Jump to:

Industry-Provided Depositions

State of Florida, Et Al. Vs. American Tobacco Company, Et Al. Deposition of: Agustus M. Burns, III.

Date: 09 May 1997
Length: 1006 pages
Jump To Images
snapshot_rjr 516036702-516037707

User-Contributed Notes


Minnesota Selected
Burns, A.M. III
Date Loaded
27 Feb 1998

Document Images

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size:

Page 1: rhz82d00
3 1 (Appearances continued.) 2 3 ON BEHALF OF THE DEFENDANT (R.J. REYNOLDS): 4 ELIZABETH P. KESSLER, ESQ. 5 Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue 6 1900 Huntington Center 7 Columbus, Ohio 43215 8 (614) 469-3852 9 10 ON BEHALF OF THE DEFENDANT (UST, INC.; 11 U.S. TOBACCO COMPANY); 12 ERIC S. SARNER, ESQ. 13 Skadden, Arps, Slate, 14 Meagher & Flom, L.L.P. 15 919 Third Avenue 16 New York, New York 10022-3897 17 (212) 735-3000 18 . 19 ALSO PRESENT: 20 Steve Hosford, Videographer 21 22 (Index appears following the transcript.) 2 3 cn ~ 24 m w 25 J m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 2: rhz82d00
1 $1,000 Alexander Hamilton Bicentennial Fellowship 2 Scholarship as a result of debate activities in 3 high school. 4 Q. Did your -- what sort of business 5 or work were your parents in? 6 A. My father was an attorney and my, 77 mother was a schoolteacher. 8 Q. What sort of work as a lawyer in 9 terms of clientele do you know that your father 10 had? 11 A. He was a small town general 12 practitioner. He did a lot of trial work. He was 13 at some part of his legal career the county 14 solicitor or the prosecuting attorney for the 15 county. He did work as the city attorney for the 16 town of Roxboro. 17 Q. How long were you there in 18 Winston-Salem? 19 A. I graduated from Wake Forest in 20 June 1961. 21 Q. After that was there any other 22 scholarship that you had? 23 A. No. Well, I got some assistance to 24 be a student grading assistant as a senior. 25 Q. From the university? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 3: rhz82d00
1 MR. MIKHAIL: I'm Charles Mikhail, 2 also counsel for the` State of 'Florida. 3 MR. LOCKMANs Steve Lockman of 4 Arnold & Porter, counsel for Philip Morris. S MS. KESSLER: Elizabeth Kessler of Jones Day and counsel for R.J. Reynolds. 7 MR. LEMLEY: Charles Lemley, Arnold 8 & Porter, counsel for Philip Morris. 9 MR. SARNER: Eric Sarner from 10 11 Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom. MR. LOCKMAN: The usual 12 stipulations and rules that have been in effect in 13 the depositions, Mr. Hogan? 14 MR. HOGAN : -They a:re. 15 EXAMINATION 16 BY MR. HOGAN.: 17 Q. Tell us a little bit about where 18 ? you grew up 19 A. I was born.in Roxboro, North 20 Carolina and grew up there,-spent all of my young 21 years in that town. 22 Q. Go to high school there? 23 A. I went to high school there, yes. 24 Q. Where did you go to undergraduate, 25 college? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOC'ZATES
Page 4: rhz82d00
1 time was the controlling agency for Wake Forest. 2 It no longer is. 3 Wake Forest was an institution at 4 the time which was beleaguered'financinlly, 5 although it had a rich intellectual history. And 6 they accepted the terms of the proposail by the 7 Reynolds and the Babcocks 'in Winston-Salem -- 8 Q. Were the Babcocks part of the 9 Reynolds family? 10 A. Yes. 11 -- to relocate the institution 120 12 miles west. essentially from Wake Forest, North 13 Carolina which is 15 miles outside of Raleigh more 14 in the eastern part of the state to 15 Winston-Salem. 16 Q. And it moved there the year before 17 you started school? 18 A. It moved there in 1956, yes. 19 Q. Did you have any scholarships that 20 you received when you were in''school 21 undergraduate? 22 A. Yes, I did. 23 Q. Ln What were the source of those ! F, am 24 scholarships, if you recall? m w ~ 25 A I do recall I had been awarded a ~ . . m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 5: rhz82d00
6 1 A. What was then Wake Forest College 2 which is now Wake Forest University in 3 Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 4 Q. Was it located in Winston-Salem at 5 that time? 7 A. Q. It was, yes. When was it moved to.the -- 8 A. The first year that I enrolled in 9 1956 -- excuse me, 1957, the fall of 1957 it had 10 just moved from Wake Forest, North Carolina to its 11 new home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 12 Q. Do you know something about the 13 history of Wake Forest College? 14 A. Yes. 15 Q. Is it called Wake Forest University 16 now? 17 A. It is now, yes.- 18 Q. What's the history of its move from 19 its original location to Winston-Salem? 20 A. It was the outgrowth of an offer 21 from the Reynolds tobacco heirs in Winston-Salem 22 who were eager to have a major university -- cn ~ 23 university located in Winston-Salem. ON m 24 (A) And so they approached the North ~ ~ 25 Carolina Baptist State Convention which at the i m 1 00 A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 6: rhz82d00
1 1 IN THE CIRCUIT COURT FIFTEENTH JUDICIAL COURT 2 IN AND FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY,''FLORIDA 3 4 STATE OF FLORIDA, et al.. ) 5 Plaintiffs, ) 6 vs. ) CL 95 1466AH 7 AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANY, et al., ) 8 Defendants. ) 9 10 ~ 11 12 DEPOSITION OF: AUGUSTUS M. BURNS, III, Ph.D. 13 DATE: Friday, May 9, 1997 14 TIME: 9:09 A.M 15 LOCATION: ANA Hotel 16 2401 M Stree t, N.W. 17 Washington, D.C. 18 TAKEN BY: Counsel for the Plaintiffs 19 REPORTED BY: Doreen M. Dotzler 20 21 22 VIDEOTAPE 23 _ ; cn ~ 24 _ m , I w 25 m ~ m N A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.`, & ASSOCIATES ...~; J
Page 7: rhz82d00
10 1 Q. And you stopped in 1962? 2 A. I stopped in 1962. 3 Q. At what rate did you smoke up until 4 1962? 5 A. Ten cigarettes a day. 6 Q. What brand were';you- smoking? 7 A. I don't remember. 8 Q. Do you recall whether they were 9 Reynolds brand? 10 A. No, I really don't. 11 Q. You don't recall whet•her they were 12 Winstons or Salems? 13 A. I never did like menthol 14 cigarettes. 15 Q. So whatever it was, i,t wasn't 16 menthol cigarettes.. 17 After you left Wake Forest, where 18 did you go for schooling? 19 A. I went to Duke University. 20 Q. How long were you there? 21 A. I was there for two years. 22 Q. Did you have any scholarships, 23 funding support for your time there at Duke? Ln ~ 24 A m m Yes 25 . Q. . w What sources? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.; & ASSOCIATES
Page 8: rhz82d00
15 1 sophisticated method of research, more keen 2 analytical skills and an understanding that 3 historical research is painstaking, laborious and 4 demanding. 5 Q. After you were at Duke -- where is 6 that? 7 A. That's in Durham. 8 Q. In North Carolina? 9 A. In North Carolina. 10 Q. What was the original funding li source for Duke? 12 A. It was originally a Methodist 13 institution called Trinity College. 14 Q. And it's original funding source? 15 A. From the Methodist Church. 16 Q. And after that? 17 A. After that it was transformed by a 18 major grant from James Buchanan Duke.' 19 Q. Do you know what business he was 20 in? 21 A. I do indeed. 22 Q. What business was he in? 23 A. The cigarette business. 24 Q. Do you know what'company he was 25 involved in? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 9: rhz82d00
13 1 Q. Principally? 2 A. And the Reynolds heirs. 3 Q. Your answer a minute ago was 4 specific reference to what you fellows talked 5 about at the fraternity.house as to why you stopped smoking. Was there any other health 7 concern that you had about'cigarette smoking in 8 1962? 9 A. I was aware that they stained my 10 teeth. I was aware that they kept a bad taste in 11 my mouth. I was aware that they cut my wind. And 12 I was aware that as a general p.roposition there 13 was probably some risk associated with the use of 14 tobacco products. 15 Q. The time when you wer e there at 16 Winston-Salem, what were you studyin g? 17 A. I majored in history as an 18 undergraduate. 19 Q. In majoring in histor y, what did 20 you learn as the basics of history, the work of a 21 historian? What did you learn the'm to be? 22 A. well, we learned how to write and 23 do basic research as undergraduate history majors Ln ~ m 24 at Wake Forest. We learned of the necessity of m w 25 performing the basic researCh,skilis that ~ Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 10: rhz82d00
12 1 Q. What health concerns did you have 2 that you stopped smoking in 1962? 3 A. Well, as an undergraduate the 4 common term we used to identify cigarettes in the 5 fraternity and across the campus was cancer 6 sticks. 7 Q. This was when you,were there going 8 to school in Winston-Salem? 9 A. Yes. 10 Q. And the common term that you were 11 using was cancer sticks?, 12 A. Yes. 13 Q. At a university the original. 14 support for which and the offer to'come there was 15 from the R.J. Reynolds family? 16 A. No. The notion that -- the idea 17 that R.J. Reynolds was central to the life of the 18 campus is I think incor.re'ct. 19 Q. I didn't --youu may have 20 interpreted the question as implying more than it 21 did. 22 A. I'm sorry. 23 Q. But that was at that campus that Ln FA m 24 m had been built and supported by R.J. Reynolds? w 25 A. m In part. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., 6 ASSOCIATES
Page 11: rhz82d00
4 1 P R 0 C E E D I. N G~S 2 3 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are now on 4 the videotape record. The time is 9:09, May 8, 5 1997. 6 This is the beginning of tape 1 in 7 the deposition of Augustus M. Burns in the matter 8 of State of Florida versus American Tobacco 9 Company. 10 This deposition is being held at 11 the ANA Hotel, 2401 M Street, Washington, D.C. 12 The videographer is Steve Hosford. This, 13 deposition is being videotaped by Legal Video 14 Services located at 1431 Center Street, Oakland, 15 California. 16 Counsel. 17 MR. HOGAN: I'm Wayne Hogan for the 18 State of Florida and plaintiffs in this action. 19 Whereupon -- 20 AUGUSTUS M. BURNS, III, Ph.D. 21 A witness, called for examination, having been 22 first duly sworn, was examined and testified as 23 follows: 24 MR. LOCKMAN: Should each of the 25 others identify ourselves for the record. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 12: rhz82d00
14 1 historians nurture in order to do their work. 2 Q. And apart from that are there any 3 other basics of learning to be a historian other 4 than basic research skills? 5 A. You learn how to deal with massive 6 amounts of material as,your work continues as a 7 student in history. You learn how to interpret 8 source materials. You learn how to find source 9 materials. You learn how to use library 10 archives. You learn how to interpret documents. 11 How to identify documents in the historical 12 context in which they originate. You learn the 13 importance of understanding historians' points of 14 view and historians' methods of organizing and 15 presenting complicated and sometimes difficult 16 material. You learn the importance of the element 17 of time in history or of time in learning. 18 Q. In follow-up study when you were -- 19 when you moved from Wake Forest at Winston-Salem 20 to Duke, what was it that you learned further 21 about the role of a histo'rian,,what the basics are 22 of what a historian does? 23 A. The work at Duke required a more un 24 sophisticated analytical framework''"to interpret 25 and understand historical materials. A more ~ m m w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 13: rhz82d00
1 8$ P E A R A N„C E S 2 ON BEHALF OF THE PLAINTIFFS:' 3 WAYNE HOGAN, ESQ. 4 Brown, Terrell, Hogan, Ellis,.-McClamma & 5 Yegelwel, P.A. 6 233 Bay Street, Eighth Floor Street 7 Jacksonville, Florida 32202 8 (904) 632-2424 9 -- and -- 10 CHARLES J. MIKHAIL, ESQ. 11 Scruggs Law Firm 12 P.O. Drawer 1425 13 Pascagoula, Mississippi 39568 14 (601) 762-6068 15 16 ON BEHALF OF THE DEFENDANT (PHILIP MORRIS): 17 STEVEN P. LOCKMAN, ESQ. 18 CHARLES LEMLEYs ESQ. 19 Arnold & Porter 20 555 Twelfth Street, N.W. 21 Washington, D.C. 20004-1202 22 (202) 9 4 2 - 5 9 9 9 24 (Appearances continued.on next page.) m w m w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,, & ASSOCIATES
Page 14: rhz82d00
17 1 familiar with the fact that there has been a 2 rejoining of the -- a rejoining of'the British 3 American Tobacco Company with the American Tobacco 4 Company? A. I'm not. 6 Q. And as parents of, Brown &' 7 Williamson? 8 A. I'm not. 9 Q. Have you met with lawyers in 10 case for American Tobacco Company or Brown 11 Williamson? this 12 A. Perhaps. 'I'm not sure which 13 companies they represented,`the attorneys that 14 I've met, except some of the people.with whom I've 15 worked more closely. 16 Q. Have you worked more closely than 17 say with Brown & Williamson lawyers with lawyers 18 for R.J. Reynolds? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. And Philip Morris? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. Do you know whet.her you have'been 23 wo'rking with and met lawyers in the course of the 24 State of Florida's case against the cigarette 25 industry representing BAT or British American A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 15: rhz82d00
19 1 at Winston-Salem, Wake Forest University and then 2 at Duke? 3 A. That was part of my active training 4 at Chapel Hill, yes. 5 Q. Was there anything that was new to 6 you from the standpoint of the kinds of skills or 7 9 basics that you would need in order to undertake the work of a historian? A. The research demands at_this 10 program at Chapel Hill were much more intense.` We 11 wrote many more papers. We worked.a lot more on 12 original source materials, and we read an 13 incredible volume of published works. 14 Q. So there was more in the direct 15 opportunity when you were studying there at the 16 University of North Carolina for your access to 17 and.use of original source materials for research 18 than you had experienced in the two previous -- 19 A. Well, at that level you do what we 20 call multi-archival research. You work in 21 archives wherever the subject in which you are 22 interested require you to go. 23 Q. During the time that you were at 24 the University of North Carolina, did you have any 25 scholarships that supported you? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCTATES
Page 16: rhz82d00
16 1 A. He formed the American Tobacco 2 Company. He is the entrepreneur who created the 3 American Tobacco Company. 4 Q. How long was it that --`you know 5 something about the history related to that. How 6 long was it? 7 A. Until 1911. 8 Q. And in 1911, what happened to his 9 holding of the American Tobacco Company? " 10 A. By government decree, the trust was 11 divided. 12 Q. And did he continue to retain part 13 of the American Tobacco Company at that point? 14 A. He did. 15 Q. And kept the American version of 16 that? 17 A. That's right. 18 Q. And what happened to the other part 19 of it? 20 A. It was divided into other 21 companies. 22 Q. And did it at some point become the 23 British American Tobacco Company? . u, 24 A. It did. ~ m 25 Q. And then in recent times are you ai -j 00 A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 17: rhz82d00
28 1 uniformly applied. Historians vary in what they 2 mean by the use of the term "objective." And 3 there is no universally agreed meaning for that 4 term. 5 Q. For the term "objectivity"? 6 A. That's right. 7 Q. Is it -- are you a member of 8 various professional organizations apart from the 9 university community? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. What professional organizations are 12 you a member of? 13 A. The Southern Historical 14 Association. The Florida Historical Association. , 15 Or the Florida Historical Society, to be correct. 16 And the St. George Tucker Society. 17 Q. Which -- 18 A. Which is an association of southern 19 historians. 20 Q. Any other professional 21 organizations you're a member of? 22 A. Not currently. 23 Q. You have been at some point a 24 member of some other professional organizations? 25 A. At some point I was a member of the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 18: rhz82d00
21 1 Q. Let me go back and aik you about a 2 few points of learning that you discus`sed earlier 3 about the basics of a historian. You talked about 4 identifying documents, finding research -- finding S documents. When you say documents, what do you 6 mean? 7 A. Any written record from the past is 8 a document. 9 Q. Would that include the writings of 10 others who had gone before and studied a 11 particular subject? 12 A. It could. 13 Q. Would it include -- what else would 14 it include? What types of materials? 15 A. Government publications. Letters, 16 papers, diaries. Memoirs. 17 Q. Written by the people involved in 18 the events themselves? 19 A. Unpublished source materials 20 primarily. 21 Q. How would you gain access to these 22 unpublished source materials? 23 A. Most.of them are housed in archives 24 in manuscript collections that are found usually 25 in research libraries or in places like the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 19: rhz82d00
9 1 A. From the university. 2 Q. What was the principal source of 3 funding for the university during those period of 4 years that you were there? 6 A. tuition. The principal source of funding was 7 Q. Was there funding at the university, that Wake Forest was receiving during 9 that period of time from the R.J. Reynolds 10 family? 11 A. I really don't know. 12 Q. What you do know is that the 13 facility was built by the R.J. Reynolds family? 14 A. It was built with the assistance of 15 the R.J. Reynolds family. There was a wide range 16 of sources that contributed to the support of the 17 institution. 18 Q. And then during that period of time 19 when you were in college -- let me ask you this. 20 Were you yourself.a cigarette smoker? 21 A. I was an occasional cigarette 22 smoker in college. 23 Q. And how long did you remain a ~, ~ 24 cigarette smoker? m w 25 Until 1962 A ~ . . ~ N ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 20: rhz82d00
27 1 historical context. 2 And so you have to understand that 3 a history of the Civil War that is written in 1875 4 may be a very different volume of the Civil War 5 than a history written in 1975. 6 Q. And that relates to the matter of the historian's point of view? 8 A. And the time difference, yes. 9 Q. How is it affected by the time 10 difference? 11 A. Well, interpretations change. 12 Historians change their focus about what is 13 important in specific historical events as time 14 changes perspective. 15 Q. What does it mean'in terms of point 16 of view or are those two the same? 17 A. One is influenced by the other. 18 Q. You mentioned the question of 19 objectivity. That is a point of some importance 20 in the field of history? 21 A. It is to me. 22 Q. Is it something which is the 23 subject of rules, so to speak, that apply to the Ln ~ m 24 field of being a historian? w m 25 A. There are rules. They are not J N l0 A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 21: rhz82d00
31 1 there is a set of recognizable universal 2 standards. 3 Q. Who was Dr. Frank? 4 A. Frank Porter Graham was the 6 president of the University of North Carolina from 1931 to 1949 when he left that position to accept 7 employment to the United States Senate. 8 Q. Have you done some work related to Frank Porter Graham? 10 A. I have done extensive work, yes. 11 Q. Have you done that in conjunction 12 with someone else? 13 A. Yes. 14 Q. Who is that? 15 A. A colleague named Julian 16 Pleasants. 17 Q. He is also at the University of 18 Florida? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. Originally from North Carolina? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. f Where did he take his training? 23 A. At Chapel Hill. 24 Q. University of North Carolina? 25 A. Yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 22: rhz82d00
1 2 3 4 ources? A. Q. A. 20 Yes. Where were they from; what They were,from the department of 5 history at Chapel Hill. 6 Q. You had applied:for and received 7 scholarship from the department of history? A. They were grants for which I 9 performed some services. And in exchange for 10 those services I was given financial assistance. 11 Q. Did you do any work<outside of the 12 university setting during the time that you were 13 there at the University of North Carolina? 14 A. I did some part-time work of 15 various endeavors. 16 Q.. What time frame was it -that you 17 were at the University of North Carolina? 18 A. 1963 to 1967. 19 Q. And did you have a dissertation 20 A. I did. 21 Q. -- that you did. And what was 22 that? 11 23 A. My dissertation topic was Race 24 Relations in North Carolina From the New Deal to 25 the Brown Decision, 1930 to 1954. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 23: rhz82d00
30 1 should approach that work? . 2 A. No. This is a subject that has 3 been under intense discussion, but so far it has 4 not concluded in any set of specific guidelines. 5 Q. So in that sense what is it that 6 operates as a form or guideline for persons out 7 there in the public to be able to rely on the 8 objectivity of historians? 9 A. The first guide is the scholarly 10 evidence that an author presents in published 11 material that is supporting documentation for the 12 record as it is presented in any piece of work. 13 Q. Anything else? 14 A. The process of review by other 15 historians who read each other's work and comment 16 upon them in various periodicals. 17 The discussions that occur at 18 professional meetings, informal exchanges, all of 19 which is a fairly intense process and a fairly 20 active process. 21 Q. But nothing that is formalized in 22 terms of a code or rules or regulations of 23 professional conduct? 24 A. No. The •t.rend in fact has been in 25 the other direction, away from agreement that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 24: rhz82d00
36 1 My question is in the approximately 2 20 years between the time of the race in 1950 and 3 the publication or the writing of your 4 dissertation and Pleasants, dissertation, had 5 there been other work done by p eople who were 6 studying the field of history or wer.e historians 7 in the in between time? 8 A. There had been somework done. 9 Q. Was there anything new that you 10 felt that your dissertation added to the question 11 of the -- related to the 1950 Senate race that was 12 anything different than what was already in the 13 work of other people involved in history or 14 historians? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. What different,perspective were you 17 able to bring to it and did you bring to it with 18 your dissertation? 19 A. We are distinguishing it between 20 the dissertation and the book? 21 Q. Yes. 22 A. The perspective I'think,I provided 23 was a fuller understanding of the racial 24 implications of that campaign and what it told us 25 about the changing nature of race relations in A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, ,?R., & ASSOCIATES
Page 25: rhz82d00
11 1 A. Excuse me. I was on * Ford Foundation grant to 3 pursue a master of arts in a teaching degree at 4 Duke. 5 Q. And that was the focus of,your 6 study there, teaching? 7 9 A. Education and history. And as part of my -- the conditions of that grant, I was also a secondary schoolteacher, 7th and'8th grade 10 schoolteacher in Burlington,.North Carolina. We 11 would matriculate to Duke in the summer time and 12 13 14 once a week three hours the regular each night -- one night a week for I taught a single class during each sessions. of 15 Q. So for employment`as a'side 16 supplement for money f or school, that is what you 17 did? 18 A. It was part of the grant that we 19 would -- that we would essentially practice teach 20 for a year, but we would be full time faculty 21 members of the schools where we were teaGhing. 22 Q. When you stopped smoking, why was 23 it that you stopped smoking cigarettes in or cn 24 around 1962? m m 25 A. w Because of health concerns. ~ w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,& ASSOCIATES
Page 26: rhz82d00
26 1 research assignment. Historians, if they are 2 careful historians, try to be'thorough. But they 3 have to be thorough with the focus in mind of the 4 research assignment that is their'specific 5 objective. 6 You cannot know everything about 7 everything. 8 Q. So in that sense you may engage in 9 a particular project where you have a specific 10 objective, and that then because of the 11 limitations of time -- but are there other factors 12 that would cause you to limit whnt' you would look 13 at? 14 A. The sheer volume of material. 15 Q. One of the things that you said 16 that you would learn when learning'about the 17 basics of history would be understanding the 18 points of view of authors, and what did you mean 19 by that? 20 A. Historians -- historians write 21 history through the process of interpreting 22 documents and materials. And the careful 23 historian tries to be fair -- must be fair to the ;~ m 24 historical record. But history is;written in a w m 25 time and a place. That is'it's written in a N OD A. WILLIAM P,OBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 27: rhz82d00
29 1 American Historical Association. 2 Q. When were you a mefiber of the AHA? 3 A. I don't recall the sp'eoific dates. For about 20 years. 5 Q. Does that organization -- do any of 6 the organizations that you"are currently a member 7 9 of have a canon of ethics or.a set of guidelines which are agreed upon to be used by historians in approaching the subject of researching and writing 10 history? 11 A. Not to my knowledge. 12 13 to the form. MR. LOCKMAN.:::- I just want to object I know that you started on American 14 History Association, and then you went back to the 15 ones that he was a member of. 16 Was that a question that only dealt 17 with the three that he is currently a.member of? 18 MR. HOGAN: Yes. 19 THE WITNESS: I'm not aware of any 20 canon of ethics. 21 BY MR. HOGAN: 22 Q. And the American Historical 23 Association, is there a catron of ethics or set of ~Lf m m 24 rules that address the question of what a W 25 historian should or should,not do, how a historian A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 28: rhz82d00
23 1 importance of the element of time, or is that 2 something different? 3 A. No, that is a historical concept. 4 Q. So you're talking,"one, about your 5 ability to manage your.own time within some plan 6 for getting the project completed, I suppose? 7 A. No. 8 Q. All right. What is it that -- 9 A. I'm talking about time in history 10 as a force in interpretive discipline. 11 Q. My question was trying to clarify 12 the two. 13 A. Fine. 14 Q. That you had made a reference to` 15 the time involved in your obtaining materials, I 16 thought, and I got the impression that that had to 17 do with your using your time that was the most 18 efficient? 19 A. Fair enough. That's correct. 20 Q. And ordinarily in the field of 21 history the idea would be to see whether there are 22 materials in the public archives or public 23 libraries, and if they are there and they are 24 accessible and you think that they are.complete or 25 reasonably complete, then that's the source A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 29: rhz82d00
18 1 Tobacco Company? 2 A. I don't know. 3 Q. The further work that you did there 4 at Duke when -- and you've given us some S information that I will ask you some more`about in 6 a little while -- you went then to another 7 university? 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Carolina? A. Q. A. Q. A. Q. Yes. And that is the University of North That's right. Where is that? In Chapel Hill. What did you learn further about 15 the subject of history in terms of the role of a 16 historian and how one goes about doiI ng that work? 17 A. The lessons that I had gleaned from 18 Duke were intensified. 19 Q. Go ahead. 20 A. Because the work was more demanding 21 at Chapel Hill.' I was in a Ph.D.' program. 22 Q. In that situatiori, was that focused 23 on a particular piece of work that you were 24 undertaking and then applying the skills and 25 approaches that you had learned in the -- earlier A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 30: rhz82d00
33 1 And the campaign in 1950 became an 2 epical event, not only regarding the history of 3 race relations in North Carolina, but also in the 4 history of the politics of the state,`but in the 5 history of race relations in the south and in the 6 United States and in.the nation. 7 Q. And so in your doing-work back when 8 you were in college on a dissertation on race 9 relations in -- was it in North Carolina? 10 A. North Carolina. 11 Q. And you;said it was from the New 12 Deal up until 1954? 13 A. My dissertation stops in 1950, 14 actually. 15 Q. Okay. So it does not go up`to the 16 completion of Brown versus Board of Education? 17 A. That's right. My dissertation 18 doesn't. I have subsequently done some work 19 beyond that 1950 date. 20 21 22 23 24 25 Q. So it stops in 1950 which was the date of that campaign. Did it -- A. The date of the campaign is 1949. ~ Q Known as the 1950 Senate election? ~ . m m w A. I beg -- I stand corrected. If I a, _j may correct myself. w Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 31: rhz82d00
35 1 A. Thank you. 2 Q. You knew that the correct 3 information was different from the information 4 that you had just given us? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. And under those circumstances you felt that it was important to give us the 8 information that was accurate; is,thmt correct? 9 A. Now I understand,the question; and 10 the answer is, yes. 11 Q. Had other work been done in the 12 time after the 1950 Senate zace before your 13 dissertation and Julian Pleasants''d3ssertation on 14 Robert Rice Reynolds? Were there other historical 15 treatments that had been done of that`race, 16 political race? 17 A. We have to make some chronological 18 distinctions here. 19 My dissertat-ion was completed in 20 1969. I'm not sure -- his maybe two years later. 21 Q. Okay. Approximately 20 years -- 22 A. But the book came out.in December Ln ~_A 23 24 1994. Q. Right. m G And I want to''get to that W 25 time differential, too. W A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 32: rhz82d00
39 1 posts? 2 A. His major governmental appointments 3 came during his tenure a"s president in the Second 4 World War when he was named to serve on the War 5 Labor Board for one and divided his time between Chapel Hill and Washington,during World War II. 7 Most'of the other appointments were 8 honorary or voluntary appointments that were work 9 that was done in addition to his presidential 10 duties and for which he wasn't compensated. 11 Q. And he was involved in a number of 12 organizations and his correspondence -- go ahead. 13 A. Literally thousands. And there is` 14 an incredible volume of material comes across his 15 desk. 16 Q. And the volume of material coming 17 across his desk and coming from his desk is what 18 made up a substantial part of the 300'boxes of 19 materials? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. In the Frank Porter Graham -- 22 A. The 300 boxes is an approximation. 23 Q. Yes, sir. 'I don't mean to hold you 24 to a specific number. It might have been 305. 25 A. It might have been 400. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 33: rhz82d00
22 1 Library of Congress or in the National Archives. 2 Q. Where say a person may have died or 3 I suppose could still be living and their. 4 correspondence and papers that they wrote during 5 the course of their life, whether in business or 6 otherwise, is at some point transferred,over to 7 some other location? 8 A. That's correct. 9 Q. Does it go further than that in 10 terms of going directly to the source to ask for 11 the opportunity to review the documents that they 12 still hold that haven't been turned over to 13 libraries or public archives? 14 A. It may, but most,of the time the 15 library holdings are the major repository and the 16 major place that you would look because -- 17 Q. Where the student or the academic 18 historian would go? 19 A. That's right. Because there is 20 always a time and efficiency element involved 21 here. In almost any 20th century subject that you 22 want to examine, you have to find a way to get 23 th'rough so much material that you want to focus ~• 24 your time which is always limited. 25 Q. Is that what you meant by the w m ~ N lP A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 34: rhz82d00
24 1 material that you would use? 2 A. That's right. The 'documentary 3 holdings are staggering in their volume. 4 Q. Depending upon the subject matter, 5 I suppose? 6 A. In 20th Century affairs, that 9 almost applies to any subject. Q. If you have something that happens that is a specific discrete event, say a criminal 10 act that is specific by way of a murder, does that 11 limit the scope in any way of the types of 12 materials that you would attempt to recover? 13 A. It depends on the event. 14 Q. And who is involved? 15 A. That's right. 16 Q. If you had a situation where there 17 were two people involved in a situation where one 18 was the victim in a murder and the other was the . 19 person accused of having done the murder and they 20 were not people in the public eye, how would you 21 go about -- would it be correct that there would 22 be a more limited set of materials that would be 23 available to you in trying to do historical 24 research on that subject? 25 A. It would depend on.the focus on A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 35: rhz82d00
45 1 reinforcement of other-sourqe materials and other 2 developments that I could identify from court 3 rulings and other evidence. 4 Q. You could in a sense see it from 5 7 the inside? A. See what from the inside? Q. What was going on? In other words 8 rather than simply reading an opinion decided by a 9 court, you could see the underlying social 10 concerns that were leading up to decisions like 11 that? 12 A. Yeah. I think saying that you see 13 it from the inside is not a very useful way to say 14 it. 15 Q. 16 it? What would be a better way to say 17 A. Well, it's a different 18 perspective. It is neither inside nor outside in 19 the sense that it is a.secret or that it is 20 something that is hidden from public view. 21 These concerns are in the public 22 arena already. i cn 23 Q. What does your dissertation then m 24 add? w ~ 25 A. A richness, and it adds a clearer j A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 36: rhz82d00
41 1 dissertation projects, we would have found -- I 2 would have found other materials that would have 3 been equally useful. 4 But that's a speculation. I don't 5 know that with any certainty. 6 Q. What you do know is that in fact 7 you were able to see Dr. Graham's papers? 8 A. Correct. 9 Q. Over that period of time and they 10 were of substantial help.to you in setting out the 11 historical review that you did in your doctoral, 12 dissertation in 1969? 13 A. That's right. 14 Q. What overall conclusions did you 15 reach that supplemented the understanding of what 16 went on during that time frame that were based on 17 the Graham papers? 18 MR. LOCKMAN: I note an objection. 19 That is pretty convoluted. If the,witness can 20 handle it. 21 BY MR. HOGAN: 22 Q. I'll take the assistance. 23 A. I'm going to ask you to direct that 24 to me again, please. ~ 25 Q. I take it that you thought when you,! A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR
Page 37: rhz82d00
44 1 a host of subjects. People would write to Frank 2 Graham about their concerns without fear that 3 anything they said to him would be misinterpreted 4 or would be returned with anger. 5 He got a lot of hate mail. And he 6 got a lot of adoring mail. He was one of these 7 polarizing personalities. 8 Q. So in seeing the paipers, `you were 9 able to see the level of both sides involved in 10 that issue at that time from the papers of a 11 person who was high profile and well known, and 12, then you were able to place that inn your 13 dissertation and draw conclusions from it? 14 A. Yes. Because the papers were a 15 focal point of a public record and specifically 16 focused on the concerns that I was interested in 17 investigating. 18 Q. And how did it show that, for , - 19 example, as you said the courts were going to be 20 more attentive, how did that add to the public 21 fund of knowledge when you did your dissertation 22 that the courts were going to-be more alttentive to 23 the concerns of blacks? 24 A. Because it reinforced -- the 25 opinions and the volume of material was a A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 38: rhz82d00
46 1 view that the distance of my perspective afforded 2 me so I could see a clearer procession or 3 progression of events than the participants at the 4 time could understand. 9 Historical actors do not have perfect forward vision of the consequences of their actions. Q. So that by reviewing the materials and working at that, you felt that you;were aible 10 to in this dissertation -- really;that would be 11 its purpose to have something worthwhile to 12 supplement the fund of knowledge? 13 A. Yes. 14 Q. When was it that you and Julian 15 Pleasants undertook to write the book, the work 16 that turned into the book Frank Porter Graham's 17 Senate race in 1950 in North Carolina? 18 A. We started serious.work on that 19 book about 1986. 20 Q. And you published it when? Or the 21 University of North Carolina published it when? 22 A. 1994. L„ ' N ' rn 23 Q. What new work -- you said that your m w 24 dissertation and his dissertation, Julian m -4 25 spb OD Pleasants' dissertation sort of crossed over A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 39: rhz82d00
34 1 Graham's appointment,to the Senate 2 came in '49. The campaign came in '50. 3 Q. Because the name of the book is 4 Frank Porter Graham, 1950 Senate Race.in North 5 Carolina? 6 A. That's correct, and I'm sworn to 7 tell the truth. 8 Q. And having misrecalled that 10 specific thing, A. you wanted to clarify? I did indeed. 11 Q. Because it would be important to 12 try to include information if information was 13 known to you and available and needed to be 14 disclosed in this setting? 15 MR. LOCKMAN: Objection to form. 16 THE WITNESS: I'm going to ask you 17 to repeat that question if you will. 18 MR. HOGAN: Would you read the 19 question back, please. 20 (The record was read as requested.) 21 THE WITNESS: I still don't 22 understand it. 23 BY MR HOGAN: Ln N o, 24 Q. . You made a mistake in what you said m w 25 earlier? m A. WILLIAM ROBERTSr JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 40: rhz82d00
b ~;A.~ 51603 6705 . 0 4 I i I 9 4 di I
Page 41: rhz82d00
37 1 North Carolina in the post war period. 2 Q. And how was it that you were able 3 to provide that additional or supplemental 4 information when you wrote that in 1969? 6 Q.. Primarily -- Different from what other people 7 had done before? 8 A. Primarily,because I think I was one 9 of the first people who worked through all of the 10 Graham manuscripts. 11 Q. What were -- 12 A. Those are his personal papers that 13 are collected and available for researchers in the 14 Southern Historical Collection at the University 15 of North Carolina, and there are probably about 16 300 boxes of them. 17 Q. And-you worked through those 18 boxes? 19 A. That's right. 20 Q. And your impression was as of 1969 21 when you did your dissertation, that ones who had 22 gone before you to comment on that race had not 23 gone through those papers in that detail? 24 A. Correct. 25 Q. Had they had access to those papers A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,.& ASSOCIATES
Page 42: rhz82d00
38 1 or do you think you were the first? 2 A. I think the access was there. 3 Q. Did they -- they went through them, 4 the ones before you? 5 A. I can't say how thoroughly other 6 investigators looked at those papers. 7 Q. But you did go through them 8 thoroughly in preparing your 1950 -- or your 1969 9 dissertation? 10 A. Correct. 11 Q. These'papers were things that he 12 wrote, things that he received? 13 Describe them more generally, 14 although I realize there are 300 boxes? 15 A. They are personal and professional 16 correspondence when he was running the university, 17 president of the university. They are files of 18 his political activity. He was`a very active 19 public -- a very active public person in the 1930s 20 which is an age of intense political ferment in 21 the United States. 22 He is a man of causes. 23 Q. He had held appointments in 24 addition to presidency of the University of North 25 Carolina,; is that correct,.in gove,rnmental A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES f
Page 43: rhz82d00
55 1 of Senator Smith? 2 A. Our work had been concluded by 3 then. We were satisfied that for:our narrative 4 the research that we had done wa's appropriate for 6 our subject. Q. So his particular collection of papers was not key, but you said you were able to 8 get other manuscript collections. Who else's 9 besides the three major candidates? 10 A. We found papers - 11 Q. And by the way, Reynolds at some 12 point I think in your book was described as a 13 political buffoon? 14 A. He was. 15 Q. And so do you take"it then that 16 his -- were his papers particularly valuable? 17 Julian Pleasants did his dissertation -- 18 A. They are more valuable than one 19 might think because of that characterization. A 20 political buffoon is not nece`ssarily a buffoon in 21 all things. 22 Q. So there was some value in 23 reviewing even the papers`o'f Reynolds? 24 A. Yes. And he was more of a 25 political buffoon in 1950 than when he.had been A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 44: rhz82d00
54 Q. And he undertook, along with 2 others, to persuade Smith to call the second 3 i ? mary pr 4 A. Q That is correct. Even developed some radio ads and 6 his own little campaign, Senator Helms did, to try 7 to help push and persuade Smith to do that? 8 A. That's correct. 9 Q. So the race -- the second primary` 10 was scheduled and there wab a short period of time 11 then before the•election happened? 12 A. That's right. 13 Q. I ask a number of those questions 14 to get to why it was that you found that the 15 papers of Mr. Smith, the candidate that won the 16 election, were of limited value? 17 A. Because they were insubstantial in 18 substance. Whether they had been intentionally. 19 altered or whether there was sloppy record 20 keeping, I can't tell you. But the~papers proved 21 to be of limited use because of the lack of 22 substance in them. 23 Q. What did you.do then to t ry to 24 supplement and get the whole picture, so to speak, 25 given the limited value of those-particular papers A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 45: rhz82d00
51 1 didn't contain very much useful information. 2 Q. Mr. Smith e'ventually won the 3 election? 4 A. Yes. 5 6 Q. A. And died, a few years Shortly thereafter. 7 a few years later? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. And he had been a private attorney, 10 not a public office holder? 11 A. He had been a public office holder 12 earlier in his career. 13 Q. At an earlier time? 14 A. Yes. in fact, he had been speaking 15 of the North Carolina House for one session. 16 Q. Some substantial period of time 17 prior to his coming outlof his private law 18 practice and challenged Senator araham? 19 A. Correct. 20 Q. So he had more limited numbers of 21 papers, is that the -- or why were they not as 22 valuable? Or maybe that's the wrong term: 23 A. They were less~substantive. i~ m 24 Q. Did they deal'with the race, the w m 25 election? Ln w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., 4 ASSOCIATES
Page 46: rhz82d00
47 1 and -- was the idea that they gave you a base tQ 2 work from? 3 A. Some of the basic research for this 4 particular campaign we had already done because of 5 our previous inquiries. 6 7 9 Q. You had reviewed, for example, the papers of Frank Porter Graham. He had reviewed the personal papers of Mr. Reynolds, Robert Rice Reynolds? 10 A. That's correct. 11 Q. What, if anything,.new did the two 12 of you do when you began in the mid-1980s to -- 13 which resulted in this -- the book that,was 14 published in 1994? 15 A. We found -- we initiated that whole 16 process of historical research anew, and we 17 broadened our search procedures and we found other 18 manuscripts which time had prevented us from 19 examining. 20 Q. When you say that, what do you 21 mean? When you say that you found other 22 manuscript collections that time,had previously 23 prevented you from`seeing? 24 A. well, a dissertation is a research 25 project that one tries to complete within a A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 47: rhz82d00
52 A. To a limited degree. 2 4 6 8 9 of the campaign. 10 Q. Yes, sir? Q. The election was called on a sort of short notice? A. By contemporary standards, yes. Q. He didn't begin actively campaigning until 10 or 11 or 12 days before the race? A. We need to id'entify the chronology It's all a Democratic primary. 12 Q. Right. 13 A. As we a1l know in southern 14 politics, if it is not a Democratic primary, it's 15 not an election. 16 Q. Although there was a substantial 17 continuing Republican electorate in North Carolina 18 during that period of time? 19 A. But never sufficiently strong to 20 elect anybody, but you're right:, 21 Q. And even at that time, the 22 Democrats needed to be concerned about who they ~ 23 might nominate because there were a hundred i or ~ 24 sixty or seventy thousand or so Republicans who W 25 would come out and vote Republican in the general m ~ Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 48: rhz82d00
43 1 unacceptable to the people who were being 2 discriminated against and that they were going to 3 be much more aggressive in addressing their 4 discontent, and that the courts both in the state~ 5 and the nation were going to be attentive to their 6 concerns, the concerns of the African American 7 minority. Q. These perspectives that you've just 9 described added to the fund of knowledge that 10 existed -- my real,question earlier which you may 11 well have answered and I just want to clarify it, 12 what new you added to the public fund of knowledge 13 you added by your dissertation in 1969 compared 14 with other perspectives that might have existed in 15 1950 to 1969? And in answering that, the answer 16 that you gave just then, that's what's new? 17 A. That's right. 18 Q. And how was it that'those papers 19 helped you reach those conclusions which were new 20 and supplemented the public fund of knowledge? 21 A. First because they were so massive 22 in their representation and they -- 23 Q. These were the Graham papers? 24 A. The Graham papers. They were 25 representative of a very broad range of opinion on A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 49: rhz82d00
56 1 elected to the Senate in 1936. 2 Q. U.S. Senate? 3 A. Uh=huh. 4 Q. And so what were the other papers 5 besides Graham and Reynolds? 6 A. There is a long list of them of 7 manuscript collections that we examined. Some of 8 the most helpful were the papers of a man named 9 David Burgess who was a labor union organizer in. 10 North Carolina who kept a journal of his 11 activities. 12 Q. And who had he assisted in the 13 race? 14 A. He had assisted Graham. Graham had 15 strong labor support in that campaign. 16 Q. And Mr. Burgess, there was a 17 substantial collection of his - 18 A. It was a journal, a diary of his 19 daily activities. 20 Q. So you could trace through what he 21 was doing and thinking to attempt to move the 22 campaign in one way or the other? 23 A. Yes. 24 Q. To move segments of the electorate 25 in one way or the other? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 50: rhz82d00
40 1 Q. It could have been. Whatever it 2 was, you considered those papers of Mr. Graham to 3 be important to the work that you did in writing 4 your dissertation in 1969 in helping to fill out 5 7 8 the picture of race relations during the period of time from the New Deal up until 1950? A. They were central to my topic. Q. And really without that the 9 dissertation that you wrote would not have been as 10 comprehensive or complete in the picture that it 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 presented; is that correct? was the value? Or you tell me. What oxes? A. Q. A. Q. A. I don't know the answer. What was the value -- The value. -- of you going through those I can tell you the value. What I 19 can't tell you is what the outcome would have been 20 in a different set of circumstances. 21 If those papers`-hadn't been 22 available, I can'•t tell you what my study would 23 have looked like because I don't know where else I 24 would have gone but I would have -- I think based 25 on the work that we did subsequent to those A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 51: rhz82d00
42 1 made this dissertation in 1969, the object of that 2 was to provide some supplement to the fund of 3 knowledge that was available about the subject 4 matter of your dissertation? 5 A. Right. Q. And tell us the degree to which you 8 think it was important that reviewing these papers of one of the principal actors during that period 9 of time in North Carolina, what that added to your 10 ability to do that and what new did you add to the 11 public fund of knowledge? 12 A. The picture of North Carolina race 13 relations that I derived from that examination was 14 that the race relations in`the state were in a 15 condition of ferment. That race relations were 16 changing rapidly. That 'they had been in a process 17 of change beginning with the 1930s, but that the 18 Second World War and the subsequent readjustment 19 that took place in our society at the end of that 20 conflict had accelerated a pace of racial tension 21 and racial change. 22 And that North Carolinians, many of 23 them for the first time, especially white North 24 Carolinians, were becoming aware that the current 25 status of race relations in North Carolina was A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 52: rhz82d00
32 1 Q. How did it happen that you wrote a 2 book with Julian Pleasants on Pxeink Porter 3 5 Graham? A. Our dissertation topics overlapped. We were contemporarie.a in graduate 6 school, and he is the biographer.of one of the 7 people who was in the Senate 'campaigr1' in 1950 that 8 became the subject 'of our book. There were-three 9 candidates in that race. 10 Q. Julian Pleasants was the biographer 11 of what person? 12 A. Robert Rice Reynolds:who is the 13 third candidate in that race. 14 Q. And how was it that your 15 dissertation that you told us about a little while 16 ago overlapped with his dissertation about 17 Reynolds? 18 A. Frank Porter Graham's legacy is as 19 a racial -- southern racial liberal in the. 20 American south in the 1920s, '30s and '40s. He's 21 generally recognized as the most highly visible 22 racial liberal in the south in those years. 23 My interest was drawn to him 24 because of my interest in southern -- in North 25 Carolina race relations. A. WILLIAM ROBEP.TS,;JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 53: rhz82d00
61 1 A. And because of Jonathan Daniels'. 2 own achievements as an author. For example, he 3 had been -- at one point -- he was a close friend 4 of Harry Truman, and at one point'had been 5 Franklin Roosevelt's press secretary. 6 Q. So this was a person with some 7 substantial political background and contact in 8 addition to his having this -- the Raleigh News 9 A. Yes. 10 Q. -- and Observer? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. And Mr. Graham had also had 13 appointments and knew President Truman? 14 A. Yes, very well. 15 Q. And Franklin Delanor Roosevelt? 16 17 A. Yes. 1 MR. LOCKMAN: When you get to an 18 appropriate point, may I suggest that we take a 19 mid-morning break. 20 MR. HOGAN: I will want to ask you 21 about other ones that you thought were key, but 22 the timing is good for a break. 23 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are going off 24 the videotape record at 10:27. 25 (A brief recess was taken.) A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 54: rhz82d00
49 1 during the time -. 2 3 A. Some did. Q. What was the value to you and your 4 co-author in putting this book together, writing 5 7 this book of reviewing these other manuscript collections that had become available to you during -- that you had reviewed, either ones that 8 you didn't have time to get to before or ones that 9 had come into availability between time?. What was 10 the value of those materials? 11 A. Sbme of them were new information. 12 Some represented a richer mix`, different advantage 13 points on the specific campaign. 14 The documents -- the manuscripts: 15 that were most important to us were the 16 manuscripts from other principal.s in this race. I 17 mean involved in this race. 18 Q. I see. So you had reviewed the 19 Graham papers and Graham was one candidate in the 20 race in 1950 having been appointed to the U.S. 21 Senate? 22 A. That's correct. Ln 23 Q. And he was running to hold onto the ~ m 24 seat? w ai 25 A. That's right.. v A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 55: rhz82d00
67 1 given the time lapse that has taken place since we 2 wrote this book, and I don't want to.be 3 misleading. 4 Q. I understand, and you have an 5 overall impression, though, concerning the 6 Adams -- the Hoover Adams papers, that they gave 7 you particular help with insight into the process 8 that helped persuade Mr. Smith to call for the 9 second primary? 10 A. I do, and your characterization of 11 an overall impression is appropriate. 12 Q. And also that it was helpful in the 13 same way to see the campaign strategies that were 14 used by the Smith campaign? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. And with your having clarified, you 17 are not able to pick out each piece of paper from 18 there for the moment without your notes available 19 to you, what did the review of the Adams -- Hoover 20 Adams papers inform you and your co-author about 21 the process that led to Mr. Smith calling for the 22 second primary? cn 23 A. Specifically,it was Hoover Adams I ~-A m 24 who told us that Smith had originally decided to w m ~ 25 withdraw, to step down. m W A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 56: rhz82d00
48 1 lifetime. 2 Q. Or maybe before they sit for 3 completion of their doctorate?. 4 A. Precisely. And so the challenge is 5 to try to draw this project to a conclusion. 6 Q. So you drew your -- your proces's to 7 conclusion in 1969, thereabouts on your 8 dissertation and he did-in 1971 or so? 9 A. About. 10 Q. Thereabouts? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. And then in the meantime, from 13 around 1970 to the mid-.1980s, I take it from what 14 you said earlier, other manuscript collections 15 became available to you? 16 A. Some did, and some were just 17 manuscript collections that had been available 18 earlier that we just didn't get to. 19 Q. Because of the time factor? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. Time management? 22 A. Precisely. 23 Q. And then time became another factor 24 because some of these collections of'private 25 papers or private/public papers became available A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 57: rhz82d00
50 1 Q. And Julian Pleasants had reviewed 2 the papers of Reynolds who was another candidate 3 in the race? 4 A. Right. 5 Q. And then'you were able to gain 6 access to papers of another participant in the 7 race? 8 A. The other candidate's papers became 9 available only very late in our research process 10 and were of limited`usefulness to us. 11 Q. The other candidate being Smith? 12 A. A man named Willis Smith. 13 Q. So the Willis Smith papers became 14 available to you pretty late in the work that you 15 were doing between the mid-1980s and`1h94? 16 A. Right. 17 Q. When you say they were of limited 18 value to you, did you not Y}ave an,opportunity to 19 review them all or did you not have an opportunity 20 to analyze them? 21 A. Our research was essentially 22 completed and writing the book was essentially ~ 23 complete. 24 In addition, the materials turned ~ 25 out to be of very limited usefulness because they i A. WILLIAM'ROBERTS, JR,:, & ASSOCIATES
Page 58: rhz82d00
60 1 participant. 2 Q. What did that add? 3 A. It added his vantage point, his 4 point of view and his assessment of the progress 5 of the campaign as it went forward. 6 Q. So apart from what he might have 7 written by way of editorials or had his newspaper 8 publish during that period of time, this was his 9 own personal understanding and knowledge of what 10 was going on in the campaign at that time? 11 A. Right. 12 Q. Does it reflect his own 13 contributions to -- by way of ideas and activities 14 to support Graham's campaign? 15 A. To some extent it does, yes. 16 Q. And it helped you to analyze what 17 aspect of the overall outcome of the campaign? 18 A. It fills the record and it provides 19 another perspective that is appropriate for the 20 specific focus of our eesearch. As a major -- as 21 a major person, personality involved in this 22 campaign and as someone who has national 23 visibility. cn 24 Q. Because that newspaper had itself m w 25 had national visibility? m ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 59: rhz82d00
65 1 candidacy for the Sen ate was unwise for the 2 state. 3 Q. Can you tell more aibout,what fuller 4 picture it was that they provided? Or of the 5 reason -- the reasons why some felt that Graham 6 shouldn't run? 7 A. These were North Carolina people 8 who didn't like the changes that had occurred in 9 the Democratic party in the 1930s. They were what 10 I would describe as more traditional Democrats who 11 were believers that, among other things, that the 12 racial patterns in the south should be sustained 13 as they were currently structured. 14 Q. More in the nature of segregation? 15 A. Precisely. Or that the pace of 16 change should be more deliberate. 17 Q. Who besides John Park on the Smith 18 side of the election in terms of the papers that 19 you reviewed that were helpful -- 20 A. Smith's publicity manager was a man 21 named Hoover Adams, and he has been a very v}sible 22 figure in North.Carolina politics. From that day 23 to this he's still active.~' 24 • Q. But even -though he is still active, 25 you were able to gain aspects of his papers? w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 60: rhz82d00
53 1 election? 2 A. That's correct. 3 Q. Compared with around 300 or so 4 thousand Democrats? 5 A. That's right. So in that setting, setting the 7 chronology, you were going to tell us the time 8 f ? rame 9 A. There is an initial primary in 10 which Graham gains almost a clear majority of the 11 field. And the primary concludes and Smith has 12 the option to call a second primary. He has two 13 weeks to make this decision. He waits,until the 14 day before the deadline to m'aike a decision whether 15 to call a second primary or not. 16 He is persuaded to do that, and at 17 that point the race changes character and 18 intensifies and becomes essentially a racial 19 referendum. 20 Q. Jesse Helms, a current United 21 States senator from the state of North Carolina 22 was at that time a radio personality? 23 A. Yes. 24 Q. And at that time was a Democrat? 25 A. Yes. u, A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR. , & .ASSOCIATES
Page 61: rhz82d00
57 1 A. To talk -- to organize the campaign 2 in Graham's behalf, yes. 3 Q. What other manuscripts? I realize 4 that there is a long list of collections of papers 5, that you've attached to the book, but I really 6 want -- it doesn't -- the list doesn't necessarily 7 pick them out and say this is the most important 8 and this one is not, and so I just°'want to ask you 9 about the ones that you thought were the`most 10 important. 11 A. The Charles and`Gladys Tillett 12 papers were very revealing. 13 Q. Tillett? 14 A. Tillett. T-I-L-L-E-T-T. 15 Q. What about them was very 16 revealing? 17 A. Tillett was one of Graham's closest 18 friends and had always taken a very active role in 19 managing Graham's l. ife. And his wife was a very 20 active Democratic political woman, including being 21 a member of the Democratic National Committee at 22 the time. 23 Q. So it was Charleton? 24 A. And Gladys Tillett. 25 Q. That is single person and that is a A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 62: rhz82d00
66 1 A. And they were at East Carolina. 2 Q. So it's not a situation where the 3 person -- where a person has to'heive died before 4 their papers become available or become a part of 5 the -- 6 A. Not always. 7 Q. -- of an archive that you can obtain. And how were the Hoover Adams, this 9 publicity manag er, helpful to you in writing this 10 b k? oo 11 A. They were especially useful in 12 describin g the process whereby Smith was persuaded 13 to call t he sec ond primary, and also in 14 enunciati ng and clarifying Smith's campaign 15 strategie s. 16 Q. And from that what were you able to 17 learn -- from r eviewing those papers, from 18 reviewing those papers, what were you able to 19 learn abo ut the process of persuasion that got 20 Smith to call f or the second election or the 21 second pr imary? 22 A. In describing what we gleaned from 23 each of t hese c ollections, it's very difficult to 24 be precis ely ac curate as to where specific 25 informati on ori ginates given that -- especially A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 63: rhz82d00
68 2 Q. A. To let - To yield to Graham's plurality. 3 Q. Yes. Graham had less than 5o 4 percent of the vote in the first primarily? 5 A. 49.3. 6 Q. And Smith could have just let him 7 be made the senator and the winner of the 8 election, but he had the right to call for a 9 second primary? 10 A. That's`right. 11 Q. And so from Mr. Adams you were able 12 to learn that Smith originally had decided to step 13 aside? 14 A. Correct. 15 Q. And then what else"°'did you learn 16 about the process of persuading Smith to demand 17 the second primary? 18 A. I can' t recall ths`` specif ic source 19 of the information. I think it came from several 20 different sources. 21 Q. On the Smith side? 22 A. Of what happened in those last two 23 days. N 24 Q. Several different sources of Ch w 25 information? rn ~ v G A. WILLIAM RaAERTS', JR.., & ASSOCIATES
Page 64: rhz82d00
70 1 A. Yes. Yes. And if I may, much of 2 what we learned about the Smith strategy we 3 learned from the public record:~ The intention of 4 the Smith campaign is very clear from press 5 accounts. It's very clear from the commentary of 6 people who are writing in newspapers who are 7 political observers who are talking to campaign 8 people sometimes -- and oftentimes publishing 9 things without attribution and who are putting 10 their opinions about the campaign into the 11 newspaper, both at the local weekly papers that 12 small towns produce and in North'Carolina and in 13 these days, in the 1950s, in 1950 there is a 14 profusion of these papers. 15 Q. So to clarify that, you're"saying 16 that there were -- apart from the private papers, 17 there were a number of people on the,Smith side of 18 the election that you reviewed and found helpful 19 in understanding the campaign strategy, you also 20 were able to look at reports from a variety of 21 newspapers, maybe weeklies or whatever they were 22 during that time frame - 23 A. The weeklies and the daily papers 24 in the larger communities. 25 Q. Where people who were reporters, A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 65: rhz82d00
25 1 your research first, and it would also depend on 2 the record that accumulates as this event 3 proceeds. 4 Q. So we talked about your trying to 5 manage your time in collectingmaterials. There 6 might not be things in the publicarchives except 7 for criminal reports of the investigators and 8 prosecutors. Apart from that, what would you do 9 to try to write a history of a particular event 10 like that? 11 A. I have never done CPat particular 12 research assignment. I'm not suref-how T would 13 initiate it. 14 Q. But it would be something probably 15 outside the obvious public record materials? 16 A. It is very difficult to generalize 17 about a specific hypothetical research 18 assignment. 19 Q. Okay. Let me ask you more about 20 your statement that one of the things that you 21 learned about in the basics of history has to do 22 with the importance of the element of time. What 23 did you mean by that? 24 A. The first meaning is that you only 25 have so many months„ years to do any specific A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 66: rhz82d00
64 1 A. The Graham side. 2 Q. Were there other'papers that were 3 principally important that you were able to review 4 of people who were on the Smith side of the 5 election? 6 A. There were the papers of -- 7 Q. Well, let me ask you, and do you 8 include them among the papers that were important 9 for evaluating this entire subject? 10 A. Yes, we do. 11 Q. Who are they? 12 A. The papers of a man named John 13 Park, P-A-R-K, who is the editor of a newspaper in 14 Raleigh that was the evening paper and was written 15 from a very different political viewpoint than the 16 Raleigh News and Observer, and Park was a stout 17 Graham advocate -- excuse me, I misspoke, Smith 18 advocate. 19 Q. He supported Willis Smith? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. How were those papers helpful to 22 you in analyzing and presented to the public in 23 your book what happened? 24 A. They gave a fuller picture of some 25 of the reasons why some people thought Graham's A. WILLIAM ROBET:TS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 67: rhz82d00
74 i 1 A. First that the campaign reveals a 2 growing disaffection among southern white voters 3 in North Carolina for the mainstream Roosevelt 4 Democratic party. 5 Willis Smith is a traditional 6 southern Democrat, and in a sense the campaign had 7 a polarizing affect on these people and their 8 political attitudes. And it helped a lot of these 9 people to clarify their thinking about the future 10 course of southern politics and where their 11 sympathies would rest. 12 Q. So those two keys, the 13 comprehensiveness and the perspective that it 14 brought and the light that it shined on the real 15 facts about the race and what it meant -- 16 A. Perhaps I would say -- the ability, 17 of the book to reveal some persistent trends in 18 southern politics. 19 Q. Was it important that you,were -- 20 in doing this book, that you:were able to'expand 21 on or maximize the source materials that' you were 22 able to review in order to give a comprehensive 23 analysis of that event and a perspective to the 24 historical trends that it identified? 25 A. It was helpful, but I would not A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 68: rhz82d00
72 marginal at best. 2 Q. What did you -- through reviewing 3 -- you wrote your book in terms of research and 4 writing from 1986 -- is that the - 5 A. The writing of it took about two 7 years. Q. The researching went on from the 8 late eighties? 9 A. Yes. And continues. 10 Q. And continued up to when you were 11 writing as well? 12 A. Yes. 13 Q. That book was written in the - 14 late 1980s and published in -- researched and 15 written late eighties and published in '94? 16 A. That's correct. 17 Q. What did it add to the fund of 18 public knowledge apart from what was known as of 19 the time that you and Mr. Pleasants, Julian 20 Pleasants, published or made your dissertations 21 back in the late -- around 1970? What was new in 22 your book that was added to the public fund of 23 kriowledge? Ln N o, 24 A. First, it's the only comprehensive m w 25 account of that campaign that has ever been m ~ 19. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &,ASSOCIATES
Page 69: rhz82d00
58 1 lady? 2 A. No, it's two people. 3 Q. That's what I'm asking? 4 A. Charles and Gladys Tillett. 5 Q. I misunderstood you. 7 A. Q. I'm sorry. So it is Charles and Gladys 8 Tillett. Go ahead, please. 9 A. The papers of others of Graham's 10 friends and close associates'were also very useful 11 to us, including some of his,associates at the 12 university. 13 Q. Other professors on the faculty at 14 the University of North Carolina? 15 A. And administrators at the 16 university. 17 Q. What was particularly helpful or 18 revealing about the papers of those professors and 19 administrators? 20 A. Primarily their analysis of 21 Graham's personality and his aptitude or his lack 22 of ability as a political candidate. 23 Q. A better university president than 24 a political candidate? 25 A. Yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 70: rhz82d00
75 1 necessarily characterize the book as"comprehensive 2 in any sort of finite sense. 3 There are still manuscript 4 collections that we didn't,get to'. There are 5 source materials that we didn't see. There are 6 other perspectives that perhaps would have been of 7 benefit but perhaps not, but they are just roads 8 not taken because, as I said before, the research 9 responsibilities of such'an undertaking have to be 10 limited and you have to keep your focus on the 11 specific task at hand. 12 Q. When you make that -- in answering 13 that question, when you make note of.the , 14 importance of manuscripts that you`didn't get to 15 or sources that you didn't see,or roads not taken, 16 why do you qualify your response about the 17 importance of your book by giving me that 18 response? 19 A. Because I'm reluctant to be 20 boastful enough to>tell you that this book is in 21 any way some sort of unusually complete 22 achievement. I'm simply,trying to be honest with 23 you without trying to sound fulsome in my own 24 praise here. That would be wrong to me if that 25 impression were drawn, and I wouldn't want you to A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 71: rhz82d00
79 1 Q. What does that mean, willingness? 2 A. It means to be faithful to the 3 record of the historical`process as you find it. 4 Q. And on that point, being faithful 5 to the record of the historical process as you 6 find it, what does that -- what does being 7 faithful in that way mean? 8 A. It means that you have to have 9 respect for the motives and for the context of the 10 historical actors. That you write the history of 11 that process or -- it doesn't always have to be 12 the history of the event per se, but you write it 13 with the understanding that these people, these 14 actors should have their actions understood within 15 the context of the time in which they are acting. 16 Q. And in that sense, objectively 17 reviewing and it and objectively reporting it? 18 A. Objective in the sense that you are 19 faithful to their record. In the sense that 20 objectivity means here a point of view that is 21 without perspective or that exists without,the 22 ability of someone else to challenge it, no. 23 Objectivity doesn't mean -- it doesn't mean the 24 concluding summary with which everyone will agree 25 forever and ever. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 72: rhz82d00
81 1 Q. Have: you had training in 2 psychiatry? 3 A. No. 4 Q. In other words, I'm talking about 5 professional training? 6 A. I have not. 7 Q. Psychology? 8 A. No. 9 Q. Medicine? 10 A. No. 11 Q. Biology? 12 A. No. 13 Q. Public health? 14 A. No. 15 Q. Sociology? 16 A. No. ~ 17 Q. Polling? 18 A. No. 19 Q. Pharmacology? 20 A. No. 21 Q. Communications,-schools of 22 communications? 23 A. No. 24 Q You were a debater in high school?_ 25 A. I was. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 73: rhz82d00
63 1 A. Yes. 2 Q. And this was a participant in the 3 election process? 4 A. That's right. And one of these 5 people who had been a long-time political observer. 7 Q. Were there any other-principal 8 collections of papers that you•reviewed of people who were actually involved>in the events? 10 A. There was a set of papers from a 11 newspaper editor in Ashville, a man'named Hiden 12 R R S-E Y A M amsey, - - . - - 13 Q. And for what reason were they 14 artic l l l? l h f p y p u ar e u 15 A. Again, he was a l'ong-time political 16 observer and participant. 17 Q. So not only was he observing, but 18 he was participating in the race, the election? 19 A. Correct. 20 Q. What side of the election was he 21 on? 22 A. He was a Graham partisan. 23 Q. And the papers at East Carolina 24 University, that person, which side of the 25 election was he on? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.; & ASSOCIATES
Page 74: rhz82d00
82 1 Q. But that was in I guess the speech 2 class? 3 A. Public speaking. 4 Q. How does political science'fit so 5 far as your field of history? Is political 6 science a different discipline? 7 A. It is a different discipline. 8 Q. And that in a sense is not a field 9 that you have made a study of? 10 A. I do write the history of politics, 11 but it is not political science, it's history. 12 Q. And the subject of -- I don't know 13 that they give degrees in it, but the subject'of 14 lobbying, is that a field that you have made a 15 professional study of? 16 A. No. 17 Q. How a bill-becomes a law, so to 18 k? spea 19 A. As a historian, I have some sense 20 of how that happens. 21 Q. But on the detailed level of what 22 the lobbying process is and when it is effective 23 and how it is effective and who does what, is that 24 something that you have made a professional - 25 have had professional training or education in? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 75: rhz82d00
77 1 that instead his own letter indicated I'm not 2 withdrawing, I'm going to'have a second election 3 and there is nothing that suggests that he wavered 4 from that, would that be important_in the future 5 in reassessing and'in the second -- if you were to 6 do a second edition of your book, would that be an 7 important factor to include in the second 8 edition? 9 A. It's really hard to tell you that 10 as a hypothetical proposition. 11 Q. Assume something of that sort, a 12 letter written by him which refutes or rebuts what 13 somebody else involved in the events at the time 14 has said and accepted in your book, would that be 15 valuable in essence in setting the;record 16 straight? I'm asking you to assume it because I 17 certainly don't know if there is a,letter from Mr. 18 Smith to that effect? 19 A. Nor do I. 20 Q. Yes. 21 A. The possibility°does exist, but 22 would depend on the context of thelletter. It it 23 - would depend on who,wrote it,` the closeness of 24 that person to the campaign. The context would be 25 highly important. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 76: rhz82d00
69 1 A. Which corroborate a general story 2 with some differences as to nuance and as to 3 specific detail. 4 Q. But these are general -- these 5 sources are sources on the Smith side of the 6 table? 7 A. Yes. 8 Q. And what these did put together was 9 describe the process by which Smith was persuaded 10 to change his mind? 11 A. Correct. 12 Q. And call for the second election? 13 A. (Witness nods.) 14 Q. What did you learn from the Hoover 15 Adams papers about the campaign strategies? What 16 was"particularly helpful from those papers on that 17 point? 18 Hoover Adams -- 19 A. I'm not sure I can make you -- give 20 you a clearer answer to that question in 21 distinction -- to distinguish his papers' 22 contributions from others that provide 23 corroborative information. 24 Q. Others on the Smith side of the 25 table? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 77: rhz82d00
62 1 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: Back on the 2 videotape record. The time is 10:45. This is the 3 beginning of tape 2, May 8, 1997. 4 MR. LOCKMAN: May 5 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: My apologies. 6 May 9. 7 BY MR. HOGAN: 8 Q. You were giving us the main 9 collections of papers of individuals who were 10 involved in that campaign that were useful to you 11 in writing the book with Mr. Pleasants about the 12 1950 Senate race. What other ones were of 13 significance? 14 A. I had just mentioned the Jonathan 15 Daniels papers? 16 Q. Yes. 17 A. There was a group of papers found 18 at East Carolina University in Greenville that was 19 useful in fleshing out the,picture of the 20 campaign. 21 Q. They were the papers -- 22 A. The name of the collection escapes 23 me. , N 24 Q. Were they a partioular individual's w 25 papers that were found? ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 78: rhz82d00
E3 0 1 Q. But it does mean what? 2 A. In my judgment to me it means 3 fidelity to the historical record and a 4 willingness to look at things in context and to 5 evaluate the process as the resea4rch that you do 6 discloses it. 7 Q. And to the extent that that book - 9 the book that you wrote does that, that is the appropriate way for history to be written by 10 historian; is that correct? 11 A. To me it is. That's not a view all 12 historians would endorse. 13 Q. But it is your-view that's what's 14 really -- that's kind of the essentials or the 15 basics of doing the work of a histor,ical 16 consultant? 17 A. Yes. 18 Q. Let me ask you -- not that 1 want 19 to leave the topic of the 1950 election, but 20 others here have endured our conversation about 21 it. Let me ask you about`your -- any other 22 training that you have had in terms of 23 professional training.. You've taken degrees in 24 history and education? 25 A. Yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, aR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 79: rhz82d00
71 1 were reporting what they were'learning? 2 A. Correct. 3 Q. From people involved in the 4 campaign, including people involved in the 5 campaign on the Smith side? 7 A. Yes. Q. About what strategies Smith was 8 undertaking and that sort of thing; is that 9 correct? 10 A. That's correct. 11 Q. Were there any other sources on the 12 Smith side that were particularly helpful? You 13 mentioned that there were a number and we have 14 talked about two or three. Were there others that' 15 you thought were particularly hel`pful'? 16 A. I think from the Smith side those 17 are the collections that are most vivid in my 18 memory. 19 Q. were there other materials from -- 20 did Reynolds throw his support in one way or the, 21 other in the election, to the extent that he had 22 ? support 23 A. Reynolds supporters divided in the Ln 24 second primary, and the effect of the division was W 25 to render his involvement in the second primary m ~ w A. WILLIAM RABERTS,.JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 80: rhz82d00
83 A. I have done some work in 2 legislative history. 3 Q. Uh-huh. 4 A. The significance of statutes, the 5 importance of statutes, how courts interpret 6 statutes. 7 Q. When a statute'makes the books, in 8 other words when a statute'gets passed, you've 9 reviewed the effect that it has? 10 A. And what I would call the normative 11 implications of statutes. What they tell us about 12 the society as it deliberates. What the statute 13 reveals about the society's decision relative to, 14 any specific activity or subject. 15 Q. Have you written o'~her books 16 besides or had a part in the writing"of other 17 books besides the book on Mr. Graham in the 1950 18 Senate race? 19 A. No. 20 Q. You have provided`some'excerpts -- 21 excerpted some court decisions that have been 22 included in a -- 23 A In the Oxford Encyclopedia of the . 24 Supreme Court. 25 Q. And that's a book that'gives brief A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 81: rhz82d00
88 1 you were doing on the book? 2 A. Yes. Subsequent to the publication 3 of the book . 4 Q. Since 1994? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. Since that publication you were 7 asked to work on the public documentary? 8 A. I need to correct the record. 9 Q. Is it a different 10 A. The book was published in 1990. 11 Accept my apology. 12 Q. Yes, sir. Just so we are clear on 13 the record with that, it was research from around 14 the mid-1980s, and the last couple of years before 15 1990 was when it was being written? 16 A. That is correct.. 17 Q. When you were doing some research 18 as well and then it was published in 1990? 19 A. That is correct. 20 Q. After that you were approached 21 about doing a documentary. Who approached you? 22 A. A documentary film maker named John 23 Wilson. 24 Q. And the documentary hass been 25 produced? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 82: rhz82d00
94 1 specific limits on what we should do, but that the 2 nature of the process imposes very strict limits 3 on what you can do. 4 Q. The project itself was to do a 5 documentary following up on your book? : 6 A. Yes. 7 8 10 Q. And they wouldn't say to you the subject matter of the materials you should look at, but you were in a position to determine which ones you would and would not look at; is that 11 correct? 12 A. That's true. 13 Q. That project that relates"to your 14 book that you did on the election, is that the 15 only other project besides this project that you 16 have been doing now over a period of a couple of 17 years for the cigarette industry defendants in 18 this case? 19 Is that documentary the only other 20 project that you've done during your professional 21 career? 22 A. As a graduate student I did some 23 genealogical research for which I was 24 compensated. 25 Q. At the request of a person who A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 83: rhz82d00
91 1 Q. Approximately how many interviews 2 of people who were participants in the events 3 surrounding the 1950 Senate race? 4 A. To give you a really accurate 5 answer I have to consult the bibliography because 6 I frankly haven't looked at the bibliography in 7 five years. 8 Q. 15 people? 10 A. less. 15 to 20 people. Maybe more, maybe 11 Q. Were they people on both sides of 12 the election? 13 A. Yes. 14 Q. Smith supporters and'"Graham 15 supporters? 16 A. Yes. 17 Q. Those who were actively involved in 18 the situation? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. And you asked them probing 21 questions, I take it about -- you asked them 22 uestions? q 23 A. Yes. 24 Q. If probing is troublesome to you. 25 A. I hope they were probing. I'm not A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 84: rhz82d00
84 1 descriptions of the content of decisions by the 2 Supreme Court? 3 A. Q. Yes. And has some references to 5 6 individuals or subject matters that have been important before;the United States Supreme Court? A. Q. Correct. And some of the decisions that you 9 10 have abstracted or made a summary of are ones that related to the integration of law schools? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. And particularly, for example, 13 case that involved Lloyd Gaines? 14 A. Yes. 15 Q. Who was Lloyd Gaines? 16 He was a Missouri citizen who 17 petitioned the State of Missouri for admission to 18 the University of Missouri law school in 1938. 19 Q. He petitioned and was he ~- a case, 20 a lawsuit came as a result of his petition to be 21 admitted? 22 A. That's correct. 23 Q. And he was denied admission 24 initially? 25 A. He was denied admission, and the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., 4 ASSOCIATES
Page 85: rhz82d00
73 1 written. And the thoroughness of our scholarship 2 was something that reviewers did note as they 3 evaluated the book. 4 Q. And there was in fact -- the 5 comprehensiveness was what was particularly noted 6 by the reviewers? 7 A. The comprehensiveness and the 8 perspective. 9 Q. And what aspect of the perspective 10 was important? In other words, what were people, 11 historians I take it who reviewed your book, what 12 were they saying concerning the perspective that 13 it presented? 14 A. I think most of the critics who 15 reviewed the book commented that it gave the 16 campaign an importance historically in terms of 1.7 the developing trends of southern politics that 18 made the campaign an event that could be 19 distinguished from an event that was completely 20 sensational, but that instead it had broader 21 consequences in terms of the developing patterns 22 of southern politics. 23 Q. What were those broader historical 24 consequences that the.book identified,`that these 25 authors or writers were commenting on? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,& ASSOCIATES
Page 86: rhz82d00
59 1 Q. Was part of the information that 2 they were able to provide to you an insight on why 3 that was the case? 4 A. Yes. 5 Q, Okay. 6 A. The papers'of Jonathan Daniels who 7 was at the time the editor of the Raleigh News and 8 Observer and who was a key figure in the Graham campaign. 10 Q. And what about those papers, was 11 he had a newspaper so I assume that he published 12 things in his newspaper that a person could read? 13 A. That's right.. 14 Q. That:,anybody could'read during that 15 time frame to see what he was,saying about,the 16 race, correct? 17 A. Uh-huh. 18 Q. What about his,papers was 19 particularly helpful or revealing? 20 A. They disclosed to --.delineated the 21 level of his participation in the campaign. 22 Q. Was that important for any reason 23 for the overall work that you.,did on the 1950 24 campaign? 25 A. Yes, because he was an active A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 87: rhz82d00
96 1 A. The reviewing of manuscripts as 2 a-- as part of the process of accepting or 3 rejecting manuscripts for publication. 4 Q. Someone else writes a book, for 5 example, and you'll be asked by the publisher to 6 review it to give your comments on good, bad -- 7 A. On its merits. 8 Q. On its merits? 9 A. (Witness nods.) 10 Q. Any other kind of work that you've 11 done as a consultant? 12 A. I have done academic consulting, 13 assisting students -- for pay, assisting students 14 in college choices. 15 Q. Where they would ask you to help 16 evaluate -- 17 A. Yes. 18 Q. Whether this is the right place to 19 go? 20 A. For that particular individual. 21 MR. LOCKMAN: Let the questioner 22 ask a full question so we have a clear question 23 and a clear answer. 24 THE WITNESS: I'm sorry. 25 BY MR. HOGAN: A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 88: rhz82d00
92 1 an authority on whether my questions were probing 2 or not. I appreciate the contribution. I'm not 3 being smart. Q. No, sir. I understand that someone 6 else reviewing the interview transcriptmight feel that it was not necessarily probing? 7 A. It would be my hope that they were 9 probing. That was your intent? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. In order to obtain as much 12 important information as you could to help you 13 provide a comprehensive historical perspective on 14 the events of that race and its overall- 15 importance? 16 A. Yes. 17 Q. Apart from -- well, let me ask 18 about this public or -- was it a public television 19 documentary? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. Did they ask you at all to restrict 22 yourself to the public record.materials that you 23 would review in order to help them prepare that. 24 documentary? 25 A. And who is "they"? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 89: rhz82d00
76 1 think that this manuscript is complete in any sort 2 of finite sense, but it is a book. 3 Q. And it is a book that came as a 4 result of your effort within all the time 5 available to you to review os.many manuscripts or archives as you possibly could; is that accurate? 8 A. Q. That's correct. And to see as much:in the way of 9 source materials as you conceivably could see and 10 absorb and analyze during that time given the 11 circumstances of the time available? 12 A. Not as many as we conceivably could 13 see, but I understand your point. 14 Q. What would be a better way to say 15 it then? 16 A. That given the task that you 17 identify for yourself,,that you are able to 18 examine the materials that were essential to the 19 completion of that task. 20 Q. If you were to let's just say -- 21 let's take an example of sources not seen or 22 manuscripts that you didn't get to, if it turned 23 out that Smith's grandson or granddaughter had in 24 the attic a letter written on the day when one of 25 the gentlemen said he had decided to withdraw, A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 90: rhz82d00
104 1 Q. Did anything else transpire that 2 prompted you to file this conflict of interest , 3 disclosure? 4 A. No. He asked are you a witness in the 6 case? 7 A. I said I'm -- I said I'm 8 potentially a witness in this case. I have been 9 designated -- is that the word? 10 Q. That's as close as we get. 11 A. Okay. 12 Q. And so he made the call and you 13 responded that way, and then you undertook on your 14 own to file that disclosure? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. Did you consult with anyone before 17 filing that disclosure? Did you make any phone 18 calls to anyone about that? 19 A. To the dean. I talked to the 20 dean. 21 Q. After he called you, 22 A. He called my wife. 23 Q. I see. I guess? 24 A. At home and she called me. 25 Q. Did you -- when you spoke with him, A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,. JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 91: rhz82d00
93 ' 1 Q. The producer of the film, of the 2 documentary? Did they say,`look, we only want you 3 to tell us from what you can see in the public 4 record, meaning newspaper reports or'the state 5 documents, for example? 6 Did they limit you in any way in 7 terms of what they asked you to look at? 8 A. The creation of a documentary film 9 as a research exercise is very different from the 10 research that goes into the making of a manuscript li or a book. 12 The range of the research that you 13 produce for a documentary is much more limited. 14 Q. There are time restrictions.and -- 15 A. And money restrictions. 16 Q. And money restrictions:. But did 17 they place any limits on -- did they say just go 18 look at the newspapers and what's in the state 19 legislative archives? Or did they ask you to 20 comment on the election or did they want you to. 21 use the broad materials that'you had used in 22 researching and writing your book on.that 1950 23 election? 24 A. The best answer.to that question 25 based on my experience is that they didn't state A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 92: rhz82d00
89 1 A. It has been produced. 2 Q. And was there additional research' 3 that you did in producing the documentary? 4 A. Yes. 5 Q. What additional.rese.arch did you 6 do, and let me leave it there for the moment? 7 A. We did intensive videotaped live 8 interviews with surviving members of ' C3raham' s 9 immediate family, with historians who gave us 10 commentary on Graham's significance as a 11 historical character, wi4th his political comrades 12 in various of his concerns across his long and 13 very active life. With people who were on the 14 other side, for example Hoover Adams.,; 15 Q. You interviewed him? 16 A. We interviewed Hoover Adams for 17 this film, for this documentairy; and others who 18 had opposed Graham for much of his political 19 life. 20 Q. And was any of that -- the 21 interviews that were done with those who opposed 22 him, was that of value in assisting in creating 23 this documentary film? 24 A. Yes. 25 Q. In what way was it of value? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIAT.ES,
Page 93: rhz82d00
102 1 Q. And what are those rules? 2 A. Relative to conflict of interest? 3 Q. Yes, sir. 4 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm just `going to 5 have a standing objection unless you concur what 6 you're really asking is his understanding. 7 MR. HOGAN: Well, let me just ask 8 it two ways then. 9 BY MR. HOGAN: 10 Q. What is your understanding of what 11 those rules are? 12 A. My understanding is, first of all, 13 that conflicts of interest have'to do w}t'h' 14 activities at the university which wduld create a 15 situation that would compromise my academic 16 contribution to the university. 17 Q. Have you consulted with anyone 18 concerning the conflicts of interest rules in 19 order to obtain that understanding of what those A. I've looked at the contract provisions and the guidelines that are,copied when u, I signed my contract. m Q. With the university? m ~ A. Yes. ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 94: rhz82d00
78 1 Q. And it would be necessary then to 2 see it in the overall context of the case -- of 3 the case of the election that'you would be 4 investigating historically, correct? 5 A. Probably so. 6 Q. The book -- aipart from the 7 commentators about its comprehensiveness and its 8 perspective, and the quality of the perspective 9 provided and realizing that you don't want to be 10 boastful, but it received an award in large 11 measure of its comprehensiveness and the 12 perspective that it brought to the issue; is that 13 correct? 14 A. Somebody called it an outstanding 15 book. what they meant by outstanding is not'for 16 me to say. 17 Q. And it was felt to be quality 18 historical work because of its comprehensiveness 19 by others who reviewed it; is that correct? 20 A. In part,.that.'s correct. 21 Q. And the other part had to do with 22 its perspective that it brought? 23 A. And the willingness I think •- a 24 willingness to evaluate the.evidence that -- to be 25 fair to the evidence that we found. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., •& ASSOCIATES
Page 95: rhz82d00
103 1 Q. And you signed that on -- every -- 2 A. On an annual basis. 3 Q. Annually. And in this instance of 4 this project that you're doing at the request of 5 the cigarette industry`defendants in this case, 6 did you make any disclosures pursuant to those 7 conflicts of interest rules? 8 A. I have made a disclosure,_yes`. 9 Q. You made a disclosure to whom and 10 when? 11 A. I made a disclosure two days ago to 12 the associate dean of arts and sciences at the 13 college at the University of`F.lorida. 14 Q. And in making -- then if I had 15 taken your deposition this past Monday, it would 16 be the case that you would not have at that time 17 filed a conflict of interest disclosure? 18 A. Correct. 19 Q. When you did this disclosure,two 20 days ago, what were the circumstances that 21 prompted you to file this disclosu're_with the 22 university? 23 A. The dean called me and asked me if 24 I was involved -- if I was a potential witness in 25 this case. And I said that I was. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., 4 ASSOCIATES
Page 96: rhz82d00
109 1 defendants? 2 A. Yes. 3 MR. LOCKMAN: Consulted about what, 4 just so the record is clear? ` 5 BY MR. HOC3AN : 6 Q. Over the entire course that you've 7 been doing this project; is that correct? 8 A. I have consulted - 9 Q. At various times? 10 A. I have given them the benefits of 11 my research effort. Consulted not in the sense 12 that I sought guidance from them as to this 13 research. ; 14 Q. You're saying then in none of the 15 times that you've communicated with any of the 16 lawyers representing the cigarette industry 17 defendants in this case, did you ask them for any 18 guidance on your research; is that correct? 19 A. That.'s correct. 20 Q. Did they at any time make any 21 suggestion to you as to what potential areas of. 22 research might be? 23 A. No. 24 Q. You originally were given-a broad 25 description of a project and then you provided to A. wILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 97: rhz82d00
98 1 very attractive. 2 Q. Have you done all the work that you 3 would think that you would need to do to be able 4 to publish such a book? A. That's aNdifficult question: For 6 the reasons that I have been alluding to as we 7 have proceeded, I'm close. 8 Q. I asked earlier about ruies or 9 regulations or codes that the American Historical 10 Association may have. Are there any rules or 11 regulations that the State of Florida or the 12 University of Florida has with regard to 13 consulting arrangements that its faculty members 14 engage in with outside parties who ask for you to 15 engage in a consultancy? 16 A. Yes. 17 Q. What sort.of rules are those and 18 how would they -- how did they relate to your 19 undertaking this particular project for the 20 cigarette industry defendants? 21 A. Well, as I have stated, I have been 22 a consultant for some time. My•consulting work is 23 independent of my work at the university. First 24 of all because I'm on a nine-month contract. 25 Q. A nine-month contract-, what is A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATtS
Page 98: rhz82d00
85 1 court held that -- eventually he wais ordered 2 admitted. 3 Q. Eventually the United States 4 Supreme Court heard the case? 5 A. Correct. Making the claim that if 6 the equal facilities that state --, this was 7 actually saying that the state could not fund his 8 10 11 responsibility to provide for his legal education 12 within the boundaries of that state"in which he 13 was a citizen. , 14 Q. That being the ruling of the court, 15 what then happened in the case of L1oyd.Gaines, do 16 you recall? 17 A. He disappeared. 18 Q. Did he instantly? In other 19 words -- was there any other historical record of 20 Lloyd Gaines in any other location after the day 21 of the decision? 22 A. To my knowledge, no. 23 Q. There were a couple of other cases 24 around the same time that you excerpted for that 25 encyclopedic treatment for the Supreme Court that legal education at a school outside.the state's boundaries that would Accept h'is application for admission. They had the duty, had the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 99: rhz82d00
95 1 wanted you to try to learn for them their -- their 2 parents and their grandparents and great 3 grandparents and try'to carry that back o.ver 4 time? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. And you,did that?' 7 8 10 11 A. Yes. Q. Is there any other project that you've done? A. I'm trying to remember. I have been a consultant for some 12 time and I'm trying to'remember specifically to 13 answer your question. 14 I'm going to give you a qualified 15 yes, that that is the sum and`substance of these 16 projects that I've done. 17 Q. As a -- 18 A. If I remember, I will inform you as 19 we proceed. 20 Q. When you=say that you've been a 21 consultant for some time, does that mean something 22 broader than those three projects? 23 A. Oh, yes.' 24 Q. What other kinds of projects 25 you been a consultant -- have A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 100: rhz82d00
106 1 A. I, informed them that I was filing 2 the form. 3 Q. Did you then discuss with them what 4 the content of the disclosure, what it would say 5 would be? 6 A. The content of the disclosure? 7 Q. In other words -- yes. Is there 8 something that when you file a disclosure form as you did two days ago, is there some place there 10 where you are supposed to -- or where you set out 11 the reasons that you think that there is a 12 disclosure -- the reason that you think that there 13 is a conflict of interest? 14 MR. LOCKMAN: I object to that. He 15 hasn't said that. 16 BY MR. HOGAN: 17 Q. Is there a place where you set out 18 the reason for setting -- the reason for filing 19 the conflict of interest disclosure ffl rm? 20 A. The reason for filing, yes. 21 And what did you state on this 22 form? 23 A. That I was a potential witness in 24 this case. 25 Q. Did you say anything more than that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 101: rhz82d00
110 1 them an outline of what you proposed to do? 2 A. No, I didn''t provide an outline. 3 Q. At all? 4 A. No. 5 Q. At any point did you provide what 6 would be an outline of what you had found up until 7 that point in time? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. And did you ask them for any 10 suggestions or information or guidance then? 11 A. No. 12 Q. Did they.tell you to go forward 13 with your project given what you had found and 14 what you were able to outline at.that point? 15 A. They told me to"continue my work. 16 Q. After your telephone conversation 17 with the -- well, let me ask specifically, which 18 of the lawyers representing the cigarette industry 19 defendants did you speak with concerning this 20 disclosure form? 21 A. Ms. Kessler, Mr. Lemley and Mr. 22 Lockman. And Mr. Steve Kaczsynski who was also 23 present. 24 Q. Was this in person? 25 A. Yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,'JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 102: rhz82d00
115 1 potentially to be a conflict? 2 A. No. 3 Q. Do you ha ve, just for,other kinds 4 of reasons of any sort, do you have a lawyer who 5 you periodically might be in a position to consult 6 or have consulted over time to advise you about 7 contract rights on your book or anything along 8 those lines? 9 A. My wife's an attorney. 10 Q. I see. And have you consulted with 11 her about this in her position ---this issue of 12 this conflict of interest disclosure form in her 13 role as an attorney? 14 A. No. 15 Q. In her role as an attorney she has 16 acted previously as your legal adviser 17 A. Yes. 18 Q. -- on matters for example like the 19 contracts related to your book or the 20 documentary? Or did you have other counsel is 21 what I'm asking? 22 A. No, I didn't have other counsel, 23 Q. Where does your wife practice law? 24 A. In Florida. In McIntosh, Florida. 25 Q. She has a general practice there? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,:JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 103: rhz82d00
86 1 were similar? 2 A. Yes. 3 Q. There is the Sweatt? 4 A. Sweatt, yes. 5 Q. And that plays or becomes somewhat 6 involved in the reporting that is included in your 7 book with Mr. Pleasants in the 1950 Senate race? 8 A. It does. 9 Q. Have you undertaken previous 10 projects or projects like the one that you've been 11 asked to do here in this case by the State of 12 Florida and its entities and Governor Chiles 13 against the cigarette industry defendants? 14 Have you had other projects that 15 you've been asked by outside companies or entities 16 to undertake where you review materials at their 17 request and then provide.opinions? 18 A. Let me qualify your question, if I 19 may. 20 I accepted a research assignment 21 from them. I did not review materials at their 22 request, if you mean that I reviewed materials 23 that they provided to me as the research 24 assignment. 25 Q. We will go ahead then and clarify A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 104: rhz82d00
116 1 A. Yes. 2 Q. How.long has her practice of law 3 been established? 4 A. She has been practicing in Florida 5 - since 1985. 6 Q. When did she complete law school? 7 A. 1978, I think. 8 Q. At the U.niversity of Florida 9 College of Law? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. When did you become a professor 12 there? 13 A. 1974, I think. 14 Q. Approximately? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. And then did you -- when you began 17 there at the University of Florida, that was when 18 when you first -- 19 A. 1967. 20 Q. And in what capacity? 21 A. Assistant professor. 22 Q. Had you been a professor any place ~ N 23 else before that or did you come straight there 24 w from -- ~ 25 A. N OD From Chapel Hill. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 105: rhz82d00
97 1 Q. It is particularly good if we talk 2 over each other.it be on that question in the 3 sense that it won't be the main topic today. 5 A. Any other work as a consultant? I think I'll say that's what I 6 remember at the moment. 7 Q. Do you have any thought or plan of 8 writing an article or a book stemming from your 9 research that you have been asked to do as a 10 consultant for the cigarette industry defendants 11 in this case? 12 A. Yes. 13 Q. What sort of article or book do you 14 intend to write with respect to that research? 15 A. I project a book on the history of 16 tobacco in Florida. 17 Q. Was this something that the 18 cigarette industry defendants when they asked you 19 to undertake this project suggested would be an 20 additional thing they would like for you to do? 21 A. No. 22 Q. It is a thought that you have that 23 has come to you as a result of your getting 24 involved in doing this research? 25 A. The richness of these materials is A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 106: rhz82d00
100 1 A. To my knowledge it is not. 2 Q. And in that sense, just to go back 3 to my earlier question so I can understand because 4 you mentioned the idea of this book, are there any 5 rules or regulations that apply to -- or in any 6 way restrict your ability to enter into consulting 7 arrangements or publish a book during the`:time 8 that you're a professor at the University of 9 Florida? Any rules or regulations, contract 10 requirements or anything like that that you're 11 aware of? 12 A. May I ask you to repeat the 13 question. 14 Q. Yes. I had asked about your 15 writing a book and then it revolved around to my 16 asking about whethei there are any rules or 17 regulations that apply to your becoming involved 18 in doing a consultancy arrangement or writing a 19 book on your own or anything along those lines. 20 Is there any kind of,application 21 process that you have to do with the university or 22 with the state to be permitted to do any work of 23 that sort? 24 A. There are conflict of interest 25 requirements. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 107: rhz82d00
118 1 Q. What is it that caused you to draw 2 the conclusion or has caused you over these 19 or 3 so years to draw the conclusions that the' 4 prospects for success were not promising for 5 promotion to full professor? 6 A. There is some concern that my 7 publication record is not sufficiently prolific. 8 Q. Can you -- some concern on whose 9 part? 10 A. On the part of the people who make 11 the decisions relative to promotions. 12 Q. Have those people over the years 13 been the same people or have there been different 14 people who have held the positions of making those 15 decisions? 16 17 A. Different people. Q. And your understanding is that over 18 that stretch 19 take it that 20 21 22 23 of years, that those professors -- they are professors? I A. Uh-huh. Q. Full professors? A. Yes. Ln I N Q• I take it that they have ~ m w 24 consistently concluded as far as you're aware that 25 your academic record as far as publication is A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 108: rhz82d00
90 1 A. It provided a fuller perspective on 2 Graham's life and on the -- it gave us information 3 about the level of controversy that his career 4 evoked in people. 5 Q. The strength of feelings that it 6 produced among those that'were opposed to him, for 7 example? 8 A. Precisely. 9 Q. And did it get into providing 10 information as to steps that they took in reaction 11 to that? 12 A. Perhaps. I'm not sure I can answer 13 that question specifically. 14 Q. As to any particular individual? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. Mr. Adams is still living? 17 A. Yes. To the best of my knowledge. 18 Q. You mentioned the interviews and I 19 had asked earlier about archives And your 20 reviewing the private papers of individuals or 21 those involved in the campaign back in 1950. Did 22 you in preparing the book,`researching the book, 23 did you conduct interviews? 24 A. we did conduct some interviews, 25 yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 109: rhz82d00
120 1 Q. What information have they given to 2 you, whether complete or comprehensive,-as to the 3 reasons that they have made it known. to you that 4 they don't feel that you should be promoted to 5 full professor? And you've pegged it particularly 6 to your publication -- 7 A. I have. 8 That the record is not complete. 9 That it is -- it is not as full ds it should be. 10 What I have published has been of,high quality, 11 but there hasn't been enough of it. 12 Q. And when they deal -- when they 13 review publications, do they look at what are 14 called peer review publications'as opposed to 15 publications in some -- in a popular magazine? 16 A. Both count, but the peer reviewed 17 publications have a greater weight. 18 Q. What is the peer review process? 19 A. It is a process where.one submits 20 articles to a journal, professional"-journal. It' 21 has a board of editors and the piece is assigned 22 to one of the editors or -- or it is read by a 23 series of them or they select someone in the field 24 who is familiar with the subject and-have that 25 person review the piece_and comment on it,as to A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 110: rhz82d00
87 1 it. 2 What was the research assignment 3 that they gave to you and -- 4 A. They gave me a reseerch =- 5 research suggestion. They said we want you to 6 examine the state's involvement with toliacco. 7 Q. The State of Florida?, 8 A. Yes. I told them I would be glad 9 to undertake a study of"tobacco and the history in 10 the state of Florida. 11 Q. We got to that point by my asking 12 you whether you had ever before that'been 13 approached to do a research aEisignment by some 14 outside entity, somebody outside the.university.or 15 somebody outside your own mind telling you this is 16 a subject that I -- a particular'subject that I 17 would like to research and write about, have you 18 ever been approached by Anyone else before? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. What sort of work have you 21 previously done? 22 A. I was approached to assist in a 23 documentary film on the life of Frank Porter 24 Graham. 25 Q. Coming as a result.of the work that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 111: rhz82d00
111 1 Q. Was that in Gainesville or was that 2 up here in Washington? 3 A. Up here in Washington:. 4 Q. You came here to Washington when? 5 A. Tuesday night.'' 6 Q. Tuesday night. You „vet with them 7 on Wednesday? 8 A. Uh-huh. 9 Q. And so this was an in»person 10 meeting with the lawyers who are here? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. Where was the form typed? 13 A. I filled it out with a pen in my 14 hand. 15 Q. At the offices of -- which law 16 firm? 17 A. I filled it out in my hotel room 18 'and then took it to -- took it with me when we had 19 our first meeting. 20 Q. To the meeting with these lawyers? 21 22 A. Q. Yes. What was the reason for showing 23 them the form? Ln ~-A rn m 24 A. It was a matter of information to w 25 inform them that I had had an inauiry,and I had ~ CO A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 112: rhz82d00
113 1 Q. You did you undergtand.o°F did they ~r 2 explain in any greater degree of detail as to how 3 they thought potentially`your interestdmight 4 diverge? 5 A. Yes. Well -- yes. 6 Q. What did they,say? 7 A. That I would have to -- the 8 university and I would have to resolve this. If the university fails to approve my request,' if 10 they look at my disclosure and say our judgment i 11 that your testimony in this trial' would.constitute 12 a conflict of interest and that we will not permit 13 it, I'm just speculating', I don't know`what their 14 response would be, at that point I would have to 15 determine a course of action.thait',would be 16 concerned with my legal interests In this 17 situation. 18 Q. Did they explain anything further 19 to you about how that would involve your interest 20 diverging from the interest of the cigarette 21 industry defendants? 22 A. No. 23 Q. So at.this point at least you've 24 not consulted with privatie'counsel? 25 A. No. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,`JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 113: rhz82d00
99 1 that? 2 A. That means that my appointment is 3 for two academic terms. 4 Q. Okay. Pardon me,'I don't 5 necessarily know all;the - 6 A. It means that I'm paid from August 7 to May. 8 Q. Okay. I'm still not grasping what 9 that means so far as any rul9s or regulations that 10 apply to your making arrangements for consulting 11 for pay from people from the outside of the 12 university. How does`what you just said about 13 nine-month contract and two academic terms, what 14 does that mean? 15 A. It means that -- it means in the 16 summer my time is for me to structure in my own 17 pursuits. 18 Q. I see. Is that an arrangement 19 that's available to-you through your having tenure ft 20 with the university? In other words, is that 21 something that comes along with your status as a 22 tenured professor? „ 23 A. I don't know. 24 Q. Is it any different than any other 25 professor there at the university? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 114: rhz82d00
112 1 responded in this fashion. 2 Q. And did they -- what advice did 3 ive ou? the y y g 4 MR. LOCKMAN: If any. 5 THE WITNESS: In reference to 6 filing the form, none. I mean, I said -- you 7 know, that -- I said here's this form. I'm filing 8 it, and this is what it is. 9 BY MR. HOGAN: 10 Q. Did they give you any advice to -- 11 to seek the advice of independent counsel, 12 somebody other than cigarette industry defendant 13 lawyers? 14 A. Yes. 15 Q. And did you? 16 A. I have not. 17 Q. Did they say to you why they 18 thought it would be advisable for you to seek 19 advice from your own lawyer? 20 A. They said at some point our 21 interests might diverge. 22 Q. Whose interests might diverge? 23 A. The attorneys for Jones Day and 24 Arnold & Porter and my interests. Their interests 25 and mine as a consultant. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 115: rhz82d00
124 1 Q. So during that same time frame that 2 we mentioned about the roadhouses; and is that -- 3 by location would that music be in a different 4 location than those roadhouses or would that be 5 the same, approximately? 6 7 8 9 10 frame? A. Q. A. Q. It would be different. But it's during the same time Yes. Apart from those two subject 11 matters, what other articles have you written that 12 have been -- or publications have you written that 13 were peer reviewed? 14 A. I think we have been through most 15 of them. 16 Q. Was it -- when did it first -- when 17 would you first have been eligible to apply for a 18 position as a full professor at the University of 19 Florida? 20 A. I'm not sure. 21 Q. Do you know an approximate number 22 of months or years after you became an associate 23 professor that you would have been allowed under 24 rules to apply for a full professorship or can you 25 do it right away? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 116: rhz82d00
126 1 2 3 development of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill as a major source of educational leadership in the south. 4 Q. And after the presentation of that 5 paper then it would be your hope to submit that to 6 7 a journal to - A. I will submit it to the North 8 Carolina Historical Review. 9 10 Q. publication? Which is a peer reviewed 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. Any other publications that you 13 presently are working on or have in mind that you 14 expect to submit for peer review? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. What are those? 17 A. I'm working on an article on 18 Graham's political activities in the 1930s which 19 would be a long piece, 40 to 50 pages. 20 Q. To whom will you submit that for 21 peer review? 22 A. It will probably be submitted to 23 the Journal of Southern History. I'm not sure 24 exactly now where I will try to place that.~-piece. 25 Q. Any other work that you're doing A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 117: rhz82d00
101 1 Q. Of what sort? 2 A. That require me-.to declare that the work that I'm doing is not work which creates a conflict of interest. a 5 Q. How long have,those kinds of conflict of interest requirements been in place? 7 A. I'm not clear exactly how long, but 8 for several years. 9 Q. Five, ten years or more, do you 10 know? 11 A. Not more. 12 Q. Ten years or less? 13 A. Yes. 14 Q. More than five? 15 A. Perhaps. 16 Q. And what are -- what are those 17 rules related to declaring conflict of interest? 18 Well, let me just - 19 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm going to object 20 to the extent that I think you are asking for a 21 legal conclusion. If you want him to'staite what 22 his understanding is, that's fine. Buts he,is not 23 sitting here and citing regulations or 24 interpreting them. 25 BY MR. HOGAN: A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 118: rhz82d00
108. 1 MR. HOGAN: Now I recognize you as 2 Lockman Mr . . 3 MR. LOCKMAN: That's good. 4 always wanted to be a judge. 5 BY MR. HOGAN: 6 Q. When you make a disclosure of this 7 sort, are you obligated under the form to disclose 8 the source of funding for the project that you're doing? 10 I think the answer is yes. I was 11 asked -- I think the form asks for whom are you 12 performing the service. 13 Q. And what -- 14 A. Which is I guess the same.thing. 15 Q. And what did you say? 16 A. I said the law firm of Jones, Day, 17 Reavis & Pogue. 18 Q. Which was one of the law firms 19 representing the cigarette defendants in this 20 lawsuit? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. You've consulted with lawyers..from Ln 23 law firms other than lawyers from Jones Day? m w 24 A. I have. m 25 Q. Representing cigarette industry co m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 119: rhz82d00
117 1 Q. -- from Chapel Hill at the 2 University of North Carolina. 3 And you then became an a'ssociate 4 professor? 5 A. (Witness nods.) 6 Q. When did that happen? 7 A. I think it was 1978. 8 Q. And then after that: did you become 9 a professor at what's called a full professor. 10 A. I'm still an associate professor. 11 Q. Was there a time frame or a point 12 in time when you were considered for a full 13 professorship? 14 A. No, I have never gone -- I have 15 never put forward my papers for promotion. 16 Q. Never made application for that. 17 Is that something that,you considered,;that you 18 would like to do? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. Is there`any reason.that you have 21 not applied for a full professorship since -- over 22 the last 15-plus, 20-plus years? What is it, 23 since '78, almost 20 years? 24 A. The prospects for su"ccess have not 25 been promising, so I didn't apply. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 120: rhz82d00
133 1 Q. Had you done any work previous to 2 being employed in this projeCt by.the cigarette 3 industry defendants on addictive substances? 4 A. No. 5 Q. On lung cancer? 6 A. No. 7 Q . Emphysema? 8 A. No. 9 Q. Heart disease? 10 A. No. 11 Q. Cardiovascular disease in any way, 12 shape or form? 13 A. No. 14 Q. Any hazards stemming from the use 15 of cigarettes? Had you made any study of that 16 before becoming employed on this project by the 17 cigarette industry defendants? 18 A. No formal academic study. 19 Q. And had you done any study of the 20 subject of public awareness of the sddictiveness 21 of cigarettes in Florida? 22 A. No. 23 24 Q. In any other state? A. No. ui N m m w m 25 Q. Of the subject of lung cancer being OD w Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., 4 ASSOCIATES
Page 121: rhz82d00
114 1 Q. And you don't at this point see any 2 divergence of interest between you and the 3 cigarette industry defendants? 4 A. Not at thie'point. 5 Q. Did the form that you filed o' indicate the matter that you're consulting with 7 the cigarette industry defendants? -Does it ask 8 what's the - 9 A. No. 10 Q. It doesn't ask about the name of 11 the lawsuit? 12 A. No. 13 Q. Does it indicate that;.Jones Day - 14 is that the name of the firm that you put on t he 15 form? 16 A. Yes. "' 17 Q. Does the form indicate that they 18 are representing the'cigarette industry defendants 19 in this case? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. So the form says t hat to the best 22 that you recall? 23 A. I'm not clear that it does. 24 Q. Does it indicate in any way, shape 25 or form how it is that you consider this A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 122: rhz82d00
125 1 A. The timing of.an application for 2 promotion is really dependent more on your 3 accomplishments than the timetable. 4 Q. And at what point did`you come to 5 the point of view that your accomplishments were 6 such that you could apply for -- professional 8 accomplishments were such that you could apply for a full professorship? . Well, I considered,applying for a 10 full professorship.when the Graham book was il published. 12 13 Q. And you did not do that? A. I initiated the process and was 14 advised to step down by the then-chair of our 15 department. 16 Q. Do you have any other works 17 underway that you expect to submit for peer 18 review? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. What works are :those? 21 A. Well, L'.m working on an article 22 now, a paper that I will give'this year at the 23 meeting of the Southern Historical Association on . . ..j. . .. . 24 Frank Porter Graham and the building of a modern 25 university, meaning,his contribution to the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 123: rhz82d00
107 1 on that form? 2 A. No. 3 Q. And -- 4 A. Not that I recall. 5 Q. Do you have a copy of that form? 6 Counsel, do you have a copy of that 7 form? 8 MR. LEMLEY: Not.with me. 9 THE WITNESS: I.didn't bring 10 anything with me. 11 MR. HOGAN: I just have.not seen 12 the form and don't know about the form dnd so I'm. 13 just -- 14 MR. LOCKMAN: Are we going through 15 lunch, do you think? 16 MR. HOGAN: Definitely. 17 MR. LOCKMAN: "We will take the 18 request under advisement, and if w'e decide to 19 grant it,we will bring it with us after lunch. 20 MR. HOGAN: Thank you,"judge,. Mr. 21 Lockwood applied to the bench and nobody knew it. 22 MR. LOCKMAN: It's Loc4man. I u, ~ 23 certainly don't mean to sound that way. It's a m 24 request and we have to decide whether we are going m OD 25 to give information in response to your request. m to A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 124: rhz82d00
128 1 A. No. 2 Q. Had you any previous publications 3 or research that you had done on the subject of 4 tobacco or cigarettes related to any other place' 5 or state? 6 A. The question of support' for tobacco 7 farmers was an important question in the Graham 8 campaign. North Carolinai pol'iticians 9 understandably have to be concerned.about those 10 programs that the Federal Government implements to 11 assist tobacco farmers. 12 And so it was important that we be 13 able to understand and cl,early articulate the 14 degree to which those concerns informed the Graham 15 campaign. 16 Q. Why do you say understandably? 17 A. Since North Carolina is &. .major 18 tobacco producing state. 19 Q. And that means what .so far as a 20 person running for political office in North 21 Carolina? In other words, this was information 22 that -- knowledge that you had in your mind at the ~ 23 time? m 24 A. w Yes. m 25 Q. co w That you were approached by the m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 125: rhz82d00
129 1 cigarette industry defendants in this case because 2 of your previous work? 3 A. Yes. 4 Q. In North'Caro.lina -• about North 5 Carolina? 6 A. Yes. 7 Q• Why was that topic, support'for 8 tobacco growing important understandably to North Carolina politicians? 10 A. Because tobacco is a central 11 economic force in the life of the state. 12 Q. The companies, the cigarette 13 companies themselves, where do they come in in 14 that mix? 15 MR. LOCKMAN: Object to the form. 16 BY MR. HOGAN: 17 Q. Where do the cigarette companies 18 come in in North Carolina on the question of the 19 importance to North. Carp.olina politicians? And I'm 20 asking about what you knew before you were 21 approached by the cigarette industry here? 22 A. The term "cigarette companies," can 23 be'broken down into several consa+ituents. 24 Q. Do that for me, please? 25 A. We are referring first to all of A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 126: rhz82d00
139 1 I was asking how it was that the subject of his 2 taking up cigarettes shortly before he died -- 3 A. I would view it as an indication 4 that he had little regard for his life beyond that 5 point. He was willing to,.engage in a reckless 6 act . 7 Q. And what was that reckless act? 8 A. Smoking. 9 MR. HOGAN: Why don't we break for 10 w l n h . c u no 11 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: Going off the 12 id d ' 2 v eotape recor . It s 1 :35. 13 (Whereupon, at 12:35 p.m., a lunch 14 recess was taken.) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 m m 24 m CO A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 127: rhz82d00
135 1 MR. LOCKMAN: About anythihg? 2 MR. HOGAN: About the subject of 3 cigarettes that we just discussed-arid their 4 potential -- 5 6 7 9 THE WITNESS: No. BY MR. HOGAN: Q. Nothing about -- A. No. Q. And are there written materials 10 that address that subject that you used,-- that 11 were used in any of the classes that you taught, 12 that is the subject of cigarettes,'their causing 13 lung cancer, their addictiveness, any of those 14 kinds of topics? 15 A. No. 16 Q. Do you have lectur'e""notes that you 17 use in teaching courses? 18 A. Yes. 19 Q. Would any of those lecture notes 20 have references to cigarettes, cigarettes causing 21 lung cancer, cigarettes being addictive, public 22 awareness of cigarettes that exist before you were 23 engaged by the cigarette company defendants in 24 this case? 25 A. There are some discussions of the Ln N m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES-
Page 128: rhz82d00
146 1 the truth. 2 That the dean called him. That his call was returned from Washington. The dean asked 4: him about his role and he said he is-a:Possible 5 witness. He has been designated, and the dean 6 said you have to fill out this form. I'm not 7 saying those are the exact words, but he faxed the 8 form to Washington and told him to get t'he form 9 back to Florida on Wednesday which was done. 10 I don't think that he has testified 11 in conflict with that, but -- 12 MR. HOGAN: I tried to ask him 13 earlier to describe the conversation, talk about 14 it and he didn't indicate that the dean had told 15 him to do anything other than simply asked the 16 question of him. 17 MR. LOCKMAN: Well, he told you 18 that the dean called him at home when he was out 19 of the city. 20 MR. MIKHAIL: He did say 'that he 21 wasn't quite sure how it came about -that -- 22 MR. LOCKMAN: The record will be 23 what it i 24 MR. HOGAN: The record is what it 25 is, and the questions that I asked were the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 129: rhz82d00
144 1 MR. MIKHAIL: Does the defense have 2 any objections other than Dr. Burns' wishes? 3 MR. LOCKMAN: Probably not. 4 MR. HOGAN: So you were simply 5 6 stating Dr. Burns' MR. objection. LOCKMAN: I was. I don't know 7 if I speak for all defendants. I'm speaking for Philip Morris at the moment. Philip Morris does 9 not object to having it turned over, but we are 10 not in a position to require Dr. Burns to turn it 11 over. 12 MR. HOGAN: Do the rest of the 13 defendants have a position or an objection? 14 (Pause in the proceedings.) 15 MR. MIKHAIL: Going once, going 16 twi e . c 17 MS. KESSLER: Well, I reiterate 18 th t a -- 19 MR. HOGAN: The question is only 20 whether you have an objection on behalf of your 21 client or clients. I understand that you are here 22 for R.J. Reynolds. 23 MS. KESSLER: That's correct. I'd 24 say we probably at this point have questions about 25 its relevancy, and I might have an objection based A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 130: rhz82d00
136 1 changing consumer patterns of the 1920s that 2 discuss a host of substances -- alcohol -- but 3 including alcohol and tobacco. 4 There is='discussion in the class 5 when we talk about the passage of the Pure Food & 6 Drug Act that discuss similar concerns. Usually 7 presented in the form of a -- relating to students 8 how this issue becomes a, matter of public debate 9 and the course of that debate. 10 Q. And has it revolved around the 11 issue, the lecture as it revolved around the issue 12 of the Pure Food & Drug Act, that was what 13 timeframe? 14 A. 1905. 15 Q. So apart from the time period of 16 1905 and the period around the 1920s, if we were 17 to review your notes or some future historian were 18 to look at the Augustus Burns papers, would he 19 find notes for classroom teaching.that discuss 20 cigarettes, cigarettes and lung cancer, cigarettes 21 and addictiveness for any notes that you would 22 have used before you became engaged by the 23 cigarette industry defendants? m ~ w 24 A. Yes, he would. o, co 25 Q. What else would he find? o A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 131: rhz82d00
151 1 process of preparing these materials it was 2 omitted. 3 MR. LEMLEY: No, I've got it. 4 MR. HOGAN: He found a copy. 5 MR. LOCKMAN: And at the next break 6 we can have a copy of it made. 7 MR. HOGAN: Thank you. 8 MR. LOCKMAN: So we provided the 9 document with the page included and you can keep 10 that one, Mr. Hogan. 11 BY MR. HOGAN: 12 Q. There-is a reference on page 14 of 13 the second one, the 1997 one. It's a new sentence 14 that says, "At this point my colleagues moved 15 their offices to their homes venturing onto campus 16 only to conduct class and hold office houra." 17 When you made that -- and that was 18 after a discussion on page 13 that refers to four 19 of my colleagues in the department of history -. 20 MR. LOCKMAN: May I see that? 21 MR. LEMLEY: Here, I've got an 22 ext a r one. 23 BY MR. HOGAN: 24 Q. -- now confined to their offices 25 should they desire a cigarette became extremely A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 132: rhz82d00
148 1 compensated by the cigarette company and cigarette 2 industry defendants; is that correct? 3 A. It is correct. 4 Q. Have you begun a manuscript for 5 that book? 6 A. No. I have written two working 7 papers which are research design. 8 Q. One is a little longer than the 9 other. Are they in the form of an outline or a 10 narrative for a talk or presentation that you were 11 going to -- were going to or did give? 12 A. That is correct. 13 Q. And when was it that you gave the 14 first of those presentations based on that outline 15 or summary? 16 A. The first of those presentations to 17 the best of my recollection was in June 1995. 18 The latter presentation was in 19 April 1996. Excuse me, 1997. 20 Q. April 1997? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. And it is longer than the first one 23 that you gave? 24 A. It is. 25 Q. Or prepared? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 133: rhz82d00
121 1 the appropriateness for its publication in that 2 journal. 1 3 Q. And because of going through that 4 peer review process for approval for publication, 5 that's what gives it greater weight when it's 6 reviewed by the professors who would make 7 determinations about the question of promotion -- 8 promoting you to full professor; is that right? 9 A. Yes. 10 Q., What have been the subject matters 11 of the peer reviewed publications that you've had 12 over this period of years since 1974 at the 13 University of Florida? 14 A. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme 15 Court pieces were all peer reviewed by the board 16 of editors of that publication. 17 18 did? 19 20 21 22 23 question. 24 25 Q. Those were the summaries that you A. Yes. Q. Summarizing a -- A. Yes. MR. LOCKMAN: Let him finish the cn , ,.., MR. HOGAN: Yes. m OD BY MR. HOGAN : ni w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 134: rhz82d00
137 e wo.uld find again references, for 2 example, when I discuss Franklin D. Roosevelt and. 3 his health problems. 4 Q. And what - 5 A. That Roosevelt, one of.his 6 health -- continuing health problems stemmed from 7 his heavy use of cigarettes which some of the 8 medical historians that I have read have argued 9 was a major contributor to his terminal illness 10 which was a cervical hemorrhage, and severe 11 circulatory problems. 12 Q. Stroke following severe circulatory 13 problems? 14 A. Yes. Hardening of the,arteries and 15 difficulty in breathing and,so on. 16 Q. So you would expect that on review 17 of your teaching notes for courses, that it would 18 discuss that aspect of the disease and final 19 illness of President Roosevelt? 20 A. Yes. And within the context of the 21 health concerns that were such a signif-.icant part 22 of Roosevelt's public life.' 23 Q. Anything else that they would find 24 in those classroom teaching notes after• President 25 Roosevelt died in 1944? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 135: rhz82d00
140 1 AFTERNOON SESSION 2 (1 :39 p.m. ) 3 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: ~,We are back on 4 the videotape record now at 1:39. 5 This is the beginning of tape 3, 6 May 9, 1997. 7 MR. HOGAN: Let me ask counsel 8 whether we have the form that 9 talked about earlier. that Dk.'Burns 10 MR. LOCKMAN: Yes. I'`do have 11 something to say, and that is I don't,know how 12 much you two, Mr. Hogan and Mr. Mikhail know about 13 this. 14 The form was filed on Wednesday. I 15 don't know if you were told about its contents 16 from any other source. All I'm pointing out', 17 though, is this. 18 As the witness testified, he-talked 19 to the associate dean. The associate dean told 20 him to submit the form"and the associate-;dean 21 faxed the form to him and said get it back to us, 22 which he did on Wednesday. 23 Dr. Burns does not believe there is 24 any conflict of interest here as he stated in his 25 form. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 136: rhz82d00
130 1 the people who work,in these factories who are 2 quite numerous, as we both understand, and who are 3 active participants in North Carolina politics as 4 citizens of the state. 5 The people who direct/manage the 6 companies are also another group. 7 The people who -- 8 Q. Another group that what? 9 A. That participates politically. 10 Q. And you were continuing to break it 11 down? 12 A. If we go beyond the production of 13 the product itself and go back to the tobacco as 14 it is grown and cultivated -- 15 Q. Beyond the production of 16 cigarettes? 17 A. That's right. Then we have a much 18 broader group of people, the farmers themselves 19 and their families who are -- who are important 20 politically in the history of the state, and they 21 range in a geographic sense almost all of the way 22 across the state. 23 Now, the concentration varies from 24 one region to another, but they are -- especially 25 more in the 1950s than now. They were more A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 137: rhz82d00
105 2 you called him back, I guess, saying? that's wha't,you're 3 A. I did. 4 Q. Apart from that conversation, did 5 you ask him whether he thought,y:Qu should file a 6 conflict of interest disclosure? 7 A. We agreed that I should. 8 Q. Do you recall how it c'ame:=up? In 9 other words whether he suggested you might. 10 consider that or whether you said should I,`-`or how 11 did that go? 12 A. I'm not sure. 13 Q. Did you speak with any other person 14 about whether you would or should file a conflict 15 of interest disclosure after your telephone•` 16 conversation with the dean? 17 A. I discussed the form With the 18 attorneys in this room. 19 Q. When you say the attorneys in this. 20 room, do you mean the attorneys who are in this 21 room who represent the cigarette industry. 22 defendants? 23 A. Right. But the'nature of the 24 discussion was not whether or not to file a form. 25 Q. Did it -- A., WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.; & ASSOCIATES
Page 138: rhz82d00
119 1 concerned did not merit promotion to full 3 5 9 professor, is that what you're saying? A.; Yes. Q. What is it about your publication record that you unders'tand that those professors over those years have found not sufficient? you? A. I think you need to ask them. Q. Have they communicated that to Have they given you any information along 10 those lines? 11 A. Only informally aind not in any 12 complete or comprehensive manner.'. 13 Q. To the extent that you can assist 14 by telling in an incomplete and not a 15 comprehensive manner, what information have they 16 given you on the subject of their views on whether 17 they would advance you to full professorship? 16 A. Is your question what would it take 19 for me to get promoted? 20 Q. My question is really'what they 21 said to you? 22 A. The question is the question that 23 you asked. 24 Q. Yes, sir. 25 A. Would you.ask it again': A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 139: rhz82d00
154 1 United States and indeed in other parts of the 2 world, too. 3 Q. So the history of tobacco in 4 Florida in all of its ramifications? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. Was that question put to you in 7 writing by anyone? 8 A. No. 9 Q. It was put to you in a telephone 10 conversation or in person? 11 A. An in-person conversation. 12 Q. With a visit by - 13 A. Steve Kaczsynski. 14 Q. And who is he? 15 A. He is an attorney for Jones Day. 16 Q. He arrived at your office? 17 A. No, he came to my home. 18 Q. Wel7., do you have an office at your 19 home? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. In McIntosh? 22 A. Yes. 23 Q. And so he came to your office in 24 that sense? 25 A. He came to my home office. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,, & ASSOCIATES
Page 140: rhz82d00
127 1 that you expect to submit for peer review? 2 A. No. I'm under -- I'm in 3 negotiation with Prentiss Hall considering the possibility of writing a two volume American 5 history textbook, but that process is simply under 6 discussion. 7 Q. That's a conversation that you're 8 having with them? 9 A. Right. 10 Q. There are -- and that would be 11 submitted -- if it were, it would be submitted for 12 a peer review -- would go through a peer review 13 process or would 14 A. No, textbooks are really not peer 15 reviewed. 16 Q. I was asking about peer review. 17 A. I know.. 18 - Q. ~ Is there any other? 19 A. No. 20 Q. Let's go back to the subject of •the 21 potential book about tobacco. Before you were 22 retained as a consultant for'the cigarette 23 industry defendants, did you -- had you previously N m m 24 done a study of tobacco, the tobacco industry, 00 25 cigarettes in the State of Florida? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 141: rhz82d00
141 1 He also does not believe that it is 2 appropriate for him to provide the document to you 3 and for him to be questioned about it today in 4 this deposition. s 5 So in light of that objection, it's 6 not going to be turned over. 7 Let me say on behalf -of the B defendants that we -- let me just speak for Philip 9 Morris, that we reserve all of our`rights.' This 10 witness and others were designated.bn April 1. It' 11 is now May 9. There `,is an anti-ta'mpering `bz:der in 12 the case. We hope that the state will `not;~try to 13 hinder his testimony, but we certainly reserve all 14 of our rights on that. We woi4ld think thait the 15 state's interests should be in a decision on the 16 merits. ,~.. ' 17 Dr. Burns has scme informatiqn to 18 provide on the merits of this dispute'. That's the 19 end of what I have to say. The net is that we are 20 not going to produce the`form to you today. 21 MR. MIKHAIL: What is the legal 22 basis of that objection? Is it not, relevant or 23 what? 24 MR. LOCKMAN: First of ali the 25 request was just made in the course of the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 142: rhz82d00
149 1 A. Yes. 2 Q. And on that particular docutnent, 3 the second, what additional work in terms of 4 additional substantive opinions had you developed 5 that were included in the second one in 1997 in 6 addition to those that were stated in the one that 7 you prepared and presented in 1995? 8 10 A. The two -- I'll answer that question as best I can. The two papers are complementary. 11 The latter paper, the longer paper is ba'sed on a 12 more thorough inquiry into -- a more thorough 13 inquiry into the source materials that I have been 14 examining, especially the materials that relate to 15 the areas of Florida where tobacco is grown and 16 the culture of those people who live in those 17 areas and produce tobacco. 18 In addition to that, the paper has 19 a fuller grasp of the rich mixture of groups in 20 the state that are associated in one way or 21 another with the history of tobacco in Florida. 22 Q. Those are the main substantive 23 differences in your view of the on 24 compared to.the one done in 1995? 25 A. Yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 143: rhz82d00
157 1 think about the cultures of tobacco, there is 2 hardly a phase of this process that doesn't 3 involve some exchange between government and other 4 sectors of society. 5 Q. What I wag; getting at was what he 6 asked you to do? 7 A. I understand that. 8 Q. Would it be correct that he asked 9 you to research and report on the history of 10 tobacco in Florida in all of its ramifications 11 with specific attention to the government of 12 Florida? 13 A. That is not a verbatim remembrance 14 of what we -- of what we discussed, but it is a 15 fair approximation of our exchange. I don't 16 recall the specific words. 17 Q. Now, when you first reported the 18 one in 1995 -- 19 MR. LOCKMAN: Incidentally, I think 20 there may be an error in the record which of the 21 documents is first and which is second. 22 THE WITNESS: I think they are 23 inverted. 24 MR. LOCKMAN: You may want to have 25 the witness identify them both. I'm just alerting ~ m m w m 00 Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 144: rhz82d00
138 1 A. There would be some mention of 2 Lyndon -- probably of Lyndon Johnson's heart 3 attack when he was Senate majority leader and his 4 decision subsequent to that heart attack to quit 5 7 smoking cigarettes. And then perhaps some mention that before his death he resumed staoking. 8 Q. And how is it that that, the 9 subject of his resuming smoking before his death 10 after having previously had a heart attack, how 11 does that come up in your classroom notes? 12 A. It would be in the form of 13 discussion to suggest that toward the end of his 14 life Lyndon Johnson was dispirited, depressed and 15 deeply saddened by the -- the unsuccessful 16 conclusion of his pol.itical life in ,1968. 17 Q. And how does that in terms of 18 what -- what you're covering in the ,classroom 19 relate to his having begun smoking cigarettes 20 again? 21 A. I'm going to ask you to say that 22 again. 23 Q. In response to my last question you 24 said that it would relate to suggesting that he 25 was dispirited, depressed and deeply saddened, and A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &`ASSOCIATES
Page 145: rhz82d00
123 1 A. Therehave been entries from the 2 Encyclopedia of Southern Culture which is a volume 3 not dissimilar from the,Oxford Companion to the 4 Supreme Court on a broader subject, the subject of 5 southern culture. 6 Q. What is the subject matter of those 7 particular articles? 8 A. A colleague and I did a piece on 9 southern roadhouses which are -- roadhouses. You 10 know -- i' 11 Q. Time frames, over what time frame? 12 A. The 1920s and 130s, these 13 gatherings places in the rural south where people 14 would go for their entertainment. 15 Q. And so you published an article 16 about those roadhouses? 17 A. Right. 18 Q. What other scholarly subjects have 19 been the subject of peerreviewed publications by 20 you? 21 A. This same colleague,and I have done 22 several pieces on southern blues music and the 23 importance of this music as a~historical artifact, 24 as it were, for the understanding of southern 25 culture in the 1920s and 1930s. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &.ASSOCIATES
Page 146: rhz82d00
156 1 A. In the sense that he was suggesting 2 a subject for which he wanted a scholar to 3 undertake an investigation. 4 Q. Uh-huh. 5 A. And that that was the substance of 6 his instruction to me. 7 Q. To ask that question? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. Specific:question? 10 A. Yes. With specific attention to 11 the State of Florida's association with tobacco in 12 the state's history. 13 Q. Meaning the State of.Florida as a 14 government? 15 A. The State of Florida as a 16 government. 17 Q. It's good then that I asked a 18 further question because it was not just the 19 history of tobacco in Florida and all of its 20 ramifications, but it'included the additional 21 limiting phrase with specific attention.to what 22 you interpreted to be the government of Florida; 23 is'that correct? 24 A. Yes, it is in a sense. However, 25 there is hardly a phase of this process"-- if you A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 147: rhz82d00
155 1 Q. You were preparing to conduct some 2 consultation business; is that fair to say? 3 preparing to be asked? Did he`just show up one 4 day or did he call and come by? 5 A. No, he called. 6 Q. Did he tellu you generally what it 7 was -- why it was he wanted to come by? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. What did he say? 10 A. He said this was -- this was after 11 the state legislature had passed the statute 12 initiating the suit. 13 Q. The Medicaid Third Party Liability 14 Act amendments in 1994? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. When was that approximately when he 17 called and came by? 18 A. March 1995. 19 Q. I assume that there were some more 20 words exchanged between the two of you besides we 21 would like you to do a history of tobacco in 22 Florida and all of its ramifications? u, 1-1 23 A. There were, but the requeSt to me m 24 was extremely vague. ~ OD 25 Q. Okay, in what way? Ln -i A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.; & ASSOCIATES
Page 148: rhz82d00
159 1 have been charged first of all to look at the 2 public record relative to the questions and claims 3 that the attorney general and governor have made 4 the core of their lawsuit against tobacco 5 companies.° 6 9 10 Is that another way of saying what we just discussed a minute ago was your discussion with Mr. Kaczsynski? Is that the same charge? A. Yes. Q. Okay. So it was more specific, his 11 • inquiry to you, than what we talked about just a 12 few minutes ago? 13 A. No. That's just a restatement, but 14 it's not -- his charge to me was not more specific 15 than what we have discussed. 16 Q. This says we have been charged to 17 look at the public record relative to the 18 questions and claims. Is that what you were asked 19 to do? 20 A. We were asked to -- I would define 21 public record very broadly. 22 Q. As? 23 A. As published sources. Newspapers. 24 Whatever we find in the archival Ln ! m I define m 25 public record as whatever we find in the archival r A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 149: rhz82d00
160 1 holdings that we examine. Public meaning 2 accessible to the public more than officials - 3 than confining ourself exclusively to official 4 state publications. 5 Q. Okay. But with that did you 6 understand that it was not to include a review of 7 the internal documents of cigarette industry 8 defendants? 9 A. No, I did not understand that it 10 was not to include that. 11 Q. Have you been provided with -- as a 12 part of the work that you have done with internal 13 documents of the cigarette.industry defendants? 14 A. No. 15 Q. Since you did not consider that you 16 were limited by the request to public documents in 17 that sense, what is it that accounts for.,the fact 18 that you have not reviewed internal documents of 19 the cigarette industry defendants? 20 A. I'm researching the history of 21 tobacco in Florida, and the history of tobacco in 22 Florida is very rich. It extends over a long 23 period of time. It is a formative force in the 24 shaping of the socio and political culture of the 25 state of Florida, and that analysis and that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 150: rhz82d00
132 1 Q. There was a fourth candidate in the 2 race in the 1950s? 3 A. Yes. 4 Q. He was a hog farmer? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. What was his name? 7 A. Olla Ray Boyd. e Q. And he was a minor candidate in 9 that campaign? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. I interrupted you. It was hogs and 12 what? 13 A. Poultry. 14 Q. Poultry. Any other products? 15 A. Diary farming. 16 Q. Any other products? 17 A. Corn. 18 Q. Are you giving those in a -- sort 19 of in a descending order of importance in North 20 Carolina? 21 A. Not necessarily. I!m just giving 22 them as they come to mind. 23 Q. Yes, sir. 24 A. Peanuts. That's a pretty good 25 list. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 151: rhz82d00
165 1 cigarette industry defendants in this case? 2 A. No. 3 Q. And you've reviewed the third 4 complaint, third amended complaint in this case? 5 A. I have not. 6 Q. Have you,been told by the 7 defendants who the cigarette industry defendants 8 are in the lawsuit? 9 A. No. 10 Q. Do you have any idea besides -- can 11 you name the cigarette industry defendants in this 12 lawsuit? 13 A. I can name come of them. 14 Q. Which ones can you name? 15 A. R.J. Reynolds. Philip Morris. 16 Lorillard. American Tobacco. British American 17 T b o acco. 18 Q. U.S. Tobacco? 19 A. U.S. Tobacco. 20 Q. Are there others ? The Tobacco 21 Institute, are you aware -- 22 A. I'm aware that t he list of 23 defendants is very long cn ~ om 24 Q. And the Committee for Tobacco W 25 Research m CTR? 00 Council for Tobacco Research , , 0 J A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 152: rhz82d00
167 1 reviewing the Brown & Williamson documents in the 2 University of California library? 3 A. No. 4 Q. Was there any particular reason why 5 you did not review public internal docume'nts of 6 cigarette industry defendants, ones that had 7 managed to become part of the public within the 8 last few years? 9 MR. LOCKMAN: We object to the 10 characterization of any documents which may have 11 been pilfered as public documents. And this 12 witness hasn't seen them and I don't want to get 13 into a prolonged debate about them. 14 We will reserve all of our rights 15 as has been asserted in previous pleadings, and I 16 hope that we can pass off of this fairly quickly 17 since he hasn't seen any of them. 18 MR. HOGAN: It won't take us long 19 if you'll just answer the question. 20 THE WITNESS: I could have, and I 21 hate to ask you to do that, but can you repeat 22 that question. 23 BY MR. HOGAN: 24 Q. Did you review any of the Brown & 25 Williamson documents that are part of the public A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &"ASSOCIATES
Page 153: rhz82d00
170 1 smoking if they had had.access to internal company 2 documents? 3 A. No. 4 Q. Do you know what teenagers would 5 have learned if they had had access to internal 6 company documents with regard to the'subject of 7 hazards to health from cigarette smoking or 8 addictiveness? 9 A. No. 10 Q. Do you have any means to find out 11 what they would have learned?.. 12 A. Do I have any means? 13 Q. Do you have, any means to find out 14 what they would have learned if they had had 15 access, this list of entities;and people that I 16 just read off to you, if they had had access to 17 cigarette company internal documents? ' 18 MR. LOCKMAN: I object to the 19 question as I think unintelligible. 20 THE WITNESS: May I ask you what 21 you mean by means? 22 BY MR. HOGAN: 23 Ln Q. Do you have any way to know? 1-4 ~ 24 you have any way to know? m w 25 MR. LOCKMAN: aN Object to the form of CO N A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 154: rhz82d00
145 1 on relevancy at this point. 2 MR. HOGAN: Do you have an 3 objection, not whether you might. 4 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm.not conceding its 5 relevancy, I want to make that absolutely clear. 6 Sometimes we don't object to things that we have 7 the right to object to. 8 MR. HOGAN: The question was only 9 whether you have an objection. 10 MS. KESSLE R: Sitting here right 11 now at this exact point, I'm not sure that we have 12 an objection. No, we do not have an objection. 13 eak MR A d el e here s HOGAN b . y p : ny o s 14 for n other defendants? a y 15 MR. SARNER: United States Tobacco 16 Company has no objection. I have not seen the 17 form nor is it in my possession. 18 MR. HOGAN: By the way, I don't 19 agree with your recitation of what Dr. Burns' 20 earlier testimony was with respect to the .21 document. The record will reflect what it is that 22 he said earlier about his conversation with the 23 dean. 24 MR. LOCKMAN: The record will also 25 reflect if you ask him what I said is absolutely A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 155: rhz82d00
158 1 you to that possibility. 2 BY MR. HOGAN : 3 Q. One has.a heading on:the first page, the State of Florida and Tobacco. The other 5 one has a heading that is just the word Tobacco. 6 Which came first? 7 A. To tell you the.truth, I would have 8 to see both documents. 10 c ? MR. HOGAN: Counsel, do you have a opy 11 MR. LOCKMAN: This is the one that 1 s b 2 say To acco. 13 THE WITNESS: This is'the first 14 one . 15 BY MR. HOGAN : 16 Q. The one that has„ the joking 17 reference to your colleagues and moving their 18 offices is the first one? 19 A. That's right. 20 Q. The shorter one is the second one? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. This one done in 1997 that begins 23 the State of Florida and tobacco begins with 24 paragraph number 1 research design it"says. 25 And then you go on and say, "We A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 156: rhz82d00
163 1 of most importance to that particular subject. 2 Q. And are you saying that you do not 3 consider the internal documents of the cigarette 4 industry defendants in this case to be of 5 importance to the inquiry related'to the history 6 of tobacco in Florida? 7 MR. LOCKMAN: I object to that on 8 the grounds of it has been asked;and answered 9 already. 10 BY MR. HOGAN: 11 Q. Go ahead and answer, please. 12 A. That is correct, I do not. 13 Q. why do you not consider them to be 14 important if -- 15 A. In the hierarchy of important 16 documents, they are not critical to the public 17 record because the public record is so complete 18 and so full that in an inquiry of this kind one 19 would look first at these documents that are 20 available and that are specifically,dealing with 21 the various institutional and public policy -- 22 public decision -- public policy decisions that 23 effect the tobacco culture of Florida. 24 Q. So then let's be clear on this. By 25 internal documents I mean documents, depending A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 157: rhz82d00
173 1 may have conducted, the same question? 2 A. No. 3 Q. Any misinformation that they 4 di t t d? ib s r u e 5 MR. LOCKMAN: Do you have a 6 uestio in mi d? q n n 7 MR. HOGAN: That's the question. 8 MR. LOCKMAN: Well, you are 9 incorporating the prior question.' 10 MR. HOGAN: Yes, I am because I 11 like saving time. 12 THE WITNESS: No. 13 MR. LOCKMAN: That's good, we like 14 saving time as long as the witness is clear on the 15 question put to him. 16 BY MR. HOGAN: 17 Q. Misrepresentations by the cigarette 18 industry defendants? 19 A. No, but I would add that these 20 characterizations of materials are 21 characterizations that I can neither agree to nor 22 disagree to because I have not seen the 23 documents. These are your characterizations, not 24 mine. 25 Q. I'm simply asking the question? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 158: rhz82d00
134 1 caused by cigarettes? 2 MR. LOCKMAN: What's a,he question? 3 BY MR. HOGAN: 4 Q. Have you done any previous research 5 7 defendants in this case on the subject of lung before being engaged by cigarette industry cancer being caused by cigarettes? 8 A. I have not done research leading to 9 publication on these subjects, but as a historian 10 of the 20th century in the United 'States- and as 11 one who teaches these classes, these subjects 12 arise in the course of the conduct of a class and 13 they require me to read and be able to 14 intelligently present various controversies'as 15 they develop. 16 Q. And do you have written materials 17 that you have prior to being engaged by the ` 18 cigarette industry defendants in this.`case, 19 written materials that you used or presented to 20 any of your students in any course'~~that you ever 21 taught? 22 A. Written materials that I haye 23 generated? 24 Q Yes, sir. 2 5 A, , N A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 159: rhz82d00
162 1 tobacco in Florida? 2 A. I did not consider them important 3 to the research task that I have`undertaken. 4 Q. The research task that you've 5 indicated was to look at the public record 6 relative to the questions and claims that the 7 9 attorney general and governor have made the core of their lawsuit against the t obacco companies from this document, and then I asked you whether 10 you considered that to exclude your reviewing 11 internal cigarette company industry documents. 12 And you said no, that request did not exclude 13 them. 14 15 determined or And so I'm asking when`you someone determined to exclude them 16 from your review? 17 A. The only person who determined 18 whether to exclude any document or not was myself, 19 the researcher. The investigator. I never made a 20 specific decision. Historians don't work in that 21 fashion. 22 When you are looking at the public 23 record and you are researching a subject like the 24 history of tobacco in Florida, you have to choose 25 the documents and the archival materials that are A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 160: rhz82d00
171 1 that question. BY MR. HOGAN: 3 Q. What do you think the term "means" 4 is? 5 A. Access. 6 That's one thing. 7 Do you have any means' to f ind out 8 what it is that is there in the internal documents 10 of the cigarette company defendants that could have been learned by that list of entities and 11 people that I just gave you? 12 A. To the degree that they are 13 publicly known I could learn them. 14 Q. Apart from that you,ha.ve no means 15 to know? 16 A. No. 17 Q. Do you know what cigarette company 18 internal documents would tell you about the 19 legislative and executive branch•lobbying of the 20 cigarette industry defendants? 21 A. No. 22 Q. Do you know what they would tell 23 you as a historian about the pplitical power of 24 the cigarette industry defendants? 25 A. No. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 161: rhz82d00
150 1 MR. HOGAN: Let me ask Mr. Lockman, 2 do you have a copy of page 13 of the one from 1997 3 here? 4 MR. LOCKMAN: That's a good 5 question. I noticed mine didn't have one either. 6 Does someone have it? 7 MR. LEMLEY: I have a sneaking suspicion if you don't, I don't. 9 MR. LOCKMAN: Which one are you 10 talking about, the first or the second? 11 MR. HOGAN: The second. The longer 12 f th tw o e o. 13 MR. LEMLEY: What's the heading at 14 the top of the first page? 15 MR. HOGAN: Tobacco., 16 THE WITNESS: In the event that 17 page is missing, and I gather that it is, I will 18 be happy to provide you with that page. I can't 19 provide it to you today. 20 MR. MIKHAIL: I have page 13 here. 21 THE WITNESS: The omission i 22 totally inadvertent. 23 MR. LOCKMAN: I just figured that I 24 had a bad copy when I read it.last night., 25 THE WITNESS: It may well be in the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 162: rhz82d00
142 1 deposition, and the witness who told you he has. 2 not had a chance to talk to his own independent 3 counsel, which he intends to do, has said that 4 this is something that he as a university 5 professor has submitted to the university. It has 6 not been acted on, or if it has been acted on he's 7 not aware of it. Nobody has called him or sent 8 him an answer or anything. 9 Th it do h id th t h s e w ness a sa a e es 10 not think that it is appropriate to turn it over. 11 Frankly it's his form. He doesn't want to turn it 12 over; and, therefore, it will not be turned over 13 t d ay. o 14 MR. MIKHAIL: Dr. Burns testified 15 that the form was shared with counsel for the 16 defendants in this case. That you all have seen 17 the form. 18 MR. LOCKMAN: 19 MR. MIKHAIL: 20 relevant to his testimony. 21 MR. LOCKMAN: 22 that. 23 MR. HOGAN: 24 MR. LOCKMAN: 25 MR. MIKHAIL: We have. it is certainly I simply I don't know about You do'have a copy? I I would like the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 163: rhz82d00
175 1 you as a historian and what it would tell over 2 those different time frames public policy makers, 3 legislatures, health care officials; is that 4 correct? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. Do I understand from reading the 7 two reports that we'discussed earlier, the 1997 8 report or speech outline and the 1995 one and your 9 disclosure, am I to take.it that you say that the 10 State of Florida knew at some point that 11 cigarettes cause lung cancer? 12 A. Yes. 13 Q. The government of the State of 14 Florida? 15 A. Yes. 16 Q. when do you say that the State of 17 Florida knew that cigarettes -- smoking cigarettes 18 causes lung cancer? 19 A. The state board of health made the 20 connection in the early 1960s. 21 Q. Did not know it in the 1950s then? 22 A. There are publications which cn ~ 23 suggest a causal link in the 1950s but do not °i , m 24 claim it definitively. w m OD 25 Q. when do you say, if you do, that ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 164: rhz82d00
174 1 A. Right. 2 Q. And my question is you have no way 3 to know w hat th ey would tell you about those -- as 4 a histori an abo ut those subjects that we just 5 covered; is that correct? 6 A. Because I have not seen the 7 documents , I have no way to know. 8 Q. And you have no, way of knowing what 9 they woul d tell legislatures, public regulators, 10 public po licy m akers, consumers in the state of 11 Florida; is that correct? 12 A. That's correct. 13 Q. And that's true for the 1940s? 14 A. Yes. 15 Q. The 1950s? 16 A. Yes. 17 Q. The 1960s? 18 A. Yes. 19 Q. The 1970s? 20 A. Yes. 21 Q. The 1980s? 22 A. Yes. 23 Q. And the 1990s? 24 A. Yes. 25 Q. Both in terms of what it would tell WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 165: rhz82d00
147 1 questions that I asked and the answers that he 2 gave. 3 Let me ask this question. 4 BY MR. HOGAN: 5 Q. The book that you contemplate doing 6 related to the subject of tobacoo and the State of 7 Florida, how will your time and effo.rt'-- how will 8 the effort be funded on the front end? 9 A. It's unrelated -- it will be funded 10 by me out of my personal expense - 11 Q. You have no arrangement with any -- 12 A. No, no. 13 MR. LOCKMAN: Let him f'inish the 14 i quest on. 15 THE WITNESS: I'm sorry. 16 BY MR. HOGAN: 17 Q. You have no arrangements to be 18 compensated or have an advance from any cigarette 19 company defendant in this lawsuit or anyone else 20 related to the funding of your efforts in 21 producing this proposed book; is that correct? 22 A. That is correct. u, 23 Q. m The book will include the use of m w 24 materials that you have obtained copies of or o, 25 OD I ,p reviewed -- and reviewed at a time when being ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 166: rhz82d00
166 1 A. Yes. 2 Q. Have you reviewed any internal 3 documents from any of those cigarette industry 4 defendants? 5 A. No. Q. Or from the consultant by the name 7 of Hill & Knowlton? 8 A. N 9 Q. And have you looked at all -- did 10 you look only at public archive materials in the 11 State of Florida? Within the physical boundaries 12 of the state of Florida? 13 A. I spent some time in the Library of 14 Congress but not very much time. Most of my work 15 has been done in the state of Florida, almost all 16 of it. 17 Q. Did you review any of the archived 18 materials related to Hill & Knowlton? 19 A. N 20 Q. Did you review any of the archived 21 materials at the University of California on Brown 22 & Williamson? 23 A. No. 24 Q. Did you review the journal of the 25 American Medical Association reporting on and A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 167: rhz82d00
152 1 2 nervous. Do you recall those lines? 3 A. Q. Uh-huh. Which colleagues -- I just want to 5 6 see if I understand what you're talking about because it's -- 7 MR. LOCKMAN: Just to -- I want to 8 make sure that there isn't 9 MR. HOGAN: Let me give you 13. 10 MR. LOCKMAN: No, let me have the 11 whole thing. 12 BY MR. HOGAN: 13 Q. It is kind of a cryptic reference 14 unless one knows more about what you are talking 15 about? 16 A. Well, this is not a forum for 17 jocularity, but that was an`effort at jocularity. 18 Q. So does it meaning`that you were 19 joking? 20 A. Yes. 21 But at least two of my colleagues 22 were heavy cigarette smokers, and so the 23 imposition of the Clean Indoor Air Act imposed an 24 inconvenience on them. And they had to either -- 25 determine to either not smoke at the office or A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,'JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 168: rhz82d00
178 1 A. 'SOs. I may not be correct, but I 2 thought I said the 1950s. 3 Q. Did you meaning that for lung 4 cancer? 5 A. Yes. And the public record is full 6 of public discussion about the risks'of cigarette 7 smoking earlier than that, and there are people in 8 the state, physicians and others who are active 9 and making the link between this activity and the 10 medical consequences of it earlier than that. 11 Q. My question to you earlier in that 12 list of questions is when is it that you stay that 13 the State of Florida knew? 14 A. And my answer is the early 1960s. 15 Q. When is it -- and in that sense are 16 you reporting what is reflected in documents or in 17 other words if I were to look -- look at the same 18 document as you looked at, would I be able to read 19 the same things as you did and draw the same 20 conclusion? 21 A. It's my view that you would. 22 Q. And is that the case for the whole 23 range of the public documents that you reviewed? 24 A. Yes. 25 Q. So that I, not a historian, could A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,.& ASSOCIATES
Page 169: rhz82d00
143 1 record to - 2 MR. LOCKMAN: I now have a copy in 3 my possession which I•didn't earlier when you 4 raised the subject. 5 MR. HOGAN: One of the law firms at 6 least had a copy before we started today? 7 MR. LOCKMAN: Yes. And-we saw it. , 8 We saw it on Wednesday. Nobody is trying to'hide 9 an thin from ou y g y . 10 MR. MIKHAI L: All I would like is 11 for you to state the legal basis for your 12 objection to producing this document which is 13 related to Dr. Burns' service to the defendants. 14 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm not certain that 15 it is relevant to his service. r 16 It is something that the dean asked 17 him to send in and he did. That's the basis -- 18 our objection is that in light of his objection, 19 we don't even have to reach the issue of whether 20 it is producible and we are not going to overrule 21 his feeling about it today. 22 You can question him about it Ln 23 f..' m today. He doesn't want to turn it'over today w 24 before he has a chance to talk to his own m 00 ~ 25 independent counsel. cn A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 170: rhz82d00
161 1 research topic does not require an examination of 2 internal documents of the cigarette companies. 3 Q. Why doee it not require that? 4 A. Because it's not part of my< 5 research design or my research interest. 6 Q. Well, in. being asked this broad 7 question that they asked.you_and you said when the 8 question was asked you`didn't'consider that it 9 limited your inquiry to exclude internal documents 10 of the companies, how is it that you decided not 11 to review any of those? 12 A. I decided not -- I didn't make a 13 decision not to review them. 14 15 16 17 18 oday? Q. A. Q. A. Well, the'request did not limit -- No. -- you to that you've said-earlier The decision that I made here was 19 to examine the materials that were important=,to 20 the history_of tobacco in Florida, and there is an 21 incredible abundance of those materials. 22 Q. And so did you not review or'seek 23 to review internal documents of the cigarette 24 industry defen'dants because you did not.consider 25 them important to the question of the history of A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 171: rhz82d00
153 1 make other arrangements, at their univers'ity 2 offices. 3 Q. So although you say that you were 4 joking, is it correct that at least two of those 5 colleagues moved their offices to their.homes? 6 A. That's -- they did, yes. 7 8 10 11 May I add that most faculty work at both places. Most of the faculty with whom I'm familiar have a working office in their homes as well as an office at the university. Q. Because it was in a sense out of 12 context I didn't know exactly where it came from 13 or how it got in there so I thought I should ask 14 you about it. 15 A. Right. 16 Q. When you were asked in this case by 17 the cigarette company defendants to undertake this 18 job, what was it that you understood you were 19 being asked to do? 20 A. I was being'asked to investigate 21 the history of tobacco in Florida in all of its 22 various ramifications. This is a complex , 23 historical undertaking and it has -- the subject 24 has been dealt with masterfully by some other I 25 historians in dealing with other parts of the ; A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 172: rhz82d00
122 1 Q. -- summarizing a written decision 2 handed down by the United States Supreme Court and 3 putting it into several paragraphs; is that 4 right? 5 A. Yes. Q. What else have you written that has 7 been peer reviewed and -- 8 A. There are a series of journal 9 articles that have been peer reviewed. 10 Q. What is their subject matter? 11 A. They vary. There is a piece 12 published on the Southern.Journal of History on 13 the course of graduate school integration in North 14 Carolina schools from the New-Aeal -- which is in 15 a sense the same general area of interests of my 16 dissertation. A short piece on'graduate school 17 desegregation. 18 Q. So it is in a sense sort of 19 subset or subpart of what you did when you got 20 your -- did your graduate dissertation? 21 A. And it was amended with additional 22 research. 23 Q. What other areas have been the 24 subject matter of peer reviewed publications by 25 you? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 173: rhz82d00
184 1 that question? 2 MR. LOCKMAN: Objection. 3 THE WITNESS: I don't know. 4 BY MR. HOGAN: 5 Q. The same kind of question for each 6 of the earlier diseases that I discussed with you, 7 cardiovascular disease, emphysema,`d'rug addiction 8 through nicotine, based on what you have reviewed, 9 do you conclude that it would be reasonable for 10 cigarette companies, the cigarette company 11 defendants in this case, to conclude that 12 cigarettes caused those diseases and addiction? 13 MR. LOCKMAN: I have the same 14 objection to each and every one of those 15 questions. 16 BY MR. HOGAN: 17 Q. You don't know, do you? 18 A. No. 19 Q. You don't -have any idea, do you? 20 A. No. I don't have an answer to -- I 21 can't answer as a historian to a speculative 22 question as to what someone else would conclude. 23 That is not a question that a-histor'ian can 24 answer. 25 Q. My question was whether_the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 174: rhz82d00
182 1 to feed information to a witness. 2 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm not trying to 3 feed informatiori. 4 5 7 BY MR. HOGAN: Q. Now, please answer my question. A. Would you repeat it, please. MR. HOGAN: Read it back. 8 (The record was read as requested.) 9 MR. LOCKMAN: You have my objection 10 and I will have an objection to all of these types 11 of questions if you ar,e going to continue down 12 this line. I'm not instructing.him, but I want to 13 preserve our position. 14 BY MR. HOGAN: 15 Q. Please answer. 16 A. I'm not certain. 17 Q. Would 18 A. I'm uncertain'as to the answer. 19 Q. Would it be •- would it be your 20 view that it would be reasonable to expect that a 21 cigarette company reviewing the same documents 22 that you tell us that.you have reviewed would 23 conclude by the 1960s as you described it that 24 cigarette smoking causes lung cancer? 25 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 175: rhz82d00
188 1 copy. 2 BY MR. HOGAN: Please answer the question. 4 A. It was a consensual decision to 5 enclose those words in quotation marks because -- 6 to suggest that those words are words that do"not 7 have commonly accepted definitions across the time 8 in which this study has been conducted. 9 As I said earlier today, the 10 meaning changes over time. 11 Q. So that when it talks about Dr. 12 Burns' having an opinion about Florida's knowledge 13 of health risks and about the, quote, "addictive° 14 or "habituating" nature of tobacco, and then it 15 says "as those terms have been used for decades," 16 you're saying that because the term "addictive," 17 let's just talk about it for a moment, may have 18 meant different things at different points in 19 time, that it was concluded that you would put it 20 in quotation marks? 21 A. Correct. 22 Q. Was it in the draft in the' computer 23 when you first looked at it? 24 A. In quotation marks? 25 Q. Yes, sir. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 176: rhz82d00
192 1 read it? 2 A. The process of historically 3 analyzing information and presenting it is more 4 complicated and more involved than that. I can 5 report -- I can report and discuss the meaning of 6 terms and the meaning of a debate without having 7 clinical expertise, and to say this is what the 8 historical record reveals. 9 Q. And in order to be able to draw 10 conclusions? 11 MR. LOCKMAN: I object to that. 12 BY MR. HOGAN: 13 Q. Is that what you've done in this 14 case? 15 I'm looking at a summary that says 16 that you are going to testify about, -17 quote, "Florida's knowledge of the health risks." 18 Is that what you intend to do?' 19 A. As the.public record reveals it, 20 yes. 21 Q. The disclosure says you may be 22 asked to comment upon the opinions expressed by 23 other witnesses. Have you reviewed opinions 24 expressed by other witnesses? 25 A. Not at this point. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 177: rhz82d00
193 1 Q. Well, I'm here on -- what day did 2 we agree this is? 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 MR. LOCKMAN: May 9. BY MR. HOGAN: Q. A. -- on May 9? May I-correct the record? Q. Yes, sir. fr m? A. Q. I have read two depositions. Whose were they and where were they o A. Q. Sansing and Skates. Those are witnesses in -- A. Mississippi. Q. -- the case by the Attorney General 15 of Mississippi against cigarette company 16 defendants? 17 A. Yes. 18 Q. when your disclosure statement for 19 you that you approved that was in that computer 20 says, "In addition, Dr. Burns may be asked to 21 comment upon opinions expressed by other witnesses 22 as well as the evidence they rely upon to the 23 extent that these opinions relate to his areas of 24 expertise," what did you have in mind when you 25 approved the inclusion of that disclosure? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 178: rhz82d00
190 1 BY MR. HOGAN: 2 Q. Go ahead. 3 A. I have seen the term used in 4 contemporary historical works referring -- in S quotation marks to refer to this potential in 6 decades as early as the 1850s and as late as the 7 1990s. 8 The concern with the word is that 9 it is so heavily utilized that there is no clear 10 meaning to what the word means.- And so the 11 purpose of quotation marks is to suggest that the 12 term has been used to the point where in the 13 public discussion of the meaning of the term it is 14 very hard to know in a precise sense what is 15 meant. 16 Now, if the word is used in a 17 clinical context, it has a different meaning. If 18 the word is used in the newspaper, it has a 19 different meaning depending on the time; 20 Q. From the standpoint of the clinical 21 in terms of your review of the materials that you 22 have had access to, is there a point in time when 23 the quotation marks are no longer neQessary to 24 describe the word °add.ictive" as related to 25 cigarettes? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 179: rhz82d00
131 1 numerous and they were more important politically 2 than now. They still are important, but they were 3 more then. 4 5 7 Q. So to the extent th4it,that was involved in the time frame surrounding the -- leading up to and surrounding the `19'50 Senate campaign, that was a subject that you had 8 knowledge of and had paid attention to aind` 7 9 analyzed earlier and is referred to in your book? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. Have you had any other kinds of 12 reviews of -- related to products:other than. 13 cigarettes or tobacco as they.reloted to that 1950 14 campaign before you were approached by the 15 cigarette industry defendants'in this ca$e'? 16 A. I'm going to ask you° to say that, 17 question again. 18 Q. The question is really whether you 19 had looked at any other kinds of products and , 20 their importance to North Carolina or the 21 political scene there at an earlier time? 22 A. The answer -- yes. Yes,' I had. 23 Q. What products were those? 24 A. Hogs. Pork production is very- 25 important in North Carolina. Poultry production , < A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 180: rhz82d00
164 1 upon the time frame, either from the cigarette 2 industry defendants' own typewriters, including a 3 time when there would be carbon paper and onion 4 skin copies, you are probably familiar with that 5 and reviewed those kinds of things when you 6 reviewed archive materials related to your book on 7 Frank Porter Graham? Maybe some carbon copies, 8 onion skin paper copies of correspondence? 9 A. I'm very familiar with those forms 10 of documentary evidence, yes. 11 Q. And as time went and moved from 12 manual typewriters and that to different-forms of 13 word processors and copying machines, in reviewing 14 that kind of internal document as well, right up 15 to when they have computers and DDT terminals and 16 the rest. That's what I mean by internal 17 documents, right on up to desktop publishing. 18 You considered that not any of that 19 would be important to you in addressing the 20 question of the history of tobacco in Florida; is 21 that correct? 22 A. That's correct. 23 Q. And in terms of what you 24 specifically did not review, you did not review, 25 did you, any internal documents from all of the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 181: rhz82d00
196 1 point? 2 A. N 3 Q. Don't know whether they'were 4 plaintiff or defense witnesses? 5 A. No. 6 Q. Let me show you a marked up copy o 7 the expert disclosure statement and that is the 8 title of it next to your name? 9 A. Uh-huh. 10 Q. Down in the last paragraph on the 11 first page it says "Dr. Burns is expected to rely 12 upon." Do you see then a list of nine 13 categories? 14 A. Yes. 15 Q. Is that the extent of what you 16 expect to rely upon? 17 A Yes . . 18 Q. Thank you. You do not expect to 19 rely upon internal company cigarette industry 20 defendant documents? 21 A. No. 22 Q. You do not expect to see them or 23 review them -- 24 A. No. 25 Q. -- before the time of the trial in A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 182: rhz82d00
172 1 Q. The political strategies of the 2 cigarette industry defendants? 3 A. No. 4 Q. Their successes with regard to 5 legislation and regulation? 6 A. No. 7 Q. The lessons that they learned over 8 time in terms of how to better accomplish their 9 objectives? 10 A. No. 11 Q. How about their media campaigns? 12 A. No. 13 Q. How about their work with allies or 14 coalitions to address the subject of regulation of 15 the use of cigarettes or taxation or anything 16 along those lines? 17 A. No. 18 Q. Do you know what those internal 19 documents would tel-l you about their work with 20 respect to developing and engendering grass roots 21 type groups and activities? 22 A. No. I can't tell you what I would 23 learn from documents I haven't seen. 24 Q. with respect to any disinformation 25 campaign that the cigarette industry'defendants A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 183: rhz82d00
191 1 MR. LOCKMAN: My same objection. 2 THE WITNESS: That is beyond the 3 range of my expertise because the word "clinical" 4 to me suggests one should have an understanding -- 5 a medical or scientific knowledge that T don't 6 have as an expert. That's beyond my expertise. 7 BY MR. HOGAN: 8 Q. Let me follow up on that a little 9 bit. 10 You've reviewed a number of 11 documents that are in the public record but you 12 don't have a medical background to be able to 13 determine the clinical or medical accuracy of the 14 content of those documents, is that'what you're 15 saying? 16 A. That's a partially true statement. 17 I don't have the expertise to comment as either a 18 clinician or as a scientist-; 19 Q. Am I to understand what you're 20 doing is reporting to us simply in essence what 21 you read? 22 A. I'm reporting the public discussion 23 that occurs. 24 Q. In other words it's there and you 25 read it and you're saying that somebody else could A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 184: rhz82d00
169 1 A. I do not know what they would have 2 learned. Q• Do you know what Florida regulators 4 would have learned_if they'had access and had 5 reviewed internal documents of the cigarette 6 industry defendants? 7 A. No. 8 Q. Do you know what Florida 9 legislators would have learned if they had had 10 access to over the years cigarette industry 11 internal documents? 12 A. N 13 Q. Do you know what the cigarette 14 industry lobbyists themselves would have learned 15 if they had access to cigarette industry internal 16 documents on the subject of cigarettes, disease, 17 addictiveness? 18 A. No. 19 Q. Do you know what smokers would have 20 learned if they had had access to internal company 21 documents about the hazards of cigarette smoking 22 addictiveness? 23 A. No. 24 Q. Do you know what non-smokers would 25 have learned with regard to hazards from cigarette A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 185: rhz82d00
185 1 internal documents of.the company•would help you 2 in determining whether they would be in a position 3 then -- 4 A. Having -- 5 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection. 6 THE WITNESS: Having not seen the-, 7 documents, I can't answer the..question.. 8 BY MR. HOGAN•: 9 Q. And you have no way to fa.nd out, do 10 you? 11 A. Other than to look at documents 12 that are in the public record because those 13 documents are not part of my research focus. 14 Q. By your choice? 15 A. By my choice. 16 Q. Thank you. 17 A. And by the r"esearch assignment and 18 its -- and its focus as I have defined it. 19 Q. As I said, by;your choice? 20 A. (Witness nods.) 21 MR. LOCKMAN: The witness is 22 nodding. You have to say something so the 23 reported can write it down. 24 BY MR. HOGAN_: 25 Q. You meant "yes" when you shook your' A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 186: rhz82d00
180 1 Q. Emphysema? 2 A. Yes. 3 Q. Addiction? 4 A. Addiction is a word that needs to 5 be used carefully because of the millions of people in our country who have quit cigarettes. 7 ' Furthermore, the word "addiction" 8 has changed in meaning over time. When it was used in the early 20th 10 century, and of course it is used'without being 11 defined, but in the context it is used it often 12 means different things. 13 Q. My ques4tion to you -- earlier my 14 question to you was when was it that you say that 15 the State of Florida knew that it was addictive, 16 cigarette smoking? 17 A. The State of Florida i"i9entifies 18 cigarettes as addictive as early as 1907,'1906. 19 Q. Is that when you say that the State 20 of Florida knew? 21 A. That's when the State Board of 22 Health identified cigarettes as addictive."` 23 Q. From reviewing that, do you accept 24 that as true as of that time'if you had-been 25 reviewing the historical record at that point? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS-, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 187: rhz82d00
195 1 Q. Well, this statement says that -- 2 A. I don't follow your question, sir. 3 Q. I understand, and that's why I want 4 to clarify it for you. It says that yo u may 5 comment upon the opinions expressed by other 6 witnesses, and when this sentence was approved for 7 inclusion in the disclosure statement, did you 8 have in mind witnesses for the cigarette industry. 9 defendants? 10 MR. LOCKMAN: That's very tough for 11 him to answer the question without the document in 12 front of him. He can't see the context of it. I 13 don't want to give him my copy. 14 BY MR. HOGAN: 15 Q. Quote -- and this is your' 16 disclosure statement, sir. Quote, "In addition, 17 Dr. Burns may be asked to comment`upon the 18 opinions expressed by other witnesses as well as 19 the evidence they rely upon to the extent that 20 these opinions relate to his areas of expertise." 21 Now, what other witnesses did you 22 have in mind when you approved that disclosure 23 statement? 24 A. I'm not sure. 25 Q. Nobody you can think of at this A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 188: rhz82d00
168 1 documents in the University of California 2 library? 3 A. No. 4 Q. Do you have any idea what you would 5 have learned from reviewing the internal documents 6 of the cigarette industry defendants? 7 A. No. 8 Q. And -- thank you for the answer, 9 but let me - 10 MR. LOCKMAN: It was an incomplete 11 question for the record. 12 BY MR. HOGAN: 13 Q. Let me complete i 14 -- as it relates to the question 15 of the history of tobacco in Florida? 16 MR. LOCKMAN: Objection to the form 17 of the question. Go ahead. 18 THE WITNESS: 19 BY MR. HOGAN: 20 Q. Do you k,now, have any means to know 21 what Florida public policy makers would have 22 learned if they had access to internal documents 23 of the cigarette industry defendants with regard 24 to the hazards of tobacco smoking,,their Ln 25 addictiveness, disease causing, et cetera? -J A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &' ASSOCIATES
Page 189: rhz82d00
198 correct? 2 A. There is no way to know what role S 3 those documents could have played because they 4 were not known at the time. There is no way to 5 know how new information is going to affect 6 decisions if the information was unavailable at 7 the time. 8 That is a speculation t'hat 9 historians are very reluctant -- in fact, a 10 cautious historian would be unwilling to make. 11 Q. Y want to have a clear 12 understanding. You wrote a book abou't Frank 13 Porter Graham in the 1950 Senate election, did you 14 not? 15 A. I did. 16 Q. Are you of the view that the 17 disclosure at that time of-the internal documents 18 from the series of people that you listed for me 19 earlier today, that if they had been disclosed and 20 had become a part of the debate at thatitime, that 21 they would have had no effect on the election? 22 A. No. The effect that they would 23 have had is what I cannot predict.: I cannot tell 24 you what effect they would have had. I cannot 25 tell you what people -- what are the consequences A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 190: rhz82d00
176 the State of Florida knew that cigarettes cause 2 heart disease, cardiovascular disease? 3 A. In the early 1960s. 4 Q. When do you say that the State of 5 Florida knew that emphysema was caused by 6 cigarette smoking? 7 A. In the early 1960s. 8 Q. When do you say that the State of 9 Florida knew that smoking cigarettes causes 10 addiction? 11 A. What I say is that these claims can 12 be found in the public record as early as the 13 early sixties. I don't say this - 14 Q. I'm asking when is it that you say 15 that the State of Florida knew? 16 A. Early 1960s. 17 Q. And when is it that you say that 18 the State of Florida knew that cigarettes contain 19 carcinogens? 20 A. The use of the term "carcinogen" 21 is -- if you mean in specific reference to that 22 specific word rather than the claim that the -- 23 that cigarettes are causes, then the word 24 "carcinogen" would be associated with either the 25 late fifties or early sixties. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 191: rhz82d00
202 1 A. No. 2 Q. Correct? 3 A. Correct.~ 4 Q. The same series of.questions for 5 the 1960s. Is the answer any different? You have 6 no means to know and you don't know whether they 7 knew more than the State of Florida is said to 8 have known by you? 9 A. No. 10 Q. Correct? 11 A. Correct. 12 Q. The 1970s? 13 A. The research that I've done engages 14 what the public arena was revealing about these 15 matters. 16 Q. So you don't have any means to know 17 whether the cigarette companies knew more than 18 what you say that the State of Florida knew? 19 A. No., 20 Q. That's correct, isn't it? 21 A. That's right. 22 Q. Do you say that the State'of 23 Florida was successful in efforts to prevent lung 24 cancer from cigarette smoking? 25 MR. LOCKMAN: Object to the A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 192: rhz82d00
211 1 Q. Any assistant professors? 2 A. No. 3 Q. Graduate students? 4 A. Yes. 5 Q. How many? 6 A. Three. 7 Q. What are their names? 8 A. Andrew Frank. 9 Q. Andrew Frank? 10 A. Yes. Lisa Frank. 11 Q. Lisa Frank. Are they both in the 12 history department? 13 A. Yes. 14 Q. And who else? 15 A. I think they are the only graduate 16 students. 17 Q. Those two? 18 A. Yes. 19 Q. Are they still working on the 20 project with you? 21 A. Yes. 22 Q. Undergraduates? 23 A. No. 24 Q. None? 25 A. None. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 193: rhz82d00
199 1 of information that is not known or courses of 2 action that are not taken. 3 Q. Would you think it would be 4 reasonable to conclude that that mass of 5 documentation t hat you reviewed in preparing your 6 1990 book on Frank Porter Graham in the 1950 7 Senate race in North Carolina would have been 8 affected in some way, potentially an important 9 way, by the disclosure of the kintl of information 10 that you reviewed in developing that book in 11 1990? 12 A. No. It would be reasonable not to 13 conclude anything about documents that were not 14 known at the time that we now know exist to 15 comment intelligently on the effect that they 16 would have had on the events that transpired at 17 the time had they been known. 18 Q. You're over reading my question. 19 You're over reading my question. 20 My question is whether you believe 21 that they would have had any effect, not whether 22 you can predict what they would -- what effect 23 they would have had on that election cycle? 24 A. I don't 'know., 25 Q. You don't know? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 194: rhz82d00
201 1 2 understand that there are airplanes and the like. Emphysema? 3 A. Irrespective of the time, I ask you to repeat the full question. 5 6 Q. Yes. You do not know, have no means to 7 , { know whether the cigarette industry defendants 9 knew more than what you say that the State of Florida knew about cigarettes causing heart 10 disease, cardiovascular disease in the 1950s? 11 A. No. 12 Q. You don't have any means to know, 13 em ma? h s p y e 14 A. (Witness shakes head.) 15 Q. Any means to know? 16 A. No. 17 Q. And you don't know? I'm -- the 18 specific question. 19 A. No. 20 Q. How about nicotine being addictive, 21 any means to know whether the cigarette companies 22 knew more in the 1950s than you say the State of 23 Florida knew? Ln 24 25 A. Q. I" om No. m w m And you don't know, right? ko m w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 195: rhz82d00
179 1 review those documents and be able to draw my own 2 conclusions? 3 A. Yes. 4 Q. Do you know when,it is that the 5 Surgeon General of the United 8tates.drew the firm. 6 link to cardiovascular disease from cigarette 7 smoking? 8 A. No, I do not. 9 Q. If it was 1983, do you take it that 10 your view is that the State of Florida knew that 11 before the surgeon general? 12 A. It would be my view that the State 13 of Florida knew that before 1983. 14 Q. From reviewing the state --.the 15 documents that you have said are public record 16 documents, not having reviewed any of the internal 17 company documents, do you yourself accept the 18 truth that cigarettes cause lung cancer? 19 A. Yes. 20 Q. That they cause heart disease and 21 cardiovascular diseases? 22 A. That they are a major 23 contributing -- 24 Q. Cause? 25 A. Cause of these diseases, yes. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 196: rhz82d00
181 1 A. Yes. 2 Q. Is it your view that a cigarette 3 company having access to the public record 4 documents that you have reviewed in this case in 5 the -- up through and including the 1960s, would 6 correctly conclude that cigarette smoking causes 7 lung cancer? 8 MR. LOCKMAN: I object to that as 9 beyond his expertise, as all of these questions 10 where you have asked his personal opinion are. 11 The last five or six questions have all been "do 12 you yourself," which is his personal opinion which 13 he is really not here to give you, but he has 14 given it to you. 15 MR. HOGAN: You are not here to 16 i t hi i he ns ruct m, e r. t 17 MR. LOCKMAN: I'm not instructing 18 the witness. I'm objecting to your questions that 19 do not call for expert opinion. 20 MR. HOGAN: There were several 21 questions that went by, no objection, and you are 22 not here to instruct the witness. You can refresh 23 your -- you can refresh yourself with the rules 24 that the Supreme Court has put into place having 25 to do with speaking objections when you are trying A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 197: rhz82d00
212 1 Q. So anybody that has worked with you, 2 on this project other than somebody that might 3 have done copying for you were graduate students? 4 A. Yes. 5 Q. Two.people? 6 A. Yes. 7 Q. No others? 8 A. No. 9 Q. And are they still in the program 10 there at the University of Florida?' 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. Andrew Frank and Lisa Frank. Have 13 they provided you with any memoranda -- 14 A. No. 15 Q. -- of their reports? 16 Has everything that they have 17 reported to you orally, verbally? 18 A. Yes, they -- that's correct. 19 There's nothing written. 20 Q. They haven't typed anything? 21 A. No. 22 Q. There's nothing in any computers of 23 memoranda that they have done? 24 A. No. 25 Q. Anything of that sort that has been A. WILLIAM ROBERTS,~ JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 198: rhz82d00
183 1 THE WITNESS: Historians have 2 problems with these kinds of speculate questions. 3 BY MR. HOGAN: 4 Q. My question to you is you've read 5 that public record you've said; is that correct? 6 A. Yes. 7 Q• And you have said what your view is 8 as to what the State of filorida knew? 9 A. Based on what it has said in the 10 record. 11 Q. Based on what you have reviewed. 12 And so my question is`a cigarette company 13 reviewing the same documentle, is it your view that 14 it would be reasonable to-expect that they would 15 conclude that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer 16 as of that time? 17 A. I don't know the answer.to that 18 question. It's a speculative - 19 MR. LOCKMAN: Give me a chance to 20 object, please, because I have to take these one 21 at a time if he's going to continue down this 22 line. 23 BY MR. HOGAN: 4 Q• Do you think that access to 25 internal company documents would help you answer WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 199: rhz82d00
207 1 BY MR. HOGAN: 2 Q. Go ahead. 3 A. I account for the fact that th e 4 state reached that conclusion because it states 5 it. It states that conclusion repeatedly. 6 Q. How do you account for the fac t 7 that cigarette companies deny it? 8 MR. LOCKMAN: Objection. 9 THE WITNESS: I cannot account for 10 that. 11 BY MR. HOGAN: 12 Q. You cannot account.for that, can 13 you? 14 A. N 15 Q. Does it surprise you that they_deny 16 it? 17 MR. LOCKMAN: Okay. Same objection 18 as I stated a moment ago. 19 BY MR. HOGAN: 20 Q. Does it surprise you? 21 A. As a person? 22 Q. I'm asking you as a person. 23 MR. LOCKMAN: I state the same cn m 24 b W o jections. m ~ 25 BY MR. HOGAN: m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &.ASSOCIATES
Page 200: rhz82d00
197 1 this case? 2 A. No. 3 Q. Do you have any inte'rest in seeing 4 them to determine what they would add in the -- to 5 your fund of knowledge between now and May and the 6 trial which is to occur in August? 7 A. Insofar as they do not reflect the 8 record of debate and discussion end the public 9 policy and decisions made in Florida, they are 10 tangential to my research. desigris. 11 Q. Suppose it turns out that they do 12 relate to the debate in the State of. Florida and. 13 you testify in August and you haven't reviewed 14 them, would there be a.def,iciency then in what 15 you've reviewed in regard to the public'debate in 16 Florida on the issue of cigarette.s and disease-and 17 addictiveness? 18 A. My task is to examine the public 19 record as I have examined the documents that have 20 shaped the debate in Florida._ 21 Q. And you are excluding the idea that 22 internal documents from the cigarette industry 23 defendants would have or could have played any 24 role in shaping the public debate about cigarette 25 caused diseases or addictiveness; is that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 201: rhz82d00
187 1 Q. In what's called the expert 2 disclosure statement which appears for your name 3 Augustus M. Burns, III, did you review that 4 document or did you write that document? How did 5 it come into existence? 6 A. I met with a group of attorneys in 7 Orlando. There was a draft of the document in a 8 computer -- in a laptop, and we sat there and read 9 the document and amended it and edited it and 10 reviewed it for about an hour and a half. 11 Q. Was it you or was it the cigarette 12 industry defendant lawyers who put the quote marks 13 around the words "addictive" and "habituating"? 14 MR. LOCKMAN: I don't know if you 15 have it in hand. 16 MR. HOGAN: Do you have a copy of 17 it? 18 MR. LOCKMAN: I have one, but it 19 has my notations on it. 20 MR. HOGAN: Mine has my notations 21 on it, too. 22 MR. LOCKMAN: Who has a clean one? 23 u, ) ~ (Pause in the proceedings . m m 24 MR.' LEMLEY: w No. 25 MR. LOCKMAN: OD We don't have a clean 0c) W A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCI'ATES
Page 202: rhz82d00
177 1 But the word "poison" is associated 2 with cigarette smoking much, much'earlier. 3 Q. When is 3,t that you say that the 4 State of Florida knew that cigarettes are 5 addictive? Contain an addictive drug? MR. LOCKMAN: We are all agreeing that these are just characterizations that you're 8 making, you are not assuming facts? These are 9 questions, as you said a few moments ago? 10 BY MR. HOGAN: 11 Q. I'm asking when is it that you say 12 that the State of Florida knew, if you do, and 13 I've reviewed your witness disclosure, that the 14 State of Florida knew that cigarettes contain an 15 addictive drug? 16 A. One finds the generous use of the 17 word "addictive° and "addicting" as early as -- as 18 early as the first decade of the 20th Century. 19 Q. Let'•s go back to an earlier 20 question that you answered, and that is you said 21 there are reports of it, and that had to do`'I 22 think with lung cancer when I was asking that 23 question, it might have been one of the other Ln ~ ~ 24 diseases, and you said there are reports of it in m 25 the 1960s? a) OD ~ ~ ~ A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 203: rhz82d00
204 1 the potential risks. 2 Q. And you are of that-view, and from 3 the review of the materials that you had and chose 4 to review, did you make any conclusions as to 5 6 whether the State of Florida was successful in any degree in accomplishing that? 7 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection. THE WITNESSa Again, ws would need to define the meaning of the word "success." If 10 11 we mean by success where --; we would have to define the term. 12 BY MR. HOGAN: 13 Q. Well, would success be getting 14 people, helping to get people to stop smoking? 15 A. It could mean that. But again, the 16 word success is not -- that's not -- that's not an 17 adequate frame that historians would employ here. 18 Q. So you haven't undertaken to 19 determine at all whether the State of Florida was 20 successful in any efforts it may have made in 21 attempting to prevent cigarette-related diseases? 22 A. What I would say would be instead 23 is that in the process of -- in the process of 24 informing its citizens of the risk`s, we can 25 disclose here, we can trace here a continuing A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 204: rhz82d00
189 1 A. I don't remember. 2 Q. Was it the subject of discussion 3 between you and the cigarette company industry 4 defendant lawyers? 5 A. I don't have a specific remembrance 6 of the nature of the discussion. 7 Q. You indicated that it was by 8 agreement? 9 A. My.best memory is that I was the 10 one who suggested those quotation marks be 11 included. 12 Q. And it covers -- your review of 13 documents covers a number of years back into the 14 earlier part of the 20th century and carries on up 15 through the decades of the forties,.fifties, 16 sixties, seventies, eighties,'nineties. 17 Is there a point in time when you 18 are of the view from your review that the 19 quotation marks should be removed around the term 20 "addictive"? 21 MR. L4CKMAN: I object to the 22 question as calling for an opinion.beyond his ~ 23 expertise. I don't want to elaborate on that ~ rn 24 m because I don't want to be accused of making a 25 speaking objection. co ' ko A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 205: rhz82d00
209 1 reviewing the documents you've drawn that 2 conclusion, have you? 3 A. I have. 4 Q. How do you account for the fact 5 that people continue to smoke,ciga~rettes; from your 6 review of whatever materials you've`xeviewed? 7 MR. LOCKMAN: Same set of 8 objections. 9 THE WITNESS: This is ~eyond my 10 range of expertise. I cannot tell you why people 11 do what the do . y 12 BY MR. HOGAN: 13 Q. You cannot account for it? 14 A. No, I cannot. A historian cannot d 15 o that. 16 Q. Do you factor in in any way,;shape 17 or form the activities of theJcigarette companies 18 that produce and manufacture -- manufacture and 19 produce and sell the cigarettes which are smoked? 20 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objections. 21 THE WITNESS: No, I can't do'-that 22 either. 23 BY MR. HOGAN; 24 Q. You don't factor that in.at all; is 25 that correct? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 206: rhz82d00
216 1 Q. Do you have any idea why they were 2 sent to us if you haven't seen them a~nd I'm here 3 to take your deposition about what it is that you 4 have seen? A. May I defer to counsel. 6 Q. I'm asking you here in this 7 deposition? 8 A. Would you`repeat it, please. 9 Q. Do you have any idea why those 10 boxes -- why I was sent ten boxes°of materials 11 that you have not seen when I'm here taking your 12 deposition to try to find out what your opinions 13 are and what they are based on? 14 A. They are discovery materials that 15 you provided to us. 16 Q. What I'm trying to find out.is I 17 don't know which ten -- out of 21, you're telling 18 me that there are ten that you haven't reviewed. 19 I don't know which ten. 20 A. I'm sorry to tell you I don't know 21 either. 22 MR. LOCKMAN: May I suggest Ln 23 something because I'm sure that you want a clear ~ O, ! m w 24 record. Do you mind if we talk for five minutes ~ 25 and then we will make an explanation why you were co A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 207: rhz82d00
200 1 A. I don't know.' 2 Q. Do you have any information, basis 3 for knowledge as to whether what the cigarette 4 industry knew in the 1950s about whether 5 cigarettes cause lung cancer was more than what 6 the State of Florida knew? 7 A. No. 8 Q. You don't know? 9 A. I don't know. 10 Q. You have no means to know? 11 A. No. 12 Q. Is that correct? 13 A. That's correct. 14 Q. The same for heart disease, 15 cardiovascular disease, do you have Any means to 16 know? 17 A. No. 18 Q. You don't know whether the 19 cigarette companies knew more than what you say 20 the state knew? 21 A. N 22 Q. Emphysema? 23 A. Is that a question? 24 Q. The same question as to emphysema. 25 I'm trying to shorten things if we can because I A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.,` & ASSOCIATES
Page 208: rhz82d00
222 1 Q. You did not review it after it was 2 amended to include the racketeering counts? 4 A. Q. No. Have you.been asked to amend in any 5 way the project that you're doing since the 6 complaint was amended to add the racketeering 7 counts? 9 A. Q. No. Have you reviewed any answers to 10 interrogatories, written questions in this case? 11 A. N 12 Q. No depositions that have -- any 13 depositions that have been taken in this case, 14 have you reviewed them at all? 15 A. In this case, no. 16 Q. In this case. I know that you said 17 that you saw Skates and Sansing from Mississippi? 18 A. No, I have not. 19 Q. You are working at the same time on 20 Louisiana? 21 A. Not any more. 22 Q. You stopped doing that? 23 A. Long ago. 24 Q. How long were you working on the 25 Louisiana case -- is that the class action that A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., &'ASSOCIATES
Page 209: rhz82d00
215 1 duplicate set of those boxes_that you have 2 retained? 3 MS. KESSLER: Yes. 4 MR. HOGAN: Is it.with counsel or 5 is it with the witness? 6 MS. KESSLER: e has his originals 7 back. 8 MR. HOGAN: He`has>a set. 9 BY MR. HOGAN: 10 Q. What part of those boxes have you 11 t ? no seen 12 MR. LOCKMAN: You are talking about 13 the 21 boxes that were sent -- 14 MR. HOGAN: Yes. The ones that he 15 says are all that he has seen. 16 MR. MIKHAIL: He said there was a 17 volume of material in those 21 boxes that he 18 hasn't seen yet. 19 THE WITNESS: There are about ten 20 boxes that I have not yet been through`.' 21 BY MR. HOGAN: 22 Q. Do you know which of the ten? Do, 23 you have any means or record here to tell me which 24 of the ten you haven't seen? 25 A. No, I do not. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES,
Page 210: rhz82d00
217 1 given 21 boxes. I think I know the answer. 2 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are going off 3 the videotape record now at 3:26. 5 (A brief recess was taken.) THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are'back on 7 the videotape record at 3:30. THE WITNESS: Permit me to 8 apologize for the confusion. 9 I have seen all of the boxes that 10 were sent to Ms. Kessler and sent to you. There 11 are two or four remaining boxes. They are boxes 12 of newspapers in my home that I have not examined 13 and I have not relied on them for this 14 deposition. 15 And when we look at them we will 16 send them to you, send your office copies of those 17 boxes. I got confused and I apologize for the 18 confusion. 19 BY MR. HOGAN: 20 Q. So you believe now that the 21 contents of the 21 boxes that were sent to my 22 office are materials that you have reviewed? 23 A. Yes, I do. 24 Q. And if there are any developments 25 or changes in your opinion because you review A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 211: rhz82d00
206 1 cigarette habit. 2 And we have numbers on the degree 3 to which the popularity of smoking and the 4 incidence of smoking in Florida:declined. , 5 Now, again the term."success" is a 6 term that we would have to define in order to be 7 able to answer that question -- or effective in 8 order to answer that question conclusively. 9 Q. How do you account for the fact 10 that you say that the State of Florida knew in the 11 1960s that cigarettes cause lung cancer and the 12 cigarette industry defendants deny that? 13 MR. LOCKMAN: Objec,tion to form of 14 the question. It assumes facts not in evidence. 15 BY MR. HOGAN: 16 Q. Have you'read the answers of the 17 defendants? 18 A. No. I'm not following this 19 question. 20 Q. How do you account for.the fact 21 that you draw the conclusion that the State of b 22 Florida knew in the 1960s:that cigarettes cause 23 lung cancer and yet 'the cigarette company 24 defendants deny that it causes lung cancer? 25 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection. W A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 212: rhz82d00
231 1 I N D E X 2 PO V ~ Kz May 9. 1;997 5 EXAMINATION BY: PAGE , 6 MR. HOGAN 7 8 9 EXHIBITS: PAGE MARKED 10 (None.) 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2 2 v, 23 m m 24 w am (o 25 w w A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 213: rhz82d00
186 1 head up and down just then? 2 3 A. I just shook it. an thin I didn't mean 4 y g. Q. It was by your choice that it was 5 limited in that fashion? 6 MR. LOCKMAN: I object. I think 7 the question is getting too truncated now to have 8 a clear record, and so I object. 9 MR. HOGAN: I wi,11 just stick with 10 the videotape record of whether he shook his head 11 up and down or to the side. 12 MS. KESSLER: I was just going to 13 ask when you get to a good spot to break. 14 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are going off 15 th vid t rd 2 39 eo e ape reco at : . 16 (A brief recess was taken.) 17 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: Back on the vid 18 eotape record now at 2:45. 19 BY MR. HOGAN: 20 Q. Did any lawyer or other 21 representative of any of the cigarette industry 22 defendants offer to show'you any of the internal 23 documents of any of'the cigarette industry 24 defendants? 25 A. No. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 214: rhz82d00
219 1 both sides are doing on a reciprocal basis, 2 MR. HOGAN: I'm just reacting to' 3 the fact that they do exist. It's a little 4 different than something that might be out there 5 in the world that he didn't have there at home. 6 But- we will work it out, 7 suppose. MR. LOCKMAN: We'll work it out. 9 BY MR. HOGAN: 10 Q. I've been supplied with a set of 11 papers that are billings for expenses, airline, 12 copying costs, a variety of things, including 13 hours that you and others had, As far as you know 14 apart from this week when you've>been up here, 15 working with counsel for the cigarette industry 16 defendants in this case, have I been supplied with 17 an up-to-date list of all'=the hours that you have 18 billed for in billing the industry and the 19 expenses that you have billed for`over this period 20 of time since -- when did you begin? When did Mr., 21 Kaczsynski arrive at your, door? 22 A. March 1995. 23 Q. What does it add up to, do you 24 know, in terms of compensation to you over this 25 period of time? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOtIATES
Page 215: rhz82d00
221 1 A. In New York. 2 Q. At what location or what law 3 offices? 4 A. At the law offices of Chadbourne & 5 Parke. Q. 'Were you the only one there to.make 7 a presentation that day? 8 A. I'm not certain. I think there were others present. 10 Q. Other professionals? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. Other expert-type witnesses? 13 A. I was - 14 Q. Were you in.the room -- 15 A. I was not in the room with anyone 16 else. 17 Q. You made a presentation, this is 18 what I found, this is what -- 19 A. This is what I'm do}ng. 20 Q. You said that you have not reviewed 21 the third amended complaint in this case? 22 A. No, 23 Q. Or any complaint that the State 24 filed? 25 A. I read the first complaint,. A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 216: rhz82d00
225 1 yourself with; is that correct? 2 A. Only to the extent that what we 3 know is in the public record and what we will 4 show -- I won't show it. What I see here is a 5 broad range of competing interests in the state on 6 a number of different issues that are related to 7 the broad range of tobacco concerns in the State 8 of Florida. 9 Q. And what you-don't include in 10 anything that you plan to comment on is the role' 11 of the cigarette industry in that; is that 12 correct? 13 A. well, in the sense that it would - 14 my focus is concerned with the public discussion 15 that takes place and the manifestations of that 16 public discussion insofar as legislation is 17 concerned and so forth. 18 Q. And disregards any specific or 19 general role that the cigarette industry itself 20 had on impacting that; correct? 21 A. Disregards is too strong a term, 22 but if that -- those efforts are contained in the 23 public record, then I will examine them.. 24 Q. And if not, if they'kept it to 25 themselves over all those years, then you're not A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 217: rhz82d00
203 1 question as beyond his expertise. 2 BY MR. HOGAN: 3 Q. I'm asking do.you say as part of 4, your opinions that the State of Florida 5 successfully made efforts to prevent lung cancer 6 from cigarette smoking? 7 A. No. I describe the process that 8 develops as the state continues t o concern itself 9 with the increasing incidence of lung cancer and 10 to alert.its citizens of the possible risks 11 attendant to cigarette smoking. 12 Q. From your review-of the documents 13 are you able to say whether it is your view that 14 the State of Florida was successful in those 15 prevention efforts? 16 A. No. I object to the word 17 "successful" because it seems to me that that's 18 a -- that's an argument -- that is;,a term that we 19 would need to define before we understood what 20 successful means. 21 Q. You were of the-view that the State 22 of Florida undertook prevention efforts with 23 regard to lung cancer from cigarette smoking; that 24 is your view? 25 A. Yes. And to'inform its citizens of A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 218: rhz82d00
224 1 grow it successfully, to market it successfully 2 and to the warehouse men in Florida who sell it to 3 sell it successfully.in an orderly fashion. 4 To the people in the state who make 5 cigars. To the people in the state who sell. 6 cigars and other tobacco products. To -- and to 7 have -- to be able to recount some knowledge of 8 what the state has done with the money that it has 9 collected from excise and sales taxes.~-on:tobacco. 10 To give some information about the size of that 11 amount of money that has been collected in taxes 12 over the years, both in taxes that have been 13 levied by the State of F.lorida and municipalities 14 in Florida, and also as revenue that has been sent 15 to the Federal Government from Florida as a 16 consequences of taxes on cigarettes. 17 In other words -- and then as well 18 to trace the campaign in the state that was 19 concerned with the harmful health effects of 20 cigarette and tobacco usage. 21 Q. And what it was that the cigarette 22 industry defendants, manufacturers had to do with 23 that topic, that latter topic, how they 24 contributed to the problem, what they did or did 25 not do is something that you don't concern A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 219: rhz82d00
223 1 was pending there? 2 A. I don't know what the case was. 3 But I worked on it for,about four months. 4 Q. And then you stopped? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. They told you don't do any more 7 work on Louisiana? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. Do you know the name Castono? 10 A. It's vague whether I-- 11 Q. Do you know if that's the project 12 that you were working on for Louisiana? 13 A. I think it was. 14 Q. Do you know what, if any, 15 particular allegations of the complaint your 16 testimony is intended to answer or rebut? 17 A. No. 18 Q. No idea? 19 A. My understanding of what -- what 20 I'm supposed to present myself as an expert to is 21 the State of Florida's -- the State of Florida's 22 role in the tobacco culture of Florida. 23 When I use the term "tobacco 24 culture," I mean the state's role in assisting the 25 people in the state of Florida who grow tobacco to A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 220: rhz82d00
229 1 Q. How recently? 2 A. Several months,ago for about 15 3 minutes. 4 Q. Do you know whether she did a 5 disclosure form such as you described? 6 A. No, I don't.know. 7 MR. HOGAN: Thank you. I have no 8 other questions. 9 MR. LOCKMAN: We will take that 10 short break. 11 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are off the 12 videotape record at 3:45. 13 (A brief recess was taken.) 14 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: Back on the 15 videotape record now at 3s58. 16 MR. LOCKMAN: The plaintiffs have 17 closed their questioning of this witness"and we 18 have no questions of this witness at this time. 19 MR. HOGAN: That concludes the i 20 depos tion. 21 W THE VIDEOGRAPHER a ff th : e re o e 22 d h 3 8 recor at t e :5 . 23 (Reading and signature not waived.) 24 (Time noted: 3:58 p.m.) A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 221: rhz82d00
194 1 A. What I had in mind is the work that 2 remains to be done in this process which could 3 include those activities. 4- Q. You presently have no opinions and 5 haven't reviewed the opinions of others in this 6 case? Sansing and Skates are not witnesses in 7 this case by the State of Florida. 8 A. I havenot had opinions from other 9 witnesses. I have not discussed this with other 10 witnesses. 11 Q. So to the extent that that sentence 12 is in here, I have no means to know what it is or 13 to even ask you about what it is that you might 14 contemplate saying,about the opinions of other 15 witnesses? 16 17 18 19 20 rely on? A. Q. A. Q. At this point,. the answer is no. Or about the evidence that they may Correct. And do you know whether-this 21 disclosure statement that you approved relates to 22 defense witnesses or -- for the cigarette industry 23 defendants or for witnesse.s.for the State of 24 Florida plaintiffs? 25 A. I don't follow you. A. WIL~IAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 222: rhz82d00
214 1 misunderstanding and maybe we can clarify. 2 MS. KESSLER: The boxes that you 3 received should be 21 boxes'`which were produced 4 from my office which were all sent -- it was all 5 the boxes that Gus sent, and I just sent them on 6 to you. 7 Correct me if I'm wrong, but I 8 think you are discussing the 21 boxes that you 9 received last Friday with.a cover letter from me 10 which would be the materials that you sent me. 11 THE WITNESS: I had no way to 12 photocopy this volume of materxal. 13 BY MR. HOGAN: 14 Q. I'm trying to get.an.understanding 15 whether I've seen what you've seen by way of these 16 boxes? 17 A. You have everything. 18 Q. Whatever it is that you've seen -- 19 I have everything, what does that mean? 20 A. Everything tha t I have generated, 21 everything that I've seen. 22 Q. So whatever it is, it's in those 23 b ? oxes 24 A. That's correct. 25 Q. Is there a -- counsel, is there a . WILLIAM ROBERTS,. JR.,'& ASSOCIATES
Page 223: rhz82d00
205 1 concerted effort. But whether or not the effort 2 is successful is really a conclusion t hat is 3 without -- without very clear limits as to what we 4 mean by that term. 5 Q. Did you draw conclusions ag to 6 whether it was effective? 7 A. Again, we have the same problem 8 with that word as we have with success. 9 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection to '10 this question. 11 BY MR. HOGAN: 12 Q. Sir? 13 A. That's okay. 14 Q. Do you have another word for me 15 besides successful or effective that you are 16 willing to answer? 17 A. No. What I would say is what we 18 would look at rather that.trying to measure 19 whether these programs were effective or 20 successful in terms of statistical responses which 21 don't exist as far as I can tell, alt`hough:there 22 are -- there are some indicat ions, there are some 23 indications that as these -- as the-attention`of 24 these concerns became widely debated, that a lot 25 of people began to reconsider the wisdom of their -J A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 224: rhz82d00
227 1 Q. You've not had -- you didn't'say to 2 him why did you pick me? 3 A. Nope. 4 Q. It didn't even:occur to you to 7 ask? A. Q. No. Do you know whether they.approached 8 any of your colleagues at the University of 9 Florida or anywhere else in the state of Florida, 10 historians, and asked them to undertake~a similar 11 review or similar project? 12 A. Yes. 13 Q. Who? 14 A. To do exactly what I'm doing or -- 15 Q. Well, that first. 16 A. Approximately that. 17 Q. Yes, to work on this case? 18 A. There is a professor at Florida 19 Lange. 20 Q. Who is that? 21 A. Professor Sandy Norman. 22 Q. Do you know whether Professor 23 Norman agreed to do it? 24 A. Yes, I believe she did agree. 25 Q. And is she doing that? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 225: rhz82d00
228 1 A. She is, but it is my understanding 2 that she has not been designated as a witness. 3 Q. Does that relate to the Florida 4 case? 5 A. Yes. 6 Q. And that work is underway? 7 A. Yes. 8 Q. Why do you understand that she was 9 not designated? 10 A. I don't know. 11 Q. Have you been told why she wasn't? 12 A. No. And I haven't asked. 13 Q. Do you know of anyone else that was 14 asked? 15 A. No. 16 Q. So you wouldn't know if there were 17 others who were asked who declined? 18 A. No. I would not know. 19 Q. Are you relying on any work that 20 Professor Norman did? 21 A. No. 22 Q. Have you seen any materials --'do Ln 23 ~ you know that you saw any materials that she saw? m w 24 Have you all talked about it? ' rn 25 A. ko w We had one,conversation. m A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 226: rhz82d00
213 1 produced has been produced by you t~hrough any 2 secretarial assistance? 3 A. I haven't hai.d any secretarial 4 assistance produce any written stuff. I put' it 5 all in the computer myself. 6 Q. You type it in? 7 A. Yes. 8 Q. We received a bunch of •boxes this 9 past -- while I was up here they were arriving 10 down there last Friday I suppose is when`that was 11- occurring. 12 Did you yourself see those boxes 13 before they were shipped to me and the content of 14 those boxes? 15 A. I hav-e seen those boxes. I have 16 not been through them all because the mass of 17 material -- some of -- the mass of material is 18 more than I have been able to go through at this 19 point. 20 Q. Then do you want to ask me some 21 questions? 22 Which boxes have you not seen? 23 Which ones? Name them. They were labeled 1 24 through 21. 25 MR. LOCKMAN: You may have a A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 227: rhz82d00
220 1 A. $75,000, $80,000. 2 Q. What is your annual salary there at 3 the university? 5 A. $52,000 a year. Q. In the course of this period of 6 time since you've been`on this project, how many 7 times have you met with lawyers for the cigarette 8 industry defendants? 9 A. We have met on a number of 10 occasions. I don't know the specific number. 11 Q. Can you count it on both hands? 12 A. Ten times I would say. That's 13 about right. 14 Q. Some of those meetings have been 15 larger meetings where you made sort of a lecture 16 presentation using materials such as we discussed 17 earlier? 18 A. One of those meetings was not a 19 large meeting. It included the presence of about 20 six, seven attorneys. 21 There was one session where 20 or 22 30 people were present. 23 Q. And did it take place in Florida? 24 A. No. 25 Q. Where did it take place? A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 228: rhz82d00
210 1 A. That's correct. I think in:.. 2 Q. Who else has worked with you on 3 this project for the cigarette industry 4 defendants? 5 A. I've had a series of helpers, 6 part-time helpers, people iaho'do photocopying for 7 me, people who have gone with me to do research. 8 Q. People that you've engaged and then 9 you bill their time to the cigarette in.dustry 10 defendants? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. How many people over time, people 13 that have rotated in and out of the project, so to 14 speak? 15 A. Six or eight. 16 Q. And are all of"their names included 17 on the billing materials that you've provided to 18 the cigarette industry defendants? 19 A. I'm not sure. I think so. 20 Q. Have you had any full professors 21 work with you in this project? 22 A. No. u, 23 Q. Any associate professors work with m . , W 24 you on this project? ~ 25 A. No. N A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR.; & ASSOCIATES
Page 229: rhz82d00
233 1 WITNESS: AUGUSTUS M. BURNS. jII, Ph.D.' 2 DATE: May 9. 1997 3 CASE: Florida Tobacco Litigation 4 Please note any errors and the corrections thereof 5 on this errata sheet. Rules require a reason for any change or correction. May be general, such 7 as "To correct stenographic error,° or "To clarify the record," or "To conform with the fac'ts.° 9 PAGE LINE CORRECTjON REASON_FOR ANGE 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 230: rhz82d00
208 1 Q. Does it surprise you that cigarette 2 companies now, 1997 to now, deny that cigarette 3 smoking causes lung cancer? 4 A. As a personal opinion? 5 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objection. 6 BY MR. HOGAN: 7 Q. Yes, sir. 8 A. It's surprising. 9 Q. Does it surprise you that they deny 10 here in 1997 that it's addictive? 11 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objections. 12 THE WITNESS: Again I'm not -- this 13 is beyond my range of expertise. If you want my 14 personal opinion on this matter - 15 BY MR. HOGAN: 16 Q. My question is whether -it surprises 17 you that they today deny it, 1997? 18 MR. LOCKMAN: Same objections. 19 THE WITNESS: I don't know the 20 answer. I guess its does surprise me. 21 BY MR. HOGAN: 22 Q. You've indicated that the State of 23 Florida -- from your review the State of Florida 24 has made efforts to reduce-, to attempt ta,reduce 25 cigarette smoking among its population. From Ln A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 231: rhz82d00
218 1 these other materials or because youexpect ,to 2 find some witnesses whose opinions you want to 3 comment on or evidence thatthey relied on, I 4 guess we will have to take that up with the 5 judge? 6 MR. LOCKMAN: As I think I've said 7 in prior depositions, if there is some 8 understanding between both sides"be,,cause both 9 sides potentially have the issue and -- 10 MR. HOGAN: When I say the judge, 11 it will be however the judge addresses that 12 point. 13 MR. LOCKMAN: Or the parties work 14 out an agreement. 15 MR. HOGAN: Will we be notified? 16 We now know that he -- for awhile he thought there 17 was a larger amount of documents that he had not 18 reviewed. Now it is a smaller two tof our boxes 19 that he apparently intends to review. 20 At least with respect to,those when 21 he was offered up here for deposition, if there is 22 any change based on his reviewing them, I take 4-t 23 that we will be supplied with an updated 24 disclosure statement at least as to those? 25 MR. LOCKMAN: Assuming'that -is what A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 232: rhz82d00
226 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 concerned with it? A. That's right. MR. HOGAN: Thanks. I have no other questions. MR. LOCKMAN: Let me suggest that you give us about ten minutes just to talk among ourselves, and if we have a few questions it certainly will not take long. And if we don't, we will just close up the deposition. MR. HOGAN: How much do you have left? THE VIDEOGRAPHER: I have seven minutes left on this tape., 14 Off the videotape record at 3:42. 15 (Pause in the proceedings.) 16 THE VIDEOGRAPHER: We are back on 17 the videotape record at 3:42. 18 BY MR. HOGAN: 19 Q. From any conversation or 20 communication that you had with Mr. Kaczsynski or 21 anyone else representing the cigarette industry 22 defendants, do you know why it was that you were u, 23 selected to be contacted by them to do this m m 24 review? w m ~ 25 A. No. N W . A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 233: rhz82d00
232 1 CERTIFICATE_ OF DEPONEN't' 2 I hereby certify that I have read and 3 4 5 examined the foregoing transcript, and the same is a true and accurate record of the testimony given by me. 6 Any additions or corrections that I feel are 7 8 necessary, I will attach on a separate sheet of paper to the original transcript.° 9 10 11 AUGUSTUS M. BURNS, III, Ph.D. 12 I hereby certify that the individual 13 representing himself/herself to be the above-named 14 individual, appeared before me this 15 day.of , 1997, and 16 executed the above certificate in my presence. 17 18 19 NOTARY PUBLIC IN AND FOR 20 21 MY COMMISSION EXPIRES: 22 23 24 25 A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 234: rhz82d00
230 1 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, to wit: 2 I, Doreen M. Dotzler, before whom the 3 foregoing deposition was taken, do hereby`certify 4 that the within-named witness personally appeared 5 before me at the time and place herein set out, 6 and after having been duly sworn by me, according 7 to law, was examined by counsel.~: 8 I further certify that the examination was 9 recorded stenographically by me,and this 10 transcript is a true record of the proceedings. 11 I further certify that I am not of counsel to 12 any party, nor an employee of counsel, nor related 13 to any party, nor in any way interested in the 14 outcome of this action. 15 As witness my hand and notarial seal this 16 17 18 19 day of , , 1997 . 20 DOREEN M. DOTZLER 21 Notary Public 22 MY COMMISSION EXPIRES: 4-14-02 23 24 N A. WILLIAM ROBERTS, JR., & ASSOCIATES
Page 235: rhz82d00
s e RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR TFFE PUBLIC SCHOOLS' OF NASSAU COUNTY, FLORIDA. . 1899, BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. C. B. 1icv.uw, Cbairpan. Nows & Hscrs. wu. FI. WnoaTE. C. A. SvoWawtt. Superintendent. ,.Ae...Y.N= ae., .w K/RM AN W MIMr ~~WIM~uV ch ~ (n ~
Page 236: rhz82d00
L ktau/w^ F5 VT I 51603 6992 OFFICIAL MONTHLY BULLETIN ESTABi.ISHED jULY, 1892 JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA Entered as Second Class Matter, October 27, 1921 at the Postoffice at Jacksonville. Florids, Under the Act of August 24, 1912 This Bulletin will be sent to any address in the State free of cbarge JANUARY, 1936 Edited by STEWART G. THOMPSON, D.P.Ii., Member American Medical Editors' and Authors' Assn. SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the FLORIDA PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION, INC. held in ORLANDO December 2-4, 1935 No.1 .
Page 237: rhz82d00
OFFICIAL BULLETIN Publiabed Moothly at lachsonviUe. Flori4a, by STATE BOARD OF HEALTH Subscription SO Ceota Per Annum EniereN at ttte tua.iee et Jeekeee.itle. l1e.1ds, se..csN•eleee aad istinn e. JNr 19. IN/ Vol. IN'. August, 1909 No. 8(s".:e) Hov. E. 'M. HE.DRV. President. Ho-#. H. L. Sistrsow, bt. D. Tampa. Fla. Pensacola. Fla. Ho% JoH~ G CNltsTOPtiER. Jacksonville. Fla. EDITED D1' ' JOSEPH Y POlwTEl1 \1 D. Secretary and State Health OtTicer. HtRwM BYRD. M. D., Assistant State Health Officer. Offices : Jacksonville. Dyal•Lpchurch BuildinQ. Key 1Vest. Room lo. Monroe County Court House. Laboratory : Jacksonville. L'En`ie Building. Sent to any address in the State for the asking. !f you receive it without asking, it means that someone else has reQuestea :t ior youn lVhen you change your address drop us a card. When gtvina change oi address. give both the old and the new. Anything you want to know about the public health we will try to tell yot Any information you want about diseases oi domestic animals we will belp you to `et "Konsider the postage stamp, my son: its usefulness konsists in its ability to :.~ck to one thing until it gets there.'-JoJh Billiegr.
Page 238: rhz82d00
. COURSE OF STUDY :_ FOR - ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA. 116 CouasE OF STUDY SUGGESTIONS. The teacher must see that the child lives his school life under wholesome sanitary conditions. The school building should be the best lighted and best ventilated building in the community, and it is the business of the teacher to see that it is the cleanest home in the community. To do this, she must study the most approved means of removing dust and dirt. She must also etudy her schedule and so arrange it that there will be frequent rest periods, and that recesses are frequent and long enough for rest, relaxation or lunch. The child must not only be led to see the proper thing to do but he must be induced to do it voluntarily, and he must have intelligent reasons for the habits formed. His self interest must be appealed to, and his sense of personal responsibility developed. The teacher must insist on the proper posture of the child at all times. The teaching of the effects of alcohol and tobacco is obligatory in order to fulfill the requirements of the Sharon Latai- Outline for first and second grades: FIRST HALF YEAR. To be used without a text in the hands of the pupil. The Teeth: Number of sets of teeth, number of teeth in each set, shedding teeth, when, why? Parts of teeth: crown, neck and roots. Composition of teeth. Kinds of teeth and work of each. The cutting, tearing and grinding teeth. Talk of six-year molars, and stress the importance. Discuss the importance of having good teeth and clean mouths; show how unclean conditions result in the decay of teeth; poor teeth cause mal- nutrition, and mal-nutrition favors disease. An unclean mouth is a menace to self and others. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TALLAHASSEE, FRORIDA. The chief causes of decay in teeth are neglect and sickness. Care of the teeth: articles needed, number of times the teeth should be brushed each day, and how to brush the teeth. Demonstrate this. Discuss the importance of having the teeth frequently examined by the dentist. Use thc following jingles if desired: W. N. SHEATS, State Superintendent. - "Little Mise Mary, quiet contrary, 1918 How does your little teeth grow? They grow strong and white, And ready to bite, ' 'Cause I brush them daily, you know." "As I was going to IIampstead Heath, E 0 9 T 5 I met a boy with clean white teeth; 9969 qean white teetb'and a merry smile- The best I have seen in many a mile."
Page 239: rhz82d00
Page 240: rhz82d00
E system of checking and rechecking prevented any cheating cr ualloi, box stuffing. It took 1,.206 ballot-boxes a day or 8.400 in all. At tin end of the week thirty girls were set to counting the votes, of which over a million and a half were cast. The result showed about 609.000 for smoking, 908.000 against it and 18,000 indifferent,--Pathfinder, NATURE'S FLY-SWATTER. Now that the annual fly-swattir.g season is upon us, it is t::i1; : learn more about that wonderful invention of Dame Nature known aA the Venus fl.• trap. or as the scientists call it the dionoea. An article in the Technice! 6f'orJd tells about this curious plant, which in this country finds its home mainly in the swamps near Wilmington, \. C. A specimen transplanted into moss and rich earth will thrive in the house if kept very moist, and it makes the best kind of fly-trap for it 4 is always on duty and lookc after itself. As the older traps lose their vitality fresh shoots appear and new traps are developed. The Venus fly-trap is rel,•ardcd as one of the gregtest wonders of the plant world, for it seems to exercise a discrimination of taste that is more than human. It is provided with three delicate hair-triggers. and it exudes a sort of honev-dew that attracts the flies. Woe to the fly however that touch-ec cne of the triggers, for quick as a flash the two heavy leaves of the trap close upon the victim and crush it, much the same as an ordinary steel-trap acts. There is no escape for the fly when he is once in. The plant then settles down to digest its meal + fresh meat-this being one of the very few vegetables that take to a meat diet. A species of gastric juice is sec,reted by the closed trap and the body of the fly undergoes a process of real digestion, so that the nutriment is absorbed by the plant. Then when the fly has been sucked dry, the trap opens and disgorges the indigestible remains. Now. th:~ most wonderful thing about the Venus fly-trap is that it knows the difference betwe flX or any foreil a lead-pencil•ar fly so that it is respond with v the; tcigger~_ans Thus the plant its own killing. trap in the actu THE SCMM Lh (Abstraet of an Secont t entiiatior to the continu research. Th~ are generall,v. are really du of the air. act Respiratic The concentr by the suppo ' Since tex specify that e; in 10.000 of The truth of of COs in the remains con tained so by is never pui one breathe the alveoli and this cc reinspiratio falling too the atmosF tainly does Ln ~ m m w M=
Page 241: rhz82d00
0 ® ® L., 1 A I 1 .1 : i FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 1 c D \; .il ltll I0 0 ~~ 7AGEQ8 GTIM6S, ES LATE HOURf, y j . ` 4 1r ATTl4t RATt kV~TM \;" , f 1fNEYI NO TIMtt, 4~Tt , ~' ~ D o~ Gi d~~ DEATN S`OdZE RINKINCr, E! I I i ~ ~Nt YOUNGLR GENERAI-ON pRE SwIFTLY SENDING TNEMSELVES TO AN t/ftY OftAVE dY TNEIR RIOTOUS WVINGV SAYS NEWS ITtM I N T CSS-4 L14REit1EN iL~ S T •1E L, (li OY t ~LL 1.4hSSEE «•
Page 242: rhz82d00
51603 6963 PART 1. Essunuis 'w TosAoco CU<.TURe. r... L Odyl...d lO...d at ToQwaco QsIt.rs ................. i 1L Mwtw oC N. Tobacco lwdoKry-Om u» u.e of w w..e. ............... ..........................................:.. x utL v.dea.m of a» T..4rrow Yl.wt ....................... a , 'IAT'!i'R iV. Q.rlkStbw of ToOaaoo Oto.rw 1w tAe Uwlted V. lol..0.1. Idr ARm- tiow tu lbeeeco ................. 7! 'Itb YL M.rsser .wd F.rqqaets............................... VtI. TO.l.eA BcA-taWuK @ad . ..................... 1S0 . ~ ' oO.e~wdBMed. ............................. ~ tII T a M.IM. MA YN 1/.rkets tor It ................ ................... K Z. Ow Qarlft Tolaoeo.. .................................... Os Zi. lbt.atToO.a~-iM.e.4e..h.eeu.tbeElemewt...2T1 S1lL sLr1[4tbrFot Tob.ooo................................ !D PART 11. W,•VY LlAF AND MANUfACTURING TOBAaCOS • . ZIIL Da..y lAIM.[ ToOamo ............................ no XIV. TM pAlto D.riMy awA M.pYt.atagInF ToO.eeo ... SD XV. ?d/o. Tob.oeo ......... .......................... Wi ZYL irtrlQ.. Tobseoo................................ ..... Am PART 111; . l](iAR LEAr T^U!!'rcQ~. ZfIL Owr.t co..M1e..Nowm of C.1g.. Le.t .............. sA zTw. sp.ew Fenturatlow ror t,7pr t.at ............. an 7mt.. au..o of c%u t.aat ................................ 40. =s. pps L..[ Tobacco .t te. Rea.ad SoatD.......... 4it .., . . , ;~ ~~ .., ~ PART IV r: '.' TOBAOCp MANUFACTURE MI1. Oo tl» M.wntaetwn of ToA.coo ..................... 4E4 ulL Tb0.ee0 Y. RereJ7 ............................... 4.3 W1YiM4 Ota .............................................. 4" ' =~13416 r
Page 243: rhz82d00
(T.bass. In !MlePida ) es saturity, or they will destriq it in a week or.twe. it be well matured b.rore gaxlerod as pulhi»g it too gr.en and o.f sap is the cause of much blaok tobacoo. Crowding it too on t}» sticks after gatheriYtg will spoil it. The leaves ougr, to touoh. Hanks aontaininb twelve to tiftedn leaves, oake t appsarance when stown for sale. Care alheuld be takea ttxt t oS tiae leaf be thoroughly ourad before it ,ls bozed; ottvre is liable to hoat and mild.w; and whea4 paeking, its conditio- serption of moisture from the alaaosphsre during a damp spol weather, sh.uld be, ttat its edger, wtien a buttdle of it is pa througb a p.rson's band, sheuld slightly rattle from bdlaa6 . than the balance st tao lpaf. Tebaaco is sometimss injurKd put up too daap, or as it is oalled, in too high oas.; anc su.*_*ieient moisture is eqseatial to n}ake 1t appear to advantc, epened. It is a difficult aAtter to give a proper and intsl:i direction under this head, and esperienoe alone will give a idea of tiru condition it, stMtuld be in at this stage; tor if too dry, the artiole when offered for salA jibread, shws to s vantage. The effort to swve s trifle in treiQht and lumber b: too hard, and thereby laJuring tqa testure.of the tobacce, error to be avoided; and it has at,t3aws I proven a serioue 'o: the shipper. A oase four redt long,. two fedt six 3,nohcs wid fe"t six inanes deep, *.!2ould not contRin -mors .:.am '350 lbs. o rate si11-, tobacco, or 400 lbs. of heavier second qunlitT: A: neater the case is made, and tt,e tobaooi ivraded up and paokec better. TwentT• riva otlnts p.r pound ° may be oonsidsred ths Sn- value of fine ?lorida wrapper t.baace. Good crops aontaia ab. thirds of that deseription.
Page 244: rhz82d00
, :;- '„`-: F, SEE TNAT YOUR CHILDREN GET PLENTY OF FRESH AIR AND ' 5UNSHINE- = '! ~IJCfi -i 1~ il\ ~~~\ 4 y . \, .a~ 0 ® ® AND BE SURE THAT THEIR ROOMS ARE PROPERLY VENTII.ATED AT NIGHT- ® 0 0 ,e. . 0 12 FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 0669 E09tS HUMAN LIFE IS THE STATE'S GREATEST ASSET This Issue Exceed 1 1,000 Copies OFFICIAL MONTHLY BULLETIN ESTABLISHED JULY. 1892 Entered as Second C1Mss :Matter, October 27, 1921 nt the PostolHeO at )acksonvfqe. Florfda, Under the Act ol A.r.st 21, 1912 Edited by r STEWART G. THOMPSON. D. P. H. I Director. Bureau of Vital Statistic !s Jackaonvi:le ~ This Bulletin will be sent to any address in the State free of charge. ° + If you wish to know how to avoid tuberculosis, typhoid fever, malaria. hookworrn, smallpo:. diphtheria. etc., address the State I tealth Officer. Jack- wnvisle. If you think you have tuberculoai.. typhoid fever, malaria, hont:worm ~•r diphtheria, have your doctor take a specimen and send to one of the State ISoatl1 of Health laboratories for examination. If you desire information about sanitation and public health, the Executi.e Office will try to assist you. B. L. ARMS, M. D., STATE HEALTH OFFICER Jacksonville
Page 245: rhz82d00
cvuntr},. Let ,voutl, be NaRsed af mncl, as possible aR•ac from the crowded centers of population. G. Education may be misdirected. and may be orerdone. A good machine may be ruined by making it too elaborate. A good knife may be rendered useless by sharpening it all away. . . Regular. moderate rbysical exercise is essential. and is gen• T erally neglected. S. Do not atal•e a burden of amusements. They may. and often are. made worse than overwork or undue worry. 9. Dn not set an impossible ideal of life. It results in die• arpoinment. nud tbat ages., 10. Cultirate a serene mental attitude. and develop a capacity for deliberate enjoyment of whatever is at band. The greatest pleas• ut•e often contea from little things easily and often orerluol•ed. . 11. .1t•oid every excess. Do not nveraork, overplay. overeat. overdrink. or nt•erstnoke. or allow .•ourself to become overinactive. , 12. I lo not aRsunte obligttionF that .%•nu cannot discharge. This iF the secret not only of uiucl, ph.i•sical. but of mucb moral and men• ta] disaster. 1^. StudY .•out• diet. and your hours of labor. sleep. and rela:a• tiou. and conform to your constitutional renuirements. 14. Take particular -precaution to preserve hY daily actions the elasticity of all the tissues. 1:,. 3laintain self•respect. avoid sordidness and glootu. and '•Frow old gracefullc." IC. It is desirable to diversifc .our interests. Hat•e one or two restful diversions, using a portion of your time away from your regular occupation and babitatiou.-Teacber'E Sanitary Bulletin. Ll:. C. A. Sateas, Beeretaru 1 Dtir. bta : The santple of "Liquosot ake has been analysed by a Aplieareace : a clear a possessing the odor of snip Reaction toward litmus Itesidue at 100 C(blact lt Sulphuric Acid (H.SO,) Sulphur Dioside (SU.).. Hydrochloric Acid (HCL Silica (SiO,) ........... Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO, C.aleiueo Sulphate (CaSO. >tiagnes+um Sulpbate (M= Sodium and Potassium St Ammoniuea Sulphate ... Ortanie Matter .......... 1l'ater and other substana Oa account of the presea the presence of free orfgE other substance capable of tttre, Is imlwssible. The st: cium. magnesium. ammoni, preparation. may come froa ta its manufacture: Very truly It will be seen from the acid are the ntain constitue chasable wholesale at nbot
Page 246: rhz82d00
Ln ~ ~ m w ~ ~ m m
Page 247: rhz82d00
K THIS MAP -f County Healtb work in 1'lorida. (ls for a full•time county ullit. YNITi L, J. On.a. M.D. A. L. iNNln. M.D ft. N. 1.r.K. M.O. J. W. M.Mrnv, M.D. .. A. o'ta.la.. M.D. K. K. W Nrhq. M. 0. JnAM a. /AYr.~.r.. M.D. W. N. ~UA.tL M. 0. J. i. SNb. M. D. L. 0. ONtUU. M.D. 0. W. low., M. 0. (Al/l.a w. P. RIN. M. D. s. W. MaD.wd. M. D. ~. C. WItL M.D. .. W. PNO. M.D. .dud N. D.w.. M.D. Iw./.N« ......u.. 4 a. ~rnp [N..d.p x CANCER CONTROL Education-the , Answer Relation of the Cancer Problem to Public Health A Surgeon Speaks Women's Field Army of the American Society for the Control of Cancer , Cancer Death Rates, 1020 and 1035, Crude and Corrected for Age, Florida Is Cancer Hereditary4 is Cancer Contagious? a-- Voi„ 30. Ivo. 4 APRn.. 19s8 ,0: FLoaIaA BtATi SOARn 0f 22ALZ'5' JACSSOrrvuas. n.onaD.
Page 248: rhz82d00
V ?ortal July 22. The ~ 3. It will be seen, dttre(p~ iset of the last reported esw rcamined. The total numbv . s infected rat, however, ttas ; -alth Reports, Public He+tlt4 .TIONAL CONGRESS G1. 'gra will be held in Columbia, . Physicians and sanitarians ime and bring their contribu- have neither experience nor ie, for good listeners are as talkers. And after all, the ghest order. It may require tainly requires more patience .)pour.ded is uncertain. It is o the cause of pellagra have :ent themselves with the em- .nt, or on the other hand some ntght. for the genus homu is ars ago that an int:enious : theory that potatoes are not igus growths on the rrwts of will in all probability receive ght to call themselves zeists. ad theory of pellagra, though cornbreadists as once. Some ics quite recently. . They seem to !x incrcnsin~+ low are some of the crstwhiie (ias~ The protozoists, though, not strong in numbers, compensate for it in enthusiasm, They remind one of a little story recently told in a British publication. AA certain physician had specialized on stricture of the rectum. The net result was that every. human ill that presented itself to him was referred to stricture of the rectutn. He was literally obsessed with it. Now it happened that a certain man from a distance, not knowing ; the physician's obsession, sent his daughter to him forr treatment, for some minor trouble. Soon.afterwards'he heard about the old doctor's' w obsession, and set out to bring his daughter home--he would not even ~ wait to write. But upon arrival the old doctor convinced him that he, ~~ too, had stricture of the rectum. and instead of faking his daughter ~ home. he concluded to take treatment himself and also sent for his wife. But the meeting willt do good. viewed from whatever angle you ' oo choose. It will not settle the cause of pellagra. but it will impress the! ~' fact that the cause of it is still unknown. It will stimulate to research' which in the end may. finally ferret out the cause. -It will not evolve` , any method of management for pellagra. but it will indicate our help, lessness in managing 'a disease, when in total ignorance of its cause. It will also emphasize the serious proportions that:pellagra is assuming, although it is small comfort to realite our danger without being able to circumvent it. . PUBLIC DECIDED FOR "NO SMOKING." The newly awakened consciousness of the right of the people to decide things for themselves took a unique turn in Kansas City recently, when a referendum was held to determine as to whether smoking should be allowed on the street-cars of the city. There have always been quite a number of very decent people who could not understand why they should be forced io submit to the stench of forty-seven varieties of pipes, el cabbagoes, two-fors. coffin-nails, etc., simply because a minority of smokers assumed the right to pollute the air in'this way. And this;time they got ;their revenge. There was a great squabble over a smoke rule adopted by the street- car company and the company took the politic course of leaving the matter to a vote of its,patrons. The method of testing public opinion on the subject required extensive work and cost the company about $3,000. The balloting covered an entire week.- With every fare paia a ticket was issued entitling the passenger to one vote. A thorough
Page 249: rhz82d00
120 .wderation must be used relativelv to the individual. The environ- ment is important, e. g., all know that more tobacco can be tolerated in the open air, and when one is leading an open air life, thari with eonfinement and sedentary habiu. Nicotine has generally been re- garded as the powerful poison causing the harmful effects of smoking, arbon-monoxide and not to any agents of the drug. Therein it is stated that one ounce of tobacco, when smoked, gives as much as one to four pints oi carbon-monoxide gas in the form of a cigarette. whilst the same amount smoked in a pipe gives : i:-3 pints of the gas- seeming to make out the pipe to be more injurious. As a matter of fact it must be considered that smoke from a pipe is very rarell• in- haled, whilst that from a cigarette is invariabl~ inhaled. and hence the cigarette is still the more harrniul. Dizziness. shortness of breath and eardiac disturbances are symptoms iound when the tobacco is smoked in excess, and these. too, are also produced b% carbon-monoxide. As small a quantity as 0.1' per cent. when mixed with air causes dis- tress, and so we can understand hnw in pure air smoking is less in- jnrious. Thus to carbonic monoxide gas must be laid the cause of the distressful syrnptoms of excessive smoking. and of the effects of foul tobacco air in ill -ventilated railw•a~ carriages. The moral is obvious and the preventive measures easy.-lndian Public Health and Hunicipa' lournal. og that the disagreeable effects of tobacco smoking were due to combination with the haemoglobin of the blood and produces pro- lionged effects. The Lancct recently gave some interesting facts prov- earbon-monoxide gas which is exceedingly poisonous and enters into been recognized that tobacco smoke contains a large proportion of but it is now known that the grater part of nicotine is destroyed in the combustion of the tobacco and ver% little indeed escapes into the system. It is also known that pyridine is a powerful poison and en- ters in considerable quantities into the body. More recentl}• it has SSWAGE ISTOSAL PLwrTS FOR A otlSES. The widespread installation of water-closets in country houses and in towns where no general sewerage system is in use, has created a deatand for some form of sewage disposal plant that is cheaply and easily installed and gives efficient service without offense or unneces- aary trouble. "No system has as yet been devised, for a reasor-ble cost, which ' ' ~ PRI~ ATE SER ERAGE e
Page 250: rhz82d00
i'.arYtctlNg, CUr111/(. P.:Cia«w ^4•.1 ceU1nQ 101'3CCO. alsu u( luhacco manu(acturc J. B. KII.L1:13Ki:\\r, ,\. r1., I'll. D.. '4~ LM.sw..w.we....r••i.+r..l._ .wn..r../ 1...•- ....al... .....1..... . rr••. r1 Yr wf tM .\..•.•..w j N.ww.r. V•..&.+.1 tlr sl..\nq4 1+ Its Culture and Cure,1141r1:cting, and • - Manufacture A{KaCtkal haN4bonk on Ike most approved nleqWc In qroviNt[. Lw.aM.al .•1 1.yM. IIERBI:ItT M1•Iti(;i:, B. S., riw.r r.. s+Gl..r luw..wr... . . 1 1.. .. r.a... l........ .. ....r. Awhllvl ly .nny.csfel I.d ,4 •vn _•Inw.r+..l.•alrra in 11..• 1•-af. loaanfa.• I HI•rn 1.f 1rJclmu. alai /.% .Iw•.-/:di.1. ill Ilu• • rrzOr• u!3r(.Y iLl_u5'rRA-rFr3 NBW 1'INtK ORANI,iF .Jl!Illi COMPANY t!0a YLORID& sTiiS ii$aes
Page 251: rhz82d00
r! from ut)icr•a and are itut v,rM. R•hicb are spit up by w rlexttYn•erl. there would r) dcernr/x rrll Irir ,<prrtnnr. r•cs urtr! The Ireit 'r Kputrrnr rulrx and lrrrr7t vvraUr.q. n germs which can live ;1 r% • maiy be inhalerl in the - ' airw. whethrr thrre r intA a rnnm Al•ht-re fttmi~;~terl lrY tho Health urlitiurr /~nrn .~rrr Ir rqrrrud. a. cuine itnder inc care for heir illness. Tbea have nnes in a few years which +s method to uccumulate. .fter working like alares of the ni~lit in drinl•ing, 13 overtas their uervoas systetu and resort to stimulants. narcotics. or hypnotics. Our tnode uf life is all wrong. We are in one great procession of hustling. restless tnen aud a•omen. who are running rapidly to- wnrds contit•med invalidism or premature death. .4, well known artist thus speaks of the bustle and push of the nineteenth century life: -•\lan's business requires haste. The at•erage busines man and professional man eats in u burry und gets dyspepsia. He walks in a hurry und gets upople:y. He talks in u hurry and gets the lie. He does business in a burry. and becomes a bankrupt. Be votes in a. burrr nnd produces corruption. He mnrries in a hurry. and gets a divorce. Be trains his children in a hurry and develops spend- thrifts und criminals. He gets religion in a burry, and forgets it in a;reat hurry. He makes his will in a hurry. and leaves a legal con- test. He dies in a hurr.• and ;;arA to the devil. And his tribe steadily increases."-.Journal 1'tthlic Health. \I.11JMS FOR 1'ROJ.OXf;IN4; .tCT1\'1: AND I'rCFCL LIFE. Nr,•rr:-.1 mazim is useful becauRe of its readiness of application. The mind Ii;is to reduce its conclusions to postulntes before it can upl,l}• thriu to practice. 1. The vontnterciul value of a life lie" molel}~ in its productive perind : the other periods are a burden upon thiK. 2. This period should be prepared for front infancc, protected in adttlt life. aud e=tended us long as possible into old age. 3. t'onatitutional vigor is created mainly by proper food and proper hy; iene in sottth. 4. 'Nu lirrxnn over fot•t~ ' veat- rif age Mhunld nnbsist tnaini. *oo animail foorls. which are very good in eau•1% • life. The reason for this is contained in tuazim 14. The rlusticity of soroe of the most important ti"MueR iu the hody r•nnnot I* preserred by u person over fortv years who contiunm-irlY loud" up the lxtdy with the waste products of nitrngenotts foods in er=cens. even if he had the best food in yonth. Fruits and verpni foods Khnttld he largely stnd generally used by all persons over forty years of age. 5. Nerves are exceedinal.• itnportnnt. They grow best in the i iIre drmaurlr rif societi •
Page 252: rhz82d00
.te iditions found at each dair~•. It at ;e amount Of radical change was hods to pursue in bringing about ided that it would first concentnte avor to secure from that source a up to the Commission's standards• `k, to attract public attention to it e subject. A public informed of ilk would soon demand the neces- l matter of commercial survival. n the C ommii sson was governed Iresent condition of dairy. 2d_ )perate. ing under the Cummission', di- clitions at his dairy in an et~ort Ita~'e all been tested for tuber- tlt* v Jersey and Hnlstein stock• 'nn1ends is procluced from se. "ich is tiushed out %~•irh hose 1 ~'uh udder is wiped off : men who %~•ash their ~l pattern, protected h~• la~•ers ra~• hairs or bits uf dirt. The •tn I)(Ittlec. iced and kerr iced )roducc(l unricr unustial con. "' an(l scllc for tiftern cents The Commission hores and lnl"eS at the dairy are con- riner tlle otrtput. Wflenever the Commicsion it will be •lec in these columns from dern ideas of milk produc- c housekeeper ma.% • readily n the present milk supply ahilit.• of milk to convey ,)n's labor is to raise loeaf f clean• pure, wholesoms hY of every household in ough there are undoubt- ~' jdres tala>v suppl>•ing Jacksonville whose milk is only fit for brsee i f d i a ry must nd o els that that k the Commission c r ~ , ` pethods or cease to do business, when the public becomes i The Commission rece to demand pure milk.ves no compen - and has done its work without funds. ~. r It is ready to explain its methods and its standards at any tfine to ,y interested person. and communications may be addressed to 'fie Duval County Medical 'Milk Commission, Jacksonville. Fla. LIFE AND HEALTH At every stage in the growth of our country, strong men grew stronger• through the exercise of nation building, and their intelli- gence and patriotism grew with their strength. The spirit and vigor of our people are the chiei glory of the republic. Yet even as we have neglected our natural resources. so have we been thoughtless of life and health. Too long have we overlooked that grandest of our resources. human life. \atural resources are of no avail without men and women to develop them. and only a strong and sound citizenship can make a nation permancatly great. We cannot too soon enter on the dut\ of conser.:n; our chief source of strength by the preventios of disease and the prolongation of life. \\'aste reduced and resources saved are the tirst but not the last -biect of conservation. The material resources have an additional •% a;ue when their preser.•ation addz to the beauty and habitability of the :and. Ours is a pleasant land in which to dwell. R'o increase its heaut.• and augment its ritness cannot but multiply our pleasure in it and strengthen the bonds of our attachment. In the consen•auon of all the resources of the country the interest of the present and all future generations is concerned. and in this :reat work. involving the welfare of the citizen. the family, the com- •~ anity, the State. and the nation• our dual system of government, Zta:e and federal. should be brought into harmonious co-operation anri collaboration.-E.rtroct ironr Report of ths National Const+vatio. (~ onuitission. THE TOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE Ever since ;rs introduction the question of the harmfulness of tobacco smoking has been much debated by all classes. and in spite of the most powerful denouncement of it by professional men it has :,•ntinued to be used all over the world. The general consensus is moderation is not harmful and in some cases beneficial ; of course I
Page 253: rhz82d00
1 necessary to keep jt ~ .. Man gets it by being i OFFICIAL BULLETIN Published Monthly by the STATE BOARD'"ta_F HEALTH Subscription 50 Cents per Annum ,; ENTERED AS SEC<1ND CLASS AIATTER. AFRtL 20. 1010, AT THE PofTotllcE AT ST. A{JOuSTINt, FLoRID%, Uxl1tR THE ACT M JULY IA. 1694. Vol. VII September, 1912 No. 9(~,) iloN. E. M. HExnRY. r,•errdent. HAN. H. 4 StuPSoN, at. D.. Tampa, Fla. ttox. QHN 0. CHRISTOPHER, Pensrcola, Fia. Jacksonvilie, Fla: LDITED sY JoseeH Y. PoRTER. Zf. D.. Secretary and State Health Officer. HiRAY BYRD, M. D., Assistant State Health Officer. EXECtlTIYE OFFICE AND OENTRAL LAttOR40RY; State Boe,rd of Heaith` Buildina, ' Sp`ringfield Boulevard, Jacksonvllie., 1R.\NCH LADORATORIES : State Board of Health Building Morida 'Avenue and Constant Street, Tampa. . City Hall, Pensacola. Sent to any address in the State for the asking. if you receive it without asking, it means that }omeone else hm uu requested it for~ yoq. When yolt change your address drop as a card. When giving change of address. give both the old and the new. Anything you trant to know about the, public health we will try to tell you. Any information you want about communicable diseases bf domestic animals we will help you to'get. Address communications to Jacksonville, Fla. .4 Inrrry heart dottlt good lr'kc a vrcdieinr.-Proeerbs :4, 17.
Page 254: rhz82d00
Page 255: rhz82d00
isf Rloo01~f1Aitloy ;1 : oeetnmmasuoaa ewel aeeordittf to trpe ot prslr ss holidssl the ltuo aeess ot clte atap0atd oru. Commstt..e of aeout Jsaussr lo tn .a .aaraa oroBoa.ls. aaoetst9 atssassY !t : oaale Clubrf. Poarseols; r. DoLsad; Mrs. >edfa artn. !loreaeo Mwre., ort: attA KflAtt steR eattitsletM te atvd ra: Carl S. oos. Lsalsad; es; T. 11. Jeaee, iLa/Iw0 t. 'edst lae: 4L L Siswk t Cttl. The aofdlasOtr t eetnetlaw !t Anl iNf, d 74 1 Otvpo/al1 Y qufCSl! Y aco D.qresess ot .f feMN 9tYdaYb , teheaule of cae aeNrw .t prv3elpelo t. 9teoeM tda.rda. -ialr to ruPOnaasdms. ~ uttle of peutelpWI to r to Pwl fdatr. suwfrltl! ~. r ftsbwlttN to oouttb B& W Memo In Opposition Exhibit 19 51603 7004
Page 256: rhz82d00
Cu1.11c Lh.lp vr rllli N•1:,•r .Inn souTll. 435 acveral Incalilils AIf ('ul„ra/lu, an/l I,, :1 n,,,r~ Innitcvl c~t.ruf ill 11'ashin~lur., (lr,.,ulr all,l /;Ilifnruia. In Ihc• I:Itlr.r tilal.r, ci;;ar-Ic::f L„ha,1„ cullorc i; Iluw the clusc allculiun uf !Na~ lil al au,l .ril ulilic Iw 11, :wd shnlll/l thcir wurk prune „b/aillin~ II•:If „( 9INNI yludil)•, ils c1111uru ,cill 11•Nlbl II•s. Lo •IuIN•,I ,NI tlle blr~o w:alu ch:nar.lcriai/: u( l'alifurma 1 nlorlui r. ,111111! a IIIIIIIIMI• ,o1• 1•1•.,1„ I,( t11111 1/11,;1C1:,1 Ilavc bccll rais/xl /llu•ill.; Ihc Icl l Ihrro „r (uln more c,INxiall) ill 16e suuth/a;ll ru I,:ult u( Ihc Slali•, /~:nticnlarh in Alunl; ulnen \' iclil .ur:l :lu, ('alh,mn rulul- Lieu, tho lalll•r:qljoinil~~ Ih, ,•,~:,::I I„•Illy•,vl .1ram:1, Ifa)• And AI:ILhnrda 1~:1~, 1'ir./uria i11i1e-, Iu IhC ul;f. lt is sralc/l 111a1 ulnc farnlrr, ill 11unl~ulnw.~ /•„nnl~, sold t:,INN11NNUUls uf 1•ig:n• lo ,f . ~r.,lln i Iti!I1 ,n, un Ilinu acres uf hickul:v" I:In,I, au,l tlla/. 11c ~„I, lu 1•,•Ilts per IN,1111/1 rUr IIN: IN•It/•r f „r satisfaclur)• I•ricc fur Lhe lalr,•r ~r:ulrs 1ur tillcr.:• '1 „_ L'/1 ~ruN•11 111 (':Illlull/l /'ulllll)' II:Ii .~ul,! ;li Ill~tl :1; :,l) ~u~~ IN•r punull. II• is 1•Iaiwc,l for,l•II•rlio/l, u( Ihc Ica( gruwu ill t6at r,/vaiun, Ihat il, is 1•,lual ill 16c b/•:r• tolulccu grmrn u ll Iho I I ~ :. or :uul ,.f ('nl,;l, („1 cilhcr lilll I:i scr:11,IN~l:;• 11'1•II-infnl-nN•/1 'I'/•~:IS I;rmj•er, ,:xp1/•S; :1 con(idl:ncu Ihal thl ) will I h ,c :, t/~ I n .~n,•/y~,foll) Culul,clc p'ith l„ba/ r.n ;rulr i t n n :u lf lv I,:n o Ih,! wurl,l. _ I;rc:lll•st inlurl•s/. )•t •:Irs,~nN ut n( latc •:Irs,~ Iloe•r~~cr, u( 16/: lus/l1• in Iho su-r:lllc,l ~`new saaiun,," h:,,~ bocu in l luru a:Illil thc :1,Ijuiuill.• c01111l.ics u( ,~uul! t u rn /:cur~ia. I url ~~r:u:, a,•n, lulu h n[ tllie :u(!a pru/luco,l a 1 • f 1 :I ~rhi l ,l na. ablo fur ci;;cll:; Lh 4„n;i,l, rr,l dcsir- l•n in u<o, Ihuu;;11 of (Ilc I Iurid:l crop, INefure Lllo W:u•, a':,z ~•~1,,,11,,I lu 13rculcn :In,l AluYll~r/lanl, :uul Ira~ 1,utNllar G r il; li ht c„lur :Ilul luilll /lavor. liul. Ihl• ;n,lnal.c lul'•ui..6r,1 wllil Ih~ lurilFa~ital.iuu o[ Iti1!1 Ili/ •ct~,I :Illcllli~,n lu Ira, Ihat lled Imen cuwlllcLc/1 l,i•i~':,/,•I)• ill (~:ulsllcll cuwll3, an11
Page 257: rhz82d00
fit ! a 7 _~ ~~~~~ . j ~ ~J3ll] I ~ - m ft rt , i l ~, r ~~ : ~
Page 258: rhz82d00
118 ('AURSE OF STUDY 117 ELEI1fENTARY SCIIo01S OF FIARIDA The liands: Washing the hands, when, how, and how often. Experi- ment in washing hands to demonstrate advantages of hot water, soap and brush. (1) Ilave one pupil wash his hands in cold water without soap. (2) )lave another wash lhe liands in warm water without soap. (3) Have another pupil wash the hands in hot water, using soap and brush. Note Lite results in each experiment. Care of the nails: Emphasize Gve things that must be done to keep the hands clean, namely, washing, brushing the nails, trimming or filing nails, pushing back the skin about the nails, and cleaning under the nails. Make rules for the care of hands. Talk of the harm of biting the nails. Inspect the hands daily and require the pupils to have clean hands. Care of (lie Hair; washing, when, why, how. Combing and brushing the hair. Care of the comb and brush. Watch for improvement in care of hair among the pupils, and commend this. The Eyes; care of the eyes, protection from light, dust, etc. Tell the story of the "Pig Brother". The Skin: The skin as a protecting coat impervious to germs. Dan- gers of broken skin, how germs enter the body through the skin, and the harm they cso. Talk of baths as a means of keeping the skin in working order. Kinds of baths (hot and cold), uses of each and proper times for taking each. The essentials of the Lath discussed. Tobacco: Use some of the following experiments to demonstrate the effects of tobacco. (1) Place a pipeful of.tobacto in a quart of water, and boil for a few minutes. I'lace the mixture ~II I a glass bowl and in the presence of the children put a small fish in it. The fish will die in from twenty minutes to a half hour. (2) Repeat the experiment with the tobacco from three cigarettes. (3) Place a drop of nicotine in a frog's mouth. Iie will die in a few minutes. (4) Place a drop of nicotine on the skin of a frog and notice tho con- gestion produced, showing how powerful an irritant the nicotine is. (6) With an atomizer spray the solution prepared in' Experiment 1, upon flies and spiders And other insects. `They may be found upon plants and sprayed, or caught and put in a small wire cage made from screen wire. (6) Repeat Experiment 3, using a larger animal, as a cat. _ Clothing: Sources of material for clothing. Talk of the processes of spinning, weaving, and making garments, both old and new methods. Emphasize the point that clothing is produced at the expense of time and labor, many people and things contributing to it. Use of clothing: protects the body, regulates the heat of the body. Use of cotton clothing, woolen, silk. Necessity for removing heavy wraps, coats and rnbber shoes when indoors. Care of the clothing: washing, brushing, hanging away. Underclothing: the necessity for frequent changes. Discuss the im. portance of having the underclothing clean, because it comes next to the body. FIRST AND SECOND GRADES. (Second Iialf Year.) Alcohol: Tell the story of the effect of alcohol on animals as found in the experiments of Dr. Iiodge and related in "Good IIealth," Gulick Series, and other material available to illustrate the harmful effects of alcohol. Review the lessons on teeth, hands, clothing, alcohol and tobacco. Have written lessons expressing the ideas gained in the oral lesson~s; an~il encour- age the pupils to talk of the above subjects and to bring in pictures, leaflets, etc., related to these subjects. Have a"IIealth Exhibit" made up of written work, drawings, and the above collected material. Apply all lessons. THIRD GRADE. (First Half.) Teeth: The number of sets of teeth, number of teeth in each set, shed- ding teeth, when, why. Parts of teeth: the crown, neck and root. Composition of teeth: (Dentine, enamel, cementum). Kinds of teeth, and work of each: Talk of six-year molars and stress the importance of giving these teeth especial care. Discuss mastication of food and its importance. Impress the importance of having good teeth and a clean mouth. Dis- cuss the results of unclean conditions. • Care of the teeth: Discuss the articles needed, the number of Limes the teeth should be brushed each day, and how teeth should be brushed. Demonstrate this. Get the percent of Lite children in the room who brush their teeth daily, and enlist the interest of the pupils in raising this to 100 percent. Talk of the importance of having the mouth frequently examined by a dentist. The following epigrams may be used: Chew the food; the stomach has no teeth. Clean teeth do not readily decay. f.ate and heavy eating makes light and troublcd slecping. The Hands: Washing lhe hands; when, why, how. Care of the nails; children make rules in regard to the care of Lite hands. Talk of the harms that result from the biting of nails. Inspect the hands of Ule children daily, and require clean hands in the school room. Talk of lhe necessity of having individual towels, and supply the pupils with paper toweling for school use. Encourage the pupils in Lite habit of washing the hands before eating the school lunch. The Itair: Care of the hair; washing; why, when and how. Combing and brushing the hair, and the purpose of each. Care of the comb ana brush. Watch for Improvement in the care of the hair, as a result of these lessons. The Eyes: Care of the eyes, protection from light, dust, etc. The Skin: Parts of the skin, uses, character, and function of Lite skin. L869 C09T5
Page 259: rhz82d00
O14AR i.F,AF AT TIIt R•ICST ANI) Fr1VTlt. 43, publicly Ly Llrc l0lori•la /~I•crimcnt ~lalir,n. The Floritl:t Irdr:q'cn "brnmr,' st:rrlrrl Iry Ih(! /•uilT r,f 1S!u), ws9 slnql-Ittr.l. Irnl 16• tt•.rl h:r: Lt•cn In•nzictr••l in It . `16 notc rlr tmmctral.•.1. ~inrr Ih:,l rlalc, th:rf I L.ri.l t Irr: all tht rr- lcn( Irrh:u r•n, h.rf It tt ralq,r•r: atnl till.•tF• .d a•Irerlil y to urrrs/, nf 16rrf u11i,•h h•r; Ir.,•n lr•.1 fr••m Ih•. Islanrl .rf 1•ub:r in r.•.•.•nl t.•ar, :m•l t, r:rl.l •t. „f lim•r qaalil.}• 1h:1n Ih..;.• iml•..rl••.I fr,nn Snln:r/1:r. 'I•h.•,•• crt,• etru/rg sI:rlr•m,•nl:, l.nl IIn•t :n-r• jn<fili•••1, ' 'I he in.ltt>frc in I I,.ri.Lr Icr Lr:r.•li•:rllt Ihr.,, rliri- eionc: I'iP.a. tI,r• r-nlturr• erC r:rl,idlc Litin•_ tt;rc t.r J) rIn• .nltnr.• ..{ {.rl):n'en IrLml: r:ri<r.l fr.nn Itn• 1.•a. t'nr•,•r (f.hirrl) Ihr• I:ri!3 in • .rf trrn::rlran ;rf, the I:Illcr ttac .rhlain• rl t, if b•lillir nlf t I•t :1 tr,:rrl Sumalra frrr Ihr• thic itnl•••rl;tti••n nns ldanll•rl ill ('rnnnr•li. rr/ :rn•1 1'/•nn-tl, rni:r, :rr,rl ha: gitcn lrr.mri>im• ncull;, Ln/ Ihr• bnll •.f flr.• disl.ribnlcrl in I Lrtirl:r. I'hr• I~lrr~ e:r: fl,.• Ihir.l Lhis nctc cari.•tt• sin.•r• il: inrl.r•rt:rli.,n. an•I it i< 11t.icC lo sav 1h:rl. il /h•• i cigar-Icaf indhtstrt- of I~L.ri•I:r. arr.l ulnt•rr.l •.f I.taNr•r •nt l>,nma.- uf il. el•rc Lr•Hlm r•.1 in 1• ;rnrl VI, on 1'a!•o tr:• give :rn arlrnilr:rl,L• illr•:1 .d Ilri< {-I••ri•I:r. ~mnn titnnalr:rtl ~,rrlb af, tt bir ll i~ rlnit.• .fi/{.•1, nl ft••tn ttll trtllcr Lrh:av.r: I r•rtttt in .\lor ril•a. r•r f'nl.:r, tml a ricts of a whrdc fir•Irl ..f il i.4z 1I:IC:m:I n ralrlr,•r~ :,nrl /ill. r: hacr• I,.•r nrt 1, t ~r r t • • f • anrt ec 1 tlllt i~th 1'Iilh illorr•rltnrr:r. Ir• nr••-1 ..~f••n=it~ t11q`r:If1o/1C l11•111~ Prrrlrlllrtr.l in (:allalrtt rntthlt, aln.:r1:•. _•r.,n' ~tnna!r,n L;rf, 'I'I,~: tymtrru r.n-n. I..INN/ rliti.b•,1 itr'•• rrirr•• LI •rr1 ,_ lions :rtnl rar h lelt ilw_ it; ~rrt~•r iol.•ml••Irl. It rr. I t•. {qlrtlC (/•:N•ll fl•n/ll It/x/al (n .Irr\ (ll.~z f,•••1/, -'ll1 1,•r . nl••n:: ;for lnburcrs, besitk•s ils Ioa•n mills, tcpair shvl•., ch.•.
Page 260: rhz82d00
"~- - w - ~~ ~ : ft it ~ .il. ~ ~ Is ~_ ~ y F .~~ lit 3 ita OD
Page 261: rhz82d00
4. A schoal nodica7l advisor should bo proROnt st all faotbr.ll gnmos and should havo cuthority to withdren a pupi], from a garav whonevor ho be. lieves such cction is necessarj. 5. The bost obtainable prot4ctiva 6quipnent should b© provided all• con• tostants. 6. Games both in the intarschool rad intr:nural progran should not be plryed in any sport until there has boen wplo tluao for conditioning and train- ing in the fundaaontals of the sport. • 7. Competition should be bet"treen teams of ooMpr,rablo ability. . The number of gsnGs ^.nd oontosts in each sport should be limited and the length of practice sessions should be liaited.ond specified in aritten• poliaies. 9. Interschol:stio boxing should not be por:aitted. 10. Stato championships shauld be disc•?ur.:ged r.nd intorstate competition limited to schools loc:t•ed napr state bordora. 11. Physical education tcachere# r,ith th© :aid of nonbkrs of tho school health staff, sh)uld seo thr..t inju'rod athletes receivs.appropr~.ato treatment either from their priv:w.to ph~rsicis.n or co~unity olinics. 12. Indoranity insur-nnc3 to covar the costs of such care should be cr~rriod by schools or r.thlotic ^ssociatiDns. 13. High school girls should not be porr.ittsd to pctrti#pate in vigor3us cocpetitivo activities during tho early part of the tfeastru.zl period. -3- Ln
Page 262: rhz82d00
10 CINMLAR -A." f'O.Nfii'VI'TIO.N IF 1'ItBVLNT.11tLB AN*h CCR:I.BLC. HO1t' TO 1'It1:1'L'NT r'tr1%til'.'Alt'TIOX. All varcei, of cout;uw)rticru tur ronn•orte,l frutrr otitcr•e and are ttot inhrritc,l. l'uuputulrtiuu ii rauxcvl b' ir .ncr,u,a<. n•LicL are Rl,it t,lr by c•uubt,nrptirre. If nil tltept- yterm. cauld Lie deattY+Yed. there would be no tltol•r t•nReF of cuntzultt)rtiou. Tl,c• rlcun atad rarcful toHbtINl/tirC. trllo clt•rruYx ccil Li'% xl,,,l,rur. io nw tlnurtcvuuo, to tAu.kr lritlr orlranr lrr lit•cu and t[url.-x. Tbt• Irewt r••ny to deRtror the R)rntuur is to upe y)0))cr' RpI/tN1u c•t,1,.• and Lur„ them every dn' y. \'crcr• el,it orr fluor• nr xiflC,rtllkt. fiunti,nht a,d jrealr oir kill c•onsumPtinu germt; which cau lirr a lou; titnc• iu :i rlrr.c. dc,rlr ruu,n. where tltel nm1 IW inlt;rlrtl iu the dttNt. >;ec• that ull rnur rcKrnt* :crc• Lrictht und nir•,u. .c-hetLrr there iN :1 t'ousttlll)rtll•e ill thr fatnil' y 01- um. Dutr't trrcn•r intu ;t rumtr where :r r0ueumlrtive La- li1•acl until it hai, lceen fumigntecl h~ tht Healtlt 1te)rarttne~ttt. I'ra/,lr oft,vr rut,trnr•t r'n,rxnurptiun fro,rr Rnr1r rur„nb. -l:uN~tiu of tbe Vir,inia liuatrd of Health. An1t' NOT TO LIVE. L'r zttc Iloc-roc. Fu11T tliree•fourtvF of the Imeoplr who come under m}care for treatment are personally resPonsible for their illness. TbeY hare lived tocr fast. Men attempt to acquire fortunes in a fen•.'earF which should require a lifetime of Louest business method to accuntulate. They '•burn the cnn4)e at Iroth endr." After a•orl•iug like Rla1•es durine, tbr day tllet• R1peDd tbr I;rrod part of the nipht iu drinking. tauolcin~ stud diniu~. «'o:ueu in their eEnrt>• tc, c•trmpI} .1 ith thr deutaudF of society i- I 11: i O1'el'Li1S theil' nPrv011R RyR h}•lruotics. Our utode of life is n of hustling. restlesR uter n'strd>; contirtned invalid artist thus sloeal'a of the life : ••aian'i, busineNN t and professional mau eaf in n burry and gets apol Be does business in a hn• hurr.i • and ltt•oduceh corr divorce. He truins his thrifts and criutinals. I a preat hurry. Be mal•e test. He dies itt a hut steadily iUCt•eattet4."-Io1 3IAtI1I:; FOR 1'ROI.( NoTr: -A nutzinl is t Tbr tuind hns to retluce nlr)rl~. tLent to practice. l. Thc- c•outmercial period: tbr other tleriiK 2. Thiu Iret•iod shoul adult life. and eztended 3. l;onstitutioual Vi proper h.•ffiene in youth a. '.\o perKOn mer i auitunl foods. a•bich ure is cnntuined in nmzim iw)ourtant tiMsuea in thE fort}• ream a•hci rontiu ttnnlncts of uitregenouµ in wrtttt,. Fruits and c used 111' all I)e1110DR Are ;,. \er.ej, are ezree
Page 263: rhz82d00
0 0 TL69-£09TS ® ® ® C9~ a .tec.~' ~'f ~I aT:,•I`~.fT~.l.'~'-~~'~.1',a,,' ~ • ~.~ . ~ ,.~.~~~~t `F~r ,,r~°_ `,~'( `x c. y << 1 wV , ;,, 0 © ® e .a:. tti. vt•l.r.r\ .tro..... 7..r..pr.. tv /,.•Ntl..l. Read)' 1n Ir>,rtrt, Nn~, t, al /•f. Nr+•h•. Iw /.: Aa.. rtwrw plantlr.rt,Rrewta ~J e rwe•~..~.•r a.Ihh•1at h.IRal•nqt w ., .; CN1A11 LC.\r \T 7111: 111-.,~r .\ V h cnt'Ttl, 11. ing inlt`rt•aljlrg :!r•t•.nnn; of il.I,:rC.•,1 pt•ar L•Ilr•r. •rllt Irrlrar•r rr I:I1laN fit I lt,• I"..,1 ligh(., dt•r•Ir, vanrlv srrjls. ,jm•r in fht• ('rnnltt lir nf ~:lllt•t, am1 r•,•nf:tjn Intnnt: "1 halP 111•r•Ir rr,•nl f j/llr• jltttnr•In•Ti:l1, •., irl, ., .. .• uf o.nhl, Iht• IN•<t rrf Ih(•In iijth ,n:htlydj:l, t•Ir•. ,1I Ilrr lim•• O•( mnr %i•!t• rn., r,•,. ~. Inllr•n f.rr nl:1nc tl:r: •l:rrnl•..r i•• .r IN`:IY:IIIt•n :It!•I fr•r•I Ihan ••nr ('•mn.•••ti.nf .••il: •,f' • n(Y•ks ..{ .Irv 11••:l1h,•r. tIr• .•..,,,1., i.,.• .•1•,nr r $•. . . ' _ IIIF; st•:1,rrl/. •I'll/• fr,•,I~ /tr'Llr• r,rl I.t.•r. • ...I • .. lit;l/l. rr.,'t I,1" Ih,• srrr,„rrrr,lir, r n,r•• 1, .n•I f• r olnlv nj/h Ihr high :11,11 rtrl,• b.•in•• firlrl t:Irl! in M:1l,I,.:11. Ihr• art't. \:tljlt• /'nl,:nt: rl.• :111 II,.. ,,..tl ..,, rl. . nfiit•I1:n-t't•IUIIjc:llr•d lth„II% I,vIl:uvl, :r jth d,.•.. vr•t.l' lu•:!%v h,rr:. t Irr tml%Ir•rlrIi'r r n-. •I Rlctn.., :11 Ilrr• talr• r•f :Ib.,nl I:•rr I,.,ru,•l 1., IL. '1•IN• laml alrl"•:lr: 1.6 Irr• L,•1•t . L :rr •,f . .:.I ~ Irlattl. :11•r Ihi11o••I tnlr, 1•ttl 11••t 11ltt. lt, I•• r1, •,•.. 111 ~i..lllll•1'tl/'l/l. ~I II,• Irrl":111/1_ 1~ rl•.rl•• ~1••1rr Ri[ or srct•n fr•cl rtilh :! dief.riFrttlt's /he w:ll,•r (I-*i_. 1'.'/:) :1 • j!•-•lt:rr .••. . and :Iflrr I..Iqrjm_• hal"r t.rrli r i•_•Irr t•. /.•,! L:,•. ..... •. :t1Y'ragt• IN'r I•1:1111. Ill.rl',• 1••:/!r : 1,. !tl•• 1••rf , I/lanls 1h:,n .in frr•LI.• ml 1„h!n•r I:nal. 11 j-O:11,•,1 rh:rt fb.• 1•1:n,l,:rt I,-,• litnC, hm (Itr• ehal„• „f an fh' 1.•1. Lg t.. b@IIIg the largm-t., :IC Ilrlrn,lt'= ill
Page 264: rhz82d00
A EI.EhIENTARY SCilool.s OF FLORIDA 123 134 CoIIRSE OF STUDY In taking this eacrcise a good method is to take two, three or four steps for inhaling and then exhale. NOTE: Take recreatiw.n drills several timea a day. These inatruetions are intended to eover the entire year. II. DIGESTION. 1. The organs of digestion studied in a general way to give the pupils a clear understanding of the functions of the organs and how to care for them properly. 2. The processes of digestion should be followed in the same general Physics and Chemistry could be offered in alternate years to the com- bined 11th and 12th grades. The Principal should teach four classes daily and the Assistants.si< each. NOTE: It the school ia ap~Dp.d to teach "Mannal Trainina••. "Home Eeonomies° or "Asricuttnre•" thoe .aDistb afa7 be givea in the ptaee of '•Ph7sie.l Geography". "•General 8ekec.". "yoolesy• aad "Befasy". 'Thr.kl' or •'Chemi.tq'. but ander no circomatance. .re elas.as in more thaa oee aef.aee to be crgaaiud In one grade. By eonnbining and alt.rwtine certain classes as elaewhen dbeaaad teachers may eeon- amise time. and also he able to maintain standard raeftatioa periods even in the smaller hith schools. FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COURSES OF STUDY. way and gets into also assimilation. The pupils should be led to see how the food the blood. First Half. FIRST YEAR. Second Half. III. DISEASE GERMS. Required- English. ebra Al Required- English. Algebra. 1. Care should bc taken not to create morbid repulsion or fear. The . g Ancient History. Ancient History. fact sho bility of uld be brought out that not all germs are har preventing harm from germs that are harmful. mful, and the possi- Select One- Latin. Select One- Latin 2. Explain to children the dangers in carriers of disease germs. Many Physical Geography . Ph ra h sical Geo persons selves m carry germs in their bodies, and spread•conta ay never have the disease. IV. ACCIDENTS. gion, but they them- . General Science. Agriculture. Home Economics. Manual Training. Commercial Arithmetic. p y. y g General Science. Agriculture. Home Economics. Manual Training. Commercial Arithmetic. 1: Return to the topic and review what is found in the note books of Ph sio Ph iol_o_g__y. - the prec hemorrh bruises, eding grade and explain the same to include methods of stopping ages; the best methods of batdaging, how to care for cuts and emphasizing the use of antiseptics. Sdorthand. Music. Drawing. Sho rtTiand. Music. Drawing. ' V. First Half. SECOND YEAR. Second Half. 1. THE SPECIAL SENSES. The, Eye. Required- English. Required- English. 2 The Ear. Algebra Algebra 3. The Nose. or . or ' i 5. The Sense of Touch. The Sense of Taste. Geometry. Select Two- Geometry. Select Two- The year's w . Itealth Clnb sboitld be able to form a good many rules from this ork. (Second Half Year.) VI. TIIE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Use the telephone system as an illustration. The brain, the main Latin. Modern History. Botany or Zoology. Agriculture. Home Economics, Manual Training. Lttitin. Modern History. Botany or Zoology. Agriculture. ~ Home Economics. Manual Training. ccntral; ganglia, the local offices; nerves, the wires. Commercial Arithmeti Commercial A ith ti 2. Ilow it serves us in studying and reciting. c. Short-hand. r me c. Shorthand. a. 4. Ilow it protects ns. The bad effect of alcohol and tobacco on the nervoui system. Bookkeeping. Musi . Bookkeeping. Music NOT amount c E: A..at amount of useful wark is done In the world today. b.t a far ~e.atw ould be done if it were n.d for two of the greateat foes of men; ateohol and tabaoos, c. Drawing. . Drawing. -. ._._.-..__. ..__.----~ ....r+ 6869 E09TS
Page 265: rhz82d00
51603 6969 Ctt7A6 bkAf n1' 711F7 %VC>r AKt, Snirtll. 11:: i•1M tniL'ib. Tiu•n fln• I+:It+ < aro Im11+••l iu ihw lqill/lla oC IItr• slrm•--n xiilt ttblrlt 1Itr•~ :ur ti.••1 in/n I,tln- d1/•c :In.l d+•lilrn••1 1•, ihr hu~.•1 - t+alr6.+n-.. tlr :1:~.•tf. ing I+:Itinr lerll d+•n+• :li ilm tnu.• Ihr 1•'a%• ~Irun_,. 'C be "+-r:111v+1 I.'rnl+•nl:tl i.•n h•.ns+• ••C thr I lx 1 ('1„+r ('upllr,ury. :/t /;nin• .. I- 1•rli•C:r. i;, ihn< (.ur /hiz x+.rl. 1+% I/r. 1:. li. .1•'ttl.inS. C'11. It.• 1-i••• tlirttitinr (-'.mnrrC•sraf +•% 1»•ritn) nl ~/a1i.w1 : "Thi< pt Ir•rGyIlt' oi~Cni1/1NYl Co•r il< :1•al on :r11 it= arrasl'prulrltl. :md 11.. molb•{ nf ab +.inir n+•:+/t1+--, ••r•1+•r a1r) 71er r.w•1ux x1/+•rr Ib.• •r i= It:rn.ll.•1 wa)' :n•r x/r:un III:/1 Ih.• 1.•/nl» I al Ir.• .•» 1.• keld• :/4 /hl rlr=irr.{ 1>..in/ nith/ :+Inl •la%. 11 e+l•••+•/ u•.t. jpF; Ilu• Ulrrm.•ua i• r. 1~ta.ul.l :++ tlr:d It••r.• ••f t{.. at ss•re (r•I++x ila• o+i+ i< 1.• Id %.•rt •{ •.1.y1.•rn Ii+': 1% ••n !Lr• r tl+l. i• 4- Apt [Ir)'ittg. .NII :11 all. '1'lu i< • hnlh• •1' dialcty u1Nrn ils rc.•oild G•r Irrlu. ui :1i.•n. Il.•. :uul i• In'/••14 it it il.: it u•• rl- ~ i»g +•r lla• Ic:If i~ :dlux+•./• •1'IIi< i< t.•_:Ir+1.-+i a< r i/:/1 1•: Wt1s-m. :1 •i+nll. i= 11ta.i+• Iq .••t•rin•_ Cit. q••.•r ui1C• lIA>:11 I.+IC1+9'+t, 1+•Iltl+'lll+'+1 Pry11111••-, ••tt••• :11•••+11 .~•• !.. f/nhI. 1/11'III•, /11•1•14 I(+11°It1=. 1•+ qltl•'It twkw•1 ax Ihl• 1,1111, i!~ Iarili BC•, 1+..1.1 it in C•1,1• ••. 4111 this tra:4h frdr.mr.+, fhr har••~ ar•• 1:1i•1. /i+•+1 in hln•1•. '1'taxh l++lr:u•+•.t is al-•+ (ai•1 n.•o Illr .ul• bulks wkivb xr Ir••ul li.•- 1•+ -i\ f.Y•1. ••1 high, :m+) xIn•u war1+• :n•+• /••+tr.l++{ xilh (ta-h !nd Irlaltl.l•Is. 'lllo Ir•n11M•I:Illur +•I Iit+• 1•tl+• 1 4. • . 1.~1•i•lll >tpd ta+mclilrn•> n ill rl•:u•61 Imt• P.. iu Ilrr r+•III. r. 11 h. 11 the CxCw•rt jtt+l,rv i) nlr+•~.;Irt,_-i11 1•••II•vuh i•:+••••. 11 itlli+• scn4v-tntn• h++nr~ :rft+•r Il1/• 1.1411, i= !•Ililt,--/1 i: :•tl IIaNlll•d m/•r ait'b al•rtir iu Ihr Itrnbllt• .d I{u• lir-1 1•rnll, al.• 1••. 1 ••n aC oel::idl• r+! Ihtr w.•.+n•1. •C'L/• aim i, rl••L .•nl% /• rlat...
Page 266: rhz82d00
OFFICIAL BULLETIN PUBLISHED MONTHLY AT JACKSONVI;LLE, FLORt.DA, BY STATE BOARD OF HEALTH Subscription • • - - • Fifty Cents Per Annum Apollw+.e miMv l.r svf at p.niee a J.eh.e.vill. .o wamd•slw ea.a.r. MEMBERS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH Ho.. E. M. H:z,Dttti•, Presideot, Ho-.. H. L. Stsrrso.. 11. D.. Tampa. Fla. Petuacola, Fia. Hox. HASav FozzAaa, Jacksonvitle. Fla. JossrH V. Poatsa. Ji. U.. Secretary and State Health Officer. HtaAU BVIID. M. D., First Asxistant to State Health Officer. C. T. 1•ot;%,o. X. D.. Second Assistant to State Health Officer. Rov E. CHAL1:zR. K. D., Third Assistant to State Health Officer. C. R. WttcoN at. I).. Fourth Assistant to State Health Officer. EatAtzDo ANDRADS. Nf. D.. Bacter+oloeist. State Board of Health. Da. H. S. Hott.owwV. As.istant BactenoloQist. CsAs. F. DAwso~. U. V. X., Vetenoanan. State Board of Health. Hos. E. J. L'ENctz. Attortiey. - O85ce-t. Jackaonville and Key West. Laboratory. Jacksonville. Fla. J U LY, 1906 No. 1 After r~Ptrt•~i1 }•r;lrsa nf dor.ing the iil:.tt.i•tt \Ort:+ aa•aker tu tt greater activity and intere>+t in Htate Health maltterst. The Mlnmber taar bren dne to nm l;lt•k (if eunt•ern uf the st;tte Health Anthoritiea in tbe t4alnitAt•r welfare of the State but altogether to st artnt of time and vleriv:iI force h}• whic11 u ntm/thly lmblicatimt of this na- ture could Ite rilited and intblit+hed with rredit to the tktatte nnd benebt to tbe IpraItIN. Tlte No•tr.ta has had dreatns of gteltt tnngnitude during thiN dttzin¢ period. oif :Imlilrf.yinl; usefulnese. ilnd an npbuiltl- iuF of reptttatinn for itrulth >;uch a« no other State in the tniou could eapect or realize. I.ilce a fntnmi« crelttttre of the dh•uma the HE.tLTH NoTCR returna to an :1etit•e lit•ina state to tind niany of its friends ^one-gone into Eternity. It will tniril their kindly trorrls of encouraging commendation and rt•rry ready as.istance. but it rejoices to find a people ntcrt•P ronti<linu. tuore "trustful. and more
Page 267: rhz82d00
OUTLIPJE OF 11uATBIRIAL IN TfiS TE}CTBOOI{'S 3RD GRADE ; E day Health - by Wilson, Baker, Abbott, and Almack. Publishers Bobbs- e ~rrill Company, New York, 1942. Chapter IX, pp. 68•74. (State Adopted) A. Use and Misuse of Alcohol I. 2. Helps--alcohol helps`to make paint, varnish, ink, and other materials Misuse--inside the body it is harmflil B. Yeast Plants and Alcohol 1. Fruit juices spoil when left in the open air, smell sour, and have a biting taste due to alcohol. 2. Alcohol made by yeast plants--plants float through air and dust 3. Children experiment by watching yeast make alcohol--they disolve a cake of yeast in sweetened water--bubbles rise in the jar 4. Children taste and find alcohol makes water bitter. Yeast plants and sugar have made alcohol 5, Alcohol is poison, but useful as good cleaner and used in paint and dyes (reference to alcohol as a poison left out of the 1948 revision) 6. Alcohol is not easy to freeze. It is put in radiators to keep them from freezing. It is used in ink, shoe`polish, paint and varnish. 7. Poison--anything taken into the bcdy which will cause sickness or death, In medicine cabinets poisons should be labeled red with skull and crossbones. s~ bones. (This statement is not in the 194 e8 dition). 8. Bn eer and wines contain some alcohol. Children should not use these drinks. Drink fresh fruit juices'abd milk." C, Alcohol and Growth 1. Experiments were made to show alcohol harms plants. First plant was watered and grew. Second plant was not=iaatered and lived a few days. The third plant was fed,alcohol and died. 2. Exhibit of good foods and drinks for growth--fresh fruits and vegetables f rom home, also, bread, butter, eggs, cereal, milk, meat, and water. 3. Is alcohol a food? No. Boys and girls should never put alcohol in their stomachs, instead dri~ek milk, water, and fruit 3uiees. (The statement in the place-of C in the 1948 edition reads, "Boys and girls who want to be healthy should not take drinks that contain alcohol," )
Page 268: rhz82d00
k spending too much effort iri teac"ing the physical effects that belong largely to t'r.e excessive drir.ker wnd ths alcoholic which includes 4,000,000 of our population there are 56,000#000 moderate drinkers who n~:ed to know more about the risk they are taking in making alco- hol a psychological crutch. They need to knovv that the advantage they gain socially from alcohol makes them less and not more of a"real person". They are using a depressant to make them the "life of the party" rather than developing their initiative. The young pe rs on needs t o know that a small,• amount of alcohol that seems to make him a better driver is making him more subject to accidents. Tobacco ~- .~.....-~ There is a great need for moro scieraific study concerning tobacoo. "Tobacco and Health" is recom::ended to the teachers as good material. Here again we need to challenge the young person.t o strive for his maxiaum physical and mental devalopmont. Lead him to study for hims.-lf ths obstacle that tobacco olaccs in the vray of that best gro:vth. The fact that a teacher sso]ces need : ot interfor °r_t:: his e:cauragir.b the yaun g; per sor, to attain, his full grofth er.d -weigh all the evia~r.so b.fore he decides to s:acke. Opium - Marijuana Teaching concerning t1e r..cro dangerous drugs as opium and its deriCa•• tives and marijuana is not as difficult as that concerning alcohol and tobacco as social sanction is agair.st the use of t hese drugs outside of scientific and medical usage, Sedatives and Stimulants The use of milder stimulants as, tea, coffae, and kola drinks at times are taken to the extreme and do considerable in3u ry. Benttdrene to keep one a.rake and barbiti~'ates to put one to sleep are used much to extansively. Cur aim in teaching is to h:lp you:ag peopl3 and adults to solve thair probler•s by a frontal at •`.ack and .rithcut goading the body with stimulants or dopend upon r.arcotics for r3la:cinr; it.
Page 269: rhz82d00
Four primary and elementary teachers who ti•rere studying at Gainesville i,n the summer of 1948 discussed this material for third grade children. They felt that the experiment with yeast is more suitable for t'he sixth or seventh grade and that t here is no reason for discussing paints and varnishes in a health book. The experiment concerning the nourishing of plants with trater and with alcohol has no relation to alcohol and the human body. Concerning similar experiments, Dr. Roe saysr "Since the experiments as set up do not actually prove anything about the effects of alcohol inside the body, they represent a type of false analogy which is one of the most pervasive and unfortunate errors in teaching." The 1942 edition refers to alcohol as a poison on pages 71 and 73. That statement is left out of the 1948 edition. It is well that the references were deleted. "The chief fault to be found wit h all the discussions of alcohol as a poison is the complete disregard, in praotically all of the textbooks, of the question of amount. The toxic effects of alcohol are limited to those amounts which brir.g about certain concentrations in the blood. The fault here lies not so much with the textbook writers themselves, but with the habit, into which many writers on alcohol have fallen, of speaking of the effects of alcohol with- out ref erence to quantities. That alcohol in large amounts produces death is a fact; it does not, however, follow that any,amount of alcohol is toxic,". says Dr. Roe. Such discussions belong to more mature students. The elementary teachers felt that page 73 is good as it is given in the 1948 edition. They felt that the one page is enough for,3rd grade puails. 4TH GRIM Health by Doing - by Burkard, Chambers, and Maroney. Publisher: Lyons and Carnahan, Fe.•r York, 1936. (Out o:" adoption) A. Unit 16--"A Dangerous Enemcy", pp. 218-223, refers to alcohol as a cruel ruler. The subtitles are: 1. i!'r.at is P lcor:ol? 2. Why is Alcohol Dangerous? 3. Avoid Alcoholic Drinks 4. Knowing that You K.norr B. Unit 17-='The Tobacco Habit and Dangerotts Drugs", pp. 229-237, relates, a short his ory o the'""~eg~"nning of t e use of tobacco by the American Indians. The subt itles are: 1. The Peace Pipe 2. Especially Harmful for Children 3. Success in School Ln ,., 4. Health o, 5. Character I m W -4 m N PP
Page 270: rhz82d00
, . .•.} •S,.' .. . ..1 ,./. ' ' - 1 , MATERIALS IN,•-THE FLORIDA STATE :ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS •.~ ' and in Selected Supplementary Books Pertaining to THE FIELD OF ALCOHOL AND NARCOTICS EDUCATION With Suggested Teaching Aids ~ - . .~ ..•. . ... , .1 .. .~: . .~ y DOCUIy~~YrS DEp,pS1TORT . ~Ilk y ~ ~ 2 IMF w MAY 0 199r rl~'~~a il .~ C Jn/versit ibrary Te,l~n~sce, FIuGa 1947 ~ Revised 1948 Bulletin No. 4C :- , STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION .~ Tallahassee, Florida Colin' Engiish, Superintendent r' ~' ~ .~ •...T -T r ~~ FLQa• L J .. ... . ^ _.: z` . v~ L a m
Page 271: rhz82d00
8. Alcohol and L;achinery--accidents: locomotive, automobile, airplane 9. Effects of Alcohol upon Mental Flor!c 10« Effects upon Family and Social Life B. Tobacco Affects the Body 1. Introduction 2. A Poison in Tobacco 3. Some Effects of Tobaoco upon thi Bodt 4. Athletes are Forbidden to Smoke. 5. Tobacco :Ir.t•.rfcrs with aontal Trork. 6. Many Employers Object to it. 7. Counting the Costs of Smoking C. Some Other Harmful Drugs 1. Patent ltedicines 2. Narcotic Drugss Opium, Morphine, Cocaine, and Heroin 3. Danger of being in company tirith others that use it 7TH GRADE and Expiorin Science'- by Smith and Trafton. Publisher: J. P. Lippincott and omplany, N etiork, 1946. (State Adopted) A. Alcohol 1. Effects of Alcohol on Athletes, p. 336 2. Effects of Alcohol on Auto Accidents, p. 338 3. Effects of Alcohol on the Brain, pp. 336-337 4. Effects of Alcohol on Chances of Getting a Position, pp. 338-339 5. Effects of Alcohol on Length of Life, p. 338 6. Effects of Alcohol on Sickness, p. 337 "Alcohol is the direct cause of certain diseases of the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system," p. 337. Once more we have th.e statement that alcohol is the direct cause of diseases when such disorders`are caused by nutritional deficiencies which occur often in the alpoholic. B. Tobacco 1. Effects of oba o on Athletes, p. 340 2. Effects of Tobacco on Body, p. 340 .MUN....r. - 10 -
Page 272: rhz82d00
51603 6958 i BstUata of a-mount, numbor of boxos, pounds and r~ ieO of Plorid~- tobacco, to dlt. ___ _. ___ ...,. ... ~.,.. `....~,._ dBlo. © Fcaa yU. I e.4"4 1831 to ysars per oar. Pouods Powuas cei-ts 1843 12 ~pp 300 pach- is; Vpp,000 at Hb, is #160000 for 1843 1 1844 1 1846 1 1848 • 1 1847 1 1848 1 1849 1 1850 1 1851 1 1852 1 is" 1 360 300 " 105,000 28 1600 300 " " 4501000 20 M " *000 300 " • 1,200,000 " 181 1500 300 4600000 18 N N N M 900 300 870t000 16 1300 300 M " 4900000 " 20 2000 300 M N 600,000 so 2000 300 " " 600,000 " 20 " N 1200 300 " " 360~000 !i0 2000 300 " " d00,000 " 80 tl N 2000 500 " " 6000000 1B1 tl N =~tal••Il~i.i.•1• . •• . . 1 . . QuiasT, CadadsA Csnnt7, Fla., Nov* 1863• 12 irs.•tsta1$180,000 1 IS 260260 1 N N 900000 1 " " 1600000 " tl b60fib0 N N s 0ib00 78,000 1 N " 1208000 140,000 1 tl " 78,000 1 190,000 1 980000 • • . • 0 941,1 ,49 O00 i
Page 273: rhz82d00
i Iu ~ CIGARETTES ?,-ND THE BOYS. To-day the cigarette is looked upon by atl smoherF as the very worst form of tobacco addiction. It is so cheap. it is sn generallv inbaled. it is often so loaded with drugs, and so manc times made ~ from cigar stumps and street scrapings. that there is ecerr argument against its use. ~ Rev. .latnes L. Hammond tells what be saw in a 6an Francisco opium den : ln a room not more tbau twenty feet square. down three stories underground. dimly lighted and ding}•. where the air R•as so foul it almost overcame you as you stood in the entrance. 1 found twelve Chinatnen. buRv at work. Eitting fiat on the 9oor. in the midat of indescribable filtb. tbe} were rolling cigarettes for the American boy to smoke. There was a rreat pile of material in one corner of the room. and we strucL• a iiiatcl, and stopped down to examine it. We found it w•as cigar stumps and quids of tobacco. mi:ed w•itl, the vilest of sewer e:cretions.-Tbe Healtb}- Home. Tl'I'HOID. The Healtli authorities of Philadelphia. during- the recent pre vnleuc•F of typhoid fever iu that cit~. issued the following circular of iuformation to the public: ••Typboid fever is due to a germ that is taken into tbe body with the food or drink. The germ grows most acti.•el}• in the intestines. hence this disease is also known as enteric or intestinal fever. The diseaFe is not contagious. as the word is ordinarily understood. under certain conditions. thougl, it may be easily caught by a well person fron) a typhoid patient. "The handr• of persons nursing typhoid cases alw'ays have the germs of typhoid fever upon them. even though tLeT may seenj to be perfectly clean. This being the fact. snch persons should wash their hands thoroughly in chloride of lime solution immediatel}• after handling the patient. The bands should then be scrubbed a ith soap and water. Tbey should never eat their meals or handle foodstnffs without treating their bands in this manner. If they do not do this, tbey are likely to give themselves the disease through their soiled hands. or to convey to foods that they may touch the germs of the e z. ::' :. + 1 ~ . 0 • disease, and in this way food. "Tbe germ of typbois especially is this the ca sickroom should be eat that has been in the sit it about a pint of chloi '6One of the ways t All foodstuQs in the ht should be carefully scr its feet and wings soile germs of the disease v disease to any one who '• All bed clothes oi tcphoid fever should t to w•hich one•Lalf 11010 should be done a itbou taken from the sickro be used, the germs of t '^ o one who is ca same time attend a st, ,-All caw of t.eph occupied by ao one e stances permit. the p: naplins. etc.. that as scalded or kept for h: mediately after each i "Where proper ca it is for the beat intf that the case be sent
Page 274: rhz82d00
0 IWROD uCT ION In many areas of teaching material beyond t'r.e experience and understanding of the child has been repeated over and over in the texts through the primary and elementary grades. It tends to make the ch;ld feel that "he has had that" ar.d to dislike the subject, thus he may not be willing to study the material ti,herr it does cor.,e c.ithin his interest range. This is true concerning the mate- rial about alcohol, narcotics and stimulants. In the early years the teacher's effort in the area of health is to help the child learn desirable eating habits that a re necessary for the best growth, acquire the ability to become an accepted member of his group through good work and play habits, and develop the ability to make worthy decisions for himself. In teaching about the things that promote and hi,.Osder growth some discus- sion will naturally follow concerning tob c o, alcohol, kola drinks, tea and coffee. lWe do not go into detail with the elementary child as to how milk makes him grow. 'r'"ny should we tell him at great length how alcohol and narcotics h+_n- der his grc.,th? If we do not force this material upon his before he is rea•dy for it r•re may be able to lead hin to investizate the facts for himself iater. This will then become a real learning experience. I:I L:.is as in all areas the teacher's ::.^.o:'iledge tiust iAr exceed t: at ':hich the child can comprehend. She needs a fund of k::cvrledge that w+ll make her feel secure in directing the thinl:ing of the child to*rard the e.: stirer..^.g of his oi:7l questions which arise out of personal experience and corunity and r.ationcl current even ts . Our purpose here is to help t:~e teacher secure the best ir.f•orsation in this °ield for her own gro>tith and to evaluate the material in the texts i':: light of recer.t scientific fi ndi„zs. In tha analysis of Florida's state e.dopted textbooks thet iollora, Dr. Roe's (1) boo': has bee:: consulted often. :r: outli::e of the material on alcohol and narcotics from each state adopted textbook is given and certairn sugtestions are ,:ade as to the appropriateness of the material for the grade level and tho scientif:c accuracy of the subject r.attcr. The health, science and social stud- _es booe3 that went out of adoption in 1948 and a few other sup?le^:entary books are included. Pri:r:arv and Elementary Grades In the American Health Series for the primary and elen:entary_,grades the state aQOD ed books ~~oIK z~•Pl ~}..,,~. P_bO~J~s 'Nere r°„_viS d .4. The additions or eletior.s made in the ne:•rer revision have been indicated. All referer.ces in these books to alcohol and tobacco are outlined ir. this bulletin. The first mention of these topics is found in the third grade book. Comments are made to assist the teacher in using this material.
Page 275: rhz82d00
physicrl education nctivities arsd ono for supervised activity with an organization of the school dry that will permit an.r.dequntc amount of free time for activity and play through the day. 2. The activities should be varied in nature ruzd suitablo to the needs, interest and physical condition of the pupils. Care should be t:ken in the selection of the activities to encourage voluntary participation according to the policy rocommended above. 3. Pupils should be classified and grouped aooorc~ing to their abilities and health st»tus. Both individual and sex,differenoos nnst be taken into account. 4. To assist in the developnont of social adfustttont and emotional stability, a number of these activities may be taught and engaged•in on a co-oduca- tioncl basis. III. Special Policies for the Secondary School Physical Education Program. 1. Studonts in socond.r,ry school should have sufficient physical activity (1-2 hours daily) to insure the maintenance of good health. The daily period of physical educatio.^n should be of such duration as to allow students to have sufficient tii iam to•ohango to appropriato clothing, to have a minimum of thirty minutes of cctivity and t'.0`:."tako a shorer. This,,n recoanendati•on assunos that tho rogular period of physical educr.tion in- struction rill be supplemontod by an offoctivo ext,r,a-class or intranural; progr,m involving &11 studonts in the school. 2. Students should bo clr.ssifiod and grouped according to their hor.lth status. 3. The progr.m for boys and girls should bo differantiatod, but there should be adequcto opportunity for co•oducaticnal c.nd corroerontionr.l .~ctivitios. 4. In the absence of accurate scientific data onthe subjoot, girls should not be required to pr=rticipato in vigorous nctivity duriug the menstrual period. IV. Policies for Interschool and Intramural Programs 1. Intorschool athlotio leagues should be confined to the sonior high schools; they have no place in the elementary or junior high schools. An extensive program of intramural activities is strongly roconnanded for both boys and girls•in junior high school. Interachool activities for Junior high school studcnts should be limited to occasional invita- tional noots or games. 2. Junior high school boys should nA conpote in Aseric= football. 3. To protect tho health of compoting 4thlctos, eaeh athlote should have a medical examination at tho beginning of the training season for each competing sport in which he pnrticipr.tos and should be referred to the . school ci©dieal advisor whenever ho prosonts signs of Onoimal• health. .2- m J
Page 276: rhz82d00
51603 6994 si i 50 FLl)lilllA Il1:ALTli NOTES Under the seal of the Wuuten's Field Aruty of tlle American Society for the Control of Cancer, hundreds of womeu are now organizing in the second nation-wide csunpaign to reduce cancer mortality through educatiou. The seal has just been atkqwted ollici.Jly by the VVomen's Field Arnly. The scal. rellruduced alNlVe, I~enter. uu the sword wlliclt has lon-; been used as the insignia of the Auterican SIciety for the Control of Can- cer. The hilt rests lirully ou the "Wonleu's Field Artuy" which has bewlue the most iln- Iwrtaut educational arut of tLe Society. Be- llind the sword a sun rises over a ulountainous horizon, suggesting the dawn of a day of Ilope. Tlte rays of the sun are bordered by the title "Aluerican Society for the Control of Caucer," eulphasizing the fact that the educational pro- eraln is prepared and directed by authorities on cancer. "Fight Cancer with Knowledge" com- plctes the educatii/nal elublelu under which the Anny works. The sword {las been used for teu years as a synllwl of the Anlerican Society for the Control of Cancer. The serpents, adapted front tlle cadu- ..•..c nr .ar...,l nf 1\l.Y'1-Ilrv. RV1111/111 //f t11P II1P/llCal FLORIDA HEALTH NOTES Offlcia/ lfonthtp Publicatiou of the STATE BOARD OF HEALTH JACYSONVU4,Q, FL0A1DA Fst.1$90 HON. FRED P. CONE ................................. .GouerRor oJ Florida BOARD MEMBERS It A. Bal.tzel.l,, Y.D., Pres. Swuan RKua.aow, Dt.D. A. WM. t>tosawa flt~l'Iwa . ]~Ic~0Y1/i11C -. _ , - jttialui W. A. McPNaa.,, NA. Stsfs Nealt!< Of O fNwr r iwmil Qlw aLaw. OsI. 27. p0/, aR M PaM0 .1 h.YewAft ila IhM W Ad M Aw. 2% IN2 . Vm.. 30 APRIL, 1938 No.^ •t L•'DUCAI7ON - - TIIE ANSW1•at W. A. IdcPnwa., M.D. State IleaUh Officer The problem of cancer is one with which public health is much con- cerned. Unlike the coluuluuicable aud infectious discasu•s, such as : salallpox, diphllK ria, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, there would seem to be no definite point of attack, no nconuucndations of immunizalion, i vaccination, or isolation. Cancer, in ; spite of remarkable advance in diag- ~! .osis and treaUaent, still remains the 1 unknown quantity. However, each ~ year has secn the advance of the im- C provcment of diagnosis and one im- : portant factor has become very clear. ~ That is the factor of the importance ~ of early diagnosis. With this as a starting point the public health atlitudo is clear. Every parsoa is liable to cancer; tlurefore, every person for his own protection must know one helpful fact which medical science knows about this , disease, naulely, the necessity for consulting a physician. The osirich with his head in lite sand is still an apt description of many cancer vicliuls. It/K•au.u,, even after canccr is xuspecled, lack of pain antl lack ..f obvious change in physical couditil u so often lulls the patient into a heli~ t, engelidered by hope, that his suspi- cions arc unfounded and that the trouble will disappear as mysteri- ously as it calne. l:rom the public health official's viewpoint our contribution lu Ibt• cancer problem is the widespread education of /hc public as to lite nalurooPcanccr and its Iwssil%le cure. Personal hygicne, including lite regular, thorough physical examina- tion; immediate consultation willl a qualified physician; avoidance of quack "cures"-lhese are the only weapons the average man has with which to fight cancer. The Florida Slate Ik/ard of fleallh
Page 277: rhz82d00
6TH GRADE G.rotving Healthfully - The American Health Series - by Wilson, Pryor, and Almack. Publisher: Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York, 1942. (State Adopted) A. Athletes avoid drinking and smoking, p. 213 B. Tobacco s o irritates the throat, pp. 53-54 The material presented here is good, but very limited. As suggested by the elementafy teachers the experiment concerning the forming of alcohol, by yeast plants, in fruit juices that have been exposed to the air (described in 3rd grade book) may be used in the sixth grade. The following additions were made to the 1948 edition: A. Two Important Hazards to Health, pp. 303-304 B. Checking important facts about looking into the future, p. 308 C. Tobacco smoke irritates the throat, pp. 53-54 D'. Training for sports and games, p. '213 The Body and Health - by Burkard, Chambers, afld Woney. Publishers Lyons - anc Carndhan, hecr ork, 1938. (Out of adoption) Unit I. Foods a=d Health A. Some Useful Aids to Digestion--Other Aide to Digestion 1. Avoid use of alcoholic drinks, p. 76 2. Alcohol is not a food, p. 76. . B. The Liver--alcohol can do serious damge, p. 78. Unit V. The Pilot A. Harmful Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs,'' pp. 233-251 1. Alcohol Affects the Body. 2. Alcohol Especially Affects•tho Nervous System. 3. Alcohol is a Narcotic Drug, not a Stimulant.' 4. Effects of Alcohol upon Judgement and Self-Control 5. Effects upon the Feelings 6. Effects upon the Skills 7. ~ Alcohol and Athletics (football and baseball) m - 9 .. `j m N ~
Page 278: rhz82d00
av~s ~•)a~~~~ ''" s 11 ;t~~ • a Sr Ir, ~ s ~ . ..~ i ~ ~ • . ~ ~ : •. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i~ _3t4 ~ • ~ ~a ~ s ,~ ' let~ ssIs : ~_~ ~ •~~ ~f ~~ ~ ~ f~~ : -~_~r_~~~ e ~ ~s:~ .~~E~, •'~ _ ~ ~ , ! ~ ~ ~ • ~` _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ • ~, • ~:,. t k ~ ~ • ~~ s~~ ~ D ll s ~ ~~ • ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ , b~ I ii fs y ~ ' S~•~ ~~~ ~ ~ ,~+ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ . 7t . ~ ~ ~ =Y_~~ s t
Page 279: rhz82d00
(244) . WILL GIVE FREE ADVICE ON TVBEBCULOSIg Free expert advice for consumptires and others interested in tui,l.r. culosis is given in a pamphlet just issued by The National Asj6csatw1, for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, entitled '.'What Should Know About Tuberculosis." The pamphlet was prepared by a committee of experts of inter• ' ~ national prominence consisting of Dr. Charles L. Minor of Asheville; Dr. David R. Lyman of N\'allingford. Conn.; Dr. H. R. M. Landi; of Philadelphia ; Dr. John H. Lowman of Cleveland. and William 1?. Baldwin of 1Vashington. It contains the latest and most authoritati%•r information about tuberculosis. It deals with the nature of the disease ; how infection may tal;t place ; how the disease is cured ; how the family may be protected ;~t•hat the patient may do after discharge. and ho%~•~the disease may be pre- vented in the community. A copy of the pamphlet will be sent free to anyone applying for it at the office of The National Association for the Study and Preventior. of Tuberculosis. 105 East 22d Street. New York. or at the office of iii> own state or local anti-tuberculosis association, or board of health.- Press Sert•icc. The .\'otiouol :lssoaiotion for the Study oitd Prct•cnt;m: of TuGcrculosis. Editor's Note: (The above pamphlet has been published by tin• State Board of Health of Florida. and ma}• be had free of charge 1,% applying to the State Health Officer at Tackcom•ille.) WHAT IT COSTS TO BE SICB ' A committee which has been for several year• engaged in gathering information concerning the time lost by workmen through sickness hai recently made a relort according to which each one of the 30,000.000 wage earners of the United States loses annually nine days' time from illness. In addition there is an expenditure of six dollars per capita for medical treatment, a total loss through sickness of $300,000,000. An examination into the causes of sickness showed that almost al: were preventable; the chief causes being errors in diet. the use oi alcohol, tobacco, unventilated living rooms. dusty, dark, unventilated factories and workshops. The committee was of the opinion that proper living that woul.d bring about a reform in habits and living conditions would easily reduce the cost of illness to one-tenth the present sum, as wage earners for the most part are able-bodied men and women. The committee believe= further that compulsory health insurance similar to that adopted in Great Britian last year would also be an effective remedy in reducing the cost of itlness -Press Service North Carolina State Board Of Health. 1 0 v µ'hat pr: h' Naturalis ~ a specl n of th: the ovt The desi- great st: F d~• and ~ture disc: : In the r. ief f rom *tt unless i the infrc in body tone Jor a time V ronder-exerc- sar Statistici •y: {be United ` Ufe of toda. ~ aercise, su ` the high pr -~' physical ne; L wealth is ar ~ when the a The brillian ;.' rate, the e dimmed an; = was entirel: = ~ Other ti life who la best, he wh V drinks, nor diet in moc -~ who is as ' :.: When succ _: is such tha ; ~ the fruits -" The re; jt duty of off _. ~ fi.tness. T study whe: regards it : : this way. i maintain a ® u,
Page 280: rhz82d00
~ ~ , .. ~~it ?f :'$ !11, 1~ 1 ~1 1 1~ ~~ ~1 ~1 I x .~ s 1~t~w 11 1 s • ~ i~ l9 iii1i l yytt ~ ~ ~ ~ s~= ~ - ~ •~ 7 Y S• Z t l 3 s~ $ s~ ~ a sl~~~ s __- #
Page 281: rhz82d00
l~'`i 1111111 _•!31~.'^• iii~Ji~%~~ e - ~ • i ~~ t lit, I lilild!
Page 282: rhz82d00
. The Burkard, Chambers, and Maroney series that :•rent out of adloption t•::o years ago eee:: muchtco detailed for elementary students and have some of the tha common errors listed in t:is intrcduct_cn. Outlines oi the natcrial in fourth and sixth grade books of that series are included in this bulletin. Junior and Senior High School Grades Good material in large part is given in the junior and senior high school science and health texts. The social studies books have very little material in•this area. Problems related to alcohol narcotics and s JiMUIUI s are vital factors in our social structure and t ey s ou d be so'taught. Inasmuch as such material has been omitted from the textbooks the'te4cher wi.ii need to supplement the material. You and Alcohol (8), Aoc_ident Facts (7), and Tra!'f ic in 0_Dium (8) will be of help here. In this connaction., Dr. Roe says: problems of alcohol." Errors That Are Being Corrected in the. Field of Alcohol Study "It has been my observation'tha;, our high :schools do an excellent job of interesting childrern at these ages In social problems, and the schocls should n ot miss th3':.opportunity cf makir.g clear the effects of inebriety on the cosmunity and t: e steps which communities could and should take to deal +vith the (1) The Yale School of Alcohol Studies under the direction o: Dr. E. li. Jellinek he.s tcken the lead in scicnt:.'ic i^.vrstigqticn in t::e stud;r of alcohol. T he results of their investiLations are ber•ring fruit in greatly improved materials appcarir.g in textbooks. Some of the outstanding of ; here as a group. these errors that still apoear in some taxis are liste.4 nttention is called to them again at t:^.e` @:pp ropriate plac=s in the out- lines. 1. Diseases are caused by alcohol - Every type of body diffi- culty has been blamed on alcohol as j harde^.ing off the, ar`eriss, sclerosis of t ae liver, dest ructior. o: b rain cells, and the causing of fet in heart muscles. All evidence points to the fact that these ailments are caused by vitamin deficiency which usual,ly occurs in the excessive drinker. Dr. Roe (1) says, "To teach this correctly does not exonerate the alcohol habit.1tut contributes to sound ped- agogy~„ In a few writings social disease has been attributed to alco- hol. There is no doubt that the person;under the influence of alcohol is in more danger of becoming exposed'to ven:roal disease, but it is inaccurate to. say that alcohol causes venereal di3.a$c. 2. Ovarstatsment - The tendency in alcohol,•teaching has been. to make statistics and stories as large as possible. "The inaccurate a 2-
Page 283: rhz82d00
Augustus M. Burns, QI, Ph.D. State of Florida, et al., v. May 9, 1997 American Tobacco Co., et al. verbally 212:17 verbatim 157:13 version 16:15 versus 4:8; 33:16 victim 24:18 Video 4:13 VIDEOGRAPHER 4:3, 12; 61:23; 62:1, 5; 139:11; 140:3;186:14,17; 217:2, 5; 226:12, 16; 229:11, 14, 21 videotape 4:4; 61:24; 62:2; 139:12; 140:4; 186:10..15,18; 217:3. 6; 226:14,17; 229:12,15 videotaped 4:13; 89:7 view 14:14; 26:18; 27:7, 16;45:20;46:1;60:4; 79:20; 80:11,13;125:5: 139:3;149:23;178:21; 179:10,12; 181:2; 182:20; 183:7,13:189:18;198:16; 203:13,21,24;204:2 viewpoint 64:15 views 119:16 visibility 60:23, 25 visible 32:21; 65:21 vision 46:6 visit 154:12 vivid 71:17 volume 19:13; 24:3; 26:14; 27:4; 39:14,16; 44:25; 123:2; 127:4; 214:12; 215:17 voluntary 39:8 vote 52:25; 68:4 voters 74:2 ~ Wednesday 111:7; 140:14, 22;143:8;146:9 week 11:12, 12; 219:14 weeklies 70:21, 23 weekly 70:11 weeks 53:13 weight 120:17;121:5 west 7:12 What's 6:18; 43:16; 80:13:93:18; 114:8; 117:9; 134:2;150:13; 187:1 whereby 66:12 Whereupon 4:19;139:13 wherever 19:21 white 42:23; 74:2 whole 47:15; 54:24; 152:11; 178:22 Whose 112:22; 118:8; 193:9; 218:2 wide 9:15 widely 205:24 wife 57:19; 104:22; 115:23 wife's 115:9 Williamson 17:7,11,17; 166:22;167:1, 25 willing 139:5; 205:16 willingness 78:23, 24; 79:1; 80:4 Willis 50:12,13; 64:19; 74:5 Wilson 88:23 wind 13:11 winner 68:7 Winston•Salem 6(6); 7:7,15;8:18;12:8;13:16; 14:19; 19:1 Winstons 10:12 wisdom 205:25 wishes 144:2 wit 230:1 withdraw 67:25; 76:25 withdrawing 77:2 within 23:5; 47:25; 76:4; 79:14:85:12;137:20; 166:11; 167:7 within•named 230:4 without 40:8; 44:2; 67:18; 70:9; 75:23; 7921, 21; 11Z0:10;192:6;195:11; 205:3, 3 witness 4:21; 29:19; 34:16. 21; 41:19; 69:13; 96:9, 24;103:24;104:5, 8; 106:23; 107:9; 112:5; 117:5;135:5;140:18; 141:10;142:1, 9:146:5; 147;15;150•16. 21, 25; 157:22, 25;158:13; 167:12, 20; 168.18; 170:20;173:12,14: 177:13; 181:18, 22; 182:1; 183:1;184:3;185:6, 20, 21; 191:2: 201:14; 204:8; 207:9; 208:12, 19: 209:9. 222:1.0 - '- wroAo 51:22, 75:24;. 214:7 wrote 19:11; 22:4; 32:1: 37:4; 38:12; 40;9; 67:2; 72:3: 77:23; 80A 7 198:12 I w waits 53:13 waived 229:23 Wake 6(5); 7:1, 3,12; 8:19; 9:8; 10:17; 13:24; 14:19; 19:1 j War 27:3. 4; 37:1; 39:4, 4, ; 6:42:18 warehouse 224:2 i Washington 4:11:39:6; i 111:2, 3, 4; 146:3, 8 wavered 77:3 way 22:22; 24:10,11; 45:13,15: 55:11; 56:22, 25: 60:7,13; 67:13; 71:20; 75:2 1; 76:8,14; 79:7;80:9; 89:25:93:6;100:6; 104:13:107:23; 114:24; 130:21;133:11;145:18; 149:20; 155:25; 159:6; 170:23, 24;174:2, 7, 8; 185:9; 198:2,4;199:8, 9; 209:16; 214:11,15; 222:5; 230:13 Wayne 4:17 ways 102:8 verbally • young (16) I 21;214.11;215:5,19: ` 217:7; 228:2; 229:17,18; 230:4,15 ' . witnesses 192:23'. 24; i93:12, 21;194(6); m'"' 195(4);196:4;'218:2; 221:12 woman 57:20 wbn 51:2;54'~1S Word 104:9;158:5; 164:13;176:72, 23;177:1, 17; 180:4,7;190(5); 191:3; 203:16; 20t.9,16; 205:8,14 words 4S,:7t73:10; $1:4; 83:8; 85:19; 99:20; 105:9;, + 106:7;128:21;146:7; i 155:20;157:16;178:17; ` 187:13;188:5, 6, 6; ' 191:24; 224:17 work 8(4);13:20;14:1,6, 23:18(4);19:8, 20; 20:11, 14; 30:1.12,15; 31,:8,10: 33:7,18; 35;11; 36:5, 8, 13; 39:8; 40c3, 25:46:15, 18, 23; 47:2; 50:14; 55:2; 59:23; 78:18; 80:15; 83:1; 87:20,.25; 88:7; 96:10; 97:4; 98:2, 22, 23;100:22; 101:3, 3;110:15;126:25; 129:2;130:1;133:1; 149:3;153*7;160:12;., 162:20;166:14;172:13, 19;194;1; 210:21r43; 218:13; 219:6, 8; 223:7; ' 227:17; 228:6, 19 worked 17:15,16;19i11; 37:9,17; 210:2; 212 1; ,. ~ 223:3 working 17:23; 46 9, , 125:21;126:13,17;148:6; ~ 153:9; 211:'19; 219:15; 222:19,, 24; 223:12 , : I works 19:13.1251C 20; 4~ 190:4 World 39:4, 6; 42:18c 154:2; 219:5 worthwhile 46:11 write 13:22; 25:9; 26:20; 44:1; 46:15: 79:10,12; ; 82:10; 87; l 7; 97:14; ' 185:23; 187:4 writers 73:25 writes 96:4 writing 29:9:36:3i40:3; ~, ~ Yeah 45:12 year 6:8; 7:16;1.1:20; 125'22; 220:4 yea,43:21;94;10:21; ` 25:25; 29:4; }2 22; 35:20, 21;36;2; 31:5.7;72:6: 68:,14;91:7; 94:17;101:8, 9,12;117:22, 0:118:,3, ` 12~1,8;'119:6;121ti2; ', 3 24:22;167:8;169:10; 189:13; 224: i2; 225:25 ykid 68:2 -' York221:1 young 5:20 49:4; 50;22; 62: I l t 66;9; 70:6; 72:4, 5,11; 83:16; + 93:22; 97:8;100:15,1 6; 1 127:4;154:7 writings 21:9, written 21:7J,1,7;~26:24, '- ` 25; 27:3 5 60:7; 64:14; I 72:13.15, 73 1 ~76:24; 77:12; 80:9: 83~ 5; 88:15; ~ 122:1,6;124:11,12; 134:16,19, 22;135:9; ! 148:6; 212:19: 213:`4; 1
Page 284: rhz82d00
American Tobacco Co., et aL $1,000 8:1 $52,000 220:4 $75,000 220:1 580,000 220:1 1 1 4:6; 141:10: 158:24; 213:23 10 52:C. 10:27 61:24 10:45 62:2 11 52:6 12 52:6 120 7:11 12:35 139:12,13 13 15U:2, 20: 151:18; 152:9 14 151:12 1431 4:14 15 7:13; 91:8, 9; 229:2 15•plus 117:22 1850s 190:6 1875 27:3 19 118:2 1905 136:14,16 1906 180:18 1907 180:18 1911 16:7.8 1963 20:18 1967 20:18: 116:19 1968 138:16 1969 35:20; 37:4, 20; ! 38:8:40:4:41:12:42:1; 1 43:13. 15;48:7 I 1970 48:13:72:21 1970s 174:19; 202:12 1971 48:8 1974 116:13;121:12 i 1975 27:5 1978 116:7;117:7 i 1980s 72:14;174:21 1983 179:9.13 1985 116:5 1986 46:19; 72:4 1 1990 88:10,15,18;199:6, ; 11 ~ 1990s 174:23; 190:7 1994 35:23; 46:22; 47:14; 50:15; 88:4;155:14 1995 148:17;149:7, 24; 155:18;157:18;175:8; ~ 219:22 1996 148:19 ; 1997 4:5; 62:3;140:6; ; 148:19. 20; 149:5. 23; i 150:2; 151:13; 158:22; ~ 175:7; 208:2.10. 17; 1 230:16 1:39 140:2,4 ~----- - 2 1920832:20c 123:12, 25; . 1 136:1, 16 1930 20:25 i 262:3 1930s 38:19; 42:17; 65:9; 1 20 29:4; 35:21; 36:2; 91:9; 123:25; 126:18 ~ 1931 31:6 1936 56:1 1938 84:18 1940s 174:13 1944 137:25 1949 31:6; 33:22 I 17.23. 220.21 20-plus 117:22 ; 20th 22:21; 24:6;134:10; 177:18; 180:9; 189:14 I 21 213:24; 214:3,8; 215:13. 17; 216:17; 217:1, ( 21 Augubtub ia. [surjta, 1u, 1'[1.U. May 9, 1997 4•14-02 230:22 40126:19 400 39:25 40s 32:20 49 34:2 49.3 68:5 50 34:2; 68:3;126:19 50s 178:1 78 117:23 7th 11,9 8 d•4; 62:3 8th 11:9 962:4,6;140:6;141:t1; 193:3, 5 94 72:15 9:09 4:4 ' A i accessible 23:24; 160:2 ~ accomplish 172:8 ~ aocompiishing 204:6 ~ accomplishments 125:3. 5~ 7 according 230:6 apcoun1,72:25; 206:9, 20; 207P); 209:4,13 accounts 70:5; 1G0:17 acoumulates .21:2 accuracy 191:13 accurate 15:8:66:24; 76:6; 91:4 accused 24:19;189:24 ; achievement 75:22 achievements 61:2 across 12:5; 39:14,17; 89:12;130:22;18$:7 11ct 24 10,136.6, 42; 139:6, 7,132:23;155:14 , acted 115:16;142:6, 6 acting 79:15 actl6n 4:18;113:15; 199:2; 222:25;230:14 actions 46;7; 79:14 active 19:3t 30:20; 38:18, 19; 57:18, 20; 59:25; >. 45:23, 24; 89:13;130:3; 178:8 actively 52:5; 91:17 - activities 8:2; 56:11,19: 60:13;102:14;126:18; 172:21;194c3:209.;17 activity,~8:18;83:14; " 178:9 actors 42;$; 46:5; 79:10, 1a, actueliy 33;14;63:9;85:7 ability 23:5; 42:10; 58:22; 74:16; 79c22;100:6 able 30:7; 36:17; 37;2; 41:7; 44:9,12; 46 9; 50:5; 55:7; 59:2,b4:3; 65 25;` - 66•16,18 ~i7:17;68:11; 70• 20; 74:20, 22; 76:17; 98 3;11014;12813; 134.13;178:18;179:1; 191:12;192:9; 203.13; 206:7; 213:18; 224:7 ` absolutely 145:3, 25 absorb 76:10 ` abstracted 84:9 abundanCe 161:21 academic 22:17, 96:12, 99:3.13:102:15c 118:25; - 1 133:18 i address 29:24; 135:10: ~ 172:14 addresse; 218:11 -addressing 43:3;164:19 adds 45:25 : • adequste 204:17 adminlstrators 58:15. 19 admission 84:17, 23; 25; 85:10 admitted 84:21; 85:2 adoring 44:6 ads 34:5 advance 119:17; 147:18 advantage 49:12 advice 112(4) advisable 112:18 advise 115:6 advised 125:14 advisefnent 107:18 adviser 115:16 advocate 64:17, 18 affairs 24:6 ~ affect 74:7;198;5 affected 27:9;199:8 afforded 46:1 African 43:6 ' AFTERNOON i40:1 again 41:24;63:15; 119:25;1;31:17;137:1: 138:20, 22i 204:8,15; 205:7; 206:5; 208:12 ageinst 17:24; 43:2; 86:13:159:~; f62:8; 193:1 S 'o age 38:20 agency 7:1 aggressive 43:3 ago 13:3; 32:16:103:11, 20;106:9;159:7.12; 177:9; 207:18; 222:23; 229:2 ` agree 79:24:145:19; 173•21;193 2; 227:24 agreed 28 3 29:8,105:7; 227.23 - agreeing 177:6 ' agreement 30:25; 189:8; 218:14 AHA 29:2 ahead 1819; 39:12; 58:8; 86:25;163:11;168:17; a 902; 207:2 1950 32:7; 33(5): 34:4; 2401 4:11 3 5 12; 3C•:2, 11; 38:8; 4U:6; i 2:39 186:15 •I3• 15; •IG:1'; •19:20; 55:25; 59:23; G2:12; ~ 2:45 186:18 70:13: 80:19; 83:17; 86:7: ~ 90:21: 91:3; 93:22; 131:6, 1 13:198:13:1994 1950s 70:13; 130:25; ~ 3 1.i2:2; 174:15: 175:21. 23; 3 140:5 178:2; 2c10:4: 201:11). 22 .' 30 220:22 1954 20:25; 33:12 1956 6:9: 7:18 1957 6:9. 9 19609 174:1 7; 175:20; 17h 3. 7. 16: 1'77:25: I 8:1 •f : 181:5: 182:23: )u2 : 5: 2u6:1 1. 22 1961 8:20 1962 9:25:10:1. 2. 4: 11:24: 12:2; 13:8 Air 15213 airline 219:11 airplanes 201:1 Adams 63:21 tG6:8; ' G$:11;~9:] 5,16, 67(5); 89:14,16; 90. 4:~ a~d d,2:10; d 2Q 45:24; 6d:$, ~2:17;133 7, ' 1 3cd9;197:4, 219:23: 41, 1:6added 36:10; 42i9; 43:9, 12,1 3; 60;3~ 72~22 addictinq 177:17 '' addiction 176.10;180:3, 4, 7;184:7;A 2 addictivo 133:3; ~35:21; ° ! 77(4),1 15,18,22; ! 6'/:13 1a3,.16; 189:20,1' . :24; 201:20; 208:10 300 37:16; 38:14; 39:18, I accelerated 42:20 addlctlveneas 133:20; 22; 53:3 II ticcept 31:6;85:9;88:11; ~ 13$c13;136:21:168i2Sr 305 39:24 i 179:17;180:23 169:17 170 $;197:17, 30s 32:20:123:12 : accepted 7:6; 77 14, 25 3:26 217:3 ~ 86:20;1881.:7 ` additlon 3&;24; 39:9; 3:30 217:C ~ accepting 96:2 50:2461 $-149 G 18;' j 195:1tS , access 191d:21.21; 19•3;20: 3 42 2 6 : 2 :14,17 7 2 Jiti 8 d 1 2 0 6 7 ~ 3:45 229:12 ~ 3:58 229:15. 22. 24 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. alcohol 136:2, 3 alert 203:10 alerting 157:25 Alexander 8:1 I ti 1 ll 2 ega ons 2 3: 5 'S; a : : r ona :6;1 8;22; a 3 5: 3 3 ;3;89;2 5 ; . 169(4); 170(4);171:5; '' p;20;12Zs21,,149;3.4: ~ alli8s 172:13 , 181:3;183:24;190:22 a5f5:20 , ~ allowed 124:23
Page 285: rhz82d00
® ® ~ 9 R Xi , , ® , . Y i>L` ~ .' ,,~- i . • tfi~~,~ , , . N , ., C20:1tt LE.1F AT THE %VEST JND SOCM •433 jevcr•iI ioculities of Colorado, and tu a more limited •stcnt in 11-:r_hin;tor., Ore~Tin anit California. Iu tiie latter Scate. ci;ar-le::f tuhucco culture is now receivin; the close attention of practical and scienciHc men, and 'should their work prove successful in obtaining Iesf of good rlnalit}•, its culture will d:,ubtless be developed uu ~ the large scale characteristic of i.•siitornia enterprise. Iu Texas. rluice :i number „f crops of Sne tobacco hrre been raised during the past three or four years, more e=necial1_y in ti:e soucluaiccrn part of the State, parcic;:lurlv in IIuncuomer}•, Victoria and Calhoun coun- "ties, clie l:ucer :«ljuining the cu:rsc becn•ren Arsnsa:r Bay and )lacagorda Bay, Victoria adjoinin; it to tlie west. It is statea tl:at one Lrmer, in Jtoncgomerr coratr, 'raotd S,0r)0 ponncls of cigar leaf grown, in 180i, on ninea tures of "grnr hickory" land, and chat he got 40 cents per pound for che better grades for cigar wrappers, aud a taati.=.factor,v price for the lower grades fur Sllers. To- bacc,, Procvn in C'alhoun countp hus sold as hi;h ss 34 cenc= per pound. Ic is claimed for selections of the lesf grown in that section, tluat it is edual to the best tobacco grown on the Island of Cuba. for eiche: or' wrahhers. Well-informed Texas growers express s = con!iclenuo tioat they will be able to successfully corapete aitlr tobacco :ron•n in any part of the world. ~- ~ The , e:ctcst interest and lar;est derelopmeut of ' hte yecu•s. however, of the industry in the so-c..lled "ncw' ;ei:tions," lrcr3 been in Florida 3ni1 tl:o :uljuining • conn~it•3 of $-,nc!rcrn Geor;iu. I'-)rtv ve:rry u;o. rr nclt of tltis ;ur,a proiluced a leaf «•hiulr wur con:iaerc:l a:sir- ~ able for r:i,g:u•3 then in u:r. tlwrr_~Ir muic ~:f the 1'turida ~ croh, beforu thu wci; ceporr.ol r.i Bremen anil Am.;tet•rLam, anil %v;ri polirrlnr t'.-r ir.i li;irt culur und rnibl :fas•nr. 13ut l;rV rnncil tlw taritt ugitatiOn of 1>>J dircuacal uttentiuu to tcsLi that kbad bren conductud privately in G:uladeo cuuuty, and ,,
Page 286: rhz82d00
Augustus M. Burns, 1II, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 immediate 89:9 impacting 225:20 implements 128:10 Implications 36:24; 83:11 Implying 12:20 importance 14:13,16; 23:1; 25:22; 27:19; 73:16; 75:14, 17; 83:5; 92:15; 123:23:129:19;131:20; 132:19;163:1,5 Important 27:13; 34:11; 35:7; 40:3; 42:7; 49:15; 57:7,10; 59:22; 64:3, 8; 73:10; 74:19; 77:4, 7, 25; 84:6; 92:12; 128:7,12; 129:8; 130:19; 131:1, 2, 25; 161:19.25;162:2; 163:14,15; 164:19; 199:8 Imposed 152:23 2 mposes : i 94 113:21;114:3.7,18; 127:23, 24; 129:1, 21; 131:15; 133:3, 17; 134:5, 18; 136:23;148:2;160:7, 13.19;161:24;162:11; 163:4;164:2;165:1,7,11; 166:3:167:6;168:6, 23; 169(4); 171:20,24; 172:2, 25; 173:18; 186:21, 23; 187:12; 189:3; 194:22; 195:8;196:19;197:22; 200:4; 201:7; 206:12; 210:3, 9,18; 219:15,18; 220:8; 224:22; 225:11,19; 226:21 Influenced 27:17 inform 67:20; 95:18; 111:25; 203:23 informal 30:18 Informally 119:11 Information 18:5; 34:12, 12; 35:3, 3, 8; 37:4; 49:11; imposition 152:23 51:1; 59:1; 66:25; 68:19, Impression 23:16; 25; 69:23; 90:2,10; 92:12; 37:20; 67:5,11; 75:25 107:25; 110: 10; 111:24; in•person 111:9; 154:11 119:9,15;120:1;128:21; Inadvertent 150:22 Incidence 203:9; 206:4 141:17;182:1, 182:1.3; 198:5, 6;199:1, 9: 200:2; 224:10 Incidentally 157:19 Informed 106:1; 128:14 Include 21:9,13,14; 34:12; 64:8; 77:7; 147:23; Informing 204:24 160:6,10;194:3: 222:2; Initia153:9 225:9 inftially 84:24 Included 83:22; 86:6; 149:5; 151:9; 156:20; initiate 25:13 initiated 47:15; 125:13 189:11; 210:16; 220:19 1 including 57:20; 58:11; i 71:4;136:3;164:2;181:5; inkiating 155:12 inquiries 47:5 I 219:12 inquiry 111:25; 149:12, Inclusion 193:25; 195:7 13;159:11;161:9:163:5, 18 incompiete 119:14; 168:10 inside 45(4) Inconvenience 152:24 Insight 59:2; 67:7 Insofar 197:7; 225:16 Incorporating 173:9 Incorrect 12:18 increasing 203:9 instance 103:3 instantly 85:18 Instead 73:20; 77:1; incredible 19:13; 39:14; 204:22 161:21 indeed 15:21;34:10; Institute 165:21 154:1 institution 7:3,11; 9:17; 15:13 independent 98:23; 112:11; 142:2; 143:25 institutional 163:21 Indicate 114(4); 146:14 Instruct 181:16, 22 Indicated 77:1;162:5; 189:7; 208:22 inetructing 181:17; 182:12 indication 139:3 indications 205:22, 23 individua190:14; 96:20 instructjon 156:6 insubstantial 54:17 integration 84:10; ' 122:13 individuai s 62:24 individuals 62:9; 84:5; 90:20 Intellectual 7:5 intelligently 134:14; Indoor 152:23 199:15 intend 97:14; 192:18 industry 17:25;86:13; 94:17; 97:10,18; 98:20; Intended 223:16 103:5; 105:21; 108:25; Intends 142:3; 218:19 109:16;110:18;112:12; Intense 19:10; 30:3,19; lmmediate - left (8) ~ 38:20 Intensified 18:18 I Intenslfies 5$~~8 Intensive 89:y `` Intent 92:9 intention 70:3 intentionally 54:18 interest 32:23, 24; 100:24;101:4, 6, 17; 102:2,13,18; .103:7,1 7; 104:2;105:6, ~15;106:13. , 19; 113:12,19,20;114:?, i 15:12; 140:24;161 s5; ' 197:3 Interested 19:22;44:16; 230:13 Interests 112(4);113:3, I 16; 122:15; 141:15; 225:5 ' interna1160:7,12,18; 161:2, 9, 23;162:11; 163:3, 25;164:14,16, 25; 166:2;167:5;168:5, 22; 169(4);170:1, 5,17; ' 171:8, 18; 172:18; 179:16; 183:25; 185:1; 186:22; 196:19;197:22;198:17 ; interpret14:7,10,24; 83:5 interpretations 27:11 Interpreted 12:20; 156:22 Interpreting 26:21; ` 101:24 interpretive 23:10 interrogqtorles 222:10 Interrupted 132:11 interview 92:5 ' interviewed 89:15,16 interviews 89:8, 21; 90:18,23,24;91:1 Into 16:20; 46:16; 49:9: 67:7; 70• 10; 90:9; 93:10c 100;6:122:3;129:23; , 149:12,13;167:13; 181:24; 187:5; 189:13 Inverted 157:23 investigate 153:20 ' Investigating 44:17; 78:4 investigation 156:3 . 164;14 184:5;199:9 investigator 162:19 18 14; 26:16; 66:1?. 19; ~ klnds 19:6; 95:24; l Ol:f; ~ 68 12,15; 69:14; 95:1; investigators 25:7; 38:6 115:3 13f:1 1 ,19;135•14; :172.23 . 2 3 invohre 113a9;1S7:3 17.1.13 :1 72 ~ 164:5, t83:2 i I learned 13:22, 24; 14:20: Involved Il S:2S; 21:17; knew 3i:2c 61.13; `'18 25; 25:21; 7u:2. 3: ~ 22:20; 23.15; 24:14,17; 107:21;129:20;175:10, 168i5, 22;169(6);170:5. 36:13; 39.11; 44:9, 49:17; 17;176(S);177:4,12,14; 11,14; 171:10; 172:7 60:21; 62:10; 63:9; 71:3, 4; 11 78:13;179ab,13; 77:13; 84.13:86:6; 90:21; 180:15, 20,183:8• 20((4); ` learning 14:3.17; 2! :2; I 91:17; 97:24;100:17; ! 26.16: 71:1 ; . 201(4); 202:7,17.18; 103:24; 131:5; 192.4 1 least 113:23:143:6: 206:10, 22 invoivement 71:2Sc 87;6 I knowing 174:8 52:21;153:4; 218:20, 24 ! Irrespective 201:3 i knoWledge 29:11:42:3, i leavq,80:19:89:6 issue 44:10; 78:12; , lecture 135:16, 19. ' 11;439;12.20;44;2t; , 136:11:220:15 115:11; 136:8, 11,11; 46:17 60.0;'72 18, 23: , led 67:21 143:19;197:16; 218:5 85:2;E 90:17;100ti1; `. j issues 225:6' i 128:22,131:8,188:12i, 1 left 10;17,31:6:226:1 l. ,_.._~....._,. M3n-U-SMpt4p A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. State of Florida, et aL, v. AwerICan Tobacco Co.; et al. itself 60:24; 94:4;130:13; :{' 191 1: ! 92:17;10-5: 203:8; 22~:19 . i, 200:3: 224 7 ~ Knowlton 166:7. 18 Known 33 23; 34:13: r ~ 44:11; 72 18 120:3; 171•13• 198'4• i JamOp li 5:18 Je~ss"'S~;20 )ob° 193:18 jocularity 152:17,17 John 64:12;6,~:X7;88:22 Johltsqrt a 38:14 Johnson's ~138:2 . joking 152:19;153;4; 158i 16 Jonathan 39:6; 61:1; 62:14 Jones 5:6;108:16,23; '112:23;114:13;154~:1 M journal 56:10, tt;' 120:20, Z0;121:2;122:8, r`42;126:d},21;166:24 ~udge 107s20;108:4; 218:5,10,11 judgrrient 80:x;113:10 Julian 31;15,'32.2,10; . 35:13, 46::14, 24, 30:1; S5:'17,72:19 June 8:20;148:17 RCacssynsk)110:x2; •154`13;15~:8,2Y9•21; 126i20"' keen ,l s:1 ; keep 75:10;151,;9 keeping 54:20 kept i 3:10;16:15; 56:10; 225:24 ` KES$L~R 5:5, 5;110:21; 1;44:17,23;145c10; ; , 1gCi:12: 214:z: 2ts:3,6: ~ ,187:12:189:4c 220:7 217:10 leader 138:3 key,5S 7;59:8;61:21 fea~dership 126:3 keys 74:12 jetlding4S:1Ac 1i1;h: kind80:14;96.1,0; , 134:8 100:20;152:13;163:18; 1 learn 13:20 21:14(7): , • 99.1. 14. 17,202:8' 'knows 152:14 - L labeled 213:23 l.abor 39:5; 56:9. 15 laborious 15:3 lack 54:21; 58:21 aady 58:1 :`~•.ange 227:19 lapse 67c 1 .' laptop 187:8 'large 78:10;220:19 4arper 70:24; 218:17; 220:15 last68:22;88:i4;117:22; 138:23; 150:24; 167:8; - 181:11;196:10; 213:10; 214:9 late 50:9,14; 72(4); 176:25; 190:6 later 35:20; 51:7 latter 148:18;149:11; 224:23 law 51:17; 82:17; 84:10. , 18;108:16,18, 23:111:15: 115:23;116:2, 6, 9;143:5; 221:2, 4: 230:7 lawsuit 84:20; 108:20; ,'114:11; 147:19: 159:4;,. 162:8; 165:8.12 lawyer 8:8;112:19; 115:4;186:20 lawyers 17(4);108:22: 23;109:'16,110:18c 20 111 t 10 112:13;
Page 287: rhz82d00
,~t`~ sA=I r i~ ~~ r ~ Z ~ • ~ ~~i.. 1t 1~ sil ~ j'1I l! t ~~~~ ~1 1 ~~ ii!Ii1l9t n~ ~ . r ~.~ " ~ 19 ~ al~ :i . r y ! I V ~ i i ~ I s~~c~ ~ ~s ~ rF, ~ ;~~~ s :u7.1+. ; -r L. L» N , rn ~ w w
Page 288: rhz82d00
D. Charb showing the principal agricultural resources of theUnited State§. Tobacco is shoft as the ;Srincipal crop of five stAtes: South Carolina, Io ECarolina, Virginia, Kentuc:cy, and Tennessee, p. 480. The above topics contain descriptions of the part that the growing of tobacco played in the development of t}:eae areas. 8T P. G:ZADE Our World Changes - by Bruner, Neuner, and Bradley. Publisher:,. Ginn and Mormp~any, Atlanta, 1940. (Out of adoption) Enemies of good health, pp. 456-464 A. Overindulgence, p. 320 B. The immediate effects of alcohol, pp. 456-459 C. D. Alcohol and automobiles, p. 459 Alcohol and the s:cilled workman, a. 459 E. The effect of heavy drinking, p. 459 F. Alcohol and machine age, p. 460 G. The case ar-ainst 3n7i;in€, :'. 4?0 H. T.:1^ use of dri;s as medicine, p. 462 The state:nents here are s nientifi.ally accurate a;:d student to guard his henalt h. aaaeal to the Enjoying Science - by Snith ar.d T.raftcn. Fublishers J. P. Lippincott and Com- an~, IJew York, 1946. (S.ta toC idoptcd ) P. 224, one paragraph under the topic, "How do Salesmen Appeal to the Desire to Feel Adequate." Very well 3tated. Iuodern Ways to Health - The American Health Series - by Wilson, Bracken, Pryor, and Almack. Publishex; Bobbs-v:errill Company, New York, 1948. (Stato .:dopted) A. Alcohol used f or sterilizing thermometers, p. 76 15 -
Page 289: rhz82d00
Augustus M. Burns, u1, Ph.D. State of Florida, et al., v. May 9, 1997 American Tobacco Co., et al. communities 70:24 community 28:9 companies 16:21; 17:13; 86:15;129(4);130:6; 159:5; 161:2, 10;162:8; 184:10;200:19;201:21; 202:17; 207:7; 208:2; 209:17 Companion 121:14; 123:3 Company 4:9;15:24: 16(5);17:3, 4,10;18:1; 135:23:145:16;147:19; 148:1; 153:17; 162:11; 169:20;170:1, 6,17; 171:9,17; 179:17; 181:3; 182:21;183:12, 25; 184:10;185:1;189:3: 193:15;196:19; 206:23 compared 43:13; 53:3; 149:24 compensated 39:10; 94:24; 147:18; 148:1 compensation 219:24 competing 225:5 complaint 165:4, 4; 221:21, 23, 25; 222:6; 223:15 complementary 149:10 complete 23:24, 25; 40:10; 47:25; 50:23; 75:21; 76:1;116:6; 119:12; 120:2, 8; 163:17; 168:13 completed 23:6; 35:19; 50:22 completely 73:19 completion 33:16; 48:3; 76:19 complex 153:22 complicated 14:15; 192:4 comprehensive 40:10; 72:24; 74:22; 75:1; 92:13; 119:12,15;120:2 comprehensiveness 73:5, 7; 74:13; 78:7, 11, 18 compromise 102:15 computer 187:8;188:22; 193:19; 213:5 computers 164:15; 212:22 comrades 89:11 conceding 145:4 conceivably 76:9,12 concentration 130:23 concept 23:3 concern 13:7;118:G, 8; 190:8; 203:8; 224:25 concerned 52:22; 113:16;119:1;128:9; 224:19; 225:14,17; 226:1 concerning 67:5; 73:12; ~ 102:18;110:19 45:10, 21; 89:12; 128:14; + 113:24; 115:6, 10 1 Oorrob'orate 69:1 136:6;137:21: 205:24; I consulting 96:12; 98:13, ' corroboretive 69:2~3 225:7 22; 99;10;100:6;114:6 I costs 219:12 concerted 205:1 conclude 181:6: 182:23; 183:15;184:9.11. 22: 199:4,13 concluded 30:4; 55:2; 118:24; 188:19 concludes 53:11; 229:19 concluding 79:24 conclusion 48:5.7; 101:21;118:2;138:16; 178:20; 205:2: 206:21; 207:4, 5; 209:2 conclusions 41:14; 43:19; 44:13;118:3; 179:2;192:10:204:4; 205:5 conclusiveiy 206:8 concur 102:5 condition 42:15 conditions 11:8 conduct 30:23; 90:23, 24;134:12;151:16;155:1 conducted 173:1; 188:8 confined 151:24 confining 160:3 conflict 42:20;100:24; 101:4, 6, 17;102:2; 103:17;104:2;105:6,14; 106:13,19;113:12:115:1, 12; 140:24; 146:11 conflicts 102:13.18; 103:7 confused 217:17 confusion 217:8. 18 Congress 22:1;166:14 conjunction 31:11 connection 175:20 consensual 188:4 consequences 46:6; 73:21, 24;178:10:198:25; 224:16 consider 105:10:114:25; 160:15; 161:8,24:162:2; 163:3,13 consldered 40:2: 117:12, 17;125:9: 162:10; 164:18 considering 127:3 consistently 118:24 constituents 129:23 constitute 113:11 consult 91:5;10a:16; 115:5 consuftancy 98:15: 1 65:221-7G:24; 85:20: f 108:16, 23: l 12:23; ~.114:13;154:15;155:4c consumer 136:1 ~ Council 165:„2S I 193: t; 221:7; 2311:16 consumers 174:10 ~ Counse14:16, 5(4); days 52:6; 68:23; 7u:13: contact 61:7 107:6;11,2;11;113:24; 103:11, 20;10G:9 ` contacted 226:23 115:20, 22i 140:7;142:3, DOT 164:1 S contain 51:1;1 i6:18; 15;143'25;138•9; 214:25; . deadline 53:14 177:5,14 215;~1, 216;5:21~c i s: deal 14:5; 20:24; 33:12; 230:7,11;12 40:6; S 1:24;120:12; contained 225:22 count 120:16. 220;11- 122:14 contemplate 147:5; eountry 180:6 dealing 153:25; 163:20 194:U count; 222:2,7 dealt 2y:16;153:24 contemporarks 32:5 :' coun 8:13,13 *' ry dean 103:12, 23;104:19. ontent a 4 52 por ry ; : c : couple 85:23;88;14; : 20;105:1G;140:19,19, 20; 190:4 94:16 (43:iG;14S:23:14G(5) content 84:1;146:4, 6; course 17:23; 22:5; death 138:7, 9 191:14; 213:13 74:10;109:6;113:13; depate 8.2;136,:8, 9: contents 140;15, 217:21 122:13;134:12, 20;136:9; 167:13c 192:6;197(5); context 14:12; 271; ~`• 141:25;180:iQ; 220:5 198:20 7y:22, 24; 78:2; 79.9, i S; course=13S:17;137:17; debated 205:24 80:4;137.20;153.12; 199:1 - 180:11;190:17;10:.12 Court 45;2, 9; 83:21, 24; debatsr 81:24 continue 16:12; 110:15; 84:2,6;85(4);121:15; decade 177:18 , 182c11;183:.21; 209:5 122:2;1x3:4; ~81:24 `: decades 188:15;189:i#; continued 72:10 Dou'rts 43:4;+i[4:19, 22; 190:6 continues 14:6;72:9; Oecember35:22 ; 203:8 cover 214:9 ilecide 107:18, 24 continuing 52:17; covered 1744 decided 45:8; 67:24; 130:10;137:6c 204:25 govering 138:18 68:12; 76:25:161:10,12 contract Sti8:24, 25;' covers 189:12,13 Decision 20:25; 53: I 3. 99:13;100:9;102:2 i, 23; C reate 102: l4 14; 83:13; 85:21; 122: 1; 11 S:7 ated 138:4;141:15:161:13.18; re 16:2 : 162:20; 163:22; 188:4 contracts 115:19 Cr creates 1d1:3 contributed 9:16; 224:24 decisions 45,10; 83:21; contributing 179:23 oreet/ng 89:22 ~; 84:1,8;118.11*,'15; contribution 92:2; creation 9S*~ i63:22;197:9;198:6 102:16; 125:25 y criminal 24:9;25:7 declare 101:2 contributions 60:13; criticp,l 163;16 declaring 101:17 69:22 critics 73:14 declined 206:4; 228:17 contributor 137:9 orossed 46:25, - decree 16:10 controlling 7,1 ctyptic'IS2:13 deeply 138:15,25 controversies 134:14 CTR 165:25 :+tletendant ~i 12:12i controvejs~r 90:3 "cultivated 130:14 147s 19;187:12;'189:4: Convention 6:25 Culture 123:2, 5, 25; i 19G:20 ,, conversation 80;20; 149:16;160:24;163 23: defendants 86;13; 105:4,16;110:1G:127:7; 223'22' 14 1 94:17; 97:10,.18:98;20; 145:22;14G:13;154:10, : cultures 157:1 tQ3?5; 105:22; 108:19; 11; 226:19; 228;25 current 42:24; 53:20` 109:1,17; U 0:19;113:21; convoluted 41:19 eurrently'28:22; 29:6,17; . 114:3, 7,18;127:23c = 129.1;131.1S;i53:3.17: copied 102:22=,, G5:13 134:6;18;135:23:136:23: copies i47:24;164:4,7, cut 13:11 141:8;142:16:143:13; : 8;217:16 Cycle 1t14:23. ' . 144:7, 13: 145:14; 148:2c` copy 107:5, 6;142:23: 53:17;1 G0 8, 13,19;. 143:2,6; 150:2, 24,151:4, D 161:24;163.4:164r2; 6;158:10;187:16;188:1; 165(5);16(i 4;167:G; ' I 168 G.17 v, 23: t 69 6: j 195:13i 196:6 ~ N 0137:2 . i 20 24;172 2 25:173:18: in 6412 3 I : ~ copy g 1 : 100 a.84.11:186.22. 24: G : 219:12 ~ D.C 4:11 i; ~ consultant 80:1G. 95:11, ~' 193.16; 194:23: 195 9; core 159:4; 162:7 daily 5G 19,70:23 ' 1~' 21. 25; 96:11: 97:i. 10; I 197:23: 201:7; 2tK, 1'1.17. I 98:22;112:25; i2':22; Corn 132:17 . ~ Dqniels 59:6:61:1;G2;1S ~ 24:210:4,10.18:219:16: m ~ 166:6 , corrected 33:24 ~ date 33:19. 21; 22 ~ 220:8: 224.22; 226:22 consuttation 153:2 I correctly 18t:6 dates 29:3 Ctefense 144:1;194:22: co concerns 11:25;12:1; I consulted 102:1": 43:6, G; 44:2,16, 23_ 108:22; 109:3,8, 11: communitles - defer (4) correspondence 22:4; 1 David 569 ~ 196:4 38:16; 39:12;164:8 i DaY5:6:10:5; 53:14: - defer 216:5 -, ... Min-U-Sentpt* ' A. Wa1. Roberts,lr. & Assoc.
Page 290: rhz82d00
C a IA S V . F !,•1) c hnrlfit FLORIDA: WEALTH OR WASTE? Prepared under the direction of HaxnY F. BaaxEn Head, Department of Geography Florida State University FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent TALLAHASSEE, FLOAIDA I I 0 ® ® . A e ON
Page 291: rhz82d00
ot up - spent ,ess' bed . tq& she.: 2tile paralysis, z,n breakfast in ~ .K OFFICIAL BULLETIN PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE STATE . BOARD OF HEALTH ENTERED Aa SECOND CLASS MATTER, FEaRt;ARY 17, 1915 AT TRE POtTOrrlCt AT JACKaONV1l.LE. I'LORIDA, VN0ER TxE ACT or JULY 16,' 1844 Vol. XI July, 1916 No. 1 HON. FRANK 1. FEARNatot, President HoN. S. R. MA4oRY KENNEDY, M. D. Pensacola, Fia. Palatka, Fla. . HoN. C. G. MEk'kt.c,tR Lakeland, Fla. EDtTED eY joaarx Y. PoaTER, M. D., Secretary and State Health Officer ExECtSTIVr. orrIcf State Board of Health Buildin~, SprinSAeld Boulevard Jackaonville aRANCx OrrICEt AfS1aTANTa TO T$E aTATE HEALT1t OrrICER Tampa KqWest St. Augustine Pensacola Gainesville Ocala AOaNTa Miami Fernandina Pntatkn aACTERIOLOGICAL LAaORATORIEa CENTRAL LAaORATORY Jacksonville aRANCN LADORATORIRa Tampa Pensacola Miami Tallahassee Key 1Vest Tbt. snllotta wtil be ssst to aos address la tbs state free of ohasce. Ia e.s* of antbss"a of saaallpoaL t7photd lewer. alyhthilta, seaslet lewss, os aaT ooatarloRe 01NMN, ts11on,to the state sealth Omees, Jaotseaalle. aaA. t! : a0cNSasf, a msdloai emesr wW t» aftatlal to tas4e abaess: tr Yoa wt.h to hsa~ aow to a.ota tobowedioda, tlphota ssres, ma1+RS}n, boot. ; *eem, aatallpos, 3iphthitta, sts« aQdsss~ the'ltats lsalth O>aoer- J6olnaawllls. =t you thisY 7oa have tsbasoaloatt, t7phol6 fotes, ssatat4a, booWosax. os atyhthesla; has•e your doctor tahe a rDSatmss aaA sesQ to 4as of the i1tats soasd Ln ar sealth labosatosles tos otamisattoa. Aa7thtar foo waat to 1mow aboat .aattatfos baa 94bllc boalth the Zseastlve omce wtll tsy to ti11 yoa. : m •hoala roa hate eoaeaRtoae ntseasss asaeoe ponr lt.e stoct. write to ths aata lealth Omosr for basfes ;ad bs19. ; pN l0
Page 292: rhz82d00
The stete^:ents concernin~ ~p~,pc~ are of the highly propagandized tone. The teacher will need other material to aid the students here. "Tobacco and Health" (4) is reco:.+.mended. C. Patent ?iedicines, p~. 494-496, 502 1. i7hat are patent crodicines, pp. 494-496 2. Mental i11 ::ealth, p. 502 This section is well written. Florida :7ealth or'diaste - by Florida State Department of Lducation, Tallahassee lorida, 1946, r (State Adoptad ) Growing of tobacco, p. 140 Buildin of Our Life'Toaether - by nrnold a::d Bar.Ys. Publishers Row, eterson and Company, 'ew Yor:c, 1939. (cut of adoptia n) A. Liquor Control--social aspects, p. 543 The ninth grade adopted social studies texts ara excellent materials with fvraich to correlate infor.nation in the field of alcohol and narcotics study. Little material is'given but there is need for better understanding of the relation of alcohol, narcotics, a nd stia,ulants to social rrelfare. Be 'r:e3i+-hv - by Crisp. Publisher: J. ?. Lip-,)incot t and Conean y, a?3:•r York, T"93 . pp. 432-450. (Out of =cCption) 1. 7Jhat is it 2. Its effects or. the ::ear:, respiratory syste.^,., 3. "lhether one s: cuid s-:oka 4. From economic standpoint 5. In consideratio*n of others blood, etc. It iiould be well to include some economic studies as to the average cost per year to the moderate and to the heavy smolcsr; also,give a clear picture of the unhealthful and often,untrue statements that appear in much' of the tobacco industry's advertising. B. Alcohol 1. rr .at is it 2. In t he body
Page 293: rhz82d00
The liquor traffic is attacked--prohibition admer.dment'(18th) passed in 1917. "Fdar Measure" prohibiting manufaoture and importation of spirituous liquors f or beverage purposes, p. 773. President Hoover in 1929 appointed a National Commission on Law Enforcement and Observation, p, 850. r.nerican Government - by MacGruder. Publishers Allyn and Bacon, Atlanta, ~ 1944. ' (State ::dopted) A. Transportation of liquor from one state to another, p. 76 B. Li:uor and narcotics cont ribute to deliquency, p. 639. C. Internal revenue, p. 216 D. Alcoholic drinks through the ages, quotation, p. 660 E. Licuor lar:s, 21st amendment, pp. 601-662 11TH aa3D 12Ti:.G3.yDT'S Life and Eealtc -'by r7ilson, Bracken, Almack. Publishers Bobbs-llerrill 9ompany? New YQrk, 1945. (State ,~dopt:d J A. Safeguarding the circulatory system, p. 137 B. Karcctics and anesthetics, pp. 257-256 C. :1coi:ol and to~ b 1. Alcohol breaks down controls, p. 259 2. The public suffers, p. 260 3. T~~a a~ cco, p. 261 D. T::e da.^.xe-ous r.+arijuana, p. 252 E. Curbing autoaobile accider.ts, p. 403 F. Preventing and treating shock, p. 436 G. Counteractin the effect of internal poisoning, p. 437 fi. Cal' ing the doctor, patent medicine, p. 373 The saterial in this book is scientific and well integrated. - 20 -
Page 294: rhz82d00
?2ooi,cCT3 -AGR-jCtct7Gt Tob s e.eo _ LIVE AND. LEARN ~' By DOROTHY B. DANIELS S. I. D. asks: "Somewhere I've read that a king was actually crowned before he was born. I think it was an occurranee of an- cient or medieval history. Can you tell me who he was and how he carne to be so prematurely hon• ored!" Answer: It was Setipor II, King of Perisa from 309 to 881 who be- came a king before he was born. According to FrelinS Foster, who' commented on this unusual occurr- ance several years ago in Collier's maaasine, Sapor was the only mon- p o , a areh in history whose reiStt b.Qatt loper.te three eiaht-hdur shifts a before his birth, day for six days a week. After the death of Sapor's fa- •Thery seems little doubt that ther, the country was so easer.to the first kttowledae of tobacco and have a new king that his posthum- Its uses csme to the rest of the oua son was crowned three daya world from America. after Colum- before he was born, by simply plsc- bus' first expedition in 1492, al- ' ins a royal circlet on the head of - his waitine cradle. I , With the tobacco festival in full ewing at near-by Quincy, in Gads- den county, it would seeni oppor- tun. to learn something of the his- tory of tobacco and of how Quincy became the center of the Sumatra industry in Floridr. "Tobacco growing in Florida be- 8an about a century aso," accord- in8 to C. P. Heifenstein, publisher of the Suwanee • Democrat, "and steadily increased until, in 1950. ,a-million pounds were prodtiosd." The Civil War, however; closed tbe southern ports, makin8: impos- eible the shipntent of tobacco to foreign markets, where the• Su- matra type of tobacco, which is especially valued for outside cigar wrappers, was in great demand. • After the war trade remained at ~ a• standstill until 1890 when de. mands in this country changed and the Florida light leaf tobacco gained steadily in favor. By 1910, 4.000 acres of shade to- bacco were•irrown in Florida, prin- cipally in Gadsden and'-Madison counties, and growth of the Florida tobacco market since then has been steady with the poesible exception of a drop in acrea8e and poundage in 1932. - At Quincy, during the same dea ade that witnessed the return of the totacco industry to Florida (about 1890, the development of to- bacco was greatly stimulated by D. A. Shaw of that city, who ex- perimented with the planting of ar- tificially-yhaded tobacco, which has ( proved hiqhiy successful. Besides Sumatra tobacco, Quincy now boastr sun grown tiller and binder, and bright or cisarette tw bacco, and many miles of broad- leaved,•.8seen-hued tobacco plants •oaver this area in season.. : : Quincy now holds the enviable i position of •having perhaps the lar- gest induetrial payroll in the north- rrn part of this state, with 3 cigar factoris~ ~runninS "at full blast to iupply the demand for their prod- uct. Two of these factories employ together some 400 ers ns qd though the habit of smoking was initiated and spread through EnS- lish example. Ralph Lane, the first governor of Virginia, and Sir Francis Drnke brought with them In 1688, from that first American possession of the Enrlish crown, the implements and matsriala of tobacco smoking, which they handed over to Sir Wal- ter Rallegh. Thence the habit b.= eame rooted among Elizabethan courtiers. Durins-the• 31th century the iti- dulgpce•of tobacco spread wrW grsi-rapidity • throu`hout all na- tions, even in the face of the most resolute oppoaition of atatestaet1 and priests, until today unor om or another of its popular,-formi (smokinS, chewing and enuffipt) the•use of tobacco Is more widely spread than is that of any other narcotic or stimulant. On August 26. 1943, 95 years ago today, the first practical type- writer is said to have been patented by Charles Thurber; ahd 20 years ago today nationwide "bone dry" prohi•tition loomed as a strong probability through Senate action on the agricultural bill. If you have any facts of interest to share with us, or any question you'd iike answered, drop a card to Live and Learn, care of The Florida Stat. News, and your eom- ment will appear in t his space as soon as pos.ible. f
Page 295: rhz82d00
J~.~lt V l l•V \.UJ, L, J,., •. American Tobacco Co., et al. 229:1u campus 12:5. 18.23; breathing 137:15 151:15 brief G1:25:83:25: 1 can 40:18; 41:19; 65:3: I SG:16: 217:4; 22'):13 ; 60:7: G9:19: 90:12; 93:3; bring 36:17, 17; 107:9, 19 ! 94:3; 100:3; 118:8; British 1G:23: 17:2• 25; , 119:13:124:24;129:22; IG 143:22; 149:9; 151:6,9; 1G5 : broad 43:25; 93:21; 1 o9:24 ;1 G 1:G: 225:5, 7 1 165:10 13 14• 167•16 21• I 173:21; 176:11; 181:22, , ~ 23; 184:23; 185:23; 192:4, broadened 47:17 ' 5;195:25:199:22; 200:25; broader 73:20• 23:95:22; ; 204:2•f, 25; 205:21; 123:•f. 1 iU:18 20':12; 214:1; 220c11 broadly 159:21 ! cancer 12:5, 11; 133:5. broken 129:23 j 25: 134:7; 135:13, 21; brought 74:14; 78:12, 22 Brown 17:6,10,17; 20:25; 33:16; 1G6:21; 1G7:1,24 Buchanan 15:18 buffoon 55(4) buliding 125:24 built 9:13. 14; 12:24 bunch 213:8 Burgess 5C.:9,1G Burlington I1:10 Burns 4:7, 20; 13G:18; 140:8, 23; 141:17; 142:14; 143:13:144:2, 5,10; 145:19:187.3;188:12; 193:20: 195:17; 196:11 ~• business 8:4; :15:19, 22, 23; 22i5;155:2 C 136:20; 175:11,18; 177:22; 178:4;179:18; 181:7; 182:24;183:15; 200:5; 202:24; 203:5, 9, 23; 206:11, 23, 24; 208:3 candidacy 65:1 candidate 32:13; 49:19; 50:2, 11: 54:15; 58:22, 24; 132:1,8 candidate's 50:8 candidates 32:9; 55:9 canon 29:7, 20, 23 capacity 116:20 carbon 164:3,7 carcinogen 176:20, 24 carcinogens 176:19 Cardiovascular 133:11; 176:2;179:6, 179:6.21; 200:15: 201:10 care 175:3 career 8:13; 51:12; 90:3; 94:21 Caiifornia 4:15:166:21; 1 carefu12G:2, 22 1G7'2' 1Gii'1 carefully 180:5 call 19:2u; 53:12, 15; Carolina 5:20; 6(4); 7:13; 54: 2; G6:13, 20; G7:8; 68:8; 11:10; 15:8, 9;18:10; G9:12; 83:10; 104:12; 146:3; 155: 19:16. 24: 20:13,17, 24; 4; 181:19 31:5, 20, 24; 32:25; 33:3, called 4:21: 6:15;15:13; 9, 10; 34:5; 37:1,15; 52:2: 78:14;103:23: 38:25; 42:9.12, 25; 46:17, IU•1:21,22,24; 105:1; 21;51:15:52:17;53:21; 17 9 1 51603 6949 228:4 cases 85:23 Ca;tono 223:9 categories 196:13 causal 175:23 - cause 26:12;175:1't; 176:1; 179(4); 200:5; Z06:11, 22 caused 118:1, 2;134c1, ' 7;176:5;184:12;197M Causes 38:22;175:18; ' 176:9, 23,181:6;182s24; 183:15; 206;24; 208:3 causing 135:12, 20; 168:2$,201:9 cautious 198:10 Center 4:14 central 12:17;40:7; 129:10 century 22:21; 24:6; 1}4:10;177:18;180:10; 189:14 certain 143:14;182:16; 221:8 ` certainly 77:17;107:23; 141:13;142:19; 226:8 certainty 41:5 certify 230:3, 8,11 cervica1137:10' ceters 168:2s Chadbourne 221:4 chetienge 48:4; 79 22 •`, chalipcged 51:18 , chance 142c2;143:24; 183:19 change 27:11,12; 4z:17, 21; 65:16; 69:10; 218:22 changbd 180:8 chanye,s 27:14; 63:17; 65:8;188:10; 217:25 ' changing 36:25; 42:16; 136:1 Chapel 18:13, 21;49:4, 10; 20:5;31:23; 39;6; 116:25;117:1;126:2 : 1 ; 120: 4:142:7; 5G:10; 58:14;62:18; character 53:17;89:11 1•4G:2. 18: 155:5. 17: 187:1 63:23; G5:7, 22; 66:1; characterization 55:19; calling G7:21: 189:22 70:12:74:3; 117:2; 67:10:167:10 calls 10W:18 I 122:14; 126:1,8: 128:8, characterizatlons came 34 2, 2; 35:22; 39:3: i 17, 21:125t(5):130:3; 173:20,21, 23;177:7 68. I~): 76 3; ti4:20: 1 U5:8: 131:20, 25: 132:20;199:7 I I I: i; IdG:21; 153:12; Carolinians 42:22.24 characterize 75:1 i 54:17, 23, 25; 155:17; I carries 189:14 charge 119:8, 14 158:6 , charged 159:1,16 I campaign 32:7; 33:1, 21, carry 95:3 ~ Charles 5•1, 7; 57:11; L'l; 34:2; 3G:24; 47:4; case 17:10,24; 59:3; 78:2, 3: 84:13, 19: 85:4, 58:4, 7 •i9 13: 52:9; 54:6: 5G:15, i 15: 8Gc I 1; 94:18; 97:11; Charieton 57:23 22: 57• I; 59:9, 21, 24: 103:5. 1 G• 25: 104:G, 8: Chiles 86:12 (+u(5); G2:10, 20; 6G:14; ` l OG:24; 109,17;114:19; choice /85:14,15.19; C,~: i 3. I•1; G51:1 S; 70(d); 129:1; 131:15; 134:6, 18; _I 186:4 ' I. i. 5: 7'2:25; 73:16, t 8: i 135:24: 141:12; 142:16; choices 96:14 '•1:1.G:":24;90:21; 153:16;1G3:4;165:1,4; 12tt:8. 15: 131 7, 14: ' 178:22: 181:4: 184:11; , choose 162:24 132:9: 172:25:'124:18 1 192:14: 193:14; 194:6,7; j chose 204:3 campaigning 52:G 1 197:1:219:1G:221:21; L chronologica135:17 camaaigns 1'?2:11 ~ 222(5): 233:2: 227:17; I chronol0'gy 52:8; 53:7 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. M>tn-U-Scripte ttusuatua .vi. ourrla, lu, rn.U. MaY 9, 1997 Church 15:15 clgarette 9:20, 21, 24; 13:7:15:23;17:24; 86:13; 94:17, 97:10,18; 98c20; 103:5;105:21;108:19, 25; 109:16;110:18;112':12; 113;20;1114;3. 1274 2;129(5),131:15; 133:1 ,17;1)4tS t0; . 13S:23:136:23: 147:18; 148:1,1;151:25;' 152:22; 155:17;160:7,13,19: ' 161:2, 23;162;11;163:3; 164:1; l6Sa,'~,11;166:3; i67:6;168;6, 23; 169(6); 170:7,1,7;171(4);172:2, 25;'173:17;176:6;J77:2; 178:6;179:lr;180:16; 181:2,6;182i21,24; 1=83:12,15;184:10,10; Y86~1,_~3;187:11;189:3; 193:~5;'1,94:22;195:8; 196:19; 197:22,24; 200:3, 19; 201:7, 21; 202:17, 24; , 203:6,11, 23; 2061, i 2, 23; 207;7; 208:1, ?, 25; 209:17;;10:3,9,18; `° 219:15; 220:7; 224:20, 21; 225:11,19; 726:21 cig#0e4e10ted 204:21 cigarettes 10:5,14,16; 11:23;12:4;127 25I13 '' 128:4,130.~k;13} •; 133:r<5,~1,13•11,7; 1356);136:20, 26, 20; 1311;10:5,19;139:2; 169a6;11'2:15;175a 1, 17,17;176(4);177:4,14; l79~18;180:6,18, 22;' Y84c12;190;25;197:16; 200:5; Z01:9: 206:11, 22; 209:5,19; 224:16 cigars 224:5,6 circuldtory 137,11,12 Oirctimstanc$M'35:6; 40:20; 76:11; 103:20 citirjp 101:23 citisen 84:16:85:13 citizen* i30:4; 203:10, 25; 204:24,: city 8:.15;146:19 Civil'27:3.4 claim 85 5;175:24; 176:22 ' olalms 159:2,18c 162:6; 176:11 clarifsed 67:16 clarify 23:11, 34 9; 43:11; 70:15; 74:9; 86.25:195:4; I 214:1 clarifying 66:14 ~ class 11 13; 82:2; 134:12,136:4;151;16; 222:25 classes 134:11,135:11 classroom 136:19; 137;24;138:11;i8 Clean 152:23i 187:22, 25 ciear 53:10; 70:•1.3; 88:12: 96:22, 23: 101:7; 109:4: 11 4:23: 145:5; 163:24;`173:14;186:8; 190:9: 198:11; 2053; 216:23 clearer 45:25; .16:2; 69:20 clearly 128:13 client 144:21 clientele 8:9 clients 144:21 clinical 190:17.. 20; 191:3, 13;192;7 clinician 191:18 close 58:10; 61;3; 98:7; 104:10; 226:9 closed 229:17 closely 17:15,16 closeness 77:23 closest 57:17 co-lluthor 49:4; 67:20 coalitions 172:14 code 30:2; codes 98:9 colleague 31:15;123:8, 21 colleagues 151:14,19; . 152:4. 21;153:5:158:17; 227:8 collected 37:13: 224:9, 11 collecting 25:5 .Collection 37:14; 55:6; 56:17; 62:22 coilections 21:24; 47:22; 48:14,17, 24; 49:6; 55:8; S67 5":4;62:9;63:8: , 66 23;'?1:17;75:4 college 5:25;6c1,13; 9:19, 22;1 S:13; 33:8; 96:14:103:13;116:9 COLUMBIA 230:1 coming 39:16,17; 51:17; 87:25 comment 30:15: 37:22; 93:20: 120:25; 191:17; 192:22:193•21:195:5,17; 199:15:218:3:225:10 ` commentary 70:5: 89:10 commentators 78:7 commented 73:15 commenting 73:2$ comments 96:6 COMMISSION 230:22 Committee 57:21; 165:29 cor'nmon 12:4. 10 commonly 188:7 - communicated 109:15; 119:8 communication 226:20 Communications 81:21, 22 ._,......r._,.~~. (3) breathing - Commuaications
Page 296: rhz82d00
Augustus M. Burns, III, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 alluding 98:6 almost 22:21; 24:7; 53:10; 117:23; 130:21; 166:15 along 54:1; 99:21; 100:19; 115:7; 119:9; 172:16 already 36:12; 45:22; 47:4; 163:9 altered 54:19 although 7:5; 38:14; 52:16; 153:3; 205:21 always 22:20, 24; 57:18; 66:6; 79:11; 108:4 amend 222:4 amended 122:21; 165:4; 187:9; 221:21; 222:2, 6 amendments 155:14 American 4:8; 16(6); ` 17(4); 29:1,13, 22; 32:20; 43:6; 98:9;127:4;165:16, 16; 166:25 among 64:8; 65:11; 74:2; 90:6; 208:25; 226:6 amount 218:17; 224:11 amounts 14:6 ANA 4:11 analysis 58:20; 74:23; 160:25 analytical 14:24; 15:2 analyze 50:20; 60:16; 76:10 analyzed 131:9 analyzing 64:22;192:3 Andrew 211:8, 9; 212:12 anew 47:16 anger 44:4 annual 103:2; 220:2 Annually 103:3 answered 43:11; 163:8; 177:20 answering 43:15; 75:12 - anti-tampering 141:11 anybody 52:20; 59:14; 145:13; 212:1 ~ apply 27:23:99:10; 100:5. 17; 117:25; 124:17, 24;125:6, 7 applying 18:24;125:9 appointed 49:20 appointment 34:1; 99:2 appointments 38:23; 39:2, 7, 8; 61:13 appreciate 92:2 approach 30:1 approached 6:24; 87:13, 18, 22; 88:20, 21;128:25; 129:21;131:14; 227:7 approaches 18:25 approaching 29:9 appropriate 55:4;60:19; 61:18: 67:11; 80:9; 141:2; 142:10 appropriateness 121:1 approval 121:4 approve 113:9 approved 193:19, 25; 194:21; 195:6,22 approximate 124:21 Approximate& 35:21; 36:1;91:1;116:14;124:5; 155:16; 227:16 approximation 39:22; 157:15 April 141:10; 148:19,20 aptitude 58:21 archival 159;24, 25; 162:25 archive 66:7; 164:6; 166:10 archived 166:17, 20 archives 14:10; 19:21; 21:23; 22:1,13; 23:22; 25:6; 76:6; 90:19; 93:19 area 122:15 areas 109:21; 122:23; 149:15,17; 193:23; 195:20 arena 45:22; 202:14 argued 137:8 anyone 87:18; 102:17; j argument 203:18 104:16,18; 147:19; 154:7; I arise 134:12 221:15; 22G:21; 228:13 Arnold 5:4, 7;112:24 anywhere 227:9 I around 11:24; 48:13; apart 14:2; 25:8; 28:8; 53:3; 72:21; 85:24; 88:13; 60:6; 70:16; 72:18; 78:6; ( 100:15;136:10, 11,16; 92:17; 105:4; 124:10; i 187:13:189:19 136:15; 171:14: 219:14 ~ Arps 5:10 apologies 62:5. arrangement 99:18; ' apologize 217:8, 17 100:18; 147:11 apology 88:11 arrangements 98:13; apparently 218:19 ~ 99:10;100:7;147:17; appeared 230:4 ~ 153:1 appears 187:2 ~ arrive 219:21 application 85:9; 100:20; arrived 154:16 11;:16;125:1 arriving 213:9 applied 20:6; 28:1; arteries 137:14 107:21;117:21 article 97:8, 13; 123:15; applies 24:7 125:21; 126:17 alludtslg - break (2) articles'120:20: 122:9: 123:7; 124:11 articulate 128:13 artifact 123:23 arts I1:3;103:12 Ashville 63:11 aside 68: 13 aspect 60:17; 73:9; 137:18 • aspects 65:25 asserted 167:15 assessment 60:4 assigned 120:21 assignment 25:12,18; 26:1, 4; 86;20, 24: 87:2; 13;185:17 ". atstst 87:22;119:13; 128:11 assistance 8:23:9:14; 20:10; 41:22; 213:2, 4 assistant 8:24;116:21r 211:1 assisted 56:12,14 assisting 89:22; 96:13,° 13; 223:24 associate 103:12 •117:3, 10;124:22;140:19.19; 20; 210;23 associated 13:13c 149:20;176:24;177:1 associates 58:10,11 - ' . Assoolation 28:t4f,14, 18; 29:1,14, 23c'98:10; `, 125:23;156:11;166:25 assume 59:11 • 7`9:11,16; 155:19 assumes 206;14. assuming iT7:8: 218:25 attached 57:5 attack 138:3, 4, iQ attempt 24 • 1 i6:21; 208:24 attempting 204:21 ' attendant 203:11, attention 131.:8:1S6ao, 21;157:11; 205:23 '• . attentive 43:5; 44:20, 22 ' attic 76:24 attitudes 74:8 attorney 8:6,'14.15; 51:9;115:9,13.1 5; 154:15;159:3;162:7; 193:14 . , . attorneys 17:13.105:18, beg 3; 24 " ~' boundaries 85:9 12; , 9 ' 1 , 20;112:23;18 :6; ~ begalf 47:12;116:16; : ~ i66:11 i 220:20 205:35 1 attractive 98:1 attribution 70:9 August 99:6;19':6,13 Augustus 4:7, 20: 136:18;187:3 author 30:10; 61 c2 authority 92:1 authors 26.18:'-!3:25 I beleaguered 7:4 M3n-U-Sctipte State of Florida, et al., v. ~ American Tobacco Co., et al. ''•'availabliity 49;9 ' believe 140:23: 141 •t; I ava.iiable 24:23; 34:13; 199:2u; 217•2u: 227.2•1 ~•37:13; 40:22; 42:3c 48:15, ; believers 65:11 I 17, 25; 49.:6; 50:9,14; I bench 107:21 " 66:4, 67i 18; 76:5.11; 99:19;163:20 , award 78:10 awarded 7:25 aware 13(4); 29:19; 42:24; 100: 11; 118:24; 142:7;165:21, 22 awareness,133:20; 135:22 ' away 34•25;1 x4:25 awhik 218:16 ------~ ~ I benefit 75:7 benefits 109:10 I besides 55:9; 56:5; 65:17; 83:16,17; 94:15; ( 155:20; 165: 10. 205:1 S t 72 bes: 1; 90:17; 93:24; 114:21; 148:17: 149:9; 189:9 better 45:15; 58:23; 76:14; i72:8 ' beyond 33:19;130:12, 15;139c4;181:9;189:22; 191:2, 6; 203:1; 208:13; 20Q:9 bibliography 91:5,6 Bicentennial -btll 82:17; 210c9 ' billed 219:18,19 biiling 210:17; 219:18 b`iliings.219:11 Babcocks 7.7, 8 brlok 21i~; 2914;~3 7, 34:19, 62:1; 72:21 t90 2JI; `95:3;100;2;105:1; 127:20;130:13, 140:3, 21; :: 146 9,177:19,182:7; 18617;189:13; 215;7; biographer 32:6,10 217.$, 226: 116, 249:14 Biobgy 81:,11 backyrotrnd 61:7; - bit 5:17;191:9 d91;1Z .i : blacks 44:23 bad 13:1p; 96 6,150;24 blues 123:22 , 8aptist 6:25 Board 33• 16; 39:5; base 47:1 based40:,24 41:16; 93:23;14~:23c 14$:14, ~,49:11;183:9,11;`184.8; 216:13;218:,22_.. basig 13:23, 25;14;4 ~(7:3 tasJos 13:20;14:3.21; ,19;7; 21:3; 25:21; 26:17; . 80;1•5 bssls 103:2; 193 11,17; 2Q0;2;,219:1 BAT 17:25 became 32:8, $3:1; 48;1 S, 23, 25; 9118, ! 3; 117:3;124:22; Y 36:22; f 51:25; 205:24 - become 16:22; 49 6; 66:4 , 4;116:11 fi f~8c ' J b orn 5: 19 167:7;198:20 becomes 53 1$., 82:17; I both 43:4; 44:9: 70:1 i; 86:5:136:8 9l :11; 120:16;130:2; 6ecoming 42:24;100:17; 1 153:8;157:25: I 58:8; 174:25 211:11: 218:$ . 8 c 1 ~ ~ ; 133:16 , - ~" 219: 1; 220:1 I; 224:12 '' boxes 37:16. 18; 38:14: j begllt 32:5; 219:20 i 39:18. 22: 40:17; 213(5): i6;:1 ; beginning4, 2:17; 214(6);215(5)c2t6:1u, t 62:3; 140:5 ` ~ 10; 217(6); 218:18 ~ begins 158:22, 23 I Boyd 132:7 bequn 138:19;148:4 i branch 171:19 '. j behilftf 57:2;141 t7; ` brand 10:6, 9. 4' 144:20 break 61:19, 22:130:10: 139:9; } 51:5; 186:13; ,; ' ; A. 1tVm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. 120:21;121:1$; a 75:19; 1,80:21 boastfu175:20; 78:10 . book 32:2, 8; 34:3; 35:22; 36:20; 46:15,16,19; , 47;13; 49:4, 5; 50:22; 55:12; 57:5; 62: l 1; 64:23: 66:10; 67:2; 72:3,13, 22; ` 730); 74:17, 20: 75:1,1 20; 76:2, 3: 77:6,14; 78:6, 15;80:7,8:83:17,25: 86:7;88:1, 3,10; 90:22, 22; 93:11, 22; 94;f;14; 96:4; 97:8 13, l 5; 98:4; 100(4);115.7,19;125:10; 1~27:21;131:9;147;5, 21, ~3; ! 48:5;1(A:6:198:12: ~10:6. 10 ~ books 83:7. 1 S.'17 '
Page 297: rhz82d00
51603 6995 .. . .~ . . . . ~... . 4 FLORII)A STATE 1tOARt) OF HEALTH ADMINISTRATION W. A. McPhslttl, M.D., State Health Officer THEIR RIGHTFUL HLRITAGI: Nearly a decade ago, while the writer was engaged in public health work in North Carolina, there appeared in the North Carolina Health Bulletin a cartoon that attracted much attention. This cartoon was drawn by a young man who at that time was serving a term in the State's Prison. He must have known something about the disasters that overtake many young people, or his thoughts would not have- prompted him to sketch this cartoon. No doubt he was thinking of "what might have been" had lie followed the laws of clean living. The picture on back cover of this issue of our bulletin tells a story all its own, but innumerable stortes of the lowest type can be con- ceived from this drawing which _is, we regret to say, too true to Iife in thousands of cases. Excessive indulgence in ttu use of alcohol, long hours at dancing, loss of sleep, emotional excitement mean "bura- ing the candle at both ends." In condemning the riotous iiving of the younger generation, let us not indict the entire youth of the country, for thcre are thousands of high-minded, clean young ntcu and .vowcn who abhor the excesses indulged in by some of their young friends as well as their elders. The ridiculous and eternal seeking for excitement - seeking what? Certainly not peace of mind and contentment which mcan happiness. What does it all lead to? Leaving out the moral issue, how does cigarette smoking and drinking affect the mental and physilal de- velopsueut of the adotescent? lt is uut necessary to dwell on the ab- solute necessity of breathing into our lungs pure and fresh air. This cannot be done when one inhales su>okc that permeates every cell of the body by being mixed with the oxygen of the air which we inhale at each breath. Every breath of this is poison to our bodies and dwarfs (lie growth of our cells in the lxxly. This is a pruven tact. Alcohol is the greater of the two evils. There is no question but that its exccssive use is most dangerous not only to the tissues of the body but also to the mind. The excessive use of alcohol will dim the intelligence, dull the judgment and affect muscular action. It will poison the entire system. Its excessive use affects the tissues and organs directly and indirectly. I:spccially is this true of the stomach, liver and kidneys, which in turn affect the circulating system, causing high !>l4xxl 1>ressure, diseases of the heart, the brain and the nervous FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HL?AL1'tt ~ 37 ADMINISTRATION young vitality, and emlihasize further the true and,right;way of build- iag up a greater and tuier young manhood` and womanhood, a strong body and clean brain? This is their righttul heritage. Let there be tnoderation in all things. BUREAU OF SANITATION T. S. Kennedy, M.D., Director THL LOCAL OYSTER HOUSE* For the past several years, since the Bureau has 1>ctien reslxmsible for the direct supervision of the sanitatiou and operation of shell and shucked stock oysters in the State, many articles and niuch descrip- tive literature has appeared explaining the Bureaii s function in this matter and the reason why only ecrtilicd oysters should 1>e purchased by the consumer. In all of this information, little or no uuntion has been made of what is termed a "Local Oyster House" ; that is, the small one-man operated plant that dispenses oysters only to local trade. To explain the local oyster house, give the f;cncral t>i>blir an idea of just what can be expected fron> such a place is the intcut of tbi; article. hiterstate oyster certification had its beginning during 1925 fol- lowing the typhoid epidemics in Chicago and New York the previous year. The United States Public IIealth Service minimum reyuire- ments for shellfish sanitation were used in this work, and uudcr this ruling the first oyster sanitation work of the Bureau was undertaken. Operating under this United States Public Health Service ruling all interstate shipments of oysters were inspected; oyster houses meet- ing these requirements were given certificates under which their products might hr. shiptx-d out of tiic St.rte. It was not until iy.il that the State Board of llealth Rule 102 (modified in 1935 to Rule 102-A) was adopted, and oyster houses that year were certified by the Bureau for both interstate and intrastate shipments. Rule 102-A is drawn in conformity with federal regulations. The reason for the creation of the term "local oyster house" is -this. During the regular inspection of all oyster houses in the State by the United States Public Ilealth Scrvice representative before • the passage of thc State Board of Health oyster rcgulation. it was found that a nun>I>cr of saiall houses handling only a small output , dailt• were desirous of receivioer approval of their ruethod of oucration.
Page 298: rhz82d00
Augustus.M. Burns, 1II, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 employment 11:15; 31:7 i evidence 30:10; 45:3; enclose 188:5 Encyclopedia 83:23; 123:2 encyclopedic 85:25 end 42:19; 138:13; 141:19; 147:8 endeavors 20:15 endorse 80:12 endured 80:20 engage 26:8; 98:14,15; 139:5 engaged 134:5, 17; 135:23; 136:22; 210:8 engages 202:13 engendering 172:20 enough 23•19;75:20; 120:11 enrolled 6:8 enter,100:6 entertainment 123:14 entire 64:9; 109:6 entities 86:12,15; 170:15;171:10 entity 87:14 entrepreneur 16:2 entries 123:1 enunciating 66:14 epical 33:2 equal 85:6 equally 41:3 Eric 5:9 error 157:20 escapes 62:22 especially 42:23; 66:11, 25•;130:24;149:14 essence 77:15;191:20 essentia176:18 essentially 7:12; 11:19; 1 78:24, 25;164:10:193:22; I 194:17;195:19; 206:14; 218:3 evoked 90:4 exact 145:11;146:7 exactly 101:7;126:24; 153:12; 227:14 examination 4:21; 5:15; 42:13; 161:1; 230:8 examine 22:22; 76:18; 87:6;160:1;161:19; 197:18; 225:23 examined 4:22; 56:7; 197:19; 217:12: 230:7 ~ examining 47:19; 149:14 example 44:19; 47:6; 61:2; 76:21; 84:12; 89:14; 90:7; 93:5; 96:5; 115:18; 137:2 except 17:14; 25:6 excerpted 83:21; 85:24 excerpts 83:20 exchange 20:9;157:3, 15 exchanged 155:20 exchanges 30:18 excise 224:9 exclude 161:9; 162(4) excluding 197:21 exclusively 160:3 excuse 6:9;11:1; 64:17; 148:19 executive 171:19 exercise 93:9 exist 77:2 1; 135:22; 19934;205:21;219:3 existed 43:10.14 existence 187:5 exists 79:21 50:21, 22; 53:18 1' expq.nd 74:20 essentials 80:14 I expect 125:17;126:14; established 116:3 I 127•1; 137:16; 182:20; et 168:25 ; 183:1 4;196:16, 18, 22; ethics 29:7, 20, 23 i 218:1 evaluate 78:24; 80:5; expected 19G:11 ~ 96:16 evaluated 73:3 evaluating 64:9 ! expense 147• l0 even 52:21; 54:5: 55:23; 65:24; 143:19:194:13; 227:4 + expenses 219:11,19 experience 93:25 experienced 19:18 expert 181:19; 187:1; 191:G;196:7; 223:20 evening 64:14 i expert-type 221:12 event 24:9,13; 25:2, 9; ~ expertise 181:9; 189:23; 33:2; 73:18, 19; 74:23; 191:3, 6. 17; 192:7; 79:12; 150:16 1 193:24:195:20; 203:1; ,.,, events 21: l8: 27:13: 208:13; 209: 10 ~ ~ felt 35:7; 36:10; 46;9; 46:3; 63:9; 77:13; 91:2; i EXPIRES 230:22 I 65:5; 78:17 92:14; 199:16 eventually 51:2:85:1,3 every 103:1; 184:14 everyone 79:24 everything 26:6, 7; 212:15:2140) , 162:1, 24;163:6,23; i`freme 20:tG;41:Ib 53:8. ' m •' , 164:20:166:11,1 2, a S; i693 8; expl8in ! 13:2,18 ferment 38 20: 42:15 168:15 , 21; i ~ 174:11•175:10 4,17; explanation 216:25 few 21:2 51:5. 7:159:12; .~ y 76(5),177:4,12, 14; expressed 192:22, 24; 167:8; 177.9; 226.? { 178:13;179:10 13; , 193:21;195:5,18 fideiity 80:3 1 1 framework 14:24 17 180:15 2U 183:8; ' .; , ; , ~ extends 160i22 field 23:20, 27;2U 24 • 194:7, 24;197(4);'200:6; (ff8nk 31:3.4.9; 32•2.18: ~ 201:9, 23; 202:7,18, 23; ., 34i4; 39:21; 44:1; 46:16: i extens',sive 31:30 36:6; 53:11; 82:5, 8,14; '- State qf Florida, et al., v, American Tobacco Co., et al. extent 60:15; 71:21; 80:7; ; 120:23 101:20;119:13;131:4; 1, fifties 176:25:189:1$ • 193:23; 194:11; 195:19; 196:15; 225:2 extra 151:22 extremely 151:25; ` 155:24 eye 24:20 ~ figure 59:8; 65;22 ~ figured 150:23 . file 103:21;104;2,14; ' 105:5,14, 24;106:8 filed 103:17; 114:5; ; 140:14; 221:24 , fiiles 38• 17 i 203:4,14. 22: 204:5, 19: j 206:4, 10, 22: 208i23. 23: i 212:10: 220:23; 223:22. 25: 224(4); 225:8: 227:9, 9, 18; 228:3 Florida's 17:24;156:11; 188: 12; 192:17; 223:21, ` 21 : F , fIlinp 104•17• 106•1 18 -~ facilities 85:6 . faciiity 9:13 fact 17:1, 30:24; 41:G; 51:14; 73 4;1 C0:17; 198:9; 206:9, 20; 207:3, 6: 209:4; 219:3 " factor 48:19, 23; 77:7; 209:16, 24 '` factories 130:1 factora.26:11 - facts 74:15;177i8; 206:14 facultyi 1:20;'58:13; 98:13; 153:7,8 fails 113:9 Fair 23:19; 26;23, 23; 78:25; 1 55:2;157:15 fairly 30:19,19;167:16 ' faithful 79(4) . fa116;9 familiar 17:1;120:24; 153:9:164:4, 9R families 130:19 family 7:9; 9:10,13, Y 5; 12:15; 89:9 far 30:3; 82:$; 99:9; . 118:24, 25;128:19; 205:21; 219:13 farmer 132:4 farmers 128:7,11; ~ • , 26:3: 27:12: 60:20; 75:10: 20;112:6, 7 185:13, 18; 225:14 fi1140:4;146:6 focused 18:22; 44:1G filled 111:13,17 ' . follow 191:8;194:25: filis 60:18 195:2 film 87:23; 88:22; 89:17, follow-up 14:18 final13; 931:1,8:18 fo206Uowing:18 94:5;137:12: 35' financial 20:10 follows 4:23 financialiy 7:4 Food 136:5,12 find 14:8; 22;22; 79:3.6; force 29:10;129:1 i; 136:19,.25;1~37,:1, 23; 160:23 139`.24, 25;170i 10,13; Ford 11:2 i71:7;185:9;21,1~;12,16; fore oin 230:3 218:2 ~ g finding 21:4, 4 Forest 6(5)i 7:1, 3,12; finds 177:16 8:19;9:8;10:17;13:24;' fins 23:13; !Ol 22, ;4a~;19:1 finish 121:22; Y4j:13 forever 79:25 form 29:13; 30:6; 34:15; finite 75 2; 76 2' ~05:17, 24;106(4); -. firm 10~ 16; ~ 11 • 16; 107(5);108:7,11;110:20; 114:14; ~179; 5 "111:12, 23;112:6, 7; firms 1518:18, 23; Y43:5 114(5);115:12;129:15; first 4:22; 6:8; 25:1,'24," , 133:12;13G:7;138:12; 30:9; 37:9; 38:1, 42:23: '" 140(5);141:20;142:11, 43:21,68:4;72 24,Y4:It 1,5;17;145:17;146:6,8.8; 98:23; i02:12;111:19; : 148:9;168:16; 170:25c 116;18;124:16,17; ` 206:13; 209: l 7; 229:5 12.9:25;14) :24;148:14, formal 1"33:18 1b,32; 350:j,0,14;1,SZ:17. formalized 30:21 21;158(4); .159:1;1G3:19. fcrmative 160:23 177:18:188:23 151G:11; : formed 16:1 221:25; 227:15 ~ 1 130: l8 1 fit 82;4 farming 132:15 1 five 91:7;101:9,14; fashion 112:1;162:21; j 181:11; 21,6:24 186:5; 224:3 fleshing 62:19 father B:G, 9 { Fiom 5:10 ` faxed 140:21;146:7 1 Fl id 4 or a :8,18, S 2; fear 44:2 ' 13 ,86:12; i found 21;24 41:1, 2: Federal128:10;224:15 87:721~;14,10,97c 31:181698:11,l2, I471S 17,21 54•14 feed 182•1,3 100:9;l03:Y3,115i24,24 " , SS 10,G2:17,25:7u:18: ° 78•25;110:6,13;119:6; cu:4 12g:19 127:25; 133:21; . ~ 151:4;176:12; 221:18 • feeling 143:21 14G:9,147:7;199:1 S, 21; ~ Foundation 1l :2 feelings90:5 - 153:21;154:•4;155:22;` four 151:18;217;1I: % ~ tellows 13 4 ' 15G(4),157; Y0 12.;1 F 8:4, " 218:18: 223:3 i cn Fellowship 8:1 i' 23; i60:21, 22, 23,16120; 'fourth 132:1 ~ I forms 764:9,12 ( forth 225:17 ~ forties 189:15 forum 15216 I forward 46•G; C,c1:5: ~ 110:12: 117:15 Sy 19 7l):22• 117; 11 W i 123 11; 1,24 1, 8: 13 1•5:' ;~ ~ 164 1 204:17 ; to i frames 123:11 c 175:2 ~ , focal 44:15 focus 11:5; 22:23; 24:25 employment - Frank (6) Min-V-Scrlpto A Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoz.
Page 299: rhz82d00
mobile top dressings, printing and India inks, and soap. Other Qs that need tropical climate ~ or special soils for successful growing in- - kenaf and ~ cTde sugar canor su¢ar, -ramie for fiber an oba Production o these and other special crops will de- pend in part on trade with other coun- tries. The mucklands of the Everglades are well suited to the needs of cane. Large corporations grow thousands of acres of cane which is made into raw sugar in a few mills (Figure 69A). Shade tobacco (Figure 69B) is grown in Gadsden and Madison counties only on special soils which will produce the kind of leaf desired for cigar wrappers. In 1949 this crop was valued at a17,578,000. Poultry farming flourishes in some coun ies as a p tzed-ftaming activity. Poultry farms are also found near all cities large enough to provide a market for eggs and chickens. Dair farmin is a highly specialized form of arming which has moved for- ward rapidly in recent years (Figure 69C). As larger urban centers develop, the in- creased demand for milk leads to the creation of larger dairy farms and proc- essing plants. Dairy herds have been im- proved by scientific feeding and secur- ing better stock. Although milk produc- tion, has increased 100 per cent in 10 years, Florida still gets much of its milk from other states. Farmers' receipts for two recent years show that dairy prod- ucts sold exceeded the value of beef cat- tle sales. Production of horticultural specialties such as nursery crops, flowers, seeds and bulbs should also be mentioned as a form of specialized farming. (Figure 70). Flor• ida's warm sunny winters make it pos- sible to grow many of these plants out of doors the year around.
Page 300: rhz82d00
6. Y7o rk ?. Safety 8. Courtesy 9. Dangerous Drugs 10. Avoid Tobacco and Dangerous Drugs 11, ovring anou F{now Health at Home and School - The American Health Series - by Wilson, Pryor, and Almack.-Tzblisher: Bobbs-Pderrill Company, New York, 1943. (.State Adopted ) There is only one sentence in this book which refers to alcohol in any s+ay. This reference is in the seetion, "How Desert People Live," on page 173. Quote, "True Arabs do not drink wine nor any kind of alcoholi" There'is one reference to tobacco. This reference is in the section, "Indian Food," on page 159. ' The additions on pages 203 and 204 in the 1948 edition are largely ' satisfactory. Scientists agree horrever, that alcohol is not a stimulant, but a depressant. 5TH GRADE Eealth at Work and Play - The American Health Series - by Wilson, Pryor, and Almack. Publisher: Bobbs-?derrill Company, New York, 1942. Safeguarding Growth and Health f rom Alcohol and Tob~. pp. 98-119. (State Adopted) A. Pat ts Report: Alcohol and Tobacco--:eftt They are and i9here They Come Fron B. Xr. Hart ts Talk: Alcohol and Tobacco-iheir Effects on Growth, Speed, and Strength C. Dr. William's Talk: The Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on Health D, Jane's Talk: The Story of Frances Willard E. Things To Do T he material in this book is scientif ically sound. The following additions were m.ade in the 1948 editiont A. Rules for careful driving, p. 46 B. Suggestion that the class study oigarettes, p. 70 C. Your program as a worker, pp. 218, 219 -8
Page 301: rhz82d00
.5. Th3 bcst ancsthetic 6. :'ir.a t a rc na rc ot i c s 7. Alkaloids 8. The effect of narcotics on the body 9. The narcotic traffic 10. Local anesthetics--gifts of c:^.e-mists 11. The use of local anesthetics 12. The history of local anesthetics 13. What arc hypnotics? 14. The chemical nature of a hypnotic 15. Urea as a source of hypnotics 16. ; word of caution E. Stimulants, pp. 219-223 1. Alcohol 2. 1?hat is alcohol? 3. notiv is alcohol made? 4. Is alcohol a stimulant? 5. :.o-a does alcohol affect the body? 6. Coffee and tca 7. T ba T'r.c :»st•:rial hcra is scier.tifically and pedagogically_ sound. The scizntific':acts are ~.all given, and t't.ey ar_ effeetive' :Aien applied to l-ii'e situatior.s.
Page 302: rhz82d00
The outstanding criticism is one of omission. There is no mention of alcohol or tobacco in the section on mental health. To lead younb people to solve their ovrn problems without resorting to artifioial crutches is a vital responsibility of the educator. For helo in this axea the teacher may refer to The a lcohol Problem Visualized (5) and Alcohol Talks from the Laboratory (3T. Health and Human Welfare - by Burkard, Chambers, and Maroney., Publisher: Lyons and Carnahan, Atlanta, 1944. (Out of adoption) A. Introduction, pp. 342-344 1. What Is a Na rc ot ic Y 2. Effects on Nerve Cells and Nervous System B. Beverage alcohol, pp. 344-370 1. Natur: and General Effects 2. Effects on Cells 3. A Narcotic, Not a Stimulant 4. Effects on Norvous System (a) Alcohol and Accidents (b) A L:abit Forming Drug 5. Effects on (a) circulation, respiration, excretion, skill, and a:ental efficiency physical endurance and 6. Alcohol and Disease (a) statistics 7. A Great Social Evil 8. Real Value of Alcohol 9. S umma ry 10. References C. 2Karcotics, pp. 373-397 1. A1kAloids 2. Tea, Coffee, and Othcr •Bcveragcs 3. T obacco Products: (a ) Eff ects on the Body (b) Athletics (c) Scholastic Marks - 1>1
Page 303: rhz82d00
Page 3 prrooeas used In Cuba, and think it likely that a skil_*Li], and Jiiiioious treatment is neoessar; , even with the Cuba arown at•ti• ole, to improve its flavor, but doubt whether any artificial pro. cess will iaipart much of t•ttiat desirable quality to any tobaoce, as the United States and other eountries. Manufacturers are too keen scented not to have *.axesd their ingeruuity to the utmost to produoe so desirable R result as makin3 a rins f3atrored'tobacoo out, of-aa-, article to whion nature has denied the gift. 1dY lmpression is that the flavor of the Cuba grown tobacco is owing to,econe peculiarity o! t.ns soil: as the spot, which is the dist ,guis.~ing feature ot ?lorida raised tobacco, doubtl~+~+s. is j and initFiis- -poculiar spot consists its prominent meraaantable suprrioritT ovdr, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Ziason CountT, Xentuck:r, and otih.r portions of the United States oigar•wrapner tobaccoes. I believe ttsat all the sand harmnoeks along tis ooaRt of the f3ulf of ~lexis0, from the ooast to perhaps one hwtdre+d miles into the interior In width, and from plor to Texas in length, oan raise spotted tobacco. In fsct, it has be raised In Texas by emigrants from this eoumY.this season, but the defaand for it being mere fancy and `for wrappers esolusjvel7, the ma: ket in easily overstoeked, as hAS been the aase say In 1845, when the pricd fall very lo~r, and as a consequence no year's planting ha; equalled that year; the crop ot.1853 not being equal to i,Alf its si: TLls spot, the Connecticut pdopld, wtho raise from five to ten +.ime: ttut amount of cigar tobacco we do, but Rhion lacks tcie spot, have a• tempted to imiLate by cadmieal procens and tis+ use of aeids, but h+ found wher++ver t1iij, have succeeded In mNcini; Ap spot. *.heqy iiave rnac a iwle t<lao. : he Aaaooi,a ; f ar., aa planL• ors, will undurstand me wrwn I oouipa; the cultivation of tobacco L. Florida witu tiAt raised in other poi tians of •.r:e ilnitdd ltntcs, as bnLng In aruor: t::ie same ratio in prodt ion and pro*it, that trLo cultivation of ;;da Island Cottons bear wit2 that of thd ahort st•aple--- our ?lorida tobacao naving tha saaus dit: culties to contond with In tae+ tobacco market #.17at Sea lslands is<ve in the cotton arrket, viz.: the production of atind article, pr.par ation .*or nuarket, and a limited d tnand. T1.s East ?'loridians, whose : is well adapted .for tnu oultivation of tobacco, and who iiave raisec it ror some yearc past have abandoned it for the tult:ivation of Sea Island aott.on, as the most profitable crop of tlYr t:•o., T::d VirQiniF RentuekT, Connecticut and other shtd$ planted'iaare, soon make as spc ted an article as ttls Havana 9s.:d, and. In ortiur to ntaka a desirable oibnr, it is necessary to -4se a flavornd fl.lle,r off navana, Cuba, etc Altiiough our section of country doaR r.ot produce a flavorHd tobacco, Southern planters ought to kecip trylndj and I woul:'ft rwcomcrmind to tho Asnooiation, if practicable, to have t,A soil t:wt, producon t.w flao ored ??avans tobRcco anal zed, and to make samd arranpmirnt to rAve tiie genuifid cc`d$ importd and dissominated at thd various 3outhtlrn shinpind po~rts, throur;ri aQents, ~rr~o can p`.`OC'.3rA t.izem from Havana ane lirnian tnom on reasonabld terms, togatncr w1L.: z. traatise en. tl~s sub„ect o:' the proper trMat:ndnt off the tobacco, xhdti gatndrt:d, to improve itsi rlRVor, zs ia (ione In Cuba--- Rnd ench ono of our plKnt will thus ba iaducad to mnkd a trial of what si.zd of a!'luvortld toa bacco his 1•ind .•ill prrxduce. ^_'iiu culturM o.•: tobacco langulahdd in t•r1 eutintT "or iorle renrs a*te+r it wns ascartaintld tt,at we couldnot rKis a fllvoryd Kbttcle, and whilat tt,a proo~~~H NKe davr,lopinK itselt Tearl Ln I m m w
Page 304: rhz82d00
9TH A:;D lOTfi GRADEM Be Healthy - by Crisp. Publisher: J. P. Lippincott and Company, reer York, 1938. p. 445. ( Out of aZopti on) LivinK Chemistry - by .4hrens, Bush, and Easley. Publisher: Ginn pnd Company, Atlanta, 1946. p. 220. (atato adoptcd ) ' Tobacco 4TH GRADE Eealth by ~Doing, - by Burkard, Chambers, and Maroney. Publisher: Lyons and Uarnahan, New York, 1936. pp. 231-237. (Out cf caoation) Health at Home and School - by Wilson, Pryor, and Almack. Tub-lisher: Bobbs-1-ierrill Company, N6~•r York, 1942. p. 159. (Stato ndoptod) 5TH GRADE Health at :7or'k and Pld,,• - by :7i1so::, Pryor and *Alr_ack. Publisher: obbs-_~:: ?_. Co~*; nny, :'e-;r Yori:, 1942. p. 159. (Stat,, ~od ) 6T H G:V.Dc Body and Health - by Burkard. Chambers and tia-or.ey. Publishers Lyons enc CanaheZ, ZJe.r York, 1930, pp. 2r:4-248.'' ( Cui of ac apt i on ) ?TE GUDIE o-=n_ Sc_ance - by Sri:th and Trafton. Publisher: J. P. -Lipoiaozz and Company, 2few York, 1946. p. 340. (Jt.?.to A`Optc'w ) The ~Fie~alth,y Home and _C__o_m~munit,Z - by Andress, Goldberger, and Hallock- .-fublisher: i~nn and Company, Atlanta,°1939. pp. 112, 129-131. (Out of adontion) Health Pro¢ress - by Wilson, Bracken, Pryor, and Almack. rblisheri Bobbs-Kerrill Company, New York, 1943. pp. 115-122, u~ 134-135. (St, te :+dopted ) - 32 -
Page 305: rhz82d00
On page 135 the following stateme.nt obcurss " Because marijuana has only recently become a menace, its possession and sale are not regulated by the anti-narcotiio acts now in force." The copyright date of that book is 1939. Marijuana is now controlled by the federal narcotic laws. The United StateS in the Western t'orid - by lKallace W.-Atcrood. Publisher: Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1946. ~r (State Adopted) A. Puert o Rico and the Virgin Islands, p. 49 1. Tobacco mentioned as one of the products B. How much rain satisfied the farmers? p. 66 1. Tobacco mentioned as ene cf the erops that needs eor.siderable rain C. Tob~ac~cro,,-p. 77 1. The early colonists in Vt rgi*.ia were the firs t to undertake the cultivation of tobacco. Leadi::3 states i.^n the production of tobacco are naned. The amount grc:r.: in the United States is compared with that of other nations. D. The Southern Manufacturing Section, p. 202 1. Tobacco mentioned as one of the raw materials produced E. Lz t h e West Ind ie s, p. 210 1, Cuba given as an important producer of tobacco and manufacturer cigars 2. In puerto Rico, too, tobacco is s:. important crop. The statements here are purely concerhed with geographic factors. 7TH AArD STH GR.SDES Anerica - L4nd of Freedom•- by Gertrude Eartman. Publisher: D. C. keath and Company, Bost on, '1946. (Stato Adopted ) A. Early Days in Virginia, pp. 49-50 B., Plantation Days in the South, p. 91 C. Land of Plenty, p. 486 - X - of ly
Page 306: rhz82d00
Tsal)es. ie. 1: Htlleboroush, a. ).eeola. 1; Volusla, 1. Total Estab)ishments ............................... 19 .............................. $0604 ...... ....................... 276e ....._.._ ................... 110 exoept wood and .............................. 709 +, numbering 2.070. an not I r, leaf curing and proe.asins rportant industry, employing ,oroush, 3: Lake. 1; Lee, 1; Total Establishment !6 ......................... ..... ..................... _ 6 ..................... . .... 47 ...... _................. 9{ ............................ 7772 being dellned u belonging I iustriss). Total Eetabllshmenti ....... ................... 0 4 eeTi oommeeeial =79 s ......................- 41 4e ........................... 43 riodicais )..._....... 666 there ia hardly an iteni suggest a proper expan~ ;ter states, or a foreign sion of the identical im', •ture is suggested, the state, there is in a! iufacturing increase. A of the situation by th ver companies, railroad iustry. ars ago, It was though on raw materials, labor ing, in the order named expansion of the United
Page 307: rhz82d00
3-. Is it a food (here infor:nation s'r.ould be discovered as to the dangers of nutritional deficiency in cornection with large amounts of alcohol) 4. And b ody wa rmt h 5. And the nervous system 6. And the machine age 7. And the automobile 8. In medical practice 9. Moderate use of it 10. A traffic menace C. Uild stimulants: coffee, tea, softdrinks, etc. D. Other drugs: cocaine, opium, hashish, r~.arijuaria This book gives a very fine t reatment of the subfect'under the general heading, "Interferin3 :•rith the Safety Braites.° 10TH Gi2.4DE E-rer da Biolo ,y = by Cur:is, Ca1dwe11, and ShermAn. Publisher: Ginn and Company, Ple~rr lort, 1940. (Stata Adoptod) A. Alcohol 1. Effects of on the circulatory system,,o. 371 on digestion, pp. 514-515 effects on muscular work, p. 522 on the nervous system, pp. 428-429 2. Percentages of alcohol in liquors and patent medicines (it was interesting to note that the patent medicines rank between wine and whiskey), p. 514 3. Social :mplications, p. 5?3 (one small illustration) B. Narcotics, p?. 534-535 1. Paregraph. under narcotics which ccr.tains pertinent information on all f o=-s of dr-.:gs 2. ' Iay become a habit through the uses of patent medicine C. Tobacco effects of 1. In cases of aner.:ia, p. 374 2. On digestion, p. 515 3. On respiration, p. 519 ' 4. Upon the nervous system, pp. 428-429 18 . Ln I-A m m w ~ a w cn
Page 308: rhz82d00
. y~ ..5,... .- . . its auction warchouscs sell approximately four- Florida , " 6ftbs of the State s crops. fifths The }lue-cured tobacco of tiK; area is sold loose leaf . lt is ins tecl b overnment *raders and the leaves are ~ (r(t arranged in a circular manner on Ixtrlap sheets. The top Lmst of (c )acco wes bht ts 3tK) ixxnxls for a sheet. Great- '~' est acreage is still at Snwanree. Prices in the 1959 nuarket It. Y.~+ . K averaged 57.8 cents a hatnd. While Florida supplies a large share of cigars to an expanding market and carries on an exix)rt trade in leaf and finished prtxluct, its tx-ople share the general smok- ing taste of sotne Gtl-ixici ntiition fellow Americans who use cigarettes. Their purchases of nearly 12.8 billion in 1959, produced by factories in other southern states, clearly shows an enthhusiastic interest in the uwst popu- lar form of enjoying tobacco. Kcy Wcst ia iN55. Gourtesy of the Phelps Stokes collectwns, New York Public Library 20 .
Page 309: rhz82d00
The same is t rue concerning the statement on page.236•-"The use of alcohol may have serious effects on both liver and kidneys." This may . be passed over unless the students may ask the question, "Eot-i does alcohol affect the or;ans?" The teacher then may refer'them to Dr. H. rf..Haggard (2) in Alcohol, Science and Society, where he says that any permanent daM,age to any tissue is due to malnutrition which is common in the excessive drinker. As one drinks more he tends to eat less which means that his body ; is poorly nourished, thus it is more subject to disease. The raterial on to`, pages 336-338, and on alcohol, 341-342, is adequate. _H_e_l_g i~ng the Body in Its Work - by Andress, Goldberger, and F.allock. publisheri Ginn and Conpany, New York, 1939. (Out of adoption) A. The :'~1ate Corpuscles and Their Duties, p. 32 1. 2. 3. Alcohol as an antisentic Lo:re:•s body t:nnsi-:.ture Alcoholic beverages hinder ti:•hite corpuscles B. Prevent Chilling of the Body, p. 38 1. 2, 3. 2?otion of giving c~armth a mistake Loi•rers temperature Desth rate in pneunonia high in drinkers C. Taking Care of the Heart, p. 45 1. Overv:ork it 2. Iay chan;;e cells of heart nuscles to fat and affect circulation D. Can Alcohol Heln Us to Solve our Problems? pp. 160-162 1. Has immediate effect 2. Tests show lowering of ability to solve problems, p. 161 3. Effects judgenent--people do things they would not otheruise 4. Used as an escape r..echaeism The }rork on alcohol with three minor exceptions is specially good. ' It is regrettable that an e•_ually go,od treatment on tobecco is not given. The three exceptions are: 1. The reference to the injury to ~a;ite corpuscles on pa;e 32, there is lit'cle evidence tt:: t blood' cells a:•e injured. That i•rould be a stron~er s•~ate:~ent if it read, "But alcohol t:'.:e n.:en into the body interfers with all body processes. From the diCestive system, J m N l0
Page 310: rhz82d00
Thero is no conclusive evider.cc that tho functioning of Whit,^ corpuscles is injur •.d by alcohol. The nervcs are ancsthotized by alcohol and thus cannot do their best -erork as long as alcohol remains in the blood. Any permanent damage done to muscles, brain cells, nervcs, liver and protoplasm is duc to malnutrition which usuelly occurs in the excessive drinbCr due to the fact that he eats very little. B. "PerhaYs trcrst of all, alcohol may affect the gErm plasm of the parent or parents, and cause the infant to begin li£a as a defective," p. 560 Again it is not the damage to the germ plasm that hinders prenatal child development but tho lowered physical stamina of the parents through raa1.- nutrition, mental unrest, and generally unsatisfactory living conditions. The major interest of adolosconts cantars around how he can get along well with people, be popular, get a date, get a job. All of these vital factors revolve around t'ae mattcr of mcntal h3alt'r.. T,}te high school student .__1 ba j n.or _s•cad in *.,o:: z,._ao::ol gn i tabrcco erfect3 'Ihis :+ell b3ing. Ise will ask such questions ass 1. Do I'r.av3 to drink and smoke to ba popular? 2. :'yny do peopl-: drink? 3. :7hat makes alcoh.oli cs ? 4. Eow rAy I help Lmr older frie::d is an alcoholic? The teacher may get -ood help here from "Alcohol Talks frocm tho Labor- atory" (3) and "Alcohol Probl:.-m Visualized" (4). Li°ing Chemist r• - by Ahron3, Bas!: and Iasley. Fablishors Ginn and Company, 3oston, 194 S. (St:tc ::dopted) A. B. Physical properties by rr'r.ica you may i3cntify a substance, p. 18 1. Boi .ir.g poir:t of a'_co::,l What derivatives, or substitution products of methane are,possible2 p. 133 C. D. 1. Formation of alcohol Relationship of an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, p. 134 Anesthetics, narcotics, hypnotics, pp. 212-29 1. t nasthetics 2. tIat are anesthotics 3. The action of g,:neral c••n_staetics w:tuin the body 4. The making of ether and othor anesthetics cn - 24 - m I w l ~_-
Page 311: rhz82d00
D. Patent medicines, pp. 532-535 1. For deafness, p. 524 2. For increasing or decreasing weight, pp. 512-513 3. Percentages of alcohol in, p. 514 The material here is limited but good. Problems in Biolopy - by Hunter: Publisher: The American Book Company, ew ~T fo-Tr c, 1940. ( Out of ad opt i on ) A. What is the truth about stimulants and narcotics? pp. ;50-354 1. Stimulants 2. Is alcohol a f ood 3. Is alcohol a poison 4. Danger from alcohol 5. The effects of alcohol on t::e mortality-Qf offspring 6. Susceptibility to disease increased by alcohol 7. Death rates in diffzrent occup4tions 6. Uso of tgbaoco B. Eow does the Pure Food and Drugs Act work? pp. 355-357 1: Drugs 2. Bracers 3. Heart depressants 4. Cure alls C. Effect of alcohol upor. biood, p. 402 D. *M:at are s ome ef_ ects of t;:e drink :+.abit ? pp, 449-453 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 11TH GRFDE The drir_; habit The economic effect of alcohol poisoning The relation of alcohol to e°ficiency The relation of alcohol to cri_e Alcohol and crime Alcohol and pauperism The Dakinc of American Civilization - by Beard,and Beard. Publisher: Lho~illian Company, Now o~ rk,1937-1539. (L''ut of :'.!^vtioa) w m
Page 312: rhz82d00
IIsin Sciezice - by Smith and Trafton. Publisher: J. P. ip?.incott and Company, Neri York, 1946. p. 340. (Stato .ldogt,M) Our Aor).d Changes - by Powers, Bruner, Pleuner, and Bradley. Publisher. Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1940. po. 320, 460-461. (Out cf cdoption) 9TH GRADE Understandin the Universe - by Frnnklin $.'Carroil. Publishers John C. 'lrinston Company, 1939. p. 481. (Out of adoption) 9TH AND 10TH GRADES Be Healt y- by Crisp. Publisher: J. P. Lippincott and Company, New ors, 1938, pp. 292, 435-439. (Out of a•1ODtion) 10TH GRADE Lber•day BioloFy'- by Curtis, C+.ld:eell, aAd Shers:an. Publisher: G nn and apa y, At1a::ta, 194C. pp. 374, 515, 519, 429-429. (3tate Adoptcj ) Problens in Biology - by FIunter. Publisher: Arerican Book Cccpany, Atlanta, 1935, p. 354. (Cut cf aMaption) Secondary Florida Vlealth or lVaste - by Florida State D.epar`cent of F.du= cation, "State Textboo- nd Library Service, George .T. Walker, LIanager, Talle.hassee, Florida, 1946.- p. 140. (State Adopta'a ) Society Faces the Future - by Ruth Tood GaviRn. Publisher: D. C. Heath end Cmpany, At).anta, 1938, pp. 529-531. (Statu Ado^te!) 11TH Ai1D 12TH GRADES Life and Health - by ?'ril3on, Bracken, Pryor, and Alms.ck. $-blisheri Bobbs-i3erri1l Company, New York, 1945, pp. 261-262. (Stato .1Jopted ) fiealth s nd Eti:..^'•an Welfare - by Burkard, Chambers, and lfaroney. Pu-blishers Lyons an Cd o pany, P1e;v York, 1937. pp. 376-531, (Out : f a3 opt i on) - 33 -
Page 313: rhz82d00
Living Chemistry - by Ahrens, Bush, and Easley. Publisher: Ginn and Corpany, Atlanta, 1946. p. 223. (State ~ldopted) Habit Fornine Drurs 41:TI G3.9D,,'. Livin; ItealtPSul1-y'- by Charters, Smiley, and Stran3. • Publishers :~ci•allie~ Corq)anr, Uevr York, 1956, p. 139, ( tTot ad opted ) 7TH G3IzDE &el in the Body in its Work'- by Andf•ess, Goldberger; L.allocl:. a.•lis::er: Ginn and Cor.:pany, Atlanta, 1939, pp. 732, 205. (Out of adoption) 'r'ealth.y K_o•:ne and Communit - by Andress, Goldberger, and rallock. Publishers Ginn and o:npany, Atlanta,, 1939. po, 112, 133-134. (Out of adaptian) 8TH GI?DE Our ?orld Char:r.es - by Posters, Bruner, Neuner, ard Bradley. $rublisher: Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1940. p. 320. (Out of adopticn) Using Science - by S.mith ar.d Tre•fton., Pu'alishers J. P. Lippincott and Company, he:: York, 1946, pp, n96-499. (State Adopte!) 9TH t.I".) 10i Ii G'.',.4De.S ie I:ea1tl:! - b;j Crisp. Publit4ar: J.•P. Lippincott and Company, Teer.'~; 1933. pp. c•47, 432, 0G-1S59, 472. (Out of adoption) lOT z G IM Everyday Bioloey• - by Curtis, Cald:^ell, and Sherman. Publishera Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1940. p.. 534. (Stc~te ddoated) Problems ia B_iolop!- by fiuntar. Publishers American Book Cor:.pany, 1'e~, r York, 1935o p. 355. (Out of a'option) ,~ - 34 -
Page 314: rhz82d00
The material here is largely good. The statement on page 340, "It seeils that saoking is an altogether undesirable habit." will likely be questioned by some child who sees his parents derive enjoyment from smoking. You may help the child weigh the evidence from every angle,.ir.cluding the financial cost. Ask him to have his parents cocar:ent on the statemerrt. Parents, teachers, and thinking young people will agree that it is altogether undesirable for the growing boy or girl. lorin Our Wo'rld - by Potivers; rJeuner, Bruner, and Bradley. Publishers Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1948. (Out of adoption) Page 83 explains the f reeZing point of alcohol. It explains why alcohol is used in anti-freeae. Health Pro res,~s - The American Health Series - by ti7ilson; Bracken, Pryor, a~ nd maAl ck Publishers Bobbs-Lierrill Company, hTew York, 1948. ( PJot Adoptod ) A. Glenn Cunningham did not smoke nor use alcohol, p. 33. B. Effect of alcohol and ' cco on nerves, pp. 73-74 C. Effect of alcohol and to on heart, pp. 133-136 D. Effect of alcohol and tU&IS on liver and kidneys, p. 236 E. The aaking of alcohol connected with Louis Pasteurts discovery of bacteria, p. 291 F. Health in Practice, pp. 336-338 G. Prctecling Your Wiell-Being, pp. 341-342 Mrale the rraterial in this book is linited it is well integrated, and the stater-.er.ts are placed rr'.:ere the,r carry sreight .dth'the students. The reference to Glenn Cunning:za.n on page 23 is good. In ti;e section cn "Ref lex Action and Body Control", the statement would be s.rcn;.hcncd if the sentence on page 73, "It toaces~~water frodi them and destroys essential parts of the cell body;" was changed to read, "It anesthetites the nerve cells and renders them incapable of doing their best work, or in large amounts any r.ork as long as alcohol remains in the blood." The teachers can add that correction or lead students to find it without shaking the student's confidence in the text by stating simply that the newer information is being'discovered all the time in every subject and we want to be alert to f ind it. - 11 -
Page 315: rhz82d00
111 `.1 iii Ji1j1d1iIijfi ~';:~~~'y r ~t t#~' .. ~ ~ . ~ 5 ~ _ Ir, ~ ~ ti~i _$~ it ~ . .. i . f ~ . . . .. .
Page 316: rhz82d00
I,UUKJG Up' ATUUr 1:1.Kl1IRNTARY SCIIOOIS Ut' VlAR1UA 119 The skin is a protecting coat., impervious to germs. Talk of the dangers of cuts, how germs may enter the body through cuts, how they may grow and cause infection. Use of antiseptics. Bathing as a means of keeping the skin in working order. Kinds of baths, use hot bath, best time for taking. Cold baths, time for these. Cigarette smokiag. ;fflothin- g•- . Sources for materials for clothing, the processes of spinning, weaving and making clothing, old and new methods. Use of clothing, protection afforded by different kinds of clothing. Care of clothing: washing, brushing, etc. Underclothing: the importance of frequent changes. THIRD GRADE. (Second Half Year.) Alcohol: Point to be established-Alcohol is a poison. What is alcohol? Where is it found? Call attention to the fact that alcohol is found in patent medicines as well as in liquors. Show something of the nature of alcohol, by burning a little in a lamp or open vessel, and demonstrate its effect on gums and varnishes, by dissolving these in alcohol. Soak seeds in alcohol and plant these to demonstrate the effect on plant life. Water plants with alcohol and note the e/fect. Pour alcohol over an egg to show its effect on albumin. Tcach the effect of alcohol on the brµiy, especially the heart and stomach. Air: What is it? Where is it found? What part is most useful to us. Where d,o we get this part? What does it do for our bodies? : Pure air, whcre found; why is the air of the country purer than that of the city; why is the air of the sea shore usually pure; why is mountain air pure? How does rai.t and snow parify the air? Pure air indoors. Why should we have the doors and windows of our homes open? How may we ventilate when the weather is cold. Adian- tagesf of stceiring with the windows open. Advantages of sleeping porches. How they may bc economically constructed. -Ventilating a school room, how and why. liavc an honor roll for pupils sleeping out of doors, or with windows open. The boys may build a play house, giving especial attention to ven= tilations; add a sleeping porch. Use the play house to demonstrate hygienic ways of sweeping' and dusting, airing clothing and beds, etc. The following epigrams and memory gems-msqr be used: Get the fresh air habit. Too much fresh air is just enough. Taking in fresh air is heaYthier than putting on fresh airs. The only night air that is injurious is the last night's. And open the windows and let it out Work in the fresh air. Play in the fresh air. Sleep in the fresh air. Live in the fresh air. 8869 £09TS ~ incident of the English army crossing the desert in 1800 and the incident given by Gulick of the effect of alcohol on men crossing the desert may be used. Effect on stomach and heart. Tell the story of the effect of alcohol on animals. (G. H. Hodge in the Gulick books.) Place questions in series on the black board and let the children write the answers. These will make a composition on alcohol. Epigrams. Alcohol as a food is a joke, and rather a big joke at that. Strong drink makes weak men. Alcohol is a preservative but not for our henlth. ;;D!/ZTlv- IV. TOBACCO. (See work of first grade.) The remainder of the year may be given over to the treatment of inju- ries, and a careful study of the subject should be made from books that are available. It frequently happens that children receive serious knocks at play. When the skin is broken nature prevents contamination by means of a flow of blood. Great care should be taken to keep water from the wound. Pupils should be instructed to wash around the wound but to exercise great care to prevent water from getting into the wound. In most cases it is desirable that blood should flow freely. The most valuable lesson comes from the cases that occur on the school ground. During the entire year take recreation drills whenever the pupils grow tired of sitting. V. PoSTURE. During the entire year teach children: (a) IIow to sit. (b) How to stand. (c) IIow to walk. (d) How to recline. The third topic is the most pressing. All children should know how to walk properly and should be constantly reminded of the importance of ac- quiring the habit of correct walking. FIFTII GRADE. (First Iialf Year.) Continue the organizations suggested in the fourth grade. The°note book, if kept, should be a continuation of the past year's note book. I. POSTURE, Explain to the children the importantx of good posture as a preventative of tuberculosis. Exercise deep breathing. Breathing exercises should be taken out doors and the walk to and from school may be utilized as an ap- propriate time and place to practice deep breathing as well as other exer- cises suggested in good walking and good position of the body.
Page 317: rhz82d00
A1. Quinvy, it Irl. Gitu• N•archonw., IK•ai~lrs tlW j hoil4liug; aht:ra Ibc lilutl frrlut•utaliuo :unl packin; is i dnne. 'I'he /vqup:lny rai>+•. :NN/ :n:rcz uf WI0;tccu atwu- ~ all%-, lw•<ills•, utltc•r t•rnp., :In4l lVackx `»•-1qp I/:das of tulucx,o i ca4•11 11t cmpblys I~'iM) mcn ill Ibcz grutciu; smson ~ alld 5tHt mcn tha )c:lr /bro,ttl;b, at an atmttal letyrtlll of i'I:at,cNKt. ()l•llcr plaulcrs t•ui:eKl a!Natt UKHI uares of cigar 1caf in the (:adu14•n Wv:1ifm dnrin., 18!ai, nlakine s fulal uf nearly '.{NKt acrcs ill tha/• n;gimt, trraclic;tlly all ; .d which i, u.ua11Y yald hy tlue ~_.ruu/:r, llc (1c1o1ser. '1'Ite pl:lntuf `uttudr:m urillcaf ill LltNnn (except for its Ilnmcr) rt•minds mnc /tf 4111: cs•mtuon mutllluw•er rather tltan uf ahatt a•a arv ar~•u~lmulc, l ill in tultacco. Its icattN arre uf ,4/ tlr•lic:ttc a n:tttu•te th:lt after Iwing fcr- wt•/llcd it will lalat at1out :.'tN1 uf 111+•m io leei;{h a IKatud. Ilru4•4• (6t: uumicrful '•Irrapl,in!;"callal:ily of (his lenf- Ib:dI k. Ihe gri:d. 1luwln•r -of ei_ar; Ibal. catl be covered m itll uuc Iwatnd uf 1u+natr:ut «•cillcaf. '1'ltc 1896 crup /of it ill Flurilla n•a: lu:ndv all 1Nin."ht Ilp I,rfutu alt,r,Liun, . ;It 20 lu 541 cctlls lu•r Ismnul Gir the cltre4l lcaf, Nhilo it is clainu•4l that scl~•rtimui uf Fturi~la-.1 rulctt swuatrau Il;lf tu cir:n• m:uluf:ualu•crn fGn• >x1.5/1 to $"3 pcr p«Inul, itl alolwar.nlrc ricaliu-; a~ i+i-lcu• u•talqKSrs tho liur-iA inilnbrli•d fruut Stuu:11r:1, a'biir ill qualit.q (Ihat is, 1Ltbnr, INNIv, bnrn, Or•), slulr.lzsinw Ihc (N~st Stonntran (vaf. iltllike tiLe lt•:d tlir+•ct fruro tiuulaira, which is so ill yucllily:u to, lw! rnl/it fur Ibo bnik nf tllo cigar tli4lt•r, :11141 biudcr::), /llis tium;l/r:rn 'wcN11c:J, wAcn • alhnvt d iu fully rilw•u. pn"cx-cs qu:llily :u1#1 aroma t6rtt : nlakc ii. 1h•:irablo fnr IN•iu,; wb"lly frca from tho g hitt/•r laAt• of tlla irnlwtricd :u•iiclc. In this resllcxat, it `. ?w•111S I') IIIIIlr//vY!:Ifter fiip' 411- IN•// y7'itl:l•' i1m11PS/•IQ1ltlOn. LI Fhwill:l. it do>t•; ucll nn 6mdl1 4"il utsd nc+v lands, w6ilc ill tiuwai.ra (41hM•t•41 is „rua•n lat;`;i:ly oll ucu• land. Asi,ie frutn ils hanlin~ :, tluift• ami qnick-grtlh•inp, y qu:llilicl~, atli, tbc bi;;h laivc Illc IH'St Icaf euntmuods,:.
Page 318: rhz82d00
51603 7049 brought as much as $3.00 to $4.00 a pound in that period. Tobacco production followed Cuban methods. Artifi- cial shade was employed. This procedure, which raises relative humidity and provides protection agaiiut un- favorable weather conditions, produced plants with larger leaves and 6ner texture. At first thin, closely set slats were used; then slats combined with cloth and, finally, cnly cotton cloth to provide the desired shade. From continued scientific experimentation there came a leaf of superior quality, today's shade-grown wrapper of Fleirida. When ever)rone concerned was satisfied with the leaf, it was described as elastic as that of Sumatra yet closer to Cuba in aroma. The principal present-day varieties are officially known as Rg and Dixie Shade. They are light in color, smooth in appearance, with good burning quality, and they have a delicate aroma which makes them most suitable as a blend for filler and binder. The manufacturing trade welcomes this tobacco for all these features and particularly because a single pound can wrap a considerable number of cigars. Chief con- centration of this tobacco culture is still in Gadsden County. The story of modern tobacco culture in America, how- ever, is a dynamic record of restless men. Experimenta- tion seems never-ending. Around 1957, for instance, aa new variety of cigar wrapper was produced in Florida. This is Magnolia, a tobacco which is highly disease- resistant. It is the result of long experiments with cross- ing the Rg and White Honduras varieties and several times backcrossing them. This latest of Florida's wrapper leaf is regarded with high expectations by its producers. Cigarette leaf becomes a major crop About a quarter of a century after shade-grown to- bacco experiments began, the farmers of the Suwannee River Valley were trying their hand at another type: Bright leaf (8ue-cured) tobacco. There were but sis ac: es sowed tv this type in 1921 with little encouragement to grow more. For, after a farmer had cured his leaf, he had to haul it to markets in South Carolina to seQ. (The gross value of the 13U,tX10 pounds produced in 1923 came to $28,800.) In 1926 a marketing warehouse was opened at Live Oak. A few years later Bright leaf was being grown on 3,600 acres in the Valley alone. Total auction sales from this area and surrounding districts were about 16 million pounds in 1938. Today, auction warehouses operate not only at Live Oak but at jasper, Lake City and in smaller markets in nearby areas. "Live Oak," it was remarked in the late 1930's, "which - seems to drowse away more than eleven montlu of the year, suddenly becomes a hurly-burly city, crowded with thousands of visitors during the6rst week of August. The oldest and largest Bright-leaf tobacco market in / 19 1 8
Page 319: rhz82d00
Supplemental Statement The Joint Committee on Health Problems in Education of the National Education Association and American Medical Association, at its 1945 meeting in Chicago, adopted the following statement and authorized its publication immediately upon receipt by any interested publication. Thurman B. Rica, M. D., Chairman W. W. BGuer, M. D.,Seorete.ry State Board of Health 535 North Dearborn Street Indianapolis 7, Indiana Chicago 10, Zllinois Health Implications Of,Th Physical Eduoation Proaram Health Policies 9~ th Rosnegt To The Co ndug,t Of The Wsia:l Fducltion Promram Physical education contributes to health by its ver'y essence because participation in Joyous physic;:l activity contributos to the normal groprth and development of _ children and youth through increased strength, enduraneo, and organic vigor. Acquisition of skills usable in leisure time activities contribute, also, to tho developmont and mcintenaneo of mental health and emotional sttbility. Howovor, to insure such benefits, certain policies must obtain in the conduct of physical education programs. I. Goneral Health Policiss in the Conduct of Physical Education Programa 1. A pupil should bo assignod to aotivitics in aocordc.nco with his entering or subsequent medical er.aa.ination. No •^.ctivitios should be prescribed or olected 3xcept as the physical stutus ti:arra.nts. 2. All pupils should be onrollod in physical education classes; thosa who by reason of illness or disability 1re unmble to p-~rtioipsto in the moro vigorous forns of activity should be assigned to classes in modified activity, or to rest, r.ith full credit in either oase. No pupil need be excused from physical oducr,tioa rrhere' such provisions are mado. As- signm3nt to modified programs of physical education, including corrective physical oducktion, should be b:%sed on z physician's rooommc.ndr.tion, and such progr!%ms should bo...suparvised by the school modiczl ldvisor. 3. A pupil rrho is absent from school duo to sovero illness or Inf tuy should, before participation in class activities, present a statonont from a regul:uely licansed physician which indictetes that he is physic:.lly fit to participate in physicr.l oducation aotivitios. 4. All pupils Who hsve boon ill should be observed closely by the teachcrs for signs oontrairldicating participation in norm:l activities. (Con- valoseonts, even thoso recovering from colds, should not be required to pr.rtioiplto in strenuous activities.) II. Special Policies for the Elementary School Phyaioa]. Education Program. 1. Pupils in the elementary school should have sufficient physierl activity (4-6 hours daily) to contributo t2 normal growth and deve].opment.' Obvi- ously this nmount of activity cannot be scheduled within the school day proper. Therefore, a minimum of t»o thirty-minuto poriods, one in morn- ing and one in tho afternoon is recomwended, one for instruction•in
Page 320: rhz82d00
that we could raise a.*ine, showT, 2sandaame wrapper leaf--- and it .nis owing to the perseverance of two planters, (Xesers. .Tor:n Smith and *~gli3am S. Qunn, both formerly of 'Yir;,inia, ). ttiat 2=dreds of thon., sands of dollars bavet eventual3.y been realizesd frors its production in later ; sars. I believe at one time t.1e cultivation wds eonfinerd to those two gentlemdn axclusively, and until their auccesis iadueed others to esbark mn 1t. I consider the ohanoe of success In raising an article that %ill retain the ..*lavor or tlis original seed, a suf., tioient indueemdnt to Soutrcern plantNrs, `*ith ths divorsity of soil and climate that we posse3s to saT not:Ltnd of the object :•hich theT all in eorLmon with your Assoeiation `shotiild koup in.ziew) to induee oae'ri one to invest a few dollare In the purctAse or the seed, and to divert a saall portion otr t:air labor to make an experiment In tobaeeo. abr it land can be f d ttu;t will make tobacco of li]nt tla• vor with tr:e 'cravana, t.iad! ~'a7 better t'rlarn aun± other kind of planting, and it would be difficult to wstisnate them at their intrin- sie value. TCe3 would be more valuable than +xny desoriptSon of lands that I have anv- know ledge of. I'rmvc+ :tnor.n t:.e product ` o* an ac re ot land In :'"Loriclaa planted In tobacco to Tiold irorn -$250 to '.'.300, but thiq it, will only do tne "irnt, tear, our tobacco recuirin;, a virgin soil o*' troeh cleared hanmock for fir.e ernppart tobacco, and no other description of land pays for tae culture or it. Ramchock land wce re. eentlT boyn bought in this neigi.borhocxi at '.%e;0 por acre ror this purposs* manures do not answer well on second ; ear's h.ed. Cotton st:ed :aakes t:a tobacco rout;h, and animal r.Wnuros , n=urq. , In Cuba they can plant t::d same land continuoualY. 'Ye aim at Aakin~; a fine, L:iin, sillq article, and conaidt:r t.lze product of more ti= 500 lbs. per aore an •-+.3..Jncn artainat, t! a-%nalitt and value. In Cuha, tcad planttlrs, rel7ing upon tc:a :Zavor of their tobacco, can safely raise twl,Qa or three time that nuabdr of pounds per aare. :?e have to pull it leaf by leat, and put it oaa sticks to cure, so ti,at no two leaves sY:all touch, or it wil injure. in Cuba, a±'Ldr gatudring some of tue lower leavt:s In this waTe t~ae7 can cut down the entiry stalk, as wh.t does not answer for cigar wrapp"rs, will .•'or °illrsrs. .?iti; ue, all eaaypt taLd large leAf, is aortiLleari, whilst In Cttba all tiiat ,,-rms on the stalk and is out down with it, no matter how saall, Ss worth as mt,tch per. Ib. 1rs our tiri• dst seloctions. Ity knowledge on this sublnc*, of ^lorldc t.obacae is the rnsult of ozpKrionce: on that o* Cuba, ±~rom t.izd` best inrormation I iAv9 betin ::ble to obtai.M on tt;e sub$sat: :'hei plzntors rno first rais- ad tobacco nerH nad it made into cigarsowhicn tYieo sold at prices suf.*y ieientlT re+munerating to isutuce them to continue its eultivation. Each subsequent year produced a larger, silkier and More spotted leat, and in a few wears a snipmdnt was made to Hew vork ti,at realized sever.t-4_*ivH ce3nts per lb. The 'lctvice accomnanwin;; tice Account of sales wne, ttat it was owin: to ttce size, color, trom n dark brown to a deep mulatto color, silkinHse otnd t0w remarkable spot 3n it, making it. vhrr deasirable for cigar wrapnern, t2iAt, enabled t.oe coeaniasion raercrant, to realize ttut price; that it was ;desirpbld t.o forward it to market ae flRvorleis;c As poAaible; a l1 t,,a t,adte _ it tiad being rather btitt,or ttlnn oCcdrwise. Expurir.noe rws tasteid ind hroved t,iia justice o' tn1• "rivice. :Sany subsequent stiipmant.i •xere nµ+d,+ up to 1857, sel• lin~r ~'on :'rom 25 to 50 centa- ner lb.; i»ct r;i~;ar~ hvin;, a new and t"anc7
Page 321: rhz82d00
Jti.itC ut rturlua, Ct .ll., V. American Tobacco Co., et aL 124:20: 126:23; 145:11; 146:21; 152:8; 195:24; 210:19: 216:23 Surgeon 179:5. 11 surprise 207:15, 20; 208:1. 9. 20 surprises 208:16 surprising 208:8 surrounding 91:3; 131:5,6 surviving 89:8 suspicion 150:8 sustained 65:12 Sweatt 86:3, 4 sworn .i:22, 34:6; 230:6 sympathies 74:11 ~ 204:11; 205:4; 20G:5, 6; ~ 168:1 S, 24:188:14; I 223:23: 225:21 223:22, 23. 25; 224c6, 9. ~ terminal 137:9 20; 225:7 ~ terminals 164:15 today 97:3;141:3, 20; ~ terms 7:6; 8:9;18:15; 14 2:13; 143(4); 1 S0:19; , ~ 22:10; 27:15; 30:22; I 1G1:17;188:9;198:19; i 65:18; 72:3; 73:16, 21; 80:22; 93:7; 99:3,13; ~ 138:17;149:3:164:23: { 172:8:174:25;188:15; I 190:21:192:6; 205:20; 219:24 ~ testified 4:22;140:18; 142:14; 146:10 ~ testify 192:16;197:13 testimony 113:11; 141:13; 142:20; 145:20; 16 223 : textbook 127:5 T i-L-L-E-T T 57:14 table 69:6, 25 talk 57:1; 97:1;13G:5; 142:2: 143:24;146:13: 148:10c 188:17; 216:24; 226:6 talked 13:4; 21:3; 25:4; 71:14;104:19;140:9,18; 159:11; 228:24 talking 23:4, 9; 70:7; 81:4; 150:10: 152;5, 14; 215:12 talks 188:11 tangential 197:10 tape 4:G; G2:3;140:5; 226:13 task 75:11: 76:16,19: textbooks 127:14 Thanks 226:3 themselves 21:18; 129:13;130:18;169:14; 225:25 then-chair 125:14 thereabouts 48:7, 10 thereafter 51:6 therefore 142:12 thinking 56:21; 74:9 third 32:13; 155:13; 165:3.4;221:21 thorough 26:2, 3; 149:12, 12 thoroughly 38:5, 8 thoroughness 73:1 though 65:24;67:5; 208:17 together 49:4; 69:8 told 32:15; 36:24: 67:24; 87:8;110:15;140:15.19; 142:1;t46:8,14,17;' 165:6; 223:6; 228c11 .. took 42:19; 72:5: 90:10; 111:18,18 top 150:14 topic 20:23; 40:7; 8Q:19; 97:3;'129:7; 161:1; 224;23, 23 topics 32:4;135:14 ~ totally 150:22 tough 195:10 toward 138:13 town 5:21; 8:11,16 towns 70:12 trace 56:20; 204:25; 224:18 traditiona) 65:10; 74:5 traininp 19:3;31:22;'' 80:22, 23: 81:1, 5; 82:25 transpript 92iS; 2j0:10 tran*erred 22:6 transformsd 15:17 transptre 104:1 transpired 199a6 treatment 85:25 treatments 35:15 161:3.4; 197:18 140:17 1 trend 30:24 taste 13:10 thought 23:1G; 41:25; trends 73:17;74,17, 24 taught 11:13:134:21: , 57--9; G1:21; 64:25; 71:15; ~ tria18:12;113:11;196:25; 135:1 I 97:7, 22;105:5;112:18; 197:6 taxation 172:15 ~ 113:3; 153:13;178:2; tried 146:12 218:16 taxes 224(4) / - tries 26.;Z3; 47:25 . teach I 1:15• I thousand 52:24; 53:4 i thousands 39:13 Trinity 1S 13 teaches 134:11 I troubksome 91:.24 teaching 11:3, S, 21; i three 11:13; 29:17; 32:8; 55:9; 71:14; true 94i12;174:1, ; 135:17; 136:1 y: 137:17, 95:22; 211:6 ~ throw 71:20 + 180:24;191;16; 230:10 ' 24 Tillett 57(5); 58:4, 8 Trumsn 61,;4,13 ` teenagers 170:4 truncated 186:7 teeth 13:10 timeframe 136:13 trust 16;10 teie hone 105:15; times 16:25; 109:9,15; p 220:7,12 l truth 34:7;146:1;158:7; I 11/:16; 154:9 ' 179:18 imetabk 125:3 1 I television 92:18 1 try 25:9; 26•2; 34:12; ti.ning G1:22;125:1 48:5; 54:6, 23; 95:1, 3; telling 87:15: 119:14; ~ 21 G:17 titie 19G:8 126:24;141:12; 216:12 Ten 10:5:101:9,12; Toba.:co 4:8; 6:21;13:14; trying 23;11,; 24:23; 25:4; 215:19, 22, 24; 216(4); 16(5);173, 3.10;18:1; 75:22, 23; 95:10,12; 22u:12; 22G:G 87:G, 9; 9':16;127:21, 24, ~ 143:8; 181:25;182:2; tension 42:20 24; 128(4);129:8,10; ~ 200:25;20S:18c?14.14; , I :16 , i 130:13; 131:; 3; 136:3 216:16 tenure 39:3;99:19 I l45:15; 147:G;!49:15,17, Tucker tenured 99:22 21; 150:15;153:21;154:3; { 28.16 term 12:4, 10, 28:2, 4, 5: ~' 155:21; 156:11,15r;157:1, I Tuesday 111:5, 6 51:22: 129:22: 171:3: ! 10: 158(4); 159:4;160:21, i tuition.9:6 176.20; 188:16; 18y: i9; 21; 161:20: 162:1, 8, 24; turn 142:10.~11;143~23; 1)0:3. 12, 13; 203:18; ~ 163:G, 23;164:20; 165(71; 1 144:10 a. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. 11~htn-U•script4~' Augustus M. Burns, III, Ph.D. -May 9, 1997 turned 22:12; 46:16; 50;24,76:22;141:6; 142:12;144i9. turns 197:11 twice 144c16 tw04011;19:18; 23:12; 24:17; 2Ta6; 35:20; 47:11; 33:12; S8:2168:22, 71:14; 72:5; 74:12; 99:3}-. 13;102:8;103:11,19; 106:9;124:1q;127:4; 140:12;148:6;149s8,10; 1~ S0:12;152:21;133:4: 155;20;175:7;193:8; 211:17; 212;5: 217:11; 218:18 - typt1172:21; 213:6 typed 111:12; 212:20 typel/21:14; 24 11; ;, 182•10 typewr'hers 164:2,12 V U.S 49:20; 56:2;163t;18, ' ,19 unaeodptatite 43:1 unavailable 198:6 4lncertafn 182.1$ tiAdel' 30i3; 3S:ft,107:18; 108:7;124.2'•,;# 27:2. S undergraduqte 5;24; 12:3:.1333 Undergraduates 211:22 underlyln~ ~~:9 . ,.jn+~ersts tkbly 128:9, .16;129.8,,.. ; . tanderstood 7914; 153:18, 203:19 ., tJllderta~e.19:7; 86:16; 87:9; 97;19;~53:17; 156:3; 22''1'.1'0 undeAaken 869;162•3; ~ ` 204:18 undertak>Ap't8:2i; 71:8; 75:p; 98:19;153:23 ' • undertook 46;1,3; 34;1; ' , 104;13; 203:22 underway 125:17; 228:6 ,uniformly 28:1 Unintelligible 170:19 " uniop 5G 9 United 31:7; 33 6, 38:21; 53:20•i34 A 1224; 134;t0.1¢S'15;134'1; 179:5 url.tverpal31:1 unlvofeal~28 3 UriNiers1ty 9(4), 8 2S; 9:1,3,8,10:19;1213; 18:7,9,19•1,16'24." " 20:1 Z,,13,17; x8 9, 31:"S, 17, 24; 37:1 : ~:16,17, 98:12, 23; 99:12, 20, 25; 100:8, 21;102:14,16, 24; 103:13, 22;113:, 9; 116:8,17-117:2;121:13; 124:18;125:25;126:1; 142:4, 5;153:1,10; 166:2 1; 167:2; 168: 1; 212:10; 220:3; 227:8 unkss 102:5;152:14 Unpublished 21:19, 22 ~ unrelated 147:9 unsuccessful 138:15 unusually 75:21 unwilling 198:10 unwise 65:1 up 5:18, 20;10:3; 33:12, - 15;39:18;40:6;45:10; 72:10; 94:5; 105:8; 110:6; 111:2, 3;131:6;138:11; 139:2;155:3;164:14,17; .181:5; i86:1,11;189:14; 191 i8;196:6; 213:9; 218:4,21;219:14,23; 226:9 up-to-date 219:17 updated 218:23 upon 24:4; 29:8; 30:16; 164:1;192:22;193:21, 22; 195:5,` 17,19:196:12,16, 19 usage 224:20 use 13:13;14:9;19:17; 24:1; 28:2;"54:21;p3:21; 133:14;135:17; '137:T 147:23;1,72:13:176:20; 177:16; 223:23 used 12:4; 29:8; 67:14; 93:21;134:19;135:10,11; 136:.22;180(4);188:1 S; ; 1~0(4) ~use?ul 41;3; 45:13; 51:1; 58:10; G2:10,19; 66:11 usefulness 50:10, 25 ' using 12:11; 23:17; 220:16 usual 5:11 usualiy 21:24;136:6 utilized 190:9 v vague 155:24; 223:10 ; valuable S1 22c'55:16,' tn 18;77:15~'' value 40(4); 49:3, l0. ~, m 50:18; 54:16, 25: 55:22;'i w 89:22, 25 ' ~ vantage 60 3 ko varies 130,23 var.i~sty 70:20, 219:12 : various 20:15; 28:8; 30:1 0; 89:12;109:9; 134.14;153:22;163:21 24; 4~i;~•; .5~4), 6~ 18: I YAry 28:1; l 22:11 f•3:2x;84:i8;$7r,;4, .. " ~ vonturing 151:15 , f15) Surgeon - venturitlg
Page 322: rhz82d00
".... V. . .v, .v~, L. -4., .. 1 AUgUa[us M. tSut'nS, 111, Y11.U. Amerlcan Tobacco Co., et aI. 516 0 3 6939 May 9 1997 relying 228:19 remain 9:23 remainin 217•11 212:17 reporters 70:25 reporting 71: i; 79i 17; 86:G: 166:25; 178:16; 191:20, 22 reports 25:7; 70:20; 93:4; 175:7; 177:2I,24;212:15 repository 22:15 represent 105:21 repressntation 43:22 -representative 43:25; 186:21 represented 17:13; i!"+. 49:12 : reserve 141:9, 13; 167:14 resolve 113:8 16 resuFt 8:2; 76:4; 84:20; 87:25; 97:23 resulted 47:13 resumed 138:7 resuming 138:9 retain 16:12 retained 127:22; 215:2 returned 44:4; 146:3 reveal 74:17 revealing 57:12,16; 58:18; 59:19; 202:14 reveals 74:1;83:13; 192:8 19 , representing 17:25; ~ revenue 224:14 108:19, 25; 109:16; I review 22:11; 30:14; 110: 18: 114:18; 22G:21 41:11; 50:19; 64:3; 67:19; Republican 52:17, 25 ~ 74:22; 7G:5; 86:16, 21; Republicans 52:24 ! 92:23:96:6;12((4);121:4; request 86:17, 22; 94:25; ~ 125:18; 126:8,14, 21; 1 U3:4; 107:18, 24, 25; f 127(4); 136:17; 137:16; 113:9; 141:25; 155:23; ~ 160:6; 161(4);162:16; 1 G0:16: 161:14:162:12 ~ 164:2Q, 24;166:17, 20, 24; requested 34:20; 182:8 167:5, 24; 179:1; 187:3; require 19:22; 1U1:2; i 189:12,18;190:21; 1:34 :13:144 :1 U;161:1, 3 ~ 19G:23; 203:12c 204:3, 4: required 14:23 ; 208:23;209:6;217:25: ; 218:19; 222:1; 226:24; - requirements 1(x):10, i 227:11 25: l U 1:G reviewed 47:6, 7; 49:7, research 13:23.25; 14:4; i 18; 50: 1; 63:8; 65:19; I S:1. 3. 19:9. 17, 2U; 21:4, ~ 70:18; 73:11, 15; 78:19; 25: 24:24: 25:1. 12, 17; ; 83:9:8G:22; 120:16; 26:1. i. •i7:.i. 10, 24; 5U:y, , 121:C, 11. I5; 122:7,9, 24' ' ' 21: 55:: 6U:20; 72:3: 75:8; 80:5; 86:20, 23; 87(5); 88:13,17; 89:2, 5; 93:9„ 10, 12; 94:23; 97:9, 14, 24; 123:19; 124:13; 126:9; 127:15;147:25, 25; 160:18;164:5,6;165:3; 166:2:169:5;177:13; 1u9(4): 122:22; 128:3: ) 178:23;179:16;181:4; 134:4, 8:148:7;157:y; 1 182:22; 183:11; 184:8; 158:24:161:1, 5, 5;162:3, 1 187:10; 191:10;192:23: 4:165:25, 25;185:13,17; 194:5;197:13,15;199:5, 197:1 U: 202:13: 210:7 10; 209:6: 216:18; 217:22; researched 72:14 218:18: 221:20; 222:9,14 167:1;168:5;179:14; ~ 180:23,25;182;21; 183:13,209r1;218:22 revieVVS 131. a 2 revoh/11d 100:15;136:10, 11 Reynolds 5:6;6:21;7:7, 9;9:9,13,15;109,12:15 17,24; 17; 35:14; 47:8, 9; 50:2; ` 55:11, 23; 56:5; 71:20, 23; 144:22;165:15 Rice 32:12;`35:14; 47:8 rich 7:5; 149:19; 160:22 richer 49:12 richness 45:2f; 9T;2S right 16:17;18:11, 22:1p; 23:8; 24:2,15; 28 6; 33-0; 35:24; 37:19; 41:13; 42:3; 43:17; 49:25; 50:4,16; 52;12, 20; 53:5; 54:12; 59:13; 60:11; 63:4; 6$:8, 10; 96:18; i05:23;121:8; 122:4;123;17;1.24;25; 127:9;13QFi7;1$5:7 10; 153:15;138:19;164.ti14, ' 17;174:1; 201:25; 202:21; ' 220;13; 226:2 rights 115:7;141:9,14; 167:14 risk 13:13 ; ` risks 178:6; i88:13; ` 192:17; 203;10; 204:1, 24 roadhouses 123:9, 9, 16:124:2, 4 roads 75:7,15 Robert 32:12; 35:14; 47;8 role 14:21;18:15:57:18; " 115:13,15;146:4;197:24; 198:2; 223:22. 24; 225:10, 19 room 105:.18, 20, 21; " 111 c 17t 221,• 14,15 Rooseveh 61: t 5; 74:3; 137(4) Roosevelt's 61:5;137:22 roots 172:20 rotated 210:13 Roxboro 5:19; 8:16 : rules 5:12; 27:23, 25: 29:24; 30:22; 98:8,10,17; 99:9;100:5, 9,16;101:17; ' 102(4);103:7;124:24; 181:23 , . ruling 85:14 rulings 45:3, run 65:6 running 38:16; 49:23; ° 128:20 rural 123:13 f researcher 162:19 ' reviewers 73:2,G ~ researchers 37:13 reviewing 42:7;46:8; + A9:5 researchin 6G:1718 72 7 29:9 55:23 g ; ; , ' : : ; : 90:22; 93:22: 16U:20; ~ 72:2; 79:17; 90:20; 92:5; ~ saddened 138:15, 25 • 162:23 96:1; 162:10; 164:13; salary 220:2 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & ASSOC. M4n-U Scr3pt49 9 remains 194:2 i respect 79:9; 97:14; remember 10:7; 95:10. ~ 145:20:172:20, 24; 12, 18: 97:6; 189:1 218:20 remembrance 157:13; responded 104:13; 189:5 112:1 removed 189:19 ' response 75:16,18; 107:25; 113:14;138:23 render 71:25 responses 205:20 repeat 34:17;1W:12; : responsibilities 75:9 216:g1; 182:G; 201:4; ~ responsibility 85:11 repeatedly 207:5 + rest 74:11;144:12; 164:16 report 157:9; 175:8; ; restatement 159:13 192:5. 5 ~ restrict 92:21; 100:6 reported 157:17;185:23: ~ restrictions 93:14,15, Salems 1oii2 . , seems 203:17 sales'224:9," ' segments 56:24 11 Eame 27:1,6; 67:13; segregation 65:14 85:24;108:14;118i13; select 120:23 ' 122 15r i 23:21;124:1, 5, selected 226:23 1;159 8;1731;178:17, se11209:19; 224;2, 3, 5 19, t9,182:2,~, 25;183:13; 184•if,13;185.5;191:1; Senate 31'7; 32:7; 33:23; 200:~4, 2!(; 202:4; 204:7; ` 34:1, 4; 35:12; 36:11; 205: 6 9; 206:25; 207:17, 46:17; 49:21; 56:1, 2; 23; 208:5,11.r 18; 209:7, 62;12; 65:1; 83;18; 86:7; 20; 222;19 ' 91:;;131:6;138:3; S,~ndy 227:21 198:13;199:7 ' Sansin9193•11;194:6; Senator51:18; 53:21; 222:17 54:6; 55:1; 68:7 SARNER 5;9,9;'14S:t5 send 143:17;217:16,16 sat,187:8 senior 8:24 sstisfkd.55:3 . . sensational 73:20 •aving 173:11, i4' i sense x6A8,30:5;45:4, saw 143:7, 8; 222:17; 19; 74:6; 75,2;76:2; 79:16, 228:23, 23 18,19; 82 8,19,; 97 3; 100:2;109:11;12215,18; sa'ytny 45:12, 59:1 S; 13Q:21;153:11;154•:24; 70:15; 73:12; SS:7; i.05:2; ' 156:1, 24;160:17;178:15; 109:14;119:2;146:7; `190:14; 225:13 159:6;163:2;-188:16; sent 142:7; 214(4); 191:13~ 25;194 a 4 215:13; 216:2,1, 10; 217:10. s"ne 131:21 10, 21; 224:14 scheduled 54:10 sentsnce 151:13; scholar 156:2 194:U; 1p5:6 scholariy$05;123:18 ' series I20:23;122:8; Schola4hip 8:2, 22c 198:18; 202:4; 210:5 20:7;73:1 serlous 46:18 scholarships 7:19, 24; serve 39:4 10:22;19:25;-: , ' service 108:12;143:13, school 5:22, 23; 7c17, 20; 15 8:3;11:16;12*32:6; Services 4:14; 2Q:9,10 ~81:24,84:18;85:8;116:Cr; sessitin 51:15;140:1; 122:13.16 220:21 schooiing 10:18 sessions il:i4 ' schools t 1:2i; 81:21; set 24:22; 29:7, 23; 30:4; 04:10;122:14 . 131:1; 40:20; 63:10; schooReacher 8;7;11:9, 106:10,17; 209:7; 215:1, l0 8; 219:10; 230:5 science82:4,6,11 setting20:t2;34:t4; sclencei'103:12 41:10; 53:6, 6; 77:1 S: soientlfic 191:5 106:18 scientist 191:18 seven 220:20; 226:12 scope 24:11, seventies 189:16 Re 79:12 seventy 52:24 ieal 230:1iS several 68:19, 24;101:8; search 47:17 122:3; 123:22; 129:23; seat 49:24 181:20; 229:2 Second 39:3;42:18; severe 137:10,12 53:12,15; 54:2, 9; 6613, shakes 201:14 2Q 21; 6y:9, 22; 68:9,17; shape 114:24; 133:12; 69:12;'71.24, 25; 77(4); 209:16 149:3, So 50:10,11; shaped 197:20 151;13;1,57:21;1S8i20. shaping 160:24:197:24 secondaty 11:9 ` shared 142:15 secret 45:19 , sheer 26:14 secretarial 213:2, 3 1 shined 74:14 seoretafy ¢1:5 ~ *hipped 213:13 sectors 157:4 shook 185:25:186:2,10 seeing 44;8;47:23:1973 short 52:3:54:10; seek.l 12:11,18;161:22 I 122:16; 229:10 _,_...._...~.._...,~- (1?i) relylng - short
Page 323: rhz82d00
-(•• Mr. Boatman's group IV. Vnderstanding future responsibilities A. Job Satisfaction 1. Emotional a. Personal desire b. Pride in work--satisfaction from doing job rrell c. Realization of personal capabilities and limitations of self and job 2. Soci al a. Relationship with associates b. Time availab7.s for leisure c. Working conditiono. 3. Rconomic a. Cost of preparation in tims aad money b. Actual inoome c. Possible advancement d. Provision for retirement B. Planning for marrisg~ 1. Selecting a mate tIt Mas felt that students should be gui in developing an inventory or oheoklist-for mate selectic a. Recognition of raoial and interfaith differences (1) Prejudices Conflicts M More difficult adjustments b. Studying characteristics of prospective partner (1) Physical ( a Health status (b) P2ysique or body build ( c ) t}roomi ng (2) Emotional (A) Temperment 4b~ Stability (o Cooperation--ability to give and take (3) Socia7, (a) I+eisure time activities (b) Acceptance by other people 1. Femi7y , 2. Frienas 3. Strangers (4) Personal likes and dislikes (~) Ideals (a) honesty (b) sin.oerity 4 (o) morals (d) security 2. Courtship and engagement a. Piv, sical and emotional experiences (1) Social approval (2) Self epprovol. (3) Mutual respect b. Counselling (i) By minister (2) By hysician ( a Hereditary faotors (b Femi]y plaaning
Page 324: rhz82d00
B. Alcohol rubdown for bed patients, p. 83 C. Learning about alcohol and tobecco, pp.115-134 1. Two Problems 2. Nicotine and Tobacc --per cent of nicotine absorbed 3. mo ing by Adults 4. Alcoholic Drinks 5. Effects on Body Functions 6. Alcohol and Health 7: Alcohol and Automobile Accidents 8. Different opinions about alcohol D. Alcohol and Driving, p. 243 The presentation of the material concernir.g alcohol and tobacco is scientific end objective. It gives in.orzation clearly and states that no person s:ould drink before he is tvientf-one. Eis decision then should be based on a critical view of all the dartgers',and expenses involved. Two young men in the 1948 class took exception to the followir.g state- • ment; they felt that it Justified smoking too r:uch: "The bodies of somee individuals who smoke regularly become ac.ustor..ed to the presence of njcoti::e; thus this d-ug c:ay not affect then so .~nuc:: as it does other persons," p. 118. This vrould not alter the possibility that T.any individuals are injured by the drug. The r~.aterial in this book is very Eocd with this exceptior.. 9TH GRAD2: Cs oC. ? - n: r .: t a::. r-z`.' ..n .r 47...°.''L='?.•i.^.CJlktl: ^.:.3 ..r: r~. _ . . .. Cv-!pcny, ... ::1co:.01 1. As a solvent, p. 136 2. In t'.:e rmos:eters, p. 151 3. Dn:gs and mental health, pp. 49E-4°9 crro:s : ~ ; "iior,:,al people do not drink alcohol to excess, e.^.d r,iost of them do not drin:: at all," p. 497. This statement could crell.be challeaged by the'thinking 9th grade student; there are 60 Million drin::ers in our ATation, with 4,000,000 excessive drin.lcers. Fran!: discussiori on such points leads•to clear thintcing and better evaluation of the problem. 3. T ^'-.,~ac^~o, pp. 500-501
Page 325: rhz82d00
.00.MO.NOW c,sA -T TOBACCO IA PLiRIDA. (Bros DsBow's Reviewj Vol. 2; Pagw 2541 0otober,1846.) Ilam the satisfaotorr esperimante,whioh have bsen made in the oultur. Of Tobaeoo in Ploridra, there i..; e"17 .qro*peot of its beoaaning the staple of tue Stato. It is reprlsentei an of a very superior qualitT, and ca4osanis a prio. In NeR York ranging from 40 to 80e. The last season was, howevOrs a rvrT wntMvorable or~, notwithstanding whioh, the r.sults Mere of a oharaoter to satisty the most skeptical, of ttw atvantages to be teriwi from ats cnl. tnire In that 3tat.. vte maT, therotor., reasonably look for a large increase In the coming, over the crop of tia past re". 1850 3. pi.MIDA TOBACCO -- pLORIDA PRODUCTt. . ( Pr'om DsBow' s ReView j Vol. 8 3 Page 157; .%bruarT,1880. ) +.e are gratified to l.ara that our t3aisl en CountT frionss have maie fine crops of the valuabio tobacco whioh, they cultivate so sucoessfnllyj and we are also infonrst thst they obtain''a good prie, for the artiole, purchasers being rsaiy anl . an%ious to by, which shows that tcvs supply by no means dxoeeis the t emand. It is not generallT known In the United St4tes ttut the tobacco above referred *.o, and wh3oh has as yet been erown no wtwrs to any ez0ent except In Oadsden countT, finds a readT market In Qermany, beir. prinoipallV shipped to Bremen, andd pays the planter as high as tweatT• five cents for the first qualitT. What makes the culture of tobaaoo so profitablo to the planters, is the fact that it is almost a surplus arop'-- tbar being able to make a tobacco arop, and at the sams tias to make three-quarters of a cotton crop, and enouQh prorrisions beai4e. Pbddor oennot aell be made with tobaoeo, but th. loss of ttyts: brQp may be oaap.naated perhaps by tt~s haV, which we leara same of our planti4rs manage to oure from the grass to be toumd In ttw fiolds. As yet none but n.w landa have b.en cultivated tor tobaeao, tkye out•wora prevailing to such an extent In the old lands as to prove very destructive to the plant; Re have no sioubt, howewr, but that the skill and energT of our 19nrolers will enabls . ttists to provide a remedT for this ewil, and tisat all rich and strong land, having the riant kind of caemiaal canstituents in ite soil, will by mado to produce good tobacco. 7kutt with eudar, riod, irndigo, tobacco, sea island, and atlort staple cotton, tropical Tuits-••- productions ahioh our soil will yield and our -soil will allow ot being cultivated with suoceAs-- the live oak, Juniper, oddar and pitch pine, o.*f our forests -- our tur-
Page 326: rhz82d00
12TH GRnDE Society'Faccs the Future - by Ruth Wood Gavian. Publisher: D. C. Heath and Company, Atlanta, 1938. (State Adopted) "The Menace of Propaganda", pp. 529-531 Sportsmanlik8 Driving - Published by American Automobile Association, Washington 6, D. C., 1947. (State Adopted) A. Alcohol 1. Cause of accidents, 3. 55. 2. Driving after taking, pp. 54-55 3. Effect or. reactioA time, pp. 54-55, 74 4. L:aairs judgcmant, pp.•5_-55 5. Texts for into:acstion, pp. 55-;,8 The a~:aterial is scientifically sound, ~Chall,~en e~s to American Youth - by Joseph Irvin Arno`ld. Publisher: Row, ©teP rson and Company, Evanston, Illinois, 1948. (Stz t3 ..dopted ) A. Cor.ferences, treaties and organizations, p. 476 During its existen ce the Leag•.e of ?'at=ans was helpful in dealing on a volunta rjr basis with many economic problcms'and'social problems including t raffic in opium and liquor. 3. Lental Disease, p. 558 C. bental Health, pp. 566-568 The write:s of this text are to be cor.gratulated upon"including material on alcohol in the chapter given to Liental Health. fiowever, some of the errors cor.,--non to writings about alcohol have been included, namely: A. "Alcohol paralyzes the 1•rhite corpuscles, of the blood which preserve hcalth. Muscles, nervcs, liver and even protoplasm aro harmed by it. ' It is a nar cctic thct is a?:ar:-.:uL drug. It is not merely a stimulant," p. 5664 "Other causes are the disccses of chiljhood, syphilis and alcoholism in parents--crcc3bly bacause syphilis and clCoholis.m dcstroy colls which have to do with the building of the brain," p. 558. - 25 - ~ m . , ~ m
Page 327: rhz82d00
6. Dating a. Eow to get dates b. Going steady (1) Reasons and implications of going ste (2) Girls need coaching in responsi'biliti~ (3) Sweetheart influence (a) Girls mpr act as a steadying influence on athletes (other school activities too) c. Difference between deep friendships and affection and love between boy and girl (1) Discuss in generalities the difference between love and affection (2) Success of marriage with maturity, variety of friendships d. Meeting community social standards (mores) e. Helping develop responsibility f or own behavior f. Responsibility to girls parents and to own parents g. Acceptable sctivities for dates h. Acceptable places for dates i. Drinking and smoking and the growing person (1) Scientific approach to the subject (2) Guide them in setting up their own standards ~. Dress--clothee suitable for the occasion k. Recreation . (1) Planning things to do (2) Learning varied activities thru coeducational ar. corecreatioaaS activities 1. Economic (importsnce of learning value of money) (1) Aow much money to spend in dating (2) Allowances, use of fami3,y car (3) Working to secure funds for date (baby sitting) m. Personality development (1 How personality is developed (2~ Discussion of advertising "hocump n. Venereal diseases (1) Ade ate informatioa (arScientific and unemotional eatgle--not the fear angle Pupil-teacher relationships 1. How develop mutual respect and understanding 2. Crushes--Individual teaycher must handle situation 0. Pupil-pupil relationships 1. 8saial and religious understanding 2. Homosexuality (Could be brought out in Child Development) a. Case studies b. Situations D. Pupil-group relationships 1. Leadership and followership a. Character of leaders. Pollowership 2. CliQuess gangs, clubs, fraternities and sororities 3. Respect for rights of others (Political, property rights. and the non-Joiner) 4. 8ero worship S. Group friendships, church# school, neighborhood ~_A rn m w m
Page 328: rhz82d00
Preensnoy and fatal growth sTaats of bife. p Personality development Boy-girl relationship (Heterosexual sAjustmsnt) Datind, petting, necking Coeducationai recreation You and your family Psrent-child relatioaship Love and mate selection Problems of marriage counsellits6 Interfaith and interraaial msrriages Mjustment in marriage Msrrisge lavs, venereal diseases Recreation Adult education to parallel material given in secondary school It was felt by the droup that the above items, should in some manner be covered within the unitt or suffioient evidence must be had that these items rere covered elsewhere and if so that suitable impiication had been Sivea:at to their importance in Family Living snd 8uman Relations: Some time was spent on cis,rtfication of terms, setting up areas, eto. Each group then went to werk to set up tentative course out- lines based upon the expressed neads. At the afternoon session on Bridey the final outline was decided upont Understanding ourselves s the family p others " future responsibilities The work assignments for the three groups were ss folloKS= Dr. drantls group •Motivating devices • Vnderstsruling ourselves • • Vnder standing the family Hiss Gilbert's group Vnderstending others Mr. $oatman Understanding future responsibd• iitiea After breakfast Saturdsy morning each group reported in turn as followst Dr. Grant's group I. Understanding Ourselves A. Motivating Devices 1. Oenersl a. 1're-tests or questionnaire Stories (or pamphlets) such •as National 7ortuo Series "Letters to Jaaepby Sbuitz (ldppincott Co.)
Page 329: rhz82d00
FLORIDA HISTORIC • DRAMATIC • CONTEMPORAR Y By J. E. DOVELL, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Scimtce, College of Arts and Scienccs, University of Florida VOWaE I LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHINC COMI'ANY, l\'C NE1V YORK ,- __"'. STM UNMIN
Page 330: rhz82d00
RRCONSTRUCTION, 186S-i8;6 575 incompetent and immoral officials. and open and vinlcnt npposition bv the majority of the old ruling class. The ease nf thc accnmplishmcnt of _raft and corruption was accountable to thc clc,rcncration of political moralitv. In addition, Ackerman found that "the Senatc and Asscmhl% • juurnals of the period indicatc with startling clariry ... that the Democratic mcmbers werc not nnlv a-illirn„ but anxious, to vote for (Courtesy Columbia County Cbaraber of Commerce) Tubacco Auction, Lvkc City the passage of expensive legislation. Without commenting on the rather strange code of ethics that would sell out a fricndlv constirucncv in order to dibcredit an opponent, the fact remains that, wich the houses of the legislature almost balanced ... it required h(u a small interested portion of the Republican members to pass embarrassingly obvious, partisan legislation with the aid of the Democratic mem- bers. It is equally obvious chat the Democrats fought many of the better pieces of legislation in t>rdcr to prc~•cnt unwanted credit from bcing attached to the Republican administration. This was particularlv noticeable in the annual attempt to restore the State's financial credit bv fundinst the state warrants and certificates."t=' ~ ~ Regardless of the chnrgcs and the countercharges. improvement from 1868 to 1876 was made in public education, in a penal system. ;~n intermediate court svstem ot circuits, labor lien statutes. revision of the civil and criminal codes, humestead
Page 331: rhz82d00
alcohol enters the blood strea-a, where it eoes rapi3ly to all parts of the body. Body te=)erature is lo;c•ered because of the relaxed nervss that control t:ie capillaries in the skin. Blood flo~rs to the s:cin e.nd heat is lost.° 2. On paCe C-5 the st: A:e:ien•c is made-thct alcohol also may change sor..e of tL•e muscle cells to fat. There is no evidence that this is true. ":1ny ef.''ect on the heart is largely due to vitamin deficiency, and , should be thus explained," Dr. Roe'(1). 3. In the very good section concerning, "Can Alcohol Help Us Solve Proble.as," pp. 160-162, the aMount of beer, taken by the subject and the age of the subject should be stated. The Hee.lt_hy Home and Corr¢sunity - by Andress, Go:dberger, and Hallock. ~u lisners ~~n ai~d Company, Atlanta, 1939. (Out of adoption) A, Alcohol On the T:itness Stand, pp. 114-128 1. Hovr Does Alcohol Affect the Body? 2. Does Alcohol Sharpern t:e Senses ? 3. Does Alcohol Lessen Fatigue? 4. Does Alcohol Help People to 1or'.: Better? 5. Is Alcohol "Good Hedicine" ? 6. Is Alcohol 2Jutritious ? 7. Does Alcohol Have Any Aff ect on Length of Life? 8. Is Alcohol a Eelp or a Burden to the Cofimunity? Revenue from and cost to goverr_ment? pp. 128-129 3. Tobacco 0~`1:e :7itness Stand, ,,pp. 129-131. A.mount of nicotine absorbed? p`.-12T. C. The Cc.se :;:'_r.st Cniu.r, Coc: =se, c nd ~ir ijuana, pp. 131-135--:That is :.:crijuana? Strtss t::ct t::e:•e is no federal rArijuana larr. There is one norr. D. The Dangers of Self-:.:edication, pp. 135-137 This book ,ives considerable space to alcohol, tobacco, opiw-i, cocaine, Marijuana a::d selz'-:°iedieatior.. The tr:atmer.: is seier.tifie and objeetive. ed • . ro corrections are indicat T. The ap^roac : to the alcohol problea is particularly good in this text. The one exception is given belo•rt. There is little 'evidence. as to hort alcohol effects the nerves. It is much easier to measure the results that follow the taking of alcohol than it is to determine ho:v the effects are produced. i:ore stud,f is bein; done in this area. "ihe effects of alcohol on nervous tissue is believed to be due.to the fact that the fatty substance in the nerve cells reedily ?bsorbed alcohol," Ln p. 116. m m » )d - l3 w _J m W m
Page 332: rhz82d00
elfouth Comes of Age' tCr Pieroe (McCraw) "A Girl 3rows IIpR by Fedder (MqGraw) wLove and Marriages by Magonn tHarper Bros.) Demonstrations Visual Aids in classroom Projects Panels Roundtables Checklists Discovering personal problems Qaestion box Case histories from newspapers Specialists In field Library browsing Radio and movie influence Yield trips such' es museums, children's homes, nurseries, eto. 2. Specific a. Census of heights and weights In class aad compare with parent s Cenlus of heights and weights W compare with charts Discussion of idA.ividusl hereditary patterns In alass Discussion or movie on individual differences2 fact that they are normal 8. PkVsioal growth during adolescence 1. 8ereditary differences 2. Rates of development, growth and abilities 3. Sex differences (anatomCr) u. Health habits a. Diet b. Personal hygiene c. 81sep d. Exercise e. FRlaxation, eto. C. Mental and Emotional 4rowth 1. Effeat of plVsical growth on the total personality a. Sizet heigbt, weight, musaular aoordination, physical handiaapss eto. 2. Behavior patterns 3. Academic achievements W capabilities : 4. Mental 27giene ( approaohing wnd solving problems) g. Development of individnsl standards a. Spiritual* morals. idealt, eta. D. Social drowth l. Adjusting to social requirements a a. Comroon courtesies, group standards In erA out of schoc etc. 2. Responsibilities a. Personal •(1)• Leisure~•timel eta: b. Civic • Ln °(1) Respect for'property, laws, a~}stoms, eta, 0 E. Growth of Economic coacepts,, W 1. Vnderstaekling value of moner V U7 W
Page 333: rhz82d00
•ll)I411:C0 i.I:AF. f.6is T1uri1L•t Suma!ran rtt•dlc:tf is sl>rciaily alt.ractive.f4 Ihe pl:mti•r. INY•:nisc, utidcr l.iue sante conditions, 'Y avcraRes wurr. INnwds of curcd It•af 1N•r Ncre than 46, mbri rarirlirs brrt•tuforc I;rown in h'lurid:t. Sinnabrsu rw•dlcaf makrs tiIN) Iwlunds tuult•t• acera};e conditioui, altd :ts hi;;h as ItNNI to 1'liN/ INpiumlx hate lw•cn claimed tn a ft•tc iu:,l:turrs. \Ir. (•iu•rt-, wlw had 1a/) acres Stuuatr:ut <<•edL•af uuJer his eIru-gt: in l''brida in 1896, ri•INIFI:: ctn avt•raggo uf atNt lNntuds of utcrtatxnl•ablo cnr~ lear IK•r acre. Itk•in., so ulreil;ht iu l;rowtlt, plants a% Ft•t 11 to IS incht•s :yxtr/., in ru.es l.hrtvelttud onc-Imlf ts: fi)ar fert :+p:trt., giving to INNI 1a 12!NNI plattts Itcr acre. tad. N. It. Atlwwlir, W Ito hax d4,u4• utaclt tar devclop ths industry as prcsidt•nl uf Lht• Ft1wrida lohacast gr•owecs'; aca>,a:tti,rn, :tml in whmt tse are f;reatly ittdetotcrl f tnuclt infownr:ttion, rrlwn•1xlhativilh prolw•rtarc>;ercuty-, lire IMr ccttl ot Lhe crolr will lie line A wrappers, ths l,alantrt sKti)rrl•, hinden: and tilit•rs. : II1tIN/r1/Y) rw•d ix tcry oh•lieNlt•, bnt lhnt from t4 first ur st.ronot mar':: •_rotrth in Fi-brifl:t is mnch tuoA hardy. liut ctt•n in Norihcrn Ffopritla, it is never safs lo rKtw Ilti, varieIv Irdurte Ihe tniddle ot March, 6y shiCTt Iitut• atltrr. :na a•nall} Itau.a~l:wltd, lu Gads- den cuunly. ott llu• l:uif -sidr. tirutnalr.tn sc:allatt is Lran<hlanlcd ax t•u-11 aa Alkril I (to lo. lfudcr favortahhl' comdilions, it. i,. a r:tpid gntwcr, :tn4l wil.6iu 441 W5tl days will :ttt:rin Iba remarkahle hirht ilf sis 1op cight feet, wt~ when in ttnmer ninc top 11•u feet. It has hecn found Iwsl, oot 10) lolo, Ihe plant al a11, :tnal if at. all, not until alHoul fuur-lifllttc uf tiva Icatr4 hace Ixa•n harvtsttYl. Sunu• liqp in `!/ lracc,. whilt• AiILeI:s gcl.:ll) to 40 leavel on i.l1e t:tller p1:uilc. I::n•1Y planleo) Slun:li.r:t is withoni slMil•', bul. lltc later pl:wlcd rrulb i. Fpuilicd. If tho IC 1NN/r, nr llue se:tcuu AIry, -co Iltat. •rnw-l•1t is >;luw•, or the 111:tul. is I41Iqa•'1 14w1 luw. 16t• IeatrR are f.ltick, dai and cotnlntralively uudo.~irahlr. I larscslin+; of tho cadO 51603 6968 (YIOAR LF.AF AT TiIE 11'},yT ANll SOU111. 411 ,pop is tlono frmn .lmte 15 to Soptcntiav i:a, br hrr:tking Og (or "lrrhniti.g••) thc lt•aves as faqt :t;z thi t• ••grck." 3.ct it bo nntrd Ihat lbc wnni "sIN-ek" ia n=Ml fnr ••ripc." h)dreil. this carirty of wr:tlqp•r Ir•af n)u=t 114 be alloat•ed 1.41 ftllll• rilMn, as itc Icctiue :niii its INltitilar •and delicate iight la•:t-grci•nish buo will be sIN.iI!•d ht• ` di il eepenngnln lte "Lrow-n and sear." (lie lca%cs are ttllttw•tti) ln rila•n,•ihcc make a Fotpil Gllcr, Itettcr still aftcr one or uwt•e yeat•.s' reItraluction in Florida. If hsrvested beGtlc July 1, a FcrnntI crop m:ty tM grown on tlte snntc land. In h:n•vc.Miu;; Iho t.sba••co crop, the stalk is trot cut ttttlil fhc I4•ares are al1 f;athere,l. A- soou as lhe loacr 1eavt•s arc rt•ady to harvrrt, thry are plaeked 6y It:nul, t•:ri•eftttlv I:rii1 in ba-41•t5 Cn.Cred .citlt burlap, and britttRl+t in t•arl, dcsigncd fair Ihic oce to a tent at one eud 4)f tltc cnring barn. 'I'hrtv air f~bnr (oick- iogs at tiiRcrcnt. timcs are utK•essarr, to 11a114Ile tiM allnln crop. '{be field work is all done Uy ncgnMa, w hn are paid 75 cents pcr da}•, anii :Ire mitlcr ahite Faperin- tAllllelit S. Fur hangin;; in f he haro, lallts are used. They are decply notchcd at une cud trith a eaa•, sud inlel Ihece dtts the corJ is dratru, w•hu•h Itulds thl. 1e:t.ec. Girle ;or 1x,ys striug llte leavcs on tltcse corJc aith t ncttille inado for this poiriKose. 'I'he girh get 20 ceuts IMr 11KI IathsAUd will wnuctimcsstrin}; :I5tt per dnc. The lea.eo luu)g face to f:n•e antl back to b:tck, a fingcr brra'lth part, 40 to 5A /t--ccs to a lath, as shown in I:iL,. 12.-.. The laths hang front four to sis iuchcz apart on thc )ioks in the lutrn, snd a Larn holds fioim NI./NI+) I.o 26,000 lath, bcing filled in 1 dac car day aud a half. The barn Coring is doue much ats it is at. the with careful attfilitloll to vcutilation aud nu)isturo•. bltt Rith- t artificial hcat, as white ccin and lalc huru «•ern to ;be nnknoa•n. The cure is tlsUallc contplctcd witltin 35 tol0 days, when tho grcen color has disalipcared from
Page 334: rhz82d00
Msq Florida am Tobacc, lorida holds a special place among the States 4 the Union in tlie long history of tobacco in Annerir Its share in that history was long indirect, and its tsm ticipation in the tobacco industry came late. When that participation did come it resulted in nv types of tobacco, world-famed centers of cigar manu facture, an export trade in wrapper leaf, and a souuce t income for a large labor force. These agricultural an industrial phases have been maintained and some ( them have been expaiwled. Today, the farmers of Florid produce cigar wrapper, and Oue-cured tobaccos for cig: rettes, its workers manufacture great quantities of cigar while its people represent a market of economic inqw tance to the tobacco industry. as~. ,
Page 335: rhz82d00
(Coune.y Orlando Chaiaber o( Commaes) Business Section and One of the City's Thirty-Three Lakes, Orlando Constitutional Unionists was underwa,v. The state militia was abolished, an execu- tive council to advise and approve the governor's action was created, and anti- monopoly laws repealed before the assembly adjourned within two weeks of its commencemenc. M. D. Papy, W. D. Barnes, and James A. Wiggins were ap- pointed to the new executive council, but Milton's attacks on the agency secured sufficienc public support to bring the abolishment of this plural executive in the following December at the next session of the legislature. Among the other measures enacted at tht 186 r and 186: sessions of the legis- lature was an authorization for a county tm to be levied for the relief of the dependents of service men. Another measure allowed banks to suspend payments in specie from January 06: until a year subsequent to the end of the war. A fund of a:s,ooo was appropriated for the benefic of sick and wounded veterans and the public domain, claimed by virtue of secession. was opened for sale at one to two dollars an acre, but service men were allowed a seventy-five percent discount from these prices. In order to meet the increasing expenses of the war effort the Confederate congress provided that planters should sell a set percentage of their produce to the general government for Confederate bonds. In the federally occupied areas a direct war tax of $77,000 was imposed on the state and the property of evaders was made liable to confiscation. To offset the rigors of Confederate property impressment the 1863 legislature sought to control government agents by civil law. A quota system for cotton and tobacco acreage was instituted in the hope I ID
Page 336: rhz82d00
RECONSTRUCTION, ( 86q-i 876 575 incompetent and immoral officials. and open and violent opposition by the majority of the old ruling class. The casc of the accomplishment of graft and corru tion was accountable to the clct,rcncracion of political moralitv. In addition. tlckn found chat "the Senacc ancl Assembly journals of the perioJ indicate with sta~~~~"'g clarity that the Democracic members were not nnlv willing, but anxious, to vote for (Courtesr Columbia County Cbamber of Commerae) Tobacco Auction, Lake City the passage of cxpcnsi%•e legislation. Without commenting on the rather strange code of ethics chat would sell out a friendly constituency in order to diacredit an opponent, the fact remains that, with the houses of the legislature almost balanced ... it required bnc a small interested portion of the Republican members to pass embarrassingly obvious, partisan legislation with the aid of the Democratic mem- bers. It is equally obvious chat the Democrats foughc many of the better pieces of legislation in o(•dcr to prevent unwanted credit from being attached to the Republican administration. This was particularly noticeable in the annual attempt to restore the State's financial credit by funding the state warrants and certificatcs."'=' Regardless of the charges and the countercharges. improvement from 1868 to 1876 was made in public education, in a penal system, an intermediate court system of circuits, labor lien statutes, revision of the civil and criminal cudes, homestead
Page 337: rhz82d00
16 FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH BUREAU OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES F. A. Bridc, M. D., Director CANCER Everybody s Business Cancer is not infectious or communicable according to best authorities and is not inherited although in some families there. does seem to be an inherited predisposition to cancer. While there is no known specific means of prevention, yet there is much to be done to reduce the incidence, suffering and death rate from cancer. For every 100,000 people in the United States there are 92 deaths from cancer each year. Of all the men and women now living, one in ten will die of cancer, according to statistics. These figures should make us realize that cancer is really everybody's business. Chronic irritation in some form often:precedes the beginning of cancerous growth. Decaying teeth, pyorrhea, moles and other skin imperfections.that are continually irritated and lacerations of the cervix produced at child birth are among the numerous conditions that are often followed by cancer. The okers • t~ ' w 11 known example, appearing at a point on the 'u r to_ngue~chafed ~tlescAnyone can do; then. to keep f rom having cancer is to have dental work attended to without delay. induce prompt heuiing of injured pirts. ukers. lsceratioiu, etc.. aroid comstant local irritation of every: sort, consult the doctor about sores that do not heal and about the removal of moles, warts and similar growths. particularly if there is a=-+Cbange ie thac">saze : or,, appeatance. _ Early ~ecognition Cancer is often cured if recognited before it has spread and involved _ large` areas or formed "secondariea ' f rom pieces that are broken off and carried to other , parts of the body. Any iump:'especially an=the breast. My irregular bleeding or discharge. Any sore that does not heal. Persistent indigestion accompanied by loss of weight. should lead one to suspect cancer and seek expert mecFical advice. If the family physician is in doubt, he will seek council or refer the patient to someone especially skilled in recognition of cancer. If cancer is recognized in the early stage. a great deal can be done and many lives saved but our hope of cure lies in early resort to surgery. X-ray and radium. While complete cure is not to be 'expectea in all cases, the alle- viation of suffering and lengthening of life are objectives worthy of within reach in ne:vly; all.. eases. , ---- -- - FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 17 CHILD HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING Mrs. Laarie Jean Reid, R. N., Director PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL NURSING E: All poblic health nursing should be based upon the following fundamental principles: Preliminary to the establishment of any nursing service, a study should be made of community needs; this to be followed b eriodic y p studies to determine the adequacy of the service in relation to the development of the community. The work should be sponsored by a representative group, not by an individual. 71u agency should be non-sectarian and non- political in spirit and service, without distinction of race creed or , color. The constituted health authorities should be recognized as the official leaders in community health work. Adequate records should be kept. Every appropriate opportunity For co-operation with other agencies and individuals should be utilized. Only graduate and registered nurses should be employed. Health teaching :to family and community should be considered an essential part'`of the work of every nurse. PROFESSIONAL FTHiCS S!-IOULD BE OBSERVED FA1TH- ~ FULLY AT ALL TIMS ;. Provisions should be made for spstematie, educative supervisions ~~ of the nurse or nursing staff. The work:ug hours of the nurse should :' be limited and vacation periods and leave of absence should be pro- ° ~xkd for.. ~.` 7Tie school twrse must be fatniliar, with ai1 local-and state laws : governing her employment and :the protection of childr+en. The school healt6., service must be both educational and temedial with eanphasis on prcwer,tive education. The nurse must have understand- ing of the school program as a whole and of her part in it. her tela- ; p t~~l public welfare workers and agencies, and in the schools Periodic health examinations by physician and nurse. or inspec= tions by nurse, at least once yearly. preferably eerly ` in the school terro. with a secondary inspection second term, of all new pupils ` entering school. Follow-up service by home visits, and other methods to hsias ,' about eorrection, of dcfccts found by inspection. a Protection of health through prevention and control of disease, including immunization, teaching of health habits. health knowkdge. ` and correct diets. etc. . If possible the work should be so planned that each school and . district shall receive regular visits and the schedule of visits should Tss9 E09T5
Page 338: rhz82d00
REAGTION 6:7 small farmer, and, with a few exceptions, the culture of tobacco was a lost art."11a During the war the production of wrapper leaves in Borneo and Sumatra replaced the Florida product. In 1886, Henry R. Duval, president of the Florida Central and Peninsular railroad, imported Sumatra seed with which a new beginning was made in Gadsden councy. The Florida leaf so impressed New York dealers that a company was organized and placed several hundred acres in production before i890. Within eight years, by 1898, over four thousand acres of tobacco were being cultivated in Gadsden and surrounding counties. Until 1895 tobacco remained a north Florida crop, but with the gr,~eat freeze of that year erstwhile citrus producers began the planting of tobaceWn'central Florida. Through the encouragement of railroad land and industrial agents tobacco plantings were made from Gainesville south to Bushnell and east as far as Orlando. The iqoo census showed 2,056 acres in tobacco prtiduction with an annual crop. worth $zSq,: c i. Tobacco remained, however, a specialty or sideline crop as less than one percent of the state's forty thousand farms derived their principal income from tobacco. The production of grain and hay in Florida was generally for home or live- stock consumption with but little for sale or export. According to the t9oo census some 570.000 acres were devoced to corn with a crop of 5,31 i,ofo bushels in 099. The northern counties of the state produced more corn in proportion to other areas. but the food crop was generally cultivated over the entire state. Over thirty thousand acres were devoted to oats in 1899 and forty-two thousand acres in iqoo. The cultivation of rice on 5.410 acres lagged far behind corn and oats, and the state's production of .vheat, barlcy, and rye was but incidental. Hay and forage crops occupied twenty-two thousand acres with a thirtv-seven thousand ton har- vest, .%-hile scventv thousand acres of peanuts ,vielded almost a million bushels of the valuable crop~and eighteen thousand acres of field peas produced a crop of one hundred si.ctv thousand bushels. One of the ~Id food staples of Florida. the sweet potato, was raised in large quantities throughout the state. In 1899 some twenty-three thousand acres were devoted to the sweet potato with a yield of over two million bushels. The Irish or white potato, so generally popular in the North, had not achieved great commer- cial success in the state before iqoo although ;,7s: acres in this tuber produced :;:.; i: bushels in 1899. A chronicler wrote that: "Of late years no vegetable has improved so much as the Irish potato. Since the introduction of the famous Early Rose a number of new varieties of great value have been originated. ..."tla Although the planting of sugar cane and the boiling of cane juice for sugar, molasses, and syrup had been carried on throughout much of the state's history with varving success, in iqoo most of the industry was of the home variety with local consumption and sale. The commissioner of agriculture reported chai q,soq acres of cane, in iqoo. provided a crop from which 66,064 barrels of sugar and ;: s,:6: pounds of sugar were made. The livestock industry of Florida occupied a large part of the agricultural economy of the state. The production of cattle, both for beef products and dairy
Page 339: rhz82d00
REACTION 627 small farmer, and, with a few exceptions, the culture of tobacco was a lost art."il2 During the war the production of wrapper leaves in Borneo and Sumatra replaced the Florida product. In 1886. Henrv R. Duval, president of the Florida Central and Peninsular railroad, imported Sumatra seed with which a new beginning was made in Gadsden county. The Florida leaf so impressed New York dealers that a company was organized and placed several hundred acres in production before i 89o. Within eight years, by 1898, over four thousand acres of tobacco were being cultivated in Gadsden and surrounding counties. Until t8qs tobacco remained a north Florida crop, but with the great freeze of that year erstwhile citrus producers began the planting of tobacco in central Florida. Through the encouragement of railroad land and industrial agents tobacco plantings were made from Gainesville south to Bushnell and east as far as Orlando. The i qoo census showed :,o56 acres in tobacco production with an annual crop worth izs4,: 11. Tobacco remained, however, a specialty or sideline crop as less than one percent of the state's forty thousand farms derived their principal income from tobacco. The production of grain and hay in Florida was generally for home or live- stock consumption with but little for sale or export. According to the iqoo census some S 70,000 acres were devoted to corn with a crop of S,; 1 i,oso bushels in v 899. The northern counties of the state produced more corn in proportion to other areas, but the food crop was generally cultivated over the entire state. Over thirty thousand acres were devoted to oats in 1899 and forty-nvo thousand acres in i qoo. The cultivation of rice on 5.410 acres lagged far behind corn and oats, and the state's production of .vheat, barlev, and rye was but incidental. Hay and forage crops occupied twentv-t.vo thousand ucres with a thirtv-seven thousand ton har- vest, while seventv thousand acres of peanuts yielded almost a million bushels of the valuable crop and eighteen thousand acres of field peas produced a crop of one hundred sixty thousand bushels. One of the old food staples of Florida, the sweet potato, was raised in large quantities throughout the state. In i 8qq some twenty-three thousand acres were devoted to che sweet potato with a vield of over two million bushels. The Irish or white potato, so generally popular in the North, had not achieved great commer- cial success in the state before iqoo although 3,75: acres in this tuber produced z;:,; i: bushels in i 8gq. A chronicler wrote that: "Of late years no vegetable has improved so much as the Irish potato. Since the introduction of the famous Early Rose a number of new varieties of great value have been originated. ..."11' Although the planting of sugar cane and the boiling of cane juice for sugar, molasses, and syrup had been carried on throughout much of the state's history with varying success. in iqoo most of the industry was of the home variety with local consumption and sale. The commissioner of agriculture reported that q,:oq acres of cane, in iqoo, provided a crop from which 66,06.} barrels of sugar and ;:S,z6: pounds of sugar were made. The livestock industry of Florida occupied a large part of the agricultural economy of the state. The production of cattle, both for beef products and dairy
Page 340: rhz82d00
~yi' ,f ~ • 0 • 370 FLORIDA walls of stone. Peeping over these walls you see branches of the pomegranate and of the orange tree, now fragrant with flowen, and, rising yet higher, the leaving boughs of the fig, with its broad luxuriant leaves." Bryant repeated the words of an acquaintance who had visited the oldest city in x 8;o and said that "'the orange-groves were the ornament and wealth of St. Augustine, and their produce maintained the inhabitants in comfort. Orange-trees. of the size and height of the pear tree, often rising higher than the roofs of the houses, em- bowered the town in perpetual verdure. They stood so close in the groves that the,y excluded the sun and the atmosphere was at all times aromatic with their leaves and fruit, and in the spring the fragrance of the flowers was almost oppressive: " But, continued Bryant, "These groves have now lost their beauty. A few years since, a severe frost killed the trees to the ground, and when they sprouted again from the roots, a new enemv made its appearance-an insect of the coccus family, with a kind of shell on its ~backy which enables it to withstand all the common applications for destroying insects, and the ravages of which are shown by the leaves becoming black and sere. and the twigs perishing. In October lastm a gale drove in the spray from the ocean. stripping the trees, except in sheltered situations, of their leaves. and destroying the upper branches. The trunks are now putting out new sprouts and new leaves, but there is no hope of fruit for this year at least:'"o As a result of the t8;s freeze and subsequent cold waves new plantings of citrus tapered off in north Florida while in the more southerly portions of the peninsula new groves were increasing. In 1845 the St. Augustine Nez;s reported the planting of several citrus groves in Hillsborough county. while Clement Clav, in his travels from Jacksonville to Tampa. made numerous references to orange groves. Clay "was disappointed in not seeing the head bluffs of old Tampa & the orange groves of Mons. Philippi. a Frenchman & native of St. Domingo" near what is now Safety Harbor. In April t8ct, Clay returned north through Ocala and stopped at Paul McCormick's home on Orange Lake where "I spent an hour in the orange grove on the banks of the lake, indulging my appetite ad libitum on the delicious fruit. ..... °0 In the immediate pre-Civil War years the citrus industry was on the thresh- hold of boom-proportion expansion. ~The central Florida lands in the peninsula had been relieved of the Indian menace; the purple scale was on the decline; and the era of railroad building from the ports and heads of navigation on the rivers had just begun. But the advent of secession and .var delayed the expansion for many years. The agricultural economy remained that of the cotton, corn, and tobacco farm and plantation until long after the «•ar. II BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY In the British period and the second Spanish dominion banking facilities and widely circulating mediums of exchange were virtually unknown. The sparse settlement, outside Pensacola, Fernandina and St. Augustine, existed on a frontier L Ln ~ m m w
Page 341: rhz82d00
CINC STATE :onomic importance of t the quantity or the val dition to the utility or tti ted by the manufacturi rence between the cost nparing the manufacturi een the value of finish t constantly in mind. sar.,e amount as those mes as much value to e been of corresponding :e have been divided ie Census of Manufactu .itute the principal man ne-third of the total val ne-half the wage earne ant expansion since 191 -e suffered a slump. Wh in 1925 as in 1914, th mal manufacturing in nd in the industry Is s of 1919. entire period was fair' .1 only slightly greater jividual industries in t :ine and rosin, account 1914, in compariosn wi )ancy in values, howev rd of the total value; ore than one-fifth of the value of planing d stage of manufactu )ne-quarter times grea, :al value of output of ird in importance in place and was relative as in 1914. The num rvelve-year period but ilf. Wood preservinQ decided increase in I s industry group in 19 that year. The wood i less than $1,000,000 nch of the box indust , MANUFACTURING PROGRESS 37 e was the smallest of the lumber and allied products industry group and ile It has been reported only since 1921 it has shown some growth. e tobacco industry, which produces cigars almost exclusively, ranki r7ond In the state, rivaling the I,:mber and timber Industry. While its lae in 1925 was more than twice as great as In 1914, engaging about 900 ire wage earners, it has riot experienced the relative growth which hae aracterized most of the other industries. It is an interesting fact that en industrial depression and unemployment prevail the consumption of 0 bacco does not suffer materially. The position of Florida, with its ex- sive tobacco Industry, is in this respect decidedly advantageous, since 1periods of depression the industry can be depended on to still supply em- oyment to a considerable number of workers. 0 r'1'he canning and preserving of seafoods is relatively small. The sama hue of canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables. (See elsewhere 0 canned grapefruit.-G. D.) Both industries, however, show a decided rease over the 1914 figure. Slaughtering and meat packing is very iely confined to small plants supplying in part the national packing oses and has not shown much change since 1921. ~ The printing business has shown one of the most nding growths ;`any industry in the state, having mounted from a ne of $3,000,000 - 92 114 W=8,600,000 in 1925, or about nine and one-half times; in the > years precedingd-a926, the value almost doubled. Newspapers and iodicals contributed by far the largest share of the total and ranked as i third individual industry In the state. ~ The chemical and allied product group of industries, of which fer- rs are the most important, while two and two-fifths times larger in ae, declined in relative importance from third place to fifth place in the iod between 1914 and 1925. The fertilizer industry with practically bled'value between 1914 and 1925 is typical of the Industries which rploy less advanced stages of manufacture and which have declined eon- erably in relative importance, but at the same time have shown a real "' il Thi Idkd fth th idiidl idti n vaues.snustry raneour amongenvuannsres the state in 1914, but seventh in 1925. The manufacture of illuminating 'heating gas, like the food-stuffs Industries, responded to the Increase [nrban population, being more than four times greater in 1026 than twelve ars previous and reflected a particularly large gain in the last two years. ood distillation and charcoal manufacture, reported for the first time in 119, showed a sharp 'falling off in 1921, but in the last two census years gittered successive eains and in 1925 the value approached the 1910 if re. The manufacture of patent medicine compounds, and of paints and nishes is comparatively unimportant, the former showing about the same nes in 1919, 1928 and 1026. The output value of steam-railroad repair shops shows great gain be- 4en 1914 and 1025. (See elsewhere for 1027 flgures.-G. D.) The ]ne of work in electric railway repair shops indicates that this type of nsportstion is not extensive, probably owing to the rapid strides in motor ni travel. The manufacture of fa L tremendous growth the only industry in th -iod but this industry h olsewhero in this rcpo a and rattan and willo f The making of stone, clay and glass products has not shown much ess up to 1926. The manufacture of concrete products shows a tre- indous growth since 1014, gaining from ;304,587 to =4,600,000. The ding and treating of minerals and earths was the other leading industry this group and showed a slight decline from 1910. There are four other © " 1=~ i W J m ut
Page 342: rhz82d00
b. Selection of a dwelling (1) Location (2) Convenieaaes (3) Cost c. Setting up routine procedures within the home (1) IAdividual responsibilities D. Parenthood l. Ur.".orstanditig how life begins a. In the male (1) Anatomy (a) gxtsrtial . . l. (genitals) penis 2. scrotum 3, testicles (b) Internal l..seminsl vesicles 2, prostate glaad (2) Physiology (a) Testicles secrete ls spermatos4a (msSe seed) 2, hormones tinternal secretions) (b) Penis--male organ for emptying bladder .1, erection 2. orgasm--emission of sperm cells (c) Seminal vesicles--resevoir for sperm cells id) Prostate gland--surround urethra. secretes fluid to carry sperm (s) Nooturnal emissiqn--nature acting (1) tdasturbation--normal procedure at certain age levels, considered as.a part of growing up b. In the female (1) Anatow (a) External (genitals) 1. Vulva 2. Labia Mejora 3. Labia Minus 4. Clitoris 5. Urethra 6. FWmen 9. Vagina (b) Internal 1. Uterus 2. Fallopian tubes 3. Ovaries ' (2) Menstruation (a) lwnction 1. Pituitary gland 2. Scrosanguineous discharge from lining o: uterus (b ) Mechani sm 1. Periodicity normal--60% have 28 dey oyc
Page 343: rhz82d00
THE FLORIDAS UNDER THE UNION JACK to9 to the end of the British occupation, there were requests forr a resident clergy- man for Pensacola.... Save for the ministrations of the priest at Mobile there were no Anglican services" in Pensacola." The French residents at Mobile con- tinued to support a Roman Catholic congregation. As the Anglicans were never able to provide a church building, the only house of worship in all West Florida sheltered the Catholics at Mobile.' The educational and intellectual activity of West Florida was probably on a par with other sections of the colonial frontier. While appropriations appeared ick the Parliamentary subsidy for the payment of schoolmasters at Plnsacola and Mobile there is but scant information on any uses to which the money was put. "There were no printing presses and of course no newspapers.... West Florida was a frontier province, where the struggle for existence left little time for cultural pursuits." and in the opinion of Cecil Johnson, "education was neglected, for the province would not co-operate with the home government In its feeble effort to establish schools."" Of the economic organization of the colony there is a considerAle body of knowledge, particularly for the western sections. The contemporary accounts, especially Bartram and Hutchins', contain lists and descriptions of natural and cultivated products found in the province: corn, rice, cotton, tobacco, indigo, potatoes, beans, peas. pears, peaches, plums, figs, grapes and oronges. The products of animal husbandry included large herds of cattle and hotses, hogs,.and at least one flock of sheep. "In spite of these optimistic accounts of the productivity of the province. West Florida. during the shorr period of its existence under British rule, did not produce a staple or money crop of any great imporcanc.e."'5 By the end of the British period the fertile delta region had been settled long enough to give early promise of the, plantation slavery regime that would be established in the succeeding century. Even so, the western sections of the colony supported the most profitable agricultural economy and the records of William Dunbar's plantation near Manchac are replete with the detail of cropping, slaverv, and plantation economv.•" 1`he labor force in the colon,v consisted of slaves, indentured servants and apprentices. "The petitions for land. indicate that most of the families did not own slaves, and that the greater part of those that did owned only from three . to eight.",t That the slave trade and the institution of slavery was profitable is best shown in the increase in the number of slaves from the inception of the British regime. The number of indentured servants was probably small; an early law for the regulation of white servitude contained much detail for the labor system. The use of apprentices. a combined system of,rharitv. labor and education, was apparently popular for the care and training` of boys and girlt in agriculture, vocations and professions and was found in all of the English colonjes. The resources of the forests provided the raw materials for two industries which manufactured goods for export. Numerous references to the production of barrel staves and the manufacture of naval stores with the encouragement of the English government bear witness to these natural industries.4' But most of the f
Page 344: rhz82d00
J&rune.y \eM Smrrna Leach Chamber uf Cemmereel ~ City of 1Vrw S»iyr7ur Beoch huspicablr inuiatcs. ...As a place of residence. it is already desirable, and all it needs to make it a more pr(»peruus town, is a sprinkling of Yankee encerpttse, and the establishment of modern travelling facilities. The Scace-house is a hand- some edifice, and by the gentlemanly officials connected with it. I was politely created. The drives about the councry are pleasant; but one, about fifteen miles in length. co Wakulla Fountain. eclipses all the resc. ..."11 C:ununcrcc of the Tallahassee area.passed through the towns of Nlagnolrs. \e«purt. tit. 112rks, and Port l,ean on the St. Marks river. From chirt,v to forty thousand bales of cotton passed through these pora annually from t8;s to i86o. Other exprrts included tobacco, naval stores, lumber, and even hides and furs. Competition in the early t82o's was between Magnolia and St. Marks, but when the latter became a cuscoms port of entry, Magnolia. with ies scores. was almost aban- doned in 1838. St. A larks. situated at the junction of the St. Aiarks and Wakulla rivers, in itl' i8, ccrosisted "of rather large houses and shops wretchedly built; the .treecs; iire often covered bv the salt water from the river, its location is low and unhealthy what ever may ~he said of ic."1= Port Leon, on Apalachee Bay about t%tu miles from St. cN larks. was opened by the owners of the Tallahassee Railroad in iR;B ca) .erve as a shipping point away from the crowded and congestqo har- Ix0r uf St. Marks. By 1839 an extension of the railroad reached Port Leon. "There are as vet." wrnce C•rstelnau in i8;K. "only a few houses, but several big stores. This location scems to me to be .vell chosen. since boats of ten to twelve fe.t FIa.-27 Y
Page 345: rhz82d00
of the soil, every inducement is presented to active industry. Simply viewed as a section of Florida, for the successful cultivation of tropical fruits, its Importance is of considerable moment; but when it is known that Tobacco, rivalling the , celebrity of that of Cuba, is grown with but little labor, the production of so valued a staple, becomes a matter of highest importar._e. Every variety of fruit, from the pineapple to the Avocada pear-corn, all the year round; and fuh, turtle, and wild game are in greatest profusion. These capabilities, we are gratified to learn are being properly appreciated. and an activity already prevails at that River, giving an earnest of what will farther take place. A town is laid off on its Southern banks, opening in front upon Key Biscayne Bay, and saw and coonti mills are in progress of rapid completion. The settlea, already numerous, are every day increasing, and there is no doubt that at no very distant day the inhabitants in the new city in Dade County will be more numerous than this, the first settled spot in the United States."'o Another important factor which entered into the settlement of the East :a Florida lands was the instabilitv of the cotton market in the ante-bellum period. Further, the good lands of Middle Florida well were appropriated by t840, hence the flow of migrants to the peninsula. In ;8so sugar cane and tobacco were the chief staples but by r86o these two crops "showed not only a relative but an absolute decrease and cotton was well on its way to becoming the leading staple crop of the section:'li In 1845, Governor 11Toseley sought to promote the importa- tion of tropical plants both to relieve the United States of dependence on other na- tions and divert "a portion of Southern agricultural labor to the cultivation of tropical products" which "would benefit those parts of the South engaged in cotton production 'by decreasing the already overextensive competition in the making of that staple."''= The newspapers of the South carried many accounts describing Florida's potentialities for prospective settlers. Nligrants who were looking for land or who had located would write their friends at their old homes and the letters would reach a newspaper and, once in print, would be copied by other papers whose editors regarded the correspondence as good filler. Thus. the Florida Journal carried a letter in 1843 written from Enterprise on Lake Monroe: "There are some twenty-five families residing around the lake, who seem to be well pleased with the country and are making very substantial improvement. Major Taylor has erected him a commodious and pleasant dwelling on a mound or hillook near the lake. ' has a farm in fine cultivation. and a promising young orange grove. Enterprise. situated at the head of good steamboat navigation, together with the large body of rich hammock and prairier immediately surrounding it ... is destined some da,v to become one of the most important inland towns in the Territory.... Corn, cotton (long staple), sugar. and most of the tropical fruits. may be cultivated here to great advantage."13 Probably from Columbia County came a letter of June 1843 which was re- printed in Arkansas and Louisiana that year which stated: "The productions are Sea Island cotton, sugar, corn, oats, potatoes, etc.. but the most valuable staple will be sugar. It is easily cultivated-more so than corn. A poor produce is :.ooo lbs.
Page 346: rhz82d00
AN ADVANCING STATE lents at the University and no part of is chargeable to the cost of instruction', e Agricultural College to large numbe Many students remain one, two or three' ie instructions givetl such students is of ion as that given to those who graduate courses or short courses and these, of umber of graduates. Our Agricultural " ,' to several hundred vocational students it here by the government to be trained raining does not lead to a degree, hence Agricultural College is not represented raduates. logical basis upon which to consider t}ie lucation is that of cost per student per, the budget for thl teaching division of )10 (Federal funds included). However, iing resident students. I estimate that he Agricultural teaching staff is devoted to visitors, giving lectures, and attend iring letters regarding agricultural pro zing to the management and operation df not more than 75% of the $120,910 (or :nt instruction. The past year we have that, for the school year just closing, T! - student for instruction. On this basis" 'our years, the time ordinarily necessary e four times this amount, or ;2,727.24! •e looks high, but the cost of agricultu most other forms of education. This ii ecessarily so; for, in order to give theio i and maintain farm lands, farming iln herd, sheep, hogs, poultry, work-stock , truck gardens, irrigation plants, green totors, and a far greater variety of farte -i, all in addition to various laboratorles; •, bacteriology, plant pathology, entote ta, and rather extensive library facilities: : if our estimate of $2,727 as being thi ;riculture is approximately correct, the al governments is a most excellent one' portance, is the fact that this education • individual. A survey made in 1926 of go indicated that they were receiving an with the average being much highet ier years. Without this education, fe $1,000 a year. ortant of all, however, is the value ivc work done by these trained men I uro. This value cunnot bo computod TOBACCO CROIFINC IN FLORIDA 293 dollars, but it Is many, many•fold greater than the amount spent by the rtate and Federal governments in training these men. The greatest need . of Florida's agriculture today is trained men, and, regardless of what it costs to train them, the state must have them if its agriculture is to pros- ~per, and, by the same sign, if ita agriculture does not prosper, the state itself will not. ~ I am taking the liberty of enclosing a circular iummarising the survey we made of our agricultural graduates in 1926, and I think you will find the information therein interesting. (See appendix). May 29, 1928. TOBACCO GROWING IN FLORIDA It will have been noted on page 39 that manufactures of tobacco rank second In Importance in Florida; being exceeded only by industries related to forest products. Tobacco growing, therefore, needs to be given a leading place under the general subject of agriculture. Even though our commerce reports show great quantities of tobacco N s ~. io motion, (6,268 tons at Jacksonville, p. 184; 1,665 tons at Miami, p. 138; ~2 0 e. ~. 7 tons at Key West, p. 138 and 139; and 8,116 tons at Tampa, pages 141 sto 143; or a total of 22,636,000 pounds), the growing of our tobacco is for a larger market than the manufacturing of cigars In our own state. As this Survey places on record the facts of the state for future hia w. lorians, as well as the present citizens, we have Included the Interesting data as to the start of tobacco growing, its proffts and its loses, and its »cent spread of acreage. . . We have been aided by the Florida Historical Society, by the U. S. Tobacco Journal, by the Experiment Station at Quincy, by Mark W. Mun- ioe, president of the Quincy State Bank and by I. Gardner of Quincy. INTRODUCTION AND CULTURE OF CUBA TOBACCO IN FLORIDA - (1'rom an addre.e delivered before the Florida Fruit Crewen' A.eeelatlen, at Jaek- Na.llle. January Zo, 1e46, by Za-Chier Ju.tlee Cherlee H. Duoont or the supreme Court et Florida. and taken from the aroeeedinsa of that meaine.) DUVAL'S lNFLUENCE-The seed of the Cuba tobacco was Introduced hlto the state about the year 1828 by Governor William P. Duval, one of the early civil governors of the territory. The product of this seed was a short, narrow leaf, possessing !n an extraordinary degree the delightful voma of the best Havana cigar. It for a long time bore the name of Its ~distinguished Introducer, and was currently known as the "Little Duval," to distinguish it from a larger variety, afterwards introduced, and known ~tt the "Florida Wrapper." The flrst reliable experiment that was made with the Cuba tobacco u a market crop, was Inaugurated about the year 1830, by John Smith, a ~dtisen of Gadsden County, who had recently migrated from the st.te of ~Virginia, and was well acquainted with the culture of the Virginia chewing iobacco. His llrst experiment was with the "Little Duval," but the demand for the "Wrapper" leaf becoming urgent, and the product per acre being auch larger, he abandoned the former and conAned his attention exelus- (tely to tho latter. His extraordinary success attracted the attention of k J I I i w -1 m tn §P
Page 347: rhz82d00
EXPANDING ECONOMY: i8: t-, 86 t 365 their mouths, and expel in a very fine spray. They then take a leaf, place it on a laver of cork, and by means of a very sharp instrument smooth it, and obliquely cut the ends which are put in the center to form the inside of the cigar. It is then rolled and quickly assumes the form in which it is sold. "As spotted cigars are generally preferred, they sprinkle them with an acid and thus give them that appearance."34 In 184.2 the "silky broad, spotted Florida leaf" found favor in the German market as cigar wrappers, and tobacco acreage was expanded until, the bumper crop in 1845 glutted the markec. 'ne best tobacco land was in Gadsden and Leon counties, but even the small farmers of Walton, Washington, Bencon and Hills-' borough were planting tobacco and the Charlerron Courier reported that in East Florida: "Everybody here is going into the tobacco culture, which requires no machinery and the poorest can engage in ic."ss In i8So the state's production was just under i,ooo,ooo pounds, of which 775,000 pounds came from Gadsden County; in i 86o the census reported total production of 8:8,8 i S pounds. The production of rice from 182 t to 186 t by man,v planters was for subsis- tence purposes. While rice had been grown profitably in all previous periods, com- mercial production lagged far behind that of South Carolina and Georgia. Low. lying Nassau County bordering the Sc. Alar,vs and with coastal marshes .produced 4o4.;os pounds of the state's crop of 1,075,090 pounds in i8co. By t86o the total crop of rice had dwindled to less than ::s,ooo pounds. While not in Florida. the rice plantation of General D. L. Clinch on the Satilla river, north of the St. A-iacvs, in Georgia was typical of those in Nassau county. In t8:;s, Henry Whipple wrote that. "he plants about foo acres and has over one hundred field hands. The land is of the richest alluvial soil and owing to the deposits made upon it by the influx of the tide is inexhaustible. The land is surrounded by large embankmenct and laid ; out in squares of about t f or :o acres each, these intersected by ditches & em- bankments with flood gates to flow the land or to draiq it so that one plot can be overflowed and another drv at the same time. The crop is planted in February and ripens about the ;ast of August. After planting, the land is flowed ,until time for hocing, then drained & hoed & then flowed again. The flowing of the land, is beneficial in keeping down grass and weeds besides enriching the land. This is worth from Sioo to E:oo per acre. It costs about 75 dollars to clear it and put into an exccllent state of cultivation. After reaping it is threshed with a machine or flail, then winnowed and finallv divested of the rough hull by means of mortars and pestles. Genl Clinch raised this year about :S,ooo bushels, which brings him about 6os per bushel. He raises about 7o bushels to the acre and its weight is about 46 Ib.. to the bushel."'0 While cotton remained the chief product of Florida agriculture before t 86 i, sufficient produce had to be grown, whether by farmer or planter, to make the establishment as self-sufficient as possible. "At Chemonie in t8st for example, onlv 451 acres out of 771 were planted in cotton; the rest having been used for corn, oacs, sugar cane, potatoes and rice" and in t 8c6 "only ;;; acres were devoted to cotton and 498 to ancillary crops."'* The most important ancillary crop was corn for the food supply of the proprietor, slave, and livestock. Of "the maize, J m J Ln
Page 348: rhz82d00
.,. Augustus M. Burns, IIl, PhD. May 9,1997 mixture 149:19 modern 125:24 moment 67:18; 89:6; 97:6; 144:8; 188:17; 207:18 moments 177:9 Monday 103:15 money 11:16;93:15,16; 224:8.11 months 25:25; 124:22; 223:3: 229:2 more 7:13; 12:20; 14:23, 25;15:1;t7:1S,16;18:5, 20; 19(4); 24:22; 25:19; 38:13; 43:3; 44:20, 22; 51:20; 55:18, 24; 65(4); 91:9;93:13;101:9,11,14; 106:25; 125:2; 130:25,25; 131:1, 3;149:12,12; 152:14; 155:19; 159:10, 14; 160:2; 192:3.4; 200:5, 19; 201:8, 22; 202:7,17; 213:18; 222:21; 223:6 Morris 5:4, 8; 17:20; 141:9;144:8, 8;165:1 S Most 21:23; 22:14; 23:17; 32:21; 39:7; 49:15; 56:8; 57:7, 9; 71:17; 73:14; 124:14;153:7, 8;163:1; 166:14 mother 8:7 motives 79:9 mouth 13:11 move 6:18; 56:21, 24 moved 6:7,10; 7:16,18; 14:19; 151:14; 153:5; 164:11 moving 158:17 much 19:10; 22:23; 43:3; 51:1; 70:1; 76:8; 89:18; 92:11; 93:13; 130:17; 140:12; 166:14; 177:2,2; 226:10 multi-archival 19:20 municipalities 224:13 murder 24:10,18, 19 music 123:22, 23;124:3 must 26:23 myself 33:25;162:18; 213:5; 223:20 N f nature 36:25:65:14; 94:2;105:23:188:14; 189:6 necessarily 55:20; 57:6; 75:1;92:6;99:5;132:21 necessary 78:1;190:23 necessity 13:24 need 19:7; 52:8; 88:8; 98:3;119:7; 203:19; 204:8 needed 34:13: 52:22 needs 180:4 negotiation 127:3 neither45:18;173:21 nervous 152:1 net 141:19 new 6:11;19:5: 20:24; 33:11;36:9;40:6;42:10; 43:12,16,19; 46:23; 47:11; 49:11; 72:21; 122:14;151:13;198:5; 221:1 News 59:7; 61:8; 64:16 neWspaper 59:11,12; 60:7, 24; 63:11; 64:13; 70:11; 93:4;190:18 newspapers 70:6, 21; 93:18;159:23; 217:12 next 151:5;196:8 nicotine 184:8; 201:20 night 11:12,12;111:5, 6; 150:24 nine 196:12 nine-month 98:24, 25; 99:13 nineties 189:16 nobody 107:21;142:7; 143:8; 195:25 nodding 185:22 nods 69:13; 96:9;117:5; 185:20 nominate 52:23 non-smokers 169:24 none 109:14;112:6; 211:24, 25 Nope 227:3 nor 45:18; 77:19;145:17; 173:21; 230:12,12,13 I Norman 227:21, 23; 228:20 normative 83:10 North 5:19; 6(4); 7:12; 11:10; 15:8,9; 18:9; 19:16, 24;20:13,17,24;31:5,20, name 34:3:62:22; 114:10,14; 132:6; 165:11, 13.14;166:6;187:2; 196:8; 213:23: 223:9 named 31:15; 39:4; 50:12; 56:8; 63:11; 64:12; 65:21; 88:22 names 210:16; 211:7 narrative 55:3; 148:10 nation 33:6;43:5 National 22:1; 57:21; 60:22, 25 24; 32:24; 33:3, 9.10; 34:4; 37:1,15; 38:24; ~ 42(5);46:17,21;51:15; 52:17; 53:21; 56:10; 58:14; 65:7, 22; 70:12; 74:3:117:2; 122:13; 126:1, 7; 128:8, 17. 20; 129(5); 130:3; 131:20,25; 132:19; 199:7 notarial 230:15 Notary 230:21 notations 187:19, 20 State of Florlda, et aL, v. American Tobacco Co., et al. note 41:18;~73:2c 75:13 1 174:16: # 8f :14, 217:2; ` j ord.erly 224:3 : noted 73:Sc 229:24 j 22Gc 14; 229;)1, 2 t , i ordinarily 23:20 notes 67:18;135:16,19; 1 4ffer6:20;11L;14;186:22 i ' organization 29:5 136:17,19,, 21;137:17, 24; i offered 218:21 , orgdnizations 28(4): 138:11 f office 51:10,1,1;128:20, 29:6; 39:12 nothing 30:21c77:3; aS1;16;152:25;153:9.'10;- organize 57:1 135:7; 212:19, 22 154(4); 2/4:4; 217:16, 22 organizer;56:9 notice 52:3 offices 111:1S;1S1:1S, organiztnp 14:14 noticed 150:5 24;153:2.5;138:18; oriptnal6:19;12:t3: notified 218:15 221:3.4 i5a0,14;19:12,17 notbn 12:16 official i60:3 originally 15:12c 31:20; nuance 69:2 officials 160:2; 175:3 67:24; Ci8:12;109:24 number 39:11, 24;34;13; often 180:11 originals 215:6 70:17; 71:13;124:21; tlftentimes 70:8, originate 14:12 ' 158:24;189:13;191:10;, ` pllq 132:7 , originates 66:25 220:9,10; 225:6 `orrllsaQn 150:21 -,; numbersS1:20;206:2 Orlando t8. 7 omitted 151:2 , ,pther's 30:15 numerous 130:2;131:1 nce 1L12 144:15 nurture 14:1 ~ ~ others 4:25: 21:10; 54:2; bne 1t;12;18:16; 23:4; 58:9; 69:22, 24; 71:14; 24:17; 25;20; 26:1 S; 78:19; 80:20; 89:17; 0 27:17; 32~; 37:8; 39: S: 141:10;165:20;178:8; . Oakland 4:14 object 29:12; 42:1; 101:19;106:14;129:1 S; 144:9;14 5:6, 7;163:7; 167:9; 170:18,25; 181:8; 183:20;186:6, $;189;21; 192:11; 202:25; 203:16 objecting 181:18 Objection 34:1 S; 41:18; 102:5;141:5, 141:5.22; 1` 18,18;144(4);145(S); 168:16; 181:21; 182:9. 10, 25;184:2,14;,18S:S; - 189:25; 191:1; 204:7; 205:9; 206:13, 25; 207:8, ,. 17; 208:5 objections 144:2; 181:25; 207:24; 208:11, ` 18; 209:8,20 . obJective 26:5,10; 28:2; 79:18 objectively 79:16,17 objectives 172:9 objectivity 27:19; 28;$; 30:8; 79:20, 23 obligated 108:7 42:8;44:6;47:25;49:19; 194•5;,~12:7; 219:13; S 1 c 13, 55:18; 56:22, 2S; 221:9; , 228:17 57:8,17; 61:3, 4; 63:4; otherwise 22:6 71:20;76:24;86c10; ourself 160:3 108:18;120:19, 22; ' ourselves 4:25: 226:7 130:24;134:11:137:5; out 30:6; 35:22; 40:4; 143:5:148:8,`32; i49(S); 41:10; 50:25; 51:17; 150:2 3, 9; 7 51(4); 52:25; 57:7; 62:19: C7:17; 152:14;155:3;157:18; 76:23; 106:10,17;111:13. 1 S8(9);163:18;171 b; 17 140:16;146:6,18; I 175:8,177:16, 177:16,23; 147 10,153:11;170:10, I 164:14,187:18,22; . 13; 171:7;185:9; 197:11; 189:10,191:4.; 220:18, 21; 210:13; 216:12,16,17; . 221:6; 22&25 -218:14; 219:4, 6, 8; 230: S ones 29:15; 37:2,1, 38:4; outcome 40:19; 60:17; 49:7, 8; 57:9; 61:21; 62:12; ;30:14 84:9; 94:10;1G4:14: ~ putgrowth 6:20 167:6, 213:23c 215;14 onion outline 110(4)c 148:9, t 4; 164:3, 8 175:8 i 24 16 2 25 29 3 on y ; ; : : 3: ; outside 7:13: 20;11; 50:9; 63:17; 72•24; 93:2; 25:15;.45:18; 85:8; 86:15; 94:15,19;119:1 t;144 a 9: $7c 14,14,1 S; 98:14: 99:11 145:8; iS1:16;162•#7; 166;10;211,15,221:G; outstanding78:14, 1S 225:2 ovqr 22:6,12; 41:9i onto49:23;iS1:15 ' 46:25c94:16;95:3:97:2; op/lrates 30:6 109 6; 11 S:6c 117:21; opinion43:2S,4S8; ~ tt$2.12,i7;119:G: II:G: J23:11; 1 I • 12l 12 : ~ Observer 59:8;61:10; ~ 181;10,12,19;188.12; 142;10,12,12; 143:23; 63:6,16;64:16 189:22; 208:4, dtl, x17:25 144:9,11;160:22;1G9:10: observers 70:7 ! opinions 44:25; 70c10; , 172:7:175:1;180:8; observing 63:17 ~ 86:17;149:4;192:22, 23; 188:10;199:18.19: ! obtain 66:8;92:11;' 193:21, 23:194(4);195:5,' 2.10:12; 219:19, 24; 102:19 ' J 18, 20 203 4: 216:12; 224:12; 225 25 I obtained 147:24 218:2 overall 4 t 14. 59:23; obtaining23:19 ; opportunlty19:15; G0:17;67:5.11:78:2: i obvious 25:15 22:11; SO:18,19 92:14 i opposed 89:18, 21 c 90:6; overlapped 32:5.1 G occasional 9:21 I 120:14 i ove~ ~ rule 143.20 occasions 220:10 option 53:12 occur 30:17;197:6; 227:4 f praily 212:17 y own 23:5; 54:G; G0:9.12: 61 2:75;23; 77:1:87.15: G oceurred S:B - order 14:1;'19:7,74:22; 99•16;100:19: 104.14; occurring 213:11 j 92:1,1, 23.10?.:19;132:19; 112.19;14;:2:143:24: occurs 191:23 I, 141::11,192:9c 206:6, 6 164:2:179:1 off 61:23;139:11;167:16; 1 or¢ered 85:1 Oxford 83:23:12.1:14; - ....~. ~`.. Ki*n-U-Script® A. Wm. Robtrts; Jr. & ASSOC.
Page 349: rhz82d00
incompetent and immoral officials. and open and vinlent opposition by the majority of the old ruling class. The casc of the accomplishmcnt of graft and corruption was accouncahlc to nce cicumncration of political moralitv. In adJition, Ackerman found that "the Senatc and asscmblv journals of the period indicacc with startling clarity ... chat the Dcmocraric members were not nnlv willing. but anxious, to vote for (Coureear Columbia Couner Cbamber ot Commerce) Tobacco Auction, Lake City the passage of expensive legislation. Without commenting on the rather strange code of ethics ch:u would sell our a friendlv conxtituenc%• in order to discredic an opponent, the fact remains that, with the houses of the legislature almost balanced •.. it required b(u a small interested portion of the Republican members to pass embarrassingly obvious, partisan Icgislation with the aid of the Democratic mem- bers. It is equally obvious that the Democrats fought many of the better pieces of legislation in order to prc%•ent unwanted credit from bcing attached to the Republican administration. This was particularly noticeable in the annual attempt to restore the State's financial credit by funding the state warrants and cercificates."1 " Regardless of the charges and the countercharges. improvement from 1868 to 1876 was made in public cducacion, in a penal system. an intermediate court svstem oi circuits, labor lien statutes, revision of the civil and criminal codes, humescead
Page 350: rhz82d00
444 Tot1ACCO LRAF. Lhc frrmrntnli+m evrn fnr :tll Lhc 1„lr.rn!u, lntt caeh hnnd is Fh:rkcn +,nt, a., ,+Ilrrrttir.t•, Lbc Iract•s will stick . 1+iGc/ lrrr :rnd I+r trntnrn in c,tdor, ;tutl it may IM iUrlNrs- sildc lu pall t.hcm :rlr.rrt without tt•:trinl;. It tu:ty be nrccsq:+ry {o rc1K•:et Lhis tarnnr~ of llte 6ulk4 sis or eight timcs lx•forr Ihr pre+res.a ir rtmnplcl.r. Often two Lulks :Irc IIIICr+I, if onc is r:rlht"r loxr d:erop :ral thce other loo dry. 11'Ucn the frrnrenl:elion is dmrr, Ihc lrat•cs are very carcfullr Fortetl as 1+, h+d.le size and ttirl+rr, :rrc t.itvl into hrtnds, tbcsc pnt in tror,+tt.rg nrnl Iralcd tn+»I;e' for one or two years. '1'hry aro tirt;t h+rt intar a u:trnt r+xrrn ts ctxrl down and fi»ally inln a tlNdrr cla,r.rl;r• 111rilo this I+rtxsm of fcrmrnt:rt.i+nt is much ur+erc rxtx_rucirc thatt thnt of fcrrncntin- iu I.Ire csst•, it (t:rs (he gnat adcan- lagc that tin: /ituc nylnircd i, orm Ir I+:•os, and Lhc nholo pmct:¢•s rnn bc n•:dchtvi hntl tvminrllwl, n•ht•rr:rs, when strrxlctl in l.lrc e:r.-A•, tlrcrc is alr,urlnlrly no suloert isiou or c.mtrol INmmiMts." lifrt.lr alrring antl f:dl planlin'g, in m++st lmrts of l''lorida, have adrhnl.n7,•s hnd di~r+lcn++l:,bn•a, I,ut it is prol>alrle 111.11. the fall I+IsntinF will Ixv:+nne yttile :rs getr . Fall l~+h7,•r+e ia (1nrida will be crnl +s sl+ring sztlSint, ia no more dutr;:cr fr+uu fnra llrrn i% I lra sl,rin; f cmp at ihc Nnrlh, trlrilC 1•hr fall rmp t•sirlN•e rr:rrA and weeds, gratsh+rl,lN•rm, :ru+l m+osl of tira n•+rrms :rnd ol.hcr I,ras. Only alMnrt +rur-fourth :es innclt r:rinfhtl is nccrled for the rrnl+ in tlctulrt•r, Not•rnr1N•r an+i 1>trrinficr, :rs dnring April, \I:ry r.rrd .1ruec. 11, is believed, hlGr, that Ihis late rr+rp n-ill acrr:e~r in qnotlit.y snlx•rnrr t.n thc spring crop, mlxvially for tilirrs, NS is t.ItC cMM) in (;ulr.t. '1'Ire 1„•ct. tail G+r Ihis rn+p in Fluritlh, l'r+l. Mutxli0 lin+ls, after r;ludcing cc}rt•ritnrnls in :rll lr•trta af the "talc, to be. a li;;ht.. SatNf\ l+r,mt, well dr.tiratil, /inc nnd frial+lt•, nillt no rrude (iwm-inac raqq,iugr oul, and paa tirnl:rrly skoul.l it IKe free fr.qn kwrsc ~n u rtvxnes or so- callctl "r.ot.lcn" limexltnN•, rvmrnruu in imnY Isrrts of CtliAlt Li:.ttr AT TIIK 1cG%T AND CoUT1t. northern, cenl.r:rl nod trrstrrn Fl++rit)n, uh,•rc foc!:iliac+l urganic; rt trrains and l+h+,Fhb, .11r•c :rrc foun+l. The t~•hacr••, fichl :;Itoald IN• nr;tr at INwly or ~Irram of fr+Ttr tr:rlnr, tn insnrr Inturidif) froln Ihr r++n=lant c~~:rl+•rr:rti.+n. In Cnde,len coutrl~', uhrrr luba••f cxt+•n~i"k ~mnn. !hc anilx uNtvl :rrr linr, li_IrQ. :rtr+l fsndc .,+r Ilu• snrf:t•y•. bnt rtwtin;{ nn :r rl:rrt•c s:rml :rl :t +Icptlr .f It•rr inch+-~ t., two ftrt, nhirh k rn•ri-f, ceerd at Ihc Fsa+C tin+n rc:tdily 1N•rmr:rM+• liv n:rl,•r, lu h+•:rv1 r.einc l6c hal+•r , is yuickly {a6t n ert, frnm thr surf:ur, c.•1 in srry •lrc ' trca •6rr, /lre suil is dhmh :r1 a+le•pt)t (d :r few inrh.•c. Olriuiuas di{frr a: 1., /hr In+•1N•r tn:tnnrin,~ ~rf ~~,il: of this t•h:rr:u•fcr for 3l+nnlit~ = ai- ., ln make no aPl,lir:Ui.rn of ~I:d+lr ++r Larnyhr.l nrannrc=. rx- txlrt rt lil-ht +)r+•>:ing +f e,•ILr•Nltvl mannr+• r.et Ar•tih soils, lo inrl+rr"1n:rlc rhern rt il6 Ih+• hsclcria •+f nltrtf/rn- tion. /ht Ihc (:a,Is+lrn rNl+•nmi+r LL•tnlafiouc. tv,lt•+ns(4vl mcal is thc nn1y ft•rfilizrt' U«••1. '1'hc t•artii.ms it+ lbc ttsc of m:rrrun•s :rn+l f+•rlilir.rrg Ihv1 are etahvi in t'halder VI nrttk-t all Iw „I,w•rtr,l• Lrtl mnr6 ht4 vc/ 1i, 1K• Ir:,rnrl slwnt Ihrir :Ipldi,•:rli+m ire thr s+•rni-lrol.i••v. 1I,NNIir mninLeins lhal. 1114. 41+,411114• rnaunm ~ tlf (4nlph:rlr t~f (r.t- ash uUd ner~nrsia) is crrn prr!rr:ddt• to ller high gracln tndph:dc f+f Itid:rh urndrr 1'I++ri+l:t cv.n•lilime~. --"rnt.hrnr Florid.•r, m•rrh rrr:rmr Ihe trol,irc /lhan Ore norUicrn lr.rrt uf Ihc `lalr, is alsn rnn~ing l•r Ilrr fn+nt in tonct,tii t•nhnrr. It. h:rc nrnr•Ir 1101" c:entr rlienafc lted ' eoil as ('~rlrr, ~ntl has natnralh•:dlractctl llrc n/fentintt of tbm". drivcn ont r+f ('nl.h t,r fhc „:rr. '1'la• lirr/ (+lan- txtion l0 1rC t•c! tlrlicbtvl N te I Ira) :ef , h'ort 1'elk couuty, fry the (•nlnn 1'+rl%tt,o {Sr~..rcrs t.'.a. IinriFMl , :'intorlKrr:dt~l ia .Ianerhn•, 1"Set:, willr a mlqt:el o.f ` `0110. lls tdlityrs, a ilh ant• arm ('n)r.tnc. :rrnd tho prr.idrnl.:en,l Te•m•r:d ruau:r,,•r Ir.tre I.:n{ l+.rw, t-thnri- •enco in ~nrrrin~ anel Icue4lru;,• L+h:ercv) itt 11`fiat Whml , Dt K 11. Jcnl,ins toulrilrueev 1++ lfeis work tito follo.r.
Page 351: rhz82d00
-?- W Se3cuai relationships 1, What to expect 2. Compatabi lity c. Agreement on msrrisge, goals (1) Type of home (2) Children (3) 8nd,geting d• Pre-marital iaws (1 Securing the license (2 Witnesses (3 Residency laws (4) Slood test snd physical examination 1 5~ Remps for laws 6 Aow laas vsry ia different states 0. Marriege 1, Physical and emotional adjustments • a. Compatability of sexual relations (most primitive for: in life) b. Ability to compromise or cooperate c. Continuation of courtship (1) Noma» needs to be constantly reminded that her husband still loves her. (This attention can ' gi•ven in various veVa) (2) Men needs to be constantly rem$nded that he is good provider and a good 2zuebaad d. Respect for individuality e. Improving faai],y life 2, Dstablishing a home a, Setting up a budget {1) Should be planned together--points to be coasi eredt (a) Who handles what? l. 8nsband all tinances? 2. Allotment to self, all rest to wife? 3. Allotment to wifeo all rest to self? (b) Definite income to ai!`s 1. Should be regular and constant 2. Should:be increased with income incrE 3. Should be coasidered Mrights of home- indicates trust 4. Wife should coasider allotment used ~ invsstment, She should be proud of ~ dividends a well-used allotment. brin, her family. S. Major purchases should be made joint' (a) Savings for the future (insurance) 1. Possible eiclrnesa 2. Death': 3, Old age 4. Frduaation for children (d) Advantages of buCiing a home (e) Advantages of renting a home ~ m m w
Page 352: rhz82d00
oz6 FLORIDA yard as wrapping paper. flooded the state; the Department of the Interior has published a list of two hundred and ten."ioe In the decade from c8qo to igoo the phosphate industry was gradually stabilized as the "wild-cacters" either sold out to the larger companies or went into bankruptcy. From production of 3,00o tons in i888 the output rose to 8o8,ooo tons in 1899, and in igoo the cumulative total reached f,,3:4,708 tons. Hard rock deposits in Alachua, Marion, Levy, Hernando; Columbia, and Citrus counties and pebble deposits in Polk. De Soto, and Hillsboro counties furnished sufficient mineral to place the product of the Florida mines greater than all other states by tSp6.i*" In the same period large deposits of kaolin, or potter's clay, were opened for mining in Lake and Putnam counties. In 0qs the mining of fuller's earth, used in fulling cloth and in chemical filters, was successfully undertaken near Quincv in Gadsden county. ..• The seven leading industries. * listed by the census of igoo were tobacco products. forest products. railroad shops. printing and publishing, fertilizer manu- facturing. and ship building. Lesser industries inc,luded cotton ginning. cigar box '' making, brick and tile manufacture. grain milling, and canning and preserving (if, food products. VU AcRtcvLnrae The place of agriculture in the economy of Florida remained important in " the years from 1876 to the end of the century although other products of the state's economv added together had a higher total value. The value of farm products had i,ncreased to 5i8,f:s,s:8 by t9oo. The value of mine, forest, and miscellaneous products in iqoo was $3s.{i t,t49 and that, added to that of agri- culture. made a total value of SSo.936,677aso Cotton. which had been.;he major staple crop in the ante-bellum period, con- tinued a leader in the agricultural economy. From 40,00o bales in t87o production rose to f f,ooo bales in i 86o and 57,000 bales in cqoo. Sea island cotton, valued at Ss, 148,068, and upland cotton, valued at ; i, t 57,8;7, and eotton seed, valued at $378,3:o were produced in iqoo.' Sea islandn eocton was "grown principally in the counties of Alachua, Bradforda Columbia, ?Suwannee, Baker, Hamilton, Madison. Lafayette, Taylor, and Levy. A small amount ... . in Calhoun, Clay, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Putnam, Wakulla and Washington. The best qualities are produced in Levy, Alachua, Bradford and Baker, much of which is known, classed and sold as Fancy East Florida.' and commands the highest price of ; any raised in the state. .:. . The largest quantity is produced' in Alachua with Suwannee as second."i" ° A second staple, tobacco, had enjoyed a profitable growth in the ante-bellum period when the large speckled leaves were produeed for cigar wrappers. "The crop was sufficient to produce an annual revenue •of $400,000. just prior to the civil war, which, of course, completely paralyzed this as well as other industries, and after the cessation of hostilities was praEtiially abandoned. The entire system of industry was changed, the large plantations were gradually abandoned to the
Page 353: rhz82d00
FLORIDA AT MID-CENTURY 869 year to year though the value of both crops increased from t949 to i9So. Pe- can production netted farmers and growers five hundred fifty thousand dollars in 1949 and over a million dollars in 1qso.10T Avocados netted farmers and grow- cn five hundred and eighty thousand dollars in iq4q and seven hundred thou- sand dollars in iqso. (Couneis du Co•epend.e) Office md Packing Horue, iVaverly Growerr Co-operarisre Acreage used in the cultivation and sale of truck and vegctable crops has more than doubled since iq:7, when one hundred thirty four thuu.cand acres were planted to two hundred eighty thousand acres in 1949. Likeatisc the farm value of truck corps increased from thirty-six million dollars in iq:7 to one hundred twenty-one million dollars in ie)49. The tomato crop of i9{q-iqso had a gross packed value of thirty-two million dollars; the vulue of all beans was over eighteen million dollars; celery, twelve million dollars; Irish potatoes, nine and a half million dollars; cucumbers and peppers. each over se%•en million dollars. Sweet corn, cabbage, squash, escarole, eggplant, and lettuce were other leaders in the truck crops. In the northern and western counties field crops predominate in large areas where general and subsistence farming are practiced. "King Cotton" is far be- hind the eminent position enjoyed during the years of the nineteenth century. Thc leading field crop of iqso was tobacco, which brought farmers an income of eighteen and a half million dollars. Sugarcane, raised for sugar in south Flo- rida and for syrup in other sections, brought over nine million dollars. Even pea- nus surpassed cotton, as the peanut crop gave farmers an income of over five w i j
Page 354: rhz82d00
(3) Pb0-siology (a) Conoeption Is Sperm Yetttilises egg--life begins 2. Understanding pregnaacy to Medical examination be Growth and development of fetus as R. H. factor d. Miscarriage and premature labor e. Labor and delivery f. Fears--fallacious g. Health of mother affecting her child he Emotional factors (1) Wife needs husband's sympatlw and understanding throughout pregnancy (2) Prospective parents classes and clinics available 3. Understanding Reproductive defects as Sterility (1) Condition of germ celis (male or female) wherein they are sterile (2) Causes be Impotency (1) Positive incspacity for having normal sexual intercourse (2) Csaises (a) In man • Is Plvsical 2. Psychological (b) In woman 1. ftsicsl 2. Psychological 4. Vnderstanding child care and development a. Ado tions fl) Legal procedures (2) Psychological edjustments (a~ child (b parent be Relationship of siblings c. Relationship of step-children d. Adequate child training education as given in the V.S. Children's Bureau publication. jnfIg& 2=9~ Ma MAU FZOmQM Jc2 $1g, and Tg4.Q= F.= UX I&Td41S4MoUJ!- 2t 1) Physicsl~development (2) Emotional development (a) Behavior pattern at certain age levels (3) Social development The natural rsaotion to the material presented might be sfta that covers about everything.s Perhaps it does cover almost everything. At least it covers more than sex alone. Perhaps another conference might be in order to actually work out this uJLit. Your comments are solicited. George T. Stafford g Health Coordinator 8149
Page 355: rhz82d00
-8- susceptibility is that Italian men, in spite of an excessive death rat diseases related to hygienic conditions,;have a significantly lower ag specific mortality from the sum of all causes over the age range of 35 years. In contrast to the rising tide of coronary artery disease, hypert remains a relatively stable problem in all the major population group; have been studied. While there are a few isolated populations relati% from hypertension, these are the exception rather than the rule. PURPOSE AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: rpose Purpose 1. To prevent cardiovascular disease insofar as possible. 2. To reduce deaths and disability resulting from cardiovascular disf To help to assure that all needed care is available to patients w' cardiovascular disease. Speoific Ob3ectives 1. To encourage activities for the pre4ention of rheumatic heart die This would include the furnishing of suitable prophylactic medica those in financial need. Demonstrations which will test the effe of current methods will be used wherever possible. 2. Consideration will be given to the feasibility of making diagnost laboratory service available to physl,cians. 3. To aid in the development of case-finding and referral methods tc that children with congenital heart disease will be discovered at when modern methods of diagnosis and surgery may be of benefit tr As one of the steps in case-finding, the provision of supplementt with the birth certificate is being oonsidered. 4. To encourage the cooperation of the local physicians and the coW
Page 356: rhz82d00
exceedingly picturesque, and reminded me of an Indian sugar camp in the wilds of Michigan."ao Sugar production, according to the census, reached :.7fo hogsheads (:,7so,ooo pounds) in i8so. but by i86o declined to 1,669 hogsheads. Four counties (Marion, Duval, Sc. Johns, and O.rangs) produced over half the total in i 8so. In i 8fo, pro- duction of syrup and molasses reached ;f:.8q; gallons and climbed to 436,537 gallons in Mo. The t86o product of Florida in this latter category was exceeded only by the states of Georgia and Louisiana. A third "cash crop," which gained increasing popularity in the ante-bellum period, was found in tobacco. The "filth,v weed" was indigenous to the peninsula, for John Hawkins and his men were greatly interested in the "herbe" which the Indians in the vicinity of the Sc. Johns river smoked. On their visit to the French colony, in 1565. Hawkins recorded the fact that the French colonists had adopted the smoking habit (a full nventy years before the leaf was introduced into England). Bernard Romans wrote at some length on the culture and preparation of tobacco by the British planters of West Florida, while among the exports from British East Florida in 1778 were over three hundred hogsheads of tobacco.st The production of tobacco in Spanish East Florida was apparently for home consumpcion, although Charles Vignoles reported that Cuban tobacco was being grown near St. Augustine in 18ss and George Clarke devoted a long article to the culture and curing of tobacco to be made into "Spanish segars" which he wrote were "in a fair way to become ... a lucrative article in the expores of this prov- ince."'= Governor W. P. Duval has been given credit for introducing the seed of Cuban tobacco into Nliddle and West Florida in 18s8.''•The product of this seed was a short, narrow leaf, possessing in an extraordinary degree the delightful aroma of the best Havana cigar. It ....vas currently known as the 'Little Duval,' ar:e,- ards incroduced. and known as the ,:;C ......: .:.11o.y r.cnies•ed nocoriety in the fields of John Smith of Gadsden County when a strong dernand developed and Smith's success "attracted the attention of the non-slaveholders and other small planters, and with them it soon became a`uaple market crop, and with the large cotton planters an extra crop, which without curtailing the amount of cotton produced. usually paid all expenses of the Plantation." ' "Cuban tobacco succeeds remarkablv well in Middle Florida." observed Cas- telnau. "It requires continual care, and is attacked by many insects. A slave cannot cake care of more than two acres. It is recognized chat tobacco requires new land. and generally the same ground is planted to it onlv two vears and then it is planted to corn or cotton. It is felt that this manner of cultivation`can be followed onl,v in a countrv where land is cheap. This product has been considered the most profic- able of all and some small planters have rttade from three to five thousand francs from the work of each slave. "A certain number of Spaniards have been brought from Cuba who excel in making cigars. and although usually, they do not like to admit foreigners into their shops. I have seen them working several times. They begin by caking a package of leaves, and they moisten them by sprinkling with water which they hold in
Page 357: rhz82d00
FLORIDA AT NdID-CCNTURY 871 Land anti Orlando. As a prnduccr of cut Aowcrs. bulbs, ornamcntal.. and nurse- n• srr,ck, f Iorida ranks tint in the tinuth :uul ci~hth in thc natiom."' Thc ornamcntals and stock plantcd for cnmincrce ram~c from rnscs to fol- ia~~c hlantx, gIadiulus and uihcr Irulh,. ornamcnral plants ancl dccnrarirc marcrials, to nurscrv .tocl: :nd Crrccnhuu•c urchid.r. •I•%%ckc thousand acrcs were planted - Il',•nne'>• 1f6,rJd:, Staic \.wr Ilureau) TuGncco i6',rrrhnta•r at Livc Oak to hnlhm aInnc whilc (Inccr acrcaLrc w:Is dcvurcd to flower and snock plantings. Grccnhmu~c :Ind nur+crv products hrom,rhr Iifrccn ;uul a half n~illi~~n ~Inllan in ip4~~ and .ixtccn an~l a half million dhiIl:urs in 14) m "!., 'fhrouLrhuut chc history (if PloridLi the ticld tif animal hushanrJry has rc- maincd an impirtnnt •c_niicnt of the agricultural ccomnm•. 5incc iq;g, howcvcr, the livc.tuck induam has undcr_r+pnc unciiuallcd Lrowth and proxpcrit%•. Cash farm incrniic frum livcxtock nuo;•cd frrnn ninctccn luillion dollars in iq;t to ninctv-.ix niilliom dollars in 1949 :"nil "mc humircd :nd seven million dalllrs in i9;c). an adrancc of eleven pcrccnt in mie ycar."' The rapid growth of the IiVc.rr~ck induxtry was hascd. in larrc hart. un the incrcaxe uf the cattlc pnpu- larion. As uf Janunn• iq;; thcrc %%•crc less than citrht hundred thousand cows in the +catc; hv iq5i the numbcr had risen to a million and a half or alntnst double rhat of ,ixtccn vcals- c:u•licr. :1s of Jxnuarv iqu the rank of Florida in toaal cattle pnpulation, as comparcd %%itlt the otltcr aatcs, wa+ fnurth in the
Page 358: rhz82d00
-10- chronically ill so that nursing home care of acceptable qua:, attainable. (See also report of Hospitalisation for the Im 12. To encourage demonstration projects which will aid in the d. practical programs for the prevention, early diagnosis, reh home care and institutional care of all forms of cardiovasc- 13. To develop those research projects which will contribute to knowledge of some phase of the cardiovascular disetse probl 14. To coordinate health department activities with those of ot agencies and with voluntary groupa in the state. This will formation of some formal means in the Florida Cancer Council. PRO()RAM TO ATTAIN OBJ'rxTIVLS: ~, of coordination such as is n Health Department.Activities Ongoing Activities All local health'departments carry on some program in cardiovascular disease even though in many instances these are considered as part of the general program. In 1958 tr than 7,000 office visits and 1ttP000 field visits where the for the.visit concerned some form of cardiovascular diseas vities contribute importantly to the over-all effectivenes even though the control of cardiovascular disease may not even the prime, object of the activity. By aiding the cotr• prove its nursing home facilities, for exeanple, the healtr• contributes to the humanitarian care of a person sufferini, disease. Chest X-rays, school health.exams, health card E° serve to reveal heart problems. Nutrition services are oll control of certain cardiac conditions and in the alleviat:• I'
Page 359: rhz82d00
had considerably lowered operating costs. Also impor- tant in cost control was the fact that women neither smoked cigars while at work nor demanded free ones at the end of the day. The 75 cigar factories of Florida (1958) are centered chiefly in Tampa with others at Miami, Key West, Quincy, Melbourne, Jacksonville, and single plants in various other cities. These establishments require a labor force of 7,200 and they produced more than 1,204 million cigurs in 1958. Of these, almost 47,000,000 retail at more than 20 cents-over twice the number produced in this class in any other cigar manufacturing state. Turning out handmade cigars requires triple the average time re- quired for machine-made varieties. In a recent address in the United States Senate, it was remarked by Senator Spessard Holland that "more all-llavana cigars by the traditional hand method of rolling and finishing cigars are made in Tampa than in the city of Havana itself." 10 A once-fomiltor sccne in Floridds cigar /ectwits-. the hired reodcr cntertoininR cigar rditrs . Coneumers' preference Despite the availability of cigars in Florida, the adult population of the state has clearly shown a marked pref- erence for cigarettes. The drive of cigar manufacturers in Florida to expand the consumer market forr their products has not had any appreciable effect upon ciga- rette smokers. Florida's cigar sales, according to the latest trade esti- mates of wholesale value were around $6.8 million. But the total wholesale value of cigarette sales in Florida was very close to $111.6 million. Per capita use of tax- paid cigarettes in the state was 141.1 packages in the year ending June 1959. The national average in this period was 127.6 packages, a figure based on the volume of federal tax-paid cigarettes. Many induetriee supply the cigar trade As is true of all divisions of the tobacco industry, the business of manufacturing and merchandisisg cigars depends upon the products of various industries, many of them in other states. Quite apart from such products as making machines, cigar manufacturers require the services of the lithographic trade and suppliers of hard- ware, metals, paper boards, aluminum foil and celkr phane, humidification equipment, display material and lumber. 11 E60L E09ZS
Page 360: rhz82d00
-6• thrombosis or rupture. These events can and do occur in a1l organs, but the t organs least able to withstand the resultant damage are the heart and the brai. The most frequent lesion in the heart is, of course, thrombosis. While ruptur a vessel with resultant hemorrhage was an3 probably still is the most frequent vascular lesion in the brain, thrombosis is 4eing recognized with ever greater regularity. Another condition which remains a serious challenge is hypertension. Whe this shoald be considered only another symptom_of the general deterioration of arteriosclerosis or as a separate disease has never been eatisfactorily decide In any case, ttiis is one portion of the adult problem for which there are prop lactic and remedial measures of reasonable effectiveness. While the many gaps in our present knowled,<<e make control measures much 1 effective than we wol±ld desire, there are certain basic services which are of great value to a community. Provision should be made if at all possible for: 1. Early and accurate diagnosis, 2. Adequate management and ' 3. Rehabilitation. These services can be shown to increase the morale and usefulness of the affected person and his family, return a significant number of persons to empl ment and reduce welfare costs. The actual part that the health department pla in the development of these services will depend on the services already avail in the community. It will, however, be a rare county indeed in which there is need for some active endeavor on the part of the health department. Trenda In congenital heart disease, diagnosis was so inadequate prior to at i 1940 that it is impossible to get accurate statistics-for any extended pe , There is no reason to believe that the incidence of this type of disease changed significantly in the past 50 years or so. Hy contrast, the trend ',
Page 361: rhz82d00
-13- patients to return to suitable employment. The chief problem in operation of the mork classifica adequate referral. The work of,these units needs to be be by the private physicians, health departments and welfare official and voluntary agencies. Additional work is being iraprove these methods of referral to the end that the work units may reach their full potential of service. Programs Designed for Education ~ .'.~...~_.._ Physicians In cooperation with the Heart Association seminars a: physicians every other year. They•have been well reoeivec anticipated that they will be oontinued. Exhibits featur: cular disease are presented at the Florida Medical Associ and often at other medical meetings in the state. The 19. featured the care of stroke victims and used the booklet, Stroke", as its chief piece of educational literatutre. A ture and audio-visual materials are made available to phy A mobile library consisting of some 30-40 books deal with many aspects of cardiovascular disease has been deve etration pro3ect. These books have been loaned to small order to stimulate them to develop their own libraries., has a".arentl3r served its puruose, but a check needs to t mate its effectiveness. Nurses . Every other year the State Board of Health, the Hear Ln N and the Nursing Association sponsor_a cardiovascular sem:• ~ In recent years an average of about 900 nurses have atter' ~ ~ long sessions. The 1959 seminar featured information ab'_ LOD
Page 362: rhz82d00
-11- Some of the most ianportant activities of the local hea. are often not listed in a formal report. In their capacit3• to the community on health mattera, the health officer and fluence the decisions made. They aid in the referral of ir points where needed services Asy be received and aid the c: development of facilities to ms4t the needs of its citizen: ;..,. Programs Specifically Designed to aive Seiwice Rheumatic Fever Program . ,..._._ ._._.._ The present program for the control of rheumatic feve. lished in 1955 at which time both acute rheumatic fever an heart disease were made reportable diseases. One of the c in the implementation of this program is the registry whic known patieuts according to activity status and specific d (rheumatic fever alone, with heart disease, suspected rheu: etc.). It was not possible to give this registry the inte desired until 1959. At the present time, however, all act being followed on a current basis, and this more active ir ing as an educational.stimulus in increasin, the interest heart disease. The data gathered in the rheumatic fever registry wil basis for a study elucidating any difference that may exiE reaction to the disease by native-born Floridians and tho: where. This registry also furnishes,the.information needc tribution of penicillin to.indigent patients for the;long•• of rheumatic heart disease and will,thus give some indica'~ of long-term prophylaxis with antibiotics. N m Cardiac Clinics w There has been moderate suocess in the establishment , j
Page 363: rhz82d00
(d ) Eiisleadin Adverti~s,~iy.4 (e; Additiona ons derations (Self -Control, Daferance to Others, Fire Hazards, Irritability, Waste of :Ioney, Loss and In,jury by Fire, Habit-Forming Drug) 4. Narcotic Drugs s Definition and Body Effects Namos (and identity) of Narcotics Effects upon the Nervous System Physical Basis of the Habit Special Warning to High School Students' Effects upon Character How Narcotics Lead to Crime :he Traffie in Narcotics Narcotic Conditions in America Narcotics in Patent hedicine Sources of Narcotic Addicticn' Legislative Control A United Front Noedcd Surrn:ary (Narcotic Drugs ) iteforences This book ropresents all that is good and bad concerr.i::g the teaching about narcotics. All references here are to the 1944 ed3tion. The introduction, page 459, which is largely viell stated indicated that alcohol does not produce unconsciousnoss,` In larga'abounts it does produce unconsciousness. On page 460 the assumption that alcohol attacks tholipoid of the nerve cells has no f oundati on in scientific study. The secoad' paragraph on that page is well statad except for the opening phrasap "I^n similar;fashion." The same errors concerning damage to cells is repeated on pages 462 and 463. The section, "A Narcotic, Not a StiTula nt," is good dn page 463 and two lines on 464. The remainder is not borne out by the evidence. I^n tn3 a?c.icn, "Further Effects on the ve-rvous System," pages 464-467, there ie %4.ii rapetitiorl. The last paragraph is a good state:centt that covers a ll tnc,t the previous part of the section repeats unnecessarily. The section on alcohol and accidents, pages 467-469 is good, The secti.on, "A F.abit-Fonaing Drug," classos alcohol tivith other narcotics bu t d;.ss not state that alcohol habit for:aation is psychological rather tti:~.r. p::ysical. With thc use of narcotics as opium, tho conditioning is physical, The te: ct Zocs on With dcscriptions of ho•rr alcohol effects circulation, respiration, ar.d excretion. These have the co,:rson error of blaming alcohol directly v:hers malnutrition is at the root of all these diff;culties. „ " 22 _J w kD
Page 364: rhz82d00
• V _23_ Since in many of the phases of adult heart disease, the obsecti% diagnosis, early and effective rehabilitation, adequate therapy and t service, the degree of success achieved iri the program aillbe measu. quacy of these services rendered in the community. An increasing nw clinics, an increasing number of vieiting•nurse services, and increa. tion of the work classification units will be evidence of an effectV The work classification units will have a further means of measuring ness by the number and percentage of their pitienta who are able to : ful occupation. The initiation of worthwhile demonstration projects will be a g of interest, and the results of these projects will in themselves be judging their effectiveness. A survey of representative counties should be made to determine frequency of hospital admissions for decompensation. A reduction in sions would give a definite indication of the value of the programs supervision for cardiovascular disease: .
Page 365: rhz82d00
Page 366: rhz82d00
Augustus M. Burns, 111, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 shorten 200:25 shorter 158:20 Shortly 51:6;139:2 shouldn't 65:6 show 44:18;155:3; 186:22; 196:6; 225:4, 4 showing 111:22 side 11:15; 63:20, 24; 64:1, 4: 65:18; 68:21: 69:5, 24; 70:17; 71:5,12, 16; 89:14; 186:11 sides 44:9; 91:11; 218:8, 9; 219:1 signature 229:23 signed 102:23; 103:1 significance 62:13; 83:4; 89:10 significant 137:21 similar 86:1;136:6; 227:10, 11 simply 45:8;75:22; 127:5; 142:20;144:4; 146:15;173:25;191:20 single 11:13; 57:25 sit 48:2 sitting 101:23; 145:10 situation 18:22; 24:16, 17; 66:2; 91:18;102:15; 113:17 six 181:11;210:15; 220:20 sixties 176:13, 25; 189:16 sixty 52:24 size 224:10 Skadden 5:10 Skates 193:11; 194:6; 222:17 skills 13:25;14:4;15:2; 18:24;19:6 skin 164:4,8 Slate 5:10 sloppy 54:19 small 8:11; 70:12 smaller 218:18 smart 92:3 Smith 50:11, 12, 13; 51:2; 53:11; 54 :2, 7, 15: 55:1; 64:4, 17, 19; 65:17; 66:12, 20; 67(4); 68(4); 69:5, 9. 24; 70:2, 4, 17; 71(4); 74 :5; 77:18; 91:14 Smith's 65:20; 66:1 4; 76:23 smoke 10:3; 152:25; 209:5 smoked 209:19 smoker 9:20, 22, 24 smokers 152:22; 169:19 smoking 10:6;11:22, 23; 12:2; 13:6,7;138(4); 139:8; 168:24; 169:21; 170:1, 7; 175:17; 176:6, 9; 177:2; 178:7; 179:7; 180:16; 181:6; 182:24: ; 183:15: 202:24; 203:6, 11, ; 23; 204:14; 206:3, 4; 208:3. 25 sneaking 150:7 social 45:9 Society 28:15,16; 42:19; 83:12;157:4 society's 83:13 socio 160:24 Sociology 81:15 sollchor 8:14 somebody 77:13; 78:14; 87:14,15;112:12;191:25; 212:2 someone 31:12;60:22; 79:22; 92:4; 96:4; 120:23; ' 150:6; 162:15; 184:22 something 6:12; 16:5; 23:2; 24:8; 25:14; 27:22; 45:20; 46:11; 73:2; 77:11; 82:24; 95:21; 97:17; 99:21;10G:8;117:17; 140:11;142:4;143:16; 185:22; 216:23; 219:4; 224:25 sometimes 14:15; 70:8; 145:6 somewhat 86:5 sophisticated 14:24; 15:1 sorry 12:22; 58:6; 96:24; 147:15; 216:20 sort 8:4, 8; 46:25; 52:2; 71:8;75:2,21;76:1;77:11; 87:20; 97:13; 98:17; 100:23;101:1;108:7; 115:4; 122:18; 132:18; 212:25; 220:15 sought 109:12 sound 75:23:107:23 source 7:23; 9:2, 5; 14:8, 8; 15:11,14; 19:12,17; 21:19, 22; 22:10; 23:25; 1 45:1; 68:18; 74:21; 7S:S; 1 76:9; 108:8; 126:2; + 140:16; 149: 13 sources 9:16;10:25: 20:3:68:20, 24;b9:5, 5; 71:11; 75:15; 76:21; 159:23 south 32:20, 22; 33:5; 65:12; 123:13; 126:3 Southern 28:13,18; 3Q:19, 24; 37:14; 52:13; 73:17, 22; 74(4); 122:12; 123(5); 125:23; 126:23 speak 27:23; 54:24; 82:18; 105:13; 110:19; 141:8;144:7;145:13; 210:14 I speaking 51:14;82:3; 144:7;181:25; 189:25 specific 13:4; 24:9,10; 25:17, 25; 26:4, 9: 27:13; 29:3; 30:4: 34:9; 39:24; 49:13; 60:20; 66:24; 68:18; 69:3; 75:11; 83:14: shorten - sure (14) State of Florida, et al., v. American Tobacco Co., et al. 94:1;156:9,10, 21: I`stenographically 230:9 j subpart 122:19 " 157:11, 16;159:10, 14; + step 67;25; 66:12; 125:14 subsequent 40:25; 162:20;176:21, 22;'189:5: ' step# 90:10 42:18:88:2:138:4 201 a8; 220:10; 225:18 Steye 4 Y 2 5'3' t 10 ~2' subsequently 33:18 specifically 44:15; ' 67:23: 90:13; 95:12; 110: 17; 163:20; 164:24 speculate 183:2 ,, speculeting 113:13 speculation 41:4;198:8 speculative 183:18; 184:21 speech 82:1; 175:8 ' spent 5:20;166:13 _ spoke 104:25 spot 186:13 St 28;16' staggering 24:3 stained 13:9 stand 33:24 standards 31:2; 52:4 standing 102:5 ' standpoint 19:6;190:20 started 7;17; 2913; . , 46:18;143:6 State 4:8,18; 5:2; 6:25; 7:14;17:24:33:40-42:14; 43:4; 53:21; 65:2; 84:17; 85:6, 7,12; 86:11; 87:7, 10; 93:4,18, 25; 98:11; 100:22; 101:21; 1 06:2 1; , 127r25;128:5,18;129:11; 130:4, 20, 22;133:23: 4- 141:12;143:11;147:6; ' 149:20;155:11;156;11, 13,15; 158:4, 23:160:4, 25;166:11,12,15;174:10, 175(4);176(5);177:4,12. 14;178:8,13;179:10,12,• 14;180(4);183:8;194:7, 23; 197:12; 200:6, 20; 201:8, 22; 202:7,18,22c 203(4); 204:5,19; 206:10, 21: 207:4, 23; 208:22, 23; I' 221:23: 223:21,'21, 25; - i 224(5); 225:5, 7; 227:9 ; 3: state's 85:8; 87:6; subject I8:15 19:21; supplied 218:23: 219:10, 141:15;156:12; 223:24 ;~ 2f 11 22.21; 24 4, 7, x4 . ' stated 98:21;1 K0:24; 27:23 29:9; 30 2; 32:8 ~16 support 9:16:10:23; 149:6; 207:18 ~ 42:3: 55.5; 64:9; 82:12 '13; ~.12 14; 56:15; G0:14; statement 25:20 187:2; 83:14,84:5;87:16,16;' y1;20, 22;128:6c 129:7 191aG;193:18;194:21; 94:8;119:16;120:24; . supported 12:24: 19:25: . 195(4); 196:7; 218i24 121:10 122:10 24; 123(4) 124:10,127:20; ~ 19 States 31:7; 33:6; 38:21; I 128:;. (4 t:7:M:io_ 2s: ~ supporters 71:23; 91:14, 21 6 84 122 2 53 85 ; ; : : ; : :3; 134:10;145:15;154a; 179:5; 207:4, 5 stating 144:5 statistical 205:20 status 42:25; 99:21 subjects 4q:1 123:18; j supposed 106:10; statute 83:7, 8, 12; • ' 134:9,11;174 4, 223:20 155:11 ~ submit 125:17;126(4); j Supreme 83:24; 84:2.6; ' L' statutes 83(4) ~ 127:1;140:20 85:4. 25:121:14; 122:2: ~ stay 178:12 ~ submits 124:19 stemnied 137:6 submitted a2( ;22; stemming 97:8;133:14 ( 127:11,11;142:5 Min-U-scrip46 ~ 15~:"13 subset 12239 j stiCk 186:9 substance 54:18, 22;, ' stiCks 12:6,11 I 95:15:156:5 substances 13;136: 2 33 t11122 12 2 3 , : 1; 34: s , G5:23. 24; 75 3, # 6; .' substantlal 39.18, 41:10; 99:8; 1 17:10, 51:16; 52 16; 5,6:17; 61:7 211:19; 212;9' 31 substantive 51:23; stipulatiorts'5:12 ;149:4, 22 stop 204:14 sucsess 117:24; 118:4c stopped 10: 1, 2; 11:22, 204(4); 205:8; 206:5 eUCcesses 172:4 23;12:2; i3:6; 2?2:;2; 223:4 , sucoessfu1202:23; stops 33:1, 3,20 203;14,1W, 20; 204:5. 20; 205:2,15, 20 story 69:1 ', successfully 2035; .stout 64:1G -; 224:1,1, 3 ' ':traight 7')a6,116:23 sufticlent 119•6 : strategies 6{S 111 67:1J; sufficiently 52:19; 118:7 •.V7..7, • {;.. \.a•,{ . .1 .w ~w. L...O. .:0..4. istrategy 7pc2;',19 175:33;188:6;19011; Street 4':j 1,14 216:22; 226:5 strenoth 90:3 suggested 97:19;105:9; stretch 118:18.. . . .189:10 strict 94:2 ' + sugoesting 138:24; Stroke 137:12 156:1 rv ~itrqlt~ 32:19, Sb 1#.' ouggestion 87:5;109:21 Z25:21 suggestions 110:10 ttrMoture 99:16 I suggests 77:3;191, :4 4tf"uptut'ed 65:y 3 suit 155:12 studenti:24t 14:7; ' 1 sum 95:15 22:17;94;22 summaries 121:17 8tudenjs 96•13,13a ' Summarizing 121:z0; > i`34;20;136:7, 211S:3,F16; 122:1 212:3 summary 751:14; 84:9; studied 2t.10 i 148:15;192•15 s.tudy 1,1:6;14:18;40:22; aumfnet 11:11;99:16 82:9,15; 87:9;127,24;, supplement 11:16; 42:2; 133:15,18,19;18,8:8 46:12;54:24 studying 13:16;19:15; supplementai 37:3 36:6 supplemented 41:15; . stuff 213:4 4 20 134:6;135:2,10112; ; ; , 15 138:9:139:1; i43:4. . supporting 30:11 147:G;153:23, 156:2;-: suppose 22:3c 23:6; 162:23;163:1,169:1ii; 24:5;197:11, 213:10: 1 •70:6,172:14 189 2 219:7 ~ 123:4:181:24 I sure 17:12: 25• 12; {5:2ct: ! . b9:19;90:12; 105:12; A. vvm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc.
Page 367: rhz82d00
Augusiu3 M. Burns, III, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 PROCEEDINGS 4:1; 144:14;187:23; 226:15; 230:10 proceeds 25:3 process 26:21; 30:14, 19. 20; 42:16: 47:16; 48:6; 50:9; 633: 66:12,19: 67:7, 21;68:16;69:9;79:3.5, 11; 80:5; 82:22; 94:2; 96:2; 100:21; 120:18,19; 121:4; 125:13;127:5.13;151:1; 15G:25;157:2;192:2; 194:2; 203:7; 204:23, 23 procession 46:2 processors 164:13 produce 70:12; 93:13; 141:20;149:17; 209:18, 19; 213:4 produced 88:25; 89:1; 90:6;213:1,1;214:3 producer 93:1 producible 143:20 producing 89:3; 128:18; 143:12; 147:21 product 130:13 production 130:12,15; 131:24, 25 products 13:14;131:12, 19, 23;132:14,16; 224:6 professional 28(4); 30:18, 23; 38:15; 80:23; 81:5; 82:15, 24, 25: 94:20; 120:20; 125:6 professionals 221:10 professor 99:22, 25; 100:8;116:11, 21, 22; 117(4);118:5;119:2; 120:5;121:8;124:18, 23; 142:5; 227:18, 21, 22; 228:20 professors 58:13,18; 118:18,19,21; 119:5; 121:6;210:20,23:211:1 professorship 117:13, 21; 119:17; 124:24; 125:8, 10 profile 44:11 profusion 70:14 program 18:21;19:10; 212:9 programs 128:10; 205:19 progress 60:4 progression 46:3 project 23:6; 26:9; 47:25; ', 48:5; 94(5); 95:8; 97:15, promoted 119:19; 120:4 promoting 121:8 promotion 117:15; 118:5;119:1:121:7;125:2 promotions 118:11 prompted 103:21; 104:2 proposal 7:6 proposed 110:1;147:21 proposition 13:12; 77:10 prosecuting 8:14 prosecutors 25:8 prospects 117:24;118:4 proved 54:20 provide 37:3; 42:2; 59:2; 69:22; 85:11; 86:17; 92:13; 110:2, 5; 141:2, 18; 150:18,19 provided 36:22; 65:4; 78:9; 83:20; 86:23; 90:1; 109:25; 151:8; 160:11; 210:17; 212:13; 216:15 provides 60:18 providing 90:9 provisions 102:22 psychiatry 81:2 Psychology 81:7 public 22:13; 23:22, 22; 24:20; 25:6,15; 30:7; 38:19,19;42:11;43:12, 20; 44:15, 20; 45:20, 21; 51:10,11; 64:22; 70:3; 72:18, 22; 81:13: 82:3; 88:7; 92:18,18, 22; 93:3; 133:20;135:21;136:8; 137:22;159(4); 160:1, 2, i 16; 162:5, 22;163(5); 166:10;167(4);168:21; 174:9, 10; 175:2; 176:12; 178:5, 6, 23;179:15; 181:3; 183:5; 185:12; 190:13; 191:11, 22; 192:19;197(4); 202:14; 225(4):230:21 publication 36:3;88:2,6; 963; 118:7, 25:119:4; 120:6; 121:1,4,16; 126:10;134:9 pubiications 21:15; 120(4); 121:11; 122:24; 123:19;124:12;126:12; 128:2;160:4;175:22 publicity 65:20; 66:9 publicly 171:13 pubiish 60:8; 98:4; 100:7 published 19:13; 30:10; 19; 98:19; 103:4; 108:8; 1 46:20, 21; 47:14; 59:11; 109:7, 25;110:13;133:2, 72:14,15. 20; 88:10,18; 16; 210(4); 211:20; 212:2: 120:10;122:12;123:15; 220:G:222:5:223:11; ~ 125:11;159:23 , 227:11 , publisher 96:5 projects 41:1; 8G:10, 10, ~ publishing 70:8; 164:17 14;95:16,22,24 0 . ure136:5,12 prolific 118:7 purpose 46:11;190:11 prolonged 167:13 pursuant 103:6 promising 117:25: 118:4 pursue 11:3 PROCEEDINGS - rely (12) State of Florida, et al., v. American Tobacco Co., et aL ' pursuits 99:17 read 19:12;30:15;34:18. 2t(v _4:21?3.6:225:3. push 54:7 ~ 20: 59:12,14;120:22; 23; - 26:14. 17: 229:12. 15. put 69:8;114:.14;117:1 S; I 134:13:137:8;150:24; 22: 2;0:10 154:6, 9;173:15;181:24; 1 170:16;178:18;182:7, 8: recorded 230:9 187:12; 188:19; 213:4 putting 49:4; 70:9;122:.3 qualified 95:14 quality 75:16; 86:18 quality 78;8,17;120:10 questioned 141:3 qusstioner 96:21 questioning 229:17 quickiy 167:16 quit 138:4;180•6 quite 130:2;146:21 quotation 188:5, 20, 24; 189:10,19;190:5,11, 23 quote 187:12; 188:13; 192c17;195:1S,16 183:4;187:&,191:21, 25: recount 224:7 192:1,1934; 206:16; ~" ` recover 24:12 ' 221:23 ,LL reading 45:8;175:6; ` 19938,19; 229:23 ; readjustment 42;18 ` real 43:10; 74:14 ;reaiize 3&14; 57:3 reaiizTng y8;9 reaRy 9;11;10:10; 40:8; reduce 208:24, 24 refer 190:5 reference 13:4; 23:14; 112: 5; 151:12; 152:13; 158:1?: 176:21 references 84:4;135:20; ~137i1 referendum 53:19 . R R-A-IM,S-E-X 63:12 . R,J 5:6; 9:9,13,15;12:1 S, 17, 24;17:18;144:22; 165:15 Race 20:23; 32:9.13, 25; 33:3, 5, 8; 34:4; 35:12,15, 16; 36:2,11, 25; 37:22; 40:5; 42(4); 46:17; 49:16, 17, 20; 50:3, 7; 51 24; 52:7; 53:17; 54:9; 56:13; 59:16; 62:12; 63:18; 74:15; 83 1 as;86:7; 91:3; 92:14;132:2;199:7 racia132:19,19, 22; 36:23; 42:20, 21; 53:18; 65:12 racketeerinp 222:2, 6 radio 53:22; 54:5 ~ raised 143:4 Raleigh 7:13; 59:7; 61 a3; 64:14,16 ramifications 153:22:. 46:10, 37i;5; 77:9; 80:14: referred 131 i9 02 6 91 l :2 :4;1 ; 0; 19 ~ 125:2;127:14;131:18; 181;13; 205:2 [eaion 59:22; 63:13; 65i5;106(4);111;22; " 117:20; 161:4 referring 129:25:190:4 refers 151:18 refiect 60:12;145:21, 25; 197:7 reflected 178:16 t~eaaonable 182:20; refresh 181:22, 23 183:14;184:9;199:4,12 refutes 77:12 reasonably 23:25 {egard 98 12,139:4; reasons 64:25; 65:3; 168:23:169.25;170:6; 98:6;1.06:11;115:4;120:3 172:4:197:15; 203:23 reasses.sing 77:5 - regarding 33:2 Re,avi~ 108:17 region 130:24 rebut 223:16, regklsr 1114 rebuts 77:1x regulation 172:5,14' recaii 7:24, 25i 10:8,11; ' regulations 30;22; 98:9, 29;3;68:18~85:16;1p38; ,.11;99:9;'100:5,9,17; 107:4; ~14:)12;,152:2t 101:23 ' 15736- regulators 169:3:174:9 I o,.v,r1wV r.w WM, reinforc d 44 24 ° e : ;8:12, 78:10; 213 8: teinforcement 45:1 214;3,9 r8ceiv111g9:8 rq~ivraiv iqq:ti I reoeht 16:25 rejectng 96:3 ` recently 229:1 rejoining 17:2,2 recess 6i:2Sc 139:14;: `k retete 98:18; 138:19.24; 1 95:20; 186:16;217:4;229:13 149:Id; 193:23: reciprocAi 219:1 ` -!97:12: 228:3 recitation 1!J5:19 related 16.S:31:8; 36:11: ~4 l0: r~kless 139: 5, 7 l0 t:17:115:19: 128.4: 131:12, 13: 143:13: recognizabie 0.1 ` i47:6.20;163:5;164:G: : recognlze 108:1 `'. 100:18; 190:24; ZZS:G; . recognized 32:21 . z30: t.; .t%anll.efinn 1dR•1`f `~ relates L7:o:y4:1S: 154:4; 155:22; 156:20; '""-' --""' "~'- 157:10 i recontid4r 205:25 Ramsey 63:12 ~' r0eord d;4, 25 21:7; ;; range 9:15; 43:25; 93:12; I 25 ,2,1 , 26:24 30:12; d4:1 S; 54 19: . 130:21;178:23;191:3; 1 60:18, 61.24; 62 2, 70:3,; 208:13; 209:10; 225:5, 7 ~~.1 5793, 5,19 80:3t. rapidly 42:16 ~ 85:19, 88:8;13, 92;.jt,2;, rate 10:3 1 93:4;109:4;118:7, 2;, rather 45:8;176:22; I 119:5; 120:$;139:12; 205:18 140:4,143:1;145:21; 24; Ray 132:7 reach 41:15; 43:19; 143:19 reached 207:4 ' reacting 219:2 reaction 90:10 M3n-U-Scripto iaaaa:ly4:n . reiating 136:7 Retations 20•24; 32a5; 33:3, 5. 9: 3G 25; 40:5: 12(4) relative 83 13; 102:2; 118:11:159:2.17: i l+2•6 I relevancy i44:25: 145:I. i i relevant 1 •i 1:22;142:20: ; 140:22. 24;157.20: 143: ~ 5' 1 l 59(4);162:5, 23:163:17, relled 217:13: 218:3 17;168:11;176:12c 178:5: , teiocato 7:11 , 179:IS; 180:25 181;~; ( 382:8,183, 5.10 185.:i:2; y reluctant 75:19:198:9 186(4);191:11;192:8,19' . .;,reiy 30-7: 193:22; t94:18i ~ 193:6,197:8,19; 215:23. .~ 195:19:19G: l 1.16,19 A..'WT.. Roberts, Jr. & ASSOC.
Page 368: rhz82d00
448 TUBAt.Y.'O 1.EA P. 'I'Iso first harvceld in gal.hcrtyl early in June. 'Pho hr•••• ~nh sl:llks are c11t in s:ecl.ions, cach carrying two Ir:tt't•s, aud :Irn hung on poles in'tho field, astl:uldlo ns it were, :unl clrrse together. A prcliminary sorting is donc in Lhc ficld, leares of like chnracl.or bcing hung on • Llsc sanlo INrle. 'Phcsc ptdtw nrc cnrrietl to tlle curin„ •• lrarn hy hand and pnt up for I.he bnrn cure. Tho Islrn • brlilt in the trrhscr rr field stre considerably smallor than Ihtrxc in New P:nl;lnnd or 1'cnnsylranilt. 'l'heme is urr arrongement for snpplying artificial hcnt or moistnro in tlle Inrna. The wralyrcrs nre kept htnlsetl till cnred, bnt the fillers aro ocymsioually Irrottght trttt and hung in the sun nntl air during n lxtrt of the dny, nnd always housal sit ninht. Unring (mrn cnring, as well as in lllo ewcnt, tho crop is closely watched hy the experte. Pole burn secros to be nnknown. 'I'he whole pra,•cas of sweating, "lsetuoing," etc., rtKluir•es considcrablo skill and experient•e, is a nct:ret uue, snd nnturally I matlo no inrlnirics reganling it. 1Vhen thc first crop is cat, a sucker is left on llle sunuy sidc rrf r.lch stalk, nnd tllis immetlintely starts to grow, :Irlll lrralllCY•s a>;ercootl crop, sometimes ill furty Gce tlaYa, lst•ing already proridtvl with a strong ra)t s:ys- t.cnt, and Llcortyl Ior llle rains, which sre nwre abmnl•rnt from June on, f-hrouf;h the stnnmcr. l:.en a third r•Irsp may aontelimes he grown from the plRnis first sc.t in February. Dkanl.imc, new ta•t•tl lsetls ha.e hcen nn. nnd the land is lrlanl•al wil.h folr•ICrn a secontl timc'e Scpl.cnlbcr, nnd this is hmealetl in November or '•-~- rnmber. Under very fn.ornhle circmmstnneen, n secotd (sucker) cntting m+y Ise mntle frotn the plnntinf; 'I'llee first cotting of each crop consists chiefly of wmaMlcm '1'he second and thirt) nrc for t.he most lmrt Gllerts. $ is slntell that nll acre of (:Imi should pralnt.r, at 1?5A1 lxntndQ atuluallr, of which onc-half shonkl wrnPlrers. As rwne of tlre cmnlntny's tobacco hras UIt1AR I.ti.SR AT •1111; lC1;CT AVb F.)I/T/f. 119 IK`cn scol.l, no rlrfir,ilr ~Ia'r•sm•nl .rf (•rir.• t•:rn I1R is IN•lir•Vr•rl Ilralt il. t•.mrrn:ln•1 Ihc IKsI. ~r:rr)r•ti .rf inrl~rllr•1 Ila~ sn:r. 'I hi: ...Inl :mc aat orh:uriz,•rl in .I:rnnal~ Irr ~[ ~in /h, . , if i ~••• n hrr.l ' ta 6 ttc r Ir:nr~l 1(Nr :rr ..= ~ •rt•. r.f I:rnd. arrl I•. h:nt• han,•a„1 nnd crlrrvl /he Lrh f :aru rl /h ..nk :I • ' ' n I :1.hr• r•r..lr h:rr_ .1rsltvl iu ./nne h:r.: INrn fr•rur.•rdr•.l, arnl i~sn••kr.1 marle tt•h.,ll} nf Ihis Flnr•k. :tmtly frn /nannfar Irnr•, h.rrt,•t,•r 'I'h~• r nrr• i= mrt r~n)- Ideto f.ill DI:II•, :rnrl Ihc Lrb:n•,•,~ ~br.nlrl /h. rl :,~,~ a , ~ ,~ ~r..tr 1seGrro it n~ill lm at ifc •• : la~I. 'I'Isr• ...n,l.lrrr it~.•)f ieill donhlte ils a, rr:he in 1S'r;. anri h:r:Irlrrih• f.,r IIIIIIIIIIf(YI P\It•n~l•rll :IS F6r111 :r,e 111:u1}• fartnt•rc ct•t• ill Il/i. r•n/crf.ri-.• :r ~r•r~ h„Iw•fnl r rll.lrMrk f~.r rncn u[ skill anrl r nr r~r, aml a:r frrr• I,~rin_fI,~rin_arm.•r in_ t• grrrw L.Irarco unrlr•r conf r:u'I. tril.h thic rnrnl.ane. '1'Irc L:nns of I lrc txrn/r:rr t rrc, in I r•m•ral. 1br ~r• ; I'h~ I.ocidcs Illc laml, Irarna b~ Ille Llrrm•r nt f I,.rlnd ferlilizcrc. '1'h^ r•..mi~anv pro.idt~g Ihc I:IINrlrrs, Lr IK~ I.:,irl rale n[ ouc doll:rr )M•r d:r f.. ~ r r:u•h nkil -rrrn!z r:l~ aml a f"renlsnl to h Inr1M fhe nt•n I. :Ilsn lmi•1 l.c 111~~ L•rrrner. 7 lie work is :risn r:ulk•r~ i~cd by l llc tnatra•vr .rf I h•• .•.nn. p•ny, nilhont chargt•. Thc tvrnlp;ln}-Fn-t•alc ih. nnd prcparr•s it for nrnrkclt in f he Cul)an sfy1n, :Ind G•r this rcccivts onc-Illirll Ut thc crup. IE9
Page 369: rhz82d00
:-, 4b FLORIDA along the shore and the pearl fisheries were non-existent, thus the exploitation of the natural resources would rest upon the produce from the soil, and the arable soils of Florida are not often found in close proximity of the seashore. Good.agri- cultural lands were usually too far from the defenses of the fort and seldom in sufficient quantity for the colonists to undertake the joint farming with others, after the prevailing European customs. In Florida, farming the most fertile soil meant arduous labor. "Trees and other foliage must be grubbed out, not once, but year after year, so rapidly did forest vegetation of all kinds spring up in this wilderness.... The heat and moisture -were excessive during the seasons when crops naturally grew 2 ' nd matured, and wild animals, insects, reptiles, and jealous Indian tribes added to the hazards of wresting an existence from the soil.... The Spaniards, equipped with neither the resources and experience nor the natural disposition to combat such difficulties, soon concluded that farming in this wil- derness was not worth the effort."33 As will be remembered MenEndez had transported several hundred head of livestock, seed grain, and various plants for the foundation of an agricultural svs- tem as practiced in other colonies of New Spain. Unfortunately acute food short- ages forced the consumption of these supplies and Indian depredations caused further losses of animals and crops. The lack of co-operation on the part of the Spanish and Cuban authorities and other difficulties forced the adelantado to de- - vote most of his attention to military matters. Agricultural development had been ' so disappointing that after NIenendez's death the succeeding governors did little to foster agrarian measures." The Spanish occupation did, 'however, introduce grape arbors, citrus plantings, and figs; from the grapes domestic wines of good quality were produced. "The adaptability of the Spanish to native products is worth noting, as in the case of corn (maize), and tobacco, both of which being indigenous to Florida. were borrowed from the Indians. Likewise oysters, turdes: and turtle eggs be- came common sr sc: ved in Sc. Augustine, was a combination of shrimp and corn, or rice, called 'pilau.' Ordinar,v varieties of garden vegetables of both European and native origin and many rypes of flowering plants and shrubs were grown in St. Augustine, as well as at the mission stations and military posts, and in some of the old gardens are yet to be found plants, flowers, and trees with an ancestry traceable to the first Spanish period."Y' The basis of land economy in other Spanish colonies, consisting of private land grants and enforced native agricultural labor, was never .introduced into Florida. The lack of a landholding agrarian economy created, in turn, an innova- tion in Indian relations. The crown govennrfrent and the` missionaries held the soil to be the inalienable property of the aborigines and that Spanish citizens of Florida could not achieve private ownership of the domain. The ' colonisa and representatives of the Church were ordered to protect the native rights and to instruct the native in the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. This novel policy, contrary to those enforced in the remaining colonies, probably explains the extinction of Spanish claims to Florida in the nineteenth century. The fueure
Page 370: rhz82d00
~" ...11 .~ Europeans find tobacco In Florida ..; . The record of tobacco in Florida starts about 450 years ago. Ponce de Lebn, Hernando de Soto and others were familiar with Florida s coast or interior early in the 1500 s. When the English sea captain, Sir John Hawkins, returned from his exploration of Florida in 1565, his crew brought tobacco seeds into England. The first tobacco from America known to be grown in the British Isles, therefore, came f rom the area De L.ebn called land of flowers." A quarter of a century after Hawkins expedition, Europeans were treated to an illustrated account of the native use of tobacco in Florida. An elaborate picture slwwed an Indian smoking a pipe, a pipe enlarged by the artist's imagination. It was several feet longer than the actual clays then in use. In itself this was not unusual: everything about America was then thought of as "big." The picture was an eye-stopper. Tlie text which accom- panied it explained that the natives smoked tobacco to cure astluna. Tobacco proves itrs worth to Florida The picture of smoking in Florida today requires no imaginative artist. The most recent record of Floridians, smoking only for pleasure, shows that they consumed 2 . I over 639 million packages of tax-paid cigarettes in the calendar year 1959. In the process of enjoying them- selves they contributed almost $32 million to the state's treasury through tlie tax applied to each package. Addi- tionally, they paid a retail sales tax on each package. Up to 1950 a ccrosiderablc number of municipalities taxed cigarettes: In that year the state tax was advanced from 3 to 5 cents. At the same time ao agreement was effected whereby all political subdivisions were to re- scind the local tax and share proportionately in the increased state tax on cigarettes. Of this share one half was to go for the reduction of property taxes in the individual communities. - Many of Florida's community improvements in the form of sdrools, r+oads, bridges, buildings and other de- velopments can be directly creditel to the yieki; frtnu taxes on cigarettes. The total since the excise was first applied in 1943 is very high. Over the past fifteen years the figure is in tlie range of some $285 million gross. The entire population of the state has been benefited by the direct tax applied to those who indulge in the most universal of social habits. And Florida's smokers also paid their share (at the rate of 8 cents a package) of over $1.8 billion in tobacco taxes collected by the I n- tennal Revenue Service in 1959 on cigarettes. The estimated wholesale value of tobacco products, pipes and other tobacco materials sold in Florida in 1958 came to about $123 million. These commodities were 3 060L £09T5
Page 371: rhz82d00
rubella in pregnant women are definitely of value. The laboratory hf promising leads in nutrition, oxygen tension, etc., but these leads r developed to the point of clinical application. Recent surgical advances have made it possible to offer cure or to many children suffering from congenital heart disease. The diagnc and surgical care of these children is, however, complex and very exF cost of care is often beyond the resources of the average family, anc help is frequently needed from public and private agencies. Rheumatic Heart Diseases Rheumatic heart disease is infrequently diagnosed before the agE but it is the predominant type of heart lesion seen between the.ages twenty-four. It is the only type of heart disease for which there i: prophylaxis. The death rate has fallen steadily since 1915, partly i of improvements in living conditions and partly as a result of improl prophylaxis and treatment. Even so, there were 425 deaths from rheur disease reported in Florida in 1957. The full impact of the disease i$ed, howevers when one understands the long years of incapacity and which so frequently result from this di,sease. Much of the problem can and is being handled on a private basis, present relatively favorable;position can be maintained and improved educational and case-finding techniques are, used. Without these ser, the prophylactic knowledge we have will not be applied. In a few inr. cal intervention will reduce significantly the disability of those a:, ed with rheumatic heart disease. ~ m m ,
Page 372: rhz82d00
~1Jittle DuVal" creates great expectations The development of the Ilavana seed variety intro- duced into Gadsden County had a curious history. John Smith, a recent emigrant from Virginia, successfully marketed a crop in 1830. He was shortly joined in this farming by a fellow Virginian, William S. Cuwm. For a while the cultivation of tobacco in the area was almost entirely confined to Smith and Cunn. They had faith in the potential value of their crops-a faith not fully shared by their neighbors. Not long after the initial years of harvesting little DuVal in Cadsclen County, the tobacco began to acquire peculiar characteristics. As a plant, tobacco is remark- ably sensitive. Its seeds, growing in new soil, may develop into an organism which bears little resemblance to parent types. Until the mysterious forces in the nature of chro- mosomes and resultant mutations have Gnally settled upon a fixed pattern, strange varieties sometimes appear. That is what happened to the Havana seed planted at Quincy in 1828. The original crop was all of a dark, nar- row leaf, "compariug in flavor with third-rate Havana," an expert opinion expressed by an early planter in the district. Then, out of the stiff red clay in the area, came a larger, thinner leaf of brighter colors, "the tobacco insipid and flavorless." This in turn developed into a more silky, broader leaf of varying mahogany color. It was curiously but attractively spotted. 14 . 1 ; : Speckled leaf brings spot cash In consequence, the market became as spotty as the leaf. Local buyers of cigar leaf looked upon the product as a useless hybrid. Thereupon, on a venture, die firm of Forman and Muse in 1842 shipped a cargo of the leaf to the cigar manufacturing center of Bremen, Germany. It was received with favor, being regarded by Cermau manufacturers as an ideal cigar wrapper. Another sluh- tnent, a little later, to New York, found a ready rnarket, bricging 7.5 cents a pound, a high price then.When the next year's crop was ready for harvesting. German and Yankee buyers flocked to Quincy to buy all the spotted leaf that could be had. That profitable interest had its usual consequences. "Everybody here," a local reporter wrote, "is going into tobacco culture which requires no machinery and tLe poorest can engage in it " It was stated on good authority that so little an outlay as $13 returned $700 for tobacco of the Havana seed type. As was not unexpected, there were bumper crops in 1844 and 1845. The latter over- stocked the market to such a degree that several years were needed to work it off. A return to common sense reduced production by a third to 500 pounds of good leaf to an aCre. Yet the tobacco farmers of the limited district of Quincy and neighboring areas received $1,149,000fortheir leaf between the years 1831 and 1853. Elsewhere in the cigar-wrapper areas of the United 15 S60L £09tS
Page 373: rhz82d00
•2- By this decision the Commission agreed that children crippled by cc disease should be included in their progra», thus making it financi for many Florida children to receive needed heart surgery. There is no specific state legislation related to heart diseas Heart disease control, however, is supported by specific federal az which authorizes and designates certain monies for the control of t including education, community service and research. PRO According to mortality data, heart disease is the most seriou: health problems. If the term be used'in its usual connotation, inc of the entire cardiovascular system, then it accounts for more dea- other causes combined. TOTAL DEATHS AND RATr~S. FOR 1959 DFATHS/100, 000 TO U. S. Florida U. S. A11 Cardiovascular Diseases All Other Diseases 515 4~L 458 449 877,2 755,.8 Total Deaths 960 907 1,633,1 Mortality alone, however, is not the sole measure of its impa a major cause of sickness and disability# Some idea of the econom Florida can be seen from the fact that cardiovascular disease caus disability than any other single entity. The economic load from t terms of welfare psyments alone is heavy. Public assistance grant cardiovascular disease in those under 65 accounted for annual expe than $2,600,000 during 1959. There were 2,003 persons receiving zr because they were permanently and totally dieabled by cardiovasct ; Ln ~ ~ ~ w including stroke. There were 1,502 families receiving aid for del CD because the father was disabled by some form of heart disease. 11
Page 374: rhz82d00
J..a.L~ vi rwitu.i. 4,L .1a., r. American Tobacco Co., et aL 47:7, 87:23: 125:24: 1 Cri :7. 198:12: 199:6: 211(4);212:12.12 Franklin 61:5,15:137:2 frankly 91:6;142:11 fraternity 12:5: 13:5 Friday 213:10: 214:9 friend 61:3 friends 57:It3:58:10 front 147:8: 195:12 fu11 1 1:20; 96:22: 1 17:9. 12.21:118:5,21;119:1, 17; 120:5, 9: 121:8; 124:18, 24;125:8,10; 163:18: 178:5; 201:4: 210:20 fuller 36:23; 64:24; 65:3; 90:1: 149:19 fulsome 75:23 fund 42:2, 11; 43:9, 12, 20; 44:21; 46:12: 72:17, 22:85:7: 197:5 funded 147:8, 9 gives 83:25: 121:5 giving 62:8:75:17; 132:18, 21 glad 87:8 Gladys 57:11, 24; 58:4, 7 gleaned 18:17; 66:22 goes 18:16; 93:10 good 61:22; 96:6; 97:1; 108:3: 132:24; 150:4; 156:17; 173:13:186:13 government 16:10; 21:15;128:10;156:14,16, 22;157:3.11;175:13: 224:15 governmental 38:25; 39:2 Governor 86:12; 159.3; 162:7 grade 11:9 grading 8:24 graduate 32:5; 94:22; 122:13.16, 20: 211:3,1 S; 212:3 funding 9:3.5, 7;1u:23: ' graduated 8:19 15:10,14:108:8:147:20 1 Graham 31:4, 9; 32:3; further 14:20; 18:3,14; 22:9; 1 13:18; 156:18; 230:8. 11 Furthermore 180:7 future 74:9; 77:4; 136:17 G gain 21:21; 50:5; 65:25 ~ Gaines 84:13.15:85:15, 20 ~ Gainesville 111:1 i gains 53:10 ~ gather 150:17 gatherings 123:13 gave 43:16; 47:1; 64:24; 4 67:6: 7.i:15: 87:3, 4; 89:9: 1 yc): 2: 14 7: 2; 14 8:13, 23; 1 171:11 genealogical 94:23 34:4; 37:10; 39:21; 40:2; 41:17; 43:23, 24; 44:2; 47:7; 49:19, 19; 51:18; 53:10; 56:5,14,14; 59:8; 61:12; 63:22; 64:1, 17; 65: 5; 68:3; 83:17; 87:24; 89:18; 91:14;125:10, 24; • 128:7, 14; 164:7; 198:13; 199:6 Graham's 32:18; 34:1; 41:7; 46:16; 57:2,17,19; 58:9, 21; 60:1 T; 64:25; 68:2; 89:8, 10; 90:2; 126:18 granddaughter 76:23 grandparents 95:2, 3 grandson 76:23 grant 11:2, 8,18; 15:18; 107:19 grants 20:8 grasp 149:19 grasping 99:8 grass 172:20 I general8:11;13:12: 52:25;69:1,4; 115:25; ! 122:15; 159:3: 162:7; ! 1'79:5, l I: 193:14:225:19 ~ generalize 25:16 generally 32:21:38:13; ~ 15 5:6 ~ generated 134:23; ' 214:20 generous 177:1C+ gentlemen 76:25 great 95:2 greater 113:2: 120:17; 121:5 Greenville 62:18 grew 5:18, 20 grounds 163:8 group 62:17;130:6, 8,18; 187:6 groups 149:19; 172:21 ` guide 30:9 guideline 30:6 guidelirtes 29:7; 30:4; 102:22 Gus 214:5 H ( habit 206:1 habituating 187:13; 188:14 ` hadn't 40:21 haM 187:10 Hall 127:3 Hamilton 8:1 hand 75:11;111:i4; 187:1 S; 230:1.5 handed 122:2 handle 41:20 hands 220:11 happen,32:1;117 6 : happened 16:8,18; 54:11;b4:23; 68:22; 83:1 S happens 24:8;82:20 happy 1w18. hard 77:9:190:14 Hardening 137:14 ; hardly 156:25;157•2 ' harmful 224:19 Harry 61:4 hasn't 106:15; 120:11; 167:12,17; 215:18 hate 44;.5;167:21 haven't 22:12; 91:6;' 172:23;194:5,197:13; 204:18; 212:20; 213:3; 215:24; 216:2,18; 228:12 hatarda 133:14;168:24; 169:21, 35;170:7 head186:1,10;201~•14 ~ heading 150:1};158:3, 5 health 11:25; 12:1; 13:6; 81:13;137(4);170:7; 175:3,19:180:22;188:13:,` 192:17; 224:19 ' heard 85:4 Heart 133:9;138:2, 4,10; : 176:2; 179:20; 200:14; ' 201:9 ' heaviiy 190:9 heavy 137:7; 152:22 heirs 6:21;13:2 heid 4:10; 38:23; 85:1; • 118:14 Helms 53:20; 54:6 geographic 130:21 ~ George 28:16 ; gets 83.8 given lts.•L•2u.1u;35:4; ' 5•1:25: C+G:25:67:1: 76:10, ' 16: 109.10. 24: 1 10:13: 119 .9, 1 G: I 20:1; 181:14: 217:1 I grow 223:25; 224:1 I help 41;10: 54:7; 67:7; ~ growing 74:2; 129:8 ? 92:12, 23:96;15;183:25: ! grown 130:14: 149:15 ! 185:1 . ~ guess 82:1;104:21; I helped 43:19:60:16; i 105:1; 108: 14; 208:20; I 67:8; 74:8 218:4 , helpers 210:5,6 guidance 109:12,18; ! helpful 56:8:58:17; 110:10 1 59:19:63:14;64:21; 1 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. MIn-V•Scriptcio Augustus M. t3urcls, [ll, Ph.D. May 9, 1997 65:_ 1. 9 66:9; 67:12; 69:16; 70:18,71:12,15;74:25 helping 40:4;204:14 hemorrhage 137:10 fiere's 112:7 hereby 230:3 herein 230:5 hidden 45:20 hide 143:8 Hiden 63:11 hierarchy 163:15 hIgh 5:22, 23; 8:3; 44:1 i; 81:24;120:10 hlghly 32:21; 77:25 ' HII)18:13, 21;19:4,10; 20:5; 31.23:3q:6;116:25; 1171,1262;166:7,18 itinder;141:1.3 historia~ 13,:21;14:3, 21, 22;18:16,18:8; 21:3; 22:18, 26:23; 27:24; 29:25, 25;80:10.; 82:19; 1349;136:11; l`71:23; 174:4;175:1;178:25; 184:21,23;198:10; 209i14 ,'` #tistorian's 27:7 fiistorI~ ns 14:1,13.14; 2¢(4), 27•12; 281,,19; 29:8; 301,15; 36:6;14; 73c11, 80•12;89 g.137:8; 153:25,162:20, i 8311; 198.9 204:1'~,;2Z7.10, histoti0a114:11, 25; 15:3: 23 3;'24:23: 26:24; 27:1,:13, 28;13,14,15; 29:1, 22;45:14; 37.34, 41:11; 46c5;47:16; 73:23; 74:24; 78,:18; 79:3,4.10; 60:3,15;85:19;89:11; 92c13;98:9023;23; 125:23;126:8;153:23: 180:25;190:4;192:8 hiatoricaily 73:16; 78:4; , . 192:2 history 6;13,18; 7: S; 11:7;13(4);14:7,17;16:5; 18:15, 20:5, 7• 23:9. 21; 25:9, 21; 26:1 5, 21, 24; 27:3, S, 20; 29:10,14: ' 33:2, 4, 5; 36:6,13; 79:10, 12; 80:9, 24; 82:5,10,11; 83:2; 87~9; 97:15;122:12; 126:23;127:5;130:20; 149:21;151:19;153:21; 154:3;iS5:21; i56:12, l9; 157:9;160:20,21;161:2b, 25;162:24:'163:5;164:20; '. 168:13; 211:12 hog 132 4 HOGAN O`1,17, 5:13, 14,16• 29:1t3, 21-34:18, 23;41:21;61`20 62:7; ' 96:25;101 i25; ! 02:7, 9; 106:16;107:11,16, 20; ` ' i 108:1, 5;109:$;"112:9; 121:24, 25;129:16;134:3: I 135:2,6;134;9:140:7,12; 142:23;143•1:144:4,12, 19; 145(4); 146:12,24; 147:4,16; 150:1,11,15; 151(5);152:9.12;158:2, 9,15;163:10:167:18, 23t 168:12,19;1 `.0:22;171:2; 173:7,10,16; 177:10; 181:15, 20;182i4, 7,14; 183:3, 23;184:4,16; 185:8, 24;186:9,19; 187:16, 20; 188:2; 190: 1; 191:7;192 12 193:4; 195•14;203 2; 204:12; 205.11; 206,1 S; 207(4); 208:6,15, 21; 209:12, 23; 214:13; 215(5): 217:19; 218:10,15;219:2,9: 226:3.10,18; 229:7,19 Hogs 131:24; 132:11 hold 22:12; 39:23; 49:23; 151:16 holder 51:10.11 holding 16:9 holdings 22:15; 24:3; 160:1 home 6:11;104:24; 146:18;134:17,19, 25; 217:12; 219:5 homes 151:15;153:5.9 honest 75:22 honorary 39:8 Hoove, r 65.21; 66:8; 67:6, 19, 23; 69:14,18: 89.14, `. 16 hope 91:25 92:7;126:5; 14112;167:16 Hosford 4:12 ' host 44:1; 136:2 Hotel4;11; 111:17 hour 187:10 hours.1j1;13: iS1:16c~ 219:13,'17 ! ~ house 13:5; 51:15 ; m houaed 21:23 m hundred 52:23 ~ hypothetical 35:17; ; ~ 77:10 un I Idea 12:16; 23:21; 47:1; , 100:4;165:10:168:4; 184:19;197:21: 216:1, 9; 223:18 Ideas 60:13 . Identified •73:'-i:74;24; 180:22 identifies 180• 17 identify 4:25: 12:4;1~:11: 45:2; 52:8; "6- 1':157:25 IdRntifying 21;a II 39:6 1114:20:187:3 ' iliness 137i9.19 ;
Page 375: rhz82d00
Up to a fairly recent period, Fbrida's cigar manufac- turers were using millions of feet of the "Spanish cedar" of Mexico and Honduras. Now the wood portion of cigar boxes is chiefly of California redwood while the pressed board is from the pulp of the chestnut. % This flow of materials is a segment of a broad, diversi- fied commerce which, in supplying the cigar trade, adds to the industry's importance in the national economy. Additionally, in Florida alone, a large part of the work- ing population has some share in the commerce of tobacco. Nearly 20 percent of the labor market of Tampa, for instance, is employed in its cigar factories. Thc wages of these 4,500 productive workers account for the chief part of the city's industrial payroll. lobacco tarming starts late Though tobacco was native to Florida its commercial cultivation came relatively late. The chief reason for that lay in the long control of Florida by Spain except for two decades of British rule. It would not have made good economic sense to Spanish officialdom to encourage to- bacco cultivation in Florida. Had such farming been suc- cessful it could have affected the economic status of the plantations in the Spanish West Indies and other Spanish-Asnerican colonies 'whose products had ready markets in western Europe. The tobacco agriculture of Florida, now so solidly 12 ; 6 established, did not achieve its present status without some difficulties. Commercial cultivation of the plant had a casual start on the east coast in 1822. Tlu soil there seemed well adapted to tobacco growth but its produc- tion never got very far. What took its place in the area was the more profitable culture of, sea-island cotton. A new Industry begins The start of a fruitful period of tobacco growing was reported to an audience in Florida in 1875. Part of the public address dealt with the "in8uence of the tobacco culture upon the moral and intellectual status of the population "The speaker was Charles H. Dupont, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Florida. Justice Dupont showed how tobacco farming in Gads- den County, near Georgia's border, had made possible the economic survival of an area in which cotton could not be profitably grown. lie went on to say that, among other benefits, income from tobacco faruas was directly applied to the building of "Quincy Academy." The local culture, centering at Quincy, had been initi- ated about 1828 by the introduction of Cuban tobacco seeds. The prime mover in this enterprise was an unusual man, William P. DuVal, the first territorial governor of Florida. In consequence of his interest, the type devel- oped from Havana seeds became known for a while as little DuVal." 13 V60L £09t5
Page 376: rhz82d00
-12- the diagnosis and management`of heart disease. In fact, f clinics are in operation at present (1959). While these c scattered from Pensacola to Miami, the geographic coverage is far from uniform. Nine clinics have been approved by the clinics commit Florida Heart Association, and most, if not all, will be E approval after being in operation longer. The four heart in Miami, Marianna, Pensacola and Tampa are receiving supl from the heart program in the form of salaries for.nurses.. and clerks, as well es certain items of equipment. * A con: being made to give aid to cardiac clinics and help establ-f'unds become available. These clinics are urgently neede, nation of additional public funds for this program wculd useful purpose in the various communities of the state. Cardiac Work Classification Units . Certain types of cardiac patients need more reassura: are physically capable of returning to work than is possi diagnostic clinic. Most of them are employed in occupati from moderate to heavy physical exertion. The "Cardiac V tion Unit", composed of a basic team consisting of a phys and vocational rehabilitation`counselor, is the special c to aid these people. The two units operating in Florida Jacksonville) can handle one patient at each weekly halt• After the patient'has had a very detailed physical and en: tion and a measure of his exercise tolerance, he is givern Ln N interpreted in relation to his job.. When he is unable tc ~ physical exertion of his old job, he is guided in securi.i'; _j N within his capabilities. It has been possible to aid ab,:, O
Page 377: rhz82d00
-17 - health nurse with special training in the nursing techniqu cardiovascular disease.' An important recommendation of the advisory committee Board of Health was the formation of a Florida Heart Counc to the Florida Cancer Council. This matter will be taken the Florida Heart Association~ and,'they will have the oppo sponsor this should they desire to do so. The arpropriate the Florida Medical Association endorsed this pltn, and tr Board of Health all agreed that it would be desirable. Ii it should help to draw-together the now dispersed interest Disease Control. This strengthening of the staff and the organization level would make much more feasible tha programs mentionec would make it possible to utilize to a much better degree available from other agencies apd organizatione intereste( cular diaease. (It is anticipated that the continued inte disease will lead to additional federal apprcpriations, a' state appropriations, which will furnish the means to sup local programs.) 1. Additional heart clinics are indicated. At present t best for establishing clinics in Tallahassee, PalatkE Money has been made available.for expansion of the he Tampa Meray Hospital in T;.npa, Florida. Over the ns) should be possible to establish clinics in additiona:. areas not served by cardiac'olinios, wy informa? a: the referring of persons to suitable clinics are.alroIt should be possible to extend and improve these arl Ln ~ m m w
Page 378: rhz82d00
t;: FLORIDA acquisition of Louisiana in i 76: and the return of the Floridas in t78; buttressed the Spanish plan of interposing a wilderness barrier between New Spain and foreign soil. The continued support of Louisiana. the Floridas, and Cuba, with the annual subsidy against Anglo-American aggression was another step in the Spanish struggle "for place. power, and wealth in the ne-:- world that had gone on almost uninterruptedly since the day of Hawkins and Drake."" The independence of the United States, however. introduced a new elcment in Spanish foreign affairs. The new nation, unencumbered by foreign alliances, encouraged the settlement of the Xdississippi Valley frontiers. Yet the C'nited States lacked the force to govern the western sections and the westerners estab- lished their own rules of order and methods of enforcement. "Once settled there, the Americans soon accumulated a heavy burden of resentment against their 'haughty and indolent' Spanish neighbors. HuntetY Qucsuing the retreating herda of deer, farmers and planters with bulky cargoes of Aour, bacon,'and tobacco to sell, merchants and river boatmen . . . all these restless souls, nurtured in the illtmry freedom of the frontier, found themselves hampered, baffled, deprived of cheir 'natural rights' by a government which thev sometimes feared, some- times despised, and always disliked."0° The increasing number of American settlers rendered the historic Spanish ,wilderness barrier relacivelv useless as the frontier backwoodsmen moved south and east. Spanish inability to stop the English on the Atlantic coast from James- town to the St. Marn•s River in the eighteenth century was a warning of the struggle to follow in the American West a century lacer. Spanish officialdom was aware of the danger and. prepared, with a changing policy, to encourage trade, toleration, and settlement in the hope that the residents, immigrants, and commerce would provide a new barrier for defense where the missionary and the garrison mighc have failed. The breakdown of the Spanish policy of inercancilist monopoly in the Loui- siana and Florida provinces began with the Spanish accession' of French Louisiana in t76: and the right of free navigation of the \-IisFissippi b,v the English and Americans in the treaty of t76;. The French settlers of Louisiana preferred French goods, and the Indians likewise preferred French or English goods to which they were accustomed. Since the Spanish could noc supply these goods. the contraband trade of the English on the Mississippi and around the Gulf of Mexico imperiled colonial integrit,v, the treasury, colonial loyalty and Indian relations. But the Spanish commercial interests had nothing in common with these provinces. "Their principal products were futs and fiides, indiqo, rice, lumber and tobacco. None of these commodities had amarket in Spain .,. nor could Span- ish merchants supply the wants of 4he colonists with Spanish goods. . . . The one Spanish merchant who invaded the field with a full scock lost heavily and never repeated the venture.""1, While the Spanish conquest of the English settlements by Bernardo Je Galvez constituted greac political victories, the consequent destruction of British trade virtually ruined Louisiana. As a result the local officials opened the province to the commerce of France from the seas and the Americans on the Mississippi.
Page 379: rhz82d00
i .C 10 li -llot•als-'1'eacll ltupils tu au from ri~6t motives, to be u•utl,ful, deauly, ubelicut :wtl cuuraggeoux. ,1X•fti clt.{uF:. l:radiu,,-S{{•intl/tu's tiicth R/•atder :utd Eggic•.stou', l;ll•ult•uull;{- laisl/n;{• of 1'nite/l Slatc.. :uul marks of Imurtu:ttiuu. 1\"ritiu,-~IN n/1 rian \'/ rti/ al \u. ti, :trlll I:upviu!, fr41tu ~ 1 a/llri:~. Sl,ellin;.•-t 11'rit tt•n t l•'iuialt Speller. StutlY all Ilia- 1•ritil•:tl wat•ks. lt i[htnetie-1>I•~,iu lutp,e !1:1, ru to lr.t;;e .'l)1. Requitr :uxuraur aud neat o'ul•k. L:ul`,ua-tr--ml•tesllf. Cngli:clt tlr:tantnar, 1'art 1, with :tutple cotnlll,sition {cork. t;c•u,graplty-f3i-,in tn:lp of 5uuth .lnteril•a :t.nd finish INN)k, with ample tuap drawing. Pltrsiulo• -13:t1d{vin'a Lmeutialy _o_f_ Qutnan Pltysi• 0 101. Or . S ,*Et'F:XT1[ CB.{nF. R, :ulin•;-Setrl•tiuu% flti/tu A{{-iut/,n :• lte:ull•r.. 11'rltitt~,-1):til{ llwtctirl•. S IN•lliu,---\\"/lnl -Ulaly•i• t// I1:1-4e ltt:;. anll Iliacritital . wark.•. .\t•itluu/•til•-i;/•ri.•w ' fta/ til/n~ //ul• u1.1utit. then Ix•,,in - fiu Irl,l• ~u'a`t. (1:•s:r .;tl.. . . , 31.'traiC'% l:m_1i•11 t:r:uuul:tr:.t•c•{ie{{• l'art . I aud utkt• t'stt•t 1 I. a-ith cttnlrlr t•utnro/,ititnl work. " Ilia.ir{--1'ait•luluks tli:uut•{•;..,f l-Iurid:i.- State 1'Ittt- ~titulil.n lil4-in t•:g.:)r:unn':r ili.- turV Unil/yl ~t:ttl-'.*-,u t+, 1K1.-g+• 1:/1. / i/M/~1':IIIIIY-1~1•{'11•q• tltt• {C111111• INN/IC, i-/\•tn- S-INY'1:11 :It- il•ntiun tu th.• Is11* y•il•aF fi•:t1111•1-.. \lural~ 1'ra. h I/npil.% tl, :il•t fr.nu ri,bl 'tuuti{'c•s, to IN• Iru[Itftli. 0l•ant% •. ..IN•Ilil•nt alt/l 1•uttt•a,mu;. I'ullil. !tu{{• tu au11v. tn lw :It//•u- [i{•.•. ~tulliun•. ~Iaiil•tlt :ut/l Ett:tlTlt ia:.{1rti. lIi1.I'. lli.[4 It•y ~If 1:n---Iatttll. ::rnl r/•ril•{r \1'f/rcl -1n:ttcsi.,;an/1 Iliot- / t itical mat•k,. Lau-notrt-lil•ric{c 1'art 11 Ilut•ricvlly :ulil tiuislt book with :Imple /-otulwsitian work. 11i,tot•y-Finisll ritr INN/1C {{•it6 t'un.t.itutiun of I:uitell Staa--. .iritllmeli~ l ittial the book. Pllr,il,lu•~ •--.~h~ Ilr ~ t.ontplt'te. ,ctcncl~llarriu',tun, t.r:ttutuat• S/:Itvl>I PIt}-•icS. .11,ebta-liubin,un'~. Ilit•onTlt fractiuns. `t\ t'll Gtt.1Ut:. L:ttiu-t'/,ll:tr :rod U:tniel.' I3t•giuners L:ttin Book. A1gebr:t-1'/,ntpll•tc ftohiu:u,u's L•'ll•ntc•utary .1l,bra. History-afyrr.•' t.eneral Nistur.-, tirst Part. l;nrlish-RcY•tl & bello~~ a or 1letcaJf'y, with reading front the I-l:tatirs; rotnlxtaition. _lrithmetie-!te{-ie{r 3filne s, with ut•isinal prnbletns. Civil f;,overnmrnt-•Petermatt's. Sfk•Iline Penuimon'. Common words ditficult to spell. •.1lor.tl.K---Tearb l/upils ta':act frr/nt ri4rht mati{•es, to be trtr:thfal. ciea;ul}•, ol,rtlit•nt and vonrarruuK. San,~eatiunsc-TtarL pupils.lur{rn to Ytudy; to be at- tenti{•/~. :•tudil,nm. Irttil•tit :rntl w•lfarli:tnt.' Tt:xrit att.tiuf:: l.atin--I:e{•i.•.{ +:rantniar: Via (.atina antl tI1rM• lxll,ks r-- :11:alna--11'Ilitr`s-,.:a-h.N,1• .11•1-1.rct. ltixti>'r,r.-M}•t~r: StyY,ua rslrt. Cn;:1~dt-LtH'I:N'/NNI' e l.aigo1is1t :tltd Ri>,d;-klrpin,'-\l:trht•w'. F.i tlti-til•. v i.-u,y--.1w•rv'., `r;atnrnl Ph{-,ril•. :Inll Il//mtnn'. PIl}•K11•al ( :4Yhr:1p11 {•. SIwllitt~-t'..fntnl,n 11'llyd. Dittil•ult trl \M•11 ( PI-ani- t71on'• l . .lrithnn•til•--RI•{-it•{v .l/ilne'ti, {ritll Ia•irinal prllbletn•. t\'.~ttstrr's t•nrrrnati/,nal nirti.nr.lr{• Ah:tll Ix• autltoriJ.v on prnnunriattinn of {.v,rrl.a. T969 E09T5
Page 380: rhz82d00
960L E09tS States efforts were made to imitate the desirable spotting through a chemical process. The spots were created all right but the experimenters also made a hole in the leaf. Thereaf ter the process was lef t to nature. % By 1850 production was a normal near-million pounds, with Cadsden County producing over 75 percent of the leaf and Marion County 109,000. The rest was harvested in small amounts in various contiguous areas. The high- est point of production came between 1850 and 1880. For a number of years annual sales varied between 3,000 and 4,000 boxes of 400 pounds each. JJeai loses its spots The production of wrapper leaf became one of the casualties of the Civil War. By 1870 there was hardly enough stock left for local consumption. Farmers who claimed to have preserved seeds of the pre-war variety attempted around 1880 to revive the agriculture. The harvest was but a dot on the national map of tobacco production: a little over 20,000 pounds. For a little while longer local growers persisted in their efforts. But a new element arose to defeat them. Cigar manufacturers, under the logical influence of an expressed consumer preference for a dark wrapper, discouraged further at- tempts to grow spotted leaf. Wrappers had been coming into the States from Cuba since 1800, from Sumatra by 16 1864, and Pennsylvania farmers were producing a desir- able dark wrapper. Wapper leaf takes on a new color The memory of former successes with tobacco crops lingered in the area. Under the guidance of agricultural experts of the federal government, experiments were conducted in the Quincy area in the late 1890 s. Around the turn of the century two types were in production. One, from Cuban seed, had retained its native character- istics even after many successive crops. The other, from Sumatra seed, after two or three srasons, acquired the distinctive features of the Cuban variety. Florida-grown Cuba tobacco, which represented a small part of crops, was favored by the trade as filler. It was bringing 75 cents to $1.50 a pound in the late 1890 s. There was some difficulty in obtaining a suitable wrap- per.*The first harvest consisted of heavy leaves, requir- ing more pounds to wrap a standard thousand cigars than wrapper leaves from Cuba or Sumatra, the latter a leaf of great lightness. Efforts to obtain a better leaf continued. Buyers expressed satisfaction when local farmers produced a leaf so light that two pounds could wrap a thousand cigars. Even at $1.50 to Z2.00 a pound- an average around 1900-it was regarded by manufaa turers as inexpensive. Choice leaves of Florida wrapper 17 _~_~
Page 381: rhz82d00
In 1955 the Florida Legislature enacted'a new cancer law which still remair on the Florida Statutes, Chapter 381. 381.361 CLINICS: TREATi,MT OF CANCFR - The board, shall formulate a plan for the care and treatment of persons suffering from cancer and establish and designate standard requirements for the organization, equipment and conduct of cancer units or departments in hospitals and clinics in Florida. The designations of cancer units shall follow a survey of the needs and facilities !`or treatment of cancer in the various localities throughout the state. 381.371 CANCFR: EDUC&TIONAL PRCORAM - The board shall formulate and put into effect a continuing educational program for the prevention' of cancer and its early diagnosis,.and disseminate information con- cerning its proper treatment to hospitala, cancer patients and the public. < 381.381 CANCER PATI,72iTS: FINANCIAL AID - The board shall make rules and regulations specifying to.what extent and on what terms and con- ditions cancer patients of the state may receive financial aid for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in any hospital or clinic selected. The board may furnish financial aid to citizens of Florida afflicted with cancer to the extent of the appropriation provided for that pur- pose in a mawier which in its opinion will afford the greatest benefit to those afflicted and make arrangements with hospitals, laboratories or clinics to afford proper care and treatment for cancer patients in Florida. PROBLF2ri: Relatively speaking, cancer is a newcomer as a leading cause of death. As w recently as 1900 cancer was in eighth plaoe among the causes of death in the Uni*
Page 382: rhz82d00
0. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE FOR PMSONS Cft FAMILIES (where chief cause ia cardiovascular disease) Type of Assistinoe ~ ._ _.. Averase Annual Cost . ~ .r ... Aid to the Disabled 010551..208 Aid to Dependent Children 1~,07 Total i2,6?1t, 076 There is a wide variety of lesions found in the cardiovascular each lesion has its characteristic requirements for prevention and r For convenience, however, consideration need be given to only a few gories. Congenital Defectss Heart disease takes a considerable toll of life annually among 15 years of age, being responsible for about 10,000 deaths each yea: States. Since congenital malformations account for the large major: deaths, mortality is heavily concentrated in infanoy. In fact, aut• suggest that about one per cent of allbirths,involve some form of disease. In Florida about 1000,infants are born each year v3,th con disease. Of these about 300 fail to rieach the end of their first y and many of the remaining children will_not survive to the age of s Even so, congenital heart disease is by no means insignificant in t In public schools the incidence is about four per thousand, while 3 special schools, as for example the schools, for the deaf and blind, reaches seventy per thousand. From the prophylactio standpoint only one procedure is of prov direct causal relationship has been established between rubella in mother and congenital anomalies in the_offspring. Measures for thV tk
Page 383: rhz82d00
BODY CARE AND GROOMING I DESIRABLE OUTCOMES FOR CHILDREN Casrv body correctly when ..•al}dng. standing and sitting t'nderstanding harmful effects of the use of tobacco t nderstanding of the facts concerning the harmful effects of drinking alcoholic beverages Much of the material in this area is free or inexpensive. As yoti know, this type of material is frequently changed, therefore it' is not listed here. You will find a list of book publishers with addresses in Wilson's Children's Catalo~. The Educational Film Guide carries a sim- ilar list of filn: producers. There are many interesting films, film strips and recordings available at little or no cost. Check your film catalogs (such as those from your County Film Libran•. the Materials I have used and liked: SOME ACTIVITIES AND EaTERIE`CES FOR CHILDREN Bring in typist chair and figure out why it is made as it is Discuss the aesthetic and economic importance of good posture Demonstrate how to safely pick up heavy objects See Activity and Rest Collect and post clipping on current research Interview high school coach and report to class concerning training rules for athletes Cather statistics on causes of automobile accidents List occasions when drinking would endanger the health and welfare of others General Extension Division, State Board of Health and various universities ) for avail- abilitv in Florida. Raymond C. McCarthy and Edgar M Uouglas ALCOHOL AND SOCIAL RESPO\SIBIL- ITT. Crowell, 1949. (Adult). This .•olume was published jointlr with the Yale Clinic on Alcohol. C. Warrern Schloat, Jr. YOUR XVO\DERFC'L TEETH. Scribner, 1954. (1•6). Largely pho- tographic. Presents importance of teeth, their care, repair and straightening. 48 F-+
Page 384: rhz82d00
Page 2 p.ntine, and last, not least, our fishsries•-•our State otters st,rong inducements to the skillftl s~nct ind~trious a.grioultur~distp, no*t to be surpassed by the aatoh oo~..ted`' Is3And o! `,Cuba, not by aty of the most favored regions ot the naw world. 1lature has hsre been lavish of her bounties-. we onlr need the sweat of pan's brow to yield rich truits to reward his industry. The vaunted advantages bild aut bT the friends Of Texas, turned the tid. of eaigration away t'roa 9lor,lda.c OuT Indian swr did a good; deal toward the ssme rrsuilt ---.but wi arr,' load to thiak, from what we have seen and heard, that ksober seoobd 't.bought" has oonvine. ed naW who passed bT ?+'lorida to go tUrtbsr.'Vest& that theT .rred in so doing; awd wer are ths :nord. convinced triat #, such is t'ca ls.ot, trom having seen and hsard of a nuwber of parsthts, who ru~.d bevn to :ro~tisiana and Teaas and "looatud" but brbaraing sati'sfied that !*lorl afforded better advantages to the pladtor,°i-hwvs returned and settled in our State. Pi.ORInA AND SPANISH TOBaC C0. W (rom DeHow' s Review j yol. 18 i Page s 35-39i Januwy,188b ). At ths oonvention of Southern Planters +shioh ®st last December In South Caroliaa, Mny able papers were prasentod. Some ot thess`we have already estraoted -ftva or publishecf entir,. The 4"'+ollowing from 1r. Ruman has been waiting a plaoe and is`aminentlT deserving of a prominent one. 77e trust that the Assooiatioa pt Planters will eou• tinue to meet each year under brighter auspiobs.`Its proceedings will be preAnptlY ahronicled. The seed which the ?~lorlft tobacco is =growa, was introducec into ths country about the year 1858•99, from the Island of Cuba, un• der the name of Iiavana seed. Tbi obsoot at •#.bose aatroduoing ttr sebf was to produoe an article siailar, it pbssibXe; 'in,f%gvbe#to the gav_ aaa tobaooo. The product was a sma11 dark leat, ao~pirirg lp tlavaa~ with perbaps third rate Havana tobacco. 1~rinwnts`4lth the dittrren• kiads of seeds brought from Cuba havd, so tar as. ' 14m; aRar..• (and they lsave often since b.en made ' ksere )•• rsaated za a siailar° aanner. ' Tie have no soil In this section of t~'lortda which prodnoss, or rather ,j ~ r.produa.s, ths flavored tobacco ot ths plant !l*oa which the seed is i gathered 1n Cuba. By tnformatiot'1 on this'' sub3e. et° if, ttWt' In Cuba the;, w have soae- eight or ten dittervnt qualitiitls.and variN tiqs In texture,; aolor and 'lavor, according to the di**_bront' parts of ti*. idland i~ in which the tobacco is planted••- tiw bat bsaisad In ths viai• ~ ad at aie raised In ~' nity o* SavanR j and that ao~pns of t.he ~obaooos~h i+ai s other portions of the island are a]modt iraluel.ss. The stiff red olaT lands here have answered bust for" rwtKiinirng ttie.:tlavdt+ of ti"rs origin#` imported stiad, for a year or two, after which period Liis _*lAvtir passe: awat, and tjie plant ansumes a difterNnt` app•aranoe, from its first growth, vis= larger, thinner leat, o* brighter t•solore, and the+ tobac- 0o insipid and •lavorlese. I have soon s.veral'treatdsos on the s1A.b- ,)eot of giving tobacco nflavor, by gentlemr,n Wcq`uainted witn th.
Page 385: rhz82d00
-19- remarkably from surgery provided they are seen within a after the occurrence of the stroke. Consideration will the possibility of working Ath the major medical center Heart Association in forxarding this valuable means of x disability resulting from stroke. 8. It has been shown that regular attention to special diei the low sodium diet, and regular attention to continuou: xill keep many heart patients from going into decompens its resulting need for hospitalization. Continued effo: made to indoctrinate staff nurses with the necessary in that they can play a large part in aiding the doctor to cases. Possible Curtailments Because of the expanding nature of the problem, there likelihood that any curtailment will be possible. Researc2 m course, will be terminated t~om time to time as they have i designed purposes. Related Programs The voluntary organization which is most intimately associ• vascular disease is the Florida Heart Association and its relat- councils. It, of course, is part of the American Heart Associa has a call upon the parent organization for support. This asso important educational function and takes care of much of the ne in the presentation of•the cardiovascular,seminars mentioned at- cians and nurses. It takes a great deal of responsibility in V j' u, tional programs and educational material for the lay public. a) w Association is also active in the formation and to some extent .., ~ support of cardiac clinics and the work classification units V ; Ln . t
Page 386: rhz82d00
-20- The American Heart Association and its various branches with are interested in any project %hich wi11 further the general obje, lined above for the support of heart disease programs. A f1a11-ti in the Florida State Board of Health would be able to keep closer the persons guiding the Heart Association and make much better us financial resources available to this association. The Florida Vocational Rehabilitation Service works closely cardiac work classification units in the referral of cases. The; a very useful function in the rehabilitation of suitable cases r, to them by the classification vnita. The Visiting Nurses Associations are a source of potential heart disease program although the only assobiation being utiliz moment is in Duval Cwtnty. Here a nurse is furnished to work sp with cardiovascular patients. Other organizations which furhish very valuable service inc . National Children's Cardiac Hoapital in Miami and the Florida Cr ran's Conmission in Tallahassee. The Children's Hospital is a t source foor the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular lesions, Children's Conmission fuxnishes financial and other services in cardiovascular surgery. In 1958,:for example, 148 children rect: for congenital malformations of the circulatory system through ' Children' a Comtnission, and 44 recsived:aervices for other disea° heart. The university hospitals in the state also take an actil phases of heart disease, and;some of their programs are closely programa of the health departments. Research and Demonstrationa Attention will be directed to those research projects whic for the facilities available within the atate. For those requ:• f ~ s
Page 387: rhz82d00
HEART DISEASE PROGRAM INTRODIICTION: Community efforts in the field of heart disease control are of recent origin. Interest in heart disease has increased as other ca bidity and mortality have decreased in relative importance, but mor has the attitude of physicians snd public changed as progress has b the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease a cations. V.1hile public health departments have for years given services heart disease, there were few formal programs in this field until F sage in 1948 of the.National Heart Act. The bill was strongly supr aentatives of the American Heart Association and the American Medic as well as many individual citiaens. The most significant aspect c that it holds that the entire community is responsible for the devE effective measures for the control of heart disease at national, st levels. The National Heart Act provided for the establishment of I Heart Institute as well as grants in aid to the states. The first separate heart program in the Florida.State Board o: established in 1949 in the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health. Ir program was placed under the Bureau of Tuberculosis Control as a stIt remained in that Bureau until 1956 when it was made a part of tl Chronic Disease Control and placed in the Bureau of Special Health was also in 1956 that the United States Public Health Service assi; young officers to the State Board of Health for work in the heart An important landmark for Florida in the.care of children wit' heart disease was the decision made in 19$3 by the Crippled Childr~~l W ~~
Page 388: rhz82d00
-21- extensive studies (and most do) it will be neceesary to seek special g There are a number of questions needing investigation which are auiteb: health department inquiry. 1. Flourescent Antibody Study - At the present time there are severa] under way which are testing out the various aspects of the floure:. antibody technique for the rapid identification of streptococci. Laboratory has been using this technique to identify the rabies vV some time. Application has been made to the heart program in Was for equipment (additional) so that a study of the rapid identific Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci might be instituted. Most of concerns the laboratory, but the study should be initiated throu@ heart program. 2. Without doubt diet has a profound influence in the development 0: disease. There are, however, a number of important details whi.c: further investigation. xn,the light of recent findings there is re-examine our stand to aee wheth& in our excessive preoooupati weight reduction we may not be missing points of more importance The relation of exercise to coronary disease needs further seric gation, and this is closely related to the observed differences urban and rural frequency rates, 4. A direct relation between smoking and coronary disease has been 5. suggested and needs further study. Much of the evidence relating tension and etress to the develop: degenerative heart'.disease is of dubious value. Anyone who cov a definitive study which would either confirm or refute this wi. belief would perform a real service to the American people. ~, m w 6. Additional evidence is needed concerning the familial incidenct. ~ ~ ~ tension and the relation between rural and urban incidence. ~ ,
Page 389: rhz82d00
r , Jinc~N; Z ~ . R. INTRODUCTION: In 1946 the Florida State Board of Healthj recognising the need of a Cancer Control Program and with the assistance of a small:amount of federal funds, began the organization and planning of the Division of Cancer Control. During this yea a tissue diagnostic mailing service was set up. Close cooperation was maintained with the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society and the Florida Medical Association in the development of a proposed Cancer Control Program. In June 1946 a bill was passed by the legislature with reference to cancer, and an appropriation of $200)000 per year was set up for cancer control activitie CANCrR CONTROL PFt00RAM ........~.~.. In 1947 a Cancer Control Division was established under the Bureau of Preventable Diseases. Cancer clinics were'planned and set up in Duval, Dade, Escambia, Orang Hillsborough and Palm Beach Counties. A total of 196 indigent cancer cases recei* aid in the year of 1947. Cancer seminars for profepsional education were started A planned case follow-up program was in effect, and funds were being made availab for diagnostic studies, rental of radium and hospitalizatiori of the medically indigent. Cancer control remained under the Bureau of Preventable Diseases until the organization of the Bureau of Special Health-Services in July of 1956. At this time cancer control was made a part of the program of the Division of Chronic Diseases in the Bureau of Special Health Services, The program was reaching some degree of maturity in its development, there being some nineteen tumor clinics throughout the state serving more than two thousand medica~.ly indigent patients p year. In 1959 a physician was added as the Director of Cancer Control. The total Ln ~ ~ w number of cancer patient visits recorded during'1959 by the tumor clinics was _-j N 19,892. Two new tumor clinics were organized in the state,, making a total of 21.; N
Page 390: rhz82d00
-9- 5• the development of cardiac clinioa and other diagnostic res. out the state to assure that high quality diagnostic servic, sible to all. To continue the operation of the two Cardiac Work Classific: a demonstration basis. Similar units will be established i• of the state whenever the need..ie established. 6. To develop methods which will facilitate'the referral of pe. smaller communities to an appropriate diagnostic clinic or • cation unit. 7. To seek the active cooperation of individuals or organizati.: munity who will aid in the placement of persons suffering'fc; cular disease in suit.eble occupations. ' 6. To develop those case-finding services uhich will indicate suffering from hypertension and encourage them to seek earl- medical attention. To aid in the dissemination ot appropriate information to b: people and the general public. The-present seminars which well received by professional people will be continued. Th, convey the latest methods for the management of all types o' cular disease including,hypertension. 10. To encourage the development of visiting nurse and other se,: will improve the home care of convalescent persons, especia': services which will aid in education and rehabilitation. (~ of Division of Public Health Nursing.) 11. To aid in the community planning for nursing homes and othW ; which will make possible institutional care for such patien' cn o, m lessly incapacitated and for whom-ather facilities are inad;' W to encourage the legislature to provide adequate welfare t1u' ~ ~ m Ln
Page 391: rhz82d00
. -5- Arteriosclerosis and Hypertensio_, Of the 877,280 deaths from cardiovascular diseases in 1957, 94% deaths were caused by arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Arteriosclerosis alone: Arteriosclerotic heart disease (including ,' coronary diseaee) .............................~53,840 General arteriosoleroais ........................... 33,950 Cardiovascular diseases involving arteriosclerosis and hypertension: Vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system (primarily cerebral;"(brain) throm- bosis due to arteriosclerosis, cerebral em- bolism, cerebral hemorrhage) ..................188,040 Nonrheumatic chronic endocarditis and other myocardial degenaration...4 ........o.......... 61,240 Hypertension: Hypertension with heart disease (arteriosclerosis) 72,540 Hypertension without mention`of heart 11,170 Total deaths involving arteriosclerosis and hypertension The economic seriousness of arteriosclerosis and hypertension i by the fact that over 26p (215,320) of,these deaths were in the "wor group from 25 to 64 years of age. While it is true that the effects increase progressively with age, the long prevalent attitude that ar is a physiologic process of aging has been repeatedly disproved by r ological data. A very close relationship has been demonstrated betw habits and eusceptibility to arteriosclerosis and coronary thrombosi:' the evidence indicates that the disease process starts in American m by the age of 20. The incidence of the dieease is high in adult Ame: and almost universal in males. cn 1~ Since the disease is so nearly universal in this country, the il m w ment in the diagnosis is the degree of progression. Unfortunately, ~ possible to make this diagnosis until some ma3or vessel has been invl ~ ~
Page 392: rhz82d00
-5- In 1956 cancer caused one out.of six deaths in the nation. In 1957 about 450,000 new cases of cancer were diagnosed for the first time. Unless it is pos sible to bring this disease under better control, it can be anticipated that 26,000,000 Americans now living will die of cancer. One out of every four perso will have some form of cancer during their lifetime. Full utilization of presen knowledge will reduce the toll appreciably, but really dramatic improvement will possible only after the development of new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. The human and economic loss from cancer is~ataggering. In the United State it was estimated that there were eleven million patient days in the hospital dur 1957. The cost to the average patient wass 1. $885 - diagnosis and treatment costs 2. Six man years of lost work 3. $24,000 loss in income, plus additiona]l drain on family resources. Trends The total cancer death rate has been inoreasing for some years. Many workers in this field are of the opinion that much of,,the rise in standardi rates (rates adjusted for the age composition of the population) may be att buted to better diagnosis and more accurate reporting of the causes of deat This increased accuracy is the result of improvements in medical knowledge, skill and facilities, That there has been an actual increase in the incide_ of certain types of cancer cannot be denied, Cancer of the lung, for examp has shown a steady and alarming increase in the last thirty years. There h been a decrease in the female cancer death rate since 1936, most probably d to improvements in cure rates and early case finding, When one considers cancer by sites, it becomes statistically apparent' O~A oN that there has been a decrease in cancer of the stomach in the male, while', 'w _J the age corrected rates for cancer of the lung has shown a steady and alarrr' ~ tn increase,
Page 393: rhz82d00
-8- the Florida Division of the American Cancer_Society and other intei ested lay and professional groups of the state, and to coordinate health department cancer activities with these groups. 14, Set up special projeots, studies and surveys which will evaluate th Cancer Control Program and point out atay special problem areas whic need attention. 15. Encourage and support the training of research and service personne 16. Develop research projects which will contribute to the over-all knowledge of some phase of the cancer problem, with especial emphas: on the development of methods which will make it possible to preven• cancer. 17. Study statistical information for its usefulness in evaluating the effectiveness of the over-all program and_for its value as an indic, tor of areas needing further attention. 18. Encourage the development of visiting nurse and other services whic? < will improve the home care`of convalescent persons and those in the advanced stages of the disease. (See Public Health Nursing Program 19. To aid in the community planning for nursing homes and other facili• ties which will make'possible institutional care for such patients : are hopelessly incapacitated and for whom other facilities are inad, quate. Also, to encourage the legislature to provide adequate welf funds for the chronically ill so that nursing home care of acceptab:• quality may be attainable. 20. Develop special projects which will demonstrate the effectiveness o special methods for the early diagnosis of cancer, as for example t' Papanicolaou method of cytological examination.
Page 394: rhz82d00
-3- States and accounted for only four per cent of all deaths. The picture has altered during the intervening half century. Cancer is now the second cause of death in the United States and in the State of F1.orida. Canc now accounts for sixteen per cent of the total number of deaths. A large part of this increase in cancer deaths over the past half century ha been due to changes which have occurred in the general population of the United States. The total population has increased and,so has the proportion of older people in this population, During the early years of the Twentieth Century only about three per cent of the population in America was ab ove 65 years of age. Wit improvements in the control of infectious diseases and other hazards of the early years of life, this proportion has gradually increased until today about nine per cent of our population is above the age of 65. While in most of Florida the prop tion runs parallel to that of the country as a whole, certain counties have a pro portion much higher than this because of the influx of retired persons. The cancer death rate rises sharply with increasing age. The preponderance older people is becoming greater in the age group where the rates are higher. It estimated that the population of Florida is near 4,650,000 in 1960 and that 9.5 p cent of these are persons 65 years of age or older. In certain counties twenty p cent of the population is above 65. The increasing impact of this disease is seen in the reports of cancer death since 1930. In that year there were only 1,032 deaths reported in Florida as bei due to cancer (70,3 deaths per 100,000). By 1958 this figure had increased to 6,639 (149.3 deaths per 100,000), while the preliminary estimates for 1959 indica that there will be about 7,219 (156.6 deaths per 100,000) deaths in Florida due t: cancer. While it is true that cancer is primarily a disease of the older ages, it is' also apparent that cancer is of importance in both sexes and in all age groups. See Table 1 and Table 2. Ln ~ m w ~ r N ~P
Page 395: rhz82d00
PROORA?•i TO ATTAIN OBJDCTNIS s Ongoing Activities The Cancer Control Program is being approached in an aggressive and in• grated manner, working in close coordination with the Florida Medical Assoc: tion, the United States Public•Health Service, the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society, and the Florida Cancer`Council. During the past year a physician has been added to the staff of the Chronic Diseases Division of the Bureau of Special Health Services as the ft time Director of the Cancer Control Section. Service .~... Cancer control from the public health standpoint ia directed primarily the field of service. The private physicians are encouraged to make each of their offices a cancer detection center. Tumor Clinics The first line of defense in this field fpr`the medically indigent pati is the 21 tumor clinics located throughout the state and listed in Table No. (Page 10). This table gives the names of the clinics, the total number of n cancer cases and the total number of all cancer cases seen in the tumor clin during the years of 1958 and 1959. Two new tumor clinics have been added during the year of 1959. The tumor clinics are staffed by private physician of the state who serve without pay. The Florida State Board of Health, the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society and local hospitals jointly finance the operation of the tumor clinias. The tumor clinics must meet the minimum requirements of the State Board Health before financial assistance can be granted by the State Board of Heal, ~ - ' ~ or the Florida Division of the American Cancer Sooiety. ~w Medically indigent patients are referred to the tumor clinics by a priv' ~ N physician or a county health officer. Patients are first seen in the tumor 00
Page 396: rhz82d00
-10• clinics by a staff of physicians on an outpatient b asis. Nominal fees are paid by the Florida State Board of Health for diagnostic laboratory and X-r procedures. If further studies are required for diagnosis,_the patient may be ad- mitted to the hospital for the necessary workup. If hospitalization is required for treatment and the patient presents reasonable prognosis, he may then be admitted for the indicated treatment a approval of the county health officer and the director of the tumor clinic. Hospitalization of such tumor patients is provided under the state and coun program of Hospital Services for the Indigent or.the Public Assistance Reci ent Program. (See Hosnitalization for the Indigent Program.) TABLE 3 TUMOR CLINICS AND SFRVICFS CLINIC 1 958 1959 ~ , 19,58 1959 Alachua _ 58 41 169 100 ~ 4 i 559 oward Br 74 108 5 Duval 420 397 3855 4162. Escambia 176 186 1305 1514 Fort Myers 44 51 Jackson Memorial 189 256 2258 6 Leon 132 138 1074 109 Manatee .27 17 264 209 Marion 20 40 39 43 Mt. Sinai 106 121 `697 620 Orange 113 130 1464 1305 Palm Beach 148 175 961 1013 Pinellas 225 275 773 1009 Polk 174 194 1072 1269 St. Francis 83 73 744 785 St. Vincent's Sarasota 77 84 1061 1103 Ln Tampa 183 150 1844 i5~ ~ ~ ~ University of Florida 159 512 m w Volua ia 20 20 lOQ -1-0 ~ ~ TOTAL 2314 2685 18921 19839 N
Page 397: rhz82d00
. -18- 2. Facilities are already available in the state for detailed and treatment of 'children with congenital heart disease, N Florida Crippled Children's Commission makes substantial f aid available. The weakest link is in casefinding and ref demonstration project in one or more.counties may well be here. 7n any case, continued study and improvement in ca: methods will be needed. 3. The heart control program will continue the education of i home care of stroks viotima and expand this program if it to be successful, 4. Continued expansion of visiting nurse programs will be ac means of improving the convalescent and other care of heF victims, (See nursing program.) 5. Efforts will be continued to seek improvement in nursing of those crippled by cardiovascular disease by continuin:: toward the improvement of tiursing homes,•and hospital car: licensing of nursing homesAnd hospitals, as well as hos for the indigent.) 6. In rural counties, consideration will be given to possit tion projects in home oare and rehabilitation for chron: Where the population and financial resources of a count;• sufficient to:furnish the usual type of rehabilitation can be accomplished in the home, and a definite effort, dicated to explore the possible usefulness of a team cc persons as a medical social worker# a nurse and a phys:• (For further information see the research files - Persc u, ~ m Projeot.) m 7. There is increasing evidence that manW stroke victims ~ ~ i ~
Page 398: rhz82d00
-7- both morbidity and mortality from rheumatic heart disease has been downwa. since 1915• This reaction began as a result of favorable improvements in general living conditions and has been greatly accelerated since the disc of the sulfas and antibiotics. ~ It is in the adult types of cardiovascular disease that the greatest crease in total cases has occurred; and of,these adult types of disease coron thrombosis mboais has shown the most dramatic;increase. In fact, never history has a non-infectious disease come so quickly from obscurity to a tion of pre-eminence. To realize that the first cause of death in the Un States today is a disease little known 50 years ago comes as something of surprise to physicians and public alike. This iunot to imply, of course coronary artery disease did not exist before the turn of the century, but does dramatically illustrate the fact that as a major problem it is the p of modern living conditions. While it is true that cardiovascular disease becomes progressively rr serious with aging, recent data indicates that the disease is increasing rapidly in the productive years between 25 and 61t, especially in males. quote from a recent study, "The manifest clinical disease is but the visi tip of the iceberg, and we are here dealing with a mass disorder on the : of the epidemics of history°. Arterial disease does not affect all popul tions alike or even all segments of the same population. In Ouatemala, f example, the disease is almost non-existent in the lower economic groups those with more worldly goods exhibit the disease with the same excessive prevalence as we in the United States. In the Oriental countries coronar artery disease is quite unusual, and yet these same racial stocks in HaW, Lor on the mainland of the United States are highly susceptible. Among t2', a, w more "civilized" nations of European stock, only the Italians have a rel.'', ~ ~ 4n m immunity to coronary disease. M important result 01 thia difference w
Page 399: rhz82d00
Stroke-.Study ~.~.._.._ An intensive study was made of 100 consecutive stroke cases seen the emergency room of the Duval Medical Center during the first five months of 1959. These people were followed for at least three months see what the outcome would be using the regular routine of treatment. companion study of 100 stroke cases seen in a private hospital wi11 b used to compare the outcome where private facilities have been used f treatment. It is anticipated that information of value in the rehabi, tation of persons who have suffered a atroke will result.from this at Hmertensie S ud~ In cooperation with the hypertension clinic at Duval Medical Cer a study is being made to determine the effect of close home supervisi (once a week) by a public health nurse on persons with, hypertension. comparison will be made between the patients under routine supervisic and those under close supervision. A sideline study of a new ganglic blocking agent is also being carried out. This study should c ame to conclusion during 1960. Ecpansion Indicated The present staff in the State Board of Health consists of an A ciate Director for the Division of Heart Disease Control plus one se tary. The Director of Special Health Services gives part of his tim the heart program as its director, and the Director of the Bureau of Maternal & Child Health acts as a consultant. The Associate Directo: the Heart Disease Control program is a young officer in the U. S. Pu Health Service, who is assigned to the State of Florida for a relati short period of time. He has certain duties assigned in and near Je ville in connection with the special atudies=on stroke, cholesterol,
Page 400: rhz82d00
-13- This project should be given ear]y attention. 2. An educational program to: a. Encourage wide use of cytological cervical examination and°self- brea3t examinations. Justification - Cancer of the breast and uterus account for one-third of the cancer in the female population in Florida. Cancer of the cervix is readily accessible and when diagnosed ear)y offers a relativel3 favorable chance of cure. Immediate attention should be devoted to this project. b. Encourage the people of Florida to get periodic health examina- tions at regular intervals. Justification - Only in this way can cancer lesic be diagnosed early and immediate treatment begun,. . Immediate attention should be devoted to this pro3ect* c. Encourage the physicians of the state to do periodic health exar nations on their healthy patients. Encourage every physician to make his office a cancer detection center. Justification - Self-apparent. Early attention should be devoted to this phase of education. 3. Care of persona with advanced cancer: Facilities available for the care of cancer patients with advanced lesic vary greatly from county to county. The situation is particularly difficult not only for medically indigent families but Sor;families of moderate means. Community efforts can if properly directed do much to ease the burden of families faced with this unhappy situation. Consideration should be given to cooperative projects in which the medi- cal schools will have a part. These projects might well include home treatme, utilizing chemotherapy, cortisone, eto. u, Much of the care that many patients with advaneed'disease require can be' ~ -, w given in the home provided some outside help is available. Visiting nurse ~ ; service is perhaps the most helpful organized service'in this situation. N
Page 401: rhz82d00
32 FI.OItInA IIIsA1.T1I Nt1Tl•S CANCER RANKS SECOND AS CAUSE OF DEATH 1910 1935 BRAIN SitKMCI: ~~~~~~~~ am (:rseer lws risen in dle lw twenty6ve yeaev~ fr..n' sisth, as sh.wa in tlk t.lslrs af.we, t. see.ei plate in the r.ak of k91er. .f wakind-yet enMy 6es rane .f .eietNifie pr.per IMre is rwre rew.A f.r h.pe .h.a 11us dire:see th.s ever het.re, aee.rdittg t. ttie A.KrSociety for lfre`twwtra .t Cancer. . T6i. .h.rp irerea.e i. the r.te .( dcah fram eaaeer ; tay well Ise a..re wMiaie.l /kaw real<,.ecwi'rts to ssrk.rilles. They poat..w drt two faetora cartrslswe trrndy t. it: 1. The apward treui in se levels.t wr p.ptdai.e. 1Cs tr.re.resfle live leew, rtarluw` dse ..e.lMd cancer I/rM-=•.vr.r f.My-dterr are awtirally ware drallw fewr dlis r.lipwtt di.~. lwpr.vr.l 1.xd.iywss f.r dwiiwg wish tw bvetd.r.uy r..1.ri., wrlet ferrs, e1e., fe.re w.rc people f.r tlww .Iegetle.atice di.ea.es .t .W a6e. att.a.6 ahaa ea.cer. i lmpr.ved d'o6n.rie ledlsiyae: whrs a persen dies .f r.nrer now it" is rees.ised m sark t.ek .f .kiN ie diagnosis w.wlly eupl.iss the lesewds dl.t certain piilrNive peoples, am.s 1knM 1he Aaericaa htdi.m, eever Ird raecer. 9'Ve rl'.ulen. FGetd Arary .f the Atacrw" Society f.r tke (`,sltrol .( Caacer; an alliance of wtataedin6 women and phy.iei.o., is now engaged in itb second .an..1 edoctlisal cnnp.i6n. Bsperl. , aay dW i.day eledieal knowledge ac weh tirt .t Ieaa Mdt of the 150,000 wM die annually of tl.e di.ease reul.l Iw saved if tlKy were treated .a .wn as nynNNenls ape...arrJ. . ... ...: ..,..._ • .. .. , . •• • . . • . .^.'~... '.,.... ...~.. • !.. • ,,..• KI:I.A'IY()N ()F '1'111: (.;AN(;h:IL 1'1a)Ii1.l:di 'IY) 1'UliLIC IIh.Alml ' /axtty It. I h)u)EN, 111. 1). JlrnsGrr, Cummiffre on Cancer Coutrul Fl.orida Jledicnl .lssocieiion Jacksuuvillc, Florida As a public health Isroblem, cancrr differs ntatrri:dly frout that of nuuty other diseases since Ihc question of contagion, or trastsmission trout Iser- son to persan, is not involvcd. Thcre- tore, there is no considrralion of any specilic prt•venlive usrasurrs whereby the occurrence of cancer utay be pre- vented antl Ihc spread of the disease thereby controlled. The inlerest of public hcHllh in this condition depends ttut only uwut Ihr high morlality rate of cancer, as shown in vital statistics, but also on the fact Ihat within recenl years this atarlality rate has been increasing rapidly. in 1900, tuberculosis, with a ann•- falily rate of _'111:' per 1110,0110. took prst place among tltr rauses of dealh in fhe United Statcs, while cancrr, "tl a IlMrtalily, rate of 63, Shloll in: siiqh place. In 19'9, tuhertc.uWsis had fallea tt, sizth place with a mnrtality rrtite of 76, while cancer Irwl risen lu second place with a tnortaaity rate of 96 per, 1a9,M populaliub, an in- trease of 5y° per cent for a 31/-year In Murida, vital`sla/idics, as sup- plinl to tae Ly 11r: 'IYNnnpswa, show an even uwrr rapid :rise in tlrstth rale. to 1917, Ithe tolal .lealhs wrre 3?lt, a rate of •11.1. In 1926 the rate had risen to Git.3 while in 1931,11te lolal tlealhs were 1,973, a death rate of 71.2 per 108.000 polnslalion; an increase of 69Y--per ccol for a 14- year period. These figures should not Ix: inter- preted as meaning that tite actual number of cancer cases in ecisteuce has really increased at this rate. A awnber of f:tclors must Isr es/nsider- ed before drnwiwA lioal conclusions. Great intprovcnlenl hax taken plslcre in the rullrclion of vilal slutislirs. 'tllr grl•al a1Iv711N'1•S N'hll'll have IN•PII :.s today. Moreover, dae to iutprovcd cundilions, we now Itave u Issrgcr prolwrtion of our population of Ihr "cancer agr;' middlr lifr and beyond. This last factor :Ipplics especially to our own Stutc, on account of thr large numlK•r of thr ntiddlc-agal a•hu arc incla.k•d in our annual tourist Isopulution. While these factors nntst accuuttl for sonte of Ihe apparent increase in llte number of casrs, it sernl.e itu- Irossihte for Ihent lu account for ail. It is generally conceded Ihnt, in spitr of improved nselh.nls of diagttusis and Irealtuent, and in spite of Ihe effnrls tuade to gct ca::: a cau•% early when Ihey,have a chance ot being cure+l, cancer, txNh frontt the staodpoint of numhers stnd of prr- cenlagc, is actually inrrraYinp. The pri>hlenm of controlling cancer, af reilacinK in some way the ca.sr- ntot4c numbrr of deaths which are cau•ccd hvr il, naturally differs fruul that of many <tthrr pruhlrnts off tntb- lic health. It is haatprrr.l by /hr fact that the ultimate etiology of can- eer is -itaiuwwn; that cases tnuzt bc reached in the r'arlr stages if t1n•v are,:ld be cure.l; Inq naarr than am- fLiifK`rlse, it is hampered by igtts , ramni'e on the part of the laity. ll.•- easionally, I mn sttrr,r lo say, it is also ignorance or negligence ou Ihr part of the physician himself. Cancer is one of the ohMst known discases. Undottbinl cases of canrrr are mcntioned in the tiilde. We arc tot.l Ihat Ihe Egyptians were fanlili:lr with it anti that Ihe earliest wriliup% of Intlia make mention of it. l>n down Ihrotqth the agrs it has lnwn . known, rrroKnizal, and dreadr.l. (l is not fo lse wondered fhatt tttrrr Itas gradually arruutulHtrtl, duriog :JI lhrsr yrsrsa a v:sl nnnslsrr of rrru- nNNIS and :Ab.ord idrrrs alNnsl it.
Page 402: rhz82d00
-7- 3. Support the 21 tumor clinics of the state`by providing personnel and equipment as may be needed. 4. Provide hospital care and treatment for the medically indigent and public assistance recipient cancer casea. 5. Encourage and assist tumor clinics and hc~pitals of the state to kt accurate and adequate cancer records and a cancer registry. Provi( the tumor clinic secretaries with a monthly list of cancer deaths. Pay small fees for limited outpatient laboratory and X-ray diagnos* studies for cancer patients who go through approved tumor clinics c the state. 7. Work with tumor clinics, local medical societies and hospitals in meeting the various problems that arise in the cancer program. 8. Encourage county health department personnel to render the necessai support required by the tumor clinics and to assist the tumor clini personnel in case follow-up services, when so requested by the phy: < cian in charge of the case. 9. Aid in the dissemination of information on cancer to the general public by all appropriate means. 10. Aid in the presentation of timely information to professional peop: of the state by seminars, special'articlesp exhibits and other appi priate means, 11. Sponsor special meetings for nurses, tumor clinic secretaries and tumor clinic directors to facilitate the exchange of information. 12. Maintain an up-to-date file on "Unusual and Useless Cancer Treatmei for the information and guidance of lay and professional people an, to promote public education concerning this subject. , 13, Cooperate and work closely with the United States Public Health Se:l vice, the Florida Cancer Council, the Florida Medical Association,
Page 403: rhz82d00
_1(a- its management. An excellent film and the booklet, "Strike Back at Stroke", were the main exhibits around which the seminar was built. Other literature and audio-visual materials are made available regula Special training in rehabilitation is"given to'two or three sele- nurses each year. Most are sent to the Rusk Institute at Bellevue Me cal Center in New York. LaZ Public - Chief responsibility for lay education is taken by the Heart Ase ation, but active support to this,progrsun is given by both the state local health departments. Talks by physicians and films for schools, clubs, etc., are important projects of the health`department. OenerF distribution of literature is shared with the Heart Association. Programs Chiefly for Research Cholesterol A study has been under way since September 1958 to determine vh,- . . the characteristic high frequency of hypercholesterolemia in diabete would also be found in their blood relativss. If this high frequenc found, further observation will be planned to study the actual relat of heart disease to these findings. This study is a natural corolla the diabetes casefinding program among the relatives of known diabet Each time a specimen is drawn for blood sugar, a little extra blood collected for a cholesterol determination. About 500 specimens have examined. Control specimens are being obtained from the Venereal Disease clinics in Duval County and schools in Jackson County. The major p,~ ; of the study will be completed by mid•1960. 8lusds for the study ax': being furnished by the heart prqgram. 0
Page 404: rhz82d00
During the calendar year of 1959, about 23,500 medically indigent and public assistance recipients were hoapitali2ed at a total cost of $3,500,00C About eleven per cent or over 2,500 of the total hospital admissions were su pected of having or found to have had a malignant lesion. Cancer patients acoounted for 33,500 patient days of hospitaliaation at an average cost of $20.45 per day, or a total cost for inpatient care of near $675,000. -ef"-n14tr D e in^ D"'^ra ,i°"--. at... ,,.. ..., Jv~. r - Certain special projects which have a,joint function of service to patients and education are recognized as being of great value. Such a projec has recently been approved by the Florida Cancer Council for demonstration purposes in the State of Florida. This project will Atudy cytological cervi• cal findings in women who are recipients of Aid to Deoendent Children. Becat cancer of the cervix can usually be easily detected by the Papanicolaou test and by reason of the fact that cancer of the cervix is relatively prevalent in women of this socio-economic status, this project is`being financed by thc < Florida State Board of Health and the Unitod States Public Health Service anc has the endorsement and cooperation of the Department of Public Welfare. Su( a project will reveal important statistical information, will probably save many lives and will point up education of the lay as well as professional groups as to the importance of the use of the cytological examination. Education % The presentation of appropriate information to both la3' and professional people continues to be supported by the State Board of Health and local heal•: units. A Cross Road Cancer Seminar•for phyaicians was held in six Florida cities during 1959. A three-day cancer seminar for physicians is planned to be held in Orlando during 1960. These seminars are sponsored jointly by the Florida State Board of Health, the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society and the local medical societies. ~ ~ m m w _J N w m
Page 405: rhz82d00
(Tobade• in alerida) rag. 4 both artiole, sold/at uoav and In pow York en oonsignment at $15 per thousand; the latter being t:;d anost 'protitable. 0eiAb to the dis. astrous state of financial affairs throughout thls °United States, at ,. th,at t.ime, and for some 7earn later Liw price of tobaeco and cigars rapidly declined up to 1841 and 1842, wron It became di* lioult to' realize five dollars per thousand tor oi~rst•and twenty cdnts for the best. tobac co j and t.te manufacture o trid former and tbe culture ot t'rne latter was msasurablT abandoned. And fram the want of tlavor ~ e19 its unpleasant tasty, the manufacture of than from exclusively 4 ~lorida tobacco has never baen renewed to any *rtent. But in ooan• sequence of experimental sbipiment; to 8romen, made bT.varasan aIftse ' Auat +,his Sblace, in the Spring ot 2842, tiis artialb of uMnRnu.::%ctsri•ftd ?lorida oiaar wrappers was introdueed to the notiae of *the perma=i' buJura, and all o?' It that .was on hand tin peR: York was soon purclxsed up under t}erm.n ord rs, at a aonsiderable advanae -on ttw price It ha been offered at before, It beins; ditfitdult t,o sell It at any priee until this demand for tt,e Hremen market, sprftg, Up.. Agdnts frota abroad made their appearance tris ensuinb season, and purctiased nearly tto en tire crop, at from 20 to 30 cents per lb. That which was not sold at home, being but a small proportion of tiw orops, brougrtt *rom 20 to 50 oenta per pound. as per qualitT. In oqnieqwtnbo, of t.nis, the amount o tobacco raised in 1844 was an ittarease on tt,at ot ::.1843, and all of 'it shinned on planter's account and sold at hwm 30 cents for tiao, atid g~ adual reduction in ttie prioe, for tr,at whion was undersixed, say on. l:Z to 15 ineiws long, of a black and zotler eolor, of thtek''texture a; unspottad, down to a price tj~at brou ht the shipptlr in t~.bt, from its want of .*lawsr, makin~it valueless ~or''illars° ror oigars. ;totwithst, ing these drawbaeks, om a ma Jorlt.T ot.,t,,. planters, havi% done wel. with trwir crops of 1844, a larger bxtant of land was put in tobacco in 1845, thnn iiad been before or :As Seo.: a:,noe in i this and of tile adJoinin,; counties of this State, and of +..td 5tatie`of. Oeorgiao ite production was inareased mucn more rapidly t,tan tue .c;oneumption, anct . required several'Tears, say 1845, 146 and :047, to work o*t and up the surplus ot that year's orop. As a censequenoe, but a smn7.l amount of land was planted in eit'usr et the years 1846, 147; ntte+r which the price and demand (aonsumption having`inrert4ken production) improwed and the cultivation of it here has become regular but limittid ia extez Prom *.tly lst of July to ti.. '3$tti of- Augltst Sc t,w period most desirable ''or Batiarintc tobacee, as ttm heat -.ind drw. weather durino that period eures it a rsandsone eolor, and tebacco oured at an earliei or later period, as a general thing, is apt to be too dark. To bring in tue gattitlrintL at this period, the plants must by set out about froc ; the l0tii to t'•la 30ti, of .4ay, and i_' during trie period of curing very wet spells of weatber eecur, as is _*rwquentlv ttid caso, it ta neoessar Ln to build *ires t~j-ouLh the barn0s. vive hundred pounds to Lile acre i: ~ as much o* good tobacco as can hN made, on an averaee f and an acre is ~, as nueh as one h++nd oan ke«sp wormed, if nd Qnn acoomplisn thctt. ?he d1 t!Yetllties +.o h«+ encountered in raisitse. tobacco ar.« t.ne cut-worm, ~ whiort destray not only tild beds of ±oung plants , but also t,ie plwts !Ln after trier ares set out in tim iiill; and to insure a stand, It is °' neoe9sary to aow a lari e nurlber of bods, and to kee+p 9e+.ting out the 1antn as t,,e season 1ustifies, and wat,e+ring if it., cio++n not, durin+ ` ~cie period be!bry mentioned ae titu proper ond r'or ser.t,ing out the plant. It munt t)„ kap•, ftre- o.* t.,as horR-worm, as t.rie plnnt approact
Page 406: rhz82d00
T60L £09SS supplied through more than 23,000 retail outlets, includ- ing vending machines, clubs and other places. The latest reported figure on the value added to tobacco products through manufacture is $38,233,000. (This ~ adjusted value of products shipped is less the cost of materials, supplics, fuel, electric power, contract work, and other production-cost factors. ) Nearly 8,000 persons are employed in the tobacco manufacturing industry of the state, with an annual pay- roll (from the latest available figures) of close to $21.5 million. The most recent published report of new capital expenditures for plants constructed and in operation, or for plant modernization, shows Z2,888,000. The 8tat:e's most valuable field crop goes to market All this is but part of the overall operations which make tobacco of fiscal and economic importance to Flor- ida. Several stemmeries and rehandling plants process the 16.5 million pounds of 4ue-cured tobacco harvested in 1958 from 11,100 acres on 4,582 farms. This was sold through the state's 19 auction warehouses. Produc- tion value came to $9,445,000. In the same year nearly 4,000 acres were given over to Florida's highly desirable shade-grown cigar leaf. The crop from this source came to more than 4.8 million pounds with a cash value of 4 $8,947,000. For the 1958 marketing season tobacco ex- ceeded in valuation all other field crops harvested in Florida. Only a part of the tobacco produced annually is re- tained within the state. Flue-cured leaf goes to vartM,.c cigarette factories chiefly in Virginia and North Caro- lina. About a quarter of the cigar-wrapper leaf reaches foreign markets, the chief of which now lie in West Gerrnany, Brazil, the Netherlands and Belgium. Nearly 28.5 million cigars were exported in 1958. The economic significance of the tobacco industry to Florida becomes especially clear when the essential labor elements in the state are considered: the 900 farm families in the shade-tobacco arul flue-cured 6elds, the men in transportation services, the workers in ware- houses and processing plants, the factory hands and the many thousands of retailers whose livelihood in whole or in part depends on the merchandising of tobacco products. The cigar metropolis develops Florida has long held a wide and deserved reputation as a center of fine cigar manufacturing. The industry had its beginning in the Peninsula State at K.y West in 1831. That was the year when William H. Wall opened a fac- tory employing 50 rollers. Fire destroyed the plant in 5
Page 407: rhz82d00
-16- hypertension, etc.', which make it impossible for him to make any extenc trips into other parts of Florida. As a result of this rather meager staffing, the local health depax ments are left much on their own in arranging programs for cardiovascu: disease. Because of the fact that;no one has an opportunity under the present organization to visit the local departments regularly, many of the health officers scattered throughout the state are not familiar wi the methods which should and could be used and with even the federal f which might be made available.to them. There are many resources in th local cormnunities of Florift which are not being fully utilized and wh could be made considerably more effective if more counseling were avai able from the State Board of Health. To implement the heart disease c trol program there should be as a minimum a.tull-time director in the State Board of Health. This man should be someone who intends to stay in public health in Florida long enough to reach his'lull usefulness i the program and should be either an internist or someone trained in pt • health with interest in cardiovascular disease. It would be his respf aibility to direct the program and to spend a considerable amount of with local health departments in the organization of their programs. With the continuity possible with such a director~ full utilizat could be made of the services of three.young'officers from the Public Health Service assigned on a temporary baais. These young men under mature direction would be very useful in carrying out some of the res and demonstration projeota mentioned below. An urgent need in this program is a nurse consultant. Many of I most useful local programs depend importantly on the services of nurE; ~ Ln H The full effectiveness of these services can only be gained if a nurr ~ ~ consultant is available. It is anticipated that this would be a pub:' N
Page 408: rhz82d00
w19.0 7. The number of requests received by the Audio-{iisual Libraryr is an index of subject matter desired and general interest in health. 8. Circulation figures from the Medical I,ibrary are also available as well as the number of reference requests and bibliographies compiled. 9. A study of state and county appropriations for health will irrdicate to some extent the knowledge and acceptance of public health programs,
Page 409: rhz82d00
JLdl(: Vl 1'lV!lLLd, Lt .il., " . Amertcan Tobacco Co., et al. l.i legacy 32:18 Legal 4:13; 8:13; 85:8, lobbyists 169:14 i 1oca170:11 ; located 4:14; 6:4, 23 1 1; 101:21: 113:16; 1 ` 1 iocation 6:19; 22:7; 115: 16, 141:21;143:11 i 85:20; 124:3,4; 221:2 legislation 172:5; 225:16 1 LOCKMAN 4:24; 5:3,3, tegisiative 83:2; 93:19; I 11: 29:12: 34:15; 41:18; 1'1:19 I 61:17;62:4;96:21; legislators 169:9 1 101:19; 102:4;106:14; legislature 155:11 ! 107(4); 108:2, 3;109:3; legislatures 174:9:175:3 i 110:22; 112:4; 121:22; LEMLEY 5:7, 7; 107:8; i 129:15: 134:2; 135:1; 110:21; 150:7, 13; 151:3. 140:10: 141:24;142:18, 21; 187:24 I 21, 24; 143:2,7,14; 144:3, less 51:23; 68:3; 91:10; i 6;145:4, 24;146:17, 22; 101:12 ~ 147:13;150(4);151:5, 8, lessons 18:17;172:7 (t 20;152:7,1G;157:19, 24; letter 76:24: 77(4); 214:9 ' 15$:11;163:7;167:9; ~ 168:10,16;170:18, 25; Letters 21:15 173:5, 8,13;177:6;181:8, level 19:19; 44:9; 59:21; ~ 17; 182:2,9, 25;183:19; 82:21; 90:3 , 184:2,13;185:5, 21; levied 224:13 Liability 155:13 liberal 32:19, 22 libraries 21:25; 22:13: 23:23 library 14:9; 22:1,15; 166:13; 167:2; 168:2 life 12:17;'22:5; 57:19; 87:23; 89:13.19; 90:2; 129:11;137:22; 138:14, 16; 139:4 lifetime 48:1 1 186:6;187(4);189:21; I 191:1; 192:11;193:3; i 195:10; 202:25; 204:7; ~ 205:9; 206:13, 25; 207:8, 17,23;208:5,11,18; 209:7, 20; 213:25; 215:12; 216:22;218:6,13,25; 219:8; 226:5; 229:9,16 Lockwood 107:21 io n g 8:17; 9: 23:10:20; 16:4 6: 56:6; 57:4; 89:12; , 1 101:5, 7;116:2;126:19; light 74:14;141:5;143:18 limit 24:11: 26:12; 93:6: 161:14 limitations 26:11 160:22:165:23;167:18; 173:14: 222:23. 24: 226:8 lon8-time 63:5,1 S longer 7:2; 148:8,22; limited 22:24: 24:22; 1 149:11: 150:11; 190:23 50: 10, 17, 25: S 1:20; 52:1;' 1 look 22:16; 26:12; 70:20; 54:16,21,25:75:10; 93:13;160:16:161:9; 186:5 limiting 156:21 limits 93:17:94:1, 2; 80:4 ; 93:2, 7,18; 18;94:8, 113: 10; 120:13; 136:18; 159:1, 17;162:5;163:19; 1 66:10;178:17,17; 185:11; 205:18; 217: 15 205.3 line 182:12:183:22 , looked 38:6; 40:23; 91:6; 1 102:21; 131:19; 166:9; lines IOUa9: 115:8; 119 10: 152:2: 172;16 link 175:23: 178:9: 179:6 Lisa211:1u.t1:212:12 list 5G:6; 57:4. 6; l 32:25; 1 h5 22: 170 15; 171:10; 178:12; 196:12; 219:17' listed 198:18 Literally 39:1'3 I 178:18;188:23 looking 162:22;192:15 ' LorUiard 165:16 ! lot 8:12;19:11;44:5,6; ~'f:8;205:24 I Louisiana 222:2u, 25; I 223:7,12 ~ lunch 107:15, 19: 139:10, M 4:7,11, 20; 187:3; ` 230:2, 20 machines 164:13 magazine 120:15 mail 44:5, 6 main 62:8; 97:3; 149:22 mainstream 74:3 ° major 6:22;15:18; 22:1 S, ' 16; 39:2; 55:9; 60:20, 21; 126:2; 128:17; 137:9;. 179:22 " majored '13:17 majoring 13:19 majority 53:10;138:3 majors 13:23 maker 88:22 makers 168;21;174:10; ~ 175:2 makes 83:7 Making 85:5; 93:10; 99:10;103:a4;118:14; 177;8;178:9;189:24 man 38:22; 50:12; 5d:8; ' 63:11;64:12;65:20 ntanage 23:5; 25:5 ' managed 167:7 management 48:21 manager 65;20; 669 managing 57:19 manifestations 22515 manner 119:12,1 S ' manua1164:12 manufacture 209:18,18 manufacturers 224:22 manuscript 21:24; 47:22; 48:14,17; 49:5;, - 55:8; 56:7; 75;3; 76:1; 93•10• 148•4 manuscripts 37:10; 47;18; 49:14,16; 57:3; 75:14; 76:5, 22; 96: l, 3 many 19:11:25:25; 42:22; 76:5,12; 91:1; 210:12;21i:5;220:6 March 155:18; 219:22 . marginai 72:1 marked 196:6 market 224:1 , marks 1$7:12;188;5, 20, 24;189:10,19;190:S,11. 23 mass 199:4; 213:16,17 little 5:17; 18:6:32:15; I 13 massive 14:5;"43:21 54:G: 139:4: 148:8: 191:8; ~ lung 133:5.25;134:6; master 11:3 -' 1`l 3 135:13. 21:136:20; masterfully 153:24 live 89:7: 149 1 C. ~ 175:11. 18: 177:22; 178:3; ~ material 14:6, 16; 22:23; living 22:3, 90 .16 179:18;181:7;182:24; 24:1; 26:14; 30:11; 39:14, LJoyd 84:13. 15:85:15, ~ 183:15; 200:5: 202:23; 16; 44:25; 213:17,17; Augustus M. Burns, Ul, Ph.U. May 9, 1997 23:15,22;24:i2,22;25:5, 15; 26:22; 39:19i 41:2; 45:1; 46:8; 49:10; 50:24; 71:19;f4:21;75:5;76:9, -18; 86:16, 21, 22; 92:22; 93,:2, ; 94:8; 97,.:25; 134:16, i9, 22;135:9; 147:24;149:13,14;151:1; 161 i 19, 21;162:2,!5;164:6; 16b:10,18, 21;1T3:20; J 90:21; 204:3; 2c9:6; 210:17, 214:10; 216:10, !14; 217:22; 218:,1;, 220:16; 128:22, 73 matriculate 11:1 i tratter 4:7; 24:4; 27:6; 42:4; 94:8;111:24;114:6; i22:Y0, 24;123:6;136:8; 208:1.4 matters 84:5,115:18; 121:10;124:113 2Q2:15 meldrr}I,zl1'i'421 May44;Y2i,19;22:2, l4; 26;8; $7.4; $3 2S,• 43:}0; 61 c 18, 62 1, 4, S. 70}1; 86:19,98.10;99.7; " {100:12,140: ,141:11; 150:25; 1511: ~0, 03:7; 1$7:20, 24;167:10; 1,70;,20;173:1;178:j; 1~8:17,19„2;21;~9 24); 194:17,,• 15~7:5; 204:20: 213:25. 216:5, 22 rttalybe 300 .~8'2; . , 164:7$Y14.~: , McIclosh 115:24:154."l1 Mea8lter.S:10 ~rroan,21 i6; 25:23: 26:18; 2T: I S, 28:?,; 39:23.; 47; 21; ,: 49:17~ 70(4)r80a :`86:22; 9$:21;99:14;105.20; 107:23;112:6;'1¢3:2fi ` 164:16;170:21t 176:21; 186:2; 204:10,15;205:4; 214:19; 223-24 meaillnd 25;,24,o:3; 93:4;125:25;152:~8; . : 156:1;3,160:1;178,3; ` 1 C30:8,188:10;190(4); 192:5, 6;;204:9 means 79:2, 8, 20; 80:2; 99(5) 128:19;'168:20; 170(4);171:3, 7, 14; 180:12;190:i0;194:12; 200:10, t S: 20i(4); 202:6, 16; 203:20; 215,23 : .. meertt 22 25; 74 1 S; `" 78;15,185:25;18818; 190:15 meantirne 48:12 measure 78:11; 205:.18 media 172:11 Medics10155:13 medica1137:8;166:25; 125:23; 220:19 ' meetings 30:18; 220:14. 15.18 member 28(5); 29(4); 57:21 members 11:21;89:8; ,98:13 Memoirs 21:16 memoranda-'~12:13,23 memory 71:18; 189:9 men 224:2 menthol 10:13.16 mention 138:1,6 mentiones# 27:18; 62:14; 71:13; 90: 18; 100:4; 124:2 merlt 119:1 merhs 96:7t8;1.41:16,18 i118t 17:9,14r23;111:6; 187:6; 220:7,'9 method 15:1 Methodist 15:12,15 methods 14:14 =mtd-1980s 47:12; 48:13; 50:15; 88:14 nlid-mornin8 61:19 might 25:6; 39:24, 25; 43:14,; 52:23: 55:19; 60:6; 92:5; 105:9; 109;22; 112:21, 22,113:3;115:5; 144:25;145 3:177:23; 194:13: 212:2; 219:4 MIKHAIL 3:1,1;140:12; 141:21;142:14,19, 25; 143:10;144:'1,15;146:20; 150:20; 215:16 miles 7:12,13 , miilions 180:5 mind 26:3; 69:10; 87:15; 126:13;128:22;132:22; 173:6;193:24;194:1; 195:8, 22; 216:24 mine 112:25:150:5; 173:24;187:20 minor 132:8 mirlority 43:7 , minute 13:3; 159:7 minutes 1.59:12; 216:24; 226:6,13; 229:3 misinformation 173:3 misinterpreted 44:3 misleading 67:3 misrecalled 34:8 Misrepresentations 173:17 misstng 150:17 Mississippi 193:13,15; 222:17 Missouri 84:16,17,18 misspoke 64:17 mistake 34:24 misunderstanding ' 2o ~ 203:5, 9, 23: 206:11, 23, 214:12: 215:17 178;10 191:3,12,13, 214:1 lobbying 82: i 4. 22: 24: 203:3 materiais 14:8, 9. 25; Medicins 81:9 ~ misunderstood 58:5 i 71:19 Lyndon 138:2. 2, 14 I 19:12, 17; 21:14.19. 22; meetin 111: i0,19. 20; mix 49:12; 129:14 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. min-U-Script® 1 51603 6943 ~ (9) legacy - mix
Page 410: rhz82d00
-22- ?. Further investigation is needed concerning the relation of t mother during early pregnancy and the relation of viral dise rubella to congenital anomalies in the offapring. 8. Our knowledge is rather incomplete concerning the incidence of both coronary and hypertensive heart disease, 9. In addition to these more fundamental studies, there are mar ties for the development of studies and demonstrations show: care for those already suffering from cardiovascular diseas( studies would indicate the best mqans'for,-returning victims ease, stroke, stc., to self oare and where possible to full VALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHMEIdTS : _._..~. In the rheumatic fever program, the continued reporting of case; indication of the effectiveness of the;educational portions of the p: very wide variation from county to county in the per capita number o. ed would indicate a poor response in areas where reporting is low. years active use of the registry, a study of the outcome of the case give a good indication of the relative effectiveness of this method will indicate whether the registry should be continued or eliminated have probably reached something approaching the.maximum possible ben stressing the use of prophylactic antibiotios, maintenance of the pr of deaths from rheumatic heart disease would indicate that no great of the program is needed. Since there is no indication that congenital heart disease is i frequency, the best meaaure*of effeotiveness in this program will be children who receive adequate treatment. In hypertensive heart disease, one measure of effectiveness wi:' of persons known to be under observation and treatment for hyperten,' j ~
Page 411: rhz82d00
-16- of cancer treatment can be compared. Better service to the cancer patient ci be given, and research projects and special studies can be planned for new ` combinations and types of cancer therapy. If these funds are appropriated, they will be controlled at Florida Sta• Board of Health level, They will be used specifically for the strengthening and bringing up to acceptable State Board of Health standards the 21 tumor clinics of the state. They will be used to"provide additional clerical assi: ance on a part-time or a full-time basis as the needs may be. The limiting factor in the majority of the tumor clinics is clerical assistance. It is felt that this program as written would be highly desirable but would not 'Justify quite as high a priority at this time as outpatient care noted above in paragraph 1;. T. Research possibilities in terminal care: It is possible that hospitalization may be desirable for certain cases • it is also possible that certain Florida physicians may wish to join in some < the research programs involving the clinical testing of new methods of treat ment. Financial grants are available in some instances for this type of project, and the Director of the Cancer Control Program will aid prospective investigators in making applications for this type grdnt. 8. Broadening the cytological examination programc Consideration should be given to a plan for broadening the cytological examination program within the state for the medically indigent patients. Certain.states now maintain a "mail order" oytology screening program for th• use of the local health officer to assist him in his case-finding program. present no such facilities exist in Florida. However, there is a great need Ln ~_A for some type of cytological service for indigent wamen.- M IC% Justification - To fulfill a needed service. w To broaden the cancer oas,, ~ finding potential of the county health officer in a socio-eoonomio group in r w Ln which the incidence of cervical cancer ie relatively high.
Page 412: rhz82d00
-19- It is suggested that the pathologists be asked to make a survey of their records as to the use of cytology by the private physioiarle, as a result of the demonstration cervical cytology study. Studies to determine the number of cancer patients with five-,year cures cov be made which would definitely yield positive information as to the over-all ree of the cancer program. For instance, the State of Connebtiout reported a compre sive review of 75,000 cancer patients. This study clearly indicated that during period of 1947-1951 there was a definite increase in the five-year survivals as pared with periods 1935-1940 and 1941-1946. The over-all survival rate rose frc 25 per cent in 1935-1940 to 32 per oent in 1947-1951. This was most striking irr women where the survival rate rose from 29 to 38 per cent. Intensive study of statistical=trends might well give sound clues as to the beneficial results of a cancer control program, We now know by trends that deat from cancer of the stomach are decreasing while deaths from cancer of the lungs on a steady and alarming increase. < Accomplishments to Date It is evident that much interest in the Cancer Control Program has been sti lated in the lay and professional groups by the coordinated efforts of the Flori Division of the American Cancer Soeiety, the Florida Cancer Council, the state f local medical groups and the Florida public health personnel. Statistical information reflecting effectiveness of the cancer program is r• apparent at this time but will, no doubt, come with the coordinated and concentz' effort of the lay and professional groups of,the state. The fine work done in the 21 tumor clinics throughout the state is well wo" of inention. Without these facilities it is difficult tfl,envision exactly how tt'' 2,685 patients seen during 1959 might have been cared foir.' PUrthers the satisfa'' tion and hope given these patients by the kind and humane treatment rendered by ~ staff of the tumor clinics is heartening. 7/25/60
Page 413: rhz82d00
62 3. To emphasize the importance of an annual physical examination by a competent physician. a. To interest men and women in all aspects of the cancer problem. 5. To enlist during the month of April as many men and women as possible in the support of the Wo- men's Field Army; to raise funds to carry out educational work and later to finance other projects as Irading cancer authorities in Ihe state may approve. Membership in Ihe Women's Field Arm)• costs $1 a year. Funds may be sent to State Commander Mrs. J. R. Wells, ?.56 % S. Beach Street. Day- tona Beach, 1•'lori.la, pending com- pktion of organization in some points of the state. That cancer4&as risen in the past 25 years from sixth to second place in the rank of mortality causes; that 156,000 persons die annually who could be saved if their ills were FLORIDA IIEAi.Ttl NOTES diagnosed early; that improved die*noslic technique make it possible to delect cancer early nowadays are points which the Women's FIeW Army will stress in its educalioml work. Also the "painless signah' which may indicate cancer and which include: 1. Any persistent lump or thick- ening, especially of the breast. 2. Any irregular bleeding or dis- charge from body openings. 3. Any sore that does not heal-y parlicularly about tongue, mouth or lips. 4. Persistent indigestion. 5. Sudden changes in the form or rate of growth of a mole or wart. ~ Material for speeches may be ob. ; tained from state headquarters; there is also a supply of pamphlets and other informative material whicb: may be had by writing to Mrs. Kat6-' 1Kn W. Covey, assistant state com- mander, Daytona Beach, Florida. I;U RTAU OF VITa7. STATISTICS Eowatm 5t. L'EraLP, N. D. Director (:ANCF.it,DF•ATtI m7T.S, 1920 ANf) 1935, CRUDF AND ('ARRliCT1:D FOR AGE, "FI.ORII)A Increase in population 1920 to 193a-66efe. Increase In population 60 years and over-?796. Increase in crude rate 1920 to 1935--809f.. Increase in death rate 60 years and over-57%. rws e..+....& . er1 o.ra aN. A.. orwa. w.....e p...r+r" a r...;w o.r I 1920 :di:1 364.4 6.7 APRIL, 1938 ,1 63 IS lllsltha)1'1'ANl'7 Many year+ ago it was IN•licvcd Ilpt cancer was uol only hereditary bat that a measure or personal Idame attached itself to Ihc presence of this disease. People believed Ihal a taint nw in families •rnd that this showed itself in various forms, including cancer. Scientific men, on examining into the facts, arrived at Ihe opinion that cancer ilself was not directly Irans- atilled from one generation to an- ether, although a certain increased tendency toward its formation did exist among members of some fam- 0ies. Whether this was duc to chance or Iransinitled from parenl lo offspring is didicult to prove rrith hmnan material. A number of biologists have inde- pendently anno6nced the results of tbe-breeding of thousands of mice whieh have been experimented wilh in order to detrnoine-whclher cancer was or was nwt a hereditary charac- krislic. Mice .rere use in; lfiese cx- d Ixriinents for lhc rcason that hainan beings could not l.e employed, nor could reliable records of cancer re- lating to men and women be obtain- ed over a sufficient number of years. The concensus of opinion is that cun- cer is due to two principal groups of factors. The first of these comprises a tendency or tendencies to tmcon- lrolled growth. These tendencies may be transmilled from one genera- tion to another. The secon.l includes some exciting agent or agenls, such as chronic irritation at the particular point where cancer later develops. Tlu: idea that cancer is the result of an immoral act or an immoral life has been discarded. No Idame what- ever can properly allach to Ihe ap- pearance of cancer. The person, howcrcr, who does not learn to rec- ognize the symptoms or signs which may mcan cancer, and who does not act pr.HaldlY when they are observed, is guilty of ignorance, negiect, or bothl IS C.1]`T(;h:R CONTAGIOUS? In spite of Ihe fact that physicians and nurses have co„ne into intimate contact with can.xr patients for so auwy years and have taken no pre- eiwlions against infecting Ihemsetves, Iliere is no recorded instance of one case of cancer giving rise to another. This is not to say that microbes , are never found •in cancrrs. Cancers often become infected with such mi- crobes as infect wounds of any kind and the unpleasant uJurs mrhich are . ...:.... .~..:~ ...:~~. ......•.•r •.r.• such as should be followed with in- fected wounds. J)iscovrries are announced from lhue to Nmc that bacteria have been identified with cancer, but upon full and impartial investigation it is al- ways found that`these parasites are connected with the accompanying in- fection and are not the producers of the malignant condition. There is no occasi.m to xhun a person who has cancer, so far as dangrr-of contracting 111e disease is couccrncvl. The victhos nced ail Ihc .. . . . t .u
Page 414: rhz82d00
-12- The State Board of Health Library maintains books, pamphleta and litera ture for professional use on the subject of cancer as well as training aids and films for lay and professional groups. The Cancer Control Section is maintaining a file on "Useless and Unusua Canccr Treatments". This is constantly being built up and is used for educa• tional purposes by lay as well as the professional groups. A Cancer Manual has been revised and will be distributed to the tumor clinics, local health unite and other interested groups. This manual consisi of two parts: 1. The Law, Rules and Regulations, and 2. Recommended Manual of Instructions as to records, procedures, personnel and facilities. The statistical information obtainable from the Vital Statistics Bureau .is constantly being studied for trends. Recent trends such as the marked in- crease in lung cancer presents a fertile field for lay and professional educa < tion and stimulates the support of research in this area. Research The Florida State Health organization has done little in the field of research in cancer primarily because of the lack of personnel, facilities anc finances. However, we firmly believe that research will bring the solution t the tremendous economic and manpower loss due to cancer, through prevention. anaion Indicated 1. It is proposed that demonstration sampling of several of the repre- sentative counties be done with the approval and support of the local medical societies. The physicians would be asked to report all cancer cases when diagnosed. Such a project will prove its usefulness. Justification - Provic sound statistical material for the long range program planning for cancer cor, trol, rn J ~ w ~-A
Page 415: rhz82d00
t IM 14 r!i ~ Z60L E09T5 factured in Florida totaled $1,093,894 in 1910.) Because the Bureau attempted to curb management's generosity, several bills were introduced in Congress in 1912. These were framed to exempt from revenue three cigars a day. given as gifts. The Treasury Department objected and a compromise bill died in committee. Nothing further, however, was then done to interfere with the traditional "rights" of the factory rollers. In 1939 it was shown that the value of the "smokers" given away or consumed on the premises o( 19 Tampa factories averaged $403,144 yearly for a 12-year period. A recent publication of the Internal Rev- enue Service records that more than 1.7 million tax-free cigars were distributed for personal use in the state in 1958. Educated hands and faotory educators Rollers in Florida operated under an old system of labor rates called the Carlabon, first formalized in 1910. This applied an individual wage scale to about 200 dif- ferent shapes and sizes of hand-rolled cigars and also covered the principal salaried positions. The average production of each roller was 30,000 cigars a year. Yet, when inspired to extra activity, rollers of experience could turn out 250 to 300 cigars a day. In order to relieve the daily monotony of converting 8 I leaves to brown rolls, owners of cigar factories engaged readers. Seated in an elevated position, their particul: r job was to entertain and, sometimes, to educate the roll- ers. But busy machines were beginning to intrude on the art of the hand-and the readers' teaching frequently took a form which upset management-labor relations. Readers in Tampa's chief factories were dismissed in 1931, a major cause of a bitter strike. When it was over, a piece of talking fumiture, the radio, had replaced the voices of former "educators" in most factories. The machine takes over Others converted partly to machinery, chie8y for mak- ing bunches, yet retained a corps of master craftsmen and three-man teams of rollers. The use of the cigar- making machine-a technological masterpiece-was an industrial inevitability. In 1918 there were only 16 long- 81ler, four-operator machines in the tobacco factories of the United States. In 1936 there were 3,683, and they were producing around 80 percent of American-made cigars. One plant in Tampa, using short-filler, two-operator machines, employed 2,500 workers, of whom 2,200 were women. Machinery was responsible for its production by 1939 of 2 million cigars a day, the largest output of a cigar factory anywhere. The busy precision mechanisms 9 'A - -
Page 416: rhz82d00
-13- 24. A monograph series has recently been established by the State Board of Health. The director serves as senior editor, as a member of the Monograph Committee and the division is responsible for carrying' through the pub- lication and distribution of these manuscripts. Expansion Indicated - -- l. A suggested reorganization of the division is attaohed. It includes a plan for an orderly growth of health education services within the State Board of Health. 2. An assistant director should be employed so as to allow more time for the staff function primarily in relation to bureaus and divisions. 3. Assignment of regional health educators is deeiirable, particularls+.to serve rural areas. 4. The larger county health departments might consider the establishment of their own audio-visual libraries or cooperate with locah5boards of public instruction in placing prints in their established librariea. 5. More directors of county health departments should be encouraged to add a qualified health educator to their staff. 6. County health departments that have a staff health educator should be encouraged to employ a university student each summer who is majoring in health education. ?. More money should be allotted to the division for materials and services so that the public, bureaus and divisions, and county health departments may be better served. Also, since it is difficult to accurately forecast two years ahead as to exact needs for materiale'and equipment, it is suggested that a"bushion fund" be provided. 8. There should be more detailed testing of.new pamphlete, particularly those for persons with limited educational backgrounds.-`
Page 417: rhz82d00
4. Cost of each service (compare total services by what size staff for what county population). Out]3ne for Application of Plan to 1963-64 Biennium .r.rr~.~..+..r..r~.~r....r.r...~~..n..~r..~r~r~.~r+~~.~~~ . . . I The ongoing program of the Bureau of Looa1 9ealth Services is set forth on pages 7, 8 and 9 of this plan. II The objectives to be attained in this biennium ares A. Improvement 3n recruitment and reduction in turnover of personnel. B. Improvement and extension of inserviop training and education with better coordination of suoh activities. C. Development of basic minimal standards for all our various programs and activities, D. Development of a more adequate Health Mobilization (Civil Defense) staff and program. E. Development of an active energetic expanded A ccident Prevention program. F. Extension of additional legal assistance to the county health ` departments. 7/3/62 ~ Y w
Page 418: rhz82d00
.i 5 -2- the state for several years with popular exdiibits) 35mm health films were projected in the evenings from the train to crowds-gathered outside, A press secretary was part of the division for about 14 years. In 1961 this function was transferred to an information consultant on the staff of the State Health Officer. Originally, the health eduoation,program as it relates to audio-visual aids was developed and carried out by the individual bureaus and divisions. Currently, the A D Library has three full-time emploqees, who circulate around 600 aids per month. One of the more recent developments in health education has been the utilization of television, This has become such a specialized and expensive medium that its use to date has not been extensive. Radio has been sporad- ically used in late years, principally spot announcements. Health educators are employed in other bureaus and divisions of the State Board of Health as well as the Division of Health Education. The Bureau of Dental Health and the Venereal Disease Control Program each have an employee thus classified= and a part-time health educator acts as coordinator of training for the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health. A health educator was first employed on a county health department staff around 1950. There is a growing acceptance of the health educator as a desirable staff inember. Five county health departments now budget for six health educators. As of this date, there is one.vaoancq. History of Public Health Education in the United States Historicalljr, public health education began with the employment of publicists by voluntary health agencies. The organization of the National Tuberculosis Association at the turn of the oentury, with education as one of its objectives, and the adoption of "healthM as a cardinal principal by the National Education Association emphasited this aspect of public health w F1 ~ m
Page 419: rhz82d00
-6- arteriosclerosis or as a separate disease has never been satisfactorily decided. in any case, this is one portion of the adult problem for which there are prophy- lactic and remedial measures of reasonable effectiveness. While the many gaps in our present knowledge make control measures much less effective than we would desire, there are certain basic services which are of great value to a community. Provision should be mad.e If at all possible for: 1. Early and accurate diagnosis, 2. Adequate management and 3. Rehabilitation. These services can be shown to Increase the morale and usefulness of the affected person and his family, return a significant number of persons to employ- ment and reduce welfare costs. The actual part that the.health department plays in the development of these service's will depend on the services'already availabl in the community. It will, however, be a rare county indeed In which there ls n: need for some active endeavor on the part of the health department. T rends In congenital heart disease, diagnosis was so Inadequate prior to about 1940 that It is Impossible to get accurate statistics for any extended period. There is no reason to believe that the Incidence of this type of disease has changed significantly In the past 50 years or so. By contrast, the trend ln both morbidity and mortality from rheumatic heart disease has been downward since 1915. This reaction began as a result of favorable'improvements in general living conditions and has been greatly accelerated since the discovery of the sulfas and antibiotics.
Page 420: rhz82d00
0 I 1E.11.'1'll AN D SAFE'l'Y Ia U(;.1'1'ION nwuber of fatal accidents'_'7;c had been drinking antl 10'; were were tuldr.r tht• inNue/ice of alcohol.' There are approximately 100 milliuu p/ti,pl/• ur/•r 1:1 vears ..f a_r iu th.• I'uitetl States. Uf the ltltl nlilliou Ia<rstnts of .lrink- in;r :I;.,e it is estimated that at) million lx•Iwnls u..e alcoholie 1xver:r;e.; „1• thvu•. :3 luilliolt becxllne ,•xct•..,it•e drinkers; :Ina1 af thcse. 7.iO.IN)t1 1lecouu• chn/nic ata obulic..' This knowledge of Ihe extent of the prublem tuake. it im- I,erati.•e that tlle teachers of !•'lorida -,,uitle youth in conxider- iug their lx:rsonal and community welfare in relation to tlte •use of these substancm Prevention of lovi of life due to higlt- way accidents with rlsnltine et.wgomic loaa, aad._the solution • of ttociaT problems. t6at are inteagiSed 6y tlte rnie; t;hese sub- .. _ stance9 aerve as a ehallenge to the best ettorta of Florii3a teachers. OBJEG°1'I-VES ,....._ Acyuire without bias scientific information about alcohol, tobacco, and other narcotic and stimulatino drugs. Understand the nature of alcohol, the various narcotics and stimulants ancd the wa}'x in which they ma;• affect :ut individual. Develop uu/lerslau/liu;r.:ln/i attitutles that lead to wise con- tluct couct•rnine Itse of these subtitance.. Realize that thc continued Iu1cU11trolletl u..e of alcohol is oCteu a.}'mhtotn of other underlying prnbletnx and the pleasure it offerz is temporary zince it Illxh not wlre thi prublrm. t'nlle:•.taud that .ati.factiuu ruulcs tllrou;at overcolnillg'. not evading, the realities of life. l;utlel.tand the release frotn tension and straiu by play. 6. Florida Highway Patrol. Patrolmen and Examiners' ActiviUes. Tallahassee: Florida Highway Patrol. 1947• p. 1. 7. Yale University School of ilcohol Studies, Alcohol, Science and Soc'tety. New Haven: Quarterly Journal of Alcohol Studies, 1945. p. 23. 51603 7067 :)1S .\ /:1'll)l: l'/l 'fl•:.\/•IIINt; EI•'V1?I•'1'1\•I: I.I\•I\1; IY•rl',':Illu/t. 111It%IP. a \':1r1r1\' 4417 :IOII\•1/1. , 1, .•..11, 11•Ur11% .• .IIUI 1,1•IU7L• IH..IY• 1:/~1111~ ,:Ill~lat'IU•11. 1:.•alii.• 11uu ., luil,ll- sw.,I111 I u'ul,l.• 111. . 1).•%.•Lq, r.•,In•.•1 I.n i11.i••IN•n.l.-u1 Ihu,l.in_ au.l .a Il..o. :1 I,ri.l.• ill I.I,v•i.•:II .1/1.1 ,l1.•ul:,l II.•:1111,. lue:llizr Ih:ll it i. Iht•ir ~~ttu •u,11111i1~' 1., luakr .•I,. :111411 ,I/Y•Isp/ll-, 111 rr-a-al•tl.Iu 111t• tt%t• .,) IIN•,r ,111hlallt•.', . lGalirt• thl• rht,il•r. „1' the ilulix-i,lllal :111•rt•t 111,• I':uuil\. nn,l 1 ht , ulnnlllllit ~•. I'1111iv:/1,' t1,P III:MIiI[t• utC a[rilit•:1!1.v ,•v:IIIJ:ltill.-t :ultl :ul~rrti~t•mvnl. of :Ilt:uholit: .Iriuk,, :ul.l Or.il•t• tu k/ti•I/ abrt•:1.1 .,f r/•s/':Irt•h „u Ihr.v prul,lrut.. IT*I•:1'1..\ NNYNt; :.. Kuu" Ihal tllo al,•,.II••1 1.1•ublrtu 1, u.•.ull.ir~ In•r•••11.11 .ul,l •In•lill. 1•1•u1,1r111 W1111 111i1111• :111,) 111.11 11 t, 11111.n1'1:1111 1„ Ih• tlll't•PIP,I :11 t•:IIIW~ r:111N•1• 117:111 ~t 1111H..1U- . 1.•I. II1:11 Iht' :111't,hullt• 1• ill .•111,.11..{I:111\- :1,U1 1,6%•>it•ally nr Illrlltallt : Ihal I., I„' :1.% a IH11,11.' IU':11111 Ihat ,..rial pan.vn, :ul,l ..•w- 1111111/1\' .•..11~I111/1~' :1 IIIILI:IIIU'lll:ll ~.•1!/•••• •.1 111.• 1..'.'1.1.•111 .i. I•:IUI,ha, iG.• (l/r 1.7t•1 111111 11/ .1u.i t..•rlL.lrl.•lu1 ~al l.l:n•. au.l .•%a,lili_ IIU•m. -
Page 421: rhz82d00
99= FLORIDA 322, 330. 335, 344, 375, 378, 386-388, 396, 399-400, 415-4 t 8, M 434, 442' 445. 450-45=. 454, 456, 458, 474, 477' 478, 487, $03. S14-St6. 525, 530. 535. 540, $44. 548, 5St. SS4, 561. S76-S7d~ 592. 594, 606, 6to, 613, 630, 648, 66s, 681, 702, 728, 730, 757, 781. 804. 832, 837. 845. 886-888, 906. 908-909. 913. 95o-9S1 Tallahassee Hills, yo4, po6 Tallahassee Rifle Corps, 313 Tallahassee-St. Marks Railroad, ,,;q-4oo, 4t7-4t8, 371 Tallapoosa River, 135 Tamiami Trail, 784-785 Tammany, 128 Tampa. 15, 345-=46. 312-313. 357. 367, 370. 376. 384, 388. 397. 399-400, 414-4s5, 435. 442. 453. 496, So4-SoS. 530. S6o. 61o. 6 t 5-6 t 6. 61 y, 6a3-6t4, 6ap-63o, 658, 662, 667-668, 673. 675-676, 703. 728. 731. 759, 770, 77S-7I6• 7~. 782, 7d4-785, 792. 808, 829, Sa7-8z8, 840, 859, 865, 867. 89=-893. 904, 907-908. 03. 915.936 Tampa Bay, a, 8-l0, s4-s8, 69, ao3-ao4, 223. 243, 240. s49, 255. 260-261, 329, 400, 424. 770, 784-785. 817, 865. 912, 937, 948-949 Tampa Bay Hotel, Tampa, 6t6, 676, 892 Tampa Business and Shorthand College. 683 Tangipahoa, 18t Tappan, fohn S., 4t6, 418 Tarpon Springs, 47d, 57s, 623-6a4 Tartar Point, 297-298 Tax Commission, State, 736, 766. 779 - Equalizer, State, 779 - on gasoline. 734-73~. ~~~9, 8=7 - laws, lenient, 196, 8oB-8og - liquor, 839 sales, 840 Taxes. S9o-S9t. 593-594, 796. 8o8-8to, 827, 831. 839-840 - excisc. on luxuries, 810, 831 Taylor, John S.. 792, 794 -- Robert ['., 68S - Zachary, =49-a5o. z53. 20. 3oo-3ot. Taylor County, 494, St=• 626, 778. 819 Taylor's Creek. 249, 699 Teachers and tutors, 453 Tegesta. 46. 61 Temperance Association. Florida State, 640 - Grand Division of Sons of, 450 - movement. 4So-4St -- Society. 388 Sons of. 450 Temperature. variations of, 909 Templc Israel. Miami (illus.). 734 Ten Thousand Islands. 904, 9=4. 935-936 Ten Years' War, 673 Tencsaw, ts7, 153 Tenesaw River. tso, 127 Tension along the border, 174 Terra Ceia Island, to Territorfal problems of divisions or state- hood, a7z Textbooks, free, 781, 804 Textile City, 776 Textile manuTacturing, 378-379 mills. 379 Theatrical entertainment, 443-444 Thompson. George F., $30 - Leslie A., 279 Wiley. a43-=44 Tidal waves, 418 Tiger Island, 131. 148 Tigert. John J., 887 Tilden. Samuel J., s79 Timucua. 6s, 64, 66 Titi Creek, poS Titusville, 394, 61s. 617. 623. 629, 786, 918. Tobaeco. 48. 1109. t3=. 3~8-354•_ 364-365, 370. 4t7. 488. 6a6-6s7. 869 871 - auction. Lake City (illus.), ~575 warehouse at Live Oak (illus.), 87t Tocobago, 6t Tocoi. 013, 6t6 Toledo. Joae Alvarez de. tp8-1gq Tolomato River. 394 Tomhigbee River, sot. 106, 127. 16t, 193 Tomoka River. 3. 86. 247. 328-3z9. 394. 953 Tonyn. Patrick. 79. 84-86, 88. yo, 92-95. is3-t34, 135. 138 Toomer. W illiam M.. 732 TopoRraphy, diversity of Florida's. 9t8• 9in natural Aivisions, 904 Torrey. Bradford. 607 Torrcyea. 851 Tortugae. ss. 46. .t78. SoS, $33. 673 Tourist industry, 79-384. 420. 566-569. 6t6-617. 847-850 Towcrs. J. H.. 865 Town and country. 413-4s7 Town plan of Pensacola. changes in the. t6t Towns. Indian. to Townahend. F. French. 607-6o8 Trade. American. 113 - Board of, to8 - British. on Mississippi River, tto - contraband. tos. 139. 148 - Indian. 78-82, 103. 110, 13s-t4o, 169, Tratlemirk protects Indian River prod- ucts. 633 Trail. ukl Spanish. 43 Train. excursion. in the t88o's. on Jack- sonville. St. Augustine & Halifax River Railway (illus.), 645 TrHmntell. Worth W.. 779. 781 Trammell. Park. 669. 694, 73='7 7. 747. 757. 761. 781. 794, 797-798. 5-W• 808 Transport. air. 86a-867 Transportation and internal improve- ments. 390-397 - facilities, modern. R62-867
Page 422: rhz82d00
18. Sufficient personnel should be employed so that there`ia time for study, planning and frequent conferences, particularly with bureau and division direc- tors. This is important so that the health education aspects can be considered during the planning stage of new programs, research projects, demonetrations, eto., where indicated. 19. The divisinn might initiate and co-sponsor with the Bureau of Mental Health regional workshops to explore the environmental and cultural factors of people within these areas which would influence the health education methods and techniques used. Fundamentals of community diagnosis should be includedj power structure, political picture, religious groups,eto. 20. More assistance should be offered to the county health departments wbich do not have a health educator on the staff, particularly in budgeting for health education materials and activitiess teaching health education techniques and methods to staff members, planning health education aspects of new (or current) programs, encouraging staff members to give oonaultant service to school health instruction personnel and considering health education programs for persons attending county health department clinics and outpatient depart- ments of local hospitals. 21. Health career recruitment should be accelerated in cooperation with the county health departments, the Auxiliary to the Florida Medical Association and other voluntary organizations. 22. Pamphlets should be stored and distributed from a State Board of Health central supply room. 23. Office space should be provided for staff of the Medical Library. Possible CurtaiLnents 1. A change in emphasis will reduce the number of pamphlets presently stocked and allow the county health departments to assume more responsibility for obtain- ing their own. The use of pamphlets should no longer be the major technique used in health education.
Page 423: rhz82d00
-6- The namber of television sets in operation grows steadily, and so does the publicts preoccupation with health matters - it the camn,eroials are any criteria. There is an increasing utilia4tion of educational television in the classroom which public health education cannot ignore when one considers the lack of health teaching in classrooms in Florida.today., ;; There are a growing number of "health fairs" as well as fairs which have a health area. Visual aids are becoming more and more important adjuncts to State Board of Iiealth personnells presentations on the.lecture platform. There is increasing competition between health, welfare and education for the tax dollar, which points up the need to concenLrate''onthe effective use of all media. Public health, in general, and health.educatiori, in particular, are now acknowledging the contributions that such disciplines as social science, cultural anthropology and psychology make to their programe. There is more mature consideration of the role of leaders • the gatekeepers - in all connnunity health education programs. There ia more willingness to sit down and "listen" before "telltng" and to involve the public to such an extent that individuals desire to take reaponsibility for ttheir own health. The shotgun campaign is being abandened for the rifle approach - the selection of small, fairly homogenous groups with common cultural baokgrounda.as well as common health problems. PURPOSE AND SPECIP'IC OBJECTNES: P ose To present accurate knowledge about health to the various publics in a manner which they can understand and accept and to motivate them to make full use of this information. Spew ic ObJec~tives 1. To develop closer liaison with bureaue and divisions so that assistance
Page 424: rhz82d00
18. Assistance is given to State Board of Health personnel who are engaged in getting out professional and aemi-profeseional publicationa. These include editing, layout and liaison with artiats, printers, etc. 19. The Audio-Visual Library orders, processes, cleans, repairs, catalogs, books and circulates all types of aidas 16mm filimr, alides, filmstrips and tape recordinga. The number of aids circulated in 1961 was 6716. State Board of Health employees are taught to use and care for A+V equipment, which is kept in repair by A V personnel. New aids an the market are previewed by representative personnel within the State Board of Health. Reports are pre- pared for the official, voluntary and commercial groups whiohFhave placed aida on loan in the division. Announcemente of neW aids are issued throughout the year, and a catalog is published approximatel3r every two years. 20. Assistance is given with the Annual R.eport. The division assists in editing and it carries it through for publication in aoopera.tion with the Bureau of Vital Statistics and the Data Processing tnit,.Whioh check the tables and figures. Distribution is also handled by the diviaion. 21. The division issues the Florida Health IntelliRenaer quarterly, It is -....~~ ~..~.r .... ~... , a mimeographed publication concerned primarily with news of personnel in the State Board of Health, county health departments and voluntary health agenoies: births, deatha, changes in employment and honors. 22.. Requests for pamphlets and other materials made by bureaus and divisions are channeled through the division by the Purchasing Department. These are reviewed and, when necessary, suggestions are made to the person:ordering in relation to pamphleta already available, quantity discounts and distribution prooedures. 23.- Mmited assistance is given with the production of the State Board of Health bulletins issued by other bureaus and divisions: Timel~ T`oplca, Nutrition in a Nutshell and Living `in La_ t_ ears. ....~.~ ._ .. _...~.~
Page 425: rhz82d00
9, A minimum of one hundred l6mm films should be purchased (beyond present budget limitations) to bring the Audio-Visual Library up to "ordinary" strength by replacing old, damaged and obsolete filrns. More medically-related pro- fessional personnel in the state should be served with theas aids. 10. An additional technician should be employed in the Audio-Visual Library to release the supervisor so that he may better evaluate subject oovernge, conduct a more effective preview system, and more adequately teach use and care of A-V aids and equipment. ]1. Regular programs for the educational TV stations in Florida should be prepared. 12. A health exhibits trailer should be considered for use at fairs,etc. Also, a part-time assistant should be assigned to the exhibits oontultant, and work space should be provided. 13. Sufficient funds should be allocated to the Medical Library to keep binding up-to-date and increase the number.of current general reference books. 1L. Radio spot announcementa should be circulated to all radio stations at regular intervals on the current public health problems in Florida. 15. There should be increased conferences with staff members of the State Department of Education with more opportunity to collaborate on pland for both state and county projects. 16. Active assistance should be offered to the nea oomunity colleges (I. cooperation with the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health) in order to help them identify public health problems and locate resources. 17. More assistance should be offered to bureau atid division directors in the use of the best health education methods in planning meetings, Korkshops, and seminars, and the selection of materials ia special fields.
Page 426: rhz82d00
0 -2- By this decision the Commission agreed that children crippled by congenital heart disease should be included In their program, thus making It financially possible for many Florida children to receive needed heart surgery. There is no specific state legislation related to heart disease control. Heart disease control, however, is supported by specific federal appropriation which authorizes and designates certain monies for the control of heart disease including education, community service and research. PROBLEM: According to mortality data, heart disease is the most serious of all Americ health problems. If the term be used in its usual connotation, Indicating diseas of the entire cardiovascular system, then It accounts for more deaths than all other causes combined. TOTAL DEATHS AND RATES FOR 1960 DEATHS/100,000 TOTAL DEATHS U= S,, Floridg Ui -Ss Fl~or ~ida , All Cardiovascular Disease: 515 497 933,900 24,133 All Other Diseases 427 463 768,100 23.204 Total Deaths 946 '956 1,702,000 47,937 Mortality alone, however, is not the sole measure of its Impact since It is a major cause of sickness and disability. Some Idea of the economic impact on Florida can be seen from the fact that cardiovascular-disease causes more chronic disability than any other single entity. The economic load from this cause In terms of welfare payments alone Is heavy. Public.assistance grants by reason of 3 cardiovascular disease in those under 65 accounted for a nnuai expenditures of mo: than $2,900,000 during 1960. There were 2,303 persons receiving regular assistal . because they were permanently and totally disabled by cardiovascular disease, no: including stroke. There were 1,502 families recetvin,g aid for dependent childre because the father was disabled by some form of heart disease.
Page 427: rhz82d00
262 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATF• FLORIDA'S LABOR CO the fact that it has already grown sulficient the resident population. Emphasis is being laid in Florida upon tl because of the mild climate and the absem storms and long continued cold weather. Al~ each year and the comparatively lighter clothi labor conditions. These elements are import pense, reflected in lower production costs, arn real earning ability of the individual. JACKSONVtt.LE WAGES--A resutt of the .oluntan 1927. by the Union. and which were awtained by othe conAict between the Dresent scale aad that outlined by There are indioated below the pre.ailing acales Open Shops: Union Bricklayers. ..... ..................... $1.25 Der h Carpenten ................................................ 1.00 Plasterers ................................................. 1.25 Painters.......................................... .......... .90 Plutabers........................ .......................... 1.315 Electricians ............................... _............. 1.25 Compoaiton : 'rypesetters (nand) .....................•. 1.00 ( Machine) .................. 1.00 Cement F;nishers............................... •..... 1.25 Common I.abor ......................................... ...... -C. E. H UI INTERIOR VIEW Or TANPA CIGAR FACTORY. (Phato by B.rsert) workers, 122 marinera (12 In 1926] ); of the miscellaneous classes 2,002 (including 979 farmers and farm laborers, 364 laborers, and 220 servants); and 1,830 listed of no occupationa, including, of course, the women and children. It is interesting to note that of aU the classifications of occupa tions listed by the Immigration Service in 1926 only six were not reprer. sented among immigrants destined to Florida. These were: Hat and Cap makers, millers, saddle and harness makers, tanners and furriers, telttile workers and wheelwrights. 4 19 SOURCES OF HOME LABOR-Unskilled labor is supplied generally by negro help, and is secured locally. The demand for orchard workers is largel7~ supplied by residents of the negro race. The resident white population in- eludes a large number of men skilled In the various trades. A situation pe= culiar to the state is revealed In a report from Orange County: "We do not have any large factories in this section, but we do, however, have a number of smaller industriw. Practically all of them operate the year round. Practically all of our home people are employed the year round, but there is quite a bit of unemployment during the winter season due to the fact that a greiat many northern people come to Florida expecting to find employment thay will earn a living for them during the winter months." Two healthy C004 ditions are here reflected. "Our home people are employed; r and while au large factories are operated, there are a number of smaller industri ~ which are in practically continuous operation. Small industries may be developed into larger ones, and if speeded up, the fact that transient pop+~ lation does not exist at times, it no doubt could be attracted to beco ~ permanent. The fact that industriea can be developed is evidenced frod~ KEY WEST CIGAR MAKERS-The wages for cigar mal ea speed of ciaar maker and grade of cigar they make. ~ legly. from =2.60 to =7.00 Der day. -KEY WEST Clt r NOTES ON LABOR 'STABILITY-A state that aims to draw a workin unless it has something to offer in the way of stab: i 6. turing that continues twelve months in the Yea: upon a working population that floats in with r winter, and may need to float out again in the r. modest means cannot afford to constantly pull up i ~ WELCOME-As Florida is largely made up o here, the spirit throughout the state must of nec Ito strangers of good intent who come here to ht sources into marketable results. Every day of t enring or producing something that did not exist ; b new wealth and benefits all. iCHILD LABOR-Active search by John H. Mack. abowed in 1927 very little work being done by are few industries that could employ children. - ` ..4r FUNEMPLOYMENT-In the greater number ofq c ;we found little unemployment other than;of'a Jle: ~counties, due to the winter halt in general.itr enost disturbing was in the large resort•eltles the emphasis on winter visitors. '
Page 428: rhz82d00
-6- 1. To aid the local governing bodies in organizing and maintaining health departments appropriate to their needs. 2. To provide useful consultation-servioe in the fields of administration and program operation. 3. To aid in the development of new programs and in maintaining a balance in program activities which will make the best possible use of the financial resources available for the locality. k. To maintain informaticn concerning possible research.and project grants and to call them to the attention of health departments capable of making use of such grants. To encourage the local departments to make periodic evaluations of the total health needs of their communities and to aid them in pre- paring reoommendations to appropriate persons and organizations. ' 6. To aid the local departments in planning programs whioh-will be coordi- nated with the activities of the other agencies of the state, both official and voluntary, in such a manner that the needs of the citizens may be served to the best possible advantage. ?. To aid in the recruitment of persons with appropriate training and ability for service in the couaty health departments. 8. To aid in the provision of in-service training for all personnel. 9. To furnish health officers supervisory support as well as restraint when needed, 10. To maintain methods of coimaunication'elhich will make it possible , for local health officers and state program directors to-keep in contact with happenings in all parts of the state. 11. Plan, organize and initiate a statewide accident prevention program in home, school and recreational safety. Ln W
Page 429: rhz82d00
A mobiie library consisting of some 30-40 books dealing specifically with many aspects of cardiovascular.disease fias been developed as a demonstration project. These books have been loaned to small hospitals in order to stimulate them to develop their own libraries. This pro- ject has apparently served its purpose, but a check needs to be made to estimate its effectiveness. Nurse Education Every other year the State Board of Health, the Heart Association and the Nursing Nssociation sponsor a cardiovascular seminar for nurses. In recent years an average of about 900 nurses have attended these day- long sessions. Stroke rehabilitation is given to a considerable number of public health nurses each year. They are sent to 3 or 4 week accredited rehabilitation courses at the Rusk Institute at New York Medical Center, Kenny Rehabilitation Institute in Minneapolis, University of North Carolina or University of Miam1. Lay,_ Education Chief responsibility for lay education is taken by the Heart Association, but active support to this program ts given by both the state and local health departments. Talks by physicians and films for schools, clubs, etc., are important projects of the health department. General distribution of literature Is shared with the Heart Association. Water Sodium Study Determinations for sodium were made on all public'water supplies in Florida serving over 1000 population; Several water systems showed 00
Page 430: rhz82d00
2. If limited funds and staff continue, it will be necessary to restrict further the circulation of audio-visual3aids and to encourage county health departments to contribute to and use the services of A-V libraries in local boards of public instruction. Related Programs Assistance and cooperation are offered to all orgaaizaticna and agencies which have health programs. Examples ares Florida Council for the Blind in distribution of their pamphlets; Florida Hospital Auxiliary in talks on health careers and advice on programs; Florida Alcoholic Rehabilitation Program in recruitment and orientation of their health educator; and constant 3iaison with the chairman of the health committee of Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers and Florida Education Aseociation. - Special emphasis is given to joint programs with the State Department of Educations for example, every effort is made to prcmote`cooperative planning for school health programs by county health departments and local boesds of public instruction. All of the above activities are in c6operation with the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health. Participation in annual meetings and workshops and help in p].anning health programs are offered to any interested group, local or state. Selected pamphlets from comercial organizations are distributed. If an issue of Health Notes tee is prepared which is the major interest of some agency located in Florida, an opportunity is given them to read the manuscript, make suggestions and order extra copies at pre-printing prices. The division cooperates with many voluntary, official and continercial health •agencies in booking and distributing their film8 ("ehed free of charge) and in turn reporting on their circu]ation. The Jacksonville Hospitals Education Program has been assisted-by our libra- rian since its inception. A central file is kept in the library showing the whereabouts of all journals subscribed to in the oity.
Page 431: rhz82d00
5 Arteriosclerosis osclerosis and Hypertension: Of the 933,900 deaths from cardiovascular diseases In 1960, 92% or 857,530 deaths were caused by arteriosclerosis and hypertension. The economic serious• ness of arteriosclerosis and hypertension Is made evident by the fact that over 24'16 (211,860) of these deaths were In the "working age" group;from 25 to 64 years of age. While it is true that the effects of the disease increase progressively with age, the long prevalent attitude that arteriosclerosis Is a physiologic process of aging has been repeatedly disproved by recent epidemiological data. A very close relationship has been demonstrated between dietary habits and sus- ceptibility to arteriosclerosis and coronary thrombosis. Furthermore, the evidence indicates that the disease process starts in American males at least by the age of 20. The incidence of the disease Is high in adult American females and almost universal in males. Since the disease is so nearly universal In this country, the important ele- ment in the diagnosis is the degree of progression. Unfortunately, it Is seldom possible to make this diagnosis until some major vessel has been invoived in eithe~ thrombosis or rupture. These events can and do occur In aii organs, but the two organs least able to withstand the resultant damage are the heart and the brain. The most frequent lesion In the heart is, of course, thrombosis. While rupture of a vessel with resultant hemorrhage was and probably still is the most frequent vascul ar l es i on i n the brai n, thrombos i s i s bei ng r.e.cogmt-zed: wi th even greater regularity. Another condition which remains a serious challenge is hypertension. Whether this should be cons.idered only another symptom of the general deterioration of W
Page 432: rhz82d00
. -8- susceptibility is that Italian men, in spite of an excessive death rate fi diseases related to hygienic conditions, have a signifiCantiy lower age- specific mortality from the sum of all causes over the age range of 35 to years. In contrast to the rising tide of coronary artery disease, hypertens remains a relatively stable problem in all the major population groups tF have been studied. While there are a few isolated populations relatively from hypertension, these are the exception rather than the rule. PURPOSE AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Purpose 1. To prevent cardiovascular disease insofar as possible. 2. To reduce deaths and disability resulting from cardiovascular d 3. To help to assure that all needed cere is available to pattents cardiovascular disease. S~pecific Oblectives Group 1- Items Considered FuiirL,Attaib d 1. To encourage activities for the prevention of rheumatic heart This would include the furnishing of suitable prophylactic med for those in financial need. Demonstrations which will test t tiveness of current methods will be used wherever possible. 2. To continue the operation of the Cardiac Work Classification t Tampa on a demonstration basis. inad Group II Items Considered Pg„rtia-ily Attained 1. Consideration will be given to the feasibility of making diag laboratory service available to physicians.
Page 433: rhz82d00
-7- 12. Plan, organize and help local county health departments initiate their programs in"Civil Defense, espeoially in the areas of medical care, health care, mortuary services and emergency drinking water supplies. PROGRAM TO ATTAIN OBJECTI9ES Health Department Activities ~~._.. ~.-.,...~ Oa.soing A°ti~viti-ea The suFvrvision of and consultation to the 67_oounty health departmeni is coordinated through the Bureau of Local Health $ervioes. This bureau is headed by a director (who is also an assistant state health officer) and an assistant director. Within the Bureau of Local Health Services there are three divisions (Publio Health Nursing, Nutrition and Sanitatic: and two programs (Health Mobilization, or Civil Defease, and Accident Prevention). An organizational chart of the Bureau of Local Health Services is attached. The State of Florida has set,up a centralized system of financtal control for the local health departments. Local health departments recei financial support from more than 100 individual ®ources. About three- fourths of the financial support of the looal health departments come from local sourceso and about one-fourth comes from state and federal fur. There is a small addition to the budgets of certain local health depart- ments which comes from special project or research grants. All of these funds are placed in one centralized county health department account in Tallahassee. While the accounting connected with these funds is the responsibility of the Bureau of Finance,and Accounts, the approval of a11 expenditures is the responsibility of the Bureau of Local Health Service: ~ cn ko
Page 434: rhz82d00
0 - 15 - very high sodium content. This should be taken into consideration for persons on low sodium diets. Cholesterol Studv This study was undertaken to determine whether the character- istic high frequency of hypercholesterolemia In diabetes would aiso be found in their blood relatives. No significant difference In serum cholesterol levels were found In relatives of diabetics as compared to controls. Fluorescent Antibody Technidue Training Courses One training course In the use of fluorescent antibody methods has been held -at the Florida State Board of Health and additional courses are planned in the future. These courses will enable the use of this technique for the rapid identification of streptococci throughout the state. Rheurratic Fever Teleohone Survev A telephone survey Is being conducted in Hillsborough County to determine the incidence and common diagnostic findings of rheumatic fever in that county. All physicians in the county are called monthly to obtain reports on all cases seen. EXPANSION INDICATED: 1. Additional heart clinics are Indicated. At present they are needed most urgently in Sarasota, Panama City and Ft. Myers. Over the next tbn-: years it should be possible to establish clinics in additional towns. In those areas not served by cardiac clinics, many Informal arrangement: for the referring of persons to suitable clinics are already in existen It should be possible to extend and Improve these arcaegements. , .. . .. .. . . .. • .. . ...... ... . ...5 ... ..L'.•.!.S;
Page 435: rhz82d00
The timing for such a project is not yet right. It is estimated that within five years public pressure will demand such a service. Consideration should be given to the establishment of such a-program ;wi.th3n a five to six E year period. Possible Curtailments The Cancer Control Program is relatively young,,and there are no progra which might be curtailed at this time. Research and demonstration projects will be terminated as they have been completed or served their purpose. Related ProgEams As mentioned previously, the Cancer Control Program of the State Board Health of Florida works very closely with the United State Public Health Ser vice, the county health unita, the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society, Florida Cancer Council and the state and local medical societies. Participation in coordinated programs`by the state.and local health department personnel is to the fullest extent. Meetings of the above mentio 4 groups are attended. Participation in the planning by serving on committees frequent, and indeed a close liaison is maintained at state and county level It is intended that the Florida Division of~the American Cancer Society the local physicians and the county government be in position to shoulder responsibility for and carry on such demonstration projects as the Cervical Cytological Project now being launched by the United.Statea Public Health Service and the State Board of Health when the demonstration project has bee completed. The proposed demonstration project for terminal caree to cancer patientE is another project which might well have important support from the local o< munity. With such strong local support the project would stand a much bettE' chance of securing special grants of assistance from federal or other agenci,
Page 436: rhz82d00
wt Watli lbl T Ie attracting aenaor, Forida does not stand out dominantly, though y-siz states in 1926 received fewer immigrants than did she. Further- the increase from this source is comparatively steady. being in 1926, 7 as compared -with 4,724 in 1921, the last year previous to nameriull i Th on.ese figures refer, of course, to true immigration and not temp- vieitors. Among those registered with the United States immigration rs as going permanently to Florida in 1926, 222 were of the profeseional ; 1,187 skilled (including 205 carpenters and joiners), 396 clerks and ntattts, 109 cigar and cigarette workers, and scattered other occups- ; 860 miscellaneous (including 132 farmers, 140 merchants and deal- 168 "agents", 68 laborers, 10 manufacturers, 78 servants, etc.); those 40 occupation (including women and children) numbered 1,798. . ~ ' •. those of 1921, when of the professlonal classes there were listed only,,:-, ~, • of the skilled 8f7 (including 68 carpenters and joinels, 189 cigar?.: These do not, of course, tell the story of common labor, but are of intertat to labor in general. , Union Scales of Hourly Wages, 1916 and 1927, by Occupations, Jacksonville. 1914 1927 1010 1927 Bricklayers ••••••-••••-------------- .626 81.60 Ineide Wiremen ...__....... ••.._ .16 $1.26 Carpenters ....... _.............. _ .876 1.00 Paiaten _ _.._ ._.~ _ ....._ .876 1.N Cemeat Piaishen (80.876- Plasterers .._. _._...... • _ .668 1.76 1022 _ .... ••• 1.26 Plamber. .626 1.626 CemOeaiten(Book and Job) .438 .f00 7yDe.ettiag machine eC- Comoositers (Day work, enton Newspaper) .........__.`.._ .66! 1.00 Florida, as previously mentioned, while not at present an industrial state, has during the five years preceding 1927 witnessed a great inflnx o(, bnilding trades craftsmen. The tremendous building development program i was the direct cause of thousands of skilled and semi-skilled craftsmea'; leaving the North and Central Western states to work in Florida citie6:* This great increase caused the membership in manr• local unions of Q building trades to increase tremendously. Wages were as high and ia' :omp instances hiei'ier than nrevailed in many other sections of the NortL_- With the let-up in building during the past eighteen months the majority, of these craftsmen have returned to their former home districts, altho it is sife to say that many who went there during the "boom period" will become permanent residents because of climatic conditions and also cause they have a Srm faith that the state is bound to prosper and tbsi 'the growth in population and business enterprises will show a healthy, advance. During the past three years Florida has been particularly free fro4 industrial troubles. Tliere have been no large strikes or threatened strlltei except in the cigar industry near Tampa and a few cases in building tnsda in some cities. Most of these were very soon adjusted. The cigar industry at Ybor City near Tampa, one of the great cigar centers of the world, occasionally is disturbed by labor troubles, at the present time there is no evidence of any diAiculties arising in eM cigar business there. No serious industrial troubles are evident In tM h ere are building trades. So far as the government reports ahow, t cases of industrial disputes in Florida at present (Fall of 1927). • The available supply for industry may be considered to be stable wifk,•'e~t a desire to make their jobs produce. Likewise there has been a stabl"fua-: tion of housing and living conditions, and this, too, has made for a nlotM A' satisfactory condition. Housing, which a few years ago was inadeqn.te.~ is sufficient, with natural current conditions, to meet the needs of the war; ~ earning classes. The condition of labor can only be truly portrayed by contrasting fti cost of living with the wages received. In that respect Florida now oceap60j a much Inore satisfactory condition than a few years previously. We 6d, for instance, from the figures for Jacksonville of the Bureau of Lab6< Statiaties of the United States Department of Labor that while on 00 average union labor wages per hour increased more than 150 per ees~ from 1916 to 1927, the cost of living increased only about 60 per !04 so that an average hour of labor, on the reported scale actually p one and one-half times more in living values than eleven years ago. Another industry, dependent to some degree locally, upon agricultaz~ which thrives is the manufacture of cigars, chiefly it Tampa and Key W' The growth of the cigar industry in Tampa to the size that in a plant recently more than a half million cigars were produced in a single day indicates that industry on a large scale can be profitably developed. During certain months of the year the facilities are operated at maximum capacity. Avg. 2 for 26e sise Avg. 16e aise Avg. 8 rer 60e aise Aee. 26e aise 1 hh diddh ii ese figures sow aece cangen certan occupational gron' ' ps. ZSOL £09TS $24.00 200 eitara 126 .1.1N weekly 27.00 260 citara - 100 1.0" weekly 86.00 250 ci0ars 1" 000 weekly 46.00 200 eigars N 900 weekly PICKERS AND PACKERS: (yleee work) Scale ir for team of two me0. 86ee Oayiaa Cisarauker aeale to =26.60: 82.26 per IO In 1/20tko (borea of 60) bkua Ci[armaker scale over 26.60: 2.40 per 1l In 1/20th. (bosea of 60) Y sisea yaekN 1/40tka (26 to box) 8A0 per kt f. The averaae daily prodoetioa for a team of two 70e per lt 76e av[. production 6.000 daily soo RIltMERS, CA8EB8, FILLER MEN. etc. (aat weekly wage) 1ata: bead mea $32.00 2ads: asai.taata 28.00 3rda: kel0en 26.00 Many raeter6n pay their bead men at, to =40.00 weekly. wlAPPER SELECTOBS: (aat weekly wage) lat sekctera $42.00 per week lat Aaaiataata .2.N per week . aemaind•r 20.00 per week Ctaarmaker'a earnings deyeada apoa hia aktB, speed and ayPlieatkoa. wkera a ker ku these three Qaalitiea bia par is high bat we have many mea wko ar . . trw oW many wko aaqraUy we slow and some who pat ia only aaalcieat time to W their besea and eara a medst li.iag. NIDUSTRIAL IMMIGRATION-As an immigrant-receiving state, that is, as Wages for Tampa Cigar Makers. (Supplied to Tampa Board of Trade by Cuesta-Rey Company) (piece work) Spanish Hand Method Scale Seale High Low Estimated per Y daib• daos aeenae competent mea te 0.600 ei0are. TLere are maay tesaa, however, that cou.idenblr exceed tki.. -
Page 437: rhz82d00
0 _18. Firm support should be given by the health authorities to the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society in their intensive High School Stude Educational Program on Smoking and 3ung Cancer now in progress in Duval Coun During 1959, 10? periods of instruction were held at eighteen Duval County schools with an attendance of 180900 students. Fifty Duval County Medical Society physicians participated in this excellent program. Such a program should be expanded to embrace all of the State of Flori.da. This division will add its support to the efforts being made within the state to extend visiting nurse services to other areas. As stated before, tC availability of this service will make much easier the home care of terminal patients. Interest in cancer registries in hospitals should be stimulated. Regis information could be the basis of studies of canoer patients with five-year cures. The information furnished by the well-kept cancer registry could be used to determine if case finding in patients was early or late. Further, i: delay was occasioned in diagnosis`and/or treatment,* what was the reason for such delay. E9ALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHNIDJTS: Criteria and procedures for a continuing measurement of accomplishments will those that can weigh the results of the individual program, as well as the over-a: results of the total program. Here will be numerous opportunities for short and long range sampling survey. to determine the results and value of such educational programs as the Smoking an, Lung Cancer Program now being presented to the high school students of Duval Coun' Other such surveys could be conducted at the end of two and five years to determine the results of the cervical cytological study of women who receive Aid ILn m Dependent Children. m J
Page 438: rhz82d00
T: Arllerican Tobacco Co., et a.L n4bub.ua .•i. uu/ tW, ul, riLU. May 9, 1997 deficiency 19, I•1 determinations 121 7'! discussing 214:8 ~ 182:21 • 183:13, 2S; define I 5y:2U, 2a, determine 94:9; 11315: i discussion 30:3 4,05:24; ~'185(4j, t86:23;1 9:13; 2u3:19: 204:9, 11: 21K~:6 152:25: 191:13:197:4; i 127:6; 136:4;138 t3; , 191:1 t,14; 196:2~; defined 18U:11:185:18 204:19 ( 151:18;159:7;178;6; •197:19, 22;198:3,'ly; Definitely 107:16 ; determined 162:15,15, definitions 188:7 i 17 definitively 175:24 determining 185:2 degree 11:3:42:6:52:1; I develop 134:15 I devebped 54:5;149:4 171 1 128 14 12 2 : ; : 1 : ; 3: 2c4:6: 206:2 degrees 80:23:82:13 ' Delanor 61:15 deliberate 65:16 deliberates 83:12 delineated 59:20 demand 68:16 I developing 73:17, 21; 1172:20; 199: 10 ' development 126:1 ' developments 45i2; 21?:24 I devebps 203:8 I diaries 21:16 diary 56:18; 132:15 demanding 15:4;18:?.0 died 22:2; 51:5;66:3; demands 19;9 1 137:25;139:2 Democrat 53:24; 74:6 Democratic 52:11,14; 57:20, 21; 65:9; 74:4 Democrats 52:22; 53:4; 65:10 difference 27:8, 10 differences 69:2;149:23 different 23:2; 27:4; 35:3; 36:12,16; 37:6; 40:20; 45:17; 49:12; 64:15; denied 84:23, 25 68:20, 24; 82:6, 7; 88;9; deny 206:12, 24; 207:7. ~124 93:9; 99:24;118:13,16; { :3.6;164:12;175:2; 15: 20t3:2, 9, 17 department 20:4, 7; 125:15;151:19; 211:12 depend 24:25; 25:1; 77:22, 23 dependent 125:2 Depending 24:4;163:25; 190:19 depends 24:13 deposition 4:7,10,13; 1U3:15; 141:4; 142:1; 216:3, 7, 12:217:14: I 218:21: 226:9: 229:20: i i 23cr3 depositions 5:13; 193:8; i 218:7; 222:12, 13 ! depressed 138:14, 25 ' derived 42:13 i descending 132:19 Describe 38:13;65:1U; 69:9: 146:13: 190:24: ~ { 203:7 described .13:9; 55:12 I{; 1 K2:23: 229*5 describing 66:12, 22 ; description 109:25 ' ~ 1 descriptions 84: desegregation 122:17 design 148:7;158:24; 161:5 designated 104:9; I-i1 10; I46:5:228:2,9 designs 197:10 desire 151:25 desk 39:15, 17.17 desktop 1G4:17 detail 37:2:5:6~):3; 113:2 detailed 82:21 180:12: 188:18, 18; 190:17,19; 202:5; 219:4; 225:G differentiai 35:25 difficuit 14:15; 25:16; 66:23; 98:5 difficulty 137:15 direct 1914; 41:23 direct/manage 130:5 direction 30:25 directly 22:10 disaffection 74:2 disagree 173:22 disappeared 85:17 discipline 23:10; 82:6, 7 disclose 108:7; 204:25 disclosed 34:14; 59:20; 198:19 discloses 80:6 disclosuna 103(6); 104:3, 14,17;105:6,15; 10G(5);108:6;110:20; I 113:10: 115:12;175:9; 177:13:187:2; 192:21; 193:18.25;194:21;195:7, • 1 G, 22; 196:7; 198:17; i iii 199:9: 218:24; 229:5 ; disciosures,103:6 1 discontent 43:4 ' discovery 216:14 +. discrete 24:9 ~ discriminated 43:2 I discuss 106:3:136:2,G, ! 19; 137:2,18; 192:5 ~ " discussed 21:2;105:17; ~ 1 135:3; 157:14; 159:7, 15; ! ' 175:7; 184:6: 194:9; i 220:16 i A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. t89 2,6:190;13;191:22; 199:13; 203:12, 209:1; 197:8; 225:14,16 " discussions 30:17; ' 135:25 disease i33:9.11; 137:18;168:25;169:16t ' `. 176:2, 2;179:6, 20;184:7; 197:16; 200:14,1 S; '. 201:10,10: diseases 177:24;179:21, 25;184:6,12t 197:25: 204:21 disinformatiot) 172:24 dispirited 138c14, 2f dispute'141:18 - disregards 22S:18, 21'. dissertation 20:19. 23; ` ., 32:4,15,16; 33.8,13.17; 35:13,13,19:36(S), 3721;389'r+10:4,9,41 ], 12 42:1,4;43`.13;44~3 ,'': 21, 45:23, 46(4)147.24, ` 48:8; 55:17;'122:16, 20 , : dissertations72_:20 '" dissimiiar 133i3 distance 46:1 1 distinction 69:21 distinctbns 35:18 distinguish 69:21 distinpuished 73:19 distinguishing 36:19_ distributed 173:4 - DISTRICT230:1 diverge 112:21,22; 113:4 divergence 114:2 . diverging 113:20 divided 16:11, 26; 39:5; "" 71:23 . division71:24 , doctoral 41:11 doctorate 48:3 document 21:8;141:2; 143:12;145:21;149:2; 15 I :9;162:9,1$;164:14; ' ' 178:18:187(4);195:1 i documentary 24:2; 87:23; 88(4); 89:3;17, 23; ~ 92•19,24;93:2,8,13 94:5,19;115:20;164.1 b ~ < documentation 30:11;. 199:5 documents 14:10 11; 21:4, 5, 5; ?.2:11; 2G 22; " 49• 14; 93:5;157:21r 158:8;1W4);1G1,:2,9, 23:162:11, 25;1G3(5); 164:17, 25;166:3;1 G7(5Y ,. 168:1,5.22;169(4) 170:2, 6,17 171:8,18 172:19. 23 173:23 l74 7; dp]ne'24:19; 25:11; 31:8, 10,11,-33:18; 35:11,15; 36:5, 07:7; 39:9; 47:4; 55:4;83:1;87c21•.89:21; 94:20; 95:9,16; 96;11;12; 98i2;123:21;'127:?4; ` 128;3;133:1,19;1,34i4, 8; '' 446:9;;1!I9:23r24;158:22; 160:12; i66:15;192:13; 194:2c 2Q2:13; 212:3, 23; 224:8 . * door 219:21 Dorbeh 230:2, 20 DotrloX 230:2; 20 doWrt 6 :25;122:2;, ~ 129:14: ~29j1i3;130:11 ~ 182:11;183:21;185:23; ,186;`1, ki,.1,96:10; 213:10 Dr 31;3;'41:7;140:8, 23; 141:17,142:14,14~;13; 144:2, 5,10;145.i19; 188:'I 1;193:20;195:17; 196:11 ` dreit. 187:7;188:22 draW 44:13; 48:5;118:1, 3~178:19r179:1;492;9; : ' ' 205:5: 20621 !L(8,W1182:23. 75:25; d reyV 48;6;179 S Drug 136;6,12;177:5, 1S;184:7r. Ouke 10;I9, 23,11:4,'11; , 14:20. 23;1 S:S,11,18; 18:4,18;4,9:2 duly 4:22; 230:4 ; duplicate 21.5'.1 Durhe~t i$•7 during 93,8,18;11:13; 19:231- 2b:12• 22 4; 39:3.G; 40:5-A116;42,8;49-1,7; ' 52:18; 5914~ ~0 8: 7~:22; 7(,•.i0; 94:20;100.7i ,124:1, 7 duties 39:10 duty 85:10 . , ,.•~- .......--,-_ V. each 4:24; 11c 12,13; 30:15; 66:23;47:17; 97:2; 184:5,14 . ` eager G 22 eariier 18:R5; 21 2; 34:25; 43•10;48.14,18 Sl.l;, . Emphysema 133:7: w 1`~,90:19,98:8;400:3; '` 176:5: 180:1;184:7; ~ 131:9, 21;140:9,143:3; 200:2'. 24i 201:2,13 ~ 145:20, 22;14613 ,~ 1u1.1Si 175.7;177.2,19; employ 204:17 ~ 178:7;10 11•;180.13; ` employed 1$3:2,1G ! 178.16, 23,179(4);181.4, 'i 184•6;188.9;189.14; 1 employee 230:12 M>In•U•Scrlpt® . (5) deficlency - employee 198:19; 220:17 ' early 1'J5:20;176(6); 177:17,18;'178:14;180:9, 18;190:6' ,. East 62:18; 63:23: 66:1 eastern 7:14 economic 129:11 edited 187:9 edition 77:6,8'° editor S9:T, 63:11; 64:13 editorials 60:7 editors 120:21, 22; • 121:16 EduOStion 11:7;33:16; 80:24:82:25i85:8,11 educational 126:2 effect 5: 1_2;,11:24; 77:18; 83•9;163:23;198:?~1,, 22, 24;199:15, 21, 22 ` effective 82:22, 23; 205:6, 15,19; 206:7 , : effects 224:19 ' efficiency 22:20 : effiqient 23:18 efbrt 76:4;109:11; 14-7:7,8;152:17; 205:1,1 efforts,147;20; 202:23; 203:5,1 S, 22; 204:20; 1 ,208;24, 223:72 eight 210:15 eighties 72:8,15;189:16 either 49:7;150:5; 152:24, 25:164:1;176:24; 181:16;191 :17; 209.22; 216:21 elaborate 189:23 elect 52:20 elected 56:1 eleCtion 33 23: 51:3, 2f; 52:2.15:13 1, 54:11,16; 63(4); 64:5; 65:18; ¢6;20; 68:8; G9:12 70:18; 71:21;' ; 77:2; 't8:3; 80:19; 91:12; 93:20.23;94:14;198:13. 21:199:23 electorate 52,17; 56:24 eiemenl 11:,16; 22•20; 2,3:1:25:'L2 eligible 124:17 Elizabeth 5:5 else 21 i13; 30:13; 31:12: 40:23: 68:15; 77:13: 79:22: 87:18; 92:5; 96:4; 104:1; 11G:23;122:6; 136: 2 5,:137:23:14 5:13; 147:19:184:22:191:25; i 210:2; 211:14; 221:16; ' cn 226.21:2279;t28:13 ; ~ else's 55:8 m i a
Page 439: rhz82d00
51603 7068 li1•:.11:1'll .1X1) 8:11•'1•."i'Y 1•:1)la'.1'flttN 111 /huLlcuts uud Cuttta•i/i G. 13cttcr utt(lct:~taudutg uf iudivi- duala ut tltcutsctr(:w - tlicir cltl(v:.. ucY(la. and problcuts; ru::.trucu('c wuya of mcctiug tccc(h :u,d sulvto6 lu•ubleirts. 7. Ak:uhutics Attwtyttu,us. ii. A Ielipuua luillt wlticlt luaps to tutegtetr (waaWtaliltcS. Jl. Tut~:tccu. A. 1s titc us(: uf lubaccu a desirable Labit'! I . Au cxpcuslve lt:tbit. 2. A lirc Itrzard. 3.A tactur that influences selec- tiun of at,t,ltcuuls in certain vu- caUutts. 4. Au uuclc:ut hubit. l:.rNcruncca iur St1((tcitts I llgltway Yalr(,1.. :( w•cltarc teu(ku'. a tca.clicr. u uu•tttlxl' of the luutb;tll tt•atu and two selccicd tucntln: ra of yuur (:1:(ss cu 4uy t.uct a tu aU uu tbc i.:(ucl. Ux tlua t+:utcl /ur :ut bly inutu•:uu. :c 1'. T. A. ur civic clu4 /,ru;;r:(nt. Cuutp:trc altttual cuat of ccr- t•riu iusur•rucc l,ultci(:s (vttlI Jtlluuitt SJJCIIt ult Uttl•. tN•O, tbrcc packages of c:ig:u•cttcs per day. !i. liuw duca tllc us(c of tobacco af- Jcct a lAct:sutt? l. lt, tt:.tcs tuuc:uus liuings of tuuutlL. ttu:,c. tlu'uut uOd luot; tiussagcs. 2. ISaccasivc slaukinb uiay result in a cluuutc cough aud ocCaSiuA- aily it cat:u•rltal cwtdition. :I. Ala)• stul, ur rccluc.: hunger. 4. lucrc:c:.cs ltcurt t'atc. 5. Cuuxs cuustrictiun of blood ~csscls. G. It:ci.x::. blood pressure. Aak a buuscw•ilt: what abe kuuws aloul extra work iu- vulvc(t iu ltutl.xkcettntg wltctt uue ur tuure utctttbcrN of tbc household iwukc. Secure iusuraucc rccut•ds of fires cattscd by smtukiuy. List vucatious whiclt tuust µrultibtt uttuktuG• Collect stories of fu•cs due to sutukiui;. Af:(kc a bulletin board calubit of tllcse. Read •.'1'ubaccu and Ilcaltlt'• by Stciultuus :uid Gruttclcr- uluu. Makc a cullt.•cLiuu uf Lubuccu advcrlisenuuls and :uutlyte the claiuts tuadc by litcnt. Aiscuss and cealuute the rcusuu fur yuuttb pt.wpk; autukutg. 1i•_' .\ t:l'1111? 'I'tl '1'h:.\t'111N1: EFFEA•'I'I\"E. i.i\'I\t: 1'roltlrwts uud Cuntr,tJ E'.rpcrii ttrrs Jor Studcv+fx Ar:k n ru:tc•11 tu rxIHain wItv hr d(N•t ncd all(.w• Iti. :clLlrlrs 1o smoke. IIL I)ru>•x. A. W!(t(L arr lhr ttutrr ixowrortul uar- rnlic drurs atul what arP lhrtt+ cf- Ite1:: tuxtn iudieHlttnls? I 1. Uhiunt. •rirt•d fr(Nn Poppy piant. b. Atttxl r(xutnan dcrH•aticesi are ntnrllhini•. Laruln and r.odtllttc. c•. Alcxct widely used and oldest of all narcotics. d. R(•li(•ccs palu and gives a tent- purttry t(•ciine of scli-xatts[ac- tion and wcll-bcinit. I c.'[(•uds to lock up and ditrtlu- ixit all the s(K•rctlons and cx- c•r(•tiuns of Wtc lxxiY: a Lux- t•ntL•t rrsult.c wUlch Is titr ntixr(1 lpr(xluct of the drul: action ami the kcncral lalck- iua-up of Wtc secretions. f. Ifabit forutbtt;: nccessary c$os- attc bcccun(•x greater with usc. u. A person will commit unrca- sunabit• acls to procure drugs aftt•r ht• has Ix'come an addict. It. Contpirlr attd I m m c (f i sl te w•ititdruwal of Wrr drug from an addict t•csults lit almost un- Ix•arablc nrreuux symptutu,s. i. Usually injected undcr thr xkiu. but may be Lakctt Ut Utr fortn of tablrt_c or sntakrct itt pilx•s. I)tu•ucc Uu _ralte(•.ut ciru::. in rrlict•itttic lr.tin a-Itrn t.hrY :ur w•ixrly :ccluliuislrrr-11 by 1.11 ' V- siriatt:;: cL•ulerr. Wit.•n ul lu r- w•is(• us(•(i. 2. Cocainc. s1.lh•rie(rl tront Iho ccssm plant. i)isrusx d:~ncrl:: Ij arc•c•p11ni: b: Ilas tu(•(ilral use as a local (HR:(Irll(•::. c•atulirs ur like .ub- attrslh(•lic. -tattcrs frnot xtratu:rr. c.'1'cttds to tliuUnklt all Ihe iso-
Page 440: rhz82d00
-20- SUGGESTED REORf3ANIZATICN OF THE DIVISION OF HFr1LTSI EDUCATION .ti Administration, consultative and community health services Consultation to bureaus and divisions (including staff health educators) Consultation to county health departments (including staff health educators) Consultation to schools (including community colleges and universities) Consultation to official and voluntary health agencies, civic clubs, etc. Services Audio-Visual Library Medical Library Exhibits Pamphlet distribution Television Materials Development Florida Health Notes Pamphlets: writing, testing, production Assistance with production of other publications Photography (including slides) Radio spot announcements * * * ~ ~ * * ~ ~ Timetable for orderly growth of staff Within two yearss An assistant director,of division 2 regional health educators 1 high school DCT student (20 hours per week) Within four years: 2 additional regional health educators Assistant in exhibits Assistant in audio-visual Library Within six yearss 2 additional regional health educators
Page 441: rhz82d00
-11- 14. The division assumes responsibility for foreign visitors and studentss itinerary, housing, transportation, etc.. brientation to the State Board of Health is given those who stop in Jackaonville, and c6operative plans are made with bureaus and divisions and/or county health departments ooncerned. 15. A Medical Library is maintained for medical and_publia health personnel throughout the state. In 1961 there were 33 bibliographies prepared; 2255 reference questions answered; 2430 books loaned and 12A19,Journhls routed. Borrowers are State Board of Health personnel;`Jaoksoanville physicians; students from high schools, colleges and universities,'and nursing schools; employees of county health departments; phyaicips in other parts of the states and medically-related persons'- in'that order. Books sre purchased; and re- prints, articles and pamphlets are reviewed and filed. Interlibrary loans are requested. There is participation in the Medical Library Exchange Program, 16. Ten issues of Florida H`- h Notes are prepared each ysar'and circulated to approximately 16,500 persons, individuals, sohoola `aDd organiaations. Bureaus and divisions and county health departments are asked to suggest sub- jects. The final selection rests with the State'Health Officer. Assistance is sought from the bureau or division concerned, suitable illustrations are prepared, and the layout is deaigned. Approximately eigbt persons are con- cerned with the preparation of each issue. The 8tate Health Officer approves the final manuscript. The mailing list is cleared each three years, with the last cae (fall of 1960) resulting in over 50 per o..ent of those queried returning a franked card asking to be retained on the liet. 17. The division cooperates in initiating, writing, teating,,'0rinting, pur- chasing and distributing pamphlets, including those in Spanish. In the pro- duction of a new pamphiet, states Jare queried for eamples, experts are con. i sulted and approval for publication is given by the authority in'the State . Board of Health concerned with the subject.
Page 442: rhz82d00
- 21 - in hypertensive heart disease one measure of effectiveness will number of persons known to be under observation and treatment for hyF sion. Since in many of the phases of adult heart disease, the objecti% early diagnosis, early and effective rehabilitation, adequate therap humanitarian service, the degree of success achieved In the program measured by the adequacy of these services rendered in the coRmunity creasing number of cardiac clinics, an Increasing number of visitinc services, and inereasing utilization of-the work classification uni• evidence of an effective program. The work classification unit wil further means of measuring its effectiveness by the number of<perce their patients who ere able to return to gainful occupation. The initiation of worthwhile demonstration projects will be a tion of interest, and the results of these projects will in themse criteria for judging their effectiveness. A survey of representative counties should be made to determi tive frequency of hospital admissions for decompensation. A reduc these admissions would give a definite indication of the value of programs of nursing supervision for cardiovascular disease.
Page 443: rhz82d00
ri5- This money will be administered by the State Board of Health. Based o: patient load, the director of each tumor clinio will be allocated an amount money which will be for use of patients of his area of the state. When suc' special cases are seen in the tumor clinic, he can immediately institute tr ment on an outpatient basis and forward the bill to:the Florida State.Board Health for payment. It is strongly recommended that this activity be given high priority in budgeting for the Cancer Control ProEram. 5. Health Educator: A Health Educator III as a consultant to the Cancer Control Program is reconQeended. The Florida Cancer Council, the Executive Committee of the Florida Division of the American Cancer Soeiety, and the consultants of the Cancer Control Program have all unanimously recommended that a consultant b added to the Cancer Control Program. His primary duties would be to assist the tumor clinics in bringing their records up to a desirable level of exce lence so that these records may be of greater value in planning the care of t patients and in the improvement of the efficiency of the clinics. He would further assist the Director of Cancer Control in assimilation of data from Cancer Registries for special studies. In addit,ion, he would assist the Director of Cancer Control in the execution of special Cancer Control Progr about the state. Early attention is recommendea for the procurement of this position. 6. Funds for methodological research and follow-up services: The Florida Cancer Couneil, the Florida Division of the American Cance Society, and the consultants to the Cancer Control Program have all recommc that funds be appropriated to strengthen the.tumor clinics of the state so cn better service to the patient and better and more adequate records can be r' m ~ tained so that much valuable information about cancer in Florida can be cor ~ ~ piled and studied. lrom the data thus obtained the results of various typf'' ~
Page 444: rhz82d00
, disease. Chest X-rays, school health exams, health card exams, etc., serve to reveal heart problems. Nutrition services are of value in the control of certain cardiac conditions and In the alleviation of others. Some of the most important activities of the local health depart- ments are often not listed in a formal report. In their capacity as consultants to the community on heaith metters, the health officer and. his staff Influence the decisions made. They aid in the referral of individuals to points where needed services may be received and aid the community in the development of facilities to meet the needs of its citizens. Rheumatic Fever ver Pro4ra; A program for the control of rheumatic fever was first established in 1955 at which time both acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease were made reportable diseases. A case registry, which was kept until recently, has beeh discontinued due to extremely poor re- porting and lack of useful information. At present, prophylactic medica- tion is distributed by the Florida State Board of Health to all medically indigent rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease patients who. re- quest this. Clinical records are kept on all of these individuals. Cardiac Clinics There has been moderate success in the establishment of ctinics for the diagnosis and management of heart disease. in'fact, eighteen such clinics are in operation at present. While these'elinics are scattered from Pensacola to Miami, the Qeographic coverage of the state is far from uniform. ~ ~ ~ ~
Page 445: rhz82d00
. 1 6 - 2. Faciiities are alrpady available In the state for detailed diagn and treatment of children with congenital heart disease, and the Florida Crippled Children's Commission makes substantial financi aid available. The weakest link is in casefinding and referrai, demonstration project in heart sounds,taping Is to be done in M; if tape recording of heart sounds is a feasible screening metho, 3. 4. is hoped to do this screening throughout.the state. The heart control program wiii continue the education of nurses home care of stroke victims. Expansion of this is necessary ar be done by a Public Health Nurse - Physical Therapist demonstri team which will travel throughout the state and provide educat training In rehabilitation nursing to paramedicai personnel. Continued expansion of visiting nurse programs w1l,1 be sought means of improving the convaletcent and other care of heart di victims. (See nursing. program). 5. Efforts will be continued to seek improvement in nursing home of those crippled by cardiovascular disease by continuing eff toward the Improvement of-nursing homes and hospital care. ( licensing of nursing homes and-hospitals, as well as hospltai for the indigent). 6. There is Increasing evidence that many stroke victims can bei remarkably from surgery provid,edethey are seen within a few after the occurrence of the stroke. Consideration will be g the possibility of working with the major medical centers ar ~ N 00 (D
Page 446: rhz82d00
-18- Related Programs The voluntary organization which Is most Intimately assoct,ated cardiovascular disease is the Florida Heart Association and its rei, chapters and councils. tt, of course, ts part of the American Hear sociation and as such has a call upon the parent organiz-,:ron for s This association has an Important educational function and takes ce much of the necessary detail In the presentation of the eardiovasci seminars mentioned above for physicians and nurses. it takes a gr. deal of responsibility In preparing educational programs and educa material for the lay public. The Florida Heart Association is a1s tive In the formation and to some extent In the financial support diac clinics and the work classification unit within the state. The American Heart Association and tts.various branches with tda are interested In any project which will further the general tives outlined above for the support of heart disease programs. The Florida Vocational Rehabilitation Service works closely cardiac work classification unit In the referral of cases. They serve a very useful function In the rehabilitation of suitable c referred back to them by the classification unit. Visiting Nurse Associations represent an important source c to cardiacs In the Heart Disease Control Program of several cour are 17 Vi1A organizations In Fiorida. Of these, four operate im five are coordinated, eight ara combined with local health depa vices. Many thousands of visits are made to patients with card disease for the purpose of providing bedside nursing cere,and c vices. N
Page 447: rhz82d00
The 67 county health departments had employed on their payrolls as of December 30, 1961, the following fu2l-time personst Health Officers 70 Public Health Nurses 564 Sanitarians 303 Sanitary Engineers 15 Administrative Assistants 7 Clerical 370 Other Profe-%jional 128 Clinic aides 31 Foremen laborers and janitors 61 , ..~... TOTAL 1549 In addition to the supervision of and routine consultation to the county health departments the Bureau of Local Health Services assists in the followings a. Recruitment of qualified pereonnele b. Inservice training for new personnel. c. Inservice orientation and education for all county personnel. d. Program development and evaluation (eapecia].]y programs or aotivitie: which are new to a particular oounty). e. Public Health education at the postgraduate level for selected personnel. Exp`anaion Indic`at d As the population of the state,inoreases so do the staffs and budget: of the county health departments. Also the entire field and scope of public health is widening to include new responsibilities and new progra. These factors necessitate an expansion on the part of the Bureau of Loca Health Services, not only of our administrative staff but of the consul- tative staff as well. We hope to increase ours 1. Present merger, Civil Defense staff to provide for a medical director, 3 additional field consultants and a property oustodie (to supervise storage of the emergency hospitals). 2. Staff for training and education.so as to bring all these activ: together in one division or section and thereby gain better ooor nation of present activities as well as better planning for additional ones. ~ m w ~ N rn m
Page 448: rhz82d00
-7- it is in the adult types of cardiovascular disease that the greatest in- crease in total cases has occurred; and of these adult types of disease coronary thrombosis has shown the most dramatic increase. In fact, never In history has a non-infectious disease come so quickly from obscurity to a posi- tion of pre-eminence. To realize that the first cause of death in the United States today is a disease little known 50 years ago comes as something of a- surprise to physicians and public alike. This Is not to Imply, of course, that coronary artery disease did not exist before the turn of the century, but It does dramatically illustrate the fact that as a major problem it is the product of modern living conditions. While it is true that cardiovascular disease becomes progreslivbly more serious with aging, recent data indicates that the disease Is Increasing most rapidly In the productive years between 25 and 64, especially in males. To quote from a recent study, "The manifest clinical disease is but the visible tip of the iceberg, and we are here dealing with e mass disorder on the scale of the epidemics of history." Arterial disease does not affect all popula- tions alike or even all segments of the same population. In Guatemala, for example, the disease is almost non-existent in the lower economic groups while those with more worldly goods exhibit the disease with the same excessive prevalence as we in the United States. In the Oriental countries coronary artery disease is quite unusual, and yet these same recial`'`stocks In Hawaii or on the mainland of the United States are highly susceptible. Among the more "civilized" nations of European stock, only the Italians have a relative Immunity to coronary disease. An Important result of this difference in ; Ol .......... . .. .. . ..... :v•.•.. .
Page 449: rhz82d00
s REP4RT 07 TFCr THIA'D fEALTIi EDVCATIOg INSTP.UCTORf S INSTITtTTE ALLERTON ESTA4'E* MONTICEY.LO, ILLINOIS Jul,y 21, 22 and 23, 1949 The July 21st session of the Institute was opeued at one o'clock in the Library of Allerton House. Forty participants and resource people were welcomed bpr Dr. George Stafford, xho gave a brief picture of the previous institutes si+d prl;sented the group with the problem of setting up a unit in ?amily Living and 8wnan Relations to be used as a part of the course in "Nygiene.s The age level was to be Secondary and/or College. It was pointed out that the needs at the various ievels would differ, but an attempt would be made to develop an a11-inclusive unit which could be used in total or psrt as the need presented itself. To orient the group "A Teen•Agger Talks Back on Sex Educatioa." (Psgeant. August 149) was read to the group. This article expresses, in no uncertain terms, what teen-egers claim to be wrong with the present ssex education.s Owing to the last minute regrets of maW of our resource people it was decided that there were suffi- cient "expert and experienced teachers" to allow us to proceed with the institute. Miss Beatrice Paolucci of Sparlsnd opened the discussion of the teen-age article and the group was soon in accord with the promise that we were concerned with something beyond "sex educations alone. Miss Paoluoci made it clear that her course in Family Living snd 8uman Relations gave sex a part. but oniy a part, of the entire unit. Miss Paolucci mentioned four books tdth t~hich we should be s+aQuaiatods name]yt Dy, NJ Xbyr 7WAl,y by Moore and I+es2ty ($eath - 8ostott), Adol_., e ChaAg,tet 8td te1i4&: gJIty by 8avighurst and Tober (Wiley),,$Qlall,Qns by Force and Flack (Continental Pre ss - 3lisabethtorent Pa. ). snd 10' Pat~ iA in TeAghiW by F. N. Strain, In order to have a clear picture of what should be included in the unit the participants were divided into tour groups for the parpose;;of li sting the Needs which had to do with Fsmily Living and 8unsn Relations. The groups were as foliows: Group 1: Dr. Grant, ahsirflam; Mr. Seqeff, recorder; Hiss Du,nn, evaluator Group 21 Miss 3ilberto chairmani Misit Logan# recorder; Mr. 8rooksr evaluator aroup 31 1tr. 8oatmsn..chairnan; Miss Ifeeks, recorder; Mr. Naiser, evaluator Group 4= Mr. Strickler, chairmaa; Mrs. 0{Neal, recorder; Mr. Harshbarger, evaluator ; 11 Groups 3 and 4 decided to work ss one group. The balance of the afternoofl aa much of the evening was spent in developing a list of NFM :, These lists,were pre sented to the group after breakfast Fridsy mornizsg* the iinsi list.reading as followst Motivating devices Child growth and development 4 jr\, Qenetics Reproduotion, the systemsr menstruation, eto. - •,/ ;.. " • FV=~;_ Ca ;_ C9 • 7i'l Jc.,, •: FL 3's3y • m Carbn ~~ .t it cn H t.ji ~y Ql
Page 450: rhz82d00
TABLE OF ORGANIZATION (1962) BUREAU OF IACAL HEALTH SERVICES Director Division of Public Health ~ Mnrsing__ Director . Assistant Director Clerical Personnel-2 Conanltants-? Admi.na.strative Staff: Clerical Consnltants-3 Clerical Personnel-2 Division of Nutrition Director Clerical Personnel 1 Consnltants-5 Director Clerical Personnel-2 Consultarrts-5 Assistant Director Accident Prerrention Progre0 Director Clerical Personnel-1 Consultant-1 (USPHS) Health Mabilization Civil efense Gcordinators-2 (consultants) Clerical Personnel-1 t9IL E09TS
Page 451: rhz82d00
-10- for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Visits are made to health education classes in universities each year. 10. Responsibility is shared with the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health for the State Board of Health's sponsorship of the Teachers Project each summer. In cooperation with the State Department of Education, county health departments, local boards of public instruction, Uni'versity of Florida, Florida State University, Bethune-Cootcnan College and certain health agencies, teachers are offered a three-credit course. It consists of an orientation course at the university of their choice, 12 days field experience with the health department and health agencies in the county where they teach and a return to the university for an evaluation. 11. A constant search is made for we1].-qualified health educators.to fill positions in county health departments. (University students who have an interest in health education are employed each summer.) The division is usually in correspondence with a number of caeididates at any one time. Inquiries are made, both formally and informally, of their references in order to facilitate the health officer's selection of a potential3,v satis- factory employee. 12. Consultative services are offered to health educators in oounty:health departments. This consists of planned visits to the counties where an effort is made to clarify further the health educatorts position and potential, assist in the definition of goals and objectives, and upon request offer suggestions concerning specific health education problems. 13. A minimum of four regular orientation programs are planned, scheduled and conducted each year primarily for State Board of Health and county health department personnel. Correspondence is conducted with those who desire to attend, and arrangements are made for housing.
Page 452: rhz82d00
0 their designed purposes. OD 7. consultant is available. It is anticipated that this would b The full effectiveness of these services can only be gained i 17 _ Heart Association in forwarding this valuable means of reducing disability resulting from stroke. I,t has been shown that regular attention to special diets, such the low sodium diet, and regular attention to continuous medicaa will keep many heart patients from..going lnto decompensation wi Its resulting need for hospitalization. Continued efforts wii' made to indoctrinate staff nurses with the necessary informeti( that they can play a large part In aiding the doctor to manage cases. 8. An urgent need in the heart program is a nurse consultant. Ma- most useful local programs depend IMportantly on the services health nurse with special training in the nur$ing teci,niques cardiovascular disease. Possible Curtaiim_ ent_s Because of the expanding nature of.the problem, there is likelihood that any curtailment will be possible. Research I of course, will Le terminated from time to time as they have
Page 453: rhz82d00
-3- programs. The establishment of a.Health Education,and Publicity Section in the American Public Health Association was follawed (in the 1930s) with the Health Education Institutes held prior to the Association'e annua]l meetings. In the 1940s a report was issued by the Committee on Professional Education of the APHA on the Education Qualifications of Health Eduoators, and recog- nition by the Public Health Service of the need for qualfied public health educators to work in defense areas. With these last two events, emphasis was placed on the desirability of the services of qualified health educators in health departments. Where formerly there had been emphaeia on nhealth information" (presentation of facts), there now came an understanding that health education translates the findings of the laboratory into language and activity understood and accepted by the public;'helps people form desirable patterns of health behavior; and shows people how they may help themselves, to better health, individually and as a community. Legislative or Other Authorizations or Requirements - ~. ....._.~,.~...._...__.. State Law 381.031 provides for the dissemination of information to the public relative to the prevention and control of communicable diseases among humans and from animals to humans and the promotion and proteotion-of the physical and mental health of the people of the'dtate by means of printed matter, radio, lectures, exhibits and other media. State Law 381.371: The board shall formulate and put into effeot a continuing educaticnal program for the prevention of cancer and its early diagnosis and disseminate information concerning itd proper treatment to hospitals, cancer patients and the public. PROBLEMs ~_.. Current Nature and Extent It has been said that more scientific knowledge has been made'available since 1900 than had been disclosed in the previous 2000 years. Today new knowledge is emerging from the nationls laboratories aAd research institutions
Page 454: rhz82d00
I -3- PUBLIC ASSISTANCE FOR PERSONS OR FAMILIES LIES (where chief cause is cardiovascular disease) Type of Assistance Averaae Annual Cost Aid to the Disabled $ 1,700,000 Aid to Dependent Children 1,200,000 Total ~ 2,900,000 There is a wide variety of lesions found in the cardiovascular system, and each lesion has its characteristic requirements for prevention`and management. For convenience, however, consideration need be given to only a few major cate- gori es. Congeni tal Def_e„cts: Heart disease takes a considerable toll of life annually ar,ong children under .15 years of age, being responsible for about 10,000 deatns each year In the United States. Since congenital malformations account for the large majority of these deaths, mortality is heavily concentrated in infancy. in fact, autopsy stvdies suggest that.about one per cent of all births invoive some form of congenital heart disease. in Florida about 1000 infants are born each year with congenital heart disease. Of these about 300 fail to reach the end of their first year of life, and many of the remaining children will not survive to the age of school , attendance. Even so, congenital heart disease is by no means Insignificant in the school ages. in public schools the Incidence is about four per thousand, while in certain special schools, as for example the schools for the deaf and blind, the incidence reaches seventy per thousand. From the prophylactic standpoint only one procedure Is of proven value. A direct causal relationship has been established between rubei i:a in the pregnant mother and congenital anomalies in the offspring. Measures for the prevention of I
Page 455: rhz82d00
_ 19 . Other organizations which furnish very valuable service Include National Children's Ca rdiac Hospital in Miami end the Florida Cripple Children's Commission in Tallahassee. The Children's Hospital is a v valuable source for the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascuiar lesior and the Crippled Children's Commission furnishes financial and other services in connection with cardiovascular surgery. The university hospitals in the state also take an active part In all phases of hea disease, and some of their programs are closely related to the progr of the health departments. Research and Demonl,tiations_ Attention will be directed to those research proJects which ar suitable for the facilities available within the state. For those quiring rather extensive studies (and most do) It will be necessary seek special grants. There are a number of questions needing inve: tion which are suitable for health department inquiry. 1. Without doubt diet has a profound influence in the deve)opmen arterial disease. There are, however, a number of important tails which need further Investigation. In the light of rece findings there is need to re-examine our stand to see whether excessive preoccupation with weight reduction we may not be r points of more d mportance. 2. The relation of exercise to coronary disease needs further s investigation, and this is closely related to the observed c ences between urban and rural frequency rates. 3. A direct relation between smoking and coronary disease has ' strongly suggested and needs further study. 4. Much of the evidence relating tension and stress to the deti! ~ ment of degenerative heart disease Is of dubious value. Ar , m ~ ~ . ., . . . F.,. oD w . . .. . . .. . . .. , . . . .... . . . :::: . ..... , .......
Page 456: rhz82d00
-9- 2. To encourage the cooperation of the local physicians and the comr, the development of cardiac clinics and other diagnostic resources out the state to assure that high quality diagnostic services arc sible to all. 3. To develop methods which will facilitate the referral of persons smaller communities to an appropriate diagnostic clinic or work cation unit. 4. To aid in the dissemination of appropriate information to both F ional people and the general public. The present seminars whict been so well received by professional people will be continued. seminars convey the latest methods for the management of all t cardiovascular disease including hypertension. 5. To encourage the development of visiting nurse and other servic will improve the home care of convalescent persons, especially services which will aid in education and rehabilitation. (See report of Division of Public Health Nursing.) 6. To develop those research projects which will contribute to th knowledge of some phase of the cardiovascular disease problem. 7. To coordinate health department activities with those of other agencies and with voluntary groups in the state. This has bec accomplished to a great extent by the establishment of the F1i Council. firoua 111 - ltems Considered Not Yet AttL10ed, 1. To aid in the development of caseflnding and referral methods that children with congenital heart disease will be discoverc when modern methods of diagnosis and surgery may be of benef Ln N (h 0 W -.1 h-' J W
Page 457: rhz82d00
0, d, -lo- Licensea Practiaal Nurses - Sooner or later we will probably be compelled to use LPNts in our public health programs because of the growing shortage of RN's available to us. This is again a possibility which needs to be explored and demonstrated as to feasibility or non-feasibility, Use of Computer - There is a great need to devise a new approach _~....,.~........ to coding the county health department activities so that the compilation of these reports are faster and at the same time more accurate, Our present method ie out of date, time consuming and not very accurate. Also the present reports are limited in use- fulness because of the laborious procedures necessary to get the desired information. The use of computer would make a great deal of additional information available in a very short time.and witr little manual effort. EVALUATION CF ACC~ I~SSHMEN~TS Present Procedures . At present we do not have'any satisfactory objective procedures for evalt ating what we in the Bureau of Locai Hsalth Services do or for-evaluating th: work of the county health departments. Evaluation of Past and Present Activities Such evaluations as are made are almost entirely subjective and are probably heavily weighted with personal opinion and bias, What few objective evaluations we have (activity reports, servicee per euo3.oyee and such) are inadequate. Possible Methods of Evaluation 1. Formulation of basic minimal standards. 2. Uniform interpretation of the application of 'these standards. 3. Some method to evaluate quality of eervioe. w ~ H 6l ' N
Page 458: rhz82d00
Ja.aa~ ~.a l aVl ALL.A, ll .11., 11 . American Tobacco Co., et aL 123' 3 P ! parts 153:25; 154:1 ( persons 30 6 parry 65:9; 74:4;155:13; perspective 27:14; 230:12,13 ~ 36:16, 2'2, 45:18; 46:1; ( pass 167:16 P-A-R•K 64:13 passage 136:5 p.m 139:13:140:2; ~ Passed 83:8; 155:11 229•24 ; past 21:7; 103:15; 213:9 ~ patterns 65:12:73:21; pace42:20:G5:15 i 136:1 page 150(5): 151:9.12, 1 Pause 144:14;187:23; 18; 158:4; 196:11 ~ 226:15 pages l 2G:19 ~ pay 96:13; 99:11 paid >9:6:131:8 painstaking 15:3 paper 64:14; 67:17; 125:22;126:5;149:11,11, 18; 164:3.8 Peanuts 132:24 peer 120:14,16,18; 121:4,11,15;122:7, 9, 24; 123:19; 124:13; 125:17; 126:9.14, 21;127(5) papers 19:11; 21:16; ~ pegged 120:5 22:1: 37:17.. 23, 25; 38:6, pen 111:13 11; 40:2, 21; 41:7,17; pending 223:1 •f 2:7: •t3:18, 23, 24; Q4:8. 1 17 14• 21 7• i 10, 14; 47:7, 8; 48:25, 25; 49:19; 50(4); 51:21; 54:15, 20, 25; 55(4); 5G:4, 8; 57:4, 12; 58:9,18; 59:6, 10.18; 62(5); 63:8,10, 23; (ui(5); 65:18, 25; 66:4, 17; 18; 67:6, 20; 69:15,16, 21; 70(4); 90:20;117:15; 136:18; 148:7;149:10; 219:11 paragraph 158:24; 19Ci:10 paragraphs 122:3 Pardon 99:n parents 8:5;17:6; 95:2 Park 64:13,16; 65:17 Parke 221:5 part 7:8, 14; 8:13; 11:7, 18;12:25:16:12,18;19:3; 39:18: 59:1; 66:4; 78:20, 21; 83:16: 96:2; 118:9, 10; 1 i7:21: 1GU:12;1G1:4; 1G7:7, 25;185:13;189:14; 198:20; 203:3; 215:10 ~ part-time 2u:14; 210:G I 24:17, 20; 32:7; 36:5,13; 37:6, 9; 43:1; 44:1; 58:2; 63:5, 8; 64:4, 25; 65:7; 70(4); 71:3, 4; 73:10; 74:7, 9; 79:13; 89:13; 90:4; 91(4)c 99:11; 118(5); 123:13;130(4);149:16; 170:15; 171:11;178:7; 180:6;198:18, 25; 204:14, 14; 205:25; 209:5,10; 210(5); 212:5; 220:22; 223:25; 224:4,5 per 79:12 percent 68:4 perfect 46:6 performed 20:9 performing 13:25; 108:12 Perhaps 17:12;74;16; 75:6, 7; 90:12;101:15: 138:6 period 9:3, 9,18; 37:1; 40:5:41:9;42:8;51:16; 52:18; 54:10; 60:8; 94:16; 121:12: 13C:15, 16; partially 191:1 G ; 1 G0:23: 219:19, 25; 220:5 participant 50:G:Gu:1; periodically 115:5 ~~3:2• 1(~ periodicals3u:16 participants 46:3; 91:2; ~ permit 113:12; 217:7 130:3 i permitted 100:22 participates 130:9 ~ persistent 74:17 participating 63:18 , person 22:2; 24:19; participation 59:21 i 32:11;38:19;44:11c particular 18:23; 21:11; ( 57:25; 59:12; 60:21; 61:6; G3:24; 66:3 3:77:24; , 25:9. I 1; 26:9: 47:4: 54:25: 55:6; 62:24; 67:7; 87:16; , 94:25;105:13;110:24; SN):14: 96:20: 98:19: 123:7: 149:2; 163:1; 1C,7 ~i. 223:15 particularly 55:16; 5FS 1'. ia):1'l: ai. I•r. Gy:16; 71:12. 15; 73:5; ti4:12; 97:1:120:5 parties 98a4:218:13 partisan 63:22 120:2fi 128:20;154:10; ; 162:17: 207:21, 22 ! personal 37:12; 38:15 (I: 47:8; G0:9: 147:10; 181:10.12:208:4.14 t personalities 44 -7 I personaiity 53:22; 58:21;60:21 personally 230:4 A. Wm. Roberts, Jr. & Assoc. , t PecP e . 60:19; 73:8, 9,12; 74:13, ' 23; 78(4); 79:21; 90:1; 92:13 perspectives 43:8,14; 75:6 persuatide 54:2, 7; 67:8 persuaded 53:16;66it2; 69:9 persuading 68:16 persuasion 66: tt1 petition 84:2•0 petitioned 04:17,19 Ph,Q.4,20;18:21 Pharmacology 81:19 phase 1S6:2S,1S'7:2 Philip,S;4,8;17;20; 141:8;144:8,8;165:15 phone„104:17 .: photopopy 214;12 ' photoe'opyingZ106, "" phrasb' l'S6 21 . physica1166:11 physicians:178:8 pick 57:7; 67:17; 227:2 plctu.r~„jo.:$,10;42:1s; 54:24; 62;19;64:24; 65;4 p1e0e 18:23; 30;12; . 67:17;120:21,25;122:11,' 16;123:8;126:19, 24 pieces 121:15;123:22 " pilfered 167:11 ~ place 22:16; 26:25; '42:19: 44:12; G7:1; 93:17; 96:18; 101:6; 106:917; 116;22;126:24;'128 4; 181:24; ~~0:23, 25; ; 225:1 S; 230.5 places 21 25;123:13; 153i8 ' plaintiff i96 4 plaintiffs 4 18,194c24; 229:16 - pian•'23:5; 97:7; 225:10 played 197:23;198:3 ~ plays 86:5 ; pleadings 167:15 Pleasants 31:16; 32:2, 10;35:13;3G4t46:13,25: 50:1; 55:17; 62:11;'72:19, 20; 86:7 please 34•19:4 i:24; 58 8;129:24;163:11; 182:5, 6,15;183s20; 188:3; 216:8 plurality 68:2 Pogue 108:17 point 16:13, 22; 22:6; Augustus M. Burns, uI, Phb. May 9, 1997 Precisely 48:4, 22; 65:15; 66:24; 90:8 predict 198:23:199:22 Prentiss 127:3 prepare 92:23 prepared 148:25;149:7 preparing` 38:8; 90:22; 131:1;1SS:1,3;199:5 Presence 220:19 present 110:23; 134:14; 220:22; 221:9; 223:20 presentation 126:4; 148:10,18; 220:16; 221:7, 17 presentations 148:14, 16 presented 30:12; 40:11; 64:22; 73:1 j;134:19; 136:7; 149:7qpresenting 14:15;192:3 presently 126:13; 194:4 pre.llents 30:10 preserye 182:13 presidenoy 38:24 , president 31-5; 38:17; 39:3;58:23;61s13; 137:19,24 presklentta139:9 press 61:5; 70:4 pretty 41:19; S0:14; 132:24 prevent 202:23: 203:5; 204:21 prevented 47:t8, 23 preventipn x03;~ 5. 22 previous 19:18; 47:5; -86:9;128:2;129:2;133:1; ` 134:4;167:15 previously 47:22; 87:21; 115:16;127:8;138:10 primarily 21:20; 37:5, 8; 58:20; 68:4 primary 52:11,14; 53(4)c 54:3, 9; 66:13, 21 t 67:9, 22;68:9.17;71:24,25 principal 9;2,_5; 42:8; 63:7 Principally 13:1; 64:3 principals 49:16 i prior 51:17;134:17; Ln 173:9; 218:7 m private 48:24; 51:9,17; i m 70:16; 90:20;113:24 W private/public 48:25 ; m probably 13 13 25:14; ; kD 37:15; 78:5;12G:22; ; rr 138:2;144:3, 24:164:4 ' probing 91:20, 24, 25; 92:1,6,8 problem 205:7; 224:24 pr,obietns 137(4);183:2 procedures 47:17 proceed 95:19 proceeded 93:7 113:142};114.1, 4; 117:11,125:4; 3;139:5; 144:24,,145:f1,t~;151;14; 175:10; i80:25,;189:17; 190:12, 32;192:25; 194:16;196:1; 213:19; 218:12 pointing 140:16 polnts 14:13; 21:2; 26:18; 49:13;188:18 pol:oh 1'T1,1 polarizing ~4:7; 74:7 poNcy 16g:Z1, 22t 168:21,174:10;175:2; ' 19T;9 po;if loal 35:16; 38:18, 20; 55:13. 20,~~i: 67:20; 58:22, 24; 61:7; 63:5,15; 64:15; 70:7; 74:g,?82A, 5, 11;89:11,18;126:18; , 128:20;131:21,138;16; 160c24;,1711,23; 172':1 0oliiiqplly 130:9, 20; :. 131:1 poi4iclar)e 128;8;129:9, r 19 33:4c 52:14; _ 4'ii,:22; pol.~tlcs73.17, 22; 74:10, - 18;82:12130;3' , Polling 8Y:17" popuisr"120:15 I pespularhy 206:3 population 208:25 P~.r~,i31:24 'POrter 5:4, 8; 31:4, 9;' 32:2,18; 34:4t 39:21; 46:16; 47:7; 87:23; ' 11 Z:24;123:24;164:7; • 198:13,19,9:6 ~position 31:6; 94:9; 115:S,11,12 ;18;144:10,. 13; i82.13,"1~5:2 posltions 118:14 possession f 43.~3; 145:17 possibiiity";21;127:4; 158:1 po;sible 146:4; 203:10 ' ' possibly 76:6 post 37:1 posts 39:1 potential 103:24;106:23; 109:21; •127:21;1354; 1901; 2Q4:1 potentially 104;8;113:3; 115:1;199 8; 218:9 Poultry 131s25;132:13, 14 ~power 171;23 t practice 11:19; 51:18; 1 115:23,25,116:2 27:7,15,19; 28:23, 25; prectioing 116:4 44:15; 53:17; 55:12; 60:3, 4; 61:3, 4,18; 69:17; PraCtitioner 8:12 76:13; 79:4, 20; 87:11; Praise 75:24 17,14;112:20; preclAe 190.'14 Min=U-Scr,ipte. . (11) P-A-R-K - proceeded
Page 459: rhz82d00
. 13 - capabilities. It has been possible to aid about 5% of these patients to return to suitable employment. The chief problem in operation of the work classification unit Is adequate referral. The work of this unit needs to be better understood by the private physicians, health dapartments and welfare workers In both official and voluntary agencies. Additional work is being under- taken to 'irttprove these methods of referral to the end that the work classification unit may reach its full potential of service. Flio, ri_da_Heart Counci l A Policy and Coordinating Council for Cardiovascular Diseases in Florida has been established. it is composed of members from Florida Medical Association, Florida Heart Association, Florida State Board of Health, Florida Crippled Children's Commission, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation and the State Department of Public Welfare. This council should draw together all dispersed interests in heart disease control, ~tate Heart Disease Control Program Di:ector A full time director of the heart program began his duties on July 1, 1962. He will also belp to coordinate heart disease control activities in Florida. The director will be assisted by a U. S. Public Health Service officer who is assigned for a 2 year period. Physician Education In cooperation with the Heart Association,seminars are given for physicians every year. These are usually held in Jacksonville or Miami. They have been well received, and it Is anticipated that they will be continued. Exhibits featuring cardiovascular disease are presented at the Florida Medical Association meeting and often at other medicall meetings in the state.
Page 460: rhz82d00
04- in greater profusion and more rapidly than ever before. A physician to keep up-to-date would have to read 27 books and journals a day to take advantage of the flood of present day medical publiehinj. Yet communities find it difficult to organize themselves to apply this wealth of {morledge as it develops, for technological and scientific change is always more rapid than social change. There is a need for health education not only to present new 1onowledge but also to correct the °errors of popular wisdotn." Since the public's interest in health matters is at a new high, it is ex- posed to much information via'popular magazines.' But since basic health facts are frequently not dramatic or startling, the approach by the author (in order to sell his article) stresses or distorts isolated asoects of the health problem under discussion. . Both the professianal and lay public eagerly await the result of research projects which have been greatly accelerated in recent years. ltow to interpret ~ and apply these results, particularly as they apply to the miracle drugs, may take years, but the impatient individual may demand immediate application. In spite of the public's increased interest in health ioattets', there is a definite trend away from health education in Plorida's schools. There is a need to make health education as important as scienee, mathematics or languages. Candidates for teaching positions are not required to have anything but the most rudimentary knowledge (and this requireineat:grows leba each year) , so they wauld often not be prepared to teach the subject even if they were given the opportunity. The problem might practically be expressed by asking: (1) How do we pro- vide more individuals with opportunities to learn their responeibilities in relationship to their own health; (2) how can scientifio and public health facts be better transmitted to professional and lay personaf (3)'how can we help communities determine their health problems and assist them in finding
Page 461: rhz82d00
,!\ . . CANCER CONTROL PROGRAM LONG RANGE PLAN, MAY 1964 I,NTRODUCTION: Historical Development of Proaram The Florida State 9oard of Health had long recognized the need of a cei control program and in 1946, with the assistance of a small amount of feder, funds, began the organization and planning of the Division of Cancer Contro During this year a tissue diagnostic mailing service was set up. Close cool tion was maintained with the Florida Division of the American Cancer Societ; the Florida Medical Association in the development of a proposed cancer cont program. In 1946 a bill was passed by the legisiature,with reEerence to cancer, an appropriation of $200,000 per year was :et'up for cancer control activiti In 1947 a cancer control division was established under the Bureau of Praver able Diseases. Cancer cilnics-were planned and set up In Duval, 0ade, Escan Orange, Hillsborough and Palm Beach Counties.4 A total of 196 Indigent cancc cases received aid in the year of 1947. Cancer seminars for professional ec tion were started. A planned case follow-up program was In effect, and suct funds as were available were used for diagnostic studies, rental of radium F hospitalization of the medically indigent. Cancer control remained under the Bureau of Preventable Diseases until organization of the Bureau of Special Health Services In July of 1956. At ~ time cancer control was made a part of the program of the Division of Chroni Diseases in the Bureau of Special Health Services. The program was reachinc' some degree of maturity in its development, with 19 tumor clinics through- our the state serving more than two thousand new medically indigent patientc: per year. In 1959, a physician was added as the Director of Cancer Control, and two new tumor clinics were organized In`the state,emaking a total of 21..
Page 462: rhz82d00
It is easy for the physician not trained in laryngoscopy to consider Ihal the hoarseness of a cancer of the vocal cords is due to a chronic lar- yngitis. The bleeding of a rectal cancer may be diagnosed as hemor- rhoids. Sarcoma of the bone may be mistaken for rheumatism. It is im- possible to diagnose certain breast tumors until a bit has been removed and a frozen section examined under the microscope. These examples of the occasional ditficulties in early diagnosis, even at the hands of skilled men, emphasize xlill more strongly IIM vital necessity for impressing on the minds of the laity the great value of early examin- be, in a sense, missionaries. WnnllY talk to other women at times more freely than they will to a man. Every woman in any way connected witb medical work or public health work is often in position to impart in- formation which may be of theL greatest value, which may save lhe life, perhaps, of the questioner. May 1, then, in conclusion, recap• ilulale some of the essential points which I feel that every person should know about cancer, and should be willing to imparl to others should the occasion arise. Any sore or ulcer which runs a chronic course and will not hra) should be examined by a competent alion whenever suspicious symptoms physician. occur. As a corollnry to this lhe pub- ' Chronic irritations or inAamma. lic must be given some knowledge of: tions in any part of the body demand what these early suspicious symp- measures to relieve them. Thir is es- toms arcm pecially true in irritations about the For.30 years or more various in- mouth, tongue, lips, inner side of the .IividuaLs and organizntions have cheek& been endeavoring to impart such Chronic skin irritations should be knowledge to the public about can- relieved. Persons with delicate rrr. ft is slow work, oftentimes very -.skins, especially of the blonde type, ' discouraging. Ne.erthekss. iua¢h should rot permit long e~cposMres, bas been accomplished. Before this day after day, to the sun'•or wind-' rducatioaud program was instiluted without Brst properly praleeting_t4 the majority of alt :cancers of the skin. womb apptbed for examination only Certain drowths, which appear to when the' Srowth had• become eatea- •'"_ be ;nou-malignant, should , at -.kml ;: sive- and inoperable. Tbii'.:was also ha**wn examination before slluwli:g true of -aancer of the b>+ast ' in a them to remain, as they may developx., lesser •vthirre. Such a thing as a into cancer. This is `especiAlly • true.' woman .olintarily,. caming to the ,, of crrtain tTpes ot warts arpd moks._ doctnrs odice to be examined fnr SympMms of rectal lrouble strould . , rancer, was practically m>1n•arit of. not be oeglected. .White a setf-madt ?oddy the picture is very diQerentL diaposis of 'piles" may be correct, Mar women to come to the gynecol- the symptotns may be those of'rrctal .sgist's ollice with the question, cancer. "alavr 1 grN a cancer?" has now be- Fspecially should thr syruptoms of roanr an almost everyday occurrence. cancer of lite womb be reilrraled. To he surr. the grrat majority have Because of the phenomenon of nor- no canerr. but not all. Every now mal menstrualion. women are so ac-d amd then an early cancer of the breast cnstomed to vaginal bleeding Uud or the uleras is""ali!tcovered in this they do not realize how si~niBcant` way and the woman is given a chance lite appearance of any abnormal Iluw for her life which she would not may' be. It should be emphasized have had othrrwise: that this may be the Ilrsl recogniz- This educational work is slow and able sign of either a malignant or a requires niany workers. National or- benign growth. IlemorrhaKr at the a9 A tiUlt(;1~:U11I 5PL•'AHS InvIN Aesa.t., M.1). Louisville, Ky. President-F.tect of the American Medical Association During the present century deaths lite disease is incurable is nullilicd by from cancer have shown a steady in- lite many thousands of patients liv- crease until at present it occupies a ing and well today, years after trcat- place second only to disease of the ment of microscopically proven keart and blood vessels in causing cancer. Unfortunately some people mortality. Several factors are to be have the notion that the disrasr casts considered in explaining thc greater a sligma upon its possessor leading incidence of this malady. The to a suppression of the knowledge wider application of a greatly aug- of its successful cure and depriving mented knowledge in preventive fellow sulirrers of Ihr enroural;r- medicine has resullyd in a larger mrnl which such informalion, would number of people reaching the provide. The one inqportant_ fact cancer age-middlc and advanced with which all should be made nc- Cde-lhan ever before: at lhe begin- .pwinted is that cancer invariably aing of this century Ihr average dur- starts as a local prorrss, not in the alion o`I life +was Ihirty-three years, bhwd, not in several organs at lite today it is 58 years; ninety per cent same time, but at one distinct loca- of cancer oceuts after lite age of tion, the corollary of which is. Ihat forty. A second factor is to Ix if this location be accessible and one fornd in the greater accuraCy with without whirh the patient can livr, which Ihe aise-ase is rec.rgnized; the its removal or destruction by atr aiversal employment of 4he micro- propriate treatment is followed by seayfe today leaves hut .litlrtee room for cure. `: - doubt in diagnOsis.. A-thirdf'faclor is The life history of cancer is that it M`aetualo incrrase ir the disease, for spreads by inirolving adjacent strur- i:.wbieh tbere is at halhl no lugical ex-; lures -..nd br its r.e1Ls gaining en- plaoatioh:, Ira/xx to the .b1.xMt and h~nph ;af-the important functions of slreams„ floating in these to distant : One . ~•ibem'.cat profession is,the pnth . iparls and reorodnAng the ariginal liea of knowledge: of'rqual' conse'- disease at l1aMr site of hKlgnk ut. Such "qrewce is its dissrminatiun. As re- transference is rarely singk, usually gards cancer this has beee luimlieresl multiple, involving importanl organs No little by /be:,miscoaCeptions eon- and signi8esxAbe beginning of the xeerliing it held by many people. cnd, since, in the tigW of present "'(hief among t'hCSC in promoting an kniovrlcdge. there is, at this stagr, no attitude of Ites.simissn is that : the rlf.r•tive treatment. The drduK•liun disease is frequently inherited and lu br. drawn frown lite foregoing is that it is wholly incurable. While it quilc obvious; every r/forl should br is true that in some laboratory ani- madr by the laity and by lite prof.«c- rals, notably miee, lite breeding of sion to recognize and treat the dis- -which can Ixr accurately controlled, rase whik . still in its inilial stage cancer bearinK slrains -can be pro- before spreatt-has occurred. daced at will, .lhe analogy does not l:vcry cancer is a tumor but not apply to the human being: with rach every luenur is a cancer: by tanuor is marriage -there occurs aa infusion of meant a new growth having no new and strange bhwNl strains whirls physiologir:d Isunclion antl sinrr dilutes aoJ disrupts heredity Iru- Inmor isuplics an rn/artiroirnt, if it dencies. '1'hr tuost thyt can br said br estrrnal, it is snsrrplible of early I
Page 463: rhz82d00
Association's annual.meeting. 5. To set up special projects, studies and surveys to evaluate the c control program and point out any special problem areas which nee attention. COMMENT: Being carried out In many areas; others are planned as and personnel may allow. To study statistical Information for its esefulness In evaluating effectiveness of the over-all program and for Its value as an ind of areas needing further attention. COMMENT: Being partially covered. Programs involving use of statistical data have now been Implemented. 7. To further develop operational research and special projects whici demonstrate the effectiveness of special methods for the early dii of cancer, as for example, the Papanicolaou method of cytological < examination. Two of these projects are currently ongoing, one Is service-research project In cervical cytology at a large charity ' hospital, and the other Is a statistical tabulation center to gatF and study cancer data and to dissiminate to the tumor clinic and hospital staffs. COMMENT: Plans are being considered to carry out further special projects. S~roua III - Items Congidered Not Covered 1. To encourage and support the training of research and service personnel. 2. COMMENT: This item 1s still largely 1n the planning stage, and c: be developed only as circumstances and funds permit. To aid tn the community planning for nursing homes and other faci' which will make possible Institutional care for such patients as
Page 464: rhz82d00
f. I 54 FLORiI)A IIEALTtI NO'CES and its course. Many of these false trnlpts to cure a cancer are unsuo- conceptions, passed on to us from the cessful it simply means that one or ignorance of former years, are some both of these two conditiona ciwld o( the greatest stumbling blocks in not bc fultilled. t1m control of cancer today. Also, while we frankly admit that, The erroneous notion that cancer - under present conditions, a large proo- is an hereditary disease, that because portion, possibly lhe majority, of aN a parent died of cancer the offspring cancer cases treated or operated would necessarily suffer from it, Is ultimately (lie of Ihe cancer, never- widespread. This idea is wrong. theless, medical science has an ex- While we do occasionally Ond fam- tensive armamentarium of therapea- ilies in which the repeated appear- tic measures with which we do en- ance of cancer in various generations tirely cure a large minority of aq seem to lend credence to this impres- cases that come to us, and a majority sion, such incidences are rare and uf all cases that come to us in the by no means prove the case. Cancer early stages. is not an hereditary disease. WiCh Ihe treatment of cancer we Much misery and meatal distress shall not today concern ourselves. are caused at times, both to patients It is indirectly a concern of the pub- and their families, by the beliefs lic health in that improved mrthods thaf cancer is conlaKioa.c: and that of treatment and improvrd facilities theree is something aitgrading a/x>,M fur providing sueh trcalmcnt tu tbe it. Many patients hide- lhr fact that canrer suRrrer at large will cut downn thev, have cancer through tcelinp o( thr nNirtatity. liot an. the StsNe ot" shaue. " M'Hrridol.: therapeutic measures arr The public mind should be dis- fortunately.ttill left` in thr_ hands d- ,abaoed on both of these .points.. Can- - the private . physicians, either work- . cer wnaui be trammaittM ttw/w pcr-~ irqz dirretly aR pfiysitiAns-of kidivii son to ]ierson by sny of thebrdinary nat patienis, or as staff mcnmbers af : contacts of human life. Neither can uur various hospitsNs, loving their , any possible disgraoe be attached to sercicrs without charge to the cancer the cancer :psQ+era: paiionts in those hospitaN. One ot tYe most pernicious o(•these The licld of- preventive inediciae lraditiobd fallucies is nbe idul that and ra+rly diagnosis„ is very .n.cl: the tMatqaeilt of cancer is always lm-- , wili+un the proviuoe of public beam . sucttaatuL,, ilow oftea do those ot ".rork, and here pablic heall6 age., as who sur seeing a 1atlilie nnmbcr of cies can grcatly aid in the etort fs caacer caSea hear the r awful dictum reducr 16is cpmcer mortalitY. Ihat,'''Cherers.no. use doing anything. A few moments ag/, I said that Ap_ Cancee can never be eured.x Many ultimate cause of cancer is anknownr~ a cancer death is due to the delay Thal is trne. We do not know wMy caused by this crconisuts notiua. . certain causrs, crrtain sliuruli, shoalt ()f c~sr, we admit at once timt, make normal tiswee cells rhauXr their .vith our present knowie.fKe, cancer orderly manner of growth and sud- can be cured only it treated before a.Irntr bcccanr transformed into those .~ certain atage in its growth hat been alwormal crlis which we recognize' reached although at the' same time a.c cancer crih. But i( we do not~; we must also claim that, even in 116- know how these causes act, we do at vancrd casrs, much can often be done any rate know what many of ihese to mitigate suffering and even prolong causal factors are. Then by rrn& life. cating these causes before the cancer Theorrtirally, every cancer can br evcr starts we are actually ,prevent- ..~,r , ,../... ....v.....is.~./ ~.c r~.~- ing the a/)IfraranCe of cancer and an~ APRIL, 1938 AVERAGE DELAY BEFORE TREATMENT FOR CANCER 13 Mo/mis 6 Mo.rrna 4 Ma+ren 4Ma+T.+s 4 Mow.ws SKiN - BREAST MOUTH VVOM6w STOMACH ?`Ilis Ddsy Must Be Redtccd i)rl.r ir .eeki.p trr.uMr.t far errcrr i+ f.W. , 71ic .;art, .lx.&iNF dw avrraBe siele .r.ded M:twrew dor aprerrr.w~e of .rinptwa dnt a.igM rnax cancer ari friM11w.1, exMl.ir why dw ir.1h: fak (rwn Ihis 4liowase is twice wlw- it.sh.rtd be. An early di.gn.w' o( c.mixr is nw a death senlewie w rst-liie.Nie kar; ir.eed, it means We itsrN 41fd•.ngh` r.nerr of dw .kiw .wnllr sMrr.als siowly .nd in dw ea.w a of dl 14yra o( t4 Jisr..e o.•,i.6,w..e. each yr.r ..ee drw dhree d.w.d Mrrn.ns ' 4111IE .f if. . MoM of dtele we som ,ti1N.'1` . woMMN afe yMlrk Ir seek M, rliplarNNM . (or triMnle asnx or rMts lMC:ihr i.1 hral, far nloler t6.f srread .r chnppe ehrir rlaatar. 1n winrly-Gne per eeM o( the rarrs, cancer d Ibe skin is err.4te-if takrn in 4ir.e. . l:awrr of -ahe ulerw+ and brra-t take a rrMrt htl axxx~g wa~xrx w1UwMR4 ix early elrRrs raneer in tMene locations may he c.rrd in from rr.rnt)ivr to ei66q Nrr rrxl o( 1he ca.rs. I:.nerr of dw mwd% like ranrrr .f d.e ekia, i. w.re prevalent wwnR xx n dun wowrn. /:are of dor ww.atA and Nwh aN.l reSda'risios 1o a. drntat are roMwMwnrromw ways o( drrrra-inR wWo. rl.own-e of 6..L/; dois,dinrw. (:anrrr of dw .1.nnrW is alwaya diMwtidt ho diaRn.rr early, 'aaUoalch rrrrxdy Jrvrl.ryxrl trdxriryurs of ..ray exoxnawtwns arr Iw-lpf.l. A prew'f visit to a pl.yiriw is wrR.vt wbrx any of dor f.ltwwing pa'x.lrs.% d.x6ar sycnah IAaI may xx•an cancer appear: 1. Any prreirlrnl Ixxp~ yr IhirkrnixR, rsNrrially in Il"r brraa. JJ
Page 465: rhz82d00
3. Legal staff so as to give more direct assistance to county healt officers before actual problems develop whioh would require court action (in other words, to give preventative legal aseistance). Possible Curtailments No curtailments in staff, budgets or programs are contemplated at the present t3me. Related Programs .~...~,_..._~ The Bureau of Local Health Services has as one of its responsibilities the coordination of all programs and activities between the various bureaus divisions of the State Health Department and the 67 oounties. Therefore, tr.h bureau is involved to a considerable degree in all the programs and activiti of the entire State Health Department. Research and Demonstrations 1. 2. 3. ..r...r..~~~rr Completed projects -- none. Projects now being carried on -- none. Projects planned for the futures a. There is a need to develop a set of basic minimal standards for the ...,,~..~ ...r.~..w various health department programs and activities, which standards can be used as a guide to program development and evaluation. At th, present time we have no such written standards and, therefore, no adequate method for spotting program deficiencies or overemphasis, b. Use of Volunteers • There is a_wealth of know•how and experience amc the many retired persone moving into the state each year. M$ny of t would gladly give their time and talents to public health programs. However, there needs to be.a demonetratlon of just how to go about this, to determine the suitable persons for what jobs -• to train tt volunteers and to supervise their activities. Ln ~ m w ~ ~ rn
Page 466: rhz82d00
-4 rubella In pregnant women are definitely of value. The laboratory has yi.elded promising leads in nutrition, oxygen tension, etc., but these leads have'not yet developed to the point of clinical application. Recent surgical advances have made it possible to offer cure or amelioration to many children suffering from congenital heart disease. The diagnostic, medical and surgical care of these children is, however, complex and very expensive. The cost of care is often beyond the resources of the average family, and financial help i s frequently needed frap ~+Jbtic ^si~d prt~ratQ,agaricras. Rheumatic Heart Disease: Rheumatic heart disease Is infrequently diagnosed before the age of five years, but it is the predominant type of heart lesion seen between the ages of five and twenty-four. It Is the only type of heart disease for which there is effective prophylaxis. The death rate has fallen st¢adily since 1915, partiy as a result of improvements in living conditions and partly as a result of Improvements in prophylaxis.and treatment. Even so, there were 511 deaths from rheumatip heart disease reported In Florida in 1960. The full impact of the disease Is only reai- ized, however, when one understands the long years of incapacity and disability which so frequently result from this disease. Much of the problem can and Is being handled on a private basis, but the present relatively favorable position can be maintained and improved only If active educational and casefinding techniques are used, Without these services much of the prophylactic knowledge we have will not be applied. in a few Instances surgi- cal Intervention will reduce significantly tha disabiiity,of those already afflict- ed with rheumatic heart disease.
Page 467: rhz82d00
51603 7066 7ead Ejecta'eZ~ A Course in Health and -Sofety Educotion ' for Senior High Schools Florida Program for Improvement of Schools Bulletin 4-B May, 1950 STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THOMAS O. BAILEY, Sop"riwNadeef DIVISION OF INBTRUCTION T. Q. SKYGLEY. DlsseNs ftOAIDA BTATL UBRARV 96 A GUIDE TO 'I'1..\CuIVI. LVI•%X'P1%-L LWING UNDE1t5TAND1Nl3 i3.1,BI`1'-l-'UR.11.ivC; ULZU08 T11E ['KOBf.EaI '1'he a1~ti-IN-I, uyr~ruit• antf alimulaut 1-rublr~n rauuut lx• j-ul,r-1 entirely by the amuuut of uwuvr spent for driuk. :i~-a u:u•- t:utics, uor can tbt• ,ux•ial rt•,ut1. Ix• mt,tsurt•d by quat-iiti.•s eli tHchr prtaluctx tnmauuatil. Elowever. tht•,t• t'act. have ;;ivt•n Its u+iut- itu:igbt into such prv-blrnr. as brnkep lwmt•., Ix•ruur.-1 -nal- a.{justluenta. puui juveuilc tlvliutlucucy In -vl-i,:h ther r,-utriLutt•. The uatiuu'x drink bill for 1946 was `t,770.(X)l).Ul)n wl-ile the total spent for all ethteatiwt was 44,(XX).UOI),Ol)t).' Duriu.- 1946 the'bill for alcoholic beverages averaged $2336.13 for every family in .ltmericr; whik ,the milk bill averageei $155.34 per fan-ily- total. s+tstailia consumer expenditure. for tobacco during ~• r...,. ~,..~,.. the Sseahyear tnding June 30, 1944 ' was approzimately. ~2400„OQQr00Qs' ~:::•..•. . ., ~ _i.: . Daiaagthe'~$4?-48 >s~al yearthere.were aold ia'the State or Florida •318,061,021 packages of taz-paid eigarettes with 'u per capital consumption of 141 packagea; :3:1,746•46:3 oallnn, of tux- paid beer with s per t:al-itYl ronsttmption of 1S gallons; 1.707.• 712 oallous of taX-l-:utl wuu• with at per rupital cuu.-~u-I,ti~~u of .76 gallons; 4,720,605 gallons of tas-haitl whiskey with it pcr cal-ita consutuptiou of 2.111 l;ollous.' The uat innal :tvrra_r IK r capit:tl con•un-pt iuu of .libtil lrtl ,pirit, thtriuc the fiscal yt•ar 1947-48 was 1.6.i talluns :4hilt• Fluritla•, per capital consumption for tliis period was 2.111 Rallants which was exceeded only by tht• Distrit•t of t•oluwbia and the State of \erada.° The Florida llip;hway t'atrul matltr it total of laow ;u•n•a. tiuriu^ 1947. Of this --tualx•r al-pr0si1tr.-1t•1y 141 ;- had 1-rru tlriukiug and 7';• wt•rt• twdrr thc iuNut•net• Of :-It-uliuL UI tht• 1. National Forum. Incorporated. The Alcohol Problem Vi.uali:ed. Chicago: National Forum. Incorporated. 1948. p. 7. 2. Ibid, p. 8. 3. IIn(ted States Department of Commerce. Washtngtou. D. C. .4. Vocelle. James T.. Biennial Iieport o/ the State Beverape De- partment of Florida. Tallahassee: State Beverage Dep:-runent Of Florida. 1948. p. S. 5. Ibtd.. p. 4.
Page 468: rhz82d00
at Allowance be Eerningt .2. Wise spendiag 3. Individual as an eoonomio asset to oommuaity (preset future) 4. Care of personal property {oonsumership and conserv Ii. 'Understandiag the I'satily A. Fsmily Unit i• Concept of family patterns a. Ascial, netionalt oultural, eto. 2. Fsmi7y characteristics a. Siae, sgee, interdependeace9 discipZine• exper: ties, eto. 3. !'smi 3y responsibility a. ftsical health, housing• ssnitation, foods an be Eoonomio welfare--inoome, budget, insur ance• e as, Social relationshipe•=companionships cooperati reoreation, etoe, d. Mmotionsl atmosphsrs•-stability, adiustments, e. Now to strengthen the family. Be Child's plsae in Samily 1. Recognition of child's identity in family 2. Responsibility to family welfare (household chore 3. Parent-ahild understsnd.iag• sibling understanding 4. Adjusting personality to family environment C. Responsibility of family to coamnity 1. Acceptance andf or, pride of family status 2. Cooperation with commanitq eaterprises 3. dood neighbor policy Was Gilbert's sroup III. Understanding 4thsrs The group presupposed that the following conditions exi Satisfactory teacher peraonality--weil-adjusted• tr An understanding of the mores of thecommunity aood aommuAit7 and administrative aupport A. 8oy-girl relationships 1. How to `et along with eaoh'other 2. Now to mske friends; 3. Reasons for popularity a. Good grooming be Common interests c. Habits (absence of nervousness, etc.) 4. Etiouette a. ~How to meet others be How to converse with others (not moAopoliz~ c. How to ;feel at ease S. Heterosexuality-•edd in achieving interest in a. Explain "MotherVand other complexes (may Child Developmeat) . be Problems of the nsingles person. Need foi-
Page 469: rhz82d00
r_ ANNUAL REPORT FLORIDA COMMITTEE ON SMfGK I NG AND HEALTH 1964 Prepared for Distribution by Florida State Board of Health
Page 470: rhz82d00
- 12 - Nine clinics have been approved by the clinics committee of the Florida Heart Association, and most, if not all, will.be eligible for approval after being in operation longer. The heart clinics located in Miami, Mariena,,Orlando, Pensacola, Tampa, Tallahassee and West Palm Beach are receiving supplementary help from the heart program in the form of salaries for nurses, stenographers and clerks, as well as certain items of equipment. More supplementary help is to be sent to clinics and counties needing'additional assistance. A constant effort is being made to give aid to cardiac_ciinics and help establish new ones as funds become available. These clinics are urgently needed, and the designation of additional public funds for this program would serve a very useful purpose in the various communities of the state. ' Cardibe Work Classification Unit, Certain types of cardiac patients need more reassurance that they are physically capable of returning to work then ls possible in the usual dia.gnostic clinic. Most of them are employed in occupations which re- quire from moderate to heavy physical exertion. The "Cardiac Work Classification Unit", composed of sbasic team consisting of a physician,, , nurse and vocational rehabilitation counselor, is the special clinic designed to aid these people. The unit operating in Florida (at Tampa) can handle one patient at each weekly half-day session. After the patient has had a very detailed physical and emotional evaluation and a measure of his exercise tolerance, he is given the results Interpreted in relation to his job. When he is unable to tolerate the physical exertion of his old Job, he is guided In securing employment within his ~ ~ ~ ~
Page 471: rhz82d00
-10- hopelessly incapacitated and for whom other facilities are inad, Also, to encourage the legislature to provide adequate welfare for the chronically i11 so that.nursing home care of acceptable quality may be att++lnable. COMMENT: This item In the Cancer Control Program Is in the earl planning stage and will require community liaison and • t.egtslative assistance. PROGRAM TO ATTAIN OBJE TIVES: Ongoing ActjiyitUs The cancer control program Is working In an aggressive and energetic. in close coordination with the Florida Medical Association, the United Ste Public Health Service, the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society Florida Cancer Council, and the Association of Florida Tumor Clinic Directc S rvice - Cancer control from the public health standpoint Is directec < primarily to the field of service. Private physicians are encouraged to mt each of their offices a cancer detection center, as well as to participate the fullest exten t in the activities of the tumor clinics. Tumor,_ C11nic,g - The first line of defense In this field for the medic indigent patient Is the 24 tumor clinics located throughout the state and I In Table No. 1(Page 12). This table gives the name; of the clinics and th total number of patient visits per clinic for 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962 and IS The tumor clinics are staffed by private physicians of the state who serve without pay. The Florida State Board of Health, the Florida Division of tF American Cancer Society, and local hospitals Jointiy finance the operation the tumor clinics. These tumor clinics are available to all cancer patlents whether privz; or service. This fact has been made known in a letter sent each physician the state by the Florida Cancer Council. This letter pointed out that the'
Page 472: rhz82d00
rZc~r~ DIVISION OF HEALTH EDUCATION July 1, 1962 INTRODUCTIONt Historical Development of Program . :......: `% F;.C' . .i'4': A1.wt:ES Cc" • . '4c %; 0, jt rl. .~. tUr i r Dl.t:.ri".~ . Tafi.:nJ,si:. FL 32364•0_30 Sdr'•ti-~S~CiRon ~~. /=o/D~R Reference to educational programs abound in early reports of the State poard of Health. Florida's first state health officer was an ardent proponent of health education. By 1916 the program was well enought,,pstabliehed so that t a report of this period notes that the dissemination of iriformation on the subject of public health "might well be considered more highly specialized than any other work of the State Board of Health,n It was not until`1937, however, that a separate division for health, education was establiehed. In ' 1946 the name was changed to the Division of Health Information. It was again designated the Division of Health Education in 1961.= A number of different media to assist irt carrying out public health programs have been developed over the years. Up until about 1940 the pam- phlet was considered the optimum method by which health information could be disseminated. Another early development was the publication of Florida -.r..~. Health lth Notes, which began in 1893 and has been issued continuously except for the period between 1901 and 1906. ~' The library was established early in 1900 only to be discontinued in 1915. It was re-established in 1932 with the aid of a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the only medical library in Florida aervingla 1 citizens., Its services include not only the lending of books.and journals but also assistance with the preparation of papere, compilation;:of bibliographies, and resource for reference questions. Exhibits and related visual aids have been used for many years in the public health program in Florida. An early exhibit'(before 1916) was mounted on a railroad car (with two others for staff and equipment) which was fur- nished by the railroads of Florida. This±train apparently traveled all over
Page 473: rhz82d00
- 10 - As one of the steps in casefinding, the provision of supplementary date with the birth certificate is being considered. 2. To seek the active cooperation of individuais or organizations in the com- munity who will aid in the placement of persons suffering from cardio• vasculer disease In suitable occupations, 3. To develop those casefinding services which will Indicate those persons suffering from hypertension and encourage them to seek early private medical attention. 4. To aid In the community planning for nursing homes and other facilities which will make possible tnstitutional care for such patients as are hopelessly Incapacitated and for whom othor facilities are Inadequate Also, to encourage the legislature to provide adequate welfare funds for the chronically tll so that nursi'ng home care of acceptable quality : may be attainable. (See also report of Hospitalization for the Indigent). PROGRAM TO ATTAIN OBJECTIVES: Health Oeoartmgnt Activities a„nctoinq, Activities All local health departments carry on scme program in relation to cardiovascular disease even though in many Instances these activities are considered as part of the general program. in 1960 there were more than 6,000 office visits and 24,0,OQ.field visits where the primary reason for the visit concerned some form of cardiovascular disease. Other acti- vities contribute Importantly to the over-all effectiveness of the program even though the controi of cardiovascular disease may not be_the only, or even the prime, object of the activity.. 8y aiding the communit to improve Its nursing home facilities, for example, the health depart- ment contributes to the humanitarian care of a:person suffering from her Ln . .. ... . . F-. m m w .. _ .. . . .. . .. .. •' • . . .~. , . .. . N ~A
Page 474: rhz82d00
appropriations were increased substantially in the past five years, the pro- spects for further increases do not appear to be very favorable. The overall picture is- one of increasing responsibilities and demands (partly growth of population and partly new programs) and decreasing financial means. 2. Staffing - At the end of the 1961 calendar year there were 1549 county health department employees on the payroll in 1663 budgeted positions. In addition, there were 216 established positions for which funds were not available and for which we could not recruit personnel. We have the continu- ing problem of recruiting and retaining well»qualified, energetic and interest- ed personnel. Tarnover in personnel is still a rather serious matbr. In the past year there was a "turnover" rate of 22.5% for physicians, 264% for sanitary engineers, 7% for sanitarians, 18% for public health nurses, 23% for clerical heip--a 21% rate for all employees. This, of course, is a high rate and in terms of staff morale, departmental stability, program continuity and financial loss (due to training of replacements) is a serious handicap to our operations. We are not unlike other areas of the country in experiencing a dearth of qualified applicants for our positions. This.is due in part to an actual shortage of trained people but also to our low unettraotive salary soale-•especially in the higher grades of professionals. N',ariy well trained, highly skilled and desirable applicants simply cannot take positions with us because of our unrealistic salaries. Not only are we in competition with industry and the Federal government for these people but we frequently find ourselves outbid by other State governmental agencies which have more freedom of action in this matter of salaries. As a resultp we many times employ persons who are not especial3,y interested, trained or well suited to our public health programaf who fail to make satisfaotory adjustments; and who sooner or later move on to other emploqir.ent.
Page 475: rhz82d00
-18- The Cancer Manual has been revised during 1963 and a section for Cance Registry Personnel has been added. This manual has been distributed to the tumor clinics, local health units and other interested groups. The manual consists of three sections: 1. The law, Rules and Regulations 2. Manual for instructions as to records, procedures, personnel and facilities 3. Manual for Tumor Clinic Registry Personnel. The statistical Information obtainable from the Vital Statistics Burei 1s constantly being studied for trends. Recent trends such as the marked Increase in lung cancer presents a fertile field for lay and professional education and stimulates the support of research In this area. Evaluation; analysis of cancer registries have been undertaken. Expans,, ion Indicated Proaram for the Care of Advanced CancertC„a,ses - A new program for th( care of persons with advanced cancer 1s needed. The care of the advanced ~ patient is one of the great problems facing the communities of the state. Under the present regulations, little or no hospitalization can be offered patients unless there exists a medical or surgical emergency requiring hos• pltalizatlon. Equally urgent Is the need for outpatient cancer treAtment services. The availability of such service would result in a decrease in number of hospital admissions of cancer cases and a reduction In the lengtl hospital stay. Facilities available for the care of the cancer patients with advance: lesions vary greatly from county to county. The situation is particularly `, ~ difficult not only for medically lndigent families but for famities of m w moderate means. Community efforts can, If properly directed, do much to e. ~ the burden of families faced with this unhappy situation. °'
Page 476: rhz82d00
2. To provide hospital care and treatment for the medically Indigent and public assistance recipient cancer cases,under the HSI, PAR and MAA programs. 3. To encourage and assist tumor clinics and hospita!s of the state keep an accurate and adequate cancer registry by providing traini supervision and consultant services.: To provide the tumor clinic secretaries with a monthly list of cancer deaths. COMMENT: Encouragement and assistance In the keeping of adequate registries is being given; training of clerical employe doing registry work is proceeding; consultant services and supervision are also provided. Many of our associs hospital registries have now achieved the standards req 4. To pay scheduled fees for outpatient laboratory and X-ray diagnos studies for medically indigent canqer patients who are processed through an approved tumor clinic of the state. S. To work with tumor clinics, local medical societies and hospitals meeting the various problems that arise in the cancer program. 6. To encourage county health department personnel to render the necessary support required by the tumor clinics and to assist thE tumor clinic personnel in case follow•up.services, when so reques by the physician In charge of thecase. 7. To sponsor special meetings for nurses, tumor clinic secretaries tumor clinic directors to facilitate the exchange of information. COMMENT: Three workshops for tumor clinic secretaries have been , completed. Others are planned. , ; 8. To maintain an up-to-date file on "Unusual and Useless Cancer Treatments" for the Information and guidance of lay and professi-'
Page 477: rhz82d00
The Florida Heart Association, and The Florida Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, WHEREAS, This committee is vitally concerned with the health of children and youth and is especially concerned with the influence of school learning on health in child and adult behavior, and t1HEREAS, These official and voluntary health agencies have long recognized the adverse effect of smoking on health and that the preponderance of evidence indicetes that cigarette smoking is the most Important of the causes of lung cancer, bronehitis and emphysema, and is strongly implicated in diseases of the heart and circulatory system, and WHEREAS, Studies in the Florida Schools indicate that there is evidence that many students begin to smoke in the elementary, junior high and senior high years and have acquired a smoking habit before their formal schooling is com- pleted, and l•MEREAS, The school is the most appropriate agency in -6-
Page 478: rhz82d00
•4- Florida as being due to cancer (70.3 deaths per 100,000). By 1958 this flgt had tncreased to 149.3 deaths per 100,000. In 1961, there were 8,274 cancer deaths In Florida, for a mortality rate of 165.4 per 100,000 populati and In 1963 a mortality rate of 170,4 por 100,000 population was experienced While It Is true that cancer ts primarily a disease of the older ages, is also apparent that cancer Is of Importance In both seYes and In all age groups. See Table 1 and Table 2. . TABLE I LEADING CAUSES Q,F DEATH IN FLORIDA .~ . FEMA_ LE_ ;_,1962 RANK ALL_AGES AGE 1-14 AGE 15-34 1 of Heart Ilnfancv ~ Mallgnant~Birth ; Malignant Neoalasms In7uries I Neoplasms O 1 se Diseases :of Early ' Accidents Cerebral iCongenita 3 Vascular ;Malforma- : Disease itions 4 AccidentsiAccidents ` Homicide !Diseases 2 Malignant' Neoalasmsl of early Infancv Cereb ra l 3 Vascular Accidents I_s"s Congenital 4 Accidents Malforma- ti_ons AGE ,35-4~ AGE 4,554 AGE 55-64 AG Malignant,i Malignant i Diseases ` Di ! Neo le ms ~ Ne 1 ms ~ of Heart of Ce ! Diseases ~ Diseases j Malignant Va ~ of Heart ~ of art eo 1 m i • Cerebra Cere ra Cerebral Vascular I Vascular Ma Diseas_ is ase Ne ; Vascular Accidents i Diabetes Disease Pn TABLE 2 MALE - 1962 AGE 1 4 AGE 15-44 E_4 4 AGE 64 AG Homicide Accidents-I Malignant Malignant 1 Ma ~ Neoalesms 1 Ne ~ Cerebra 1 CE Malignant Malignant i Accidents Vascular ~ ; V1 Ln Neoplasms Neoplasml Di sease ~-A m Suicide Suicide Cerebra Vascular i e Accidents m w Prl -i ~ ko N NOTE: Malignant neoplasms is the technical, term meaning cancer.
Page 479: rhz82d00
economic status. These women have not been previously screened by the Papt laou technique. Health Information on uterine cancer has not reached this of women. Also to our knowledge, no study has been previously done in which a nt has been trained to take cervical scrapings. It is, therefore, one of the purposes of this project to study the efficiency of a nurse with limited t ing, In the taking of cervical smears to screen for uterine cancer, as con with a control group working elsewhere in the state. The objectives of the program are as follows: 1. To demonstrate the feasibility of screening large numbers of women fo cervical cancer by the Papanlcolaou technique, the taking of the smea be done by a nurse. To maintain a control group for study and compar of the results. 2. To initiate a series of events that w1Q lead to salvaging a female p tion that Is at the age of greatest~value to the community and has re sibility for the care of many children. DUVAL MEDICAL CENTER 1261-1963 REPORT Total Repeat Positive Abnormal Cytology Rate Positive Rate m r Smears Bta_csv„ Per 1.000 ExemPer 1,000 Exam. T~o~tg~~ ~gt,e 3928 331 37 91 ~.2 10.2 Cervical Cytology Proaram for County Health Departments - With the ,. approval of state and local medical societies, a cervical cytology prograff in operation for certain counties not having tumor clinics, and not lncluc the ADC Community Cancer Demonstration Project. This limited program was recommended for indigent postpartum cases being performed In the facilitiE-' the county health department. The slides are read by a local pathologist nominal fee of $2.00 per slide.
Page 480: rhz82d00
of certain types of cancer cannot be denied. Cancer of the lung, for exam has shown a steady and alarming increase In the iest thirty years. When one considers cancer by sites, it becomes statistically apparent that there has been a decrease In cancer of the stomach, with a 40 per cent dec in mortality in 20 years, while the age corrected rates for cancer of the has shown a steady and alarming increase. PURPOSE AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: . Purpose The purpose of the cancer control program is threefold 1n nature: I. Ser ice To render financial aid In the diagnosis and treatment of those medically indigent and public assistance recipients who may be suspected of having cancer or known to have cancer. 2. Educ ion < To direct education toward the professional as well as the lay pu of the state in an effort to prevent the development of cancer wh possible and to encourage the finding of cases early when adequat treatment Is possible. 3. Ocerational Research Through research Investigations, demonstration projects, special studies, and statistical study, to make possible a continuous eve tion of all phases of the program. Scecific Obiectives The objectives of the cancer control program for public health in Flor; are briefly as follows: Group I- Items Considered Fullv Covered ~_._.._- 1. To provide the medically lndigent and the public assistance recii' adequate opportunities for early dlagnosis and treatment of canc<I
Page 481: rhz82d00
Southeastern States Cancer Seminar at West Palm Beach. Much interest was sh at_both meetings In the exhibit and the project. During the reporting period, a"Pic-tape" was made which documented the steps involved In the planning and Implementation of a program 1n a county. The final copy is available for our use. The basic project results indicate a need for continuing cytology progi In Florida to find cancer of the cervix In the insitu or early invasive sta! when the lesion is limited and has an excellent chance of being cured thus ' to the salvaging of a female populatton`when they are of the greatest value their county and have responsibility for the care of their children and fam All aspects of the project will be studied,, data enaiyzed and a monogr: ts now being written so that the knowledge gained by this statewide project be shared by others who may be Interested In such an endeavor. ftaearch-S_er_v_ice__Cervic 1 Cytoloay Proiect At Duvat Medical Center - A special research-service project providing for a public health nurse to s medically indigent adult females by the Papanicolaou technique has been sta at the Duval County Medical Center. Funds for this special project have be provided by the Cancer Control Program, and the project Is being conducted by the Duval County Health Department, the Duval Medical Center, and the Fi State Board of Hea1 th. In Florida, cancer is the leading cause of death in women between the of 35 and 54, and In 1961 sixty women died of uterine cancer In Duval Count• This 1s a rate of 48.3 per 100,000 1n women aged 25 years or over, and the - for this type project in this dounty seems amply justified. Women who visit the outpatient facilities of Duval Medical Center fiti general description of the group of female thought to be the most prone to ' a high Incidence of cervical cancer, e.g., nonwhite, southern, early marrie' frequent marriages, multiple prepnancles, poor postpartum care and low soct
Page 482: rhz82d00
pxo~ Current Nature and Extent The current problems facing the Bureau of Local Health Services might be listed as follows: 1. Fin - Over the past five years there has been a steady change ir. the pattern of financing of looal health departments. The amount of money appropriated by the State legislature for support of oounty uuits has rema just about the aame and now amounts to approxd.mately 3S¢ per capita. I creases in costs of operation and necessary staff expansion have in the me time gone up and this increased cost of public health has been borne by ic tax and other sources. For, the fibcal year 1961-62 county health departme budgets totaled $9,159,352 or about $1.78 per capita. Of this amount $6,663,206 ($1.29 per capita) came from local'sources and $2,496,146 ($0.L• per capita) from State and Federal funds. In other words$ county health d partments' support is about 27% State-Federal and 73% local. Costs and.ne, vary widely within the State from county to county and so do budgets. Man; of the smaller counties must put up'be.tween $2.00 and $3.00 per capita in order to even have a minimum staff. The ma3ority of the counties are putt: up between $1.00 and $2.00 for public health. Hawever, 21 counties are appropriating less than $1.00 per capita. These local contributions for county health departments run from $0,32 to $3,04, Present opinion seems ~ indicate that the increased responsibilities placed on health departments because of new and expanded programs necessitate a m4nimum of about $3.00 I capita for public health expenditures. At the'present time some 17 of our county health departments face deficits in the coming fiscal year. If thes cannot be overcome by additional local monies`these counties face the prosF of reducing their present meager etaffap foregoing salary advancements, or curtailing some of their;present programs. In many other counties, where 3 Ln m ~ ~ Ln ,Pb
Page 483: rhz82d00
. 20 . who could devise a definitive study`which would either confirm or ref, this widely-held belief would perform a:raal service to the Americann people. 5. Additional evidence is needed concerning the familial incidence of h) tension and the relation between rural and urban Incidence. 6. Further investigation Is needed concerning the relation of the diet the mother during early pregnancy and the relation of viral diseases than rubella to congenital anomalies:in the offspring. 7. Our knowledge is rather incomplete concerning the Incidence and pro! of both coronary and hypertensive heart disease: 8. In addition to these more fundamental studies, there are many oppor ties for the development of studies and demonstrations showing how best care for those diready sufferin9'from cardiovascular diaease. studies would indicate the best means for returning victims of hea sease, stroke, etc., to self care and where possible to full empic EVALUATION OF ACCOMPLiSHMENTS: ........ ...~_..._ , _ . In the rheumatic fever program, the continued reportin9of cases ~ give an indication of the effectiveness of the educational portions o program. Any very wide variation from county to county In the per ca number of cases reported would 1ndicate a poor response In areas whet porting is low. After~severai years active use of the medication fi , study of the outcome of the cases followed will give a good indicati the relative effectiveness of this method,of control. Since there is no indication that congenital heart disease is ir ing In frequency, the best measure of effectiveness In this program the number of children who receive adequate treatment. r Co