Examines three "cigarette-design tools" used by Philip Morris in developing low delivery cigarettes: filter efficiency, filter dilution, and inclusion of expanded tobacco. Explains process of reducing tar and CO without changing the puff count. Emphasizes current use of filter dilution and expanded tobacco in development of low tar cigarettes, noting that "only RJR and Philip Morris have their own technical process for expanding tobacco."
- Philip Morris
- Hausermann, M.
- Named Person
- Hausermann, M.
- Named Organization
- Philip Morris
- Thesaurus Term
- Cigarette Design
- Filter Efficiency
- Expanded Tobacco
- Low Yield Cigarettes
- Filter Ventilation
- Indexer Comment
- Document set 1
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CIGARETTES A LA CARTE
How to play with filter efficiency,
filter dilution and expanded tobacco
in designing low- and very-low-tar
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Cigarettes have changed a lot in the past decade.
But they look as unobtrusive as ever, and rightly
so, because there is no reason to draw the
attention of the smoker to technicalities which
might distract him from the pleasure he derives
from his cigarette.
The situation is different for people working
in the cigarette business. Whereas the technical,
people are expected to know how cigarettes are
made up, the commercial people might feel that
their expertise in other areas dispenses them
from this obligation.
This is not exactly true, at least not for
marketing people. As they need new products in
order to be competitive on the market, they
can cope much better with their task if they
are aware of what is inside the cigarette
and the tipping papers.
* ~ *
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CIGARETTES A LA CARTE
Cigarettes are destined to deliver pleasure and
satisfaction, and nothing else. As, however,
pleasure cannot be assessed by numbers, modern
cigarettes also deliver substances, like "tar",
nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric
Whereas tar and nicotine can be correlated with
taste strength and satisfaction, carbon monoxide
and nitric oxide do not contribute to taste. We
might say that tar and nicotine are necessary
evils, while the two gases carbon monoxide and
nitric oxide are just pure nuisances.
But in no instance should these terms "evil" and
"nuisance" be taken in their literal sense:
Even the strongest cigarette will not produce
enough of these substances to do any measurable
About TAR and NICCTINE
f Btocfz I
TAR and NICOTINE mafze up cvha.t La caf.£ed the
pa:L.t.i.cu.£a.te phase oA the smofze.
Tlie.y behave the eame eoay .towaada Sit.tha.tion,
d.i,£ution and .the e55eet o5 expanded tobacco.
Whcit ('s 3aid about TAR ift th.c:s b%cochu~ce 1b
aCsu appeicabfe, .thene5oiLe, to NICOTINE.
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There are many possibilities to influence the tar,
nicotine, CO and NO deliveries of a cigarette. By
far the most important single cigarette component
is the tobacco blend and its chemical make-up.
But for our purpose, we deliberately disregard all
cigarette criteria but three:
1. The efficiency of the cigarette filter
2. The use of ventilated filters for smoke
3. The inclusion of expanded tobacco into
the tobacco blend.
These are the principal physical cigarette-design tools
used by Philip Morris in modern low-delivery
(LTN) and ultra-low delivery cigarettes.
About CARBON MCNDXIDF and NITRIC dXIDb
CaAbon rnonoxide (CO) and nit%c.i.c oxide (NO)
a&e gases. Toye.the%c they maFze up about
5 peneent o5 the matinstn.eam ~smofze votume.
7he.i t concen.tta.ti,on in .the hmofze can be
nedueed by 5ie.tea diZution. NO wif-.2 be
ne.duced by the same ex-ten.t as CO.
In -th.i.s bnoeh« te we do no.t neben .to NO. Bu.t
you ahe nemi.iided .tjia.t what L-s 6aid about CO
is appCicabee .to NO atso.
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Let's now look at a burning cigarette, as shown
in Fig. 1.
This cigarette is made up by the three key
1. The filler blend, which is assumed to have
the same composition in all cigarette models
to be discussed.
2. The cigarette paper, to remain the same
3. The cigarette filter, whose efficiency we
shall modify and through whom we shall
dilute the smoke.
The smoke withdrawn from the cigarette at itsmouth end is called mainstream smoke.
The smoke produced by the smouldering of the
tobacco between the puffs, and which leaves
the cigarette at its coal, is called sidestream
Abou.t mach.i.ne-3niok.~ng v6 c~.ganettea
Tarc, riieot.i.ne, C0, NO and o.then ciganette
de.Eive,ty "NUMBERS" a.e.m%cya neSen to
MAINSTREAM SMOKE eon6ti-tuen-t6. They nepnehen.t
the arnoke w.Ethdnawn 6n.orn the eiganet.te by
a SAtdKING 61ACHINE_ Suelc a maeh.C'ne -takes a
35 cc srnofze votcune duniny 2 seeorlds once
eveny 60 beconds unt-i.f an aln.eed butt eength
is n.eached. The .to-ta.e nccrnbcn& oS pu6bs .thxougtc
the c.i.yane-tte is caeeed PUFF COUNT.
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The burning cigarette is a rather complicated
matter. In order to make things easier to
understand, we decree, therefore, that our model
cigarette delivers the same amount of smoke
per puff, from the first to the last puff.
Furthermore, we assume that the amount of
tobacco burnt in one puff, is identical with the
amount consumed by smouldering between two
puffs. The latter assumption closely matches
the actual situation. The former assumption
is permissible because it leads to accurate
conclusions despite its oversimplification of
the real situation.
The idealized cioarette is shown in Fig. 2.
It is necessary to have a detailed look at
the characteristics of this cigarette, and
to keep them in mind for the steps that will
Please retain that in this cigarette
1000 milligrams of filler blend are actually
burnt in 10 puff periods.
As a reference for a real cigarette the
corresponding criteria are shown for the
Phil ip Morris Multifilter 100's (MPH).
But you should forget this real cigarette in
the Eorthcoming considerations.
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Looking now at Fig. 3, we find that in the
model cigarette, 1000 mg of filler are burnt
in 10 puff periods, i.e.
1000 mg = 100 mg in one puff period.
Since we assumed before that equal amounts of
tobacco are burnt during and between puffing,
we arrive at '
100 mg = SO mg
for the filler weight burnt per puff, and at
50 mg also for the filler weight smouldered
between two consecutive puffs.
In Fig. 3, the grey zones symbolize the filler
slices burnt during the puffs, and the white
zones those filler parts that smoulder during
intervals between puffs. -
The model cigarette is assumed to be of the
traditional full-flavour style. By decree, we
determine that the total TAR delivery of the
cigarette is 20 mg, and the total CO delivery
also 20 mg. This is a reasonable assumption
for such a cigarette.
Since 10 puffs can be withdrawn from the
cigarette, each puff delivers 2 mg TAR
and 2 Ing CO.
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Let's suppose now that this model cigarette
is a real cigarette, with which an unfortunate
marketing director is expected to face a market
characterized by a growing low-tar cigarette
IIe urgently needs a low-tar cigarette in the
same pack, and requests a 10 mg tar cigarette
from the p-roduct development people. Going one
step further - and one ahead of the competition
he requests that the CO number be cut by half
Having read (and retained) the lessons of blocks
1 and 2, he rightly assumes that nicotine and'NO -
will be reduced by about the same extent. -
Last but not least, he tells the development
people that the new 10 mg cigarette should
have the highest taste impact possible.
tdltat the manfte.t.i.ng diAee-tot iuantb
TAR 5nom 20 to 10 mg pe2 eigaa.ette
CO 5%com 20 to 10 mg pe:e cigan.e.tte
withou-t ehang.i.ng the -tobaeco b2end, the
add i.tives, .the 5i.2#en ma.ten-i.a.2, the
c.cga!ce-t-te papen and the 5otmat ob the
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The cigarette development people can play with
only two capabilities:
1. Increase of the filter efficiency
2. Introduction of filter dilution
They started with filter efficiency improvement
11ow this tool works is shown on Fig. 4
We assume that the filter retains 10 mg tar in
the original full-flavour cigarette.
If the filter were cut off this 20 mg cigarette,
its tar delivery would become 30 mg.
In order to bring the tar down from 30 mg to
10 mg, it is easy to conceive - at least in mind -
a filter that picks up 20 mg of tar.
Unfortunately, the price to pay for achieving
the 10 mg tar objective is an unacceptably high
resistance to draw (RTD) of the filter, and
consequently of the total cigarette.
But worse, as CO is not retained by any filter,
the 10 mg tar cigarette would still deliver
20 mg CO.
Ilavin~ not achieved their goal for two reasons:
1. No CO rcduction at all
2. Too high cigarettc RTD,
the cigarettc-development people did not hesitate
and tried the second tool on their list, i.e.
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filter dilution, because they knew that
1. Filter dilution will reduce both tar and CO
2. Filter dilution will not increase but
rather decrease the cigarette RTD.
They hypothesized that a 50 percent filter di-
lution will achieve a 50 percent reduction in
tar and CO, and they based their expectations
on the convincing illustrations of Fig. 5, 6
Fig. 5 shows the principle of filter dilution.
As mentioned in Block 3, the smoking machine
takes a 35 cc puff from the cigarette. Filter
dilution is a device allowing a controlled
volume of air to penetrate through the filter.
into the mainstream smoke. Fifty percent dilution
means that half of the 35 cc puff leaving the
mouth end of the cigarette is actually air,
the other half representing the 17.5 cc of
(non-diluted) smoke entering the filter at
its tobacco end.
This means nothing less than a reduction of the
actual puff volume - i.e. the volume drawn
through the tobacco filler and generating the
smoke behind the coal - from 35 to 17.5 cc.
We learned from Fig. 3 that a 35 cc puff burns
SO mg of tobacco filler. This is shown in detail
in Fig. 6, which demonstrates also that another
50 mg of tobacco is consumed between two puffs.
But this relates to a non-diluted cigarette.