36) of the States' laws are c:itninal: 13 States' laws are civil. California's law may be enforced as either a criminal law or a civil law. However, very few States (8) name a specific agency or orSanizatian to eZiorce the law. Enforcement is oftea placed. almost by default, with local police departments. A11 of the States with laws have fines as a penalty for violatin; the law. and 177 include jail. i.•fany of the States (29) require that signs be present at the point of sale. Thir,y-onK States require vendors of tobacco products to be licensed. Funher, 33 States make it illegal for minors to ptrchase tobacco products and 21 limit minors from possessing ..zobacco producu. Lastly, five States preempt localities from creating more stringent local ordinances that relate :o minors' access to tobacco products. (See AppendtV A for a summary of State law provisions.) Only two Swiea are enjorri.rtg rheir taws rrsaicring the sak to mirtars siaicwvl& State enforcement has not changed greatly since the previous 010 report, "Youth Access to Cigarettes." two years ago. Although States have laws, interviews with the State Tobacco Prevention and Control contacts indicate that 4S States-and Washington D.C. do not enforce their laws statewide. Respondents in seven of these States report enforcement is minimal and is conducted randomly nt the local lcvel; they cite only a handful of vendor violations. Florida and Vermont are the only States enforcing their laws statewide. Since 1990 Vermont is the only State that began enforcing youth access laws statewide. Both 460341 5
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6 S.w..F,vnsLsee Ese+wfwer. 'lusc Say No to Joe Camel. March 17.1992 Scripps N.•wl News Service. "Saurot wsnts Ban on RJR's 'Old Joa'" Ma:c.ti 20.1992 Se.ale PsrJueBlPenee>•. 'To Some. Cstoon Camel Ln't Foeoq; D.emmba 11.1991. p. 9 Snids. Mik.. "Doatots Turn Up The Hsac on Sa+oldoS.' USA TodeS. Daeembet 11. 1991. pp. 1-3D Stmdast Lo. 'Does Tims For Old Ioe To Become a No-Slaw: New York Pesh March 10, 199Z. ' p. 3 SJml/fe Xerfld4OYInIl. "Luin= Kids to Smoke: Tlu UAOool Sids of Joe Cuoe1" MateA 11.1992 fJS. News & World Report, "M Anti Smoking CaF& Heau Up: p. 14 Valoatame, Appel and 91 B lwsL "Ad ReeoSnitiot snd Resposs Se." lorrw.l ojAdrerdsinr Res.vek, (J~aur,1961)9p.13•21 ~ Vesey, SnsaanaJs. "Up In Smoke," Atlenta Censsitrtion, ("Peaeh Boa" eolumn) Mareh20. 1992 W.Q Ssestlonrw.l. 'Joe Camel Lt Also Pied Pipa. Reu:eh Finds.' December 11. 1991. pp. B 1 d: 84 Wama, Faa. "Novello Throws Down Gaandet" ~ AlWeek's Merkednt Week. March 16. 199Z p. 4 Wasma.. Hmry. "Tobaew Marketing: P4ofiuevit+S From Childtea." lournel of tlie Aeneriean Mdie.! Asseefaiee. D.nenber 11. 1991. vol. 266, ao. 22, pp. 31 iS•31 i6 Zuklo. Heisn E" "Btief F.xpwsvees." Indoor PelGuien L. Reror; August. 1992 Weirbintspw 7 bwes. "Camsls 'Old Joe' Creates Young Snwksn." letur Itotn Louis W. Sullivan and Maai: C. Novello. Ma:eh 30,1992, p. E2 ."Now All We Hend Lt Some Dats." August 4.1992. (editorial page) • AG0216007 j J
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Chapter 1 Introduction, Summary, and Chapter Conclusions Introduction 5 Development of the Report 5 Major Conclusions 5 Sumtnary 6 Introduction 6 Health Consequences of Tobacco Use Among Young People 6 The Epidemiology of Tobacco Use Among Young People 7 Efforts to Prevent the Onset of Tobacco Use 8 Summary 8 Chapter Conclusions 9 Chapter 2. The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use by Young People 9 Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Tobacco Use Among Young People in the United States 9 Chapter 4. Psychosocial Risk Factors for ltutiating Tobacco-Use 9 Chapter 5. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Activities 10 Chapter 6. Efforts to Prevent Tobacco Use Among Young People 10 References 11 0 A00004096 (
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Table 13. DYNAMICS OF SMDKINC (Con't) Distribution of Responses to Attitude Itens c1RlS SMOKERS Strongly Agree Mtldlr Agree Neither Agree Nor Otsagree M11dlr Disagree Strongir Disagree N N t t N t y 1 FACTOR S- Stereotype of Smoktng: Most girls start smoktnq c1qarettes to attract boys. 14 7.2 15 7.7 14 7.2 44 22.6 108 SS.4 Most boys star seoktny cl7arettes to try to becone 38 19.5 28 14.4 23 11.8 SO 25.6 S6 2e.1 more Ooor aT"F: If you don't srroke cigarettes, other teenagers put you dcwn. 11 S.6 It 8.7 8 4.1 26 13.3 133 68.' FACTOR 6- Stereotype of Smoker: Kids who smoke are show-offs. 22 11.3 34 1. 4 31 15.9 4S 23.1 63 32.3 Teenale smokers think they are grow~-uo. but they really 38 19.6 37 19.1 28 14.4 29 14.9 62 32.0 re . n t. enage smokers think t-ey look cool* bat they don't really. 32 26.8 43 22.2 24 12.4 22 11.3 S3 27.3 FACTOR 7 - ieeling Toward Authority: I feel good knowing I can turn to . my oartnts for advice. 113 51.9 29 14.9 ' 1S 7.7 1e 9.2 20 10.3 I wish I were older than I to now. (Rererse score) 41 24.1 24 12.3 11 S.6 34 17.4 79 43.5 A t2enaqer'sAoMla be able to do the things he wants to do when he wants to do teee'. (Reverse score) FACTOR a;- Control of Fvturo: 49 25.1 26 13.3 21 10.8 41 21.0 SS 29.7! I don't want to get Aooked on anything, lncludtng cigarettes. 97 49.7 34 17.4 26 13.3 23 11.5 is 7.7 I can control the kind of person I will becar. 111 56.9 39 20.0 19 9.7 12 6.2 14 7.2 1 do not rlnt to be jvst one of the crowd. 111 60.0 33 16.9 16 8.2 13 6.7 16 8.2 Lt6S TLLiS
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Foreword This Surgeon General's report on smoking and -health is the twenty-third in a series that was begun in 1964 and mandated by federal law in 1969. 'ihis report is the first in this series to focus on young people. It underscores the seriousness of tobacco use, its relationship to other adolescent problembehaviors, and the responsibility of all citizens to protect the health of our children. Since 1964, substantial changes have occurred in scientific knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Much more is also known about programs and policies that encourage nonsmoking behavior among adults and protect nonsmokers from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Although con- siderable gains have been made against smoking among US. adults. 'his progress has not been realized with young people. Onset rates of cigarette smoking among our youth have not declined over the past decade, and 28 percent of the nation's high school seniors are currently cigarette smokers. The onset of tobacco use occurs primarily in early adolescence, a developmental stage that is several decades removed from the death and disability that are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use in adulthood. Currently, very few people begin to use tobacco as adults; almost all first use has occurred by the time people graduate from high school. The earlier young people begin using tobacco, the more heavily they are likely to use it as adults, and the longer potential time they have to be users. Both the duration and the amount of tobacco use are related to eventual chronic health problems. The processes of nicotine addiction furlher ensure that many of today's adolescent smokers will regularly use tobacco when they are adults. Preventing smoking and smokeless tobacco use among young people is critical to ending the epidemic of tobacco use in the United States. This report examines the past few decades' extensive scientific literature on the factors that influence the onset of use among young people and on strategies to prevent this onset. To better understand adolescent tobacco use, this report draws not only on medical and epidemiologic research but also on behavioral and social investigations. The resulting examination of the advertising and promotional activities of the tobacco industry, as well as the review of research on the effects of these activities on young people, marks an important contribution to our understanding of the epidemic of tobacco use in the United States . and elsewhere. In particular, this research on the social environment of young people identifies key:isk factors that encourage tobacco iese. The careful targeting of these risk factors-on a communitywide basis-has proven successful in preventing the onset and development of tobacco use among young people. Philip R Lee, M.D. David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D. Assistant Secretary for Health Director Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AG0004086 i
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top State respondents freauer.cly cite a lack of co.:.;nunity awareness of youth ae~-ss anc~ smoking.~nd a lack o:lcmmitment to enforcing the laws as serious proble rns. Several believe that communities do not consider tob5cco and youth access importsnt issues. "We need an evolution of attitudes - the public has a general attitude that alcohol should not be sold to kids. The,v don't feel the sam: way about cigarettes." Several respondents report that the police vrill not enforce the law if the community is not supportive. One reports. '"Me community must motivate police to enforce youth access...the police will respond to this pressure." A few States also mention the lack of concern by vendors as a problem. State respondents report difficulties in convicting vendors. Several State respondents believe State legislative language is vague and causes difficulties in enforcing the law. Several States' laws contain the phrase, "to knowingly sell tobacco products to minors." Respondents claim this makes it difficvlt to convict vendors because vendors claim they did not know the person they sold to was underage. Further. judges are sometimes reluctant to convict clerks for selling cigarettes to minors. 'T7hey often dismiss the cases, believing the vendor should be penalized. not the clerk. Also. some judges dismiss violations issued as the result o. ...ndorn stings. considering the:n as entraptnent. C. DFSPITE LACK OF STATE EFFORTS, SOME I,OCALn7MS ARE DEMONSIRATING ENFORCE."vEM' IS POSSIDLE Based on our interviews with State respondents and experu and a iiterature rcview. we identified localities that enforce laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors and/or laws prohibiting the possession of tobacco by minors. In several instances State and Federal programs have encouraged localities, through grbnts and contracts, to enforce youth access laws. In other instances, individuals interested in the issue and grassroots groups have taken youth access on as their own cause. Some loca!ities have developed ccalitions, working together with advocacy groups and local health departments, to raise community aWareness and win the support of local merchants and police- As one local respondent comments "We needed to develop enforcement at the local level...there is no enforcement at-the State level and it is easier to enforce at the local levei " Regarding sale to minors laws. we identified S2 localities in 19 States that enforce these laws and have developed vaming models. AJI, however, enforce either State or local laws, dcsignate an agency responsible for enforcement, and choose a method of enforcing that best meets their needs. Some have conducted research to evaluate the effectiveness of their eKortt. The following are examples of how local models differ on these characteristia. 7)pc ojlow: Slightly more than half of the localities enforce State laws while the others have enacted and are enforcing local laws. Several localities enforce the State Ww 8 460344 ,t-.
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w THE SECAETApV oi MEA6TM AND HUMAN SfpVICES wAfraG~O+.O~tot0l The Honorable Thomas S. Foley Speaker of the House of Representatives Washington, D.C. 20515 ~ Dear Mr. Speaker: It is my pleasure to transmit to the Congress the Surgeon General's report on the health consequences of smoking entitled Preventina TobBcco Use Amona Young Peoale. This report is mandated by section 8(a) of the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 (Public Law 91-222) and includes the health effects of smokeless tobacco products as mandated by section 8(a) of the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (Public Le 99-252). The report was prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health. This report focuses on the vulnerable adolescent ages of 10 through 18 when most users start smoking, chewing, or dipping and become addicted to tobacco. It examines the health effects of early smoking and smokeless tobacco use, the reasons that young men and women begin using`tobacco, the extent to which they use it, and efforts to prevent tobacco use by young people. Smoking kills 434,000 Americans each year. Adolescent smoking and smokeless tobacco use are the first steps in this totally _ preventable public health tragedy.. The facts are simple: one out of three adolescents in the United States is using tobacco by age 18, adolescent users become adult users, and few people begin to use tobacco after age 18. Preventing young people from starting to use tobacco'is the key to reducing the death and disease caused by tobacco use. This report documents that intervention programs targeting the broad social environment of adolescents are both effective and warranted. A great opportunity lies before us to prevent millions of premature deaths and improve the quality of lives. This report points out the overwhelming need in public health for efforts directed toward stopping young people before they start using tobacco. • Enclosure AGG004084 , ,
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Preventing Tobacco Use AuiiongYoungPeople A Report of the Surgeon General US. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH MlD HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Secvice Cauers for Disease ConW and Prevendon Nstional Center for Chvonjc Disease Pteventbn and Health Pcomodon 0l6ce on Smoking Wd Health At30004105 ;
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•- i .. Preface from the Surgeon Gtiura!, U.S. aepartmnat of Health and Human Scrvices The public health movement against tobacco use will be successful when young people no longer want to smoke. We are not there yet. Despite 30 years of decline in overall smoking prevalence, despite widespread dissentination of information about smoking, despite a continuing decline in the social acceptability of smoking, substantial numbers of young men and women begin to smoke and become addicted. These current and future smokers are new recruits in the continuing epidemic of disease, disability, and death attributable to tobacco use. When young people no longer want to smoke, the epidemic itself will die. This report of the Surgeon General, Pnarnting Tobacco Use Among Young Peopit, delineates the problem in no uncertain terms. The direct effects of tobacco use on the health of young people have been greatly underestimated. The long-term effects are, of course, well established. The addictive nature of tobacco use is also well known, but it is perhaps less appreciated that early addiction is the chief mechanism for renewing the pool of smokers. Most people who are going to smoke are hooked by the time they are 20 years old. Young people face enormous pressures to smoke. The tobacco industry devotes an annual budget of nearly $4 billion to advertising and promoting cigarettes. As this report so well describes, there has been a continuing shift from advertising to promo- tion, largely because of banning cigarette ads from broadcast media. The effect of the ban is dubious, however, since the use of promotional materials, the sponsoring of sports events, and the use of logos in nontraditional venues may actually be more effective in reaching target audiences. Clearly, young people art being indoctrinated with tobacco promotion at a susceptible time in their lives. A misguided debate has arisen about whether tobacco promotion "auses" young people to smoke-misguided because single-source causation is probably.too simple an explanation for any social phenomenon. The more important issue is what effect tobacco promotion might have. Current research suggests that pervasive tobacco promotion has two major effects: - it creates the perception that mon people_astoke than actually do, and it provides a conduit between actual self-image and ideal self-image- in other words, smoking is made to look cool. Whether ausal or ao4 these effects foster the uptake of smoking, initiating for many a dismal and relentless chain of events. On the brighter side, a large pottion of this report is devoted to countervailing influences. We have the justification: there is a substantial scientific basis for primary prevention of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use.. A number of successful prevention pnograms, based on the psychological and behavioral factors that create susceptibility to smoking, aee available. We have the means: thereport defines a coordinated, effective, nonsmoking public health program &or young people. And we have the will: schools, communities, legislatures, and public opinion all tsstitfy to the. growing support for encouraging young people to avoid tobacco use. iii AG0004087 i
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~ Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young Peo `r w...swwta•r ...~w.~s cn ~ ~ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ~j 1-4 Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ~ National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion m ~ Office on Smoking and Health A(30004104 ,
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.. 6 %t Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People Chapter 1. Introduction, Summary, and Chapter Conclusions 3 Chapter 2. The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use by Young People 13 - Introduction 15 Health Consequences of Smoking Among Young People 25 Adult Health Implications of Smoking Among Young People 29 Nicdtine Addiction in Adolescence 30 ~imoking as a Risk Factor for Other Drug Use 34 Health Consequences of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Young People 39 Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Tobacco Use Among Young People in the United States 53 Introduction SS Cigarette Smoking Among Young People in the United States 58 Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Young People in the United States 95 Chapter 4. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Initiating Tobacco Use 221 Introduction 123 Initiation of Cigarette Smoking 124 Initiation of Smokeless Tobacco Use 140 Implications of Research for Preventing Tobacco Use: Modifying Psychosocial Risk 147 Chapter S. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Activities 157 The Role of Advertising and Promotion in the Marketing of Tobacco Products 159 A History of Cigarette Advertising to the Young 164 Historical Content Analyses of Cigarette Advertising 279 Promotional Efforts of the Tobacco Industry 785 Research on the Effects of Cigarette Advertising and Promotional Activities on Young People 188 _` Chapter 6. Efforts to Prevent Tobacco Use Among Young People 205 Iritroduction 209 Public Opinion About Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People 210 Educational Efforts to Prevent Tobacco Use Among Young People 216 Public Policies to Prevent Tobacco Use Among Young People 24S List of Tables and Figures 293 Glossary 297 Index 299 Ln ~ ~ ~ ~ aGOO04095 ;
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Table 12. OTUMICS OF S10RING 0tstribYtloe ef ResOeeses to Attitwe Itns sOTS Total StreMlr Agree Nildly AVw IleitMr Agree Nor 01u9rw N1101y t oisa~ra. StroMly oisasree N I N s_ I I ~1 1 ft[TOQ S• Stereettroe ef S.okiiy: lbst girls start s•otief cig.r.ttes to attract bqys. 200 16.3 2tS 1! 2 2S9 20.0 200 22.0 2A0 223 Nost Oaps star s•otiM cigarettes to try to Nca.e 439 31.5 330 2: 1 121 93 109 14.6 N4 IS.2 wort Oodr ar. If ~ doe't s•ote clgarettas, etAer teeneyers wt lror doMe. 207 16.3 ~191 15.2 99 7.5 21I 16.7 Sit 44.3 fAt10N i• Steraotfre ef S+eter: R/As .M s+eRe are sher-etts. faS 10.1 297 23.3 12S 9.0 17f 14.1 141 14.7 leens9e ssarers tAiM they are grvru-vp. !rt they r.ellr SK 44.4 303 27.1 141 11.5 121 10.0 132 10.3 arew't. Teewye saotert tluiet tAey teot ceot, but they Adn't really. 51.8 2e0 22.0 01 6.9 117 9.2 12f 10.1 fACTa 7• reeting Torarrl Artlaritp: t feei good tnortM 1 can twn to .y parents for aa.ice. elel 69.3 200 10.2 160 •.1 63 0.9 62 9.9 / visA I were older tAas I ar now. 1Rererse sclre) m 24.2 133 10.4 12S 9.0 '217 11.0 991 70.5 A teenager sbsrl• be Nit to do the thinys he wsts tR do 250 19.4 275 21.6 137 10.0 20f 22.4 927 2l.i wten Na wets to do tM.. (Re,rerse score) FACTOR 0- Cestrei ef Fet,ure: 1 eem•t ..nt to get haoter ee aowtAia9, Ircietins cl'arettes. 041 1.6 0S .2 S .s 3 .4 1 .2 • .: I I caM cestrrl the ttM of perse. t Yf11 Oeca.e. 779 $1.1 249 19.5 91. 7.1 iS 5.9 01 0.• 1 do nst raet t. Mjust ese et tAe crvr0. i2S 46.1 201 22.0 122 9.0 139 10.9 110 !.t £Z6S ZLL15 ior i
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Sterstorr Gwural'a Rrpor: J.!'. Peddicord, M.S., Computer Scientist, Office on Smoking and Health. tiational Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, Georgia. Richard Ray, Director of Computer Services, Circle Solutions, tnc. McLean, Virginia. John Robey, Word Processing Specialist, Circle Solutions, Inc.. McLean, Virginia. Kathleen L Schroeder, D.DS., Associate Professor of Oral Pathology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia. Maggie Shelby, Secretary, HCR Consulting Group, Atlanta, Georgia. Michael B. Siegel, M.D.. M.P.H., Epidemiologist, Office on Smoki.,d and Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. ' Renee E Sieving, MS.N., Doctoral Student. Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. x Michael J. Staufacker. M.P.H., Doctoral S:uden:, D:visa:I of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Un,%•ersirv oc Minnesota, Minneapolis. Minnesota. Scott L. Tomar, D.41.D., Dr.P.H.. Epidemiologist, Office on Smoking snd Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Traci L Toomey, M.P.H.. Doctoral Student, Division of Epidemiology. School of Public Health, University of MinlRsota, Mintieapolis. Minnesota. Laura Williams, Student, Northeast Ohio Universitv College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio. Rebecca B. Wolf, M.A., Program Analyst, Office of Program Planning and Evaluation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4tlanta, Georgia. Bao-Ping Zhu. Ph.D., ResearchScientist, Battelle Memorial lnstitute, Atlanta. Georgia. A00004094 '
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Suaeshd C3tation US. Dep.rtsnent oE Health and Hum.n Sertrim PrsaentiRt Tobr= tbe Mnnt Yaing P1evplc A RePfft aJ dlr Surrnon GeneraL At3anta. Gwt5ttt: US Deparatdmt of Health and Human Servioes,. Pubtie Health 5erviac, Centas for Dmau Control and Ptevettdon. Nax for Cltronie Dueau Pm%rantion and Health Ptomotion. Olfice on 5nnoidtt6 and For s.le by the Supaintendent of Donuaents, U.S. Government Printing O(lke. Washin6ton. D.C.. 204aZ. S/N 017-001-00491-0. Ln ~ ' v ~..~ Use of tr.de nanKS is for identifkstion ottiy and doei not constitute endotsement by the Public Health Service or the U.S. De~nttnatt of He.hh.nd Hunyn Ssrviees. v, ~o m ~ _AG0004106 ~
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~ft Flotida and Vermont dcsicnate ti:c state liquor control agency for this purpose. However. Florida's law is criminal and Vermont's is civiL In l7orida the Department of Business Regulations enforces tobacco as well as alcohol access laws. It conducts stings. observes buys. and responds to complaints from the public of venders selling to minors. rlkohol licensing fees in the past have funded these activities. However. recent legislation, effective January 1993. requires tobacco vendors to be licensed and their fees to be used to fund full-time tobacco enforcement staff. State respondents report it is easier to convict vendors in Florida by conducting a sting or a buy in response to a complaint because it establishes a predisoosition. Some judges consider random stings to be entrapment. Last vezr. Florida reported 22 violations. ' Vermont has onlv recently beyun enforcing its youth access law. The Department of Liquor Control enforces it statewide. Initially, the liquor agency sent signs. posters and license applications to retailers. Follow~ing this ca:;ipaign, a tean of 14 liquor control inspectors began making random unannounced visits twice a week to vendors. No violations have vet been renoned. Two other States. C; tah and South Dakota. enforce youth possession laws. ln 1991. Utah police and school monitors issued nearly 5.000 violations to minors, but only 30 to vendors. Similariv, in FY 1991 South Dakota police issued 53 violations to minors but onlv 3 to vendors. PL 103-331 does not.address youth possession. A jcw Scates arr f llr:dfrtg kxal inir:ativer to rt.drue youh peeess While not actually enforcing their State access laws. four States make funds available to localities interested in limiting youth access to tobacco. (Utah. California. North Dakota -and 'New Jersey). T?tree of them. Utah. Califomia. and New Jersey. encourage local initiatives to reduce youth access as part of broader tobacco education and control efforts. North Dakota makes grants specifiqll,v for youth necess. Further. Utah and California make grants to all counties while the other two States fund only select local sites. - Utab's Department of Health contracu with district health departments to conduct tobacco control and prevention activities. Districu choose from a number of different tobacco initiatives, ranging from youth access to worksitc smoking policies. Every district addresses youth access in some wdy. All twelve districts have extensive vendor education campaigns; :five districts educate law enforcement officers about the importance of the taw. Law enforcement and.'ur health depanmcnts conduct observed buys in six districts. In one district. W.v enforcement officials havc issued violations. California provides funding for local youth access initiatives. In 1933 California passed Proposition (Prop) 99, which ineressed the cigarette tax to 35 cents to fund anti-tobacco educatPon and control programs. Prop 99 created tobacco .460342
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f e Prr.~cr:tir:g Tobacco Use Among Young People Acknowledgments This report was prepared by the Department of Health and Human Services under the general direction of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Office on Smoking and Halth. David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Jeffrey P. Koplan. M.D., M.P.H.. Director, National Center- for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Richard B. Rothenberg, M.D.. M.P.H., Associate Director for Science. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Protnotion. Centers for Disease .Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Georgia. Michael P. Eriksen, Sc.D., Direc.... Jffice on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. T7te editors of tfte report were Chervl L Perry, Ph.D.. Senior Scientific Editor. Professof, Division of Epidemiology. School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minnapolis, Minnesota. Gayle Lloyd. M.A., Managing Editor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and I'revention, Atlanta, Georgia. Frededck L Hull, Ph.D..Techninl Editor, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Prontotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta. Georgia. Contrfbutins authors tuen David R Arday. M.D., M.P.H., Preventive Medicine Specialist.OfficeonSmoking and Health. National Center' for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Protnotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtLnta, Ge°rgis. - Dennis V. Ary. Ph.D.. Research Sdentist.Oregon Research Institute, and President. Oregon Center for Applied Scence. Eugene. Oregon. Michael Booth. PhD., Lecturer, Department of Public Health. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Dee Burton, Ph.D.. Associate Diteczor for Media Researc's. University of Illinois at Chicago Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois. Frank J. Chaloupka IV, Ph.D.. Assistant Proiessor, Department of Economics. The University of Illinois a: _Chicago, Chiago, Illinois. K. Michael Cummings. Ph.D.. M.P.H., Director, Smoking Control Program. Roswell Park Csncer Institute. New York State Department of Health, Buffalo, New York. Joseph R DiFranra, M.D., Director of Research, Fitchburg Family Practice Residency Program, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. RoselynP,yna Epps, M.D.v M.P,H.. Expert. National Cancer institute. National Institutesof Health. Bethesda. Maryland. )ean L. Fonter. Ph.D.. M.P.H., Associate Professor, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Gary A. Giovino. Ph.D., Chief, Epidemiology Branch. Office on Smoking and Health. National Center for : Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta,_ Georgia. • Elbert D. Giover, i'kDd Dinectoa Tobacco Research Center. _ Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center. West Virginia University School of Medicine/Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center. Morgantown.lNest Virginia. Jack E. Henttirtgfield, PhD., Chief, Clinical Pharmacology Btanch, Addiction Research Center. National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health. Baltimore. Maryland. Uoyd Johnston. Ph.D.. Program Director, Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan. Laura Kann. Ph.D., Chief. Surveillance Research Section. Division of Adolaoettt and School Health, National Center - for Chnonic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Georgia. R Monina IQevens. D.DS., M.P.H.. Epidemiologist.Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevent'ton, Atianta, Georgia. Edw--4 Uchtenstein. Ph.D.. Research $cientist. Oregon Research Institute. Eugene. Oregon. AGO0040s9
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.- . 4t TME SECRETA/1r Of MEALt.. AND MuMAN SEAViCES wAS.INGrOh.O-f. M01 The Honorable Thomas S. Foley Speaker of the House of Representatives Washington, D.C. 20515 Dear Mr. Speaker•: It is my pleasure to transmit to the Congress the Surgeon General's report on the health consequences of smoking entitled Preventin!„ Tobacco E3se AtnQgg Youao -eonle . This report is mandated by section 8 (a) of the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 (Public Law'91--222) and includes the health effects of smokeless tobacco products as mandated by section 8(a) of the Comprehensive SatCrkeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-252). The report was prepared by the Centers `-r Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health. This report focuses on the vulnerable adolescent ages of 10 through 18 when most users start smoking, chewing, or dipping-- and become addicted to tobacco. Zt examines the health effects of early smoking`and smokeless tobacco use, the reasons that young men and women begin.usiag tobacco, the extent to which they uae it, and efforts to prevent tobacco use by young people. Smoking kills 434,000 Americans each year. Adolescent smoking and smokeless tobacco use are the first steps in this totally preventable public health tragedy. The facts are simple: oae out of three adolescents in the United States is using tobacco by age 18, adoltacent users become adult users, and few people begin to use tobacco after age 18. Preventing young people from starting to use tobacco is the key to reduciag.the death and disease caused by tobacco use. This report documents that intervention programs targeting the broad social environment of adolescents are both effective and warranted. A great opportunity lies before us to prevent millions of premature deaths and improve the quality of lives. This report points out the overwhelming need in public health for efforts directed toward stopping young people before they start using tobacco. Enclosure AG0004107 j ,
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Prrvetttirtg Tobacco Use Among Young Peopte References L6 DE1'ARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. 77erlbattth corarnque,rtrs ojusing srnokelas toftacm. A npon of ttre .dtttory eanaritta to the Surteon Gerumt. US Department of Health and Human Servica. Public Health Services, National institutes ot Health NIH Publication No. ib-1SI4,1986. US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Tlxhrdthearrsequntou o/snrolcing: nitotintasQitt7ion. Artportol tlr Surgeat Gene+et,19td. US Department of Health and Hu- man Servkw. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Con- trol, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smokina and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) Oa4i06, 1988. t US DEPARTMEYT OF HEALTH A<v D H UMAN SERVICES. Reducinj• the hmtth conscquences ojs,no+ting: ?5 yerrs ol yrogrns• A nqvri o/tJx Suqmt Gcunsl. US Department of Health and Human Ser.vices, Public Health.Service. Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prewntion and'Health P_Mmotion.Offieean Serwking and Health. DHHS Publication No: (CDC) 69-64 11,1969. lrttroduction 11 I AG0004103 ;
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w The task is by no means easy. This report underseores the c+ommitment all of us must have to the health of young people in the United States. Substantial work xill be required to translate the justificstion, the aneuts, and the will into a world in which young people no longc want to smoke. I, for one, relish the task. M. Joycelyn Elders. M.D. Surjeon General AG0004111 ;
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%r Surgt= Gc+:cr3f'; Rt~.;r. Guv S. Parcel, Ph.D., Professor and Director. Center fur Steve Sussman, Ph.D., Associate P rofessor, Insti -.:te fa: HealthPromotionandResearchDevelopment,Utuversity Health Pro:notion and Disease Prevention Researc°, of Texas Health Science Center, Houston. Texas. University of Southern California, Alhambra, Calif a.^ia: Joseph Pattason, Director of Government Relations and Ira B. Tager, M.D.. Professorof Epidemiology. Univxrsirv Soebal Projects, ArnericutCancer5ocery, Atlanta,Geotgia: of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health. Berkeley. Terry F. Pechacek. Ph.D.. Associate Professor, School of California. Larry Watlack, Dr. P.H., 1'rofessor. School of Public Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State Universiry of New York. Buffalo, New York. Health, University of California at Berkeley. Berkeley. Michael Pertschuk, J.D.. Co-Director, The Advocacy California. Institute. Washington. D.C. Kenneth E. Warner. Ph.D., Professor, and Chair. John P. Pierce, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Head, Department of Public Health 1'oliry and Administration, Cancer Prevention and Control, Univetsity of California, School of Public Health, University of Michigan;'Ann Arbor , Michigan San Diego, California. JohnM.Pinney,ChiefExecutiveOfficer,CorporateHealth Jeffrey Wassertnan, PhD.. Associate Director, Health Poiicies Group, Bethesda, Maryland. Policy Research.`SysteMetrics, Santa Barbara, California. Patrick Remington, M.D., State Medical Officer and Scott T. Weiss, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Epiderttiologist, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Section, Wisconsin De rtment of Health and Social Vborstory, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and i Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Wi di p n •i `f S so n, s n. en ces. a sco John W. Richards, Jr.. M.D., Associate Editor, /ournal of Fmnily Prtrctice, Augusts, Georgia. Julius Richmond, M.D.. John D. McArthur Professor of Health Policy Emeritus. Harv ard Med ical School, Boston. 'N'tassachusetts. Nancy A. Rigotti. M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Associate Director,Quit Smoking Service. Massachusetts .General Hospital. Boston, Massachusetts. Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., Professor of Medicine, University of New Mexico, School of.Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Thomas C. Schelling, Ph.D.. Distinguished Professor of Economia and Public Atfairs, Depamnent of Economics/ School of Public Affairs. University of Maryland, College Park. Maryland. Russell Sdandra, M.A. Project Manager. American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention. New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York Donald R. Shopland. Coordinator, Smoking and Tobacco Control Progtam, National Cancer Institute. National lnstitutes of Health. Bethesda, Maryland. Vivian L Smith, MS.W., Acting Din:ctor, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, Maryland. Jesse Steinfeld. M.D..SurgeonGeneral, US. Public Health Se^vice,1969-19T3, San Diego, California. Judith Wilkenfeld, J.D., Assistant Director. Division of Advertising Practices, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C.. Deborah M. Winn. Ph.D., ChieL Analytical Studies and Decision Systentis Branch. Epidetaology and Oral Disease Prevention Program. National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, Maryland. Ernst L. Wynder. M.D., President, American Health Foundation, New York, New York. Other contributors were Deborah Anker. M.A., Graphic Artist, Circle Solutions. Inc.. McLean, Virginia. Victoria Agee, M:L.S., Agee Indexing Services, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Kelly L. Byrne. Word Processing Specialist, Circle Solutions,lnc.;McLean. Virginia. Michele Chang. Special Assistant to the Director, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chroric Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlsnta, Georgia. Jeffrey H. Chrismon,ComputerProgrammer.TheOrkand Corporation, Atlanta. Georgia. Anita Cowan, M.LS.. Director, lnformation Systems and Services Gmup, CinJe Solutions, Inc.. McLean, Virginia.' I AG0004092 7 ~ ----_ ~
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w Sutgeor; Genrra!"s Re,^cr: 0 Marc Manley. M.D., M.P.H., Chief. Public Health Applications Research Branch, National Cancertnstitute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Robert K. Merritt, M.A., Behavioral Scientist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, Georgia. David E Nelson. M.D., M.RH., Medical Epidemiologist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtJanta, Georgia. Donald Nutbeam. Ph.D.. Professor, Department of Public Health, University of Sydney. Sydney, Australia. Mario Orlandi, Ph.D., M.P.H., ChieL Division of Health Promotion Research. American Health Foundation, New York. New York. Cheryl L. Perry, Ph.D., Professor, Division of Epidemiology. School of Public Healt' "niversity of Minnesota. Minneapolis. Minnesota. Richard W. Potlay. Ph.D., Professor of Marketing and Curator, History of Advertising Archives, Faculty of Cotnmerce. University of British Columbia, Vatxouver. British Columbia. Edward T. Popper, D.B.A., Professor of Business Administrationand Marketing. Dean. School of Business and Professional Studies, Aurora University, Aurora. Illinois. Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., Professor of Medicine. University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. Albuquerque, New Mexico. Herbert H. Severson, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon. Dana M. Shelton. M.P.H.V Epidemiologist, Office on Smoking and Health. National Center forChronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtLnta, Georgia. Charles W: Warren, Ph.D.. Sociologist. Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Georgia. John K Worden. Pti.D.. Research Professor. Department of Family Practice and Office of Health Promotion Research. University of Vermont, Burlington, Vetmont Reviewen were David G. Altaun. Ph.D., Senior Resear:h Scientisc, Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calirornia. - Karl E. Bauman. Ph.D.. Professor. Department of Health Behavior and Health Eduodon. School of Public Health. Universiryof NorthCarolina.Chapel Hill. North Carolina. Richard F. Beltratnini, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Arizona State University. Tempe, Arizona. Glen Bennett, M.RH., Coordinstor, Smoking Education Program, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Neal Benowitz, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Universiry of Califocnia at San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Gilbert J. Botvin. Ph.D.. Profesaor.and Director, Institute for Prevention Rest*arch, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York. Robert G. Brubaker, Ph.D.. Professor, Department of Psychology. Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky. David M. Burns, M.D., Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School af Medicine. San Diego. California. Laurie Chassin. PILD., Professor. Arizona State University, Department of Psychology. Tempe, Arizona. Arden G. Chtisten, D.DS.. Professor of Oral Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry. lndianapolit. Indiana. Robert J. Coilitu, D.M.D.. M.P.H.. Chief Dental Officer, Public Health Service. Indian Health Service. Rockville, Maryland. Gregory Connolly. D.M.D.. M.P.H., Director, Mass.chtnelts Tobacco Control Progra m, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bostort, Massachusetts. K. Michael Cummings. Ph.D.. M.P.H.. Director,Smoking ' Control Program. RosweU Park Cancer Institute. New- York State Department of Health. Buffab, New York. Dorynne J. Czechowia„ M.D., Associate Director for Medical and Professional Affairs. Divition,of Clinical Research. National Institute-on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health. Rockville. Maryland. . Michael M. Daube, Public Service Commission. Perth. Australia. tri AGOOOaoso ; ,
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ti control prognms throughout the State by funding countv'health depar.me:;ts. non profit organizztions and schools. These programs include prevention educntion. cessation and policy initiatives. Many of the programs carset youth among other groups. Prop 99 funds two projects spccific.zlly to reduce vouth access. STAMP. Stop Tobacco•Access to Minors Project and TRL:ST. Tc_ns and Retailers United co Stop Tobacco. So far, TRUST has conducted merchant education, while STAuMP has more actively enforced vouth access. In conjunction with STANtP. three communities in Solano Countv, conduct regular stings and Issue violations. STANtP also conducts merchant and community education campaiens and underage buy surveys In si.c counties. Three counties are currently esploring civil prosecution of vendors who have repeatedly sold tu minors. A study by the University of San Diego suggests that the anti-smokin, carapaign has contributed to a 17 percent decline in smoking from 1987 to 1990. New Jersey makes youth smoking prevention grants to localities. Tne State Health Departrr-at issued eight three-year gmnts to local health departments to encourage innovative education and youth cessation programs. ~lost of the communities receiving grants focus o- -ducating vendors. Some local health departments visit vendors to inform them of the State law and to encoura;. them to voluntariiy comply. However, one community also uses the grant to conduct observed buys and sting