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Brown & Williamson

Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act

Date: 05 Mar 1982
Length: 547 pages
521054840-521055386
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REGL, REGULATION
BIBL, BIBLIOGRAPHY
DEPO, DEPOSITION TRIAL TRANSCRIPT
LIST, LIST
TRAN, TRANSCRIPT
LEGAL
LIST
Characteristic
OVER, OVERSIZE DOCUMENT
PARE, PARENTMN Selected
Named Person
Alger, H.
Ali, M.
Ayers, S.M./American Lung Assn
Benedict, C./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Blackwell, R.D./Oh State Univ
Blake, A./American Cancer Society
Blau, T.H./Pa State Univ
Bliley, T.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Brandt, E.N./Us Dept, O.F. Health And Human Services
Brown, C.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Broyhill, J.T./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Burke
Burns/Roper Org
Cahan, W.
Cahan, W.G./American Cancer Society
Cannon
Carew, R./Ca Angels
Carter
Chiltonx/World Health Organization
Coats, D./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Collins, C./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Collins, J.M./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Corcoran, T./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Dannemeyer, W.E./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Daugherty, R.M./Natl Interagency Council, O.N. Smoking And
Davis, S.E.
Dingell, J.D.
Eysenck, H.J./Univ London
Fisher, E.R.
Fisher, R.
Florio, J.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Forbes, E.R.
Forsythe, J.
Fromer, P.L./Natl Heart Lung + Blood Inst
Furst, A./Univ San Francisco
Gore, A.
Gramm, P./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Horrigan, E.A./R.J. Reynolds
Jackson, R.
Keeshan, R./American Lung Assn
Kisendavis, R.E.
Koop, C.E./Us Dept, O.F. Health And Human Services
Lee, G.A./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Leland, M./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Lent, N.F./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Light, L./Ted Bates
Luken, T.A./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Madigan, E.R./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Markey, E.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Marks, M.L./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Mikulski, B.A./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Minton, D./Magazine Publishers Assn
Moffett, A.T./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Moorehead, C.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Mottl, R.M./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Nelson, K.
Oates, J.A./American Heart Assn
Ottinger, R.L./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Penny, J./Office, O.F. Smoking + Health
Pollin, W./Natl Inst, O.N. Drug Abuse
Potter, F.M.
Rinaldo, M.J.
Ritter, D./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Rogers
Rogers, H./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Roper, B.W./Roper Org
Roper, B.W.
Rubin, E./Outdoor Advertising Assn, O.F. America
Santini, J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Scheuer, J.H./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Schweiker
Sharp, P.R./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Shelby, R.C./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Sommers, S.
Spielberger
Sterling, T.D./Simon Fraser Univ
Swift, A./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Synar, M./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Tarrantx/Us Dept, O.F. Health And Human Services
Tauke, T.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Tauzin, W.J./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Terry, L.L.
Twain, M.X./Natl Heart Blood And Lung Inst
Udall, M.
Walgren, D./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Warner, P.
Waterson, M.J./American Assn, O.F. Advertising Agencies
Watt, D.A.
Waxman, H.A./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Wende, E.
Whittakerhall, R.M./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Whittaker, R./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Wilber, W.S.
Wind, Y.J./Univ, P.A.
Wirth, T.E./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
Witt, S./R.J. Reynolds
Witt, S.B./R.J. Reynolds
Woolf
Wyden, R./Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
X/Us Subcomm, O.N. Health And The Enviornmen
X/Us Comm, O.N. Energy And Commerce
X/Nida
X/Us Congress
X/Us House
X/Dept, O.F. Education
X/Dept, O.F. Labor
X/Vanderbilt Univ
X/Gallup Poll
X/Pan American Health Org
X/Eec Parliament
X/Council, O.F. Europe
X/Us Dept, O.F. The Treasury
X/Sup, C.T.
X/Philip Morris
X/Hudson Gas, C.O.
X/Ny Times Magazine
X/Subcom, O.N. Oversight
X/Current Swe
X/Univ, C.T.
X/Harvard
X/Proctor + Gamble
X/Thomas, J. Lipton
X/Buckingham
X/American Jewish Comm
X/Touchdown Club, O.F. America
X/Ca Angels
X/Univ, P.A.
X/Univ, C.A. Berkeley
X/Public Health Service
X/Journal, O.F. Marketing
X/American Heart Assn
X/Stanford
X/Univ, N.V.
X/Univ, M.I.
X/Natl Interagency Council, O.N. Smoking And
X/Office, O.F. Management + Budget
X/Northwestern Univ
X/Us Appropriations Comm
X/Clearinghouse, O.N. Smoking + Health
X/Coalition, O.N. Smoking And Health
X/Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
X/American Cancer Society
X/Newsweek
X/Time
X/Los Angeles Times
X/American Advertising Federation
X/Assoc, O.F. Natl Advertisers
X/St Louis Univ
X/Council For Natl Academic Awards
X/Natl Center For Health Statistics
X/Mill Hill Emergency Hospital
X/British Psychological Society
X/Amerrican Psychological Assn
Attachment
158147
Request
E36
Author
Ayers, S.M.
Blackwell, R.D.
Blake, A.
Blau, T.H.
Bliley, T.J.
Cahan, W.G. Cancer Society
Daugherty, R.M. Smoking And
Devita, V.T.
Eysenck, H.J.
Forsythe, J.
Keeshan, R.
Koop, C.E.
Minton, D.
Oates, J.A.
Pollin, W.
Rogers
Rubin, E. Advertising Assn, O.F. America
Terry, L.L.
Waterson,
Date Loaded
23 Nov 1998
Litigation
10004026
Brand
Kent
Marlboro
Vantage
Virginia Slims

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Page 1: 0000158147
5~1054~40 -" ,L3V NOU, V3fla'-J NOP'~A~d-~0NS~AISI~'.~'K~O:) ." [-:i ~ .. i
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COMPREHENSIVE SMOKING PREVENTION ® Printed for the use of tI%e Committee on Energy and Commerce ~a
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COMPREHENSIVE SMOKING PREVENTION EDUCATION ACT ttEARINGS IL~;~ ORU ~I[E SUIICON II~,E ON IIFAI;I'II AND llll~, EN~III()NA~,NI (,0+~I~IIIILt, 0N ENLII(~'I ANI) C0~I.~II ll(1 ]I(IS~+ OF ]{]}IllbLNIAII~lb NINETY SEVI,;NTtl <;ONGI~I,;:~S ,RE('ON I ) ~E~f~ION ON tI.R. 5653 and II.R. d957 ]~TTI ~ ~l'O ~M ENJ ) "~'I I I1 l,L Jill(" ]IllAI 'l iI ~l:l{s* l (!1~ A("/ AND 'I £ [ ~ II!DI!t~I ( I/ikl~];l~l] IAIIIH,ING ANII AI)~I!I~JI:~ING A(!2 ~j'O ]:~1 /~ILI~II A NAJIONAI pI~<I(~ltAM tND~R ,\N I)FJ]UE ()F ~,MI ,KING AND Ill ; '~] 'J It '/O INt (H}M qHE pi'IH IC (~I' qH~: 1)AN. G Illl~ ]']£t~M S~-I~,IZ~ING, '1 (3 ('IIAN~II! '1 lII LAIIIII Ill QI'IIII!3IENT~ ~(lll (IGp, III;I 1'11S, AND toll OIIIIHI I ['Ill'(l~bXq Serial No. 97-10~ I'zqn[t*l for !he liar of tie COltLt ilia( OlJ } [ crg3 ~ILCl (7(~ll}][lelt~ t S GO~yI~TCMENI Z'I([N]}NG OIIICE i,a. g~ Of~ i"0
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CONTENTS A~]~ ~t~,!t~]: ~l ).I I~ ~l~i~c~,~r~, S~,O~:~ ~,r¸ }{~l~]k Cr,~l~sli~ l~]~,:k~ ~li ]/~¸ l) pl~r~r ~f nt:,ll~/~ O~l[i~ ~;I~!~ lJl~i~ r~ 4~ ~ / i~ r /~ JI]~r~J (; ~ ~i ]~ o:~ t~h~h[ o[ Af, ~r~'~l¸, ~,~,~t ~ ~,~ ~ ~ ]r~¸ I~t~ / t ,it ~ r ~:;i ~.~r:i ~r,d I;~l]Eh .... I',~ 11, \ i~, ]~: ~,~i~tL 'I [)ir~l~r ~;~r~[ ~.':~l~.r [E~(U~ I'UtJ]i, ~ ~ i ~ l[;ir~ ,1 ~'~ It I) ~= plt~l~ ~f ~y¢~(~/~1 I~;~l~¸ ,~f F!,~r ,~, [~[~,<1 A Jr, ¢~J~iE;~,ar~ ~d CE,[~I ~x~L~[~, ~,[t[c~ E~ ,I J~,; I~ ( Fv,r~~ ~r~ (;~,~r.,[ I%l~,~i¢ ]]CL~I~!L ~r~;~ I~':'EI !,I,it~r ~,t~i~] W:~!,iT~i~l~:, ~'~l~r~i]r ~'I~,~;~,~ ~'LI!~/;~ ,~l~ A~'~,C;~,li~':t ~i2 ']1~' U1
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t | ~ ~"~'~ T .,~g"~
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(~OI~IPREIIENS1YE S31OK1N(; PI~E~,'EN'I'ION EI)IJCATION ACT FI[II)A'J', 51All(!]l Y~, I!b~,? } [OIjS~: O~¸ }~ L,I¢~ g~:N [ A11~,~ q, CO~,!M[~ IK~: (1"~ ~NEE/¢I~¸ ANII (~O',lM~:tt/'~ ']~:!, ~lbeolltll/[~ec i/let~ l~ll~,uallt "~o ¢~tll a~ !}:~0 a It/, ilt iooI/i :~12:~, I~ybmn llot~e OlI~c~' IkllidiIlf~. Hon lk'my A ~ma~t [~Ii ~V~,XM~N q}le ii//~L{ll~' o~" ~}/e ~ut~/onill/iltee ~i]! ~Olne 1{~ orir( i lhi< Ir/oln~n~ ~h~' ~ublommiLt~e ~lil] I~c¢i~c Ic~irrIo:l5 ~,11 ]/~ I I!OLII~{ til(,l t~ ai~, Itl~lt5¸ Atllel ]catl$, itlclu/lili,_ sl~/l~k~,l~. ~lho /]oli'~ kl~i~/,¸ 1}~, ~q¢]irlol/itio!t '\V~/ll/iili~ ']he ~/ll!~t.oll (~,l/t,l~] }/~q ~]~{(i¸ i~ir,c~i th~ li~llt!tt~ snll~kirl~ is /]~lrtgt,ll~L~s to ~oul he~dl}l'¸ ~his i!~ttnil~ !~ now rt quil~<] ~ln all ~i~!ar~,tI(¸ p:~lkagl ~ anti ~dv~!ti~in~ ~J,ld }::l~ }K~,n t}l/, [~eal poht~ oi t}lt~ ]~'~c~l~l} (~o~t,lnlntllt'~ s!nc~kil~}~ e~t~L~ltt~)~l t ~{T~llJ~lgll ~JI¸ ~l~l¸ ~i t](,t'~]¢¸ (liecl /~ll }/tlnlan ~leal~ll In l~act tllo S~llgeo!l (;elltla/'s 1979 l(p~lt oll ~!~/okilL~ e}lal'ae(eliz~¢l lhe ~ciKh~ o~¸ ~i~lltiI~ ~,vid~lwi~ r~ail~t Jttst i~st ~'ek Sutgeo~ (~el~l, la/ C Ev~'T~tt K~JOl~ is~uecl a chilling tion~lip lle~wcell 8Ii/okiil~ ~Ii~ ii/l! ll,o~t l~!(,c] (i[~£,asl, c~l,:l r¸ 'l}le lepolt i~lo~idt,~ a ltlrt}lel confliJl/a!ion {~ I~lc tr~g~Jc fail t~i~lt srltO~[lJg i~ t]~(, ~,inKIe Inos{ prtv~lltltt~lt~ c~ltlf, e o~ dc~}i ~JliJ i]]lless irl I}/i~ c/~tllltly. ~'~1¢¸ I~lLO~lt fl~{s ~bot~I 8mot;[ng ailt] ]lca!t~i ale ll~a:tS; ,%ll/gkillg ~ll i(.~l!i(¸ li{e (,xpEctai1cy b5 ~ inl~c}l a~- b 3t~i:, It ~t~il~l~tic~llly /lt,~l~e ~lle p/l~ibilit3 t~i ~ni~h l~l~ l~ilths ol¸ el~,n ftlttl d~t}J J-~ /tlbltlell L~:-ill~ ~)i~l /~o~ttlit/,~pli~t,s, ~ll/okill~ ~,tl}~tatlli~lll~¸ ill(l~e~ A~ ] ~c,~, ~t l~t, li~ a!~. lwo ~]~!,ct~ t{~ t~li~ ~l~gi~l~l~i!~ll Fil~ il is nl~¸ ~eli~f t}~:~l ~}~ plest'lJ~ clgalc~te ~l~il~! I~l>t~l i~ ilol ~ el~c{i~e ~l~ il cokll({ o!¸ s}l(~l[~[ be It !-}l¢ltLl(~ I~¸ ~,~I£~IIKL]I<,[~/~ It ~-Ilotll/I [~e I~,pI~/ct,¢I ~y /I !,/,lie-~ oi }it L~IIll /~t~li~i[/~ ~}lic}l ~x[~:(~,, t}~¸ ii~ct> ~//~tt ~mokin~ ~m~ h¢'~[~}l m ~1 c/e~r ~ti~il;~lti<~E~al~[ r/i
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The hoMth w~tlnings should b~, dlsplf~yed on cigarette p~eka~., but in/oic~ itlqlOr(ulltly they should bc dis[~lf~yccI i~ll l.i~,~tli~[t(TM ndvl,iTM rising It Js cleat to I/le that the sophisllcale~l ill/~(,ry u~.l~d ill cigm,,tt( conlpauy ad~ertisenlents at( dangelouMy misleading The g(a/tb concel ns about smoking ate undel mined I,5' images alld inyt}ls that fit into the maz kcting stlategies of the tobacco inilustiy. O{11 sec'~md [)Ill pose this 11101 iI[t)[~ is lO detelmine Ihe f~lipiopziate F'ederM roll in stimulating gleMel lesezlreh on snlukir/g t~s ~el/ a~ ~(HkirlB with i}le ~o]tlrlt~ry health s~,c{or to premiere Srnfsklng e,clu Cc[i()n c'tlld ]~lc,~,(,lltioll ] believe this is a cJitically importald role tbl the ]'edetol Gel t.lnml,nt l,:stablishvnent in statute of" an Office on Smoking and Ilea[tb ~sill lJIevicle lhe necessary ~tabilil) to assme continuation of t}l£ [)e[l~lill/let/[ el tlealtb gl)d }lUtl/~ll ~erQces' iTIIpOItfl[~l ~ctix' ilie!; iTI lhis ~t oa. Todayi~ th( fnst of three heallngson tht Colnfncl~ensi~eSInok il~g Ihevtmtion I,;daeation Act What ~le ultivnatel3 decide v.i/I signal t~/c. COll/lllitnlpllt of tbi~; Congress ~lith i~,Sl)eCt to bt~a/tb [~1 o inotiorl end ili~ease pit venison. fir, fete iceogrtizh/g OUt witnesses, I ~otllc[ like to ~k thg,~ copi(s of fIR -1957 and till 5G~:i and ~ list ~f e~spon~ms b:, pHnted i~ the he~rir~ it,.'otcl Without objecti{m, thud ~i/l be [bp (llll(!t. I'l'l~c texl el ~he bills and COSl~onsors f~llo~s ] UI
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H. R. 5653 'lo aT~e~ th~ I'ub!i~ l[e~,ld~ Ser~i~e Art t,w] t[,c }'~d*rnl ('igare~!e ] ~ e~i,,~ ~lg ,~lld ll~t]~!i 1~ ihrurzll Lhe public o[ tie d~tl~r~ Ir~rh ~th0ki,~g I~ CI,~ ~ Ih~¸ ]abe] ~ui~t JlJC~J~s Io~ ci~r~ ~r,~ [or o[l~rr T, Jr[,~ IN TJI[; IIO|fSE OF ]{F, IIJCES}]NTAqq'~J;S A BILL 'Jo ~,~Le~d i!tc l'ublic llc31tlt Sol,Joe A{I ~td i]~ lkcl{,r~,/ lio~al l,r,~g~ ul~de~ ~J~ OIfice of Sm~ki~g a~t~} lle~lth to iiLfOrlTL ~l~t" ]ptl~]~ O~ tilt' dr~EIg¢~s frotll ~tt~oklIt~, Io qhaT~' the ]ab~l rt,q/Jirenlen~s fc>r *']garrOtes, ~Tid [c+r other pl~r- 3 Thftt ~hi~ A~t may bc citld a~ t~e "(~m~lr¢!wl~ivc ,Sm~irlg ]~re~'lJ~il>n]~ducatioI~Actof]~!~2''. 5 ,q~;l:. 2 The (!l~lJgrc~ fil:t],~ that ,¢.rl i.i, o ¢,tl ,4.1, c~
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4 2 ) (1} e~ar~tte smoking is the largest prevlq/l~b]e 2 ¢~use of ill,less attd premature death irL the United 3 S~ates al~d is a~socle, ted vdlh the utmeecssaQ dest]ls of 5 (~) $I[J(Iki]l~ iS the )lt~ll/b('f OD~ (~tli~¢ of lllfl~ 6 (ancer in the United Ststcs al~d i~ the msjor cause of '~ fhroIli[, ilbg~r4tt:(ivc ]ILTI~ di~lq~('s SLip~q ~5 ~][II]~Iy~QTII~; I'¢ (3) heart diseast aceo/m!s for ]Lear])r one h~lf of 9 th~ de~ths i,L this country ~lg] o]le t[drd of liege dc~tbs 10 src attribtd/tb]e Io sfJlokb~g; ] 1 (4) p[egJmnt xlomeI~ who ~lnokc are ~tt ~ hig]~cr 1~ ~[sk for lhe l,osslb~lit~ of spoht~n~ou.~ ~borlio]L still ]3 b]rihs, pr~!:tmtl2re b]rlhs, It:tO oh][d ~l~igl~ t]l[i[dc]:oie ; ]4 (5) x~olliel~ *.~ho takt bir(]~ control l,i/Is ~!ld smokt' 35 arc Iaor¢ likel3 to suffer a hc~r~ ~ttafk or stroke tlfftI~ ] (J ~loI[l/m ~ti9 (]o]l*t slrliil~(,; 18 x~hb a~ b~dhid,sl!s s~oU,g b~eresse subst,~Tttially t[,e ri~k o{ disease a~d death; 20 (7) p~c~tu~{ ]'cderal, Simile, I, nd p~i~atc iu]t~ati~c~ 21 Iis~c i~c¢l, il~suffil[c~tt in t'o:tx¢~i~,~ Ores,: ht'~lfl~ ml 22 ~gcs to the Atl~r]ial~ l,u[,lil: 23 (8) it ~s csl[m~ttcd (h~tt dg~rctte s~a.kittg roll, led 21 de~dh and d]ss~,]lifi{~ It!dr il~ $25,800,000,000 /,mu- UI i'¢ U1 g),
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5 2 aTLI] ~] ~,60~,OOb,O00 ill m~llca/ c~J~t~; UILrl {9) t,ocau~e eI t},e ~ove flr~aiil~, ~ JL~¸ ~Ir~Lt~¸ t~Oll I@ t}lc AnLorie~n ]3LI}lli~' lO ~]Io~v ~!l(l[i 1,~ I/igk~¸ in forn/I~ d(¢~oll~ ~ Ill ~liet}i(r (Jr ikot ItL(v ~hotll(} 1] "$~ ]711. (~} TJL~r~ i~ esn~hli~!LeJ iTL the l)~ll~ril~L~l~l ]2 O! ]ll~llh ~ll~ }lUminal/ ~er~ice~ the ()l!Jlt¸ of SfE~klrig ~LT~I }le~]t}l (}Jerchi~iftlq h/ t~Li~ ~lltiIJll r~ftl~(d iu ~ tht¸ 'Oll~e~'l 14 ~hieh ~}~][ ~e un~}er thl A~i~I~T~I Seer~l~¸ liar JI~IIIPI ~'lle 15 S~¢rctar~¸ ~}lall ~],po]Eit ~, J)ireetor Io IL(~!d the Offi/e 16 "fro 'J'i,e ~e~r~'i~r~¸, ~liT~' Ihr~,~gh t}~(' Office, ~h~l] ~- 17 l:lbl[sh mid ~¢llnlni~ler ~ progr~ni m i!Lform i}~l, l,ll]~]ic i~f t}Jl' ]!1 ¢~r~lL~ ~u~ I~Le p~ll~r~ml tht Seeretar~¸ ~tLal] 22 ~l}l[/]~ rela!~ to the etltet ¢,1 (q~/re[~ ~iuokllL~4 oil humlITI }li'llllh ~n~ ~'o!mJi:L~te, I}Jruu~}L I}l~ ]h~t¢'l~f4, ]l/~ 2t ('(mml]lt~e rm ,~niokllJq iL!ld Jle,~]t}l, such ~lutiv]ti~t 25 with ~iiEJil~r ~ctll Jtie~ ~ otlL~r ]'e(]!r~d ~l.~[~ ~; (/1
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6 4 "(2) estr~btislt ~nd mahtlrdn a llrd~o~J ~itlt ~ppro- ipri/ll~' i~ri~lo ctlti~ip~,, oilier J'~dt, r~l ~/z~l/~i/~, tqlld ]Blhlg to ~lte e[Ieet (if eigaret[e ~moki~tg on hum~n hen](h; "(~) coltcltlet re~ec, rl:h i,n the ~'f~lt ill li~lrttt~, ~nmkilg (~n }l/retaiL heall]l, d(~/Io]~ lJlat,'ri~l~ for in !1 s~Etll¸ I/~r t, th~l,alion t~rog~tiJ/s oii ~n/ok]IJg ~nd he~l(ti; 10 "(4) eoll(~et, ~Tl~/~z~¸, ~itl] ~li~!lm[Tl~lllTM (t}l~(itl~it 11 ]mIi/ie~tion~. billlloglnl,}lil~, ~lld olh~rwi~lTM) i~forrn~tlioJl, 12 stlldlc~, fltld otht, r (]~tfl r~/~t[tlg to I}le e[Ieet ¢~f civil. r~t[e SEilO.k~fl~" on ~ktlll~ll/ }J(il]th, el~(~rdilt~ittTM I}LI' iltw]. 14 I~pml'l ~ (~ mntl'rill/i im SmOkiTIg ~llr] hc~:]th liIli] ~]tvrl op ~ltl~da!d~, ~ril(rla, llll(] II~t t}lodolO~'ie~ for [mirrored I(; iT~formation l~rogr~tEl~ rllat(~d to ~m0khi~ and ]t~lth; 17 end "(5) ¢umpi[e alld ir~r~e ~i/*q]~le iltformatilblb OIL 19 ~:a~l~ and h;t'al la~s le]ating tii thl~ sale, clistrihuli/l:k, lifo ~llfl t, oTl~lmliit[r~n of eigzqrc't[e~ 21 The ~te~tt~r~TM rtLay e~rr~ out p~ragraph (,~) d~r~tl~ ~IL(I 22 I}l~ough gr~llt~. 251 "((I 'l'(i el~rty i~ttt Iht~ eoordin~li/nl ~(t[~[tiq,~ ul.~li,r thlTM progr~l:/ (~t~bli~tted ulld~'r su~J!eel]o:l (1/) lhoriTM i~ ~!t~lbli~I~id UI h~ ¢.rl
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5 1 Iompos~d of one r~prescnt~ti~e from each of th~ follo~slug: 2 The I'edend T~llde Conm~i%ion, thE~ ]h~p~ru,tem o! ]hlu~a- :4 ii~J~t, lhc l]ep,~rtmHtt of ]~abor, anti any other }ederM ~g~nc) 4 designated b3 the Seeretl~D The (!ommittee sh.dl me~t at 5 least four times each 5(.8r and tl, ])[r~etnr uf the (Iffie~ td £. .qlnnkirl~ and Helhh shall serle n~ t~e f~hnirm~n nf lhe (olri 7 n,iIlee. 8"(d) The Socrelar)', acting through the Offifu. Sill] f} llm~rnit n report tn Cortgres~ nnt later thnn .lalmur> 1 of 10 ea(h )t~/r which sha![ c(~lttaill I I '(I) eurrunt information Oil the he/dth ~on!e- ] ~ q/ll [tilS IPf !llll}kilk~ 13 "(~) au o~er~i~ of tile Itetixitics of ttte Office 14 dllr]llg 11~{' ]JIt~IOUS ~filr and ~n ~sses~llltld of thl 15 }'elIer~d 9¢ti~Jlies urd~/l~ko.i to irlforu/ l]lU' public of 1 G ~ho lit filth fOIl~t~qtlPILfO~ (If snLOk[ng; mid 1'~ "(~) su('h teeolnllleq(lMi~tlg for [egislatloIi ag t}~e 1{4 .~/olet~l.I lu~3 corl~ider Iqq~loprlatl " 19 (b) 81effort 170l(b) of tl,e Pub)ie }lenlth 8lrHle Ae: i42 20 U.~q,(L 300u{b)) i~ amended by s:rlking ou¢ "~t~¢l 1709" ~td 21 incrLil~gi~llilut}~ereof"l~O!l, Hqd 1711". ~Y (u) 'J'hc lurlerJdilellt ill:de [9 subsuelion (~l} sIilili tllke ~'3 efJeel October 1, lftS,% UI 0 {a g~ u1
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8 £, S.~.c. 4. (a) St.ctio~, 4 of th(, }'eder~l tliD~rcll{ ]*it'c,eli~g ard Ad~erti~i~g ke~ (15 US(~ 1333) i~ aT~,crlded Io ~ead ~s "SEo. 4. (a)(l) Jl she,]] bc mlla~hd fc~r ~mv l,~r~or~ to (; lEtl~llllI~(tL~r¢, pEt¢~8~ej itllpo~(, 0~ exporl ~,r Sale, or di~(rihL/ ~ort~li¢~ ~v~th ll/e J'e(]t~irellleli~ ~,t s/ib~eclloil (b), ol/i¸ ill lh~¸ I~,tJf¸] slu~f~lrll~llts ]istt'd hi lhe ~!l/)~;llg l,~r~lgri/ph~: 10 II 12 1,'3 14 15 16 18 19 ~0 21 ~5 "(A} ]'or it~lormat;mt o*~ tits Sl~tCitie 1)aT~g~ss of I!~iEed ~q~s I'l~bllc lle~hh Scrvlee, ~sltir~glt)~, Did- tract ol (7olul~lbia ~0201 "{]lJ ~,~'ar~dr~g: (:igor(Ire s~/~i~Lg i~ the I,Lm ~er '~((~) ~ arni~Eg: (!igarelte s]~okil,g is ~t n,~ljor ~:,us~¸ of Ileart ])isease ~E,iol.ed, f4~iltiEIg IIO~¸ grt~I!3¸ lr~d~(t~ lhe r~!k~ Io your ~(iTl~¢lt m~3¸ re~Ltl{ ill ]~irlh l)('fo~ (,~ ~I,01~a~LIOLI~ Abc~rli,~a "(]~ W~rJ~i~lg ~igi~re~l/¸ sn~o].h~g ii~J~¸ /a!~!t¸ UI i,a, U1 6'0 C,'/
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9 "{(J) "~Var~dT~g: Oiggrelte ~mokh g is ~dd[¢t~e lind '2 'aill injure y~tur he~flth. "(2t It ~llal] b~ t~ii/~IuI ~o~ ~l~.v porsoIt t~ 1~t~ltu[~(turt,, 4 l,a~k~gt,, import, or eXl,orl ~,or s~le or ~slr~llt]oll ~n~ I[gs- rl [(l~ l]~l~ iJill,lal/~o of w]lie}l fa~]~ to ~c~-, ilt ~tet'oz'd~iJ/e with I; reg~l,~ti~ms i,IL,~,u]g~le~] u~,der ~ub~ection Cr~i, .~ I~bol ~hleh "~ ~det~tlfle~ ~¢~', chel~li¢~/I sub,tidiness t~e iilleJtde~ ~se of ~h[Ih i~slrl[~ ol¸ tll~¸ rt'~olt~/Jl5 }~e ex~l/et~ to re~t~l~, ~i~o~I!~¸ or III t}~ ~h~ete~i!Iils of the I'igarettcs Tt~e ]'~t'r~l ~l'r~de (?~,~tl J ] iEtJssion ~,]~al/ promu]gate rcgu]~til~n~ i~rvstribJl,l~ l}le fo~lJt v~ 12 O~e l~he~ req~tired },y thi~ par~gr~pk. 11 ~ig~!~i~tle u~ll,ss tlle I~11 er~i~ilLg bi,Jir~, iT~ lil/,~lrl!nlt</~ ~!h l~,t¸ 16 I,ara~raI,h~ Ill ~,nd (~'). 1'7 'qO0 q'll~, F~,der~il ~'r~,de ~2ommi~ion sl~]l establish 1~ ~tem unf]er ~hleh J~l "(1) e~e}l brand of e~g~et!es ~t~d ~hc ~rli~[T~g 21 [,er~od ~eg~l~lti/~g ~[[er the ~lem i~ m~d~¸ ~I,pl[l~b!t to J[j [~e~l i,aoh i~/t}Jl¸ ]~tl~i/ ~t~ttell~ejl~ ]i!teli ill ~tit~/,llJo]! b~ 0
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rI ]0 8 ] "(~) no bran3 of ei~r~tte~ or its ~d~ert]sh,~ ~hall 2 bear one of the label ~t~tenw]~t~ ]iRe~ ]o ~uhsectlon 3 (a)(l) for ~ peri<td grvMer thor* OTle year, 4 "(3) in an5 )e~ar, cad, h'bel stM~mcnt li~led i~t 5 subsection (~)(1) shall ape,ear on Stlbst~mtlnlb lhe sau~c 7 "(4) t]te label statemelit~ shall be Io~t,..d in a (4 ~,OILS]r~t!U~IU:. Illicit On eHIh ligart;ttt' phi'kilter' ~llt~ ib 9 e~l'h clg,~ret~e advtrtlsh~g ~nd ~h~/I ~I,pear in eon~pku- 1U ous and legible type in (oJmtr~t b3 t3p~;gralih), l.youL ] ] ~TI(] (o]or w]t]l ~ll otht, r ]Jr]rll~,d or |~aekgfotllt~ l/latt~rla[ 12 on the package or ill tho advertising, and ]3 "(5) the lahel stutemela~ on paG,~g~s of vig~ I4 reltt'~ ~or exi~or~ from Ibe Ullit¢~ ~ltes Sh~/I b(, ],rhtl- ]b ~ in the prh~<[t,al )al/g~g~ of l}ie couiitr) ~o ~]llCl, ]l~ t]m ci~arf He~ are cxi;orled ]'~ "(e) Jt ~,ha![ be unlawful for an) persotl to ll~anufl~et~re, 18 package, i~,q,orL or export for sale or dlstrlbt~tlnn ~n) ciga 19 r~ttt's the palk~,~t~ ant] adl~rti~hlg nf '~bil.h fniqs to di i]I,~i 90 the level o~ P] "(]) btr, 22 "(9) nicotine, s~d 23 "(:l) e~rho~l ~t~o~,oxlde, 0 UI O0 O~
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II I IPr~pl]111~'~ h~¸ the ci~'arcil~ ~'}Icle ~rilci~e(] ']~h~' [c'vl¸] I~[ 1~r, ,q I'~la],!i~]i~'d aT~llu~ll~¸ b~¸ tl:' ]:~d~ral Trl~de (!i~lii1~li~oll ". (() ~c~tio~ ~ o! ~LI~}L Air (15 US.C I~31;i i~ (]) I~ ~!rlkin~ out ~u~ti~i I~!~ (~) ~ ~tr]~ oL~t ~']l~c(i,l ~ I~r~d~] ~ ~I,~'(¸ idl ~ti~1~ S c~f ~IC~L AC~ (15 U.,~.(~ ]~3~) i~ :~I~L~L~ l,y ~IrlklI~ OL~t ~lJb~'Itio1~ (~) told ]J~ ~r[kin~ ~llt '~(I~)" (C) $ect~o~ 9 of ~:h Act {15 U~(3 J~) i~ ~i~L~d IJ~¸ ~[ri~i~L~ OUl ~*$i0,(I~)~)" ~TLI~ irL~r~i[L~ ill ]i~'U tlL~'r¢~! if~ ~I'~ti~11 I(I ~f ~uch AC~ (15 LJ.S.(~ I~19) i~ ar~i~'T~I ~ ~J~ ~L~erti~1~ "(~)" ~ftc~ '*,~l~c. iO." ~iid I~¸ ~diTL~ at t]L~¸ ~!ILd lll~l~¸ II~tILi~iIII('I ~. CiVil ~('~i~II ~ll~t ~li~¸ I~(r~I~h ~]~(~ ~ ~I- OD
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12 10 1 vlol~tiol~ Airy civil action ut~cler this paritgr~ph shsll be 2 hrough~ i~ the Uiiited ~t~tc~ I]i~Erlct ~o~rL for thc distrlc~ i~/ wltich thl~ ~ll~i~ll vhlhitillin o~e/irrec] or ill ~hith the d~feltd~ ~1 ~ltt r~sltlc~ or irL which the defeiLr]~rlt'S t,rlncila~l t~scc of hu~iI~s J~ Ioe~t~, ~'h~ di~trlet ¢ourLs of th~ UzJi~ed ~qt~t~ G ~h~/I h~ve jLir~l[eI~ll over SlL~ bro/tght Ilndcr ~h~ l~ar~ ~l~I~h ..vithotlt rt~g~tt~] lo th~ ~rllOkl;/t itl colltrover~x¸ i}~ t~l~ (~ ell~z~TJ~tJi[, of the p~rtles. ]TI ~11~¸ civil aefi/m u~d~l Ihi~ p~r~ [9 graphr urole~ i/l~¸ be steroid oil ~ d~lJd~l~ hi l~ll~¸ jLit]ic~] 10 di~lricl it~ ~hich ~h~ dc~/d~t~t rcsidc~ or IEi~y be ~ul,d i~l~d 1 ] ~ut~Ii~'~s ~r wirelesses ~sy bc s~rved i~ m,y juc]ichll di~ ]2 t r~l:t. ]~ "(~) ~o civil ~lctiolJ IIh~¸ he I'OIE/t~tt'II/LeCl tllnl]/r ]l~r~J- "{A) befitr~ the ~x[pir~lli~rL ~f si×t~¸ ~]~t~ ~fte[ the, ]8 ~l~111tiff h~ given llol~ec of such ~iol~t~ol, (i) to lhe I"ederal 'l'r~d~ Co~i~sloih ~v~cl C) to the [,~r~o~L ~ho i~ a!L~d to h~ colll~ittcd ~/Le]L v~lioJl, or "~) il the A~t~rllr2, (Ji~llrr~l/ h!l~ el~i/~llJ~ilcel] iliad i~ ~ili,~elLtl~ I,ro~ecu!il/~ ~ civil ~cl~ol~ in ~ eo~trt of ~!ll¸ l~!itlte~ ~ll~I¢~ to require coll/pIJ~nce ~l~ttt sellit~n 4 tJr I;, h~tt i( ml~h procet di~l~ ur ei~iq ~cti~ll i~ coJl.l~elleed ~fl~r ~tll ~VillE oi l/otiee, ~T~y l~l,r~l~ll Ei~he~ ~ln/h llo~]e~ I/~y iEllcr~ertc it! fl ild~ltter of ri~'hl ill ~t~llJ pril~ ~n ..d
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18 11 I ~oti(e ml~er t}l]s I/fiT~,/~rit~h S}/Ftll ~e ~,t]~('II ~lJ Sll£Jt IIKIIII/L'~ lIB 2 the ]'cderM ']'r~d~ 00remission sha]l prescribe b', full, "(;4}(A) In aT~y acl]on m~der pan~glaph (l), lh~ ]'el](ra] 4 Trade (ol]Jndss]olq if lIOt Et l~art5, ma) intelvene as a ]m~tttr 5 of r]g]ll 6 "(I~) The court, in issuing nny final orde~ in nn5 ~cllon 7 hrlngLt ],ursuant to p~r;~graph (I), nln3 av, ard iosls uf SLfit S ~nd rt ~sonttll]t~ fee~ f01 &tt0/llC)~ alt~ e'q<tt ~itlle~ses if Iht: !) eout~ d(qeradn(,s tht/t such lilt ax~srd is 8pproprk'tt( Alt~ i0 col,rl, in ]~s th/g it~ de/Me, h, an action blought to reqe~ ] ] ~[R}I i1[[ Or[ll'[~ [[I ) dl~]Jrtl I'{)~[S (Jr ~LI]t ~I[Id r(q]~oN~i~p]l [tN~ 12 for ~dIOHICSS if th( eottr[ delcrtrfin(~ ttm~ Ll(h ~tlI [~XK~tt([ i~ J:l ,~J,propr]:d . II '((?) Nothln£ in this seei~m sh.II ~strk't a~3 rigLt 15 ~Q~[e}l ,tI~ tlorsoll (f~r ([~ of ],/r one) may }l,l'e m,{}t.r ~:~) ]~ S[~ULt Or £OHIIIIOH ]~5/ ~O $C£~ (IltOrCel]iCIR O[ Se¢[]OI~ 4 Or G l'/ Or I0 seek ah? Ot!lcr r¢]ief ]~ "(])) Whelt twtt or lnorc till] ~ctlon~ brought under 19 p:m~g~al'h (D b~v/,lvi~,g the same @h~d~nt ,md the s~r,~, 20 issur~ /~ Gr~lnfiol~s ~ne 1. riding in t~. ot mote jt~dk'iM db 21 triets su(h p(nl]]!tg Ilction~, uprm al~pli( Itiol c~[ u(h dtfehd- 22 lilts to ~II(}t ~(t]0hS ~,~Jt{ih ~s Inad¢ tc~ ~ (.ourL ]:t 5, h]c]~ al) '2,~ ~mh nctiol: is brr*ugl:t I,9, if s~teh Iour/ ir~ it~ d] (rct]l)~ st) 91 deedv , L I¢lns,i]]d:l( ] fill iri!] ~*) t~rtJt'l (]: tl((l !tftt'l" gi/ill~ O UI ~') 6~
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it, ld 12 1 ~]] ]mN[t~ rtiFoll~b]c i~ol;et ¢~lld Opp0NIIIt]tl 10 b( ht,~dl of 2 StU~h our( and tr]~d in- 3 "(~/ mtb d[sltlII xxhie}t i~ stq¢/trd h} stl(h dlf(It2 4 lift1 ~/nd in "./hilh om I~I mlt'h liliioits i~ pl'nt]iltg. 5 "(ii) ~ distrld v, hic}, i~ a~tll.d ttpOh },2 slipul~lios {; bc.h~ec~l nil tb, lmrties tel s/itl~ ~(dOrl~ air;1 ill ~i&h 7 0[Lt Of yLI{II [~(t[0llg i~ pOIt(]ill~', or 8 "(ii{I ~ dMrict :dddJ i~ s(Icoted b3 the (',u~t ~,~ [~ in x~hi(h OIll~ ~pl su¢'h : (tittlt~ i5 plllt~i]:g. 10 'l']tc (ourt issub:g SLICh ~n order ~ha/l g]v(" i,rm q,~ ltolifltldi0n l] of IIW orrior to l}m othe~ ~OLIr[S il~ ~lhi/}n th( (]li] fl(t[on5 12 cem~o][dlte~] und!'r Ih( order ar( l,~ndmg ". l',l (g/ S(xtimt 11 of such Act (15 IJ.$,(. 13102 i~ r(p( ded I~ lind ~/clio:, I~ of sneh A(t i~ redc~ig,mt~ :~s ~rlti~m I1 15 SI;o. 5. The a~rlendT/i(l,ts ]~de l)2 sceti(,], .~ s},ll t~ke 1 [; t'ffect ttllO/t t]ie (,xpir~llon of the Oil(' )e~l ~EIliOd [ic'~!~ralllrl~T (ITI I 7 the dt~tl ol t}w ctm(tltieltt (,f this Act. ]}ttrlr~t.' tl]~ ~m('.~£~r 18 I,crlod, tl~c t'cdcral Trade Cmmni~sk,~t shall prmr~ulgat( su(1, 1~) I~l'~illltiltllS ~tg IiH~ t~{ iit~llgsir~ 10 iTIIpll!lla(!II~ ~lJl tlrH(/id '20 ment~ hi,de b) seelion 4 on thr'ir e fflmlll e d~lt(. UI ba CD ¢q g:, r.n
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I5 H. R. 4957 lid I[L~[dl ~,, mt,,~L,, ~h~ T u~,!~ ~/ tl~ d~E,~r~ i:,,TL ~T~,k ~ I,I ~l, Ig, ~h¢ IN Till', ]]OUSI: O] ]IEI~I/I]~I;NTAIiVES Nr ~ ~!ll~ ir ~r~dt~c c~ tl/ ~lI,J~ ir g bill; ~,hh ! ~,~ r~ ~, r~l I,, t!L~ ~'~ u, r,i i~ A BILL To ~m,~al the PulAil' ]Ieahh Sl'r~i(c AIt a~d 1he t'¢d!rid Cigarette |~a'~clirLg and Ad~erliSilLg Ae~ to establish ~ na~ t~o~l t,rogr~m u~der ~ O[liee of Smol~h~g ~md ]h,~th to ir~form tile ~/Jli~ of ~he d~ngcrs ~rom smo~i,hg, tv ch~l~e I}Ip ]~i~lp] r~l/Llir~lll~llls for i~i,~lrt,t[t ~ ~IlUl for ol~ll r ]IIII[~U~F.~ 1 B~ it r;~ocl~d L~ l~e 8c~h¸ ~d ]tv~s~ o/ l~,7~;~s~d~ 3 "l'hot thi~ Act ii~¸ bc c[t~d ~ the 'L(~ompre}L~l~!ivc ~m/,kiT~g N~;e ~ The I-~ul!gless fil~tl~ th/~t U1 La ffl
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4 5 6 .q ]0 I1 ~3 14 16 19 20 ~q 22 23 P4 ] '2 3 16 2 (D cigarette sml~kil~g i~ the lalgest pt¢~tLt~b]e ~U~e of i]/,es~ ant] ],rematur~ tieath in thl Unitld S1Mes and is asso(:~Med with tht' tu]tlc(~$s ~l\t" ~oM]I~ ot (2) sn,oM.g is the r,umber one cause of luug t,~llct, r in I~,C United ~t~tl(8 ~ii~] ]s lit(, lu~tj(~r (~/lse of c~tr0I]i~ OI)MrtlQ~iVf~ hH]g (]i~,(~tSt'$ st~ch [k9 (Ill~b]l~l'][Itl; (~) I£fftTI d]sesg¢ tH(0UTI~ [or IICOFI5 (1tic h~ll o! tht &;tth~ in th[~ eem,tr) n,d olt~ third ~]f the!( dcM},~ ~rl' attrit~l~ta},le ~(, snlc, kin~ rNk fer thr ],osgib]llt5 o[ ~p0nt~t:e0tt~ tthort]on ~ti[I t~;v1}19, |,rlmotur~ b]rll,G imr] C]L~ld x~l']ght difk[eneic~; (.5) ~/l~lllen wht~ tlkt bhth c~mlug 1.[]k trod ~rllO t ,ql# ll~ore ]IC]5" lo s/dR'r ~ ]~(arl Mt~ek ov stroke thau i/t3iiiCl] ~1]'~0 dilil~t gt/Iokl: It]) /'Prhl[lt ~l~up,l][nl~] hazarl]~ in i.~mjt!nerim v, lth an ir~di~idu!d's sm¢~kit g iuer~ e stlh~taulit~[[~ tile ri~k of di~cgl!e oT/d dc,tth; {7) iirest.n[ |'e3!n]. SHt/ nrl~] pri~me ]n]t]oti'.t~ ]l~c been iu uffiiicnt in Io;tvefing t]ic~t },e;dth i.es- ~ages to the AIt*er[e,m ]lUb![e; (S) it ]~ ~sfimMed that cigarette srnr~k]llg nl~tH~ dtatiIs trod di rO~ litii'~ re~uh h, $'2,"),80LI,(KI ),00 I ~rJl~l. 0 ~q
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17 ~llly irl [o~ i~r(l~lli~ril,it~¸ tel ~ii! ~llili~i ~t~ti's i~o1!qJirl~ ~d $I~ I;{l(t qlIl(),O0(l ilL ]III~(!a] (!I~tS; II]I11 i~)) liI~:un~l' I)f file ~LIII)~I fili(lln~ ~I !I~W ~Ir~L!E~y shoL~]ql ItI' 1111d(~rt~ikcn i(l i!rl~¢~lh, ~n~ ]~1(b¥i~]~ i[JforITl:l 5 Liilrl I~ I~iI¸ Al!ll~ri~lUl Iml~l~ Ill ~lllo~ thief I() 1:la~i¸ ill f~rnlel] !II'~!i~ll!~ as t!) !l]id~her ~i! nut til(~¸ shi~1~i[ srrlil~(~, ~u~¸ !~ (:i) 'J'itl~' XVI[ ~f i]L~¸ i~1~F)l!f~ ~]~J~h ~(~i(~. Act ~ :I!II(~BIII~ (] FI~, :n,lI~h1~ ~i~ 11ilTM r,l14 t!LITM f~JI[~,~i11~: ] i "~(', i 71 in) T}i('ri~ is ~q~Lll]i~h{<J [11 lh~' J)~'p~Irinl~!i! I:! ~tTM E~:~JEh ~r~] I[i~i~:i~ ~r~i~,~ lh~ ~)ffi~TM c~JTM ~n~kh1~ lui~i I~ ~h~t]f[~ IIii,ri~i]l:li~r in 1}:is ~(!iti!~]L T~,f(,rr{(] !i~ ~i~ rFL~TM OiiiLi'J ~i,E1~'d~]r~ ~h:lll ~i)i~rlt a ])[If!it:~[TM tel ~li,~ lJ 11~' f}i~i(~' '(]~i T~ ~'~'{~Lr~ ~1~'tiTl~ li~r~U~il I]~' OfIE(~TM, ~h~11 ~ (1~i]~i~]~ t~ hLm]~iT1 h~ahh [Ire~i']iI~!{ )~ ~i~InL'E[i~ SUlIII~iB~ hL l!i i:Ir~I£ !i11t ti~' ~r~I~m thl~ ~ e~I~:ir~ ~h~L]l ~2 28 21 "(i} (,EloriLin;ii0 ~]i rl,i(~rl,}! ~l!lql ILIIILI';J i~!l~Li ~I~I ~ra]~s anl<l t)t}]~[ L~nvi:i~ ~vh]li~1 f]/~, I}eI::EU[I~rN ~l[~Ii r~qall, t,, tLc t,ffqLt ~ i!i£~l~,Ll( srn/~ki:~£ ~r/ I'~/r/rlLi!tl'~ i~rJ ~'ll/oklu~ It//~ JJl'~h, ~LI(]: :l~t]qtie ili!l ~ll~Hal" ~l,~i',[Til~ a" OI!/~r ]?l,l~Lr I~ ;I (q li~':
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18 4 1 "(2) establML gmd nmint~.in a liaison v. ith at,pro 9 l,riatc prixate entities, other ]'e~}lra] agtneics, ant} 3 State and Meal public agencies r~sl.tcth,g aeli~ilit~ r( 4 ]lzfing to the ef(eet of cigarette snmkiug oll tillTll!ltt r~ health; £ "(3) cot&let research o~l the ifftlel of lig~lre**c "f smoking oTt tlttllltltt hl~h/h, dcxclop mat(riMs for ill 8 fonMvg the public of stJ(h effvet, al~d t,r(,Hde ass[st- !~ 8llte for edt~eatioll progralu/~ OIt ~ll]0~,illg fllld }'U~][[I; l0 "(4) (ollect, I~Ifft]~z¢, and dlss(nt]ri0tt {titrou~h 11 pulqieation~, tiihliog~al,!des, t~rld otherl~i~e) {[dorRte([on 19 studies, and t~ther d~t~ rilatiltg to the ~fitet td ~iga- 1:~ rette smok[llg Olt ]tLllll~ll ]tea]th, coortItlJ[tt( llt(: (](/0] 14 (ipllleld of materinls cm smokilig fittd hi,a/t}b *rod dt/el ],~J Of st*~lac]srd~, ¢rillr~a, altd nle!}nodo!¢*i(s for improlld 1(; illf(IrmlIIiOti pr~g.rams rtlMt'd t0 ~l/l(h/~ll~ ~]HI ILl tdih; 1"/ aftd 1~ "(G) iOnlp]le and iiiftke ~*a[[*:tll¢ illfor~rtat;0n Olt 1~ ~IE~(~ altt] ]0esI /a~s rd tillg tlk lilt ~tx]t~, di irlb/~t{l/lb ~0 IIS(, 8hal 00hStlll/I~[]0ii (d clg~rcttes ~1 ~l'hc ~t~eret~r) ittlQ curD ,oral imI.Fctq~h (~) d[r~Hl~ eqd "((') rJ'o (!~[f3 od tht (vurdhlathm ~c/]Hfi/ ItlCl(i t]~O prograu~ established under gtal,st¢tiola ~[') 0tt I~: ] t : d~ll.h!d azt ]nttld~lew~ (onlulittee on ,q:rmkh,~ ~ttld ]l~ath t. be UI 12 ¢.n ~o
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Ll3 '.H ¢',Z L~ ",, [ [ L [ pule '~]I)L [,, lo~Jalll na!l/l! ~flc!]~,~ll! [g IJ"ll ,~3OLl ?=~1~ inu ~l~!'l!J~ ~q popu)u;~ ~! ((,])l~0(ig ~)S.I 0g gI> laV ±J] ~J;)~ qlpaali oII,U~& orll ;o ('UIOL[ u,>!lao9 ('41 Ill prl¢ ',~upI,iLUS jo ~]ouonbtsr(o~ ~(iL~Ol[ 0ql ~1 jo )}I,HI~{ )ql i~lSUju! 91 ID'l~luplm so]lT~]$/~ ]~'a)pa/ UI ,~1[] t0 HI,)U; )$ig II1~ pLIIJ JL¢~( ~rlO!I,)H] ,~[1 ~l[!l[l~l [ [ =~I~!~L0/IR; jO ~})!I01[TI ~] 1 )srJu,) L{LL~/2r[ o~[1 rio I[O!]ul[lloj~[! ]rlL?l~O ({),~ [{ u!~lno) ][oq8 IIo!~l',~ rot< II/~o ~!I Jr) [ (JwII]l~[~ I]?¢1[] ~o1~[ ]oll s~,~3~llOl) I)l ]J¢lfJ)J II l!)l[~lJ y;} (j "a,] II!UlLn'/ ) ]o ,IIUJ0 oqI jo ~o!0~[!([ o~p p~2 usa( ,ta~a a~u!l moJ 1~1 ()uo~tl l~o~a [ ~oq~o ~ug pu ~ '~oq '[ }o IIIOtliI~g~ I([ ;]1]1 't[I)[l ~,)N)[[ j() lu,),uu~,l)([ ~'U '.~)]ss!.mm;) .~l.uj. /~U,)lH [ ~qb g :~u[l~ol{o; ,)~[l jo ~{./¢o ~12c±21 o~!}81ll,~)]~[,)~ o[lo Jo DI O~[/lO,) [ 6[
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2~ 6 J EqLA]~E j ING 2 "S~,(~ 4 [~)(1) ]l sh~l/ I~ u~/l~B~ful f~r ~LI~)¸ t)t~r~l~J~ ~ 3 l/i~ll~f~cturt', p~c~,~g~, il/i~orl, or ~x]:o~t for ~llk or ~li~Ii~lu- zi tloi~ ~l~ ~ig~rell~s Ihe i~ac](~g~L of ~hich f~ils t~ beav~ ill ~(.- 10 lllct ol (~/lll/lll!n ~/)~(~l. ~l~(. ~!l~(~ o~ ~l/ll~ll~ ~T~i~ ~l~(~ ]~iJtl~ (~ii~r. ~'((~) ~, ~rJLhl~; (~i~i~rl~e ~iJl/~kill.~ i~ ~ lli~j~r c~ll~ 14 t)f ]l~arl J)i~,~s~. ~Jl/o]~ee]~ qlJill~ll~ Jl/~ ~t/~El~¸ r~dLJttk~ lllC riik~ ~O ~,Lll ~OnL~n nL~y lC~U]I iEL }~ift]i ]lL~ftk(t~ ~t~ *%~i~II~ll(~/~iL~ "(]'1 "~;~r~Li~Lg: (~i~'~lr~lt~, ~l~]~i~ l~,~¸ ~ '~(2) ]t ~h~l] b~ I~i];~ ~d f~f J~l~¸ t~ r~ I~ ~1~]~ r~i~, ~ fig~r(kli(~ (11~1¢~ t~le ~([~t ii~iEig ~(~ ill ~(¢oit]~L!l((~ ~lll (l~l¸ UI t.z.
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21 7 rellLlireuleJIts of subsection 0;), a ]abe] statemellt IMed in t,sn~grvplt (1) "~7~) The ]'ederM Trade (~Olltmission shall estsblirh s s~stem under s~bk'b- 5 7 !) 1(I 11 /2 11 15 I0 19 211 22 2~ 24 "(1) ea(h brand af ei~rttte~ *ql,t~ the ad~e,li~htg FO; e~oh brsIit~ Of ei~'~rettc~ sha]]~ ]l] e~eh six~cnr i,erlod beghinhlg after the ~yslent i~ m~de applieabh, Io il, bear e~ch of the ]sbel s~atemen~s listed in ~lJbseetio]~ (.)Nb "12) no [,r~,ltd tJf elgureltts or its ttd~ettishtg shMI b(ar oslc of the label statement~ listed in m~bse~tlol, 0d(1) h~r a ].God gre~ter titan une )e r, ",'3) h/ air3 2ear, each label st~e~mnt li~led ir~ H~hse( ;on (a)(1) sb~ll apj,c~ (,n sub~t~,n~ialI?~ the saute "(~) the label statenwnts shall be located i~ a ~ou~pietlOl~ l,lace on esch fig~rl~ll( pacl~sgc l~Itd it) ~aeh ci~,,~r(tte al]ltrlishig ~ltd stt~l~ alqtear in t onsl,i('u- ou~ a~ld leglble Dpe in eO~tlr~t by I)'pofzral,b~, h~yout, ~nd eolo~ with M[ olh(r pr[tfll,d or I~dck~routtl] nmtt,rLd "(5) the lfit,d statcn,ents ol, I,:ek:~g~ oF ciga- rettes h~r exl,(.t frottt ~}le [ nitt,d States shill] lm pib~t (d in tht ],rhw~l,,/ ]~ug~l~gi of l]le eottnlrl tt ;~hlch ihu. cigall II{,s are ixportt~l] I¢ #,
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r 22 "(e) It sh~l] be u~l~hJl f~r a~/b pcfsoa to n,~L~[actL,,e, rc~lc~ I]~ ~pacl~ al~(~ ~ert~si~ o~ ~hlch fai~ t~ d~(]~' "(2) ~Li~bti~l~, ~,*I ~q pro~uctd [~ l~ c~g~re~te ~}leli ~ol~l~ The le~(¸] i~f t~, ~) lli~'O~il~e, ~EI~ e~r~[~ ~Tl~×i~]~¸ sh~]l lJ~ I,~l~'~ o1: ~h~' h~l~ ] ~ I~t~b]]~tJc~ al)liu~)¸ tJ)¸ the J'~c~er~l Tradt~ ~/l!l~l~l~siolJ '* I 1 0~) Sectiol~ 5(a) of s/ell Act ([5 U.S,(?. 13;14) is ILl[[(t[~- I? ~ [~ i~,~liT~ [wf,~rc th~ ~,~ri~ld L]L(' ~(~]]~[EL~: "~r iCL LII~b 14 (C/ SC~I~b~ ~ Of ~e~[ A~ /J5 U.S.C. 133(;/ i~ ~[J~/d- ~5 c(i ]6 (1) b~¸ strikilLg ~l SLJ~¢Ii/~ (a), 17 0,) [l~¸ ~t~ikirLt~ ~11~ "[i:*~.]Jl a~ l,~i(le~] i~ ~11,~¢¸ th~leof "N~thi~g", all¢l 90 (3) b~¸ red~sig.a~h~g .~.l,secl]o:~ (b) ~,(~ {() ~ ~LJt,- (d) Secli~ii ~ ~f ~Lleh Ae~ (15 ~T.S (:. ]~3~) i~ ~l[~tlldl~ by str~[.~I~g ~ut ~b~ct~n {a) ~(] hb s~r~ki~Li~ (~/~ "d,)". @1 O~ -O B
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L i...._u 23 ,q 1 (e) ,~eetion 9 of stleh Act {15 I.L/q ( . 1338) i iLmlml<d 2 by striking m~t "$10,000" ~Tid iT~sortiT~g iT, ]I~U II,lll~! 8 *'$10(I,0(~0". 4 {[~ ~%etion J0 of such Ac~ 115 l l.&(!~ 1,3~lft) i~ alr~er~d~ hy il~sertiTig "/l~)~' ~lter "~:~. 10.¸~ ~lt~l tU ~d~liEl~ ~t t/~E, ~iid t~ Ihe following: 7 "~b)ll} ]]xeel,t as },rosined in par~gr~I,h (% ~rl~ person {g Ii~¸ ~orr~lelleo ~ civil ~elion ~g~lin~t ~lly l~lrsl~l~ ~]~(i i~ g,] !~ ]ege(] Io I~t~ ill ~]o!~li(~it of seo[ion ~ or {; 1o ~e~lr~]tl St[elL 10 ~,iol~tiOn Any ¢]v[I ~e~im~ under rids t~r~g~ph slmll ~,e 11 I,ri~ugh~ iTi lht~ l~nited ,qtat~s ~lislI~ct eou~t for lhe ~i~tr~e~ h/ 12 whie]~ the ~l/eged ~iol~tion ~ecurred (,r il~ ~.~hleh the" ii(~lLd 1~ ~]~t res~de~ or in wldeh the d/fen~]~[Lt's I,r~rielp~l l,l~l~¸ of 14 ~ll~irl¢~ i~ ~o~n~ ~'he ~i~ri/t Iour~ Ill tlEt~ 17rlittd ~l~ 15 .~h~/l hg~e juri~dieliolt ovt~r suit~ brra~ght ultder lhi~ ~lar~- 1~ graph witl]otlt ~¢g&rd to tile ~mo/int in col/troler~¸ Or the 18 graph, t,roce~s m~y ~,e served on ~ def~]~l~ iTI ~n~¸ judlei~l 19 di~trlvl in which the defend~Ttt r~sid¢~ ar nl~¸ bl~ found ~rld ~ul~pom~s for ~mes~ n/~¸ [~e served in ~n~¸ jlldi~i:ll di~ "(2i No eivll ~etion n,~¸ be eonmmnced m~de~ p~r~- gralall (1~ to Feslr~in a vicD.~ion o~ soeli~]l 4 or "(A} before the ~×plr~]on of slxl~¸ da~s ~Ii~r the pl~i~Lti[[ h~s glwn llotlee of ~ueh ~io[~t~on (i! to the O~
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24 Io 1 Federal Trade Conmdss~oJ/, and fib to t~Jc person x~o 2 i~ ~l~eg~d to ~'c c(3tnrllitled ~II(,IL ViO[~ti(llL or ~'(]~) il t~t~ ~ttorlle~¸ (]e~erd t1~ eollLtrl('ll('ed i/itd 4 i~ diligclLt/~ t~ro~ccll~i~lg a c~vll act~otl itl ~ coL~rt ~!f ~I~c 5 ~Jnite(] Slates to require col~tl~i~llCe w~l~l SCC~iOJl 4 e~r G C, b~t if ~ueh llrtJleeditlg ~r civil ~lli¢~!L ig eon~lil~llce~ 7 after ~hc ~'~n~" of no~ice, an~ iJersoll gi~i~g ~LJCll No~(~ lnld~,~ ~li~, ll~d3 $t~tl] 'o~ ~ ill ~1~ ~/lch iE~ill~(~ ~l~ 12 "(3/(A) I~t ~1~ action u~ld~r Ib~i~g~iLI~l~ (I)~ the ~'ed~r~l 1 ~ '[r~Jf]t, (~olmlli~i(ill~ i~ ltl~t ~ Ilar~l lll~ ~llll, r~enl¸ ~ t/ iJ~lor 14 Ul ri,gilt. 15 "(ll) The ~otlrt~ i~l i~SL~ilLg alk~ fh~l ~rd<r h~ ~t~¸ ~cti~n 17 attd r~oiL~ble [~e~ for ~ttorl/e~ ~lld (~i1¢~ ~[llt~$!e~ it lILt eotl~l d~tt, r~fl~llt~ ~tl~tt ~t~'}J nil ~,tt] i! ~l~lJrot~i~t( A~I~¸ 1!I i.~/Irlj itt ~lliT~ it~ d~(~i~ioii ill ~II ~elioll [~i/~ll~ltt ~lJ rt~i~ll¸ 20 Stle~l ~1/ ord/r, lll~¸ ~rd loil$ o~ ~!l ,~t~(] re~ol~ll~,]l¸ ~s 21 I/~¸ ~Lor~/e~ il I~ eourL d~q~'rJEli:k~ t]h~t ~,ulh ~i! ~l/~td i~ "'((3 Xott,il!g in ~1~i~ ~ee~i~n ~t~11 ~e~rict ~l~¸ ~i;'lll i~}li(~]t ~ft~¸ ]~I~ISI~II (lit ii~li i~f I~II'SI~I!!) ]ll~i~ h~t~t~ iiTid(r ~Ii~¸ U~ l'¢ ¢.rt ,5a
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25 II I S~:IItlI/~ Or (~m~[ll blL ]tl~ t+t s~(,k t~Ihft)F<:~ Itl~ 111 td S[(liolt 'I (tr (~ 2 or to .~tik al}~ ot}l~'r rtliII. ~l "(I)) Wt~ct~ t~o or mort ¢]~d/ nctim~ [~r(mght tmdtr 4 l+aragrt, Idi (l) hl~o]~ing Ihc s~rn( defealdant s+ld the same ~SUt'S or v~ol~ti(liix 2r~, |*f, lldillg ill ~WO Or llO~ judlcial dis t; triets, such pending aetlo!t~, ul,ol, af,tdltotiott of sttt}t dtft+,d- '7 t!lS ~l) ~li['h lilliItll~ whiiLh i~ ]tJ~ld+! tl) Ji [+~ttFI ill ~/]liiLh ~ll) S SiI(~t a/tio!t i~ brott~ltt ma~, if Sk/~'li cottrt it/ its d[~/tettOl/ $9 9 dccidcs, bt :onsolidaled for Irlsl by order (icsued afttr gi~int, ](i I~]] pariit~s rtmstmablc l}o!]{i ~lld o]~t+orlmdt~ t~ Im }Lc'grd) of J ] sulh totJrl ~lltd trhd ill 19 "(iJ m~b dlst[ict ~}dch i stitched I,~ su~l, d~'ft'l~d- 13 lilt[ I+Tid }lJ ~tlde}i otie +if suelJ a<,l]on~ }~ l,+lidielg, I! "(il) s di l~ht ~l,ich i :~g~l,~d upo:t b3 Stil,Ula/ioi~ 15 h~t~c~'tt all the tlar[[es to ~tt~h aeti(lll~ alld lit ~l},[(h 1{; Oiip ¢)f Stl(}~ aot]olis is pet,riling or 1"2 "(rid a district ~t,i~h i~ seheted b> th~ court and ]8 h~ 'ah]ch one of such actions is l,endi~+g 1 {) 'lqte i,otJrl i stih~g Sk/C]t I~ii (ird~ i ',l~ll] [411( ]~ iI~lIj,t Imt]Iielt~iotl t!O of lhl order It, the other ll)tlrt~ in ~'hi/h tile ~i~i] a~tiol,~ :~l consolidated tlitder the ordt'r arc ]i¢ltdii+g.". 22 (g} Soctlc~t 1] of sueli ~'~ct rid U.S.(~. 1310) i~ r+pcalcd '23 ll~id ~cd]o!l 12 Of ~tJell x~,et i~ red( lgit~l(d ft~ sc(t~oll J I 2-1 S1¢(. ~). Till' ~llli(tldrr+elJls IN~id(' b3 FeCl]Olt 1 Sill]] tttk[ 25 ~'f/t (t ctliotl th(' exp[i.,l[olt ~[ tire one ?,car period /,cglunl.g cm ¢J1 I'0 b~ 0 ¢/1 ¢,a,, m ',,,t 0
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27 COSPONS0~S "Comprehensive Smoking prevention Education Act" H.R. 4957 - H.R. 5653 2~seph P. Addabb~ (D. NY) Le~ AuCOln (D. Oreg) Michael D. Barnes (D. MD) A~thony C. 5~ilenson ID~ CA) jcnathan D, Bin~ham ~D. Ny) james J. Blanchard (D, Miuh) DaVid E, Bonior (D. Nichl ~on Bonker (D. Wash) George Brown (D. CA) Shirley Chisholm ID, ~Y) car~iss Collins ID. ILL} B~it~sa~ Co~r~d~ {p.R. Ke~ C~ml james A. Courter {R, NJ) George W. Crockett (D. Mich} Norman L, d'Amour~ (D. NH} ROnnld V. Deilums (D. CA1 ~0n De L~go Ivirgin IIs~DEL) Lawrence DeNardls (R. CT) Thumas J. Downey (D, NY) Mervyn DymaZly (~, CA] Bob Edgar ~D. PA) Den Edwards ID. CA) G!e~n ~nqlish ID. Oklal Arlen Eruahl (R, Minn) waiter E. ~'au~troy {DC-DEL} vic Fazio {D. CA) MilZicent Fenwick (R. NJ) Thomas S. Foglietta (D. PA) ~dw~n B. Forsythe (R. NJ) B&rney £~ank (D. MAI Martin Frost (D. TX) Samuel Gejdei~son (D. CT) Richard A. GephardL (D. MO) Sa~ ~ib~ons ID. FLI N~wt Gingrich JR, GA) Dan Glickman (D. Kansas} James V. Hanson (R. Utah) Cecil Heftel (D. Hawaii) Earl Hutto (D. FL) Henry Hyde (R. ILL} Jame~ MI Jeffo~ds (~. VTI Dale E. Kildee (D. MJch) JOhn J. LaFalce (D. NY) TOm Lantos (D. CA) ~iil~am Lehman (D. FL)
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r
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29 3,It 1,VAX!.IAN ] alll pleased to int~odu(e O/It [inS' p;l]Cq (,l ~lJl n(s~,ls }~l(~l~ssionally each has dls[iltguis}le,q himsell oz¸ ]t(t~!]l¸ i~, t}le field of entellainl[lel/I "['hey aT( also Vo]lttllter~; /~ho }lave ~!i~cn id 1 hli/¸ llml, ~o wink ~d leducin~ Iht, detlths mid i]lnl ~> ~sl~ vialed ~ith cigalette smokhlg ,J(,[m } in~-sthe has a long list ol¸ 'IV altd li[nL credit:- and cuil~nt- i) I,mtz~,3s the chalacter of B]akt Cm;in~,ton h~ the IV sc*ies D3 Nlsty All3 lll(/&l }l]&k( (h311llud lllSlly (;f US ill ILL(, ;0]( Ot ~]iSS ]{itt)' ill (;UIlhtllOkt I{oheIt KeeS]l~ln i/e((ls iJO illtlOdllClioii [o lhoso /,ho hlw. ]<rll,/trl lind plais{d hi', wruk ~ilh c}d]lh{n lhloug]/ (:apln[n ](angu!oo ()n b<hnlf of the ,~uhconlrnittee, I v~otl]d ]]k(. to ~el(olut Hah of }OLI to I,tll h(q~lillCg Ioday *11(~ a<k )oH to COllie foilXgll(I, il )OLI ~, OoId I Ii'll like I shotdd say aRel llmtl3 3euls, f',uud [uolnin£, (!I ptmn *\II KI };qlIAN All educated (]OIIgl('mStl/&l/ ),I[ "~VAxNI~*N I, VO ale deli~ctht(d 1o Jfft~[, ealh O~ )OU >ith IK. LO]VX tO S]ltlIO ~OUI ~i[%'.S ~itld tK tsc)llft] p{tspectiv(~ on [})is lr:ll)ol !:l~t ~,td!jec I ~lt I?o*s3thfi, wh5 doIl'l ~lt: slad ~/it}/ 50/1 ~,I:%']'J;',I]:NI:40l ,l(lllX |'Ol{g'~llllL IIE'~I-;R].3 IlILI,S. (AI.II',; ~,~IAXIIA I{I,:~.KE. (IN BI~IIAI.F O1, rilLE AMERI( AN (~).N('IH~ S(I {II:l ~ ; AND I{[)J~l:l{ I KI:ESIIAN. (IN IH:IIALI Ol' rllll; A2.1I;RI('~.N I,[ N(; A~4S(R'IAIlON ),~1 ]"(!RS~IIIE l~.II ChDirll/{lll, lner;ll)el~ *of 111e coll/tnithge, I ~/{lltl !o t {ti~ll[¢ ~,0~1 [t~l inxitiI!g 11/O tO {~bIily {]lib ll/Ol{l{[tg {~OI/I[Oltl()II, \/hi]e I ~4[/I hele ~g a coneell~ed CiliZOll ~lIl({ zl I l~}l([ I>l Iht( thildlen, | I~lsu ~lll al',lue thlt ] ~lll/ }lele be(aust ~ ttlu ~1[1 dig)l, ~llfJ aclot-~ }ia~e a certain visibilJly "lhis vi~illilit) anrl file affelliln/ ~hrd audiences lnay fee,[ fm tl~ bc'c~ltlse of O~ll v*o] k W[ leuli¥( ¢~111 o[[('II swa3 all(~ ill[]tlelice ~atge IIUlllh('18 of Ix'op]e So, as a glOtlp, we ~t('tol~ ~tte Iiot unlt/iltdfu] lh~d thh, iN[]uence Call be {ll{gklSf'd *%/Dlly O[ tl~, ~}10 ll) tO DSe t}liS ill]'hlollCe eOt/aIlUClivfly If I]iYO float we heal a very Ilea~\~ Itspon!;ihility to do oul hmnes/fnk al~d to he as t ~eni/anded as we can 1 am also aware that I am not a sc]enti~,t, that ii/) oi,itlioets file based on matelial 1 have lead and 1d1£¢:]) ftonl tht' Sutge/m (;/nel tt] s lip(Its I ~lYI al,,ai(,, to0, Ol l}le illlpOlUltLIX! ill the tobil{'CO ill duMI) to Olll V{'I} s:haky eOOllO/l/~ today I Hill ~I]SO %l'It S) ll~patltt't ic to the pltgllt of the small f~llne~ in the>e veo' harsh t[iJm~ ]laving said that, I must tell )ou thai ] ha~u ',el} strollS, fkel[II~ b liIK,tl~ the hnp~itance of this bill, Ill{ 4[t57. I was fo~ttm ,tt enm]g,}a !o ]/ixe stopped ~[/iok[llg SOlile ~(} yeals ~Ig(i oil {he ad%ce of a dem f;il,lid ~xho \xill appea~ on lh[~ I, mel Ifdel, I)~ W[l[ia!l! Cai/au lie is a sut~,t,on spl,c[alizing irl ]Lilt[ c'aracel, mad ] wi]l liel~ I stop }li ing ~r ~ttlll] Io ]1[1[1 h)l halil/! nd~is!'d in{ to ~,top. ]v.O Ol}]('l lll('lllbE!lS Oi lily illll[lediate falnil3 V, LI(' NOt quite so i~ttUnal(. M3 yomlgel blot[mz and hi) 5oungel sistel, both inod/,i- ~tt']~ }It I~-3 ciKalelte sll/o~tis, ~l'ould?)'t (11 COtl]dtl't stop, aNd the5 } (~ll, dkd ot ]tang{ caller I v, il}lin the I/~,t ~ y(tl :- 6'1 0 g~ O0
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3O "]~, /~;~tC}) ~ }lL~lt;/!ltl[. lii,t;llJt Wl~!11!t!/ Itl ~}:( [,Fltl~ (~! !it., li!,¸ / iJ.[~¸ ~J/l~) ..r3 l~i;ll ~i]l¸ ~. ;dIJio~[ Ill~l~ L~2 i~i/~l[~]i¸ i. ~3 /F~/ ~.[~ tili~! i! {4 / tl~ ]/;~l(] lot Ii/¢~ t(~ l~l]]L ~l}~r~ll =~]ll]l~>l [[:~ ~zl:l t >itLl:ttir~:l ~[~i ~tLl~¸ ic~ I~,) h~1~¢~ fl I, i~ ltr]! J~a:,~¸ ~ftl~r t]~/,./¸ ~,~ [:~/]~ I~>:~i: b[i)~> l]];~t J (~cid(d tl tl-!¸ /~t~l/Llll i]()u[ that ] }/~ic] ~ ~ 1~,;~ol]3t}]~¸ /Ic]l-/~llo//tl ;~(/o: t( h IF) MF h:I]inv [ thnt it I Cm b i[l~]uenti I ClUIiEI In~ [i//[[m( tl i ![Hi ! (,;{ [] ~U [ ,( i ii!/,)~ l](', lo ~l~r I cJl ~itEII(, Sukoi iNt ] i~oLd(I i]l~l /J(,?}(, udic~l Ill,T( lh311 }]l~J!i~! (l!tolt~d!L( ] i~il )Bi]]iO)L J~lOpl( I}i){LJ ]L ~ 1:1 !' t!]C'xiKil> ~J~; ~) !LOI', ~ ~a k // lr SOt1 . It~t]i~tit~ I LICiL~[)Y OJ If!HIL~ pEolk ] I.> t.t~*i,I lh. Ammi~al~(;:~,~t Scwi~> ~u~d ~iu Ami,,ic~*n llemt IO dl.~!]i}~c i,i3~ t~(]il)i!s 4,}).;ul s~llc~ki/lf: IO 3o~1 llO// ir~ ~p/ei%c~- ] Ihink v. ould [,c' Ill]lieu]! al/d time' con ulni:tg I l',ot Id l~}tk~, iI you v,i[[ p('lzJ]iL m!', ~]] (J}]a~ilmi<rl, to l£t~d to >ou a ~t'~3 ,]mlt ~ditoli a/, Jt I na5. floln tll( 1,1is Angeles 'lin/e~. I~ is ilalcd kebl~l:~l) 21. ]',]b2 It s~3s: in pr,x km~ i,r<,tt~ ~,l~ stilt/. IL>~ tic] h, dl] th< L ~, .',V~,:~C:I E;~tl * ,I • ~dL!t~ hi> Dl:le/,~tic emeel> ltl his ]ire ~ ltp,tt lh{ ~durgltn G~r tn] g~,~ ILit~h,t ~4n,,ki~ i< :tow ¢[h:d ~q ~ e~l~tri[,u~e,i3 [¢tcl t [rl l~L> [~Lsot,c ~is v, tl[ ~, th¢ ,Uli~lfftT) bt IL ]dt~ tifi~d ~,s ~ n m,,r( txt(ns]x~ and Illr):~ d, mv:lMr <~d I] t!1 il 1hi p,t ~[iLO[tt~ [*~ [[1liFt lJktL5 It ~1 Itk,Lti s~Oit }i / tD(KI (11 /(l,i ~tl C~LL C( lht~i [ hO[iMHOk(7~ ~¢~[li~ktls let~ ~l~(,lt 2ik~l) t~, Stl{J() !t:,F;I p!~?/,,IUi( CI d ,v ,. ~l]rr dj~ ¢ ~q that me m¢,t ~ltok~t It, till >ae~ cot, t; r et~,] (" ]]~t.leH ~(<31a I~ [K,it~ bll,r)[ ir,£ J~ 14 I,:,n il ¢ h~r f, lt E5 tinlat~ I GI0,f~U d~<l}~ ~tl ~h~ Uni:~ i ~.t ire <o~h 3¢ ,r b;:uakh ~ co~ xc~c] I L,) L ~,g alia> n~tmH tat +Ir,q,t~ $2- bi [to:, a! )~1 ie, [t(M IF, t~ee ~Xl, a, :5 [~ irl, ,rt c [o I i :o~/12 IO)L A]] U.e Of t6b CO> iS t/alL~t IOd5 {7]* IIS al d ;~ip~ sl,,okir, a~ Lirtkt d t,~ ~t IllL e~Ln t ]~ ~lS ~, d,euhli~ tob~ c~a ~ll/d sauFt '1 n< bzs hd mo o,~ i~,tt~ fit 4iKE ~r L 8 L~OILL t~'ba Ca U.~ it' th~ ilt~I phP~ ][eec U~ k~s~ lh~]~ at, on our.~['lt/~ M~IL ~tlLOkillf: ~ltllO Ig }armi ~,<(,1 k haa FL}~ d~]]~ J:l 19>1 ti~c Jigtlre ~a~. rlox, n Io gl~ ptr~nt Arlti Izb:(to ~duc [itr {~r p~LIg:l~ o~1 },1 to b i~t~llsiq~d (hJ[cl~tit s LOD]d i, tattht till]} to a~,;d t<,[,~ ~, ~1+ th~ llULI]d av,,id I/bi~ d~l/* '~no ~L~*t~,n fhn~.rai's i~T<,t! ~n{ab~ u~,d~cor, t~t ,b Lrdit5 OF led<to] suh~i d[o ~Tb illiHio~l ~sorth lhi~ yrlr Io 1hi t. ~h, t r,>.~ a ¢~,,p Ihll b t I uFd[~ he d~h I~e~v ~]lose 1,*oduct5 art i~f.ular]y (olat~lu r, it d b, [}/( hc~tuli~m b~cil]u~ ~lJl I !he ~tl-~uo/i G~l~rla] S~ys al,olll tho pt ii~ of lo[,a ~c, ~lgnt to b~ t~lk~ n s{ll /l~l ]~ [,) t]/0 i)l)~,]ic {el[dilL]3, at,d for a dLati'~e ],1 (:rr~gee S ']'Jl('~' ale stfol/g words, bul l}laI editorial echo~s Ilty 5£'itli¢laf!Ilis complet ely. M~. WAXMaN. Thank )ou vmy much. l~da lt[ake, we would like to hear ttonl you ,WI'A'I ET~IENI OF AMANDA III,A|iE l~,~s llLAI~;. ~,11. C~lSillBall and Ii/Clll[iol8 of lh(, COIIIII/i{~*.O, ] alX/ ]lli~ilegt'd Io haxe Ibis olaI/ortttnlty to l'Oplosent t}m Al~/(,lica?l CaneeJ Society and to xoice our sut~port R,r tll/ 4957, the Compre- he/~si~e ~luoklng t'levt'ntior~ ],iduc~*tion Act of 19gl Ul l,a ,¢rl Qf) ~a
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> ]d Jc FI i h 31 ']hi~, t~l~k i~ made especial]3 p]t,a~aIM in thai ] aTrl ah]l h) tt,.til> Ioda} 1Q01 my f;ooc} ftknd, John l"or~5{hI' mid ]l~h }¢.c(~!lan ~ltrl thht %~e ale hk!lO ioy,£thel l~!iilesoltlil/~ [}1[~ vely i,xl]Iil/!,. Eel/ C0~]J I]OII of IhE" allff!I]C;Ill (allc£'l Society, Alll(![ic~¢ll U('[llt *~s £Kiallolt, ilI21(ligall LuII~ Assogiatioll and lh( Natiol/al JIitL, t'htetlc~ ~.O/]tt?i~ 3bat I}](SE' ol~ilii~ettloll'. }la~(! j(lillL'd tO~tthcl tO ]i!{llt ,Iq 11 COIl} ij]lll~d {Ol(~e O[/ this issue I/ILIEI ~/ll(!}y hJI~}l/i~,}lt IO U~ all the ov(r i~}l~,]ll}ill~ hllpollt~[l({ the %olull(aF~ Jiea]t[1 agellciPs all(] t~ll~ nicdi- c:1[ co!lllliUliity tll~lce oll 5lBokill~ ~ts a heahh hazald Oil l"ebluaty 2t ol this Sial, Ihe "t].~, Surgeon [}enernl, ill his Teport ellti~lt'd "rho Health (OliSelU(!llqe$ Oi Slh¢lkil%~- (~tllet,r," Issued tho fidlml lll/~ %% nrllil/~ (JKalett( ~:-~a]~ill i~ the I]~L/OI S~t~;t la~ 05 cmc~r [tmltFll~t) J~ tht Lr]{It [ Sld~s '1o5~2~0~ qenH]bu~io~l lo all c~u:ee: d<a:h is (S[[lntI~(J to [, ;ILl ]lttCet~t ] ~*i~ N,tal~ ~,t ¢-~r~ ~!ltqt that ~9,0 ~o Atll(t[¢ll:~ %~li[ dk 9[ ctltc, r thi~ ye'l b( CI~LI~< Of ~1~ hig}~(~ ol¢rt~ll ~al:C r d~aLh rat~ 1bat exist ~ha:,g ~ha{(]a a~ (ore dtl e¢~ I0 ii~Fl~ntoker, p~lTe{te 5:lK,ktl5 ~%t tots ¢ nc~r d*a~h l~l~ Iv, t, tinct ire ~[,'~ ~lmr~ da h0~t ~rw)kers tIett~ sm2kor hl~t a :l to 4 tiRl~ ~l~ater ~xoe~s rlk o! ~iin{(l ;~lllta]it~ 1 II'a~ particulaIly i[ltelc'sted ill the Smgt'on Oell(lal's ~<intistics Oli dial Cancer arid larynx i'atlCel conlailled ill thai lepolI ]it ~:akl thal lhcse cnlle~l~ ~lou}d stzik¢ an emhnated dO,O00 p¢olde and ~[{I cause apploxi]nat~.,ly 13,000 deaths this yf,al in Otlt COUlltry, }It Wellt Oil to Slay that ~l[I estim~ied 50 to ]0 tK, ilt,lit Of o!.4] slid i~r%n~,,t, ld cancel deal}is aIff a~>ciated w]t~} $1tlohi[i , ] sin a %J¢'tim ()f (~rtt] {,al/CCl~, a ~'Jc/irtl of c]galette 5;illokhl~& (i[.al~} h~ld I ktlow[% • ,dtatil ~ns goil/~ 1o co-:i ]lie Io t)~ ~{ sn/okei %%rh(,ll ] ]it that Ibm{ eigar(tte, ] would ]/e'¢~'l }la%t' sit UCI~. lh~ l/tatch {~;ell[}cll~£*Ii, how do 1 exp]ahl {11 ~q ~l~t~' that you Calt tlTld~l taI/d the tidal of finding out ~ou ha~c cal/etl They telt n. lllnt cancer is th£' II/O~t I¢!~lled disease, al/d ] bE~]it~e it I~l oar iTlilld., cancel hgl% E011lt, 1o lll£~all dezllh l{ has COT/I~ tO lllUt~ll phitl P.I/d flig~[gLlrel~llqd Wh¢,i~ in}" doctor told me I had canl(1 of the moulh, ] dkln't be- ]i('\~' it. l }lad ne~e~ evl'n herod of carpet t of the [notlth 'o.,t [ }tad it ] &Ill ~11 aeries.c, slid ] ltKIn~l OUt C&tlckq' Of thi! Ttt{)uIh ii]eaiit ] was I~oing 1o ~aV(, *tO have SLII~r[~I'%' that would ~flect iily l~¢t' ] W0u]d algO hard tO ]('3111 IO talk a[',aiII What %vote,0 (Otlld ~OtI (el{ all £~C[1~.S$? I thoaght, ~Q~a~ tf it is [t~ m hu;n~.? What ff t ~¢;' ha\'¢ tO ]~II/0V(~ nly Vo~'lt] coyds When 1 woke up horn tile surgel)'~ l len/emhet I made a d(,Eber ate +'{tol'f to znoan arid I thought thank God, I ~til{ Ila~e nl~" ~olce ~lt.~X ThQ IL/t~'~ ¢~*1~1~ t~l~{I e.gked ii~ i{~ I l%~Qded })[%iI~ ihi,~'lWalie, l/, altd I heald no~olf say y{s. rJ'hal ~imple wind meant thai J could s{ill talk, thai I eould learll again to practice my prof(sslon I ~as luck~. l{u~ the eln~li~ga[ l~ail~ and the real were Ino/ikmWI/18], al/{t {l~e ' rnenloi~ of iI will be ~i/h *}it, foi tile te~t of m3 lift, After relating Ylly exl)el.JellCt, to the ilK~/llhf.rs of this eOllliililI(e 2,0~1 IIlust sure]y ulldt!r~{alld ',~hy I Sill SO disht~;ll{(l/e~ t0 It.sill • ,hat the p~*l~ente*g~* of smokvls ~m~m~g ~'o~g ghls ag~-~ YI an4 1%, ]lOg gol/e tip. [ aft/ eveli Indic dJshealt£,lled Io ]~aln lh[lt }ung ¢~llCel will Ottldis{aDOP blE'f~S[ ea/lc'~-~r a~ t}le XO I ~,al/¢el kille] of l%'Olil(!n by ag ~,ar]} as l/ex( year attd that illlilly do~tors arid hl(~¢]i tO t.a, 0 a) ,,vt ¢0
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32 cal le~c!alehezs attl~bLitt! thi~ to tile illclo,q~o in ~mokh/~ ~tll(It1~ We ~iI~' have come s long v~y, b~by, as tho ¢i~al'et~e ads say, but I II(ILll*t ~ir1(~I~rt~l~' t]n:~t ~]II'rI~ ~I! ~'OTl1~n wE~11tec~ Lib I!T1(l LLp W~I~ w~t~ h~gh~I¸ caTl¢~ i" rl~ol tallty iat(~ caused by smokii~Z Still, w~ do kfiIiw ~]~t okll¸ ~d~t,g~tiOll (~f~ilr~ il~c ni~t o~,(,I~]j l~!~i,n ~ ~i]uI~ Aci~(11~in~ ~ii the, AETII'ri('~IIi (~rI~I~I¸ ~II~'iI~t~' ~uti~i(~, billion ¢i~,~ret~es ~'ach yc~I¸. ]Iow~wr, ther(' a~ ~ds~ 3~4 million (,× ~riL¢ik~r~, tlf) from ~J ~ IiLillioll 3 ~i~ ~o ~vi.ii the ]~vcl of t~ei~a~e s~oki~1~, which o~iI~ ,~ fe~ ~,,~rs ~(~ ~i~- ~o~n~ II[; ~it ~l~i J~lill~ i~t~$, h~ ~T.~d to drop ill i~collf ~(,~lls. fii~ii ~ colil]~d to ]~ ~(~ic~1~ ill ]!~'~ ,~ild ~II~C bO~ ~IllO]~(I~ ~t~, down Io ]] i~i~£'nl ~onl ]i~ Ilorc~Ilt No~ I ~Irll n~ ~ll~ ~[~r~ oll ~LcIv~l li~ill~. I ~TI~ ~l~)i ~I d(~l~ or ~i l~,~,E.~T~h ~i~liti~t ] ~illl ~. ('~nc~I¸ ll~i~ll~ ~i~]l ~ ~J~llti~'ul~I ]4ill~ Of C,~ThC('r lha~ ~S heavily a~sociatl,tl b~¸ II~y ~oc~ol¸, b5¸ in~T1y l~ ~i¸- ~'i~iln!~ (;i~niIaL a11d Ii~' i1111~t i~[ lhl, l(,~pi~(Ii,d prilf~iiiTi,~l-, iTl tho ¢OUlltl~ ~vJt[~ ~illokill~. I ~ino~c~ two ~o rhino [~o~ o[ ci~iidl~.~ (]~y i(~l¸ g~lout ~0 yt~1'$ Th~, iTl IL~' Ii~hld ~I~I~ [Iiob~bl~¸ ~ lll~j~I ~oIl[Iil~iiI~ ~l('~(ii¸ ~o my c~lJi'~,I ] ~Jlll iLl!tO ll~k'~u~ [ ~I ~itll to ~I~ ~S TTlcqIl~,¸ ~ Illll1~ ArII~TiC~IL~, tl~, l Can the paild'~1 aIld fri~htcuii~! C~×l~1~eilce ~h~t ] had ] [illd it i~l ~r(cli[~I(, fh~ ~ll~'O]l~ ~II Sit ill tllis IOO111 Of" ill ~Ii~' IOOili ~I1d s~' lh~[ ~,Jiii~! ~,i, ~Ii~ III~ h~i~i~ i~z~i~!i~h zTII~IrIil~l~iiIIl oll ~lll¸ ~,I~(,~vOIii~ (~i Ci~a1('ItI~ l~bI~li1~ wc ~houlch~t try a l~I~¸ ]allclii~ IichT~i(ju~• ~hi~!l iili~llt iilcl i,~TM t~l~t IlllILll~{,ITM OITM C× SIllok~I~ l~I~t lllosl [~i'o~iITM I]oiI't I~ill~TM kIII~ll ~l~I~ i!I~uII] ~i~Up~'r~ LI~ ~l~uIiJ i~ ll!c~' ~i~lo~ I Sul~']~TM did llo~ I~ ~vl ~Lvo jLL~ ,q [~:W tllO~l~IL(l IJ~'oI~]~ flOiIl ll,q~iTL~ tO ~llfJ('ITM I]llokl~h ~ot~,~'l~', l&di~lioiL I[l~i~]~¸, ~li~ ~[II,Ji1~t~l~1~l!~ ~ILII IJ(~lll ]i~'i~l~ to faco eith~i¸ ~}~e p~ ospi~t ~ ~h~' l~'~liI~¸ o~ ~i I~luaIl~l ~' d~h ~llld ~if di-q(l~uI~iI1~,]it ~ly ~iII1[~l~¸ ~l~ni~irl~ ci~11~t(! L~I~, ILO ~[~- lott~ co!iiil~iL~, is ~OlTI~ ~o [~i~ ~h]~ ti~ (oIlv]i~(.( Irl~, i]~t t[~i, if io~ ]~ ~oir~g~ Io b~ too ~i'eat ~o iil~k~ Jl lloI~ll~li[c I ~ililpJ~¸ ~ilJ ~io~ ~'od~c~s ~loL~e~ $6 billion oI~ ~ p~o,~ult wh0~.. aclditivl,s ilol~'t have ~o b~~ li~ii~ ~ily~hoI~ Ilo! ~i~ii wi~l (~o~(,IIiiIii, ilt io~i~-h~,i~,~ ~!; bill]~iL on ~ ~1ochLcL th~ f~i~i~¸ ~!~ ~L~I~ (h~n~.~d ~ U~IL~U~ (~LIdiO~'~LI ~I di~,~,, ]~ii~ ¢li~-~~ ~n(] cilil(i~i ~ild ot]L(~t ~ilLd~- Oi¸ c,~i~'(t ; ~ ~illioil Oil ~ [~Ioduct ~soci~('d With O~01¸ ~001~(~ i)1~in~l ]ion oll ~ ~iodtI~ ~l~a~ ~i~.~ IEI~ IiJ I!o tl~I~Ll~[~ ~LIII!I'I~¸ ~Tld I ×~(!II- ~iv(' i~hab~lilatloll ~r~atmcnt ~iil(~¸ ]!~,~ thk, ].o(]oI~j (~ov~rilli~'Tlt Ii~ S[~Tlt IJV~I¸ ~]~ Irli]l~O11 tO ~TOIlg~l}lOIl th~ *~(~ bil]iOIl ~ ~t~6~T iIldll~ly ]~I~¸ ~,(,~i ~Ii(¸ (~C~ ][II]~ lilOIO O11 ii$ i~b~liIl~', oF ~'~'~11 ~ ]or t21I~I(~ oll it~ [,'~Ij(,lirl~4 'i'~('I('~li', ], IoI' I~II(¸, ~]!IJ]~'h(~Ito(lly ¢,I~(~(iI~(~ t]lo iI~l~ll~!JIL Of L I'~'J¢'~ 1~y t]l(" ~}i~iiill~Ln ~llat~(,i¸ ~Ii~¸ oi~r~,~¸ iil(l~l~ 111~i~¸ Cl~iIll 7
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, -- I~]i (;;!~b iol, I~f L~ jol ili- Lp~~ J~ rll 33 [:l}~cJJl]g l}topo~ d ~lill plove to b[ SL)[~[)OIIi%(' Ol t[l~ tOlld[u"O hldLi¢, tz ~ S ~0 hliOlL I b¢'lic'vo tli¢lt I ~ould not h~o,'¢ Mnok~d h~d ] ~(/.li ~t ]~bo] Oil ~l ¢]~;llctlt' p,icka{~e ol ]it a ci,l~dr<lte a(~ ~tiat s~d(I, "'W~i~iii~: (ig~l ri,ttc sri]okin~ ]il~l~ cau[-e ¢le~th flora }teall dis0~s,o, C¢~TtCei, OZ til/- idlysen/a " ']illLt ~in~pfl ni¢s~,ngo ~O/llli ]/;LXC' SnV¢'d Ill(' ",COTS Of c<rie[ hi d('ali[/,~ ~lith an il]zless t}mt .h,opmdized Jtly c~lile,l ~lticl my ] ~ll~[! ~]t(! ID['lllb(l~ (If ~]/is Col/lll/itt+.'0 tt~ 0~£'1co111( %,~I~L, Itl tJo litirnl considelaflons exist v>ith ]egmd to lhe IotJ~/(o illdu~tI~+ aud to sho~ the couta/~e and public dldicmion Ih<~t ~]11 be' Iteedtd to IHSS this it gislfttion I undeIstand hm~ dif]]ctIlt lhi~ will be f~t some of you 1 a[~o be li(x'c' yOL1 ~li]l have t~iled in ~our contnfltnlent to your c'o!tstltuen~s ~tlld in yotlr duly it,~ It pll ~[~ntn~]v¢~; ¢~[ till tho ItC'ot/]~' i[ you do llok, forriif,d dec~sioll 8boLlt ¢JKniett¢ szllokin~, i~l/ of]t~oIluttflv to ],l]ow ~d~at it is tile?,' do to d~eit b~dies ~hen t[ley smoke. I am llrepared to assist you, MI (hat, man and the other ~,q Illl 4957. We must succeed for tht sakt ufthch~althal~dssfetyol ~,lt. ~NAXI~IAN ~1 hank ',ou ~,el) nluch fill yo/lr rely t'fft'ct]~c' lt'sli- IIIOI)~ 5h h~et.shat t. f43A'II;;IEN'I t)l" I~(illI~l~ I~[]I',SIIAN ] <~ut most happy to be heie this n/o~l]ing mid lei,]cson~hlg the Ameiican Lung Association ] could just ~ easil3 be sel~r¢'senthl~ the American Cance~ Sock,ty ol the Ameilcan 11¢~{ A~ociMion because I delight in tile significance ol this coaliflolt> ~hich has (OIl!l' tOLCel~lOl ~0 I/lOl( efioethrel~ ]ltfOl/ll ~lill~liCa aldOllI IhO dat] g~'rs iuhelenl in ei~ali,ttl, sine>king I ~lllt gi~t~Iti] fol tho OptlottLIllit2* Ihst ~,Otl ariold nL[' tO ~Upe~tl I,eto~e this eOEillflt[~,~ to [,xj~l~ss nix vi[,~l~ luid 11/~ C0ll~tqlLS ~boLJt a hva/th hazard which threatens the well-being mad evcI~tu~dl3 the lives of millions of ~oung Amet leans 1 b~,lieve mosi o[ you n~e a~i~c' thnt 1 IIo~o spcnl the last ~!~ 3eals oll t~lc~isiol/ arid radio edtlCdlfll~¢ ~oullg t'~rlle[icalt~,, ]lt,]llizl~ to develop them fllteflec~uMl'% ph?,'sic~lly mid cultula]]3r ill o]del ihat they inay become healthy, v, ell-educated, stable coml[buto~s [(I our Sociely. The human hldng h[~gin~ the ]oarninl¢ [~rilcess at hillh Much ]t ~ll Jlin~, (!sp('oi~diy ill the (!~II[¢'l y~'~l(s, ib by obs~'z l~tlilJiL [~lLd fllfl t tti0n ]-'or ¢~x~linple, ~e leslJ/ ]aTIgUglgC by ohsc, l'~ation amid fli]fla lion As ~e glow oldel, obset ration and itnilation lomailt a signlfieant pall of the learning process and the model~ of om ob.tqvf~tion extend bc'yond tilt., f~m/i[~. [ly ple~,eli [tltd tt,~.,lt 5e~l~, [llall~ of the most influential models h)l young pcotde al~ th['it llegis It is at Ul ,,d 0~
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34 fills ~bm. thai tlmt domolL l)eE~ ]>r~ssulo~ l,la}s ~ ~]gl]if]c~nt io]P in the development Of attitude~, ae[iol~s and habits Peer IJrOBSLIt~ ~ probably lh~ n~sl slgllifle~llt ii~f~u~nc~ in 0a~s- ing a young per~un to light a ei~art,ttl, l~ll¸ lht, [ir~t time ]t i~, ~lll ulmaturaI habit. Blow some cigarette smoke in lh~, fr~c¸ , of "our do~ or ('~t on~ ol ~.h~sE~ d~ys ~lld ilote th~ leaetion WE~ }la~[~to ov[,rcome this ]~atulaI antipathy ~J cigarette ~m~k- ing, and p(~(!r¸ pr~SSLII~ [)]a)s ~ V~iy gtoal rd(,. It ]~a~ b(,t,n cst]l/lat- ed that over b,000 childlen light up ~r the first time each d~. Many of the~e ¢hi[dl(m m~ "/ o] ~ yl,ai~ of agr,, pml of oul bullied g(~ll¢~ratlgn, al/Xlgu~; to bo grown ~I~ ~nd, Inost ~nfoi tunatf,ly, ~2q~at. ing smokh~g with n]~lL~tiIy Why not? They are modelin~ the b~ ]~avior of tho~e they vie~ as sophisticateJ adults. Almost 15 percent of Ieenage glrl~ smokc clgarettcs, slightly rn(~l~, th~ln le~l/ag(t boys¸ Th~ incr¢~l~(~ in t,ig~ll~tl(, ~i/l(i]~il,~ by teen age gir}s in the last d(~¢ade is alarmir~g. Theze }~as been much spec- ulatlon as to the reasozls for this increas!,. l~rha~ ~nloklng b~¸ ~otln~ ~otl/etl i~ i~o ]oll~E.l¸ ftown~(~ tlport Teenage girls ilave, indeod, been liberated flora socla] taboos Thcy ~li~ l/OW ~s fl(~o ~s any othu/¸ group to ~nd~tl~or th~il h~a]li~ and to shorten their lif~spar~. We all kno~ the pains ~u~ned hy the Iol~g-time adult s,nokel who decidt,d t~ quil ihe habit, and we are most sympathetic, bul woLp]d i~ llot b~ ~ b~tt~r J~oa IO apply arl OLInCt, of pl~v~1rtio1~ Io lh~ yo~I~ AIIIolicau lo ~rro~t th~ d~l¢,loptl/~z~t o[¸ Arl~lica'$ ~/osI pl~ venlablc cause of death? Thi~ hill of yours, ~Ir. Waxlnan, which i~, tht! sul~i~ct l~f the~e ]/o~Llirlgsj i~ palticulariy a~(ta¢tive to nl~ b~ea~s~ it calls ~i¸ tho ol- ganizations, the n/ar~halhlg of forces to ec]uc~te all An~e~c~s a~ to ~h(~ c~u~gels il/h~,r(,l/t ill citT~rl'~l~ sInpkin~ ill it much in(~ll, t~fl~c¸ Educating 5~tlng Americans, t~l]ing them the facts, disabusing theln of ihe notion Lhat cigal~tte smoking is a sigu of nla~uri~y, hol )i{tg them to l~sist p(,~/ pl(,~,stll~ by ~E'VOIO lin~ ~10 ~[ attitode~ at all ear y s[age in life, are all ~rogr~ms that can cl~aIively at~d el~oetivoly le~eh youll~ AmE~li0an¢, wilh Ihe r~/~4-~t~e cif[al(~t(~ smuking, ~elin~ good and riving ]oI~g do ]lot go togethez, ] I/ave b~colll~ collvit]ce~ thal oil ~u1¸ 1)rogl ~In Ciiptain Kal]galoo, whlch is prorluced fllr llrt,school ~]nd ~,~tr13¸ sr'hl)ul age children, il is now time for ~s to develop t~rogtanls that will help young people develop attitudes toward smoking, tt~at wi/) l~elp thorn in a tew yeal~, later¸ in their li~, to resist peru¸ pte~sul~ that i~ such ~1 sli~- nificanl cause oftht,h lightillg up for the fil.~l tinl~. Om programs hi this :egard will begin in t}le fail oF this ycm A~ 3 dJI~'[~ l~'stIl~ ot th% c'oali~ion which conws hi,fore you loda), wc IIILIS~ 1 e~lch I)l~l(>f~i]S ~Ild D,LqlS with t]]~, l~f~' ~yil]~, ll/E':,Fa~ L% ~Izlok ing can kill you. l,(I's h(,]p those older Atl/er]cBns ~ho at'(, v}(~img of i}Jc habit to gi~c it up but let us tufa out g~e,~t e[f~zts to oul children, ~1~o },a~u the most ~o gain and the ]on'gest to live If ~( can ~ffvctixely lt~l~('h ~oul]g illell aiid ~oi11(,]} al/d tntvenl tholn lion/ ~'~ilill][)~ to smoke', if wt" c~m reach t)mnl S/}ecr, sfully, t]wn wr, may a]] ~y wi~h co~ict~on, you have come a long ~a?,', b~by 'Jhank ~ou,slr U1 O U1
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)]e i!t sick "tied lUI~t- lit]> [.~,z/. ]Ji,{¸ J t~ oi¸. t)tt t), 10s lid )o, is ~w f,. /¢ k- Y o h 35 M) V,%XMAX. 1hank )ou 1j[ , s~- to the t~r¢(, o{" VO~l o i ] ~e boon {i~ )ILl{ 1 fan~0~ tiL Iu col/t¢ hlq(! ~iiik y ~LIt I(Stil//oi/~' i~ ~S !lJtCti%¢~ I~ ItIIV ] T [ ,d to u~ aIlcJ h2'ou~]tt a Vl~,lbItlt3" ~¢) this ls~tlf, {hit ] thlI/k I',lJl h.~t' Zm offset beyond thl~ lOOl/I ] t}lJll~ J{ %~i]] make il f~I, laI ~t~]ll 1o} Uq to p,~SS this ]ef.J~[alilln ]2oh of 3ou has been ~olkill!~ ~lS H IOItlltleC')', t~lking tO younff I~ ; k', Ok}l~t< to organizations aZout th( dan~c)s (d stl]oki[iIf M~ }'ois~the, wh3 don't I direct tills to 3ou. "~Vhat )ealtioll do ~l)~] f,([ ~%h(!{l V~JLI talk tu ~hiidt'ell, yot/ll~ l,eoplt~ alld te¢,ll~l~KtlS :d,.m ~moking? ~A) I o}~llI~ I agree mo~t ~ho[ehearh.dly ~*,ith I{k~L thftt that : )u d h{ our thltlSt b~-~catlse A~ crLt(l a~ it ma3 sect., ~',e can tl5 to h/I , (be older piol)le. Th( yot/tlf{ people iF ~therl, cv(,i3tllh/g is at I1 is qoite ~emalkahle the ki)ld of ldtt'st~l)r{' that intensified (flu- e ttiolt{ll calilp~l~rn9 h~v0 b~ought shout in schools, the way ~I])tK~I- ,ot[y the ~trongt~t poJl~t in the antisnloking CHHIlXIitUI hflg hi,ca (h[ldren comin~{ }lOlrie, l(l]ing thtir I)arents, "p]{.¢~( stop ~n~oking, ]kldd), dI'a~I' sl0p snicking Motbel. I would think t fat om e olt~ ~ql/( Otll it/click'S could hem be ~[~,nt I~rgely in that a)ea Mr V,'~xmcr, \Vhvn we discotlat~e t)wm fron} t~kiN[, till a bad h;~[)il, il tla~ all additional impact? ~h FOI{SY~flE. A do~b]e ended t}liIlt',, yes Sore( peop]( n/3~ con]- ),hdn ~d~mt frightened c}~i[<{reI~, h'at I th~iih it {~ t~ i~¢.~e fe~[i~t(e :, n,~or~ch to lift', e~en lbough they rna3 ho slightlb fiighl(nvtl ,~]i ~AXMAN The three of V(itl l~It, involved in the Ii]f,c]iel ~lroLI i;llO/I ~%]18[ ig effective Jrl cor[lillklll[edlillff ~O people, you hl/o%1%'.h&t i~ efleclivc in leaching them ]lcm do you ~ef, the role of the mealie in ¢igmette advelti~h~g and ill lhe ~tlhtle WBys thst ~ole models are eMahlished i[i ploi{tsnling, t~ ir~fhwr*ce people to take up t}li~ habit? l)o any of you ~altt to ~il:llTilt Ilt 0II ]l9 Mr Kr:~II~N. 1 lhlnk t}tele is no question that iole n/oc~cqhlg ia ~ll3 per~tlasiv(~ w[[t] young people. ~Vhell a chalaQtel ~lho J~ ohvi- ousb sop}listieal~d, glib, well spoken, admired, in a dlamatic con ttxt, ]t't us say, is a cigarette ~inoker, the 1~io become confused "ii~ere is no q~es~ion lh~t a ~- or g-ye~ I~16 ~¢il/a~.ociatt, t}lat oi~" attzibole of the character, t]]e ttsc of ciga;e[teG with the O(]lCl £~t- tributes of that eh~traeter the glibness, maturit5, adnlir,Jtlorl ~1 bich he ,e~t1115. I think il is incmnbent upon us- I ~ould never tell a ploducel tlllder no circumstances should a character srtlokt" a eigar~tte be- ¢aus0 there arc filneg when for dralnati~ pmpose~ il is lle~(,~s~try, a~ tbere ate ~kiIll(,% ~,vhe/t for dramatic i)~ltposes it is ll[!C(~ss~l')r to p )rile) vJllians l{ut iI it is gratuitous, if it is merely a gratuitotis action oil the p,~rl of the character, I think thor( is absolutely no excuse for it, ML W~xxi~N. I)o you kno~ whe/he~ producers ol ~ograms or I/has either in television or tactic)) pietule~ ~ill ])iltposoly put in a l//~g for cigarettes or a brant/ t)f cigllre~Aes '~'3' uslrlg ~l as ])art of lhe s:'enatio ol part of the perfornlanee? O
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36 MS tII,A.Kt; t h~Ivc Itt!vul eHCOLllttt'rt'd that ] think ins£rting of smoking of ¢igarette~ to nlake a stoz(, poinl el¸ portlay a dzanlati¢ moment, I think that has been decleasb~g, very much so, in tile last v('ars "J'~JPy ate using ethel methods o~ showiIlg el Ilumph]g up rl die nlati¢ moment rather than l~ghtlng up a cigarette ] hove lbund a del:le ise in i~ MI, ]eORSY]tIE. ] have not come aclos~ it, ¢'itht'l As a lnattel of fact, I }lave somethh~g good to say about the tobacco induMry in OrL(' s(,n$¢d, For 5 yea~ I had a teIevisiml seri[,s called ]]aeheio~ l"athei, alld our sponsols "~'eie tobacco I~ople l indicated to them that I nevez wanted to make a cotnI/lelc.'ial, | nt'vcr ~lanted to appeal iu any conlnlt~rcial~ They ~ele hind 6'IIoDgh novei Io force II~E! to app(~az. S~, oil that level, I think they ha~t been good On some other lewis ] could question that ~,~t ~E~:~JHAN 1 have to add Io those khld eonllll[ lit I lnu t say, MI Oh~lilman, that no cigare~le COII/IJal3~ has t%el asked (~aploill Kangaroo to smoke. .~,Ii. '~,'AXMAN "¢,'el], ] want to thank yotl agabt ] w~lnl to I't cog Ili~! IIly collf~af4ues to ask questions ] v, al)t 3ou to kllow how IILGch I a 1 Jlet'l~(, ~OUF t('sthlloIg~. 5h. }lli]ey Mr JIII, T:~ Thank )llu, MI t"hailrnml b]l. I(~eshan, ~lokdd ~OLI Sa), from 2.0U/ cxpeli(qic(~ (h~/dy(q[ ],C~ill snlokillg bec'aosc, oi obsL, r~illg it ill S0lllffOll~' L'Js(, t]lE'il ]lal el]t% theil peeJs, ol do you think Ihoy do il ht,ct~u c, of 8<lvelt[-~ing? What do ou think is the pHma¢ propose? ~Jr ]*[I~tSlIAN A decade aKo ~',~ mo~e, M~ Blile3, ] mif;hl hav¢~ h(~(l/ ~lhh' to say to you ~hHt ] /hiuh adveitising influene(d Ihew because I think the medium that advertises el affu~ts ~hildrt,n- al]d by chihhell J lilt'an plet~ellS ~lld yOLlllg~l ~.~ouId bt, the televi- sion re(die It h,'ls h~ci/ E/ g(~nf~laliOll sblc£, ~., }la~,e hod $llch adve]- tislng in teleldslon It can be influ~,ntia] in magazine ~/dveIti h]fL btlt 1 do think the gl(mll,~t ]llessuut~ on ~oullg ebihlhq~ ~, al~d !1 ~lld 10 and 1] ~(ttrs el That is w}k', ] think education/d programs ~if}l Ihc yotHlk4, thai ~ill develop attitudes to,said smohhlg, nlake them a~at¢ alzd in tblmed as to lhe dangers of smoking, me ~bly important in el(hi that they may be able to resist peer p]essure It is llot th~~ onl~ action thdt poet [ttes$ll[~' cdt~e~ then/ to enrage ilh hut pt.e~ pl~ssul[~ is ~'r~l~ Si[',llihc~lnt ~lith ~Ok}Ylg people Mr B]TI.~:V From your lestimonb I g/ltheled that all thr(c of 5ou ha~e smoked at one tittle or ~/Iothol, sortie l)r'lh&ps lOrlV, Ol lha[l othels I know Mr. Fmsblhe tesfilkd that he gave it ~p I as ume the othels have, too ]le indieal(d, I hcli;,ve lhat it v,a~ (Oll~LI]I~I- tion ~lith hi~ phssician that caustd bin/ to ghe it up Iluw about yomsvlf" W~s Jt lht~ v,a~nings on the label, ft. txam Ida, whist ~xt, ~Ie ooIis]d(,liI~g hot(', oI ~]s it (orlsLlll~tioll with 5our ph)~ittan? MI I~;ESIIAN. h ~I~ con ultation with my physician ]I( mT~de it \el'~ <.]c81 tO file that l w~ *]~king my health in (onli/lu[ng ~-mok ilb~ I must ~a3 that as imporLarlt as the [tasor, iul f'ivil~g it tip ~la~ UI G~ In
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I~ of laiR" :ll tJ ill IhC1 lly b~F 2h :Jl II ? L!~ EL~L JFI I ~lJO/~ il UI' il; t~Ll' ]il~l ]~]tl/C i l}Li~k II /V~!-~ llll~r~¸ I!L~;I/ I I~JIF:I}~/I¸ VII~ ~ll~¸ C]~!]~¸ d~}lJ/ il I~IC~,LI~L ~/l'~ L~l]lt~ ~!,/ll ~Er~ ~1 ~,i~¸ ]l ~/tt~-i/I.q !l/,I I I~I~.Llll¸ l}l~li C~/I~I~ n/(¸ I/~ l~¸ 11 LIp j rtlllCrJi}l~l that a a tctnl ( cxptlitnc( ~eI% pl:itll> ]l ] had ~,t2 Itx(, ~(llgl'i~ #tI} (ll KIi t,c!uct~(iOll I~lO,,it~[i ~[ oL)I ~OLll/ ~ ll/oli!~ M: l;i~lE~ 'l ilmLk ~ou ]J, ~(,LI tt~e it c0://Intnt *SJ~ ]~}aS, t 7 ~I }~I~.Kt Y~ I took ~lll ~n/ok[li£' !~t~t~Ll~¸ ] li~/~u~it il v,~ i I;:1:1~,1 iJJ'- ~,!l }/ITI ~;Y 5~¸ ~]/l~'~t]/~ll ~t!~, v, hrt! la~/// yllu ?l, ~l~J[/! ~,I. }/l ~kl It i~a.~ ~/C~ILI~t~ ] }l~ll a S.~I~' i[~ lny lnO/:th alld ~, }lt,ll I v~n tl~ t~l~¸ doctor ht¸ ~zlicr, ~o/i ai~¸ t~oin~ to qlllt ~rllokJl~ al(I/'t ~,u! I ~-;~id, ~tl[, l~!/! Ilol¢,~ }1~ ~tll~L/l~¸ ~..~c~ti~.~ tlolll tlL~¸ bar i/, but i ~r~l quiltin~ sm/~kin~ l/you caTi sa~e ill2.¸ li~,, 1 pr~lnli~c, you ] ~i]l ~IT }{l~l;~:l/~ ']hank yOLi, lklr ('T~/airll/an I appr*~c~tt~ ~}/£~ Ctl~il m~n'~, kmJ coultesy Jn aliowhl~ nil, liJ ~iL orl t}li~ p~lnl[ tod~ly ~/ncl I iL,~LlId ik~,, ]~ i ~la inl~ln lo ~l , t]lank yogi to l}K~-t¸ l}ll*~ i, r:,h, in the¸ pu})]ic ey~¸ I~]¸ jr~inln: ti~ }life t/ic]ay air li/i~ vcry 1ii1- i~! ~:LI!I ~a//~L, rl'jl~l~ ~T~ ~OIr/(¸ ~!f 11~ ~,,.hc~, ~lll]//l/l~]/ a~;:tl£~ o~ tl~£1 i~ ~i~J]~, [I;ll/i!(.]:- o~ =,[l~O~h/[~, ~1~¸ a]~o ~-gnl~l~]l~tt ~/~IIC~IIL~,~ ~}~l~LIt l~ll !~{ l~L~t t}/i~ le441~l~tioll Illay bt~ o~r/~ll('aC}/ill~ Jl) S01Ei~ O]¸ l}/~ l~,~ll ~]ll~tllC] ~I~/] ShOUld nc~i do. ri I~/,l~ 3I~ ~91/1~¸ 0t¸ US ~/ho ~I~L~'~! ~ li~l~' C(lllC(q'll ~L[~CILI~ ~h~! ~('I~II'KI (~Illllll,lJ[ ~l,ttll/~' till~ ill ~2[~i~C[ t{ [~l~lirl~t~}llrl~ oli~l}iz~liloli t~l ~1~ pclqll/, fl~.~ i~Opll', Oil ~V}lat they S}lOlll/t ~I) or llot (~l), r. ~l~,l¸ I,l the ~tJee~s (~f this bill blin~q to mine] p~)~ih]e ~al~ or VEEII~,II (~l¸ n/l! lht' (~{'ntlal ~lb~l']fl[II/'J/t ~-}lo~/(] I,i~ iTl~ll]\t'/] in ~,L~ ~EII~ I,~lbli~ al~itude~, to~ or against a ]n~l(~'~ that is ~.~ent~ally :: ~,r~l( (~loi~e and the d~T~ge~ that t}lal m~l~t 'c~]il/~ to the fact 1~1:1! Itll. i.~/ivt.I lli~l(,]/t pos.sii31y c~JI]/d enlcJr o[}ler al~.~ ol¸ tlu~]]~, i~cr ~U[L!I~I/I ~JIl l[l~llt(~l$ |hal ~tl£~, l[I ~t d(,tl[oc[~c~¸, lIKt!(~I~ of ]~li~¢l[~, '/~d~ bill, h/ ~ct, ~ould creat~ ~ very ]mf4c¸ bureaucra/~y in the ~t~llIi~l/],~¸ ]~la('e a ~,err h~l~e load oil [ht~ ]*(,d{~r~] ¢.oul[ ~t~rll, ~vidch aJread~r is ~h~ost s~vanlped in litigation, b~¸ pelmitthl~ any p~r~u, t~} l~rin~ a ~ivll suit with permlilies of ~;I00,09/I fbl¸ ~tlle~e~ ~io[~Llioi~ of the reg~latio]~ wit}~ cvcl~ else pack of ~i~/metI~'~ 'l~h(~ [h~il(J Stale~ l)i~{~ict C{)urt amomlt fb]¸ brJ~t~in~ suit ~oulcI be it~l]~t,c~ iln,-i£,l¸ th(,st i)rocetd]n~. Two. I t}~hlk thi~ l)i]l woukl divclt atteniJon from ~lll other envi- iomll~lllal and occtIp,qlJOllal l'~actol-.~ ~hic}l may hav~ ]lL~lllal~ ]leall}~ ~id~. ~.Ili~c~s by focusing exclusively o~ sm{~ki~lg ] ill. ~l~'/lll[ialt ~ prop(~ll 1~ rt~l]]~~ irl,ml~t~rl orl ar ~ J(~, ~t/ld , ~]la~ ~141 i~s t i~t Aln(.liCall~ ~1¢. not a~latl¢ (~f t}l~¸ ll~l]~h ~.,allli 1.8 oil ~a t~ ol g~ 19
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r 3~ i C~y~UtIIC [)l?l~l>!/> ~LI1¢] ill i~([~<qli<[rl~ T]I~ hlli~,!/E ( ,i,rlP:¸ by the }k'Sc:a] '] r'ad~ Ctmm~[~i~m '] i;i~ ci]~llli,(¸ ~]i(.~ il5 I[/(¸ l;l~(¸ (J( ~1 ~*~¢)/(qrl[J(q ~115[~1[( r:ll ~, (~ I:~ : )(u: ~5 th(" ]l(~dth Sc'cl(~l) .~II f411~ck('t, ssh, uii ~:ll 1 qtl(it(. 'A (;dlu[: PO]I tils }l~? fibull( thtl t}]( ]/IO(l~tu I of ~r,o! /]~ ih t}l [ N]tO~] 5t~ll(,. i~ lIO~/ ti/, Loll( ! i]t till, ~ ~( IT~ ~1 l!v (~ ~l[t,I, }k~]l !11~ p(.l(~l t !~ O! ][] p(op](, a Itc 1}8t ([! ~} ttit s:n~,i il,f i5 h~r ,Iful 'Jijt [*]t'Se;Lt s)~ter]L ] t]tJUk O! p:o~i/]in; }lto]~h inf/~]n~tJ>u ili p/ql[tit 1)(O1~]( to nlfll~( lh/~il Ov, l] {](( [~[c/ t(~ Ii ft~ i ~Iu( [ h~i o ol: I/}~(tho] ol ii(lt LO :~!]101 ( ~li~t(llt/~ i~, /,,ol~:i/£ b(C iLl~( !11 tffl((]Jt of the pcopl{ u]K](]stand aud aL~(,e thai ci /~Ie smc,kb~ i~ ha:lit1 iul Would ~(, irL this biT[, bc p~o~id]ng a ]or of t,;~s ibk daI~c~ to ov d(moc~a:ic s}st('ll/, if] addition to [h(' ful din~ CII~LS ]!/ a([Jhign lo the huge bLIreuucla} irt~o]l('d, in addit~o[i lo the econom[( costs in vo/~l,(] and ~suuld ~/l. b(, ptlJLapS loadh]~ tlJ) 021 th( (~os{1]lz[t()lt'> ~, ~al/ed ~¢st,onMb]lil~ in this al(a at ~r(at cost? ] wi}rldoT ~lhftt }OUT thollt~iltb IIH[!IK ILL., ~t1/} (~[ )OH ~lho ~sDtl[/: (lilt tO (o]lH/l(qlt 0]/ [hat ]i]/(~ ~,]l ](~;~:$1IAN lk~t }~O.'e]~, I 8~t({ that ~1[, ~}lotlld b( coI~(o: lie{ aIK] thfiT ~IC ShOUld ]K'~]rlit (~Ply I'kTIM,fiU~Lfl ~0 fll[~ ;I ~1 ]!0( (hO( tO £i:[~/ ( #1 d£(l~io/I [I"~ to ~l}i(t]l/l [o ~l]/ol;( c[galctte ol Not lo \\( ~tr(, nut ta]kinl4 about banu[n# t]t(, st~]( ol ci~al(tt(& htl ] t}lnk thll ~st, al~o l[]U~ b~ t.~,i lair1 t]mt t~tu~ /"~rll(r i(¢111 J4 kl})]l Iti~r,C Oil iitlO] mid d(([,-]o]l ]"ol thlt 5-(~[[l/eI)t o[ the t,optt/ation in ~Qlich ] am ll3l~i(~l/lt?]~ ]ntt!cMo(I, /tll(] II3 fli(n] ~]t [{o~('t:- i palticLllal]V i!]2tI.Mi( thl olh(I MI }{[~l'ls, IMI ]/(>~']s ~ll' ulc /'o[[celrw(] tim[ lur }OLITI ~Til(qiC~ll]~, [tl{' ]lOt [Lhl~' Ot tilis pfl~i]lt vJth t}~O [nl(>]ll~][iO; lh0~ hD~(= [¢~ ]et3kO i llOO Ch[~]Ce ~th(q] tilt') ~/tt ~,ut~ifia[od k~ ]~ ( t prc~m*' ~,nd Inollelh~! at a iatll a[~c of 9 aim I(} and ]Y 'J h( AIn(Ii(3fi J lll!g z4*~s(Ki~ltiot], fg] t'×all/p]c, hts 3 1/I]1 k(/o~ p~o~l lln ~t}lich i~ c3]](d- it i~, il~ atl (XI)(IiID('I]~D] SIS!'t ~; I} IUOII]CILI ~lO]], lhe StlltI](' l)IO[ rflil! irt Ih(' ~q'ottle al(g~ i:~ x.hic th() do eluphtlsize man) }]ealti~ hazards, ci,'!~telle s]uohing ol@ Ol]o Of [hoz]l Oth{,I co/l((trlls t}llt~ 3or] t~xl)l(!s~t!¢] this rllotl/ill~., ol}1(,! (]~ito monla/ conccuns az¢ a]8o emphasized ill this plOd, tam 'l lie lnC2[~, , is designed fm kinde~gartenets, first and sez'ond g,a(k.,s. '~h(.~ young [Icop]e ~sil] bc inlbtnled ~0, th(') wil] b<. nlflkltl~c at ]r for nled judgnlent ] think that is ",Qlat "ae shouId be concem*ed about, that ~t]/ct lhDt lro[ jud['II/orlt is exercised by a]l Anieticans, as x~e like >: p,oucll5 to point to oul ability to make bee ch~,ices, that t}lat fre( thole( IGII b( int(Higently madt, just as ~le tly to infoHn th(~: (wiry 2 3c'ars ~}iel/ we lun [ol Congress so that tile} clm make ~,: intelligent and infot n]ed choice an,cmf~ c.~rMidatc~ l, Ve want thenl to make arl inft,rmo~ choice as to ~thoth(.i the) f~htHlld [qilol~{! ()l ]lo~ sl/io~(! ] ~t,[iNt T/ly youn~ ]~L'oll](' to h~ i% knmt,d ] think this bill ~ill go a long ~la)' to hc]p to inkum t}w~ young people. UI 0 4~
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39 old lik~l/it~t/~'cl ¢'xtl,tlglh to bt'~ie~¸ that the (;oxevnnrhent L~~ ~ \,Eb, ~i,73 ~tl~ng ii,sponsibilit~ ~htu ~ pkdllJ( i/ionic(¸ i~. ~,, txidc]:t a< lhc ~ur~(olt ~l.n~la] lnak(~, l!li,~ al~]~c.al¸ "%Vil/,n 3/~tl ilax¢¸ tlli~- killd el incontrov(.ltd~le prool th~]l it i-, i;(d idlilrl ¢,t¸ lelatod to, hilt ¢outtihutl,rl lllcJt sL!l~13 ).lcmhcl~ el (~oll ~t,~,~ bare a Vel3 btavy r(~,pol!sibi[Jl3¸ irn thig nLuttet l ;un tlot i , . a~, wolri(d about tht, htlr(aucl~lt]c it-,ults ~ vou ate, ~.Ic. Ill "~ ~ ull'l I L 1~ i (~LTt tap t /ftt I / IL ~ ~,(i,i L~L\I' ~rl I I al], .Iohn ~Ir 1[©(;1:5~ I ~lll woi!~]~ril/~ ~inct, you ai/.u~lently ht,~i(,v(, all of veil, that th~¸ Ullitod Sta!e~ (]o~elJii/lOl)l, tb(¸ (~tl~tta[ ~av£1nll/0nt, ~bou/d it~ t a hlovy it~llul!~iili~ity ill tlln~ ~l/¢~illg t~tnl¸ /ili~on~ el our lo~lntly not to 8utok~, WOtl]d it h(¸ a/so ~qLl~l]]~¸ ms II/LlCl/ Of ~ln oh]J !~atioll of Otll (~oveinll/elit irl yotll¸ x, lc~ lbaI ]~orhaps %%¸(¸ ~botl]d 1o qu~lo ad~erti!,oln~Ilts lOl powel /al/ntlLow¢ls to d[s?lo~-(¸ tllltt puqh ] a ~/n ii/owc Is ~/1 ~ le] nt J let3¸ sa~,i ~!luuld go]h~-w~,gen be i~quilod to put ill thlil a~v(,itis(n/ol~ls thai Volks~agen pas*,e]lge]s arc nlolc likely to be h/juled in the t,~t.r]I of an a¢cidcllt than [)ass¢,th<eJs in other kinds O[ Cars? }lO~l f,~l should v,e go ~%Jth t}l[~, nell ground Ilml ~e ale b/caking x~it]/ thi~ hll M~ WAX~I~.X. Will m5 colk, a~ ue yield to me fol a stcond? I v, aut to ~Mdless thc quesllon a,, the authol of tile bin h 15, ~lt ilhtele~ting poinl you all. ]ai~hlI ~ho~lt the oh}i~ dion of thl (Io~- elllll//,lil ill this Ii.gald qhe (~nstitulkm provides that tb( publil health ~l~d s~fety is a tt.ST~Ons[bilJly for the (~ov¢.tnlnenl Of tb( Uldt(d ~l£1tc~ We ale no~l ptlyJh~ bilLiol/~ of do]lal~ t~1 [ho h(a]ih tale ¢o~t of pv,op]c. ~}1o ha\e been affected by cigart tie siuokhl~ 'lho GO~OllimOlLt iS aho,~dy ~p!'l]diu~ IlL]Ilion', 0]" dollars in tohac co ~tlbsidies ~A(' ate aht,ad3 in~olx£d Since ~(, ate pa)ilt~ all of theft costs particulm]3 the billions of dollms in costs thM take hgule out what to do Ill plot¢'Itlng th(' public health, we Call ball ¢iga~ette~, ~s ~t cm ban any ethel item that is clea~ly so dangelous. As a policy that %',OtlJd[]'1%,,ork V~'t" lbund thai out ~h~'ll ~I(! tli('(l IO have f~ laohibi tion against alcoholic bevolag ~s V,'¢ ~atlt to a~;s le ptoples righl to In~lk(r decisions fos Ih('lt/ ~0]1'(3, bllt ~heE W( h~tve advelti~(,lnel~t5 thst ~l,., p~dd b3 p£'oph• who sltnd to plofit, thai try to make cigarette stuck]rig atttac li~e I hold up /his, adlertivontent t~s ont of tlmrly examples it st'eying 10 n~( ~hat 801l~(~Ol~e has t.0 eolanto1 l}lC heavy plopagand]z- ing, hr,dnl~ashing, thg~t is going on paid for by tile indu~,tr3. Indus- try slands to make billions ot dollars lronl their inveslnl~,n?s in p¢olrmliona] adv~,rti~;ing Io lly to p~'lsklade people to t~ht, up tt b~hil that ~i]l do a tremendous ~tnount t~f harm to tboil health At a mhlimum I think the ~ovelnm~nt ought t~ be t.i',mg to make I,Oolde awme of smoklngs health risks so that th@ can make a free and informed choice. ] tven think ~e i/ughi fo g(I f~t hcyond just ~t~killg the industry to change their ]abels. ] would like to see us pay for advertising on n 0 UI
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, Ovlq¸ titll~ ~0 C0nViI1C~ ~/~'0pl~" ~t]/~tt ~IIl~klng IS g]~zl/010tl~ Wt, aT~ no~ gc~ing t~t ~r. ~,¥e ~t~ stag~e~tiwlg that the (~'elll 1Ill,ill ilu~t t~ h~ ilolltlll~ kll¢lw "~ h~l~ i~ it[ li~k l~T¸ t hi.Ill ~'-~o~i¸, ~ ~lrld it ~ i~'¢ulJ~l ,~t ~ulll¢l/t to S~y Oll t[l~- oil~ }l~tl~ ~;ov ~llltlll,lLt ~h~uEd not hi, JIl~'ol~o~l Jn ~ellirl~ I~opl~ i/he thin~ ~tld i~n t~ otht~l hand ~tl~,st that ~ out ~f ~(I t~eol~]~ already kno~t it I ~'~t11~ ~0 b0 $~1~ ~h~ ~'~,~,y ,~ii~, ]~1/o~,~ ~[1~ ~tleii ~h~,, l/ic~ up cigarette ~het~ th~'~¸ de~'i~~ ~r the~n~el~,e~ to si~oke, t~t the ' ~r~, ortilan~t,rin~ t]lt.~l hL~ll~h ~'urLht,tt~lllrl~ tht.y ~ltl, t~l/ll~ln~.ti!/t~ ~ll~ just t~en~elv~.~, ~:~ut tht~¸ p~e~ent ~ ~is~: t~, t[~olt¸ ~n~ly ~uc~ to th~,ir i[h~e~ ~ld l~ibl~ death, ~hcy cost the ta~l!~l¸ ~ho I~Y~ ~ t}l~,it ~rt,l~ii/~ii~ ~tld th~'y co~-t sociol~ ill the loss of ]/lodLIcti~it~ ~J~t~i~Ii ~Llld ~th~!l¸ I~livat~l~ ~llld~ ~llt~lil[~l~i~i~ ~t~ d~il~ ~rl ~×- ] t!lltt~ t~ th~s~' i/i~v~,]~" ~11~o~ oI~T/~li~ll~ ~ll~, ~}ll¸ l~to~l,l¸ ~,~ ~ll~ll¸. Sil/~ t}~i~ i~ ~ bill, .~t C~h~i~l/l~n, I ~l~l/t~¸ il¸ ~ilt~ !) IIL~ ~f ]() t)~0[11~ lllll1~ tilden !~ /)~lt 0~ !0 i~/011](", a~i~!dil!I~ l~ l]t~ (~!~lll/I~ ~'llll a[r~'~dy lt~l[i~~ ~h~t ~IIto~ilt~ Irl~ly ~/' ~TIII~] [o l}ll,it¸ hl.~lJl]l, ~1]1~( in~l~!~l~] i~l~l'~'lll~l!~ Jo ~oLI ~hiI;~ thi~ [~i]l~ ~l~t~[d i~ be~o~/e l~w, will a~ t~ t~t? l~li/~l ill¸ }l~,iIl~~ E!?0Tlt~/.I¸ I~1~]~ ~l~'iIl~ tO ~llt~I~:l~¸ II/IV Tr/~, Cli~ ll/~lcl l/~.~lt ¢]]SC.~IS~I 1UIL~ di~c~-0 C~I ¢~lt~.l¸ I~is/,s ill t]~il¸ I~/ilt/]s ~/h~Ll ~it~d~ ~f li~/~ ~hey ~Ie t~iI~ ~'II th~y ~lI/~k'.¸. II is ~1~'11 ~'/lll~ l~quiliTL,~ ~h~ illdu~!T~ theft J~ l'~t J/ill~, ~ilii~rl~ /d¸ d~lla~ ~on~ st~llill~ thi~ product to ~t l~a~ tal.~, oil that ob]i~tJ~ll I~" ilt~l'Jn~n~ the public ~ t~ t}l~ ri~ ift}lc4~ f/~ ill l}li~ l~!~/lu/~t ~ll ]~llt~;~ ~ot ~ t~I~lol/~ tlli~-, ~Ii¸. (~h~illl/~ll, ~ut l kl/~ ~h~ oll c[t~l~lt~'s t~l~l'~ ~/~s i/c~v~.l¸ ~E.~I ~ c~,E~ b!ou!~ll ~f ~ ~Jol~lti/~i/. if ~l. ]l~j~,~ ii~,~t¸ hELCI ~ violIIIJOll bc.ic~l ~ '~']/~¸ iIICF~gl~ il~ ~]~/¸ ~/.~tlolT~ ol¸ ~}1~ ~i[/ ] Lllil/~ ~ ~/1~11~ t// }~.~ ~f~.~t~ i¸ ~ll~llon~ t~ ~l~lllt¸ ~rlli~]i~tl~l, wit}l the. ]~i ],l,t~ }lt~r¸ [loll/ oul ~ljtil~s-,~$ ~Tid ~0 [/It~l ~1~' qU~'~tl/Jil~ 0f Iih~¸ ~Ii¸. ]llll~:~. ~1]/~1/~ y~u, M1 (~l~/iIJllall, ~t~t ~ t~/~t~!}lt ~ ~l~ ~ ~ti~ ~!~'li¸ i~ ~ d/~nll/ll~,LHli/~lt t!l lt~ Ilcl~ jtJ~t 01 ~l~J1 ~!t~lllt~ ~'l']iTl~ ()ul¸ iie×l i1~11~] T~.t/It,~I/tS ~ tl~il~cl S~lt~Iutll of ~l~]/Lltt~lt~¸ I~U~,]~¢ }~/]~1/ !~tl~l[13, itl~u~[lIl~ I~l~! AII/~Ii~'~LI! II/!~Lll :\~l~i~li~3J/, ~L/~¸
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41 ~tn)UliCOIt CDHczq ~J ]([5, Ih(' AIIIL'IiJ~ [1 ]AIDi AssociMion aud tht [<atiol~a] II/~Ia~OTIC) ~OIJIICi] (,11 ~:llokJtlp, ~ttd Health 1 alk pculicu[~ rIy plea~ed lhese ~[/'lll[/'lil('ll l'Okl[d b( hOD. ~/Jt[I Us tids mcnnin~ to shine t}wb special mr.4ical and ~ckntJl ~ exp,rtis on this iml,orUu/t subject ~qtOXt'lt Aylcs is the ch~tirll~an of tho l)tl,aiim(ut of Medicine ~tt Si I,cltli~ (hlix/'lsit~ Sch/Kl[ c![ IMl<fil~in( Ill ,Iohn O;lt' i~ plofbs s~*l ofmc'dichll, l)apattmeut of IXledic.Jlip ~lnd l'haunacolog), Shoo] of iM~dicine. Vand(lbilt 1.rnix(rsity I); Rob~It ])au!:hett) i tht deau of the Schod ol" 1Medichw, U],ivcrsit~ o! Ne~mm D~ ~,\illiam ('Shah is a~tendhlg stllgpon al tho *Nlclnoli/d Slocm.Ketteting (~a rlC(~l (~tl3toI'. V(e will n/ake your statell~clats ~i palt o] lh( lccotcl You Ins) pliK.oed a~ )ou See l'-ii STATI;5IEN'I S O1" S'IIQPIIEN M AYI~I:S. Y,I.l). (IIAIRMAN, SMOKING ON llEAIAII CO31Mf]'IEE, AMIqI~ICAN I.UNG A%SII(I$31ON; JOIIN A, OA'IES, M.lk, CllAIR'qAN. S[ IiCOBIMII lEE (IN S?qOK IN(;. ASIEItI(AN llEAll] I~;SOCIA'I ION; %1 ll,I IAM (;, ('AllAN. M.D. ON HEILil,I,' Ol' AaIEIIICAN CANf];II SO(?l):]"J, IN(.; AND HOBERT M. I)AI GIIIqRT¥..IR, M.IL, PIL 1L, CIIAIR'~L~,N. NATION- Al, INTER'~(iENCY CO['NCIL {IN SMOKING AND IlEAl'It[ Ih. A~u<s IM~ Chabman. m~mbms of the ~ommittee, 1 thank you fol the oppoltunity of i/l~senling the ~iev, s of the Amclicul Iamg A~sociatiou arid chest t,h3..cian~ thlouthout the [hiRed ~t~ttt':; on the i-'ucs of elgatelte sn/o~ ]l/g ]I l~ important to I(:'O~- ilL'( thai lhe ldlysicidlls h~le leplE,sEnt a broad labric o[ Alll~,l iCml medich,G physieiaus specializing in heart di~,.,as~ cancm, altd lung disease. 1 woukl like to tmp}tasize that lht. modern phasiC;l~ ~xould p!(fcl to ple~.er/t disease lather i[/an [0 tleat it It's xcl~ ¢lell thllt a laife mcentage(ifthe ahnrst 2 mil/i/n dcath~,ealh }t~tl all li, ]ate(] to plo deills lhat ate potontiall~ [/!l,~entts[/lo, l,~}atea to val- iaus }mbit [ollning unhea/th) human b(,h~xiots Git~tte smokh~g C'lO~ll~¢ g~l/ISC Jtll/[~ ({i~O~F,e, hodl t di~('as£, slid C~IIC('I If l<'opk' did not Brook(', nlu0 peoph llho die of those diseases ~lould liot die of those diseases (h~ollic leSl,ilatot3 distasc, i~ a coud]t](ul Ihat leads individuals to bccome pIoAt~>s[~e[y shot[ tit [3loath YOL/ Blight visualize il as hll,athitt~ tl/Iough a i,al[i~s stta~x for many )eros of life, unable to ~cceke llfe gi~ing air Thele are aboul 47 million peaple in the United States uho ha~¢ chIllll[C lt~,t!illit(ll 1' diseam and the cosl ol core [(It I}IL~SC! ptopl£' is apploxltl~atelv ~10 bllholL {,]gatette smoklllg IS a nla or cause of thi~ p~oblem" During this past yem, (;O,O(ff~ pl,ople died" '/here is no real col]ttovelsy ~egarding the tiqntionship b~'twtt'n smokhag and disease Owq 30,000 studie~ hw(, I,een published, and a]moM all (~f thcm h~ve demol]st~aled some aspect ol this positixc ltlationship There have bee~ over ld repolt'- p~ovided b3 tl~e Surgeon G¢,D(r- a] I('ptI~st'lltiIIg the }"tdela] (;ov£~ll/io(,lll ~J'h£, NatJoll~d }l£,arl, Blood, and l,ung Institute in 1!178 published a docmnlnt in ~hich the~ c,~ ' :dedtha cgare es mk g s s ge os I,~ ta~t risk li,c¢ol lot disease of tile lung Reduction ol ideally, eliminatiolt of cigarette smoking wotlh] h~t~o i~ m[@u iII/IIHCt fill llitliOI)~l] hl'o]~}l gl m m o~
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42 It11~ ~ITI lh(~ sO,ill] lind (,ccmoi/li0 cosIs t~l~l ~r(! ~1 ('oiisoliuL,i/c~, cll smokiug re]aIed dls( ases. No~ this is the National Institutes of tlea/th apoakitl~, (he mo~l prestigious res~,a[ch organization in l]le e;dire ~lotld l'alt of i}li> ]egis]atlon is dc signed to coordinate the fir~dlngs and aclivit ies of the Natioi/al Institute ol Health with physicians and h~Mth ic~tlc'at/~l~ lhrou~c~hotlt Ihe Ullitec] Sixties The onN way to n/odifv uIIhealthy beha~io~ is through educa lion 'JhOr¢, }tas b(en eons~d(,lable ~.peC.Lliatlon ,'l~lotlt the, jrnp,'/ct of the b~/~(,l and othel alliviti~s c/n ~ho~p pl.op]t~ w}lo sa5 l}ley kllow about tim h~,dth eflects of cigarette smokhlg. Kiiowlcdge arid bc]icf me two diffelei~t sides \~rc ice] lh/lt }II/owll!dg(' can only bu collverte¢l into be]iel bj~ c'on s~a/l~ f('Illindci& by Coll~tant ht~]th (r<l/Ic ~tio/i 13y ~l}~at SOtl/O ~ou]d (loub~ (his ~elationshlp We me concerned about the imbMance that exists bc~w~.en those forces designed to get people star ~cd smoking, alld I}l¢)se t/ll'at~l'? ~olcos Ill ~1(. plly=.iclans, tli.~l/ttl o~]//eatols, £qnd oIh('Is ~111o H~ to Itlodil} all(~ lll£,v£,Nt SIllo]~ilL~, L(t ii/e just gi~,~~ you onc cxsnlp]e ta~eii flolrl a ~opolI I11 ~tt£,ll by the, Ted Bales AdvcHisingC/~ in a chaptel which thQ ~otl' the3 said, and the tiIle of tllt~ cllapte~ was 'H~ I~ Reduce Obji.~ lions lo the ( i~ m ette." 'l'h~,y p0illt(,d out that silica, cigatett(s d0 not ]la~(. an) i(~a] ,2bsb- IoI~ poMti~e qua]i{ies, tirol it's vel) irnpor runt thai effective adxt,l tiMng ]ccl/l<e objl.ctions Then lmtht.t in theil ~epo~t the3 poil~led out w}mt I believe Io be the ~eM heart of the issue in teHns of the 0%('1 ~]/ ~llp/oaE}l to 50tlll~ p£,op]t, "l'he~/ pOinl O!lt, Ibis i~ th(, Ted Bates Olgallization ~]lt,aking; fin t}~l, ~oung snmkt,l till, t]g~lette is uut ~'~anitlt~M pl~t of]ife, ofda~4o-daylife;insjfil~ of thefact thn~" lh0y It5' to l//'oJ¢,c{ lh(, iiIla~,e of ~ rc~!tllat, rllr~(~lth<~l~l~[1 .~r(/ok~r, I,'ol them a cigal~.tt~, and ~}1¢ ~l}lote !.lnokitlg~ ~H~qess ig tort of t~o illicit p[eas~lt¢, cat¢,got~ In a 'ouug smok~r~ mind a cit!a~c'tte ]~ll]s bltO the satnu categm5 of dlinking wine, belq, sbav- Jng, ~alillg a bra ol puipc~'-c]~ not ~tc, aHng cme Ilcmun~traHml J i]ldl.l~(.nclc.~ce ]'0r a 3rOtll~g .~tal t(u', a cigatet[~" is all inttodtl~tion to Sex ]if(L I'I~U1 t~l/Jp, Srl/okirl~ pol, ~rl(I kecj/Jllg ]at( hourB ]~ [hell reCollltilt'lldg ~'t Stl~tt'.~ry lOI ~lttl~ctillg ~'Otlll~ [)COpl{' {0 stilt smokin~q We %el labelin~ is only a bc,~inlfing. (k ~[y, Iabei- ilig b) ilself ~1ill only continu( thl' pIo/i'ss Ill mturnptin{! 1o itlil)ttl/ young pl'ople ~nd olde~ people eoneeHling the haz~d~ of £igalette Sll/O~il/K t,V(~ ain/ ~0 }ta\~ a z;0cia/ //li}iltl. a f~}~lic iH v.}iic}/ tltl heal~hlifi behavior bi'conles so:,ia/b, acc'eptab]e ('ol/skkr, il ~ou ~i~l, that this legislatim~ ~eMI3 ]ep~u,~nts the, ~ole ol ~he lbot soldie~ in an t'ntite aHneutati/m It is tile begin- llil/~, l/Ol thE, end. I Wo'dld iloint Oul, g(,nIlt, n/cm, that l[l(.~c at0 i]i(- [icult economic ti[ues "l'Jle l~eder~d p(llti~u~ of the ovlq ~:l(}{I million itt heahh cost> m~' ~isiug. Medicme healt}l costs ale [i~itt~, 11 pI'~jI~C t ed 'i hal~k you tbl the opportunity [1)1 .A.~T(~ > tlll~pftII,d st~(,lll(,l/t ~lIId ilJlt-;tl'dt~0l/s I~IJJEI~I:~ C~
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,? ,~ 44 r~ C~Eu~ ~i~h ~ e~ph~sls o~ pure d~i~i~ v~ter ~ ~nit~rF ~t~ d~hs that c~ o~ly ~ ~l~d by ~e~t action of ~ubl~ hc~l~h h~ ~e~n p~rticul~ly ~l~rnin~ ~d there i~ r~ t~ ~li~v¢ ~t a ~Eu~ ~ ~oci~l pc~r~ are c~o~lb~ I~ C~S s~t~tlo~ [u~ c~:~T ~ ~ one t~e e×tc~el~ ca~e l~ ~,~en; ±~s dramatic l~a~e ~D C~ O~
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47 l~u~s o~ ~l~h, ,~c~ude~ ±~ ~a~ ~orc~ ~p~,~ or, ~,~,~o,,, 1~ ~1~ ~ra~ ~n:~r~e~ ~ith ~e~es o~ the ~u~. Th~ n~ ~=;~or~rt • ~1~ h~ve ~ot yet s~ed ~0 ~ke or l~ v~ or ~¢ ~,~l~ h~h~ ~s r~ 1,, ~ ~e~ ~o~. &~n~e,~ ~n,~ ~,~l? ,~:Sv, ,b~Jo,, ~tr~w ~,~v~or ~ec~un~ for ~ ~1£~ eo=~ o~ ~ ~rn~ ,~r,~y ~l~, ~ l~O, for e×a~p~ ~p~o~ 700,00C d~ ~r~= ~o~o:,,,, m~e'~ to an~lyre th~ H~e ~×~¢y ~ ~na~v~l p~t~e~. ~e "' ~. ~ ," f
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~ h~ si~f±¢~ ~ ~id~r~¢~ ~ ~f~-d~±~,L 1,~ ~L~ ~ri~l~ 0
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49 TT! ING: • L r j,
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.3 i• 5O Children are not free to make an informed chome smoking. UI Oo
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51 In this country 340,000 people i dte prematurely every year from I lthe effects of cigarette smoking.I
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52 POLLED AMERICANS UNAWARE Smoking CaUSes most cases of bronchitis and emphysema 60% did not know 207; did not know Smoking causgs lung canceT E~rnoking causes many heart altacks 5. 0% (~id rL~t I tno.w T O Or)
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t[, 53 Mt 'WAXMAN Tha[,k)ou~mymuch ])~ O;de8 SrJA'IE3IEN1 O} JOHN A OA'] E,4 ,MI) I)I, Ohqi~ ~1. Ch~i[ll/~l/~ l/)eliit)el~ Of the, ¢onullitte(, ] ~n/ I)l. ,Iohl/ ()riLeS, pIof~88OI of )~l(dicinE' and p]~arlnacolo~ a{ Vand(,lhi]t I Jniv(~zsity, ~lld chairman of the StlbCOIllIIi]ll~c oil sn)o~:illg oi t}]e /~nieri(all J]cal~ Ag~ociat~o!l ] applecJaio tht~ opportunll5 to t(~llf3 on bchal( of the lleaIi As ~¢i~tion which i~ a noz~p~ofit ~OlIlIIL[IP3 health organizatilm ,~iih 1]9,000 tnt~nlbezs aim ahnoA 2 million 0Itl5,1" ~.'O]lJrl[oor~ v, ho I~ dt'dic~l~('d to t}/o l('dtlc(iOll el pr£qila~uF(. deai}l and di~ ddHty From caldiovascu]at disease ('~ldioi,oc, ell]dl dispgl~o~ ki]] Ilo~l]~,' ] Ilii~]ion *5*Illtl~c4tl~s f~lch (.¢tr rli~i~ ~(al, sorIIo ]!.~ ]lll~/ioT] ,~Nl£qic3Iis will ~la~rE' ~ hoall atiac : and about 550,000 of them ~lill (lie fionl this caus' Anoiher 17G000 people wiI] develop pe~iphmal vasculm dist,a~e, a msjol di~ ~bi/i(y. These figuI(s ha~e spe(iM significmlee beeau~,¢, l,igaIette smo!,ing has been tirmly established as a inujm contli't, utl. to the occurlence o[ I/eat / attacks, 5uddell dea/l~, a[Id p(liphola] v~lsculal disease Ci~ilr~2{l(! ~,rllo~zi[lg is ttl~ lllost p~e~entablo cause o[ death and di~'~bilit3 hum these cardiovascular diseases Compaled to the I/Otl- smakcI~, cigme~lie smok~ rs are mo~e ]ikely l0 s~Ifk~] ]leatt attact~s, {0 die from }/eg~lt ~ttaek~ and Io die s, oddell]~ flOlll coiollsl~ alt£ly dis¢,a e. Fmtmmiloy, quitting smoking reduces the lisk tc~wmd that O[ ~he nonsl/ioku1,- Cigarette smoking paltlcula~ly increases hemt atta(k~ and Stl(]d¢ll (]e3[}l arlioll~ }Otlllget niell alld wonK, ii ']']1e ~lnerilan llealt Assoeiatioi~ and the (k},dltio]~ on Smoking on t]{ dth ale cmm,itted to h(dping smokms ~ho ~ant to quit and ple~e/l[itlg children flora s~o~tin/ to smoke Acco~dilg/y, we ~holeheg~rtedly supj)illt the passagu el" }1.t~ ,r,f;5"~. 'lhc pl~;~ision of statutoly standing of tht. Office of Smoking, mid }]ea}th is ~(zb'inlpc~llant The p~vposed ~o)e of the O]'tice otSmok- ing and Heahh will be inst~ume~al in combining and coo~dinath~g till (dIOl ~s; Ot ~ho pLIblic ~nd l~]iv~Le ~E~tOl~ {o a/]dle~ {h~ flrO!qE'li1 of tJt~ ~let(c snlokil/f~ ~ htlS, 0 li]al(vcly sIn~IH Fodt I~1] ('liD] / C31/ [)e tired 1o I/~obilize enoln/olas private soctol r(>otllces to t~dc]less a n/ajal health problem tllquiling the xotation of new ,lathing staif,mt.i~ts on clgaletle packagea and ad~ertisemt,r~ls is needed to bott(~l int(~lnl ~}1(, ])o~Jlic $il~c(' Ill(, CI/tlCIII l/EtlllillI~ gt~/¢'t)lC'llt i~ OvE'lt~xI~oscd aiId WOlll ou~ q his ~hokl]d colrlc a~ )1o stltpl]~(' sit/c(an) in(:~nge plcSI'l~tcd ill exactb the saml ~ay ~ill soon b~,eome so familim that it v,i]l lose its efl~ciivcness Moreo~m, t~lo optom~tllsts in a sludy (ff cigm(ttv biltbomds iband that ~hil~ the b~ancl name ~as hi r, hly ~isib!e, the Iszlll/illg (otl]d I/or ~t' Ioad (l{'~lll}r l. hCl(" iS ~ ]lecd fur vaiik.d w~Tllin~ slat(.ii/£.llIS alld a f(,tmat that is visible Yet the tobacco industl) attaues that tilt tl~IIlill~ [3~tK'lg, ~llO~lld I(ql]ai]l {h(. g~ln/c in ~.~,(!T~ dd Thi¢~ is coBtla- die'ted by the plactices of t}le iIldustry itself which el, rages adve~ tising cop5 fzequelltl3 to sell ¢igalgqtes. UI ha, Ca 08 ~5
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,54 ],'o1 exaTnple, here are copies o1' a %ely SU('ces~fU] ~l(Ivc]ti$iTl[( canlpatgn ~hich nlad~ nulnelous I'hange$ duTing Ill(' coulee Of single yeal. It's obvious that the message must be changed to al- t~act attention. Cigarette advertising u~es a multitude of dlfh~rct*t images, to appeal to ditlb2ent n/atkeis The ]of ica] extension is that the Walliing mllst al~o b[~ l~Jloiid to a]lp(*al hi difl('Ting ('onmmlt r~ ~,'oF /.x&lillde, smol~t~rs with a bish~iy of ht,att di~e~se in their fhmiIies may find a warning im smoking and heml attack a rlltlidt [I]Ol(' p~.'l~SOl[~l].~ IEdo~ELIIt ]l/$~[e] th~Li] tL go[)elaL v{/go~* IILf2S~tlf.e, The hnlvlical~ tlemt h~sociation has insufflci('nt access 10 the nledla Io h~fm'nl the public advquately ell file hazards of smoking. Tb(* nulllh('l Of anti~mokhlg public S~.l~ict, announoelI/ellt(- oi1 t~,]o- • .ds[oi/ 81tlCe th[' ban on cigarette comnlercials ha~ been drasti('all3 ieduced ~ith hmdly any being shown during prime time Intbrma- ti~n in tb9 print media has b(,en equall', scarce, h ban bveh stlg gested b3 some that h¢,av) ad~elt]slng by the tobacco tl~dushy seI'l,os to di ¢ollI~e c'ov~,ta{~e O[ the bt/z~lrds of ~Iliokbl~( in the lnint media ~lbi% potential tot intinlidlttiOII w&~, rehlfol(ed \~hoil ~1 ci~calt,lte ~dverl~]no, aecOlll/t tor ~ h~lf Inillioll IlOtlIId sterling ~/'~ ablUld]y withcha~, horn the ~;tmday q'imes c~f I,ondon after a rep),t on hem t It ~lnsidants "*vtlilh nalnl ~ the bl ands of cigm ettls smoked t%~ patients ]m w]wtttwel r~f,i)n, the },lo;Idc~l~I ~l]d plint media do not p~ovk]e the public ~ith lull info~lm~Iiol~ on the daI~wrs of smokh~g. Accordingly, O~e ~a~nh~g labels would p~ovid¢ an assmahce l[lat all citizens have access to at least a ll]itlblNtl hwel of i/l[olll/atioII It ~OUld provide m/ imt,ortat~t means by which the },'ed(ta/ (h)v- et/ltllt!ll[ at no co~t can elfectiw,ly assist the private sectol in t,du cating the ,uabtic about the hazatd~ of smokin~ "Ihe decisiu~ to smoke is flequently madebefme the a~geof21, usuat]> wilhout full ~a~t,~,(,ss of tile odds ap, ainst ~,sc~pe from the, smoki~)g h,~hit qhin ]l.gisbAion wot~ld be an impmtant step toe, aid assming t}mt tb]~ is an informed dt,~?islon J~lr "~VANMAN. 'lhank you very much [DI Oates' prepared statement tbllo~s:j o g* o~
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m ~ 55 ~-~t Lr~r~tv ar~ C~rr~r ~' ~he S~'~t~e~ ~ i-~:~~ ; ~ ~.; A~.,¢~ ~, b~ e,~e:t~ ~ h~,e ~ ~r~ ,~k ~ ~,,~ ~ I~L~I r~, t~,e- w~l ~ -he ~ -~,~ W111 j~t~ ~ve~ ~ r~]Hcr A~r~,~ w-~o ~,c ~ Hster~ r~,r?y IT~ic~e~ ~ ~ ~3e, ~¢rLT~¢~ t~ t~,e ~U,,e'~ ~" h~ L ~C;~, .~. ~-~,er~, t~ ~ffe, ~ ~ ~, ~:.~ }~ly ~ ~e fr~~ ~ ~t~ ~-~ ,~,'~, ~r~ ~ ~-~ke re~e~ ~ r~ to.~-d ~h~ of r~,~-~e-~~ ~e~ e~ d~ f-~ ~hc ~r~-~;~ ~e~-t S~u:ly~, ~ ~r~te t~t :~wr I~C~ ~f ~e~ ¢~r~o~¢~1~" d~e~ ~,~du~]¥ ~e~u~ ~o ~o,r~~ ~e r~k o~ ~rd~,~r d'~e~ ~r~ ~r~}~ty t~r~frc,~''
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56 ~w t~ t~ do so~~' Fo]lo~n~ ~ ~ns~c=es~u~ at~ ~o ~u~, ~ ~ ~v~¢nc~ b~ ~ ~t~9 ~E ~n ~h~ ~rk~ ~ of t~s~ ~'0~ ~0 fiO,9~ ~f ~11 ~1~ ~r~ 1981~~ Th]~ ~wi~p~nt i~ ~'~,g ber~s~ th~ ~v]~c~~ su~t~ tha~ ~ p~=~1~ ~r~ ~e~, ~h~e ~ n~ e~de~ ~f ~ ~J~tlo~ ~r r~sk for c~df¢~a~=u~~ ¢~e~¢s ~ lr f~ct~ r~c~ ~v~d~n~ I~ ~h~ F~,l~h~ H~,~ ~uc~~, ~-~ss ~ ~i~r he~l~~ ~ro~ie~ ~,~'~r~ h~2~,~ F~, th~ F~C~' h~ ~e~rtl~ ccrc'~e~ ~ ~ e ~u-,~,t b~c:~ ~( f~,~l~ t~ ~ ~11 lo~e ~ offoct~t~s~H-:~ ~-~,,~cr~ ~,~r ~ut~ ~,~c~, ~t ~r~; ~o~le to ~1~de =-~t th~ ~-r~-; ~=~ crt t~t ~:I ~, ~e~~ ~ ,~;~-F~ ~r~i~ 1~=~ ~n t~ ~,n~ 0
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~%1~ ~e~,, the ~:~ i, stit~teIL h T~:,~I~ t~ th~ :1~ ~,~ k,r~.~, ~r~ucd that the ~ff~c~ve~es~ ~ t~ cig~-et~ ~Lise ~,~ ~,~ ,~. ~c~,~ ~a~e,t~e,t/ rJ,~ ~:~le,~ c~ ~r ~:~' ~, ~ ~ ~ ~,~ ~ ¢c~~ i~ ch~'~ ~,~ ~,~-~;~ f,u~t'> Eh~%r~t cc,~s e~e ~ ~,~ ~c~b~ce Irs~e ~ n~t~d that c~a,et~e ec~c,t~ ,,,,, ~ ~'~ t.~ s,,~e the ~, on :~r~tte co ~rc~a~ h~ ~ee,, d,a~tic~llv ~ ~J ~ tk b~er ~.~qeste: b~ so ~':'~ ~,~ the ~ r~,~ r~y ~ ~,~ t~ d:ll~ o~~ ~ ~e~ ~ c~ ~e ~,~e~ .~ ~.~,e,s ~ ~,e ~,e ~ea~l~ e~d ~ ~f~ ~,~-~is~ it ~ b~ ~-~ C~~ C~IL ~ ~rc~, ~e~ ~]~ ~t s~,e n~ sr~k~r~, e~C~H~ ~h! C-~ ~,~ t::~k~, ~-e ,~ =or ~,~, ~b~we r~a~r~ ~-~ w~r~ ~ ]~b~l b~-~ • ~r~ ~-:~,te-t ~ec~ t~ ~ ~e,~- ~ ~ ~ot be ~,~ that ~ ~,~ ~ec ,~, ~. :~ ~ ~:~ If ~ ~lea~ly deceptive in~t~e~ of c~tte ~er~sir~ i~ ~t~,r at~ h~ lher~c-% the ~ eric~ ~e~r~ Asscci~ti~ ~t.~lv ~rLS Lhe ~;t~o', O~ ~.:o,pe,a~, ~ ~he "C~.Cl~ ~,~ ~,~" I~r~t. re~ e~d~ ~ the F~~', t~ ethers ~ea~u~e ~ te~ ~ zl tke ~ br~r~ r~ letters U~ ~e ~f ~ke ~a ~ p,o:~rtic~te d~i' w~.ld ~ ~npr¢,~ its ~si~1~~' ~'~ ~ ~ n~u,c~ ~ r~ ~, wo~d ¢cr~rib~te ~re~t]~~ t: t~ ~,c~t~¢r~ ef~-~ o' the 0 C~
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58 ~'~ ~ ~c C~r~t~ or, ~qaTe~ S-~,ki~~ a~:c ~ar~(,,~as~L~l~r ~'~-u~. ~-aT,l~h~,, S~¢~ !ec~,r~ !0; D~E~¸ ~y~/i~ ~ INI~) ~ ~ir~o~~, L ~ ~nc ~',,r~s~h, J "~l~nr~sh~ c~ l~o a~-,~ ~<~*~ ~t Ar~e~i~cler~ O~liter~n~ (~ ~(~tes ~11~'~ 3~jr~,~" of ~-~ I~E~¸ ~ ~¢~ti~,, ~,~ I~IH/ ~ IZ71 1~¢, l~ CCI t~ C~ Cq C~
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~O~OT~
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6O Mr \VAXMAN Dr Cahau ['~TA'~ ~]~tlF]NT ()F %~ II,I,IAM G. CAIIAN DJ (AH.¢~¢. I f]lst thank you foi th(, ini~i](,~e and honol of t(,.qi [~vint! )){'ft)Ic this committee ] would ]ik( bofolc my te~tin/ony bcginsio submit t~o peliodicals~hi/h I lhiuk ~ould be ofimpm- lance. One i~ tit]ed "(igmette Smokit~g Among Tennag(,l~ al~d Women." Auothel is called, "l) mgms of ~qmoking, tlenelils o[ qLfit thug " Mt WAXMAN We will bL, plea~ed to lec(,ive llko~u ])1" (~AIIAN ]2'or ,10 ye~qrs [ h~tv[! il{(!rl ~(~>;oci~i~vd ~%ith i'~[@llllllitd ~[oah ]~(I([]il/g (]al/c(r ('(,nl(~l. 11 i~; tile (,~l]it:~[ c~lncel itP~titklte ill lhi~ (c, untr5. It is: one of [hu most p[e~,tigous. 'lhe lus{ ~l'] be;lls or (lloe dO I ll~t! [1{,(,11 a chest SLIIgeoll ol/ the thoIaci¢ s([liel, d(a]- iu~; ~ gt(a[ dos] %~ith nlaligtlant tt~illols <)f tilt" c}lcg( alld th¢)ra¢ic ca~i(3 (:ureter i~ oil *.x{idotdinar) dise21s(,. I{'s 8~1¢,3olilo 8tLd glW[tll "1}10:0 i~ h~r<l]5 87/5r am01]/~ U'~ t[lllt }la~, I}ot b(ol~ Iotlo}]{,/] O/1(, Iva) o~ ,quolh/r either by famil) ot fliend '4Jib this paHielgo (1i¢- o~!, so l~e }rove }lad s(lllli: Diklhlg lhglt lhr~l(, is I}!~lt i,xllal)ldintl3 allez ~liO~l Ill OII{"S Jill!, I)I/lffS hopers% OIl~!'s (llt~t]tI8 by i[s oiisE{ AH ~hL statistics ~se ha~e been healing a:c ceztalnl2, sug~testilc of t]lc(o!. lt/'cIiutl })t'~st,011 ~tllOkilY~! alld C~l~cer ~lld oih£u dis(ages ~,~,']lHt is i(s(,lf to us ~ho me in tile wi)dd of cancm a~ a daily diet, il you l13ou ha~e sat x~hmc I h~c s~t ~eci~g paticm ~t(te~ p~LliflL~ ~i{J/ ~lel ot hi~ e~mc'el, and s£en lhe destzuction llli~ i/ti~/i(,s ill t[/('iI liv('3 yOll \~otlld 1 think become dcdicatcd, to ltyin~, I(i [/i}d ott( ~h[l~ (h(, rllechlli~]sl/]% [lie and ho~ )oo (~l[/ ~)l~vclll {IHoP d[gHs(£![s ]n (his ~(I-y(!ar l,Hiod v,e ha~e seen n/an5 cha[tges in ctmcel ~hich I think a~e geHnane to this discussion }ol one thinv ~c hg~(: se(n a ][ttl( oxez 30 years ago the ~eintzoducHon oi cigar(i!e smoking as a possible cause h's hard t(} [)eft(we in thi~ day al~d oge, that in tho~e days pr'op]e ~el'e vel5 skopticM su~pieiou of alld Iz~lh(,l le/tl(,t~ nt to believe t~le ¢olllt(otiori Sb/ce lhat time, we h~ve seen a~ extromdi~)~D n~atu~ati~m of lbisidl,a until thtlt, is an tmequivo:'M leltlionsldp OtM'I I)h ella- 1}ONS llladl* JlI [}li~ lill]E! ])E'liod t}l(~t £V£11 ~17]1 ~}1{, i:]llqovu?ll(I ( of stlti~J(al al/(] lddlaIiozl t}llzat,)" ~t" ~le ~,tJ[] tln~ tdt, t0 Cllle 1il Ill3 C~m((Is, JI1 p;~lLiCtl]al, ¢~llC(,is &5~ociat(:d with I]I( ¢~gale!tl, sn/ol! ing habit ],'oI (x~lt ibje, Ltt our }~L%l x,,i (~il/ CtIl( 011{' il ~}il(C kltl~ (~IIIE'C]S l{ul unI )llunntu/y lh(, m(lal/ ; ~/,l~:g(, i> i(tt ] (u 20 A~diIL ill the Sdhle peliod Ol (itliu, lit, hd~(, ~-( ii I]~UL I',]Iich 30u h,t~e ~dlua(t5 ~ledld I'loiil ol}tlt pol/(,]i~-t,: 11¢, l(halli~ble lis{ in (h( il/c[d(!11c~, o[ /,~Ollltqk's llJNg cd!lC(,l "~\~1(,1(, //(! u~,d !u ~13x( 21 ll/d{s l(~ ~ ]tql!N}c t}iis i~, i1011 ~ Illioz, t (xi,I~ it: ~/ >it(It p iiod /d /, 5('~1 a!/d hod(" //(]l to p;<g tho ui(ll in it~id(q~c'(, ih/ (, ~i(, lioI ]}a4s(, ~iI(! }lous¢~//ilos, of[(¢' /~oik(qs, ~a~]l(l:~, and ~}l/ ]ike foz UI U1 0
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~L 61 Liq ei ;!tJ [tCE lh< fo~, it i [nt 3 0 ,,tl hh ok? ikc+r \,, L C:ll ~llt[ < o Ji (: 5t o I:]T?2 ]l{i!~ 2.(,i ~ yOkI ( Jl, %( [; i t,, f01 ~lhonl Ihc,l{, cltl/l/ot bc, ] thin/ I,) 11!1) s!lttc.}l o! the ill~$ i,:lh~: I~l/L ~LqllivaI~llt o~ ~ llic~n ~ fi.xi/:J~tll ~, Io illClL~Tial eX}laLl'./~ *,%'~ aI'e ~lllillr*l¸ ~lilh ~ ~ltlJ p0;,uh~li~'c/ cl~ltL'~ll' ~lu~!~!t I~J'~' liolt~'I1 t0d!13 I ~',oli]d like Io l~r~l/}11~t%~ it ~lIld ]~L~¸ Jt l~lt], lou h~vc, col;l(, th/. %t to~l~ ~1~3 ~ bi!tl% ' I!t arly tvtId I thuu~ld iT n/i{!h[ ]~, Of i:/tcles! Io ~i~t~ if I pl ~S(ql!- ec~ i~tl X.I~t%¸ ~F ~l chc'~ f~lO//ilJ~e~ El ~qr/c'¢l J C ~L;rlI' r ~ l~oill~lFt 1 ~il[ ~ut it (m lho vi~til/g sc!eo~l 'lhi~ ~!!.}~g!l ~kl~] ~oIc/~in, i/i{~', ~fandlrl~tJllu¸, lI/I)thel with all l}~e i~¢;oi/.~ ~n t~lt. ~ol]/l io 81a%¸ ~ljv£, ~.~- a }l~'~v~ sntokel, l<~l¸ ~ i~! ri:~ie v~al~ I~%¸ ¢l~ijt!{liolh ~i~ ~v!, s 117o,/,ili~( i~ 8 ~>~/~ ~ ¢1~I- ~l ~!) o~. in~l¢ l~l?¸& ~%h~, ~ ~l., t.~lle[~l] t(j ha~,c¸ pezJoc]ie o}lt~.t X,I~ 1o n/onilol¸ hi1 col/dilir~rl ~nt~ £.~lch i~ £ a ne~ }\e ~,~ ~8 )*..i ~%- c~ nt~ ~ i he!¸ ~tilce ~,ht~ brealhed ~ sit!h ol¸ it.l[e~" a/li[ ~,,ell~ oul ah(l kt,]~ ~n,o/~nlb[1 ~I~'1 ~/lli)~¸ it.s i ul~]] q li~¸ cezl~"~.lli~g] ~}~11~ IbJ~ ~l~gJ ~!JltJ t~, On~ di~y sho eou~hed up a little bl~od ,~l~d had t}l~s chest X-ray ~k/~n. She cattlt *to 1/1~,, office, bi [ll~,ing ~1 ~./ith h[i¸, a~ h~%~¸ ~,o u/aiiv l~ous~lncJs ~'~>J~ i~ ~1 t;}lr.~-~ .~,[~ra~,. sbo~n/~ l}le bL,~l~ I}>~¸ rib& ai/~l her ]eft [u;t~ %~']li~h i8 On *~hi~ s~de ~lld al~p~,ar ~. nollna] \Vhai I ~ou]d llke ~o dla~ t~ youl¸ attentk,n i~ the shadow in th~ right upper lob'.' ot¸ hm¸ lung She sal ~hele and ~he drama is le- l¸ e~ o~., . ;~nl~ ovl!r ~ / ]oD~i i£* ~qt h ~ o%~,J/ X-T~v ~,%, i ha~ ~, ~(lo~%. ~h~ sn/o~o~] tliit]l he de* , ~he ¢~lI~lt~ 1o ii/ , o[flce ~nd saw htr illl n till ticuJt~l" llat ed • ill ~hl, n~kht~ ~nd f-~0iip!'.'l o:/ ~ diT,ifL ~jl}illg¸ lo ~tOp I~0o[~!~ [Iom f-ii/o~[in~ is one ol the nlo~t difflct~lt ~lol~]eln~ %~ }~l~,~ lo t~¢~.~ tl,~ia ,+ ~lh~.l~. ,~le llbsi/y n/ h ~ lg: ~h3~ ]hlt wt, have a tle[~er 1}lait ~1[I- J~lcei~l take on g[o]~pin ~ people f ~ i snlo ill~ %1¸ e i lhe¸ v e~l¸ The o~t/ ¢ ~ t X-fly ni~ sc ~ lho ~,hadow lm¸ the first time¸ Thi~ i~ the }l~,~d sell b 1 h then, ~he hell se ha% ]eft 111<' stat~le ~Vha~ we ~e t~llkh,g a},oul, is ~-o avoid reachln~ thai t,~Tticula~' point, by an~ and a][ nlcal~s Anothel¸ nl~jor plo~l]enl i~ ~h (]ue~ L ~1 o1~ chilo en sn/okln~ %V~, h~e already her~T'd about ~hi~ today bu~ I ~anl to ~iw' 3~u the ~nc~l¸ p0iil[ of view. ~Ve ~t'¢, llll~¸ ll/ore ~lnll ii/ol£~ ~l~ar£, that ~!l¸ i~il/!~ i~.lle5 ~ •, iioF(~ ~!ul~i~iv~. tel carcillogens, can¢,[r Ibymill.~ ,~l~l~nt~1 Illall ate gl~]uh tis- sues. ~,V~ have s~eT/ aITIp]e evJdtltee ol¸ this ill Ch~ldieii ~ho to bl~ iltadiated ~ol ~. l~rge lh~nu~ and then v,'en~ la~el' oil ~ adult~ l¢, cl~l'~]ol> thyroid ~meer¸ in lhe field of ladi~lion ~,%'e have al~o seen il ill child~el/ ~ho had radiation of bel~ign bone tutnols and la(~'~¸ ~eve]op~.d caTlcet $ at lhe il rfldb'ltl~t~ ~ite. ~h/lilar]y, yoL/llff, t~-~ue~- £,xpo~ed to ~are~llogen~ iT/ Iotl~c'eo 8molae I/ligh~ %l'e]l ~t! rilole sez~sjti%¢~ to ~]/em ~nd Inllre lial)]e ~o develop cancer If that i~ ~he case, and we ~hink it is, ~ h~ve a di~nal pro- jt~e~iol/ ~o make: within ~[~ to ~ ?,'~a~s in conslder~lion theft chil- I ~ly ~.0 stop p0op]e al ~]1 lhI/e~ flon~ snlok~ng, ~hVlVhCi~! ~nd ev- e~y~her~' I have often ~aid ] h~ve beei/ invited "lo the bes~ of houses olll'l,. I thhlk I have also be~*l quotl,d ~s saying 1 ha','e saved 0 tg, 0
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II I 6~ tnFlto l]ic~ nl dlnnel t~ib]('s l}s.grL I do ~I tlle ollc,1~lii1~ [~}~11,4 ~]lic]l i~ no icFl~ction oll n~¸ sulge]y but it i.~ a ~nJll (~I ~iievention ol¸ it In diSCL~SSiII#~ ~he labe]~ ~I. J~]i]e~r, ~ou made ~ i~.:~z~! a~e~¸ ~I] ~ :~It.i.~dy ha~i. a l~i.l ~nil iF ~Irc C}I~IIIgC the I~[)cl Ivh~It diI~clelli'e ~ould il J~1~(,, I ~hinI~ in i}bc cessation of ~nlokini~ ~e ne~d ~EI~I>~ ~e~y l~c}~on~l I thinl. ~on~cbody pickin~ u[) ~ cigarette pack,,[ and lig}~lhlg it teach clay ~'~th ~ ~'~Inin~ that ~s Iilolc t}1~n the ])rcscnt s}~II on ~]I~ ,A,lis~ ~vo~}d b~ lllLl~h Dc~t~,l¸ ~l~.Tt~d ~}~all I}i(. oiii~ ~ l~l(~elll]~• hnv~L. In ~,}ii~l ~, c~inc~t¸ i~, ~ dr('~ ~li~,~'. AII~¸ of ~,oll i~i(~ h~vE, h~gll COI~ ~Lbo~I~ hi.~ ~arlLi}~¸ iiic~nbc~s ~I t}Icle is ~ny way ~t ~l] ~JthiI~ lhe lealm of t}le law to I)I~'~nt it, i~ would be d~dn~ ~ ~eal ~¢t of hu nlani~y ~" t he le~t o~: t}le peol;]e of this ~ou~l~i~¸. Thank you ~ery rout}l, Ctl 0
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Li~lIiIn,J~L tl~ b~ ~r~= L~7 tu t~7 ~:~ l,~c~l~ ~,~ ~ ~,,~JC~ C~:,~-~ ~,~.~i~ $~i~ p~E~ti~n ~:d~c~ti~n Act o~ ]~I. Colle~, ~(~ ~erve a~ c~tLe~:~!r~ ~o~3e~, r~,~ Tno~.1~ic L~e~vice c~r1~e~L~ietv* I hL~e ~e~ed ~ a ~:e::be~ ~E the ~o~,,~,itt~ OTL CO~~ ~tta~ o~, Tobacco ][~L,±L~CJr,. I f~1 L~a~ ~ ~an addE~ t~ problem ~f tob~c:n(~ ~d ~F1~er b, C~
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64 I ~o~ld like to c~lnmend y~, Mr. Ch~irm~n, for your leadersF~ip ~n~ you~ [o~e~i~ht in ~pan~o~ing this important pte~e~ti~e healt~ care measur.. I wou/~ ~/~o ~]ke ~o say how ple~d I ~m tu b~ ~ble tu testify a~ par~ of this ~isti~gui~hed ~e]. The work that the ~e~ican C~ S~uiet~ will ~e doing on th]~ bill together w~th t~e American Ileart Associ~tlol~, th~ ~e~i~an Lung A~sociati~n an~ the ~atio~a~ [~ter~g~n~y ~ou~ci] ~n ~m~kln~ ~nd T~al~, is, I hope. ]u~t the be~i~mi~ o£ a coalition dedicated to e~ca~ing ~erlcann ~ the ~q~ of s~oki~g, we a~e all ext[em~ly e×ci%e~ ~b~ut th~ potential impact on the smoking p~oblem in thi~ ~ount~y r~*/~n~ ~m the j~i~ing of forces of our organlza~ion~. The re~on we ar~ t~s~i~ying ~eg~er ±s to ~nderscore th~ amount of energ~ that o~r o~ganizatLo,~ are ~±~l±~q ~o ~×~it tu e~ou~aqe th±~ vital health effort. The reasons f~ ~ur ~edic~ti~n are c].a~. To,~y, 54 million A;~erlcan~ will light uF a cigarette and wc kn~w ~at ~oki~ will ¢on~rib~te to the death ~f ovei 300,0~0 of them this yeal alone. ¢30,~ ~ericans will die from ~1~ forms of c~nce~ in 1~8~. ACCOrding ~o ~h~ February 22 Su~on ~e~eral'~ repo~ on the Health Consequences of Smokin~ Z29,000 of those deaths will be cau~e~ by th~ u~e of tobacco products.1 d~
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65 85~ uf th~~ 111,000 /u~L9 ca,~c~r d~,~t~,~ t~,i~ yeer ~i~l ~,~ ~:~king red,ted. ~e know from the $~g~o~ ~e~ral's r~p~rt that t~,e overall ca~cet ~e~th r~e~ o[ ~]e ~k~r~ ~ce t~,e ~e~th ~te ~s ~,ro×[~ately 30 percent h~9~,cr. ~,~ ~u~geo~, General foun~ theft cigarette ~r~oki~g ~s a tha~ ep~er~iologica~ ~tu~ie~ suggest a~ a~o~ion ~ct~eer~ c~9~ette s~kin~ a~d ~to~och cancer to a po~b~c a~ei~ti~,~ ~,et~een s~,,~king an~ uter~e ~ cervical c~nc~,~. Wh~t i~ e~e~ ~or~e, tho~ cancers m~t closely as~c~Le~ ~it~ cigarette ~rr,ok~ng II~ng, e~ophageal, l~ry~ge~l, or~] c~vlty ~E~ p~ncre~ti¢ can~[), can be the ~,ost d~£~lcc]t oJ~e~ ~o tre~, tn~ c~ncer~ ~±th t~,e least h~e for ~rvival. ~or pa~r~, 2%.2 ~;~n th~~ S~rgcon ~cr, er~ ~e~ea~d h~ r~p~r~ o~ :~,ru~y ?2 ~,f %h~ ye~, the pr~de~ ~f th~ American C~e~r ~¢,c~e~¥, [~r, t~ p~ C,~ 0
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6G ~io~ ~ ~1~.~ (.;I 0 C~
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G~ ~,:~e ,]~e~Linn~, ~ c~n~t ~ay fo~ ~,~e th~L ~× ~o~±1~9 ~L~I~
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68 f~ buys ,ln~ 26,2~ for ~Jrls. A!~, the pe~ce~![a~le of ~irl~ ~e ]7 ,~ ~ ~.h~ ~,~ke h,~ r~n ~J~rply ~i~¢ ]974. O~e f~tbe~ p~int, by 19~3, accordb~g to ~La~i~t~¢s from the c~ncel ,,~ ~he ,~L,,,b~[ O~,e ca,~¢e~ k~]]~'~ O~ ~onu~.3 O~,c ch~3~cen ~Le risking their ]ires, ~,¢~,ib]~¸ ~,e~au~e of ~nf]u~nue~ so ~lny ~eop]e to be~in s~o~i~l~ yc~r~ ago~ pc~r gro~,~n ~lp, ~t~-. At the v,~" ~ea~t, we T,~U~t ,g~Ve ~hem the b,-~ ~,f~,:m,~L~c~n ~,ho~t the ha,a~d~ of ,~,3~e~L~'~ to pi,~~i[ ~,~, t~ n~e o~, info~ne~ <le~'ision. An FI~C stoff &~,Jd~. C~C to t6:, fol ~owlng co:~1 ~1~ i on ~ o~ the :~atio~,~h[p ~,et~e~ ~r~,okir:~ ~ ~o~,~e of queries, ~uch a~ hear~ di~ea~e...~,~e of the H~ve[. ~ven fo~ Iung can?e~, the :~ ~e]~ known [,ealth effect, ~o~e ~uS~tant~aI ~ap~ ~n co~,,~ er k~owl~e a~e e~den~'~4 C~
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69 We h~v~ ~n ob]i%~tion t~ fill tho~e g~p~, especially fo: ~h~ ~o~n9. Amanda ~l~ke h~s t~l~ U~ ~he w~l~ ~t h~ ~ke~ h~ ~h~ k~ ¢1¢~y what coul~ ~,appen ~o h~. Ho~ ~,y ~ tho~ 17 y~ o1~ girl~ ~ho a~e ~igh~i~g ~p ~ cigarette tc~y c~,:~,e~d that they could get oral cavit~ ca~,~er an~ ~o~16 h~v~ to u~er~o the ~if/icu]t ~ p~i~ful r~h~bilita~io~ that ~ ~e~e~y ~ ~ve~,~ the ~ahi~it~e~ a~o~ia~e~ w~th~hat M~. Chairman, the Co,~g~ess's ~v*~ re~ea~ch age~y, the Of~ic~ ~f Technology A~es~ment, in its A~SF:SS~T O~ ~ated ~u:~ 19~1, stat~s tha~ tobacco ~nokin9 "i~ th~ ~i~gle ~o~t l~po~tant p:~ventabl~ e~vi~o~e~tal factor co~t~ib~ti~ to i~lne~s, ~sahi~ity, and ~ea~h ~n ~he Un~t~ S~e~." ~he OTA r~port s~t~ a ~HO re~ere~e ~t~ting ~n~king re~ated ~i~ea~ ~e s~h ~mpo~ta~t c~uses of ~i~abil~ty and pre~at~r~ death ~n developing c~tti~$ th~L ~h~ c~ol of ~iga~tt~ ~oki~g c~l~ ~ m~re to improve hea~th an~ prolong li~ in ~he~ ~o~nt~ies tha~ an~ ~i~gl~e ~ction ~ the whole fiel~ of preventive ~lcine."
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o u >, . J o > c~ o o ~ ~ o - c <5 c n. c
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71 CIGt~,~ETTE Srfi0ldk~ TEEDf~GEt~S /~I~D ~'0UI~G V~01~EI~ U ~ DEPAFI~KIENff OF HEALTH [ DUCA]ION AND ~'~ELFAIIE Public HcalLh S~'r~ce N"~Niorl a! 4nsllt Lit e~ Or H-~alt h ......... ~ ~E]MI:II~ gl O
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'72 CIGARETTE SMOKI~G AMONG TEEN-AGEBS AND YOUI~G WOMEN Published by the National Cancer Institule in cooperation with the American Cancer Society U S DEPARI[.4ENT OF HEA TH EDUCZ,~ION AND ~'.ELFAflE National Ins~it,Jt es of ~e~lt h N ~ior,~l C~nccr Ins~ ~ute DHEW p,,~ ,c~t;o~ Nc (NI~) 77 1203 0"1 r J1 4~ t'~lim
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m Content~ ?3 IntrOdLJ~11~n ................................................................ 3 HOW the Study Was Conducted ................................... 4 Summary' ......................................................................... 5 Findings in Brief The Teen Age Smoker ............................................. 11 Young Women Smokers ........................................... 16 The Balance Sheet ........................................................ 21 Charts t Cigarette Smoking Trends .................................. 22 2 ]he G~rls Are Smoking More ~han The Boys .............................................................. 22 3 Antismoking Message ......................................... g3 4 Pervasive Smoking ............................................. 24 5 Saw Or Heard Antismoking Comnlercial ........... 24 6 Teen.Age Girl Smokers More Advanced ........... 25 ? Sell-Confident TeemAge Gid Smoker .............. 25 8 Cigarette Smoking and *teen.Age Girl Rebelliousness ................................................ 26 g Smoking As A Socal Asset .............................. 26 10 Schools Wdh Smoking Areas ............................. 27 11 SmoMng Among Peers ...................................... 27 12 M0St "r een.Agers Think ...................................... 28 13 Kinds Of People in Ads ...................................... 28 t4 Barriers TO Smoking ............................................ 29 15 The Militant Nonsmoker ...................................... 29 16 Most Ardismoking Education ............................ 30 17 Young Women Smokers vs Nonsmokers ........ 30 1B Heavy Smoking Amor~g HousewJves .............. 31 19 Wha Encouraged You ]o Quit? ......................... 31 20 Potential For Quitting .......................................... 31 Not~: The findings reported in this p~.mphlet are parl of an extensive research project on srrtokir~g ~,mong teen-agers and your~g women conducted in 1975 ~or the American C~neer Society by YsnkeTovioh, Skelly and White, inc. L~ t~ C: t~
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Introduction. ?4 Why do some teen-age girls and young women smoke, while others do not smoke? This is a major question (acing the antismoking forces in the country. For all around there are signs that even as the adult populatlorL of the country is beginning to ourtait its cigarette smoking, the n~tion's young, specihcally teen-age girls and young women are now more likely to smoke and to smoke more than in the past Many theories have been developed to explain this phenomenon, including; the women's liberation movement, the increased number of yourlg women entering the work place, and the intensive advertising efforts of the cigarette industry targeted at this audience Yet, Ittre specific information has been available from the young people themselves--including the extent of their cigaretle smoking, who are the smokers and nonsmokers, their attitudes towards and molivations for smoking, and most important of all present and potential barriers to cigarette smoking With the belief that this kind of information was vital not only 1o their own antismoking efforts, but to concerned pa~ents, educators, public health officials, community leaders and government authorgies, the Ame;ican Carlcer ~ooiety sponsored this study¸ It's purpose is not merely to ~ssess the incidence of cigarette smoking among these groups, but to qJnderstgnd the dynamics of what is oceurdng and what steps the AmericBn Cancer Society and other antismoking forces e~n take to reverse thi~ trend¸ C,q t¢ 0 ;tt 4* r~
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m How the Study was Conducted__ ...... .f The study was carried out in Ihree phases: Phase I: A Literature search of articles an5 research studies conoerr3ing oig~rett~ smoking 8moqg lean-agars and young women¸ Phase I1: Focused group discussions wth both teen- agers and young women---smokers and nonsmokers--for the development of initial hypotheses and the deve[opment of the questionnaire Phage II1: The study gself LS based on a national representative sample of 3,009 households, from which were selected projeotable subsamples of respondents for the following groups: Young Women (18 to 35 years of age) "fetal 559 Srr/okers 227 Nonsrrloke~s 227 Former smokers 105 Teen-age Girls (13 to 17 years of ~go) Total 267 Smokers 125 Nor~smokers 142 Teen-age Boys (13 to 17 years of age) Total 246 Smokers 127 Nonsmokers 119 Irl all, a total of 1,072 teen-agers and young women were interviewed in their homes with a lengthy ~nd detailed questionnaire In no case was more than one respondenl interviewed per household Interviewing took place during the months of Oclober and November, 1975 01 (b ~q 4* L0 t¢
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Summary 76 T 5 The results of the study point to several imporlaqt trends and some s~rprising findings 1. Cigarette Smoking Is On The Rise Among Teen-Age Girls: Prorr~ 1969 to 1975, ei9arette smoking among teen- age girls has increased at the tale of 239; Today, 97% of all teen-age girls smoke cigarettes either occasionally or heavily compared to only 22% in 1969 Translated into people, this increase means that had a million more teen-age g;rls are now smoking During this same period of time, however, cigarette smoking among boys levelled off and remaine# at the 30% level What has clearly happened is that teen-age gids have nearly caughl up with their male counterpads. (See Chart I). 2. Teen-age Girls and Young Women Are Smoking More Heavily Than In The Past: During this same period of time, pack-a day or rnore smoking has increased fourfold among teemage girl smokers. In 1969, 10% of air teen-age ggl smokers smoked at least a pack a day compared to 39% now. BOYS, on the other hand, continue5 to smoke at the same levels as befo,e The smoking scene among young women more C!OSely duplicates the pattern for teen-age girls For while smoking incidence has shown only a slight increment among young women (34% in 1965; 36% now), the proportion of heavy smokers--particurarly really heavy smokers--has accelerated sharply According to the United States Health Survey, conducted in 1955, one out of two young women smokers {51%) were smoking at least 8 pack of cigarettes a day By 1975, the figure was 61% w;th the sharpest increase among the more-lhan-ono pack-a-day group (up from 9% in 1955 1o 25% now) Currently, then the locus of the smoking prob'em is among teen-age gids and young women (SoeCh~rt H) C~ p~ 0 Cn ¢0 t~
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~l,m, ?? 3, Yet, The AntismoklnD Message Has Been Heard: This increase in the numbers and intensify of cigarette smoking among young women and teemage girls has occurred at a time when these young peopte were at least intellectually fully aware of the hazards of smoking• For a substantla[ majority of the group the message has come through loud and clear; ~,, Smoking is as harmful for women as lor men (74% teemage gids; 80% young women). © Smoking is as harmful for young people as well as for cider people (71% teer~,age girls; 71% young women)• It is not safe to smoke low tar cigarettes (5~% teen-age gids; 54% young women), (i Smoking during pregnancy can harm the fetus (56% teen-age oYls; 62% young women) Among young smokers, 56% of the teen-age £ids and 62% of the young women believe wholly or in part that srnokir~g is as addictive as illegal drugs {Sea Chart III). Yet they still smoke and start to smoke ir~ greater numbers and with more frequency than in the past The question is why? These trends help to explain the reasons: 1.4 r.q LO t~
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78 7 4, The All Pervasive Smoking Environment; While young people continue to be aware of the antismoking message, the sltuation all around them and their own perceptions of who and how many people smoke more than counterbalances the impact of what they have seerk heard or read about the dangers of smoking For example, among teen age gid smokers: • 82% OI all teen-age gifts think of teen.agers as smokers rather than nonsmokers. • TWO out of'three believe that more women are smoking now than a few years ago O 72% of the girls with boyfriends report that their tcgows are smokers. o 66% say that half of their friends or more smoke, o 87% smoke with their parents' knowledge; 34% with their parents' approval. • 84% have fathers who smoke or smoked; 64%, mothers. Add to this the fact that • 49% of the leen-age girls who smoke report that their schools have special "smoker" rooms where it is permitled to light up during the school day. • And 68% of the teen.age girls who smoke indicate that their own doctors bare not warned them against smoking t~
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79 5. Fewer Antismoklng Commercialc: Another key factor top, is that awareness of anti9rnoki'lo tetevi$1oR commercials, has been cut dr~sticaEly as a result of the retrenchment of free matching time following the barring of Cigaretle advertising on television. In 1969, Bg% Of ~1 teen- ager~ reJ~or~ed that they had seen or t~oard an ~ntismoking television commerciar in the past 4 weeks Currently, only 48% are exposed to this type of lelevisior~ spot. Dt~ the other hanS, the kinds of peopre identified w!th cigare~le advertising inalud~ the following: attractive, sexy, enjoying themse}ves, young well dressed, and beatthy (See Cha~ V). 6. Changing Moral Norms: Further bolsted'~g the impressions of the ~lq pervasive smoking environment and especially helping to explain in pad the sharp increas~ in smoking among teen age girls, are lhe chan~os in 1he prevailing social norms¸ For compared to the teen-age gifts, teen-age boys have changed less than the girls in their attitudes, rheeds and leelings about themselves a~ f~r a~ the~ relate to smoking With teen-age boys, cigarette smokiflg continues to go hand.in*hand with social uneasiness, the tTeed Io be popular with 1he opposite S~x, the urge to prove one's mascuP~nity. II is an intgnsic part of adolescent boy rebe]tiousI3es~- ,as it {~t,as @h,Yays boer1 C~ t~
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80 With tearl-age girls, the picture which emerges is very different. For in this instance a real change has occurred in the prevailing social norms and the differential between boys and gg]s has been blurred The teemage girls, for example, are see;ally considerably more at ease with their own peers, more "sophisbeated" than their ma!e peers, and loss in need of social props Indeed, the rebelliousness againsl adull societymonce far more the province el the boys--is now very much a oart of %he girls' onvgonmenl as well Gids 8re joining in with the boys ~nd ~moking pot, drinking a!chohol and getting in trouble with the euthorities It is not just in cigarette smoking fhal the teen-age gigs are o~tching up wild the boys. 7. The New Values: In general, the teen-age girls have beerl more ~ql uenced Lly the new youth value~ than the boys Trlese "New Values", od9 na]Jy generated by college youtn in the sixlies and now permeatlqg the nlajorily of all young people' represent the breakdown of previous moral norris and are characterized by the rejection el authority, emphas!s on the emotional rathe: than the rat Onal, freer sexual morafity, a strong accent on self and self-fulfllln/erlt, the acceptance of illegal drugs and a more informal lile style The new youth values do not necessarily Cguse nloro young people to smoke- but they make H easier to do what one Wants to do and to resist arguments against doing it , Tr/e N6,~ Mor~14y by Dane: YaEke!0vch McG,aw Hi 1974 t~ 0 4.- Lq
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R ._~lp,,.~ --- .10 Opportunities for Change: Yet, interesting y, opportunities for curbing smoking among young people are also intrinsically tied in with these Satrbe new values For the very ~rtlphasis o;i the importance of self, the need to be an independent thinker, the importance of physical well- being can provide more effective incentwes against smoking than the more traditional threat of future heallhhazards These, then, are the major trends revealed by the study. What follows in capsulated form, are additional significant and interesting findings relating especially to the increased inc;dence and volLJme of smoking among teenage girls and young women rJi t~ ¢> L¢ t~ Oh
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Findings in Brief 82 --11 The Teen-age Smoker a) The Serf-Confident Teen-age Girl Smoker: Even among her girl peers, the teen-age girt smoker 8t~nd~ out 8s more confident, outgoing and very much at ease in her own social grouping Parties are hat met;er. One measure of both her sophistication and her value stroeture is the fact that 31% of the girl smokers (ages 13 to 17 years old) have already had sexual ~e!ati~ns, Instead, }t is the teen-age girl nonsmoker who tends to be quieter, have less se!bconfidence, or self-esteem, and is shy with the boys The nonsmoker is a more devoted television viewer and reader. Sexually, too, she is far less precocious than the smoker. Slightly mere than a third (38%) have boyfriends and just 8% have had sexual relations (See Chart VII). b) Rebelgousness and Smoking: Cigarette smoking among teen-age ggls, however, does appeal to be highly identgied with an aqtiauthodty, rebellious syndrome in terms of the ad~l$ wodd ~his cuts across parents, school, ins~ilut~ons- and evetq inlga eta receptivity to arttismoking messages emanating from ad~;It authodges. Q One out of two of the teen-age girl smokers (53%) ate ~nnoyed by the SO called experts who tell them whal is good for them (34% teen-age gid nonsmokers). 0 Haft of the teen-age gid smokers agree that there is too much regolation of people's lives (39% nonsmokers)¸ • Almost hag of the teen-age gid smokers want to do $ornethirlg entirely different froc~l what their parents want them to do (2G% nonsmokers). UI tO Cb (.,a t~ t~ -,.}
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~3 Orl~ DL~ OI threo Of lhe teen-ag~ g~g sriiok~r5 (32%) hate school {t6% non~rrlokers); 2g% h~v~ been s~JSpOnde~ or e×pe]J~d t~om ~choo[ compared to 4% of the nonsmokers c) Cigarette Smoking, Alchohol, and Marijuana: An even more overt indioat]on of the rebellious nature Of the teen age 81rl £moker is her use of alchohol and mariiuan~l: (~ Among teen-age girl smokers, 81% drink alcohol compared to 42% of their nonsmoking glrl peels ([, APmost a third of the teen-age girJ smokers (32%) sometimes drink to get drunk compared to 4% of the nonsmokers¸ (D One out Of tour of the g;rl smokers (25%) LJ~O marijuana compared to only 3% of the norl~n/L31~ers Among teen-age boy smokers, the same Irends Bre agpa~er)t Yet for ~11 of these current forms ot reberliorb, the oral wood shad image of smoking ~a a ~ymbol of asa~riiveness apparently lingers On among teen-age smokerSmwhile the concept of nonsmoking B$ proof ot nonconformity or rebel]ion against the ~dug world, ~ocicty, ~dve'l]sing or bi9 buslne£s has not caughl on (See Churl VIII). d) Smoking as a Social Asset: For the teen-age boy $,flo~ers oL~t to prove their rnaaculinity, Cigarettes are still regarded as a social asset¸ This is not the case, however, with the teen-age girl smokers¸ Instead a majority (52%) consider smoking to be a social drawback. This may make it easier for her to quit--but is also one other sign of her flaunting an5 rebellious spirit¸ (See Chart IX), ~q t~ 0 4~ t~ ~9
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i 13 e} A Perm]$sWe Adult World: Smoking as a form of ~doiesoent rebellion becomes eqore diltlcuIf to compreher~d in a society in which many adults take a very lenierlf, if not Iolerant post0re, regarding teen-age smoking P~rent£ know ~bollf their teen-age daughters smoking (87%) and 34% condone it. Many schools are providing special "smoker" rooms in line with changing time.~--ev~n though there are signs that the availability of lega~ smoking places in the school plant appear~ to be directly correlated wJfh Bn increase in teen-age gir~s smoking¸ Among teen-age girl smokers, 49% report that their schools have regLdar smoking ~reas comparec~ to 32% of the nonsmoker~ (Se~ Chart X) I) Doctors and Smoking Among Young Peopte: Nor do rags1 members of the medical profession pl$;y an active role as antago-~ists of smoking an-ong young people For example, 70% ot the teen-age gids and 73% of the young women repeal that their persona~ doctor or ¢linLc has not cautioned them at all about the dangers of smoking g) Peer Pressure: Peer relationships, long identdied 8S a major factor in teen-age smoking conflnue |o operate as a dominant influence with teen-age ggl smokers, for example, llock~ng together. • Among teenage grl smokers, 69% report that half or more of their male lfiends ~nd 66% report that more than half el their female friends smoke Among teen-age girls who do not smoke, on~y 32% claim that half of theg ma]e friends smoke and 19% more than hag of their girl friends Snloke. O Generatly too, anlong the girls and young women, smokers usually come in p~ifS C.q t¢ 0 t~
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85 14 6, 72% of the teen-age girl smokers have boyfriends who smoke compared to 27% of the nonsmokers¸ 68% of the young women smokers have boylriends or girl friends who smoke, compared to 41% of the nonsmokers• (See Chart xg h) Everybody Smokes: The all pervasive smoking environment, ~coording to the feen-agers, is nol limited to their families and friends but to the whole world all around them. Most teen,agers--srnokers arid nonsm0kers--0onsider smoking to be a maiodfy phenomenon among their own gee~ group, ,~s ,,*,GII a~ amorLg most adults Teachers, e×eo~Jtives, hoLJsewive$, feminist leaders--all are thought Of as smokers¸ Doctors and athletes are the only two exceptions (See Chart Xg) Then, too, there are the cigarette ad~ which help to reinforce the image of the cigarette smokers as attractive, (65%); enjoying themselves, {65%); well dressed, (62%); sexy, (52%); young, (50%); and healthy, (50%)• (See Chart Xlll). I) The Smoking Rationale: Teen*age smokers, like adulls, have developed their own rationale for continu;ng to smoke Sure smoking is bad for you--but stil~ and all: @ The dangers el smoking are exaggerated for my age group (52% teen-age girl smokers; 54% teemage boy smokers). • There's too much talk these days about things that are bad for you (43% teen-age girl smokers; 48% teen-age boy smokers)• ® And then there's air pollution which is just as important a cause of lung cancer as cigarettes (teen age girl smokers, 67%; leen-age boy smokers, 51%), l,a, O CD O
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86 15 j) Barriers to Smoking: Teen-age girl nonsmokers divided into two almost equal gro~psuthe "fradgionaIists and the Vulnerables It IS easy to understand why the "traditionalists" do not smoke¸ They are strongty religious, respectlul of authority, and not accepting the new values The~' atso shy away frot'n theP pests who smoke, drink or use m [~ r'l]ii ~ r~ a ~he otber group oi nonsmokers, the "vutnerables" are very dLfterenb for they share many of the sam8 values as the smokers, ~nd 8re highly exposed to the total smoking environroent On the surlaee, %he vulnerables appear to be ready ce, ndidate~ for lhe next wave of new smokers: @ One out of two of 1he vulnerables report thal half or more ol their male friends smoke¸ 0 A third indicate that at least 50% of their girl friends smoke. • A majority of them have one or more parent who smoke, half have siblings who smoke Yet, the "Vulnerables" do not smoke Inslead they have found, consciously or unconsciously, some ~rong barriers ~o smoking¸ The~e are: • The importance of being in control of one's life @ Emphas}s on physical fitness and well being • Concern about the addictive nature of cigarettes Ul (# l.b . -%
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81 10 in I (, And, perhaps most Of all by becoming militant Bntlsmokers--paople who 8re Brlgered by other srllo~,ers, =Jpset by ,£moke hil£d togms. ~nd ready for increased regulation Of smoklng in other words, they are finding a new cause and a peer identiflcatioq (Se~ ChBrt XIV). k) Antlsmoklng Educstlon: Many teen-sgers have attended antismoklng programs including 48% 0! the teen-age gid ~mokers and 49% of the nonsmokers. A large majority (84%) have found them meaningful, irleluding, however, rtlost of tho~e who are now smoking¸ The problem is one of timing¸ Six out 01 ter~ gir~ Smokers¸ for example, have started to sr~loke before they are thirteen years of age--but have only 8nende~ smoking education classes or programs in th~ seventh, eighl, ninth, or tonlh grades of school when it is aheady too lale (See Chart XVI). I1: Young Women Smokers a) An Independent-Minded Group: Many ot the sarr=e qualities which distinguish teen-age glrl smokers Iron nonsmokers are 81so ~ppareRt--but to lesser ~e~ree--be~ee~ yDL~ ,~,~ror/~eR s~flo~,~s ,~r~d ~oN~mokefs. The women smokers also tend ~0 be mo'e social and outgoing, an¢iauthority and strongly subjected to the total smoking environment and "peer" pressure. Over two-thirds of ~11 young women smokers (68%) have boy friends or husbands who smoke compared to loss than hatf (41%) of the nonsmokers. Their Ider~ds also smoke--and they are somewhat more likely to have come from homes in which one or both of their parents smoked, Compared with their own nonsmoking peers, the young women 6moker$ ~re r~sdier to: • Have fun now and forget about the future (46% smokers; 36% ~ot~smokers) Ut tO &tt tO
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88 • Rationalize that everything you do these days seems to give you cancer (46% smokers; 32% t~o~mokera). • Feel that there is too much regulation of people's fives (41% smokers; 32% nonsmokers). Q Believe we are close to finding a oute for cancer (50% smokers; 45% nonsmokers)¸ Yet they also h~ve one strong charaoteristic wh]ch coutd be used as an integral p~rt of any antisnl~klng elf err--61% Of the young women smokers express a strong need to I~e indepenoent compared to 52% of their nonsmoking contemporaries (See Chart XVlt) b. Working Women: C0ntra'y to the theory that the increase in heaw smoking amor~g young women is correlated wdh Lhe greater number of women who ale now emp!oyed, the findings of the study show that it Js the housewives--nol the working women who are more likely to he ~he heavy smokers¸ Arqong young women smokers, g9% 8re employed full or par1 time- and 61% are housewives (or unengp!oyed or students). The pal~ern for fgonsmokers is parallel (37% are emp!o/'ed; 63% are hous~wlves) A look, however, at the incidence of heaw smoking-- and the mylh about cigarettes and working women is fefu(ed • Among housewives who smoke 66% are heavy smokers; among working women, 53% are hea~y srnoke[$ Interestingly, it is also the working women who aflord the best opportunity for converting smokers into nonsmokers, accentuating the desirabirity" of antismokirlg e&rrlpalgns dgected at the workplace (See Chart XVlll). 17 t~ U1
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iF 89 lhe myth about the Womcgn's Liberation movement efloouraging c~gare~te Smoking is ~IS~ 1~3t substant~a~:d by the findings of the $1L}Oy for equal flumbers of yo~n9 women smokers ~70%) and r~onsmoker~ (69%) identgy strongly or parh~lly w~th th8 Women's Liberation movement¸ c. Smoking and Pregnancy: A critical period to reach young women smokers is not only dudng pregtlancy but in Ihe months afler the woman has 3)vet~ b3th A maior]t~' of young wom~n Smokers (62%) believe that smoking ¢~n harm the fetus. Even more imporlant, d~rin~ pregnancy, 67% of the ~.mokers have either cul back (32%) or stopged smoking (35%i Unlortu~at~ly, howevoh the ~,bstine~ce does not hold up--for here they are back ~rl/oking otloe o.g&in. d. Smoking and Children: Several years 8go, when anlismoking oommer¢ia!~ were far more: widely avallable or1 tetevision, young Children wore reporlod to be among the rna~n crusaders against their mother's smoking habits¸ Foday, over had Of the young women smokers wdh children (56%) report that their ~hi}dren are bothered by theg smoking but there is little evidence that the children ~re aS milganl in thog ~[Iorts as in the pas~ Among former smokers, for o×~,mpl~, very few mention that theg children were a maior influence in getting them to quit. e. The Former Smokers: While progress has been made in getting some young women to quit smokingLthe main success has been among the llght rather than the oommgled smoker. Most of these forme~ smoker8 (63%) smoked less than a pack a d~y. There are, however, important lessons to be learnsd f[om the ~ormer smokers: MOSt did quit of their own accord, (50%}, some were enooura3ed by their boy friend~ or husbands (gs~;,), a h~dful by their doctors¸ t8
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i ,: 90 19 6 One out of two used willpower rather than substitutes such as candy or gum. I Almost none ol this age group of young women smokers reported that they gained weight • Most found immediate gratification from quitling. 1 he feeling of being in control of one's life, an increased sense of physical wellbeing, the end of c;garette bad breath and smell, and money saved, proved to be stronger ~einloroements than even the insurance they Bre buying against future disease and ill heagh. (See Chart XIX) f, The Potential for Quitting: Most young smokers want Io quit Among young women, YO~, can be classified as "potential quitters"-- smokers who express concern over their smoking and some eagerness to quit Among teen-age glfls, 58~S of the smokers can similady be classified as "potent al for quitting." (See Chart XX) Only a minordy, then, are committed to continued smoking. This group expresses little or no concern over their own smoking and tends to deny the dangers of the habit Indeed, everything about the group suggests that they will strongly resist any or all attempts to get them to give up ther cigarettes The potential quitters, on the other hand, are half way there, but s~ill need help to conquer their smoking hab Is: • Two out of three of the potential quitters (65%) be]ieve that once you start smoking it is impossibte to stop 0 A majority (60%) agree lhat smoking is as addictive as illegal drugs • Over ha!f (57%) are worried about their weight 03 t~ O UI
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gl (n Two out of three (67%) have boy iriends or [husbands who now smoke, suggesting the need for more emphas s on "quitUng couples " Potential quitters among the young women smokers also are more likely to be employed. pointing to the advantages of antismoking programs directed at the workplace¸ They sre also more involved with Clubs and group activities sgain indicating the desirability ol wide$pre~d antismoking eltorts Most of all, how~er, many Of these potential quitters are asking for the help oflerecl by nlore strict regulation of their own and other people's smoking¸ Among the potenga[ young women quitters: C, 55% believe that it is impDrtant to take special measures to protect OUr hea}tN @ 49% want to see Stricter regulations of where one can and cannot smoke in public 31% want to see cigarette advertising in newspapers and magazines ?egulat(d They are, in other words, looking for allies and supped from the all4mportant militant nonsmokers who support the same causes even more strongly 20 C~ 0
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92 The Balance Sheet Teen-agers and Young Women The Plus Side $ Smoking is a rninDrity phenomenon O 3~een-age girl smokers do r)ot Cot3sid~r ~mok~n9 to be 8 social Smoking i~ not 8 prop--Elt IE'~st for thc 9ir;s T~ "~vi~s" of smoking ~e known • The militant rlot3smO~eF-- ~ ~be~,~ form of p~eT plessuro O MOSt Smokers wart~ to quit MrJst young ~moker~ are riot yet ¢omt~itt~d • T~e New Vatu~ emphasis on self, self- control, self-fulfillment hnport~nce ol physical aT~bearan¢~ and ~itne~5 • The example Ot the fo~m~F sm~rs Q Pregnancy ~nd ~moking Q Children as allies O Fear of g~ining weight is not an inhibitin~ factoF Th~ ~eadiT~s Io~ antismoking regu!~tiDn The Minus Side • lhe increase in smoking • ~h~ all pervasive ~mo}~rlg ~t3 vi~or3mer~t "~verybody ~niokcsI' theory Q Health haz6rds are seen ~ ~×agg~ratcd for ~e~n,~g~r$ R~la×ation of restrictions at h~rne O E~oys SIIII smok~ to m~ouhnity • * Smoking rooms in O Cutback ir~ television antismo~Lr~ ~dv~tising Q P~r pr~ss'Jre; $qlokors oom~ in pairs arid group~ O F'arcn~ who smok~ • ~he a~Ve~Li~ed imago oI tho smoker • Oo~tors don'~ speak up • T~ New Valde~ Antia~Jthori~y, emphasis OT~ lh~ Omo~io;l~l rathGI th~n the r~tiona[ • Belief that smoking i~ addictive makes quit l~ng harder • lho problems of b~ing a ho u~¢Jwif e ~tlcourag~s young WOt31~r3 ~o ~mo~;e "The cure is just ~rour3d tho Co~13~" ~fu~h for ~mok~r$ 21 U'[ t~ I,,=
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\ 21 A.== 93 27% 1989~ 1975 'feen.Age Oir~ Cn~,rll CIGARETTE SMOKING TRENDS 36% 34% _31% 30% :y/y//.. ?'//% -- s/~/ 1965'' 1975 1999' 1975 Young V, omen ~oen.A~o Boys "1~69 ~me lean Ca ricer $ocle:y • * 19~5 L $ N~ion01He~ ~ Sb rv0~ Chart 2 THE GIRLS ARE SMOKING MORE "IHAN THE BOYS Base: Cigarette Smokers 39% -li 31% I: IJ Teen.Age3een-Age Glrlm Boy= $m3keap~;k of¢i~rettes ~y or n~re tO ¢> L~ OO
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---
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r ~" c.,
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96 Ch~rt6 TEEN-AGE GiRL SMOKERS ARE MORE ADVANCED SOCIALLY THAN ")'HEIR MALE PEERS Going to p~lLies eIId d~nces i~ ~ I~ ~rotil~ Tel~ur~ timo ~¢tivity ~t'$ iTllporl~r~t tO n~ E) tO b~pO~LJb~t'P, iththe Oppo~it e~ ~ex Smoking is a social ~ssot Mo~t~n D new p~epl~ and boir~ in ~ ne~, sit uatJon makes rne TEEN-AGE ~MOKERS GIRLS BOys __ % . % 61 49 61 3t 55 32 45 ChRrt 7 THE SELF CONFIDENT TEEN.AGE GIRL SMOKER TEEN,AGE GIRLS Sr,~okers Nor,s~loke r= % % Partios are a favor[le 75 ~8 Ioisufe tin=o ;~ ct Lvit y Haveeboyfriend 64 38 Re~=din g is a favorite ~g 61 leisL~ r e tiTTle a Ctivit y I orlon feel E'fr~ not 34 50 Very gC~O(~ at things Me~!~ng r~.¸ p~opl~ rn~kc~ 32 4~ m~ nervOUS I h~,e had se×u~r relalio~ 31 8 ~5 K,,.e r=o
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97 CIGARETTE SMOKING AND TEEN-AGE GIRL REBELLIOUSNESS OrLnk alcoho~ SO n]et il/le$ ~irik tO geldrunk Ha~ been Suspended or e~ pelle,'l from 5ch~ Ll~e m~riju~na Ran av, ay from hon~e ~EEN AGE GI~LS honsmokers % 81 42 32 4 4 25 3 25 10 Chart 8 SMOKING AS A SOCIAL ASSET Chart9 ~moXingisa~oclalas~¢l Smoking]$a drawback Neitherone/both TEEN.AGE SP,~OKE~S Girls I~oys ~T 55 52 3t 13 II 26 E/'t t~
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v 98 SCHOOLS WITH SMOKING AREAS 49% 32% Teea.Age Girl Teen Age ~irl $moker~ Nons~=okers SMOKING AMONG PEERS Boylrlend ~mokes Half of male friend~ ~moke Half of female frlen~s ~rnoke Chart 10 Chart 11 TEEN-AGE GIRLS SmokltrlL N Otllmokets % % 72 27 69 32 lg UI k~ C, O1 £a
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99 MOST TEEN-AGERS THINK ALMOST EVERYBODY SEEMS TO SMOKE Chart 12 Usually Think of BS 7EEN.AGERS Strokers Ralhcr ~hll~l G~F]S Boys II c~nsmo~e~ % % ~ec rl.8~)~ r.~ 112 ~4 Won!~n ex~,~ Jtivc~ 69 711 HO jsew;ves 67 5~ F~n~ini~t ~dor~ 54 ,76 Doctors 311 ~0 Athletes 9 tl ] eacller$ 68 ~7 Chart 13 KINDS OF PEOPLE SHOWN IN C~GARETYE ADS ~¢en-t*ge Girl Srr~okers % AtErac~ive 69 ~nioy~s~th~nt~elves 6G We~Pdressed 65 Se~,y ~4 ¥our~ 59 Healthy 49 28 t~ C~
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BARRIERS TO SMOKING Chart 14 How "Vulnerable" Teen-age Girl Nonsmokers Differ From Smokers D]fferGnce between "vulnurable"non. smoke~ nnd current ~nloker~ I 8 m t he r( Dst anllsqlokir]B 4+4+4- pers#n in my farnily Being ]r~ a smoked fille J -~ 4--I + room 8 nlloy~ r~/e Believe ~mok[n ~ cig~ reties ++-4 is ~ ~erious health hazard Be;r~ I~ r OlJnd 8mOker~ is ~ 4++ serio JS heallh hazard Enio~ spear's .~ + ~¾'o L~d ~£[cortte more -,; er, lp ha$[s on phy$,¢~l f,t(less Sup~or [ re~latinQ ~¢nok~,~g -:4 in public Eech • rc~reserlts ~ 10% dif'e -erlce o f ' ~ulnera~le¸' r~onsr~oker~ over s%okers THE MILITANT NONSMOKER I lir~ being in a smoke Jilled room very arlrlovIrlg I fsvor rt~guJatif'g wh~/e 5mo~er~, esn arKJ c~nnot ~rJio ke I favor rooL~ ~ting ~dvertJsi~'g of cigarette5 irl rl~ ~,'spa Dot £ ~lqd magazines Being around poop~c wh~ Sm~ko i$ ~ serious heath hazard Chart 15 • OTAL NONSMOKERS Teen-age Young GirlJ Woml~n % % 60 70 58 55 47 42 29 3D 29 T 0"I t¢ 0
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101 GhaH 1C MOST ANTISMOKING EDUCATION IS TOO LI'[TLE AND LATE 3EEN.&GE GIRL SMOKERS % StaHcdIosmo~ebe~orc ~0 13ye~rsof~e Atten0¢d ant}snoking 4B (duca~,~npro~ra~,ir, SCIOOI &trended a~isn~kin~ e~Jcati~n i~ 61;= grade (12y~ar0o;5) YOUNG 61% , 52% /// ! ! Ha,e A Sir or, t P4eed Ic Be ~pOepca~ent 3O Chart17 WOMEN SMOKERS VERSUS NONSMOKERS 5O% %¢ A'e C~OS! TO Fmlin~ACure yDrC3gc~r tO (g, 4a 0')
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102 Chart 18 HEAVY SMOKING AMONG HOUSEWIVES VERSUS WORKfNG WOMEN Smoke A pack Of More OI Giga rettes A Day % Housewives 66 Working WornBn 53 WHO ENCOURAGED YOU TO QUIT? % Fro one/did On own 50 Husb~nd/bDy friend. 28 RelalivL, (parent, sster £,10 ) 13 [Jo01or 3 ,r t;ends 2 Ch]ldret% Ot~er Chartlg T Chart20 POTENTIAL FOR QUtTTING ~,~ ss'~ / t& ~ / POutiI'IIB'/ ~,..._~/ ~70% ~---- ~)jtiMi{11',' "TeS rt 8ge Girls your1~ ~¢*r~]B rt 31 CA O E4 ~u ,,,3
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103 DANGERS OF SMOKING BENEFITS OF QUITTING & RELKI'IVI~ RISKS OF I),EI)UCEI) EXPOSURE [~1 \ ISI;I) IDII ION An up-to date smmnaD' of'the key scientific and mr~dical sh~dics, plus new infol marion on Ocoltotni('s, llS> thohlgy, l)harmacolc~g} and othcl aspects o{ lo~lac oo Sllmking and health 777 Thi,d Ax euuc, Ncx~ "* m k, New Yolk 10017 O U1
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104 TAI~LE OF CONTFNTS illk~ [otr~dtict JoJl D~tllgt frs, J~el]l.]l(3, Ilelativc l/isks l ~,~*lr ta]ily, Disability alld Chronic |llness I[ [ i rig (:alienor iir ()II~,E C m( ~rs IV I:/~lt Art leks, C rc:datorb Disl:asl's ~mtl Strokes V F:tl]l~h~s,:nlt, g]:r~nlcBroi~ci~iti~alJd(3tll(r N(~II Ca[]col (ills Lur~ l~i~e isis VI Smokil~ ~ aEtd P]*~:'natlcy I)ru g ~-]t't I}~]i nl "~l edict[ Tests VII T}/c S,/,~kin~ llal>it: Psyel/olo~y illl(] ]3 h~tl IlltlLff)leiJ~) ~,~lj [ SlllOkillg Lcio],c/:ni( s ~tri<l S{ tl itti( ~ II~/I][cJgraI ]Ly AI)pvod[x Subject lridl × Ailth~)r Index PAOE 5 7 16 2~ 3t 39 46 55 62 75 76 78 g4) ¢,a g,.
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105 INIkff]DUCIION wittdn the trust 15 )cer, OL I~gbi~ ot smokh~g tohacc+, n,aml)¸ in cig,~rett~ ~- ha~ bccn tltJ[~crs~*lP)¸ cotLd(.;~,~,(d [,) authori tativq inedic~] gl~JLll)~ and ~(Iver nnL~nt iiic(]i( a] o~[i~cl s B5 a leadillg cause of dcdlh arid ,~ majnr l~Ld~lie Ii~ItlJ problem in d~ ycleped ~out] lrle~: • ,~: "A~ inlI/nl Lallt R canf¢ ot death a~ ~ert' tile gi~at epid( iltlc dileases t}l~t a~Tecled ]3r~ iou s ~cn( ¢~tion~ in l}dt t nuntt y" [l~iilislt Ro)al Co]logo of Ph) sic[arts, 1971j1 ~: "'lhc largest pr( t entablc cause oF deoth in Amc rRa" [Sel- ret,,t) Jos¢3~l, A Califatlo, Jr, U S. Dcparhncnt of IleaItb, I;duea- ttou and Welfare, 1979]~ "No ]ongl r arl) doubt..., a maior and cerl,dn/y removable canst of il[ health and llremati.c death " [Workl JIl,dth (lr g,~:d z,~ llon, 1q7913 'Ihc pttrpo~c I,f this l'b2o]ddt is to summarize t}i@ ]~tcgt ht fn~niation about star,king and he,,lfll, deri~(d from thous~t~ds of epidcnliological, biological, pharmacological, i~athohigleal and olhel studies, 'lhe present bunklct is an update el lh£ one published t,} ~11~" Anti tic in I,;a TlCI I N~ICiet) ill 1972 Itltder t}tl UllC '1h¢ J[3(nlgl!l $ of Smoking 7he llclw~l~ of Qufttili£" ~lhich sutnmariz+d k~) studi(~, bolllds lind major surl¢}'s starling w[t}t that of lhe land ~t?/rk report SIHokitl~. otld ll((~I!~l Of tli( Ad~Jsc~ry CO[hluil[rt tO t]~c St,rgeol+ (;enoa} oI the U S Ihl~,dlc tllahh Ser~kt in 19,°,1 (}tx the ]Sth an~ix eJ sat) of the {alltOtt s 1(}64 rtl,m t, ]at,fl- at), 1979, the p~¢scnt Slttgeolt General, Julms I~ Ilich mn:~d MI I, is}aed a nru repast titltd SMOKING ¢-- II!ALTtl compos~ d of ~2 detailed scientific papers eompih d b) 12 aget,cics ill the l)(patt- ill( iit el Ilealth, l,]d ue~dlo:l al,d XVelfalc arid lexiewcd b} 3/1Phi i/Is r¢ ooga[zed as exp(rt, in lhedff~erenttMds ']'he then Secr¢tary of IIEIV, Jest p!, A Call fanll, J:, i/J Iltc in the irltloductior~ t}tat tl~¢ llex~ r(p:lrt 'dclnOlis]~e~ t1~c elMmr h~l ~,l irtg (U ] n.lll t,,Slm,d 1~7~, Ia 9 5n,~ [, g ~ I1. ~ltl,, A t~j,¢ -i a[ IhO entre , ¢:+,~ ,.] U g D~it of H~M,h t daca~i~a ¢, xA e]fo ,¢. ~mhiT2~ n D C, U 5 GO~¢ r, melt I~rB bn~ OHiC¢ 1979 l, [i a ¢; ,,dm:lh,£ tl:o Sm kh,g t ptaem~ ~ orld I[eMth Or~ ,,,~at~¢~ G¢~,¢ ~ * 5~itter:~, ~ ca 0 L0
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100 cullifi< c~i<lc~ic~ ~Ls skctch$; Lh~l no ]iil~ I~c't~cCiL smo~in~ ~r,d e~t~c~t ~ a~ 'pto~ ell ' . ] ~c]a) little can be i]o dou~,t that s~lok[llg is fi LII) sl~)~t -niOL[Ol~ SU i¢'[I] c'>" QllitH r~g ~l llcdtleetl t;xpo~llra ~tlcls, to 11/~" ~t~ rial ¢ovcx~ cl i~, ' C ~lltrtlllili~ tile glilokll/~" ~e~l~id e illic '> o~ tile \Vclrld 1 lc><~]tli Ol ~Ti tlh/ll, ~cl¢~,~l ale, ~tlli/!~cc~ or dls~l~]~?¢I fiotzi altotit i 5o/irtl~ rl ~c ul],d pa{te rcft'rt licv i~ g[~ l ii £o llJ/ SCLr ~ t )' I~Libllc,lti~ ui ir~ v. }~IC }~ lhc ] r t *31~ [i,LI ~pj)/~1 $ ~Oe II]t~lio gr ~ill]i) at Irlcl I~f l]~[l b ooklc~l for sc~tl~ecs of tli~t' gczJ Icil Itfci (ItI~ S ll3<lil, cd [~:J [I)iehJ] [1(o~ <dj [IVHO] ~./"l
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L 107 ] ol]~hJ~ i! Ihf fJist clmrl ~o [o Ji/) L~ s rJil~E[liL d I/t~J4 till sr c[~J~s smc~k/d pcl (h}, thl h~Jgth c*[ lirll4 s:nllk[llg has t~kcn t~i~ccl Ivh<lh~r ~/ [lot t}l~ ~Jn~] hJlL~dCSj ]JO~¸ dcc~d! ll~c ~trJOk(r i=d~]~S, h~l~¸ nLU/~L C~I Ihc ~i~a~c~lu (0~ ]~[1~ O~ ci~a ) i~ SL~,I:Cdj 111(¸ t~Lr ~rld ilicoiirl~¸ ~rllc/ll (~t Ih~¸ ~/u~Jk~ ~ }J~J~, ~lE]y di~rJin/lli~Jij rE~; ,Jt~d IlUltl[~J~ ~lfJt~]l' ~ilr ~du~c I~sk~ i~o?r~.~,~l!¸ ~wr period ot liluc¸, prc,~di~g ilr~.~r~Jl~]/¸ tissue ch~tl~ },~w ~,ol t ~k/~* pTucl ~ ~/lh ~ ~cfhs ~ }Jc ~r~l is ~ ruined dLdh,~ 11~ lh~¸ c~rl~c~l ~ol~o~dc I/~c/ iT* ~ll/¸ blood ~i~}dTi t~,c]~(¸ hr~u~ ll~d~clJc~ ~lld st~m:lch ~L~ c~Luscd ~,1¸ ~Jl~in~ di~qll]~r Sl~lnhl~ a~ld ~i~,or i],l[]]o~c ~)/h i, ~x ~l~l(~ rs i~ ~¸ ~ ~:~r ,~ 11~ ~t t~h¸ ~l~d ~11~ !l ~ll~ tll~r~ ~r~¸ IIl~ll !' i~/ol ~ irJ~t)oI ~t fd Iol~ t I y/ik IIC ~z]lh ~Tl(~ li!l¸ ~l~ill~ IJL/II J~ti tron~ Ijl/Jl~iIl~ ~i~q~i~tli~ .~/C~ it~lt ~1/ the ~ol UI
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/ 03 ~~,,~ ........ ~o_o ~ ~-~ ~ ~ , ~ > L
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RISKS OFSMOKING Risk Coronar~ he~rt ~isca$¢ Cig~Elle $Gioki~ ~ is mR!or l~c!3r respu~sib!e Ior 170000 £~es5 U S d~hs fror cur ~'y h~a~ 0 seas! ICHD) e~ch y~a~ ~isk~: Chranic ~ruflchilll and purmonaW emphysema Ciga [¢~t~ smokers have 4 25 ti[~ e~ risk of de~th fro~ trese dis- eases ~S rlonsrll~k~ $ [~a'F a~8 s£~n i~ Brags cf e~en youn~ 5~loke's I~ilks: $1111brtih and I.w ~rdh welghl Brook;rig rl3thers h~v! mzte stiNbirths 8~ bAR ~s el v In£tabl~ to d;5~a38 ~q~ dialh rqolners smaller, u~der- ¢ele;opedphy~icall~an~ ~;rth l{iik: pe#tic ulcer. Cigar erie s IOker$ £/t mor~ pepl;c t '~s and die nloro Orlon of t~(p,; ctJr~ LS n~3r~ dillico~t in sn~er $ Itilk: ~rlei~ y a~d Ir~pair ment ~f mlfflune $y~e~ Rilks:A]lersp~2rmacelogi¢ eIlecls of tasty z~ fdic;n¢~ ~Ja~noIli~lesti~n~re~r~ Inc,eale~lls~oft~ram~oil~ ~:~horalcofltMcepli~e~ 109 BENEFITS OFQUITTINR Benefit Bhar#ly zfecrlases f[l~ ariel 8nE ~Saf After I 0 y~a:s e~ smo~rs¸ ris~ is n~vB¸ sq:o~e~ I~nefit: Coug~ an~ =,p#lum disappBat duri~ f~rst few weeks Lu~ fu~ctio~ m~ i~l~t ow ~nd r,tle o~ de[~r;or~- Be Befit:/'~ 3men Iho Stop smoking b!fore 41h monl~ OI prl~arl~y ~d[min~le ris~ ~[ st~llSidh arl~ low b~rlbw~hL causfd by ~mok[~; Beqefit: Since ch Idren of non smgki~,2 mothers ~rf bigger and rno'e a~an:ed S~CiaNy i~ fe~eng~ iS lh~[ ~ Srao~l~ durin~ ~re~n~ncg m[~hl avoi~ S~C~ ~nder~e~elope~ c~llBre~ Be aefil: E~ sn,okels get us[e -s ~L[ th~se ~re m~re likelytohealtapldlye~B co~lpl~l~ly [~ n SiOSe ~I $n~OkEr$ Beaefil: Since thus=. ~re d,rect ]taBled ~te e~[ects i/f £moking thug ~re ohulou sly a~lda~le Ing return Ion o rmal after ceII~lion Nunsr ~ke~s on Pil~ h~vo mu~h IOwex rlskt Of thrumb~sls RELATIVE RISKS: FILTER-TIPPER LOWT/N B R/'~N [IS Low T/N hale SnlB](¢t s h!~ 12 percCnl I~wer CHO x~le, pc=cent IO,'re" th~n h oh ]/h S,rlo% :r5 N~ i~en[;fl !d benefit NC Idenbfl!d ~enffil ~J~ idenlifl !d beuE~ t NU id~nUri!J bfn!r : Lr~
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110 ] MO][3AI,}I~,I)]SZ, BII,I'I'IANI)CHt{ONICII,LNESS "l'k~o ~tlost direct res~tlt o[ 5t~t¢~k[n~ i~ vislbl¢ irl the dif[¢r ~alt] i~ al~*2 ~llllliIs; ~n¢l iIL ~c di[tt'rei]ee~ itt l}lo h ill O'~t~r Of y~a~ t3f li[e '[~¢l~v~¢tt t he t ~o gr c~t~ps "I)('at]l ~at¢i ar~ ui]i[ortit]~' }li~lt'r al]il>l/~ sll/O]~ei~ tli~ll al t] (~llg, r]l:ilsEll~kt rs, i~i botli sexes, aTtd whaLel et []te age at ~eatll. ~le ~xc(ss ll/ill[alit~¸ ol ¢'[~alctt~ ~E~/O~.~/S is plo~lol[iol/a~l!y gJt'~lez ~[ a~¢~ 45 ~ t[iatl ~1{ ytlt/Ti~2tr Or illtll~l agtt A ~i]toker do~lldes )~i~ rifk cff dlili~'l~e [orL¸ a g,- 65'¸ [~,V~IO 1979,1/~] ~tar~cd (~tt]~er ~ ali;~l~l~ s il.lch~d c dt~!t~ o[ iTJha]ation, tar ,~T,tl ni¢O t[tke ]~(]S t~f ~he ~tLiokt¸, ~t~ tll( l~lnL[~Or O[ puf[s per ¢[~r~tt¢ A]] ~f l],~s! ~(,~,lri~ute to tl~e cle~¢~ of risk il~vol~e(1 i/i s~oklrtg Ill t i~,l~L ittai[>l ]llo~pl ~ [[vt• $~t~il s o[ al~/~tl 1~o i/1i]]i¢~1~ t~eo- [/](~, ~[~lr~{~/? sl~ol~[li~2 is :L~II!{[~L{tll ~lJt[i a (~l [ltll,liJ{ ~ll*21,1ge ill.irate itt ~r~ r,~l] ~]~atlL ~tcs ]TI ~ll~¸ t~o ~o~t vt~h,t~at>lt¸ .~ge gl tlt]l>/, ~ ~ t Elli(] ~ .~], ~1~(¸ (] eilt ~l I Llll ~ of 31]~/~keI~ ale ~(~ pier cl~iit ~i~lOr alLd]52per~ent]fi~ker, r~slb~'cti~tll [S(; 1~79,}~ ~11] The ~hath r,t~¸ fo~¸ ~ gi~ ~1 hl~]ll~er ~f c[f~arettt,s s/nl~ ed is ]li~]tll I~I]l/Ih~ itl~rla]llf t~l~l~l ~Til!~nl~ t]l(~/¸ ~tl~ (l(~lJ't il/~i~]~ ] SC]ielt][L ]te~tr{ ¢]~Ie~Lse, ]~tll~ cal/~/[, £~ii(I ~!tr (lll~/¸ ~}/~lr tic [[re ]/ilJ~ d[~e~e are ~lot as likely to ¢h'l ¢Iop i~l i:~¢1[~ i(ILlal ~ ~ !~ dc~ ~/~t iftha]e t obacco ~llloke Dcal~ llat~ Male [I¸ol gz olLl~ of ~[~¢]J s~t~i[lg fe~l t/l~l~ }0 ¢i~larl ties t~[ ~la~¸, ii(.r( (,itt llif~]tt, r t}latt ~c~r [io~lst/iokel s; Ile{ll ~l i/ J0 ~lt/I ]!] ~i~arl~l[es per day, it i~ 7(} D~ i~,~ itt ]~ig}~ r; bet~ et Jk o~(I arid 8~ ei~T t LIeS l~et day, L}~' ~/~,~t~h ~te i~ ~16 i~,~(~,llt h~het, and for tt~s~¸ v,h~ s[ikt~ 10 ¢.,q O d-, U1
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111 I)i,ttlk]/~El~ Illl~l~]t /ij,lq,jI! iLll~r :ll~llt]l~fi/~];~l~ tljll,~Ll~7,~3 m~ ~ ]';111 ] ~ ~,~} M~,lt~lll3 } ~-\IA l~f, } li,~J 7~ 1~ ~] I ~l~ d~ a/Ik r~¸ ~JI s~,tt ~ i~ ~ tl~/l~tl~li; /~! }li~h~ t f~ J~t/~ ~1,c, ~t~t l:~i~t~ ~t¸ -~ll t h:~lJ ~,J t !k~¸ ~}J!~ ~tLi t~] :~ft~ J ;~g~' ~ ]o~ l~r/lt~c/~ill~ ~i~l~tl~ ~/~l~kl~J~ I~/~(¸ 1~//~1 i~/rL~l~t!¸ r,dc~ l]l~rl ~J~[~r:~ c~ h~il t~/~li~o~rJ~¸ ~i~tr~ ~rJ~]~; h~- ~i~?~rhl~¸ ~l~] ]:~ t},~;i I7 f, ~,J~ t;~l I ~i!!ii~ tt, ~rJ~ ~:~ ~tr~ 5_~ p~r ~,~ll~t~ ~1~ 5tl~!~¸ ¢ig;~t~[~ }ta~ ~ ~i~tli[t~tt~[! t~i~tt~ ~]~llll l~t~. tl,~rl L)~,~¸ ~]1~ ),~ /J~t ~lJ~fl~l I~lE]tl1! A~ ~ith ~l~l ~!ll¸ ~,.lat~hti~ [~:t 0~l~ ~1,~1 ~l~iEt~ i~ 0it~c~[~ r~ ];~t///~o ~1~¸ itul~ll~l ~ o! ~J~lIl [~ ftlJ~[ ~]JI¸ ~J~;J ~!io:l o~ I}~l¸ ~lJLibr.illg "l~tf'~l~r,l![ ~tC~/~li~/ ~at~'~ :~/~ ~:t~.~h~tt I~l~t Its[ ~otrl~ll ~r~,,,~ ~ ~lJ~rl ~ ~rl~ ~ll~C~k~ ~ ~f the¸ ~all~c¸ ~!~ ~h[~ I ~ t[~l~ ]~ ~ ]l~t~ ~I~C~/t~t¸ ~f, (i~l~lLl" ~1101~ ~ll~I~ h~ ~L~I~iL~ ~rlll~tl~ I~ ~rJli~ilJ~! C~ It ~lci /~it}J ]~ll(q l~r ~ll/] i~i~/tinl¸ Iorl~!~ ~ll/~ ~rJlo~ A~ ~ OI~L~ tt arc I~g~ll[~ll~ ~c, ~tt~ ~¸ C~l ~i~[ ~/ ~1 ~o1~¸ ~tt~ ~¸, ~'~r u;~[i ~!~ i~l~tq~ th~ i~ n~t ~×l~t~,~l d~ ~tql r.~!~¸ i~ l/~iP/l(~]l,~l~Lt]~[oJl f~l p~t~l~ll~ ~!lo ]l:t~ ~ ~l~.~ sj~l~,~ 'l}jc ~l~r¸ ~,~ ~1~ ~ ~1~ tll~¸ l~ll~,~ r r~t ~ ~11~ ~f ~ r~lk~ r, ~1~] ~Jc ]~1t~ r of Ilff~r~ IIl~rr ~(~ ]/llt~l~t Irl otll~r ~/~l~]~, il ~Jl/ orll¸ ~l~l]~l'~, t}l~rl ~d ~ XI 1 ~llO rJd, /~ C Sl~o].ing i~ ~l ttio~J h~ th~¸ ~]c~t~J r~t( s of l)is!~c US ~t~blic }lca]~}l Sc'~¸, N~ti~,al G~t/~J ]r,lt~t~,lc ]1 ~q tO O~
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112 Mouograt)h 19, ]9{IG pp ]27 201 I~ahn, H A ~the ])ol,, shldy of sEiit~klll~ ,'~11~ ii/Dr[a]i[y alllol/~ I[J,~ v~teral~: ]ello[[ ~[L ~ ycaT~ of obset vallou In Haen szcl, \V. ol~ ¢it, pp I -I of,] Stnokiug Rel~tcd Dc~th; "li has ~,¢eli ca!c ~llat cd I}lal in counlrics ~ht re $ [ I t C~l~il I~ ~;h~ been a x~desp~ead ]nalaR, it is Iesponfibk for 90 pule~t of hmg eal]¢~r dea [}t~, *for 75 p~tcL ld u[ br(ntc}li[Js d~ aths, and fo~ 23 ptr CeLl[ of l~ltellliC~ 11¢~I ~ ~iSe ~ $~' d~d[li~ IA[tdvt fJ~ ye~rS Of ~tg( ikt I[LV~L ]~1%~omen tim prolmrl[ml~ n~a) I~e sun*~ ~hat le~" [WIIO 1979, p ]0] A Z>ycar-o]d, hso pack-a-da) smc&~r of elgtreLtcs of the t)pe pr<~aleut until lhe lgg~'s has a lift expectancy 83 }{ats s]~Or [er thall h~s ~olls~l%okh%g eottldeq~a~ [ I~ ro~ ,%[O/LpS O f I~/e~ Sll~¢~k- ing fe~er than 10 cigareltes p(r day, the loss t)f years of lily e~pectnney ig 4{J } earg; srnoklng 10 {o 19 e[gmette~ a da} s}t~r telt~ the life e~i/c~lan{} b) 5 5 }e ~rg; and slrlo,~{TIg ~ ~0 ~0 eigart HI~ a day hy (, ~ yore s (| [amn~m~d E C I i fe I~ixpe¢ lmtey o[ Amer[eall Mcl~ h~ ]¢tqatinl, It: "t[,elr S!nolaing Habits ]N (; 1 43: 951-gGg, ] 909.] ( See "laMe I p ] 8 ) F*pe and Cigar Smoklr~g Pipe md cigar smoker~ ha~e t m,r lality rates similar to those II~ ¢iga/¢ [t~ S:llOker~ [or cancers of i]Lt oral cavity, pl,~l } nx, l;u } nx, ~qlt(I gsophRgu~; [~u[ they have []tLtoh ]oxleI death i~t[{s (It ill ¢ig4. re,re sm~>k~rs (hut higher r~lts Ibm 1,t>nSll~:aklI~} {~ar %racer of tho ]t~t~g ise},( role heart dis~ a~e, ~t,d ehro],ie o~strt~etll e ]m~ dis ~a~e "lh~ d~fle~crtees me t}mt, ght to lie rdated to dit[er{riees it, [ttlla[atiol~ O~ smoke Pipe al,d ¢ig,*r smoke is eh/n ical[} s[mihr to (iga~etk smc,kG ¢xeepl thai ll,e {onn~ is alkali~,e Since alka]h,e ~z*lok{ is bllhdillg lu the Iegpiratoly tra< t, it d~t(~s nlally pipe arid eigal 51110k(/5 from ill]]oli?l~ ~rV}l(I* cigarette smackers s~lilch 1o l~[pt ~ tit tig~tr~, ~lo~tr, th~ [elltlezl¢} ~tar soiit[: is [(2 ¢o[l{[zltlo i~,ha]ing Di~ahillt~ A~ i~l lliOlla]i~}', thPze ]q a I/t)[l~l~/I /ff ('xpgtte<l /a~{' Of d{s al~Jlit}. A National ]leghh Surf{} by [ttt II S Pub!ie }lea}th Serlice calculated that iit a single }ear clgaret~e g,nnk~tg caused at, add[ti~,nal or (x((ss of: q- 0 ¢n ~a9 .,1
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113 "lLd,k 1 5LUIV/VOII~III [' OF MEN Af:] I) 25 IN l~l]l ~'l ION" -i O CUEI;I \'1 NI!NI}~} F~ (11 C]C;AI~I~3 it~~, 5,~,IOKEI~ pHI 1)A'~: I~.SFI) (IN IIATI~S Al~Jt SIEI) 30 "1 lIE 195~ 61 U S 1 I~ E i ABI]; FOR AI I, MAI E~, All ln(ql (x) 1030 40 9G 8 45 916 50 fill 55 856 60 781 (Jr; (;7~, "~0 552 75 41 ~0 267 ~5 ]86 99 4 9 95 1 0 Life 702 (age) 1,¢1e ~ xpcck~r,c} 452 (/J.) DJl]erence Irvu~ NS}I 84 Nex~l ,egu! ~rl!¸ 19 ]0.19 20.$9 ,10 100.0 1000 1000 lOCi C IO00 D94 99 1 99.1 ¢15) 1 fJ~ !IS 7 9S I ~d~ 1 9~ n 97 S 97g 966 !165 96 ~ !15 I 964 94 P 94 0 9; ~ 9] 0 914 906 990 ~) 8 ~,~ 6 909 ~59 83~ ~P 5 777 855 778 75 ~ 73 ~ 67 1 '777 67 8 6~ I ill I 51 0 6~ 7 324 4"~ ~ 1S 9 40 fl 52 ~ 30 ~ 53 S 33 S ~57 556 ~06 IS~ 15] /43 ]92 78 85 7~ 65 1 5 OS 05 05 0,1 736 [19,0 65 I 674 l;5S 4S6 440 431 124 40:~ SOU Cb tlam.w~l.l'; C,liogoLli (SC, J979,1 21~1 ta c~ al
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114 ~, 145 million l, ts/,[~ da~s sp(.llt i]] iri bed [SC )970, pp the TmolbeJ of da)s of disability were associat(d I~ith cigarette smoking *~kT]O~li~'r stildI ~[LLOIL~ ~l'OfliOIq, ]LDLI!CW~%~S &Ti~] ~ho5~ XlltlL paid j0b~, sho~c<] that those ~]lo staokcd clgarett~s spent 17 i~er- ¢¢tlt lllOr*' (](t) s []1 lit [~*(I tltatl X~OUIt~I~ %klLO IJal't. Z/eXCt $[tlO~¢(1 [St*lokhtg a~kd llhKss, Natlon~l Clearit~g}l~use [or SILtO[~tLg arid I I ealtl~, ]'ttbl/c I1< alth S~'r vlcc, M~y 1967J Chronic flirters 'I'ak~E~g the rate ¢,f chronic ilh:ess o[ people ~ho had ne~e~ smok/d cigarettes as the b:~s¢'lh~e, il* 1967 the Natlo~,tl Clearhlg- house [or Stxmkh~g and Health estimated t[~ ~t: "Ihere [tre ]1 m~IliOTi mare ch[onil c,~fes o[ illness yearly hi tll~ coulltry [haiL tl]~] e wouI~l be' ( [[ lio ~mt, SUl~,t (l) "~ here ate 2~q,00(I more pertains ,,Qto report a ]lt.a~t ¢<mdi- tifA~" arK] ~PM[iil~t(0 bhe I~d]]illI~ n~/n~ la~cs Ill ~'[Ironi¢ }/[oI~tl~it~i ¢J hi]/OI ( ]/l]l}z~ ~elll ~; [ ~ ]t~i][iOT~ I[IOr~ ~t f~ (1[ Siilll~i[[~: (lliO Ill [][~(~II I1K~Ip C~$¢S O~ ])ct/~i( ll]Ce~ th~l~ t}lp~t x~/~/l[tl b( if 1~o (m( I/¢r smokld ¢igalcttes [Ibid] Ouictit~£ I~echwes l~isl. "1 he~¢, is nmp]~ t~idence Ihat ~i~h~, l~p cig,~l*ltts ~¢duccs tht" ( xces$ Ti!k D~ I)/O[~a I~t~ ~ilt' 1)e[1¢~ [ is t.Lt m/]l~tlilt'~ OVLI a I]CIiOll ¢~f yeaT~ A{t(r ten to 15 years of s!nokiltg ~{ Is/tlo/~, the ex smirker s' have never s~ook,¢l, ~s in the fo]lr)wing chart (lqgure l): 14 M(}I~I ALITY, DISA BILI~ I¢ AtCD CHItONIC IL L NE ~S U1 I'0 g. i \
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A i .¢ 115 ANNUAl • }'{(C}ltAT{I { ,I1y O], } )ZINC }Oil ] :X-SMOXI H~ ~,1} {O OUI1 10 14 YE&]/S, CUI(14ENT CIGAI~I;~ ~ E S~IOKI!I~Y; AND NONS~If)K LOW ~Ip, 9O 80 70 ~ 50 7 t oo d* (I.8 07 0.6 ~ ~ N~xtr Smoked O~ C ~: ~;~ c[garll[cs:Jtokc~s St ~,p( d 10 14 ~car~ ! 1~1 ~[uttnlt ~rJ, btltd smoke~ 21.~ cigatctlcs per clat 04 • • Ctn ncn~t clg u e~ s mo~us (~ 0.1 1 I~. I ] I I l I I I --£~d.~ I 3 4 5 ~ 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 IG "1 ea~s oI l o]]c~ .l.lp V}t r~slnl ChronicDisea~es27 (8D 203/1974L 15 o
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T 116 II-LUN(; CANCEl/ ~ml;]~inlt~ Cig~rcUcS ln~s bc*-[t idet~tiSed ~t ct~l[eial co:ttmCs ~i(]rl5 ~lid 5¢ icliti~c st ttcli~s izJ 411 all}¸ c otmlri<'~ ( Atilt r~]ia, (~IJall~, l~c:TLl:i:~yk, ]ill[aikd, ]F'sanc~, lIo]L~d, Nc~, Z~a]a~d, ~wcdcn, Ulllt~d J~ hJg~lolrl, tire¸ 1.;lli{c d Slat¢~s ) gt~ t]l~ c ~/(1~ £,{ ~}1~" czlor jiioul ri~l~ lit t}i~ il LCI¢I ~]lc ~- of ]un~ canc~ iTI IlIOS~ C Oral[lieS ~illci Wo~lc] "~V~r I1~ a l~ie ~c* ~[t~p ll~t i[ L~a~ ~t ~it ~l/~d alL I p[C[~ ILI~C. l,~tng I~L ~914, ihc d~at}t ~at~¸ f~o:r~ lung cal~ccl ~af 0~ per lt30,0~J0 iJc~pulatio~ i~t th~ I.h4ited St~c~ told ¢-;~eat I~li(ain f~z b~L~L JtJln arid wollJcld }ly ~50, ~llc lutl~ ~a~lc~J (]/~ [}1 i~t(¸ tOl IJ.~ nkttL alld itJ ]977, t~ 5¸1¸8¸ (~(m~p:~tt)l~¸ ti~mc~ ~u whit~¢ ~t lmLll~ ~¢1l¸ 40 it1 ]!)50¸ 5 9 in ]9~ ~tmL ] ~ ~1 ill 197(/ I n 195~, thine were 1~,31~ US lung caltoc~ t/~ath~; it~ 1~, th¢ll ~z~ 45,~ ]!l~lg ¢,~llccr de~[]~ ~li~ i:t 1977, 90,510 died o( t}l~s~, ttJm!)~s ~l~ 19~ l}~ p~cdicL%]~ is /(1/,0~ s~c]l deat~l~ ~f t}a¸ lJnitc(I ~,t~s ]~5/I ]~6~, ]9~7 U,S (~t~(r~lrJl~lt L'rillti~lg lI(;x~(r, th~ U.S Sllrg~on Go!. r, 1 ic[iolttil Jrt ~971 that " Cig,lr~ [L~ $1nOkil~g ~S tilt' l]ylil~ ( at~!l o~ lul~g cal wc~ in ]ill ii . . iiL l/O[LlClt (il) ~¢C(!UII~g ~O: ~ ~m [lll pOl[it~/~ O[ tlt~ Oa~CS ¢han it) n/ol "ISC; 1971 p J iJ Jq t]~ 197c~ Su~,eo~t C~c:~,l's ILcp~rL, lhls ~O~L~IUsI~m X~aS 5[f¢ iJ~}l( I1( (]: "~ig ~ret [(~ ~lll(Ikl]l~ ]! t}l~~ II LL{iO~ I,LUSe Ot ~ung C attc'l'r in both men a!ld ~ omen " [SG ] !)]9, I~ ~ ~11 ~t~ i~icr~alcd ]is]< o[ [/utg c~[*ccz 1~% }l~t( foul/i] {or cx£r5 smo]cmg habit i~,vestig led "1 h~r~ are t'osc.~spl~n~t z~! tiousldps ~oi ilc/t]opttg lxll~g Call(<r *[]vit i% ¢1~¢ z~umt~cr ¢~[ ci~are((¢~ Smok~¢l p/r da), the dtl/,~/iotl o[ sn~£,klng dcgr~t of Jtl!~alat]o I ltr alld lliCI/IJNI col/tellt of cigavcttts, ~[[ cc~:~tdb~ttll :m iz~cre:~std tick ol d ~Iopirtg [mtg ¢a~tccz 'Jhe ag/ a[ ~]1[< h pcop](, stu t s:uokiz~g is tdso it ]a/~¢] [o ill ill dhows; mc ~ ~ I~) s~a] t(I stnt~k[~g }~e[~r ~ aloe 15 ht~d a d~at/~ [~tc ]~ UI tO C) ,U1 4a, H',
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117 tto[l~ lunlg~ (;~tL~f ]L~aI]) Ioklr tim(,s ]ki~QLCt than (h~sc ~ho Iw~all aft<r age 25 ~'il)( ¢'113/I Ci~itr ~lllO]~l, ]i~wt! hil~Lil hlng IL~IICtt morU*lk) ~mok( ~s. ISt; 1979, p 5 23] Solely itJ 5!opiJlti~ 3}IU ]iSI~ Of Ll(/~Opillg ]t]!~ ¢,1ic¢/ ili/t(~L~Li ~it]n agl fol bL~t]l ~/llLl~(rS and I,/msluokl[5; ho~l~,~t r, the in0[dt,ltcr ¢ff ]Uhg, ~311I( ~ ill d ollr~ [[i SIIHnk(Li Iq Nn:il }l hi~}LI r ,~ (Oil/fOr till~ /Oz fill l] } [o: t]ios( /~ ~/0 air able tc~ slop sz,lok- ing e[l~r~ttes ]h/l~ is ,~ demt ~se in risk o[ t/~chqfi~ig hmg ~IKcl, xl hlc!t o(/tit s (,vet ,t 1/~ riod (,f ~t.x t~l, I } Pal s " ~[[fl l(t to 15 }cars, t]K INk of d) Jlig I)[ Jun~ can//r fo] ¢x 5D~ ~),t 1~ }tax d( cl ca/t c] to the poh,t ~i,tl~ it is re,l> ~llgILI]y al~oxC the lisk f¢:l l/O[lIl~/Ol( i$ of tit( 5.~rl~ agL A~I o[ I}~l [//aiol Sltl£/[l~ $110il llt[S i~du/~{oll ill risk ~ lc~ur~ ~ I[I it ]~ S}iO/IS t]i~ dli]tte~t iilC]~elKI S 13l ILION Mopp~/I, and [t~llst~tolx/rs "ltlC ([i{r(l(nc( i:t Inn.! (at,¢(l iacid~[:cc and mnrt~lity 1< ~d tJ:Lg do t'Ld On the ~o[Jrl(~ti ~:i I]2[~t (U~ ~igardLc 5Iig~].Jll{~ aNCl ]uIIg ~a~nccr. Ilol~(~il, it u /t I]! /,*k~ h 20 3/al~ of sm/~klrlg t(, Ill Ildkl( { 11111~ (all ~t ill a limtKLD b~ 11@' altd }l~ll ! MtLO~[II/ ~11110[1~~ ~1111tt~tl iN t O:~t / IlitMt d i~l tile [l~e ~]~Jllll5 ill ~ ]deh hlli~~ CL~II( ~ I i~ l(a/I ]3tel I/I][ I)ifhwii~, i~, Im]mr~[ml muk~up may 1~c~ pla5 a l~tll ill (]~l difhl(In[c ih t}t~ ]ur,~ rancor rafts bel~/n malt o~,d {Cilia IC ~m~t]~i 1 s thus ~oidie,~ th~ ],t t~} (o],ccnh,aio~, df tnicotit,e and tat in the ]~,sl p;~rl of th( ci~,*rt,tie (}l~ t},t al(lat!t, /lollllll a]~o it,}~2]l ]ts~ f]{qu<ntl) at,d ]cs~ &q)ly than nic~ a[,d glttOlx( filter-tipped (igi~ I¢~{c~ ~% ~tll Io~ e~ {qr altd it{( olin ( llaldd hd( r~,~ of I t'malc I ling (Y~:t~¢ ~r Hosteler, ILItI~ ~dlKer l[IOrlLdi~y i ill(I(~LSht~ ill V, OHiE]i mor* rapidlI th,m ~m) ¢~tliei cause of dcalh 3 ti~ h,r,!, t a:ttel fl/d l}t ~,4~( ill ~3't)lllllt ]ia~ flSt le 11.' ~rly 1 (J[)O I1£ 1 ¢ t'lll SitI(lY ]~)I ']be [!~ ¢,.rl 1",2 ;4,
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l0 T 118 ~I~C~NCH]AL C A~l[~l NO).I A ~CbIL Sli~'~k~ 5 ](I 15 20 O
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119 anll,ng m~tl as n~olc aiK] mo~e v, om~n ~mt~k( ~ m)~ [ h,t¢~ t],L al,t SG 1971,pp 251 ~52] In ]9(.1 ]tulg (mc(1%~as thc {ifIh ]la~lill~ CaLsS/ O{ (It OI}i Ilvm t m~(.l it, [IS ~tmltlt JI ~os(, t(> It)rot}, pit(( in ]95 ~t,(] tn third p]aec i. 1959 i~%ing cancc~ of the utt~us I./] 1977, lung e,tIKt r m(utaIity passed thM tff ~allCCt of thL <oIutl a,,d i¢c ftlrl~ ay ll~( $CCOTtd kdd[iig (fll]~ o~ dc~l}i irO]tL CdN~%'[ ~l~ I. ,S llOl[] n J~ pr¢ s(.nt tr( rid, are i.~I rc~er,el E!urill g the I~ext dc~ ~d~ h,ng c mcc~ viii heccm e I}l(' ]~ adin~ c,tllll o[ C,m(~l m~rt~thty in US. ~om(h ( xcc~ cli~l/4 dE at}is ft o:ll Cal~( ( t o f t}~l br / ,~! ~ [~cx Y)i~errtlc~ irl ~ inl.l.bl~ A~t English do(lol (al(ulat(d in ]gC~I thai the lifetime con SLIl//I~iOl~ O! Ci~alet~es ~nio:lg 47Q~[ old I~L{It ~/,L¢ tO/tI ~D,ICI ~f ~r.'at a~ minting 47 )tar ~*kl ~m,~,. and ~ha~ the m.*h ]~lllg Cd rl~ ~'1 (]e t}~ ratE, bl t~ ec[i a~es ,15 [~l~d ~9 Ilaf Ill ~ [{in/'t ~s gli~ at anKing ~.on,e~, [ll(~)al p 69 ] '/he Brlt[sh ~mte thtt smok[hg hal I+~m~ it, c.~easi~,g m~.lE lal)kll) amo[*g British wom¢~ than am~mg tlritish i.ea [Bo) alp. 59] "l¢~da), a}though ~hl,~c are ~t[]l ft ~tr U.S ~om~n ~m~l, ing than US nton th( gall i~ r,qlidly nar~o~i~lg. (]i~areth ~nioki:ig al,irm g ~[ ~ t( ~m~gc ~it]~ has ])ecn itlcil,tf[/ig st l'adi]!, so that a! ol 1974, equal plrc~r,lag~ s of be,)s aud girls are ~mokiT~g ~igmcttcs But there ha~e linen recenl dcc/i~,c~ a~ sho,vn i~, "lable II on the t0]lo~+Jng page O~er the l)a~l d~ cade, there has bt,cn a 26 pile(hi dcc~east there ha~ Loon a 136 p~z~ct,l rcdtution in the mm,bc'r of adult U $ n,Mc~ sin'>king cignr~ttc~ I lllcr 2'/1~ r] ~te ptl}l]il begal~ Ill }lcco:ne a~/ar~ of t}l~ ~ilill~il)lt b~ twe£,D e]~aretle+ ,qn[1 ]ullg ¢alllel ~ll/I othe[ di~tasel ilL th( early ] O~)'s W[I}l the p~ll ~]ieatloli [~t the ( ~TIiCst i)roil~ect[l'L" ~n/~]4illg I~nl health studies ] ]ds gr (~v, ing ax~ arcnes~ ha~ had a sit ong impacL c,rt t}t( Stllok~lg ]t,'il~its OI people all o~(r t}to ~orkl 1~1 tl*¢" )¢;~ts iD ~111iC}l key studies and tel)or t~ ~/(rl issued, there xvcle dmpl it~ the o~ulfdl COllSU[llp[io[/ of cigar(Ires .~lld ~ll]ok~'15 h~c $~vi~Cllrd ill LUNG ~ANGEE/ 19 ¢,rl I.a O~
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....... --~ .~, __~--,....~..~jW..~ar~ ~H~__ .~__~__~,*~ ~--~ "~ ~ l~~ .~..,~*~,.~ , I : !
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121 iii b~ i it tlll!~( i ~ [~J (iltt r tippr I CiL[ttttt~ ~}11 t] ,..:t,, I~ti,., t}, ,t X:/IOll OU }d t( ]CI/l(r tg( ii~k h,d~) ,,, ,1~ d~, !il I I/(~c(~lt ¢d rE! tlittlx xf,]d iu t},t l.Ttdttd 5t:d~ :LI* fill~ tipped 25 )~ ~ ~,,~, fit~ tips l~p~ r~t~l 1 ;, that, tl~c I/<tt ~u[ (,f Ih lm~ kt t Xl~tlm alld ]ill i~illl [}JEll NOIUO till< t tiipl d Ill it I (15 dd ;/ (l~t i~ )Ctll~ ;l~:~ 3he hug t(nn us. ( l0 )~ar~ <,~ u,(,l( i o[ [dttt cica~tks ]~ t~>,xk~tEd ~ilh h,~cl d~M]~ i,Lts flO:tl ]HII t,~l (l []1 ill I},d a~,, ¢[aRd ~il[, ~n ( ;1/i; I iil~tl]] tCI O[ lll,ll[i!t( I <'[gUt~ tt ~ "1 h, t{HK]I ,ikJll C'O~l](h 11OI3 ~ 11/I Id~S ¢ffMudlts In a Mud) o! 552 IILtients t~i[h hn~F ~mc~l m Ill d ~ it/, 5~! cotdtc,lx \~ )udci ~t ;*[ fcun~d that those x~ }t(~htd st~ t/hcd ¢ol~tlrtuhlg Io 5NIOk( t]ff x2~lll~ ltllll/})cl ol iio:t~tl[tl ci~ i~t[e~ [SG lC)TJ, 1/ ~75 ] ~m rt~id Nirr,tb~r, hi ~t l(l~l t It/I !~l ])105]1( ( U// shlcl) S~7,89~, ii}i ii ~11 ic] //ii1,1 f ii SNi¢l~( cA iN ~ St~lt(~ tl(l/ di~id<J i11[o [}11(¢ c~l~t ~tolJcs dI(oldi:lg t~} I~Y ~lltd D/~otin( I¢~ t]s~, alld ( X;INIill C1 ~ith ]~ pc~l [o hill(t ~1~1 Co} "illl ](~ul!s:llt s}lovd, lr, Jgd)]i I/J,pagc~2 }~( Int il c l~ill,~ o} l r~lt ~ or Io7 llwlcs slrK,~.h/$, the s nn( Ittttllltcl ¢ff ci ;,,~ttc~ p~ dr), th(r~ allll(~l~ to ]K a 19 l/crc(IR I(I]IKiiCIII i[I risk of d(~l ]Opili,~ lml~ cmcc xs ith the ,l~C of Io~ "1 N ci~a~ths For fc index, theft ix ~ 40 ]~err¢13[ r(¢h~ctiorl m risk IIo~xc~r, 111 ~1 s<p~/r tt lll~ltLllt <l Eroup ~nal)s[s tlle ii/1111[~(1 of ci~aicHes 5111ol[/J ]l(l d~ ~.h fomtd Io [>~ ic/itix~I) 111o1( intpo l~lnt tha~l the rut :~:ld IliCOtltt~ (otlt~ nt o/¢ig~ t~ th ~ III []1l' ]~1~[ 2~ )((115, thllt ]li5 b(.i 1~ D glt,lt Ilir~p h~ t}il. t i a:K1 ]IiC Ot]lll ~OD[( H Of 1}1I Stilling' {t Oiii (ig/I ([~( S C )t~SklU lid il~ [}tl .IJ~},t ts,/n~.,ll, (LcN~ ~5~1 ~ r,~ t 201~2 t,r ,K ir ~ I, ,,, a (* i tl ar~ I ! r,~ r i ~lrC I IrNC~ C ~,NCE~ £1 t4 b*" 6~ g° O~
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r- 122 T AGE.ADJUS'I [ D LUNG CANCEl I ~,~OI/] AI,I 1 y tLa.'] lOS° l-'Ol~ MALE~ AND IF:M ~I,~$ l~'l" .] All AND NICOTIN~ ]N GIGAI/F,~'L I~ ~;MOKb~I) tli~h T/N 10D lO(? M~r]i~n~ 'I/N II 9~ 0.'/9 ~J/~ lFi~rl~iill ~ r~lli~ ~r tlJl (ate ~r • ~,i~ tii~lJCSl ~i~ i~1~ ~d~ I Dr) ~i~ ~;ouree llart,*~¢or,d, It= (;arfin~el, I,, Sei(1.~ar~, tl, lieu,, E A ~ap ,~ r~cr~td ~ndi~ ,'o~r~t~ ¢';~ar~!ltc s~to~it~ It,¸ Hi~, ~111, ~lYal~o~,~ } II * ~l';T,~t~r~ ]4 /.~ d~t~,~/ O~j ;r~ o H~r,~¢n Car~ r l~ A: l~i(L r~ l~iJ lO] 112 22 U1 UI t,D
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~h,itl d ~L~tc~ A le~Irll ~u~],~¸ ~L~d~ a~l t~l ~i~,¸ t~L, 1~¸ dJlh~L L~ • C~LTI~J ) in tlJ~¸ ]~cniI~] 19~ ]!~I I(~Lbi1~ '~) n~ ~,]~L~I ~ith t],~¸ wL~ ~li~ ~ it, tL~ )~ ~! J~7~l ]~; ~ (~ ~u]~ l~)~ II~t]~¸ iI~ t]J~ bro~II~!al ~pi~l~Ili~J ~]JJ~Jr~) ol (;~ ~p A ~i Jc~l~ t~L~J in £;~OLJl) l{ E~I, I iff~re ~ !) 24] 'I hi~ c~c~ir;tgi~g ~i,~rJ I~3~ j~e~,~e~]~ ~] th~¸ ~q~t IJ~ • o! ~!li~ a~J~Ol~! ~{n¢~! t~, l~l ~1~ l th ~ ~! ~J1~ I~II ~le d~i~{¸, thil~¸ ~}Ji~ll]c] b~ ~ ~el]i~i¸ ili t)Ji¸ ~ie~}i r~{l (~f ~! ~r~It{¸StliO~el~ ~o21i [leli~ e~le~T [Atnl,rll3c}~ O. ]]~Tltl~i~iJI] I~ (~)~ ~n~rJ~¸] I (~han~e~ in )ko~ehi~] }~l~t)~u~ ~ ~{~i~J LO (3I, R~O¢i~[IC~ i~ J{]i (,xj)O!itll~ ill Cl r~in i~tii~i~]~ ~i~¢I ~hli~li(~l~, ~iIil, inL a vc~y sr~La[] ~i~r~e w~th pol]tiL~d ~r. ~Io~e~er~ aI{Ii~u~Ii Life ~r t l~Jki~l~ u~e,it~r~ nlinet ~ ~ rn tl~ i~ ~l~r ,il ~ ~r~ ~¸ ~r~okF~li~ l~i~t~ l~riorL F~ i~ J0 l~ri1c~ ~r~Jkn ~i,l~ir ~ tt~tr,~t~lll Trli:I~r~ ~},o ~rino~e MU{I~ O{ ~ 14 Ill ~li~Iml IliflheI~, ~ICI~¸ ~II¢ I~ l:hri~ I ;iii¢ ~i If( ,i~]i~ ~i~Te{(C¸ ~nlI:~]~ilJ~ allI] O¢CLtp tliOiI~] I l~I~tlt~l ~i~¸ ~i(~ ~O I~ ~I ~i~I gi~k~ ~C{~i~ {~I~L~ r in ~ ~nLphe ~Ic~l ~ aI. ~h1~I [~azaTd (~ {~ni~t~ni~iI txi~c~t£~ JlJ~t~!~¸ ~in~le ~t~!~{~1~ ol oi1[y ~ (10~l ¢Ftenli~tl ~On~l~o~n~¢~¸ ~nn~T~ ~i~]i ~i~ ~n~!~11~ tum~,1 iE~iliat or~ and l~t~ ~ [SG 1979. p 5 ~7 ] I l,ti~ I~i~¸ 1~it~l~i ~¸ ~ii~ A~e~{ol ~o~ke~ [La~e i J~}~t tinLii i the Im,~ c~ic~ ~ li~k of ii~ri{l(~ t[~i~ Ti~ ]la~ ll~ell istitil~Ii ~ to l~c¸ ~2 ~i i~ line i~k of I ~ N¢; CANCEII ~ O @)
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/ PE'~CZN"I'AGr~ OF SEC't!ONS >~- ,
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125 ii J~tJ~ ~!ll~lll~ ~LtL/h ~l~ i~] L~i~L jL ll~lJLI /~[ tlt~¸ \ I~ Ji~tl .~1~1i/ ] I~IL~t~L/ ~ ~LI,~[ ~,Ll~!Jit~¸ t,l/: i~k ~LIL ~ til~ ~i,~ i~ IlLegal ~!l~l~ /~1 ~ i~n~ t I~ ~E~:~t /, ~h,~ fl~t I,~lJ,E~/:~ t ~ ~n t~l~¸ S~llli ~¸ ~U~;E~t [~1~ [2,/~ ]~1 I~ 25G 2~~, ] ~I~/~ 1~O1~!~ Ii~ ~t~il ~h31 tlJ~¸ li~¸ ilk I~t~Jg ~lJ~/i ~J jt~ j~]~ ~ ~ j~lj I~1~¸ !~ ~ ~ JrJ~t~ ~¸ i1~ i~]!t~ [~] ~tl~U] ii~ }~,l~l ~Jt l~!lllt JL~I~, ~t11¢1 ~J~/~¸ l]l/gl~,l<] t!L~t llli/ i/ t~ ~iLll ~tll~l ill ]/In~ /~llli~ "J ~t~ ~lJ~[~l~J~,n i~rt~i c~/i ~1~:~¸ t],~/i I') ~lilL~ ~/,t ~ L~Ik~ I~/!~/ ~ll~ ~li~/~tt[all~ i! !}ll~ in ~1,~ ~l!lil lic~ IIF /i~lli~t~ ~ll/~]<ill~ ~ll¸ 16~LI,hJ~d tf[~t~ ~i al] ~t~l~t~l~!L~lie ~kls d~ Lk~! il~C~¸ th~¸ I/¢ ~LIll I~tt ~ ~ fu~ luu~ c,~:L¢ l L ll~llt / ~!l ~lJ ~ \ ¢1!¸ li~ ~/! llll ]/~Cl/I AI~[4~[~ ~, ~il~u ~/ ~]l~l~io:~ J~ th~¸ ~ol~! itl C~Ti/¢,~ll!,~, ~ll~t/Ik[n~ ~I~/T~¸ ~11i ~1 ill ~h!l ~t/i f~3Itl~a I it[~ 1L ~ho//~ ~1 t]l~! the ~i~/I ~[ Iii]< ~f ]/1~1~ ~tJ~t ~ t~ 1~ t~l~ i¸ ilj ] ~ '~J~ 1~ ~}J~;i i~t ~! f,~]l~ (~:~lifc}~rli~ ci~r Jl~l ~ iil~l~¸ I~ t~,~ ~1]~¸ t~ c~,llci~l~¸ th~l ~it TII~II/LI i~ll i~ libel ~ ![[(lJi[~/~lll { !ct{~l in ltttJ~ c~ n~ ~'1, ii11¢/ tlJ~¸ ilia/~/¸ ~/~ 111~11~¸ ~i/ ~ iI///.]/~]~ ~ncl ~til l/o][/Iti~ll }~l ~ilnl¸ ~ l/l~l~]~lJl (l~k~, ~[ ~l~¸ ~liti~i~ln~ I~h ~1 a~ the ~iZ:~,~e ~lr/ h~lth ~1~ 1~ ~i~!t~ll¸ ~t~]<l¸ lt~ 19~'t~ ~l~i~ /~1~ ~ {~p~] ~! ~}~ ~ ~:1~ ~f ~ 16~1~ I~11~ ~ttl~l/¸ ~f ~1~ ~]~ snL~,~ llg~/~.ll~ t/,~,l/E'l siil~iL1 dc~l~ Xi/L~t~ ~l I1~ ,~I~ll~¸ ~,/a[4]~s ~i¢ ~l~e~l ili lILt ~ ~¢tictl~ i Jr I ~t~¸ ~,[4S ~eJ~¸ ~ j~]~ itl~O ~h/O~l~ ~tl~i~J~ IL~I~I,~ J~ ~ ~ Ctti~ ~ ~l/~i~ ~1~ ~t tc~ ~,11~ t~ t~O 1~ ~1,~ a {~ /~! a I 5!11h ill~lJ, ~ ~ll/~ r/~ls Ol /Ith/I ~ I~11h~l]o~il ~ ~ h;~ll~,~ ~ jn ~I,E¸ hlll~/~lt~l ~'~ iI~ gl 0 gl
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I Ill 126 A ~mml>( r of d~g~ d[rd duril~g the Cxpc;imrt~t, but ;mn~ ~a~ ,~ i,tmsmoker. AI tlli rnd cq the exI~ct ime~ 40 ~lc~ ~c~¢ sac riJlt e~l A numtb~t ~t lullt~r~ ~¢i¢ fomld 11i t}~ hmgs of t[ke ~nlmM~ ~ ~I ~ i~ll~ nob ~m/,ki~lg d,+g~ (~.~I) ) ha¢l ~mo/~: tom of 1[I d~gs (4[1~) wh~ ~m/~k~ d tih ~.l tipp~ d ciga~ctLcs had t L~EL~/~r~; fiVL¸ ~f l/I ( ~50~ ) O[ a ~li~Ul/ ~lf Ik~lk~t]t t'I ~mlllXl tS (~hq 51E/r~]~p f] /ll/l~¸ ]kalt ~1~ iElalt!¸ i~g~ t ~lr~bor ~ (-h,c il~er cstin g f~ct : tJkc onl~¸ il~vasi~ ¢ tl~Trln~ ~rr~ {~UT~fl ~rl t~]l qu~ llc,Ii[i[~ t ~lloke~ ~, alld t~O ~ tll~t¸ ~ (a~e[~m~a~ sic/ill a I tf~ t}~f~ l}t/p illegal o{tlll $ ~'ell iT/ iI/en, l)og~' [ull~ ~ ~/~¸ al~ ~al~ ~'d f~l eml~hy~'nla~ ~tlLd l[~e ~l~(] i ~ ]]tl)~r / h~;i~/~ [~ far ~ll~ I~ r~t ~ lluinh('r ~f [1~ ~hi~libgll ~ /~ i,r~¸ fom,~ iEi tl~¸ dl,~ who }~a~l smt~ed tlJe lull qu/~ta of n~ld~lI~ r ¢[ga i ~t t~,~, ~cmi~/Irr~hl!¸ fcwll ill [Ito~ ~]to slno~,t'(I iin[y ]lali a~ i/J~l/}¸ ~l~/;ll~ ~, ~¢ry f~w stl~ }~ ~ }~l~lg~'5 i~J ~ll~t r-I~l~ ~ln~ T~ alltl ll~ii~¸ ilk the ~lo~moking dog~ C2~lll~athlg lh~, ~s~t]~ ~ilh l}~os~~ ol sh~di~ ~ of ~)t~ lmlg~ ol l~l ilclt/i/,/1 in ilk/¸ /!rag ll~/i'li~'J~ ~li~ ( ill,ill lt~llg t i~stlt' ) ~l r~¸ fli/tn~l t~ hi, Ihi¸ s~mv h~ Iht¸ bl ~lg/~¸ ~ irJ ~tm~; iT~ b/~h 5pcc; )l~Je i~ ~ t[l~l 1 ~[at i(!:i~]lill; irt h~l/ • tl/I r]~ ~Ett i~[ liberia,, . . • i~tcl¢ a~¢~ tile I1~,1~ ~lu~/!¸ IO m~L l}~t, aut}~orl slain: '} i~lli~ ~ b~ lhi~ slt~d[i ~l~ l¸ I~ l~ l~l~o~l¸ ?o fl~r h~;ll~i Ii~l~ i~!~clJ!tl)l~ t)~a~l ~llo~i~Ji~ idr~r~llcr~lli~:E~l~ili~ho~!~llrrs"¸ (a~l~[~Jr~'itali~) Ilh~.~,~o.d~ 107i! p 75~1 I'~o.Smohi,l~ CIi!ic~lls 1 )~ f~lld~ ~,f ciga1~t¢ ~mI~i~L~ rai~!¸ tltr*'e ollle~ ~1 ~ie~ t ic~lt~ Io ~}:~ ¢~Ltll¸ ~n~ t+!rt/~ ich~lionf}lip tlc~/~l~E cigald~ ~lid }ung (~l~/il lil~rl I ~ he i v~dll~¢e i5 only stuti~icaI l [i~tl ~[ll¸ ~lll~lk[ri~ i~ h ~ z~r ilol~q II~M!]~ 5tal~!i~ al~¸ tl~e ]~i~ nt ~,~l disease c~t~l Altd a][ 1,! ~l,t ~lit h! 1~ ~t a~ tt ~ }~( lJl( r ilk ~ x~t ~[~ll, ~L~I a~,i[ll~~ ~ ]~un~ll 2( l UNG C I,~,CI;E/ UI ?¢ f,:'l g,
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127 ~uLmd. ~ ~e[dit~ ~(J K lu~ktLt~ "1 hi, ]h~) al C¢)]h f r, of PlJ~ clah~ po r~ls r)u): < i! i, t,c>~ ~il II({t) I)ll (IgC %vii It i~ ill (~t[( l L drl ( ~llt IlllLIql~ 11/ ~t]lidi Illi/lill!L~ OI ]~ccl]l]~ /~110 ]',a~ b/eh sr3//ikitt~ ~ig,tT~ tRI ~Jft( zi d~/e],,p lmJg cmccr ~,]dl~ lni]llo~ c>[ i)tht r~ ~l,o ha, i abel,din ~] st Idr~m do si~' 1I/o3 al, p 61] O]~i(q£ioli ~ *lil~ aiio(i;ttioli ~S l~ot~spc/i~/ ill 11171! 17i~ll}" /Ji Plel ~11£ cli~(.a i( ~ ai c assoc[ l i d i~ itli ~ ig,d el 1( gnluki:~g A[is~/(r: "l~e gleat log of I,onclon m 1052 il~c~e,~cd tl~e {1~ ~lh tall, [or Ill rLil~ Ililtal~s, }/a r ~i~ ill tr/) r~s[iird lot !' ~lll/I c'o~oiH r ) /li~ ~x~ (iiga:ctl~ sm~kc like tim I,¢~ndem tc,g is n~t a sln~le rht ]u~ fnl It i~ lil3~(aIOli~h]~ to s!q/post" Ihl ~Xl)OS ,I/. to I]li~ r:m~l, of dl0tiile;d %% Ollld ileal ~as£' ~}i¢ risk ot otlly one di~c'dl CIl,il><'lioli ~ ']he glsictic t}i~,or) : people i~dlerlt a te~,d(l~c) Aligx~t~r; ~lVh[lt tl~t,~t art su~lle ll~)cliol(,glc'al ~t/cl ]lli~sio ]~gkal (l~flcr~ts bttwel>n Srll(l~r$ arid lIOl/~ll/C)~(lS ~]ielt" i~ lid ~'% i~I I1( ~ Of ~TI ill]l{ li~ClI {~li[1Cllk ~ lOW,It d ILmg c:mt ~ r. \'~ iit, l~ i i L~ll/y il~<ql profe~slon ~cnl dotal,-~]~k.h egn~lr<*dil'l~ the prlm~/t of gin il/~i(~li/ des[to' to st[~o]zc, ah(1 ~1i iltl~[Irll ((lltl~li¢) t/~ lttll~ ¢<~nt'(.i Othlrea~ls lli~prov,dllecriti~ilnil~l~ ]]i.d the rise ill I~lng (al~cet i~ ~ctitiout, eau~¢~l b) bP!l~r di,~losis; di~y~t,i~J h) tl~c fac~ that d~c rise ]~,~ hec~ ~rea~er in ]si~ zi itl tTI ill %% IIz~tt It~ I)l]lll 1)dh[~ dl ~t,t~o~ell the ~aml ~a), [lI~) a], p g31 *1 ]ta~ the ~isc, ill ] u ri<~ (,'qieer rlla~ ha~e r~l~l t et] {io[,i a L~ll iri the 11~ d,a/h r~*l(; di~pr,v~/'d h) the f:~i I],tt ~q,l~ the f~dl i~ "1 tl b('e IL ~[¢&~f iII Ei(li } *'Cig~trqtti srn/~kill~; iq tl~e lllajl~r ca(lie i,[ lltrl~- ealil iT ~rl both n/In al~II ~ omc~ 3 I~N Iagt ha~ I)~n s~ppm ted by pr n~pr'rtlv( ahd tetrosi,c.lli\~ ~llicl(nliolo~i~al sludi(, cllldc,il studies i~t/(ol)~y bai{(] Oil evJ(llllee %~lii~l~ ~xelell~ }~ sf,vcr,l] times l}ie (violence ~%,aiLitl]k %~11¢[1 ~liib SA[I/~ ~O[l¢]ttSiCll/ %%~S ~irst rea¢l~er~ ill l~J4 l,lr N(~ C ANC[:It ~7 UI
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I I I|I 128 i~lliI~l)¸ t}i~Ll ~lli!¸ IiLILer I,~U~I, OI tle~t}i ]~ llli~i[it hei~d~ co:ili[ilic LIITJ~ 1811eli will }~o t}le l~[iil~ e~LIIP O[ (Alkeor ~Jlnl]l ~m~n~ wcln,~[, ilL tile ne×t C]~C ~d~¸ 5 ' The ](~ng-tcrm us(¸ ( I0 ~a~s o~ ll,o~e ) o! lilt~ r ~ i~ir oHe~ i~ ~Ii~oois~¢~i wi{h Jowel ~!~I}i r~t~s ~roln lu~Jg i~n~r t[i~rl t}ioil Of i)i r~oTii ~]io Smoke all equ~l number i>[ l~(iLl~1[t r ¢i~ ire~(¢~ 0 " , • "I hl li~ of dc~[]oi~iiL~ lung c~nlel [or cx sln¢,~.1~ ~h p! l~iI~ (~ i}le ~) [~¸ ~I ~,k~1 J~i¸ ~E ~L~¸ u~(,~I i~ b~¸ i ~nl] J~ l)~i~o~ (IOTL~I) to I}LI¸ im;Ii}ii,r (i[ eiK~ireH~i lllil'iO!LSll' ~T~lOk~] [I01 (~I~¸, titan ~]I ~i~[~ I[ blk(~ Ironl ]0 tc~ 15 y~'~r ~ }~owi~ ~, until the l i~ of d~ ~Ic~i~ill~ h~1~ c~nl e] [[~f ~x ~n~e~] .a)]i~Jacl,~ ~ tl~:Lt I>f 2~ ] UX'C; CANCE~I 5q t.a 0 Ca t~
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129 Ill (]HIII{GANGk~t/S "1 r.], i~( o Mpmkhaz, IsL)~ us s ~Jr jq M*t)a~g[) ass~( i;tt, d ~J I ¢~rl(~l~ (,f Ih~¸ Ju~)llx ~lJr~lll}l f~rJid~,lgl~; tlli~l~r~¸ /~]~c~L](I, I1:11~ cl ~ t~ ;~ltll I~c,~ sil~/~ k[tllle~¸. A typical pati~ T,I ~iLh c a~lv~ i o[ the ]~D r,x i~ a 60 )¢,~r ~,ld iJl~,Jc ~]1~, ha~ }~e( ~t a hca~) (i~.ll~ t ~(¸ Mt,o~( i allc] al~c, LL ii~d(lat ~¸ to ],/ ~x} dc,z~},o] drmk/i iM :lk. 1{ D. PuhJQ I J S/I*G~,~ IIJ. Adkms, ~1 1 \~ alla~t K 'q '~],tll~gt IJ/tlLI (ff (]al,itI of t}l{ ]:tr ),,X J~,m H~/~f the Scmlft (]a~r)!iua ~,Ii¢lial At~ I¢Jat[l~tt 71 (11): malt (i~lltlt/ smoktls a~M 9(I fo~ ((]~t tI/ cigar~t~( sntt~kels "Ibis hi( rtaso in ft in: le ¢ig ~elte snloke~ [S(; ] {l?!],p b b4] Pip~ arid cigar smokll~ ha~c a zlsk Mmik~l to that of clga l~ tte smokers of ¢11 ~ cloph~g lar! i,geal ~anccl {SG ] 9, !), p 5 SI,I l}l~ [tutnht r c,f ci{~;n ( tit'S gmok~ d i~1 ¢1~} i~ sh,m~\li ~¢lattd k, {},< *isk ~d ¢]e ~ el¢~;ah:v cantor cd fl,o lar~/~ I~, one stud} i~l ~i~e isk~ fo~ ~aalcs lal,e~ d h~,m ~ ;)h*t sha~ t~r:. light ~.mkr ~ t,, 1~ 7 s~Kir~c(oi;o1M( s{l!l]5 ()t l)iltill Is lnte~Je~ st.1) ~D)]al [h£ ~ ~li~d N ~tio~lal Ca~,/t~ Sur~l3 Jt~uaam] i,! l}t/ N:ttig~ai, I (71n((I }a~litu~/ ~S { 8) ; ~23 ~ ~7, Marih ] 077J Aulc,ps! Mudi~s~ea], clea~ dosc*t];dlo~shlpb~t~¢~ ~]~ tturliheJ of cigal(lt(I ~1,:~k¢¢1 ~lCl M}p (it] i~]lltlia t}lah!~S h~ ~h! Itl} It~( b O! I~l( [L I//~() (lld la(J! d ( (~f I;t!31~ { ~Ct ] ]1 (I ! SlJ~r~k~ ] Of a pac]. o~ mc~a~ a da} St~ldild had at}pical e~]lul u (ltat/t~t v !he nio!t eigar { tti ~ gl]l/ikl d thl i[1(111 sLt( I, ot'IL (}1 ~lllrl ~ l/t1 ~ ~ 11( It( !t~ t~t Iltt I~)I~M~(~kf I S }iaC] It~ almO~m ~1 eell~ o1./ Ihos,.., },t~ dltl, }u,d ~,er? fry, or tl, m~n who hnd qult sn,(,k~ll~ 4() pe~¢c~t had ah. tlolmM (/]!~ ~hir]t w(,i/ di.h~teg~,*ti~g tha{ is, d[~appcarh,g and bc[~lg rq~l,~cd b~ l,orma] cc~/s [Aue~bach, O Ilan,n ond I; C (;afflnkd 1, lli~lologic (]]~:rtgts ill Ihe ] :ll}a~x in ](l]l{ir,i, t~ Sn,oki~,g Ilal,it~ (;anc~ 2~: plI 92-1(11, )am,mI liJT(I] A dist{t~e[ ~3 ugel gi~m b~l~ ( c~, ale ohgl m~d I<~ba< cu i. la~ t n g9 U1 0 U1 t~
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v 130 ~al ¢alkeer hal loach con [wrcte(] lex Jf~ i~g t]tc link no~ed ill OI (r ]4 talli/r sl~ldlra IVCy3~¢ler, ]i 1,, (-k)v~y, ]• S MM)uchi ], Mullein- ski *N[ Eli~hoTinl0(ila] {a(tors ih cancer o{ the lalytl, A se,one~ lot,): Ca~K,~ ~ aS (4) : 1591-lf~)l, O< Ic~}J( r ]976] Long-t< rm ¢.igarctte smok(ls, bolh males and {¢mal~ s ~ ]ic~ u s¢ ft/te~ tii)s, reduce tlL¢il rill, ol la/! ngea] ealtc(¢ 1)} from 1~4 to ,19 percc,ll, alld Ih( liak an/ollg f x-sl//ok(is dtops gladm*l]) ,~fIel C£'S s~tllli A{ler appr~Jxhnatd) ten )~ars, ex smok~is' ~isk o{ larynx (altvl'rapproal]J~Mh,ttof~lmsmul,ers [SG ]979,5 34] ( allltr O[ t}K laryllx is (if tt ii ( t~lt (], tlslla][} by sIlr~£r~ £*lld gctk¢ ~ally b) ]~mlc~al ~d llw ]arb nx, th( malrt ill,at/o} $1)efc}l "[lie p~ti~ ,t t}tus cured (~T, he taught ~ he~ melhod ~,f sp~h, and ]~iti~l ]i~¢ wilh a p~ HI/~llel~t OpCl/htg ill hi~ fl~roat A n¢~ cxperi- ]~}tar}ngtd ti~u~ that mak(s re [earn[u~ speech quick~l and ,' lpid( miologtcal, expe~iiHex,ta] :l~d autops) studie iu. (/ic ;tl~ t],tt c[Gar~ tic smoking is ~ ~igl~if~¢ tilt cau~att, v factol ilt t]~o d(I ( ]Opltl( I,i (l~ ca/,cm of tk Im ) nx 7 he ri~k <,f cl(~ el ~piug ]al )n~ gc:d c,utct t in I)il~t> a,d cigar siitokei S i $11[li]a[ to [}la( ~or cigareU( ~m¢~kNs, {rod] mtt.h grcatf,i for hca~)' smok~ ri ~ho a]¢~, dllltk ]ll lJ]}~ ¢o[91p]gff] ~VlI]I hldi~J0ua]5 ~h~ ¢ID]/ }t~le c~]lrlsore Io (ithc~ Sul~st race "1 h~ r( i~ a sul~stantl,d tit creas(" i~t ri~k ~itl, tl~c ]orl~ N Nil usf eft {ilt¢ r eigal~ II~ s (If) yt'ars Ol nmrc~) I'OTl~pal<r] t,~ the ust of ]tonf[It,:r cigar¢It<s, [~tvd] a gradu d reductlcm in ri~k of • ]u yHgeal caltcer after cessation o{ smoking" I~(; ]979 pp.5 $7, 8sj ~Io¢1¢h ffdol*c~rr AIt~d}s[s cil 3 ]alg¢' I/tirn}iel Of st~dic's imvc.als [iola tlite~ to tc[t [higs ah [ikalk) likotttlt t~utet'r~ (c711tccrs ill IlK ][]/, [olil~tlt!~ ~oor O[ [[t(! I!/O/][h hard and soft palate, e~e ) ill eig irtlte slI/okt rs as ill [lolisli/Okl r Pipe ft/lelkillg has long bclil re¢,~gil/>i d af a lallso (if lip cancer; plp~ ariel cigar s!nokitig ,~s l~ l']] as to}~a(~o clie~ i~rg, al;c~ ( (,lllll]>tllr: Icl ~" met r ~1 oilier si/r~ i~ t}~r mfmt}, Ah oh~/] (I)ll~llli/I)t]Oll tllld II~ssi}II~ ll~og (I(llti(~O:t also all llttil (O ~ll lisk I*/c~or~ Ill one Stu(]}, 76 pirCl lit Of oral (allor>r ill [1[~]( S ~%*lq fttllib~it ed 1o the ill[el fee iiCJll OI tobacco ancl alcohol "l~le T- 8(l OTII~ ~/CANCERS ~n bl :b
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181 Cl,:u],i( )I ~;~.~ 25: Til 7iG 1972 ] Muuth ~;cK~b rl( Ofl(n cur~<i hrc,nl~ th% u~ r, dii~ ~llll and tll<~/(l tl ah lar]) ~hG,l C)/ cute sclJ s <~! ]1~ p~[In% (tllU[I O[ m01:71~ /,m//~ ~$ quit tm/~illg hu[ 74 ¢01 [iuu~d 1i, Mullip!~ Mouth "I h,*~[ Cr.,c(~ At,Hi, a], ]c>m ~,1 cff S,,~<~r} pp 531.53G> Oct~hc~ 19GJ Sl~l~klug i a Sit, L,iIIcaUt ~au,:d [a/tu] in [}it dt ~l]~>p luen[ o~ ~ ~tlc<r oll],( <rsd] ~ J~} th¢ tr>~ of lip,s c[!~ us LUCl ilk (d t,s[ng lh(~ ~ur,li~ i, Ih~ sln,e /U'i,~aal in~t,itud~ a~ tl,t (d I[fl~¢l ad~!hu,c~ :d~,ne' [5,(; lilT9 p 5 12j (;igc~l t Lt I s:[iokt// halt, ,i ri~k i~{ <!) in ~, ol r~s(,])h g( al ¢/1,((~ ,d~oul hxo h; mile L[:~]~ [l,:d <! Zl~,n m~,kcl~ dq,.lldln~ r,,, l},~ ill ,~]~olil)l: ,111(I ili lld~ [Olnl th%' iim?~ i[,~(1 l) p h(ll,~tt li~ u~s I~(; 1979, p ~ 41, 45J ,\ sit,d> of iht (~op],~[ r,f lt)b9 nlcn ~h~ died ~[ t~msts ~th~r tl,<~. (soph~t<d c~ri<t~ s},o~cci that llhnouu,l? lll]~ im" moud ]: (~, Gtulinktl, [,, Ili,tole~i~ Chart ~u5 in l,oph~gn~ i~, Itelallo]e to Sm~kiug I hhi~, ,%r~ hivt s o[ I:i~ b oem~( i~l al Ill .dr}, I 1 OTIIEl/CAN( ERS 31 f,,i 0 {.q
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132 (1):4 ] 5. Jnly. 1(~(~5 ] de~ Jol)lELen { ~ eal[ccr ~t {l~e c~i~h a~u~, "1][~ ri~k.. [il,1 l~iI)e ~Lll/I ei~l skllll~ill~ i~ .~l)ollt the S~Ell~¸ , ~ . ~s ~]~t [or ~[~(((~ ~[[~¢~e/~ • .. ~[~,¢]i~,~ :~1~) i:L~li~ ~te ~ ~ [,i i~[~[~¸ ~/n(~r,~hi]~ I)~ ~ ~11 ~k~¸ 1~¸ o{ ~le(i][o] allll tobit{ l o ~lil/ • . • e~ll/(~1 ii{ till¸ i ~I~II]/~LI~ [~(~ ]~79, [)i~ ~ 44.45] e~r /~l ttLi¸ ~liTlal~¸ [~1¢~({/1e¢ ~[ILOII~ ~ln~k('lt, ¢~tL¢] ~ }~i~llel <Jl~tlJ ~t(¸ fr o~LI [hi~ ~{i~ a~e ~Lil/~ S~IO~( J $ tll¢~[~ al~(~l/~ ~lo:l~J(~el ~. 1 ~[C c](l ¢~lJ~ ( r r,ITl~4~ II[~ t(~ ][Lore t/l~ll ~ ~ ~1 tilll~ ~ ~I~I~E!~ ~L/I ~lllO~( [~, (it f~ ~[L~L]I~ /~1~[¢11 I l ~lleer~ IJl~ll¸ li~ ~I(L; il~tlt~'~ tl) 5[/Io]~ill~ e~,~] ~tL~ I[i I'x ~l~l~k(l~, tl~¸ ri~k Ot ~l~,]C~l~il,~ II]~]~/~ (t~r ~]d- O{ I~]:~]dc~ ~,llcel A ~eco~kcl Iook (~alLc~r 4(t: 1"246 ~-o(~B 1977] S~,L~ker~ ~]~o h~ a I~i~]~L~¸ r~sk o[ kid~ / ca~Lll[, ]~L~,~i~,g [ ~,l~k ~l~t~t (~ke ~kd oL~¢¸ t~/I ~o [~3 ~kd ¢~k~ lk~// (~/~e~ ~,l~l llrilJtiil~ iEl]~. I~iELt l~L[l(~]lk/lJI ~[[/] iltll(r e]l('Tl~i(~]~ iIJil(~/~l~ ~]i(¸ ~i,k t~f ~]( ~]~l~ilJ¢~ L~!~](/c~ ~ll~([ A ii~lll~/~l or ~LJ},sLa~J~ s ill IlL(¸ ~I[~lrJi/~/ f,~jr~[l)¸ o{ ~l~o:~l~l¸ ~rJi,l(~ h~ I,~cr~ i~]eELlifi(~l ~L~ Ji~k ~a~{~)l~ i~k hu[JLa[I I~/~(l{]~ ~ll¢(,i ~LII~I ~Ee ~]~{~ t~/llld iEi ~1~, s~lloke "]'hu~ e~re[[( ~E[Io]~itl~ ~t/illie Ill Jl/ ~,ill,/l{ ~/~{lJ ll{CLip~ t~(,~l~l ( XI~T¢ ~ ~ net a~ ~-~t~ i~ ~1~ ~l(~l~]~ll,~t ~t t~]~{~le~ e~T~E [~; I(179. p ,_5 47J tiO[I 1~i'{~ ¢ / I, ¢ig~r~ {[(¸ ~El,okiri~ ~1(] e~ii( el of {h~ t~r ir,~u ~¸ l~[~(//]er ~ a ca~¸ ~;f [;! ~c~, c~b~et ~cl 1~t~!~1! ~e[s s~/,~ g~il ~]~/¸ ~ i~k o~heJ ~ is]~ f~/e~,ls ~Lleh ~ oec/i]~ti~l~] { x~)o~ LI~ ~ to eeE t;~irJ ~1 ~/~ (ti¢¸ --r-- 5q O
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,K ~, J~h ~,l~ ~ z ~,l tlJ~¸ I~i~l~ L ! a ~rJ~,l! irl~ ~l¸ J ~(~ ] ~79 JJ ~ IF~I I :~ ~ ~ c,[ ~lJ~¸ l'c r~lr ~ ~l~¸ iL,( i~ I1~ ~ ~){ ~ ~1,~ T ~F t~L~ I~ !~,~ I L ~,~ IJ~ i11~ ~, ~,~(] ~/,i ~ {i~11/ il ~IL(¸ ~illitlc~ ~!~11~i ~LI/I ]~rl ah~ TI~,~ r [i]~ iOlIHl~ ill ~1~¸ ~LI(]I t~L~ tlL( ]IL~L~¸ t~: ~C~I~[~¸ ~L~i:~ i, ~l(~irl~2 ~,/~1i1~ '~1~; ~/il) i L~ ~ I~ ~11 c,kl¸] • ~1 t~li~ ~]:,C ~1,,¸ ~1 ~ I~ i~ t~kLt ~,~ l~l~l~k~, ~/, ~r,cL /L~¸ t i~Ll~ ~ ~l,a~ ~ T~/ ~1~ ~ ~r,~h J~ ~1 r~r~¸ t], ~q~ 1~ p~ ~,1 " • I)~ fL~ll~ ])n~,~]~L~H~¸ ~IL(I i~rc,~l~i~ i~k~i~L ~ll,~il,~ ~LI~/ /~r,l~r Of Ill~¸ p~ll~n~L/ , ~],~ i~]~ li~ , ~ lelml I i III II I C~
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134 ~r il[;~]i'l AIIACKN,(H](( U[ .\qOl'l [)TM]\%E~ 1~ ~tl[ (!i~ 4.~ il, th, [ hi~ ~1 ~r~tt~ ~ it it ~. ))LLI~ L ~ti:L, t~ t~k~Lt SLtt~t~¸ them ]2tI.U(];) ~'X<~.~ d, ~}J~ (J,), t],i~ ~l;.J.~¸ t~Ch }L,~ i,~ Ihi~ ){~l)~brt OI ~(] Jl(,~ ( ~/~,Lnnii(*( /,i ( t~tl~[(L¸ ~tnl.~kini~ an,ll (]a/~li ~ t~,.¢~[~t~ ])i~ .L~t Ait~ Ii~al[ \~t,~iatic)EL ])~,(~kllk~llt /I/](}/~]¸] St(J(/i~s Ul m:~K¸ ll~ttt t~o i,d//itblt i~,dKid~k~l~ ~]t~ tlttt iu.II ~ t(~¸ ~,,l(~ki,k~ iE,t'~ ~t~( ~ Ih~' l i.~ ot ~t~l~[ 'tl (. t ~ia( dtdh~ ~t~L~l al~ o[11,1 (,1~ tt~) llo~l, [Ito a~:~ci~!iOl: l~t~.,I, ~i~u~(~¸ ~,,d [I,~¸ j~t/i<]~J(+¸ o[ h)l,t Iti~,~[,)t, {]~i~]L I)1~1o~ l~1~<t~)~ ! N~tl t~Lt]t~.h )~)l/l'E~(t,~ic,:, ~tl~l ~i~gtl¢~h¸ ~m~@[I,~! ~htn i~:(>~t,[ t~) . I~ ~tol ;)~=r ;nll~l ,l!t¢] Jo ! /li t[lO (x /llOIJ] I[~, it lilam~,~md I (: C:0~fhk~l I Co;Oral> lh~lt i)i- ~ ~tl,,k, /hoe+ll nil I), ]lh Jr) z'} J6 I~~ A,~gtl<t lq6!)] lh a ~t~nd) (,f aI! Ihidsh d<)~ lu • ~(~!~ 35 Gi ~i:~c~ 19~1 14 m! of thr.~ ph~siclm~ ],t~( gt~tu vI) (n.r,h Lit sm)kilg flu{ f(~1 lhli[d~ Jnt~ut iu ~,tm: d It~x( sLopH~d ~,a~fld~ ti trc[tt~ ]u, it}b% ~h Alll~ J lore :111 }l( ~lt m~d blood ~ (¢(1 d[~, t ml,Ol,~ [],( ( ]~1 t i~}l /(.t {Jill! d,i1 ~,~] u[ dt,~Lh fno:n ¢(uu~ u> h a=LdK~a,, Io+ LL~,, ~l,~ht~t ,i ,I)~d 5:~tl ~, tj,)~ Kk tt(t,,,~ b)~,( },(c~ i(h;difi<d i~, h ,11 U1 t¢ 0
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135 "l~bh iv ANNUAl, I~ROBAIIII,I~ h' O~ I)I;AIII FIIOM (!O](ONAi~Y)l[ ~RT ])]S];A~E, ] N CUtHIEN J¸ AND J)JSCONIINUJ I) ~MOJ(~I~S~ By ACE, MAXIMUM A~IOUNI SMOKEI), ANI~ AC;I~ S3AI~I~I~ SMOKING ol cigard(~ ii,c,r e ~ar n,c,r÷ ~c lr~ 55 f~l 0 501 ,~1] l(P.gO 798 568 ~11 551 ~1 39 969 76g 87~ GgS 65.74 0 1,015 1,015 l0 20 1.50] 1,169 1.478 I,~13 $01,'1¢CI U~ I't*t~li,- Hca~ll~ 8ert,Fce 71~c tlcaltli {;otaslq~c~l~ci (:f ~ho~.l'r~r, A ll~rr~¸ I:~llor, 197f) U ~ II~l~rl~c~¢ of llea!q,, I~lrrr~¢io~, or~ io~i No (CDC) 75 8~57.1976, 657 ~)p ¢..tl C) ~o
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I IF 188 I~clk I)~ ~hi~i• ti~.~ ~(IoI~ Jil~(;~iIl ~ il(isi~ilS c]k~Tlt~i t~I ]l~llili~ ~ h¢~IF~ ~l~tI~. ~(o[lll ll]t~ ~irlo].i¸ li~IiiHi.~ I111~ IL~tli~ h~i~l~l (If ~i~ ii~i,l¸ ~WO ~(~, II~VC ~ ~II~ i~ flO11k h(~I ~t l~t~]. ~I pI.r~(~ ~F(~tlr Ilk~T, llI~[ ~f [i~i~1~C~l~ IS I# ~tl] t~LI~¸ I~L ~ ~t~t~ ~I¸ ri~ f~ t,~1~ ]~i~ i~ ~I~0 ~C]i~ ~ tO ~g~ ~tJ the ~I!It,~EI~ Arl~I!i l.~iF~i~ ~tu(]!illi~ [hl¸ :~r~i~ii~ oI ¢~i~I'~ ~iriib~.~ ~I ,~iltIl~l~l, ]I~I ~I~'E~t Ii~rJ,!>~r ~I I~It[~¸ l~]~i~ ~]lich ~(}lJerc ~ ilJ~ ~l~]~ :IIt~ cl~,~ ~l~ili~J~iIi Io~, ~EJ~ i~ tlli~tt~]it ~II ll1~ITil~(l~" tlt!¸ ~tt[~,1~1 Ii~ Iti~L1~ i~L ~ ~t~[l¸ ~i t!ti~ tl~c, ~Ii~ ~,L~.Ei~1(i (~i ~tll ~Ii~i~) at~I ~r ~i i~ (,f ~¢~EI~ ~,IJO0 lltt El ~itt~ ~]i~l ~f ~I ~ ~!~¸, ~ ~ ~X ~111ijJ~ ~I l~IU~q ~(~i~ ~ Itlk~Vt ~E ~t~11~ ~r[~ IL~L~ l~I ~J~ l~tl~: ~!~t¸ (~I~I ~rJ(I ,l(Ili ii~l ~l,il El ~ ~ ~i~ ~C~, EII~!~ (lJ(l li~I kTJo~¸ tlll¸ ~l,~,ill!~ l~l~it~ ~iI ~It~t ~1~k l~l~il ~LI~ ~l~c~ ~.~1~i~L(l ~hc~¸ ti~!le~ ~T~I ]~oEtl~d tl~i, llrKlirlg~ Jl ~s~L~ #t~u~t~ l~i~I ~h(¸ ~i!~ (~F t~Ic I,],~o~] it~,El~Jl,(,l;~, ~i~i~I ~t~ ~Ii,~ ~II! ~ i~I~.~I ~, [~i<¸ ~it1~L11,~ ol li~t1< l~( SEE~O~C~ ~Lrdl~.~ ~bl ~]k~¸ ~i~'~h~i~i~ it ~EI~ liL<{~¸ ~I~ ~ ~t ~i ~]t [~ ~I 1 ~'.g~ :~ ~]i~1~I~¸ ~I~I~ I~ I i~ ~ I t~litn~ tl~:~l I,t ~ l~k,'¸ 111~¸ :~I~tl~rp~ ~r~,11~(]~] LEIf ~i~i~a¢I~ i~ Irl~!¸ l~t~ ~C,r~i~¸ ~r~iii ii]l(~l~ ~lll¸ (,ir~o~.i~Ill1~,r ~l~l~,i~l ~ ~ wliI~iI¸ ]i ~ ~Iii~ rii~! ] ~li~ ~t~ti~¸ ~t ~i~L~ O~L lh~ i~,cL< ~ iE~ ~IIi ~i ~i~ ~ ~ l~i~t1~[l~!ici~ y ~[ "I Ii~, ~I r~]!¸ ~t~ l~i!~ ~ Cx~( j,(l( (] ~ ~i 111i( I ~ F~I~!(¸ ~ x~r~T,~[~(~rl
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}u~d ~:ti~,l,~ ~11~/i i~t m~u ~ l~a~k~ a Ilu~ irJ I~ I l~ T~ ~:l ~f t ~,/~¸ ~ I~ htl~l sEl~k~ ~1 I~ t}m~l c,tl~¸ }l~k ~l d i, t~l~d JEt i~:1~ E~[ ~},~s~¸ xv[,r: A¸i~ ~l i~l~ f ~l~ I I~!/~t ~ s t~d S/~ ~ ~ 1/~'~ II~ <~l ~1~ th~¸ ~ ~t t,, c~,,It ~c ~ i,,~l ¢¸ ~t,olJ~/ ~t~l it/~rc ¢~!t~ iL ~n~ i ~ ~l~ t] c lJit~lt r,~ ~,~d ihlll}~}¸ il~(ics/i (!ll¸ }~rl~ hllll fill ¢~x}g~l ~llil l~:t at t],~" ~ ~l~¸ ti~,lc, th/ c~rb:~l~ n,cprl~xidc ((()} iu ~i~'dr- ~lLl~l Ll~:~udl~ }~ calljl d hy lh~ r~d l/ll~ i~J ~h~ l~J~/ ~ it}: car So, ~hil~' th~¸ s~r~,kr r~s }l~alt 1~¢d~ ~no~ ~}g~'/i it t~l~ ]~,~ "1 ~ 1~ ol (~y~ ~l ill t~l~ I~l~od ~L! ~llJtli/,u~t¸ 1o ~L~¸ d~ ~ ~ ~l,i~:n~ ~l/ oI t!t~,~ ~:Et~,li~,~ f~¢r th:l:t f[~( ~ i~,l~t~t s ~ d~! I~]~,~ flnll i~l¸ ~ (,rk. ors ~'crc I~ ~/I ,~t th~¸ ~lld ~,F theh ~/Lift; nl,~rll~l,, i~ h~d I,I t~ ~ i, ~ da/¸ }la~ a l~k o/ slld/ll~ di~tTJ ~ tlr~t s g~t~ i th:n, th:~l <~f ~ si~ljil CLtTJI/!¸ il~tr tit ~iS ~itlt t/Jc l~,~ Si~ L/ ;tlid Illl~lLt I ~d~/iti~ S tl,~t ~r~¸ s~J ilnl~orl~lld f~l i~ilot, "lh~ li:nitLLti~q:~s il,ehtd~ ~i~[ ill~l,Lir
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III -- 188 m~[d, ihung or tt in]>o] aT iml> dl m~nL :rod h n p:dl m nt hi deei~io:t lnalin~ ~ld c~01dln~tlo:i ~lai,y ~1~¸ llLC It>~U]t Of in/[(as/d ~ai. bux~h/nl~ghd~fidt~d hiihebll~od [WHO 1979,1~ 27] Sn/nkin~ ~ i/m e[h?~ ~l~o C]iiTlin ~ ~ In c ni}iin/> c np,< il% ; thu/, a slnt)l,~ i t~tk~ in h~s nh ~il]1 ~ ;,e}, }Jtcqt}t I},nn n Imnqrnc~k ~ '1 }lis furtlKr diuilnlsh~ the tit~c~un! of ox}~<cli i~ai[d,le Io tl~c o~tl. ~in!~cd hc~rt of a smokci [NG 1871, p 14~ it scql Aue~t hr.c m: ¢ I~u,i~m r(l:,[i <I to smoklu~ afl~cls Ihe pl.~t< lets r~ fracl[oti of tl,(. I,lood ,~hkl~ (au~ c]~ts S nokiu~ st~ LnS to CtU~/ Ih. phtcli~, [o adllele '~]i[~/t iii]L~}it lOi,Hil~ tic tu acute [hi I~:,:l~us ( dot ) forsu:ltiu. ' IS(~ 1971, p 9l ' Sm:lklr,l< i~ o~, of th~c~ ma]o~ iud/p~ nd~ nt ij,k fac Lo~s f~,r },,-<q [ ;it~auk~ [/~:~tll] hltd aud nc~nf.xl d aud sudd~u ~[cl~c d~ ~[}l Jn idu~t men m~d ~on~en ~,lol~C~l. the (ic~[ ]~ (!osc n,. • ~ i~Eclt/~t/ ~[nc:~iiig i~ ~l~l,(ilttd (in li,nit~d autops) ch~ul~t tint ~ig<~< NC ~[~iuk~ig< c[,h~nc~ ~d}~clo~,* sic~ [~ s'.a[~/ish[ukE] ~t Jund~rll~Sd d i,iIitmt~le ful llu fi[~d[n~ [m th ~l~cldc[~c of ILt ~T~ LLt( /k, J!i/ltlClin~ Stld d c~/caldial de<t ~]~ aollic 8hi tu %!ILL illl/I pct i ]l]leid~ ~,t~tllal ~]i<c i~ in i(],llicm to ~lm~kin~, It Js ~(,tuc~iwL U/L io~o~ c~[ ].<~l i~tlack amoll~ st~l%~xors of a print ],,)~,l~,llql '. i~]p chi;d~lc}l~i~ c]n~a m~ t},c r~qoci~H~m IJct~t.n c.i~ ~r. (~!c srilokblg alibi anglint ]le~tolil t!iil Iile}llo%a~liL]al i]i~i,r~i<, (shok/) arc I,ot co:,:lusi~ . . q }l~rc 1~ uo ~ppiuent it] dfel:/shlp dio~ <~sl u] tr b~rIII, of both d~k f<tc t ol 'Jl ~hotll~l I~e noll(], }io~(~l lImt risk il~ corondr) ~'~ IIE41t I A] I ACKS CIIICUi A'[O]t~ I)ISEA~>F ~ A~'I) ~ I ltOKE 0 6~
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1 V- FMpI 1 ] SI:MA (;H I{(INI(; ]~II(IN(;]II'I IS ANI I "~h~Et p;tti[Ett ~ith IJIt~l~c!lEti. air a,sktd if the) h~, u (/lll~}l th~ licit il.fliqu~rl~]! ~lll]} y/! ]i~¢ I/tl~l,~L/¸ e[~¸ 1 I~/y J~ ~lut r~ali;'~ that p~@c with h~a]thy ]u~,g~ }ka~ ~ ~Lrl ~r~L~gtL ,,T,d I~J~duc~ I,o phh~m'¸ [l~,! al p 691 ~l~,tt~llL ~h~ ~,m o~cur ~cl/ s~,~,l aF~c~ Ihe ¢,n~tt o[ ~l,,~,kif,~ aTJd ~ ii ~]~c~l IlK¸ jmll,/~ O[ {~g~ICHCS ~tio].r~l i~ ~1! £Eha/I [$mO1-. il'g Ot ll/Mth 3hird l{~p~lt OF t:,,]leg~¸ of l']J/~ki~,L~J l'iLm~l~, ti~e ¢,1 ~ 5~ ~r{~ i~kor ~ ~ ~ll~ mo:t ill 5 m~lker~ ~10 lak~¸ I~II~L i to I ~ ~ov(x. ~/~l]~ ~h~ c~l}itr Ii~k [&~tor~ ~OhlEi/~u[Jl~ tt~ bloll~hlti~ llJ d/¸ ~ !1~pcd (,~lEitri~ ~ it i~ I~OW t}lr¸ illegal ilnl~¢~t~mt ~,UI~¸ ~J[ chlo:t~¢' ~,:~r,~ hi~i~ " ~WI II ) 1979 l~ £0J (ihr~,Mc }~r~nu}Lil[~ ~md Im/nl~rtary emp},~ma ~ ofien th~ scum t~ }~L¸ l~rodu~.~.d },~ ~[n~i]al cau~c~ ~ ~1 ~rl~4.}~:~El~lll~ (~]it ,~cally pur~¸ form~ of c}~ ol,ii }~ o~,/h{![~ trod cl,,}~/,t ~ema ~ t~kc¸ iiJ the ~lll~ l~Mi~rlt~ C],tonie I,~,uchi~i~ is d~ fi:,ed a~ the '~},toni~ ~: r~ul,i,,t ex/~ ~si~ t~ m~,vus sc~reti~:~ ~[ the }it ~El~ ]L~L] t,~i' [.q(; 19; 1, p l~gI It is identilicd /~y t~vl~ s!'mptl~:nsj (1) ~l,rutli~ c~ugh ~lhich t~rl~ ~]uce~ (~! Sl/Utuln "lhl spu[ult/i~l~l!¸ l~l¸ cleat, }~lt oil/l, l/~El!~iii~ I~L~ I~e~tl~¸ peopl~¸ ~ith (hrot,i~ b,c,rL(~Lilis ate l,ighl~ ~L,~l~tit~le to ]wig il,!( (I io~l~ ~ (~ ~l.~r ~, ~ ho sr~lokc ~ ~e~¸ ~ /t~ ~ ([g~tT~ [tO ~/ (]~y, COIl,~]l an(] ~l/it MnioI[ as n,/i¢}l a~ ~l ad/tlt ]Ji,~/! slnl~ll '~tl~ ]l,llg#l ~t Illr~oll W[t~t diT(ll,i/¸ [~l(l~t/}li~i~ ~m/l~j t}~/¸ Wolfe I}L/~ ~(lIi~itiO:t /le~zOl~ ~te all ]/~/MI~ irl thi¸ lull~ }b~ (t~:lJ~ plol~l/~Jl'l]~ hatro~c~, l~takhl~ it h~rdtr ftT,(1 }k~rd([ to },1~ tthe '1 ~i~ i~ often, ~or~tlL~d }~y the {.~ct that ~ mat,!¸ pe~l,le witll I,l oil~hiti~ al~ }l~x ~¸ ~ lit i~}t} ~II~L ]~u/fllonat I ~//p},ys~lrla ¢1/stlo~ s I}1~ Ihl} ale sac / irl the lung whtlt¸ ox! gell J~ a}~¢lrl~c d i~Lto l}le 1~o~ A~ Ill(¸ ~[1~ ~[/~ ~cl, the ~cs art" d¢~lro~'d, the ~ac~ [~(~olnl lalg(j l~JI, I~lc~uM~ f(~l ill 89 UI
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140 llclln}lel, t}~ey o~er less h~] stlrlaee {rotil wliich o~y~¢li eau be a~ ~ol},id I[ciici, lil!ir~ and i~Ii:e ~e~t]is ale rcqtfile~ A lioltna] adLilt exi~.lld s ~l*ottt 5 percent c~f Id~ c llerg)¸ itL br ca~hiti~; a pCl ~,n x~iIll ~d~nc~d inipliys(rn~ uses up (o ~ i)eloetif ol ]i[~ l~i~rI~I~ ill~{ to bre~L]le }If¸i~ [olJll~int~y i x}i~tlstl d i!u~lliln~ Iol ~il. ] )C ~lli~ fronL p~dTiLOT'al y ~ ]~LI~IL) S{ ii1~ ~r,d ~ l~r~:,iI¸ }~Oi,I l,lt~ (kcto~it ~ogether as (;O].r) (;hrouie ()/bslr~teti~¸ lun~ l~eas~,} li~le in¢l c~d gle~t])¸ in the United ~{a[e$ ]tl I ecent %i,its ]IL ]915. there ~ene oudy 20]5 such deaths I.ttd ilk th( thdI~ d $~atet [J )iehl 8S 9{)] h/]977 file ~g~ue hdd i~sciE tc~ 28090 ll¢~dhs pcI year (;hTOIti( htot~0hk[s .~ttd enll~h)sett~;c ]~tt~k sc~o]~d onll" h) eilrotlf~r) gTllr~ I]ise~se as a e~us{ of S~ei~l S/cu]it! eonil/ezt~,l{ell di~aliili{) [SO 1979. I/ ~ 7~ In tl,e UDited Kir~gdoln, xlill~ a [3o~u! dLoim onl! (:i¢ fot~etll t~lul of the Ui0[ed St t~s, [hut~ ure more Ih~q~ ~(I~0CI(J SLI/II dtath~ as I]l~ icsitll of t ii~i)lt/sO/l~t aT~d ~/~ronie t~:{)rtrh[[i~ 1 hi, [, [etl Io ]~ [[ut~s tht Hui,}~¢r i~f da)s lo~t O~mu!,h h~dt, itT[ I di~p,,te~ Ilqo),~l p b9] S,,,I,k~ ~ ~ r@,, ,rs#,l~ to C( lid lJe'~lh (ligameNt' snit~kiT,{4 is th nl~)s[ it,iporL~/t c~uit, of COl l) ~ilaTt {to smt,kel~ h~e ]t~htt ;nl<)rt~di[) ial<! fr(:lu C]~OhiC I~rol~ S!H/jlIOFII~. a]ll d[nLi[Li~h¢d i/erform.[]/e On ~3[LI]!if~Ii3T) i[/]k[{[¢)li I~ ~til~! c~,mp~r(d ~O ,tor,~takc~ *L},rse d[fh T, i,rr~ }~,ntc mot( ~,l],~d ,~ tbt numt, i ¢,f ch4t~¢{Ic~ i~cne .~ ISis; Jq~] p 67] "J},c blest r~c(rtt tl<//~ flOin a ~{))~al f~!l¢.~,p el ql~41(/ l;~i{L,h n/tl¢ phv Jcim~ fom~d a I 5.f~,Td hlfhei ¢h,dF~ rh fX~T,~ C;()l I ) i~ s],iokt r~ ~]~c> iil]lflh d than in ~:nok~ ~ ~ h~ dLd not in}, kh [Doll B > EeL, s, It Motlali{) in r(/atiol~ to s:l~<~l;in,c~ £cl )<~s ob sei ~atio:~ cm hi,de llsiti~h Ch~¢to~ ]hJti~h ~dudio ~1 ]ot~N/al :~ ]~2~ 15"36. ]979J A ii/1 tlb(I {l{ l{~tlt gttLdieg ], ~e ~li~l~]i~]~] :~ hitch i pte ~ {]¢111¢ O! I{Spil~{OI~ f![llll{O:/iq in tdo[¢ie¢~il, t(£1:i~% fl/d ) ~llt~ drill/ ~itLnkc~, aged ]qi to 1~! in t~ ktd{/d ]xih<,d,~tn i~c~i~ were fotn,d tJHh {},{it D/~r,litio~irig ¢]~t~N,~le !BC~'I% B ll!,L~d J. M., drt:i I'll~ttttL~ Xie<li/.Ll~( ~: 6~ b9 1!)7(]1 J MUII~SI MA C]IItC)NI(~ ILI~C )N ~]][ I 1'~ ~NI] UI I,.i ¢:b UI t..¢', 6'1
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i 141 A ~ur~ t3 of 1~93 }d~:h s~Lool ~tu/luds i*J t}d~ t t,,l.lr/ zt ]~l¸ i~ sl~]~ of two liE,kcd ~tu ~ ~}~ ~ l~a~,~t~ d h> ~c¸ ~ ]~, ~l~n t~:~d J~m~, ~1 ~l 1 ~I~id~, ,iob~!" 5 (~'/: 17/ ]7,5 197(~ 3Jo~¸ Sr~iJ~illE /¸ ~l~ c(~ f ~li~ 7~sl9 I,lo]J~!,~a] t~. tlJo~¸ ~J[h dh~r,L[~J~ ot [~o ~Jli!~[~,t [~ ~s c~r h!~ [:J~;,~tt~¸ ~lll(,k~J~ Sho~ ~l;/io/~l~d c!l~rl~ i~J t}l~¸ ~tl~l!l t~iJ~l}~ ~ ]1;~ ~J ~1~¸ ~1~ J~t {i Otl~ tlc ]~tl~ o~ NOlt,tlkOk~ t~ (~ Ltt ~l~ ~1~ol i:tc~ U~ ~,l~]i[L~[~¸ itl~r~, [}l~t ~ll IjCL~t/,~ ~t t~L~ ~r~:~l ,qir,~!~ ~[~h<~:d ll~L' 11/~111;~11,~!3¸ ill]l/ [iOh ~!ll u~ld } I~J~llli¸ ~olj ~ lml/ll~(I £,t lilt. ~tt~ t~; the ~I,~T] ah ~ ~} s ]~s ~1~ 1,: cL~ ~ ]~ot ~<~ h~ ~e~ ~1~¸ ~t~ok(Is ~,~th hi~[oli~ ~ (~! s~,~d:~l,~ ~s 1,1i~ f a~ ~,c¸ I~, ~ ~ [SC~ l~J~9 pp ~, I(i 22J i[t~ t,t]/ ~;211~ ot tl ql],)vvznt ~ll~ll d rt,2i[l I,Jint/li;[i. Ill/ol [Itl It(Llit [1~ dt ~ Cloj )h S3 Jttl)! )]l[~ "~ ll/itr~!<r lit Sh dlt~ hilt I, tlt ]rl (t]t lit I]it}l]* rl[ ~}] i(, 3 it polluted ai~ at ~Olk Alt~tot~glt a]) [h(~i %%o/k~i~ h ~t ll,,t( l,utg ( fLr;t~ctt( S i~Ok( I S SNI:Ii(~ ill u ,]kLis it~ [}~( D/ic}~31ica] (}ICn~i/~I £fl~irlJiis [O/Itl(ll} (~t ltl~lTI// (tntt I~ti]~ It,ih[l,~ tltc ~,tttil,~ ~lq}tt 5t,~ (011 [XX J]*) }DTO, l, ~f,] i~rl,tt d~d lit atc8~ (,r ;til ]~ ~l]~l~iOt~ ~t~ ~h/" N(~hc~l~l~d, ja~l.tt a~/d 0 U~ ~0
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r7 I!: 142 I'o~trlcT l,ut t]J(~L ML:{]ILS ~t Tt' i}oo]]) (o~hL1ol]rd fol SOC[OC~OnO~II[C ~I Lhl~ ~h(i Milokln~ h~ll~iLI ]II ~ ~[l]~y o[ LdIi)]iOllI¸ ili~ta]Iir~ [tlld i( li~iH[i(.l~ ~L II~11 hiiuI (¸, N~¸ Yolk C~[{)¸, "~'~ ~ hili~Jl on, I ) (~]., ,~lltl itJr~l ~Vl 5t{IL[,~(I (;~L:llt)¸, N~W "~ork v,~,aloh¢1~ ~clr 111Lah1[. I~ ~iEt(l tin} rq]~llo]i i~it~,i¢li ptilTnoritlr~ S~lil;ItO[li~ ~n~ (]Ogii.i~ O[ 11r}~IlJY di~,H OI l~]t~ OI ~r]~ Ol Z~ ~CI~I,~¸ ~ h~ ~> }Jr~i ~L}~I~¸ t~ ~ ~hd)li~}, ,1 ~llt~11~ c~,r [~ I;~tie~it I >~ t ~ ~.~,il slno]~[i1~ i,cLl~]t ~ ~ild M~,£~LIy~L ~ ~ O~ia J A • II~'~l)ira(~i) ~iIl~iig~ ~Ild uil~Ii ]i~i~L~ Ar~hlv~ ol l;Ti~hIITI~]cr~a] i]ca]t~i ~T {~); lJ~ 150 F;~>l~t~]Lil~tl I)?~l I~JTT I ~ a ~ st~]~ ol ~h(~i ,u~d ~II]~ L ML]dil ~ ~t is ( o~ lud/d theft i{ ;tit p:~]ltLli(~:~ ]~Cn ~ [i~k of C(IID this {r~rtasl Jnt~t }~/ sr, d/ (~,] ipat~ ~] l~ tlHI ichhd ~o ~ [~.ULIt~ ~ll~'kln~ II~C!c ~,~l~¢]il[c~n ot EM]'IIY~I MA C}IIION(C B]~[)N[ Eli I ]~ ANL) C~ ¢;I G~
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"i 143 ~,%ol/d S]llc,l:m~,:ELl'. I[la/th \ c~] 2 No* 2 i ~,l} 1!)77 11] 15 ]~] l,dc,c;etlolllh&~c~]Smc,[~i~J~a,~!Oct~>c, tlt):ll~l,ost~cs t,]l,uh ~; di~ as( m,ied) i]~tdxJl,:thluE~g~c,L]dic!~l,~dtlS)> t ( id~ Hlhl*:[¢ J ,x Jtlt L~XIC tt ~ II1~: Ol 2 ~ t,I ],[]ItLC < ~)lt tl][C ,t], rll D I~> Cc,tth, t~,~c a,,¢]:[~ ma} t,c (nit, 1 both II, [h( ,,~tkl~]~c~ ~ricl i;, tc*}mc<;) ]h~lEt~[I,% t~p¢lsul,: C<LI~]I,K ,r~ ;~,1¢1 ti~c o:, IT, 5nm. dc*d, ia tlK ~o:kplacc 'J }w NLtJrm I lns!ihiLc ~o] Occi~p<itirma] ~,af¢t) on(I }Tralt}~ (N]OSH) }la~ id(l~tifi~d a m,ml~c~ (,( pc,t<ntial coh/amiL nt, fOLmd in t~b ~cco products il,rludm : i~K,[g<mi< fluo id¢~ and ],l¢i. cu,) lead, diniho (~]lh(, c]co~ol f~,Lmak]d~)d~, l,o~,n t~iflu ,Lid% osf, arlOth~, n (th)I ])a~,dhio~, a~Ld ¢'ltl>a:~] In ad,lit[c~[, h)dT(igc'n c> m,i¢l~ Im~ I*CL~ h~ui~ I ia ci!!m ¢ tt( SLI ok~ in ~[!gAf~c mt ~O:L/¢l,t,a tiOh~ mid ~J~,tl[lt¢ mx(>kir,~ ~1~,) coiltl[liutt> Io illCl~a~ ] ix ]/O lit L" ~O l Arl)( :i ]11 HIo~[dl ()tiLl ] }l Ht]tLL] / ILl I/li/ eLI [ ~( )~t~ ~)L~h:l ~tlLil~ I(}}mC'C(~ mlr] Jl ?1;: ~xo:kl~l~(( [rl(lll~lC aortc~l,c, :/elOICJlt, ~ddtl,>dc~, ar <ni~> eu/miml, fc,,i,iMleh!il( h)d~o:Ti 5ulfld~ ke- l,m[i [C;Ld i,l¢tll) l llih][I, li[¢OIiTi( i:i~i,*~(li fliO~lCIl" i]Fi rl:l[ alll p'~l) ¢ ycli( ¢ompom ds [SO ]979 p7 7 9] 1~, a stud) of Bos[,,:~ (,~ [LL<<~tLLS ], >[]l oOC.pat/~n aad el<+, alert( smoking cmtlLInlhd t, ~hTOld( nem~l~CCiQ r~l)halc.> ¢1i~ vale [SJdo], I{> I'ct~]s, J M l'~(,~d~il~ l~,t¢~ C,f clltonic i,(,],. specific I~!i)il~l,)[) clil(aS( ill i]~l, [ig}llt[i " ~.TILI,aIc0n [{eiilx/ O[ N/OSII ]L~ i~.~mmiti~clt¢] that x~C~Lkirs ( X]>C~S, d t. (~il~in SlLl,~ia[~c~s lefiain [l~m~ sniol, ing, I,L~ tit[it this Cm tall ~1¢ nt S], ~nlc] al~o be ac¢omp,~l~it d 133 ~JtntlltCll~eOl, (ol rio] c,I Om~lLl~:l~JCm 1 ¢~. pO Ule! tO toxic physical and chNnlc,d agt Ld [S(~ 1979, l> jTl~] Lnn[c ]'tl3t~(liol; AI;LOIi~ [}lC Illai~/ lnoll¢li~ m(<}~lni~:i]s of the hmgl art E M pH y~;I M A (:FIIION ((: BI~)NCt (I ] IS AN'I ) U1 t~ C~
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144 ~L( ('/l t I[U! L h l[k~ ~I~,IC t U~t ~ ~ h~d, li~,C ~ ~Va!'S ;did beat, likl a ~u¥i~L~ li[/d c~I ~l,~i~L ~1~[~ ill~ th~ TnlL~ II~ I,]~Ul.~l C~I~t~LI~¸ ~lt. ~eLLI~I~ ¸ ~tlljl~ till¸ I/IO/clnclll Ot (i][g ~i~Ld ~ll~]e!¸ d/~h<~!~ lh~iL q i~c 1~ ~]~iratory n,ucus bl,~nkct i~ il!~ !1, sec/~ rid by p~l~lct t~ I~ t~lJ(¸ ~ll( C!~[~li~LI that ildt i~t~ ~ I~r~gL~ I1~ ~i~ i~L sl~Lt~ i ~ ATL/~LI,~I W~¸ hL~l~q~ ch~l tI~C~LI~L'I~ I>! I~[~[g=~ n~t(~ i~ t~t~<~n~ll ~}~C ~i~'~t}¸ ~r In ~l'l~q~h:~ ~, ~ t)L~. ~l ~]l ~h~e t~El<'k I[~llL ~ [~ iT]~l~! ~l~Pi~h nL~lli¸] giLd [I~ILSLIC~LL it, ~i~L li~l¸ l~lt~:~d lu I~lL/?h ~ ~1, I~ t~ O~1~ ~t ~],~¸ I~od~ ~ e~ i~lOl~ ~1 ~ "l ~l[~ ]~)~ ~ S~ Jq ~.e,~, ,~ ]~}~[g~!~T~ rll,~ ~i~¸ ~f t]~,¸ i,~e~}=~ ~ i~ =~l~ i/ihil~ft~ d 1,~ ~ i~r ~ t~" ~ll~Jk~, {~C ]~Tt p 171~1 [~; 107~ p ~ .qlj ~l ~ ~ ~t~ j¸ n~ic~ t>~i}~]~i~i~ ~ r~t h~¸ slj~l~k~l~ ~l,~l}¸ ~l ~l~ ~!~" J ~ ~i~j~ ~c)tc ~.~ ~/,!iiJi ~l~ ~l~(¸ I~rL~ ~¸ ] JIl~/l~!~Jl~ ~I ~)~F~lt~Ji~d I~ ]plI~tiii/~!~¸ d~trli~til~:l o[ t~.~l[¸, i~;~i~l]!¸ E~! t],~ ]~t,~N f~, ~ I ~l!l,~ ur~ UI~I~C~E~:~I( t[,~l~l~[I]lC[LI Of !LIh!~ ~,:LI~![~ ti~u~¸ } I~thL ~,~: I,~ ~tL~ik d ~L~,<~ ~/~/~!~L b!¸ /~},~ ~ I~1~1 ~f ~he I,/ll)~ I,O]~L~I ~1~ fc=~¸ tL~C~L:~II[~L~ Alibi. li, /O: ~tlL~¸ IC,~,~l I]~[~ ]~I~L~C~ i~ ~l]/'~ ~1~tI ~X~(~S I~h~tt'~S~ ~L~L ~L][L! ~ it I]i~ IT:LS!i~k, IJ/L~l'Lg~lL{l! II~ll~!~ ltL~l~! ti~>U<¸ ~:Ld ~r n~ ih~ i~ t~L/¸ J~l ~j/~l ~/ t!ll ~1 Ul~l t t[l~ till¸ ~/~l!il! h;d~gLI ~ ~(iL i~1~1~ ~l,d ~eL~i]~:<~C~L~Cq ~11, ~]i~rl~Lt~L !~ d,~:~<¸ ~ U~=L~I~]d~ ~ t~ ~],[~l~ ~ [~r~ It~ ~ ~l(~k~ i~ t~ic¸ \~h( i, tl ~ ~ ~ ll~ ~lr, i~,i~u~d I,! ~ ~j~ ,SLUt t~l ~L~kt • ~lJ~ } ~li~¸ I~ /~ill~ 1~1 ~ q~ ~EL~ ]l~lli/~]L~ d (I~UlL ~J~l:L~lt~ti~l~ /~l~L~ :LCli~lt! il, ~I~¸ l~l:C~ Ot C[~:/lil!~¸~[l~ i~C; 1~)7~ ~/~l~ ~l~ ~ ~ ~,~/J~,~]i~/~l~ TJ~:~r~J~¸ ~I~ (l~i~]~c [I,1~ ~] I~c~, [b! t~]]~ ~( ( <, ~1~,~¸ l~l~ ~l~l~ ~ ~i~l,i~C L~ t ~ !~:~T/~ ~ ~h il~bl~l~¸ ~<l~hi~Ll,~ in }~l~tl~ ~L~I~TU~/~ ~Lid I~CC~I~/~ ]~L~ ~d~:/il~ Of 0 &O
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145 111 ic2r~[~}l~ ¢ 5 t~] ( tIF, IIT f ht4 t, i]1 ,PL(] r~t},~ r fell* i/ rl MI],,~ kit * • i i~rl Mr~O~ ~t ~, X~ /~i~ I, ar~¸ ~!~( i1~ in ~:l~ln(,~( ~ > ~)~iJ~ }1~(¸ 1~(~;i rt~,~l~{ ill !~ ~,tl:El!~l, i/,~¸ }lll~l~rl ~ h(st, ~/:~ r~,l[iL~l~ irl~]i~t~¸ ~(~l~iCl(l ~t,]L 1)}~!,~01 ~:i( ~l iris. '(~:i54~¸ Si~Ok~,~ ~ i~ y~1~t~!~ :~!~ ~r~,~ pro~l~/~, tL~E~ (~! ~ irll~(~]~l~ I'~IITJ~OII i~! fL]E,C ~L~,I, a~,Cl IIL~ tr~],,glC ~tl;~,,~ II, ~lili~'~ '. • IbU]~l~l]J:~E /¸ tl]ll~ L~JJ:~I ~tl~lJ(J~ln~[iti~ ~ 1)~]i~'~ ~ ~] tL, ~ l~J(¸ ~L( MLI~/[ t~il W~!¸ ~St ~ll~ ti(J:L, (~tLl ~ (~i~) i!L ~ll /Jkl r~ . • • [! h~/ (]t ~trtll~il ~ ]llIJ~, ~ll~ll~/~ • . nk~)¸ ]~ SLI]I fl~:ll/ i ~/~S> ]~lJ~ati¢ll, lit or¸ tail~L~i ~, if,llil~i~, l~/(it~! ir~ (/Le l~lr,~ (h~ett(¸ ~tn~k~ h~ 1,~ k~ d e~I,~MI~IL ~ ~ il~ll~:~!l ~ ~LI i(t~¸ o/ ~Ln,~¢~:,~ <,! ~/kt¸ h~ I~L:ll a]~ ~ar ~aa C i~,~1:~"~ (~S~(~ ~;1~1 [,~ ~tt~r~}~ul~cl t~ (ll{]i]~,~ irl ~n~khJ!! }l;L}l!t,, /~G 1979, pp (~-8q J~] 5'I C~
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146 VI SMOKIN(: ANI) t'I~E(~NAN( y I)]IU(~ MFTABOI [SM, MEI )I(]AI,~I [,;S'l S 1~t¢Klla~lctd and l?l/l*ttt [lca!¢~l More and tnoi¢ d~la sho~ t[hat ¢i~alctte siltc~kin~ dudug l~rCgllal~c~¸ ]~ a sigui(J~ant ad~(l~o t,~ect UpOl~ the ~tl] [~t [llg of the lett~, the hea]th o} [hc ne~ bo] n hal>)¸, aTJ~ t}J~¸ {l~t t ui, d~ c!up [Iwut oF I}i~in ~lnt all0 dlil(] Stillbirth a~ld Low Bit¢7~lteitzht \VontHt ~ho slnu~t duiit,~ l):(~,~nc~ ],Lye si$~,dhcmdly ll,O~c s kil/!>i~th~ a~el nm~e o~ t]i( ~r b ~blcs (li( dllring t], (~llt n/trot }l Ill ]li!~li( }', l}i$[?] tlLOSC O[ liOll SItIO~l I L~ ]t/ It}t£I~ (ill( SItK[} (1~ ~0 (1(1~1 pl(~Hailt %~ONIUIi (oDcludcII IlL:t( LO0 pt~K(jit OI tlJC (LIIStL(((~SfHI I>it[~taucir'< '~t)tlld hale }~ocn s/Icce~st~l if t]~C :,,~thc~ had not bern a Ipgtl]at stillJl~tl.>' [ltusscll, C S, A~tc,t}t(r ]laT*~ll] of $ill(]k- ihg, Ne~/ Scieiilkl, 41 (6~l) p, 0~ U~> lanu~z), 1965] A l~O~l)~(i~c ]~ri(i~lt Mt;cl~ lit 17,00(I biith~ slio~cd IlHt "t]io IHOI[ tli[) hi b;ll)i(~s (It sniokL'ls x/a/ si~[ii61a[]) bi~2]l~ r I}tui ill ([LOS(! OI IJIlIJSItiOkCJ 5' ']ilo I¢ ~50]t: *[}it~ e~( t'lf ¢~! bXl bh I1i~/( [!rIJ~ blbie~" IIlcttlt r N It, ATilt nim~,, 1: l). Pi*nttal }'l~blo .~ ]](Lilt }~:tl!,h I~ & S ] i~hlgqh)ric I dO 19/~9 p 7~-S4] '[,0/i [l~rthwe~i]it" tc[~-i~ trl I~al~ics prltnilttt," }~) xl(i ,[l:, (Itllr/e~l ~! pouncls ) Ill a sit ~]3 o[ ]00,(KIJ [~i~t}tg gt/iO~hl; im,tl ¢ rs }kl[~i(~ x~tig}le¢~ olt I}~(. /~tt ~(, 6] oclnc¢~ l(ss thin t]lr) e ¢[ lle~ll sl~i(,kilig Irlothcr~ IS(; 1071, p ~$9 ,1¢(~ '1 abl( 2 PI' S JT.399] lt~ blrtliucichl is itlated ~l,(~t to Slii:~kh,,~ I}la,~ to /ly (,I}t¢l }a/Io~ Anl it in ii]~th(I [o the ]c./ig:[i el/ tilnl. Illl i)](grliUlI x~oilla~ smokes beIor~ gi~i,~g hH}L hi 4S(l(10 pr(gi~Ul Rs l}~e illOt]t£r~ ~11o did ILU[ snit)k( libel/ (h( lulrtst }*~dl[/ t}IOS" ~]ll) sinokc'd ([I][1[1~ o1/]t' ~11£ firm l)a[[ o[ th(ir p~limic), litd sn ller b~bhs; rlud tlos~ ~}m mnr)kcd dm[l~ th~ cniilt pl( !~I~I/IC} }l,~Cl Ill( ~!0 lilt ~t tl<l},iCs IS(; ]l~ ] l) ¢~SI ~){iJ ']}w 111olc ~t %~orlilD MtI(I]~t~ ¢luihig plcL~l~t~tl(}, ill ~ ClI*T t}~e IceltlCNOli ill hl,r il~(~ttit's },hi}, ~ei~ht, ,,e¢o1¢11.~, tc~ a ]lgC IJtllil!~Lf O~ S hldics [ IOv ¢~1 i[ tt %% OIJi0Ti ~[~ CK I~I~ Mlli,~IIU (IUI [I ilr~g[i;inc), ]l(r ~i~k Iff II([ivc;]ll~ a ]c~ ],ht]i ~( [g]~i },:d~l ])c comes SJl,iihi [o that (f a nottsli,t~kel [SG 1979 p .~ 12] J i~ Ol~C ]tr~* s ill,l), the elitist siyai Fit air < I{[H, ;ic¢~ I it [v ¢c n d6 tO g..
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147 ~ ~, JLIIi I~ 1~1 /~ ~1~ i~, l]~" 1,]~1~ ~tJ~ th~ 1~ I ,~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ i:l it, ¢1~ ~ L ~/~ t~ ~ ~/~ ~r~u~It l~i¸ ~,~L~ 1/~ i ]1 i IrlJ~L~ /L~LII ~1 ~iJ~ I~ (!C ~i~.~ I~ NI~i~]~ ~k l~¸ IJ~li!~ktlJt NI~I~ ~1,~/ I ~!~1~ "~ h~ rl ~ ~r~rl ~ ~l~s ,~t~¸ ~ ~s~ ~1 t,~ ~i~ ~ir,~¸ ~ ~ ~r~ ~ (~ ~1/~i1~ ~!l~ll ~o~J~t~JI *~itl~l!! ~lll~ ~1~ ~lli~¸ ]~// I~l~,~l ~l~t ~i~;~itl~ i~] i~ I~t~l~lil~) ~l~[l~kl~t~¸ i1~ L!l~¸ 1~!~1~l~ !~k/¸ ]~t ~rJ~ ~J! t~l~¸ ~ ~ ~llr~l~ ~ ~J sirJ~l] it~ rl~ ~r Jil~ n~t ~ll ~kill ~ irl ~r~¸ ~}l~ ~ ~! ~11, il~l~ 3~1 i,k i~ ~11~1 lt~ Li~t I~L~¸ ~ll~ill~ ~lt' ~rl~'/ ~i~/~ll~ ¢1 ~t~ijLI ~l~ ~''! i~l~. il I~'~ ~rl I~ Ill ~1 ~1~1 I~ i~ll ~ ~i~l~¸ IJl~ ~.~tl~ri::~lrl l~'lJIJt~ ~J/ (/!~!~ll~¸, ~Lrl~ (¢~h~!~'~!y 117~ ~J ~i ~. ]lrJ~ ~ ill f~,!l~ ~l~ ~!tl~l~¸ ~L ~,~ ~! ll~t ~lJ~ ~ ~1,~¸ [,I,,!l,, ~ ] I~l ~/I ~l~¸ ~ll J~ ~t~,~ ]~lL~tl~! t~l~i~ ~]~i]~l~l ~t 1!,~ ~d,ili~¸ ~tL~! I~lr ]~lti~L~ ~LL ~,3¢i~! ~li~l~*L~ i~t¸¸ ~EL~I, tl~!¸ ~L~!~/~ ~ S!l~l!¸ ~/ l~ht~/~LI lI~:,'~t~l~ l~lt~J ~tl ~l~t ~l~lJl~/ (~[l~ ~! ~!JJ~l:/~! Ol~!~lJi/~ N~ ~/~rl: Al~ri~ 1~ 15 l~/i 11 l~t/I ~ iJ!l~lll,t ]/~tl~ t~llJ/~lu~ ~ l illl~lllllil~ l ~ ~/~ll¢¸ ti~lLi~i¢ ~1,1 Ilif t~
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14g f~l(n~t 5 ill fa~ol ~,! IIOIL~IILOk~ r S' ~ }k[l!i~t EL ~ ill ~ It ~pt C{ tt~ ]~e]ia~ iOi 1~ti~,gs and s~hI~l p1~<~n~eht [Dmul, II (:, M{I~luney, A K, ]IIi!I am¸ S, ] rlxntel, (~ M ~,[ak ~ na] eigaiitte s,~t~ki~,g dlt~[~i~ ple~ ~lan~y ~L~ the ~},i]d~ ~ul,~i~uciit drve]opment: ]] NIurc,]cbglca] ~11tI h:t~ Ile(Iklal l,~a~ui~ti~b~1 to t}le ~ ol 61~ 3 ~t~ ~ C~hadi~It Jntu. tli~¸ OI p~p{i~" II]C~,~ m~r~ OIr(~ ~}i;~r, (]O ~,cn,~ErI~cr~ ~.n~d t~ merit ~r st~mmr~i uk~r i~ ]~,ss ~i~ ii~ sn,~k~rs t]lar, in non smokvt I a~Ld hea]iiLg i~ sh~ er [SC ]9; I p i:~] In otle s{~(]!' tile iEAerlelallOlillli~ ~tIl~OIl~ CO~¢e a]¢OII01, mid smoki~,~ were i xa~J~in~ t] iJ~ ~6,63~ ],il ~ told ~ omr~t aged ~0 to 5~ :~ 5~7 of them }tad a hi~to~l ¢~f peptic ulcer d~ ase M~IL ~I,~, ~it,(~ d h~d a 2 ].fold g,iat~ fti~it1~t(!¸ of u~c~1 di~a~e IILan tl,~>~¸ ~ho did ~r~4 s~n~c a~l<] ~,i~< ~ ]~ii a I.~/old gle~del f~ ~,~i ii lalid ~i~ illel ea~ed {leelirl eliee i~[ ~i¢ ~it ie It]t ~ r Ilist a~I I[i if0 man, (; ])~ Sii~laub A B ~{It~ (I (~ (~i~!~I~ ~LICOILId, ]~k ~tud,~ ~ dolJe al digit i~,t ~in~ and iEJ Iom cI~t~1~kt C~,U,~tEhS I liT[rain, I'o! md, ]~laII, a~Ld the UI,Red ~t~te~), l~pt!e u]c{i ~t~ {,)u:id ~o to ~) i,olccnt i,io~¸ Ii~qu~tly in bol}, m~t aIid ~vo hen ~ ]to ~ii~k( d l]ml~ ii~ ~I~I~:EI~J~, LS I~\.S n~o~,,t ~ al~o had ~ otJ~i~itttI!, gtI ,de~ i~ i~ hei¸ i~f pq~tk¸ ul~et IS(~ i~79 p 9 ~] j ibl~ici~ gill] i{~ ill i,(I~ic~ ~, illelt~iIin ~ sru~kl¸, ¢~Et ~ [r,2el t},r¸ ~ini*~t m~ ~yM~m in t~i~ ~.~} s: ~i~ arJ[[g~ J~, ~I~ 1 ~ ~I~(¸) ir~l~ r~l~ { ~ i[}~ 11~¸ ii,,rlkltr,~ ~} ~{~ i,~ t~,iiit~t~ ~l~c~i~e ~ ~l~i~ s su¢}~ a~ i~t t~rlll~ t i~i~ of an!ibod~es oi s¢ n~[tiTed ~eIIs; ~: a~ ii rilah!, l,}la~ n~ ~colo ~ic, attd t~,x~e ag~nt~ interacting ~it}L the },~Jst d~ Fc~i~e s!~t, rn arld in I{u encir,g lhc {uh¢ ~mnd al~i!it } ol {he~c ~I~ ~nciLt s lhc~c is ~id~T,~e tl,al toI~ae~o leaf m,d itl p~odut t~ ai~¸ ali!i~ lik¸ it, ~tn~In~d ~ aIit] IttaI~ 1~ul t]~¸ (,~ i~{~ ii¢ ~ t] i~t to!~ L( ~O Sm~l ~ 1979, l~ 1!! 9] Nkotlne i~ not the r ¢ s1~:~i~Ib]e o~ktlgII,k¸ co,lip ot,et,t ~M~}xl'~(; AND PICT~CN ~NCy Ul Cn W
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149 t~j]Ja~¢,ij ]i~[ abel tI*LIhC] (t* lll~ sl,~t lhl, pn~[~irt! i~[ prccJI)JI~LI[E*g l~.kllaZl~/~Ju, N, (:~11~/~llris I, Atlti~!~lllc¸ SLILI]~¸ Of illc~[atla I~!~a ~L~t~l ~1~] ~cg~,~r~k orJ ]~(i[~itiI;~ ~l~Lh~[ t~ll~:~.~l ~h~[t~l~ ]1~ t]l~¸ tll~ I~lbi~[:tliI~ll i~ t~l~¸ ~]r,ih ~1 S!~h~ ~lu~]i~ ~ ¢>{ :~[~ ~h¢] l~:~J~/ ~rl~,]~h,~ h~c sh~El I]J~! ~llc,r~[~¸ i~di~J,Jll~l~ ¢~j~ccinl[!¸ ~l~s~¸ ~ JL}l a! [~ltll~ O: r}JJt~i~i~ llJ~!~ Jl ~h/~, I~c ii/l>~l¸ sl ILsitll C t~ I}l~ I/!~ll ~ ~i~¸ h~ XiC*US elE~e ~ ~d ~ i~,,~ll~ ~11~,~ l~katJ }J~ altl,! fl~li~ J~ll~ ~1~ [SC 1979, p. 1(! 24] ~[~lO ~lr~¸ ¢~1/ l~u" ,I $il~jjj[~l~Ll ~!I/Ilcl¸ lit ~LheL/~s]~!L~Ijc ~l~ ]~ Ill~ h ~l~all~ tll~ll theft Ot ~IE~ ~ I>~l lhu¸ alL,hi~ll~ ~rLOl~e nl~' b~ ~ll~]jt~til el!¸ li~lICI ill ~ ~ r I~lilL c0:11~/0/111[11 ~ll/ll ~L~ llil ~![ill~ ~l ~L~[ l( 1 ~s~ lIt hlI/~ l an¢~ I¸ tll I/~j/l illll~ll~ti(lll ~! tl)l~ ~ci II ~IEIII],I, Ni~ ~i~l~¸ ill tlj~ ~il i~ o! ~l~ ~ rll 1~ c~llg~ il i~ ¢ ~l~i~l~ I~/ lCb 1~/~ll/I~f t[kl¸ [~l tl~l s I L~lLILij~/lli~t~ to alia( ril~/u E O~[c¸ ¢~1 (li/~ ~L~(/jl~l ~ll~:~l¸ it~ ~i~{l~¸ MIjO~ I]~b~(~r 1Lllr~L~! II~c~[li~¸ ILI~II~(I ~l tl~lll~n~l~[ ~ ~ ILll~l~ ~ ( ~l~] ili~rl~ ~[ ~l~¸ t~l~L~ ~ ~ ~1101,,~ II ~ll]~l~i,~:l ~h~ ~ll~l(~ ~LII~L~,~[~LII! IIc!O~¸ t}lfl~ t~b~ I~h~:~¸ rli~ilL~¸ il~ ~i/~L~ 11, f,~Ek~,~l:~ I ~/tjc~ ] (T!~lO): IT!) ]~] lfl~5} (::~11~0~ II~:'l~'×id~ ~t ]~1~ ~,ccI~j[~II~II! fc~lrl~l ill ~rh~l~¸ ~11/~1 ~ll~[~Ll~n~hl~ c~I ]~1~111~ sh~}~ ~l~[~IiOl~iO~l hI ~l[l~lti~u¸ I1~ ~Lll~] ~>~rllli~¸ fl~ll~[i~k ]l~lt ~t[~l~ ~JF ~l/ul[j le~lL[,xi~l~¸ ~d ~1L1~1 h~ ~l~ I~l~tl~t~! [XI~lj~,~I (:~dl~ ~¸ ~[ ~Vis~I,,ill I ~:~s/~E~¸ Of ]lLIIlI~r/S t~ ¢ ~l hll~ ll//~Tl~l~II[~¸ ~ilITI}~jlt[ /I ~ [tEl jh~['~t I~111 Oj ~[}l~¸] ~1~ ~]1~,] ~1111 {~j~ ~ ~r~l~Lri~lj c~t tL~r~l~ll lI~I~IEII~11[ ~¸ ~]1~ El ~ xj~ ~ ~] 0 U1 d..
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4~ Adrl!t ~lPIIc[io ~15 ?0 P~6Iil e ~ J00,~i~l~ ~(d: "I~ it ~llllO/ilL~ [~) })c Ik~ar a 1~( r~tt \~]kc~ is Sil~il~, (i~;~ etlt~¸ "J]tilt)~v( ]/elccnt o[ ili~]c snL(,~ClS al,~ 345 pciccnt iff {clnal( sr,lok~ t s ~ (,l~Iit ~ "~ cs'¸ a~ did 77 p( rccnl o! ],~ale~ ~md N) ~J~ ~ ,~E>¸ ~ lib the h~l~ i~t~a] earJgi:Jg fr(m~ Jlli~J~)r t~ t¸ ~mc] l}~z ~,~t iztilMion~ t~, :mglna[ ~Lt t~t k~ [N~tinnal Cl~,~n izJg}~l~¸ {(,l STl~t,kir,~ alld I1( tlth. Aduk Us~ of 3obteco, 1975 US l)¢pLmn¢/a of ]ltaltl~ I'klnc;tti'm and Welfrt*G Pt]lflk' ]]ealt/~ S~r~ice f:(~t~ f,~r DJs~ ~e Co.twl, ]Imc,,u of ]]¢~tltl~ I;duvatiot, Nation tl l~,~tl hlhS of I 1( alt]h N ~tiomd (attc( r ll~stihd(, Nati,ma] C/t Whlghrm~ f<~ Smr3,it~g ;rod IIta/th ]u],~ iqTl~ 2~ pp.] ~ti~llt~ ]ld~ t/Idiim i?~ Chil lrc. I ht, Ask (,[.) c'tmg inf:tnt dt ~ t lOl,ing I~1 o:~ hi~g~ (,r p~ t, nlcmia in t};L fib[ !t'al ~[ lift' iq t/r)u},l~ ¢1 i[ ils pgtlt ttl~ ~mo,k( "l }l/ lisl. Jq Jll['[¢ ttq(I] if I}~e p/t.tR% ~t/M~ (otlgll dlKl l~tTduce phi ~t,t ~Vh c~,zh J~ in chil [rcIi lip to tlf~ [i~ i~ Irlolc ( o]nmo~l ii ~/Ic pat ~I~L~ Sl~/r,kt A S~llfl~ of IO)O }'tlih g<ll,~](lliklltl~ n~¢1 gt/]{t(]ltq Ltk~S ]13~i~}l)xg~(llj~[~l(h)oil~chi2o}~p~(]/r*t~o:li]h61om5 r t>in~ilh J( (] ;t~ ~tt il~dt x o[ ](p~alc] upptt itsl3iral)~ tr~tct (]J~L,tq ill I~tl]~ childh~c~d xxas x ~;5 siofif c mt/~ rtlM(d to tl. att~ot~,t of sra~'~i,,~ b) ~achl~ r~d [~ 11(} 19~9p 22[ Siltc ( c i ~.~cttc s m,,ke ig a c<,~ q,l< x i,,txtutc of l.>x~,,u ~ s,,h M,mCCG Jl is IJ,R ~t~lptJgil3g l]l;ll il cul ~dll<l ftnd ittltt;~¢[ x~il}t lltug., h,)l cot, diLl(his am] l~l):m <'i tll lll;~,nn~lil t(~tg ~,]UCJl 6[ tlR ~xpcl h~:t i~t t/x~ *,r], h~ Irl H, Hl[Ei~lq ktllfl ~ih~tt~ ~ i~ld Call ~ t!~tt t}l( ~l(~trlil~m~ (11 ng iht t'l .,£ [1~,1l t[~l Of ~lnOkihg inw)L t< ('[1~ I]lt'q iTI the ][x ¢ I. I]le)iacti~ o~1117 h~'op]qflAIv ' Lht htqut no} o] alt/tt.~l di.po~gtio:~ ,~ud ph~ m ~co]r)2 K~tl {flLd~ ¢~f Imtn~ ~nnnlml dtu,~ h~ ~rm~ktrs roll i~ appt*TCn[ t]t/t ¢i~al( Ht Snlr,khlg sh¢~u](/ bL (()h~id led ~t~ ~,~( (,~ tit( prin:tr! 5Okll (5 of diLl!' illt(~Iti(tioIib ili lit 111" [S(~ 197~, I~ 12 23] As o~, pxi:, ki/h ~, s},,>,, !:*~, ,, I,x el, c,f T,},c n i( ( till J~l ~tiK,I ( lh t}tt/it ih I ~n \ ~MOKIN(; A'qJ~ PI~I:(;NANCY 5~1 I )}~U< ; M[H A}~DI J~,M Mt ]]IL:AI t I ",1~, /'¢ O g., UI
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I, 151 th< dtu~ },) tl,?),ll,c¸, '(~i~a~cttc¸ ~lE,~kil,g l,,~ ii~sitt,t~¸ i,iodi llc~dt ,ll t,! ehu~ t},~Ll~ and I~i~r t~<tl, ttlltc{tc~, e~t l~sl,C, lt<i~ i~C7 1!!79 p /2 '2~] 3 J,< dr~i.g <,f th aph31inc a brand,<, '~lelO].ul~ ¢][[i~ II~)lll i,~asmokelg ill thch p il~ t},lush ,h] ])I) dl I~IINI l[ic dL tl Ic [III ~i( s a[id dl tL! C OLIMl111p!1ON4 th( pit CN[ f i~}~ri,i~<~! ~[cal ~[h~ts u,/ coinp[k d¢ the aetioz, of diu , usd i,,lrea!~,g p:~in or ,~t,x~el) . ' [SC; 1979, p I -~ ~51 with dtu~ dl po itinn It I,:~ ~¢~,tI) beun ~stlmat(d that iS u,i/ lion p~cq~]~ iN lh( I.hli~ 1 ~,l,~t~ nqv, ~ln¢)ku m~lJj/n<tl iAbl ulio ~i~z kl il:dilc.}, M,uiiuml~ "~lcdie,d Icttur o:1 ']),,~!,, <rid 7h~ Fill In 11178, a iqmt ~a~ pu},lidl~ d s!ati~l!, that eigai eli{ sm,k h~! ln[i,ht ~ ~,ll,mc~ ih~ i i~k ~f Ihrol ,h ~elnhe~li in ol ( /Idim tS(~ll t~ pclrl s],tmrd ilt/t ~,llut~ v.!to ~o-,~ the I~[11 stud s:llok~ i on~ D tck O[ (~,11~ fl~s lilt da} had / ~ill li(Z<(lii il,lic<(~( I i iik ot A s~rok( [(nlhd~enAthc Cloup hu the Stud> o! Stink( in "lou~t< %Vomo:, Old (<nl~r~(Epthcs me! ~tlol~e h, )ourl~ ~cmlCll: A% >cidtd l~l<, t,<tois je,tlril i] nf lit< AIncliiau M~.c] e I As ocidlon 9g] (7}: 71.q 7S~> ]'clnCml! 17, J97~] hL ,,ilC~t]~C~ ~tUCl} Of OLa] ~CIt~tI,tC{l~ti~ ~igu, tt~ a d'*y [Mann J I , \'~sc} M I>.> '1 hologo~d M, 1)<>1] ]I I% I} OSAI dLil ii l{dl C~i~1% ilt 1 oi11~!~ %1 illl] (,n %% i~11 ~liD Di:ll I( i([i[l(( IO old conhacq)~[ve luactke }lrili~!l hlfdieal JOt~rti;il ~: ~41 ~i5 M~} $, ID75] .% lhlrd stud) ~hm~d t ;,c~ss ~lunu d dcath~ c~f ] pll ~,(1(}O u/fi s %1 }] O coiItil] titd {o sl]loke SMI }lING ANI J I qIE(,NANCY DI~U(; M ~1 AI4OLI ~ M M E I)ICAI/i3:S1 S 51 0 ¢.,'1
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-----V 152 Ol~esit~J AhhoLtgh w,~ny itt/li~idu~]~ ~dto ha~ gi~ell ttp swt,ki~/g ~q~url vlgnii~cu,L ~ci~ht g/ih5 I]l~ r¢ is no ille~t~u~(,t])lc cl~IzI:~ ~[, Zt\[ing Zrleta'uUlk ~id( l[i tO[lilIr StilOkerS x%l[O }idl( (JLdt ISmi/ 12 A]l ]Cxpczim(nh~] obc~it), cliohlr) induced t}KliliO, Cli(>is, alK1 ihlh (/[nlca] hrap]i(~tii,n~ Clbdc~ in En</o¢]irm]~?} abel MII l~lb lisln 5 ( 2 ) : ,q77 3)5, ]/d~ ] !~7(i] A~.l~/'jopicr, (OMcopi,;o~i% Vit~n)*i~zl ~[tio~itlg i5 linked ~itlt anlid)op~a (air c}t' (~i<u.tst) dull I~sttolllnI)sis (loss t;{ cal<itllnl ft~ml tlhc bO~]}) 'SUlO~ilng (al~ i~ d2i;el~L~ ilk l)h~nl I anl ]Ht~,OC)N t cm ~ ~,n tr;~t iOil~ :it ~it t=nil~ (~ an(I ]wl/dlS [li0C]~([n[C~] f~lrlctJC,l*~ Of thi~ % [unlhl \'it;ulliln ]{ ]~ is in( tal>¢l] ~ cI it= t~ (]i toxi/n¢ zticm proCESS n~ *!*lli<l/ I)/]~/~/ fr,/m Stllr,~ill ~ ~or,~c hea~! slllr~k~ls ~!¢~c]~11~ mt mh}v[3opi,~ x~}4 c}t i~ H /* ~:¢{ b} Iltlltr ~il tl[n[It B-l? supplCltteltiJt[ol~ or t£r[niu t~io]l ni s~,,<>kh~. I%id(/,<i i~ aI~ l~ s( uteri sung< ~th,g that s~u~;kmg m,~ ~llt~ ~}~e m~t t}~r~li/w (,! I plds, cnl!~ >]~}l]r ttcs, proicin~ :m~l (,Ih(r 1 it~tmilns stK}/~t xitltndh [~ G" [~(; ]~J79 p/~0Sj ])i*X~to ffi¢ ~e I3 • r] ~ >tir~g I )1 lit X] ir~t![~ it[U I] " nl)t ~t~t)~ ~i;n~ /rl mhU n} ~ mcvkien~t zll,d~ll l] i,~>l el al~) O~hel t]i~l'aS/, IC C~ttcht[5 ]t:t%0 iimntl t}~:li ~,~,~ F,in hcl,~ic d a~d ~)i.~cJ/tc,t~ 11, [ [,i i! }it L]Oh~ h u [irl, ]! hl 2, fOq]Ll~U]flr %ohl[iR } ~Ol,kt 5[LIC~Itl }l~[/t {OUt[(] ]i[~Kr f}J01// I!lO] it%Ins h~ ln(i~/! !Ul/Ik~ IS; O[]ILIV }J,t%g lot SlJ[Okillg S(4HI/ lo dLc[~C ¢lCditit[e, tlbL[llirl :[It~] ~]ol)l;I[l~ h%~]5; ilktl~ t,L Lni~ ~(d l'],i(cl<[', n /l~;t(ht!' [,~<[<. (t~ lflc~u<[ ~o till il~ S/It I/~i~ ~5 do ~lllk[I [1[~)O ] / ]%O~]L} l~!¢lOJ/: {~/k) illO!~ II pL~lt't %i CIv i~!, ,[lid $661 ((lJ t~el ir:ttion I~(: 1979, I'P ]2 "~9 b~, 53, 34, %£k] C;[IK~IN /]~(6] t) IIO[=itOI ll~atm~rd i ('l(~ [h',l in sr,~ok(]s: d,¢ I~]oo I )*~tf~ *~/ (] % ¢]e()l t* to li(~e~ltl ]/xt']s t}lee(' n,( idh c,![(r q Ill If ill ~L S i u £1/~ il~ {£ A~,,:m the E~n ~<cm (h i,t.r d s z (ktK ]tlHi()lt~: "lhc 1,,:,io ib (~f ti~e blool c( i)pftll( i !~ ('1~% ¢l!t (I I[hl 1() t i~l ~MOKINC ANll Ff~EGNA NCY b~ g=
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153 lu }~r, rl> ~f ulini~,,I/tTit~l,o~[~, I~h(~ I~L[fU~[ ll~'(I 0:, IIi~( i:t~]i~iC]tt d¸ [~(: 1979H~ I~ $7] St~l~itU~ t'tl/I I it// It, 197!) ILC Nati ~n~l Filt lhol/~tian A~sr,~ tlr., (~1 i'\! i~ nit[t~n O( f~itttl ~lt 5 I ~ ll0T l/ I t l~ t!lt A~5 ~iltilln fOl tli~ }/ar~ ]~71- ]975> th* NI I'A fc~cut~ t}~t c ,.~trilt~ c;~u~c~l lu~ i~lc,~c.,t for il 2 p:tl ~ [tl ill [thl f~l~. %lit!t kill,i/it iLnitlo]i s ~urtt u,~l 51/) i,(iccni i~,l~t ~ / ( mat(h ]igLt~ i> ( <in cl/~ ) ~tc ¢/Jliiil ~ tO~ ~ l/, iI II1~ Ill l}~l t L] ~h¢~ aT,~ 9(~ pO~CCnl Of ¢li~ ft:C deaths ~.Iat~ ot tl~<~e at,, a};~ '] ire Na ~[Oh:l[ t h I" }'~ Ott ~ [[(Itt ,~>v~i tl[oll and} zll the m~,sl co:ran Jn ,~lc<~ o[ fi~( o:lxiii Ilid ll~n~ttialx i~.i!(d in f~l;~! l~,es i! liih/[ I~)' ci! ~tll ttix tn/I th:ll 2[~lli,,~it,Tatll! S~l~ I n[Tlion ~it 1)I o[~ f]~lif¢>tili;~ St~dc liic Xla sl,~l P] ilip (] I ~x~¢; l~tlilr.d n,, M3~cl, ~2 I~J~7 :~t th~ ~i,~t s¢ ~sL~n ~>[ the :\ttl~'ritan (il~ic t S~Clt L!'s III~UG Mt~ ABOLIS~I ,MI~LML ~1 ~ E~ I S 53 ~B UI 0 U1 t~
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-T T~blc V FATAL fI~ES SqAll3 El) fly (]I(IARE'ITE5 M:~eII~LIScL Arc~t~/~ere JPerc(i,t l)erc~i,L LTiihnl t( rer~ INrMh~t/ 1 i/]rt~ t ocbrll 4~0 40] I~cddJllg )~edloom ~9~ ~ Ut~llol~t( red fu r,]L~ll~c }/~ Cl rL,o~n £ 9 3] CI ,t}~¢ o:t a l,ccsoE~ BLrJTO0=~ I £ ~ 7 (]lUt h~s ~]L a pers(,t~ Ki~}~er~ ] 0 J 4 l;urh~tue~ 07 ~l l~l~itl~d /or 4~0 l;(~Icr l~t ~ th~ i~£(~1 h I ~l,!l ~ ~ ~ t~cll¸ fiz~ ~0 0 4,, (I)
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III VII- q 11I; S~*IOKIN(; IIAllI~I': t'S]'CI IOI O(~'1 AND I'IIAIIMACOLOG~t' S:r~okhJg is a eomplt'× ,~et irJl'n}x'i~g ]~n*~wd b harlot p]va sure¸ .qr r cdttct ~on of ~lllp]e~ i~tlt Sit tt at lolls. ~ ~lil/Jll]~t ~n~ alkcl po~. slbly 1,c~bit uatiEkg ~d/O~ addictive dr~g ( ]l~c~t like ), aT~d a ~ ~ric ly of other ¢lte[ni¢~tI~ ~itll an el~or~l~c~/l~ nun~t~r ~f ph~siol~gical e~e~ Most r¢5¢~r~l~ irl h~!pitig s:llc~]~r~ qllil ]~ ll~f£1 [l~rnir/g I]~l o~,, }~cJ t~ll boh~l ~oi in~di~l~oJl I~lld~r ~o~i~] r~'ilt[~r¢t~lll~ll~l tyll~ll)¸ ll~r llros~tlr~¸ $~1~ i/tos~ $111o~,~I~ I i~'g[ll fl~ t~olt~gl r~ ~]l/it i~oor i/rl~su~¢~ ~i i~o~t pDl¢:l~t. At /~rsl irll~Thlg t~lba¢¢o smnke i~ rc'l~l~gl~l~t ~a~h l~t~0 ~netc..~ pt~)~l~l toll'rar~ce, and ~lJild ~ tl~c h~hit ~!~ ~ i~t~l~l])', sn~okh~g pro~ ti~ e~ thai c;~n in ~luc~ec smoking is pc~le nt~ally ~erl grcal To modify ~r/io].ill~ I~e]~ vJor itt~), rt~qt~rl~ a ~ ~ri~ ~¸ ot ir~tl,r v~t~l~l ~lti,iquo~ in a ~I~cttun/oI ~itua~ion~ And it i~ eoniplie~tetl b~, the fact that ~rllf~ng I/rOVldC~ instant re[nfo]cenlc'nl holn lhe pllysEIdogieally po~ or ful dr tlg, nicc*t [lie. [SG, 1979, pp~ l ~5-7] Nicotizw ll~Ck a day smoker takes I/lore t/i~t~ 70,000 p~(ts a year, a frequel/~' of "sh~t s" unmatched by any oilier dr~lg t~king 1 l~us~ the ha!!it is ~remend~/tsly ~o~et]e~rned" AI,d il~ scrlous ill eflecls, of ~h~eh Nic~th/e i~ the I/lost po~'~t[~l t)harma~ologioal agent in t]l~ l~ody ,gl~ car)jot/i//~llo~id~ altd t~l ( i/at lietalal~ in~ll~r, a 1~1] x. rule of sevelal fllousand ~hentleals.) Olle s~ud~" ~n wIl~eh tar ,gnd ~igarvlt~5 $1//~kcd wa~ r~]att'd tel l]ll, nit.lit[n(• eon~c.ttl *ollI l/~l to the t~ ~l~u~el¸, S C, ~l~user, E M, I~eidelJl~erg, M M, llusy, l~ F., q ~tllarida, R J 34el~bolic c[~ect itl nlan o~ t~e ¢e~salLcm of sn~l~i~g ~arnlae~og~s~ 11 /~) : 2~35,1960¸ (Abstract)] , ¢..q
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LI Ibctm{ tl {13 obt d[t 1,1/othto ll/!lltl till I 5Ill( I~¢1%,, [!l ~]l L<lk~ I,il ot mt ~r c,t~ {i~,~lFOl[f 5 ~'IDln) 1{]){)]1 that IIL(} smok£ t,}lerl str~ ~ge(] ~Hlilf iI,~rSLI ~tlf)t/ (,irllJd( r H~I tlico~TrJ/, i~ t~lo ]/r[Dlcll} l~iliiO~c/i ]ffcall~o Ot il~ rO]C in )tt~tl(i:i~ t~ill[Oii anti f/i~lr¢ i~ tl~$tlmiTit~(1 ,~ilh ]i~(O{{li~ (}lIn[/~tliOLt ]ltlt the tt[~(lltO iS not (()IiCIIttL~{! [Jrtr~ik, M E }lio]~gicd £ac[ilr~ uHdod)m~' l],e smokiug ]iubll In J,~Jk> M 1:, Cullo,> J. W., (;l~Lz> J: It., %re;l, 1. M /%l~l, L J (]kl[lois) J{e U~ })/prirUiiczil of lie Ith I:dueatioi4 m~d %Vllfr~ri ]~t]l~li{ lhdth ~(r~[c( Alcohol ]]ruj AIJLI/<> cu,d Kl~li[<d ]ll~@h ,'k(]t,lhl i~[ial[Ul~, Nat[oild ]t,Sti[LdC O~t ]]tU~ AlJU!O, Dill W I>til~lie,dlc~n N~ (AI)M) 7~ 55J ]JC~C[lilJCr ]977, pp J77-JI~l [SO 1ij79, p 2~sJ Oc~(171'16disjso~ilion ATi OII~I)]IL~ ~[It/]) I1%ilI~, idculJr J 111111~ lia~ iellorif d ¢i~ (](,[it(, ()# ~t f~( r, ,11( pr~ Iisl~c,3[llOli to SIDO~{' tlowtlcr tlls ~C~,I~ docl/Rttll "]l~( lilf)si r(¢fht t(,~ic // fflllEIIt(~l~ lhai 'tl~n the fll} O{ ~£ri~[ic I)ri'dlill/) iti[In i diswo~*d {,) Ih{ $1iF{i~irl~ fli~eordmc~ [llliOlt i+ iliO:lCIT) ~o[i~ [Td( Itti¢ t//l/lln~ ' I]lalil~ti {ill] l ,tr~, ~1, Ph 1 ), . -1 ht S~ edkh "i ~,in Shid). I't]bli(it) 4, (Trifle ism, ~,t'orld Si ~o,ki~l: t.,/ll i, Tfh, 3 (~) ; ]4-]9,10VS] I]ollllo;l~tTflcllxr~ ] ]clltno]l I cli~m~( g ill l)Ul](r{) lie CLll at rt}~o Lll tile ~tl i10 tlm~> lli<lt h/clividtl,ll~ ~ltil{ $/llOl~ili~; tim, (nLIoc]i~o itipor~5(s ,lllJ Miiol~[li2, ll~l' bli]i t ~(/r]iihed tclr i)~$sible, liltks ~,,ith 511/(ll~llt[~ Orot', tll }iortl]o:to mtd t(l I I ~¢1i i1/1 ;l/i tl d iu IlOlll[ilO~( fs ~f[f~ SrllOkilll~ Ii~o ¢[~lrt [l(s ~l r~tl)Jcl JliOrf<t~( ili })cll}l ]l(]:lI]fltt( ~ I1,1I O],~crlo(I, ~,lll rm SigM If( ant ¢Lartgc in ol}icr:, f. g ]}I (]Ht~ in iTi],glmimrJne),l ~tl (folliel sthmilatii~tlhormo/~0 qSII (I]~)roid $lhtl/i]alitlg [iOrlriOll(), :~nd lt, llollerflli¢ (lihde ]lOllllo]~t>) levi1 [~.V~ll~Olliil: IV, ~V, (~)LIIII( il, D ~.CuI( horn/oiisd it 3i)(ihi( 1o ¢i,~ r- etie smok~tg J~lurn,d of (]in[c,d }'lmrJ:iico]og} 17 (7): ~S,e) ,%~7, Jill} 1977] % rt~ol/Jc~qJn (,i lioti//:lnf allecthlg t]/~ collU,tctJoti O[ I~hlocl % t $(]s ) it/cl~ {1I¢ also ~flo(tcd ll) IliOOl~lif $ig]dtXta/it ph)siologie<d (}lli!lgc$ or(lit illnli~di,41t]) Oil i lie NMO!, IN(: II Atll i ~0 I>SYCIIOLOGY ANI ) lq 1A I~ M A(X)I (](:~ 1,-i U1
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.i 157 Mlqo1~ rl~ (£%L~iO~L ill IW ~ [,Jh di&St~JliC I~]~0<I p1( IL¢ C~[L~ t~"11 ~ ! aC IO L~li[l ~I[ICI ]I0[I ~I rLCillLl~lll ~iI:(~ C 01 [i[ d a~plh I , ~il ~!> O~ th( l~z ;~ilL al ffl cd: d i£]pLLl]IIO] Hr } ~UII~ ~IUIi I~ [~ [nlP, c(] h0a][h~ I~1~ o~h<~ <×p(]~¢i:: I a ll~dl liaii~} O! Icl]ill~h:l} ~ior~ u c I}z~ pzilll'il/,~l i co<oil i C i~</I fo~ r( ]q)SC ~/i sin< J,h~< ~ i,:~( i~ ar~ m.~ ]ikel> (o fd/ fl, sc,~ ~kh~ t ~ss~ort eH¢,z(s tha~ zt,~m a~d il i~ p~ssLb) tlHt th:~t i~ a ~t • lliflvr~r~e J~ ~ i~hdr~ ,d ~> z.l,Lou~s Smokhig l~Jtl bmgh Alnclk,m Instih~tis #or ]l.st~reh, ]ul) 19L5, ]71 pI*] ~glaokhai:in Adola~( m~tsar~d Cqdhhan "1 he d~ cr~ a~ i~l a<lult stool i~g si,]~e ] I)/~ k lm~ d~ h;I ~ a thotlgh among ~ld or teerutD~ girI~ ( 17 18) i[ c~r/tlt~t/ci to i.eicast' sharp]/ }hmd~eds of stt~dlcs I~%c L~ (~l ¢ol~du¢~cd I0 blha~M:al s~i~ nlls~s J,i ,m tflcM to ur,dt r~ta~I1 the (o]ilp]ex ~aetu,zs Jm ~Jve~] in ~he i~,Hidi<,r~ ~f ~mol:h,g ir~ [],is g~oiq~ SU¢~ infotmaUol~ is Ho(ivoen the gLge~ of 4 to 9 or 10, dLikll~ It a ~llt Iltl" f~,[I tha~ mnok{cl~ is h~;l~c](,l~ ~o hcdlh /%t tld~ a~'e th(y txprt'ss al~et} ~/l~en t}loy ot~l~le t p~ltlit or o~*d~z slblili~ szar>~h]~ "fl~ be gi~ to smoke J~ m, adMt behavl ~r fozldd/Io~, t]~ iI~il(I and n~:t~ als:~ s~t as a~ "l}~e smo'<in g lart ~,~ },t co~ les a mr;<t( I fm lhe e},i](] ]f },olh TIlE SMOKING IlM~[i : p~y(:IIOI OG~ AN 11 pI IMIM ACO] ~(;Y ~7 Ol /.¢ G~ U1 ¢Jl 0
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p I~Jlts stool(, thlle is a g~l~ h l ]iktlil,ood that the child x~ill ]~ig~l. ~[itokl]l!~ L]l~tlJ Jt Inlly Ozle lit I/litht,i l/ar¢llL SEiio},c50:t ±he i]lhll tl;~(] ilaro/l[~tl (lis~pplol~,~l Of snlol~[llg is Iiol ~ si~ili~cal*l ~aclo] to the lt~lLag~l l/~lh s[it~k~]lg and iK,;t~t~lokh~g jLmlor high s~h~m] s!ud~zltt in ~l~e stud~¸ ~ccogl~izid tltat their l~are11{~ di~ al~pro/¢d of thclt smokil,g [J( havJol {$(g 1979, pp. 17 ]3,14] The smokhl~ bl]lavlor o~ o]d(r si~]i~lg~ is ~ ]~t,~sil~Ie nl tlt~eEt~ ¢~n i'oungcr (hilclrcri. ]~vcnL!¸ eight to ~0 pcrc~l~t of die boys al/I] 25 hi ~o(~ pcl CeEt{ (it t]~/¸ ~ills ~11o l~pol L r( }~/i]a i SlliOkillg a/s/~ ha~e o]dez sih]itJgs who sm~ke ]l atl o]dc~r ~il~][hg alld 12olh pa~(tlt~ sz~t~,k~ a chi]d is ~ou~ titne~ a~ Iiktl!¸ Io ~Etl~oke as a dll]d wl,/~ ILa~ u~ ~ mc*ki~ g ~odel i~ ~he ~an~il) IS(; 1979, p. 17-141 ~k, !t¸ to sm ~,ke a~ Lecnagels ~!L~ ~r~ zlot v]:tpl~,l ( d SLuclezJLs ~ ]l~ plal, ~o g~, to ~ ol]~ ~,~¸ a~ e ~e ]e~l~t ]ik~/i¸ ~, s:t~okc (?l/i[~{r( zl hL I:~w~ir Itatu> l/~zEi]/t~s ]~s i~il}t S nlokill~ t~t~ ~JEh palonta] ~:Elo].~lig or po~,: ~t ]~(~l~i(¸ pt'l fC~: n~[t( e. ~]t~ ih[lU ~ ~( (' (~ t]lO m~ 1 El('( 1[~ Jl~ t}t~ J ~ ~]k~tg~ S~ll(~k~ ~ s~ld~m ~OEl~(iel ~It~¸ ~cc~[~[o~ to ~lE~Oke a xl ISL" (U It~ IEI alJ ATOll I i/~111 CaTll lr SOl ~/ t~¸ stur]!¸, '7~ i1~1 (OT,~ Of 4t}i ( l t'l~a~¸ brr/okel S Ile]j/.~ IL ~}l~t it i~ ~/t~r liot 1~ s{a~L ~ElIo],~II~ t }1¢~11 Io ]la~¸ 1~ qui~ I!i~9~y-f<~u l~t ~(~JL say S~E,~,~IT,/~ i~ hah!t FOrmitlg ~,l,d {~% I,~ ~c~ ~l thi~k Ihal i~ is a t~ad habit [~,G J 979,11 1718] i~ futile to ~ozltiuue to {(]1 ticzla~'t zs t]t~t srl~kil~!~ J~ }larmfu] .... Tht¸ inos~ ( IF/~1[i (¸ Iltil~g ~]~:t~ i/,e e!rl rio i~ 1o ]t/]l/ t]iel¢l to t]ll¢ler g~l~ sc~ ~hat they ~Jll ]~a~( ~h~ f~tll~ tha! t]~!, i/~t'd lr~ ~nake (]l~U~hllu] ~]~c[~[~nt ~ to ~ht~}t~r t,~ srnc?<~- ~: i~ to ~l~c¸" [N/[ioll~l ]ll~[~tl~ls /if ]]e~lEh 71(.~rlai!E¸ ~lr,/ik~h~ Na~{!l~la] p~t. ~eJr~ ot (~igt~ tl~¸ ~nok~n~ ~/des 19 lh[ou}~h 1~ i~ 1~9"~ a~d 1974 { NH I } 7P~ 9~I 1976,125 pp ] P/~]~a]~ l]~e tc~] qucstlo:t to toe ~rls~er~d i~: wily dt~ ~e J IH SM£)KI~C; IIA[~I 1 : C. -}
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L X ~P 159 knol~mgly dloosc to c[~g~g~ il, s<ll-d(strt <ti~¢ l,eha~ior ~h(. so mu~lt o[ out eu~rg~ is directed to~l ard ]~l~st,l, lug our ]i~es? [SC: 1079, p 17-251 I'slchosocl,Jl lrifluen~es J*¢gM)~Julit~ "1 fglil~ o[ Ad~¢ll Smo!,ers Ma~,} studies ]laVe altmnl,tcd t~ ( (~ ,eld¢ t],c slimki~g h t~,it ~lil}J varig~lls '~OlSOhgIity traits A large llr[tiq~ sludy {o thll I}la( ~lnOkets ~rc gr¢~lsl llsk ttkt'rs more m~pUlSiV(, in,arc I~roltC tO di,(~r<~ ai~d j/)}J chal~gmg, I0oli inte~zsted m s~x al?d in~re likely lo d ri~,k tea, cosec and alcohol IC},t t¢}, N, Kith,an, K }~l rsaltal- it} scows and *moklag bcha~ios, A Ionglt~zdinal stud3. Britid, Joumat of lScventiv( and Social M(dlcme 80(2): 123 181, Ju.~ 197(~ ] II/gel/el a[, smokels seem 1o teiid Ii~/ ~r<] t xl~ o~ ¢r slotl (tgv- iris excitement, v, illing Io take ri~k5, likh~g pmties; the} are sociable, i,au lieu and (a~y goi~g ~md iztg) }re, ~ggressivc Non ~IllOkt'ri fetid to be ildro~'(rts Jntfc~gt,cct~ve, retiring, boo~is}l, plkl¢] Cllt, ctllot {oital]3 em,troltcd, t/assi~ e, ~tid r eliablc ~11 ter~al-]" x [¢r~la[ Cohlrol Fotlr of [~vc st~ldies sho~ed $I/lO~cl s to ~t~ lliore ~ ×t( really ¢or~trolle/[ than nonsntOkelg IrLterludizl,d-control]cd il/dil'idtzals liltd tO brllcvc t~lIll lilly arc lilas(t'rs o[ what happc.q to ~ll~/tl; (xttrnally controlled ll(tsoi~s tcrtd to look to ~ralf, [n~k iir thhlgs beyond their control to brit~g them their re~,g~rds [8C 1979, pp Drug 7 akh~g O[ s~x personality £~etors in drt~g takh~g t~o most linked w[l]l stll~k~ng ~ r,rll ] ) gfli/t,al t£ l <1( ;/0}, to II!l drugs ~i1(I ~) 'fear oF pl rsoltal reaction to dnlg~ ~ Nmokers of I(i})aecll ¢~111 tlliie itlOt*2 rtlarlillana, more ]~s)'d~otroliic drtlg% mid n/or,P a~l~ir~l/ Illall till imr,smr~ker s of tobacco [SC i~79, p 1~-If]} ~Fx-Sra~tcrs" Personality ]~'ormer smc, ker s express aggressron more open] y l},arl I'itlter [IOIl~lllO~¢r~ Or SlJ*O~.crS %1~O never t~ied to slot,; tlmy glso bare z slrorrgt r :le~d for a~]~iel r nlellt thal~ all? otlle~ gJ oup, a ]esser l~e£ iI Ior close tics with pecJs, and mote beliavioral stabilit~ than t/,e other groups, Ncurolicistil ariel exit el £rs~ol/ ale a isctcigte~] ~l](h the ability to abstain from smoking Sucll indiqduals ure high ia ex- pSyC H OI ,t-J e~l ,~, N D 1'11AI~ bl A C~] 0 E.y ~9 II II 'll''l c; {;{ E) C~
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160 IIo; l/~ioll :~nd ]0~, hh ileclr oLitls[li Md]o qu[tIcrs sic n/rn( $/¢ia}~lc and ilit~l~¸ ~ x~roV~,lt{ ~[ ill th~h J~t }l~l~'i~t No 1~] It[t~lt~}l[J~ }t~L~ bc(:t touti(I }lltw[clt ((IticgtJ[)Ii Jr/el alld slnol,[lit! i/stir[licit Sut((~s[~t[ quittcls a,e mole lik(l!' to be males than females [SC 1979, pp 18 17d9] 1 ~rcc of IIaMI 'I h(ri it ].olmthag (lid(dice t}ta[ ille mun}~(r o[ (]~miILi~ smoke d p(r da} is dh ectly, u,d ofLcn ~,La~k dl}, rdated to inabilit ) to quit ~:noking [~Ve t, ]} '~V., (;:aham, S, Sx~ausoI,, hi, \VJ}kin- Iim. Am~lJcan Jolui, d of Public ]l( ~Ith {~7(6): 5~G51/, J,mc ]9771 llou Io ~l~41t It has be<n {sNitJalcd that 93 [l~rlct,! of t}tt nlolf tLm 710 illJ[/io/i sntoklr~ who ]iL~p quit sill(( ]!l[i~ Ji~i doIil sfp (~tt I},lir o/ill Ablltll oll(! lhJtl] (it [i wet of SDioklls /~]io ~trl nio/i/at(d Io quil ~ illl( r, st~ d i~ {ortrl;d plogr UlI~, t ]~(It ~ II?i II ,~vd~ lice o{ lICi hills ] 5 il/ HiDII AnlOi j~-iiis no~ ( ~ el, (stsI) a ~ma]l i LJnOl it} Of l}lOS( ul,r~ ~×pr, SS ;m iute*~ st in quitting aetua[I} athnd st/di i~:ogt ares, I~Ct}~a[~ J~ (L/IN([h() arc uol /llli/[IS:l]l} gll~lll I}I]C Jhc Amcrlcctn (111 (r So{it [} ]llq (xpand(d IN ric[hiLics hi this alia siacl it fl kNr)/~n l)id ~tI~clut g(] perccut of smoh~s ~}~o pal hcipatc il. such Ill Ogl dl us ~o ( s [Jlhlo[ Sn/okill~< o]1~ } Cd[ hLt( [, ilig ci s~r, tiun ,:i( [},od s irt I~c< Ill }(als, n,ai:~l) IH,~ d ¢~n lu gc s~;:[( celt Olia r) ill {'/t lltioIt tlJal~ ~ltd I l seal o}i ( ]Jtiio { x]/0ii( tx ( "l lip 11/o$ [ ~r]tioal (Ot/O(tll is titc v,dfdlt~ o[ l}ic s()f l(i)OlL [la L{ 'll,rx I~as hctti l]iiC~[ioD( d ill II]) U~ ~0 lit rC~lLt O[ (~[li[( i/~tltiC[]~ LliLS ~'~ll boll ][IOliOx[dl ill the bh,od aisi/<alS to })( a l]?o;e leJl;d~]c Dicasulc of slnok[ttg })cltaGor t}tali scl[-r eptlt lilt g l;tl!lcq!7o?l a~ld Pr( t t ti~ie~rl Vast 15tnn}~l rs O[ ~ titrbtiiok[t,g prog, al~ ~ xls[ tot 1) ~t}, } ocu,~, pardi>It and adHlls Nl~ett}tc]~ss i[ i~ stil] not k,,cmn ~},at forms o[ cduca[ioll a] t ]:tost cfcc.tix( in k~ ~ ])ITIC( 30tlng I~COI)IC fl Oil/ II i(,k illg {rOItl (kitl)lJtl?(littltiOIi with giggllOtlt ~ [( }~o(,qliitig haldtct~d ~]ll(]k. ris Arid it is still l,ot krto~lt ho/~ },lst 1o I I1, ad~ilts gile lp []i0 sniok hig }tal~it. q 1 [K S'~! D~ t x2(; iiAlll I /iO 1'5¥( lI(Jl D[;y ANI] I~lI ~>lt MACOJ OC~ t¢ O UI l/I
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1G1 1 ee ~,agcls { {,~, pt r<e~t ~,f aT1~ a~,d (;7 ]}: i(ellt ot t1~}} s } p(i celx~¸ tt~t~]l~l~ a~ lik~J~ t~> I,t s~,lc~k~ ~lc{ aln Air~<ri<alL C :~I,~<E ~,~i~ ~ sul ~ t~l/~l that (~El] !¸ 2~ I,C t<<ntt Ot ~ ma]~¸ t~ ~t~]n~ ~• alibi 18 lielcetLt of r~,aI~¸ teachers :~ct ually smok~ [SG 1 ~7~, p 17-1~] ~lo~t ~t~s ~upp~,~l ~lqk~ati~lJ as a poe~ntial]y ilup(~it~T,l 1~1~ aTJS Of p~c~<~{i[Jg ~lJOkilJ{~ ariel iJh~UCrk~irl~ ~<ssa{iorJ ol ~rJ,~,~ fitI[l~l~ ]TI ,~ ltal~, sc]~i~l ll!>][ci~'q ~/ S:llokin~ edllOat[iltt £ki~¸ c~, s~ ]t,a/~I pr~,l/l~r ty "1'~1 tlt~ italia< l is/~r.li< ~ ~d ~ h~¸ ~t~ i~]i~[1 ~I~¸ 1 H~ ~.I(IK I NC HABIT: I~S~CIICIIOI~YANDI,IIAI~*IA~:OIOG~¸ ~>1 t~
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162 VI 1 I- SM OKI NO IiCONOM 1 (;S AN D S'TA'I IS'} ICS ' S[ilokiug result irl a eonMcler abl) i[lereased it iotbi flit ~'late, i~itb itf ¢o:lSeClt]([tt loss of woI~itig ¢]a~s, ~.bseztteliiin all(] 12xce~ silo d(~lxl£trlds o11 i rledioa] Set vi(,.~ S, both lot pz iTIlary ~lrtd [or ]lospital ¢¢~to g}tt~ cost tel tbe uOrn~it[Itlt y Dt ~IcE(iaturc death, illcreased i][ [t~ss, a~(] loss o[ pltKbletive ea]l~e[t~, r~stl]Lillg troiil cigarette s ntok[llg il ~e~y }ii~tl ill ((~/in Lr i[~ where L]Lt~ babiL lia I b~([i coIi~ItiOII for a lolJg time." [WI IO ] 979, p l0l In [be Ui/ilrr[ S!ates, i~ xvas es~ilniled ill 197(~ that the average 5r~il,kcr Sl)ent So+l!) a y~ar for ~OG l/ackagcs of I[~trt'[tl's "iota! retail exllertcl~tures for tobacco accounted for apllroxlmatd} i ~ prrce~Lt of di posalde iE~eome [Sn~ki~g and AleotL~l .,kbu~c; I u¢~, ]l 1/ a)~d S:b~I eiLzt r, S. O. ~1 orld SmokiE*g ~l,d tlea]tl/, rol ~.No 2, SUTiirne~ 19-8,11t) 27 31] I't.r capila cost ~or sml>ki[/g-)c]att d disease is estimated at $4-~1 ~m~t dly in the tTn[ted St Itct ~)t al cost in tiLe Ul~it ed State~ for l) ~aiflr Sill(~liig r~Iat~ d di~ea~ a~,d [ires, illeltldil~g b( .~]tb ca)e, ]r)5~ ( arz~i)i,g~ tl,rou p.I, lnorb]dlt ) ~tlcl lrll3r I alit }', aTid ptoI)el t}' costs was estimated at SgT,~g,700,0~Y21 iri Ig',(~ "ll,i~ is 11~ peree~t <)[ the comparable aggregate costs ¢,f all US illness Total outer pocket bealtb tale cost of Slt/(ik[t~g-i ( ]aIed dis{ a~es ~as £~tilrlated at SS 2 billion b11976, apprl]ximatel~ 78 poicc~t of all LIS bealtll care costi (ibid). Tobacco Farl~blg t'eak t)eri~ds of Lol~ac¢ o g, o~ [~,g ¢'3 trot de t/[tit tifll ('$ %vbell aKitcubura] labor is ]~eeded lot otbtr crops; beuee, in de~'elop[ng countries tobacco [arl~ling iil~}r inter[er~ ~litb the Iced St~l~[)]}. ]~'arzlterS in SUell countti~ ~re ~cnerally in debt to private £e~[zi l)aTlies; a }argo prc)llotti(ll~ o[ the{r illeOlne goe~ to lrarlsllatio[K~l tol>acco eOtllp~nie~ Since me, St coutntries export l[ttle of tbeir tobalco crop, it doe~ tier aid Ibeir I)alarlee of payments [WIlO 1979, p. 3~1 ~'l'obaeet~ grtJ~lqTIg i~ hdI)iTIg Io spread deserts, because huge qt~alltltles o[ £rewood are eu~ :lt/[llt~lly ~roltr tbreltelLe¢] forests tO pro~ide beat for ct~rlt~g ?]~t t<~baceo" [~VI IO, 197~ p 881 [r.S Tobacco Econol)l~cs lobaceo is a cash crop it, 16 states of this ~)tmtr>', and 7"- 62 O~ i%.' {.rl G'l G, 0 *,l
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i I 153 (h.ll[uat{~ tlnc agri~ult~R( Of ~¢1(,I ~l, llKIst I~o[dlJl} ~o[[}~ (:lri)lilm ahd l(uitllck}~ It ~s ~d~o a mLjc. mdu~tl), ~h{,~l {uq(,mcr~ si,(l:t $18 },i][io], ~o: ils nlahLdacturcd pludu(ls iu li~ ]3~ ih ]9-5 :£ go~HmLC,dS col/coted % ~T0 00(L(<KI ill t.ba/~o ~xci,(, • hs m.1 $428 000,000 ex<luslve of duI~ t "J]Lu ll+S J}Ip~l[m[td O[ Agricult~lr{ }n S sllc[i~ ~,,V/I O/e[ $1 5 b Ilion on tobacco l)rog~am¢ since 19~3 (:u:~o~: eot,a( ~o p] i~ Stll)pOr ( ]u ills o[ th~ ])tp~rh./]lt s Con~lnodil~ Cledit Coq)ol [tio[i Iot~d 87511 milli~m. 'h~/al o{ ati sulh lo,mi sit,ee 1953 i~ abotlt ~r~ t}il- li(m A]l~,os~ DO ]li,¢'rl [ IH~ lle~'n p.d(] o1~ [}J~St ]oalJs to I}~c grB (,h- mel~t, ahLough the l}t l]~rtm/n( o[ Agrit~dturc p,dd we!l o~cl $500 mil/i(nl ~rl iTd/n St l(I the I.TS "l~ca~L1D L]~lt~l~,]i Julil 80, 1974, to ]~} ]!J74a D(jlartl/l(itt ot A~rictlltUl( ~uut/t{(t ](~r tt2Ba/eo ]oal, set ~51 mil]mn in I~scai 1978: It is i~,l(re~lh,g to I[ole that all h,g[sLdioB thus {a~ pass(d has ¢ x{ rt/l)~((I I.F.[~ ¢igal (lies sold il~ eXll~I [ {lilt. ~l,h/~ (}~e wal iii]l g ]a}~], {xct'pt t}~o~{ s}~ipiled to tl~e It S ArlJi(ll } OI{(S (~lt'ls/,lI ]d]lio[l cmh ~car If, bu} 10ur trillim~ cigarcties al,out ]~(]01 ¢i ~;*. ~te~s Ine #I er~ ram, ~1 um ~]~ ~tl thild in Ihc ~/)]]d lI:rik l:c~holm, VVorldwalch Papul ]S, MaRh 197&, Wo]kh~ak.h i]iqihit(, Wash lngt,)n 1} C ] Conli~llli¢~oIl I'rom ] 925 t{i J 950 Chr per ~ api{. ~ o~Js(miptio. ~f { i~,~R tt~ o[ pl. s(m~ lb ytar~ o](1 mid older in tht Urllt~ d States ~ose sic~di]), horn 1~r~5 toS,5°~ cigarettes pH I'c,~e ~l}l( r~ w,[~ a dlpi*, 1951 Ihe ~ta¢ ~hPll the A]a{ H~a~ Cm~cE~ Social! {,rst imI,]i~b/d Iosldls of its ~ir~t maj{i] l,R,~p( oily( sh~tl} of tll~ clR~ ts of sm~il~g ml hcahh (see p 77). U S p~r capih~ co~[sumptlo[~ reached it~ T]eak in 19(~1 "l~aCCv ~K,t& M~r h J979 ~ 17 I IIII ' I II b~ 0 0 0
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164 at 4,~6 eJ~zLTetles, ~ucd clech~/l h~ ] ~C'~, the )e,~r ~f th~ first 'SIll ~l~ ~l.~ iTI ¢~l~l/IkiT~i;l] tilllC I~'~ ~!irnSl~ *~ $75 lE)[ll]i~Eh) [~ l{l~l~ Iliit de/lil]¢'(I TII ]97~ J~ ~r*~ ~t tll~ I~l ~ ] I~/il/l ~{nL{¸ 1~ ~z~t~] ]9~7, ttl¢ ~!lll ~st~ o{ tar ,~1~¢~ nicotine lozlt~zJt o~ L! f~]c~ii ]~i~ol [~ ]r~ ]~7, t~le F~i~l ~{I 1~c (',~I~rll]~/~/~rJ l~l~,~r~L(~l )¸ ~e~ ~/L [l~Jid~ ~IId h~ eolLlinu ed to ~o so ~ ~r}' $i~ lnor~l}l~ ~¢e]~rk~ ~oh~iltl~l[t' h/ ~}l~ I, Tn[t~] ~tc~t~l ~hl~" ]~QT@, r~l~El~, ~Eo~p~d ~o 89~ ~c~ ~t i~l ]~7~'~ 1 ]~ p~r~nta~e o! f~l~]~ ~L~ok r ]~ ~11/o:1~ ~o;/l~l fl~ll] ~ p~l<{T/~ ill I~ ~b ]~ lli'liil~l i!~ 1~7~ [N[: ]~79T~6h¸ 2, pA 10] i~ ~l~!lcr t I~ ~ w~s ~ d~c ~h¸ ~Z~ (~rc~ h~h~w ), ~k~ Lhk{h ~] ~l~vs i~h~irll i~f Inr/~l~nc[irl~ ti~]/ ~ ~h~ llor]l]$ lll~ln[~;¸ t~i~r~l~(, srEl~l/~ ~(l/~l/~l~ : ill tll/~ II/(¢~.~?l/'l~l~lL~ *~ILIL~I~] U ~ ¢'[!9L1~1~ ~!~ll ~n a~ohlL~ ~lu~c~l~s~ ll~i~ ~(1¢¸ all ~ ~thE/~L~¢] ~ ~ hill!ion C~
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165 tr ,,i]~ d ~,~ Lind I}Le it, t(~L~< m [,hi uhti<,:t; iL ]~ p~( sent ,, in :d,~uh t~ ~(;,~ & ~,.ok(z~ [SC 197~, FP A ll] t~uD~ I/K]1), Jl, tlll UIdNd ~:ltii l},~ru ,re f~$ h/J Hrn it#~1~ ~Kel hil ~OLtC~S ,~ sm~(>~ p~Ho~nltd b) d,e ~ntion d CI ui.~- hcmc {oz Smc~in~ m<l ]lc,dth fl, 19GS ;,ud 1974, and the X ~tkm,,t ]n~![htt( O{ } rluLut](,:t in 197Et A:n<, t~ tlet,ag( ~r, n}~H~ gil]~ ~ ]# m;Ih ~ ) uo~ o~:h,m ,b~ r bo!~ !1 Gmilliou} f,mo, Jr (~f the t[( n(lg ih smc,~ing i~] dif¢l~li{ [u c~ff~e glc,,ips: ( ~tc pp 6b, GO, 6T ) Wtw Smo~ca &dull Inzlc ~nlokTng is Iri ili~(rs~ lalio tL~ f i;llil~ iT/limit, ~}dT ~cIu[t flm:l~ sr,~o~,i,i, Jnu~a~s ~itl, iami]} in~om~ Smok [S(; 1979, pp A ]4 15j But m//on~ man ~els m,d ~dmiM~t~athc 1,¢ r~cun,r t th~ pm~ nt,i~ of {~ male ~m ~k~l~ is ]d!l.~ tLa~, that or re,d< s IS(; 107% p Lt./fd )dale xddI(. (ollac wolk(~s (ptof(ssiond ;mr! ttc/mlc,d },olt~s ,<rid ct,~fls:nc /) h i/ ([~c ]dghcsl ~\o~n(. sho/~ ~},e oplro silt lo~c) tliol~ t!p~a~d]} m~,hih m(u ttud to sm~,k~ hss and ISGlgTg, pp A ]5 J~q A sI~l(~ of {ra,i ]malth l>ZO[(s~iorl~ (ld6skklnf dv~itkls, pitftln/a(~q~s, iIiIrSis) i/i 1975 {o/i/tl] ~:I]} 21 p(Itlnt O[ 11},~![(]41/S ~lcr( snlo~IS; },oI}t groups ~}/O I', (d stibhtrltia] d( cline~ in s~/iq~in~ },cl~ecn 1~07.(~ and ]~7~ Onl} atn¢~:tg i/ittit s [,at) s:tir,!dlg ill. l,lcijorlt)" of all health pwf(ssio~a]s ag~xd that tht~ ~),ould s(t SMOKI Nil I PONO~,I1C~; AN D S] A'I JS J JCS ~5 l,a Cn
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)67 ~ab!c VH (;IGABE3 ~ E SMOKING AMONG yOUNG l~OpI I] AGU ] 5 ANI ) 16 ftO. L 170~ ill l~5S lu 18 l~ i,i 1974 to 1~ 5~f i,~ 1979 fron, ~} f~ in 1~6~, lo ~0 2Tit, 1974 tr~ 118~ hi 1979 • J o sU m uI, ~ sl,3 vt~ drop an~ol,g ~oth ] K~ys aild g[r]s U1 0 t~
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T~b/e VIII f /C;A] IF I I I~ SMOKING A\I()NG ~OUN(; pI O]'I I : A(I ~ I7 ANI ) ] 8: [WL~ $02~ in~ 19G~ to 3]II~ i~l ]974 to ]U3~ iEL ]97@ ~r)m 18 ( irl ]965 t. 26 ~I ir~ 1979 ~L ¢In~t uri~ n~! ~,:,t[~m[UJ~ r~¸ ~Enn~:Jl g ~[ul~ #,if Crl 0
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169 good exainllb~ ]ly Dot smoking. Arid tbl" majority, except pharma ci5~ never srno]~{ ri in }rent of patients [Survey of Heahb Profes slona]s, 1975. ]gepartmcnt o[ llealth, Education and Wel{are, Natilm,d Clearlnghousn for Smoking and/lealth, Atlanta, Georgia ,q0~33] W&~tTheySmoke From 1950 to 1960, the market share o{ tiller-tip cigarettes increased rapidly from 1.6 percent to 5fL9 pcieent By 1975, 85 per cent of currcnt regular sInllkcr5 ~l)ns/lm~'d b[ter cigarettes ]n 1979, Ihe market share of Mter tip cigarettes ~xeeeded 9[)8 percent Salel ot U ~ cigareltes with 15 mg or less of tar have in- erlas[ i~ frnt?l ~ percent to over 80 percent during the period 1970 to 197S Along with this increase, IheJe has b(vn a decline in sales of relatively higJler "tar" and nicothle b* allds. I"iom 1954 to 1977, the sale weighted average "tar" { liar dell]ate m ltt~r in smoke) per U.S, cigarette deellned t tom approximately g6 mg tr* ] 7 mg or less, fur buth fiIter tip and nonfi]ter clgarcttes A decline in the sales- v, cighted a~erage nicotine per cigarette was also observed and is now at the level of 1 mg or less in many bl ands [Table IX, p. 73, Table X, p 74] Parallel reductions in tar / ilJcotin~ ]lav~ taken i)lae/itl i)t hl'Y developed e~Juntries In (;rt tt B]k:dn, hmg cancer rates are now dvcrcaslng, and in the United States, deaths from cardiovascular diseases have berlin to decline Both effects may be attributable, at least in part, to smokn]g cessation pat[elns artd [o swltublng flonl high to low laid nlcoline cigarettes. Changes in Lung Abnormalities Solrle proof of thrse effects comes ~roln a recent histologie study in tlJe United States which has sbpl~n a dramatic drop it* lung abnormalities in smc~kers who died (of diseases other than lung cancer) in tile period 19~0 1977, as er~mparnd vdth those whE~ died in 1955 1960 & much Jower proportion of abno*mal- itles of various sort~--eells wltb atypical nucIei, lesions with no cilia and basal eelI hyperplasil--'~,ere found in the bronehiaI elpithelillm of smokers who died between 1970-77 than ill those wbo died betweea I955 60 qlmze who died m 1970-1977 must have smoked lower tar and nicotine cigarettes than the earlier grrmp because all brands had decreased tar and nicotine content SMOKING ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS ~]~ i'¢ fdl
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m i'' i''!'!ill l r r rr
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171 ~n tJ ~rJcl Pl,<l~ ~ljat d ~cn,,c fut~tJC dM(, t]J~tt ~!l:,uTd b a d( li,/ in I/Lc Uml~ cl 5tub (~[ luhZ (~uc~e d, alL ,:d~ of ~i L- ]noz,d> I: (:, (;:l]firJ~l, 1, (;hm;~ h, ]iz~m~l ia] ]:T El ]it],a 'J h N~ [c,~,]H,d ~o,n.d ,,F \l~,lici.u "H()(S): 3S3 SO 197'J ] pcl ( ifit,i ecru Uml,liol, of (i%mH( }'o~,ihb t~l~T:t] :t!miLg: l) Olin ]crag t~t m srnoke~s [SC 1979, p/~:] 7] vlqlc] i~ i~!tt dly ia a tdk, o[ l][I t~* t~u ) Ih<(nie~ me that th¢~ l~ml[tliClg ~]:LU~ n ;lit} b~ stnok[h/~ trl[n~ ~1 ';tl,th ~ ml~! i11}] flblg, IIInO (]Prl]I! hi ~(]~ hi cc):rlp(t*s i~ [oc l}l ]~,~(1¢<] I ~/~l]{~)llrlP (oed(rl[ o[ t]~h }nal(l~ I]<)~u~te,, atl (~l)(litllcut (Ic [frl(</ to t[Ht Ih~) rtlurh fr) hat, JaM ]~t[~ ~/tli], ,~ slw, t th,, "lh~,~ i~ t}t/ [mthll [~{t 1]i5[ {}~( <It ~[l~t i~ {~/Id< ,tint w,~/ liGr~ tal/~U~ ppA]8 1%20] SMO~INCI:CONOMICSANDSIAEI~IIC~ 71 ca o &a &1 o
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4000 3000 2000 ]000 172 I-igule 5 ANNUAl, CONSUMIG ION Of C](';ARE l 1 ES pEI/ PERSON AG[:I ) 18 yEAI~S A',:]) (']VI~ ANN(IAI, (;ONSUMPTION OI¸ ]:[I:ll:[I] iI, (:l(~A]lI~:~lI!$ yEI~ p,~:RSON AGED 18 ¥EAII$ AND OVI~[~, 1950 78 ]950 B5 60 6~ 70 75 I I ~ L I ]ol~/ .......-'"'"""---'::::r 0001aQ • Filttat[l~ 00 "OD 0e Q ~-~?~-l- ---~---- l-- -~ -T- J950 55 60 65 70 75 ~oiJrce ~fil~er, ~ H (#11 32,1, US Tlel~o rt~l~¢rff o] A,~ rJ¢l~llur~ (47, 51) [ ] preli[ll[ri~ly e~k[m~!e 405~ 3000 ,°000 ]000 7~ C~ Ul
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178 7ail~h ]x 40- ) @ @ G 35- ~0 20 - 15- ~r- 1~55 60 65 70 75 ntg O©CO~ .... T ....... T ..... T .... 60 . 135 "/0 75 Sol~rc~ Co~t~ier~ U~lto~ (~). lla~T~r~d~ /~; C~ (:%J). M~cl#. I (. C¸ (.~7 ~?OJ. £Jl~lJ~ 3" ~l !~SJ. Ptdl~l~ Mo~ds. h~c (.~) U£ ~d~'~! 7 r~:dc Co~. ~,s,~c,~ (~7) ~l*~h~,. ~1 (7~J ~'~b~r. ~ ~# i~.f.~. ~t'~,~.~. I L , 76) 85 SO 25 #0 ]5 0 0
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174 I-- ~i~]~¸ X MAIIKt]I ~,ilAtlI] {)~ CI(;AIH I ]t]5 %VIlli 'IAR' 15 r~iO O1{ l ESS ]967 1978 (1~7~ P]IOJECTED) 30L 196~ 68 69 70 71 72 ~3 7,1 75 7( 77 75 Ye,tt S~r~r<+.: M,~.~!l, JC C r27.?0) St:,,da~d and I'o~', C~3,~ £19rl (4~ is S t ed6ra!~r~di Cvn,,,~f%~O~l(67 6~) S(P 71 I'¢ CA f.q
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175 l~,lt;jic it ~ ! ;I~ ~L]t}j, ]:~]Lic ~lhnj a~! W( ]la~ ~ ] u~]ic I Jr ~ltl, ~%~J~¸ t]~LI~ 51J~i~ l/l~i~w: }9(~¸ US ]~I~L,IL]I~J,~ ~,~ ][~;~l~]~ I title ~ ~i~:lal~cl\\~.]f~¸ I'II!,!LC }l~a~[] ~i~ I'~Li~lic*~!il~Ll~, I~C)(~ ]~'~ ]~I~LJ~L~I ~ lh~¸ ]9~7 ]'ul~Lk¸ lI~/~, ~i~,~. II~:~ILW U.S l)~p~ [~C, 1~9] ~ ]~, Ili¸ ~lth I I,l~ ~l~'h/I ~ /,t ~k~l~ U~ 1)c I~'Lit/i:~l O! II~ll/I, i ~]~c~d~,:l ~:~r] \~ clf~r/¸ 19~ Slll,!~!~rl~]Jt t~ o~ the $L~I,~;Jl ~r~l~,l 1971 12 S ]~l/~r~t~r]lt of lIiLIIt}~ ]:~L]~ (H~M) ?]-751~ [S~; ~79/ S~,IC)KINI: AND lIi :~/rl lI: ~L ]~I~EI ~! tl,L¸ SLy: ]~, pu],li~¸ ]l~a]lh ~]~ (l~]i~ ot t}J~ A~i~L~llt Secl~;~r! fl,i ]I~;~]t!~, ()l[i~¸ ~ ~,~k~/~ :~:kd ]I~altE~, ])~ll:\\r ]~Ll~]L~L~li~/~k :%O tlLa~ ¢*(~l~i~ ~]~¸ A~ C ~icall (~:~IjC C~ S/~I i~ ~!, ] IW. hI~C:~ J IJ~[ l~c~ok (~oiJ 1)~t ~ N~r ~lJ~ ~;i ~ SE/io~,blg aT~ II~ l~fl~C~/ O~ H~ n/l]l¸¸ [i ~lj th~¸ l~,~ L~] ~:~" levi¸ OI I~]l)'S{~]'~i! O~ J'O;l~OlJ |'it~l/~ll kl~/li~'~l ~tl ~i/llt~ l'ul~ IWIIO 1~79] Co~ltl~lli]l~ Ih~ Smcbki]~g EpidcLl~ii j I~cp~t~ i~I the \~.'IIO }:~p~l f:l~,~rl~rtt~t¸ ~E~ ~l~Li[~g C~nLtro], ~]lll~l }~( p~E~ ~l~ f~ \V~I~ llealt}l f)r~,u]z !lioEi, CeII~ ~1 }979, 87 pp ~5 k~ C~
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176 ~i~J~ (O(~liIL~ J.~arly ~IVI,~ ILdI!~OEI l~C~E~-y¢~l~, ~ ~r~qILCLLt!I¸ ~lll i~ ~I~td~¢~ ILI~ itl (hrc~. c~tII~r ~C~ ~I ~ ¢~t!C O~ till il ¢~I~l~I LICl '~ }I!~C ~CV~II Ct~IF~l~li~t~ ~]l tllC l~t~c ll~II~l~tiv~ ~ILI~I~ ~hI~I~ kri~L ~b~ I~r~t ~h~Lc~ if~ ~)~l[~, 19~I~ t]i~¸ ]atc~t, J~l ~I~d H~]I~ ]~lI ¢~ro]]~ I~!¸ ,~ ]~i~ I~I~]~L ¢~ A~cii~ C~kc~ ~t~¢i~¸ ~I~i~i t~iJ~1 L~h t~I ~ ~I~ ~ ~ !]~ct] to lJ~c life¸ ~[u~ti~inJ~b~ {~]I~ ~ l~y 10 ~]L~t~ ]Ll~ ~i ~ tile' ~e~ ~! ~i ~] (~9 [[[a~i~ aI~d I~i IIo]~cr~ of [J.~ CO~I~L~t I~[Ic IIL!Ula~C~ ~O!~i~, ~ ~L~ ~ tr~¸ ~i~ll~ ct~ ¢~I Iich~ ~tl~j~ ~ t hl ~ ]d~'~LI r ~]i~ ~ISii~] ~ ~ U I~i I~II~i~1~Ii~ ~! [IIC C~TJ~i~l~ ]~ii~ItI~I~l r~ \~CI<~iLIL~ 17~ AIi~i~ll III~EI ~lld ~lIJIll i~ ~ $~ItI~ C~11~I~ Ill¸ ~IEtl ~iJ IIIC~IC!~II~ OI tlI~¸ AEIICJiI~IJ (~t~II~i~ ~lJ!t!~ (~!k ~I S~¸ '] ~!~]V N El lJ 77 ~ir I!~![C~ ~EJ~ illii~i~i.is 7t~ ~.~,~, ~d~ ~ ~r~,~.~,~,~ i'J
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Ta!J!e XI OUIL!NE O! [,!~L~SpEiTTP,'E STUDIES OF S~!OK!N(: ,~N'~ X~O!~T~L[ !Y i 1 Bre~ow Bre~c.,a, Al~thor~ ! DO~ F Hammc, nd I (Dora) Du.m, D.n.~. ~,~P, Subiects ] Br~ixb ! "~%hi!emen t'.S. Ca!i[orn/~ ! Ca?ifomi~ ] C:madi~n ,8g mn t;"n~! I J'gion (~etemns & Kr~TJpS mem}N.r ~ t!~ i~cn~!~,rtts) ~! enro!?mcnt 'r 1932 , &ran. !957 ', :,.dX!:~x i I!)57 " luly' I~5~: ] Month~ fol!owed ! !20 ! i ! ' Tota' m~m~ er o! ~,lb eet~; ~ 'Tg ! .8~S To'n!m,mberoFpcrxonyear~o~exp(v,~e;6.053!42 H:lTnmrm(! M&Fin ~5 Sh~te~ ! 057 I)00 ; Oct 1959 ; Feb. ~§'9 i "5 S~ i ,3.2!! ......... J gg0ggOgg
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4 ~q
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30 3~ It,, ~lJv~ ~L~ ~ dti¢i~l~,L 2~ 27 O~liIl[n~ ~ 57, 60 61 ~llil01ell, 57 ~n~ir~ IS~~ C~ga~c~c ~,~,~i~; $i,l~i~ ~ ~ 77 rJw,~,l~E~ 75,77 T~,~ ~l ~J~]ng, ]9, ~ ~9~ 40, 41: \Vurrlea ~T~d lua~ ca~eer, 17, 10,28 ir~ preg~,anr~, 9, 4~4~ 179 79 0 UI
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i i # - r!ii ..... o= ~-
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181 I~;,,,i,~rLmJ, I ~1 56 k~ id~ EJbe~ M ~1 , 55 I~,~,,t 1 1~ /~ ( ~ q,t,~h,rL), ~9 I~, ,,~1/ C S 4~ Seltzer, C: C ~ ~ S~I~,S F¸ ~ ]1 ~ St al/d ~rd ~l~d l oo['~ Cor~, ~4 oni~ela l ~ , 42, 47 U ~, ] ~par t n~ent o~ A~,ieldtLLr~j (;~, ~ US Nati~l ]~tlt~te o~ Edue~ tlo~ 65 W~eham II 73 cl~er, k F] ~ ";3 ~e~L L J .5~, W~,,r ~]~, M~]~¢~/~:o!]eg~ of, ~
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182 Ill, Daughcrty. Sq Aq EMI;NT OF ROBER]" M DAUGIIERT~, ,JR, M,D,, I'll. II. ])F ])AU(HIERI¥ i aIIl ])r ItlOh ])~Hl,~hf'IIy, dCal] O[ th[. ~-choo] Of medicine at ~hc Ll]}i~ersity of Nevdda mid chaiHnml of tlle Nation a] ]nte~agency Council on Smoking and ]lealth ]t is in that latter capacity ] appear bcfmc you today to mgc sup- port fol }IR 4937 and now/hR 5{;53, also k,m~n as the Corntne he,sire Snloking Prevention ]~]ducation Act '1he N~aional lntel- agr.ne) Councll on Smoking and }lInlth i~ a vohu/tat~ association of health education and youth Icadcr.-hlp mganizadons havilJg re sponMbiHty or concern ~]th lhe prob]em of cigalelIe snloking on human health "Pine h~ter~gency council seeks to lnovi& a coopera tire al/d hldepE'ndent tbrce to infbim lhe public of the halmful ef- f{'cts of c[galetl{, smoking (tlI[l,lltly th(~If• ~lc ~0 llatlonal Ol~¢~nizatiOllS that COlllpli&l, Ih¢, membership of the council. The ('oalition on Smokinf4 and Ilealth whicll w~Is aIII]IRIvK'Cd itCH to¢]~l~ wi]J S~!iv(~ ~s {he I}LID[I( policy rain ol Ih~ Natiomd I[itl.ta~.ency (ouncil mid ~il] wink {[iJ'.el3 ~tit}l tile thlt, o /l/ajolity ~oluntal~ health olKaniz~ltiol]s lepl(Slllted at thi~ tahl[, with hie toda), Ame;ican Canc(l Society, American Ilemt A~sociation, ahd the American Lung Association l,~,sl nlonth, the 'J'OtlUICCO lrlslitute ]/ItHIC}l~d ils h}t~e, to[ cmn paigzl I've;, a lanlpaign estimated to cost ~lell in f~xel s~: of SI Ini] licm includes nine insmtions in lmtionM cditlons of Nc~s~(e!<, ])eop]e, Spml~ [iiustraled, Time, TV Guide, and U.S. News & ;V(nld Repmt 1 am holding ~l copy of the earnp2tiprt l}~tt I]o~1 8p I)etll~ that lno:,[ peopJe [lave SCOrn ('oltsid~qirtt, the conchl',]~£' (,~i donee linking cigalette smoking to disease, we agree ~ith tht theme, weigh both sides before )ou take sides, which i~ ~lly we uvge m fact iotation of th~ w~rning label,,that Inovide uptodate fuct.~ on the hazards of eigalette stl/okillg OIl the ()[rice of Smokin,~ arid [hMlth, maintaining the inter f;4ce • .~ith the Federal sector is sequ~:ntiah The [nte~agency Council is determined to pla) its ~ole as coordim~tm in the InNate sector HOW(VCI, the commitgl~ent of the F£,d61.~] Govelnln{~llt to l)~'lforl[l it~ IOk* h~i~ h~.cuiil( [i ~oL]rc*., O~ I~T£'~it COI]CCI I] A~ you know, the OMB has t'aice tried to line out the Oflice of Smoking and ]]ealth. ~"o]tunateIy, ~ecretai'~ Sch~it~ker has hccI~ able to ~,et the fuading restolcd Celtairdy the $2 to Sa miiiion budget ~d that Olllte is mildsculc con/l-~ared t~ r~ver ¢41 bil/i/m used to plomote th{ sale ol cig~lettes Yet this smaB amom/l piovides lhe imc('ssar~ funds to cm ~y out essential ~ov~,rlllilentol fklllCtioI/g in snmking and health. RequiHng th*, rolation of six nL, W warnln.~ matcmLm~, on ciga letto packages and ad.,erli t,rllonl~ We b[']i(v(z i~ i~, cli~.ic~ll ~illce the ]'l'(~ has showll ~.ol/vincillgl) that the ctlrIent Wall/illg ~s WOrl/ Otlt, in/n/i!diale aclJoll i~ needed to make this ah ~.Ittctive Ii/E.diklIl~ IO ]each tile public ~it}l inform~tion on the }mznlds t)f sntn#king The Tobacco Institute h~s lefo~ed to the ~olatiol, d ~aHfing a', a 3lltllook nl Ihl'ads of cigarettes Ihi~ claim is Iidiculou~ Cignettu 13 0 Cn .d
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183 ad copy ir c)mngod ~t~d c'}mngcd frc.quc,nlly On the fc~) wall dr~ ill oIIr~ ~1 WOO/; it!rio/l t]tl/'ill~! o11£, mlll}th Ar~¸ ~ t, ~o b£.]R,v(, chaN~ill~ sl~llill¢.~ I~bc, I 1~ ('tllllbcl ~ pliF.! alK] a [~lll l]~,ll~ TbU, il¸ 81~ull/~llt tll~t this rc]/r¢SOl/tS illct(,a~,od icg~llat[o!l ol) all ovelle~ulated i~ld~StK~" ~dso $~rl/s to ]3ck tile>lit It ovol]ooks the ~ct l}la~ tobz~cco and tobacco products aro exempt by agci/cy deter- minalion or speeil}eally by statute Irom lhosE, ]aws ~bieh were en- acted by (h~' Co~g~ess mid in particulal this s!lbeon/miltee to pro- Iec( the h/,alth and well-being ol the American eon~umez Passage oF ]1 R 4!I57 w¢mld a~ur¢ col/SIllll(!l~s r(eeivc thO I/0C¢~4 sary in~ormatiorz oil the, health hazard~ of cigtrettt, sn/clldng Nil one is being denied the right Io smakt, No ona is baing i(~trltirl~d on se]ling cigmett~'s ~r di.~ilibuting cigarettes We me not impusing r~stl ictions. q'be legislation simply seeks to provid~ the consume~ x~ith /he 1 ighi to know. Thank you IDr I)aughcrts"'s pJtpare,d slatenwnt follows:~ UI G~ C~
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184 ~E~TIM~NY O~ CHA]~N ~ION~L 2N'E~G~/~ tOUNCIL O~ SM3~I~G ~ ~E~LTH Rcber~ ~oh~,ty~ Jr,, M,D ~ ~D~ Dea~ ~f ~he ~choo) ~ Kedic~, Un~r~ ~ ~ a,d t~ p,e~t £Ta~,~a, ~f N~t~cn~l I,,t~r~:,~ ~-~l ~, S~k~nB ~he ~o~ I~e,~g~c~ ~O~CD o~ $~k~n~ and Hc~ ~ ~ ~ol~ary puh~,c ~f ~e ha,n,f~ e~ct~ cf ~ar~tt~ ~k~9, T~,~y ~at~n~l ~,F~r ~t~ and ~t~, ~e~ce we rac~e f~ ~ ~deral ~ec~, ~i~at~ ~ubl~c Inferra~o~,~ call~ "~Fe b~9~ ~a~pa~gr ~z'~ ~y~, ~C~" ~ ~he C'ti~e s~ 5T~kirg m~d ~ea1~h (~SH) For~qa~el~, ~l S 5~c,~tar~ S~,~,~F c~Fe~te~ Yet, ~ ~,~de~ a~ ~al fJnc~r ~o th~ ~F~e U1
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IB5 ~e~erer~ o~ c~ar~e p~ ~d ~o,er~rer~ I~ ~,~erselX ~p~r~.~ p,~wt~ e'f~-~ lt~ I~.L~ ~rr,o~ b~ ~r~r~z ~,~ ~h~ b~c~t~ ~d ~r~,~'~ a.~ ~ar~ ~cce~bl~ f~r ~O,-~C~ ~nf~ ~ ~ Th~ ~aCCO ~,~t~tu~e~ na~ ref~e~ ~ th~ r~t~ona' w~r~9 ~ ~ 'cu~ber~-~ ~.e ~rr~2 ~e=~ ~c~l~ h,~e h~n u~e~ ~r ~ll th~ ~,l~.~ lhe V~dUC~ ~re ~tn~r ,foo~' r~r 'd,~S~~ ~ be r~5~a~e~ u,~c- ~ F~cd, Dr~ pr~d~~' ~nd~r ~t AC~ lob~cc~ ~n~ ~ob~c~o ~,cdv~ a~ ~l~ no~ ~e~at~z '~e,c~s~ly re~lzt~ry" ~ 'p~-nal~c~ ~ l~d,~ou~ TC ~h~ cor~.a,y, ce-~-e~ e~a~ the e,Ee~tlo~ t~ ~he ~er~ ~a~ I ha~e ~t ,oteJ lhl~ ~ti~ ~e~k~ ~ai~¸ ~o ~r~e c~er~ 3he E!~h! ~o ~noe all ~f ~,e lharKy~u, t~
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]86 ~E~RENCE$ Tn~ ~llup po1], The ~llu~ R¢~ort: G~llu~ 5oo1~9 AUJIL Report h. ]90. A~er~lng Age, "T~b~co ~r~ Drive ~LI ~ve~t~l!~ ~, ~g÷ ~g, O~nuary 18~ 198~ Bu~ir, e~ ~k, "HO~ ¢Ig~r~t~ ~akers Ai~ ~ ~lr~ O~ $~]e~~', ~sln~is ~'~k p~ ~5 7C; De,eTher 7, 1981 §t~F~ R~po~t on th~ C~re!te Ad~ert~ Investigation, Federal ]r~ ~'h~l~, E; S~e~lda~. M; M~iste~, ~; ~rd Mol~e~I ~. ~Ara%y~l~ of C~er~ge of Iob~¢c~ ~d~ 4r ~'~r~n*~ ~'~oe~l' J~rn~l o~ p~bl~ 2 Snlth, ~C; ~'?~e R~l~e~' Snok~ Habit'r Colo~bl~ J:ur~al~ Re~e~, ~ l~,e ]oba~ In~t~ Co~rts of ~h~ T~b~ ~,~tlt~t~ or the F1C ~aru~r~ 18, lg~ ca~ 420 t~ C~ C0
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L ~O~OT~ ill
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188 l~dll ~VAXt~IAN 'lhallk you %'eTy t/luch i l~h ot you has corll( here l~ilh 3ou~ Ol*,n ptof, s~iou~] exp~r[. . ence and ~xpe~ti~e But 3ou art also huge ]elnL,~entinf~ tht(t of lbe mujm health oTgmfizations thut me eoncmned uhoul smoking, the }]ea~t Association, the I.ung Association, and the Cancer Sockb. I ~ant f'bst of nil to comm¢.nd you fm establishlng Ibis coalition o]- [~tltlzel] to ti~ [o wink to~ethuI irl t~llf~ oI/c Dt(.i of trcitle/iclou~ I,ub]ic heahh significance, ] hope this x~ill hi' th( begimfing el coali- tion activities in othe~ areas as well l')ach of you re[ucsents a nonlllof]t orgunizalion ]e(eiving "¢olun. tary conttibuliong from the public. As I undet~{and tht pul piist~s iif yore orgardzations, you have oth¢,~ priolitle~ in addition to t~ying to brillg public att(ntion to the problems of snloking Pnlt~ of )our bud~'cts, nlaybo the nlajolity of the n/one3 eo]kcted by 3our olganization, goes to funding activities such as rest'inch. If we l~laced the full burden on voluntar5 rlollploflt Ol'~llix[tliOIiS ~0 tUUd plOgl~nlS for people to ha~e eonl)~ry infor)n~lion on ~hat i~ bldng :.i,n[ [o lhei~l ~hI0ugh xely ~l;ilh~d nrtd e?,l<,n~ive lnrhlslly ~cl • ,cltls]llg canl]l~iglls, ai[,n'{ we ask]llg n~npI0fit, v0hlllIal3 0r~dtl[ tius, ~qr~cl islt'[ this going Io be un impossibh' ta~k bocuu~t' you can ii~el COUh[C.r 111~! nlillioil[- of c]ollal~ of ~d\,£.t [i~in~ ~peult b . tb~ 111. bacco industry? ]1~ tlm~:herty, ] would ~dd~e~ that to you, if ] mighl Ih DAUb;In R~l. I t~t ree ~ith ~bat )otl L~vv said, hh. \Vaxmm~. I think nlo[-t of m) t ffo*l ~lith one of the~e olganiz itlons is ~ith the Arllet ic~Hi t]ear[ A~ociation I gtte~, otw o[" the lea~olls ~ me hl'Ie todayi~ that ei~,m~tte smoking is one ofih(,lnajo~ li~k fa:t(ns f~t As th. O,des plfintvd ilut, il is lhe h.ding cm~e of d/dh h~ the [ nil(d State toda3 and ci~mettc smoking, if w( (ould get pe~ple to ~(II~, t'(Itt~(] [ite%,£,llt that Tt]~ix ave ~,3t~ ol lhiil~s blvol%e(] b3' ~tle ]Ief~rt ~,~oclatiorl in tezlns of lesem¢h on hypmtension, cmdioxas eulaI disease including st~ok(., and ~e need to (onthltl(. to ¢]o that You me eorrl,,~t in sa~h~g that ff we had to devote all of our Ie- SOUrCeS ~O Ibis, ~11] of IlUF Ft!~;ollrce,, %~llllldrl't [.V~I/ t(lllcb wh~l[ the industL~ has available to it in th~ comse era heal. M~ W~.x~N I tind it ironic that some of om colleagues ~ith us Ioday S~llt a le~l~I to l~lll}J(rs of the }Iotlst' o[ t{ol~re~elllutlvt.~ urging them not to join in sul~port of ou~ bill. M~. Rogers relented to the concern he has thnt we m'e goblg to di~elt ~ttenti0n fiom MI 1}1(, t~nviriuln]onT~l and oo(,u]lf]tiorial [~letols %~hich tl/a3 ha~e human health eflbcts by f~eusing exclusiw'15 em srnokiag. "I'h~ee days out of this ~eek and the next couple of ~eeks th[~ mRwommillec is nmrking up a bill to change the Clean Air Act 1 expect the iesnlt, rl~ ] sl~e things going in Ilur subccm/Iniitee> ~ill be ib~ll our eolntililtc(> is fpohig to present a till[ to the Col/greys that ~ill dram~tieally ~eakvn the p~oteetion~ of the Clean Air Act which }la~ bvvn ~l~t up to piouet public hl,uHh ()nee we have this bill out, I don't think it's going to bocoluo lay., 1 don't think it will pass Ihlt if tile Congress tollow~d thc lecom- nu~ndaii(ms of some Membels x~iio a~(' oftcrinl, thi~ legit] ,thin, ~e me going to xleaken ~ttbits to tly Ill oh.an up the :lii ~hou/thi't ~e then put in even mole ([tblt to try to stop cigalelt~• snlokin~~ Ui ~q 0 ~4 ¢0
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189 ]h C~,lmr, ;n;,}he I cmdd ar]dll I}Ii tl >o.1 :\t/ ~(. tallizL ~lh(~ltl thdLL~ I}l~lt l;tli i~(¸ S(~!e[;~l{d, C~!tt~ir!(:(<] ~tlJMi,tc,]~, /,l i~ t}l(l(, ~ s~I/(,rt, i~!ic (,th,ct ol air I,o]/ut]oi: c]i!~:l~tt<, 51D,~I~i:,E ~i:(I ()I}!E.1 C~tl~]lil!llq~Tital ¢:-~])i/~tlt (~! ])1. (~AIIAN \V(di, ~111 ]~]ctli all~tlll~/~:l!E'lli, ~(,/1/~I t,(, tO la~(, t~t<, inkblot (~l~C~llC~(,;/iC l/,at(Iicql~ t}lat ~/t¸ hl~,~ith/,. i:11hihc, 3]Ld o/It (,! 0111¸ eblttltc¸ }lLit it1 ~ lo~di<tic ~el/~.c J tliil//: l}l~t it it/fly b!, (!iHi(uh to ;ltx/~n/pli~h I,l:th ;llic] ~/lu th(,rt,hlll, ;iJ~l5 not accl~nl!di~! t]tillu 1 chmt k!lo~,, how tht,s~ i(gi~-]gLtive inoch~lti-q~/s x~lk ]tl(]e it, no q~tstioii, however, itl d]~,cll~,~ii/!! It/(¸ cllxilonnll,llt, C~tlt((1¸ ~,p~cia]~ i~l~, ~!!;Eho~/ ~tlly ,1f~r] ~tl[ t hLtl~q ~./hlch C~lgr, cittl(i,t \ge h~vl~ ~t ~tlo!/c~ tc~e]it/g tl/at ttlc, [,t21:,ot)3] end. it Ol!llicllt llah/ely. sn~o]~[n[_, i~ Iho ptOl~ol/det~lll C3~1~,~, ol¸ otll¸ ll~lli~uL~l~¸ ]lit(~l~,~t, w]lich ]~ c~I~cer ~i/eTc~r/~, I think lhc conc/,nlrnfion v, mlld he in [hllt d]reCL[Ol/ ] t}~in~ t~lcqe ~le iil~tl)¸ lives to })l¸ s~v(d ill I~ot}l lhlt ~hat to lily l~ind, ~o(1[~] have [~tinte illtCt cst }.Ii ~.VAXXI&N. rl'}/el~' i~ ~l co!n~itlOd inlp~0L~ 'l [lcle i~ a S~ llolgi~[[¢ il/lpact to t}/cse exposUt (¸,;9 ]h¸. ~:AIIAN Yes. tl/~ syn[,tgisn/, is c.tiled c(~c~lI('il/ogl,]licity 't'ht I~ i~; ilo q/Ic~[iOll t})al ol/c, ])!us Ollf' ~1~k1¢115 t}ltf, c ilot tWO ]~ol exit17 ple, ladiatioll p]us ~-omc other c~lcillo~etl painled on ~tl/ii/l~l 5~itl ~ou[d e~klSC, ~aneor l/lOlo pI~d[cta~,]y thai1 olte ~[one AI~ ~ho-4(~. Ihctoly wolkeT '.~ho ~moke~, h~ a ]nat ked in~l~a~e in hi~ (hance o[¸ dcl'(lol/iI/i! catlcer ol¸ lh~ ]tallg 1}13Ii ii 1he ~P,h(,sto5 ~olke; (]oe~ ito~ MT WAXMAN I gttu~ Ihu pllint ] Hnl dt~l]ng ¢lul i~ thai w(' £hotlld l/ot div('/t our (,1~)11~ itl an} ale~l ,nnd we s}/ou]d i/or ex]~c,c~ th/Lt C)Iic, ¢41(t~ a]oIle iq ~Ol th~ of oui¸ ~Lt(,t/liotl ~s rc]lrt ~Entat[ve~ it/ (k)ll,rnml~n[ luday, q'hu toba~'c~o indu~tly fri,qul,ni]y chnt~/[(nizl,.~ the lepol[s and slatements ol¸ tht~ 1J.S ~llgcon (~i,nela] a~ n/tte]y oli(, iq~tll's o])llliOll It Stl~l(s~ tluc l~£Scarc]lci~ ~s ol)[~osod ~o 11i¸3(- I]c.in~4 phy~ician~ ~ic not qoit(, ~s colllidei/t ils you gelltlLlnoti ahOklt t}te health efltcts of smoking llow would 3ou Z(Sl)Ol/(] to that co;/l[/l['lit, I)t. Oates"~ ])l (}ArII:S rlhC ll~EtIt As%0ciat[OIk ha', ~x//Ii/lllOd tho( issues cx- t~melb cmelul/~ and ~epeattd/y ~Glh (xpmt .moui~ of s~iH~ti~ts horn a variety of fields and thtz'e i~ a una~dmoU~ opi,don in thes~ ex~ltt/ili~iOtls t}lftt there is ho ql~ostiozl l(~g~t'dit/~ t}lc d~ta Mr WAXMAN ])0 yOU find leS(,archer8 its, ~el/ tt~ pIi4o(i(illg idly" sieiall£ h}lvL, coIno to tho ~in~ ¢OndLISio:l? l)l OA'li'~ 'lhese ate it/dec'd the iesealc}lels who h,qvo come tO the concltl~iOll that cigmettc Stllokill~ i~ ~1 ]I~IjOY CO[IgC~ ol CEII(/]O ~ a~CUI~I di~t'd 5US. M, WAXMA~. Among phvsici,~as that you have come in contact with, how much of a ditk, r~ng opinion d~ you fhld? Is this a wide gplead COllSenv[l% Ol is this ono ~tllctt' ]ll~l)ho the~e is oldy ~ slight m~do,'ity of views that cigarette smol.ing i~ harmful? lb. l)aughe~ ty. lb. Ilm'oom:Rav, I think there is ~idcsp~ea~l con*ensus. As a matte, oi lact physicimls is the one group that ha* the highest per (entage of people ~ho stop ~[IlOkillC~~, ] thirlk that ahml~ is evidtmue that the placticing physician believes the data that has come f, om tho It'Stq~lchels, which ~Ilcldcq/tally the ~ul'g('on (~(]}(q[~] ic~ OllO pcqson, hilt he h~'ls pklt ~og~'th(rl" the' data ~lon/ lllI~l/}, rtlall~ investi U1 t¢ O ¢,1
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190 Eltol~ It is not OIIC I/IClI/'S Ot)illiO]l It is Ji~ fact fuels tompi/cd by oi~c ilion to pics~,iit to ~}ic l)tlblic I~,~I¸ "WAXMAN And th(.!l l~,t llle just a~k a ¢0ull[~ 0f qtle~lloI~ ~ ~utsI' ] think it i~ iTIlll¢II[~iTit to bring t~II's{~ puints out l)r A)'rt~s, can a smolder reduce the risk to health I~¸ quitting, even afl('z ypllrs o!¸ }lellv~ $nlokitl~'! ])i A~ I[F£ q'Itat c!vi(](,nci, l}l~if quittiilg sfno]¢in~! l(!dLlcX,s t}ii, iiKi- dcnc( el di t'a~e, is pint of tht, exidence that points Io the c~msalit5 O[ ci~ill (!IIP~, OJ/O £,xanlpl(, a large lllll/l~t'l O{ IJhyt-iOi~lllg in (lh';tt ]hitairl v, ez~ fb]lov, ed fbl ~ numbe] of yeats Ovel hall of t]/em MOpjll~ SI/IOI~]II~,, ~lllt] th(~ l(/]tlC~iorl or deaths froii/ chlOllJC l~lrlg disease was 34 l/~Ic~llt, cowpalt, d to only 4 ]llqcd/t ill l}1( gt tK'ld} pOt)el JatiC)ll $1 t}lt ri, }~ a ~cly slid tafl~i iI body oJ liloi/itlllO (](lVl~[Ol~/ll~ t]/i~ pOilll 'J'}l('IC ale othcz studies ill AI]lolJlal~ l/~pulations ti/at sho/~ thlt aiiez a nunlhez of ',~ats of ab taizlillK tlo]n slnokin~c;, tile death IfLIE'S llOll] ~L1H~ (]i~{~SC~ arid ]l~'a/[ diseasv ale ~tlb!;tal/tia]i) I¢" dllc('(I '[hat is ~.CI~ ]l//t)(ll[~l]~ all(I CVell ]~COtl]U ~'lritl~ Syi//plOII]~'ltiC heart d]¢-(!~l or symptOlllatic ('1/11)}13~O111a l ill liE' itllplilV('d il they ;.10}1 GIJ/O~; hl~ M/y I ta[~ to ti~at.* ?d~ V,'AXMaN Yes, ])l. (ahm ]J/. CAII~N Ot)Q OJ t}]( EOp}li~t![('~ x~it}/ v, hich Sl/IOk(,rs ~lt]l~l~.(~ I}/k~rl~)]\'c~ tl{,qkK, l~t]y i9 lh£1I it is ';oo /111(' tO slop ' 'lhi~ boa no Ir)( tfliIi[~ ill El SCJ(/ItillC ~(II~C ~'£! do [IOI kl]o/v ~lhclt' that poirlt O[ ll(I IEt~IIII is, ~111~1(~ that (C11 [l(~Ot(~lt 011 suddcIII~ V, gt~('S tilL' whil(' tla~ of sutlendeI and sabs all light, if yo'a insiM, I anl goii~y to "]~]l('l~~ is [)O qtu' /ion Ill,It Ill(' SOOl/k~! I)llO stops, the bt'lt¢~ the Ch~IJ/C~' fJ~l£' Will lIOI f.Ct tO this ]l~J[li[ O[ ]10 IOlklrlI "ibis is a ii/cssa}i~. %(' S~tOll]d COl/X-O} [0 pt,ople ~ho Sillok(! lol ally ]Oll!~[}l o[ timb Th(ip i£ uNqkI/'S[iOIHt/I]~ a IONff%la] It hoillill~, a lt~co\ul~ I~[ the' I/IkiCkl~, 13/(/1/51~11/0S ~J~" tl/O ~IEIC}3L'31 [)lOl/C}li[ll [Ik'(J Oll~2t' el/( ilrita- tiOII f~tCtot has stopped r]'hi~ f~ll£,l,,HI Cttrl lO[Ull/ irl iiIUU l~]rJ]o~{ tl~ il~ I][l~ilJ~lJ plie, th/(~ State., aftei a period of l(I or 15 yeals, ai~d t~ be ~.quatcd ~itt/ tllos~: ~ho II~v(q slllok(~d ~1 ~VAXI~!AN l,~,:}lat IOle doas eltl[IOll /llof/oxido itl ci~alc'tt¢", play ill likE, iis[; Ill ~/[,l&lI lii f~;l%, Iml] pregl/uncy okltlOi[l~ t'~t~' CalbOlI ]/lolloxidt~ levtds ]o/~el ill io~1 tal r/iootirlt" cit~ltOlt¢S ~ll/d iS th('tO 0 ~,~lkl Of saiel cigal¢tte'? ])1 t~yI~~, rl'h~ e~ql[/~)l[ I/IOHflXid( iS;~klf iN Ill/ illt~q~Lil~K (ill(', it i~ itltllL'=Rill!' it ~laS not I/lElltioll(d ill call(el l~'pof[s It iS Olll) ill teC'l/t }~JlS their it hgp. be.On ltco~!tliT'cd lh~lI ~hCE C~ql~ffq/ ]l/(ll]{l~[ i(]~I COIltII]I[~,S Wi£}I ht,lilOf~l(~bi[I ~}1~1~ ttit~lt, iS a dk, pliv~ili91/ O[ II/p [}X}~t;('ll a~ailable to the bE'all [I)[ISCI~I Thclc~ i~ ( Kc~ Jl(lll I'~ Jd~nc~-' thtK ~N/oi JR![ ~ ]~ ttluIlt~ d/!ct('t 9t'~ I}l[ ('xctci ( tOlkq~H3C£' Ol pELIieI/IS v, ith COlOllal~ ~ltI~ly diSC IS'. (~[l(t Of t}lO [)lo]~]e'lrl with t}/~' lllethods o~ re'LiCitly, tfil lille] iliqotit/t, J~ [hilt Ih!'~ f~() ?lol ii,d[ic~, lh~, !~lsc~, il/ ci~llli'll(~ srl/ol[[~ lJ[id c~tll~#l IHOIIOX ir'l :S lIot ~ l(KlLIJled ]a~l('lJll}~ i-~su( Itr/d Ihel( atu ]uaIl~ oi Us ~ho 5 li~,~c t}tLIt tho cat[Iol/ rltoltoxido (OlItOllt ¢,}1o[1111 ~15o }J(' o11 Iht' ~i~ai (.t t/ pdck tgt~ U1 0 ¢', U1
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~a 191 Mr WAX~.IAN Wb) wuuld ltlal infornlg*tlon bl'valu,d,le t. o!ni' ortf~ lh AyRE, If snl(Jk~rs wig.bed to ~{,l~ct wb~Lt they bel[{vt:] to t~2 f~ hi:tlthft]l cigaretle and wt, incddi,Ttla~ly do not beld~vl, thole ali¸ ~n~ bt!Idt/dtll c]galettes, they need to ba~i~ ~ co~npleIl, liMiu~ el th(~ ~]~ii~ol(~tlS ~ll,i/ll,Jl[s so they £81/ ii)ak{¸ f~ll in]bl ii/ed choi~'t. ])i OA.rF:~ 'lbe e~idoiIc~ dot:£ Ilot ~hol~ ]caw t~t¸ ~nd i/t¢olll~ viSa. re{los pll/v[dt~ at/g plo~ectlOll from the iJ~k of¸ hl,~t t ,qtt~cks M • \VAxl, AN. S J ~ OW- a~/lo~ nicotine cigarette may ilot }~av(' a low d~mger levl.] for the smoker il¸ he think~ he i~ goiu/: to have a s~feF e~;~iettl~ I~ th~tl corr~ l? I)s. eArLS ]Ptlttbelrnole, thole is ,2 wdi-docul/lel/led col/ipell~a- tion with ~.h~ Iow-tar/lo~-nicotine cigaIet[es in whiub ~Iuokt rs ~ill £11/oh~ lnole and illtla]e inolt~ ¢lf~oil/~r to gabl highel levels of i/i(o Ibt¢¸ ~nd ii/hi~l £~lllStallC('s ill ~.h~ smoke¸ MI. "~VAXMAN I a~) goillg lO O~ll {111 lily col]efl~o('$ to I'ngtt~ if) SOlII(~ qtle~tioll~ lb~t they llli~ht ]/~qve ~or yotl [Lul] ~liIt ~o il£k ~t quu~tion and I am asking it rlletolical]y. 'Phi~ Gow~lll~el~t sp(~llds inl)ney oll ~,P.c~in~Iblg chi/dreiI W~ had some hearillg.~ illdic~ting t~lltt some of the ctlls ill the xt~ccbl~iol~ l)rogrftn~ al~ i~ool]3r thought otlt 8lid ¢:n~allgelillg 111a713r £]lildl~:n wRh the pos~ibility of getting some dreaded disca~e~ ]htt ] do not kllow t h,'~t 'arbeII ~e ~:ncouI ag~ cbildlen to conic ~i] fell¸ v~ccina~ion~, that that i~ any more brainwashing than it Ilcmld be to It5¸ to inform pl.ople tbat smoking cigarettes is goh~g to hi' hazardou~ to ~beir bealt h, dangerous to their ~eil being And I [h[uk in butb ca~e~ lbe (;(P~'er111/l¢~Ttt has a re~l~on£[bl[ty t~ tr} to educat( |he public as to the, dangers of ~hg lht" should avoid gnlokiBg OII th( Olle hand, 3lid ~,/t)~,' t~lo' Ollg[/t I0 g('t ~-'{l('Ci- nattd tin tilt! olhel. Mr }~[,It,~:r Thank 5mu, l%It Cbailman Thank yell, gentlenlen, for tqlpcatiuf; lodt~y Ill A),l(~s, does *~h{! il/lf~liC}ll2 l.tlllg a~soci~ltiOll ha',t~ all2., re sea~ch ~esults that positiveb shoxl It/at exteiisive lahelint will de ereaso the incidence el smokil~f~ in the United Stales'? I)I AYRF:S ~I'}u~ altletic'art Lung associat[oiI supports research ~lmong tile scientific colnmunitg, but is not a :esemch inMituiion of itself. I do not believe there is very [l]~lc}t good marketing intorlna- tion about the impact at labeiillg l think thl,le is a stlongly held belief thai it is an it~tpollt~tlt aspect of mlt total ft~brJe it~ tllr at- tempt to persuade people to stop o~ to not strut. Mr Bl.u.~:Y. Thank you Does mlyone else v, ant to con/n~ent? Dr 0~4~:~ I think one could view the labeling not ill terms of proved nlarketing effeetivenl,ss, but iii teln/s o[ the 1 ight 1o kngl~ v, llofl S(IRI(!OIIf: .~[~l(h[Isf!S ~[ h![h{t] plodueb. Ih (;AllAN, 1~,~[I". IIliley, i~ light of the fact that ¢iga~elle smoking has ineleased ill the face of the current label suggesls it i~ indeed ill(!]'l{Cltl~ll, ltlld i£ all the lllOle It!~[SOll, HS Olll ~ldVfltiSJllg bret}lIell would say to stop that parlictlk~tr cazllpalgn and g(t a better one ] think the daily reminders that a good campaign might produce ate vel3' inl]lollant, /is ] sibd bef(~re, as a tletsist( Ill I{!t)(![l{Pd t(!Iltill(l~r There ate those walnitlgs that eome as a block-sized beadlhle such of, the Surgeon (~(~llelal'B I,£1)GI'~ }lilt daily relilihdets ] ba~e UI Oea
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192 furred in m3 aitempts Io slop people ale film as important qhe nn~ging wil~, I~)I¸ the husband who pezsisl~, in smoking: thl. water dripping on stone All lhese thinks, t]nMly do add up This ~nould al~t) tm a ~ay I)f apploaching it and estknaling its value Iql. BI,TI,FZY. Well, I)~, Cahan, since you }la~e said that you do not kno~ whether it would work or not, I}/at the changing of Ihe labels 0r whalrlol would have L~rl effeeI, shotlk] wt, not await thl, it,a%,~llfh on this belbie ~se [equit¢ it? hi othm ~olds, should ~e not gel the e~idence in belore we requite a procedme? Dr CA~IAN l think that these arv vmy hard thing~ to cstimat~ before you t(aJly get into the expmiment, if you ~ant to use that We cannot plejudge it of cam so. On the othm hat/d, ] do tbd/k that the idea behind it has a parallel, in an el]eetix'e canll)aign used oll television, whele su ntltn3 children stoppud smoking whelt they vicl~ed antismoking telc, vi~iml eonlnleloials ~hich have ]atgedy b~!('ll ¢]i~continuod That is Ihe only psra/lel i can jud£eastm asthat iscotwelned I]ut in all plobabilit3, multipll' labels 'MI[ sol ~e up I~ multiplicit5 of p/'tsm/M warning~ to fit some particular individual; fm e×ample, the plt.gnant ~onlan looking al that l~alticular label I1 will do a {~c'at de,d tttol~, ~halt ~11(' pallid one th*~t ~, ha~e at the plesettt tim~ As somebody h~s said, it has become a pall of oul background already, like a h3drant in f~ont of the lmus( m a pictuw. 3ou no longer see on the ~all. The idea of chan~ing them is intvleMing and I<'Opk' will be Ii1o1~~ liktly to i(!~ld th('rll I>l A~l~rs. Mt ]/]ih~, v,e just do not hart th,~ Itr~otl/ce~ that the tobacco industl3 does tO l)ell~Ollll those n/arkc'tinK studios, We I~lt(l~l th(' Iob~]ocu indtlSll~ irl~tMs huIIdlPds I~l I1]l]]i(,r/q O[ doily/Is ~lit]l ea(b ecllt/l)aigll to sl,(! it ~ pa~lk'ul~t~ xuossa~e i eih,cli~e "~Vo haw to re13 basically on su]no ptediction~ that it ma) be effective I h Ip]/Pll to hellene t]H.t it ~/OLlld bc intrffecti~e ~nd plobah]y ~111 in lpluoplJute t]!;v of p~iv~te and l"edmal lunds to in~et n bil]im~ dollals Io sPe it the ]ab/q¢, ~olkt,d It xlould be ]1/o1"~ approplJ~te to fo]lo/~ the judgment of expe~ts and attempt the labeling approach and lher~ look ttl cigar ett~, .~ales, do~n th~ ~oad lind sto if it is ef[(e tire 1~ ]hu~:~ You areceztMidyentitledto3oul opitfion I)l. O£1to~, to the be~t of youI kno~llod~e hl~ tht. Alllt~li(. n ~l(,~[l[ ±~- s¢w[~ltion perh>ImL, d any lesearcb t valualil/g 15[! t.fh~l~ of Iol21t irlf4 ~ ~trilil/~{ l~lbe]s ~11/ btln/3n behaviol ~iitl i(,~ lid to ~llqokil]g? ])1. OAqf> W(~ h~P,'e not evaluated lh( speci/]e a~l,eots of warning I d~cd~ bul we t~re quite larniti~r with the data that i'e!ate~ to tile l('vKd el ~llO~llPd,~' that tbe~e ~ld[llitlg lab~qs tlould atternpl to e'er lOOt ]'01 ('xal/ll~]e, ~r]loIig I)(O])l£' v, hO eklllOlll]3 ale Sl:/okt'l:, only 5S pc'llonl knaw lhat srnokin~ i a cause of Irlan3 hc'atl tdtuck~ It i~ our recline ~ith iespect 1o Ihe label that the p!'~son /~bo pu~cba es the~e i,:oducts should know in specific what a~e th~ tisls Al~d this ]ieht lo knll~l i~ il]l~pective l)l nlalkt.tine ~ulll,)~ in toln/~ id 1,5 t(<.!~ o~ behavior W¢, lhill~ lh~I lhc. i)~,l:~ol]£diz(,d ocpe(.l Of l}tl~ lllCS,-It ~ a~ Jl~(]i('t~t (d vii[ spe:~k ii/o1~. 8pt.c[hcally to 11:(, p/ople ~/hos( lami]i(% huve li(a~{ di ('a~e, WOtn(ll Ivhf/ are oil ~ilt]l of)lille] pi]ls, alld p£,o!de O1 b~ (.,'~ UI ¢,'1 ¢)
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193 ~ill Ilccomc ianll}iar ~ith the znuitiplleity ol the dleadlul cf)ects We think thezelsalight to l:r/owledgeofthl.~!~thing~mld that it i~ somethiIIg of greal valuc. ~Ir. ]~LII.~:Y ~hlc(¸ you /4cnt]l'nlt'll ~1~, ill I}lt~ }l£a]ih ~eid ~l)d ~le collccrl/t~d, gCl/uiIlely s9 aIld lighti/i][y so wilh th( tl(31Itl ol thl, Natiol/, a~ w(, are ~s Ii/etl/b(,ls of tlli~ sui3l,ottln/i~t(,l~ ~tnd n/elntl(,l~ of thi~ (:on~[les~, we uiieady }l~lve ]egi!~]~iion thai requires ~lT/,irl~ oll li~lTe{tf,s, ~vit}l whic}l you I[lay ~{r e(' (11 ll/a}¸ 1~ol a~!l~'(' Bul tht,rc areothez pzoductsthat ale fm sale AIcoholspeclficd l} COTUCS tll ndrld That ~t'ltain/y tins }lealt}l }lazalds ~,so:'iall,/I with it Yet ~le do not reLluile WallliHoc~$ oll that adl'~ztisLng oi ze stlif.tiolls ]n ttt(, ]i1111tc'd time and lesotllc~,s w( 118~t, ill the com- niittee, should wt' ilot be ]ookln~ al this alea b/.f~rc ~e ~'o to if> c~ease wml~ing la~,(Is hel(., ~hen the respected Gallop Poll says o~m 90 percent (d th( people i~* the countr~ believe ah(,~d~ that smokh~g may be hal mfu~ to thcir }makh? l)l AYR~:g "It.rOll, We ale ill a crisis S]ttlaliOl/, ~il, I think tiler file [l/[~gnitu/]e of il~e srllokiIlg related dealhs and illness so exceeds thai of man} of tilt, other issu(,~ that ha~e bern ~/istd that ul, silould b(!:in ltli!le No',l I pursona/iy ha~c no plub](n/ ~illl o s[nli Ill V,~IIII/Illf Oil ~d~o}31}] 1till In,lily o[ Ii~(~ /Ittll,fq, ~1 }{()~[~'l $ II]CI1 tioned pm~e~ mowv~,cx,~tai~dyl}mtis si,',nihcant }~u~ ] Ihink i~ i~ a ]]tt]e ln/i(a}isti~ to take ttlo iikili3/)(l Ol tHlg['lb alld the d~aths I~ m power [llol~cl~ and con~tl~te ~haI vith lhc nun/l}el of d~t~ths fton~ cigarette smoking. SO il is lea]iy a matt(i of b/,girmh/g ~lh[.l(~ ilur eimtls will hi' t/ }s~ iTI]pOl 1 ~llit MI. }lI,ll,t:~ ])o >I/LI ]m~ s[aliMic~ Im {llhel ploc]uct% m/} o{ }ou, ~¢~ to what ell('cts il has oil heal[}l? ])z. OA'lt;S. ] tIlink as pI~}si(ian~ ~e ale ~cr~ fatnilial ~/ith Ihe mullipliclty of ia:'lol, that }lax't" (diev'ts all/ }maltt/ Arid all of ~s ate [~Iz'e b~eause v,e ieel that thi oil(, pa~ticu]al l~wtot ]epreients an t,lddelnic ol nmjol proportion~ thai i~ threatenin~ Ame~ic~.n health and it ie a pnrticulmly dr¢ ~diul (,pld( mic }~ec~u~e it ]~ inflicted in] tinily, most orlon, ol/ children vho entel into a difficult tofueak ~/ ~bit ~ithout adequate inff~inlntion 511. IILU ~:y. ]lut l)octm, is teenagt alcoholism not ~eachil~g ep denlic I)] oportions Jn this COtllltt3? lh. Oa~:~. Exactly. But ] do not think out choice htze i~ to com- pare t}liIlgs that ate both terlibl3 bad. I thil~k that ue me .~eeln,ff dc~dh~ due to cigmt,tte smoking that exceed those hi most in,~jol I~lls Ol t}li~, World Mr WAXM~N VCJli my collea£,uc yk, ld at that poblt"~ ] shoukl po[nl oul just lbr the ~ecord lhat to the cl'edil of tile a!coho] indus tl) t}lt'} do s[I('13d n/oDoy to discoulaKe (hildlen ltom dlJl/killK "l'hI~5 talk about dlinking nlcoho/ic bl,verages as son/ethill}~ [hi ad/Ihs olll~ The} Cue also a ]egu]ated Jlldkl~[i}, The cigarette industzy i~ not regulated. The~ do not put nlone3 illlo (liscoLllt~i]l~ ~JOHIlg ~ff'Opl{' flOII1 $1110]~lll~ 11~ ~'IC[ ~tl(~y do lh(' E'Xti('t Oi~positc 'JhL') ptlt ?I/Oll£y illto fldxt, rli~illg eanlpaigtls to eli {0IIIHg{ )OHIlg p('0pl( lO t~dKc i~ U[I ta t9 i~,
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194 I)r OA't ~:s. In these times or fiscal coIIst~iltt~ it is impolt~tlt that ~e ~rc wa~ling billi<~n~ of dollal.- of the }lca/tt/ budget to c~le lbr the ln~rhldity ~ld mortallty of t~e us~ o~ t~bac~o 3,tl }lI1L~v No fuTl}l~r clue~tiolls. ]~l¸. (]}l~itl/i,qii Mr WAXMAN q'h~nk you, Mr. ~lile3¸. Mr. l~ogl r.-. Mr t~ll~E~s ~nank you, ~Mr Ch~irnlarl ] Scrv(~d ~ ]~,2al ¢h&irlll~ll ill *~hl~ AnLt~ri¢~iL C~tll¢~l" ~o~i¢[3' ~lld Atllelic~ll ]~t~&lt A~so~iatiol/ cal/l~).qigtl~, to lals# J~lld~, floil) v(~ul) t¢~i~, Iund the! llrogv~tll~ tt)a~ you so (doqui~iltJy illol/iot~ in 3oul¸ dil~t ent o~a~izat io~1 AII(I ] was }loiloi(,cJ ,qrld l~rou(~ to do .~o, ,'~llc[ stil] ~4n/ A~d i[ is ~t¸ tha~ reasort that I Ihi~lk the orf.~mization thc~ ~l~u lelJlt2st, l~t c~ll b0~;t $91] t~l~ Atll~ilCt~ll I~eople on t~e ha~lds of srnokiJlI! And ~t tla~ lJ ~ (.~/ivelnmt,llt 11 Js nly o~l~niiin that the (~ov~ll/n/i~llt carl b~t ~]ii tll~ l~st~aTc}l ~nd supl~lnt th~ sdt~ntific le- seal~]l, ~lTl~] to then l¢'t alld ~lc-lp ill arl3¸ way t~.~ibJ~¸ thI~ Ii~Jv~tI']3¸ ftllld~l v(~rtll/t~ll,~, ol.~g~niz~qtiiin dll IFII, sl!l]Jrl~, lhi~ illlltl,qg~ll/c]i~ii/g a~ld, il¸ you ~JlJ, tho br~dl~w~hing, b~.cause it ha~ th~ almy of l~bOi~le ~nd 1}1~ h~lndrcc~s ol¸ ~1~o]~1~ ~. illv(~]ved iTi ~.]/c C~tT/~/igll ~0 It h~s the army of p~op]e ~illizl~ ~lld able to take on the t~k if lJlopolJ3¸ Itloti~.ale~ and al'rl/~(I aild ~2qoipl~(d ~'Jth ttl~. ]bl.ol~(,v ilL,re thai1 5 /~l~rcent of¸ its total b~ld.~t, 5 p~lcellt el l~ss, in |und~i~ ie s!~arch ] fli/nkly thhlk that i~ a litt]t, bit e~l~a~ssiIlg' ~1¸ th~ lolk~ lh~ Ia~kmoneyc~t~ ofbackhonlclb~¸that progranl I dollot thiilk th~,y ~t~ E~ ~[ that¸ 1 ~ not either¸ Flal~kly, the mganiTation al~d th~ l]~att A~s~¢[ ation ~nd the othels I t}litlk ~l~ ~oll ~q~lipped lo .~el] the concepts theft yeu }~avt~ des¢lJt~d here ~od,qy }lut ]hc~ident }~ell~att and thi~ ~dlllitli~,lT~tioll 81)d ~/i~ (~<)vt, l.nii/t, iit int~t t~tl~ll l~2~tl~Jll~ th~¸ ~o:.~ could I/o~ibly lt,l~(]~r i~ in wry ~x'el~ t, coiio~l~io ~/lol)l~irl~, ,~o tt/~ pi~si(~¢nt &?ld tllarl3 orbs,is se6.zll to J~e] t}lflt ilriv,qt(~ olg~l/iz~tJoll, vOlUlll~rv ol~allizg~tiol) ~tlc}l ~ ~,oLll¸ own silo/lid [~. i~iv~,ll molt, of th~ t~2s ~olt~,ibi/it3¸ fol ',~ha[ rl/~tll3¸ ill [he l~st o oi" (; ~,eats p~,l~,~,ivt,~ to b~ ~lLIbIic ~.~i riot,, [~¢3~'~,rllil~eiltP. t)iogt all/~, "~,oL~ ~ i~ 13or ~cz mt3i~. ~l~proplia*.c lbr the Ccntr~ Govern~llent to fu~ld the sciel~tific lc tion and others take that scientific l~search .aTid do with it v, hat you c~o b~st, al~d l/or establish allother ht~ bLit~lct~l¢~¸ tip l/¢r~ dev~tecI to telling peoI~le riot to smoke? Wo'.~ld th~,t r~ot be the 'oe~t loute to I~ttne, gb~'l~ the' cir¢~iil st~ll0.~s ~i~ .ql.~ in9 ])r Ayl.~b;. Dr. A~:s. Well, I suppose I SllOUld fil~t respond to the is~-Lle of¸ the 5 petc~nt ou l~scolch And I suspec~ I know where thos~ ~i~ t~cked so t~equently by the tobacco ifLdust ry, and w~' ~ive ouf'~olves ~qIl A oil the rel~ort c~il'd for thtat. We ~LIIJtlOFL i(~s('~rch, but ~ ~a]v:0 use oul¸ budget ~r th~ ~]/pc~l[ ol }~llb]i/¸ (,dtl(t~lti~ii ~tlld i~Tofe~i(lll~t[ ~,du/~ltilln ~lld wt, ~vt, ~ [~iI~l, llkllll~l~i¸ ot ill~Jliatiol)s, a~, ],otJ kiiow, ill illally St~tf!~; tilt 0ug~/o~t l}/~ United State~, ,all t}lo Stat~s ']'he i~su~ ~lbout how much to pLIt into U~ ~q Ca ¢.9
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195 IILI~II~ ~)n;I{ k~,l.~ st3ill~< lie Illolt, r(sl,~tl'h '] bl~5 llllt2h] ]i]~l la~ I~ fllJ~] OLll solll('tbitl~ ttl~JI ~14 hl%c I)o~ ~l(dd5 [()LII2(] illl~) li(]]*ill~ I)hysiIi~l/g HIId oth~,l~, ~lll(l(~t ~tf)ll(~ boll ~/,( (~all i/loll/(~l(~ h(,li]l bhll hlth]I~ ~lr ~II)/II:KS II [ 113~1~." ill~(l~]ll~l[ ~l~kl, ~1[/5 (]l) ~ll i llI]! lll]t I33(1i(, Ii] thoo llio]~(ys illtc~ t/][il/~ tlw ATI3(liC~I/ ~IL'(~III~' ILO~ ~(] srl/~k(,'ff l*Vh5 dO 5Okl 1~O~ h~lv(~ gl]v(llti~(ill~llts stlch ii ~I~41]hoIo oV('l lh~l(~ t~,lli~ ])1 A¥1¢f;S W~l/~ ~Okl kll(>xx tb¢ budKet of youl I,klll~ A~,o(i[~iCill ~9 Wt]/ iI O/]1~ v~gI11 yg~u [hill/ (If 1]1~1~ ~1 billi/m fllllT(, I do l//)l ~hii]/~ ~hL,!t. ~10 k'liOkl~h (~ blic~ttlic~S S(~[IIR til~lt I1 ]1 ~.%el hi, i/lilit~,tl that cal~ equal theft ti~tll(' It i~ the' Ilil(qt]~ll b~/~lllc(' that (O~(('l~> kl¢" Aiid ] shale 5OLII CoIlff('l'll~i iib(lu[ (~o%(!lnll%(!ll~ ] lbilik xle all do }~tll i~l S(llil(, poill~, ~,'o11 ~,l/t](,iti(1) h~4%(~ Io dlcid¢, ~hi,lc, (~c~velllm<,nt ~hou/d take ~ sLm/d ill/d whtle it sbould not Alld ~/'e bt,lic~rr, thg*t ~ll ¢'t,idc>mio theft kill~ a~ Illacl3 Arcleri~<~I~s a~ C~¢alc.tt¢,£ do ~s very ~',olthy Of ~t yt>z]~,I~l at/el lllol(]it/~tl{~d ap l)l (IA'li:s ~V(~ eli' t/lltictllml5 iIllt'l¢'~tt'cl tel lll{~ i~LIt ~lf helw ~botlt ~IzlokiiI#5 'iVy, hild their /~t' al~' iII ~ v(I~ husil~ltin~' ~llld }~o×~>d ill lSO~}/ioi/ it/ teitll~ of he~in~ able to b;.' t'f~t'c>livc ii/ tbi~ ~te,~ ~>40>9")r) "]h;lt is ~hakl~ i'q/2]~;ill~ili it/ ]be ~ll3nu~ll hud~!(t ~f lhl ~illol~j]l~, SllhCOlllrlllltt,(~ of th(~ I~,~ll 1 A~,flclHtioll ;tl lll(~ 1i]o1]1£!1]~ Such a public sol,ice, mess.~; u, by ou!" p:~t e>.i)olience, i~ ]ik~l) to JOllliat rl'hi~4 ig O11(> £~t Ih/' I(~l~(l12g %lrh~" th(, }ll'~I~ A~sofiali[lll fit~ds th~li il II[~('ds to %1(1114 toI~'thol v,i~h tht' l'¢'dt'll~l (;ovt'li~mt'l~t \'~'c' ~vlluld l/at ,*~sk thai the I"l~dc'lal ~]¢lvo1lll/l(~n~ ~S~,111/If~ <ql] Of thi~ ~t' sponsibility, but I~,el that ~ith a snl:~ll amout~l of n3o~t,5 il~ th~ (Iftice of Slilaklng and Ilealth that t}lis co~ld bl'il~[ "co~(,tt,er forc(~s that cot~ld ~¢¢o]31)1]i~h this job in ~ x/a3r that lhe,3 sil~gl5 could not I~t't'bltll$ the b[~st example el this is il~ th~ ~r¢.~ ot t]~r)OY~Oll=4iDII which is ~lTIotht~l t'iEk f~l~'[()l tol c~q~(liovll~l'l/]~ll dig~.~lse, whole ~h~ Nc~tion~l }lea~t, Lulls,,, and Bloocl h~stittlto h~s heoli oxl~oo/litlt!ly o~ iec[ivt~ welkins ~ith the piivato agel/cip~ 1(~ h2 [lip, about a lemalk- able cha~gt' in the tIeati~/olit of hyl~ettoIlsiol~, al~d we ale ~ery ttr~tt~fied that the incidence of stiok¢, is ~hlliIIg it~n~a~ kably, So ] tl/il~k ttli~ is all [~lea where the I~'~>delal (lovt,rim~i~t ~ith a slci~ll] I~fftllt ~llllking x~ittl Illiv~lll gilmp h~s bc~'ll (~xl~occlii3g]3 (~f~ ftcti~o alld that is a n~od~l ~(~ could tkdlaw l)I. CA~I~.N ] ~tlll l/ot all economist but I IIo not gbil~k it i~ :~king too ii/ueh to 13rc~c,et that tile plol/lei/ig of vc)lutlt~ry ol'~lt~iz~l~ioll ar~, illg OI1~, O ~a C'I g* O
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196 What wlth ihe estate tax di~rence~ and what with dh~inlshed in~'Iii~e~, vo[untsry ~gt'ncie8 a~e gc)~ng to sunel¸ along with oth~r~ ~o I think at this particular tln~e it ~ou]d be aI)pro/)llate fol¸ ~he Go~'e~nri~ent to help MT • |{o¢~:~¢s ~'ii!}d hack nly tlnle, Mr. (;hnirnl,qn Mr. WA×M~.~ Thank you ~ery n~uc~l, Mr, I~ogers, (~ent]eil~en, thai~k you ~ry ]~l~ch for your testinlony tgday. It ]las ~I~e~ vc*'~ hel.ofu] to us We appreciate your takii1g the time to be with us Tile iIIIroduction of our next ~vi~ness is a sI~oClal pleasure. From ~9~I to ]!)(;5, ]~ ],~the~" Terry played an integral role in identify- in~ ~nd s~bstantiatil~g that cigarette ~mokin~ [~ a major hui1~an health risk¸ We have Icar~e¢l ~uch i~i the IS year~ sii1ce D~¸. Te~y ~ou~(le~] the a]aIJu ~t is al)l~iol~riate tod~y that we solicit the views ljf" ~]ii~ iIlnll wllo ill~t~e tllt~ ])os~ioil of ,qui~t~oll G~ii~r~] syilol)ylllol]~ with ~-Ill(l~iilg plt'v¢ii~ioll ~4'[ ATI:M ~NT OF I~I~THHR T}~{RY, M,|)., ]'IHIJADEI~|']H A, I'A, l~ %:~v Th~k you, Mr. Chai~T~ai~, n~c~nbc~.¢ of the coi~r~it- tec | tliq)Icc'ia~c your invitln~ n~e h~e to gileak on this very ilnpor- to ]9G,I ~ht~n I ~'a~ ~ui.~eoll (~ene1~l |~JJol¸ to that I wa~ ~u¢ce~sIul ~i aI~oiIlting a rely ~ne s~ienti~c ad~'iso~y committee to review the su~cct, a~id a~ a re~uh, on JaJ~ua~y 11, ]9G4, we published the ~esu]t~ ~f that co~inlittce's ~lucly~ ol¸ ovi~r ahllost ~ year's ~.11d it b~, be~n a }la][Inalk ir~ the ~i~[d of the recognition of to~a¢co srnok~ ill r{,l~tion to disc¢~sc ] ~if~1 wry ¢~I~1~i~d that ill tht~se I~ years since that reuort ~ag I~]ea~d, that I~¢~nc ¢~r t]1~ ~gn~ficnrlI lir~diT1~ ~nl] COTlt']U~ion~ of tlla~ ¢olnmittee h~ve been reI~diated As a I~lat~el of ~ct, the main thing that ~las happened ovel more recez~t t~z~les ~s that ther~ }las been further sLlbstailtiati~ii of n~aily ol¸ tho_~e lact~ "~h~t ~ere brought out in the original Advisory (k~m i~littc~-~s le])ort, t~ild w~ hs~ ext~nc~d ¢~tll¸ jilf~tlnstion ~ith ~8td to siilo]~iii~ 811d ll~8~th ilito o~ht, r ~ire~s th~l~ wetc nt)~ knol~Ii~ for nTld ~v~71 SolIl~ ]llot¢. ~llbst~llti3] Sci~ilti~c iil~llllatio!l oll ~]ii~ ~tl~l. ject o[ he.it disease, awld particulal]y corollary disease So ~]lat I .qnl ve*y g~atiI~ecl t]la~ this infoi~lation ~s b~ei~ fur- t}ler substantlated and that it i~ readily available t~ the public and is s~roIlgly eildorsed b~' tlle ~lledica] I)rolbssioi~. I ~nl ~Is0 inc~I!bl~d ~.o vou, MT ~'a×nlan, i~I¸ hsvin~ sO ~uCCiI~ttly in tile Nc~velnbcI' I~, IDOl, i~sue ol th~ Co1~re~i~nal l~ecord, to }i~ clli)~.~l[i~'ed tht~ il~Iolriiatioll oil th£. s~ll~c~t ~o th~~ ext~iit ol¸ b~iI~t~iTII~ ~llt i l~ iIlll~ortaIlce o[¸ the Su~ect At t~ii! ri~k of lleint~ ledunt~nt, ] ~'i]l h~vi~ tll ~ly ~i~lin v,}Int s!!~¸ i~I~] o~ ¢lul¸ ot~IL'l whnI'~ hl~e ~id, thllt ~-Iiii)kir1~ is i~l~ ~nl)s/ i~Ic v~,nt~l~le ~mls~, of i]i~l)ilil)¸ and death ill tlle ~I~lit~d State~ Ioi]~'. ~Vh~ll inl)rl, c~l~][(~rl~[rl~ ~t~ti~nkent t'(lu[d ]~e rn~i]e in ~iriL~ of¸ le s[~<~il~ilit~' ~I¸ ~he AI~e* ican ~eol)]e t~ ~Io ~oIllet ilhl~ ~bo~? tJ O ¢n
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197 AI thi; ~;tn;c 1 ~{Juld I]kl~ to s~y iu t ~1 I' oJ([ r~},,JL:t N:'O(t~i ) (~, ~?ll} [~C.CSLI~.( ] }/~v(¸ ~.LI~'I/ ~{l(~t~ ~{/ltl~!~ll~l)h i~l~ ~lilil ~ltL~ ~: t}l~¸ ~,1~111(I that hE~ to~l~ Prior to hi.- clt.~lint~ II1{¸ OfhPi~ o:/ ~%l]lo/:m~ ~mc] lh:Jllh, wu I1~([ ~ C](slirl~}LULISt~ which w~J'~ cle~llud ill the Ptl/Jllc ]I'.~kIt~l 5;~1~i(~ ~lhich 8('; i,{.d i[] t}l~ S~nL(¸ t~{ll/~]~l dii(,~!iOn '1 Ii{. t~Ct thief 5,]~ {~li f~I]O }8~.//[ ~t/c¸ 5.~IIA:. i~¸ ~hi-. fi.,~.~.ft/l n~ ~ll t{ll]l-, Of i~-. ]o~tIi{}n ~l!id ilLipOltSliC(' ~lLI] ~tr~!iin~ aILd fund~ I lh}nk ~-. ~t I!l{'~lt I]tt /i~¸ u~ l have be(~n ~leatly conc{rll~t/ by thl. ]arlll}l~ theft (h{ {)hie(¸ 0[ ),~i/~l~{~inc~]lI 8nd ]lLidgo( ~i~.]lo~; io C'Lll C/O/~ll /~I el011 CLll 0l]~ {}~/¸ t~m~ l'{~I¸ t}]i~ and ] l~{1 lh~t wl~ shol]id I~/' al)i}rociali~/., ~[t l(~t tc~ ~.ii~l~ific~ll]~ cl~,gl{~, t~ ~cl~t~[~¸ SC]I~ikcL~¸ ill k{I'i}in~; thi~ i,io l'~O'a¸, il¸ I I]~l~¸, t wIJuhl li~:t' to spear ~pl'~iFila//y ab~}ut ;~ ll'w {J/ th~ I~gi~lati~e InoI~ll~ ~hich aT{ b~f(~l(¸ you ] think th{¸ ~iEst one that ] w{)uld lik~ 1{~ tak(¸ t~I) i~ the qu{stiol~ of the slat/Itoz5¸ c~e alien/ ot ~1[ OfIi< (~ oi~ Smoking ~l~d ]lealth A~ y(]LI Rlio~¸, ~ the i}iEscl}t time thi~, ~lllil i~ 81~ ~{hl~ini~l'.~,(iv~ c~'l~ili(~z] {>f th{. Secrelaz~¸ [~nd could be ~ilJLd ouL ~lith IhL, swl,c'D of 8 ]}c~n At ttl{! i-an/(~ [hll{~, Ibis sLl~{.c{ all{{ lhi~, Olg~nization i~. s~ hnp{)rtaT/l that lh(~ £?ongr{,~ should m~nithst its inler{,sl il~ this tu Ill{¸ {l{~l~t, Of {~I~.qting fl M~LUtOIy 8~nl~lt ill oLIn¸ (~0Vl~]lltz/~iit; ~rl}el5, lh{~ {}lliee oll 8I~ok]n8 ~]I/d l ~{~]lt h I w{mhl al~c} like ~c> t~rul}ha~i~(' [h~ l~:t thaL ] /hilL]; [h(' ~f[~/}unt {}f lnorloy ii(c~55.qly ~ol¸ ~.h]~ plo~l~nl }~s not hcon {t{l{.qll~llc]y ii~(~t in any restJ{ct Wh{nyou think lha~ the Ch~aiin~h(,u~c.,~h{ 1}~I/~ ce~so~¸ of the (}l~ice ozl 8n~oking and 1]{~a]tt~ had a bt[d!!~t o!¸ about ~ ]niliion back in 1971 ~2 and today w~ t xl}~ that {}/ti{l¸ t/> ~,p~'~ £~t{¸ on ~l ~hil{I (}f the numh/~r (}[ {zni~loyp{~s and nh[IL]E ~,~ Iili]l[(~li ]ion nOW, ~fIoi¸ 10 ~.eal~ Of inflatioll FiaTik]y, ] would be' {/eligh~ cl il¸ lhl¸ (~on~z{ ~s ~ouh] ~lll~ozlz~ al~ 81~l/TOi~IiSti01} Jev{l tOJ lhe Of¢ic~ on ~ql]tokil/~! ~nd ]l{c~llh, 8Tll} 1 would t~{~l sc}]l,~tll~,¸ l(.{olnln~'l/d that ~ l{~vt'l of 81(} lnillion ~ 5c8r (~el¸ ~h(~ no×L few y{sis would h~ t}IOll{~t },'lllth~rll]or~', ] ~lOllld ho])!~ th~t thP A])piolllia~]oll~, CrJlntl/il~(~..~ • .~ollld r(.~j~r~ild to .qlleh ~ii f]/]{hr}liz~{ioI] f~ncl ~i'~{~ ii~ lh(¸ ~lllll~ol~ ths{ ,.~e 11{~od for t}l~ i~log, lanl ]l~ zelation to other 8st}{~ts, I think lh~ definition of tile l(.s~)ons~ bilitit s {if tile Ofl~e~L on ~moking and }]~ahh which ai~¸ in{lud(,d i~l lh~ I}ills is i~articulally inlpc}]tlmt One thin£: ] w~}uld like (~} espe- cially ~'Intlhasize i~, th~ rt~quiTonl~nL of ~111 anrlu~tl lt!iOOlL (}~ I~lt~ P~blic tlealLh ~qer~ice m~rl the I)epartment of tlealtll and Human ,w,o~li~o~, to lh{~ {?oIIglo~s Oil th~ s~i(~lltiflC ~l~e,2~ o~1 smoking ~nd health I ~,ll r~*caIl back it, 19135, ~h(,n the fizs[ 8rmbki~Jt~ and Heal[h Act was ]?ass(,d, that Oil{: of th(' authozization:, al]{l I('CltliIOEI]f~IILS and I lhink it has been t~emendously inlpmtanl. ] 811} I101 8llr{ that wP ~lould t~ave aeculnulaled ~}1o 3111o111)[ of ilJfC}lIn~ttioll O1 glltt{n lh~ gnlOtlIl{ of SLIt)IIOI [ [h{ll w{! 11{~o{~c'll ill thp Public tlealth Se~ice te caHy en fl]is p~og~sm had it not L~[~en ~e qui~{,d bS' (he Congless lh,~l the I}ct~altmci~l submit an annt]al rep}]t
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19g I lh TII, this JSSL~e i too irlil}O~t~1;t tel tdlo',', it lo s}i;I b3 aid tltgJt ttai~ sl/~,tdd be' co;itdlt/c.d '[h('l( [s ~t qtl('s{ioI/ o~ ~Jul ll{'edill!, l'L/Clle te catch ill l!l(, tlt'ld o[ SllhOkillg~ a]ld h/:;llt]l ~l'}le [{d0acco ilidustl) o%el {{It 5t;ll~ }]~s Io IIcltcd[3 s~dd "we I/cod itlole Iogeatl/.h, tire [~lcts gtte l/or ~]l] IT] ' I tllil~k nlDt of us iI1 tile sci{,ntific fi{,Id know tiler tl!is is {l~ii l,]elel~ ilresp;msi~d(,, theft t}l(l{, ~I{ {r~otl~,t~ f~;ls to lie[lit in the di lt'('lkII] Iv(' IIt'ed to ~{o I xlould also sO',', }is, ltlei( is jttstiIiq~Jt karl ill JIEIViIIg molt' lkSe¢llC}l ']'t](' I('~['~*1{'}1 }I¢}X',~VOl, sh:~t ld be i/lJlll~lti{-2 dlt~,c'ted, i~" that w~, knc>x~ sm(ikMg g~flc,c'ls [h¢>~t, /('t[llill m~:rt~S ~lt{] ca~}:.{'s [eltaill disease col/diliolls, sol [ha{ we call le~l[l leiole ~t0o~ll exactly }low it does it, arid ~e shc,ul(I kr~o~ ]IOXXt~{,I, ~ thillk ])fo!)~hl~+' %}It" II~l)st Jrlll}bltFtilt t~lJi;!, ~1](1 ttl(~ Ill Ii~ bt,}lg~x k)igal giudir, , 1o tllld{,lst *llr] x~}/y t~p/)I~]c' lIm~klllg s~r~klrlg Ill (l{I}~'l wolds, We ll{'{d ltlIl(l:~ Jrol {ling t5 [1{' {ll I(s('~lltdl ] tls(I ~*j~lJ]~tttd th( jllo/'isi(,I/ it~ th{ bill foI I~qtliliIl: ~t }~lltlt ~,VIIX]]II~[ Oil (~{/]lettl~ lhill rll{, {,xlJtlli{,d lill ('llll:.tllliptil~l/ ~{}l s{,x {'[k~! 3e~tI~ I scll'(d ag tile l'l/icf of {~ciI del{,i:~ltion to th( \\'o~I[ ]I{;llt~] ()li[~lili~cttiOll, l~t'~Ot(" lecentls, f sr,l~ed oll ~tll ~/(]vJs~ll5 col/i. i~lit[{,(~ to It/( 1.~olld Ilcit}th OI~,I~ni},{ Ii(lli tin tile sub joe{ J'lt~nHy, l },{~xu bet'I~ t,rilbltrz~l~,se,d Io {hiilk tll~lt ~,,{~ ~l~kild Iu qklll( Stlg}] ~l lie.dill %/tllllillg 0~1 Cit.klltt~tS ltll Ct}ll>lllltl)tioII b~ (luI 0//II rl ttiol~aIs, a[/d y(,~ ilot it.q/Ji/e it l~lI ot}lez ¢.o/tl/tl i(!s It is tltl(, tll~tt i;I IIIost o~" Ihe lI/Clle acid. lllced COlllltli{,.-. tll(3 ]to,i [~3 th(,il ol,,ll l~l~s IOqktil{' h('l/lth w[~li]illg~. J/tit ~arle oI tht [lleas [ tkillk of I t!te~lt conc(,ii/ to I//fllly td tl., i~, [zell]ellctotls lIlov(lli{:ii{ eli tit(' I*lli {d tile' t/,1,1eco hldu~t~> 1o dcx¢'lop, still/Ill It~ aild I'x//gll]d [h I]/gL[l£('t irl ttie d( I'elotdrlg, oi tile 'l'hltd \%'oild coklittr]e.- '1'}1{) C ¢{Icl!}tl J('~ ill {~{']l{'Ia/, do l]Ot }]a~e l]/{' 8C{(l]ti~iC exct'll¢llqO {al dticie/ic3 to C~/du~tte the ]]loblori/a {'oiisoqLl(,t]tly, J lea1 t}:{it x/( gle{! /t,l,I]dlg cpidcllllcs oil~ dE,llth 1o so:ll[~ oi oul de~t.Joi/irl~ lolc.i ii Ii~'lg}dl{lis, Ivbl'l(~ wl si/<ltdd [)c~ tli']l~ ilI vgill/ f*lot] ~llld {*l}lt'I l]lklgs il1 [h('il II[al lll~t] dOV(]OplllelIt I ~t~tll{I like to C{)Inl~iei}t jtlst [)lii,l]y g/to )tit tlit~ qtles!ioll el I{~a\- iil~ t}le I~'{<d{,?al (}olorl/lll{ 1/{ ()u{ of [hi9 lllld ]t,t{blK %olUllt~OOl {legal llia*l~tiol~~, ¢llld local ~ttllhol Jl ios take caie el it I thillk Ill{}ett {If II~, i{ i]i~'{, Ihl{ l}~i<~ i II ilJiy I1[){ {I I('llsoiIglb/{ {~II preach ~l'(lu kIio/l ~el> ill,I] tlmt if" ~1 of this week t}l~ }cd(,I~*i {~OV(,Illll]Ol]l dlt)pp{,d its lt?14Llil(lllt2ilt Oil till ht,~llth %'r IltlJll~ t>II ~ld" %( [[iS[l]~ aild orl pa{'kag{ s, t}~e3' x~o aid be, diacollt b/uc>z], *tlid ileal /. Of £)lll Illul/]~'i[lDlilio~, or e;'ell State.- CO%1[E~ f)E> e~l{oli¥<' ill /{'Cj/)]IJl]~4 itlkl{ S!}l L {}( I {,t]ub~>i!l( ll{ Sty. Ill 'l( #It{' C('lteti?l tllil7 'S like' t}/gll. ~/hie}l tilt I"ede+lg~l (}{}~t?ti l]/(llt II/~1~'~ (k) ill 8Limu/~itil/{~ ~d Issi~tit/g, t~tl{ £:t t}l( s tll]O tilllc', ] Iealiz(' tiat ill,ill3 el {12e [~IobloIits ill li'ht ol/ tli s:ilokln/ ~lLt~e ~: ~<i3 ii*ll,C}!l iI~i ~l,-ll(,{ I ~}l IfacEil I{:li()l]~ }}{)[[] XfJ]III~{t,{!t a~ltl b)¢'~d tlt}~- £~1 I~lrlO¢~t t{{](J/I ] t]link clio of the b('st {'x*lll!/~es ]1] l}lis It'sl}~'ct is ~sl/~t x~t' C~]i iIY~OILIT][ tly gl/loki]l~, {)F th{~ g£~t(ind~tly { li{~c( eJf f-Ii~{l~¢i(l~ {-tl a Itol[ s?r>e~i:<'r Ill that Ir'£~]/d ] l}li/k tills i~ riot rill I!('~1 ill x'>ld{]] tile }'V>CII, I~a] (]<~l{,Tlil:l{~nt Cl[l tiC[ ~.t3 (ll(,Oii~Ol} OXO(~I~ iii ielgtIiori to } t de:l~al k,l~iJdil]~{s ~/lld il~st~ll]l~lJosis r- etl t,a I,.i 0 {.rl
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199 ] lhirl]< l~l~t ~{, }L~l~t~ SL'OI} t)l{~t I!lt COLIIIt]3' L!J£' ~I¢i Cl:l'- ll]t~t h~It, }~It,II tt~;(~tl h~ ]octtl ~olLIlliltlcllt~ t~[Id tlnt ~ucd ol ~tHiz~Li}]t5 I~:< l)ii~IJ \(13 ~LCIi~C ill l~li'~ i*..~{tiIiI ]I i~ SO]tlC~hitlI ~hit]l ~iI'~ tctll (~o ] t}]i]LI I}i(, (~oi~gt(,s~, ill it }~ Vi(~,.iil~ t~l(, plo}d~,nl ~ it l('l lit t,~ m~my a~-p(cts of snlokh]~ alld hi, limb, }l,J~ Io f~zth~]]5 tk~idt ~}lil]l ot ~}](~ t~ thiN~- th( ~(,¢L("l(~/ GO~OIIZII]E~]i~ g/OI/(, C~LI/ riO, OI ]~l{dL)tlii- m~nI]y Call C]O, all(] ~hich thL'y cannot ¢Ii, a~ ~(,l} C~,Itl] (]t(~IClin'.' s}loLlId noI ~ak(, a[tioN it~ l]l~? ~]i~((tion ~t]C] II(~tI1}K~t:% Dud I h~(' ~mt t¢Itzc}l('L~ I~t] [ 1}]itl]~ lil~ plitit('(! ItIl>Ii to 3r(m gOt~ into nloII' deh~i], but uL tho ~Inlv llltlt' [ did %/~]llt to tOttCh (}it ~OItl(! O~ thost It/ It[(,Is ~/}lic}l ] [E'II //e!(. t)~ L~tt~;(( ~t it]IpOi t~HCC. "[ h~,nk you, siL [Ih "]c,zJ~'~ pr(par(<l stat(~n/(~nt [bllov,~,:] UI C~ ¢.A .1
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200 Statement ~ Dr. L~t~er L, ~ ~,Ey ~me~ Su~gc~a (~eaer~1, t:~$, ~,ublie ~Eeal~ Service ~r~h 5, agg~ h~£tS~p~!~!~!a~eS~atac~IS~~ ~i~cethe~e~r~a~i~ue~. ~eontI" he~l~ a~r age ~u~d b~ ~a¢co ~m~i~g. A ~e~t clear ex,~mple is the d~a~, e~p¢c~al1~ ¢o~nar~ heart disease, ~. pregnancy, i~ chre~1~ bro~c~d~ ~e t~tc~ inSust ry s~ace ~e first e~e~e ~f ~ ~ health d~n~ ~e~t, ~f 1,~,e? ~moking ha~ bceo el¢~rly ~ho~n ~V be the ~my~ p~ev~b!~?!d~}b!It~? r.D
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201 f~r ~h~ AI ,~ic~l p~,l~c ~,d ~ot ~ M~. C~l~r~,~, His po~ti~c, ~4 r~p~t:~ ~>~ ~ ~h~r ~p~r~ ~Ltn~s~s, A~ ~ ir~L~r ~f ~cL, your Ch~ir~ h~ ~/I ~. [~t~ ~ ~e~L~,~ ~ ~ the p,~b~rl~ ~ h~ r~,E~ rks ~ the C ~ ~L~,~ ~,~d ~t~d ~ uTviv~ L,
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3) 4) 202 ~eT Ch~ ?e~ t i~ ~ra~r~n/ ha~ ~uff~F~d fVO~ ~ la~k ~f b~e¢. ar~ ~upport* NOt ~1~ has the ~uppor[ b¢~ Ch~n~e~bl~ ~n~ l~ c~n~istent, bat ¢,La¢ B~pp¢~t ha~ bec~ l~mpcd ~it Other p~ rcs~,~n~i~ilitle~ ~ the ¢×tent tha¢ ~t ha~ ~o~ had rcliah~, ade~u l~ve/ ~Lich ~ill be ~e ~ir~ to carry ~ the C~r~s~ion~l ~a~- I Ca~t belle ~e ~a¢ thi~ is ~ha int e ntlo~ ~I tLe C~8~e~ b~ i~ ~he an~ r,~e~ ~h~ authorization, ~o~r V[[~ a~ publlsh i¢~ onn~ ~ r~port t~ ~he C~es~. ~2. e ~eed a t¢ C~ U1
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203 in u~Ln~ t~L~ te~r,~ ~L~ke] , I dO me ~th lUN a?p=ec~2ti~,c e t~ e te~,E. I F.ave wor~p~ ~[th ~n/~k~r~ over ~ e 1 ea~, i: ]: t~ r r,,F qL ~ C[ = ~'~t f~('~ t~Le tenetS1 ~r~e CO~ r~5~i~r ~. I~ t C f~gh~ Its, ~perat[ng I ~r~nyl~ e~r~e ~ ~ ~eatlcn ~f ~n I~tera~ency ~lLr~ ~t~ee on SnL~'" U1 U1
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2O4 ~ron~ oE th~ p~ckc.~. ~e,.~r~h~1~s~, the Con~re~ i~ its ~,~ • ~r~,e~de~, I a~ ~r~t~u~ ~a~ the C~e~ t~ok Ch~ g~a~ ~ep i~ i~, 1970 ~t ~ ~]o ~ f~l t~ th~ p~n~ ~ ~r~ ~ ~ ~ ~it~r i~ ~o~e~ o~ i~ l~ro~,,~n~ For i,~=~, 1 ~ ~h t~ ~'T~ i~ r ~on~,,~J~ • r o~at ~,~8 "~ r ~n~ ~h~¢h recurs ~o ¢ ~ r ~,, d~ ~n. he ~.ot~ ~p[t~ ~,d ~f ~ ~e t~t ~ c~n ~ ~d b~ the I~ ~o.
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~05 io) I~ ~or,r,~E ~ar::er ~ ~h~, t~e~ o~ he~!~ ~ar~o~ ~ p~c~a~e~ ~aw ~ ~ea~'a~7 ~ffee~v~, b~ ~e~rdt~v~ ev~ ~ ~ ~va~[~ re ~ve~ ~t,e v~h eel, ~ ~he :~ ~ ~r ,~ c~i~ ~ury ~a~ bea~ ~ ~e ~al~a ~ h~ ~ ,%1~ ~,: a~7, I ~I~ ,~a~ su~, t~a~ ~I, t~e lat~e~ c~ ~< ur:~ta,~c~ the ~,u~ ,~11 ~ ~t io,~ ~r UI Cn
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| ~06 ]TI ~ro~l¸ ~jC~t¸, Wh~t iS th~ lI/ost S[~ili~('~nt n~w in~ll/l~lioll W~ h~vl~ /~lllc~ ~/~llt t]l~ ]l~]t~l ~t~ i~f ~liicl~il/~ ~illI~¸ ~llul¸ T t~tl~llt 1)~ ~'~:l~ll~ ] thiIlk lhE~ conlil'nl~tion ol¸ th~ etlect~ oil coloJlal~¸ ~1¸ t~'l[E~,~ ~IL~ ('oioIl~lly ~/~'~l~ (][SC~&~' i~ ~ ~l the nlo~t ~i~z~i[i~'~Lil~ ]t i~, ~ht~ nlo~I ~i~Ili~C~TlI ~I~L]~f~ it i11~. o]~ t~; ~o nl~l~y nloi~~ [J~lt~ll~ ~ln¢] ~'hll~ ~tl~. ~t]l~l~ that ~1~. ~f ~lll~idl 1 ~l~ol~¸ [l/ltl~l ~nc~ ~I~I~iCLI/~T¸- 13' ~ll lel~llol/ to ~n/o~iIl~ ,~l~d ~legl~ncy. J~ut the nuTIIbel¸ of" ]Jeople illvolved, the potential d~l~el~ ~lld ~1~ ~n ill ~i~ ~I1/[~I~I~tTI~ ~lt.~ elf [Jll.~n~llll~¸ i~ ncl[ ~n~thin~ ~ll ~/llll~l~ll~ ~li[h thl~ t~zl~ll]t~zl/ iT1 ~ WAX~IAN YOU nlenlioIl~d lh~ Ol~ee of ~,I~lokin~ an~ ]Ie~lt~ th~ Iv~ I tll~l[l~~, ~l~l~t~¢] in [tl~ n/ill ~i×t[t~:- ]~ ~]~z~[ ~ol It'~t? ]11 ~'~:~¢EcY No ~he (~l~a~il~ghou~¸ ~/ Sl/~Jkiz~ alld ]l~a]th ~l~ ~l'l ~1[~ b~¸ Jll~, ~'~ ~ Ii/~I~z¸ Ot¸ ~Cl, ~lell [ ~/a~, ~li~on (~llt~z~J ~l~d ~ i~l~,I~tt~.d ul~I¸ t~l~ i/~nle ~lld ill that ~p~C~ty ~l/~[I SI'~l~'tc~t~' II~l'Jl li'[iillt~ r~Ul~lly tl~n/ ~h~ ~LII~]iC ~]e~]tl~ ~l~ [et~ ~/I t~l~¸ (!I~II- ~T WA×~,~A'~ ~'h~ Of~'ice ¢~f S~l~:il~ ~c1 ]Ie~]tt~, w~ich i~ i~o~¸ II!lll of¸ th~ ~l~p~l~n/en~ o~ ~|e~ll]l ~l/d tILinl~ii ~l~iee~, ~ ~clillt,~ ~h[~L~! Ih~t tt~i~ bill '~ulL] n~]~' ~t~tut/~ly W~' ~ould ~u~hc~i~¢' i~ ~ ~ll. ileal L Ill ~[l/~ Co~.~I illl/~l~ ~ll~ to bu ~'~lT/d~/~ e~[/ ~rc~I by ~}ll~ COIl" A~ it i~ nOW, th~ O~i('~, ~uld be ~b~]i~h~ if th/. ~l(t~T~r ,~d thl. lt~t i~f tile ~/]n/ilLic~tl~tioll ~l~ ~O it It ~/l//] /~ ~boli~!~/~/] 1/~¸ the ~lffi~ of M~l~e~ei~t aI~d I~u~eI, jU~ st~il~[~' the ~tel~ ~loll/ thl. LlU/]t~et ,~o~, you ~l~,l] I~i~h ttl~~ (~/lll~,l~,~ Yilu knl~lv thi~ i~ ~TI ~lulh!lt tht.n ~ht, ful~din~ nlust ~ thlou~]/ ~he Ap]/I~Jllliat~oIl~ Comnli~tee YOU illc~i~/~d p.~ ~i1¢ ~TII~ ~ T~lil]~Oll W~ ~}1~ ~LI/IOLlIIt ~'~l/ ~O ~hi~ ~f~ L ~y tile ~'i~delal (~r~l/~l~t ~OW tl~C~ Ol~ice i~ fu~de~ ~ $2 zlli]lioII, with 1~ e~lp]oyee~. huge ~einmt~zlt tluit!~lul r~¸ tel ltl~El/ ~l[Ih ~ [irlll~h~zll lit t~li~ rl/~l~k Xlit~ld~ ~-~ond, ~11¢] ~l~h~r from ~,~Jl¸ ~[~(LI j~ii¢~, of¸ ~olkiT/~ with t~IL~ [h~! A iplll JiL~illl/~ ~llnln/i[~t.i~ ~to~Jl~ lllc.li~l~!! ~llltlIiJ~lli~l[illll~ ~ove t]~ ~ ~li[][oIl ill ~h~, cL~I z~l~t ~ld~t? ])l¸ 'I'~E~I/~ ~11 (!h~i~JLl~II. I thillk, t~ b~ qu[t~¸ J~llk ~IId ~t~al[~t[¢ ~l[~out it /~l~' l~lllrll~nd~lti~zl flolll Lh~ del~llrll~rl~ I~IILI~¸ ~Lnd t~onl ~]1~~ ]'utl]i~' ~]l~]th ~l lvi~, if y~u ~ll' i!/~T~'~t~ iTI 1lie I/lIII/J~I'I¸ Of¸ ~lllfllO~t~e~ i/e~c]t,d ill the O~e /If Sill~kiI~ ~i/~] ]]l~lt]l ~I!C] ~I/~UTIl Oi¸ fLlll/{~ II~de~l is ~l~t~l~' ]~l~[[~z'o~l$ ~)~iou~¸ it [~ ~ ~e~i~ion that [~ ]Larl/]ed ~o~vn ~iozll I~1~ t/ip o~ (~ll~ ~.i~:tl Lilll.llt \~t1~ ¢1~*~ tI~TIiCi[J~¢S iI/ Jt~ ] do T/~I kl!~l¸, hilt [ l~L[rlk ~l~/. reJat[vely re~el~t re~l~l~tion ~l¸ the ~iiect~i, ~h~¸ he~d ol¸ ~h~ ~ltl/plt~ Ill¸ /tll~t ht~ thl~u~ht ~ t]l/~ d[ll~ti/In ill ~h[([/ it ~i~ ~il/t~ C~
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207 ~,} th[~ ¢~It i]i Ill(' ]lutnb¢[ (if (iiii)lo~(i,3 ~Tld E~el I}!~ TilC~i~t i%li D,~AX',IAN YOU toLlchi<] on lhl¸ ot]l¢,l ~I~,Lc( o[ the })i]] t}l~t !hot~hl g(t .~i;nl(, ~(tentio:L, and that i~ the ¢x~)olt el (OL, LlCC(~ i)r(<l tlcts It oi[l t]l(¸ Wllited ~tflt(~ o~ (I~L~I~, pat [icu]~llI3¸ to ~] I~il d \~ o! Id dovelopini~ COUllt ties It i~ unlikely tilcil governmc,nl~ ]in~i: ~n3 kind (,f pri~!ram lot niakizlg n~ai}ahl(: t(~ tl~t ii ~}tizen~ ilLlozii~iticJ:l about t!le d~Ili:els el¸ v[i1okitlg I (]ouh~ very in~c]l t}lal thele i~ ~ ~olunt~ry h(,att ,~ss~!,i atlOi1, lun.~ a~oc]atioyl, oz¸ eailcer society t~nywh(~ze iie~l¸ the c,~llihc~l we hal'(, i71 lhi~ COUlltly l,~'(, li~i~(, ilpl[n[l(ed ci~alette~ to ])o e:M?olte(l to th(,s(, cotl[itrii,> ~it}lotlt any hc.~i[lh v, alnill~ l)o 3oil havi, all3¸ b!~is Io }~eli( \( that cxceIl[ by word of lllouth, occa~.h~itall3¸, solno (~" th(,~(, peel)l(¸ eoLl]d i~ve ~uy idea that this h&bi( beit1~ pl1~he(] ulloll them i~ ~i dall~el¸ ou~ oni~ and lhal lhoy will live, maybe die to icgzct it? fil TEI(I~. It i8 ~l. ~(~13¸ coillplicatcd qttestioI1, if (;no, ca:l ch~iractel- ize it as a question In the filst place, I think lhme are a lew o! the mole educated, ih( nlorc advatlced ])(~o])}c in those c,ountlie~ thilt do t(,(ogni~( it. ] don't thhlk Ihe v:~sL ulajuzity of them do ] ~illl not S(II~ ]lOW Yl/aIly l~otl]£] [le il/t~)~l}le(~, }lov, hlall3 h)Oi~ wIiLl]d h~ itl~olnled ~lil]l 8 hea}t}l ~lalning OtL (igarelte p;~('koi~(, Itl](] ]abels On the other halld, I alll SI/1C sonl(, iiiol( ~oLlld be I"lankly. as a loyal Amezican citizen I v, ould bi, n/uch mole happ) tothi,~k n(5 Go~eznment lequi,ed (}/i~,sol[of/ctb~linI lot its Joroi~ll I/[~J~hhol s ~s ~dl ~, its di]]l)c~tic C~)IisLInlptioIi OIl~, othoI thi/lg iIi thor r£,:,l<~ t ] Ihink that thC'le isn't ntLich thtt we c~<l do as Amezicml eilizens ethel than lL'q/l[lil/r~ ~Ll~h £1 ~l~tll/illl~ lor all Arl~licf~Ti 13Iochlct~ ill those coolltrie. ~lu[ I think ~o have Io d,,t,¢,,~rl a g,oat de.i (m the \VoHd }1( d/h O]~!;llli~tioli and its ~¢~ltious o]~;ti]izdtiol~,, like fi~o P[~n AI[IE]iC,~II ]lealth Otfzanization, ~}~ic}l is the tegion(d oflice fbt Wile in the AmcHca~ ] ~]linl~ v,(! have to ~,folk, sup])gli, }le]p ~¾~}{f~) aTid iis ic~,ional ol fme~ and activities 1 think that th[~, is I}m tiring tImt ~e (an do bert and most efieetively. 9his, I think, i~ air(ady underv,.~5, 1hat the World Health Organization has ~n eNp~,zt con~ln~tt(e on slllol<- ing m ht alth They l]tst tie;tied thnt ])mliculal phta~,e, "~moking el hell[h " FurtheIInmc, last year smoking wa~ taken as the \Vo,ld lleahh subject of tile 3eal, and Wmld tleafil~ Day was devoted to the sub- ject of smoking or health. So, I think throe are others who will he ~mking on it ] d/ink that v,c need to assist in that direction, but the, re ate c(rtain things that ate our defmite and direct lcsponsibility, such as the labeling of om export products. M, WAX~AN Mr Bliley. IMr. }h u ~:~. Thank you, Nit'. Cheirman Thank you, Ih TeHy, fm nppca~ing Io/lay I)octoi, ill this time of fiscal lestraint that ~e are in, don't 5ou think it would be more prudem to evaluate the use of rotating cigarettt labels helote we ~equire them? ca u] cf!
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208 Dr. ~]'~:u~. ] am not convinced that ] know ~}mt you ale talking about ~hen you talk about fiscal austerhy and *otating ]abcJs for tile shnple reason that I do not believe that the rotating labels would pose any real appreciable increased cost hl~ BLItE~. You don't? I)r Tl:m[', No, I dl>nJt 1 cnn't sue ~h ,, if you ~ere c'hal/zht~ tht! health walnhlg label once a "coat, lo think that changing the presses to change the wordage of that label fol thd p~ltieular mal/llfaCttlrer wollld cost arlything Vely mtK'h. I call*t bulicve it Mt BIJLEr. I think you ~ould find plant nlanai~els ~ho would Ic~l[ you [hat whell ylm shut down t,quipment and nlachint~ty and stop peoplc to make cbang~ s, that it does cost eonsidelably, Dl TIQIRy~ I Catl't COIICp~v6~ a p]~t/t h~\in~! to be ~hL*l do%ll ~,or3 long iol thol ]m~ ticu/ar change, sir. M, thlt.~:v 1 see. Tim oih¢~r pint (ff my qtlec, tion is ~£' ('ouldn'[ kllo~ %l[/at this is zoing {o do, sa ~hy put it in? I n/can, as a phasician you v, ouldu't i~,c(lll/l/ael/d ~ tllIJC'(!~tlle fOI ~lf2~irl~ a p~tit'nt lltltll It hsd bPPtl cxaluated, ~ouid you? I)r TI;III¢~. I (Ioil~t think the question you pose to [Itt is tltliL( ~t ploper one m could be ~msweled dhe.'tl). A~ a pb)sicbm, I wou]d ~e<'mnmond to m~ patient anbth]ng that ] Ihotlgbt x~ould ill/plO~( t} l[ tJ~IS011'S bp~ll[]l, ',fb~.thel it ~las of ~ ple~oBtiv( ol 8 Cklfdti%t ta'p( I ~m/ qL1]le conviI/CCd that this would add some mo~c to th~ cf[¢,c ti~ent ss of tbu health kno~ h,dge or the Amp,lean peoph., if ~ had l"*ankly, I ~tould ]ikl to sou, Mt I]liley- thouf:h ] don't belh.ve ~Ol] /%(I'(' hi tho Cot/~l(~ss ~t tba~ tin/6!, ilot or) this ~oi/~IltiI~(ff., an)how back in ~!iL~5, v, hen ~e ~e,e tlstif:.inf~ beto~e Ihi corn nlit[of X~£ ])l¢,sonied to the ooll!tllitt£'o nl~llkcd tli ('i[,~ll{,tlC IIL'I~- till t,~ckagl and h,comn~ended stltci~ic exp]icit ~alnh/g The Congress, in its ultimate ~isdmn, decided not to do that and decided on a less explicit ~al ning oil the ed/~e of the parka[ e Evln that ~le wele grateful for, b('PZlLIr-[~ i~ ~,l~'q (h6 [It:M titl[~' tbit (It( C4)n~ltss }lad [ver ofhcia/ly Iuvllgnbed ~nloking as a health danger. I thhtk ~l,p hav£~ COli)O ~ ~%~Q,- i]o~l, ~h~t ttlpi(! is l~asoi] to b!,]b~t,( that mote explicit ~mnings, in(no ptonlblently d~spia) ed and ,otat in~,. in type, would he more helpful FOI h/s[atlee, %%(. doli't h~ivc ~ll/y till t] ItFLI]~%, [1:It the, (VJd£HIC(' i[l ~oI/)6, Of tbc SttldiCS [bfyc I£'C(~IlI]~ bcqv~, ~-Ll£gostl!d [hat a ]al~cl I&LIIX]bpI O] tho ]}o(iple ~to aw01e oi a b~.ahb waillin~ /in th<. prick- On [}w {~lb{'l h;uad, ] thhlk frankl3 that Vre do /lot }la~o ellougtl (~%i([('llC(' to s~y it iS Itl(~{r f10111 t}lt ~%/c'dlsh (,XpCl']Ol]c(' tb;~l so lit]t] SO <qBd SO ~]ld So ] thblk [h(~li! is s/ioI]~ C%idcDcf t}/cq[ it SLIff~£~,[S t}]at SUCh %t'(qlllin~s arc h£~liJ[~[ MI BIII~:~ Finall) tI/elllo sa[,,oi~gettin-~ aclo ~in thiscountIy ;co ,e G I l's 1o s~>'s 9~ pe~ ,nt. lhat is a pletty Idgb i~tin~ If any member ol this body has ' ~ • ,l~ pClC('t/t I/¢qfl](, l])~ (}l(y (lOll[ ~/ofly tOO ll/~2ch Dbollt th0 othPl ¢n Delc£ti~ t¢ UI 0 UI
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2O9 I), q~:i~u~ I ¢,n~ ncJt di~/,utin~ ~, incl ol ZI~ Gallu}~ but M~. (~,llul~ }/~ b/'cl~ ~ i~n~ [,c'~lc¸ oll solidi¸ o/ }d~ lio]]~ ),]1 I~i ii~:~ Ato 3,o/i Stl~!~iin~ h!! Inii~/i [Jc ~lll,l/~! hl,li!~ I)1 ']}l~}~ I ~1/i ~tl~,~tillg }1~, ]~ ~llon~ ] d/~l/'l I~/,[i/~v~¸ !~ i~ll¸- c(,i]t c~ t}/~¸ liCOj~[~ at~¸ ~l~Tc o~¸ ~}1~ iil~,~tlilt~! of¸ t]l( c~Hl~n~ ~lo~li]l MI ]~!,ll~:~¸ \Vh~t do you l)c~s/~ theft ~ug~cst[o!~ o:~? ])1 ~1 [~lct Oil 1/13: C~c,~f~licbl/~ fine] dis~u~[ol/~ ~it}/ !uoi~lc )~]t¸ ~/llLl:~ 1 ~c ])oct/l/, n/ov~n~ ~n ~ll ~]~l' st~bjcc~, t}l~ la~l~]iT/~ ]t~]f t}~l¸ l~u}~}il¸ ~l~,l~l~ f~ll3¸ ~v~le Of ,,~}l~t ~ou ~ttll o~}lci Stllg(,oll~. G[,Iltt~I[ ~1~,~, $~icI ~ll!~Lll f~I~/0k]ll~,, ~, h~q~ })0E~l} ~ocL/n/~llt~,~] icl~ll(~/3¸ iJl T~LI[~I[c oph~inn IJc~]l~ ]/ocsrl'I ~hi~ sInc)~/¸ lhat t}~(, (~ol'crl/I~l~;ll ~.I1~] l~li~ll' ol~n{z~dlol/~ }l,~e ~uci(/,d~d ill ~:duC~ti;/~ ~}/e AiilelicalL I)U~)]iC? ])r ~] F:I~/¥. I doll't th]Ei/~ Ih~y }l~L~£' StICC('~,~ed ill cJtlc~t[II[~ l}l(itl (~nout!h lX~r IIIIIF~y l see Mi. I~LU}:~ ~¥hcn you ~el'e t}lc ~Ul~C~Ol~ C~encral in 19(~, tht' rc, l~lL o( yl~ul Ad~i~(,r> (~orllillit[t~i~ eIltlJh~i~l~d thud sill/~]~]n~ ~nt] I ctuo~c, "~houli~ be ]~beicd '~/~LE)ituali[~l~' to di~til~ui~h il cle~Tlb¸ fl<~lll a([(iic~i~)ll , ~incc t}/~t ~ii/l~ ]lutI/o~oll~; Sc.ionti~, h,qvc 1oi~(k ed t}/i~ di~/hlclion including, ]oI¸ ex~lll/l~lc, Ill ]~hlLc~t \V~nde ill ])~)n't ~,o/i [~(]ie~, in ;i(,~¸ of ~hl, sci~nt~c ilnc~iI~linl~¸ ~1/ t}li~. ]h TF:III~Y ] don't ~ant to allele about t]~( dct~il~ of each stic'cif~ it. x~LTII]I/~ ~.)11 Ihl~ o~}lc1¸ I/~lnd, Jct ii/~, ~" ~,l~, dil£ctly t}/~Jl ][ }l~l,~ ~c~ IL ll~3¸ p£1~/~ll~] coil~ic~ioll /}1~( Ci~,~T~ll~, S~ILOi~iIB~ i-. ~ld/l[cIi~ ¢~ ~II¸, ~In~Y In ~pit~' o~ ~hal .~o~n¸ ~cl~']~o~¸ Conin~ittee ~id i~ ]Jl, ]'HII~'~ ~'jl(,~c ~le [llan>¸ thhl~, v,~, knoll no~ ~}la~ ~]ll..,',~]vi~o 1~ ConlIl!ittce did not know ht 19i;~ Yes, i~g~l~Le~ of x~}l~t the coll/l~li~lt,~, lcl)blt(,d ~t 1.]~ i]l/l~¸ Mr ~hHl~v. hi s]file of~w}l~t Wez~de ~id in ]!tT!~? I)I¸. ']'~:L{}C~¸. x,V}/~l~ c]id t[/~ colniil]~toc .~13. f~}~uI c~l d~ov~i.~ul~l (1~ o~l~c ill ]!tG~ lho~¸ l~oiiLtl~d OUt ~ }li~}ler illoIl!t/~t3¸ l~t¸ lltlil~n~ ~!11O~(~1S At t~/~[ l[lIll~ ~Jl~3~ ~lelt~ t~ul~lHn(ll) ~tt~i'}l ~ c~t~'c ~Elll OI, the other hand, I t}lin~ the e~idence ~ince that tithe has quite cIe~I]>' dl~nl/ifl~lT~l~d lh~ i}~(,r~, i~ ~l c~lll~/~ nI/d i~ff~l l~!]HIhln~}lip ~Lnc] thi~ ~n~ clc~.aTI~¸ brought out in t}~e 1979 le~olt of t}~e Su~e~l~ Mr I~LU~¥. SO you woult/ c}l~llfte ~nlLd shy il is no~ ,ncldic~iw, a~ ot~tlo~'.,d to ~11o1"6']y ])I¸ TF:L/I~', ] ~aid it is nly conviction that ci~alctt~, ~InokiI/~ i~ ad dictate l~ litany l,eoiJ]t,. MT ]~ITI~:~¸. I'han~: ",'ou, Doctor¸ i%~l ]~O~F;F~S I)l q~'rl~¸, h~l~c you ~ny trHin[n[~ ol¸ i,x~[,T~l,nlo ol¸ })~c]~ioutld iii b(,}l~x~ior~/ re~.~lrch ol¸ ~l~h~,iol ~] ~c~encc? 5~ tO F~ 0 cn ui
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T! 210 I)r ~l'~Y, I mn having difficulty healing you MI. ]{oo~:Rs ] am smly Ila~e you any backgJound m tzaining in bebavimal science or behavlolal research? l}l ~1'~ ~P,Y That is a difficult question 1 ha~e not had form di~ed ttahdng in psychiatry, psychology or behavioral research of that Sol'l MY |locates You have not had practice in thatatea, elthcr, have you'? |)l 'l'~:mly I doll't thblk mW physiciml |nacticed medicine, as I did fm really, nlany yeals: without inaetic]txg in full *ocogtlition o| htmlan behavior. MT |to[~:k~. Well, ] am a iawyel | praetlc,e, behavlo~a] science in ptacti(ing law We all practice behaviolal science in om way of life A~ a medical doctor, imve you t/ad any t~ainint~ or p]aetice in ht!havio~H] ~Cit!FIC(~') D~. TEmtY. I have had a lot of experience in bohaviozal sdences in dealing ~ith patients mid their problems, Mr ]{oov:es I anl wondeiing wh3 you don't adlhess the subject }lI'l¢~ tOdcq)' hccatlgC this I~J/] really adchesse~ blhavior ar,d bdmvim l(,S/~ileh of the Anlt~ric~m pl~oph~ I h q,pen to agiee with Gelng~ Gal/up. At least he is in the ball paik Until yousho~'mesomethhlgdiffelent lain going tobelkve that 90 p~,rc~.,nt of the p0pu]ation of the countt~ agrees that ~iI:a- lette smoking is harmful and don't ]~ecd to he wmncd anymotc 'J'h0 qul,st]oll 1s |low do yell IiLske t}/elil b(have aceordiiiF4 ~o lhe sck'nce theft the) kno~? ~]tmt vub lm't hus nut h!en tteldltssed by any ~itl~ss heie this morning, f~om a background it] that ~cience, mid ] ~lou]d worlder why th(,le ore no bohavimal lesearchcrs here this Illornblg to tell tls the al/gw£,i to that (inllup ll~osa~sllmt thepeicentageofsmokersin the countryi~ do~n to the lowest poiut in his|or) m a7 3eros ]t seems to me ~hat this Congress adopted a /~,w years back, and youi scpmt, whlei~ stmk.d off file debate, it seenls to hie tbat what is being delta is wo~ king. ('m~ you algue wkb that? Ill q'HIE/~ It has beeninteimittvnt and spa~modicover these 18 )~als !tt t}l~ snr¢l~ time> ] thitlk ovcq ill we I%qvl iila¢i{2 pyo~li,>s, and ] amvtl~ bappy fol that. I thblk ~e should keep up what ~e ale doing, but we need to do mole. Mr ]{oct,:ks Thank you vet) much Mr \V*XXMAX, Thank you, Mr Rogers l)l Telrv, ~gairi, In~ ~ppreeilltion fol )our bring ~ith u~ You ~l~Ie ~l'Iy helpful to us rl'h~, s/lh..ojll]lli[{~.Ei ~ill ]lOW I~,c~'~,~ Llnti] ~. IV~'heleui)o]l> ~t 12:1(~ the ~hcol/~li/ilt~,~, i(,ccssod, to locol/Vt,l/e at pm.>thcsamedayj A ~I F~R HE('E:4S [']'he stlhcolillllitteo lecoIlveIied at 2 pill, lion l]enl) .A. "~Vaxit/~m, chah iI~at/, pl ¢'sidhl~ j MI \V~X×~IAr~, 'J'}lc me¢tink of the subcommittee ~Jl] p]ease come to oidel Ui t~ ca 6~ C~ Ca
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,~.f.¢.¢,7,., - . f- " f 4 21] Out ln~t 1,a?l(] todd5 Iept('~t'ni~ th( t~d~t:ti~in am ptL!i}~n t~(]t. £~[ici~[tioll~ }]lJc J~tlbil! i~ (ouii-L,~ l~l~ 1}it¸ Ot:tclOOl i~(i/~rt]~ ht~ AssocJal]on of AnJelJca Mie]ga/,] ~Valel~on i~ I{ustalch ]}Jl~,~t(~r ol t}ll¸ Advcltisil]g Aq,qJ~]nt~ol~ and t(,j~l¢~(.llt~ th[, Anl(li~,n Ass(Ki ;11i(~1~ o~ Advcrtish/g: Agcnclcs ])~xid :~]h/tulJ ]s \~ ~!~iz~tol; Court ":/.I lot t}1¢¸ Ma~azhll~ ]~ubli~het s Association ~,~e ~/o~lld Jik(. to ~tl(olt](¸ u~lc~l o]¸ 3otl tocl~lj to t~t[l ]l(alil!i~ (!oml~ fiJ?wald, ii :,ou wou]d, plea~l~ Without i,hjl.ctlon 3oul fu[] pr~p;ll(d sta[(,ln(nt8 ~/J}] b/¸ ln~td(, part ol the l~,cl~t¢] ~( woLi]d li~t to ~t,~k 3o~1 to Soil/lll~l J,'t¸ ~hose stsl(,n][,llts iTi ~!~ bljtt¸ ~ p!lJOd a~ po~s[~)](¸ so w(¸ ~81~ hart, arl oppgl t~/?/ity lin¸ q~e>llo!ls (:AN A~O( IA1/¢)N (}}' AI~VI]ItllSIN(~ A(~I:N('[HS, A:qERIC ~N All VE]~'] ISINt; FEDE}~A'IION. AND ASSO(~IA'IIt)N O]~' NA~ ION,',L AD YE]I'IISI:]I~,: I;RI( RI:IIIN. ((}/:NSI;L, O['~DOOR AD'(EI~'ilglN(~ AR~OCIATION (11¸' A~IEIUCA; AXI~ IIA', III MINTON. ',~ A~41[IN(~I (}N COI~N~EI, ?qAGAZINE PUJII,I~III:II~ A~OCIAT]ON ~l WA'r~ ~SON l ilotdd liko to thank the ch~it ulan ~n¸ giving tll~¸ time 1o tcsti~¸ today o~ behalf of the Amcrlc;m AssoiiatioI~ ol Ad xelli~inf~ Agencies, the All~('~i(a~t Adv~rtish~! ]qderat]on and the A~socJation o[ NatJona] Ad~eltisels [ would a}~ll like to hltrodLiCU myself ] anl }{t,s¢~l?L'}~ l)ilcutor of¸ lht~ AdveIt[~in!t A~o~iation, bayed ii~ I !radon ] ant ~t}~/~ a munlbt~l ol the Council tm Natio. d A~ademic A~ards 'J'h¢ }Unction ol the Advc~dsln!, 2x.ssocJ,dJoll is Io sc( 1hat ti~( il~ ll,?(~,[s O[ hKtHUI~C[UltlS, ad~oriiMn~ agent]is and lh¢, mcdi( a?e z(,l~l£~:,tq]l('d ilL [h(! [Jnite,d ~i[i~(]Oll~ and ]:mope~n p:~I[at~(.nts, ~t?/([ tO IIISL/?C t]l~l I',SLIC~ such ~1¢ lht, (me u/]{it~ di~'u SioN }]e~(' ~od~> a~¢ deb;/led J~il]>, and in l}p' ]i~h( cK al! ~ailable ~e ~tt~ch We have ~orked dos/dy ~tlth the El:( Par]iamtnt, ~dlh the COLmCJ] OI ]':uIopu, and ~he }~litJ~ll (;ovetlmlent on the quc~tio:ls t'onEeill]riP ~h!! advelt>m/: of slc'ol:olic dlink t dvertisblg to chi] dru?h nnd thc~ irlcidencc of lu/sc' ad~ectisill~,, c}ainls It is also ~elvx~nt fm me ~¢, poi~ out th~ the. Ad~m(i~ing A~,c- allon did imt del(,nd cigarette 8(iv£.t~is[?lg x~]~hout first l(s!.¢~chb,g ~l?¢~s ~lho?e ~1¢ f~dt /ID(OIIt4[II O1" 0tll position If" O/It r('gC'£1}C]L }}rid indi(ated mca~ otconeecn, I would l~ot be ht'~ today. ]n short, t}le Advetti~in~ Assook4tion v, ould not ieop;lldi?¢ its h*ld won pn i~ion of lesp(ct iI~ ~e',u?opc, b> dcl~(nd[n~: a doul)ll\d catl~[: | do hi,lit,re! that t}/(,l~ &tf ~ood ~r(Itln(~g (Ill I(J['(([I][, ~]K~ measures pl oposed in IIIL 4957 ~,]~, I(,~)011~, d(,l[ve flOln the i~.>{~¢~rc]l o~Jd(,t]~( av~i]sb](, ii}]Jc]l S]/(IX/S ~hat leslrJctiolIs on cit;mette advertising da no1 h;~e em3 ef~c't on ovel,dl cigarette COI/SUmpIiOIL }~e, stt'lctions do hOv,(~%(*l S10W tl(l~xI~ ~11[ (I~D~I~'I of S]I/D]¢t'IS to ]0%~-Igll , [(1~/ lliCO[]I]L' blands The' e~idence ~a[~gt~ f~om economt,tdc studie.% which iso!atc the il?/ll~ ~10I fhCt0r', ~,uch ~S [u ~ce, a.d health Catl~pdi/,llS oll consump tic,n; [h[OLI~!]L to ~q[?~)?SJg$l[S 0~ pulc(ptJo]l of cJgalc, tte ads C4llC} atdJ ci~:~wtW a&, thtou!d, to compmi~ion slttdie of the difI~,~ent mat- keI ¢.,n tJ O Lq U1 0 Ca
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212 In m> opil,ion a lot of information can be gol [Tom this din, Switrclland thele is ~irtuall~ comp]ete flt.~,donl Io ad,tqt]st fb]lo~l ins a rccenl icfercndmn In Nmway and P~Jland b~m~ on cig u('He adv(lli~ing exist In Norway a n/a~siw' }lcgdth camlmign has a> CCll[lllt4Ili(!f] the bH[I. YL~t IIUF C'd[litE4 E'i~t41t[(~~ £'OIlSUIIlptioH h~ hardly vailed over the 5 ycals helole the ball oz' the 6 yeals ~incc In Svreden 1(] health warnings rotate oil ci~mcit( packs, but lo ~']IL~C[ CI~4II hE" (k!t~Ct~,0 Ill ]'~iLI/~llld th(~ HI,till (I]IE~CI Ol th(, })d[i ]7~tg heen to s]ow down th( transfer of ~moke~x to ]o~-ia~ brand The resealeh evidence suggests ckaHy that th( go~elnnlcnt~ thai have tHcd to reduce smoking by ~estrieting tobacco ads ha~¢ not heoI~ ~,ucc('~sfl]] Thl lea~cm is sh~lp]e, ci~alel(e ads do not sell the idea of sill(d,. {iig (~igai(t(e a(]~, ~,(1/ blt~n(]~, al/d Irlost impoltam]5, ]/)~ ¢~r and [o~ir lllCCl~il/o hlarlt]~ ']'h~ (,~ideiic(. [IoFII ecolloi)l(,tlic at)~]ys]s b~lc'/~ tip t]/h- cotl/Itioll soll',c vJc~/. ~]aily sue]/ stuil~c:~ ]lav/, now bccll (olldll(tel] ill ]~:tlt (ll,t on cigmc/(e and si?nil~ malkets None sho,~ gd~ exciting an3 in fT(Ic'Nce Ot}ltl ~hall at the. hlall(l l(~l[ Thi~(xplalnsv, hyh~alth nlesslgeson packudon't ~lolk II i~l~l ~4[~ely ea~) to ~:eil ~ hey, I.um~d ]t i~ %~[t,all~ impo~sitle to make ]~l"o]lil~ sI/)l)k~ I/IO1£. ci~!;ll(itt~ [)I llS,f~ nlol(. ~a~qflhlll. ~hlotlgh i(]vl,lli~ in},. Similarly. modil:vinf the bcl,avlo? of smok(ts not 1o smoke i~ (x~lcnio]y lll/]ikI']y ~0 rc8~./l~ ~)onl }lc~/lh w~ltnlngs oil i) l(ks ol irt ads h, addilion to this aspech h(,dth ~,uni~,es me sh ,v,~t h) Hte exl- t(I I(~'(qvl! hi tile United Kingdom it is alnlc)~t inlp/~ihle to find a £nlolor who doE'sllt kt,o~ t[](~ tie,It}, IK~z~rci 'l'([ it i al~o aTicll~t itl/po~'~ihle to iind a ~,tnoker ~llo kno~s ttl~ ~lOl(IS t/c,e~l ill ~h(' p~ck ~Yht li~c[ i~, thai ¢~thlq p H'mnlit I~ such a~ illcon/(~ and plilt' ]~l'] mc tu mme important Fo~ (x.nph, in IIzitain. cigmette ion- sumplion fell b) 15 percent last )era du~ to a lolge price ¢i~e. I%i thl,~e few,eros, it is my vil,~l that }l R 4(i~7 ~il/ not contdb uto 11~ gi (]('clitle ill cigaletle consunlption If il is (l/act(,/] illlo 1a~% it ~ill, hol~ov¢i, contribute directly to a [,dI ill the I,~te of ¢on~er sion of smokel~ from high to low-t ~1 hrmld~ "]'tll, r( qt.alch tvid/mc(! shl)ws ~h~li I~ountlie~ such a,, till! ~init~l] Staws and West Geln/any ~helc cigaletto advertising is p(unittzd have OXl)Ori~,ilcect a nlole lapid c'on~er~,ioll late to ~o1~ ~al (iga l£'tt~'s, than (otlntlies ~,llch as No] I,,av altd Poland whtze adv(~tis ins is brained An) intt!lf(,l~nce with "the el'lcctLene~s of hand ad- vl.llishlg, such ~ts that plupo~ed by HR 4957, will cmtainl5 s/o~ dowzl th~~, co]l~.cl.8ioll ]~l.o~(,sE. Finally, ] ~ould submit that lIE I)57. il passed, ~ill stt , dan ~OlllUS pi({.t,([ent. In e\rt¢l) coun[i,t Jn }:ull)p(, and ilnpo>itioll ot cigal(,tt( a(]~el tJging I egul ~ti{ms has ~-iglla/t d the S{al t oi d(,nlal/d~ th~l the n(Ne~ti~i~g of othm product g~oups b'., i(~tricted I ~/lu/d su~g[st thai il l| l{ 4957 is en rot(d, il wil] /~lnl tile h:l~i g)~ d{rnan/l~ toz the i(,stli(tion o{ Ih(~ ~(/\(,H] ins tb~ mmD othe~ l]lodtKls iT1 CoiilmOll U<~( rod t!, As ~LICh it S{li~,s i~t the, II(K~II ill the, zmilht,[ ~)Nil,nl {)t thL, Unit(cI St it(. 5q ¢n ta
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213 'lo c'orJ~qud(, I b(lic~c that }1 }~ d!)55 ~ill ]lot suc~'(./¢1 in ]1~- ~ilr]~ rio t!tlOl( onu o[ []to illOSt I£,C(~Nt SLLI£]i¢,S [)lOdtl(((] 11) ~1 lilt(Ill t(' s(,alth ol~,al]]~llloll ill (;('ll[l[i]l~, ' (*~(,l) CO~IDII~ ill t}/( V, OI[(] t}KIl ~]~ IZi~C] lo ](du(c snlo[;ill~ by I¢'~tlJc~illf4 tobacco ¢clvtlt[~m¢m!~ }la~ bobtail LII]SUCC('SSfU] " *J'he e×pozil]l(,nt ha~ b(im t~i(d, arm has I:dltd. ]ll haly eigalctte £~¢l~c*tisin~ is to be' allow<,(] a~ain after a 2~13EDt blt}, d/Irill}' Is}l[('}l pl~liot (oll~!lll]Iltlon t¢*~c' by I'() pc!(cld In al! tJlllbabillt~ ho~mc], th~ I,iH, if imact*~d, ~loudll ha~¢' tlr4fl}Iltl li£~t( ~lnd uz]]ooked [oi COIIst'qtlL'nCOS of a suriou~ li~ltll/(' i ~i]l be happy to ans~ei all} qU¢sIioI~s, but bcto[e i do ] I~otdd like* to nlc'I]tiol] that copies of m3 *<l,o~t on this ~ub.lcct have, bcc,~ i[lS(lt('(] IOI ~h(' leC(q(~, and tll~l(]o a~ai]~b]¢' ]hi /ll([l]~()ClS (IF I}]( COlDiI/ill((' ] ~/111 D(' h~tpliy to Suppl3 th(' colltlll[tt('~ ~il]l Copies or ali~ other l¢,~earch ('vid(rnc( I ]/a~e rcfened to 1hank )ou fill .~our time (~,II \ValC,lson~s ptei,alcd slatt,/l,t, nl l~o]]ow~] UI C~ UI UI UI
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214 ~esti~L~!~!la¢~ J~ ~i~Ls~ fo~ tl~ ~h~ ~!~rJcan A~y~yl!si~ ~e~er~tio~± and ~he Ass9%iatio~ of N~tional A~vcrtisers ~f~re ~he Ho~s¢L ~bcoP~ittee ~n t[e~l~ ~nd ~h~ I~iZon~e~ of the Committee on kner~y a~d !;o~1~1c~ o~ H.R.~9~7~ T~e Comprehensive ~r~okin~ Pleve~ion Act O~ 19~] 1 wotlld like~ f~rst of ~11, to tha~ tLe Chair~a~ fo~ ~lvln~ ~e ti~e to testify today on ~¢h~f Of the A~tcri¢~ ~s~¢i~ lion eE ~dw.rtisi~ A~n~io~ the Areri~n A~¢rti~ ~¢1~ tlolL, u:Ld the Asso~iatio~ o~ N~ltion~l A~/crti~cls, o~L ~i! legis ]ation d~si~ne~ to reduce cigarette consu~p~io:~ b~ ful~l:~l Je ~trlctin~ ci~rett~ ~'.e~ti~n~. A~ ~o~ a~ ~twar~, ~h¢ a~elti~i~g ~tduS~vy iS ~Le~Vil~" ~ff¢ctcd b) ~o/,:rlcn~tio~s in )o~T le~isl~ti~n. We welce~Le this oTp~r- t~l~i~y t¢ appear befor~ y~tr ccmnitte¢ to ill~tr~t~ the p~c- the very ~t(kre ~f yo~kr intent S~¢O~])¸, I ~uld lik~ to intrcJu¢~ ~y~elf, ~r~ t~e ~)igar:LTa~i~h t~e UI/it~d Kingdom." I L~V~ ~ ho~01~ de~rce i~L ~o~orvti~cs, and ~ i~a~te~s d~gr~ in Ma~tlng. lh~ Adveltising ~ssnci~tien ~ e~!sted f~i ~lole tha~ S~ )~ls. It~ ~l~c~io~ i~ to en~ure that th~ joint inter¢~t~ ~ ~/J~ac G~ G, ~a ¢o
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215 tt~er~, ,~l~J~illl~ ag~lt~i~ ~rhd ~he re6±a ~r~ ~rl~¸ reTr~¸ research e~hat;s'~lvc]!¸ ~e ~r~Ti~er~¢e c'£ £a]~ a~ ~i~ad~rt~ child~r~. ~rt~e~a~- ~<,l]~e~ ~ ha~r~y ,~ilh ]e,~d~rt~ o~a~i~t~o~ Jl~ t~t,~ ~ Oom~L!ssior/ ~r/d the ~Jtis~ l~e~rt~e~r o~ ~]e~h or, ~ T~]a~ o£ cigarette ad~rti~ in Lu~ope ~ith~!~ f]~'~t ~e~ar~h il~ I~e issues i/,io]ve~a. ~:~ ~pcr~! t~c~ ~ear~ de'0~ill~ t~ ~a~JDu~ ~e ht~rt" tod~y. UI
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ZI6 In sLoTt, the A~ivertisin~ A_~soci~tio~ ~ould ~o~ be l)re!~le~l ~o c~cle~ i~ ~u~pe, by defen+lin~ ~ ]o~t o~ dotlb~ul cao~e i do b¢]iov~ t~a~ ~he~ o~ ~oo~ ~round~ for ~ei~¢~in~ ~tc~re~ i~L rcc~ yesr$, ~h±ch sho~ ~ha~ ~tric~ions o~ C~are~e l~*~ictil~v]~¸ ]e]ati~ ~o ne~ 1o~-t~r b~a~d~ to ~oT~su~er~, ~:,J II~ercY~re havin~ ~TI e~'e¢i the v~ry oi~po~te oi" th~ inl(T~ed. ~he ~C~car~L evidence I h~ve ex~1~in~d ~ar~ fron ~ajo~¸ (,¢orlo- rlet~i¢ s~[ics, ~i~c[~ ~tte~t to ~solatc t}~e i~ct c~ valicti~ cGns~i~I~ion; ~T~h to aoDr~is~]s o~ c~ns~c~sr n~cen~i~L~ of CCrq,~i~OTL $~Ltd±es O£ the ~£~e~I~ l~L~opeaTL p~a~kct~ ~)lerc pi~ni¸ In !~i~ 0plnio~l ~ ~r~ d~1 Of IL~efl~] info~atio9 ~a~L b~ do~ivc~ ~io~ this rLa~ of ~,~ ~in~e ~h~ i~o~tlo:~ ~EI~ ~ i~e~]~ ~*onl ¢ouutrv to ~ou~t~F i~ lurol~ FOT ex~p]e, irL 5~it~l~D~ the~e i$ V~rt~i~!ly c~pietc £1~edorL f~r ~!~c ~Tl~factulcr~ t~ ~arJ o~ c~a~ette adve~t~i1~ ~. Ii ~o~a~ ~* J~a~ }~aith ca~.~giL ~ a~cor~LFanied t~e c~a~ctt~ a~crt~s~ b~. Yet
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217 five years before the ban 0r over th~ six years since. Ix Sweden, no les~ th~n !6 health warnings rqt~te o~ Ci%aret~e packs, but no effect can be detected. [n ~]and the main effect o£ the ~dvertising ban has been to slow down the trans far of smokers to low rat brands. In tile OK cigarett~ advertising is allowed, but consumption dropped by 15% last year due to a very ]argo price increase. The research evidence suggests clearly that Of the governments that h~ve tried to red~ce smokin~ by res~rictin~ tobacco ads or by increaslng the nUr~ber of health warnings~ ~0n¢ h~s been ~uceessful. The reason is simple, cigarette ads de not sell the ide~ o~ ~mokJ~g. Cigarette ads sell bYands and most i~9ortan~iy, ]ow-t~r and low-n~cQ~i~e brands. The evidence from properly conducted econometric analysis hacks up this corlmon s~ns~ vlew. A large number of s~¢h i~dies have now been coi~duct~d in Europe on cigarette and s~nilar ~arkets. No~ show ads exerzi~ any in£1uence other lh~n at th~ brand level. Thi~ partly explains why heal~h ~essages On packs don't work, [t is relativcl~ easy to sell a new brand. It is virtually I~possibI¢ to make people s~oke more cigarettes ~ use mor~ ~asoline through advertising. Similarly modifying the be h~viot o~ smokers not ~o smoke is extremely ~likely to result from health warnings on packs or in ads. In addition to this aspect, health warnings are shown by re- search evidence to be ignored becaus~ they ~re mcssage~ smokers don*t want to receive, In the United Ki~d~o~ it is almost im- ca t~
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218 possible ~o find a smoker who doesn't knu~ the health hazard, or ~ko has no~ a~ some stage tried t¢ give up smoki~. Yet it is also almost impossible to find ~ smoker who kn~w~ the word~ used in the Ila#k w~rnings. The fact is. that the o~ly f~ctor we cnn ~d ~ssoclat~d with [alli~g cigarette ccnsu~ptionp is the price of ciga~ette~. F~r ~hese reasons, it i~ my view that H.R.49S7 w~ll not in allF way cn~tribute to a decline in cig~re~ Consumptio~ in th~ USA If it is enacted into l~w. it w~ll. however, contrihu~e directly to ~ f~i~ i~ the rste o~ ¢onver~i~ of ~m~rs fro~ hi~ to iow- t~r a3d low nicotine brands. The research evidence $~ows qu~te clearly that countries s~eh as ~inl~nd ~nd ~r~ay ~th ~ret~e a6~e~ising ba~, ~ countries ~}ler~ ~dver~i~i~g is highIF restricted, h~ve ~ sm~llcr proportion o! the po?ul~tion smoking low ~a~ and low nicoti.e c~rettes. Countrie~ ~uck as the II~A an6 ~est Ger~a~F where cigsrett¢ advertising l~ p~rm[t~ed have e~pericnce~ a much mor~ rapid conversion rate t¢ low-tar ~igarcttcs Any i~ter~rence with the e~fec~iveness o£ brand adver~i&ing~ ~uch ~s that pro poscc }~y H R,4957, will certainly slew dow~ this c~nrersion process. Final!y, I would submit ~hut H,R.4957, if na~sed, will set a dangerous precedent. In ev~ly country in ~urope where c~garett~ advertising is re- stricted or b~ec~ the impositson o~ regulations ha~ slgna16d the start of ~rcsh d~oa~s that the advertising of other pro- duct ~Toups $}loul~ be restricted. t~ 0
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219 1 ~ot!d s~lgc~ ~[~:~t if l~ 1~.495¸ ;~ st~o>~lt~], ]~ ~,]11 f~,i; l!,r h~i~ f~ dcr~i,rL~ ~ ~hr~ r~:i~tlo~ ~,1~4 ~cl~t!cu (,f tLL iO corcl:idc, I bolievo l}iat bl T: ~5~ will ~ot ~:ccc~ i:~ it~ ~:~s ir )~s(j ]~ q~ote ~:,~ ~£ ~ne :~st :~celtt stu~ cr tb~ cour,tiie~ et~17 ~o;tnt:) ~n th~ ~orld theft ha~ z~i~J to ~e~l~,~. ~¢~55L].¸' ~hc~efc,:c ~lo~c i~ ~c~ r~o:t fo~ ~)~ L~lLitcd b~;tes go;cIll:~or:t to Cxl~s~r~ront in the aica. ~ i~ ~xpo~lN~nt l.s a]] ~,~cb~ilitv )tc,~ce;r¢~, the bl]l, i£ er~a~ud, w¢,~115 h~,~o uu. I'll I~ hal,:~) t~ answer ~iay cucs~iors, ~tlt bE£~C l d~ ~ ~ulc~ ill( to r~t~c:~ tltat ~(,3,]es o~ ~) l~ctt o~ this ~u!,i~t l,~,vc /~er i=~rt~ for t!~e R~cold, and ~c,~ a;~ila~l~ ~oi t~:~rb~is ~har, k ~ou J'or ?ou~ tll,O. ~.li¸ ~:AXMAN. Thank 3oLi ~el~> ilitll.}l, .'~t" "~V£tt(isoli Mr~ Rubi. S]A'll]/IEN'l OF ]qFIlC RUIIIN X11 ](LI~P: I am counsd to theOutdom Advezti,in~ As~;o:'iution oi Ameziea (OAAA) OAAA is tho (zadt assgci~ti/m of cht slandmd- i}'E'd Otll¢looy advolii~ilig iI/(lustI). I anl also ,~ i;lltl,¢l ill all o/Jr- dr<)! gtd~'ltisblg bLl~hles~ located in 1 )n(}lbuI~,, Va ,Imd a[u tcsti {~irif~ IIo[ole the sul<ouilnitiel, loclay flmn t]mi dural p l>pl,ctivl, The OAAA appl(ciates tills opp/,ltunit3 Iote tifv ~(gudit,: th( ~(hellisb~ r(>~(rloti/in~ timt ~ould [,o iml,O.O~ ou ('if!~ilc, lt( 3(Ivol ti~ing b~ 111l 1957 ~hd to stato its o!'~osillon to those l~zo~islons IlL ,/957 is p~edic~lled uzi Ihe sponsms~ conc/usion theft cig~rette snlokin~ is ~l hoa]lh ]/tiz~lrd [lllcI ttl~il ctlll~nt ]~'(qttla]. ~41~le, ~lnc] pli~a¢( initiatives ha~e beoiJ insuf~iciel~t Io infuinl the Amclican ptt~,][~. Ol [he ho&llh COIIsoquoIlCC8 of" ~,lIIOklll[~ In this ic~.~td, the, bill Jazgely i)ul.~[lo]s ~ll extensive st'tics of gttl/~ II,CciIlllll/~l/dz~tioll~- alr(,~(~3 tlll(/~l ~OIISi~{ol&tiotL [/% I]lC }'('~l('l~] ~I'l ael(~ Co!n nlission In tile OAAA's vltw~ tile! qu~,~ti/nl of whoth(,i Iht, v:nxnhl!, text sbcmlr] be ~ ~ised has bem~ k~ige$) eclipsed b3 the public's \ i~ tuall) ulfiv(>i~*a] undeistanding of the potentiM hazards of sn~oking Tile I,'l'(! stiff ler)ozi ]tsell llO4nls oil tlmI il(I l,mCOrd uf tl,(, Am[.iican publi( nm~ u[tdel~ta[lds thai ¢i~zaletle smoking is potentially dan- ~(.~ou~ to }lealth UI ~0 Ca ¢,'1 G'I 0
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220 ~'101/I a lily, die,q] s{~Jlldpobll lbe!~ is a solJoiIs questioII v. hoth/: t}/(¸ 3d(]JijOl/a[ (l[sclos!tl,28 li/~L~l(b~lo(i by thi~, bi[] ~oLlld b~t~e nil/ rncnted b> th¢ en/pbical data plesented in I)r \Vuteison's testbno llytoday h ix difficult loundczstand bo~ mo/cspecilic a(hcztisln~ ili,~losulc8 ltou]d ~lchJcve a ~ev~] of public alf~licnc'~ their h~s iiot aht,~d5 bpcn alI;lilLed gi~(.n I}1~, [)]t,lll()t~l ill dtqail(d pl~du/t ildbl. rnation geu(qall) a~ailablc and abtad) comp*(hc~ded b> the publi(. ']he ndvvrllslnR rcgulttion proxisions of }l R 4[!57 air lloubic. slnnt, flora a Irgal, ag will as pl)]ic5, slandpuint It is t,ssorllJll to Ieco~,nizc that clf~alt'lles ale a la~fbl conlrnodity and that cuutnl clt{{llo[{t, g,.dvei[igillg il!eolpolatblg [b{, Stllgeon ({el![] tl 8 x/ I!D[I/}~ is lawful coll]i/l(,}¢Ja] sp!,cc'h t}/lt }~- protected ]11 tht filst {tll/o:]d IlK,Ill A~, a lesUlt, dephe its stl])stal/t[a] bltelt'st ill ptlb]ic h*2t]th ig 11($ tb(' ('ongtess does not }lave unletteled dJsclelion to iltll)bli;o it is t'a~y to l/>e sight of thvse plinciples when con ideling dla 111 qic J~stK's SIIc}l as sn/ok}II}[ alld }lea]l}l Nel~lt!leless, tbo sub (omm[ttc¢ I[ilt I COlt~'lOllt th; the[ lhal II R .197J7 imposes spt{ific plio~ t('sll~dtlts on p}ot('cled gpccch aI/d that the C(Itll['~ it P,t' em pb~l le'(d that every s[l(b restraint is illbClOlll]y " StlSpt'Cl " 'lh{ operative COrlgtitt/{ioit~[ stund i!d [S t}u~t fill3 golctltm~tttal IOSIIiC[iOI] lat tllOl(CII'fl spe~'eh I]111%1 bo the "lt'r,~t lesIritlivt II](~{I]¢,'' available to ~(bi(vo [b( ~o~('~nmental o~!l(ctixe (~il'(ll [b( cfl(cti~ene~s of the Cut/ol]t heglth ~V~kl I/bl~ S}sl{'llI, thb itnpu [tiem Of ii IK%I, IIKI:O b~Hdt!]/:¢Dlllt db~ulostllt~ ~,cIH,IIIp is }~llllosi b) d(b/i riot] DOI ~'l}/e ]oast ]e:,Ilictilo illeal/s • Fin dry, it should also be noted that sepatate lil~t all/tJlldlttttlt plob[f,l/~ ale laised b~ seeliun 4td of I[li< bill which X/OU]LI in¢letF,/ l}lc ]*e ltlty ftrl:I1 $](},000 ~o $10(I,I]flb fen p~Jcb vialntinl, (~[ lbc Ciga tette l,abcling Act 1,Vilh 1t ]mtellllal peDa~ly o[ tbls ll]a/,,llitll([e !oi nol~coii/pl~an{¢,, it is eas) to 8((' ho~ these plO~iSiOIlS cotlld thems['J~cs become a de le~renl lo otherwise hu~[ul speech This potential "cbi~liltg eftk,ct ' O11 st {'ecb alollo ~Otll(I rcplesent ala illflitl~,ertlelli ~11 [ilsl an,(,!,d I/lel/I ill Ot£'tlJOltR h~deed, if enacted into law, th( con~titutkmal f,~te ~:i" this hill might well be sealed if even mm ciga,etle m mufbct.ller decided lent it ~lgis (Ol/ll)b',led 1o abandon o? (~,('11 si~l~ificflrl~l3 i((tl]{c iiS ~ldvel tising ill OldeT to (tilllillish Ol a~elt (be I,otcntial O;~pOSttl(' {0 m !minal penalties Fina]l>, the OAAA would like to addttss itself b~ief]3 lo thai pat t cff the l(.gislai iott ~ hich requb~'a Iho CCltlSp[CLJ Iris /li~p[ ~5 of the h(, tltb ~i/Ii]il/g Cpitain]y Ulltll ,,ely lelel/lly, tb~s ~,,~¢, th( l/]OSl ~,O- IiOklS }SUe l,,[tb I£,SI)~CI IO the di~=,elt/illlllioN of cigaz~tL(~ fldv/ltJs ing iu the outdool mediulu ]bli it~ Jul) 198] the I:]C fil(d t~te ¢ompaI~ion ~onsel~t jud~d- nli.nt~ ill Lib ])isIlict (!outt ~',hlch l(so}~l rids issue by estabbsb b]~ ~111 ol]~[tu]} N£t/ ltlt(] klg/iqllo l/[It[lill~ [)lll/kll ~h~ll is to bc uRtd sldel5 [n bi/Iboalds "Fhe~c crmst'nt judgn/t'nls abaIlil~m the ti~}lllv Col]t;lill/d ',l'~ltl]ill~[ r(''t/tl]~[]P [()['l/]/l~ lhat II~ls b ill itl LIN~' IOI IIH gl ta 0
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Ic~l~ ~LIl(l F~III!FqL Iti~-IIclIJ th~tl ~J i~c~gl!I~¸ lql[~Iii~i ~l~ii,~ ! ~ ,: ;i!~ ~i~JtiliIi~ b, (~!x[)l~i~ d 1¸ L!~IT~ ~i ~ !!t~:!~i ] ii~iTii:~,~ !i~i~ i'~ i~I I~':i 1hi(rod!5 IL(~ i/cllnm~, di~l~]ah~d Oil ~/;,t,.t- IX( bJ]lb;:/Td, iI):J ~ ri' I~ I,~¸ 21 po'4t':~ T}II¸ rigllt ]l~nc] ~i~]~ i~ Ill!¸ ~Tn]lt;~ ~]I]C}! X/I~// ai~[)('nl! r! c~f ~!~ th/~ distiI!cLioEI ~md dili( t ~'~lc~' b!'t l~l i'n thl¸ II~ w~l Ililli ~ i~ i~12¸ iT/~]et(I ~}!~' l~v ~ltliiT!~ Iollll~l alr,e2~d}, l~l~,ill~ th~, ~i~(¸ ~l (~,~l. ~i~icuuu~ di~L/~xu~t¸ (~ b]Jlboaldx ~}~ai ~:li/l hi' r('~lui~'~] b3¸ t~k~' ]el st~nt lc gig]lit ion ~'h!¸ f.)A!\A n!~l~z(ciatl,!~ t~/i~ /:~E~clztunit~ t!~ pl(!<ni i!~ ~i~, i UI C~ C/I c~
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222 ~ll~,¸ ~7 ou2~o~ ~kD~'l~l~I~;3 A~CI~J~; ~ ~a~ i~ r~i~ ~,in. ~ ~ ~n ~t~ne~¸ in rt~,,~t~ icecti,~ ~cci~tio~ c~f ~c~i~ Io~k~l. ot~,7~ ~ th~ tlede ~s~zi~i~ c,f t~,e ~t~,rl,!~di~5 ~t,Jo~r ~d~i~iT~g indu~tt~¸. I ~ al~ ~'i~ir, i~ ~r~ ~r- t~i~i,,y ~,~f~e t~,~ ~u~n~t~e~ t~¸ ~CO= ~c~,t~ql~ ~r~ ~it~i~ ~ ~vt~ule~ ~t~. ~t~ol¸ ~;,;,~ r~,~ ~ ~f ¢~r ~,ci~, ~o1~c~1 ~ ~C~I ,~,qe~. ~n 19~¢r ~u~ o~ the 15 leed~ c~9~ret~e ~en0~.l/ ~ir,~ t~,~t ~ove reti~, T~ ,,k
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::~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~,~. ~ ~ t, I 223 ~rcsc~t(~ :n t~o ~ie st~n~rA sited tillbr,ord fo=rat~. ~ re~g~ 15 pc,~te~* ~ ~l~inted to:let~n" i~ a 14 f~t ty I[ f~,~ :r C~e :o=~io~, enO adYorti~in~ ~r;)!~ ~griodic~JI1 p~t~d ont~ ~lnted eta c~ntral prO~ti~ll ~Cil!t~ en~ ~S then tr~n~:,o:ted ~ tulletin ~]1 r~n~i~ in one loc~tion fcr ~ ~¢v:o~ or ti~e, usue:ly re~s~ge ~>lJ~ tLe £i~t ~s~ge is re~o~t~ t. ~n~the: bi]lbogld ~trucLu~e. Ia this ~ey, tto s~ne ~d-pe[rte~ ~es~a!le i~ rc~e~ ~o ~ s~rie~ of ~:ffe~ent site~ in ~ ~ft~clif~ ~e~ ~ve~ ~ ~ r~nth Oi t~?re roat~ period, N.~, ~gb? ~ prcdic~teO on the ~ion:~rs' ¢(nclos~o= ~h~t s~ate ~:,d ;,rlv~t¢ initiatives h~ve ~cen ln~uffielcnt ¢o i:,forr the ~g(r~c~n ~,~tlic og the he~1~h consc~:oenc~ ~ ~,okln~. ~hus. the bill ~.~u:d i~?,ose ~ series of r,ew boiler~l~te L~lt?, werainq~ Ic)l i,,Ve~LiO=~ i. Ci~l~ette eO~e=ti~,rurL~ to edccete tt~ ~c~i~n Bul:~. ~he~c ~vnln~ ~=,Ul~ t,e rotated t,et~ecn the ~:ti~c:oa~s [or ~c~ c:~ar~tte bruno o~er ~ si~-¥eer ~,orlod ~,~ ~ine. In t~is reg~rO, t!,e bill l~rg(Iy pel~ll~l~ ~n e~te~ive ~eri~ ~f ~t~ff re~c,~en~ti~n~ ~lr~e67 ande~ conslder~tion by t~e Federal ~e Co:t~on. a rel~tlvr:y benlgn public pu?,:ie policy. But ~n ~ ~ety r(~l ~¢n~e. it g~ers lrcongr~:,~ that the ve=~ ~¢:~1~ end e~tion~;l~ :~en UI 0 C~
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5210550G9 3 5 2 ~ g g ~ ., m • , •
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225 iL~!ie ~wgren~ that h~ no~ ~tt~ir~ de~[i~e the T!eth~ua o~ de[e~]~d irod~ct inf~rr~tion generally ~v~i]~!e e~ Ic~h~p~ [ne }~C itscS~ ~est ~r~icdl~te~ the li~it~tlons c! ~,~L c~n reasonably !,e ~cco~91~she~ ~hrouqh ~verklsJn? disclosure ~re=,e~s ~ ~r less pervasive, ~in ~t~e~tln~ to f~]~ill its statutory c~ttc ~ve~t~ing and l~belln~, the ~o~iss!on c~ehenSive S¢lutlon to the [~¢ble~ L~be]ing ~ ~v~=[~slnq re~t~ictio=,s could ,,c,~, i=, any in~ence of the ~o~ing h~b]t...~ St~t(re~ ~f an5 I~bel~ng ~f C~g~rettes In ~el~t~on to the Bt01th H~z~rds cf S~okin~ {]q64) ~t p, ~, T~e ~erti~ing re~l~tlon p~ovlsions o~ ~,~+ 495~ ~re ~s~ti~l t~ r~cogni~e thnt cigarettes ~¢ ~ ]~wf~l co~dlty and ~},~t cur~¢ht Cigarette ~dve~tJ~ing Incorpo~tlng t~e ~urgeon ir !,~,I~¢ h~Ith issue~ the Congress doe~ not h~ve ~,nfette~e~ ~i~c~etio~ in the selection of t~e ~t~u~m to ~ff<t~ %h~t prlc~e. Ccr~s~ cl~ly c~nn~t e×e~cJ~¢ lie ~u%h(,r}ty J~d~et~,t ~ Fir~I t~ O C~
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226 ~t I~ e~y £o lo~e sJ~t of %hese principles ~hen consi~ri~9 d[~m~tlc issoes s~h ~s ~kinq ~n~ health, Yet, before going further ~ith thl~ ]e~}atlo~ the ~ol,con~,i~Lee ~ conlront t~e f~ct that E,R. 4957 ~rpo~e~ ~peclfi¢ t~rior re~tcaints on prote~te~ $~eech ~n~ tha~ the ~uvts have emp~m~$~ed that every sucl rest~aiht i~ inheren~]y ~o~pect'.~/ It ~em ~t m~ter that £1,e res~latlo~ a~e thooght to forth~ ~ome l~0~abl~ ~ove~nment ~o~1 or tha~ it ~y ke ~onven~ent to Bppr~pria~e adver£ising ~o co~A~,ct ~ p~hlic he~lt~ e~c~ion ca~paiSn* The op~tive cons~i£utlo~] standard Is ~hmt ~ny ~ove~no~tal ~e~t~ic~i~n ~f pe~tecte~ speech m~s~ be [he "le~ rcsttictlvt me~n~" ~v~il~ble to ~ohleve the 9ove~r~mental objective. Given t~,c effectiv0ncss of the Cu[ten£ health warninq ~y~em, the ivpo~itio~ of ~ ~, more bJrde~s~e dl~closore scho~e i~ ~]r,~t by d~flnltio~ ~ot "~he least res~tictive hearts~, Inevltably, the bill ~is~s ~e~ous F£~st knend~,ent qoe~tlo~s,~/ Che con~to%ion~l difficulties f~ce~ ~y thl~ ]egl~l~tion ten terh~p5 ~es~ be illu~tr~e~ by re~¢~enc~ £o the r¢~¢ti~n~ o~ th~ fe~erel coor~s in ~n~lo~O~s circumstances where the ~.2.C, h~ ~r~ere0 afflr~ive di~closore re~ul~mont~. Atta¢~¢~ ~o th~s ~e~tiPony is ~ sh~rt ~ynopsis oI the~ ca~es. I~ will ~ufflce he~ ~iv~]y to point out th~ e~ch ~i~ ~ ci~coiL CooPt hes e~esse~ a~thority to l~lo~e restrictions on co~merciB1 s~eech t~rough ~[firmatlve di~elo~o~. Si~niflc~n~ly, these ~e¢i~Jons occur (1980), Cq C~ Cn C~
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227 !~ the context o! ~ fi~ing that p~ior ~v~rti~ ~ in f~t dece~tlve. ~y co~tr~t, cigarette ~ve~ti~Irg ~ [cr rove th~n a s!ri~r]y unI~F~]. ~hus, it J~ ~ifflcult to bellc~e that t~ c~,u~C~ ~c~l~ re~It fror th~ instant ~egls1~t£on, ~I e~en cne clg~e~te ~3n~,fact~e~ 0eol~e~ ~t It ~ ¢or~01!e~ t~ W~ O G~ O .j
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228 Fi,~lly, the O~AA ~ould li~e to ~d~re~ ~t~elf briefly t~ cf the health ~rn~n~. Certelnly unti] very rPc~n~]F, thl~ h~s proven cigarette ~dwrtl~ln~ in the ¢~t~00~ me~lu~. ~t in J~ly 1~1, the Court~/ which e~t~511sh ~ e~,ti*ely new ~a~ unlgu~ w~rning ferret that l~ to b~ ~sed ~olely ~r bill~4~. ~ae co~e~t judgments ~h~n~on the t~gk~ly ~ont~tn~ w~n~n~ vee~n~e ~o~n~t t~t h~s been tn ~c for ten ~a~s a~d req~i~ instead that ~ ?~e~tly e~]ar~et Surgeon ~ene~al~ w~aing be ~i~p]~yed withtn ~ segreq~tvd b~e~ that e×tends ~cr¢,s~ t~,~ e~tl~e le.~t~, ~f the b~ of e~ch ~n. ~nllke the orlg~l foN,,~t, the w~aln9 ~ now ~on~or~ to ~l~cclflc si~e te~,,icene~ts ~n~ n~,~t h~ ~p]~e~ ~g~ln~t ~ b~c~qr~d which co~,~r~t~ with the remaining ~verti~in9 ccp~ on t~e sign. T~e [o~,l~ion's order aiso requires that the ~rn]n~ ~ust ~e p~lnted i~ a ~p~zlflc type style that m~xi~i~e~ t~e v~ibi]ity of ~,ess~es si~]y technical ~ju~t~ent~ h,~t c~the~ ~ep~r~t ~ b~c rev~io~ th~ type ~f conspicuous d~s~losure th~£ wOJ]d be r¢~i~d by the An effective health w~i~g ~¥ste~ ~or ciq~ette ~ertising al~e~d7 exists. ~ece~t ~ctl¢~s by th~ ~.~.t. have O~tically i~lrove5 the vl~!b~litF of th~ warning in the outd~,o~ ~,e~iu~. 1~.~. 495? unwisely propo~e~ t~ jettison eu~e:t ~a~,~n~ mech~nl$~ in ~VO~ ¢~ a ~ore burdensome regulatory ~c},~. 2hls cc~n~/ !,ena~t~ ~a~ ~i~ls~ion~ ef the ~[S¢IO~ ~ez~ircccnto. ~n t¢ O
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a ~., c L~"
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230 ooe~ ~e~n that ~,e ~e~e~v fz~ ;crcc~ve5 vi~lo~i~:9 co~u~c~iv~ ~c~t!~iro only ~f the restriction inh~rer, t i~ the o~ 0
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~Le S~ver, th C~rc~,it ha~ ~1~ h~ Oce~fo~ t~, ~:a,ify t'~i~ I~SL~: i, t~'~ r~ce~t e~e~, In !(~t:on~l C~,=ri~ic,:: o? !~ ~:ut:itlo~ vz t~ ef~e~t~ ~f ~t ~¢~tl~, [:~iti~ ~:~:~,c~t].~ ~. ~t Ci~, ~1, c~=~. ~,~, ~ ~,~* ~ Ilg~l ~in,~= ~ ~e~e~Ffo, ~e:~tl,.~e ~dve~t~i~g ~5 i~ ~:~ ~ ~ ~ce~a~F ~o p~evea~ ~tu~e ~p~r, i~ i~:~i~:~ ~e, ~ ~J~ ~e~e~,~,~ ~r Sten~t~ Oil ~0. of ~if~ni~ V. ~.~.~'.. B'~? ~'.~ ~ ~.~ ~:~ t~¢ ~.T,¢,'~ ,~i~¢~ ~o ~e~ ~s:~a~,~ ~4v~t~£~9. ~:~:dlne ~n~ e~e~¢d ~=, ~11 ~o~uct~~ ~ ~ ~i~t ~,~: tr~ fal]~d to ~t~F ~i~st ~enS~ent ~eo~ire~o~. ~ ~¢ul~ c~,~[~l ~pe~h.~ ~6, ~t ~6~. i~ a,,o~t~ to =~f~i:~o u~,~e~r:lF ~lt~ ~,~ ~¢t~,e p~¢se~on o~ ~e pro e~ ~,ositio~~ ~. ~t ~ .,JU~ i [ 0 0
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282 Ix{, \VAx~:A~'. Thank 3ou M~ Minion F.I ATI-;~.IEN'I¸ ()~" ]I~'qIII ?*]]~I'ON Ix.t1 I~IINION ] am lla~id IX~iiltoi~, Was]~itl~Ion cotlii~c] io t]~i. IXI~L~ZlIIC }~ub]ishevs A~oci~iol~ l t}~i1~l~ the ll~gazil~ ~vhic}~ you i]i~i~l~iyi.(I I}lis nloiil~ii~' show]n.~ the two ll~e ad floiEl lh~¸ Tob~loco ]lJ~tiiliie J~ the ~.llnli, tll~a~[lle ~l}lich c~iilie(] £~ two I~a!~¢ ~LIIi(Ii, oll lhe Sufi~c<~. Gc~ner~]'s }~oIl~t on C~g.~II t~ SII1c~I~i!Ig ~i, (~LII¸ }nclLIc, ti~, a]tho~l~'h lle ~I~ ]tltole~.tell Iiorll ~Jll e~onoiiLic ~tandpoinl in clg¢uci~e advclt]sin.q. ] be]ii!vc ~e }~a~e f'ulfil]e~I thi~ Ini~si~m to inlblJn the public .~s to the issucs of th~¸ d~r ~s ~}i~ ic]ate tn ci~a~ctte snlokin~ awed olhet¸ ~uI~¢cts ] }l~\e nolh]ll~. ~o .'~(]d Io Wh~it h~l~ l)i.i.ii Said ~.xccl~t t}i£~I oLlr COII- I.cIn ii]~Jt(.~ to ~}l(. IcI~tl] i~...Ll~ ~if ~l~l~I}it.I¸ t}icql it lll~]~¸ ~o~i i~r~brJo~ Io~ ihci]] you iJIzcei~eis ~I~eclive ~Vi~bclicw thal the i~il](.nll.is I~liily iJver whl h~lin~' I}~t ~v~il nin~ ]niseis ~ind ~id~ i.i ti~in;' ~ii n~I!~ do not h~v~ lhe I.li~ct tho~c ~}io di~iI~n them l~]sh lhe3¸ would }l~iv~. I i]il] ~i o:lelil~ll sLiIve3¸ ]~! iv~t.k ~il}~ ~l loll o~ }Io!~i(i$ I ii:~i ~] t}iinl i~t ti~ iny ~i) ('olicai~Liis ~ii nl3 o~lilo. ]~]t.~(.i~ o~' i}!i.in Ioi~k it ~it}lOLlt no~icili~ ~}lal iI ~IS i~l~.3r ~OlC l~iI<ill~, t,lhi.~ I}l~ik iL i~ ~ c~lii~¸ iililit ']'}IL~I~ i~; ~i Ii~ ~loi(I lll~IiiJil~ ]~ibcI Oll ~i i~JI'l<~{~ it1 ]~ol~li¢]~ i h~I Sial¸ i[u~iiI~n]~ii];,, C]oIl~I nl~.IiIl~,n Ii ~ii.l~ I}ii~¸ ~i!~. ~ii] If ~(JIJ ~c or~ ~ c~IIILin kind ~f (l/I't ol I~Ll;h1~ ~l I'crI~i~r~ l~hld of¸ ~]r "i~ ~,~I~ ~houhhl I I~ll.e l~l~i~I~ ] I~LII~¸ t}l~ll ~s ~i i]ili~'ri'r~I }./rill <,i l~'polt ~li~1¸ r~I~olt ain,t¸ lepoll il[u~ate, t}lat l~oi~ic do I~ot I~ ir,~!~. :L~ ~]i~ ~T~]:~II rcu~itl:ed ~!I t]l~¸ ti:ni, ol ~}l!~'I¸ ~!I~¸ ]~}~iIlcl ]I l]iI~¸ ~' I]L~it e~elyl~ud~¸ ~it}~hl 150 nLil~ o{¸ this ll]~Lcc ~ill Ilc ex- doEl'i ~]ll~i~ ii~3¸ ~tteIiIion to ]c¢.~lu¸ t}it~.~Ll~ '] ~ii.l (. ~ii~ i~l~ii~ ~-iLii1i~z., (I!IE, O~ ~}ii~ ii[<)~l I(,CE,IL~ iiI~~, ill fILE! (~DI[£.I ~(~iitiiiiS~latiO~l 'jhO l~i.ii.ql~ril~.nl ol Ill(¸ ']'l~,~tlr3. ~ii~iI })i.]~Itmen~ ol¸ }[c~II]l ~nd }]uTn~in S~.; v~Ces hl '~t u(]3]n~! the l,ri~l~iEull ol¸ ~i]~o}lol- i~nl. C~.vi~Io~i ~i ~i(,at (lt.£~l ol¸ f~l~itio!L Io I}le ciI~cIi~.ni~- of¸ ll~iill iil~ ci~Lu i,itl, ]~ib!.l wllInhl~ ~ind ~d~ I ~ ti~}ii~ l~LIilii ~ "I'hl. (~llt.i¸ ~l('Tliini~il~L~iOll IITIIIOI¸ ~i~Ii.~i3 Calilfnl} ~lu(/~¸ i.~iin~ Io life conclusion t}l~l~ t~l~le ~as no i~ iilt.nc~, lh~l! ci~('II~¸ ]~)(I~n~ IIII~] C]~lletlc ~l(]~ciI]~itlg Jl~ncJ }~¢] ~n alli~Ii~qia~]t, i~fi~i on the o\~i~lll i{~c]i11(~ ill ~nl~l:.iI!g ~}lic[l }~is occ'.iI i(.~ o~:~i¸ t}ic !~l~t ~0 yc~tl¸ So~ il i~ OLii¸ ViOw. ~qS ti~'I~.Ii£10~:. OI tho l[~ht Io ])u}!]i~h [~IcILV rILuch ~}l~IL 3OLI lw~nt~ t}lat if the're i~ cII'nlon~!I~h]I' t~i~]~Jl~¸ thL1! ~our I!IOI~<l~:~l I~ ill nI>~ l~IIIl~ then i~ cI hui~, ~}l~I 3 ~u ~ill I~,I~ct ~:t ]i ncth on ~l}icl}iiI¸ it s]l(J~[~] })i. ~llact~d It i~ en~ to I':~act a bill and ~y, ~}I. ~el[. ]ct the ~ll~CIL1~¸ COUI~ of¸ ~iI~ of otll¸ COll~litL~tioIl~] I~]~}IIS I ~Ltll ~-lIIc t}la! ~Ii.!n}l~.I~ Of Con ~ii-.-. ~ii~. £OliC._lil~.d ~}lotlt lhl¸ l)i~.ce~i~it!aI (~iJ~ot ol ]l!i¢~'-]L~ ]tlll~ Ii~ i(~iiIiOl I!IIIll~lll ~I!~h~LvJl)[ ]'I~i,I~, j~q ~L ~Jl]I. ¥~iIiil~¸ ill I~IJ~)~il~q iI~¸ ¢n t¢ c) ca c,
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of ]]c'a[l]t ~tnd }luInll S~'lvice$ [uJy, (}IIC" hulKIlt¢i OLll Oi 9lit. htlll filL,[] p;ople il~ It t(st I/~{!I 1K)tic(d that :l h~lll/l)lC/ IlK] ~ }~bl tl] 1]/ I/l~}l t}l£ label ol1 t}l( }tI~113111~l said, "II) Not LISt t}l]S }l~[illtl01. S., if lht I'L' i~ cli[]tIlo( I/0~ jLls[ [to/:l l}lC ']~oD/icco ]ll~tilt/I{ t)L/t fr(~ll~ thl' ~'(l~t'?lltl/(~tll itself, t}i~t h[K[ dol/'1%(Ill, ~ll/d il th~l~' ali l]](J?{, c~lk~ctiv(~ IE/IK!dic~ }OU ij/ic~]lI [ikltv.gt, Jlt O[})f~l i~l('El!4 thl'I! th[, ~LII)I£I;It ~!oulI ~tl~st5 lhat 3¢}tl ~AL]ISI~~ I(~lll{"(]i[~5 it) Ot}lCI ;trE'iR m~f] thai 3OLI do llOt illit ]rl,ff(~ upo!l l~ conf-titulicma] li~hl t])~iI ¢,x[sIE llil(](q l}if2 ~i~st al/cl)~*ll]~.l/l rI h3t J~ 0/11 pO~iti0n ['l'(~tililon~ F(sunlos ON II ~4~ J ~,]1 5]iIlI(IiS Jl!('l):~l¢c] ~4taIcI/IOl/l follo~s:J ha. O UI 0~
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234 ~LS~I~0~Y OF D~VID ~INTON~ ~ASH~NG~ON CO~NS}L, ~he ~aga2~ne Publishers A~ociaticn i~ an organization ~cprcscntlng 18~ Unltcd S~%¢~ p~,lishing fili~ whi¢~ ~u!)li~h nea~ly S~D con~u~r ~aga~Jnes. }~,A r~pre~ent~ weekly n~s ~n~ fcat~ic ma!la~ine$, journals of li%<r~%u~e at~d Opinion, ~}~uclsl intcz~t }~u~]ica~io~s in pr~cti~ally every aSlCU% of huran b~hovlor~ ~nd a validly of othe~ ~uh~c~ts. The ~e~ican pco~]~ ~scli~,o ~o 250 hill!on ¢op~ of each J~su~ ~,f M~A ~gazl~C~. jCCt$ of gen~al and ~pce~fic CO:~CC~n to th~ pu},liShil,9 ind~t~F, ~n~ wc ho~c that o~ co~ri~,ution to the legis]~tive ~d ~r,i~trati~e p~oce~ has bee~ ~or~tr~ctive. ~¢,Say, we al,~,ear to pre~nt our vie~ on ~he i~c~ in }~.R. ~5~ which ~e]~I~ directly to the puI, li~hln9 i~l~u~t~y, ~ec~ioh 4 of }I.R, 1957 requireB the [urch~s~is of cJgaret~ ~dvcr~isiI~g to ~cl~dc ~pccif~c statements of hca~h ~t~i~ J~ ~a~h ~t~b]ic~Jon of ~be ~verfJsln~. ~is rcquJ~en~ is not ne~ -- the Federal ]ak,eling r~quirev,~nt for clgare~te packages becane effective ~a~ar~ l, 19~6~ and the ~ddltion U~ t~ O U~ O
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235 thvz~ ~,~,~ bee~i l:u legislative c~n~idetation of e×pol,~iny the re~ulr~=~nts o~ the present ~9~ine ~vc~tiSJtl~ ~ab£]. The rot~tln~ w(kr~l~9~ tr~p~sed in t~is ]e~is]~tion J~ ~ [~i t~u~L~er ~qcite~¢I,t tha~ tt,e cJlletht s~Le~n~r:t, ]no~ev~, ~rld C~S after the Supre~0 COUrt E~S I~ore clcar]~ construeO ~h~ const~futlon~l limits ol ~erDiss±b]e ~ov~rr~r~nt red.latin:, ~I c~r~:leiCJ~] si>eec![ ~ad~r t~c t~zst ~-e~,ae=t, It a]~ c~:~s citer ~u~Rt~al experience and ~e~o~tc1] la ~e~surin~ the ~f£ect~enes~ of ~a[nin~ l~t,c]~, ±nc]udin5 t~os~ a~,~licab]~ to cigarettes. ~h±~ e×perlenc~ p]a~ a pBll ~n d~ler:inlr~9 ~heth~r 9~vern~t e~tltrol ~f corrJ, e~c~al B[ee~h is constltu IGI consi~er~n~ the ~SS~e, an~ ~e l[~e ~ha~ the ~u!~co::;itt~ ~i]l ~elgh eareful]~ the I,~incl~le~ l~w,]ved In light of thes~ d~,~lop:cnts, ~he ~:~z~l;e ~k[bliSll~ls Associ~ti~r~ OI,~OS~S S~CtlO~, 4 f~l t~o lessons: ~e ttdr~ it exceeds the per~issibl~ lit, it ~f ~ov(ll~ne]lt ieg~etlo:~ of ~6~YLi~lq a~ tibet llriL ha~ ~en ~t~bli~hed b2 the ~upre~,e COU~t of the Unite~ St~s, ~,:,d ~ think that even if it ~re ~ot unc~r~itu~io~al, it ~ill not achJe¥( the 9oal ¥~u ap~,~ar to be pur~u[n9 -- pc~s~ladln9 i,(~le t~ stop ~m~k~r,9, If ~h~ro i~ ~o~. ~o d~ffe~ ~s to, IP~ 0 UI 0 ~3
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236 correotJ~ess of our o~Je~tlo~ to the bill on co~L~titutJ~l~] groun~s~ th~ ovi~¢nce ~nd~oatin9 that la~,clin9 is no~ ~ikely ~ he3p ~chl~ve y~ur ohjective~ ~hould l~ad you ~ r~E~aln ~o~ ~mpo~in9 the ~estr~int uporL f~ee ~pce~h in th~ fi~Et place. ~o ~rc sure t~t the mcm~cr~ of ~his subco~,itte~ ho~d ~ear the constitutional right~ of all cifi~eD~, an~ wouI~ compelling ~v~dence not o~ly os %o the rightness of the cause, but ~lgo the ~i~dom of the precedent of the infringement, p~rticul~rly in ~ght of current pre~ur~ to ~n~ct ]e~i~tlo~ cr ~provo constitutional a~m0nt~ ~e~l~ne~ to rogul~te t~e ~ehavlo~ of citi~en~ o~ overcome ~ Supre~ Court de~i~ion. "Cc~rcr~±~l speech" ~s ~ t~ used to ~lffcrcnt~t¢ b¢- twecrL ~i,0~¢h which rel~te~ fo economic ~terests ~n~ speech which d<,~ not. ~he s~,rc~e Court ~n ~'~lonti~e ~a. ~re~tq~, docide~ i~ 194~, held that the Constitutio~ ~id ~ot e×te~d t~ r~eg~t¢ ~ ~cw York sta%ute prohibiting ~h~ ~i~t~ibutlon of ha~dD~lls 'ol other ~dver~i~ir~ ~tter" ir~ ~ny ~publi~ place." i~o~es no ~uch /~rst A~en~r~ntJ restraint ~s respects purely con~rclal advertising.,¸1/ A ~i~,i~ar conclusion w~ reached i~ ~/ yol!r,),inc v~. c hr~Fa~ca, 316 U.S. 52 C1942). C> £q C/I C;
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r.a 2~7 ~e~r4 v~ ~icx~6~i~, inv~Ivin9 ~oor-to door s~le~ pod ~,as ~ot derdcd prot~c%~on to ¢oe~ercial speech on that ba~i~ lu]e hh~s not ~UZVIV¢~ re~le~Lio~L.1~/ ~ ]97~, the Ceurt ~ove~ sh~rplF i~ the opposite ~ir~ti~r,. l~ ~e!ow y~ Vir~Inaa, a Vi~g~ni~ ~atut~ ~klng ~h~ ~,ew~ i,aper ~dv~i~,~r~t of ~borLio~ re[erral ~ervlces ~ c~i~e W~ sLruck down a~ ~n ~ncon~ti%uticna! infringement opoh the First co~,¢rci~l s~ech's ~tatus ~nder the ~ir~ $~r~endr,cnt because th~.~i~elo~' ca~e i~voSve~ ~bor~i~ services -- ~ public ~ue %r~cend~g ~re ~o~erci~l ~p~e~h -~ the Co~t'~ decision ~ Vir~!~ P h~]C~ ~n 1976 laid oi! d~U~L~ ~o re~%, JuStice ~la~k~un, ~akin~ for the CourL, d~f~d the i~e %~ b~ of the Fi~t 7~en~cn%. '~Out o~s~cr,, ~sLice ~ackm~n sai~, 'i~ that it i~ not~,,B/ 2/ ~eard ~s. Alex~ndria, ~12 ~,S. ~22 (195])~ OJ~tice I>o~o]as's 524, ~t 534 {19~9), 31 ~I~i~elo~ --v~" Vir~inio~ 421 U.S. 809 []97S) , VJr~J~ia_ _SI~L< 425 U,S. ?4B~ ?62 [19~g}. ~ub~e~uent ~eCiSiO~S uphol(]ing tl,( y~!gij~a ~ha~,a~ r~le include* among others, ~a~¢~ vs~ ~t~t~ B~ ef Atleo~, 133 U.~. 350 (1999} and Ca~N~ vs, Po2R!gL~o~} Services Ir, t crna~ioral, 131 O.S. 678 (19~, 0 U1 0
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238 ~le Ceurt has nevertheless recognized legltlma%e ~venL~es for re~2u]atJon of co~,ercial speech, just as thcr~ a~e legitir~t~ ~ro~nds fo~ t~Je re~ui~tlon of politJccl speech,. ~, Sec~rj~ies othc~ l~,~s ~egu]~te commercial speec~l, but the ~tc~csts ~f ~ociety in the ~,~±t~e benefits of those ]~i~l~ix,e ~i~,s h~,e heart considering ~n "overr~ing" p~lic ~ntcrcsL. %~ir~inla Ph~r~,~c~, ~self [,rescribed ~ha~ l,~re]~¸ co~,terci~l ~p~e¢;, c~]c~ c~;t~or: t~, the p~o~ection of the Constitution, is deceptive or ~,i~leaJirt9 ~verti~ing. tlc:~a] protrusion of e~erelal ~peech in Cv~r~l !~d~on ~. co~:¢*ci~l ~¢~ver~i~ir,g by ~ p.ibli¢ ~tl]±t~¸ ~hlch t,re~,~t~d ru~c to ~,c followed %o t~st con~tltu=io~ally F~rJ,,i~b2t ~g~10t~orJ of ~vertis~r,~. He sz, i~, If ~,e co~n~c~%iorL i~ neither mi~]e~Oing ~,~ re]aL~d ~ ul~a~'ful aotivity, the []~ve~n~ be achie~e~ b~, res~ricti¢,~, o~ c~erci~] SF,~e~, ~oreover, ~he regulatory technique ~ be in proportion ~o t~,~t i~t~res~. 2he l~lritatio~l urL ex~z~ssion ~ u~ b~, 4~s~rt~d p2~a:,~e ~'ith th~ requ~r~er~t ~y b~ re~ured by tw~ ~riteri~. F~SL, tl,e ~sttic~ior~r,~s~ I¢ 0 (,1
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239 ca ~Lc,t ~,j~i~c .~/ i~act u~,~ pu~,l~c- l~ha~.i~,l, r~t p~r~c~lar]~¸ ~.h~.r~ ~>~] ~E i,~r~Jing t~" un~.×p!or~d ~,o~ti~! ~f farth~l~ l~t~ic-tlo~Ls ~te~irlr- ~i~cthc~ Cig~zc~ttc ~v~r~i~in~ i~ f~cc ~f rJ.nlc~ coj,t(r~t. ~o r~i~]ead~ ~ Web~t~l" dof~n~ the. ~rclt ±~ ,'to ]~,~ ~, ~ ,~'~g dil~ect~(.r, or Jl~to a ~i~kc~ ~i~'~j to lc~d ~.tra~¸. UI ¢>
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24O S~¢ <]~u<i,~,,¸ 1'D~¢elv~,~Web~t~l sa~s, "i~ to cau~ ~o l,el~e~e the f~1~e.'¸ ~he ~e~eral Trade Corn~i~ staff in i~s ~c~nt report it f~ilz t¢~ provide 8~{flci~ntly deta!l¢~ Snf~rmation ~s to th÷ ~,~r1~E~! ef~ct~ of sn,~kJng. 5h~t i~ calle~ deception b~, o~i,~sion. ~he Commission ~t~ff went %~ gr~at lcn~th~ to ~tt~t ~o p~ov~ ~h~ hec~nn~ u~,len~ they c~u~6 ~ro~e ~eCel~tio:L, the is 'ha~J I~]'I or "haTardou~,' b,~t i~ not a~are of ~e ~xt~rt id[it~f~ co~ree~ly statlstica3 i~L~C,~a~,n about ~r~klnq ~li~c~l¥ p~ove~ t~e l,c!rt. ~o, the ~ff eor~ud~d, c~tt~ 5he ~t~Iff'~ ar,~m~rLt has s~veral ~.e,~kr~e~, ~±~t of a]~, all but th[ ~o~t ~e~lo~s a~ele~s c~ the ~a~'s Ca,~e w~id ~O~L~edC, that ~he ~Ii¢ i~ a~r~ o~ the wi~]~sp~e~<~ pu}~lici~¸ a~out the pc,~rLtia~ h~*[~ ~hi~L ~n ~u!t f~,Z news ~,r~ ~hls we~k'~ ~,i~ 6~vot~s a lengthy article ~o 0 C~ 0
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t~
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242 ¢o~tinue to ~y ther~ ~nythi~,g ~d ~h~ch h~n~ ~ hc0]th waz~ing J~ plain ~ight~ a~ 2hL ~,~ ±~U~- i~, whcth~ ~he ~Le~,~ ~,~o~,~e:; i~ llk~=~¸ t~ t,e effcctive~ Ox" ~hcLher th~ I'~UltS '2i1~ ~ ±~C~,~CCt±~ o~ ~,C,L,C, t~cl~y f~lin~ the Co~t'~ ~t~n~a~d. 2he }~C¸ ~taff ~O~CI~ that tLe c~nt cig~,~ett~ label ~ i~,~ff~etlv~, np~,n~,~L~]y brra~c ~,~y~fly hnsn~ quit ¢,f ~i~t~e ~;~)kilLg in th~ Ur;iL~d St~,~, th~ ~y 1~ ~r~¸ l~<~ ~y ~c r)n¢ of ~h~* but th~ c~i~ th~ the i~f}~c i~ the IJn~t~d Stet~ ±n 1952, ~nd ~Le~e are ~c,~t 23O r~ior U~ t~ UI C~
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~Sr~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i~¸ ~ ~ ~ ,L ~"
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r< ~uc ,X S c c c c
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245 a~k~d tG u~ the hat,~ler~ t~ drLv~ ~ls it, pi~ ~? ~,~. ~h~t the 3a~e]s ~ai~. Not ~nc o~ ~ lO0 La~ ~ve~ n~,ticc~ attention ~hat~ve~ to the ve~L~] s~e~y ±~t~i~ ~f fli~h~ ~u~c~t, d~it~ ov~l~h~,1~£n9 ~±d~c a~ to ~}~e ~I~Ct~W~ i~, c,u~ o~ ~r~e~bJl~t~, ou~ o~ ~J~a]~tF ~ ~th. ~L~tew~ the ~s~, ~t~ pc~nol ~t~rs ~. d~,~ ~r~k~ ~m*t t¢ U1 f
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246 the ~,nE~quence, re~rd]~ of ±h~ evidence, ~o~'t h~ve ~c~, ~ff~,¢t. ~ the specific ~t~,~ce ~f %h~ Guv~r~r~,~jtl~ 15 ye~,r ~,,pai~fL to persuade people ~ q~t sv~ki~g, the l~C 're~ry/~ ~<el,ort co~l~e~ that ,,it is lr,~,os~ible at this t~ni~v~ on ~oklng bch~vior."~/ ~,f ~Lic~ ~ ]e~l in every $~tc ±~ th~ Unio~ doe~ ~o=, Jr it w~'t. In ~tter~ ~ffectin~ ~,er~*~J~,l liberties, t~is ~c~l@ r,~t be the f~rst ti~e. =r 1962, Cong~es~ ena~t~ ~?:s l~ti~,i ~,~oh~,i~n~ the ±~,~t~tier, of ~nF *Co~u~,i~t political ~,:og~n~a'¸ ~hich wou]~ ~f~ct the ~,~6s of ~h~ A~,~ric~L his cr~tic~ ~±th a ~avc of t~,c h~nd ~d the ~ggc~io~ ~h~t 7/ %le~surlr/H~S ~e~ort, pa~e 3~. O Cn O
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247 i~ the~ oT,pone~ £~, t0ke it to the Supre~ Court, Tnoy diC, ~8 ~h~y ~nn. It J~ our hope that ~v~ry advocate fo~ %h( plo- ~ervatloEL of clL~risll~d althclu~h nClt always p~p01a~ f~<crl~,r~ does r:o~ L~v~ to xe~ort to llt~ga~ion to preserve th~,~c ii~ht~. ~hc~e a*~ ~thet ~eas of eot~cc~n where lcg±~]~tlon wou~ i,r~ve ~ffectlve. ~hci~ld Qor~ress ~equire lhe A6~:n~ra~iO:l %O eri~orce the 55 ~Ale pel ~our spee~ liver? There is over- ~enth~I Fifty ttlouSa~d p~op]e di¢~ i~ traffic accid~r ts l~st yeai, ~io~ c~f ther~ as the ~irect resull of ~pee~, ye*~ ~rlgr~ ~pp~opri~te~ :~a fund~ in F~ 1~82 to enforce the ~t~utor~r speed ]±~lilti ~h~t rely real proble~ involves ~ co~sti~utlot~ q~es*~ioni ~he supreme Cour~ ho~ pzos~ibe~ ~u z~le. But in the ¢o~e of fulther reshricti¢l~ up~ c~i~c±~! ~peech, the Cou~t h~s, ,~ in our oplnio~ E.R* 4957 tr~sgre~e~ that iule, ~e bcipe ±hat you will reaonslderi ~e h~pe, ~ ~u~t~¢¢ l~ou~l~ put it, theft the ~vur~i~in~ ~e~t:letlon~ proposed !rl ~e~tlon ,lwl]l n~,t ~urwve refleet±o~I~ Mi, WAXMAN. Thank you vmy much Bit Mint(m arid Mr. Rubltl, you ore both attoloe)s, is t)lat coy- reel, lepresenting the Outdom Ad~e~tisin;: p'-,op]e and the Ma~a- zlne PublisheI s? Mr. MIN1ON Yes. Mr Rtu~it~ Yes l%h 1,1~AXt,IAN l~t "Watt, rson, you were ~efer~ed to as lh \¾'ati,~- M~ WA~EIeSON I think lhal wa~ a mislake Achla]l) ] am M~ Wa/~rson ] have two degrees but one of them is not a doctolaf(' MI. WA×MAN You are researchdirectoI of [heAdve~tisin~A~so ciatkm, you have been involved in ~esearch on advertising ~md its effect? MI, WA1~:IISON. Yes. We have been thlou~h these questions in Europe many, many times over the past 5 years They have been rathel mote ¢llllenI ill ]~ulope than they have here. So, I haxe a g~cal deal of evidence at my dispasa] ~l]fich nlaybe has not been wolked oil in the States Mr. WAXMAt~. MI. Minton, you refene¢] to this Ne~s~eek maga ~ifw. Mr MINION Time is the mags~ine ] was referril~g to, but if it %~ts N( ~% swe~k Mr WAXMAN Ithought you referledtoNews~eek t4 b* 0 Cn 5~ 1,0
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~57 ),11 W~XMA'< 'lt~v fitsl ad i~ fr/m thc }'}i/lipM~,H] Co ]b, Vb ~h~iI~ S!ir~:~ it paih~ly~ IIir¸ Viri~]ni0 Slim~ w/>lr/ar, ~]. 111~¸ [,i~t!/15¸ ~,1 tl;KLi%t¸ ~O[i]llli I~[ ltld~ ~ht b COllie, [1 ]OT~t~ ~/~¸ Ai~ot}ll~l sI)o~l~, n 3ot~l][~ (Otll~lt~ ]CO ~.klit[1,~! ])~l~k ~l~-, ~!~l!t c] [~htl ]1 is thn(~ tin¸ ' Vlti]t~tt,¸¸ i~[o~'-tll~s Th( qtl(~[iott i~, }~ox! l[ u(}~ ol ~lt ittif~:~( can th!' Stu~<~on (~<'IJlit~!'s w~!tniEl~ h~t, a~4~iE]~t thi!; kir]d ot coil)t~.ti[}t~li and }low trill l}~u~c cozKt~Ilie(] ~[~/~ll~ !//ib}ic b~,tJIl]~ /~mJpl~[~, l~i[): [h£, d~lJl% [~alal!c [~ oii!~!£ti(, a~b ~;~o~i~lil4~ :-!uokil/g with l}l~. ~,ii[ol (,tl~ ~L~ll~li~( ]l(,~/tt~3¸ ]il(~tylo~ £×p~i[ ilt tit}tel¸ f[o!d alld []/>ll't l~x,l ¢oll~!~(t(l~t 1(i ~lt%~er t~ ~ !~:o ]~!~ioilal /~]~llc~¢. A~ ~; ch]7oll> I ~,u[Jp~sl¸ it st~u(]~- ~ ~t iEil~lltn/~(:/I to Ileal DI~:> [[1~i~ )otl C~III [~I~L;i1~}(¸ l~'rJil/t ~O 11115¸ ~/~l(i-~]lti~ il~ yOLU n~ai~ z~l/,¸ ~! {}~( ~l;i~o ljn//¸ ~hal you plinl nrlicll,~ i(l,ol~isl~; Mi¸. ~rAx~I~N You aitd All ]!u}~in c!ail~l the!i> ~!~ !,;~r]i:q~ l:i~I ~illlt~t](]:n(id !~?~/l/ll/~ i~ ~/o p~:~5 [}li~, italicization dLl/¸ ~(J p~i!~l¸ i(, SIl~iil~ oi! ~i,~}1 ~ }]~l! ~:~)t>( C]] ]~ }!£}17~ 11 ~lilil}~i'! ]I ~ ~,1~]-; t}~i~, i. ;~ i/tltli!~ln~lfi b~,il]~! ltdcle~ 'li~ort, i:; a I~r/LIh]l/!~ la~'[ I(~iUiti>. I]/Clii uhi;~d) i]! ]all ~lml li~t!Ednt i!~ l}l('Ii¸ I}/:!I ~i/~]i.i~.!~ th<' fllst [1171( lid Hli 11!~ ~II¸ ~]NIIJN> ]I i~ ~l {t:rl}/tr l(>~l!~iiii]lLS~ tli,Otl Col/]rnO~tinl s}~(]l t{tci~iO!,< I~i (t~c h;~,~ tl 3!¸I,1¸> II1~1~, },~i\o h!~ ~] ],~l!Ldo;r;~ O) !;) ~: !~r(ll!! (~r[it i]:ii~iOl !4 l]l~:t h~r\(, c};~l}~[/(l I[l~il [,:it(¸ L4~N/~;](ll i~:l ~!!itlLl!;]li!! ]- cl]ii[it,~l [o p~o;l~iil~] tlll(i~'l l!¢~¸ I~l~l ~??l~i~/]l/l~Irl ~t~:; }1;~/(¸ e~liJip]c,~ i~l t;~t: ell ~1 (~II]]!](.IC~ }Kt!l tll~L,~i ~ ~1%tlli5111=!, (,~ ~i ]]IJLiI((] [~!~ (~!l [~(]~/ll]~itq!, or it ~jt~i!t h/cn/!~ (~i¸ ~] t(if,~¸ i:j~t<]! (i ttl!ll; } v]I iirt L],<' J~ ~In(! ~} eli t>Oh / ~LILJ(,tlc~] ]Iot~u;]o] "lh th& if 3ou! ll'mcc'3 col'~ no{ q,l,O~l [, 1<~ /.f*l~'{ill. ~ic] if /It<; it( ii{] .l htC! i(~.. [hit ¥oo ll~i!hl !,UIiLIC lhi! /~otlIcl !l~ ({ i\(. ~il ~VA~I~[AN ]]I yOLl kIO%', %;]](ql]O] Ill(, l<,~ltli]~;llfIl! ti]rl I!~ br c g,,lt'ttr" Im~o lhiq ~/a~;lin; ]lb~ Ii.}deh })~;~ bc'I !,c ]:1 i~r 1 I li ! aound ]0 %l&15. \'.holh'l l}/lt hll I,a~u ¢}t;c]/tll i ] ill th[ COL)I[% O! %%]ICL}IOI [i][. ]HO~libi[]Oll Eiial[i [ ~I]VC]'Ii H~" O1] [£1c%i i ,II h~ bct!~ ¢}~]]thIod lit the comt~ alid %~hct}]ci £ithcx lm~ [,ce,t ( h/dle/~ed ~ut ct ~folly? Mi I{Ixlux Lr,I nlejust ~n~%cr MI J~[IIIN NO, il )OU hd%~ IiloI~ ~]I. %~'AXMAN ] l//f:llliollc~] {}K. le..[lic[]oiIs Oil 21(~%6,1{isilz~: aT)})]} to, both luaftazhte~ and outdom advezt[~in£; }lave you f~l£~ ~ 1~%~ gtl[[ }et on hi'half of tht Ouldool Adveitiso~.4? ~11. lit!I~IN Let lne uti~ei 5ou this ~1~3. ~l'hl ~/hc)]e issclt> Ill whethe* commolcial spe(<'h is ptotecled ['5 tho filet im~<l]chnen/ h~ only teull3 lecently been alticulateli b) tho Suplcn,e (oulI. q fl£1t! [~ n() W~I% to (.}%~%l[(.tlh, o ~}lo ]g.%UC that( ~0[I r~li~£ r}hfle ~/Otlif[ bi l]o }]i!;tos) bocauvo it w;~ oll]y alticulat(cl scxt:'t<d 3t,ats ~;o flu al i.a C, UI UI l.a O
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25~ lhu first timr But lh(uc ha~ been nl lea~t one (a~ on it (~r['l~r ~'~ ]~ ~ollt t}l(~ Sl~])letnt~ ~tluit (!e[ttIal }I~dso!l Js 1]1(, llbOM lecellt- ~I1 \V^XMAN. ~1'oU haven't flied any ]awstlhs? You haven't chili Jell,q[ d lilt' constitutlon~lity of the pt esent Jestridions? Mr.i{tlmx l have no reason to 5]1 "~,~.'~XMAN ~lll[ ~.OH ~V(Hlh] hl~l! Io~lHoli if IIw loiating hlhd s3stem ~a~ passed m if the label ~ele of a difie~ent size m ttw ~mning a diffetent substance? Do you lhink lhat ~ou]d t~iggel the baundaries between v, hat is constitutional and ~hat is not? 5~1 RtIIIN AS Mr. ]Milltoll s~)'.~, 3"0~1 stair floltl a b0~c' ]el,~,] Of v. hat nowexi.-{~ And lheplosct]ptionisolladditiorw] lestJaintsin ~; conte×L whole the) ale not the ]oasl tim2, are not the ]east to MIJCti~¢~ n/ca/Is And th( loam leMticlive Iut~ans i~ thl, test "lhu (l~l{'s~ioii i~ W]lethel, i~ yotl ale l/ot goiIlg to 8c}lJ('~t" onsi}lillg Inoeo ~lJth lh@ lt('w imposition on plotected speech, thf, QHIs~ioII is v'heth~] th*qt i~ ~a/id ul~der the Ill'st atnendment [~1 I~VAXMAN ]]0 yoH }]~l~'r(' ~l]y opinion ylm ~o/lld {}~f('l9 5]~ l~ulux I lhink I /u~lifi{d thai I Ihink it Iome~ ~]th[n the mea whine then? is substantial que>tJon. ML \VAx~,l~,g. Doan3 of you h~veanyttdng tooffet tou,b5 v, a5 of c,]lhc~ 5ore experlisc ol knowltdge ol/ thu al]lgdt[on=, about the d tl/!~('l~ oi ~lllokil]~? Is ll]at ~0)01/d yo/Ir colnjlot(q/cc~ M~ MIN~O~, ]t isn'l the subject of n/y lesiimony. Om o'oje~li(m lu 311ul })ill b, r]ilectly telaled to ilro~isions ill ~;ecliol] 4 l/'t nlt]il;g~ imposition of lestlictions Oil II(]~ E'I t[~hlg. leSt!lotion ~il1 bane the Jl/Ipacl O[ ['Oldltg cig~t OH(' In~tnuf~Cttlt(l:, to ~-t/Ip ~ldv#lL]shlg ]'hEll 5Oil Cf~ill/('d lh~t wotl[d h~, ~lIIfbt[tlllO~t hcc'allse, among ofhcl IL!l~SOll , the ild~eliising of 1o~ tat and ni(o fine dgalettes ~ould not be available 1o tile public. Is Ih~t ~ ll)l)'e0I Stal(,nl(,lll? 3,1), \VAqt:~tSOX. I did)l't say it ~ould force t]leIl~ {0 sto1) } In~)ely suggesled any inmease in )t,gulated activity ~ould p~obab]3 d~ crea~e the t, llbctiveness of bland ad3el ti~il~g. "I }l,d is my b(IM ]MI ~*VAXM~,N. Ofb~and advertising. ~,~1 ~VAXMAN. ] see And is it 5otu opinion that thl:le is a ptl})]il ~alLIt If) having h~altd ~ld~eltising [ic, cfms~, ol t}lc Iol~-t~l ,rod nico tillO Cotltol][ of one bl,ind v(,iSHS ~ll]otho/'? MI ~*VA~ER~ON The go~ernrnenls lhroughout the \VesteH~ wmkl have ti~ed to en(otuage Io~-ta~ adveltising (tllain/y in ]mope and, ] believe, in this country a~ ~ell 5II ~,VAKMAN ~,V[, htxp h~d ,%(}I~1(! tcMJr)/(iny this Ill()lllil/~ fit)Ill ~oiile (,llirllill~Ilt ltlt~d[c~] ploft,~:~ion,~] and /e~e[llch{~lS ~'~tlO bt,t!fll IO indicate that th(Ie rna) ht, a ploh]lll~ ~lith {olhon monoxide (Tmhon nlol/oxlde is- a~:a, oeia~d I~ith hl,alt di-;ea~,/,, hi~htl li-,k~, 1o l))tt',Ilatlt ~voII]~ll oltd is ])lesE, lll h] high ~/]]O/ll](~ itl ll3~/lly ]O/t lit IIiC0[ Hie Ci! He{t0s ls thd gomuthing ~Jlh ~Caich ~ou me tim i/ira? ~]1 "~I~'A'IHISON All ~ x/0/I]C~ S/~ is thltt k~('ly ~0~L, rrllllL'lll, t0 t)l} tJol) I)I ]or, I~r llico[iIl(' C[e~ Dtetto fl[ ~he f,xpprt ( 0', hig,}~ tdr nico I in(, ctgltr(,tt r £ ¢tl tO r~ 0"1 ¢,o
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2~9 I /lO 1lot ~:TIO~V TI~LI([I ~l~JLIt ~l~Oh t~l{~l~X~lLi¸ ]£,~b~ [~l]t l (]{~ [~b to £1/(~W ~Od ~I} I(i flt}!tl t}ic ~(i' yLIIR "Jii/t(q ;i [ s itlt I ('tl/ ~[o,,, J~ fl(~[I] ilf~ll ]~ ~(l[L I/~tt t U U}l~-, I ]001: W/ ~/]]] bl trl tO} t~ },lJrl!~ il t~, • ,(JLI It ] ~JIi tc~l'i~i~-~ l/l¢llt, a C(lllt (if ~/]/[LI/ I/(, I,, [~1 tli~l~;e O\~tilt~bi( iol tt~r li/'ol{{ ]I ~'- ~] ]}iCtLlli Of ic{ cl('~lt] [~/I/l ]{{ }]1 ='i:nlLlt(s 0 Cn t-A C~
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,m. 4, 261 ~']i. \~'AXK!A%' I t~s%/]ln~, ~l~ll nr~ IDTIli[it~l with [ht, ]xi/!c1s o~ lhen/o~- advcTtJ int~ poilple Ihillk aboll[ to encout~¢c,e t)K pubhl ~o b~l~ thob ploduct \ghat major thu'me do you thhlk ale i,l¢~ent in %tii~ ~d Orld ~<lh~d il)~c,I~//a~Ol~ o~ valule does ~hc nlantlle~cttnel el ad agtiie~ telkd td convvy to the public lie you tt/ink lhey art> s~il~g Smv, kiIig is ~ v, hcde~onw 8S t'~tlklg i~'( (termly%? Art> they ll3dhg to sa~ to people that il they stop smokb~g they will get ftd? Mt \VAr~:i:SO>: M~ expeIlise is ]imitld to hiL~h]} dttldIr.d k~mv,] edge (d" the efJket of ~ldl>erlis~ng oil consunl]){gm levels thlotlghnut nlally prodtlc{ ~lea~ I harp iit> itlE~ ~t1~4{ ;~ell( thto'd~k ill( lnilld of the advol[i~cl whell he inade up t~lo ad~.rt l tiSEIllt~II[ Mr WAxm^n Dobtm thinkad~eitishlgtda)sa Iolo in increased smoking h~ young people? I~tr \\'A'IERSON. ~very 8brt.d of twit]once ~1o have, ~iid ~ou ha%e t~ copy of my monograph on the subject in your lecord, suggests that this is not sa. There is no e~idence at all to nly knowledge dlrough- oat Emope or indeed in the States to s~tgg¢.st that advmti~ing cn- ¢ourage~ ',oung peopk' to smoke }-~r WA×~AN Do you think adlertislng a product makes it nlore likely that people who are the target of the advel[ising ate more likely to buy a psoduct? M~ gVA~;V, SON. ] simply thhlk it is impossible tbr advertising to st]Ill.late the COh~tlr~lptlon of all nlod~ets sintuItailegusly. X2oung people are sold drinks and 1 million other p~oducts. ] think it is slightly Imlve to tkii~k they can he sold all these thitt.qs siinulla neotlgly ~lng eoilstlme all of thetn mOrE gls a re'qt~ll lit ~dv¢ilising. Mr WAXM^I~ In a h~aring ot Imr n~. Suhcomnlittel on O~ei ~ighl and Investigations there ~as a quote from n repmt by the Ted l~ates Adw:,rtishlg Agency tdflained by the FederM Trade Com- nli~i¢ln. ]t states: ~or the yoking ~r~oker the ¢igareite is not yet ~qll tilt eg ral pa rl of llfe, ~f d~y te~dab liFE in .'.pRo of the fl~CL thor thc~ tr~ to project the'lrna~ of ~ legttfal, It,ll olthe i1~/1 ~.m¢,ker. Fo~ them, I~ cigarette al~d tile wi~oIe *~lookill~ pr~,¢e <~ i~ a p~w[ of Ihe illicit pleasure cate~oO . . . In the )xmng ~lnokeFs *qdnd ,~ cigarette fall i~t~ the same c~t~goi5 ~sith ~/ine, beer, sha~ing, ~earing a br.~, or (purpos¢12, riot v, earing cme), dt=latatlon of in&~end~rme and slrNing f~r s¢]9i6eht~l~. For the your0z slarl- or, a ¢igarette i~ ossoc[ated ~siih i~t~t~d,lttio~ to sex life, ~,[th cou ri.}i[p, /~ith ~mok- irj~ "pot" al,d kt.~ plng ]~le M adying hours Wouldn't one tend to think that this plopased adveliising cam- paig/l ~as ~aig('R'd to a ilalti0ulal group> paiti0u]arld' teenage girls, who appear to be taking up ~moking at a faster rate? In effect they are proposing to target iiot just to a brand, as you said h~ youl tes- tlmony, but to taking up a new habit? Mr. WA'~:RSON. 1 have been connected with adveitising for 15 yeats, products like drink, particularly, in your suggestion, largt~t- i'd to yot~l~g peoplt, I h<qv(, n~v~r Orl('(~ st.t,n alty C~lr/lp~ign inoltide it slalenlellt to the effect lhat lht, re was a dt,sir(~ or hope' of in(leas- ing Iht' tolal markt, t for thai produ¢l h5 bumd advertising. If slim king~ sell more, somebody else s~>lls less• It is as simple as that in my bdlef, Mi. WaXMA~. You indicated Sweden has had a r~umber of label changes but has had no decrease in smoking cigarettes Would you fui'lfi.~h tbi us for the record grotw data? t~2-- ca ba o Ul
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262 ~,h. "~VA'I~![S(,N ] Can ~'i~t 5m~ fl~c i~td ccm umptkm h~d in ~/~l(l/.n w!li<,l~ ~}/(J/~¸ i~(/ drop after illll,~siI~Jl ~,l¸ 11; E~(,r~lt! wren iT,g~ I can ~'i~/, tl t,~/'k ~t~ [iu as you like¸ I d/m'L }ta~(' it llil}l rn~ but I ~n lutnbh it qL~[i t Ii~mlt'? M1 W;~rl H/~,IIX I m!l nut clc~I Iff I. ici~ell llI)ll h/u~ }Kll)~ it is Ioo e~Jtly tr) m¢~(' a con(Iusioll? MI ~*VA'~ERSI)N. I i¢~I/ SUbIl/il [ hay( kllld(t Iny, iD in3 ii]ez4 tint/ Im ]R(Ialy maybe 50 di{ie~elll countries t can submiI it x~i~h tht' elite, I cln't iL.incmbcl IniCi ~'1.1 ~}~a( it Mlov.~ ] d~) krtm~ irl ~l/ o[ ~,~tt,c]Jrlrlli7~ tl l'rc' i~ no ~,~idt'llCt' tll Su/ (~t that (Jt}~L'~ the impoi ]~t .Not l~d~ t]tc ~]tm~tion }/a& inl ~t l'l/,at}) st r,/n ~/]wle ill() }/~l ~[/lnt in ]Jnht,~} K[tl~[dolll tolln , ~/ llli]]it~rl l/o//tld , 5111 nli[i]ol, )nu nlultip~v thai b~ 5 ih L S t(Inl.-, £11(I ~1(10 nliHiIm o~£I a p~ tiled o' .~ 3eals ~l}/i=, }ul~ not had the inlp~(t ol d('~¢('l~iuv elm ~url/]llitJtl ~!l. "~,A~dAN. }]01~, d(i )ou ('xl/[ lill thL d(cl£ i~,o ill (i! ~tl(ql(~ ((m. ~qllilt/l[llll ill ~}lis coll]~ll~ oYI?ly(~ll( ~ !(,!11% to ~/'kll(li/[i,l~(, i{ i{ 1% IK/I i J/ ItilJ21': ~}t. ~,VA't~:II~ON ] d]r} Not ~,U~ilI~ t}/tt isn't lh¢ ~vl~on [b~ it I au hnply ~ 5i~g sp/'dlicall~ ~!lfu/m~tion on hb~].- ~md ~;,L,(ihl dly th~ N(,l/~t'~i;Ih c~l]/pa gn had no hllll~ct 1 do bc]ic\~ ill the Lfh[t'[ K[h;',(hlh/ [U uxunlJl(, tho th/'mo of ne~,ptp(is, }~0tltl,Lq(h'~(;/t C0 }/( dth ('~ I/IKli~71-, ~ltld so on, }I~ }lid ITt tfi)'~'t J tlon't b,]icxt t}lu wulnilff~ spuci[icM)~ b;xe ber~ .~}~o~n ~o h~(, al) (il?'~t :It ;lil ~Jhby ~11( i[41]ol~'d b¢,(du.~t~ l]le sInt~k(,I l']lob~,t,.~ to iznol£' [}will 1~) dh£{ laliL~. NO Ill,t[[(,] boll Ifl~q[l~ ~ou ha\o Mr W-XXXtAN }Jut 3ou do a(knuv, ltdge t}~' fact lhat thi~, }I~,~ bcc, n a d(,c~asu in cig~etle smokin~ in the United Kin#dora, mcl ~IISO lille. HOW d0 y0tl (×p]aill it} MI V~A3FI{SON" [{r, ~l[l>L of l}lt Iloub;~rdln(nt of ]~t dth ]lifo!Din li/]l 0Vel IlK, IK~'-t 10 01 ].~ ~us ] pt(st/r~/( ~.]l ~,VAXMAN. ])~) yOU t~/il]k [I[OIJ(~S' J;II0~/I('CI'( COIll0S 011]~ {tOn] 0Ill' /.I]~i~]C ~OUFCO ~tl](} t]]g~t l}l(lt }~. 71oI :l ~tl(J~Jlt~ a/itt/£tNts., !htv ut conf!ulltod ~il}~ clftinl aI[~ ~l~tll//~nl~, lt0m t ~iilll't) Of (lip~/,/{ lil ,.{)l l(,{ ~ ~,]l ~,VAIIR~ON ~I~SOaUI[! (%[(]ONC( SLI~[ZC~t~, [0 Iil¢! IWO~I~, doll~l leud t}le packs '] hat is all I do bl,Ji/,~u that thl,> t~d(, in o~el pt,li{!d /~f yt,als I}w h-ilt}l ccl[ll[)~li lib Ih~tI [t~t%(' })('('11 I[lkll~Cll£!(] ~tt lh(inin lhi~tounh3 and in the 7JnitCd Kiugdunl ']he3 appal~i~tl~ }la~e /lot gtI all JD .X~oI I',ay ~1I ~VA~%IAN ])O Vbtt think ~lt' veto}i} b, .lOre. (,[[ilct[~l, if ~*' <'(lllI ttt-~lt[~('t(i~i/~[ c~0op3i~9/': (,×£(,pI in ~,'olv.~ ] ~I[I CI([It rill( >][Unt O!l }t(IC is ~cl) di~ttt/'m fl{Im Notll I~ In Nm w{) t}l~' ~[>E'(iJ. U1 C, io, ",.I
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263 ic ci~ml~ll~rl 6o(~ IlOt ~Uq,~ar Io }1;i~i~ h~J(I ~,Ta~ h111) ict {LI IH u~ i,, ~l(~t iI Ill I~li¸ i*its (~i ~i~ t~(Ic,~ i,~3 c<Jlit~E t~, i([~ ll(~] io ucl b3 ad~li>in~? ~]l \~.Altl:~ll-; z'I~ ] pX~tl~!ill('~ ll: lily ttS[llHOIiy i[ i~, \ill¸ i]julh f,~l~i~ t(~ ~t'~l ~l ~hlg/~' bland¸ to ~tl ~ [,l~Eld t!i~11 i~ ~ vvtb nlu¢l! sJ~rlp](I¸ ti/~I:~ I}l~li Io ~lo~ll[~! I(~ lltodlf) }lulll~lll [~(}/~viol¸ ~}~i([~ i!; d!]1/1: n/od/?~t]oll (~l/l]~ii~l~b, ~l ~x~llll~l/ It ]~ ~*..ly c]]f~i~//lI tu ~'t ~cIo~-~ ~Ol/COpt:. o~ t}t~/l ~:olI At ]c&~ i( i:: 11///~]/ n/ol(¸ dil(Lcl/lt ~]r I, VAXMAN IJ tllOlC~ J~ ~1 difli¢/lll5¸ ili ~c'ttill~ ~(lo~ ~ R~l~:l!~i¸, i.. l}lt t~l~l ~i~5¸ [(~ ~I)ill()~](~1 [}1~11 ~llflh]t,rl/ I)3¸ ~ll)~lrl(]l:Tl~llt! flTI3 t'lt011! O~ t/, tl3¸ lo be a~ eft~cli~/¸ ~s, you c~lJ to I~L(}l ~ ll/~T~3 IK0]~/O ~,9 yOU C~/'! Mr ~V~I~:I:~O~: ] Ihirik 3¸o/1 h~ t~ del)/n(] c~ll t}l~:' ~e~c~rt'}, ~i d(nc(. ~t11(I ] I}iJIlk tll~tt l~.~.l&llll pvi~](,llct 8}/o/~s t~/~l Ih/, bill ~,~ c~nn)~o~!'ll i~ extremely ]ike]'~¸ to lie¸ hli'ff(etive Mr Wt.x~!~,-: Wh~t would be ell~eti~e? MI W,xlt~SON I hart~ rl(i il]t,~t, irl this lxlunll3 ] lhink hi Hie Unill c] |~ir/~oll~ ~]/e cc, ntiiluatio:l of¸ ~ht, l~I('.,ent .~itu~t~iotl ~ i~ i~ is p~o~,il~, ~1¢2(~]v~~ h~ t~/i.; couil~ly /l~Et~l i~l ~S~UII~iII~ J'rolEi ~]~at ~OU lld~. f.;lic] ~.~lllit,i titbit ~}lc~ ~[lii. ll~ ~1 !~1(~1~ (]ogle(¸ oll 1]~o ]lig]l i,lico ol C]~l~le~? M~ W~.I~,/'~ON ~l~t is l]iffi~tl]l io s~) ]I, Lhe sho1~-tt'inl, c(i Ui]n]3 il 3ou Jl:¢lc&~o th(. i)lice )/)tl ~li/I dc'cio~ls~¸ col~tln~ptiolt ]~ t},¢ lol,~-tt~lln ~,,(, don'I }l~tv( (lloug}/ o~id~nc(, 1o SLIg!!~'~t t]/&t t~l~t C011~UlTI~Ii(II/ d/.c[in(' WOll'~ ?o ~ llt~x~ 3~tll". 'Jil~i(, i,. fd~o II!(~ ~Io~I]pIG (JIIo cill/ f.oo flolEi .~olll&~, x',t~(~l(! ~ou ~l[~('lll[l[ t/i colt~tol the f~Ii)c/tlet I/v ~}/~t ~ac'klnK uj~ t~(. pli¢e dO 1o 50 i~(ll'(~nL You en- loul~e iJ('~p]~ to in~l~oTt ill~ul}3 hJ ~No~/~13, 3(I !Jel~e:l~ o/ st*ilits i~u~i*tio~ is iltegally di.~til[ed which is in itself a ¢onsidorable hea]l~/ ]taz~rd ~'hilIy pel~ent ol I}/v 8t)]lii~ eol)~un/ed ill .Noil~,ay, ~his ]~ i~ (~(iv¢ln;/lcqlt o~th)l~lt(~, iiot i/lill(., ~f~hl I t.~n Jtlrrlis}/ /](, laiis Mr. WAXMa:'L I l~ss~d the l~Oint of that l~,]i. ~VAT~:~S~N. Attl!rlli~l~ t(I Control Col/~/JmIIt]on ](~(~/~ ~13¸ ni~l~ ~-ilo Ill~ce in~'le&'~zs ol ~dvel tishl~ bans ~lnd sol oil Mr. WAx~t.~. | see. Certainly t}~e ~'e ina~ket systvm indi0a~es if 3ou w~lnt a t,lodu(t and have to pl/y a high |~riee in ol~e pla(~ you ~ill ~!u Iii a p]ace ~helt~ yclu can pay ~l lo~el¸ prie~, Mr Wt,~t:,~sox Exactl5¸, that Js my point, Mr. "WAX,~I~.N Tha~ i~ rea~on~lb]e to exl)~,el. | go to yol~ a'¢ all (xEJ~fl in ad\eltisirlt~ ttncl say we have ,q bi~ public health ploblenl i:l thi~ country. People are d3]ng of ean(er and ]un~. dise~(, and ]~E~llk di~eas(¸. ]t apt,e~l's ~o be that cigarc[tes ~lre t~ ]('a~Iing c~luse ~.VII~I wo~lld you l~t'oil/ii~elld ~o ilie ~s ~/1/ ~.dvet t~,it/~ ~2xi)l,t t kilow- ill~ ]low to soil ~liil~ to l)eol,]o? Your ~tnsw£r would b~¸ Mr, WA~t;I/SON. 'Phis l~ally isn't n~y field at all but I ~o~lkl ~ug t!~t t}lal as ~ pul6']y personal inlpl~ion, ] think (~apta]n ]'[anga- Xh. WAX~I¢. MI. }lliley. ca ?,2 ui b.~, O~
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271 ~]F ]~IllE~Z IN~r ~tO~;L~I! }I~VU Vt~IJ COtl~]LlCtOd 11115 I~%CUlC]I st/Id]~':- stlpp!util!!! {}1(¸ l/olloll ~hat lol~ting i/'alllinlt ]~b(I- I~¢]LIC/~ Cit~a I el t (¸ ~-mokin~;¸' Mr %~,~x3~l~soN \VI' t/l~i' b~ol;l'[ at tic' t.E >ituulilm /',h It t~t' h i~ 1~ had ~II~ impact \V¢ h~tx e I Iwd to r cem ~h il ccolto:nttl 1 (t]]) at]El s(~c'or d, usirt~ SUI~C`yS of I)(o]dcs' knl)~]e(ig/, ai3:] il ]inc~ sion~ I~l the he`nit h V,~illlilt~ Mt t~,ll,t:~ 1)~ 3on ]no~l II~" at3 studit b~ ~ll/~(Itll' I']s ', thil }ICI~C` i2C'C'11 colid/tgtq~ lhat ~ vuld SU]I]IOI ~ [l/if/ 3.1~ l\ A'lEl¢~,t~:¢ ] (~ont b~,]il,~¢, t}li,l~ is all5 evld/'l~/'~ ~tl a]] lo sup p)/l l}lt' notitl/l ]lt'tlt}l ~laln[nb,> }l~t! ~It) eflc`cl m all Iltl p~ :]<s o~ c/;,~c.tles O~ ~dxcu tisenlel,ts 1~]1 }/I IIEY ] St'(~ lie 3OU think that one of the ~caso,,s lot the. dectt a~,' in ci~mctte smol;bt~ irt ~lte Utdtc'd S:att'.. might b' du~' to the b~c't thai lht, ].] ~q popuJali/m i~ bEcon/iug mote ¢d/ic31ed ~rlt~, tIQIl(%', ]IL'I h3~lS TIle] P r~tiio]I3] ~ ]~]l ~VA3ERSON. It could ~ell be l &m't haxe ~l,<ial kno~l~dte loquil~ ] to ~oIl/rllet~t but ] all/ sule thai is pat t Of I}lo Ieas0n ]~]T ]{I1[1:1 YOU I/l/lit Illl((1 NOl'%l'Oy. I)ll ~]3(') a!lov, ci/ate~t~ old wttising in Nm~a~? ]',ir !~ A~:~:~:~N No, it ]s barmc`d l)~i~} ad~c,~t:sh~i~ to~, i~ bmn(d l~t ]~I[ITI It Ila~ ~ut col/ tllI/]~tion b/ llOitbtl i!l~l~ I3¢.~9 ~I1 1,VAgEt ~lN. Z{'I'O Notldng ~lt all 'lilt' oldy t'fli't~ IJ~ 11o11~ bul~; ~t cm see is a big iu~,c`as~ in il]oga/ llis, til/ation of spirits Iqr ]hI~:x. I s/,o. ]~Y V~A3I,/{SON rl'h~'T(' ]llt i~]s(~ b~£,l) ~ll] inclc,as¢, ih Sm0[il]~ lO })(IC( (1 ~It. }~111 EY. ~I'(KI a]go m( ntionl~d ]laly ]l(/~ Ion!: lln~ ]laly bann/~d l~/]v~'} t]S]IIK9 Nit I, VA'I~FISON ']'~ent3 )lql/S ~l, Ihllg~ YOU say col/sunlption ha~ I~scn b) 6~J pcic~nt Mr ~,VA3~:t:SON. The spec,itic (;o~<,tnlntnt data i~ in the back of lr3~ sublEiSSiOII IO ~Otl ]~]I 1~111,1~ SO II0~ th(,~ zir(! tldnkin~ of- ]M~ IV.~,'~H~S;ON Iconthming] l{einstatJng advertising. Mr Ih H~:~ Ate they plallnin-~ to ha~e Ic,q~lired lahc,]s? Mr l~,a~ c~so:, ~ibe debates arc" slill going oft ] tbit~k ~hcy ~ill (~lly health ~ alnil~gS. Mr ~,VA'~rRSON The situation is parallel to a nunlber of other countti/% espteially Poland ~lhpll! a b~u] }la~ h('/'n in I'x/slt'nl¢! <nee 1!~72 ~II~d a~ail/ eol]sumption has lis*.,n o~el I}3al p¢~it~d floll3 alq,loximatel~ 70 million cigarettes to 90 million cig~u'ette o~c~ that pt'I iod Mr. }IIII,Ev. II is ?,'nll~ al/inicm, backed b3 5~!Ir re~ealch, tlta~ .~(1 ditkmal watnlng labels ~ould have absolutely no eliccl on con- S~lli/llt loll'/ l~ll "~'AIE;RSON rJ'h ~t is lily c/In~klerud opiuion, ~e,;, 7olo ML Itlu ~:~. I see. ]~lr (]nllirl/lal/, ] wmlt to thank the ~itnesscs again, ~lllc] ] ]l~l~! lio t~ll ~}IUI questions U'I l0 O UI ¢;I I,a ga
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272 Mr WAXMM¢. You aB believe on~ ef[eet of this le~is] ttion ~s]l] b( to a~vezstlv ~ff[~et the eeorloi/lie iiltele~ts of t}l[¸ advelti~JlL~ a,~eh- tits and the ndver ti~ing iudustry? ~Jl¸. IIU~EN, I dOl/'t evell kiiow how lo allSWel¸ that qLIcstioll, ]1on e~tly. I },ave rio kno~leJ~ of that¸ Mr %VAX~IAr< I)o you fell thnl Ihele would be Ii~lTii/ to ~orrle extent },eeause of the eoncel n abotlt ]iabi}it~? Mr, ]{tr~:x Cigarettes are advertls~(] on billboards, just like atltOnl{lt~[]es and local haldwme stores, but I ha% t~ no kno/vlel]Ke al nil, ol¸ no exptr[[so at aEI orl whnt t[/(, efl~.et~ o[¸ thi~ would b~ ill terms of [heir desire lu continLle advertising one ila) or mlot}ll.l Mr. }h u ~:~ Would (he chairman yield oil that point9 Mr }~uheu, youin your testin/ony btou~ht up penalties¸ You, a~ 3n o:lt(]ogr ad~eIl[sel ] undelstalld )oil have a lilnl A~ 3o~J ~lrt /]~.l~[ahd the ]egi~]aligll t~th legal~/ to lh(¸ pe//a}~ies. !~opl(I 3otll¸ fi~zn, ~y, if you ~got to Change the lab~lin~ durJn~ ol,c o[ the time pel[ods, could you 1,0~sibly be held liable? ~II J[Lrl;EN Th(le are ~!l! sg!ti~ o[ ]iabi][l]es I ail/ sL~le the ~/{~el¸ I~1 ~ou](~ hold tl~ liable¸ ] aln /lot ~-tl~(. ~[l(i}/(t we ~o~1[(] }~¢ }~eLd J{~},[< Or uot ] ¢~on't know ~]E ~,/:AXMAN l)iC{ ~it}l(I¸ 0J the uther two ha~c ally COItlIlU llt~ t~ Fill. ~i\IF};SI}N ] i/O/irk/ [}][ TIll] : Se~I[/JLIS ~t ]l({t (, l}t{ ]~ ~]S], ~}~l ~× }~r~t 1}i(¸ }i~ilt~(([itlt0 (((~t/(,r~l~C ~r~:ll~l(t, b/It th(¸ ii~¢I ill{it ]1 i~ ]iI~(~3¸ t(, /,t¸ ti!/.~t t~< ;I ~t('k~}lill[~ bt~bl~/¸ t~%¸ l~l~/l/3 0!}il,I¸ pltt>~ttl/¸ ~,i~¸ ~l~,iox [ J~nvl¸ no /~:j~ell[~(¸ m thu! fu.ld MI¸ ()i~li!l~i;irl Io }~i, t}li¸ }lotll!d:tljc.$ b~ iau/u] le~llat[ot~ MI. "~'AXMAN, ~'O~l ~,1(~ ,qfta~(] 0[ ¢~t~lel¸ [~ICSStII( [!~Llup~ ~'[t(~l~¸ I[.~ it hd in bhuoI,e? ~,1r "~A'I~: S(IN ~}1~ ]~L/I/,I (qnl ]~l li~lE~/[ll! flier ll£~k i~ fO d bill' iL[!i}lll i!l~rl]ct/o!/~ Oll ~l]ti[ ~/~ ~,ll]-. i~ t~l (k~ll~pl , "j ~l~ ('lul!to[I /~ };ull; i nil/ dl,brl!m , ll'~[l[(lil/ll OII d! Ill [!1 !(l%lq I ~-]1~ ]~lt \VANM%N ~Vi~i~t lO pons[bJliti(~ rio adlelliSJ[li! ,~!tl (i 'S h3~( Jr1 ],1~11/ol;I1~ l}C coil tllI/ptiOll Of plo(It/cl~ v.h]ch ~llk' klll~[i{~ ~I[ ~AI! R~ON I ~0] Ii]al~ ]~IOdUCtS Jl] [[1] CuLlllt[~ ~I!d ]:LIl<]~i ,~ll WAXNIAX ])O ~OU f~'el l}ltt t~clti [1~ t~lnc[t~ ]l~/c :fly I¢ ~l,,r/~}~J]i:} in {hi l~.~ozd? MI ~,~,n!so", ] tllnk i is ~ G,)\ 'Inn/ lu le pmsihil]l5 ::~ L0 ~lmt ~[mtdd bulH~L) ~oLd m~d v,h~ i ~c; ~Ii. V~AXS!AN ]~1~ '1~ ~:)~¢]? 11 it J- i~it] th(le i~ !tu p~u}li~i~ion, 3otr ft"~ t i 10uld be iulh ach~lti'. ( ' 5I[ \~'%I~J[E/)~N i lhillJ~ [ht, IOI£1IHII~H[ ~}loklIi] [] (id(' tl[('>k tl I~ tk] ill ~l(}l if <]~/](}/:t~l ( ,tlnLr~ 1 {}on t tl[nk it ]~ th( I(~I, UL [b[}[I3 ii~ l] U tl( /Cl[i T:! ~, ~CI/i'~ to S/I}! ~>T ~lltil }( !ILl{];)r] ~ht~li[f] ~ (, Ip biiud F~ 0 UI F~ F~ ,.,,.I
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273 I[ 1}/, (ic~t c,lilll/r,lil ft.] ~}111 ~ rill( ti!~ii } r~tllel }> s/7,/i< i. if< ~ t}~t ]~ lho ~L> il is I~tlt it i~thcit¸r(~I,~m~i}~ilit>¸,lkC~t th(.~lciv(iti~ ~I~ \VA×~tAX Al~ 3(~L~ ;~ c[tizc I1 oft}l:¸ (~ltit~ J Stc~tt:! ]~]t ~t~'AX~TAN'. AI( >Or! ~l laxl~>'tl¸ }i£1/? ~t \\A~IAN \~'(' B:LVl¸ ~l ]!~t rJ! fJ~/l~ll' ~1}1~1 ~llt' ~'iti:l~1 ~(l>¸ si~'l~, i!t~ll>¸ of i}i(;tJ arc, iT~ti{, title 1o ('i~lr(ll('! ]: i~ (c~t[r~~ t}i( t;~,',~J~l} (,l~ (ll lllJ- COLII/t~>¸ t~ii[][(~llS O~ (~C)l/~t¸-, 10 t?C~:I l}l(il i!{li(~!~ \\{ [J!l~/ 0 [~tll}i~ i~£~i(it \'~'£. dOzi'I i/al!l tc~ ..iJct~d <.o lrl!lc]~ /~f¸ >oral lJ](~l~(~v Jl; t~ix[,s ] li~tlT~]l~ \IC. ~l~' Ittl~[[]~. [JiC)lE. th[Itl ~lt~ lil~l, i]: t}l$11 t~vt?~(~i]~, ghou!d }lst~c \V( /~'~illt to c][<,cullri~!@ l)!~l~l(! ~i£~li/ ~IiltJ~cirl!~ il i~ ~1 17~/'t I J~l~i'tt('!; s~rl¸ l('~ll ~tlttl tilt l~, J~ lle~ I~rl~h[llili/~ll ~l~ lalioi}al t~ol~esll (oLi)(] l/~lv[, {}lc, if)[~a Ihc~t ~/(, S}/(J~l]~] ~3~¸ o}1 illc~i. It i~ ]({4 :l t<) ~iilolct, it i~ lt'it d to sell tif{itl(~((( , it if, ](F:~l to i~(i ~¢l'tife Cit¢~I(IIOS }10~', Sh0UI¢I t~o, it ?,ou v, ci( in ~tlo pc~ ilioit oi f~¢l vJ~in~{ {is, (lk {I) it ~'.(il {}lO OOll UI,/I,I{OII Of (iITll'i'tL£$'~ }loll ~',ool(f }fill i~(~li (" 15 IfS ll<l Jl'? ~]1 \~ rl'ltl 7(iN ] llJiil]~ 3C~Cl i/~t' ;I It:t] i~iil]lJcli } t]tilll, if 3{Itl ~:r!(] tij~ Ih¢ cc) i es: ~il] e,l I}lo J>lO it/it ~:d/ctti tc] J~i It{ cot 1:~13+ if }otl ;e~(I t:l~ tit(t() {, ~.~1, \~ AX$I4N, 'l'o/~ OF i/'l t jtl,,lc t~1 ~I, A t'~ll js lIot ~ l:,t(l~tl~ I~tl; ~'ll(lll5 thil/~~ II (il f{~l (I]1[) (Jill l~/~ll~Cl (' A {!ll iS tlst{i In Ii %[41 l~c'il II¢iti} ~;ll ~7111£ I,C(>;~l~' Cell C~I~tl ' Ii,~t {i~7{il([{(l Ic' {S'. l}~t~r~ }~Ltt i [](,lt>t t]Iilli t)¢l( i C~ll> I~( licit] tXp." ~ ~[1t1 C~ L~ICI ~C~I tittle" i< :~ t~lLl(~ 10 glllO~i/i~ ~1 Ci~I~I~{t(, E'%(~li il SOtii(Oli{' I{(d\c ![J!ll %~t' l,ll' >.eli nB' Ill'lSllll' I[te' id{'~ ~,J ~ll;l~]~ilil;, ~ltll t}/I (tl!3 tiiill~i the~l c,ltl Cot/It' Jlorll f s,~ol<ir~;4 ]~ J~l(] ll('c~}lil ~71 \½"ATt;ICTCJ7~ [co:lt}l~uiltff] 'J ts£. ~i~o](. }~oi~t of 11i% i(LIIJIC~Sl) iF; I[l<tt ~/( tJOli ( ~ll(l~l it})OLlt soIlili fil~O~.[llf~ ~1 \~ANBI*~b~ ]1(1%1' (l{) "+(ILl ~tC>t.ClUll{ itJT Ihc< ill(l(,i ~t, ill ~;!JItl]tEN~ I~]I, \\AG!:Ii~(iN Jl(l/I rio >C~tl ilocohi!t~ itil llic ~/0l tt~lt sr~lt~i:il~ ii~ ]]l~[(~lil ]']ul(i/)t~Jll (OUlIIi]C'D }i~c p~l~]l<'ic'~l ltl:l{, ttTtt/ l;(z ~(]xClli~ i:i~r? ])/illkill~ }1;4~- (]{lll( tilt' s~i/lc' t))iii<~ ~I, \\'AX~I^X }J~w ~(J )liLt ~qet>tltlllt i'o1 it? r~ll \VA']KI{ Cl~, IlOCGi/I 0 ~(l%E~rti~ir~t{ h~i~ I/O ]lrlll;~ "i [ill tO[Fl] COI1- I/UII/~)OI (if lrClCtOl~ l~'lliC}l gO Jl/tO J//CI%CI {f] COi/SUml)tioi/ CJf [~t/} (l/lO ill(]iViiltl~l] ])!O0llCl il lila} }J{~ ~1%%l~o1~ stl'ill}l £,1 tPlJl/t~ ]1 ]llfl} bo tt<]~%i~ie~ll, I)iLLtlIL~S, ] titill't kll{)\% W( :~li' (Ifr~l I>f Ihr~t. l']~t,i) ship,el of ('~icl(ilc~ Ihloclf~he:ut tl~' t'Ol](i SLII{~OS[S it i~ llOt adt (*ltiSlllg t}lll is i~ }la~ic l/IOliYEit(,l ()f t}lkt I)D(: (If fll({(ll If it %~as t,'~(', ~(~ l~ouid buy cu~,iit(,(ic:~ ~m(] ¢'%'ei') 1}ilia' ('ISl> lit I}IC lJ/lit('<t St:4t('~ }l('~l[~( tht3 ari, ~dv~tti~'.,d ~{'11 { [;ll(,s i10It' ~1 \~,'AX~,I~>N ] all/ I/ot ~1/ (Xlt(~lt irt r~cltt, itislnI' %,\'~, ~114, lla]iti 7iEII17 ~*(' IO11 foi ol'fk'(t 8lid tl) t(J S<.'li (IUi:~('l~+'ftS tO t}~, i~cll>]ic t-t (rI i,a
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2?4 ]",'r(:ly tillle ~*i,~, ~la~(. e/el seen a C~lTIlpEaIl] ol ~](.C[]Oll t,,]l(it thbr(. ~l~ls b~t,ll 1lo Oall)p~}~ll, ll~ld the oti]3¸ thJllg Oil th(¸ btl}]ots ~ol~ld b~¸ ~ laco ~ot (;oIigless. t}l~ vo[£q¸ ttlil/ozit J$ }o~ When 1he!(¸ i% a eonlpf~t]tJon to try to s(,l] o11o cal~(]iaate wqsu8 allothol¸, thl¸ to{~ll vot~i¸ t~]rl~otl[ ilict ~lt~e~ Wll3 cotlldn'( 1 aSSLtII)(, [ioltl that t}/at i[" thcr~ is a c~I~ll~l[g[i t<l se]l I* 1o: of (llflulent b~anrls, making smokbig a bf~,aa of ciem(uts II Ill( attl~tCt]VC, /Ilia O~il:}] hi,ilia coill])otii]i[ i,.Jth the Ot}l~I tO //l~lk( il appall inore attractive, lhat lhat i~il] Jfmlea!:e I}w totul con sulnption of that I/artlcular ],1 oiluet? "~Vhy ~hould I not m~ke that n~,~mnplion? MI. ~VA"xEI{SON Th£,l(, i~i(! t~%o )oints tleio I CiilL tm[~ f,,o (}I/ tht, i(!s(3T~h ] ha%~, $~4!i) i)cisol/~a] { h~l~(! ]/£v~i ~(,(,ii io~(ltlch oil ~/li ~'~lN(lic~ttl p0litica! campaigt/ Ev,'iy evia(l=ce ~ }taro ~/}l]ch coy(is t]~t i~lhacco iIl~ilk(,ts o] I tllOpe sho~s l}l~ll ~ho!;£! loil!l~ o~ tta~(,i[Jq Jyl! t]o NOt Jl]ClOaBt~ tht, colls~lrllptJo~l ol L'}I{ tittles }1/ ]CDI~I/~ ~i[ /~ast the political ~t/{~l.ltihJl]t~ {a otllgJr]( oI lhl COl i]ol ~ ~t,TII ~4() VILLI c{n yHak(, CI~tHI~5 thH[ ~ou £ tll'i IIH{~ hi hlilllr] ts t. ~ t c 11,( cl I } ~ I ] u I , v.h[ch ¥o~1 ¢Zil"t t}KI(, ~,lr ~,'~.K~IA.~ ] haxe lltV(.[ to]a a!/hbo]v th~tt ~ot]l/~ lol Ill(' ~',i[I Ir~ak( thr,m ~'x) healthiel and nlo~r, ac.t[~*, I c~airl ~}~c) v, Jl] bc ] }lixe nolhin.q furL}lit 5{r I~li]t'y, do 5.00 hl~ve an)thi~' !ul the~? ~|!, ]{I*IlEy, I }klS[ ~/allt£,a Io 8a> ] Ihou~ht ~,,.[~ ~.,,clt a[%tl} ~llC~ "~/}lotLol Ol not \re .Hloula Ji/(ik is( lh(~ v,~illlil/}~ la~c]~ on ll/tlt, i (}drlh it/{ t(,s{iilolly l/oil/ ~1/(,~( g(.l/tlclll(,ll ]KII{~CLI[~ilI~ lloIJ/ ~\IT ~,l~fttEl-~[I t %/}1~ that it dOl.~ no~ }m~( t}m ¢~H(Ct oi I(,a!][ill~ COll- ~dlnpliou, and fbr that I 11111 V(!I~ V,l~delul I }oak lbrllard to ~ead iIl}t lht ~t([!l]tioI:/I] E*~i~[£11C0 y(,cl JllttJia lo ~£1id tl~, ~j}l~ll k ~()k] l~al ~VAKMAN ] fill] (tut~]tdy Jlltt'luslud in i(adinK Ihv ~la(]itil)n;~[ iIl]OlII/~l[iOD alia evJdc]lC{' you btq/d us I II/ll~.t ,q[]mlt it aefit'., n/y kno~Heage of what I exp~'ct human behavior to be ] am t~ol sa)ilE it is tht. clllly 3~'[IS(In W[I) pt ople sn~(]l(( but it is COl [ lin/y O11o I ~all( foI tht I(¢Old to II'ad tht ~/ho]¢ pala~,!aph fIom ti~e Tiue Ma~azll~e article to ~Qlich Mr Bl[le~, ~eleu(d. The ptragraph St ltrs 'SJtlc¢ the 19[~ report almost ~0 ~lil/ioll people h£t~(' l[lttH aged to ~J~o up smoking ~QII}IIil]~', (,o}a turkt'y apll('~ts lu he a II}Olt~ ~,f~k,~llve strategy thai/ £lltt]l/~ do,if1 ~Jt}lOtll tl~JllK lo ~lop elflilt'ly' SulpzishWly, 95 percent of the people ~/}1o bloke the smok{[t~, }la[iJl aid 80 IviihtlLll I}W h~]p ofolV, t IliZ~K] p~oi',rall~ " ] thil~k that ',lould icier to olga[fi~ea p~oaiams to help t;eoplu stop smoking l'0oplt ~ho~a~lt to quil,quit 'lhat is the ~ay l did it ana the ~lliy most oltler pr.opIl~ do u~- v.ell Agailh kt hi*' thank you gt'iH]l'lnon fol )oul t¢sliuaolly today. We ]ook foi~la?c} to tecei~ing additional Jnfolnla~ioll ~-]r 1{111.;~ Before ~e aajo i~n, might ] hurt" arl [i aic~tion l,,hd the st heduk" will l)o fol this subcommittee? MI. ~I,'AXMAN, 1,Ve glC eXtlCCIil]K tO IIy tO /',01}: out t}l(' fialo,,~inK ch£'dulc: i'o }l¢'aI tl'0IlI 1[1£' ad$1~ill[gtlatioN ii(,x[ "]'}/tll£(l ty iiiolliillK ati~(i Ih(,ll U) h~vl' Flidal3's }lial]iWs dev/~tl~d l(I Ihe I('~titntli~y t}lztt ¥/(l ~vi)1%%(J!k OLlt x/it}z tho "lob;~('co lu~tJtut(, in oIaol to }l(!lf 3 !llHll!J/ I O~ IlJ[nt,s~<,~ that dt3 lelatix o to t}l[:4 lzg[:.}at]011 UI i'0 b= 0 in u1 bg=
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((}3]Pi{I]HI]N~I'(I; ~MOb[ING ]qH;VI]N'IION 1,'i)I;(~AI'I{)N ACT 'lllI I~,l}~}, MARCll ]1. I!IN2 S~'5~C!>MMiI~:~ (IN ]]F&I~II AN]! ll][ I~NVII~O2~MF:~!, ()/~!~IL~ ~: ON };NI I~G~¸ ANI~ ~(1~!~!~ I~(~ :~J~ I~3},Utll ]IOU~I¸ OSilCe ]~uiidin~_. IIO~L Ji~'l]~5 A \',~xJ~ ~l \\AXMM~ ~ ]/O Ii1~ ~itl!~ O1 I}/C¸ sLIb~O]l!?~itt~ ~i[I I/]~. COI]~t¸ Ill o1£1~ I. tl~li~ IliOlllil~!. till" ~ubcoli/!/]~t[t.~ ~OII{}IIU/~5~ }l~L~[r]i~ OII [],~ (~l~!l !Jlll~!JL~i~(¸ ~:tio];ini~ }~tt.~t~lti~/ ]:ci/~(~li~li A~; ]a~i ]'~]~3¸. x! ~J~ald II~!ll~ony il/m] ~ ]~!~'~ O~¸ /ii~!illl ili~!~l i T~!13~]tiaT l~.~!~lili t~ l~l/;j TITISilLIC~ Ili(}~!l~ ~IL~II ~l;~l~!~irJi! i: I}L[¸ ~l~ 1 }1~1![~ Ii~I~ (!~[Zill~ V.}]O (Xl~lt?~.~d I}~(il !/l~t~'OI/::] (t~;ll(Itl O\/! I}1C ~'~ ]!] t(¸ i~Ct~ /~ ~'I~A~]:ilLS! ~ it tOtLO!t~C~ tlL~'~ li~i~ i~lL/ i}J/l~¸ O! thai! I~ T;,I. [ r~<l('t t]i~l TII!II(L t/~'TIL/~ f~. £O1 /~ IIOT }~l~¸ i]('~lll] i]li'~l !,:p~t :i l~lti(':k ]t //~ tlLLIV ]lIO~il]l ~n(~ ] t!~ill~i C]~113 SO[~ Jolt)¸ t~!! It :/<~ /I]~3¸ t}li~ 1¢2]S1~11iO11 i~ !O 1~O.!~!~1/ J~. ~/ ~iJi !~ea:¸ flora tht¸ ~i~ d:li~tt~l!ion I~cC~!ix. lhi¸ l)~ I~;l:i Oll l}1~ ]k~21]t}l ~/itl~t~/iLll~tlL't,:: /~! s!l~/l~il~ I~ it iii~it~.~] it? ClL/~I IT; l~l~}ll!~ [}]C I~oII. I~l~¸ ~;~lTg(Oi~ (;C11('1~] l]i~llil~t.lizi~ ~rl]o]~il[~ ~l~. li]!¸ c}/i~.f¸ (ariel Of¸ i~t~lT]~atj]t (ii~.~l~t~ ~l/~ i][i]l~ i:i tlli~ to/intl3 ~lt/~ I~1Oi1~¸ s}~3~ld ln~/~¸ ~1!~.~8[~i!~ ol Ill(¸ ('ol~;]~li[l<!l bi~t¸ N!l/oking ]~l~Lvt ILiiOl] l~(l~l/diion ~t ~i lOl~ ]lr~Olit3 Th~¸ pr'rldlrl!~ ]eg~sl~ti/m i~ d~s~r]~Ld lu Jr~l~, An~e~ic~tl~ /~]~br~¸ a~l~. ot¸ ~}]( s/jio~8 lisk~ snlokin~ p!,~t~ tl~ t]l(i! J~a]th, ~ttl(i itl ~/~ c~ff-i¸ ol i~!i.gt]~lnt ~lO]l/~Ll/ tO 1~]O ilCO]L}~ O! l}~(¸ 1Inborn ¢~LiECl ~;:l]Ok tt~; i~ ~1 ~C~{!~iO~ti UCli~ hl~lit It i~- I{£~ILL(liv£~ /~t htu//lln ]il~¸ ~ni[ i~. r i.~l~i~l~si~l!l~ 10?¸ ~n ~]z]/o~t Lil]inl~/~ina])2/. {oil ill l~Ir]/~, O! ~O~t p]O!lui¸ t[lit~¸ {o ~h~ ecolloltt3¸ aIid e~es$ lllod]c~*l co~t8 l'le~l][ioll ol¸ ~iLiOk ilJg lhll~l~]l e\t~ly mean~, al our dispiJ>a] is in our p[.l~ol]al ~nd n~. I ~ii~ ~o n/nk~ 11 k.lo~ l}l~ ~lg~ ilL ~e CtlllOllt ~I~EI]I//; la~¸] al~¸ I]Ot the ol]]3 8[el)~ l/ecess~lly to Jna~(¸ a h/~l'Ol clill~]l [1C~ il~ t}le snIokini~ bo}/aliol¸ ol¸ ~n]~lic&n~ It is a[so il/lllOl t~lnt t]l~I tho I%doJ'.d Government, through the Office ol¸Smoking and ]l~/tl:. llLaiiit~l]T/ I~ ]~lilll]i[]~l][ lll]t¸ ill ~('XO]Ot)ifL~ lie//¸ ('dLICilti/lll~l IIl~l?(~]] ~]S. ~OI/~ ClOS~I3 ~]tl/ l}le ';O]UIII~I3 ]lt'~ll~l .~eC~lll¸ ~ind I~/~lilll~lil~ & ~]golou~ lts£.arl.h i~l~.~nllL I b~Ji~'v(¸ tt/~L ~omb~iL(.d iIllpac[ ol¸ t}l/s~ 1~77, UI b~ UI U1
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278 ¢]:" D~ qult al/d (]lgCO~/l~]~]ll~c~ I)o~(q/tiE~l 9!1/0~!]~ floIE/ ~tl]khI~ that f]Jst III;]lch OLll ]llht ~Jtn~-~e t}~i:, mozning ale~ 3 #,i:at[iTLi]shc.d ])ali¢l of phy,~icinl~;: F,Mll-nld N }li~!ld~ ~ /~i tapir :4eel(taLl lo? }lr.~lltl of thL, lleptltnlent Of lIeahh a.d }Iuman Sellkes. Acc~mlpml> ng l}! lhan/It meDr C I,Xetett Koop, U.S £u]{.~on (;enelah lh Vincent T. })cVita, I)i, cctoJ of the Natioml Ca:~{er }n',t]to{c; }~l,tt I ['1 IN/I,I. ~,c{irl~ I)ileCLO]' ot ~h~ ~,'[]{i(/l/$/ H~alt ltlll% E~lld ]l]ood h/ !ilut/.; ~:ri/] Will]gmi Po]lh , ])bectol ol t}*e Nationa] ]h~litute on I)t ug Abuse ] would like lo i~elcomL, t~ac}l of :~OU to OUl h<,dlil:g JodJ) ~lrld ] will a~k nl~ eol/e~aqLle, Mr. ]Ililey, i~ their, any comment 3ou v, ould like to hake? v ou/(] 1[[:~, to Lull OI ~,ou at rid,, lh~/. Io nt,lkt. 3ot~ ]>z('~t,nt ~tiL~l, t/, !}1(, C nt/ll/il I(,(, ~;'IA'I !:MEN]~ (If' I;DWARII N BRXNIIf, JR 3[I). ~.>;SIr;]AN2 SIX:. III;IAI{~ {}1 II[:hl3Jl. AND I}ll. C. ll;l:lll:ll K{}(~I', S;I It(;EON (;I:NI:I~ M. I'[ Ill,i(' II,:AI '11[ SI:I{'~ I( t:, DEI'AICI Mi:N 1 ()~ I[[:AI.'III ~.NI) II['31"~N SI:RVICI:S~ AC(OMI'3.NII:I) Ii'l I)R ~IN- (I;NI '1. l)e*,I] L DII{ECIOIL NA~II)NM, (AN('I]I INSIIII I'l, ~ND I}l{ ~I].I,I~,M J'(II.I.IN, D1]tE~I'OJ~ xAqIoN~,I, IN-,ll'f['l~ ON IIRI'(; AllI ~:I; l)l I~I~AND1 "lhank >ou x~) mud~, hh (:hui~ma~ ] au, ph, ctd to ln~.~(I t 10 ~otl ~})t' 81,dt'n/tqll O~ tic' l)(portnlc.i/I Oi }]¢;z)l}~ int] ]]Lln!at/ ~,_.r~ict..~ oil thL. hLd]~]l (d]L.(ts O[ £ig~li('.tt S~/l/)kilt,~. "l[t!>t hca[t~t (.filets alld tht'l siKnili~ai/c( ill the ~'~nlclJcm pe(~p]( r:IL~St N(?C -*~til3 plovid~, the lation,~](, ~tltd jtP, t[[]cal[oll {~t %}t:t[c,~tl action youl coi/ln/ittL,¢ ilia7, take i?l l-(gard to the Di[l bclol( yotl A~>ou mentioned [a[u acco:npuiil,d by Dr Koop,~ulheon (;en etal; lb. Vinee~rlt l)pVita, Ngd~olmi (ancer In tlr de: md lb }'t,t(r ]"rommez of the National Hem L, I,ung, and tl]ood Institute ],et me begin b~ p~esonth~g a capsule dc~clipticm ot 11~( health ~ ft~cts of cigalelle snlokin~. ]'h~n ~e ~GII ~]~e 3ou ~ nlo~( detailed d( £liptiOlI (If SltlOlX]t]~4 8lid carlo(l" all(I ill ]~.14~ql'(] ~o pLlll~on~l3 dis ease l ~iH also address t'( ('arch (fto~t~ LW the ~ulional Institute ing. Ill SLtnlll~aty, cigarette smoking' is ch,a}ly the singh. /l~ost ht/pof tt~l/t I)lt.V(llt~i~o]( C<qLlgC O~ plLIl/a{lll(~ ilUKSS ~/l!(] d('~tll ill th( United States l<stitnates of the nmnhe] ofdeath~ re/ t~d to smok inlt exceed ',40),U(IO annualI30lc. in~l5 compati this figule ~lith Ihe 10.,Otl0 death~ t[llt occul ~ach 3'{ ,~t a~ a ~e~ult of nil hijurll tile 20 O0(~ deaths t~om homicides, m the 4OJl(ffl infm~l deaths ('igalette si/iclkil g is, on(' of the thl(,e nlajoz indupl'ndent l i~k {:l( tol:. it) COlOnaly ]/t,~t{ d]~ i¢~c; a lnaicll cat/s( ot eallt(r OI t}l(, ]Lit/g, (au((z of the ]a]ynx, oral cavity and (sophagus. and a r]/; jo~ cam, c I,f (.htort}c bronch/}Iis Itld (,mpi/Sz, l,}na M~!(z.,d c~lureql/, smukill~ is a~,oc[tUt'd ~xitlt lui!aldt,d Ibta[ ~Oi/l]] tll(l in(]t~[~I'd ][:~ l/)~ P, pol/tnn!ous ~l~l/}lIioi ~t]]d pr(]]ll~ll p~ 0 UI {a ¢C
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~79 dcat]h :md ~][gh[ inlll3hm z~t id [Iol~tk ~md d{ve]op]n{n{ {tlhl c.al l)¸ childhood ()i~r~!(~tti~ s, ttloklnf~ ~ct~. £yfii.ti~i!!i~illy wilh i~in] (¢~tlt~:c£i~t!xi,~ l(~ h~iNnx oi~d Ca%ity, mzd C oph~6'u ; v, Jth aM~.to told some (~th¢,~ oi,(Hi1~i{it)l[[l}l)¸ [!liCOLiltt(!t ~,~] ~HBS[:II~f('~ to ilIE f t,~! I}~t¸ ]ill{ ]ih(IIl~} I!f C~it]C~.l ol the lung; 811(] wi~h Ot]L!'i li~k fi, c{o~:~ [0 (~n}l~in(¢ c~I(]io ~ a~cuI~n~¸ risk Mr (l~l~il]~]~t]!, c~]iccl¸ wa~ the tiI~4 di-uabl¸ Io be asst~ciatud with cigmc.tte! As ]}r I,ioi~il po~nled out in inho:iLwing OUT 19"2 ]{r'llc~fl on Snloking and ]]lallh ~ I~'~ wII'k~ agOl ]eporls linkii~i~ smoking ~ii{[ iLll]f! C~Itcer [~(ffat] al)p~olltl~ itl sci(ntilic litera{tlrt¸ a~ 101L~ a~, 50 y(~II~ ago The cvidence w]lich links ciKat~tt!, ~;iloI:iii~! ~ith }un~ ~iii¢] ol}K}¸ caltc~is w~q~ itvJell<!~ in ino_-{ c~tle~Ll] d(~t~ti] it] tho ]!I~-' ,.pm~ k,M J~ued, H~k'h ~HII bi' summmixed b} Ih Koop hi a h.~ }]) O]~]{'llts A subjcc{ v, hich ~o~ hardly toulhed upon in {}le ]9(}~ lepoll i~ the (~ll~ t of ~ln~hl~ ol} ~otil~ll, £~I/£{ in {}le C[~qt. Ot n/~t(ii/ll[ ~,nlok- in~ ilS efl{'¢~ on the k'tus and int{mt In 1!}~0 this ~a~ thu I{ip]c' ot th( I)(tpatim(,nt's iKiiort io ('on~le~£ 11~ oone}u$ion~ l,,el~ that von/(,n ~/{, n(~t ~nlnl{lll¢ Io I}1{, dnntagtn[} oflcct of ~rnr~l{in{[. and V, olnc}] SlllO~;('lS ~S a l~.:.lah Ot t}l{dt he~illg ]af:~K'd aboIz ~ qudlt(r ({,I]{LII} }~(,}l[lld ill(,Ii ill t}l(.it %/ide~,[Jl~ad Ilq( Ot ci~al{'tt£' 'lhc ]!}lj r(polt e.qab[is}tc{] that cigal('lte smoking i a Inr~jot t}ll{~t to the out(onle o} tll{~{nmlc~ and th{ ~tel]-b!dng of tht }oh). A/IOI}wI pkl}Jlic ]l{,[~/t[] qtlc$1[oll, llOV* (llollnoH~]} i][]}}{JI{!{!l{l Ie hltvs I0 the use of the nl~l ]o~/~ie]i] cigalt.tie!, Thi~ II~ the su}l j(,(t o[ t}l¢. ]);,p~'lltt}IDIH'S ]~}~1 l(polt 'J }IC. lCpOlt s col]¢lt{M{mx ~/(,le thai ahhoul, h there i~ 1~o ~,l{, ciFa~et{e, smoki.~ ¢i~,wtn's ~ith ]o~t,I ',]{.1(] of tar 81/(] i/icolitw posfg 8 ~[~/ol risk ol ]ullf. (.~ ll(.(,i ih;]n ~nlol{ill[{ o{her cig, tllEtI¢~, pro~]d[.¢] th{~lc is i/o COrilp{IL [Itol} challge ill Slilokin~ paHel n. A~ :~ou l,oimed out, ML (}hat,man, the 19~Z l{epo~t ~f th{' Su,- ~coI/ (~£./]elal tclcus{~cl upon canceI ]'he i{poi/ noL(.d Iha( lIiol¢ t}lau 100 di~oast~s thai ",/e call catlc(.t hav(. corn( to bc, th(, ~,,qolld nulnhel of O[llL, i im])3I rant poillts, xv]~ic}l a[};~il} ~i]] b{. ~.UnllnU¢iz(.d by l)r ]loop itl a few Ilion/elliS The ~a}o.~,] ¢~,~oe, Institute's etlori in smokinF ,e e~,,¢h h~,s f',Io.\m liont a $1 million ploMam in 196~ to one costing about $10 million in I!lSZ (}m p~oglmn lion, fOCLIS{'S Oil [ll*e~('iI[[ll~ Sil}O~;ill~', and involxt~G f]IM, hehax~olal studies tel examine ~l}ly people ~,,~ok~; ..eoo,~d, e},id~.~iolo~i¢,,1 studies of ~o,~].t[~,..,itt, },ieh I,~t('s OJ lLlllg and other sml>k]llg te]at£,d ore]eels io ]del]llt~ cofu¢ L{II'S su(h f/s OCCLlpatiOll aI/d alcohol COl/StlDlptiOlt; toxicob~> ~,{uflie {{} {'X[~Ht[[I~ [llI} ~(H}[~!I}[ {If N}Jbsi~ItC{'S }II tOiletS'i, IO{,, ti{ {illd IL]CO tine cigarettes that initiate and p~omote ¢e,~ee,; },h~,,,,~o~]o~:~{ studies to dae~mi~e H~icH factors in tobacc,, mi~[~t t,~ addictive: and finld]% a l)rog~am to help smoke~s Cltl[t b,t ~neot.'aginf~ phy~i clans, iIc,ntiM~, and uth[,i health ]szofessicma]s Ill di~{rihuLe infi. nlalion on stnokin~ ¢¢,~satiotl to tht, il pati~q]t~. 0
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28O "Ibis I*~t yea~, N(~l supported ii~vestigatol~ identilicd how ti~e ]LJ~{]3¸ J/~lndle~ 1~o calcill/~ell~ liJtJil¢~ i~l to~L~clll ~,rllolil~ T~u¥ ~'/li, l~ow del~.ll/l~l/iit.g ~heltsel 1liege c~ll-cinogens ~e{ ~tJ~cifl~¸ /,tg~n~ ol¸ ~i..~l,~ Thi~ i~..~rch ~. lelcvaT~{ ~ecavl~c ~]1{~, I~l{ickllal¸ ¢[~1-,~ of c~li,irltl~l![i~:~ c~ll(,/t nilr.o.~gilliill{p~ (~lll lll~ Ii~dtl¢~i!~ J[/ ~rl/l~tTM I/itll ~ ~0 O/ l~tletTM f~lt~zs ei.t ~itt~!!t ~.~ they ~lliILk Ill lu[!~ ~LTkc~,r ~'{,t (~ll, II~lll/bl!lTM /I~] l,ii~tleilt ll~lr ~¸ ~q~,al l di.~e~s~,s ~ ~at¸ grt,a{~,r¸. ()]/l/~ihi~ oll~i/l¢~i~t, i~llll/lr~l/aly di>~,l~se~ ~odl~y leplt'~t,ll~ t]~t! ]gl<i- est gro~i~lg of t~le m~o~ e~m~!'~ ol dcath, J~ow ~at~ki~g li~h I~ lioTi ~,1/1! lima}is 1/o~, ~t/ll~l J~o~l ~ii~l~h3~i,l%~t, ~1 l¢lli~l) d¢,}~ilit~liT/!~ /{i~i,~t~-~ ~ ~/e ~\itl~ l~t,t¸ i~; ~l/b~!l{i~/ ~!l/1 i~lh~qui\~L~l/ ILl~ll li~'~lle~/, s14~ob.[l:!~ i~ t~Le ¢bit~ ¢'aIpril il: ~b,~¸ o!~1~ Ol t,x~l~t~l~l~i<~t/ of tl/t~l, I)~11in~} 1hi¸ [~t:-I 1(~ 3/,~lls ~l~ h~~ ~/Ivl~ o~l~lit-i,/~ gl li/l¸ bi!l~! i/?t ~i/l: {~l}/~{ii~ o~ I~e li/'~e!/al/~8!l!~, o1" ItE~l!~ i1~l:ll~l, il~C[~l~iill~ l}~l, dt¸ ~lu¢liOll o~" el~.t~l, I~l~ II!aio} ~-~IL!¢{~'}~! !/:ol/,jl! i~f¸ ~1/~ I~Ji/~ v;l/ie}L } ~l~111:-~15 ~t!i~et~ 1~3 ~i!~tl~t{/¸ sr~ll,k~¸ ll~sl~it/, ~1 //l~:tll~ltlc ~l}i~!l¸ iJl r~!!~l!~/i!~¸ dH!ir~ ~!, ~!~! i!{lil~Jt,, (l!}l~ll~!l~¸ }~l~l}{ ~i~i,~j~! lt~ r[~/l, ~i~!~ o~ l~e l/tob]~,l!l J~ i~/~,~,c~ ~11¢1I !~;!~l~ (!i~tll ~(, Sll/i~l~ilt!! ~ ¢l;~t O1 /lit¸ t}lrl/, ll!I!]!~l lrsi~ ~¢'~nl-, ~O C~rlll~lrl¸ ~lrJ/i~ lii~/,~l¸, tl~i' i~1}~1 ~O I'l ill!' 11i~ ~IC~O!I 1ill" ~ri" ~!iI~ ~d~h ~!lunl cho~i~l/I ~/ I'~i~]/~t/iol/,~;i(~[ ~.\ i({~!l/.e ¢!( i~I [5 pierces ~h(¸ ~l~!~.~ ~! ~ !~t(&/~! li~)~ (~i ~l~ll~ /~i~/~<l¸ t~Ii I~!i¸ ?/ira~ii~/J):ll¸ ~'tlt{~:i~llEl~li I}r !l~{~l~¸ ~! !, ~.l:~l~l,~, 111! !!l~t/t~I ~}J¢, I i~k ~1 !1(!~ i-. {~ISO }IO/VL~I iO)~lltl~//¸ ~, !~\ i¢{~I1£~¸ ~!I~ ~,~l~li~l!~ ~ ~/i~111 l~lll li~ ~1 ~,il~!• ~h~l~ I i~i: (!~, {~¢, ½ll~.i~ Ol I~1~1!! d/~lJ~,T~Cl~ T~< :trio{ ~!~l¸ ~/[d{~\~~ l~t/~/~rli~ IJi £i!!~1~1{~ ~I/~lhil/~ ~T:/~ ~,1/ 1}/~¸ ~l~!;i~ O! II~tli]! l~}~l~tl~t~'~l I~ [/1(¸ ~tl~OiJ~[ 1T/~.li~/~tt¸ On l)lllt~ A!~L~'~-, i~ ~ O/1~ ~t~¸ i~l:~ li~!~ll~tlt¸ !Tl:/l/~iI/g I~DI~,~III~ ~, i~lO{O~yp~¸ dej~(~(~elle/: l~lo!c-.-~ ~lnd i-, i~l l~ct, tht¸ nlo~{ ~lic~e~],lc~ad exam/pie of dtu~ ~et~el!d!~nec itl ti~i~ ~:~I~tI5' it >: iInpgll~l/! ~o tlo!~' i~!a{ ~).]~Ill, the stL~/~!:r(~ d]~i~o-.tic IEl~mll~l[ i!i l~St!/i~ltlic i~i~,ol/]el~ i}~ ii~¸ Wlli!el{ r, ta~es ~ll!{ 1~" i~lsi,, I~oill ~Ilel/l/l~¸ t/,}/~l~('o (~ ~ ll~!~,ill ~¸ ~s ~1 ¢~( i~( I//{~,l!c.~¸ di~/~l ~ I ill f~*l{, ilon ils m~t!{ip~e pou~'II#l[ bioE%! e~d al,d p~Scholo~]c,~l eg i~,~{s /~)lictl inci{l(l~2 ~.~il~lt~l~{io~t ol t}le ii,]e~q.~p oi ~ llulrli<r of¸ }joi~ ~!!l~l} stll~;l~iil(i,~ ,.!J/~ ~1,~ lioIl~llill¢l~lllill/,, ~t~}ll(iJhlil/~, I~iol/{tl /l/~ltrloll/,, ~ol'~iso{, va~.ot/re~ia~, ~lil~ t~to~b/y ~,~ endolphin; l~e tu~([~c/i(lll ol¸ [~eil~vi(~¸ .'~t(,usal all/{ 1~!i~ ~ ~til/,g l~a~i~ll~.; ~Iid /lie f~t~t 1}1~/I i~ is iin/~ ol¸ t!~t, u/o~t l~rJill~5 illl,l~E~ll]i~i,l] I/J ~}/ ~,l!/f~adrJ!ill- 7~1¸. ('il~til~l/aTl~ ~I t~/i.* l~l//e ] ~',Oll]({ l~k~ Io ttllli iil~¸ ~l~llli/~ll to the ~Ji~l bc{o:e youl¸ subcoti/mittee, l~.i~ .19~7. ~l/i~ I/ilJ ~ld ~1~i~, (,ilion. ~le~lted ~ z.~/l/e ~o~l/d ~/~1 ~lk~i(!e ~/~¸ l~£~itoil~ly tll~t~ p~l¸ r.*l i'0
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2~ ~l/ii~ LI~. ~ ~// ~1[]~ ~1! l]li,~;!ll[ l!~¸ /l/llb:l~t!l~li1~¸ t!¸ ~L]lr,] tiLl¸ TJ]il ,~itll~ ]!i(~(~ ~}1~~ ])l'l)~Itl:/(,nt Jl~ llt~ilihL]li/~ ~ll ~ll'li\~¸ ~rl/l~l!in~! Ci~l/ll~/lIl/,l~t ~'.hi/'!/ 11~]~ ~/~!l l~/,d l.[i~L[~¸ ~i!~l S~(, ~tl!(~ ](~i'~] i~/~V/ :ll ~ll!'ll~ ~Jll ~il~t ~O//lIItn'~¸ h('~l~h ~r~l (~itl~rli//~] z~!~q:ci!: t/~ ~l~']I~ hriIl~! ~,/It ~(~1 ~'h~tlll~l.~. ill ~1/~¸ ~hl/~l//~ hc]l~L~il~l ol ~L/]u]t'- ~]i~ t t/~Ii~'l S ~lil:(¸ ~lhi~, ~rl]ih]~,~l~oli, ~!/d i]i l~]/i/'~p]~lT Our l)~,~l~ll/tllt !1~! tit ~/lll l~ll)~]l'n/~ til~ ~IIIo]:iI/~ c~ll~ ~ ~1!1~1 ~ I" will ('ll~il]l]~¸ to I~]~ I ~/~ ~h ~ll~c~]~'(¸ ]~it}~l~TI/ ~{~ ~!llil~o~ ~1[(¸ ~]1]'~ i~,/]uii~;il~:L~ li)~¸ ~.~t/lll~l¸ }l/.~l[~ ~l i/ill~ s I!E/.~/I:,/~ ~ bc]i(,~l lhi,~¸ ~l/]~ll(] ~llcl(,~t-;~, thl, i~ul~li~ ~, ]~hO~Vl/~/i~!~¸ O? tl/~' I/~l~lrlI~ I~r .~tll(~iIl!! ~ltld lll~l~t¸ ]~ I~/~i/>]~' ic}l¸ ~lnlll~t'l'. [~lld !~,, t~T/liLll HllOt~l'J:- ~ I;t~e i~/~iitq ifl[,~lJll/'/~ jIl(~!Eltlrlt!; ~ t/~ /Ih(~t!Ll'l¸ ~'~ t1~1i~,~ ~, t~OI/~'V~,I¸, ~l~I ~-~VII~J] ItIO/]if/~tioll,..'-IIOL~ld }~l. ~l~:l~,id~ Of l]l~]t}l ~ll/~ Ih]nl~l~/ ~;~'~]C~¸'- I~¸ t~[;~II t]1¢' ]/~T/~iL~ii~!lit} ft~l d~L t~l~lifttIl~ and ll/o,~if~illt! ~he ~ct~I ~lo~dil/t~ ~l¸ ~h~' ~u]l[l~]~' ~lTr[ itl~ \~'~, I~/]i~.v/~ t]/~l tll~¸ s)~(iil l~]ltlt,~!~]~ ill I~]l~f~(~l ~;t C~i/~ll ~'h~ !/~i~}A 11i¸ II/(~l~> e~i~cti~l, is ~1] ~ Ih/. i,:/~IJ/~] i~Ttli]!~!~ ~[l~l~e~li ~ I~[~1 ~'~lltJn~ lI/:~} ~l!~l~,~l¸ Oli lh~¸ t~t~l~!l~ 1~(. l~t~ ']~i.. i~ I~IC ~/~[qlTII ir~ /I.-~l itl S~I~.(~[I, i~h~,l~¸ l/~ L]il[~ t/';l~ ~:T;I!I]~ ~l]~F)~tl /I;J ~J ~ i~ll!~'~ ~1 ~1 ~i~t :1 lil!lt¸. Ill ~t~i~il~l ~{I t~lt';~h t r'll~li~ll//'~, ~]~i! ~!~lli I~O//}C] I]/illil/liz~' ~lld~l~t:~ ~X!/~ [1~!¸ ~:Iid (oll/lJ]i~tl~" (~//l~i~ iLl !~lU~]~.;/l~l/t~ \~, ~/>~l//~' JlC~I{~(~. I~ll I}1~¸ lh~il~ilil~¸ l~ ~c]~]~! ~!!,l !¸ ~y~;~,Tll~ :-~1~/~1~] t'~li~. f)~O~ lO I,!' i!l/l/~'l~v/ (![~{~lT{'~t(' ll/~ltl~l~/~ttlt~l~ ~l~' ~'L]tll[ll]~ ~L/L~b/~'~l tll lji~¸ i(~t]> /~! iv~l(.n ii(~¸ ol¸ ll,til]ll/tll;~lt,~l 1~:~i~(].. ~1~ .~ci~'~,l L[..~ ~!1[~]/ i~/' l,~! hl¸ ~tllcl/'~ to l~l/' T/topo~l~ ~/'~ti/I]l IL~'I At Ihi'. thl/[', ~il¸ (~il~ittll~fh ] ~o!t//i ]ik(' to tLItl[ tu ])J ]~ol~ ~lr~/~ ~,~i~ ll~i~l t~ ~lll/l~l~tI~.~¸ lh(¸ ]~i~2 ]~el~oil o[ ~]~ ~tlI~(~,ll (~ :[il~] Ol~ f~TA'I E'*II;NT OF DI~ ('. E'/EI~ITI F }~()O1' ])~ KC~OI¸ ~t¸ C~l~i~l~]I/, ] ~o~ld li~" to d~ th[~ hv e~llii~i~ ~otl~¸ ~[llllltio// to th~ two ch~Tl~., ~[.~ lookiIli~ ~l thi, ibl]t~ i~1~ ~cbJt ll~t Y~bu h3vc aheady heald that ¢i~u(~[te Sh~OkiIl~ i~ ~ l~/~ ¢~tt~/~ Of ~,rol~o~ioil~l ~]l~IIs ~holt¸ ~t~ I~l'~(,Ill~ (bf¸ dcB~hS Ill,Ill ~tT~{~I¸ Of '[ :~y ~'otIllJ~l;¢' ll}~0 ~ith 1~7~. ~1 ~lt~ i/ll/~h~ iJit~ ]~, ;ll~ t';ITIII'I¸, ~li/] ll/c¸ ~?~ o/¸ Kilo ~]ic~ i~j)I~s~llts ~l//~z;(~ C~]IC~,IS ~,,£~ ~I~! ~oi/c~l;io~ ~t~OLIL Y~ltl c~n ~e~ from ~h~ .~iz(¸ oflhe slice of ih('s(~ two ilic':~ th~l~ tto:ll I~!rc(,iit | ~ll/ll]d ,,~l,~// (.~11] yo/ir ~Ih'Tlti~l/ t~ ~h~, f~'t Ih~t lll~f. ~(tl rl~lil ~Olll¸ C~l/c¢zs olll~ ~h(~¸ do 13ol Co,lilt t]l(~ ~ii/Ok[h~' i~l~lt{,~ 0
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2~ etnc'el deaths lh;*t ~1< know no;,, come flora bl~*¢ldel, kidnt,y, and i3llllcl(.~/% ~/~rcll~ i/ropollion ill¸ w~lic}l ~,~r} bo t~tlli[~llt(~(I ~o ci~Iil~/ sl~lokiwlIT If }OLI IIOW ]Obl~ ~t lho chair( OT/ yOLIT¸ I[tT}ll, il show:- ~}/~, }olil~lk, ~Jb/l! Jn~l(,asc: in ]ull~ ¢allll,l¸ i][~ll~l~ in ii~]~lti/in tll tlll~l] l~lrtc~I dr,ath~ ~h~ lop 2~d lino shows the stt~,~dy inclt~a~t, JEI i}ll, nuinfl, I o[ [/~th~ fl(~ln ~all£Ol- l'~oTii ]~(} to ]~]7~, An/] the Jowel¸ i~[/ Jill/ shows the equally iel/~arka~]~ d~]iile in ~ll/ cailet~l~ oth/'l th~I~ callcels of the lung, Thi~ line h~s its leli!~Tk;ibl~ ~ll/~t¸ iJiinial[ly du~ t~ o~lr ad3ed ability to h~ndle c~nce~ ol the I~O~t~tu, lh~ ~ololl t~l~ I;Jc:t~nl ~nd bl~a~t ~nEl~/~l~ An~ bl,~ttis(~ thl, sullivan[ o[ lunj~ f'~,l~t¸ Jl~ 1'~llls]n~d Llll(']taTl~d, yo/i ¢~11 S~O that Ih~tt ~J[/le liIl~, ill ~h(~ ill]ddlo h~s l}l~ S~lll/i, s, loil~ ~s ~1]1 l,~lt~/!~,i¸ AI~/J Jndll~d, J[ yclu ~lilJ look ~t tht~ tiEite b~Lwt,/,ll 19~ ~tTid 19~ }l~/i ivJll st,i: l}/~t th~ L~l~ ]iiit's the l~l~ ]illcJ [ol i~]] ~lll~oi i~Eid I[li¸ b]ll~ Old2 l~l ]ull~ ca~l~'Cl¸ ol/ly, }~1~11¢1 i,~l/ ot}~(l ~ll~/l~l (~tl~, ~tnd this co[ilcides with t}~/' s,<tn~ i~uriod l~ linlt, wl/e~l the lt~ lil~ '1 h~lt, i~ nlul:h iIiole t}l~lt co/lid bo s~i~[, ~11. (h~[lll//~li, bLiI Ih[~ ])l }II~ANII~ ']'~lOt ~,one]tld~ o~11¸ S~(,Tl~f,rlt, Mr (:h~ilrI/!lT/ W(: /ll'~tifl~tn}¸ ~um~'s ~n I~ 2!~1 J !lh lily,T/tit s plt'p;lt~'d sl~telJlent flll]uws:j b~ 0 ~q
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283 S~ AT~;M~:NT [IY ~I~ARr~ N, BRA~[~T, 2R,, ~LD, ASSISTANT SyC~I AKy 1~O~, I[~A[ TH L Mr, Ch~[r m~rl and M¢~ber ~ of ~h¢ Sabcomm[ttee~ ~m p~ea~ed ~o ~ubr,,,t ~o yo,~ ~o~ay this st~emen~ ~f ~he ~cpar t me ,t ~f He~[~h aqd Humar~ $(rvlce~ cn ~he hcalt~ effects ~[ cigarette ~n,okin~, T~cse ~¢~l~h ~ff~4t~ a ,d ~he[r ~]~fi flc~r~e tu the Ar~er ic~ ~ pcu?]~ rr~a~ i,ece~s~r][~~ p:ov~e 1he tet~c~,~]c and j.,~tlf,c~tlo~ for whatever actio'r your Co~ rnttte~ maI ~e W[~h rr,e ~d~y arc ~, C, ~ere~t KOCh, ~Jr ~e~ Genie r ~]~ [~r, Vir,c~ nt De Vi~a, Heart, L~n~, a~ Bi~od la~tlt~t e ~ ,~nd Dr, ~ ,lJi~, PolI[~ D~rer ~or, N~t iona] lr,~l[t ,J~e cn [~ru~ LSu ~e, will begi~ by pr~se~,ti~ ~ c,~psu]c dc~r]ptio~ ~ t~,~ he~hh cffe~ I~ ~f c[~r~¢ ~,~Mn~ ard ~en a more det~iJed de~clpt[on o~ s~k~ ~r~J c~ncer and cal d~C,~mo~ry ~a~e~ I ~ ~[I a!~ address r~sca~ch effor t~ b~ the Nat ioqa~ ~ns~h~te ~ [~ru~ ~S~ ~ t~e add;c t ~ve character J~ics of ~ [~rc ~te s,,,~k~,~. s~m~r y, c~,e~e smoM ~ is ¢ le~r ly t!,~ ~in~[e most i~ngar tarot pr~r~b[e lig J,e ~ ith the l 0~009 ~e~l~s ~ha~ oc¢~, each ~ ear ~s a resul~ ~ ~1[ ir~ju~ie~, 2G,~0 ~e~ths ~rom hc, r~icldes~ or the ~0,~05 inl~n t death's, Cigarette smoking IS OlC ol 1h¢ three r/,a jot ir~dCpeqdef~t risk fa: ~er s for ~o on~r~ • h~art dlsca s¢ and ert<~:~sde~otlc ~e[12hera] vase d~r dJs~st'; ~ m a ]',r cause of ~anc¢~ o[ tk¢ I~a~, larynx, ~[ c~vi~y arLd ~saph~$~s~ ~r~d ~ ~]or ~,s¢ of ~hren]c b~e~c[l[~i~ ~d em~!ly~cma ~r¢11e sm~ki~ i~ ~ co t~i~to~ factor iq C~C~ el ~h¢ ur[na-~ b]adde¢, ~<id,,c~, ~d ~ncreas, h l~ ~IS0 assecJ~ed ~Jth ~e9~i¢ ulcer d sea~, Maternal ~i$~rette i "llok[rl~ [~ ~ ssoc]~ ~ ~i~l~ r¢larde~ re:el ~r,~wth, an i,~r ~a ~ed ¢[s~ for spontarle,~s ~,]r Jn~ ~r]y ch!JdhCOd,
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m ~ne ~ ~'¢~ ~1[~ e~L~t~ ~5~t ~n~ t~ il~ L~ li~e ~J~ i~ I~, I~9 poLn~e~ o~ i~ ~rL~r o~¢i~ c~ur ]~ r~p~,~ E~ ~m~n~ ~n~l ~e~!~h ~r~¢ ~idca~ ~i¢~ ~F~ ~ ¢i~ ~ ~,n~/~ ~t~, ]~nC a~ ~i/~ r ¢~I~S ~.,~ ~i~ ~d ~,~ ]9~ r~o~ ~111~L~ t~ ~:~er~¢~ ~ ~or ~,1~ ~ r~L~ ~ ~ r~~ r~e~rch
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m-- 2&5 ~.~,~h~ F~U ~ ~ ~]~h q~ ~t ~r,~ ~O~~ ~ rr,~[y m,p~ ~t~ r~1~s ~ ~,~ ~
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28~, M~ n a~e ~h~e L~n2~c~t p~int ~: 3O pe~n: ol alt cancer 4ca tt~s~ 73M~ n~c~n~ that a~ p~,n×~,~,a~c]y I~,C~S people a year die ol caPce~ relat¢~ to sr~kin~. ]n 19~ ~he 5~eon t~ ~r e~ r,,~c h~:}~ ~,~ dt,~ ¢J~ ~t~s d~ise~e ~,a ~ a ~n~ cke~ ,'.~ ~[s ,~,k ~,, a~w a~r~a~G ~ ~ ~! 0 ~ve q,,i~ sm~&ir,~. 7 ~r~er sra~<~-~ ~2,e q~: ~ ~ y~ar~ a~,> o~ lonC~r ~av~ lung cance¢ r~,~ ~:i~ y ~a~e~ o~~
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287 ~r~ Jnc~ r~s~ ~ ~n~ ~ n1~J-, in ,~n~in~ ~ ~e~ ~l~ ~m~r,~ h,~,~,~. ~ ~r,~c ~r~. ~r~ ~v~nce i~ ~,~e~ ~rJ ~h~ ri~ ~ ~ ~veh ~ r~,~ ~n~o~s ~h~ sr~,~ d~il~~, ~,~, 2~ ~erc~t ]~ ~7~ to 2CJ ~¢~n~ in I~, ~ ,~,,~ ~l~t~d ~-~n~-~ r ~ ~ ~,~iI7 ~o~- ;~r ~, ~ ~ c~-~J~ ~ ~ ~ c~n ~, ~ C~
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288 ta~ a~g ~ico~n~ ci~ar~:t¢~ tha: i~]:]ate ~rc promq~ car cer a~d to [earn f,~w lhese ~ub~arlc~s ar~ h~nd]~d by t~ b~; be addictive ~d h~¸ tho~ ~l~,~s ~r~; beJr,g ca:~ie~ ~c by NC [ e pLd~,nioJogLst ~ ]~ ar~as of ~he United ~azes ~he,~ JL P~ ar,d ot~cr s-nck~ ~g related caa:¢r~ ~,e h~g~, to ~l~at~ r~s~ la:~:s i~ a~di~i~ carCl~ege~ ~eJ~d Jn ~a¢co ~:~e~ The)~ are ~c~, ~zer~dn~ g ~,e~ ~er ~'~ : ~ d~ a~¢a o~ be~av;~:~] ~ :~:d~ S, ~ hav~ • groa2 q[ le~ c~[[~,en~ ~ra,,~ee~ Fr ~,, ~'~is ~:u d~ ~,~ hcp~ ~ !~:i~ ~ :h~ ~¢, ~,~ ~h,dg~ ~,~ u,~ a ,d
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28~ ~, ~le~oi,,g ~, ~k~r ~ Qua: Ki~'¸ ~r p~y~c~rL~ ~ u~ ~J:t, ~:e ts ~, ~L ~,~ '~t~r~l ~a~ I~,~ ~ ~,'r~s~J i~ p,,~u[~ ~m~ R~ ~a~ ~r~r~ ~-owin~ ~ ~he r~,~i~ ~a~s ol d~a~~, n~ r~m~ ~[~t~, ]~ I ~, ~,~ ~r~,( r~-s ell G'I C~
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29O t, ~c h~l~r n ~ta]ity rate~ frc~ c~ro~ic br~qCh tJ a~d ~mph~ a a~d that > c<-r~ e~dc~ct ~e~ 5e¢~ ~et,~ ted ~ h~c~r ~u~9~t s ~hat tqe ~ :=a~I a~ ~ a} ~ Iuc~c t ~ ~n d~a~e tcrna n~ ~ t n~m be~ one k~li~e i~ ~h[s CO :r~(r/, d~ir~,J~ ~ :h~ce.q l~r ~e~
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292 ~ewerl~l[ bi~l~e~ ~nd p~ycho[o~cal eftect% ~hicl~ ~c]~e stimL:la~ of the hot r~oT~e, c~r ~i~ol, ~asop:ess n, and ~ -obably beLa e,,~¢r p~ir,/~ the prod~ ~i:,~ o[ b ~havto~]Ja r ou~: ~d EEG ~[er ~ pa~erns; and the la~L ~h~t it S o-~e ~! ~,e rr,a~ ~ ~a~ ~ly metabolize J ol a~i ~e~[ ~dmin]st e red ~,st a~c~-s 11 i~ ~,e est ~bL sh~e-~t ol ~cco ~ep~e~ce ~ith it~ c~eq~e~t i~palr ~ en~ ~ an i~c ~idu~] ~ ~b~i~ y ~o e~sly disc~rltin~ ~e~ 10r ~ a¢ he o ~L,e ~e[~ec~uaHy knc,~ ~ is ~¢~f ~a "na~:~g ~T~ich leads ~a the ~ ~lti~e ~ave ~ea~h ccnseq~l~ce~ o£ Art e~ic~ns ~ho use ~]¢oho~ are ~b[~ I ve]y a d ~bec t~ ely ab[~ ¢o ~ ~[sfa tr, r~ y co~ ~rol thor e~e[ ol ~e, over ? I ~er~eat ~f tob~ ~ sn~o,:e :s wou[~ like to qua1 a~ ad~ c~ive dls~r~e? ~at is as ¢ha[~e~ a~ ~flal ~ a~y o~aer ~ ~e kaw ab,~u t o~ He~h aad H~,~,a-~ ~r vlces, ,~ e opDos~ lhs I~r ovlsi0~, An ©! lJCe crea~ed U~ O1
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293 h~be~i'~7 ~n~ A~v~ti~in~ A~'t, t~e Se~t-~rv ~! ~e~t ~, an~ ~L ~ pn Servlse~ l,~ ~e ~e}~w that the ~ ~'m rce~mn~en~ in p~cpos~'d ~et~c~ 4!hi m~ht ~,e s~ ~het th~ ~mcker d~s n~t kq,~v~ ~ high ~,~nln~ m~? ~ppe~ ~)~, th~ ~cX~¢~ ~o be ine~fe~t~ e. C~ret ~t, m~f~e~r~r~ ~re currcn[}y etlo~ ~ to ¢it~ I~ ¢~L~ ~ t~r ~nC ~ e~,ti¸ ~ eet~mi~ b~ t~ r~t h~S ~e~ifi~ b!~ t~e ~C ~he~ ~e~ ~ ~e r ov rc:~l~ t ~ t,~rld~ ~e ~ dv~ ~t,~ w~ieh ~e n~t ~ b~c~ t~,~ [~a~ by ~h~ £]C~ ~u~h s peo~i~i~n UI
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294 Mr WAXMAN. I ~allt to th~IIl]~ ~OU bDth fcll ~ouI si~tlcl/]elll ~Wf, appreciate tht fuct that 3ou summmlzed it, and ~Gthout objection ~okll fu]] ~4a[(mlei/t xliil Up Itl~do [J par[ of If/E: l(,c'otd ] wo~I[d [{k¢ (O ~L~,]~ 5LI~IIE, qLleS~iOllS O~ )OkI, ])1 }~lc~llC]¢ x/oU and the othci~ ~Gth bou mab he able tomlsv, e] >esol no to these question,,but if)~u ~ ish to ¢.labc)t ate. feel free to do Sc) ] x~oulcl ]]kt, lo kllo~ ~helhel ~}le ~o]low])lg sla~(~)!l(i/I$ 31( Scion lificM]y valid: Cigt~)ette smoking i~ Ihe Imf, eM plevenlab!e cause ot illness aim l))e)i/~lt/llt, (]i~oth [t~ld i~ ~l~l)(.ia[~,t] ilith [}it, II[III~L.~, Nilb (1(,~11}1~ fl} ore) a09,000 .&ml~iea~s an)mall~ 1)t. BI~ANm Yes, that is the scient[lic evidence ML WAXMA~ Smoking is the No ; cause of fun;., cancer hl t}ic UIJ]H,(] ~1~11( iIrl¢] ]~ I}lt ¢11~J¢11 CdUS~, Of c'hIO~][C O[)=~tlu(,(i%(. ]tlrl~ di~,oa 0 ])r. lh~Nm. Yes Mr WAX:~t~N Ci~a~,tte ~nloking is th¢~ N¢> 1 cnus( I)[ ()nph3s¢~ ]ngl el, }~RAN£H. "I'eS, Sit. J~ii. V~rAXMAN ]lC~l]I (~iS~3~' &0COUIII~, for ]lt~al]} OD(,-h~l]f [}It~ (]o~t[hs itl this COtllltly al/d it i~ (,s[imale¢] I}lld oru, I]lild /~/ I}iet> ¢]uaths aI(~ attributable {o ~mokin~ S~l[eNiciit ]~ CO]](~C{ ~1. ~;AXMAN (~i~[~lE~L(t! ~[I]C)~i[I~ iS the Inl4]o+ cause ol hedit dis C~-C. ])l. ]I}¢~NI~'I. Y('s IM~ WAXMAI< Pregnant ~tonTen ~lhosmokea~e at }/igh(i li~klb) tile l)c~-dbility o[ spontanemls abor[ion, stil}birlhs, l,t';llalu)ir bJrlh~, and child weight deftcienci( than ~/o:nen ~11o do not ]MI. \V~x'*IAN \V(muul ~]/o Inlt> })il lh conl)ol p[[l~ ;roll smoke al e l]lolv lilce]3 (0 8ufI01 a heat{ a~tack oI s[ro~e 1hart women ~tho do not ~moke ])l I~MU That i~ colt¢ct 1~[1. ~)AXMAN ('t 1~%il/ oleupational hazalds, in conjunction ~ith a)l individuals snloking, increases substantially the i[ k of di~ea e and death Ib IhlAuni Th~H is righl !~fl. "~VAXNIAN (][~¢~Ik'~t[~ ~l/](Ikill~ D/cqy C$iUge death flonl }lt;~rt d[$([~ E,, Enlp]~}senla, ol c ulcei. Ib.}~}¢nNm 'lhat isliffllt I~I¢ WAXM~N (igar('ttt, smokingismi{]icti~eandwillinjme>our }mdth ])~ lh~Nm. Thal ig ~itfl~t. MI. \~,'AX~,IAN. NO ln~tt~.l }~OX,, }Oll~ one sn/ol/.(s, (lt/htin~ ~ Ital]v reduces the tick 1o their heah}l ] )l }I}£ANII3. Th~ is col 1 c,-[ ~II. "~'AXMAN ThE! tO~}~((O illdUStl~ }lag Ill,IciEr & ll!lllltKq O] $131(~ ]t1<¢1/~5 ibo[lt ~}liS I(~iS[~il]OD CI]KI dlK)u1 [}le }leiil[h [Hot~]Cil~, lh~il lncIn3 ¢lai/ll £tlO qt~o(ietl('d with smokit3g It h') bee. stl/[c'~¢e(l lh*~( =¢'qui)i)g sp(clf~ x~a!ning sl:~tt)nc]lt~ ab0llt healt disL.& C~ OI ltlIIV. C tiK'el ~li]] sr.ll(i zl ~ign~l] Io 3OUII ~ pios- 0 ~n Ol 0
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295 Jpcti~c stlicll:£.tg that slr}o}{it}~ ~,l][I O;I[V U~IIISU di c,~u,e }}i~ I{[('CI cider pu~,pl(' 'lhe irnp]icatlon of llli.~ i;Js[tlolL is t]mt the¸ cullent i~all/in~ la[~ol i~ more iEic~l!llng[tt/ t}lah thos~ plof)osed ih tiff' ll.~i~- lati/m ~)o yotl ~.'r co9 1)~¸ I~I~ANI~1 l think that the warJiing labl~l~ t}la[ name splci]ic (li~¢a~l.b, will inNu~nce yutlllg~l D¢Op]e Io i'eco.~ni~c Ihat ill ~]~( fllst phcc, xle have Io get across to ev¢]~o~c t~lst the disoa~i,, is a iCe,lit of cigarette sn/l~l:Ulg, i~ cunLulativc and dos~, rc}a{cd And ] think if we t~I/ olnt~}lasizo to yo~ln~ pcop[P not onl3 tile filet that it i~ Jl~lln- hll to thEdr h~alth but also causes specific illnesses, Ihat would }~c ]'urLhelmurc, it depends on how young they are talking abou[, bul tht~ plopo~ecl warning aDo~lt woli/(~n who al~ l~icfgl}~nt and ~inoking would ceT tainly gel to a youn~er ~roufl el peop}e ~l ~¥AXMAN OV~I th( y(ars, t}le tobacco indus{t~ h~/~ cJlal lenfed th~ SmOg,on Get[eral~s statements abou{ the re]at}ons}~ii~ be tv, ecn smoking and health ']'he5 have suggested that the Smgeon Genela1's xlarnhlg, however v, ell imcnded, is more conjectui( ihan scient fl~c facl I~'tl7 (,xalnple, in a 19~'2 i(~vi~,W of ~c'i¢!nli~i¢ [itelature en[[t]e~] "CigareIle SInoMng and (',an¢I~: A Scientific |'e~specti~e", the To- blcco ]n~titule wilted, and l am quothlg them, "Th( claim thai ci~,~lrctl~, snlokh/g taunts lung cancer h/,'~ not been ploven ~cient~fi- tMI) The t]~alge igllo]es unlesol~ld sci~mtlfic (lUl,stions COltCc~ning animal i, xpl timents, mnok[ng patle~ns, and lung cmce~ rates, dlag- I,o~tic varlaMes and nlany conlbunding fi~elols." 1,Vollld you care to rcspoild9 lh B~¢~'~m The que:4ion of uhat is scienlilie prooI~ I gaes i~ the isstle I[~at i~ b~ing Iai~,ed, and I}1¢, algklnlenl }13s l~e(~ii r,~i~,ed v, hich cigarette smoke, traI/~-fornl~, ~1 noln/al c~]l J[Ito a Ill,Ilia, ha/it co][, you (armor c/~lim thai Snlokit/t~ c~qtls/,,~ callcot \Vp ]¢no~l O[ xe)) ft~ nff, c])ani~m , that resl~lt ill dJst,,~c,, }(~[ ~(~ do know a lot of causes and v,e do kno~ t}lal if you can g(t people to quit smokiltg, ihei~ llsk of lung cmlcel and healt diseasu v, il} dl mlnlsh I think ])r, l)eVita ]nay be able to address t}li~ in some Jnoze dl.tMl l)I ]b\q~A I)z Brandt put it ~elI, M~ Chairman 513 oWJ~l)el sired fvl,ling is lhat the sck, nli[]c fwidence is irJl,l'ut~hlt, in thl sense that the sl~englh of association of smokin.~ and lung cance~ i~ ovel~hehning. Th~ dose response ~e]ation~,hip bet~ccn the inci dence el snloking and the nunl}~er of cigarettes smoked and the Iilnu and dura}ion of smokiIig is iltefuDdde, and lh~ fact that you couhl cease smoking and ]educe the I/IOIlalit~ f/onl lutl£, ca[lc~ r is o~' fmther piece (~f c~idence I think that lhc anhnal dala sho~s t}lat 5ou ~an cause cancer fzoln cigarette pIodu(ts I bel~e~e that the statement you ju~i zcad would not stand up to the test of scie~ntlhc fc~cts Mr, WAXMAN ])oyou bcHevei]lat we mu~t fu}lyundelstand the (tlo!ogy of cancel befo]e we can dctelmlne the role of smoking in prohloting the incidence of cancer? 1 I I'¢ !! o ! [JI i C~
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29G 1}1. ])~:VnA I do not be]icve ~e ha~e ta llndewst~nd the etiah~:y of ,nny disease to lilevellt iL ]]istoly is lelJ]ete with ~levenlion of ¢]]sea~;(~ ~lithollt kno~hlg t]l~ CaUSes- for e:.~m]/le, ~nla)]pox 3T/¢] ch/~]t.l¢'l ~,V~ ]~now that ¢]g~lt~ttc~ cat/se [[Irlg calll~tar, ~o if ~te (~[l ~li~Vi'l/t ~Ii/oking, ,,~t~ c~/1/ do ¢1 lot to ~ll/'~'Jatt~ th¢, c~llc,t~i¸ plob]~In ~11 this count Jy. MI. WAX~IA:~. F;equcntly you read hi tobacco hldustry tJubli~a tioi~ th~kt the held of epidemology :,ields only ~tlltlstic.-, i~ot ~ts from which scientific conclusions can b~¸ derived¸ Would you e×- s~tiol~ in a disease like lung cancer? ])~. D~:VI1A We]l, ep]demiology i~ ]ike a docto~ ~r the enti~ ~o/ll/tr~ ]i'~l~']ling to Wh~ i~ ~oln~ oil ]1/ th~ l~o~lTItl~', ~ o]~[ll~ocI to ',~hat i~ ~(~ing on in ~IL hldiv]dLl~] pz~[ien~ ~nd )~ ~ ]~t~/,l~¸ u~!,~ in~'thod /~f case conlrol ~tudie~; thai is ]o~king at indh]dua] dis ]c~c,]~ing 3t th(~ v.qli~lb]i.L. ~.h~( ~/~¢t~l lo be irl[]ui'ncing ~h(~ illc[dt,lL¢~ Wh~lt is ]llll,gllallt ~l an epiden/iologica] ~ludy~ which i~ ~l very sound sciel,liJ~ ~nelhod, is tt~e strength ot¸the a~sociation to the liilt li~LL]~l¸ I~IC~O~¸, ~tld if you put a h~ll/b~l o[ ~!l'~pt2.~i¢it ci~t,5ii~og(ll~. On t~ se~llE~ ~n(] looked ~l~ th(~ i~21~tiolL~hJp ~lillvt'~n, ~ £ii~al£~ttt• ~;!n/~kill~ 3n~l <'lny T/llrlltlr!l¸ tl~ ol)/l!l¸ m~t i~l i~l]~, ~h;ll ~,,(! rlli~ ]l/~,~,~Jt,~J~ in~ a~ 11/(' flle~ent ~]rne, the dlf~tl,J,ce in the ~ociallolL i~. ii,a)[y ;~]l~tt ]~, kl~y 'I'[1E~ i~l~i:e li~k o~ lung ~ttli'i,t¸ fl~I ~ ~t'~vy ~.t,~oh~,l¸ ]~ ~lbo/lt t/,l/lo]d Wht~t il ~s lbl ii/lll~l]/oktLl~ ]¸'or ~ ,,,I~¢V }/o~/~y ~.lllol~oy, h~ i~n~ks E~ d~y, ~c~u are i~lki~,14 E~h/~ut a ~/I t~ 25 f~ld ir,~, i~L ']'~I(L~.!, ~ro ~,E,ly SOLllld lll~lhod~ Of i~g$o~]~l'~h~g c~lt~Lill ~t~(~l!t~ ~]th lhe irlc~]~rl~c and znm i~]iiy from di~e~ ]~l ~AX.,IA~ \~.'¢, O~l~n h~'~l!¸ tile, ~Ll~t ~liOT/ ~ha~ ~t n~'tic.~ Ill~¸ tie l(spolL~ble tb~¸ illne~ associated ~ith snloklng Sonic l~tople are ~1101i~ llt~di~;[io~,~d to ci~ll¢l~l¸ or ht~;~lt di~i,;~;t, Clan g(~lleli~ ~×phl]Ii ~hl~ (~oI rel~t]oll ~(,tll ~,t~n ~mo]~[ng ,']nd ~hton]c ]ung di..t~.,/9 ]11 ])EVIIA ]11 ln y IIp]nloll, llo ']'~ll!]t~ ,.~i~ V;!I]IItL I~ill :.(Lidi~:,~ ide,ltical ~/~t~, wilh ~n(' ~making ~nd on~ not~ ~u~] ~n!y ~he srl/ok- ]iig ~]ii~ ~¢,t ]tlIl~ ~llct~I; ~]~l~ non~-tnokin/4 ~l~itl~ do IlO[ And th~l ~llm]d b(. ~ol/~inus]ly ('Oil[if'lilt,c] I $9c 11o tvid/,n~(~ to th/, coiitrili~ MI ~A×MAN. ] want lIJ Illr~z~fLiz/~ Iny c~]h~i~Llt'~ ~oz que~l[0:L~ I nl)t~ht )~a~ ( s~nle ad~itiona] ~)nes h~tel~ Mt¸ I/IEll:~' Th,~T/k you, ]~r Ch~,hnlnn 1iol/ Of t]/i-~ ~t~i/r'~. ~qL~l~eol/ (]~i~14]I~ it:poll, you ~l&ili/i~d th~ll, ~Ill] ] tlu(~te, "~nloking i~ r~,~l/onsibh~ f~! ~oii/e 3,](100[~ dellths irl thh, ~<~LIT~t ~ ~¸ tit1 l~/i,q]]v'¸ AIe ~u awhile lh~lt thi~ fit~te \la~ manu~cluled ~vitho~t illL~¸ I)t ]~ooP .'~,'o, sh. ] tlrll iLc,t Mr IIlll t:~ Where did you ~e~ your ~e, 3 ~,fl(l(l? DI ]~ILII, ~'(, i~ot OIlI¸ illlo~l!l~ll~oii ltcllEi thl, l%~ltiotl~l] (~/~n~l~I¸ f~T¸ l'tl h~ C, U1 Ul la,
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~(o~ ~z~=~l ~ jol~ L ~,~ ;~ ~t~O~lL.l~ th~tt ~/~L]~ ~li ~t~¸ Ci~. ~i/lO~l~ ~h/i ~]u~t ~io Ilol ll~l]/l~¸ t~/~. ]l~Llil, ~IJll ~]/~ ~I!I~LI~ ~1~ i/i]. ~l.[ll Cjt¸ t~l~¸ /J/IJIl~l~ Ilo ~o 0~ tilt'it ~ll, ~lh~l]~ ~1~'1fl lrOI~/ ~J:l!~]/l~, i~ F, I~C':II]~¸ ~lnl~i~i~ tO lI~i~? ])1 l~OOP ~, 1 l~O t]O~ ltlill/i ~ ~ ,~!/l/]i~ th~ ?/~/I .i~l ~]Llo~d }01 OX~;I/~IIo. II/~' ~ht~i', ~1 I~o-l~k ~i~;~i~ t!t. ~l/lo~t'l¸, ~1~ ~t tl,I¸ lil~l(~ ¢t~ro~l]l. c/l/l!~h ~]y n/c~htr ll~k~cl lll~, oltl~ c~/l~ il¸ 1 ~ol/]~] cl~ s!~]//c~ttl;[,t~ ~ ~111 ~lil[i ~,tc~p ] ~,~id ]~t¸ ~i]~ Tll.~I¸ ~!/:p b~ll~ he. [l!~I¸ ~lll/~t.d ~/~il/ it~ ]li~ lifo } [~ v~'~ t/i~ ~illc] ill¸ ~1 ill,ill ~ho Ll~td ~tl~l~.lv~lrdin~ /~in:] (t~ ~1 f)t~J~,~)ll~lit~¸. ] thiTlk t]L~t i~ W]I~I~ I~IUTIt~ ill l !1~~ ii/Ol]~IiOIL Ol¸ t]l~.~. ~JO0~]~. h~lv(¸ ~C~U ~1~] ~TI'/ IT~illi]l~ iT1 I~(~l~l~ ;l~l~t~ ~'i~Tll'l~? ~0110~/] ~Jld ~r~C]LI~I~ ~11~01, ~lIl~ (/l~¸ ~i:~ ~h~lt ~¢~ll c'~lI/rl/~l J/~,II~ ~L~t ]t~j/I ~01ilt.~hin~ b~ ~tchin~ I~ot~!~¸ ill Itl~i~] f~l~l~tiO~¸ iJ'eOl (ho ~.]~ I~l][,~:~" J~]l you h~v~ n/~ h~ ~1/~r ~-Jl~if~ II~liniEli!? ~11 IIEII~I¸ ~h,~nlc yo/] l)l • ]il~llc~l, ~]&¥~. ~,'o~/ h~l~ ~I/~ ~l ~in]Tl~ iTI ~oh~lvioE¸ ~oio~L¢~'~! ~1] l~lll~:~. ] ~t~ AI(~ you l~llni/i;~r ~i~l thi~ ~t~I~/)lt, thi~ l~l~It ~lt/ ~'ol~oi ~I~(E II/~:ttlo~J~ ~o ]I/tol J~l ~t1~ ~t.ltc~ i~[ [~il/!Ji¢ o! tl/~,~¸ ~7 :~)~7 ]1 ~. I~llb)i~,t~'c] in /XI~rl/b~z¸ ]~l~i 1)1¸. ]I~A~J~T ] ,~1~1 ]~0~ ~l~li~i~r iT~ dt~t~il~ l~o, ~i~ ,~l~l~lt//.it~ ~V~lilo it w~l~ ~lJll~.j Jl~ ~)l]nl,'~li~,¸ ~lrith ~l~oh/~l~ J~ C~/I~ ~r~r~t~ ~t,e~ ]r,fO~'~ti~] ~/~qt~t~]y ~l~U~ll o~l~r ~ ~ ]~ ~ ~ ~u~bc~ o~ co~l~ ~t~u~,lc;~i~r~ ~p~rt~ ~i~. th~ pu~/i~ i~ t ~c~]ll~il~ fi,~d ov~l¸ ~0~e~l~El~t~t v. Et~l~ ir ,i!~, I[,l¸ 0~ ( i Jtll/~rll ~!L~l(!d ~ h~/~ ~ J~rd ~r ttiT~ l~/~ ~liL ¢~LlliO]t AI~, ~J~h ~ ~qu;r~l~ ~OUld p~,~ ;,~r~'~lti~ll~¸ di~t~ ,~r, lirli~r~i~ ~r~c] ~l~ /0
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29S ]~i cgri~ nt ~ oJnu~l irl ¢hi}dbeaE hl~: 5(as co~d} ont muir iAe ha~id~ in t]c s~fe c<.~ [dc~ion o( prtgnanc~ Among the~ are c[gdl<t(~ ~mokmg [cobol ¢ocls~u pt~ [~ ~ x c~ssiv( alnOLIIltS Of CafI~]~le aFicl iFKldcqu~t~ d]~ A ~tHl ;[! based oz~ ]t~d]~]]Ll:l ~sm~dag~ dErccted t<~ward eael health t[sk l],hy slipup[! }~a~e t}t~ ¢I~ eL (~( (w~r '~}K]rll]rl~ QIC ~.~iIglOh Z~[I~ ]:Ir fot~lib '~][}i pro~lb~lJoD ]f clcr~ t}llll~ lq.p F~ tt }~ ]la~mluL. ~ome m~ {~dop~ t~ [aldis{ic ~icv ~md co~tmuL m~ale }~bit a~d W s!>k~ IL i~ our judgment ~ch Ddol matron ¢a~ be m,rc succe ~fuHv co~vc~ c.{ throu~ ~, ~ wit h corolla ry t flor[s singling oul sntok[ng [~tid t,dtehl( Although sm~khlg level h~ve declin d ~n publi a~, ~rems~ 0~ l~t}d~5 haz~ld, }lav( iiicl£as~d ~J'hc (IEp~tt ~hICE~ CO LdUt~d~ ali~ l~xicv.iF~g a~d~a}~]( sLudi~ t} L( I i~ in,po [ble ~L th~ tbne L(~ iso~It the ~mp~t (d .In~ spcc fl# ¢ol:,nmld athm t~d~ niqu~ on s:nokillg b~havior, n~c]uding the cigar(tic ~4~rt~itg ]~t~[ OiL th~ cig~ir~ FD. pLUCk ~gc DO yOU agree t~ith those statctncnts? Dr }]I{AND] ~,YclI, l cannot a#~ree with all of those St!~ttlnctlt% MI ]lliie) ] tl]il/k that in the htst i)]acc, we ale tlying to be selec- tive I ~oldd agree %lith the s~aten/ent that 3ou c~m ovm ~,,helm the pub]ic ~litb infolmalion abmli everyfl/ing beinK harnfful, arid that iI is impoltant to select those thimg~ that have the g]e~t~st lisk to lbe public If one }o~ks al l]le cat]~e ol death and in pal tieulul if one ]o~ks at the loss of ~¢m~, of p~oduct]ve life, that is, i/}ematulf' deaths, deaths befoie the life expectancy, and selects hem that ]ist t[Io~e agents t}lat have the greatest inllucnce on persons Josi[l~ theil liw% and selcctivd~ Ilatlls on thul, then ~e v, ill a(complisb the most (learly, ciga]ette smoking lead~ that ]i~t We feel that therefore ~e mu~ ware the public Now thai does not mean that tbal is the only thing we wll] dl~ C(rlalnly, ilublic edt]cn~ion [,fiolls rnu~t clmthnw 0~/lainly wp hay(, Io con~inl]e OUt. i-~sc~t.c]l, parlicu]ar]y Oll boy, pt'o~de call qllit ShlOkill~ SO I think we ~fll be scIcclive l do flat di~ag,<.e that ~e shlmid be, hut 1 tbink cigalelte smoking is ce[tainly ~ight at the mou/et~t the most ivnp~rtant thing ~le can addless. Mr. }~[ua:v. Well, Ih B~andt, you cited the S~edi~h expelience. l)I, BRANt)3. Yes, SiL Mr. Bl,u,vY. We had lestimcmy Friday afternool~ at our last bear- ing, so far unrefuted, ihat in 11 yeals, 5 years belb:e and 6yeals since ~otating Inbe]~ ~ent o1~ tb~, packs, tbe~e ba~ b/~en absolutely no change el vlr~uall~ no ~hangc in ¢onsuml~tiom in S~eden. In Great }h}taln, where they have }lad rotatblg labels for 3 years, the~e has been no measurable change in COtlSLItl/[l[Ion, bof/ITo OZ ~ f(eL In NorwaM where they have totally banlled cigarette advertising, and there 'has been a massive campaign by Ihe (.~overntnerA to edu- cate people on the dal}g(,rs of snmking, there ha~ nut btln any c]lallge. In Poland, where ciga)¢tte advertising is bamled, there has been no c}laI~gc ill consumption. And indeed, ii~ itMy, l~}im¢ cigarette advettlsing has been banned for 20 years, consumplion is up 60 pl.rccnt Nu~, we me )]at in this bill today talking about health hazards ll is not designed that way. It is dtsigned to putting ]abt,ling on to Ol 6)
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299 g~l p(op]e to stop smokn g Th< fu(~ of the z,1 ct(r i~ th;t v, here it ha~, he¢n tlJ(,d, it h;t~ 11oi wot kecJ Now nl.ith<r )rl]~ n:n¸ l)~ l(o~p aI(' ttahLcd iI~ [,ehfiv[!~q~L[ ~CiI'l~ C](~ ~V}1~ll du )ou has(¸ your t~tniloI~y o~I l}l~tt [Jy (10]?lI~ t}lJ~, we WI[I I(.dLICE. Slllokillg? ])i ]IJ{^NI,I Well, I think that oil(' cml loc~k at whal i~, hllp]<.tling in this country in the past !g yt~JI~ Ci~alc.ttl. coi,~-iiI~tptio;~ i~" do~llt 'pile luost F(Cellt Stlt~t)¸ o[ hig]i ~hoo] stniots, IOl cxaIli ple ~t¸, }hll,}:~ ~iu[. I acc(p~ l}lSI }it~t is it down b(,~tltlst, I~f l}Jl, warning (,lJ the packf% o?¸ is Jt dow}l bccatls£¸ of I}ii¸ (,duc~tt]t~l~ lit }hIANJI~ (contmuh~gj ] think it i~ probably both ~1t }ITIL~V YOU l}dr,k JI i~ probab]! }),th? (m you Stlltc tbl a ~,¢ct? 1)o }Otl ba~u ~Jll3 studies to <¢t3, thllt it is doeth b(,(ausl, of ]a- bul[ug? })i [IRANIn. NO, sir, but ]~{I {hHE~ WhEil]k you ~'ou ~3vC ~11~;ll~q(,d ])n~ qL{E~Si]OH ] %{E']d b~lck tn) time to the ch~itltlat/ M, WAXX~^N. ] thank the iseldlem~m fox )ielding Mr WI;I~/AI,~ta; Thank you, 3J,, C}lairmai~ 1 x('~ieI th;~t I ~,~ ulmblu to ~tft,nd him }'iida)"s heullng~, but I do vuly l,mch wl{ come ])l J{laIldt aIld the pattek ] wou[d like to, lbr my o~n edification, h/quh'£~ essentially ~},at ih(. H~,t.ilc3 }{[~s iTi ~titld w}lfll lk/'y sDg~(st SiTI/U}t(tI/('OI/~ ]~tb(,}iI/¢I5 initdd be in(he (.flective thau thr, lotating ]abc]lng ] am c.uriotm a},out 1/o~ maid label~ could bc placed on a ciga~('t[c lack oI VrhtthL, r Jt £h~t]ld b£a 10~ exlllllpl(, two ])~cks Otlt O{ & cattoT{ Ol ltould il be lequire~ oil all cig~l(,tt(,~ of Izh~tl'vcl blind Jm ~mlce period of time'? What ussentialiy al(, you proposing thc~c'~ Dr, }{)~ANDI "~'¢hflt \~, 8re pyopos]n~ is t}/at t}l(q(: }o(OD]) orl0 ~lltlrlirJ~[ ]~}K.I O;1 Nil} Ol1£, pat'kfl~dt,, ~IJt their ill ~tll}r C~tltOtt o! fitly E(.Icc[iot; of ]JSCk~L'S th(, S[llokcl ",lOLlk{ [+(, [x]Jost,(} to [~1] of the ~azniug ]ablq [or 6 muldhs nnc{ ihen nnothul uue, Ihnt ~,ou luu a}] of t[/~tn $}tnultatleous{3 £o that the) ar~' constautl3 ('xI<,s(d with ~ Vrirk. vmiet3 of Julbinlation MI ~,%~{II*~A~I:R Dr llxandt ~lou]d you fh~ol, told when ] su} ')ou" l moan you as the agent3, xloLtld 3ou favoz ~ subMantkd in flc~lqI~ ill ei'4~rellt, taxation ~s ~ disinoentive to stnl)k[llg, al{d di IfCLIII~ possJb]% the illcr~,~s.~td rt,% .ILL/(, t)Wllf) ],ft{ tl[ S>ll! O~ I 1~., lea t / re 8 ed COSts Of ~,luok[ng ~lld/ol lesesich9 I)L B~*~Nm. Well, as you kno~, sir, the Ihesldm~t's budget docs Ilot ca}l {or SUCh ~l] irlcledse, and ] %lould Ioo]A upon ~he excise tax issue a~ irK)r( of ~t/ ecollomic qt~estion thatt 0lle I ~A}ll qtlfi[i~i£~d tO I~D%% Lq M*. ~,VIIII'IAK~,R Would )(m }laz~ttd a guuss, if it is I,}~s]bl(' Vrithin t]lc atuount ol iesearch 3oil hay( do{l(' in this area, ~lhat ti~e level ol additional taxation is that woukl be nocessar) pt'r pack to covet the t,s/bnatud $13 6 billion of health lelated costs, just to hxeak c~en? I)l ~t{llAlgll3 NO, ~il { 8[ll 8fl~]d ] do Ii0t ha~e that infolnl[l~ioD ~\e ~li}l [u, Imppy to tr) lo look il,to that lind provide it tot the Dco~d if3ou would ]ikc ¢,/I l,a 0 gl
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80O ['Jhe follov, ing informatim~ was received fm the recmd:] In 19~L 640 E>i]]iOl~ (ig~tt~, o~ :12 bllkm p~ckage~ (20 cig,t~,ttc per I,a k~l ~rr~ s~k] An eight eor,~ ~d(ral e,x~q~( wl× pr p~cka:~ ~:~netatert ~. 5 billion in 'lhu, t!~, FC4Lt~! CXeiL tax ~Ot~Id hay, to b rai~,d to 43 ~'~T,t~ pPT i,~ k~,g, to gcnerale re~er~ue of ~l~l I; b~/liv~t la und~ 82 b Llim~ p. kage me ~ld, %~ gen<r p i pal k l~.~, (a~ tlmiltK ~ bHlkm pdl k~}z, s are sold, 1Mr. WIlIW~A~Cm I won]d appreciate it And in ~ddilion, 1 would ~11s9 ]ikc to u~k whttl mnounl ahove lhal level of ta×ation would be iequi,ed to lecoup tl/e estimated $27, g hi]li(m toms I~w ptematule death and diability?~oifyou couklbting Lhat to om attenlion,] would appleoiale it ])~ BXA~;m Yes. sir. ~*]r '~III'IRAK~R Whet ha~ beol~ the £'X[I~q'iOILC~' ill other cout~tt'ies ~lith iltcr~'R'%'d levels of t~x~tiolI oi1 cicero'Ire l)rodu('tg i,~ inihilt/i?- )1, }htm;m Well~G,dn, it i~ d~fficnlt toa?t~ilmto change, to a!t> one ~ aziable The most I occult data i] om Er~g}and is that cigalette s,nokh~g is &opping at a vo,y lapid late in Ihat eountiy, Thc,ze h~ leech a ~.]¢4nil'Kgmt chatlgo o*,el t}l~, past ~ to 3 3"t.ats Jtl Ihl i'orl- sumI)tJon el cigm'ettesin England Somepe~sonsvtttibutt that p)i- incled~,e in taxe~ "['~1~, II/OS[ I0£'~1/[ ~v(,ll[ [IKII has }lappOll(,d i,t tl~t ('OklIl~ry ~li(}l ,e~pi,ct t~ cigatvtt(s has be~'n an increase in the lesel of tax(. [O Oll~ singlo ol'ont i,; SCIllIU~lh~lt pFo]dtll]OlJC That is th[ onI' COUn- [F~ II}J()UI ~t'~1](~13 V,(, }IIIVO il](OTII]~i~iOI] O[ i)L~5ol/t Mr \V}tl~'~al.t:tl. In nt> leading, England is the m~at ,eenl roun- try to iml)]ement a h(gh ]evel o[ taxation. Is Ih~d tho oidy ¢oun/l) thai has implemented that in the last decade? lit. }~RANI~2. It iS the onl5 co~nu5 (hat ] have filslhand cxpeti ence about, IVh. Whittaker. l,et me see if anyone ~'lse on the panel k~mws that inlol marion IPauso ] ])r ]I}(AN/)2 NCI Well, ~l/' ~li]l lie }ltllllD' Io ]oo]~ at I}lal and plO vidt. )o~ ~sith that infolmation. [Testimmo' resumes on p. 81:1] [The lollowing in~b~mation has been ~ecei~cd fer the recmd:} UI i'¢ g~ g/1
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301 ~ckgr~,Jn~ ds[a on the experiences of ot}~er ¢~untr~¢s O~ th~ t~×atioEz ~f Cigarettes ~n~ c~relte consu~ti~ Source; Roem~er, ~sth. ~i~islp!ive A>tion to ¢o~a~ the . ~T]d 5~i~.~n }~idcr,lc¸ A ~ o~t Co th~ ~otld ~c~no~i~¸ ~;~asure~,'~ ~ft ~¢p0r~ Univer~ly of C~]Efo~n~a. Los ~ngele~, ~llforL~. I~2, ~EGIStKTIY~ ~I]OR I0 ~ORgEX IKE WORLD S~DKIN3 EPlO~IC. A Report to the ~orld Health Organlzaton By Ru%h Ro~mer, J.D. School of Public He~th ~n~ve~si~y "of Ca}Ifornla Lo~ Angelesj Ca~ifornla July, ]gBl C>
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302 1here ere ~ ~o tlle]e thaL Go~erh~enLs have e vest~ InLerest In Sm~kl~ L~aus~ Of th~ v~SL returnee thlL 9~L$ ~a~ghL ~y ~he Chin Ce]l~T $ net* I Can ~s~e y~u th L LMI$ IS n n ~n ~. I~ ~ ]d ~uit~ passible to rel~ t~15 revenv3 tn ~ne ~Lhe~ wly* S~kI~ ~r~ LO ~e~s~de s~o~r~ to fr~e t~em~e]v~ ~o~ t~b~¢o depe~lence, [~n~ed o~ the si~e of th~ ~b~o ~nLeresLs ere t~e~z enor~i financial re~ I~ev]n~ aside h~aqiLari~n ~onc~rn~..l~-pr~L~ctln9 their ~p]e ~g~]n~ ~r~ur~ d~h ~r~ Ch~o~]¢ ~l$~il]ty fro~ s~ TeSU]~t~ t~ ~O~S O[ ~ro- c~n~ec~ue~ces o~" S~kln~ were e~lma~ed 1~ 1~76 ~ toLal $~?.5 bll]l~. ~f ~ch $~,~ bl]]lon represenL,e~ dire~t h~lt.h C~r~ ~s~.$~ If 9oler~nt~ ~r~ ani~-~k~n~ forces are ~o corbel Lhe p~rf~] ~r~l~rt~ ~f t.~,e One ~on$~e]la~on ~[ ~s~es ~ha~ h~ b~ ~ed ~ ~ly a II~te~ ~y ts ~}
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~ ~as4c re~sons foT adoptln~ f~l ar~ e:on~-,Ic measures ~r¢: 10 dl$c~uY~ge s~lt~ tr~ ~!~T~I ~p,~ ~T~kSn~ of core h~f~l branS~ in ~r t I¢~Jl~r, To ¢~ecrease ~r~uction of tobacco end to provide incentives for pro~ucLlon or les~ h~Y~llUl Cro~* ~o discourage s~kl~ b,y ,young r~-opl~. ~/~ '~lnance s~oking e~uc~tto~, $~,~kin~ ~ssatlon activities, zt~! lh!eo ~ypes o~ t~xIng po%icles ~re ~e~crlb~ in ~Jj~ll~s~gr SZ~k~ ~n~ ~u¢~tlon, s~o~In~ ¢~ss~tlon ~ctIvi~1~, and research.I~9 G~h~r~l lax #ncce~e, Ralsi~g t~×~s ©~ prlce~ Se~,~ to decrease conI~tlon of tobacco.[~0 .~¢oTdln~ ~o t~e ~o3~] COll~ ~f ph~)c1~nl o~ th~ ~Ite~ ~.I~ sho~ t~t fIv~ t~ Increases 1~tr~d~ fr~, Ig74 to Ig78 ~r~ ~soc~t~ ~ffth ~ ~ ~rce~t r~u~ion I~ ¢Igarotte sa1~s ~ histe~l~g t~e mo~e aw~ fr~ ~i~ t~ Cigarette,,I~ In B~Ig~u~, the Feder~1 ~ep~llc t~c~ $~It$ to ~ exl.ent,]63 G~n+.~ that tota~ ~.i ¢~It~ ~di~ I$ ~r~ ~fl~t1~1 t~ ~Ii¢~ o~ ~ ¢~pit~ ¢1~rette ¢on~tlo~* ~ one ~t~dy of 4~ ¢~untrle~ Sh0~.16~ ~e~er~hele~i, hi{lh~r tarsi a~ ¢o~se~ntly hlgher I~Ices a~ar to r~trafn ~o~t(o~.165 T~ere ~ ~eT. ~e e~Iden~e C~ Cn
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304 tr~l~atlv9 that a ~fce lncr©ase has Drily a t~0rary lnfl~e on Sales t~ ¥er.v I Jttle lnf~u~=e On ~on~J~n~ this ~1~1m~ l~fluence See~s to t~fe~ d~fly ¢oh~t~ptlon levels rS~h~F than the ~revalen~e Of $,~L3kl~,165 Delplte thl~ ¢~1de~c¢* ~he lon~-tenn ~ff~ct$ O~ price lncf~se~ Introduc~d aS p~T~ of a (~,,~ehe~lve ~f~r~ Of $~lki~g control ~Fe net kno~ ~ therefor~ t~$ s~.~te~y should be~ trl~ ~ ~rL vf a~ owr~ll ~rogra~.167 B~ffe~e3t#al~a×~~, A ~Ifferen%lal te~ |y~te~m favmrlng low t~I + nicotine, ar~ car')on monoxide brands ~5 ~no~her approach to use of ta~es to encourege less harmful cigarette $~ok!ng, A C~nadian anol.vst $u~e~ts that ralslr,; l.,~Kes o~ tobacco ~)rc, du;t~ ~l~!~ ~l~h t~I 8r~ ~l¢ottne ~on~nt~ ¢o~1d bo Be. C¢~p!is~el b~ one oF a ~o~bJnatlon Of the follo~fng F~zthO~S: Incr~a~Jr, g ~u~t~-~ du~i~ C~ I~3~LE~ ?F~dUC~S, in;re~ITJg th~ l~c~ng ~ee fol to~a~¢~ ~al~r~, lrcrea~lng Ch~ ¢Kclse ta~ a~d excise ~utX F~'ld b> ~a~Jfactur~rs, lr~ cre~s]r,~ t~e corporation t~ by ~=~kin9 p,~otlo~ ¢o~ts non.deductible* ar, d 1~r~IIF~ the ~alol t~x at t~ fe~er~1 ~r-J ~!olJnclal leve1~,,I~8 f,~ ~ul~ellr~; for ~,~Otin~ ~)rt~o1 re:o=~e=~s, tligh.t~ Cl~e~to~ sh3uTd be¢~e ~ York City bll 0nazted an OrdJ~,~ce ~;~:~J~g higher t~es o~ ht~ tt~ er~ nicotine bran~s.I?0 IZle ~oy~1 C¢11¢~e of phl~ic~ar~" of London favors "lh~rodu=~ton of dlffcren~lal taxBtlo~ of tobacco prcd~cts r~ltt~d to th~ 181elt ~nforr~tt~n on ~ealth risks."~71 The Untte~ Kl~dO~ lntlol~ed a ta~ d~ff~tent~l i~ favoF of plpe to~,~:¢o b¢caus~ p~pe s~},~g alone Is 1~s ~,~- ful tha~ ~ ~ul~elent al~u~t ~f ¢~rette smoklng* The Royal Co}lege, h3~- ¢o~lnue~ tnhAIIn~ of t~e ~1~, lncret~e thefr rI~k, Tho BrItl~ %a~ la~ has r,o~ been changed to conform to the C~ce~.~er 1~, 1978 guidelines O~ ~lle C~
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~Jcetlons ~y be ~Ife~ed t~ t~x t~r~eses. ~e IS tho ~Sverse l~p~¢t on low.(rt:c,-e sro~ers, ~oss~bl¥ e ble$sl~ 17 d~sg~se, ~.-~o'.~r (~* thlt lr~ ~reeseJ t~xes n~y have o~ly ~ t~porarv Influence on sales, ~feecttn.~ Snflf- vldu~l d~11~¢ consr~;tlon but not ~he pre~len¢~ Of $n~I~ 1~ ~ ~ogl~ 15 FInle~ ~n ~eszrl~l~g the stron~ s~kln~ control le~sl~lo3 In Ftnlar,~ sLg'~efl One elel,e~L ~n a t, ul~, heal~h.6r[e~le~ $-~klr~ control p~li¢~ Is of D:l~e p~lt~£ ~I ~ ~etermin~L of cigarette consumption, esf~.cl~lly ~*.~ you~ p~o~le; arg r~ person#l 9uess ~s th~ the tl~e ~ill be rlp~ for ne~ le~sla+~io~ ~n price poli¢~ In a fe~ years* ~an~'~ile p~¢e Dgl~- ~d S~ f~r as ~olitlcall:¢ possible. ~ F~nl~r~ h~d proposed tw~ re~as~res*.obllg~t~r~¢ p~lce ¢~eeks on Cigarettes "~w~ce e ~r e'~ ~ffferentltl ten,glen bgSe~ ~ ~r~f~l subs'.~nges. ~o~h ~e~sures r~elved broa~ fl~pro~al, ~ut ~cLlon w~s ~o~tl3on~d b~ause o~erall revl$!on 0~ t~'v~ for~tis~l~tt~!t!~~. ~ r~tlon~ eerller tn conn~;tlo~ ~th spiral t~ p~ree~t O~ ~ro~ ~Oba~£~ saleg on Information O~ ~el~¢lslon, rodt~, It~ fl~p~,~r$, g~n83~s. ~rF~ other plece~ ~rnln~ ~l~st ehe h~ards or" sn~L. n3tlon~l ~dge~ for h~el~h [-~ucalton. research, ~ e~lu3tlon ~n s~,~kln~ cOn- Fu~ for development In t~e rurel te~ecco ~ro.~n~ re, long.)7~ [n the lyited p~k I~cre~se In ~ s~te c~£arette ta~ to fln~sce ~ c~cer re~is~ry ~d the 1~e91T~nin~ ef ¢eneer ~¢.reen~9. getectlon. Ir~ ~re~e~on progr~.~s.TM ~a o Gq Gl o
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8O6 Insurance Ince~tIYes and DlsincentlYe; AnOther f01m of e~on~J¢ he,sure affectln~ $~k$~9 Is th~ growing practtce by th~ In$~r~n¢~ lr~ustry In the United $~.~tes of e~te~dln~) ¢flEcou~ts on life insurance j~e~lu~s to no~s~kers. This ~t~n~wtlon b~gan tn 1~, ~e~ the St~.e ~t~al Life ~surance Cc~p~%v o~ ~.~erlc~ offerc~ a ~e~ life insurance po~lc.v e~clu~lvel~/ to persons ~lO, ~t t~ tl~e of ~pplicatton~ ~d ~t $~Oke~ clg~rettel ~or ~ ye~Y. In |~7~, ~e ~lp~Y e~n~o~ ~onln~kef discounts on premiums to ~11 lt~ Ir~ivid~l n~r~Fensl~n life Insurance policy hol~ers ~,~ ~re n~nl~)kers. ~fter ]4 years~ e~p~rle~ce, ~nslysl~ ~f ~rt~][~ dfffer~ ~e~p~ny's ~ker F~l~cy ~olders ~er~ e~erien~n~ mortality ~1~o~ ~ ~nd h~f ~m~ t.klt ~f their n0nsm0k~r ¢o~qtelpar~s.17~ $~r=~e Zg~ ~ c~f~ th~ $L~d~ld r~t~.17~ ~r~e~e ¢c~;~ie~. ~1~= ~ ~1~ f~nd t~ r~rt~lty r~t~ ~l~g tK~ir n3nl~l~ ~L~Ch l~r th~n ~h~ O~ their SF~ker polic~ ~older~. In f~c~l the l~lcr~e cc~nle~ h~ve ~,ee~ $~ ~truck ~.Y ~he ~ni- tude of difference; l~ r~rLeli~ r~t~ b~en ~01~er$ and nonsmokers thtt t~ lr~u~tly h~ cev~l~pcd ~ ~nt~r=~nJ~.v ~tudy ~f ~hi~ ¢~ue~lon= ~llle ILi$ eIFe~l~nce I$ st~ll ¢on~ider(~ limitc~ ~nsur~rce e×e~utl~e~ t~k~n tn~o ~¢¢ount ~or individual l~u~n¢~ ~n~er~ttn~ ~r~ p~lcI~ p~r- ~se~* A principle in ~t~]l~hl~ ur~er~itln9 cl~fic~IIon~ l~ %h~t the • t~nder~ group should bc th~ ~rg~t @romp, ~r~ tho~e ~o ~re either ~eferced ~ ~u~st~ndard s~ould be In ~e ~ln~rf~y. t~cord~ t~ LI~ |9~9 Report o~ t;~e U~$, Sgrg~n General= no~l~e~$ rare n~e the I~r~er ~r~21 ¢~r~prls~ 6~ ~erce~ of the U.~. ~p~l~ion= ~rd ~e~ lif~ insurance ~u$~l~ r~fle~ thl~ C' Lq F~ ~.=4I=--
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307 ~,Inan:e 9f ng~sn~ker~,1~1 "ft~Tefor~, r.~nS~)~ers Ce~ ~ro*%rly be constricted ~ t~ p~la~i~n that ~lln~ "sta~rd" rises, ar~~ S~ker~ Sh~.Td b~ d~f~n~ ~IU~ dil¢ou~tS ~I ~i~fl off~rlr,g hlgh divI~r~s ~o n~nsrokers has sho~- ~kal the n~t ¢~t for ~nlnoket }Ire In~ra~,=~ p~Ii¢~ holders car b~ ~n a 2~. the ~rz~t~¢e of gi~in~ ~suran:¢ l~¢entive$ base~ on ~o~sn~kin~, If ~tfe]~ ~.~opte~, ~y pro¢id additional ~;on~dc le~a~e In the ~Lru~le to conbat ~ ~.~ki~ ~p~enH¢. Insurance Incentive~ ~n~ ~i$$nce~tlves ~I}I en1~r~¢ the rifle Of the Ins~lanc~ in~r~' f¢o~ that of i:¢tu~r~al ~ fin~n¢ia} ur,del- ~Ler t~ thl~ Of c Li~ r~r~ic~p~n~ tn the effo~ Lo chang~ ~2op1~'$ behlvl0r ~0 n,lre healthful life styles. An ~rt~nt issu~ fa~In~ ~otion~l g~erw~ts a~ ~ntern~tion~l a0e~cle~ ¢~ thp {~uesti~n uf egricg]:~l ~551~Ie~ for toba~¢o pr~dvcLlon, ~ ~or~tr~. ~iction ~'t~¢en pro~,ldlng ~ncentl~es ~or tobacco prod~ttion ~rr~ the ~'~Sllc ~-alth ~b~ect!vl gf ~kfn~ ¢~s~tLfon ~S clear. ~et~ ~bbt¢co ~ult~t fo~ ~$ ~g~ an~ Agllcultu~e Organization ha~ pol~te~ out, I~ Is ~'~n~ the f~e]d ¢roI,$ ¥1th th~ ~hest return ~r u~l~ of ~rea, but h~s vet)' high labar 8r~ oap~t~l In~u~ requirements ~l[h make It ~lfficult to s~itch to ~ther crops.178 ~or6~e~ ~n ~arious co.trig; h~ve be~Ua to c~]1 for ~ red~:tlon, 8rd torturers ¢~ ~9Z¢ recc~ne~e~ • progres~lw ~ut-b~ck ~n ~u~$1~ie~ for tobacco gro~rs ~ us~ of the ford gen~r~t~ for ~ large-~-~le c~.~Igq ~Jns~ 0 gl h~
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8O8 ~ln~ In [urop~n S~OOlS. In 19S0. this re~orv~n~llon V~s Fen~c~lj ~r,J an" ~pp~l ~ ~ ~o th~ Cot.fission Of tile Eulo~a~ C~lltJe~ 1~ I~rv~e]~ fo~ te~ ~r~e~ r~tlon In ~v~sld~5 for tobacco gro~rs. 1~ th~ ~L~ Unlt~ St~te~ b~ p~ ~ ~ver • L~n~r p~rI~d~~?~ p~t~ ~h~uld ~ • ~ to ~arn~Is for n~ ~o~§ tobacco, ~s$1sl~n~ $~1d ~ ~I~ld~ to tklI~-~r rl~ic~l ~t~d~t.~0 ~J~ct f yes. w b~
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~09 153. C.T.R., title 21**'Fo~ ~r~ Drug~ le~, 311J,501, 155. Pe~Lo~l ¢o'Tknic~tl~n f~= I.ai~, H, ~l:n~t~r~=, D~;~or [,,~/l~l = ~tJon~l 151. ~aE~et~~ and oist, Ibucio~ OF lob~co. Sgudy pr~r¢~ b~ t;~¢ Url TA[} $~et~la~* U~ted ~tlo~ Co~fer¢~ o~ ~r~c~e ~ ~eveloF.-~n~I 16 J~3e of l~lr ~¢on~ll~ Consequoaces.= ~ ~lan~ dou~r!~ o~ ~lre. ~l. ~Jlde~lne~ for ~kl~ O~nLrol, ~¢I edltton~ e~lted b~ N~gel ~r~j tn~ lg~O. ~, F~, =~r~c~ ~rd ~o~b~pLlon Of CJgare~L~; A ~s~ for Interrelation7= Brlt~s~ dour~al of PEe~entLve t~$oclal N e~lnJ 2~:~41. 1974; M.A,H, Russell, "~ha~ges in Cigarette prt¢~ tnd O~n~t~piion b~ ;~n In Britain 194~ go ~1,= British O~urn~ of Preventive and 5ocltl ~ictne: t7: 1, lgT~. 6q ~a C~ ~q
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161. 310 $~T~ln~ OI ~lth, A Re~rL frcl~ ~he R~yal ~]leOe Of p~I¢Sa~S ~f Lon~0nj p. 1191 pitel~TI ~E4i¢~1 p~l~ltshing Co,~ L~.d.~ '[~brld~c W~11~ 1977. 162. G,JItl~llnrs fo~ Smo~l~Coatr01 su,~ca noto 159 at 1~4, Series L~ ~. 1, p, L-3~ ~ar~h ~979j ¢lttr~ United St~t~$ ~p~r~ent Of AgFi~ultu~e, ~orelgn I~gFl~ultural £~rvice, ~Fld ~e~ Pr~duet/~ ~nl lr~de ~n 1~77, W~shtn~t0n~ D,C,, U$O~, ~uly 19~ (F0relgr ~rlcul- tu~e Circular F[-3-~). 164. AIL. Pzkkale. ILtv~n9 Star~d Infix:noes [~g~ee of ¢ig~rette ~kin~, ]~6~ personal ccr~u~i~lo~ fr~ DF, LarS ½. Ra~tF¢~, ~lT~¢t~r G~ne~l, St~.~ A. I~rr¢l ~r~ L.~. Ra~t~ "To~kswnort~ t Sv~rlgeW ('~k~rl~ , I~t~on~l Boar(~ of I~aIL~ ~r,~ Welfare, $~ock~)I~ ~glg. Nat~Qnal S~JklfK~ ~i,~ I~a1~h ASSOCI~tIDn, Sweden, C~
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311 ~$~r~nCe ~p~ Of ~r~¢~ ~Jnsw~¢~ I~¢en~1~e$ ~ ~5~n~enl~~ ~Ith. ln~u~ce ~a~la~Ion of ~r|~a~ ~rlc~n C~n~1 ~f Life I~$~ance j ~980. ~a
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17~. ~h~ltes k'l~t in Life I~$u~nce, A Nello~al Under~lter pub]lcatlsn, ]gB]. 177. Supra note 175, ~f the Nl%lo~l C~nisston on ~o~ in~ Public ~olfcy to th~ BOZT~ Of ma~l ~anu~y ~1) ~7~. ~e ~l~o ~alter ~, &c)~S, "LeL*S $t~p E~rting 3?, ~u~-n l~&~ (a~a~le~ fro:, ~L~)S Stop Ex;~?tl~g the ~okl~ ~0. ~:ertc~ public t~al~h Association, ~a~J~to~ ~.'~.t~'~!~[. ~. ~, ~. $. Int~r~r~tatioh of ~he Mo~)'~glan le~l$1~t~om relic& O~ th~e a~¢le~ by rdell BJartveit, Chlin~n, ~*~tlon~1 t¢~nc~l o~ ~--,~k1~ ~nd ~,~1~h; "lhe L |0) 1977, "The K~rw~ fan ~i~b~¢cc~ Ac~. ]n%c~ctio~ • Scandinavian .~rnal of ~le~pirat~,rf gisea~e&, S,j 2, E~. IO~, pp. I~-I~, Ig/B a~ °Goler~ental Actlo~ on s~klng a~ l~alth," ~ujl. o~b~!~te~9~ti~a~ ~nI~n ~afmst T~5,~rculcsfs) ~01. ~3~ rLo. 4) pp, 334-3~. ~cc~:be~ 19?8. ¢> u~
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313 ~Ii "~I'}ItIIAI~I }{ lit }OUI (JlIJIiiOI}, ~IIld l ~,~d] a~}( t}l(, ~-[iu1( }lu(, tiou of ])I ]~oop, ill ~i,t;1¸ oilh~iotl what woltd }~( the n,oM t 1~l(,~ii\.t¸, and I }l~tte I¢, linl~t this to thl. ~ingle he~t method, bul i,t ~ouT lqnn ii~!l what ~otl]d he t}it, b(,~l nJothod Jpl ~hi~'h IO lecontl:it~id to t}li¸ i(,~(i.datulc that ~e coffin l~lo~idl, a disinccntile to in(lea~i,d toba(. co usagi,~ ]~i ]I]:ANI~ ] t}dnl; lh~t you ]ta~e ~o sp}it thal up iulo ]orlg tel m vcl~os 8hi~tt-tolnl ] thinh the ]o}i~ refill solulioll J~ go}hI~ to be lhr us to undEist~nd ~lh~ it Js that people s!tlok(¸, ~i1(l to uilde~[atld ~hc~t (~ii })o doi1e IO assist ll(,n],l(~ in £topping ~niokiT~ q hat, ] l}IdJk, is oln¸ host so]~lion [ do think it hag shown leillal].ahLt¸ suc- co~s thus la~ ~om a ll}lo]e ~',~I}et}¸ el w~ys that lle IIiiI~t hI,~in to ~ Of'I< 011 In lilI~ ~bIlrl term, ] thi,Lk out [Io=4 ~]~ptoac}t i~ to continue Io a](,ii e~i,Fyhu,dy ionstanll3 IO the .~[nd:- oj¸ hazald~ they aI~ Itlh hills, ~lld the co~tq to otlr¸ basle (,COllotny, p~iticulslIy to our health c~te expc~ndittkr(,~ ofci!!aletto smoking l,e~ IIiO tilt ii to ])l l~.0op. lb. Keep ] wetlld agree with ~hal Ill }l~mKh ha~ said, es ~n- tlal]y 'the wind that 3ou used, thai ~e could let'iMate, 1 think limit ~hat one's ans~(,r nlif4ht he Thelefole~ I v,o'ald go td(,n; ~ith ]}~. llrandl Ihal ~hal we ale doinf,, intel~ihed, i the best ~a~ i lhhlk that the ptJmaly ~hing i ilould ]lice Iii sl,4 nc(on/jdishl,d if \~(~ C(ILIhl iN tO N~Op ~O[11/~ i~eaple lion] stalthl~ to smoke, ~md th/' ~,4~ tu do ti~at is to sludy the I//(~:11i11~ ol Ii/otiva~ioI/, hov, lhoy c~?l avoid ]lOoI III'(~SStlT(~ sod that solt of IhiIlg }lut low thll tan bc ]~i~lated. ] do not hnoll ~I ~,~:[lI31AEt~ YO/I II/EqiliOIled it/ yotn I stin/ony, ])l ]handt, tIId I h~vt, (orGolt£q/ ~lhith h~[(~Ii(~ }o~1 idattd il to, but Ih(,lC ~/(,te h(haviolEd s~ttdies ~oing inlo lhi' OlJl~l/ i)F pc, op]( beginnh)t~ Io smoke ]h, you hnvl, an~ tnojeeled date or kno~/ledg~ of ~Qlen t}lat stud3 will he a~ d/nble? ])1 ]}RANII~ We ha%E. tWO S£q~, ~,o]l)fd eli, o1/( ill ]h[~ .N~ttiflD~l] Jli slttulr, u/ }hug Abuse, attd } ~Jll a~k ]h }'ul}in to ad0~(,ss that question J)l POIIIN '~Vo i/ave an on,'x~inr4 s(llts oI studioG Mt Whitt~lkel. ]t is not any o]le sillg]e study. We h~ve fvtlnd, t~long with ol}1(1 agencie~ studying this ploblenl, that ~/ith legald to youne pe0fde. JOl exan:i,le, techl/iques which point oul to them lhat inili~tion of £mcd;i,tf~ actuah3 /imils t}loil lto(dollt of chtdcE', lfit}lol th*~n, as tl/c~ of tin conc(plualize it bahne lh(9 ge~ stalted thinkiI,t4 of this 3~, [~ itle~flS of ~s~,vrIillg indebendence, iloil3ting o!lt tile ]JlU[lDtioII (}}} sIIhs{ {JUIIl( fttod¢lnl Of choice, p/)ilflillg OUt that thf~y ale stlh jec'to(l to peel plcssure and helpil/g then/ to lesi~:[ peel pleg~tlle has beel~ shm~n in a Immbv~ of cmefulIy controlled studks to be qultl' ( fl~ctivL'; and fm thor, invt,~tigatiuns of }low Io ~ttenzthen anti appI3 lhis kno~]~dge me CUllelltly ~ndOl ~%a~, bath \~ith l'egald to cigarettes and o!her drugs l~l \VtlI1TAKER ']'hallk yOU 'J'hal/k you, 1~1 Ch/t]rlrltll] M,.WAXMAN Thankyou, Mr. Whittaker. It has been suggested that a majol benefit of cigmette adve~t~> illg i~; Ih~. pIollio~JoD ol low till" ~ql/d Dicothlc hl~llIC~S Tht Jn)p/i;a- lion is th~tt these Cigal ettes art' somewhat Safe/, Ate the so called ]ighi cigarettes safe? ¢,n cd~ rgl gel
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314 ]}I I{ItANIl'l. That Cltlesliorl deserves two le~,pOl/SCl, Thole ix i1o qllt,s[ion lh~ll il¸ ~t polSOll switches frolt/ ,'1 l/oii]]~{ht ci~trt,ite to ~ lighl cigarette ~ithout changing, thdi smoking habits, that the zisk ~ill he reduc(d lion, ever, unforlunately the preliminar3 evidenc*, is I}mt man> peot,h who sv, itch to the light cigarette lirst increase lhc,it COT/SUT//ptJOIL O~ Ci~ll~'ttL,s al]d S~CcJnd, hlhlde ii/o££, de(,ll]) lll]d thorl'fol¢, ('xpos£' thenlx~,]~,'~s to the ~allle dos(" o[ tobacco SIi/ok(. Etlld the 0alCil/O~gt'n~4 it ('Ollt[liI]S So tt[e a[tsllel t{~ y(lur qut's~i{In i~ yt's, they air sa[l~l if th(' I~(l'~,ofl COll[il~13£,s IO $1llolitl il/ ~h~ Sal]/e *fkl~hion 511". ~VAXMAN IS it also the case that even if riley are safez, you ~ocdd not con~idor th("lll ~aI~2 I)r. }llt,%Nll/ N~I, sir. ] thiltl~ all of tl~¢ t ~,]dr'ncr irtdicatt's thrit tllI' ollly I',a~ you C~ll~ rethlc~ yOkll" relative risk I~lOln ]kIIlI~ CalIC(~I', ]l~¢ql [ (li8('~t"t' ~lfld other dis¢ascs assoeisted with sii/okin~ is to qtlit SIllOk inca entirely MI. W^XMAN Ill{ 5053 lequi~es the disclosule of ing~edic~ts tlsed ill tht~ n/arlllfoCttlr~, of cigarett("s ]1oo8 tlto de]lalttl~f~nt Col. iel/lly h~lvo rt ¢Oll)[ll'eh~_~llSiVo listillg el iiiglcdiotll~, Itlal/[IfEIO[tllk'I'S ~ISC ill t}l~' plOdUctioII Of cigalett{~s'? l)l. I{~ANII'I, W(, do llot Ileal ha~.e a coIi/l~rehcI/si\e list]ItS {,f thost, hll~/i,di/,llls. ~,'~'c alc,; hol/£,vol, iil llel~ot]atioll ~/{lh i'cill{.sclll t IJv{s of the tobacco itldustl~ fol th~,i/ vohllttar5 disc]O=,LiIO of those to ~.ts l~,~l \~,'AXMAN }lOW ]Onf~ ha~e thos~~ llef~otiatiol/B bc(ll ~!oitl~ Oll~/ I)/. ]I/tANI~. ']hoy ]m~(' llt'l'n going on (ol sibyl'lot l/Itlllt]lS. 5it \~,'A~M~X?¢ SO aS oF this l)Olllt, tlac cigarette, iI/dLIStt3 }lax not di~/losod the illS/crib!t/Is it I~ I's ill C][~arclt~,s to thE! d~,l altn/en{ lit. ]ll{AN[ll W(' ha~,£, not }(t lec£dv@d that }[owe~£,t', J alll l{lll ~inc~,d {h~tt th(, tob~tcco industry has neloliatec] v, ith us in ~ood I~tith alld i~ itlakln~ all attCllllltS to he i'est~ollsi~t~ to o'~11 l't, qtl~SIs Mr ~VA~MAN. Wotl/d 3OU agteg' tht~ in the* ¢~/s~' ota l/lodklot lls dallgelolls as c]gltiet[t,s, J[lgl~di(!n[ di~(!hlsul( wo~ld h(, applot~li- ated ])1. J{IIAN[)I'. I think that the questioi~ really i~ ~hethez' or i/eL the ingzedients ale harmful. I think if the additives to cigart'tles ~tte saff% then the, isxu~, el ~ht, t}tcr or iiot the~ ~ito I(~vea/{~d to the I)U[IIic is one of advertising and nlatketitlg oonsidoratiot!s 1 think (Ill th{! (lll~*[!y hal/d, iI t~(']~t' ~ll{~ ad(litivcs ill Cigat(,t(es lh[l[ are ha~nlful, then thele is no question in tny lnhld but that they should be i(~vealed ~I Vt~AXM&N l){I x~O/J support the provision in }l l{ 4!157 reqLd~ ins listin/~ el l}lk* CclT~OII ntozloxid/, con[~..llt of tit a/ette~° I)r. I[I(ANIli xl't~$, I~, do I might sa3 if 1 conld, bI1. Chairman, el, ~llCh ;~1, ~%e will rt l(,a~e the ad','allce r(,p(izt f/oil) the h(,alth Ell/d litl~litio[I ~'xanlinati[In sulv{'y, whi{h shows ltl~ hlo{)d hwds of ca~hon monoxide in stnokels to he xtrikinlly highcl than that in /i(~nsIllok(Is, irl'('spegtiv£, oi location of sal~lplillg ot oth{'l • ari~hlts 1t is (l~,t~r that incleti<c,d levels el calbon monoxilh, pul yell git g[(,~tt('I ri~k fk, r hl'al l dis~.ase al!d fOl C(.i [aill othtr ill~lessos It ill{~ t1~, t[)a~ this l]~ld]l/g will lead us to other ~%'s to tlt/d(,r stIliId t}l{, II/L.(hlllii~nl b~,, xl}qlc~h thi~ i~('t'uls, hut it is cie;ll t}lat thole J£ IL gtlikil)£',ly hi~hel levcl of C~l!hoII ltlOI]Oxid(, in SIIIok(,l~ lh/lIl ill IIOIIgl~/£l~CIS ¢q 1"0 U1 Ca UI t,O
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3]5 )dl "¢GXX~.It~N '] }/¢' ~]])~'~ I)ivi~io:l o] Hc~!alc}l spJn~,ol*d *, m/it- iIl~i ill ]!i7!~ lo ~v~l]Lllrtl¸ W}l~t}]~I Oi¸ IIO[ ci~tI~lI/¸ ~,rl~O~iIl~ i;i,. ~t]/ ~lddiltil~n Wh~l ~',;J~ lhc lon/qusi!l!/ ~[ thl~ t~L~k ll~lc(. ~kud d~ yOLL ];l/ow I;~ Ilii)¸ ]~!~t~lll oxi(l~iiCi~ C/lllll~IlicL]r~ I}/~ [~L loll'/¸ l,i~i/~]~l SiOrJS? i~ill ~]L Of th(, Ioqu~llni~nt~ ~o I~ eot/g~d~led ~1~ ~11 a~dictivt¸ ]~lo/¸. l.~, ~ll// lo tn3 know]ida(¸, t~t ~t~ }~ ~,~n no ~ll~OClLl(lll ovid(ncc MI WA,',~,N AT~II ~//~/I] 5ou dl~/qib~, h~l u~ ~hl¸ ~i/t,/l~ t~t)][cy !econ/mtqldatk;n o]¸ the ~atioz:al /Xcl~is'~i5¸ (?OLItlci] Ol~ ])lLtg Ab/]~/' regarding ( igal ~t tes? 1)~ ]'OHIN. Ye~; The Advisory (~unci] relommel~ded IbM tho wo~din~ on the label be changed so that it include the ~o~ds "Ciga torte ~l/loki~lg is addictive al/d daIlgot otis [o ~ouv he~l[t]l " Mr W~,xm~,~. ])1 t~rarldt, t]le Ofiil.e i~f ~nulkin~ and ]lea{th ~1~ b/~lql wilhout ~ i;olzll~lJl(zl~ dirE~O[Ol ]~l¸ ~1 oou~i(}pl~lldt¸ t~/.I]od ol¸ tiltlt~ x,V~loll illi,q}l[ W~, exlleot ~/I~IIOL!IJCelII(II~ Ol~ ilel~ dJtl~/'tl~l~ DI. lh/¢~l~. ] hope that we will be able to annouT~co the new dl- iector in the t~ext few months. 1 luus~ adnllt l~ you that the la~'k of having a permanent director at thi~ time is nly lesvol~sibilify Quite hauk]y, we ~lcl~e been ti3'[ng to ~(,I t}1i,, rti~ott out, al/d ~hat ~ta~ ~l(ll ~]lt~ ~]~o1(~ ])lob]~,~l ~,'e are [~ogilll/illg ool se~l~i:]l ]tl soIilO d/,i~t}l ~lt (}ll, pleS/~lJ[ llll/c MI¸. W~x~;. Whal i~ the cmrenl ~[/d l~oI~(~l 1!~8~ t~ud~xt for the Oll~ee oi~ Siilokiil~d and tle~l~h? J)l¸ [~IIANIll ~'h~, l,L]rlont Cl~ll~illtlitl~ rl~lt]ut[on Icvo~ [ol ~}// ()/~, of ,%m~king and fh,altl~ is $19 ndllion Our ]9~'~ l~Ii/l~i i~ few ,~.] million MI. Wax~at;. ] ~ould likt to ask thai an reticle horn lhe No v~mb~q 1981 issue ot "(intent Slvedem" ~ugge~tinf ihat the Go~ l'llil])Orl['S smoking plev(,ll~ion ac~iv}~ios }l~,,e ilt fid[~ I(!~hl(o() ~h(, p(~[i('ilIJV(! Id ~CJ~I/I~I ;~lnd (hi]dtell w]lo ~tiiok~., ~o Jl] td~, pdr I of []io ~cord I ~ould like to share lh~t witf~n/ycolle~Lue~ IPause.] ~dI "~VAXMAN If the~e i~ no objections, ~e will lnakc it a t~a~t of t~c lc'cord and lea~'e lhe It*cold o]3Ull if ~l/yoll(, s}lou]d wi-~}~ to in~¢rl rely commer~ts with regard to that study. }h,aling n(I Ilbjoctlcm, thud will be ~lle ordel [The h~llo~sing itff~t maiion wa~ ~eceiwd f~ the ~ecc,~d:j ba G~ rdl
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816 dcIl 0 rm i,a
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317 J~,~ ~,~Oisll ~O~L~rL Cn[ t,CJIr, it5 ~nti ~" ~ie,!l ~OTk lr, 195~, ~tl~r, ft~',d ~,[C ~p~/~p:iA~@ fc, z t~e fJr~ ti~ [r~ Fi~jflr Jr for~ticn ~,~ the ~,~c,~!ul ~ffcct5 tt,u h~lll lul (rf~tu ~,f lr~acc~+ ]t ~],~ r~ ult~z~ L, lel~b]~tJ~r~ l~tlt~Igr,I L~t, re,, ~ c,er ~i~ir,~ ~ckci. cllr cs[i~ ~iltl r,re~'~ nc~ a;irl c~]]~l i~L~* Tr,i~ i',fD[l~lti~,~l ]~ c/f~red t~ I[~lr, ln~ L-~,r~f~zrnc~s t~ stJp;~rL ~,~ in~er,~tf~ tt,e~ ~,fF~rt~.
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8]$ pL~in~il~ D~ ~, (~on~ool~ (~ ~h~ offJo~l o~rJ~,]~ J~l ~,~ the~ C~b~n~t "H~,~I~ Idu~Jc~r, Jr~ ~ ~h~:ol~.'~ ]~l~ p~ ~,~ ~h~ Lh~ obj~'~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :,~ h~'~ ~L~'~tio~, ~:~ j'~ th~ ~,ohoo]~. 1~] lcwel~ ~a~ ~o~ool i~ n~. b~i~9 ~,~L~'d ~0 ~b~i~~ i~ o.:r~ ~/~,~,c. ~tion,] ~o~, ~r,ol~ing ~ loo~I ~io~, ~r~.~ foJ~ h~l~k c~o~,~Jor,. ~,o~]~. D,, t~,~ con~r~r~, ~r ~,,~ t~ bo~n.,Jv,~I ,~ ~,, ,~t ~o~,~c~ ~,rj ] tJ~ ~.~i ~j~J±i~,e~ ~, 1~ ~l. ~JJ~1 T~ ~h~r~ ~:,~,t T:,~,¸¸ (~ L,r,~ ~ ~,,, ~o~,~i, L~ ~,~J-~ r.~o~t~,~ t~ ~r~ ~ ~f Jrl~r,o ~O~,~CC- ~J ~,~ ±n ~-~1 ~,~L~Jor~ J~ ~ ~r~~ o~ ~l~z~n~ ~ubj~. ~ .~J~, o,~ ~,r~J ~ro~ir0 L~,~. ~ ~ti ~ :~, ~x; ~L~, ~ ~,,~,~ T-r C~
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319 lohnrc~rel ~ed lr~fDir ~ti~n t~ ~bqg p~ p~e is nlso pr0~ided outsid~ the ~(hr)~l~, [o[ e×~r,~bie in VOEJ~U ~C~l(h Clubs. VISIR h~ o 5~,T~(~ !outh Ge~cI~tio~. Jt J~ ~por,~i(d ~y Lhc S e~ish C~e~ S~elety~ NTS, ~I5]F~, cnt~cp~i~e~, ~Lc. U,ing outdoc~ ~C~LCr~, nd erti~ing ri]n~ irl n:,~ie ho~ r~de iL r~lu~,ien~b~e not Lc, u, o~c. ug~i[isl the tobacco ~blt a,ong ~du]ts, ~uL oHly ~ s~]l pi(,po~L~(,rl (f tl,is ~rl'~,r~ LiDr, i~ dJ~e~ih~,L(d vJ~ di~,~L ~,ass co unicaLion, Iro- n~Licn~l Br, th th( NaLiO~I Board o~ p iILh a-~d ~elf~rc ~r,d ~15, o~ ~c]l ~s OLhC~ c,r,~. O~(L~ ,~n ~uh n~Lerials ha~ Le~r, di~l~ibuL~d ~ze~ it, r,~,~ edLtion~. [~uhli!h d ~ ~ll bi~UhUl~ e: LiLlcd "Advi(e Lc 5~c,~c~" (RSd till i~k~i~) etrr~r, ~o allot ¢ :c 1~-,~5 to [ul]di~g u;, i,Ic~r;~ of loal in~o~, Li:, ,. lh~ ~¢ i~ thst ~1] S UkeZS Jn ~ gi~er, viei[,ity ~hould he ~L]e Lo oh. ir,ste~,ce ~la Oe~0~ ] co~L~L~ ,dth the ~(aFF of thei~ l¢cal ~e~lL~ ca~ to r e[uit and L~iq Lhe 'k~ peo~,le' ~ho c~n e~ry ~uL ~uch ~o~k o~ ~l~wr,e~lLs' -- ~q o~g~Jz~ !rlfo~rztioHal oc[lvJLie~ ~ad ~i~pl~ q~i(~ -r,~ir~ 5q ~q
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32O ~inn~. for j~ls~L~r/c-e in ~tLlfiy circle for~. ~ p~rt. ~f ~l oil do~ly ~,~r:<. inForrallcn on ho~, to do ~ ~nd ~arl ~1~o ~l~taln p~r~rq~l ~,;~2~t end c~ c~;u~aq~me~ ~rol ~Lheir il,,n~di~e erlvi~on, i~it d~ci~9 '~hc ~r~iti~], d~ff±~ ~u]t iiciicd. Si~l~le cl~ryd~l effor~ r~rl yield ]e~'ge rcsLJlts~ if 'Lhet 5~,cie ~-ck~r~ niny h~ve ~C~l ~rE,~. E~if~i~ult~ ~,, q~Ji~ng tLut ~hi~ *'~,~le'~ ~I~,gr~, ~s not stJff~c~e~. ]~ 0~1 ~, t~,c r~e~ls o~ ,,~,LJ~ C~S~,~ ~4,~ q~llt siiok~ L~]~r~ h~,~ hecr~ ~st~b~i~d bt ~ r~u,~,cr ~,f ~ou'~t¥ ~o~-i~i/~. e~c, ~,c~.~t ~ic~ uf ~,×t~ ~u~: ~,~,~ove~ i~, ~h~~ ~,~]~,~4 ~JI 19~]~ ciid ~] ~A~ ~cA:, [~icj~ret~ p~rk~g~~, ~]SC ~JS~,]~ ~ d~,clarc~iciv, ~f ~ovAe~!~. I~ ~te~ ~,~ a ~v~ic~Jl~r !ev~l i~ ~b~,~. o~ b~q(,,~~ o~cr~ge, the decl~ti~-, alrc ~riclL~ t~,~~ ~,~e ~or ~11 b~r~d~ so]c~ it, S~ Ic~h ti~,~l~ ~E-~t~:~~' ~,~,,,]~ hc ~,~,~.z~vd ~r~ ~,~rke~n~ t~/b~cco :,r~,~k~. ]hi~ It, ~,~ecti~e t~is rnc~ ~,~ r,~e~ous f~pe~ E~F ,~(~rt~sir,~ ~at ~,~,t ~C U~eO ~r ~oL~rco. ~,e t~pes t~,~ ore co'~l~r]> ~-,n~d nr~ d~c~t ~,~l~,~t~v,~A
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,$2,10S~166 o~n ~ ~c c z ~cc
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la~/l~ 2, SmJl~in~ h~hlt~, 1980, b~ agE" ~nd ~x, i,: ~,~i~cent Si~o~le d~Jil~ 25 27 ~1 3? 31 ~L~ 3~ ~6 31 28 ~71 ~r, Jatge ~,~ale ~L~di~s ~o,,Suut~,d annuaJI~ by the ~L~I [~cn~d of ~m~,~i~r,. ~,~,~ ~LudJes h~ve ~'~o~'r, t~,e ~ollo~i,~ t~r,d [Sc~" l~b~ 3). It ~'~ ~d ~ r~b~r~d thnL t~,~,~e ~¢, ~r~ classified h~ ~,. ,,~ u~~ ,~e 127Z~ 10 12 ~1 4~ !~77 ~ 11 2S 411 ~ S*7~J 6 8 21 3~ 1~8(t S / 21 3~ ~r,s~r,~e, ~c r,,,~ ~1~'~2y lo,~e~ i~ t~,'~ c,I ~!Jc!t, ~e r~u ~h~ o~ c~9a~ t~,~t the d,~i~]H~ r,u-~b~ O~ ~0~ r,o~rt~-l~ S~U~* mo~e c~9~L~ or, T~teccu.'~ its ~eo',r~e,~t~or,~ ~,~}~ ~r~ ~,,do~scm~,~t ~*r~ ~,r~ ~u~,e~t~ E~ L~,~ t~,~ ~ ~nti~LObac-eo ~r~ to date. t,~,~vr a]], ~r~,,~tional ~:,rk n~ti~,r,n} r~ti~it~. ~t~r~ jr,f~rna~iE~n m~t h~ brE~Elc~d ir~ a ~u~b~r C~
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~23 f)ir~ the ~,~ p~Jou~,l~ ~ct b~ s~t,g~ etc, D/ the~ sa~e ~,y, ~hfo~,,~, S2~,~ arl~-t~lb~r~ ~,~r~,~. ~,~ n~ ~s~,J:C tr,~ (~n, ~Jf ;~i~i[~L~ ~l,~,l~ ~luiLc~ ~ ~m~t o~ t~,~ re~Jlar ~,~e~ ~,t U,~~ c,~,~t~,[iu:~. ,'fi,~,~ L4,j~L~'~ EJf U~, ¢~ ~'1 JS t~,at "~ of t~Jb~o ~,~ ~:~LI~] ~, • J 3~,~3 ~]~'~, i~ ~J~ ~3~ t~ tu~a~ ~*b~,]i~,~ ,~s 3~ p~,c~,l~y p~b~y~
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324 A ~p~r~te l~ ~uld ~>~ ~>a~sc~ ~Jc~, p1~e~ Jlmltat~nns nn s~ki~,g I~ publJ~ p~,,IsEs (~ J~ Firil~d~. Ac~dlno t~ t~ ~n~r,~c~i~,n, ~kis i~ ~,~n ~ ~ti~ ~f ~i~lin0 ~rat~ ~rr~i~J~ roo-Ls. di~c~,in~ir ~ JrI~JorL ~cj~J~ t~,~ U~ ~F ~,~,~rr~, ~,i~ ~ir~:~0 i~- ~r,~ fr~:~ t~,~ I~,~, ~a×. It, L~,e flJ~J~, Jt ~iI] ~,~ r,~,~c~rI ~ c~,~ cL~ ~ c~ ~iv,~,~• jrl I~?0 ~u~i1~ L~,~ ~3 ,,~ Lr~,,~r irl I~0. ,~-~,~TE~ ~, ~,~ ~-~C~, ~,~ r~,~ I~,~d ~t ~ a '~;r~c ~,,~r~'¸ t~ ~i,, t1~ 1~?~ F,TI~ l~v~] ~, r~ t~rn~ I~,~ p~n~,~H ~,r)r~¸ h~ ~C~,I~ ~,~ ~f~, ~1,~1~les b~ r~J~d h~ t~,~¸ ~,~ [~r~i~c ~ ~,~. il,~r ~r f~ ~rlce~ d~,~,I L~ 7~ ~ ~ '~,~]t~ ~o~i~1~(c~I U~ C~ t~ to~ t~,× ~I L~ ~r,t~i~ (~r, ~i~J d~rlir,~ ~J~.~ ~ ~n~ ~o~ (,~o~ ~I~ quit ~rC~r,~. ]r~ ~J~ ~, ~J~'~ ~n tt~ LJ~ ~! tOI~r~ r,Ot ~r,lI ~,~r1~f11~ p~ib]ic ,~]t~,, ~,U~ ~11~,u
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f; J o~ c~-:- co 52~055~90
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326 SF%OKI~G PR[VAL[ NEE IN S~I FC~ED COUNTRIES T~(TII SMOKING C(]NTRDt ACIIVIT[ES ]~ FJl~r y ~ i st ~rJ~ and d~ vvl~p~ .~ couLlri~.s t~¸ pr~ v~lur~¢ ~ of C~a¸el W ~r ~,k ir~, In ~hc Unlt~d ~t~t~ Carla~a and Great t~ri~ai~ Ibes~ pr,~r~ms h~ve hc~.a ~clLv¢ o# ci~ar cite ~ l,O~[n~ a~ ~ob~cco Use on h,~atUl flr~ he~me ~c,~,n, ~ here h~v~ ~ddit i~ to ~d icati~nal ~:~ infor rr,ati~al w~rarr ~ ~ arn~ ~ [~bCq~ l,~w, bec~ r( ~31ir ~'d o~ c~ar~'1 ~ pac~es a~ ~ (q[ as i~l ~dvcr ~isLn~ and r,,~y cOU,lt r [c~ r~s~.~¢ a ~iver fi~in~ in cer ~ain r,,~'~ia ~ In a~dLt [o~ ~ost deve[ol,ed cou'~l ries ~av¢ active p~r~n,~ ol in [or n1~tic,r~ ~d ~duc~t io:~ by ~0 vc~(LrE,et~t a~encios as ~el[ &~ by ~,,o~t n~t~bly ~ ~d~,F~, h~ve m,~ba, ked ~n very a~C~,~ ve i,~o~-a-l~ ~ to ~1~n,L'~ ~ :e by Ih¢ ~T 2990~ f,~l(,~,~[, ~t .~ :~ a~id l(,c ~I ~v~[ or with (,t he= ~c~]o~ la~ by ~over r men~ ~uc~ E~ ~]~ .~S(~ of (dfKi~ ~po~ t~ or Sp~T[flC icffor ~ll~t ~on p~ o?I a~ns ~c~i~ed to di~cc,ur ~/',~ ~(~ and h~It h p~ ~m~ h~ h~ ~m ~',~pac~ O~ sr~ <,'~ ~ bc~a~ ~or ~ tho~ c our,t rj.. ~ ~,h~ r~ such t,~ea s,~re~ h~ve been irnpJernem~¢~ For ~c~r,,e ~ci~,ner ~ o~ Stlrv~ ) s h~ve repeatedly o~se'ved that ~,l,(~n att ~ ~i~n i~ 9a!d to t},¢ S'l,~!~ arid f ealth ~:ohJ~-n, the public re~pond~, ~h~n that ~.nt[o~ ~ m~nlr~,i~d, bc~avio r ~d J~ ~omc cas~ pr~wo~s ~a~l~ in the dec~i~e Jn smoMn~ prcva Jct~cc could b~ r~vccs~d. I~at~ ~re pr¢ Se;~t ed Io: v~r y~ per 1 ~<is s~ t~,at a Tl,~r~ ~or,,pr C~,~~ ,~w, pic ~,r~~ Ol
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-'.zw"- l 3~7 ~f ~r~ariJT~ti~r,~. T~le Tobacco F~rc~l ~ouncL[ pr~vidos d~Lta U,~ ~o ]~7~, h~ cvcr r~,~r~¸ ~lr r cr~t ~f~T~ ~ ~r~ pr~v~Len<*~ ~ ~r~v~r~d ~ ~,,~ ~t~r ~1 H~*~!~ ~r~d ~ ~r O~nt ~er~l~ ~, ~he~e ~c~ir,~ ~*re re ~,,~r]~J]t, ~in~L]2 r ~, ~ho~0 o~er ve~ ~c,r rn~ny ~ther cou,~ t ric~. p~r tic,~J~r]~~ i~ C ~r~ d,~ ~n~ the ~r~i~e~ ~es. Tr,~ ~ble ~ ~.~ pr<~vi~e~ p~ev~ k~nce let v~ rio~=s s,Jr ~eys ~,~d tin,~ peri~d~ lo~ r=,~le s Bq~ ~rn~le~ in ~he Lb,i ted Ki~=~dor~. • Tobac~,> R~.~e~r~-h L~oL~rL~II S~rv~y *~ (~,~r~aE ~r~ ~ho]~ 5ur ~c~¸ ~,~d OT, It' ~.~ p~r¢~nt ~'t ~d~lt ler~.~Je~ sn=o~.e~. Co~resp~n~in~ f=~=r~ fo- I~ ,~ ~en ~he~ are c~np~r~ to ~ure~ ol sr~<in~ prevalence l~r ~'~ ~, the first 5:r~,iJ~ r dec)ine5 h0~ bc~-~ o~,r ~,e ~ ~vor~ tee~er~ in th~ Unit~.d ~tatcs, ~ r¢
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WF.~T C,'FJ~ M AN y f/~: f~'h~Le~. TiLi~ h~Cl d~cr~sed ~ ~0 pe~c~nl ~T ~n~ r~len ir 197~ and I~itller 3 ~,e t~hle bc~o~~ ~:e~e~d~ d~ lo~ ~d~l[t~ Ior ~r three ~ ~:]~ds. per(~nt r~f Adill~ Ci~ar~tt~ Snlo~:er~ r~n~on~ ~v~lo ~n~ o~e, ('~ r~l~ ~, ho~ c'~er~ t (~ to I~ ~• ~ ~i ~11 ~1~~ hi~l~ r p~ ~ e~ ol ~ L~(,~ ~li~,~17 o~er ~ ~e~ ~;,t ol t~~ r~lt~ ~o~ ~o~ 2O ~,c~r ~ of ~ ~d o~r ~rrc r~F~[~r ¢~rcttc ~h ~rr~ (5~7 p~rc~n~l. °,T 19/5 thL~ h~d cl~in~d to ~5.~ (~Jrct~c ~nl~e~s in 19~, ~h]~ c~c~c~l ~o 3~,~ p~rcc,l,t in 197~ a~¢~ ~J ~rc~t co~[,p~c ~ to l~ -~,~[~, h(~ c~, ~s J~c~p i~ ~1~ o~[r~ ~i~ ~i~l~ c~r~ ~ ~ t]~,~ ~'H ~k~l~ T~
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~a~ i.~ ~2~J /he I,¢r ¢~ r~t of the a~alt p~ula tior~ i~ S,~ ede ~ ,~ho a,e c[f!~,et le s,l,ol:~ r ~ ha~ d~ ¢l~led o~(r ~he I~st ~lve year period, 19/6 lhrc~ub~h 19S9, lnis dec[Jn~ L,~ b.¢~ oSserved ~o: bC,~'l tna[e~ as ,~el~ as fema]e~ Males ~la~e sho~r ~ ~eady, ¢~n,i~en~ d~C~lne ~ro ~1 **3 p.c~cen~ ~r 1976 ~, ~1 pe:c~nt i~ ~9~q, {~:¢~rresp(,nd~qg ~gure~ ~or l~:rla~es Ado~es~er t ~r~,okin ~ ha~ al~c ~ecl~ne~ over ~he pe rlc,d 197~ t ~r~ugk, 1979, h¢.~ ev~.~ g~r]s a-e smoking a~ hi~hef rates thor1 boys, a ~rend r/o~ed i~ several o~her ¢oarlt ,~ ~ in=[LiC~ing the Unite~ ~ales, lv,~e]~'e perccr~I O[ 13 year t~d boys s'llo~ed in 1975 ~ c~us ]3 [~-~ ~c q~ o[ ~s. ~!~ 1979 tklc cot r esp~'~d~,~g /~gu:e~ .~c r e 6 ar~ ~ p~r cer~t re~ect~ve[~~, ~t~ 197~ ~2 pe:c~nt O[ 16 t'e~r o]~ b~!,~ .~er~ s,rl~kers c<,mpared ~O #5 ptr¢{r t O[ g]r]~+ Trl~se fl~'ures k,ad decreased to 21 a~d 3~ p¢:cer~t lot rn~tes and lcrnates respecti~ ely in ]979. la51e I ale1 lah[~ 2 g]~e ~lese as wel[ as fig r~s lot i,lterrr iLten~ repot ling perio~ for [~1~. abo~e grolr;)s, Tab]( i pcrcea~ o[ dai!v Siiioker$ il I~le ~,~¢.~5'1 a~ult pop~[a t loth a~es ]g 1o 70 years ol age, [97G to ~gg~ * ]970 197( 1977 197~ 1979 ]9gr~ [ ernalel 3# 31 3~ 32 2/ Ta~e 2 [,e~nt of adolescent ~:lder~t srl,~kers age~ ]3 a~ 16 ir~ S, ede~ 19~ 1'#77 19~9 Boys ~g£~ 13 I~ 9 Bc, ys a~e I~ 32 25 21 Girls . ag~ ]6 ~5 I,~ ~ ~ ~L~alc ~ = Lr~c[,J~e s ~,oker s o[ ppes, c~g~r s a~d ~i~,rel ~e s ~em~e~ cigarette smol.er~ only tO UI
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330 3,I1. llHft:~. ])~ }~oop, do you not think, in thl final an~dys]s, lh,~t the le,~so~ ~hat wal/ling labels have not beel~ a~ el~'l~ti~'l" ~ they II/i~h~ i~ lh,~t ~hen ~eoI~]e ll~lke t~le d~ci~ion +to snloke al/d they go to lhe n~,qchiTle, they are just illti!Ie~te~ iTi ~4ettin~ th~iI¸ ~i~Tid "]~Jlt~y h~ve ~lte~dN iLL.de t~l~il d~;'i~,iotL ~U~I~ ~he ~IL~C' t~ ~ou ~,qid l~/at your fatller ~lou]cl nel'er quit, thoy ]/~1~ l~l~qde l~li~ cle~i~i~J~ and they do not ~top to re~d ~h~ w~l/ing ]ab~ anyway ])l'. 1~ooi,. ~,ly father has be~n dead for ~b~>ut 20 yeals |]e ile~'~¸ ]3,qd the a~w~nt~ge of a w;~rni~lg label I have no idea how }~e ~'oL, Id h~'e re~,p~i,de~ if h~ had :~een one, e:~ile~i~llv if he ]lad :~e~n ol~e thai w~ :qpeeific and talk~l about cancer of lhe lun~ or e~lI~hY~e MT ~lLIh~y. ~n ~C~, yOU do l/or kIlow how ,qIl~,oIl¢ e]~.~ ~'ollId le ~,o~ld if +Jl~y ~e one, do you? D~¸. lz.(~ol, N~I, I do not, ~ut ] de> nol lh~nk- ~. 1~1~:~ '~ h,~uk you, 1)1¸. K~op. That is all ~f my q~testio~ls ~,~'. WAXMAY. If the ~e~ll]en~an would yi(]d ~o ine MI l/ill ~¸ I ~v~uI~l b~ glad t~ yield¸ ~1i ~,'A×~IAN ]lr. Koop, di~ you ~'t~flt to :~¢ ~rLyl[~iil~ ~nol~? D~ ]~llf,. ] .iu~ wanted to ~ay l[la~ l ¢1~ not tllink ~e call ~ay l]I~tfoote~ly lhat the ~la~lil~g oil cigai~tt~s has ll~t bl~ell effusive lk~/ WIII~IA~;~:II Th,q~k you, ]k~r. Ch~r~n. I, ~oo, wan~ed D~¸. lk~I WAX~' G~ntleluen. ~bauk you ~ly ~uch rI'~is ~/,~lim~my ]lil~ bc'~ll v~l~, hcl1~ft/I ] willl[ ~o cont[r~ll~l~ yotl iin t~l/~ ~l~l]; ~l~ll ~qll, doirl~ ill t]li~ ~lr~+~ ~lll~ ] }lll~ll~ wt, will [l/~ a]kll~ to ~olk l¢,~t~t]l~ to try tc~ ~lea] ~it]l tlli~ llleven~a]~le (,~u~l~ of ~cl nlan5¸ :~elious ill D~ ll~l~I~ \Ve will b~ p]eas~l l~> work ~itl~ you ~l~hail]~ y<>~l lk~l WA×~+~y Without o~ec~ion, the ~cstiT/lo~ly o~¸ C,]enll G MC- Naii/~r~, MD., l)re~,ideTit of the Ail~elieaii Colle~ze of (~aldiolog5¸, will be ~lade ~ part of the record¸ With ~1o obje~tioll, ~.hat ~ill be the order. ~'b~lt ul)n~ludl,~ i)ur tlu~int,ss, ~/l~ay "~V~ will ll,e~ tolnoiIow ,qt 9:45 in Io~ii~ 2123¸ We st~E~d i~1 ~ecess. [M~¸. McNamara's state~le~kt aJ~d ,qddition~l material ~ubmitted by Chahma~ Wa~l~al~ ~bllow:] G~ ha.
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T 331 Americon Colle£ze of Cat'Jalopy of $~r,,~:,~c ~ ~a~th ~ ~ ~v]~,~L ~o~i~e o~ ~e~9~ ~n~ ~,erce • t, -,3
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332 De~r Mr. Chalrm~n and Ne~ers of the S~cor~ittee: l am Dan G. NcNamara, M.D,, P.A.C.C., P~OfCZSOy of Pediatrics ~nd ChiEf of the Cardiology Section, Baylor College of Medicine and ~exa$ Chi]dren's Hospi%al. I am a]so l'reslden% of the A~oric~ College of Cardiology, a professional medical spe- cialty gociety representlnU over 11,500 physicians, scJentisls 8rid educators who speclali~e in diseases Of the heart and circulatory system. ACC is dedi- cate~ to en~uring optlm~l care for person~ uith caldiovascu]ar disease and thos~ with the p~tcntial foy developing cardiovascular disease and~ through p~¢il~Jo[;~] aild soc~o~co~loLtic activities, to contti~ bute significantly to the prevention of eardiovas~ t¢ &n
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333 eu]ar disease, It Js ~n rb, e~ipJe~ty as presJdcnt r~f the College that thlg state~L~nt is ~,ado et~ I{*R, 5653, the '~Corqplehenslve ~2okj1?~ ptov(~iltion Educatio-~ Ael f~f ]982.q, O1~ l~irE e~ncern ~f the College is ~;hOtYLg~r C'On~Ll.l:(rfl l~ee(ive sufficient anc~ ~cc/l~gtp J~foln~tio:/ ol/ £h~" d~mon~ttaked r, latlonships b~t~;een cigar~tte s~okin,~ arfl ea~d~ovasciilar disease. ~he Col]eg~ he~ieve~ thaL consur,~..rs ate provided with ±nsofri¢iel:L ~h~t~ matlon cJn tho demonstrated relationships between cigarette s~loklng and cardiovasc.ular disease alld that t}li~ ]~ek of irfor~iation ~:oakels~ ,~ phTFician's 2elf ~r. a]terin~ a patJr.nl.'$ strop'iroN behavior. N3 lh(~ Fedara] ~rade C'~:%~iSslon nnlecl in i~ ~Stnff ~Re;~o2[ On the ~iqazct~e A.dvelLi~in~ ~r*~l~siJg~Li©l:~' {Nay, ]9~11, ~hJeh wc coI~-~¢~l~tcd ~)tt (attached), a "sul~stantia] portion of the public retaking it:ill fOtlLed about tile hazards of br+ckil]~" and thaL ~q'C te~t!~ *'indicate, that Ihe (c,~rrentl %;alllill~ is n it!or n¢~ti¢~d 1101 r(!gl~ t]y the v,~$t n/ajorlty of people.'~ ~-[Vt~?l t}~O ICJ}I %he otlrrenl ~-arning i~dicntes that the SUrtaX,Oh General has deter~tined that cigarette sr,okin'? i~ dar~gerous to OllOlg hea]th~ 17~ of all smokers ahd 24% of he~%W smokers do not know that sri©Ki~ O ~n ~A
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334 JS h~z~JrIlolls to health. Additlolial]y, a~ not¢o, ~on~-ers £hemsel~e~ a~e~ that [h~ curJ.~l~t walning is inadequate. Why not plovide the p~bllc with the Cype a~d quality of inforlr~ati~:l ~ought? AS the ~C r(polt no(¢~, n~arly "two OUt o~ ~very three questlonc~l durirJg the 197~ ~oper smv~,y for %!I~ Tobacco ]ILstlt~li~, br, l~ev£ that the. cu~r£,nt ~;a~hir~g i~ not "ddequ(te" dtld lrldieat~d they pztfc~red a health w~2niLg that de.~cribes the spe=iflc health ri~ks of s~<,klr~." A ]978 G~I]op survcv of s~okers and ~on~oker~ fouhd that 32% were [~ot ~w~l~ of th~ ~ta£1~tlc~] ~.]atioilship !~tw(en cigarett~ s~c~ir~g aT~d he.It ~¢tnck; %h~ 3~% ~f ~r~c~kers did not know tni~ • ~]ation.~hip; an~l £h~t a~;on~ h(:avilr smok~rs, 40% di~ lot k~0w tho iIl~rcas~d risk for h~art ~ttack a~socJated with ~i~lett~, Sr~okJng. ~he ]9"19 ChJlto Study, co~¢]~cteO by %h~ F/C, fo~d that 25% of th(~ genQr~l population and 31% o~ smok~r~ c.id ~ot kno~: that smokill9 greatly incrc~scd thei~ risk of heart a~t~ck (le~pit~ r¢~earch ~h~t co~¢l~ded tha~ it do~b]o7 a [r.r~on*~ rJzk of heart attack. In addi- riot,, ¢o;Isunt¢l kilo~](,<]q~, of the r~!ationshi ~ ~monq ¢i~re~te ~mki~q, bir~h control p±ll~ a:ic hr~r~ p-- i• (n I¢ o
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J Z ,. 0 D" 0 ,9 D" 0 © 0 O- e: ~ 0 e or ~0~ wo ~o ©, ~ o ~ C ~ ~ m n 9 ~ c ,., 2 o .*
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3~G Otht.I he,~]th ~)rofe~;slonals in cos.m<inicaiii%g the risks of smokln~ to ±heir pa!ienhs. q}lu C~ll(ge ~,ould rccom,L~nd that °Uarning: Cig arelte .e~tqki:Ig Ja a ~iajor Ca~LS~ ef II~art Disease" b~ ~[l/~ttd~d ~s follows: "Curlel!t scie:~liflc eViL]~ll¢~~ indicates thet Ciqerette Nmokir~g is a Majo:" Ri~k }actor fol Co~ohary I/~t Dise~,~2," Tile Co]leg£: ~;ou]d ~]no rcc~T:~,cnd that "cigarett~ S1?okin9 may cause Dc, ath f~om HearL Dis,rag:e, Ca~tr.er or t;ixphysema" b? rCViSOd aG fO[IO%¢S: ~'CklrlT~r~t s¢~entlfi¢ evidence ~ndlc0t~ that cicl&l'~ttg st:1ok('r$ are predJspoged to ~Ltd~r.t []Ogl}~~' and "~rlent sc/{,ntific evi:~en~e intricate', that thole ii~ a s~c~ificar~ ir]~t~r,l'~k~ip brl~ro(t~ ei,.iictte snokinq and hoa~ [ dlsoa~o, c,~ncer In ~ddiIi(,~ ~ ~hr2 Co]le~c b~]ifv~" thn~ fl]sp n~p"et nat~o?i of re~e,arch, conduct of 1%3s~qlcll ~f~d th~ autlolit5 of tile fii~,¢l'cte/y t~ ca~l%' OUt the i~ro ViSIOflS O~ this bill tlllt~l~l}] ~laIltCr, hay II,'~l c]a?- ifJc~t~c>n to avoid duR/icati~n ~:i!h rf~ealch og ~ig~let!¢. ~n~ikii~9 a, ffect~ beil~9 co,addicted by MHIA I, tlCI ond Ot}l~l" Ins'uitut(s ~t N/I/~ If co~rdi~alion mr,ann %he inp]ezottaiioi~ cf a s;y~tomaLic exc~ngc O N
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~f info~ot!o~ o~ t~r, re~o~rch bclL~ ~UI,I,OI~C~ b c]~f(renL zt~c;Jcles, Lhis ~CL]ld L, k:SC{L]. Tf, h~+<%'Oi+ the ~rf,,Js< is to pro+vidE the Of/it ~ of Sno;?ing an~ llL,alt'-t l,lth JuthorJt, ~o ¢lJ!~t !}3< IE';~r~!t ~f ]hS!ifRl6" , fhC CO116 ?(i) 1 C~'P~ Jt v:o,~d¢~ L, C©u; tf, r-~.o-1~ t~v(• anl k~n~0s;J~d~le. }lo,+;~,~, &tlt}-~.ity to c<n,'~(:t typo~ or xesc~Ech ~l~t dO LOL f~]] C]<~IlV U:]CiE!I thO &/lthL~IJt]" Of ~O1 the Offic~ of S~ kir.g ~rld }[e~lt%. I~:+~I,~]CS ©f CJ!Tiro{te CO~sU~ tJo~] Jr d!f~<!r(Fit ft(~{ qlc~tl~:, COil IJt~ :~ts Of C~{]Ct! tt(,G &h~ Ii~illt@ llJI~ {It<, In i~CcJ{tiO~i, t ~o Col](rlc a]Bo hc]icvcj thdt the th[ co~ ~0 soclcty through /ncr~a,C i:(-]~ ~3 cc,~ts ,,hd rc~uced pFoQ~ct~vJfy in ord(~ ~o !,rovldc a b~isJ~ for ftllth(y cJga~rctte ~:!0;Jnc] ~)It, vmn[ o;i t~+u~t that thcze COT~Cnt~ that i~]~t~, LO ou~ ~;up~<~rh fol your ~,ffor£s in this dr~ ~'i]] ~e of ass]s;t.n~e t~ yoL~ aD(1 f}l~ [:on',ittoc, ~;e wo~]]d t~no0.
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888 P~rc~ iS, 1982 M,c~t ~a(h &~ i.;5~ ~io ~t~
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I 339 i i)~ ~A~I ~ ~ ~.~ ~y ~r~ ~ L~ jl ~ llL~ a~. ~r ~vlc~~ ~,~ b,,,,~ ~, .i~* i •
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S40 ~A~Io~a~ I~$~ITI~£ 0~ 9RU~ ABUSE $H~I~G AS A~ ~DICT[C~ T~av~4zy and Friday, August 23 ~4 24, 1~19 I~TRODUCT;ON Thi~ report ~u~a~es'~e Technical Review on Cigarette Sm~k~ ~ ~ ~ ~i~t e~Esv~[e ~ ~ki~E ~ ~ ~dic~an ~d r<~ ~vv~vc a~ ~ con, c~, ~n ~:aci~ $~s~ 1:~~- • ~s~is~:~ NII)A in ~ne ¢ondu¢~ o~ ~h~ m~e~inK ~5~ ~u~vy rcp~=[ ~:~s w~en hy ~r Ch~vle~ R Schuster of ~he University o! Chic~ff~ 2he Appendix present~ ~e ag~ d~ f r [he meeting arid a hst ~f the par[~tp~nts ~'::h h-~itut{~nal ~fI~ ~io~s, ~d~resse~, an~ ~ele[h ~e n~ ,hers o
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~41 C~ar~Le smch~n~ i~ the ~e ~c~t ~,~or~n[ en,!ro~.~ent~! ~t~ ¢on- !~ of a~e ~ ~ ove~ he'J, ~elore ~8 y~r~ o~ ~ge L~pite ~r~er~¸ ~is ~!.~ers ~h~ ~he~ ~i~a~e~ ~mok;n~ c~ be ~o~un~arii~¸ cu~i~l. ~e ~e~ ~ ~ ~ ~fc~yie ~f r~!~ ~?~ It ~ est~d [h~[ c~!5¸ 2 p~r~÷et e~ ~tokers ¢~u~e ~are~e~ ~n ~n ~a~na~ b~i~ In ~r~r~l [he ~ber ~f ~i~r~es c~r~un~ by ~m~ke~ ~e~a~e~ 39 pe~ 4~I, Fa~h inhaled ~If ol ~i~r~t~e s~J~ke 4~ver~ a d~e of dru~ ~ lhe brain resu]~ ~n ~0170,060 such ~i~ ~,~h ~uch re~larit~¸ ~n<~ frequency De,pile ~d~read pubhc ~c}~no~Qed~nl~nT of 1~e h~kh eoa~eq~rL~ of ~;~,~ ~;~d the do¢~ted s~t~ei~l~ m~e bI the [/~a~ najor~ of ~ok~r~ th~ the~¸ wo~d like to quit ~ ~ry I~ge ~,er h~ h~ un~ucce~I~! ~ o~r, who a~e ~mck~rs~ ~hr~ o~t ~ I~ur express a d~sire ~ quit Irde~d ~I~mpt DUI~ 197~ ~lone~ over 30 percenl (i~ ~h~n) ~L~e~Jple~ t~ q~I ~t~empt ~ only ~0-~5 pe~een~ Even ~ho~e ~ho ~e~k professio~l h~ip ~nd ~re ~erce~ re~n %¢ ~mokin~ ~h~n one ~o t~o ~e~. Yur~h~r~,or~, ~h~ p~¢b~- b~itl¸ ~f rel~pse ~ver ~i~ to ~i~i~ ~kin~ ~how~ ~m~rkable ~L~i~zr~i~ Io &a &a
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342 p~cedu:e There i~ B ~d co~e~p~de~ce be~ee~ dF~5 r~at a~e ~e~- ? O ~x Go i¸¸' • ?~'. ~ -
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3~3 ~o~ under ~lic}~ ~i~ ~¢¢~E~ ~,~r ma~ ~i~ed ~n ;~i~ dr~ ~h a~ D~e~ ~f ~i~n~ whi¢~ ~ ~¢~.~e I~lf~i~,i~Ier~ ~ll¸ ~v~n f~¢~ ~s L: ~::,an ¢~tt~ sac~g ~ ~:}~ic,:ls ~ ~O:~L~ ¢:~=~:,t 0t¸ ~,~:t ~J~; L~ ra~ ~f c~md~tio~ o~:¸ ~¢h ~iC~L~e ~t ~r~i~ta~ ~r ~es~ bc~,~, ~¢ critical factors c~r~g E~e pr~perti~ o~ rdcotm~ a~Ld th~¸ ,~ ~ U~ ~i~h pb~rmac~lo~'~ca] ~r~at~e~t~ ~ ~te~ s~ki~E b~i~z ~r s~-a~,ir~strat~ rather sp~radi~ fashion. Ccr~ ar~, ho~;~r, ~1 re~ular]~¸ s~ke ~d ~b~i~ n~c~t~le bi~c~ l~ls c~la~l~ ~o th~¢ ~bta~¢~ b~¸ bum~ ¢!£~ret~¢ Tb~¢ s~uc~ies of ~,~n~ b¢~a~r and ~i=~t~¢ s~lf-~L~ra~i~ ~ ~ ~n~alns their ¢ompulsi~r~ U~ Al~ough it i~ ~Jl ~ ~¢QUi~CC~IL~¸ clear Lb~: ~ico~m¢ i~ th~ ~rly ~g¢~,t ~i~in~'s pr~r~ role ~L~ ~ts a ~¢mo~r~in~ th~ =he cig~c~t~ ~thdr~a: ~yndr~¢ i~ s~l~lar Io ~h~ l~i¢~J~¢ withdrawal s~,ndr~me However, ther~ h~v~ G1
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344 ~dthout nice,Uric (~ ~,'ith ,~r~dy ~im~ni~h~d ni~lin¢) ~nd ~h~ [~tfl t<~ ~¢p~r~ t~ ~f exl~¢r~J,~ent ir~v~]ves de~/'~e~Ln~ ~i¢~,t[l~e to, ~,tbi¢c~5 ~.,~a zn~th~r rc,ut~ ol ~u~~. th~ u~] d~Z~ L~f ~dsl~tbn that th~ ~¢t h'om th~v[r c~t1~,~5" ¢[~- ~ ~n ~K~ette~ ,~-e ~,~i~ted w~h ~om~.~n~ory Ch~e~ u-~ ~-.~k~n~ which ~u~r1, ex~ti~n of r/f~tme either u[~w~s ~ d~wnv.ard~ ~ ~1~<) ~i~t¢~J I~vels ,~th{n ~rtafn [L~/il~; (3] p~,~tre~L~n[ ldth ~i¢oti~¢ /~J'~t~a~,¢ncu~¸ ~r PHY~}CAL II~PEL~DENC~%ND TOL~'}~ANC£ A~ wi~h ~h~r cl~¢ dT-u~ of ~bu~e such ~ th~ ~pioids ~nd ¢,~tiv~5~ t~ey r~ e:~rh~e the l~r~s ~en~en~.~ t~ ~ntmue its u~. ~o]~n~e, f~ f~,eq~ent ~dmmlst~t/~ ~f hi~h~r d~e~ OI tlre dE~,~, ,~h~c~l ~ tur~ m~}~ 1~d1~¢¢ •nd ~[~ t~ ~h~ ~ff¢.~ts ~f I~a~,~' ~f the ~,)~,[~on~n~ ~I :-i~t~e~ N~t~¢~ ~ind 0 t.n 01 IL'~L ~_'~ '~1~'~'1~ ~ ~= ~ ; ~. ~ = =~ ~ ~,1 ~"~ ~'~*.
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845 ch/or~rL~a~m,~ Reeel~tor toler~E~ ¢~:x b,~ den,c,r/~tr~ed to, sonde extent ~ cer- c~;c:~ ~rl~~, ~oler~rL¢~ to ~:~v~6r, ~h ~ a~i~itv lev~l, h~ ~e~ ic~ c~r~=~c~t,~ in F,erf~J~n~,~ ~,~hfle u~d~r ~he L~fl.,enc~ cf ~:xe clra~ ~i~h~.r~,,~! ~Je~r ~,h~n het.~y ~r~R~s a~,~ap~!~ qLl~t, ~1=h¢~oo~! =h~:'e L~r~ ~c~ th~r~ i~ ~ decrease in ~¢~r~ ~EO fr~uer~¢~. ~l~ ~n~r~¢ /n ~!pp~Jte a~J v.e~ht, Di~t~rba~es lrt arousal ~.l~d ~e~ ~,21, ecru:'; ~n~ ~x~ety, ir~i~o~i~tv, ar~<~ ~1~f~h phy~f~] Iflepc:~c~ence on tot,~co or r~i~tlre i~luer~¢es t,xe f~<q~ne~ o~ ~ pe:io~l cJf ~rfvatiorl, lrri~iLty and ~1,~ pr~b~bi~f~y o~ ~,¢ki,~g =r,c!~e they play ~'~ ti~e ~al~tcn~nce ~ ~,o~t~n~ reE:~a~n~ to be e:~]ored. C~GAR]r~'TE S~,IOKI~:G AS AN A~IDIO.~!C~:~ t~ 0
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346 prevlou~y ~i our def~n~klcn of ad~c~on, ~t i~ ~ee~s~r~, ~o ~e~on~tra~e t~at a~ ~dd~ct~n~ ~ub~lane~ produces o~'{fa~ ~nd/~r beha~,~eral ~o~eitl Aiih~u~h ~he m~st a~{<~iet~ ~ub~tanee~, ~he ~Iti~!e deleI~ health efleets ~f ci~are~{e f~rJ~1 ~f c~ret~e~, ~i~ addict~L~ S~St~eC be re~exanni~c~l L~ light o~ t}~ r~ o~ p~hcy cc~deraL~o~s ~¢hich arc tee zoit~ ~d ¢~aL~ten~ce of ei~f~Lte ~Jol~ ~h~u!~ be exp!cre~ ~ffeet~ t~
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347 r,ro~ts ~h~lJ b~ ~1~ ~!:!~!=~ ~rz~¸ ~!, ~'~J!~?)! ~iF),c~c~!!! ~:,~ ~!~ (~5) !~asi~ re~ea~h ~Ifor/s should ~e Io~u~e~ cn Ihe a~'s~ cl ni~=~,e ~r~, f~r ~ ~t~li~l~cn~, ~,~=,~n~e, ~:~ ~t ~ e~f ~lco~r,~ ~I~L ~d~ i:~ist~a~cn ~h¢~/~ ~e ~tud~ed ~) ~,~, ~r~ ~h~J b~ ~÷~.~ ~ ~l~ e~¸ ~ :~ ~ ~,~te ~r~r~ ¸ ~cd~ c~ ciff~f~!~ ~!~i~C l,~!,a~i~? er~l!¸ i,<~,~ ~l~r~ ~ ¢~=e~te ~=c~ ~ ~ ~e u~ ~ 5.:~=: e ~he3e ehal~e~ ~o tire c~,~¢~] ~,he~e~o~ (1! re]~ ~ ~ki~.~ ~ul~ b~ D~~. [~icrr~ ~e~lt, ~¢ID~ [?i~,~o~ of Research •
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0 V~ ~Sp~ fly ~u~o ~s .~L~*~ ~ k
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349
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350 ~h i'd 5'1 ¢.;t
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COMPREHI~NSIVE SMOKING PRE~/ENTION EDU(:ATION ACT OF 1982 }lOUSE O~¸ }{EpIIESEN~A~ IVE~, ~{IIIF:OMMII TEE ON }lEAf ~I AND ~ HE ENVI,~ONM[ N~+ (~OMMII~E~ ON ~Nk~G~¸ ANII ~(>SI~IF~(:F, llhshirqTlo~, ~C The ~Ltb¢o~ngttee lllel, pul~ttailt to ll0tice, at ~:~l} a 111, ill room Zf23, }layburn }louse Office Building, lion tlemy A Waxman i Icbaii mare t>reslding 5It I,~rAXMAN '1 be meeting of the, suhconmlittee will please come ! Io olde~ 'lhis nlolng/g bt~ins t|lc thbd ltrld flIl~d (]a~ of public il('alings oil lhe fklnlptphen~ive Smoking Pr,,ventiolL I-'.ducaf[an Act Ye telday ~1(, heatd from the Depalln/ent of Ih.a/th and lluman Services, which on behalf of the adminisfiatiol~ indicated Ihcir support fol thi~ legislation The ,qdnlitfistrafion llo~ joins a large and glo~lh/g lmnibel ~f Cor~gJt,Ssmen, Seilators, and public health mganlzatioi~s in sup!umt (If ~1 bill Ot ilIIII~QIIS( iII/]~lOl'Ial)F£" lO lhf~ lilg~lic health ol fid~, ¢ol111 t~) } would )ikt i~t /bi~ time [o [~×press the subeolnnliltt i.'s ~lppIecia [i[)ll f(}l tbt' Dl~tny htte~s of ~tlptKu't ~t' b~l~(' rt~ceh'ed fI(llll volHII- lar3 health or~miizations all ~tc~oxs the CaLUl/I3+ q'ht'~e I{,ttels, in additioll to [b£" ~titlelt 8[ait, llleflt5 of o/gitlliZalioll~ ~l}lb'b dtlt+ Io Ibt li[ll(! (~)llglraillt~; gel( Illl£dJ](! to py£'~ell[ rJIal ~(atitliolt}, ~ti}l ~e nlade a part of the recorg af tile conchlsion of eta hearitlg Today ~e set aside time Io heal tgotn t¢'p~tsenfalivt.s of the to- bacco and cigatett~ mal~ufactuling induslry Witnesses invited to lestlf3 wele recommended by Ih~ Tobacco ]nstltuto, a Wasbingtoll- I) Ig(~d trfid£" ~tssoeiatiol/ OLU first WilnOSS is ag;dward A llorrignn, c}mtlll/an and chief ex- ecuti',e offic÷+I of the R ,J. Ilt\~,nolds Co. }Ie will be accompalded b3 i Ilorace R Kolnegay, Samuel B Witt, and I,atld" 1,ight. Would you lllease come K,I wald? + Betbre recognizing IMt. tlorrigan fol his statement, I ut~dctstm/d thai Mr. Kornegay ~'ould like to make an openilig statement. I am pleased to ~(,cogntze you at thia tittle and welcome all of you 40 our ~klbeolllnlitI e~ hearing (~51) ba
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352 F*]'A]I "~IEN'I OF El)WARD A, IlORI{IG,&"~, .IR, CIIMI['~IAN AND CIIIEF EXI:(UTI',E OHICER, II J. IIEYNOI,I)g TOIIACCO (O., AC('OMI'ANIEll IIY IIOI~ACE R I~(I]~N};GAY, CtlAII~MAN, TIlE TO. BA(CO INSTIl UTI~], IN(:.; ~AMUEI, II, ~I'PI¸ 111, VItaE I'I~I-;~IIIEN'I¸, .~ECI~E~ AI~Y, AND GENEllAI, COUNSEl,, R, J. I~l:'~ NOI,I~N TOllAC (~O (:~); AND I.ARRY LIGIIT, PH. I~,, EXECL:'II'¢Iq "¢ICE I'RI]~I- DENT, I'I:D IIA3'E~ ~ORL~)WIDE, IN(!, Mr Kol~N~:ot.¥. That~k 3ou ~ery It~uch, Mr Chairmal~. ] appreciate the opportunity to introduce lhe spokesmal~ for our i~ln¢.] ]~ is Ii i~rivl}egl, f[)i¸ n/t! to inl?i~dtl(.e to y(l~ and the stlbcotll ii/]tte(' tile C}la[r~l&[i Of t]l(~ execullve coltllllit 1(,o of Ihe Tob~cco In slltute, Edward A Horrlgan, Jr Mr. Ilorrigan is a]so the chairman at~d chiel¸ executive ot]]eer ol¸ the R J Rebnoids Tobacco (!o and I,×l,cntivt~ vice president al~d dir(~cior of ]~ ,1 }{t'yno]ds Indtl~tlies lit is a gladuate el" the University ol Connecticut and tlw llm yard ]{ll',ille£~ School's ~d~£1110£, I1]allaf4Pl~lOn[ I)lOt,,larl/ I)Ulillg tilt~ Kotoltll cow,flit/, he served as at~ Arm?, inl~mti3 officer and ~(,cei\ed {he Si[vei Star, t'uq~le }l~m t and (-ombat infanirblnan's bt~dg(, lie i,nte~ed the business ~lolid in 1})5~ ~tit}t Ploct(I & Garltble a,td then ]aIcl became vice plcgdde[lt of Thomas d. Lipton, ]no lie I}l¢[I tl/ovcd o[I [o b['COl]l~~ c}lah fllatl of [[lf" b/)ald and plc"sident of the [{ucMnglmm (-~rp tlc joined 1{ d ]/c~nolds TObaCCO lrlt¢ll~it- liolm], hlc, }It 19~b us t:}lllilnl/u) ~lnd thiuf eXtCLItiV( ol'l~ct'r nnd I',~lf- ptOlliOl('d }11 1})~0 tO (h~till/l~ll, plt~Sil]etlt ~111(1 chirr execLltlve ollicer oJ R J. }leynolds Tobacco Co. Mt I[ort/gtn ha£ I~ceived man) hu~itte~,g and 14~i[anth~Olde al~nld% HIIIDI/g ~hic}l ale illClttdfd the pleq/ig[otls lloratio AII[('~ Al~al(~, the Ainelicon Jt,l~i~}l (~onlmdlel's A~ tllJ, Itllt~ Ih£, }'op ~,Va[ll(.i AI] ~lll('licall A~/~lld t~l s[,l lice to youth h'b lJmHgm's activities as a ¢i~k leade~ include diltcto~ ol ~dem College, the board of ~isilo[~ o[ the School oJ t{OS{h¢.~a Ad rl/illiMratiOll at the Universil3, of (onl~.k't}cut, and as all hOl~Olal~ boar/t chabman of Ilia 'l'otlc}~ctolln Club of Amelica ~I Chairl[l~tll, it iS a [)](~lS/llt' lo lilt'Spill 1o yOU illl~J lh(~ ~[)})('Ol// mitt(< MI Ecl~ald A llolligan, Jz ~,~y [{oI{IxI(l&.N (io,~d gllOlldtlr, r~, Mr ~'}l~il[llall ~t l{GI II(g~[~, hi/*t illtloc~ucorl ii}t tfl tllp Coll/lllilil'~ ~l~d ~,flkl }/3\u il/~lkKhlcc({ ~]IOSO II/~/lib(!l~ tO th(' palle] who ~dll tic, assis[itlg tile hCl(, ill oul pres(,ll tation I}lis i}lortlillp ~ ilall/(~ i~q l*',dwnld }Iiirtigan I an/ (haillnan and chfr,f exI'cu tire olticc~, I{ J. Reynolds 'lobaccq (~ and tht chairman of the ex- ~,cutlv~ C(lllllltilt~£. Ot Ill(" TO[MICCO ]llstiIlll(', 311 association Oi {obac- (to Hlal~u ~l(q ill (.l S With Ine lodab i~ Ilolace t{olnefga), chahman of Ih~ Tobacco In stitute; ],aIly l,ight, executive Hce plcsidt nt, Ted }~lle.% lilt: t~r,d Salll Witt, ~iee prt, Mdent, general Cklkill:4k'l arid ~ecretaty, l{ *] }{eyuulds 'l obuccu (?ll ~V(' lit' h(l(' at 2, otlr ihvitatioII 10 ('.XpICSS the illdtls[ry positiol) on }l l{ 5( 5,~, tilt. C~orllpleh(.rlsi%e S[llo~:Jtlfi~, ]~lc~ot]tion }]dLiCatlon Art (1( 1!182 I ~t~pectlidl3 submit that this bill is tu/necessa~y because vbtu- all> t~t,Done is av, me of the c/alined ([an~cIs oi slnoki~ "Ih~ bill ulsa I('III(SE'IIt¢~ ¢q waste of taxpaye[s' i1]o110% bf'~ilLl~E' i[ ~V(}!I[(] I~ z , f 1 ( t r.a G,
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85a (]Uirl' ~h[! I"~[~l}~bshlllt I1[ 9[ ~t bUH/UICIH[y [}HI~ ~iJJ S~llIr l]{J riG! ILl} ])U) p08~', The love] 01 ~!x~,~leno~s i~botlt tht ~]lt~(d ~o(Jntion~ bi.Iwc/n sIll/;]~hl~: and hla]l~l far t,x(t!o~l~ ptlb]ic alva)~zllbss of mosl, iI ilot all, nlojor ¢olilt )l/p01~ry issu(.s t~(iilg this Natlo;i ~Jtlout ,~rlJobing L~ntI health lib]oh detuoustratcs ttud the ]'edeta] (:J~alettc ] ,abelillg and Advei tising Act ]~ ~ orkhlg 'l he /acls ¢}( a~ly sllow thlt llcoplo al(' ill ~1 po~ilion lo nmk: a lice :md itlloliil£,(] I'boJc(! OI] ~,yb(,lb/q o] ][o[ {o ~IHOKO. (;ivtm this, v,h) substitute u llov(~l ~lld llllpro~¢':t ,¢-3.<l(III fol th(' Imt'soIll Ja~? "Why Js i}le]( a I]('od Io ('st~]}]l]sh yt't ~tliothel Go~.el it Iu(llt ~%~11C) to adtl:iltist¢'l )et allO~bOl bmoauc)alic ~('b of l~gul~ lions lar~:('lo(I at an i)lflustI) whicb l/lanu/act~ltos an(] ~uat~:(Is a legal ploduct? ]I) ¢'ffeo:, lbls bill is a pu)litive nmastue dileoted r~ui/is[ lhe n/allufaclulets of a l[~wl~] plOdUCt 1111d ll~/p[~:i~ (It, signed to Itad towald the p~ohibition of smoking ],:t int leview some oflbe lyzemises used to suppoit this bill a~d the chalges Jo%e[od ;It tile tl)bac(o industry. A numbol of rely b)oad, .~('ll,illg .~tatemonts )elatin.q to smok big and disease' a)e included in the pgu dcula~s oftb~ bill Certain- ]3, thele ate questions lai~ed by .%atistical associations )~dating to snlok]nt[ ttnd heah]L ~]li('h in~S{ bl, onslv~!recl ltLtt tile tlul}l it, [ha[ all of tbl, stal(ml.nt~ p)isenled as e>tablish(>~] biot in tbi~ bill have blen ¢ba/ll,n[!ed b) th(' i(s£,alC}l flr}diil['s of" iilan3 (ln]neilt spien= tisls, sonll of wbon/you ~ill heal today ~J'hol£ al(~ IEla//) mole exj)uH ~IJt)IoSSOS v, bo v, oulc~ Jla',(~ bo~l) ~illinI: tu, te~,tif> abom th( b~oad ~ange oI socalicd "tindillgs'" ]i~ted in section 2 ,lu~t V, ednesday, ~c v, me told by ~* m(mbe~ of 5ore staff that only ,t ()l 0~[' ove~ i/0 oxpclt wit)li,ss/,s v,i[lbly to [c,s [[1) coulc} appeal, Unlu]tunalely, 1 dab J~ fat s}lo) t of the thn¢ )(' quhed to adequately inform the comn/iltoe ~,ke wl]l, ne~el/belcss, d0 Otll' bosI v~i[]l 1bE' ]imit(d t]llle made available to I]s a)~d al this time l ~equeM that the ~,[El[{~IiiOllt~q of tb(, ~,x~lf I[R {b,l~JE!:~ Ill[ ol)t)Ol tunily to testit~ be c.ntercd into the p~intcd ~e~o~d. Mr. \VAXMAN Without objection ~e ~il] haw all 0£ th(' ~late- Ill['IltS ]]/ll(b, ~)~l t {)l tb(, TI,('oI(/ ~(. h[tv(, h~id nil ( I}()I[I]DHR [{[li(]klrlt of inleleM ftonl public beahb gloups ~}~o ha~l. lequested to lt~ti[5 in suppolt ol the bill and you ha~e ptaple th~)t ~anled to teAify aI[aJl/=4 the bill We ~ill pitt tllttln ~ill in lhE, r~OOld ~o rl/t, Ii/bols of t]]o stlbcOn]l]iittE!~ wJ}] ba~ FI C1/,'~)1c£- to apl, tboll/ }11, ]IOIIRIGAN, 11~ 1969 when the Fedela/ (~igalett(, ],abeling and Advertising Acl was amend¢ d, the full committee of whic}~ 3our sub cl)nlinitt(e is a putt held v×ttnsive bearings l}u full (/)runlittee concludod thai 'nothin~ new has been delelmi)led with zespecl to the xel~tionship betll'eei~ cigaietle smoking and hulnan heahh since its bl,~*Hngs m 1964 and 1l~5," and that "the algunwnts pro ~[II(1 COIl wJ~b lespecl to oJ~ule~le~ a]t, tbu Salllk, I]Oii as tbell, though supported b3 a ]mger statistical base." That is as t~u(. toda) as it ~as in 1969 Ariel thte( doc~des ol h/vesti/~ation and n/illion~ of dollals i)/ ~.ost(rd, tb£, t;mokiB~ aid hc'a]~b coJ/tlol~l~ l('lllaitls UIITC,SOIIcd lh~ ~ esul ofa]lo~ hselo t }~b,~ ba mca~saIhnk b twe¢'n smokind and disease hlis been est~b]b, hed t~ o
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854 Yet eoi/sid6~l the ]angtlage of some of the x~atniu.q labdcls f~ro tJll~ed in Ibis bill¸ "(]ig~l~lt~ snlllkin~! i~ ~ht' nulnbcr /~nl~ c~ls/,," "]~ a ii~ol c~us~',~' ~'will injule " What credibility cau such statcln~ iits have in view of the n~illions of peoplc who have sn/okcd thrOLighoLit l}]/~ir liff~[iTn/~ ~lnd h~]~'l! not ~lLten ~ll/y of lh[~ ai]ll]l~nts ill~l/iilll]ed, and the n]i/liotls who have' not smoked wh~ have ~otten thcln. q'he lo'oacco indu~l~'y is recog~lized .~ a leade~' in seeking ~he al~- sw~z~ to the questions r~al'dinF, sn~okhig ~ild health¸ In th~ l>a~t three deea~, the industry has coIn]nitt¢c~, ~lit}]c~tlt £'~Tl~Ie, cl~,l¸ $]00 nil/lion for unrestricted ~wnollil~g alld health ]es~arch, spend- ]ng greatel' than lhe tob,qcco-related le~earch e×peiidltures of all Lhc v¢dulltaly hl!a]t h ~tgl~nclc'~ comb]nt~d As wo/ded, the bill pUtl/olts Io st'ttie by ¢on~xIessio]l,~] edict ~vo]vi~]g medical at~d scientific co~troversles Theicfore, it ~a~¸ divert sciel~tit~c taleiit and l'esources lronl lhe basic rssearch ileccs sttIy to ~o]vt~ the ~ni~nl~s of e}lronic dis,~&~c_, W~ ,~ll~ a,.~.~Tl~ ~.h,~t th~le ha¥~ b[~l~l~ son/f! effoi[ Ii, bui]d supiJolt for thi~ bill with c)a]ms that its ~a~ovi~io~ls would serve as a de~e~¸- ~'ellt tO smokin!~ ~I~long yot~t]g I~eollle, ,qnd ~h~t industry ~dv~'Iti~i~I~ smoki~g Such ch~lgcs arc witho~ ~undatlon lJ~-~ ~'~iday, two witnc_qse~ spc'aking ]~1 suppurt ef thi~ bin ~]l 141eesha~ ~ild ~h Folsytl~ both acknowJcd~ed ~hat I,eel¸ I~e~sk~e ~iid nol otll¸ advorli~in~ I>rovides lhe iIllpel~/s fell¸ slnokhl~ t~n]ong youIlg ]~eollle. ~×I~ert testinloI/y this aftclnoon ~qli show lhis I~l[e~ i=, t~l]r i ~ Ou~¸ adveltising is t~qlgeted at slnokers and Js inlcnd~d to ~'~l~our'- age s~itch~ng from coinpet~tive br~ld~ ~lhe a~'~dlable eviclellct. c]e~tlly sh/Iws that our acdvl,rtisin~, is not ¢~/,~]~[ll,d t/~ attract new smokers of aii3¸ a~t, ai/d is not havinf4 ~hat effeci. Our ill[lust13' h~s acted responsibly in the llasI aIld ~e sce no reason Ihi~ bill is needed to fLtrthel lcgu]aLe OLII¸ ad~ertisi[lf~ plac tices At th~s I~oint, 1 ~'i~l ret~t~'ll to specific l~ro~'isJol~s of this b~]l. Our o~ections to them a~e stated i~ dctail in our ~'it t~,;i sublni~ion to Lhe COrlL[Ldt~t~l', SO I ~i~l only hi~hlight soln[~ Ill thl~nl now. The rolational warnillg ]abeliil~ le~uirements this bi]] ploposl~ a~e tecl~rl~cally unworkable and un~airailted 'l~ler(¸ are now ap- proxiTnateJy ~00 cigarette brands and brand styles oil lhe ii/~rket. With ~l~ l>~a~hds being added and old l>~les ~[thdra~ll regularly, ~ild ¥~.s;t diffelenc~s ill f,,ql£,~ ~olull~e ~nd 8dv~l'Lis, il/~ ~tt~.~lzl~, it would be ~irtt~al[y impossible for cigarelte ~llal~ut~ct~ll~s or the ~vl'C to in=.tlr(' COllll~]isr~ce '~]th ~ $ystcII7 of sc,~,~n rottltin~ w,qrJ/]llf.s '~o ~lpp~[ o[i ~8tl~ls~I~ltti'Ally I}l~ s~tTli~ ilu[llll~l" of l~Ts(]iI~" at any givell time. ~]~jll,le is ~qlso no r¢~on to b~lieve the~;e illultiTi]o ~al niiIgs woLiId il]('l.~s(~ tl~lbl~c 81v&~('n~s, Of sn~llking ~lrld ht~]lt~ i....lll~4 '~'~l~ll~ ~i(~ l~c21~uasi~e 81gllr~l~q/1~ ~.ha~. .~tlc}~ ~ sy~te]n is not \votkiu.~ ill ~q'6e¢l~ll, Lt~Or] ~hO~,~ Sysletl~ thi~ plOf/Oss] is b~,st!d [rl t~4¢~, ~ccQrd- iIlif to the ~;/~dish ~ovel]lil~eilt, Ci~81~tle eoil~tlrllTitioJi h~qs ri~,~l~ iht.li~ al]l~t~ally siuce the Ii~v*' ~ystt~ln ~as in/tlleItlpntt.d ill 1!~7~. ~l'he '~diFs lequhemcnt of d]sclosLue of "~a~'," nicoline and caTbon n]onclxide ]evl.l~ oil packages ~nd ill t~dvt,ili~iil~ i~ Lin~,*qll~ll~,d 0
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g55 ] lli I~fld iiiCOllll(; lev('l~, ]/~(! be£,l/ I t!Ll(IJl3 ~v~Hkt]l]~' [o 5Htokt I~; IH 'vL igtr' ~ tdvoILis'm'nt sinte [97(1 \Vith ~es~(c to tbzm Inonoxide, expelt scicntilic [cstitnmly loday ~ill ~hol~ th(i c¢;rh3n H)f)llO'~.id(. I~Xt)~£Lll(~ t~tloHgh Pier,licit(, Fnlok(. i~; itot .q ~.[~l/]hf lilt health issue, ]"Ulthcrnlol(,, lhcle is no ~Cllel£1ll~ acct i)te~l ine[[io(1 oi ¢~ir~!)iI yi]()l[{lxi(]t~ IIII,I~NLI[{,III~,]I[, ~tlich ~/(dkild I]l~a.k[ ~l/v d[(Li( ~lit,s(~I]]{,(] oil p~ckage~, al/d ill advel~isenlcnt£ su}~jcct to question '[hc recently added proxigion lequirJng listing on (.igalettc pack- age:¢ of in/gredien[~ is totally mmecessm~ and ill concciled (]igalott(~ Irl;lt/tlf:lcikil~,I:- ~I~(. ,'t ~I~li(l~ Of illVlflf]ii,l/t 10 (>l/}/gltl(f, fitl~Ol al/d api/ealanco ~llld preserve shelf lite 'lilcSC ingredients a)(" mnon~ ca/h mmmIr:~'luH~)'s rues} (lo ely held lIach secrets "/hole is no justification f~I denbing cigarette manufacturels the tla(le S(.ClCI plot~c~ioll extended tz~ evely ethel consunlcl lqoduc~ indtistty YOU £hmlld also conMcieI that f~s lhis ill(ivi..ion i~ drafl(,d lhe ]i£t of ingledieIlts, combined with the ptopo~ed health ',latnings and tal, ni¢o[in(~ and c~r'ooll lllOlXOX]dC l/tltlibel~, ~lou]d llllll c[garclte ;mckages intu ]itl]e textbook% ]ike]3 c~ushlg Sl]lOkelS to ]~ll(}I(! it all \Villi rvg~Id to the lahcllnf( requirenlen(~ foi exp)]ied (g(arcffc8, J will on~3 gay ttlat [tie l(,gLllt x',o~l]ct be collftlgiolt, ChaOs, ,qlKl conl peliliv(' dis(IdwmtaIw lot Anle)icml t]todu(Rs; iI1 nlln) ii~()'~(,as lnmkets IAltach)nent ;~) [See p 385.] ~1 kll llillg [(I ltl(~ (~II[OI'C('IIi( [1( I)IOVJg]OII£~ I CIVIl only co)/l'lud(' that l}lt undt,r]3i)/g lational(, fi)l these proposals is to make it ]cgllly haz,~l(]ou£ tell ci~a/oile II)~Ill/J[~C[UI{'I#, tO ~{IV(!lliS( ttl{'il LIWfUl [)10dLIcts The [el/ff)]d i)lc)ease in the filic for ',iolalioI/ of Ill(' ]abeJitlg act, U)I/lllillod %Jth lhc ('oNlllICXl~y O~ ~hO ]~lb/~[il/~ r(~q/]il(>l)ioflts o[ th(!, bill, is gloss]~ unfail as illadvel tell[ viol,ltions ale almo:,t a Celtaln- t>. ]'urthermore, the plovision tb~ an ciiihe}y new civil iltjunctive ~telion b3 m~3on( x~Jshing to el~im the law ha~ bc,un ~i(daled i~ m/ unw¢~rrt~nted de}e~tition of tim (;oxelnrnent's e,nfotcenlenl I)o~cls Io plivaI( illdividunls Thes(, pro~i~ioIl£ me hl('on~i~tcnt Ilith ef- f<>rts b3 the courts and Congies~ to limit Fedelal julJsdi(tion and ea~( the ovt,rburdenhlg of Po(i~l~d couIts l~inal]y, we do l~ol believe that unbiased sciel~tific les('.~l<h and di.~emilmtion of ihctual intbHnation legaxdiug smukilxg issues re quires the establighmont of a st.qtutoty offlc(~ el smo]-ing and hc~dth, an a]ltisnxoking o)ganization within the ]redelal Govern Since such an olganization was oeated in [9(;4, its work Ires done little to leso]ve [txe srnoking i~ue questiong £md has in l~cl I)('l~n slanted tol~ald dis~t~mirmtion of amid, mr)king plupagand,~ Jatg(ly unsuppolted b3 [act)l~l (",idetlce In conclusion, we lne 15Inll3 opposed to thi:, ]egislatiot~ becau~-e ~( h¢,]ioxc i(It) be Ill/l/c~£(gs~l/)+ IIiJ!-lcti(]~tlg~ £HIC], et/fl~t irlllloIl~ltltl~)", because tile medical arm scientific assun~ptions el fi)ldinfs u)idelly- ing it are incm~ect and ul/substantialecl 1 at)/ sure theft lneny people "will ask xlh) the tobacco iltdtvqry i~ li' i~ting this [lill? \Vhat's thp pld)lem xlith puiting a ft'~l ne~ xla) nings oil cigarette packages and advel rising? ~t 0 0
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"~,'c art' m~ oppclsin~ tht bill b~et~u~I~ we wish to I×tllolt ttle yo~tb II~i]~t o,s ~9111~ h~ve ~l~ely ¢~I~rgE~d; ~[oi¸ ~le w~ opi)osif[~ the bill because of the pot~ntial costs of complimlce, We oppose this bill because, despite the appemance of good intentio~le, this is bad legislation for 'Gle Am~rlcan public ~nd for out industiy> Thi~ bill fieezes science in its tiacks and may divelt s(ientific tbo~e qut~stim~s. ]1 ~lso ~,riously clodis lhe tlrinciplt' of fiet! choicc i[la dtmlllc] atic society Irl denying a pt!rson'~i iigh/ t(I r(,jo~>l o~lci&l inlblmatioil> this bi|l betrays its fundmliental prohibitionist mo tires. It sabs, in effect, that Americans are expressing theil basic five'dora of ebolcc hi r¢~eetlllg the algumel/ls of antisnlokirig activ- ists> and ibat Gover~lment finds thl~ tlnaeeeptable 'l'bt.rl,for¢h slt~tl~ mus~ ilo ~akl!n [o n/~tk(~ Anloi[C~llfl coIllorl/1 add to I!nCOUlll~'l illohibiticm of smoking I do slut bl,licve lbl, Ameliclm peoldo ".~il/ accept such ~t I~ilionIt](, We' me a re~piinsiblc, m~d c/ulcerned industry ~l~lltlf~£!itlldllt~ il la~]u] p~c, ducl ~bich provides pleasure and satisfaction to 53 rail ]ion Amellcans. Om industry ¢onttibules alo~e th~n $5~ b]llio;i otl- nual]3 to the gross natiol~al pzoduet and genel~tes $22 bill~cm in Fedeial, S~ate, and local t~>:es of all kinds We ~iew this proposed legislalion as all uit~alrai~ted interv(ll tloll by the FedelaJ Goverlllllent into tbe private ]ires of its ¢itizells aiid ~, tbinl~ vetted eflorl to further balass arid ultimrt~el5 elin/i- llale all in/poit~tlt ~l]l~,iiO~ti ii~du~try [Testin~ony resumt,s or, p. 390./ imp, }]ozzigai~'s prepa[ed statemeit~ aad attaehint tit fu]lov,:] O1
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• ~wm..F- $~a~L~L C~1~ ~cl~r~j ~ ~I~r~f. J~. I ~ ~ls~ ~.~ Ch~r"/a~ ~r tr~,~ ~J~l~i~,~ ~o~i~ oir ~1~ ~;~i~ ~ t.~/~a~l ~e ~i~a~e P~ ~r~L~a~r, ~!~i~,a~ ~f~ ~e Educat~i~iL ~ o~ I~J~.~ irL~ ~he pl~b~ic OLr ~e da~er~ fr~ ~r/~, ~0 ~a~ ~'~ laITel ~e~!L~r~e~Lt~ fL~r ci~aI~t,~ ~Tld £0~ C~h~l pul~e~.~ ~a~rs~ i~L~Ley ~¢a~ ~ ~11~ ~ire t.'~ ~.~l~l~.~r ~ t~
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Of that year, found that ~'~illety percent of the ~opul~tion ag~ee~ that cigalette smoking is harmful." In his ~979 rep~rt~ the U.~. S~rgeon Oener~l ~id that 'Inot~bl~ change~" h~d taken place in public a~arene~ of clamored s~i,ekii~g h~zards and expressed doubt that a highe~ level of awa~eness could have any effect o~l s~okin~ behaviol. W~ share this ~k~pticis~. In~ed, the level of awareness ~bo3% smoki~ ~d health fa~ exceeds public a~ar~e~ of ~ost ±~ ~ot all of the ~or ¢~nte~:por~ry i$~ue~ faci~q %hi~ nation, Le% me pr~v~d~ som~ ~ples: A 1980 Oallup poll reve~]ed %h~t le~s ~ 25 p~rcent of ~e public k~ows ~hat the ~irst ~endment is or ~ha% it de~is w~th. 0~her recent national ~t 3hl~e ~ile ~land; 36 p~r~L ale not ~are the% th~ U;~ited Stat~ must i~pert oil Lo me~% ~ts e~:e=~y r~eeds~ #~ ~e~ce~t do ~ot know that ~uto~obil~s are the major ~urce of ~ir pollu- tion; an! ~e third do no÷ ~now whethe~ ~he ~d~ral b~get ~s balanced. By contrast, at lea~t ~0 perce~t of the ~,uDiic is aware of the alleqations t~at ~moking is ~cn~crou~ to heal%h ~ni~ level of awareness demonstrates the ~c~ess cf the cu:ren~ effolts cf public a!~d pri~at~ org~:~l~t~o=~. ~he ~edera! C~garette Lab~li~0 anJ Advertising Act i~ wolkimg ~he f~c%s clearly show that th~ ~ubl~$ has b~en ~e O ¢n ~0 O
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"mq,mml.p.r ~9 ~irl~_1~er go~keri~J~e~t ~gency t~, a~te~ yet an~]~ez bL1rea~1~ factL~reL~ a~J ~arket~ a legal plOdUCt ~p¢~ t~l~ .r~,~n~nc~ fe~ J~-el-ic~n~ ~h~ ~,~" bc ~n~r~~ ~J~a c~i~,~ rv~L~e a~ja~n~t S~lO~irL~ £Oll~1~rirJg al~o~t three decad~ of govern~ Tle~L~ ~] pL~ivnte 14a~,n~r1~s, "L~le L~;ur~e~n Ge~ler~.l's s~a~le~le~its orl in it~].~1.~,, ~.~L~ bill is ~ p~r~i~ive ~E~su~e c~irec~cd ~g~r~ the r~nufac~rur~s of a la~.~'iJl p~od,lct ~n~ app~a~ and ad,~J~tes A~i ~t is ~L1r b~[ief that thi~ f~L1~t~a'L~orl h~s le~ them t~ COnClUC~ that t~L~ze ~LO re3ect E~ti-,~oki~j ~cI~r~cn~.~ ~n~ ¢¢~n%~11~e ~.o 1~xc~ci~-~ ~.hei~ ~recdo~, c~ ci~.ice ~ 1~ninfor~ed~ Ffnere~r1~e. ~h~y ~ck ~ca~1~, E,~Jch a~ thi~ 0 Ca 0
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'~i~di~g~~' ~!s~ ~ ~±~ ~ ~ ~h~ ~, ©~ ~h~ ~a~ c~c¢~i~ ~ ~din~,~' |L
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361 l~iil mu~t be limited t~ ~r~e clay. Unf~rtur~ely ~l~is 1~ fal~ c~)~±ttee is ~ p~ held exte~s£ve Ylea~ ~ver ~ ;erJc<i ~1~ expe~'t ~tnes~e~ ~n the fie~d~ ¢)f ~ed~c~ l~o~,~ii(-a~ re~ corL wi~h r~-~pect to c±~rettc-s ~e t~e sa~e l-~w ~ th,~n, th¢~h su~pc)rted l~y a larcte~ ~ta~stica] ~>a~e.I' ~r~a'~ ~-¢~c1~ ~)n £~ a~ true to;:ay a~ £~ ~,a~ ~1~ 1~6~¢. After three decacies cI" ~r~v¢~l~atlc, i% a~ ~i~llerl~ cf fJl O
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362 been tha% flo cau~al link between ~mokln~ and disease ha~ been established. That is not mermly ~he ~pini~n ef Tebacce I~- dustry executives. That is ~c~ent~flc fac% readily ~vailable to ~mye~e willing %~ mak~ an objnetive, u~emotl¢~l ~tudy of the existing evidence Y~t con~ider the lan~age mf s~me o£ the war~inq ~bols preposed in th~s b~ll. ~c~are%t~ smoking is the number one c~use," ~s ~ msj~r ¢~use,~ ~will injure~ What credibility can such statements have in vlew o£ the mi!liens ~f peepl~ who h~ve ~okefi %hrouqheut %heir lifeti~,es 8~d not incurred any o£ the ~ilme~t~ ~entJoned, ~d the millio~m who h~ve never ~m0ke~ and who have incu~I~d the~e aliments? I sheuld a~d that ~he Tobacco Industry 1~ recognized ~ m lead~l in ~eekin~ the an~werm to the q~estlo~ re~dfng smoking ~n~ health, in the pact t~ree de~des, the ir~4ustry has co~itted, without fan£ave, ~ver I~0 m~lli~n ~ollar~ for unre~t~lc~ed~ ~mdependent research lnte ~ekim~ a~d health isu~es. Our ~pending h~s been g~ea~er th~n %he toba~co-~elat~4 ~esealch expenOi%ures of all Of the ~o~u:~ary health ag~cle$ I ~ubmit that cne ef the effect~ ef the bill weuld be %e de significant harm te %he scientific effert to resolve ~ese q~estic~. A~ worded, the bill p~rports t~ settJe by Congres- sional edict mediea~ ~nd scientific c~nt~versies ~ha~ ~e ~t±~ ~volvi~g. ~helefere, it ff~y diverl ~cie~tific t~lent and ~e~eurces from the basic research reces~ery to solve the e~lgmas of chron!c di~e~e. ~n o 01 o
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363 t~por~ for ~hi~ ~ill wi%h claim,s t~L~t its prev~l~T~s ~culd ¢~co~ge youthful ~moking $~¢b cha~e~ are without fo~r~on bill .~ Mr. Keesha~ a~ ~r. For~y~h .- ~o~h ack~wleSged t~at pee~ ~re~z~re ~nd ~ot o~ ~vert~s~ prov-oes ~he impetus for clearly p~tnt ou~ t~nt t~e p~ov~icn~ of ~his i~isl~tion c~n ~ no ~ay b~ j~t2flc~ by ~he ema~ioi~ally ~p~ealil~ but ~n~p- po~ed asserti¢~ that ¢2oare~%e a~er%i~i~g ~¢~ra~ a S~,ok~ng iB an ~dult p~actice to ~e co~staered o~ly ~y p~ca~on~ an~ on ca~p~s. We als~ sto~,pe~ using celetri%ies and sp~rtz figures ~n a~vertisi~ Ii~ 19B~, we ~dopte5 ~ cigarette a~verti~i~g code prch~b- ttin~ a~ert~g, marke~i~g and s~m~l~ng d~ct~d ~t your~ ~¢~ger ~n ~ffezt, each cosl~al/y ~tikl ~!/e~u$ to th~ pIin~pl~ 0 0
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of this ¢o~e. I ~ould. ~ith y0~r permission, like %0 su~mi% su~L~rF Cf these principles and ~ copy of o~r Cigarette $~mpl~ng Code ~or the re=~rd. I~ Ig69~ W~ o~e~ed ~ Cencel BII ~a~iQ an~ ~ewi~icn ~dvert~si~ because of broadcast'~ u~q~e ~e~ch to you~ people, and ~D I~?~, p~rsuan~ to ~ede~al leg~l~0n~ left ~h~ O~r ~vert~ing ~ ~rge~e~ at smoke~ ~d i~ i~%~Dd~d to e~co~r~ge ~itchlng f~om competitive b~. ~e ~vail~b!e evide~c~ c~e~r~y ~hcw~ ~hat our a~vert£~i~ ~ not ~e~r~ed to The S~ G~IlUp poll I m~io~e~ e~rl~er als~ ~eported that the percentage of ~m~ker~ found Wm~ ~e low~st ever recordc~ b~ ~hat orgaI~iz~tion. Uoo~in~ at the ~ro~er picture regarding clgarette ~dver- ti~in~, ~he record clea~l~ shows ~h~t oL~r Industry has bee~ re~poD~i~le ~n ~ p~ctJces. O in 195~, to meet p~blic demand, we bega~ t¢ ~ver~se low ~r" ail~ nicotine c~arettes In i~0~ ~te~ ~he ~TC Etched that ~t ~d ~etermiiled that ~UCh adverti~in~ COUI~ be co~t;~ed ~s ~ health Cl~i~, we ~olll~&ril~ a~ree~ to eliminate £ro~ cigare~t~ advertising all re~ere~ce~ to ~t~r~ ~d ~icctine. In 196@, wAe~ ~he FI~ raver~e~ its ~o~itlo~ ~e agreed tha~ cJgsrette advertisi~ ~ould disclose ~'~r" a~ =~icotine cc~ent.
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365 I~ 196~, we began a cor~tJnulng F,~e~i~ of sc~entiiic and technical cooperation with the FTC, with re~pect to '%~r" ~d n!e¢=~ne te~ting o In 1970, we beg~n to ir, c!ude iu our brand ~dvert~ing ~he FTC 1'tar" an~ ni:~tine measurements. o Ir~ 1971, ~e volunteered to d~p~et the c~garette p~ck~e ir~ all advertisin~ in such a ~ay a~ to display legibly the warning label. o In 1~?2, ~.e entere~ into ~n a~reeme~t w~th the fTC on uniferm ~er~ *f ¢og~p~c0ou~ly displ~y~ng the ~rning iabei in ~dvertisin~. o In 1981, we reached ~n a~reement ~ith the FIC ~u au i~cteaae ~n the ~ize of the ~'ar~tng~. If~ ~ho~t, o~r Indust~ has acted re~pc;~sibl? ~r~ the p~t and ~e s~ no leason anyone should feel uhat we w~ll not continue to do s~ ~ii the future N~r do we sen ~'hy this 5i!I 5s r, ee~ed to fete[ate further our s~vertis~n~ pr~ctlce~ in any va~ G~tt~ng h~ch to ~he specific provi~lon~ of the bill, the labelin~ requirements ~t plopo~ee ~re un~.ork~ble The bill direc%s the FTC to establish a rotation~l warnln~ ~roeedure which ~a~ ~t b~t be ~ezcribe~ as a ~'Rube G~ldberg" ~ontl~t~n. Every brand of c~garette~ would h~ve to carry e~:h of the ~even re~ired ~.alnings for no mo~e than ene year ~lill~ every ~even-year period. ~il~ll thele ~ tNe ~dled ~fo,,,is:,l~ that ~t ~ny g~ve~ ~ime e~h of ~he ~eve~ warn~ng~ ~u~% ~ppe~l on "sub~tar/~ially the ~m~e ~a~er ~f br~llds,~ t¢ 0 ~O 0
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3GG ~r~ Ch~r~n, in D~c¢~r 19~, %~ FTC r~p~r%~ "tar'1 and nicQ%ine d~t~ ~n 200 ~i~arett~ brand ~tyl~+ ~w ~r~ highly ~likely that ~he FTC ~r ~ny ~%h~r a~ency will ~e able to dev~iop ~y~hin~ bu~ ~ ~urel~ a-~bitr~r~ ~ormu!a for rot~in~ th~ ~arni~g ~tatements am~ the ~ar~ br~n~s. m~ke ~re ~hat each warning ~tate~,en~ ~ ~resente~ to ~he ~ch~i~al comple~i%i~ a~ide, ~here i~ nc re~soz~ ~h~tso- ally ~c:e e~fect~v~ ~f~ ~:~c~e~si~g pu~i1¢ awaz~e~ tha~ th~ ~,~ellm~a~y res¢~c~ ~gar~:~g a r~!onal w~rz,ing ~y~L ~se~ i~ S~eden ~rch 5, ~r~ented ~ersu~ive testimony ~o ~he effec~ ~h~ ~i1~ t~e FTC $~f co~ ~h~% %~ ~ff~ctive~'¸ ef the ~L
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e~ch yea~ ~ince the ~e~ ~y~te~ ~a~ i~n/e~ent~d ~n I~77 I ~o call youl att~t~on to the fa~t tb~t the r~tat~o:L~l to ~r~o~sh s~¢k±~9; ~ich i~ the ult~ate gca~ -- despite ~upport thi~ b~ll. In light of these f~=ts, an~ your st~en,ent that the pul,p~e o_: thi~ ~egisi~t~n ~ n~t to pr~hib~ ~=~k~r~g. the obvious q~estion arises: Is the p~opo~ed ro~a~io:~ sy~te~ ne~e~ar7 or appropriate? We ~e con~ce~ that ~he an~w~ is %hat it is ~e~%her. Also ~rl~nted, ~n oul op'-l~o~*, ~ th~ bill's requixe- level~ cn packages a~d 5n all adver~si~ A~ indicated e~lier, ~ince i~70 cigarette ~l~uf~cturer~ have voluntarily ~}~clo~ed th~ "tar~ ~nd ~cotine leve~ i~ c~q~ette advertising. This infor~:ation is wi~e~y ~v~ilab~e to the public, Smokers ~h~ choose the~ b~nd on th~~ b~i.~ of ~tar~ ~d ~icot~e levels ~ readily ob~a~ thi~ infor~t~o~ from ~±g~ette advertising. As a ~attcr of f~t, th~ average "~r~ y~eld of cigarettes sold in thls country has droppe~ from 38 ~iil~!gr~ms ih 3956 tO 126 m~lligrams in ~98~. Al~ost seventy perce:it of all ciq~- ~ettes s~ld ate itl ~}Le 1cIo" "tar" category. ~:!~h respe.tt to c~rbon ~noxi~e, *~he~e ,_s n~ l~.tpose to be ~aineJ by Lhe de~ermlr.atio~ Or publication of yields. A~ U~ O L~
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86S ~he ~ci~r~tific ~eco~ will show, the c~nclus~on that e~p~u~e to ca~n molloxid~ from clg~e~t~ s~ki~g ~ ~g~if!ca~% I~ any d~ ~res~, by ~ny m~ho~, w~11 b~ ~b]~c~ to q~e~i~l~ yle]d~ ~ i11 c~nccived. Just i~ ~e~k ~ new ~ro~i~iorL was i1~uced ~]~ wou~d re~u1~ each ~acka~e %o list ~'s~y ~m~c~ ~u~,~%at~'~ %hat ma~ b~c~mo a cc~c~ie~t ~ ~i!!~ise af£~ the c~r~t~is%ic~ o~ c~ ~o% ~r~in~ wLa% ~b~ta~c~ ~A~y were ~q~e~ ~o ~et%c~ ~il~ ~ly l~e ~l~0r~abl~. ~he :[~L e~fect of tlis prc~vi~1~ an~ %h~ relat~ p~o~1~i~ns of ~eC%lb~1 ~ w~i~ ~e to ~r~ ci~are%%~ ~ck~g~ into little textbooks C~ i~ie~ ~!~ the b~ll ~o~id ~equlre c~l every pack, g~ -- ~ ~-~n9 sta~-men~, a lis~i~g of ~'%ar,~' ~c¢~ir~, cat,on ~cr~cx~e, ~nd "c~emical
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3G9 products a~e net ~ir~ %O disclose Cigarette ~ar~uf~ut~e~ ~e ~ varLe!y of ~ub~t~;L;es ~r~ t~L~i~ p~duc~E to e:~an~e flavor atld ~:~n~ ~d t~ ~rescrve ~helf lif~ ~n~ iJe~%i%¥ of ~dditiv~ u~ed by eath Fan~fact~ei ~ ~,~ ~h~ ~t play a sub~%~ntial r¢ie in ~aintai~inq C~m~ a=¢e[~an~, ~anufact~e¢~ O~ ~he~ C~L~U~ez predlc~ ere ~ot requ~re~ te ~i~lo~e tlade ~ec~e~ Of thi~ k!nd The~e 1~ I~o ~tlf!- C~%~ fo~ ~¢nyi~g clq~rette ~1~f&ct~re~ the t~ade secret prote~!o~ t~a~ is av~able t~ every ~her c~su~ ~,ro~¢~ indu~tly. ~he basic defect in this provi~ a~d i~deed i~ ~l~ ~ ~e~t~on 4, is that it is at~ ~ttemFt te F~ovi~e a q~ic~ au~ ~a~y "solut!o~~ to a plobie~ that h~ ~ ~e~ Cv~~ be~e~ ~de- q~ate~y ~cfined. We ~V( beez anC C~J~ue ~ be ¢~qe~ i~ c~h~l~t~c~Jv~ a~ fl~itful ~l~¢~sl~ns ~i~h A~si~t~:lt Secret~ly ~landt an~ ~ther ~{$ offi¢ial~ on ~h!s matter ~ith ~ vie~ t~ ~kir~ p~ce~ure~ and ~af~ua~ds. S~c~et~y Brandt ha~ ze~eutly that he i~ ~co~ifideilt that s~k,~t~nt~! future pr~gr~s can be in ~th~ w~rd~, the effect ~ the bLiL ~ t¢ '~h~t f~ an~ ~k que~ti~n~ later."
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37O %he bil~ ~!~ p:~p~e~ t~ e×ten~ the l~beli~ requ~rement~ %o e~p~rted ~ig~rette~. The present [~v:'wiseiy ~e~ p~e labelin~ to the ~ve~n~ent ~f ~ach l~por~l~ Country. Many countries ~eqr~ir~ ~tateme~t~ re~ar~i~g s~o~i~ and be~th to be included ~n cigarette packages and advertisinq. M~ny do ~n~er~ " i~el~d h~d a ~pul~ory ~i~g b~ abandoned ~t In th~ United K~q~om~ c~gare~te p~ka~ ~arry thre~ ~ixtee~ ~rnl~g~ ~a~ket~ ~!~ carry r~ne ~n c~urLtr~e~ ~'b~L req~ir~ ~h~i~ re~%e~ bear±~ a~y ~ar~n~ stat~:en~ other ~han that r~q~d Wi~h ~1~ due re~pec~ ~t ~ld ~e ~resu~ptu~us ~f ~h~ U~Llted ~t~e~ ~o de~ide for the r~ of the v~r~d ~hat s~te= k~
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~he bill w~ul~ ~cre~e ~he f~ for xi¢lat~on ~f the Act fro~ $!0,00~ to $]00,0C0 In the ~eventeen yeat~ the ;fewest l~w h~s beer~ in e~fect, there h~ve hee~ n~ vi~atior~ ~h~t f~ct ~lone ar~e~ ~ga:nst ~ny ~ncte~e ~t all in the p~lt¥ -- F~rthernore, Zn v±ew 0£ ~h¢ co~p]e×i~¥ OZ ~h~ ~e~ pro- posal, the ~n~ze~e ±~ a!~o gro~ky unfair ]na~verten~ violations ~f ~he co~pie~ retntiona~ wa~n~n~ system, which is l±kely to be further ¢o~pli~ed by FTC requirements, ~re Su~pose~ for example, that it ~s de¢~rmined that one ~,a~uf~¢~rer ha~ printed ~ar~fnq ~ement "~" ~n %h~ p~¢k~g~s of ~wo of its br~nd~ for a tot~ ~f o~e y~r and one m~nth, wh~le warnin~ ~atement "D', wa~ prlnte~ on the p~ck~es of thoce brands fur only eleven ~,onth~ That manufacturer wo~d be in violatior~ of the prohibition a~ain~% ~zese~tation of any o~e of the ~rning ~tate:~ent~ ~or a,~re tha~ c~te yea~ in a ~even-yea~ pe~ied; it ~uld al~o be ~1, viola~zon of the ~e- qu~e:~nt that a~l s~ate~¢n~ be given equal %i~e. Ivan %h~ugh %he effe¢~ of these v]ol~tlon~ ~oul~ a~pea~ to ~¢ ~t vo~ tr~v:al, the ra~t]factu~et w~u]d be subjec~ to huge ~oter~- %ial ~e~It~es. A I~W %ha% permJ%s ~uch ~ou~ra~n~ can onl~ be calle~ inequitable ~nd punStive in i~tent In ~ddftion, ~n ~ven gre~£er opper~un~t~ fo: ~bu~ is cre~t~5 by the provision ~h~t e~tabl~hes a~ et~tire]y ~ew clvil injunctive ~¢ti~n for anyone who ~lshe~ to cl~i~ tha% ~A 0 r.a
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372 the l~ h~ been v~i~t~. Thi~ provision i~ 3n unwarranted delegation of the gover~en%'~ ~nf~rcement p~w~r~ to prlv~%e ~nd~vidual~. It is not only def~ctivc from l~g~l ~d policy ~tand~ci~ts, ~% 5s legislative mischief-making at it~ ~st I~ve been advised that just thi~ January, th~ S~preme C~urt confirmed tha% the Ccn~tit~tio~ re~res th~ ~ par%y i~voki~ the jurisdiction of th~ Fe~ral court~ ~at ~how that i~ h0s personally suf~ere~ actual or threatened i~j~ry ~s a result ~f th~ challenged conduct. The Cou~t ccn~e~d ~he w~oespre~ use o~ the Federal cou~t~ by i~d~v~dual~ ~n~ g~oups t~ challenge ~ct~o~s to which tb~y ~e ph~l~so~,hi~ally ~ ~ct~on prov~n~ ~f thi~ bill w~ld not pas~ ~ter un~e~ th~s Constitutional tec~l~e~ent. ~gres~ h~s recogni~ci that the Fe~er~! courts ~re ~e~iously ~vcrbur~cn~, ~nd ha~ b~gun to tak~ ~tep~ t~ li~it ~e~er~ jurisdiction: yet, here ~ ~ proposal ~ha~ would cpen t~o~ ~ouzt~ %o unlipit~l litigation oyez ~he ~cane ~e~ails of ~he bill'~ r~ta~ional ~rn~g ~s~m The~e ~v~ ~c~io~ ~rovx~on~ seem calculated to e~ccuza~e ~arassme~% sui%~ against t±~are~te ~factutez~ by ~tivid~al~ a~d groups ~pp~s~ to ~uk~n~ i~ q~ela!. The vague a~ ~q~us requirements ~f the proposed rotational ~arn~r~ ~y~%~m ~11 provid~ ~rl ~pen ~rlv~tat~oi~ to l~tig~te dis~te~ oyez ~i~t ~o~s~±tu~es ~zopez com~lia~¢~ Wi~h the ~nce~ti~e CA O]
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87~ [~w~u~t~ allegln~ the Post trivial vlolnti~ns of t!~f law w 11 ~e e;~c~1~ged ~l~ely that i~ ~ei~her ~ fair no~ ap~[o~ri~te ~e ~f our judieiBl ~,~e~ ~e m~st a[~o ~e~ster o~r vigorous o~;,o~iti~n tc, %he ~ill'~ ~l~inati~ of the ~ix-~onth Ccn~ess~onel revle%, p~zi~d ~ith re~c~ to ~a'~¢ ~egulat~cn rule-D~kin~ ~.rop~s~1~. ~n ena~ti~ the Federal Cigarette Labe!in~ ~tl~ A~t.erti~ini~ Act, C~n~es~ ~ought "to e~tabli~h ~ c~rprehensive f~eral p~o~ to ~ wit~ cigerette labeli~ and edve'~tisinc~ ~, ~he ~egi~ativ~ history an~ la~g~qe o~ th~ Act ~n~ i%s ~bs~uent ~en~ent~ ~ak~ ~t abundantly clear that ~on~re~s eete~m!ne~ tive!y formulated end articu1et~:~ ~[~minat~n Cf C:~ng[e~- sic>nsl oce~vie~ of the FT~ on an issue of s~h r~%~on~l !DpaCt would be inconslstent with th~s ~ound policy. Let ~e no~ ~u~n to section 3[a) of th~ bill, ~hich ~ould e~tab~i~h a st~tu%or~ Office oz Sm~,ki~ ~n~ ~ealth. A~ s~te~ earlier, thi~ iI~du~try h~ ~l~y~ ~a~[~d %~b ec%i~ scie~iti~c r~search ~id the diss~miila~io:~ of factual !le~ith tb~e ~als c~ll fo~ a~ ~nt~-~ok~nc~ organization w~thLn the ~e[~1 gover~en%. ¥;~en s~ch ~n organization ~s c~e~ted in 1964, th~ $~n~t~ Ap~lopriations ~ommi~tee questione~ wh~ther the ~un~is ~!qht be b~tter spen~ o~ research ~ather the: pzopB- g~nd~. A ~ubl~c !le~ith ~el-v!ce official a~s~re~ ~he ~o~ittee %hat "the ~oney would not be used to propagandize, b~t only to ~ake the hee}th f~ts available to the Deople~ O Ca &a
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074 ~t,out th~ health con~e~ces o~ s~oki~. Th~ t~±~ o~¢ th~ ~port~, ~o~v~r, be~r~ ~irt~ly h~ C~i~l~!~, ~ir ~i~g~ ~C teT~t~i~'e a~ ~Ll~t t~ ~)~ ~ort~ ~o Co~gves~ have be~ ~sed ~ ~edia eve~ ~i~, it, "~_~ "~f~T~~
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375 "of£~ci~lI' li~e ~m~lerly, whe~ ~ur~h~¸ z~h d~n~t~at~ l~nt i~volvi~q ~nhal~tion of ~i~rett~ s~ke by ~ -- under that ~e ~ogs did n~ ~eve!o~ ~ancer. ~n~ ~urge~n Ge~e~al'~ ~e~ent~y issued ~ep~t, h~ever, f~il~ t~ menti~ the ~nce]~i~ ~f these ex~r~ent~ ~ the f~t that ~he ~iti~l re~ult~ ~o~1~ n~t be Ie~lic~e~ aE~ therefore weze net reliable ~he bia~ i~h~rent in ~h ~i~- Testimony h~s previ0u~ly been given ~ C~gr~ by ~eve~al ~e~ected researchers c~ncer~in~ ~he ~,etit~ve ~Ld ~lead~n~ ~ature ~f the Sur~eo~ ~ener~l's ~n~al reports bill. ~e question wh~h~r the p~os~ut~na~ ar~, of the au~i- ~m~in~ movement ~h~uld bc inve~ted w~th a~th~ri~ ~o ~c~rdinate 0 0
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376 ~d thereby control the scientific research activities of ~the~ gcver~e~lt aqencl~. T.~is bill wo~ld ~bJcc~ eve~ the ~atiu~Lai I~titutes ef Health to such ~'coo~din~tJon" Just Low %~e ~i~i~n~making proce$~e~ ~n~ peer review systems o~ ~h~ ~IH would be ~oo~ilated" is unclear Tr/e poteltJ~l foi mischief i~, however, obvious. ~n COnC]USiO~. we are firmly opp¢~ed to this legi~10tion be=ause ~e believe ~t to be u~e ess~ry, ~is~d~ng and, mo~t J~,o=ta:~tly, because the ~cd~c~l ~n~ ~ci~tif~c assumption, s or "findin~s' ~,d~rl~i~ ~ ~e incorrect ~d ul/~ubst~litiated. I a~ ~e ~hat ~any pec~ie, after sc~n~!h~ tie hea~lJ~e~ ol l~tcni~q t¢ th~ ev~ni~.~ :~e^,s, will as~: ~ is tLe ~ol,acco I~du~t!~, lesistin¢~ ~his bill? }~]l~=~s ~.he Dloblcm with puttihg fe,~ ~e~ ~arr~ings o;~ ci.~ett~ ~acka~s and adverti=in~? ~e are no~ oppo~ the ~ill because ~. Wi~h to exploit tl~e yo~%h ~rk~t ~s s=~me have f~s~ ~ cha~g~; n~r zre ~e ~p~os~ng the b~ll ~ec:u~e o~' the ~ot~ ~t!al costs of co~p~ng ~ith its zeq~ir~e:~s We o~,~,~e %hJ~ ~il ~ec~u~e, d~s~ite ~he appearance ¢~ ~]ldu~tly but the ~eric~ ~ubl~ a~ well. T~iS b=II f~e~ze~ ~cience ~n its tro~cks. ~t ~urport~ =~ ~etti~ by C(:,g~es~io~l e-~ct nedicai ~nd ~cicn~ifi~ ~cnt~- ver~ie~ th-~t a~e ~till evolving, ~n~ ~hcre~ it ~ay divert ~ar$ o solve th~ en~g~,~ ef hrcn~ di~e~e 0 1"¢ I'¢
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377 ~is bill ~I~o s~rffo~]y ~rode~ the p;in~le cf free choice i~ a democratic society It says irL e[£ect, th~ if !e3e~ ~off1~l'¸ ±~f~rm~ti~L" t},~ b~ll b~tr~ ~t~ fU~Ld~tSl ~rchihJti~nlst ~o~ve~. The ~,~o~o~e~t~ C:~ ~he ~i! o~]ec~ to oh<flee ff~ ~,eject~n9 the ~e~ of ~ti-~ing ~t]vists; ~rop~e ~ep~ £ntend~d ultim~t~l~ t~ ~I~ i~ the ~ohl~tlo~ ~ smokinq n ia~f~l product which provi~e~ pleas~c ~nd s~t~ction t~ by the ~era~ ~o~er~ ~, th~ ~iv~e ~ve~ cf ~t~ ~t~- z~, ~ ~ ~h£n~y veiled ~ £~ to h~s~ ~L~ ~-
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8?8 NO ad~r%~s~ng sha11" ~pp~ay iI~ pu~1~c~ti~lls @irecte£ p~imaril) ~o those ~£er 21 years of age~ iu¢ludl)~g school, ¢el]ege or u~ivetsity medi~ Isuch a~ ~hle~i~ ~hea~rlc~ or ~ther p~sre~5), co~i¢ 5ook~ or co,it supplements, 2. No o~e depicte~ ~n ~i~are~tt a~'erl~s~ sh~ii be or appear to be ~er 2~ ¥ea~s o~ age 5. Ci~are%1¢ adl~T~i$i[~ ~h~!l not sugge~% th~ sn~ki~t~ ~s et~en~ia~ %o social p~ocine:ce, distD~ctiof~, Su¢¢e~ or C~are~I~ adve~t~ing m~) ~ic~ule ~ttra¢li~e, ),e~h} look£n~ person~ pr~v~e~ there ~ ~0 su~cs~ior %hei~ ~ttr~c~ive~ess and g~c~ health i~ due t~ cigarette $m~ing C~g~re~te a~l~r~si~g shall not ~ep~¢l ~ ~ ~r~ker ~nyonu ~ho ~ or ha~ bee~ ~,ell kr~o~-n ~ an a~hle%~, no~ thal~ i~ • h0~ cn! smoker ~rt~¢~p~ting in, ~r obviously j~$~ ha%~n~ ~articipated n, ~ ~,h>.~ic~l set,lit! tequi~i~S ~!~ e~ a hI~llc CO~It~o~iD~ be>on~ ~h~ o~ nor~:al lec~ea ic~, 5, ~9 ~pozt$ o~ celeb~i~ ~esii~o~1~1~ shah be u~¢4 or lhe~e O~ ethers ~'h~ woul6 h~+e Sptc!a] ~pet~ ~0 per~¢n~ ~nder 21 years ~ ~ge 7. Persons wh~ en~ge i~ sa~plin~ shal~ ~e~use to ~ile • ~ary~e ~e an} pcr~5 who~ the) k~ to bt u:ger ~I y~ r O~ ~e 01 ~o, ~'ith0~t reasonable i~en~i~ic~ic~ to the ¢ontr~y}, sp~ea~ to be le~t Than 21 yea~s of ~e. t~c, bl~ck$ of an!. ~er,~er$ ~f youlh ~ctix.~[~e~, ~u¢h as 2 ve r uf a~c OT O~e~ IO a~c~p: ~ ~ple i~ ~he ~dul~ dec~in~ or refuse~ to ~¢ept such s~ple. Lq t¢ 0 CA L~ t¢
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380 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Cigaretle sampling ts a folm of cigalctte advcrtisinp, c~nd~lcl~d thr~LJgh thf~ fr~ distribution of s~mpl~" packages of cigarettes directly to adalt su~okers, The p~trpose ~Jf this Code is to ensuie that cer taill sl3rld~r~ ~r~. oh.~el'vcc[ iTi i:ol~necl~clll v~i~h cisarelle s~n~pling, parl~c~larly avoidillg lhe distribution of rlgare~tes to r~inors algol the dlsr~pti~n c,l" l~edestria~ or whicu[a~ traffic, aiid Io ~l o~;id~, ~ inc~11~ ~.~'11 e~ehy co~l~lllallce w]~h ~]losc ~t~[idard~ can be ~o~li~red a~d euforced, u~ ul 1"0 fit
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881 ARTICLE I DEFINIT{ONS % "Sanlpl~rEg" nlcalJs ~dvilbg ol diMlil;llth, g wJi]lo~t charge packages of cigal~t~cs in a public plBce for comnt~ rc~aI ~dverllslng lmrposes ('cigarette samples"), but does noi include isolaIed offl:rMgs of compllmen(ary packages or ~hc dlstrlbuHort of such p~ckages to ,vholosal~ or retail ¢~Mom(rs or to compaily $~areh()ldtrs o~ empIoy~cs in the normal course of business, 2 "Public place" includt, s any slreet, sidewalk, park, pIaza, p~lbllc mall, and the public a~eas of sl~opI, i~ centers and ofhcu bldldings U~ I'0 tO O~
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;~82 ARTICLE]I n~t i i w RESTRICTIONS ON CIGARETTE SAMPLING 1, ]~ersons who EnRage in samplin~ s}l~l] reftlse to givo ,g Sample [o tiny pg-ison whom they know to be uneler 21 years of age or who, wit'aout reasonable ideniifi~Mion to the cmlt r~ry, ~ppears lo be leGS [hall ~9~ ~ (r31s of a~£L 2. Sampling shalllloi be conIlucled in any public fdacc withhl two Mof:ks rff ~ny celdms of youth a/:~ivities, such as fialeNfity or somrity hmlsr~s 3. The mails shali not be used to distdbut* unsl~]ilit~I cigare~lt balilples 4 P['PSDI/S who ~II,Ragt in saIIlI/littg shall Iml uIge any adult 21 yeals o[ age oI over I0 [~ccoIIt a ,q;lIn[/}t~ Jf ~hl! nduh (1~ olin( $ or lefu ,l!9 [0 acG('[ll Sui:h s~!lll~]~'. 0 Gq Ol ~0
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383 5 No clgaielte samples st~all be distrlbuted by a sampleria a pul~ih iJ]~mc to any persoi/in a vchiel~' ~]xall s e c~l'e their $to~ks of s~mpl~s ill S~{¢ loc~[ions IO avoi~ inadvcrl¢~t distrlb~tlo~ o[ samples contrary |o lhe provi~ioll~ o[ ibis A~ title. 7. Persons distributing cigarcllc sat~lples sllall avoid t~locking or otherl~,is£ siooniflcantly impairing thc flow of i:edes[r~atl traffic, at a particular loc:a~ien that make it unlikely [}~Ei| $~[llI/lill~ C~311 })~ COIlCttlclet~ ~rl a lllallrlt'r l:o~sisl~l with l~e p~ovisi~3ns o~ this A~lit:le, samt~lit~~ ~t~all be slopped at ttLat l~malioit until such ~i~c~mslanccs abate. ~. ~crsons tlistri}~uting, sr~mpl~s sImll plomptly t~isIllls~ o[ I!nllliy ~lllltll/! ~lllx~'~; ~rl shall I~ke reasonable steps to ensute tIlal no litler r~mains il~ the immediate arca o~ samp]in9 as a result of samp]i~ a~ivities. I'0 U1 UI
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884 ART|CLE II1 COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS 1. I,;aeh clga~ette manufactuler that subscribes to this Code sl~all impose hy contract on all indeDmdent cmttractors ,vho cottduct ci~aielte samp]ing o12 the manuf0ctt~rm's hch~lf ~ set of sampling standard~ no less stringent than those contained in this Code, lu additim3, each ultFm.'tte m~nufacturer shall iequire such samp]ing contractors tn infmm all personnt] employed by tim contractor who engage it, sampling activities of the pIo~ iMons of this Code, both otaIl~, and in writing, 2 Pf'rSOllS WhO ellgagr., ill s Itlqdillg shall be monitor~ d o~ a periodic has~ by &~tpc~t~qsory pe~soItIt~l 4a~" th~ Gig~l'ett~ lnarlu~acturep ~lld/or iltl~openden| contractor for whom lhe stoup!inS actk'ities are [~eillg conducted ~(i t iislue corctpliance with the provisions of this Code. a. Each cigarette manufacturer that ~ubscribes to this Code shall take all reasonahl~ steps to ensurl that airy person who ei~gages in sampling and knowingly ~ ioh~tt!s ally of lho provisions of ,t~,r title II t~f ibis (:ode shal] be discharged £rom employment as a cigalette sa]qlp]81, UI tO b~ 0 ~O bO
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7 ,, ..... ,!i z 0~0~'~
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~ i~ ~n~s.'~ i~1~ ~ ~ ~-pu]~ry ~.R. 5653 wo~l~ r~q~i~e Am~i~ ~×p~ t~ c~rry Ul ~n tn to co
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387 Ci~r~t~ Smoking". ~,i~ requirement is ~c!e~ an~ ill c~nceived i~ ~t5 ~pplic~tion to Cx~ort~. It~ ~ to i~mglne ~e~ne fro~ S~i A~bie w~itir~g t~,~ U~S~ ~urge~ Qcr,¢r~l~ ~o~i~ the U.S, S~r~e¢~ General resF~n~ i~ Ar~ic? ~ir¢~ ~rnln~ in Frmm~h and 5~,gll~: Be!~lu- warnin=s requ~re~ by Can~0a a~d Belgiu~ ~r~ different t~an ~ny ~f t~e ~rmim~ u~r H+R, 5653, th~ Ca~a~ p~cka~e mm~ ~e require~ ~o have t~ war~ings ~m Frem~h an~l t~ ~ ~h an~ the ~elgi~ p~ck~e may be req~ir¢~ =o ~a~e ~ix ~ifferemt ~,~i~. req~±re~ dic~ e~ ~h~ lev~l of ~ar, ~i~otln¢ a~l ¢arS~m n~noxi~e oh ~e ~ck~ (al I[.~. B653 req~ir~ that t~e level of ~r, ~icotine ~tabll~hed ~n~liy by t~ Federal T~a~e C~mi~sion. Th~ law~ o£ ~everal ~r~ign countr~e~ (e.~ Germany, Canada, United Kim~d~m, Egypt and ~u~t~ali~l r¢~ire te~tin~ met~ w~ic~ m~ re~%t in tar ~nd nicotine t¢ Cn t~
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~88 Feder~l Tra~ CQm~£~sion ~et~o~. Die,regencies between ~e ]'~C ~ethod arLd t~e ~etho~ re~ under s~le ~f t~eir p~o1~cts ~ these ~tr~e~ E~O~ divlde~ tar leve~ ~to ££V~ g~u~,s ~nd the CongreSsiOnal Purpose. Section 2 of the Cigarette L~e!~ng an~ ~dverti~ng ~t (IS ~S~ i~1) Is ~t a~en~e~ b~ H~. B6~3. That ~ecc~o~ state~ t~et on~ ~rpo~e of the Act ~s t¢ not ~ede ~o~erce by ~ive~se. advertls~ng re~l~t~s.~ The ~¢ns~er e~f~io~ an~ ~vereign r~g~ ~d i~terests of forei3n ~±o~. IF" UI 0 Ul Ul CO C~
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3~9 Before ~ctin~ to ~:~late ~×~rts in the r-~ner £~ a fo~ei~ 9ov~r~n,ent~ were to impose on U.S. c~n~u.e=~ ~i~u~atioi~s ,~hich ~re a-~ ~,~rla~ce ~£th U,S~ ?clicy ~r~ The q~ion of w~n[n~ label~ o~ cigarette p~ka~es in~ol~e~ c¢~getin~ n~tion~l inte~ ~n~ ~!£f~re~=es cf perspective ~ individo~ ~nd corporate ~i~ht~ an~ re~po~s~bili~ies. ~h society ~a~ ~ right te ~trik~ co~,~ interests, a~ i~ ~s es~entla~iy irrelevant t~t other ~o~iet~e~ mi~At re~ different co~zions, It £~ ~n ~n~eren~ ri~h~ of ~vere~ty t~ ~ak~ deci~io~ s~ch ~ %hese without out~%~ ~nt~e~ce, its attempt to r~u~te ~.S. ~xp~brts wi~h re,gent to m~fe~ ~hlch have ~ot~in~ to ~o ~th U.S. ~ec~ity, U.~ forei~n.pOllc~ or ~o~e~tlc ~ho~a~e~, ~ueh a ch~n~e in ~ourse ~hou~d not ~e taken ~ithou~ %borough c~n~id~r~tio~ by t~e Congress and the pri~c~p~l co~li~ee~ t~at have be~n in~Ive~ ~n s~tti~ U.S. exp~t policy ~ ~y y~rs. 0 Lrt C~
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390 Mr. Wn×MA~ '] b~:llk ~ou vc'v.~ mllcll, Mr tlozi~!~Lii, f~t ]~kb/g yoLit¸ f)osi~ioll cl(~l¸ /~ ~lli~ l~Jsl~tlot~ ~ ]~l~ t~L~'II 1~" y~,~lt~ ~il~c~' thlL :[ir~ F2lllt~,~Ii (~C'l/ILtlkl'~ I~II~Jl~ il/~]i I~£ ~ IIIC' WC~ ~l~l~,'~ h~d r(~po/t ~l~tcLl¸ 1,o]~ol tr illC kldil~ ~/¢Z ~t~ ~ll ~'ZJll (~n~.l~ll'~ ~(~j/o~,~ i~l~[iFl~ c~i~[~l~l~. '~ll/ok]ll~ ~ ~110~1 ~ }l~l~,~ 1~ ](!~di~l~ ~il~lil]l~ cxl~l!iI'~ J!l ~i~ C~url~l%I l~/(, N~illl/~ll ~.!anc~¸ I~l~til~l~, a]/d ~he N~iiol~al l~titLite oil I)r~g Ab~l~e t~l[ la~ |zl li~h~ of ~11 ~]~l~ ho;v d/) yot~ ~xl~l~iIl ~,o~11¸ utt~illin~,llt~'~ l~ ~'¢(~11 it/~Ik(, i~ colln~ioll b~Ii~(~(~ll oi~'~t¢ ~lllokill/~ ~lrl~ t~l~,.~~ ~1 ]IC)RICI~AN ~l. Cl~lil'l/l~l/, ~/i l?~ill %lith, ~1~ l~tl[~ d(~ t/O~ t~t¸ IICLV(~ It/~1~ 0~1¸ jt~u~tl~r j~. ~.ll~X~]l]jll~ ill ~Ily ~.OI~S~ Of lh~ wo]c] ] III*L~iOFIC~(] it~ I~1~¸ ~('~[]~ly t~ Wl' ~lt i~ ~1/~1~1 ~ll~(l I1 yl~.l~3~ (~tq/l~l,~l'~, l(~lp~IL O011tJr/tlt,~ ~(i ])Hb]i~,h lltw .~t~i~.~i~'~, o~r Lo~c~o il/- I1Ll~.tr ~¸• ~lm~illu~'~, t~ ~'~rlll~t~ nl[lli/lIl~ Ill dol~T~, ~lI1T/t~lll~¸ ~l~ ~11 IJII- ~oill~ b~i~, ill I~l,i~,~{IJctt~d, ,~llll~t~ll~th l~tl(~l~ ~ ~ll.%~lt,I¸ ~l/t, Oip/¸ i~ltl~l¸ r~l~in~ l~i~.~.(~ ill ~rollr (I~l~',lion ~l j!tl 1~2~i'(~ ~0 ~lr~'lIt~, ii,ttC~ ~llO 3d(~iCt~O FIlI¢~ tl~,~L W~ l¢2~,IIc~l ~0 ill ~11 ~IllioI¸ SI/I~,II J~tt~ ~ll ~lll~l~ ~Ci~,11iifl~ ~¢-I/~in/l~¸ Ii'.'. ~J[ticl[ll [~ ~,~{~t~li~!~ 8~JOll~iliC ~'l'L~i~t~¸. We2 }/~'~ ~o ll/&~t~ judgrl/~.nl~ b~l~] on ~]1~ ~¥i iI~,llt.~L '1~1o i~1o~t te2~/!L~[~ ~;c]~ql~i~ic ~xl~l'~ JEI thJ~, ~ol/lilI~¸ h~vl¸ ~/~/~ ~l ~oIl~IHsion b~d oil w]l~ ih~y ~2 ~ II/~lch ~l/cl~o ~!~,l/ ii~(~li~ ~/lil~il]~,ll~ ~l~!tlli,~,n c!]~llt21tl~ ~,II]ll/~itL~ ~ll~li /]l~rI/Et£ic ill C] (L~t~;e'~. ill ~I~'~T ~ ~l/C] ll~l/~ I~i~t~t~-f" HOW ~0 ~,O1~ ~,:p],~l]ll tt/~ ~IrOIl~ ¢ll/l~]~l~i~ll t~'~Wt~,II I~1~' WhO ~,nlok/! ,~lllll t~/o$o ~1o ~'I1~ lo }1~,~ lll~ ]~'~1 illci(~l~l~£~ ~ t'~l/~'(,l¸ MI I]O]II/I~:AN There ~z(~ obviously lz~w ~la~]~tica/ ~'ic~cil~, ~IId ~l~t'~' ~lri~l ylm ~b~ ~ll ~f lhe ~ie~ltifl~ or rile-client/ I:~n/l~l~Tl~t2: ~]'h~-~ i//0111~11~ w~ h~ ~ II~LII~'I Of ~iCl~J~.~ who ~il] pl~/,nt ~llLil¸ ~rit'/IZ; ltIId 1 Illll~¸ ~i~l l~/~l ~11 O~¸ I]I/I';L~ .~Cit'~Li~l~; ~Vh/~ ~l~lIItt'J lO 11~11 ~iC'i~l~tll~ tlli~; nlOI II J]l[~ ¢~1]~ h~V~ tl0~11 J~E~I~', b/~¢~[l~.~ lht' ~j(L~llit- i~" ~(~Illll/~l/i~y i~; I~Ot ~l/~l/il/~OI.l~; ill l~ll'il¸ judglll(rlI~, cl~l ~hi~; l)oilll ~ll¸ '~V~.~:~!.~ ']h~lo S~,i~ ~o b~ ~ t~2tl,~]ldl,I~ll~¢2 ill¸ /l~ljrli/~Ei ~l/~o:l~ I~ ]~/liiL!~ $~l~liIJc ~.l~ou~.. i~ ~li~ ~oLl~ir~ th~,i 3r(, ill volw~l ill i)l~h!~" ]lc,,~llh ~lld ht ~/diI~ ul~ ~he ]ll~i/oz¸ ~o~,f.illm~'illal c/- ll)r~,~ lc~ ~oiil!l~l hf~l~ ~i~l~, ]~lll~ c~J~,~,c. ~l/~l ~liio~l' ~ ~/£~,¸ ~i~vl, ,~1I ~i11~1~~ illq~te u~ all/l ~,~ic} ~ il~l~lu~ ~1[1~¸ ~,ql~i~oci~lioll wilt~lJ~i ~IL~ d~lbt ill th~il ll~illd~, tl/;lt l}~z~ i~, a ~lt~l lilik ~(,~,¢~I1 ¢i~ll~IL(' ~nl/J~]l/~ ~zlll ~hl~L illl~-~ ~1"oll ~iI~' ~/q~il/~ ~'~ 1~1~ ~h~l~' i~ II~ lilll~? ]!~ ~h~ ~rl~'~? ~l~ ~IO~I~IGA~, ~ ~IL/ ~.ly~[E~ t!~l ~l~i~tt~ lO ~LIC~ ~/~LI II,/llil I~¸ ~!~tih ~/l¢[~l(Jill~ O~l'I¸ ~;1(~(I llli/liOEl iUI/C~ZJ I~¸ /~ll¸ ~l/dLl~ll}¸, ili~i- ~'~IIL-~ Lh~t no C!~l~ll lil/k h~ |~t~n ~h/~rlL '[1/~ i~ I~1~[ I ~IILI ~1£]¸
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391 ~ihed lure not a~(ientist, Mt Waxman 'lhat i~ wh~ doclo)~a~l, ed el¸ ~ciuI/tis!s a~ked to i)al~iCil/ate h(ic lhi~ niornin;,q to pothap? at~//(q¸ ill ~l~gl~£,l dl.jdtl lh(! iiLl£!~,liOllv; ~hz~ 3ol; t f~ls/, 1,~( ~t]~t~ 3oi~I collc(,ill ~h3t is ohvio'd~/y wh3¸ ~( e~l ILtgtlk the do[h~t~ that we do every year in resoa:ch that builds more evi- det~e, /lot sto.tiqtics, bet contizlues ilol to t)io~'~, ~ cau~a] [i)l/~ Mr. WAX~,IAN ~OU M,O ealm~rked a large numhur of do]lal~ h, orde) 1o pzomot( cig))ette smoking in this counll5,i~ll'z t~lat tin- " t~ol? "1"oll do !-pond [l~(211{-y tin ad~(,tLishlg gad othi,t piola~oIkma] eli{~t Is? ),h }IoI/E~rc;at<. ']hld's ligh~ The [roe enleipli~e ~3stotn, I lhdlk w(, have ~ }:tlthd ]notltlct and it light {o cotllpolo ill the market- ,lace for the snloking pvlbiic ~II. X*t)AXMAN (3ouid 5ou gi~{ us the fig~l)e tha~ 3ou v,'ouid a)inu ~dl~, Sp{!lld OIl ~ldv~'lti~illg al/d ~Igo give ~IS ihe []g~lle Oi how nlkLeh ~,()~ gtlelld on ~uil.ntifie I(,Nt!{~tch ~18 to lh{! d{Allg(!t [)1 po~{~lltifd d8 ~,(: o~ ~,OLII plodtac{? M~ llor.~ (,a× 5es, sit ]~'ilst of all I don t ha~e the numb01s, obviously pleci~e]y by company, bill on behMt el lhe indust~T, I wmlld say uur I,slimate~ el industl) advertising is in the range of 89l!0 luillion The industry earma)ks in excess of $10 million u y~,~tt in )csearch I don't think we should (,uthhdly)<.late ad\eriigirtg dolla~s Io re~eatch doiIals, hut tathel take the lesvarch dollars s )vnt by many ethel organizations, health or~'a)d~ations, o) indu~- lrk'.~, and I bellexe that oul ii/!lllheI8 ~tle l(~cogrdzod a'~ ul)detJ'/[llg ;t [,tl 1[]OI~" 8i~¢nifiCallt con/llllttl~(!rd to this cotmeru ~]I ~'~'AXMAN xa'Otl indicgle yotl have h({!l/ }18~,'iltg %/'h~q[ }o11 call con~lrueiJve or/d lru~hfid discussions witi~ Assistant ~[%'tl'[Hl'~ }{ral~rl( ~llld ethel ll¢~tlattnl¢!l/t Of ]]('[dlh and |hlman ~el ~ices' (,ffi~ ciMs oa this question of smoking The),, yell cxpless your unhappi- nes Ililh theJ) sol)port for this ]egisla~Jon You (:lahn, i]) other winds, the efiect ot tl~e bill is to shoot (irst and ask questloi~ laker I1~) you feel that the administ~atkm did nol hem you out oI un (h'r~t md thu mgun/t nt~ that yl)u had it) nmk(! against the legisla tion lhal they are lmw suppol ring? hh. llo~[ua~'. 1 believe Mr. I(ornegay could a)~s~c) ihat in gt(,at(r depth We believe we are having ploduciive di~cussion~ with thai agency regalding that particulal igue In that tmmn, we me getting a fair heating. I do thi~k ~ith ~egard to the sevmily, the selious impact of this bill thai ~ar industD is not ht,ing given th(' proper thne to air its yields properly and ptovJd( you with our responsibility to keep you as well-inlo.'nled to ans~er all oI the questions possible The time frame oI~ this 1)alticulal situation, we believe, is very tight indeed l~lr X, It'AXSIAR YOU l~l'e spending rtlOlley on tryinR to come up with a sci(,ntifm certalnty 11o you have any estimale from yont gei- (ntific people as to a time when they ~ill be able to tell u~ that cigarette smoking i~ or is not harmful? Mr, }IORI¢IGAN. I Wi~h that 1 could, Mr Chahman. ] think like any Imrsult, any medical or scientific pmsuit of a)~y known disease, I don't think anyone could have answered years ago whether they would have fimnd the ans~el to pMio vaccine. 1 don't lhlnk science can ~lol'k to a timetable. 'l'he import gill[ thillg is l;ot to cut *off nledi- 0
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892 <~i Ic~e~IIch and scit';Itillc rt~earoh, b~l% to con~it]ue ~n s!,alch O[ Hie ali~wuls ]lut } ea}]3 :a J t gsvt, a irtii, able [%]I¸¸ V~'AXMAN" ]]ave }oo b~i illfl~oncPd ill tel m,, O[" 3oul OWn [,eTsona/ view o[ the potential dangels of cigm(ttes flora all of thl evidvnoe (hat Ires conle abottt in the last 18 yeats? ~[t IIoi:mO~.N I think my own l*C'l~on<4i ex ~erieneef nbho b' q UII ~ %~q~'/ Illllq[lO ~ql~ ~tpDIO1 [& [~ heiu, ~111 ~lot a bo C[~ od o ~3{~io !ndus[I3 e~:ecutive ~ho has s rant his ][~13 [I1 ~]l[s hH~it/ebls. ] jLlSl Join~dlh~ d~a~co d s 3'~ ye rsag ~ ~'a h~ d st .', %~hi]£" ~h(, opporttlll~ty flo~ll ,% G~iool Sldlldpoiil[ %%aN H ~ood £I[Io, hilt b~'ause o[ the puhlicit surrouridlng this irldustl3 I obviously had to ask myself a kd of qtlCS[ions about it And I found out an awful lot ilhcm~ tills industlv tha~ m~ ]ittll. ,I~LOI/N f~!¢t% ] ItOUI(] tIcvev have ~aken a C&lt'Ol pOS{({Oll in ~l~i~ ll/- d/IsH> if I had all3 Co!lecrns l~hotlt the plodtlc th~It 1%Za~ l~!5;pOll~b hie fu, mmketing. ~1. ~, AX~AN, ~10LI 1{110%V, thf, i)lodLic[ h ~[llh[v hi%%~ IPQ[/II c ]]1 ~11 klf{io[ol'et2~ IO %V~ITI1 abclut thc dall~cls assoela *.d %lit]/ a ]llodtlc~ 'l'h£r TFE'(]{la] (]i~tl([¢o l.ahl'ling mid Advelti~ing Act lequb'es the cull ,nt 'a } a gdsI a edon ¢i r, atct(epacktgts If wI'x'' e re) ]('pO~ll [h&[ warning Oil Cigarette ])ackaffes m Ill( %~aII)llll,, IC qtdled 011 ~tdxr<,l~[~zitlp., what obligation do :,rom law 'els tell ~ou thai )ou ~ot~ld ha~f~ to ad;ise tht pub[it iihout the }~olclltia[ (~gtl- gels of ~moking ~,oul p ~du ? 31i Writ 3.IL ('halrman,] don't think theintelltion is toiepmd the ob[i{ *item to }lave a ~lalning ~]1. %AAXMAN. ~ll(e Ill{ obvillusl5 not (r>ing to do that but it wa~ one of the sugi4estions in opposition of this legislation that the Gm ('Tntl/('Ilt should l/or b(, invoJv~ci in this alca 1[%~o took yuu tip ol/ the plemi,c, that the Government should not be iu~o}~ed in ti31ng tO tlt~t~ poop]o not to slll(d O gold Shtl~.l% flolll Ih~ 1~41/ (h(~ It¢ltllt(,- IIl?t/[ tiled ~}ICIC be ~t %%ali/it/g tllDt ¢igatg*ttc Slllo*~i~l:~ } d~ll~(tltqJg tel }rnn health, you %%ou]d th(ll have a ]egal o di~tt 0 1 ~ '>" 1 I Co $ " 1/tl[lllC If th( (lO%el £/II16~11t didlA t I('qulie ~,OIJ tO display the cuH~nt v,m n hit bd~el? ~'~l ~,VI~I ]h&t is El %el3, COrili)liE.~l[td qu(! [ioli ][ yotl %VOLl/d allow me, sir and if sour staff x~ mid gixe us some diiection a~ to irec[~,e[3 ~l}/a( sort o[ allS~r ~01~ pr(,ftr ] %,,ill collsuil with o 11 [fl%belS al/d ~['~(, y lU HrI p[i ~[ , a ~ , he \ ll/£ql[ \/'(, ~'tlC ~let[rl~, Lllld£q ~[ th£. ]ll/iTl3p]/t~ ~ f~o!l't thiH~ i[*b ~l]~;irll statltial amount of plorluct Ii~bilit~ Iitiglltioli undel~ t) at d given the f~<I that it is as ] said, a v(l , conlplicated and srnnt~hni diPh chit alen to deal uith ad ho:'. M~ W^x~i~ Without obection tram m', ~oHea!~ues, I x/ill have t}It l(~COlf h(r d ol)ol~ SO thld %C (In ,~et their in[Innlatinn ~lonl %o~n at alater date, Se~ ) 415 l}ut 1 ~uuld submit to ~outhal tuade QusIoK' ~/arll tilt [on~unlels und(,r at/ o[ th0 [nodt{ct liahilit~ la~s {hd 1 l'tt~O SO01/ fiotil julisdiclion to julisdictioN lhlllu~houl this {Oklll(I}, }OLI ~/OLIld haVC tO ~i%~TM [I ]O[ 11/O1~! hlfoIll~iOl/ HHd ~1 ~i~ ]ld'iC~ltt]3 lllole dol~ik~d "*l'~Flli[l~ I]3ail ~lrh~tt i.% 1/O%/ 1{(ill[led tHd~] h ~lJ 0 ¢a ¢m
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~ jm,.,-- 893 ] l~ould think it I//luhl come pitt{5 doe i¢ not I'xc/ed in detdl thexxa~Mnt ]ah~l~xx/'me~aIlin~ fez in ~]/is hlMali~n t4ueH ~ouz }r~xxy{IS a/~l~e ~lilh Ih~{ coIKhl'doI~ tMI ~,~AX~.I ~N ],{.{ ll~e ;lov, i~ ¢'0 ~ni:~(. Some OJ lily Coli( I II¢S ~l}it~ }i,~t' qtm~limls f'~l ~dl Jim rJgm: nlld lnl,n hi,Is of l}le p~mel ~Ii 1{111~ "I bullk )O~ MI (:il&ii n/un and thank > ou nl¢,mb/,l:~ of Iho t¢~no] I aiJpz((.ist( you eonlirlg h(le to hlill~ some ]igh/ o]1 lhi~slfl~jetl I hart aihwquestioi/~lbl 3dl }Ioliig~I: You iiii,n~ioned ~t G~d]up ]){JI] tha~ {ound 9{! ]14,1e,,nt O~ the I)optl iation k, al~ie of the ht,alth c]aim~ assoc'i dt,d ~xil}l ¢~igaIIqle smc4~ iny Art you axxare of any othtr e~i(ltnce pairs, sul~e3s, that show tbe exlent of the pub}it kno~led~e of Otis i~sue'~ S~lleI/!L'll{ [hdt ~O{S ~xa~ htlo~ tO 1~)(~ XlbE,le ~t (;O~Lq IIIHt~IH tdi](]~d ~aid that 5ou c(lu}d go to a rooftop I Ib!got th(. exa(t quote and shout about the &,ngers of cigatetle smoking and the;e ~ould be r~a:y ; t)~son that is not av, art of the dang(.~ of cig, alctte smok- ing ~ LllthcIlllOIC, %i[h Ic~l'd [o poll~. I tlldlk [hoI~~ ~lt~ a po]/ h~¢]~ in ]979m 1980, a Galhlppoll Thespecifieb~eakoul with ~ega~d to teenagers ffmnd that 9(; pmcent of teenagers believed that smoking wa~ i~dmious to their health You ran tell by my aec~m I am a New ~olktl', ilot floln ~'~oyt}l (~lold/~l }hH we btlve ~T1 expt£,sssJoll ¢lox~n I}w;e: "l[it ain'{ h;ok% don't fix it" WethiM:Mm; Smgem~ (;(neral's xlat ning is ~x at king ~ cIx ef(t'ct~v~/~ smeh Jb? yotl in behnviolgl In~tttls ] know wt v~iH have so~+ne peoii]e hll(?t ~ho 81; expert~ hi thi~ fir,}d lestif3 is ii po sibl(, m 5uul optician, thlough changing wall~in~, labels or thlough th~ bm g ~ag'e of thi~ bill, to ~aise lhe i,trcema;e of m~meness a~ a ~tsa/t? ~]r ]IOI~R[t;AN. ]tl Oil; jL~df'l]lell~, we do liar h(,li(xt yotl cotdd }~i,ff, lh~t ]ev/d Ol 8x~oi(,ne£s ]~ ~oti tske ~ho hLIS[TICSS o! nlalket m{, ¢1 9(] peleenl axlareness level fo] ~my hzam] nit ,~:~gl, xlould be icg{tlld(d CIS C/Ft ~x~lctoFd{ltaty Success There is anot}te~ I>l'tras{ ca]led "sinfaienlindvdl~ess VtrI~LW C]~ttel~' Ad¥i!iLh-{ 11, x,,~llty /~bfl~t being (ill tth, v~s]oil alld the fluttel effeot in losing theb t,~f(,g,t~¢- But we believe ge~min¢l> that the sing/emindedness of the SLU- p]ishin~ xxhat t;u]y is yam intention here. I tlfink th:~t t(, add pc> haps a more broader perspective to yam question, I would ]ik~ to ask I)l Light to conlnl{nt flora his viex~point on this purlicuh~r qIaestion ])r. I,]cm. Thank you I don't have s.~,cific numhors on all adve> ti~,il/,~ u~In~pzti~tI$, bvt ~ lllUSt s[ty, b~ls{'d on lily p{.r~oN~t/ experien{e 8lid .ittdgrnenI, this pmti(,tiIttr inessa,~e }lag t~chJevet{ numbels th{tt would be truly considmed to be ~ema~kable. Some of this is not smprlsing. 1 don't believe there has been a~y s[ngk, advertising me~sage that ha~ had the, kinds of support that ibis one has had 'lhvre have been millions uf impre~iuns trod rail lions of dollnl s ~pent It has appeared in all forms since 1971, it has appea~ed consist- entb in the same form since 1972 And the result of all of thi~ is U1 © UI
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~94 lluly e×t~aoldh/aly a~arellos~ When I tt]k ~thout n~al(nes~, ] ~on't n/eall that people i/letllorize spl!~'J~c word~. I~ople do not memorize advertising. What people do is thty ie nlembl~l over~tll impressions¸ And all of the i~,sealch thai I have been able to review suggests that consume~ have registeled the il/- lellded D('I jilll)/~SSiO~ oflhe watllillg stalelll~l, I Mso think thai ~here are a coupte ot¸ ptfl~cil~les we ought ~o keep in mind, adver~i~iiig prinelple~ That is thi£ whole i~tte o[ shl~temindex]lle.~s and ton~istetlcy ]11 the advelt]slng bushiest, we have some principles of how to produce ef~etlve messages There are flvt! ill" tht!m I~eeiI it simple; makt, it clear; s~y it i~en; tie con si~tent; he singteminded The w~tllh/~ sIaten~ent as e~rren[b. S[ILlttt~t~r~, ill lily ot/hlh~rl, Sa it is not only that we have had a lot of supl~t f~ it ovm the year~ al~d a lot of Jmln~ssi<ms made, hut frankly, you have ~]lowed the princlple~ of ~.oocJ eol/~lllL!r~ie.qtion ~o~ ~in, t atu not sulpli~,d that ~e have these ex[I~ll/ldiiLaly high awmene~.~ levels¸ Thet~ i~ a saying that ~nliliality breeds contempt A lot of¸ adve~tishl~ people seem to buy that because Ihey call it wealout qr~}le truth is Ihat fanliliality bluerl'~ t~tts~, zto[ Consistency is what we are after in adveltisil~g, not variahillty. Variability breeds confusion And, in my judgrnenh I think the 1o. tationM system that is proposed wouldn't help, it will hurt ~I~ii~k of cumpanies that whim thuy built an awntl,lle-~ h~ve~ of¸ 60, 71), and ~'0 percent, how careful the' a~ e to make a change. They don't want to ahatldon ~orne ~s4.et the.', have built over the >e~rs t~l,c~l~e they t~c~nize any chan~¸ ~lj[l }o~el¸ u%v~tl~,n{~, not itlcle3se it So, fr~l/kly, ] see no hlmeht at alJ to this lotational bly }~ypothesis [s that it would prohably hurt rather than help. Swedelt ~a~o~ }Oi~l%e~ OL~t~ I b~lieve, that ci.~are~le consunlption, lhnt s t /e ntunber o cigar¢Ite~ sotd i/ ~wedeli, is not down¸ ~ut the eh~iln/an o[the subconlmittee irtttodueed into tile reeold yesterday an artiete putflished by lhe Swedish Institute curled f~u~e~tt Sweden, dealing with this subject II was dated November 1951, I don~t kno~ if you have s(en it oI Mr. l]o~um*N. I have noL sir Mr. Bl,lt~:v, It was interesting to note that the) ag, e,e with you on page 7 in here, it states thai the total number of clga~ctte~ sold in S~eden has not <rhnng~d. }la~ th( tolal numhm {K l'igmette~ chaI~ged ili Great Blitain, that is, lo 3ore knowl~.dg~% as a ~esult of el since the rotational warnings went on there'? Mr lIoml<~A~ The nmlket il~ the United Kingdom, J believe, ix either fiat to slightib declining, 1 think it is a combination of tea son~ ill that palticular market, but 1 can't really say piecisely ~lhat the~l~ i/[in/ber~, ~r£, M~. lh,ILr~. Ihe',' coutd~l t su; m that what they ~e+e, e~thei. 1 b~lie~e the Ink'e of a pack of'cigarettes in S~d'en, ~ith kronor ~fiue of 18 cents, would put it in the nei~horhood of ~;2 a l~ack, which i~ em~idelahly more expensive thm~ it i~ in this countly 0 UI N 6~
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V- 395 ~]iloic h ~c. bc.<Ii ~cvela] I(,filtq/((.s ]Ii [boo ht'alit)~F, a}not}l Ibe .qiI/ouIil (d¸ rllotl(3¸ tb&{ cii~lcttc ll/£ti~li~cltlr£l~ ~l~e:td oil l~dxerli~ ilJ~ al/d a lali~(¸ illc~e~l~l, bl tilal ~poli~lil/g ~dlt~l Ih/, i!J/]Ll~llv ue~t~,,4 ad~t ~tisb~g oll radii) and "1\, [ bavk~ b(,elt lhiilkiD{~ about ho~ the Cosl of ~el)[h[lt~T {'iS( ha9 ~dpnu lily ov[~l ltl~, ~r('al~- I ~%DlkOt~l i~ IlIl~ I~llO ill lbI' kldllsly~ hD~ (ycl~ Co!l:]/alod %~bcqt wl~ ~-pctl[ to 8d~eiti~e cigal(lI(,s, so~. )() y(ttl ~. ~1~o, to ivh&t i beil;[~ Spell( ~oda~ ~]1 }IOR~It;AN, ] h[ivo. MI ]/]{](5, oil ll]~luy occit~kl/i , [K,Citkisp [ hart' Iojus[if~ our matkellng h ldg(.~s to n/y boald oi dhectoI8 So ~5t cot~l(' ~lII ~itlt ¢Olllllali~.~lNs to S[/OV, rate~, oi adv~,t [isill~ ~{'h~ii ilil~,~!iol~ is oItei~ lllis('d, to) CkamIde ill a ploe~s b,~Ch ~S this ']'o lint Ibat in pclsl/c¢li~¢, iI you go back to aboult ]96S, tht,Ie I~(~" some l(;g, I lhlak, b~and at b~and slyk, s i~l the malkd Ymt Ii.]ftl+2 thai ill a marktgh/g el total budget ill those da)s or ~'xpendi tree level iu lhc~ i~ngt~ of some ,q300 million (ii~e el raise, it fl~{(ll('S Ottl to all avclag(" per blall~ ill t('}}~/~ Of malk(4hlg ~upport o( about $~ 5 nliH]on 1>o] b]'alld No~I, it doesn't work otlI neecssaril3 that ~l}~,' because )ou weigh youl adve~tiMng If you takt the total dollars, that is ho~ iI came ou[ Sint~ then, tbele ha'~ heel/ a mtl]tiplic[ty of blands aim brand M~Itr~ introduced in tht. marketplace (~i~vll lhc lmln't~el at hlands il~ th( market. place lod~y, al/d taking n/y number thai I quoted to th( chairluala £ /llit!l this II1OrIlitlI el atl ('XC(SS Oi ~Oll}(! ~qO{~b Itiillloll, %%'}doh ill zeal dollar8 coenpal(~d lo thai S30/~ lniJliou back in l!l'/0 ~ltltl]d be! mo~e like one-half billion dolla~.*, thtn 3Ira a~ stili ialkin~ about blolld stlppozl on a pu!-htand basis of~2 Io ~25 ndlIion So }am Iaee of i!/t(,nsily ou ~[ I~epbtand b~tsi~ htls not increased ~,~r }/lIlF!~. rl'hal}~ yOk/ ~a'OB also talked abo'.tt ll~e lohacl'o illdll~- try ~efiMninK flora Saml~lin!~ to adolescents }]m~ d95otn goa'uoul at compllshing ~hls? MI IICH¢RKiAN Tht!l~! is 3 CiKal¢lt(' oad(~ at ~.a]l/pliIl~ v, ithbl lho ci~arettc' irldtlslt'), v, ldch ~le all riKidly adtlt ic to \\e bay( ~tlJttcI! poNtphlt~lb %~illl rc/aFd ~o lh~ t~lEiii]ing lal~, lol exoIlltdc, ~i'(, do BOI galtlp](, ill at Ii~,aI (ll alo~lld college callll)ll-~os ol gc}lol)l~ V,'¢ have oul own code hele with ~egald to the disl~Jbmion of saltip]('~, the flOOd {o vellfv a c(rt~ill ])etson's age heIbte cigalette .'-allhll]e is distrihuted I ;~otdd till 5tlu {h~li Iml itidu'.lr~ i-~ sll t'l~ln- p¢titive lhat if, for ayly l~2aso11~ as )oil I11o~" o11[ aTld a~-s]~{l) tbis i(, s:~onsibility to plomoliol/ llnlls or agencies, if there is any violation of It/is, aI the local level it is b[ought immedkltt, ly to the atleldioll of lh~ company who has that pal tleular p~ohlf,m ]t is stopped immediately. We ~e~3" faithfully do this I,ag[ hut l~llt I('~ls~, ] thliik it Ibllo',~s a series of changes arm the ~,'o&ls, to ('olltilltl~ to IDOl]il~; Otlr practices to respec[ ~}ar (}IIV(FII- II1('I3{'S ¢O11¢011i ~ltl~ Otlr O~ II CO[I¢~I'I1 about app¢,alii/g to yOtl[h ~l }{I,II }:'~" Yell S~I~, Ihat lh~' obacco illdLl$ I ' 8(~ S ) y{.~so i o b~olu(](' lh(! ~alflitlK'laboi oli {i~ttltIt(,~ that al'( t'x[YoIIod ]{klh ~lhat about cigmette expoll~ to developi~lg ltfil~(llls? l)oIl'l ~otl think they should be ~la*n¢,d of the ~conlloversy surlo'al dl g 8n ok- in ' arid hl.allh? ~II, IIOR}[IGAN. b'it'sl Of all, smoking is a heha~ilnal i<li/t I'll t,x(,I cised or expressed throughout the ~olld With ~egatd to Third tO ca /9
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39G Wolid countri0s, tlmle aie cerlain rtquizmnentg ~ith regard to winnings and di(~cre~d govelnments ha~e dill~en~ 3equirements The3 ale obviously honmed by all cigarette nlanufactmers q'he cigaretles that are nmlkeled in those counilk, s, meet lbe pal/icu- lal pref¢,ienc~s of those countries. The trend to;~md li:,htness thai • ,~t SOt" bl Ai/lerica is £,n~f~lging oI~ a 'aorld~id~, basis, ~llt ii is not as lnlllult' y(!t ill olh/!l coul/t rit's I}f ~ he ~(ll ld ~r, ]tlll};~. lie )ou know a } noxlmately how much, M1. }loll] gun, it woLlld COSt thC cigarette nlanuf'actur~r annually to Iotate warldng labels For example, how much ~ould it ¢os~ R J Reyn- olds? Mr. IIoRmC,,AN. 'Ihele is an estimate devtJoped oil an industD' basis, but to be rely honesl, as 1 indicated in nly testimony, our COIW('lll tki~ Hloll/in~,, is licit oi1£! of ecOrlctl/llcs It is il~ l]le lai/,~' o[~ 1 think, ]bl the total industly a cost of sortie $40 nlillion. So it it not a question of lack oI abili% to do this, the ecolmmics ot il are not in out' judf4menl, an i~sue ME. IILU~ I see But this $10 n/illion could go into higher fm tdoyee ',vag('~ or ~orne otht, i f,'/c~ot, since it ka8 not bccn she,ll/, at least t(I th{s Inolnh(:I, lhat by IoialinL~ labels, lhai it has had any ('fff El Oil consuluptiort, And 1 think that in Gpvt ~nmt,nt, lhe buldell of ploaf is on us, iF xle ale gohl/4 to put a bulden oil sonlcbody, to int(,lible with tb(.it ~igkts t~ advcrils(,, th[ll ~le iIitlsl show oval l~}l~]lniFIg, ovid~'ltc( l}lt~ it is going l(, be effect i~ e 1 thank you very much I thank lbeindulgcnceoftheChab mid nly c<d]eilgut~s f(/l a]lowiDg l~le this till)r' ~']t \VAXMAN 'lhank >ou, M~ Blib,3 iXIl. I k~l/n(~lllf~y(!l. Mr DANNtM}:YEI~ Tbank you l ~ould like to ask the couasvl, MI. With a ctueMion or t~o, if 1 nmy Mr. Wilt, ha~e tlw~o t,(,(n an3 jul[es ally tliac'., in the COkll]~Iy WhO hlIvt~ 0~1 appropliatv iIlslt tlctioIIs of the judge, brougi~t in a ~e~dict of ]lability a~ainsi the seller of cigarettes oil the allegation of a plaintiff in a la~suil that the smoking of cigmetles hnp dred that plaildiff's health9 ~*~l Will, It is lily undclstaltding that there have been no vet dirts b~ougiu in against the toSacco b~dust~y on that hasls Mr DANNEMEYER YOU mention that tb£~l~ [~le some east's pond- ing armmd lhe co~mtr) nm', AIc thole some alvaitin~ tlial oil this issue? .Mr. Wirg I can consult ~ith my colleagues behind me and find a p~ecise allswer lo that ~r. IIANNt;MEYEK. What I ~lokdd like t~ do, wlwa 3Oil C(I!ISklI( ~,lith Ih('II1, is ascelt~dI/ if tllailltifi*s Co~lng~[ 118~ been successful lit getting by a suit m a civil case to the point ~hel£. the judge has sIlb}ldllt'(1 i]lo CilSt~ 10 it july. It 3Oil hg~' the ar~s~t,r to that, I would app~t.ciaIe it? MI. WHI If3ou ~ould lik~,,i v.ill fred 1he ansv, e~ I don't ~lant to t;~ko tkt' subc(mlmltt(l's tim( Io chat with m5 f/i('nd~ while othm more important mailers was be, discussed But I ~il[ find t~m g~/%/l~q ~qnd g~'t it fol yokl ]~IF ])ANNIME~fI{ l would 8}sII like ~o kllol~ wkat b/sttklctiotl p] ihRill s couns('l ale g,i~ing Ill l('qut'sting the .~tldf't' girt', III jmil~ on t}w is~u~ of al,ptoxinlate taut('? That is th£' C~/USS] leIatioll, el)i- I'0 0 UI I0 \
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Z97 deTllio]o~icsHy speakhK4, betl~een tb(! snuddrlr (ff(ivalelie~ arm Ole vns~t of disea~o m debi]itatblg diseaso lo p]ainii~s? Fl~r ir~lance, I ~(~tLld ]ik(, lo kll£,w, ale j~d~es hlcludin~, in Ih¢~il¸ j~t3¸ instrHctiotlg, ~b~ staltn/ellt aI)t~alitit~ on p~/'ko~e~ of" ei~l lelws a~ it plesently exits, when they insllucl juries? 1)o you kl/ow 1}/at? Mr Wn'~ A broad answer, which ~c will be glad lo (xpand upon if you wi~h, i~ thai lhe instl u( lilln~ as 3i~u ba~e l~ul lbeln bavl, no( goiw to juries, in every case jmi(s }mv~ 1ound fm lbe tobacco in- doMly. Mr ])ANNEM~ %'E:[l I SL'C hlt£'rL" ~i]~t~ ']]*lHIk ~OLI I ~ol~ld lik( lo a~k this: Ale you in ~bal ] call lbe adveltising business, Mr, I,iRht9 lb. LIGtIT, That is Dr, Light and that is ~hat ~e call it M: I)AN'N~:~I~ I am glad to h~ve the ol~portunily to nmol one of" tbo ('×I,(~(~ o£ yo~* t~ade~ sil. Because L too, alzl a ¢OIl~klll~(I ill Aml!t[ca And } have an oppoIturl[ty flora Iitue to thnG I ]la~o ehil- dr(m in my home, like most o~ its, I stlppos% aIid lh£,) turn on ihe TV- (o view ~our ~ork pzodue{ When the ]'V is oil, I sumelilnes }K~ar these, ad~eltiselnel/l~, tba~ yo/l share w[tb the Alnelican public, sellh~g the pzoducls of your cIienls, Would you rabid outlin- ing tbose specih¢ things thai yotl ~3y sell pl(~ducts to cotls, ulBel~, of A rnt'li('u again? "lh~ fl~st ~as "MJat? Kee ) it shnple. 111 ]dGtrl ~,~]la~ l~as olltlioin~ t iEu(, %/elc so/de I/lilac p t's of c(m/llltll/icatioll lbr buildiug a~altness Ib l,l/mL Keep it sinlple, and I tIdnk that is, in my judgmem, lbo IIlO~t ttllldalllc, ilial olle of all, {ll [t~ct, %%e have l~l/ ('XIWeS~ 011 lhal sllrl/e tff us use called }'~ISS, k i s s, it stands h)t "~{t'('p ~ Simple, St up(d." Mi I)ANN~:Mt:Vt:t~ Yes What is the ne×l oil(.'? l); LIOlH Make it tic,at M: I)~NN~:~lt~'~:R All righl, e]eal. l)z l,lGtn, q'be fllird is say it often. Mt I)aNN~:~Vt ~ ()lien, xxelir lloyd, th,nt i~ inle:eslilg~ lh l,I(uta. Tbe tburth is be smgleminded And Iinall), be eonMst- ¢l/t MI. DANN~:M~:'tE~ And conslslen/ Wc, ll, I don't expect that my cornnwnis ~ill change the taclics m ftss<'~snlc'nt O~ {ll~" advertising illdkls~l~ OnE* %vit~ ~ir, but one col~sumcr lo you, with all rill(' 1t~$t1('¢~, 1 think that the basic plemi~e of the advmti~ing hldusI~y of Ibis country is in,oiling 1 fmd it offl.,nnive mld deuleaning to Ibe inlollif, cni'e ill the American peoph And fat ~hatevet it is ~mtb, in iI1~ asges~,nt(,nt ol how I ~iil sI:,:,nd my money, for tbase p~oduets ~ho advertise I]teit wales oil the plinciple of often, ~hete tbe theory is 1 s~p pose, the more you beal peoph, o%ol the head, I}le lnolo 'oil al(, going to se i 3'o~J~ products it has the efi('¢/ of coi~sciousl/ causihg tile to do d(dlberate/y the opposite }'erbap~, Ibat is all ~t part ill your sehlml(,. You wmi tl~ inxaliably lcach lhe psyche of the COl]Sl/tl~el lo ~'atlg£, tb[~t Paxk~\iau iti~ponse sozlw.v, bete along tbe Ihw. 'Jo ultimately bre~kdm~ and buy yore p!oducts. }'~ dmp~ I am, you know, susceptible as well | 0 /¢
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\ 398 ]lut my f, lend, let me shine ~ith you, I am vet3 sinee~e eboul it ~nd I app~ecime the oppoitunlty ol finding someone t~om your in- duMry mid sharlng Ihe:-e lhough[s with you foi whdevc* it i~ rh£qo EIIV VatiO[tS ~(~$ that appeal to this colls~ll~£~r Thtle is Oil( at Christalastime, I wouldn't name the ploduct, but it has a sh'igh pulled by a horse going across a sno~ scene I tell my ~ife %/}/eli- ever that comes OUI OVtCO £t yL%tl, "~'0[I ho%e [o lie dowll ~ln(~ buy N/HIlt! Of that htl:r hi,cause that, to me. sppeals to this C(IllSU[II(~I'S intellect" It is beautlfuh it is a story and 1 suppose that the only time they come on is at Christmas. Whatevei that is welch, take thal back and sh~ro it ~ith tho~e executives on /%ladison /~V(!IIIJQ 13~ OI~C" Cell Slttttt!t (ll Afll~'lidf¢ [O ~m people lklnIliil~ lhp 14it%%tiv(~ of Ilklt Nation Thank you. ]}r I,IGIlI. Thank you Very tlllleh COl the ~dvitl~ IMr ])ANNEMFI'I R ]~ iS %%O11}1%*,hal }oil fl~lid ~o] ~}r I, VANMAN. I ~('Oill to he healing what appeal~ fo be n contta diction in tile testhllony on a1 least ant point ] ulldelstand..X~t. }lo~titfan, 1hat you are claiming that these %larnink ]ahels, this in- lbrll) di/m that we m~: p~oposing to have available in clgarette ad- vertising ~dmut flit" spl';'iflc hb~l[t]/ dnn~4l~ls el cigmx,tte smllking, ~oukl not bc elh,ctive, I heat 1)1. I,ight sa3'in~: that the cig.rette ~larl/ing label ~e al- *eadv have is tt(,mendously effective ls that a ¢onttadi¢'tlon? ]%~ lh~mlIOAN 1 don't believe it is Mt ~*~AXMAN Ill Light, why don'I [ ~ddress that to you? DI ],lc;~N ] Ihink the key is bum detinition oI e~ffecliwne~ M,. W~XM~N, A~O 5ou claiming, that most people ]n tiffs count}3 al£ axlarv o~ tile dangets of stllokiu~ bccaus'~, o[ these x%~lllliI)~~ label~ and the success of the ~at ning labels is due te the fhct that they me simple, cleat, ~llld sing]eminded? DI LI£~IiT That i~ ¢oTlect ~I ~'%rAXSIAN NOW, ~o~1 ~IIC sa3ing tile) ate efieetixe9 Ill. I,IGI~[ AbsL~lut*.ly ~1 1,VAX~XIAN I thought MI. lira tig*ul clnJl/lel] lhnt we ~-h(,uId m,l haxe this label changed hecause labels, per st., me not effective in in[ornling people. 1'hat i~ the atgunlent ] havfr bctll h¢,atin~ ill the last couple hemlngs, th~Jt ill Sl~eden and othez t,]aces, ~m'ning labels ate not an efit~ti~e ~ ay to il/~'O1 lt) [1162 !2ohtic M, }IOIII/I(~AN I can't S~3 that, hit (hail'l/lan ~II ~,VAX~.IAN YOU believe tile Wal~iin/~ lab!4~ ErIC cflhc~i%C') l~It. }hlIIRIGAN I still thah it i~, ill n/3 tc~,tiln/my, iu itl3 h.ngthim ~Uhli~iSSiQI/ tO your comn/hIee. ~%II. ~VAXMAN. ]f we w~qgll to infoln/ d~e talbli/ that ciga,clle srn<,khx~ is a majol cause of healt all.vase, Ihd cigm'ette sl/l<lkil2~ iN 1}1(, ~0 ] (illS(, Of ][ln~ C.ar/cel ai,(I [tl~l[ c}~at ~,[te £mokirli~ }~)r I/Ic~, natal %%C~lt}Cl} Ilia% le~ult hi bitch {h~l'~ct~- ~l}lilo 3flu might It[It f~i~ll'c ~it}l [hi' mu~sagc ~ouldn't ~lalni{l[~ l,,bcls he an ~lh(tive ltl£'ll/ to CoI}%cy t]lig hlfblln~tlon'~ ~3-11 I]OHIll;AN. ~.'C(' dot/'I bc/i~x~ i[ would he (/l~viou~ls. ~ m~. }/o~*~ this n/c~IIdliW b~cam~c we ol~jcct to lhi~, ]tlgi~hitioIl oil ~CX(/~I] UI IV U1 6~
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399 h~(*~, ?~Ot p~]~']~ th(, illethod T)f C(>Z)&HQUniCJI]iOZ3 ]lX$~ ~li ~V[~I! hag(if, ~r ~VAxMAN. Y{IL~r OhieCtiO[t i~ tO th~ 8uh~{tlct~ o[ lhl, w~lr Ilillg~ Mr, ~IO~IIIGAN Otlt O~i(~C[ton~ al(~ ha~e~ LIpOI1 lh0 lilechanic> Of it, the fact that it i~ tmwozka[de~ Mr WAXMAN Why iS it Un%%'Olk~h[C~ y()~ say t}l~t i[ i~. (~l)[y ~. lllat~er ot £.coiiol)~ic5 Mr }](~I(RI(~AN [continuing) This tdIl, in its illesc,nt loire, ha as satiated penalties along with ec, rtaln lequi~enlents And ~ith the mu/lipticit) of brands mkd bzand styles and this m(thodo/og3 or to tnthlg warninp, s, the cigarette industry is behl/g exposed xety bad}y horn l~ litigation standpoint Tho mec}~anics of ilnlde?ne]ltation, ieg~rdle-s of £osb arP nlso bu~donsome So tbose ale just some- - Mr. WAX~IAN [contiz~tling] ] d~n't ~ant to be uiffMl (o ansbod5 II sc,I,m~ to me if that is the problem, il cai~ be ~orked out Wc can talk about how you can in~plen/ent ~hat ~,~e x~ould cons[del to boa legitimate warning tabel boeaus(, fron/ our 13oinl o£ vit,x% ~e want to inform the public as to the dangels horn smoking. ] Lllldt~rMand ~,OU wo~Atdll't ~gr~,e ~qth tltc l~le~sage ~te ha~e to car*~, but as fat an the mochanics of dvli~'eiing that message, that s(-c'ms to nl{' lo be" something that Call he wolked out, if thai v, el¢ the only p~oh]em Mr }}OI{RII~AN Aside i)om the r, lechanics, we have 8t~o ~tated cloudily irl our (estituony tha~ ~le object [o [hi~ kind ot requilt'I//ciit ol k,~is]lttioll bfc'~t/gf~ f-he retl'diteillcn{~ o[" lho£,¢, f,l[t{e[iwnts its ptll fozth in tht' package ale ~ithout ~oundatiol/. We have a light to be heard on that issue Mr. W*xx~ 1 m~delsland you don't agree with the message we haw, to ddiver, l want to elarit) th( issues wc have beiPiv us ] havl been ]mating that you don't a~lee with the message we. have lo deliver and ycm don'l think this is tin effec, li~e ~,~y to detivel the We can dispose of this second item It appeal~ you a/c hi ag[t,e ment that having ~a~aing labvls is an effective ~ay of iiflbrmhlg the public. M[. IIOI{m(;AN We are saying that the x~alzlil~g label, a~ it is presently constituted, is delive?h~g the ]ncssage thai you have a coneel n for We do not believe that theso ~ill sol vl any la~l!ful ]lul p~se It will add to the clutter and it is le~rih]y simplistic lo say it caI~ be worked out mechanically, because, Mr Chairr, lan, it will be extremely ditt~eult for your own FTC as well as the manttfactuler~ "l'ou ale leaving us in an oper~ l}eld l~l. ~,~,.tx~.I~,N, Well, il s('oms to me I am g~tting diftetelR rues sages }tyro. Maybe t|tal is one of the problems, the message is not clem and consistent, l)~. ldght, you indicated one ot Ihe reasons you think om bill is deficient is that it ~iolates one o[" the p~iucb pies of advertisiug, al~d that i~; to be consistent and clear and simple. And tbclefore, you thil~k the warl)ing label a/,e~dy rc,~uired fol lOWS CoIl/ll~[licAtion~ eliteria for ~LteCe~,~fU| tran!;[ui~.~kl[t of the message Is thai a co~ recl statement? D~ Lm~T. ~*'es, sir C;I ¢q
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40O M~ WA×MAN. i Would like to ask of ~ou, why is it thal the ciga- rette indu~tL7 reds that il nmst flequently var3 the tbrrn~ts of ad- veltJsf~lnents and noI lily on lhe .~am(, o/le? "l'~'hy do ~,ou (bnnF9 Ih£, piCttlleS oi gtaphi(,g'? (~el rain ~hing~ ale Collsis[(,lll, b~ll %~}iy ale othms clmnged? Isn't it l0 lrv to get and maintain public attcnti0rl, because Ill[", do get til',d of seeing the same adv~ltis!ment mer and ov~i? [~"e p 187.] l)z. 1,ram That is a vm~ ~ood example Ifyoa look a~ it ~m ~ill fred e}enlent~ ~¢, keep conslant and thtqe ate eleIntllts ~e tla~e It is not ttuc we have an ad. The intei/~ion is to keep the substance constanL m~d ~ary exec~tional contexL No%% ~f you look at tlmt ¢alnpaign, u'¢ conside~ Ji in Jac~ a e}assi¢ ',~ol]dwide example, rlol jtlst ilornestic ex~lrnplc, bllt WolJd~llde exarap]e ol ~O/ISiStelIC~, not of incoal~i~tency. Yes, it i~ t~ue that the pictmes change. It is also title the~e ale £1(~lncllts t]lat ale eoiisJs~(+ll~ lc~ac}l has its o',/~1 ptllpOse ']'h!lt <anl. paig~t J~ ml e×ample ol coi~sis~eilcS' ol luessage. It is not d~signed to ~a~ a di[l~ei~t lhing to the col~sumer in ad one, ve~su~ ad two, ~/~tstl~, l~[J lhr(,c II ~le did ~dveJ t[sillg ]es~,alch inl all2, 0nt" of I}10se ads, i1-~, %~0u/d (xpt.c[ {]le sarn(z lnessag~ to c0nle tht0ugh. Zh~ mzssagt, ii/%~ [~, ex- ectaed diflelrntly Why?Toget atteil~ion Not to communicate dff- fel elR J¢llbrnlation. M~ W.~×:~AN I1o,~ nmch a~tenti~n do ~u think Ihe public is giving to tht, liitlu }abe] dmln h~le at the bottom ~tlat lmver val i(.s~ li is al/i ays tile saute ~nd has lvhat ] considel a blal/d st~t(,. lneiK, "~.'alliillg: The ~/tl'~eoll (;enelal has dztolinined ~hat qiga- elm ified 'J']ll~ fon~ltnlel ]ool;~ a[ that 811d Sa3s. "l, Vell, dalt~,elotl~ [o your heahh, sm ~,' if they see it at all DI. ] ram'. I donh know, but--- p[l/gil l0 ctmmulnica~e thb rlles~a~[e that ljeop[o sho'dldtl't sn/oke b~' causeif the,3 do ~}uy ate ticking theb he~}th ot cour~eit is tbeb detJgloll, bill to conllnklniC~tle llml f:t(t 1o ~hcnl s/i they ~lJ}l be t~%~al'c of it, would yOU l(,coltll!/eiid t]l~lt ~.}l(. tllo~t (.~]~.¢~ive tiiil~g ~e t'ould do is Io put the labtl down hele a~ thv bo~tonl and ii/,~cl ch m~,~ it? l)l 1.1(;tll [c011tiIltlill~]. Yotl ]la~e usl.c,d s!,vi~la] qlle.tiO~lS I(,t 11]£, see it I can ~vmembel. I-ils[, ill tennis of consislencs, let's ti~k~- the nall]e ndl]l)olo. II is v(,tw C~JII is[c, nt ~anle t31)l' St~IO, l=ame h13utlt, Tile packag~ desigl~ 'l'h~ie ale celtfin thin,gs cllentz keep ¢oi~ ~]1 V~'AXMAN. ] (~OIl't %tIl(j~lS/~I/~ l~}liC}l 0~ HI%" qLIt,sti0I/S ~0U iile nns~lt z [n~ ]I gel:nl~ to r;/~, lhe qtlestio?l-; ] v,'olllcJ /ike 5'otl Io ans~l(I alt', olle, do >o~t ihink ih~t the, l/u}llic, %til}t that same it rliJn.~ h~bt,l p]acI'd in th/' shrill' h~cation, Ii'al~5 nssl'sst's thlt h/ ih}/ nlv ~,t t, ~ t~]cc[i~el} as they Could? And ~c0nl], if you ~ele ad~i~in~ tl~ &~ ~l/ llclvc/ti~itlg CXp(l[ Oh 0 ~n \
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% 401 you z¢oamrn(nd the ¢ttel(,nl label g~ I}l~ mot efihctixe x~i} *o cam i:/tmicl~le this iil/~lgl,~ Ih 1,~(~11~ ']ilo flr~l qu~sli~ul ~ls I ~ lITi~l!~ ~o say. I balk.v(¸ theft ~hl, CoiIs~lellO' i~ ilo~ ~ pr(~bh'tl~ It i~ ~tlt ~!,~ Wh~t i( n!el/~!~ i~ [t12J~ ~h(' ¢~ll~5.~lT/l(*r lilrt (}ui(tt(ly ~!lil/ ih~il l~t/~l! ;llift Ii)¸ li,c(l~ni~ll~ ~Inili~r syn~hol~ wiIhout lg~retblly ii,ading evl!ly ~o?d, /enliI/dink [llo~l ~tl~I is hi thai syllqho] ~}'ha~ i~ £~xaclly why ~l~%'~l~i~!!l~ u~l~ syl~iho/~ Now. ~hot ~hi~e box tt that type st2,le is a s tubal ] will )ick an e×ampJe at at~othcl acl This is m ad in a language 5ou inight not tlndctstand ] believe it is Chh~ese But throe i> because this ad nppemed ill th~ 1.inill,d ~l;des, a ~tngei.i Gt, neral's ~lm]dng in Chint,st, }hll 1 h/4il,xe thai if ~e sho~ed [his af~veltis(~ll]pIll I[} today% ((nlaUlllel$ and sMd, 'What do 3ou think i~ wtiilen ill this box? collstlmels ~hodo nol undelstand Chiltese, the3 would play bg~ck the h~lptes S[(JII, {he m<'ssage ass~ciated ~ith the ~qutgeon (~encqal'g %/tlllillg M, W~x~A~. "lhc }'edmal "lzade Commissim~ said that R, wm {hlan ~ Ii(qc(q/l olthe people who ga%% a clgal{~tte ad lead the Walll illg ]M~el th)s~ do y(lu (~xphlin Thai lrleC/ I am sure I00 l/oloenl could ideniif~ lhese as Mar]brae vigm (tte~. Dr. LI(;Ha That is plobabl?, hal t~u¢ But let's assume that if I f.h(~l~ ])!'oIdl~ an ad, nl3 inl]ll(,ssioi] ig ih*lI if I Sllo~l p(,op](, £tlt {lds{!I- t ~'mcml and a~. them v, lml lha! so[d, th~,y ~votald t/la) hack tile ~/tI~('0I/ Get}ela} s wa111ing ] 5eliev¢ if x~ did th(. lO~v?*lell plO1;/'l- 15 aud d~d il *~ t*~,ditimlM ~esem~h, ~e would shol~ them the ad \eltis('tnent, al~d lhel/ noI a~k them ~/hal pie[(~g of the ad l)~<~pl~ h*o]ged al oil ~ny glve~ o(casiol , }'~opJe look at adwe~ti~ing c~mlpaiglis, hal al individual ,~d~ Wh~l{ ~¢ ~It" td~(:t il~ llleusuling lhe ef~vtli~e~£,ss of [ha e~lnpai,$n iS Ill( C/IIBIIlativ(~ tlsCkk/g studieg, such as the (~d}lq~ sill ~K'y. Ell(' ivh¢d lit. ttge in OU~ ind~lstIy to exsltlate what the it(!{ iln~tes>ioi* i~ of nn aclv{,t [i~ing calnpMg*l }t seems that that element. ~tmning, that cigmet~e ~nlo}fing may hi" d;lll~£:lotls to O~ll heallh. Js d[ingerotff, to yO/ll heMth, has bl~n ColnnlllllicaIod to ~10 ])['rc(~llI of the peoph qhat is ¢'/ tthamph Mr WAXMAN q'i~at is right Dr. I,IGH~ ~,oil~'tal%lhlicnl~ f%~r. ~rAx~IAN. (ongrattllaIion~ io }ou YIItl ~1(~ Ih(, Olleg ~lltO £11( tlitllll]Jhhlg YOI1 ate l//akil/g o Irell/(qldou~ all%o[tlll el nlo~/e}, ~I1 Ill~h(!~lld Of ~lrllOt]B{ of BIOIIOy S(~llil/f~ [I ~ll'O[hl('l, ~lil(~ ~,o/t i~lt! deific9 it vely succ~s~full3 with £i[l%£!l[is{!ll~C?/{s that Cot*lll~tHlica{(' th(" n/ossago to bl~y olle htalld el atlother and I0 take up the habi[ Of smoking Don't congratulate u~ We have to pay the bill lbl tho~e people w}~ell {h~\~ get l~nK c¢111¢01 el he~l{ disease We have to pa5 [or lh(l/1%lh(,I/ Ih~!~ glt cancel alttt ~]leb illg[[l'- alice ~uns out if the5 had any at all ]'hat is the pl(,blem we have Iqea~e don'l congratulalo t*s ] eonglalulate }'oil lx~oh al thi~ ad- vezlige/n¢~n~ T}]ig I}/llsl be olIo Of ~,'Olll ft~'Ol'il(!S, cel[ainJy title of your most effective. ]t 8hews Kelil cigarettes ag a CSl[OI1 Of ice c/earn "Scoop on tagte l~el/[, of ¢zot*I~e." i~ Sa>s Oil [lie hal{oil1 N(I%~ is [}lo it~es~,af, e of thls, advelligemenI, 1 ~lll as,king nlme out at cmio.it5' lhalt any- thin~: else, that smoking cigarettes is as goal a~ eathtg ice c~eam? (h is thi~ adve~tisemenl sayin;4 to people if you slop smohlng ciga- ¢dl 0 ¢n
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402 rcltc~ y~u ~e .~/~J~ ll, get ~t because you ~c goillg f~ ~':~ ice ¢reatll? lSee p. 260.j ~lr. I i(~lil¸ I do~Ibl Ji i~ s~y~Tl~ ~ithc~¸ of tho~ t~o l~i~s ]~ ~h,qt a ~lll~ItiIJIc c}~oiee? M~. W~x~i~z. What does ~t say to you ~s ~n ~elti~g ~'xpel~? I~ ~he me~aEe simple, cc~i~feni, ~l c~era? ~r LI~II. A'~ ] kn~w, (hat ~d~e~isiJ~g ¢ala~a~gn~ ~hcy have been rll~Jil~ e~ch a~ ~cialed with vallou.~ ~c~ prl~lllct~ }le~ea~ch ~eeins ~o s~s[ th~ iI~ the Jow ~l¸ ~,gory, ll~o~l~ ~le conc~l iic~ A~Ld Ke~t i~ obviously hoping with lhi~ ad~'~i~inE lo co~u~i- ~r. ~|OR~IIOAN M1 Chai~ma~ p~rdon n/e, bu~ b~ck i~ yollr stfll~i~(.ll~ ~ fc!w ~lllm(,n~ ~1~o~ for ~'~e i-~,coId, ~o~1 1lilac ~h(~ ob~r- ~,liol~ lh,~t oul¸ ~1~ a~ designed to n]~e people ~ak~ up ~oki~g. Arid that h~ not eur objective a~ ~] Wi~h i¢~rd te that i~allicalal¸ ~.aT/lil:~i~n, ~ ~hink~ lh~:r~ i~ y~[lI¸ Ilicll/r~', ~t W~xlll~tl~ ~,~I (~hail- Mr. WAXM~. I will tak~ two of ~o~e Mt }i6~t~1(~.~ Icont~nuin~l Yoll l>l'~'~c~li yoL~r~ll io yo/~l¸ ~'~s~l~- (i,~, yOiTi¸ vOll, l~ i~ ,'3 V~I~¸ ~lvoI~le ~'~1~¸, ~Vi~l/ l(~Ic~ ~O O~11¸ il~- t~ ~U~I OU~¸ ~Iv~ ~i~in~ tbr tho~e ~i~llo~s of p~ople who have ~e fh'. deci~.i~tl 1o s~/oke w~ ~lre.~en~ ~le p~olI~lct in ~ ~l~,a~t~Y~ble ~va~¸ because' to tho~e who ~ii/oke, it is a p[c~iablc habit you, I ~hiak, ~hea you ~I~ for office p~ei~t ¥our~l~, b~t we d~ li/ol~ lhan n~o~ p~ople .~boa~ e~l/~pai~n~. ~ k~lo~v ~f ~.hele i~ ~ elt'c- t~oll Itoln~ on nn~ no ¢onte~t, the ~otel¸ tul~lo~t tend~ to bc nl~¢/l ]o~¸. ~t¸ th~ie ~ a co~lte~t, co~np~till~ ¢a~/did~fe~ are ~ryi1~ to ~cll you ~o~, t~l¸ oi~e ~s ol~[Io~(rd to ~h¢2 allo~}~ci-, Obviously, candidale.~ ~re t~ill~ Io se}l ~helr brand, ~e~ t~c believe the inlpac( (~f adv~ ti~iI~, de~pi~e ~our claiI~l il i~ only to .~lttr~¢~ 51~/ok~l~ f~'ol~l oil~ hi.lid ~o ~iio~h~l¸, irlcr~-~se~ tlt~ l~lln/b~ of people who ~1o~ MI }I~lllltl~A~¢. ~l~irl.~ bi~t~r~ ill~rl}d~ce~ you ~'cof~Ili~e lily b~- gl~uud ha~ been ill othel¸ iE/du~tlic~ lct'~ ~a~', ~he~e a ~r more ~l¸, coltll/~t~,~ ii~ ~ ~er~" ~.¢,s~rictiv(, in~ibi~,~ ~,rlvir~n~l~lll ~/rld So i~/d~cd, we have a ~e~y ¢o~titive indu~tiy [l/~t it i~ in ~i~ct ~bll~! o~ i1~ ~oln~ ii~in~l ~ll~ iIJ~-l~,i¸, ~lllll ~rlo~he~ coIEl~I~y ~oiI/~ ~iI~s~ lh~ other alld it is ~tlic~]y ~ r~l~t~er of bl~I~d ~tef~l~ilce }t i~ clear lfo~r~ t~c stati~lic.~ and l~'nd lh~t we ~re ~r~l ~ui~di~l~ Mr. \VAXM.~;. I~r LighL the "l~'d ~le~ A~er~cy v,~o~' iw/ ~nc o~ l~l~il¸ f~v~2iIisii~ i//~,?l/o~lil~l ii~ ~ [~r(lilll,.~,cl i~li~i~ii ~ll ~tir~c~ O .q I
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4O3 "Ill( ill/lit( til,qt ht5 hiwlt us(,d ~L z~ut/i}J(.! ol liDll,s iI oui ]ilLIIL, ;~i~rl (~111/(¸ II(Ull lJ l/~tlil;~! OI OIIt li~ ~iI~]tl Cc~[[~lJiiIIZ(- x/i~Zl, {]~CX (1!~ t;{i/l(,cl {h{¸ it/[/l?lllat[lll} 1Io111 l//~¸ ~*~,(i(~t~d ~7~j([{. ('olrl!/li~ir~l~ It t~ !r,~l{d ltl~it iol t}lc 3ouI/[{ s!]lo~(l, t}w ci~f~!l('tte i~ not ~t a:/ Ihl~' i'r,~l p~lt ol]il6, ofda34.ch~ylih', m ~pi~ oJ lhoh~ll t}~l Iht3 tl3 i~ ~tldeq[ I}1(" illl,~l, Ol a II~UlaI, lun<~! t}lt nti}[ ~mok~.I }'Or lhl~lllr lh~! li~21t"ltl% ~/id ~thl~h 5/ll/ikill~ llIoct. 5, is Ntll ot th- illici~ pJea~ute Cah'poty |n a 5OLlti~, snlok('l~s nthld a cl tlctl(' [,41Is into Ih£r SIIIIIE' C~lC,~O/y wilh ~lill~', bL.c,r, Shaxitll% ~(~t Jn~ ~ and strixing tot ~eH~identit), }'Ol ~}1( ~OUll~* S~II£"l, ~ cigarette is a~sociat£d ~ith it/tlo:]tIctiolz t<~ ~,l,x ]il~', ~i~}l (IoUII'Q~p, ~lJl}l sIl,¢/k]tig pot, },¢'c'j>~n~ lilt. ~,l~dyin!~ ~o[lt5 "~hJs zma}~i~ J~, (~rtf, of wh,tt 5oun~ p(op]e, g{,~ler£d]y ~peo~- m~ thilik about smokin~f, al~d ] wodd assume that lhi~ inffnma- ~ion is I~imslated into an ad~t ttisJn~ ~unll)ai~ ~/ that (cm £ncoulf~K~ t~/I,nl to taku up ibis hahJL v, Jth a patticulal bl~[ld in nlind ]I bocoll/Is a }if{ lolls[ ha}liL 1}1 IAGH'I ']h~t 8ssu{llptioll i~ ihCOllCCt }*// %~xM,~Jg Oh 'it'll ln~ wh,~ i~ incol~crt ]): LtGIH. Well, l h~d o~13 m~iwd in tht city and ~mly joined 'led lldes s~,~elal niont}}s at~o So ] mu t tell )m I ol~I3 ha/lied ~d~lut Lt/C' VJccroy MI "~V~x~I^N \Vlmt ~l(ut' you doing hehn(' that? ])i 1,mtli icontinuiu~] I ~a ~Hth I{BI)O. llul sinco tim suh,i~t (]it} C'C~!IIE~ Up, OUI }('gt~} cotln,~(,[ had }/llelod ll/~ or/ th,., i~dL- ] liar( It,d IhL' l]l ~l J}]}*~ J(~SI('ldDl' .A, Dd l think, h*l lht. toc(.d i! mi,qhl b II~eftll to l~'~io~ ~t}lat di~l h~pl>~li to that IICt/ Cf!l q~h, hecotlA~" ] lhirll: the statt, iuellt~ you }law lildc]o alld g SUtODtiOl£ ~o[I h~l~c Nul Iha{ i[ ha£ bo/'n izl~L'lrthai(I3 qti(}t~'d [lilt i[ i~ irl.'{nt~/'t lhut I~/~t quo{e ',~as i (d]ect(,d ill ally advt'lt[sillg M~ \YA×~.IA~ V~lhule did that quote colrm horn thH/~ Ill J,lcm'l ~'~(dl, tile cJlculnstanct'~ ~/el{ ~buple ~]hu Ted llalcs Af.~ nc3, ns I unclrl~tm~d. ~la~ rlpp,~tonll~ in te~mhle on ~]/I Vico~(~y hrand Thele WaS no s~ctet The c}[~n/ had told the aKutlc3 t}K\x ~£,lE, flbOtl{ (O lOt, C" t~l~- fiCCOtltl~ TJIE L¢CgOUIII ~/Okll}, hc'il/fi; I/L,I~OUS, itlltl [hill i~4 C£!I~&J[I[$ lID[ El gdTp/ise, they iut~ a/~o h~l[iI[tll, il i(i~l~(,d 'lhe lirst tiling I should poini out is that it wa~ not 'l<d Bates' ~('~(~ltc]l ]1 ~fls lest~alc}l cond~lc[cd by £~ ccmlp,~l~) Ci~}}('t/ ~.~,\liK, ~ll}d ~}lE" I{'SC'31Ch lo]tor[ %%'a~ xxlitte;1 h) a Jhllo~l Ca]I(.LI (al}non ten [K~ the nlod( latol of thi,se fom~ gt(lup irlt(~t ~il~lt~ ~1/ WAXMAN. Wasn't thc lepOlt x~]Jt(ell for Ihe putpost~ of t,')ing to flg~tre OUt what v~ould be a good lest or stlat~.gy to sell c{guIctl(s to )oilier', people? ])z |aGHI. ThQ l(,s~dtch 1~,~3ol t W~ ~Ii~QD b~ g T~lo~l{q~tloy %1/0, ] doll'l know what puztmse they ~all it l~ut ] (gin sa) thal v'h,d did }lappen ~t~s that ~t ~,]r. ~,VAx~4AN \Vh , can't ' lu im tgiEI ~ lhe IlUtpOS(r? Wll3 do you lhiak the), were doh/g tha(? llo you think Ihe) are sociologists Ilyinlg to hgme out ~Hlat kids like? They ale discussing tlying to sell cigm~ tt/.s, saying what teenagt.l~ like 0 UI
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O~ In In ,D ~4 In ul/!l~,mb £1u l,~l~uu ,u nllX ]11~:11 [ NVlqXvA~" "J[~ ]l}lt ~([ ,/[ql!oIl u! ~;ll[,)~tuot{l ~,~]~ ut!,l Oq~ ~SOI~IO~) U[ ,}]l[ool[ ,)~ O¸1;11tl ~l{l "3110!l~lodIo0 Ill O~ll~o~q A'd!811pu[ ~t[1 JO J[~l{~q Iro ~,)~I~ OI a'l!1 p[no~ [ i,~qlln~ d,)l~ ~,' ~{~?lI o,'~ s l~1 lnq 'uo!l~b ~t{~ t,~lsul~ 6~tl!>~OU['g In O~l~10~ tlh~ql ~tglno;)ti.~ 01 lIojj,t p,)D3il]0[p) 'oau,,p!au!oa ~: ,~q /IO~ .(~.'m pu~: sa!lsT~els )~u[ s! ]! ,~ou"l [ 'a~oX U,2LUO%% [{I{%% ~OOUt30 ~JI~D[ IQ O~IgrA;0U[ IU9 ~.)Oq ~W~L{ "91'9[{I IEI[I Sn{~ S!l~ ]~ U~),)S ,)A;~I[ O'%i SOU![ ,~'~Oql ~uop~ l;o!]s,)tlb ~ 1/o( "{s19 ;)~1 ]0'l UO'~h)d s!q] ~u]ttl p]no,~ [ ~q) l!ulqns pino.~% I xvr~xv%'~ i[%[ 11{[{% UO pOIO~[;,~/ ~U!S!Io[;gA[~W (9[[ ~{ ,#£,91~ -~OU S{ %~![{,i ~L[{~)[~[ d([ u~!%'dmea ~u!s!l~oap~ u~ o% p~!oI uoAa ~up!p ~! ptm 'qo~" s!q ,~,%~s 0% ~IJ[.~U ~ Oq ~- .qpoqotuos Imq~ lat{~o ~u!ql:~ue JO %umuolels alt!,ln3 -3~! u~ lot~ s! s!t{~ ~t{~ s! sfl Ioj aa~q nod luotu,~%~ ,~tLL .~Taur t~o/ uo!vhunss~ oq~ "q ~h'qd~ plo)o[ .)ql Iol I! p!~ o:ogq lloA 'p!I~s tlo.¢ l~tD~ punwl~plm I "nod ldnllo~u! o~ ;~u!o~ tin: I ~vI~xv%~ "Gq U~JI[III:L{ Io~ I>[I ~i~u[ql JO spit[:t /o~I l~!q) ,Ix/Is ~tl!tu o! ;/p[s ~ ,(au;l~l! ,Iql uo put! ~)p!~ SIU,][[,I ,}ql tz(] ~ut~[~?Il I]u~! s~),~{{.] I{~nou,I ,)~t~ Ol,~ltl ~! ql[lll aa!soddo 4q~ 0[ pL~!I%~IS!LI[ I! dq~![I[ ~IIIIOII IUIIO.).)~! ~,IIQ[%20,'IOAO D%! ~! ~)IOq) l~q~ stl,]tidt!q s;)tu!l,)u[os tl s~;)oad ~u!s!)a)apl! oq~ Itt;l~,)~d<l~;[ta p~lt~ Ix.l~tlo,I .to )llll poloIITI ,~l~! ,'~ ~ql *otu )tit U u[ ~s!x,~ lip ~;pI(I,%~ Oql 01!@%% 'UO![I[~]O (Ul U[ puv po~onb o,%l!t{ ilo~ Ll3[qA~ SpIO%~ ,)~Ot{l {IO p;]s~?q ~O t[o*t~a~oa 1~[1 rio p4scq poollpo[d aOAO o,to% .',pt~ oN[ uodn pol.)~ loll ~% ~UOUInO0I) ,)tt~ tl] ~%-3],% Jo ItI!oc[ Oq~L p~olx~olti io p,~[~!do~d ~.ou s~ ~u!s!l~,~apv "qo.l~,3sol ~ql uo poseq p.).u2d,~d oq Im~I,~d lllt~o~)l~ ~14] plIl~ 8IqlloII II! -3~%~ /~.9[1,)2~ ,)l{l II21[l ~tl[l~¢)[l"[ 'lutt~ s! l[ Inq 'uouu~O ~L%[ ~*l P,~:l[u] ly,~auq I 'a~m~l UmP [ pu~ '[ Ii~J] )it[iu! .{[q qo~t~;)s,~ pop{tl~#S{tt[ S!ql ,(t{ p.o{J[[/~ Du~? [);)~t[OIt[ IIoLl~ £1!%1 ~u!$!1 I.~.%p~ 119t{) I[o[ldlullsg~.~ .ltlOX $[ ~u!q! ,(,9~l Oq~ '1%0N ~t[,~[[0 eq~ O1 s][n-~ol ,)'~ot[1 p.~lu~)seld puq ~[o~,3sol )I{~ jo ~][ns,~l ,)ql poz[~!uttun~ 'qo!" Otl~ [ql p)tu,)ouo.) 'oq.lx e~,!%ilaexo l~lno,)o~ u~2 Xq 0onss[ OtllatlI I~ S~2.%~ ,~l~t[~5 I%OX ~[ll~!q [, "tlI!)l'[ "I(I ILIOUI,~I~ Ino~ ol,~Idtuoa noX 1,3[ XlU!t~l I,)3 I[!V, I ! ~0~
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40b ~l ~*~AXMAN }flII/ [[oi[lf[ (O have lo JI/tOI/LIIH 3oil ] f!{)ll'l V. ~)/t to ~,/¸ ludt¸¸ I il~k(d a ~pccific questioli, I lta/ly want mt an>~t,i lo it M~ ]loi!llc;t~N I vail 8nswer it l~,lr V~rAXMAN AIt3thiltg else ~llu i~anl lo adtL ~e ~i/I keep lhl le xJld opcII ~lr IhlR]HGAN ~'iI/C Wilh I(!~Rld iO th(~ iDcidE,]l~%, ol WOIIM~II smoking, th( incidence /ale is, in fi*ct, declhlJrlK Rhe nmnbm~ of jhl/l~}cf- that ,'?re Slt~ob[lLq i~ il]cl £~a;-iilfd 8S 8 hll/C(iOii ot popul llJoll Ho~(v(~l, ~vh(ll i1'£~ look at cigmelle SIilOk[l]R a!l/oliRsI lh£~ ltii/~l}( ~o ~t/l~iJolG ~le calllno{ look o{ thai in isolalimL ] }¢1£, sa Ot ofchaChffe llsoca be/a~ o] ~ t ilef_aldtoft.mae~ ill Anleriea They i~1(' l'll{£1illg into the /l/alketplace and lh~\~ ale ~kking ul) othel cbar.qetelistics The ]nai~ who d)ank a s'.'oteh at thealport and lit up 5 ylars ago im~ d/ink~ xd'dte ~si¢~t, but the winking girl may stop at the same bm a~ the abpalt ,hid ha~e a drink and liffht up ~ eigmelle ]t is a snattm of social behaviol ~,~r WAKMAN 1}0 3oil imagine the ndvelMisJng l'anlpllgn "yokl }/llyu ~'oi]l(' ~1 ionfl ~a3, baby]' directed to~ald ~ olilei1 tl) encok~lage thl.m to be mole liberaled and with it to lake Ul, smoking, may }/ave bad some in/paet on lheil dLcision Io lake till sn/okiiig? M[ }]ORTilGAN No, ~I ChS[lltl&l~ In 0HI teFIinlons, ~f, eolltil/~ae tu hold to the position om advertising is not gemed twit~¢teasing the slI/okJI/f' markel, but ~hen tho~t p~opl~ nlake that dt:cisloi/, at,d ~[thin that UI/iv(ise that Coil/]Jall~ C]lOO=:0s t(i Ii/al;o l]lal pal- liCtl[al ]llOl/OSi~iO;l tO ~'1 ]¢'rt/alO smoker, nol a ll(lll~lllok/,l If I miishi ~,li "~VAXJ~IAN y¢29. ),~r. ] IOIiRIOAN. ]~aldon file, ~I (hairnlan ~]a~ I i~/lt(,l some lh[l/g till ~}1(. iccolii i]ox.~'~ ]g it i~pploplJ~r{e, ol ]ai(,I o1]? ML WAXMAN, 1 am so~3, what did you ~ant? M1 Illmm(;AN, You said I would have a chance to come back and ('l/l(.l S{]lll(,Ihlrlf~ in the F(eotd Ilith rei~ald, lo eal']icl cornmc~lls M~ WhXMAN If you llll~ il JD I~iting we vail app~cciute it l~r Danl? f~li? (\vt I MI DANNFME~ER ] thillk it is allJ/roptJate Io ask the ~lJlrKss hml lo:lg thl slatenl(mi he dt,siit.a lo 1hake ig Is il ]ellgihy, ol ~ hal, si~? )dr. ]IOI/IIIGAN A paragraph, MI. Dannemeyer. ~,~1 I}ANNHM1;~t U } lhink the gentlcnlan should ha~e tile oppot- [klldty Of l~Sllolldh/g Thu Chaitlllall has pOillted o/1{ he ~lllklld hllvo a chance. And that length of statement, I don't lhink, ~xiIf burden anb of us 'l'he ehairnlan ha~ Leen a little aggressive, a/td I think he ha~ a ~ighl |o be, hut ) think lbe ~itness has a 1 if,,ht to lespond, to0 MI "~VAXMAN. J fl/ink the gentleman is speaking tbom lhe point l,f ~iew of uIf:ing lailness I will do thin 1 will recognize my ¢o]- l(!it~ U£'S, because 1 ha~e taken tip a lot of thne Shmlld eith¢l of Iny calkaguea wish to yield dulitig their time, offer any addRkmal eonlli/elfls, (hey f~l£~ [l~,e to do so .Mr lllile~. ?dL ]h n }:L ']'hank ,~ou, ML (3hailman M~ lloltigan, suppoal-diy in this bill we were discussing ~olalion al ],qb~lJllg. But the ]Jrm (/[ questioning that ~tl, have ju~l bl,cn UI O
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b~ 0
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4g7 THE ROPER ORGANIZATION INc Ch~nr ~e~lth S~b¢o~4~tee ~r~tly ~ld~9 h~ari~s ~ ~ 5653, ~i~ i~ Che bill Lh~ ~rti~i~9 ~v~tgatio~ d~te~ ~ay 19S1, priv~ ~v¢~ ~ ~O~U~ for ~he ~obac~o l~!it~t~ in 1~?~ war~i~9~ ~Y~ r~uir~l t~ our ~9~i~i~ ~,wev~r, t~¢ f~- h~ve n~ ~bj~¢~io~ ~o the ~ay th~ F~C ~t~f r~porL~ w~th ~he ~on~l~sion~ khe p~2 sL~ff ~¢~che~ ~e~ o~ tho~e f~cLs. ~s~e~full~ r~st that this l~tter b~ i~elu~ i~ th~ tr~ O
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(A 0 ~n Ca
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I 40~ ~t ~p~,~r~ ~ o~ o~r ~99~ ~rv~y for !L~ T~cc~ ~ti~¢~ ~opos~ ~ ~rn~. ~ 3¢% of ~ th~ ~u~r~nt ~i~g.~ ~i~¢~'~ ~er~--~r 9~--o~ ~,~l~s~ q~¢~,r~ ~ ~on~ ~,~ ~%~ how ~ tim~s ~o~e ~ik~l~ ~ ~ok~ ~a~ th~n ~ ~u~8 ~ve l~t/le trouble a~wer~ that ~t is a i~t f~rther~ ~h~ ~Sic~ti~ ~ ~, ~1 ~r~ ~ ~ ~3at~h~ ~ the 0 ~q Ca
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• .J%.~ •
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l, 4n THE ROPER ORGANIZA]ION INC Decer~e~ 5. IDa0 Ro~ 6415 ~ach o~ ry thre~ p~Lner~ end • l£~ci~nt~lly, t~ ~m~er~, ~ non~rr~ersl h~ve ~,~de a qu~e~ ~vle~ o~ the ~u]t~ ~ok~n9 o~ health that the govern~t, the {.near ~et~ty ~n~ ~ther~ h~ve b~en pronounce. Th~ ~r~ e~e~ticns~ br~a~t ea~ce~. ke~e, w~th ~ker~ being ~-ewhat I~s~ ~ncIined t¢ ~ck~e ~t~on~h~p~ (e*9., "50 tlFe~ ~o~e ~kely", ~10 tl, e~ ~s ~ik~ly~, ~5~% g~e~ter~, .,6 to 0 ye~r~ 1~". ~tc.I. ~s~ s~ t~L~,~e i~ a mign~f~ntl~ 9~e~ ~,e~ o£ X ~ ~ ~lg~if~c~nt ~e~t~ ~r e~,eeted lo~9ev~¥, et~ r • O
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~r ~s sbo~ by the dif£erea~e ~ r~$~,~ to ~e correct ~¢r ~ Mr. Bt,ll.t:~'. 1 thank you very much l have no further queslions, Mr, Chalrma~. ]~r. WAX~t~N. Mr. Dan~emeyer. Mr. ])A~N~:~I~Y~:~, I ~it here an~ renec~ on ~h~s wallli~g label and ~flect on the fac~, if ] heard correctly, that 9~ perce~t of ~he people, or was it teeilager~ in this cou~ltry, were ~ware ~ Mr. I~¢~MEW~ [e~l~tilluiT~] O~" health h~z~rd~ ~ociate~l ~'ith ~moking~ aud still we are having a lot of cigarettes sold in the country. Maybe we ~du]ts ~hould reeogaiT~ the deficiency in our label¸ It say~ the Surgeo~ General, and I thi~k a lot of people wonder who the Surgeon General Js For tho~e who k~/~w, he is ~oci~fod with the FederaI Goveri~ ment I ~n~ reminded or" that sto~Lv ~b~ut lhe person ~ho eo~s ~o the ~'~t~zen~ and says, ~] am from the Oovernm~nh and ] w,ant to help you" The reaction of ~ lot of people fo this country today, uilfor~una~e ly, is to put ~hab" hands bl their pDcket a~d g, et oul of" lhere ~s quickly as they can. ]~ we w~uld put a l~b~l o~ cigare~te~ that ~ab~ ~i~lee 1 ~ome from Fuller[on, C~lif., which is lhe h~m~ of the Callfor~ia AI~ge]s, I'll use a e~uple of people there whose nanles are a~ociated rather extensively in the ~porfo world¸ If, say for iu- ~ll~, 1~o~ ~rew, nao~ v~luable player playing for ~he (!~Iiforni,a ArLgels, said that, Dr if, Mab~lmmcd Ali or ~eggie Jackson/ or s~me- body else ally of the~ uan~e~ that a~e fa~us i~ A~erican sports- put their narae~ o~ that |abe]~ we m~ght in~rease the atte~ tlon leve] of people Maybe our ~dvertising eomnitlni~y would h~ve a~ opp~rtuni~ of resp~J~ding. UI U/ 01 -0 s~
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! 413 Ii I~ole xlomerl alt s1~/okJnF todd3, th£ f~c[ i/ta3 bi~ lhot il [ ill(, ft~tdL (~ I[l~ tloIIIoIl'~ lil)l~la~iol/ IIIOV~FnI'IIL ill OtlV C/llltl!(¸. ]'~II~*I~S iI ~i(, wolnell a~e wolkin!~ out£i(Ic the }!o?l/e alld thE,y iee] ~]l,~{t.x/i¸ !~tt,~bll?.~-; thol'e ~11~ lh~l cli/Ist. }1£.o11]~ t(I ~i!1o~o ~I~ clu~h~!~ con/meI~ would he thes/,, ~II {'Tha~iman ] suppt~c ti~at'son~opl~tct, in Alnetica. sool/(v /Jl ]art I. Ii lnt,l,lil~[~ {d lil/¸ 3,]r~/~3 hl~!ll ¢olnlilan~ ~ou]d ~,xpless the sontiln(nl that so/n(. ¢1a3¸ the)¸ h II / .<omt¸ I ]ai flus ]a ~e~¸. q. ~(il ~', ( I t t e o~c(( inlhv.tI~ • o[¸ tiLlS CO in{13¸ Wltll h ]~tll~l~lC~ [/a,ll[~t5¸ S.!Ut a!ld ~,,u~ hoc~t/~,£ the) ~, ~t.!llle on/lugh btpdnesslllen [o it'co~rii~c t]Ea[ as a le!;u]t, tht, It~giti. ~,~ato lobaoco prc*ducms ~ould be driven fight out of fl~e industE5 And Ibis ~/oLI]d just c,alsc {}I(' gleatest in(ep.,st on the pat toi t}we' gfltFod('d ill Ihc il](,~a] plodttction atl(I s&h, o~ Clgarttt(8 b'..(6./lsi. v,e ~lou]~l be hack ill prohihilio~ time aga[ll ~o ] think we ]tt¢~e tilt (dOe~-live in rl~J[l(] of ilnplo~ing puhllc }K,~]ik h } }audahla. 1 sllppI/ll lha~ ]he l~hl,] is ~hc, l~, /el I/eo0~t to road ai~d reflect on hopelu]]y, lCut you know, 5esterda) in this (]h~ltlh01, ~&e }l~ld ~1 }lC~ilil/g oil C]ti~l/ ~il I }l<qv{' tO B~,k~ ~Fe we ]~thelhl~ (oal ffOI/Sxlll/((I ill ~elo~el- ]*lKtlt~ of Amltica, the bllTilil/~, of ~hich i~ {J~lll~[£1'{l!i5; lO 3OUl I/enlth? After all, we taxpaael,- spclld, what is ix, about $1 billion a )cm on bhck lung benefits And I have fol'gottel/ bo~ lilatly people ~,.~ kill a 3'(al each )ear mining coal in t}3i~ eountr3 I l~lll not ill, are we ale' ]ah[,lillg ~,on] )daaho We 5}//m]d in ol{](.i to ~tl/l(~h)tot(' ktlll)~D sltf{erJng, Io an oliol'gaIo ~}1£. I~(]x't'ls! iI~lmet t,n pl'.ple. Maybe we f-hotdd label e~el3 t',pe of elK'l,~3 ptoducld irl(] con~l/121uc] ill Al21t'IiC~q ~;tll.'R(" ~lh~!ll ~1~! ~1(' honest c'lhotll i~, t,~x~ ol~('olthcm poses a risk to am heq/h '1 hank you ~,]~ WAXM~,N Would thegcn/l¢nlanyield? .Mr IJANNt:MEyEIt I ~lou[d hi, htlpp3 to yi(']d ~,~t X~.'AX~,IAN. l bavl' ligtened to ~/hat tile' ~entleman ~a~ .~tylng quite ~a~eiul]y. '] hctc i~ a dlfib]cncc it ~eems to rile ill ~hat x~(' me doiu~ ill t}/+' Cieall Air Act, trb'inf~ to limit the amount of crmigviOn~ in th/' ail that peotlie h~eath(, qhcte is a choice to be iligide v, llcl/ sanl(oi~ picks up ~ package of cigaletles, deeid(~ to tRIll ol/e eLI{ alld li~ht it till. qhit is u difll!lt'Iil situation that1 ~l}l(![htl 30tI ~t1(' i!oiII/ to hr~,athe the alt or zlot I I}lilik ill the Ol/(! ¢Bgt', the qilf'~,t[otl o[" the air, x~¢, have m~ obll- galion Io p~oteci the public ilo/ll brcall~inf: hil;'tll£]o/is nil In the ca~t: of ('igarollcs, I tlnl not fo/ ploJ~ihiliol/ ]'cop]e ~lle t!oitlg to Iil~lk{~ a decision hll lh£!ltl~,l!lves, but I ~sant p~-op]t! [o [lltlk!l~ialld ~}Ial if they are goinG to take till cigalette 81/)okillg, they &It' sub- j('ctil~g themselves to leal health hazards An(1 there \~e have, I think, tl~te obligation to encoulaf~e /he public to he [~s knowletlge- abh, as possihh ']'hcxx certainly have a bombar¢lment of advc~ rising to mak¢ clga retie smoking seem attractive, l think th~\v ought to be av, ate as t}l(3" Illake a pelSOIlal choice, ~lhele t}lE~y haxe the ot>po~tu~fit3 to Ill Ik(' ~1 r.orsoiiD[ choice, ohoIl~ lht" oth(l" ~.ide as well lXh. ~)ANNEblEyER ] appreciate lhc gt'lltl('lll~'/l/'g COl2II~lellt. ~Ii. WAXMAN. hnathing ~hlthel by *'lily nlembms of the stlbcon) nliltet'? UI tO ha. t0 Ol m
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414 I v,o~lcl comment thai the Rol~c'r Oli!arlization's k, lter, ~hich I~, ably ~l~t ilul c/~tly ~oon but it in~licate~, in this leltel th~I t}l~y clili cize the l~de~al 'l'radc (~rnn~i~slon s~alt¸ colwlu~iol~s thai the pLIbli¢ is inadl,qualeIy inrorn/ed about the dan~e~,~ of slnokin~. ~1 his, I un- dl'l~-t~ll~d, i~ only oxle ol¸ f~e lkOJlillg ol~anization~ that looked into iIublil' Iij~inilln on ~ho sub~oc~ 1}ll~ }l~pt.r It,ttt~l¸ illlli~:~tlt,~ th~l in ~ stlrvl'y Ihl!y i~llndllcled ~br the ~'~1~i~:¢o ]nstitutl~ th~y h/und t}l~l ~ (Ju[ ill 10 Anlt~lil:Jlll~ t~l, liev~ that slnoking is h,~zardo~ls ]~l¸. IIortip~an, 1~1~. Kornef~ay~ M~. Witt, D~. I,if~ht, ~e thank :~ou v~ry n/ueh tbr bcin~ with tl~, for ~iving you~" vie~ oil t}le~e i~ue~, and ~1¸ aIlsthhl~ else you nile}it want ~o ado] ~o t|~' record We do ~lail~ l/} I~ a[q f~iI¸ ~4:~ ..~e ¢~tn hi, in ,~lt]Ii~ ~11 lho poilit~ ot¸ ~.}t,w bt'tb: e ~ b~'Jb~e lh~" Con~ ess n~ak~'s its d~'ei~ioll rl~ll~lll]~ :~oll very inuch ~|l K(~RN~;I~AY. Thatlk you, ~l (Thtlillllall, vt~ly n/tl~'h. I'l'e~ti~o~¸ resu~nes on p. 4,13.] l'l'he follo~'.in~ letter and attached ~at~.rial~ ~,r~ submitted ~ the rec~l d ~ =,. J ~D ~q UI ~0 r,D
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~ ~ev¢~n ~u~ ~c~,~ z ~,L~ ~l~e ~U~ g~ r
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i 41C If) Undel ~Iod~ct liability ~, ~a~uf~ctur~r~ ere icquii~d ~ftl, tl:~ u~e of their produ~t~. Please s~b~it a legal clg~ettes in t~ eyelet the 1~beli~g pLovi~o~s ~f t}~ 12} Ilti~£1y desclibe ~iI cigarette le]~led prod~ liability W~th r~spcct t~ addiLi~i~al adv~Itls~u~ o~ert~iDg. (5) S~b~it ~ J~s~ o~ ~o~e C0~tries i~ ~h~ch the ]~.J. ~ynolds Ce~p~y or its s~[,$idi~[ies n~et cigarettes. ~c~te t~,0se Co.[~t~ics that req~irc ~ I,e~l~h ~ar~ir~g (5) ~ow ~y hra~ of c~g~ret~es does t~e R.~. RC~:~OI~S Co~[~y sell i~ O~e~ ~it~in? Whe[e ~rE ~he p~ck~ ~nd adv~ti~e~:e~tts )~o0~c{d and p~t~t~d? Company ~ell in Sweden? Wh~r¢ ~re th~ (:ig~ctte adve~i~e~nt~? ~ag~z;r~e an~ h~,ws[,a~,er ~dw~ti~in~ ~¢r p~bI~c~ie~. ~h~% ~s the average cogt o~ ty~e~tti~g the cu[~cr~ ~nd!~ual advertisemunt?
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417 ~lnsto~ ~lom~ C2713~ Ai~ril 29~ 19~2 i r~fel¸ ~ y~ l~tt~l io F:~i:~ A, t~r~i~an* J~. ~]~te~ ~l~J~n I~ ~ that I ~,~r~ LO ~or /~tt~ i~ ~I~ ~=~e~ ~ul~i itt~ C~ ~rch 12~ i!I~2 ir~ hi~ C-ui~city a~ Cr,ai~n ol the ~t~.~nt, FOr e~&l~lel [~. J, [~ynold~ ~:~ C~,~ny h~ it~ c~r~irL ~l~icio~ci¢~ t~iat oul¸ o3<~:tlto~ ~a'~t, ill a~it~t c~t d~e~c;~t ba~8 ~d ~e oon~i~r it unfair ~/~ rcqJ1~ o~ 1~ig~ilJ~ p~iti<~ a~ ~i~ i~d~tl~] ~ 8~ tll(: l~%to~ o~ At t ~b&o~t8 (n 0~
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418 Q~£~IIO~ 1= U~der ~o~¢t liability law, manuf~tur~z~ are reqd~red to w~rn co~s~me~ ~b~u~ ~he d~ngers o~ ri~k~ ~=iate4 ~ith the ~SC of the~ p~uets. Ple~e ~bmit a legal opl~io~ des~libi~g the ~,bl:ga~on of the ~. ~. ~:ynol~s Co~p~y to wa~n consumcr~ of tht risks of ~moking c~g~ette~ in ~he oven~ the l~k,~lin~ p~o~sio~s ~ ~h~ Federal Clg~ret~e ~b~l~n~ a~Adverti~ing AC~ ~ro feel obligated to disclose ~o ~},a:~e y~, lr~l re~;~nsibilit~c~. I~ view ~f the li~g~i~ ~n which R~ynoi~ ~ p:e~ent~y lnvol~e~ {see answer ~o ~s~ior, 2 below), it i~ Cw~n~u~'~ op:nio~ that it ~ld subject. liability litigation i~ ~hich th~ R. J. Rcy~,o~ .~'~,~re are three ty~,e~ o: ~iqaret~e-r~ted cigarette manu~c~urer~ are t,~,ser, tly or othe~ ~il~er~ts ~l~e~ed~y ~u&e~ b~ da#,~ge~ for which ~ef~n~aat~ ~y be li~,; tha% tbe~¢ we~ ~p~oxt~,atcly 200 ir~dividual u~g~ret~e br~nd~ ~,~ket~ i~ the Ur~ite,~ state~, ma~t a~,~e an~ ur,~ts sold of e~ch fo~ t~,e ~a:~ cigarette b~r,d~ m~rk(~ed J~ ~he ~]n:~ed Stat~s (on which s~l~ volume ~ata ~s available) indicating ~he units s~l~ of e~ch for the yea~s 1980 ~,~ 1981. A~t~ched a~ U~ O ~q 0~ l
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419
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420 co~E~t~ie~ whi~ ~eq~ir~ health ~a~ing~ o~ ciga~tt~ p~kages or ~dve~t~s~n~nt~. ~hl]e the world, the countries an~ t~rrlt~ie~ r~cct~ ~ t~ ~tta~hed Ix~t ~ep~e~t ~r ~re activ~ ~rk~. adve~e~e~t~ a~ generally ~roduc~d a~ UL
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i 3c i n= I G r -- 2~
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L i 2/c~2 42~ VIILU~4E YK&~tS ~A~. VI~L V~IL PaLL aALL LfS ~ I00 316903. 2o/053. p~[[ MALL LTS ~: 10~) . 6/1386. 423~¢0~o for pALL ,~ALL 31r>0~4763. i;914~1. SILVA T~II~S F lOP /g3~6~, ~0~067. SILVA fltl~S ~ I00 42~366~,. 33~;41,~, "lOT SILVA IttI/~ 1~o0350. 10404~. lOT SO~E~ ~4 O. O, f#,~IEYI~/t~ FILIE~ ~5 46D0~05. ~110600, ]ARffyFIlll F|L'fKIq IDO 350~3cllt~. ~2~05~, f~&tE'flI)t~ LII3~II'S ~J5 9,15315, 635944, T~I4E~'TII~ L[GH~IS I~)O 110444~ E~t2.~?~S, I~.I4~yI~I;~ LIGrI~S .~ffNT -15121. O. IA~IEI([ON OLTRA /4E[~'I" 11~63. -91~'~* f~l¸ 'f,~KyfoE~ " 102100~3. t{'sl1758, TOT t~ TA~EYfot, 19~124. 182019, f~lsf ,q~N~HDL lOG ~2108, Lpg16. lift "f~'l 15 f -210~. -2~16. fALLS ~ENI'II~IL 120 110116, 9~79~. t,.~II~,,~N LIGHI'S ~:1~0 ~24~, 1662/, #,~E~I,;A~ L~c,~r~s ~1,~0 10900. 546~. ^ft~ ,'41SC O, O. ALL ~lfd~ ATC O. O, i'llT ATC Clt3~¸. 655o1543, 5930~261. ~LAI~ I00 305~15~. 300570~,. DO~O~IER FILf~4 BOX 34317. ~9~,~3. TOI¸ t~tJt~AtJh, lk~t ~431 /. 2~Y~I33, F~,Cf ~4~NTtII~L O, O~ T{II¸ i:&t~l¸ O. ~, KtK~L ~[311L^h~ ~3~3~4. 571~3~. KIK~L FIL'rE~I 1:15 31 ?41063. 2~2~139f36&. KO{IL ~:lLf~lt lOG ~9'dL)'iTI. 916~2~, • KIXlL '41LDS ~, 570[043, • 5c¢B6/~3. K~IIIL I~IIX 21 14460, 20///,40. 4 3, 0 ,,,}
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P 4?3 I)^ fEl 4/19/) V02 fOT~,L US p/d2 V~)LU~ YEARS yE,~R 19~0 "~E^R )9~] . ............................ t~A~E VOL V()L ............................................. K(HJL ~()N I,~tr~IHUL O* O. K(~)L SU~E~ L I~)JTS ~5 ~ 16612U, 167~693, K(X)L ~U)~EH LIGIIf ICiO ~2G0344. )~36444. KOC)L ~IL~5 I00 6593~6, 71~130. K(X)L INYE~I ~(}~ 1332. O. K(X)L LI~tlfS ~ O. 2~b552, K(K)L L~G~ITS I00 O. 29~2UU, K(X)L ULf~A )03 O. 2247~4. ~AL~IG~ FILTE~ ~5 ~15~5. 4~4~B. HALEJ(~H FILrE~t ICO ~83~47, 271~2~4. ~ALEIG~ LIGHT5 ~ 13~1494~ 1290L0~. "£~If ~ALEIG~ I12428~. I 0~7u~32. ~ICE~OY LO0 193D34~, )TP75P3, V ICE~()Y ~ILOS O. O. A~CflC LIG~T~ li~ 4614~. )I~0~4, T{~J¸ AHC~[C 74o~32. 17~14~* "fO'[ S~,[R[ L¸ O. O. B^~CLAY FILfE)~ ~5 132d7~. 291534~, ~CL^Y FILfE~: IGO ll~4. 2627~23, ~A'~(~L^Y FIL~ BOX ~030, 890~20, U~CL~y ~f)~()L IO0¸ O. 712~4, T(I~ BARCLAY 2~II~0, ~035~3. C~ESTERFIEL~ ~EGUL^~ 55~27. • 502~41, C~ES £ERFI EL~ FI~ 5) ~00, 3U832. ~HE~'E~F I ELI) LO~ I ~4~4~. ~ 3~3.¸ f~iI¸ C)IES/~ IEI,I) 3~O~G. 3~3~I t. /'0 0") (30
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442 ~ay 12, ~82 ~ ~ ~ ~2.~ C~ t~ ..,}
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453 Ml '~\'a×~lA'~ Om ne×t p,mu} of ~GIue ~ me Ilan d ES,~tcl bl~ti~utc¸ el l's3chiatr) bl l,/mdon: TbeodoJe t/l~u ~ [~3cllc~lo~[~t l~!l ~antpa l~'la : "~'olan/ Wind¸ t~lof~ s~c~ /~t hi;it kclbl!! tile ~ b~r ~on ~c]/l~ol o! } il/uncl¸ ~Iid (~on}lilfl~e, t'bilad/,l]d/i~; ~nd l{o!~ll l} }Ibtck/lel} plo~i,~m¸ o[ lll~ll l:~,lil~:, Obil~ ~tJth, "kJnivorsil) We ~lii, ll]t.;~,ed to ~/,lct~lI!(, ~oll Io otll }/~q~t~llg ~od~13 ~V~. liar(¸ ~ul cotntdttt' Mal~nl/,nIs ~ncl they ~Jll be ]il~de ~t earl Of Ibo l~,cotd in ftdb I kno~/ ihe st/itcnlenls ~tte quite lcnglby ] ~d~o ul/ ckzst!md lb~ii ~l)~l t/~l~c• bl,/.t~ [I/bllult,d that ~, wo~bl libt, 3~1 lo sllrl/ii~;l~jz~. 30~11 statt~zl~tIlts. ~,VI~ ~ou]d like 3otl to keoJ~ it to as D1. l~ysenek, wby do we not start with you, sb" S1ATE'*IENT~, (}l¸' II ~N~; .L E'~ S;;N(!K, I~11 D., D. SC. I'ROI ESS{II~ O1' pSY(?II(~I,OGY, INSTITUTE (~I~' I'b,'tCHIATR~. UNI'.IIR';IT~¸ Dt" LONDON; "~Ol~A31 .L WIND, PIIOIq~SOII el' MAI~KlillNG, Wl[ '~R- TON f~CIIOOl,, IINP,'EIIfqTY OP I't)NN~,YL'VANIA; II(R'~l~ll D. IILA(I~Wi:LI,, l'll(ll'l;~;S(Jl~ OF 51AIIKETING, OIIIO STATE UNI. VI~RSIT'f; AND ~llll~ODDl~ll IL lll,Al:~ Pll. D.. I'I;NNgYI,VANIA Dr 1,;~xcK I am tIal~s d I';yso~lck, prolb~sor el¸ l~ycbok~y at tb/" In~titute of |'sSc}~ial~3. klnive~sit? el¸ ],ol~dot~ a~d psychologist 1~ II~¸ ~auds]cv and }/i~tbllqn }~o)M Ilospital~ in l,ol~dl~l~ l ~.~<i~'d my Ph D h~ 1910 and iny 1l Se in 191;~.botb from ~bc Un~volsity el¸ London 1 w~l~ ~el/iol¸ lesenlch p~ycboloi~iM al Mill lli/l tdtl~¢~cy }lo~pital hem 1912 tb~uugh 191tL 1~ 1!149 aud ~!i~/I ] wa~ a ~is!ting protcssor at the University of Pt'TIl~%lv~nla ill PId k~d6 Iptli,'~ II~lwevn }!L~IO ~llld I~}o~, } .,~ls ~1 i~ ~dt,l ill p.3cbo]o.~y al tile l.Illi- v~,~it~ of Igmdon's h/stilute o[ l'.~ycldatly. In I9.-,I ] ii as a x iMting /,tcdessor at tbe Unixc~slty of Culifo~l~ia 8t }k, lkelc3 [ au/ a k'liuw el both the" lh'itish Ps) cboll~Ricnl Societ3 trod of lbe Ame~ie~m }'>y~bcdogieal As.oeiaiion I have ftamded and edited three pss'cholo;dca} jom~als, a~d I am (,a tb(, (,direr Ja] boalda of some 15 olher inteHmtiona} ps3chological 3aulnals. 1 have ~ttitten el edited tel publication apl/Ioximaie]3 35 t/<lll/JCal [Iookg and over {;0~ articles dtll]inF; with ,'~t'iou~- ~ sll:,('ls id Ibf, p~yehological field, pa~licnbul5 ~ith ~espcct to Fc,zsoua]ity, mI(lligel/cc, bcbavlol the~ap), and bchavlorM genetics ] I/ave conducted ]cseat'ch in the alea of smoking tb~ over 20 yea~s and have amhored t~so books, lhe i~msl re(ellt I,f ~hich is en titled '"l'be Cau~g and ]~]ffee~s o[ Smoki~g," as ~ell as numerous ~:~licles on this subject ] ~ill not read my w}mle statemeiit, of course, a~ you said, bllt just make a [~'w inajol points A ~lidoly 8el'pilled lbeoJ) ~lsscrts that ci,~:mettc sn<,kd~l! crmses bill/ ~'SllCf*I. colonar3 beret digoase, aud man3 otbt,l digf,I~q!s '*vith ~,hich it is slstisticall3 linked It is not always realized that /a~ b'dC}~ 8 tb~.'oty 1~ f~y flol]] plOVel3, fllld is beset by 1]/811y flll(}llt&~ies ~md doubts, lind tbat (~1} tbelt' is arl alttqnatNe tbvol3 which is bas!.d oJ~ uudeniable fhets which a~e not explained by the causal Ibl'ory t4 0 f~ O~
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444 ~]'h~' ples~nt pos[tlon seems lo I)e that eit}lcl theolF il~ay cxpla~L [h~ tl3l~ic incidcllt'c ol¸ hlll~ c~nc~-i¸ alld cOtOll~ly hcalt d[~c~ I(~ wlJi¢}l I}d~ brief account ~ill be r~tricte¢l or tlJat bc~lll nl~kv 1~ n(,~d~(] to colnpl~ln¢iit c~¢h other OnL, inlporim~l p~inl I want lo n~lkl~ conceln~ lhl~ i~/Jl~i~ll of smoki~g f~om other ¢o~ ~lated habils such a~ dlh~ki~g, li~i~! it u!,, ot¸ lil~', t}~ totality of ~hich may iI~c~ea~e lhe I~ ot¸ li~illg ~ II~ai smol~cl~ al~ bio]ogic~]ly older ttmll ilol~sino]~ers ~lt ~ giv~ii ~c, l~l Jea~-ons only p~i ~ly iLlvolv~d l~ilh ~moking ]~llnsnlok~rs ~1~ ~l~l~I~I~.,nt ~ "p~s o~ pt~l~ol/~ from ~nlok~,r~, air~ ~,l!nc/a/]y i/io~ styli" llrOt~!ciivt~ al/~] ~]~c p~l~llllalily lr~lil~ an~ h~lbil~, lhu~ llnl~ed ~ritll nonsmokil~ n/ay b~ mol~ l~,l~vall~ t~ t}lc lon~!e~ it ' of iioi~moker~ than /heir refusal lo smok~ l~,pOll lha~ p}l~iCiall~ "*1~1o ~av~ 1~1) ~l/iOkill~ ~]/o~'(~] 1£~ 1~11~! c~ll~'t'r l}lall lllt~lllb~l~ o~ l}lt• ~ol/cral t~lbli¢ who co[/~il~tl~d lo li~'~ ol¸ tl~o~e ~ho did so. II~t ~bi~ proc~f i~ only acceptable i{¸ tho~e ~ho coI/timle to smok~ aE~d t}~o~ who lat(~r Oil giv~ Ul/ ~mokillg, arc' e~,,t~niially i/]~ntical with re~I~l to ~heir hea!t}~ beibre ~me of them ~a~e up ~mok[ng C]~.ally, il thos~ ~ho laler ~n gi~e ~kp ~m~king ar~ ah~'ady niucl~ }l~'alt}lier than thos, e who la~'r ~n ¢ol/linu~ lo ~n/~k(,, t}l~n th~ ]ill~il dit~'~('~'t'~ in h('a]t}l may bc due t~ lh~ alleady ~'xis~in~ ~ift~l~'n¢(~ b~i~l ~ ~lil~,~ll~, ~a~rt, ~lp ~lllOkill~, l~lh(~I¸ I}1~1/ tO t}l(~ ~i~,~,FlliO~l Of t}Ji~ BUt thcl'~' i~ goo~ evidcnc~¸ t~ show that slllok~'ls all~l ~.~l/~kl 1~ ahc~dy ili~tered wilh resp¢cl to l}l~il¸ he,lib l~'cord bc~ol~ thI' ~× ~1~1(~1~!1~ t~lv~, lip sIIlo~¢~l/i~ 8iii/ilal]y, lh~l~ is twi/]cl/cc Ihat Ir~lJl II~c l~i~l of ~i~w of p~l.<tma~ity and ~J/~'~ic~, c×-siiit~k~l~ a~ dill~r- tl/l/ik~ d/i nllI pro~! ~hc thtoly lo bt! ~tltll/~ ~h~y ~illlIl!~ ali~tw lha[ it is ~i]l only a theory, ~ot a scientific law. Mine convinciI~/~ l/rOof i~ I~qll}l'¢-~ }o~l~l~ the theory can b~ accord~d a rn0r(' advance0} ~latu~ }~u~ fresher t]~al~ t}lat, Ihcl~ are numerous- f~ct~, su~'g~iil}~ with the causal thcoi~ Ytt ~L proper t}~oly demalld~ t}lal ~it~lltion be ii~d~ Io a]] i~']~ v~ni li~ct~, ~lncJ t}/u~ ~tin the! c~lus~l tl/~ll~¸ i~ ft/unl] ~ant]n~. and ~tati~licia~l~ Sir }lonald Fish~r, su~'ge~t~ ~hat ~cn~tk¸ ~ilo~ allL iEi/pol[~lll~ iE/ ~l~l~il/~ Iuil~ ¢~allc~,[; t~a[ ~![/~,li~ ~/iol~; ~LI~ ~lctivl~ ill crm~ing peal~l~ ~o nlniniaill tile ~ml~kin~ ]/~t~il; ~lll/l tllal pt~ibly tht¸ ~am~- ~t.netlc ~lctoIs may t/~ ill, aired in |/~th t}l~,~l' ~l/,lld~, thug ]llo~llll'~l/g I[/o ob~/,Iv~,~l (orl~l,~[oll t~,~lt~,~Ii srliok~nK ']'~lE~l ~ i~ £~vid~ll¢~, t~I~Lt ,q~ ii~,t]c l~lclol ~, (]o 101~L~¸ ~ ileal [ ilk ~1~' ~aU~-~- i~i/ll,llli• Ill F;]I/I~¸ t}l~ll ~I~ILI til' ~IC~/II~ ILI~ I~l~¥~lllt ~ll Itl~, Iil~liILl~ n~nC~ ~f t}l~ ~n/~khl~ habit¸ ~1 h~l~ ~h~le is ~rvidence fol both Ih~ il~
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415 ;tl! JD~[I]Cq/C~ ~ ~ ~l,h~lC ~t~t<)[~ ]t f~l~O;lI~ fr(iTiI fl/ll i:(ll~! i/, ~IT~I~¸- S~ ~lll fIOln L}I~ d]recL stu(~y ot the pro!)~l']// t~y Plld¢~ol ~lli(.l- i~,ti~£.l¸ I}/~t Ih~, /;Iigit/ ol¸ £h(, ~,iu<l~:il/~ }~bit i~ (]ll/~ to i~(,~1 ~l(s~r~,: i~!ll(tlH~] itll~oll/~s {~, ~t l/lllc}~ ~l//~l])l?t¸ ]~11~, ~i~!l ~l~liJ~ili~ ~I5 /~w~l ¢on(iJ[~tlo]l h~ ~ocn to ~Ll~¢'~( ~}/St t]l~, l~lCd[I~til!~ ]t~(t(i;¸ bctw(~n C~UC(r ~nd ~ellok]n~ l~y I)l' ~1~¢ pel~01/~lit~¸ Of t}le p!,~l]0 ilWO]V¢~ r] k~tl~ i( i~ ~IS~!ITII~ t~l~l I>c~J~ll! ol¸ ~ l(ll~/ir~ ]Kl~oll ~ilJly ~l~" l]}oIc JJ~(l[, th~li fllh(,i~ I(~ (/i~ (1[ Ill!It[ l'~I/~c3¸ lri~t~,l'[iv~¸ i~[ sniokil/~ h J~ ~ll~(I ~]>~urt?l,d 1t~1 j)l~oj~]~, o[ ~ ('(,ll~lJll i~/,p~ol/~lJ~5¸ ~r(, ll/oll~ TJk('l~¸ [l~ ~lrJok(~ ~]t~li o~]£~ls ~ h~,~e i~ dil~'vt evidence fl;~¸ both th~e }~t>o~itiol~ ~|y olif i(l~l ~lo]k ~il}l ])1". }~isst~ll, an enllnen~ ,~!his~ onl~logi~t, showed vely ~¢sstl/(,~l~ ln~tdo b~Ie di~l~no~Js Sitl~e [hen, a ]~lI~(, ~,iJ]~ ~/ld~ in ]]:~ (;~'~l~tl~¸ has l~l~lical~:J ollt ti~ldings O~he~ studies, i~]~o in di¢~lillt~ 8 l£~l~iOll be~w~n ]~li,~ csnc~r ~lid p01 ~ol~li~y, ~l ~, cit~~ in n/y book l~ a si~/~ilar way, r~3" e~IIy work ~i~h Tarran~ and Wo0!f estab ![lld](,~ ill di~l(l¢~ ¢~t,~ii~tjL~ }~, ~irl~ ~'l~l~Ii~l~,~] O~i¸ ~lldillg~, .!~,il~tio~ ol¸ F'i~hel'~ genetic lh~'~y have fouud ~'n~pilJ~'~l s~p~/o~, i,Dl~ wc IL~¸ ~;dd lh~t ~h£q¢ i~ 81so soI~/c IIIod(~t ~fl]lol[ Jo] lily o~l~ ~llt mt,t to interstate thesv two n~or f~eld~ ~Jil~o! [un~If,]~¸, ~hc,l~, }1~ ~f,~ll too ]h(lt, work ~]on~ ~}l~!~ u!lus~l. ~,1 f~tl(I SOI/lOw[l~lt l~nt)t [hod(o: lii/c~ Io s~l~¸ lh~ll ~}1¢ II!SLI]t~ ~qtL~ ~ll/~¸ ~l ~01~¸ ¢letl/~'l~L~ly ~(&g(~; I/~'~'l~}l~c](~, ~s fol" ~ ~}~ ~il/(lill,~ go l~,~y ~l~t~o~t ~he genetic rathel¸ ~h~n the ¢~u~[ theory, ~l~ho~gh ih~v /]~> Iioi Iloless~lli]y coll~l~dJ¢[ t}/~ /9~I171¸ ~(,~'J/~ly s~lln~ ]II~Ut~s~, ~1~]~ [l/~pn x~l~]l]t! ox] I}~E, ~ht~l~ri,lic~ll df~] ~q~l:~/'nt o~ tht' ~l'nl'!ic hypc~tht:sJ~ I~¸ ]iI~kJrl~ it wilh t~'~l'~Ictl on *~Tuss, in t,aTtic~la~ the difle~entia] eflvct~ of ~htonic and ac~te Slit'S al~d lhe ';i[IO~lA]~ti91/" ~h4"(>l~ o( 8h£~ss IIo~eve~, iu the ~b- s! I~('~ of iarf~t~-Sc~l[i~ re~e~wch into the, FI!~i]I( n](,iI~2~ of th~s theory, It~/d l~ore ~/idesl}IeP, d [~l/~ili~l'it3' with the cr'itici~nig oI ils dch~i[~, I~t~l 1o~ lntK~,l should] hv clainlt~l fo] it other than lhat it p~t~s'~.nts i~ ~ ]able ~t]t(,tll~ili~, Io [he (:a tlsal ih¢' ~r). |r~ th~ cast, of COIOlla[~' heait disease ~s ill i]IP i'~se of hlng ~u/cel, p~oof l~,r the causal influence of smoking i~ still lacking lll/(I i~ ~e ~0 l~leat~s ag clea~cut an~l decisive as i~ often alleged "1 hcl c, is evideuce in lhe cast' ol C]II ) oi genetk' lhctoiG and thera I*L'llt~ ~?l ]]ll~Kll[~l[li £'}(ll)f'¢)i Of SI¢ISS (l(~lClll/iIli¢~f~ ~lC t~[IfKlt~liUC ('[ (oIoll~Iy healt diseaue, and attes~ is intilnat~ly lilxked v, iih t}l~l- s )mdity. No IoHnal theory of genetic d~'tern~iliatlon of CI]I) ha~ yet be(l~ i~kl~ Iolwal(] bnl 1t S;('( Ft~ likl'l) t}~al ~l~']l ,q lh~or) J~ liceded <qs I:I~ ;~l~ expla~latlo/i of the mal~y g~l/~ and ~lr~0!~l~Jic~, in the h~t t~l, Gtl Fa, 0
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446 On( imi~o~[ u~t ImpeL]on of th(. ~(ni.ti¢ t}ltoly ha b!,<. ~ ihd (~f cx- tJ!~lil~init lhc lel~on~, why I)(,Ol~lE ,quok¢., ~ln~ Io link t}/u~{" io//~lkn. ~iltl lheil dil!/clentbd pcIsoI/a/it) i)allelng Wolk nlon¢, these ]ue h{s had ill(' Jlnpollanl l.~lbvt I)l ~ug~v~th/g Ill 1', and inqno~ld wa)~ of ~L-ac]]ilI~4 puoph, to /4[~' U[I $[l/okiI/~ T]/{~ causal th~'oly o[ ~lllOk ill~ cau~,ill[~ disease }la¢, nolhil~ [o ~ay o]1 [h]f~ lopic AIio{}lcl illi{)Olt~lllt F[lllclioli o~ t}i(~ [.%llc[[c lll~Ol') ~1 is be(ll Io sug} e~l beitc/ {]{'s{gn~ %1 lt.-ealtth in this c~l/Ipk.x field; a food t-x unlpi(' is the use of the clb,cordam twill nlcthod hy (e/h'l]o!, l.uI~d- I~l~ll}, ~ll/f] DI[~C/S, 1~13I i% lO s~ly, i]/e il/v(,sli/~lt[on ol 1[i( }[~ll(!~s i/lll hu ns of ichmlh~d [~lins Iff ~1 htnn /Inl~ ~lngk~'s [}it~ ()[}1( I nI)t I{ I}ll- [3pt' Ol l(!5~'al~']l [IH/] b0t!t[ C~tllJ~d OUI l)ll lh(, ] ~i~ i{{ld ililt,?ll~tlklN a] scal£, icqLli[~,d, in~{{.ad ot inv(~$Lil/~ ill ~]l<, l£'(IUlldaliL ant} S2Jt,II tific d]y I,ot w'ly valuable let)lication ahd co[relatkmaI sludies, ~e ~.~OLI]( kllo~ l~ll Ii]OI"(, atJouI ~h(, lilal]Ol/ ~)£.l~v{(.ii 5l/!okil/[, ill/(] (t[S ~IC}/ St(]~]il'~ a]lO/~ llg I0 look ~[1 ('11% [IOl%IIlCl%t~ll ~ctors, IIlCltlrlil~K J}IOS0 O/ sI/l(Ikil/~, ~thile controlling fill glJnt iiC taclol~,; l}/i~ is (' olt ({~11 i/ trl5 (Ollvillg[I}!~ I(~g//]{'~ ai(. to [~{, 3('lli(,vccl ]l~ gu[}]l/1 fly 1 ~l'o/ll(] llke to st~t( []1 iI tho ('~ltl~'/I (h('ol~ o[ sill(Ill /I/~ ~ tl(Jli~r~ l<'~p0ns]l~]c [oi I~H/~ (!i{[K'('I ~11~ ooloIIIly h~q//I d[~, ~'tlqt', ~}/i]c i~ hkl~ ~olll/d 5K~'or,~ suppolt, [ hn liom bl'in~' (~td~ ~[ hffI{, rlH(I h~l ]flkll}) }~111, ~i[II)lll~lli(~, £111/I CO[I[[ H% l~l~d]lii~s lo {[~ /]ll}l//I~{JlI ]l/~ wh~ll {I] [¢~,l]l~ ~]l~.) I/I~l~ ~lc! {{]HII(] to []iscl~'dit 1}1(" ~rt a/Icl nati~ lht.oly, ba~{d oil ~fk'llt'LiCg ~{ll/l h/ll)licatin~ ];~lson kl]ily ftic[o!:- ig Ill/](l/ ]('g~ %1('1] dereloptcl, 1~,<)~<. (oil)lilt'x, ~llld al In(gL'ld l/Oi iO0 ll({] k[l~/~l/ 1.o Ill,Ill) OIICO]O~ iS{~< li£\(lih(-I(<~ ~}l£rc Itl~! 111 klly ~(ll /'~[uhli~h('It ]~l{tg which S[IgK('~i lhat in pall il Ii)t ill v, lllll( i[ (~ll ~t[COlll/t l()l I}l(~ }I]~IIDI tind]l~g AI the' ~ll) lt'a~, Ibis ~l}tl'lll {[ivc tl/coly Skillet' !S ]IOV{'] I~2~{'~FC}~ II~'/tloJolo 'ies Ilhich ~lou/cl serve lo o~elcim/o the diffieul/ie of tLI' (}Idol ll/('lho(Is al/d l£ll%~'[l~ th~h lack of t}/o[)P[ COlltfols ~l'[lt, ] EI~>I bi]ity ha~ also bee~ ~aist~d lhat t}a" iwo ILto~ies may be el>topic 111011[~'11), lal}lel than ofipa~.d lo each or}i{'/; t]lif~ i/ossib][l) {t~a s}iou[d b( looktd inil; h om lho expol hn('nt d [>(1[[1{ O[ ~[C'W ~V}/LII i~ t('rtain i~ thaL at the IllOil~elll 11o {{llkll cieciLion call b~ l/l~l{[c about wlli.t})cl oi I}i(" (lC[410~, [0 ~l[Ch Ci}4atcttt ~,blokill~ llla~ cciu'.~, ]kill;, ¢ Ill¢(!I (ll ¢Olzlllaly heall {li~eas(, }low it il!t~.lac[s wth 01}/~1' itC I(}IF~ S[I(!S~, pcr~;onalily filial so Jill OI }]0~\ can Wt, begt pl olee[ tlllt /itqill}l ol OUI c[ti?OllS ill l£'[~[[klll ttl th£ ~, dis{,~tsL~s IT(' timofl) E(,L.UII~S illl II 45~1] ~Ih I ~sel]:k's In{pared stai(ment lbllo~s:] 0
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4~7 i ~: ~ J, ~, ~r~ ~ r,~ych~,)o~y ~ t~¸ I b~ve ~ou~ded ~d ~d~t~ t~r~e ~7¢~o1~! ~o~+r,al~t ~ ~u~t~ ~p~o×l~t~y 3~ t~ch~ical DO~k~ ~ ~,VC~¸
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448 c~c~ l~ c~j cor~n~¸ h~t ~l~eaE~e, ~n~ ~ o~e~ ~a~ ~, ~h~h l~ ~ ~t~l~c~l~¸ ~l~k~d. ~t ~ rot ~,~)~ r~,~l~ ~i~ la) ~h ~ t?~.o:~¸ ~ f~r ~r~ ~CE~, ~d i~ b~ b~ ~,a~¸ a~l~c~ ~n~ doubt~, ~d ~,~t (t~ ~c~ ~l~Jch ~ ~,~t ~×~&~c~ b5¸ th~ ¢~a~ ~,~o~¸. ~c the t~&~c i~id¢~ o~ ]~g c~nc~l ~d c~a~¸ h~ di~;~ /to ~hich th~ b~'i~I acc~,±~ ~i1~ ~ ~c~ttic~cd~, c~¸ ~.re i~ ~ee~ ~ha~ ~rc~ir,~ i~ n~l¸ ~ ~c~ ~o~¸ ~ ~ffJc~cnt c&u~e ~ lu~g c~c~l¸. O~ ~0~ hcav~ ~e~:~ c~c~ ~p~roxi~tel~ IO ~ill 5~¸ ~on~s~k~: hence ~oki~ ~b~ ~f~ o~ c~se f~oa~ ~nt~¸ ~o c~untr~¸, ~ ir;dlc&~ rm
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449 su~gc~e~ ~r~o[$ ~ the correlation h~een sn~ki<~ end ~,~±ng ~he~r accuracy,
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g 450 ~it~Llo~i~e ~o~l~, ~ f~d ~h~t plio7 t~ ~o~d ~r 1I ~e~¸ z~,e ye&~s or ~ ~d ~hethe~ it ~y z~ pa~t ~coaat for ~; J~p~£~b!~ Z~ ~ &ll ~e ~a~ ~ ~ t~ ~i~h the b~2~ li~e ~ ~o~a~£~y of ~i~b ~y ~B~te~se the "~to ~ l~v~ , ~]]y ~o~e ~elf~p~tectiY~, ~ ~t~e persoaal±~¸ t~a~t~ 0
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L 451 ~le~ ~n ~lz~ p~.t 50 yc~s or ~o to s.Fo!~c rote. Ho~cv~:~, ~. ~e~r~i ~uzho~iti~.s ,~Jo~: I ~u~'~(¸ ~n l~ book hav~ ~c, ii~e~ c,,~, ~lF£I~r SeX r&tio~ ;~ %hoc.~ O~r~E~ ~ ~,cr~ foi.~ be~o:~ ~ the ~u~l theor~ ~S ~u~¸, tl,~ ,~e ~o~!C ~xy~.~ ~ he~ ~ke~ ~,ou~d }~ ~ckcl~ ,~th c~:~c~¸ ~a~l~ ~ ~e ~ht ~-~,~et'~ yet ~he ~,o~r~J. S~'d ~ ~o ~.~>p~'eciabl~ ~:~t ~o tl, c cli~. ~z~, i~t~l~t=~ ~:~-~,u~ r~Jk~¸ I~L~ ~,~n the report ~h~ ~hy~iei~L'. ~h~ ~C U~ ~ok~ ~:c,~d ~ lun~ ca~er than t~L~,her~ of the ~c~¢~r~ ~t,~i~ ~o
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452 ~o~ti~u¢~ to s~oke. Th~sp J¢ ~gllt ~pp~l- Ch~( giving ~p s~r~klag h~u ~av~d t~e 3i~e~ of ~hose ~ho did so, But tl~J~ pPoof J~ only ae~e~t~le ~I ~hc~se ~ho ~onti~e t~ s~c,R~. ~n~ t~o~e ~M~ later ~n ~Xve up ~oki~R, are ~s~nti~lly identical ~ith r~spect to t~e~v health bo[~ze some of the~, gav~ up ~:ok!ng, ~learly, If ~ho~ ~ho l~tcl OD ~lV~ Ul, ~m~,k~g ~e already mUC~, healthful ~n t~se ~ho ]~t~r ~:~ h~ da~ to ~ho ~lVO~ ex~st~,g di~f~zen~s before anyone gave Ul, ~oking, l'~l~l tllan to the ~t~¢,t~ of thl~ hM,~tt Eu~ t~e~ ±~ gOOd ev±den~ ~o show lhat S~D~eI~ aU~ ~,Ok(18 all~y ~iff~lC~ ~it~ lCSpc~t t~ t~C~r ~lth record !,e[~F~ ~hal f~o~ ~ p~J~ of ~e~ of personality ex~sr~k~a are ~iI~lol!t from coa~tauln~ z~,o~rz. Tt~uz thl~ alleged proof ~h~s( ob3e~ti~s to the c~us~l ~beol~. an~ ot~er~ ~:~de i~ ~) bo~k~ do n~t pr~,vc t~e t~eol)to be ~1on~i tn~y s~ply aeeor~(d a n~ve adva~ed ~atu~. But further thaa that~ there ~o aum~roua ~act~ sa~cstizg an alternative ~he~rv, a~d Zhese facts eannol casi~y b~ i~tcgra~e~ ~ilh the c~u~;al thr~ur~. Yet a p!ope~ ~l,eol~ Ge~i~:s t!?a± ~tt6~I~ou b~, pa~d O UI
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454 ~ ~,rL~J~ ~,i~,o;,~]i[y az~ :.o~ ~J~]~ I~,~L~ oth~ to 41," ~J ~uJZ c~/o¢~" j~, ~j,ec~e of~kJ~. ]~ Js ~]~.o ~ssu~ th~ p¢,0~le of ~ oert~in personality a~-~¸ ~o~e ~ik~]~¸ t~ ~-o~ ch~ o~her~. ~here i~ ~vJ~leE~e for b<,~b t}¢~ ~oposJ~or~, V~ or]<~l ~o~k ~i~h I~1¸, Ki~-~, ~E, ( ,~u~ [~;i[i~h oh~o~o;~, ~,~h ~h~ p~r~ona~t~¸ ~t n~ b~fore di~nos~~-. B±;~C~¸ there, ~ I~r~,~SC~lC ~.~ud~ in ~'a~t G~r~an~ h~~, repllca~-~] ou~ fi~d~ <~<~v,,~ r~}Jc~te~d 1~ ~othcr study ~ K~S~), ~n~ h~ fotl~ si~i]~r 9~,~o~it~ t~aJ~. ~o ~ho,~¸ ~h~c~Ji~J~ Oti~,~ ~tudles, ~i~o Jndfcatln~ ~ r~]~tion b~t~n l~an~ d~,,~:l¸ ]~, ~ ~l~:J~¸ w~y, ~ e~l~¸ ~o~ ~t~ ~n~t ~:~ ~(~r]~ e~,~l~,l SUlp.~it~ ~d ~: ~,~ ~dd th~ there i~ ~]~ -~:~ modest s~g~or% ~or m) o~ ~f;~t ~ ~l~-~,r,~e ~he~ ~0 ~]o~ ~¢~e unu~I ~d s0~e~,~t ut~or~cd~x lJn~ t~ s~¸ ~h~ ~n o
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455 t~ ~c~ ~r~ au~h~ ~Lc~r~ ~t Sd~g~tiVC, ~ the ~,<~r~¸ ~i~£ tJ,~ l~ S~ll i~ a ~ez~ el~t~r~¸ ~¢~ ~,~<~el~, a~ ~r ~ th~ ii~dln~ ~ ~h~)¸ ~l,~crr~ t~ g~e~ic ~r t~ ~1~¸ lat~,r. ~ ~e~ ~o~t~z~ ~ ~ p~ure ¢~t~ out ~ S~ff~C~U~ d~t~il, a~ ~ c~rr¥ ~ut l~c ~e~ O~ Cbro~ ~ ~¢u~ ~ a~ ~h~ '~o~t~,~'~ ~,e~,r~ dl~a~e (C~IL~/, ~i~il~E¸ ~lti~i~J~ ~,p~ ~ do ~t ~Lc ~a~ UI UI
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i: 456 ~o not ~ ~hc wBolc differ ~r~, ~on ik~h~lc~ in di~asc ~ ~×!~:~J~ b~f~ the ~au~a: theory caa ~ ~l,t~d. C~ o~ C~, a~ i~ ~h~ ~e of l~g caaae~, p~oo~ ~o~~ ~h~ U~ 0 U1 UI ~.d{w
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457 ,¢~0 roqu~red, i~ea~ of i~v~sti~ It, lhe red~la~t 5~d
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45~ ~j~ ~ ~ ~ ~z.y ~e~t, ~ a~r,,~ ~r~¸
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45.<) ),h~ ~'A×MAW q hank you ~Iy )~/leh, lh, E~,~ i~/k Mr WI:';~) That!k vim ] atz Yoi~m~ Whld ~hlce 1!1~% I }3~c b!i~n i J~O~I'R~(II o~ 11 lllke,~it/,q I1~ lt~ x*~,h~li~llll ~c.ho ii I ill/ lhc, ptevlotl,; {ll {el of }It, ,Jotlltml el ;~]nIk(tJIl!! ] LClI~ beell It~ \~.=hi~l wit sillc,t, recliv}ll~ 1~/~ CloCtol ale f) on ~i~t)/tO) c} in 1!/{;~ ,M3 sp(cia]t2, is real keihlg ~eseE~)ch, illc~udigt~ ~o]lgLigll(I1 b(!~[iv- lOT O~el th(, y(.ll~, ~ h~t~< ccliisDIlld ~ll IlkllI/ilOU (ilI/lll;lI~i~.~ ~lICI p!lblishcd ext(n~i~e ~, in ~al~ou~ alea el in~l ke~dl g m~d eon~un ,i behaviol I }/ Ivl" }~l<n ,~Sk{L~ by ihe 'l'ob t<c/~ hlMittRe tf) j~Ie entm3 ~i(~ls CM mM lactutd suppo)t he l'eit~in of th( i,~ovi<ioi~ in th/ bll ] ~m~ al)]~emin~ here toda3 I~ot ~.tdy a~ an expert but also ~ts 0h ex- ~lllo~i~l ~ll/~ ] c~l/ Ul/del~-~llc~, thelefole, the n/otRation m~detlyI iIl/~ ltl( bi!l [II/EICCUI)ILtbI(e l~lLd eH~l/iIiq~dly LII/SUptFII{(~ ~1~1(. ]lloiiO~Oi] bill ~uIL f~i~ flora tile n/ajol plob]em~ ~hk}l if ~e ~ill use a lnedlcal anal- rlim b~ll IS premGed o~ the z~ction that con~ame~ ,'t~v ~mt ~ml' ~ Ih! l(J~ions bl,lwel,n Shieldingr 3rid belJlh is~ll ~ II g, L,II)~ 1o IInE i~<t/] on tht evi(hmce i~¢, ha~p, iltchlllirl[~ }'](~s sinl I/rpuIt and ~iillt? Mudies ~s disetlssed eolIiel U~/~d~, i}lld th(,le is Im~ple Eli ~,nce 1o su~'gesl that ih('~ is extIemdy high t,~aI(ncss of tile 'l he s(<ond ploI_~{eln i lhaI e~ ell iI "~e a~Stlh/O I~l a lllitl~!ie th~ tIi di~,cno~is is t~Iect, Ihal l}leru i~ tt hluk of a~ai~]lps , tb/,lt, is It<) co~)ceFtual I,oI empirk~d suppoII io sug~:eM lhai [h(~ htbeIi)~!, le lu!l¢;l/enl ~,,,i}] ha~e ally (fI(ct Oil achi~r~in~ t]]l obecthu Of [}/~ ]li}l Th/,~e glle the ~iIo t~/~jof plol-~]ell/s that ~ ~[] tl~ to ~tddless mysul[ to Concerning the fh'et ))ohH rail t~e eutI~IIt hifh level o~ : ii,;trt IR,5,~, i~ ~{~ qLlitt evith, n~ floin I)1~ ",llitt~'ll Maleiiten~ ~uld Ille ~llie/ staterzlellts today, [bat there i~ ellotlgh [:i(l('l)c<, Io ~tl~i,e~t th<,l( i~ a very high ]e~('] of awmeness of tim )(hdkm bet~ee)/ smok ng Imd health problems 'lh/! ]**1(7 repel [ ciit,s tile 197Zg {~allop su[ re> ~hid~ illdicato~- o~el 9i) le~ez~ el the public believes smokhlg is haz~td<,us to health A sil~]ilar hi~'h pE~re(l/ta~e IeSpoIIds ~[~]l'la~tively to 11101~ spteiflc ~<stl{,~ i)l Inuny O[ ihe sttltlie~ thai ~e.re eo)ltlttf:Eed I"0) example, f#0 !Jplcen~ b¢,]ie~,t smoking dulin~! pltgllaney lan ~ {loci the smoker's baby, 87 pelc~nt of adults are of the xie~ smok- ing h~s been ~'ound Io be associ~*ted vdth cancel a)~(l so on The ~ N~lnses at Ibis high level ~)e i~llly 1{ rn~lJ;0blc. /~ mcast))ed o~tlle al, s of 90 pe~cenI can be considered de(ieienc~ {rely if um {akvs as a stm~dard agaillst it pedec{ infe~ lnaliol~ of 10(I peleent 'lhls is tolal}3 unattainable, it is conceptualb umea(Imbh,. It is [[lllK~ssi[d(,, ~]ilnlaD ~ogrdtil'e ~tbilitJes, di[fi, lenc~s ~rnong l}L~Ople, SO 1 ,'tlvu pe)eeptlons, ~till ne~er alloll tz~ to £~I on any i~,su/', 100 pel cent a;vatetKss There ate nunteious studies, 801110 o[ ~t1~,1~1 cited il~ U1 ba O U1
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460 m) Midttl/cll!, that BUggeBI Oil olbct ig$+aeb rllore Cl~lico[ isstlt's. yo!l n(,vt,1 get s~ch high l'espoDse lares The ~'l(~ stali¸ report, oil whh?h / bllieve some of the propt>sl,3 bill is [J~ed, also ilii~il/~elprets a ~air amount of the data Ill,it ll suggests as basis lol its conclusions q'he~e are basically six majo+ p~oblem~ with the staff rel<n t IbM, {he Maff bnlnoperly focuses on l('gll9!l~,t'S {O Specific ques tiolls h e.tablishe~ whether lhe poI&datioll ~¢!low~ el dots I~ know a certMn fact based oD P* respoll~e lo a .~illg]e item it ]~ con (aly [o evelything that we k~loxt ,ahDtl~ II]O~'lglllersdf?Di 1 h~'OI} No test is based Oll a sitlg]£~ item You ale wolkill~ (tl? [lattelli el ~espcm~es, 3el all of the studie~ focused on a specific qu(~tion Caa 5"o~1 l//ea~tlle 3our knowledge ~>[ economic, psythology, hulnan hi. }m'* ioG ~my area i~ased on a single qnr.Mion'? ~( Col/d, l[/o slaIl as%lined that allyone th~tt ipspolldcd ill(ollectly 10 Ol/o Otlt el a l}klPlib~Y Of lntlhipie lcspon~o oi)tJoll~, haMc~dly did nol kt/ow ihe alis/lel Iu?agitle a [elep}?o]lo .%iluat[o~l "~Qlell yo',l ale being intelxie~ed, you ale given llke 5 diffe:ent {}ptk ns and it you l/]i~,s the one cotlect alls'gel yotl ~lt(: classil)ed null as basica]l3 pro vidirr~: t}2e ',~ Iong ~tIib%% fli ~il]/il~Itl}, t}?(' staq [l/telplets "do riot } tlo~" ill ~1 qllltC i'll ollo(/~s Ii/[ll%!/{tl }~aqcally their dei'initP)n c~t do licit kll(l%/ is ~lllgOIlk who l/li t'll flu' clnrlct m/wer }hll lht!le might he at~otht't h/telpteta tion Ma+k q wail~ in "l,ile on I he MinM~sippF' said "I ~as gratJfil d to h!' a~e to fil?:~l{1 proulptly, and I did I said I didl 't kno~x' }{cto~tnizinR {}tis spl~cillt problem> Ilk, lie eatcb ('('1 {el ~R ~}ll l.lnixe+sit3 of Michigan fm (.xanxple ]>oint~ out thai the aus~ei / have I/O Opil/iO~ O1~ that" cnlx l//(qtll l/leldy, I ~ll~ tbil/kiIlg, and ad. vb,e3 thai it i~ a good idea to p,obe all of the 'do :.)t kn iw" r( spoll~e~ No plobi+/t! was done in m~y of ihe sh+d[¢'> that I ~o~iev.ed q'be thbd ptobl~nl is Ill:it incoircct lesp+n;..es can he att+ibuted to lack el undmstanding of the specific question, ol th¢ options pro- vided II you ~ill ON;~lllill(' f~l/y f-Otllf Of the questiont!ah~s thud ale the basi~ fo, the studie~,you uill see that it is exlremelydiffiou[I lo allsw{'l [hem ] urge 3ou to tt5" to be, a lestlo?idpnt al/d II3 to atl!,wel [bullh The fomtb problem /elates to tu o ver5 basic issues No:)t' of the Mud[us (itl Ihe lelation bet%~(!(,i1 z'lm~umel I~%V~{)II~!Sb O[ $+uokil/g and heahh issues t%c~ts(,d on eitbet tb~ basic questions of the ~eli- ability of the data, ot val[dlt5 of the data Those ate rye critical ¢o~l~pol/~tlts b/ ilny Ft~e3%[lrelllel~t; if \~t' all tl~il/~', tO gunel+dlze b oln the findiugs to the gent, lal t opulation }:iHh, the ~tafI lepolt does not present a no:m against wblch to elm][ ate several l(su]t~, Wi{hatlt a l/otln, ~i%'([t the Jact v,e luled oil heh±le lhe po sihi]ity of 100 polecat r~llatene s an all .cceptable O+ tvell atlai~mble objective, t~c can l/c~(l k+lo~ ~bat d<lt's th¢ illll!lbet i?i(,Atl Is it high, low, iiledbtml~ ~J'hele ~Ie ]1o t/el ili~ f~io xick.d Yet ill all5" eduea{ional lesIJl~g or any ethel teMing s[tuatiuu ~e alway~ h I%0 IO h i%(~ $~{1111i roy coltll)ali,,r)ll. ~i'~. 311d IliON[ t II/d[tlllOiHf~]]5, the lepull's col~(lusk)l~s ~klt ba~;ed ~0 0 ~tl go extent Oil coll{~eion b(tueen the tel/{lX ~t%%'[l[(ql( ~. bilief, Ii¢ld knm',ledlc Arid let :he qttol(' h(?tl the sIafl definition ('[ a~alc,lles> I thhthit is solyi]lurninttitlg 'l}/eb definition is and I (21 0 Ol 0 &n
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46~ quote: "Those who say the3 do not be]iex, e, do not [~dlev¢ t~uo ~talements I~eii~,ve false ~tatoln('t/ts IJ)ld(,II?~ti/~/aLe oil a ilrlll~l)}o ¢]ioiee qut~liorl oi ans~(,l¸ 'do not know' el¸ 'tlnct~riain"" ~bi~ ~/l~,a~,~l~ ~ l)k~!iol¸ coll[~l~]ol) b/~lwo/>~) [)E,li(,I aTid ~v.~)elWs~ If I t~lk(, ])o~ition~ of h(li(,f i~ stal(,ll/l>l/t of ui~awoI~,~l¢s~, ) alll gelling a con/pinkie confusion that inwdidates all Ihl, lnfolnlation provided ill tt'l lJl~ el¸ t)OlC(.)lt~'t#~, el¸ people who arc /in,'~wal o 'J h(,)(, ~11~ ~i nt/iiib~l i~f (?x~lTrlp]l'~ I c~ll) quell(, ~l)/) Ii~l~c thcltl ill i/~3¸ M~l~olllolil and ] ~J]l ilot go hlio itlcl/i flow, })!it 3ou in]~h~ ~ant ~o refer 1o them or go back to 1he original stM[ repolts ~ b£'su six plob]en/s suggest to mc quite co]lc]usivc]} thai l}le di- .Ft/osis on ~hieh the bill is based, that thele is no bivh a~ai'ettess ~.lg to [}1(, ]~lstioll between cigalette smokblg anti health hazald ig hlcorltet It svems t/~ rnc that thole is l~ ~cl~ h[~,h ow' 'Jbe second pohH that ] ha~¢, i~ the bwt that l]n ~mnill~f s>Menl sug~'csttd will not ht'lp ~s achieve th( objoctivt Ti~e~, is no ~a~, lm conc~.ptua} ~e~3 that call suppolt t[~{. iotational s3.-t~.m a a v,a', id ac}lievJllg tbv objecllve ot the bJl}. The olll) ba~i~, empirical basis, thi~ that ] am familiar ~Gth is a study do~/e by lhake that }la~ tbu] nlajol il]obh'nl'¢ One. the sludy ]e~tIicteg the ~au/h}g~ statrmcnts on13 t~ cb.a ~tt~ acl~(t/isit/g ignored completel3 the package labeling Did not tet then/ at a}[ ing p/'op[u i~ malls as oppo~e¢l to t~ying to have a ii ndam plob:~bil ily s~nlp/t, tba~ ~ould }m~t, aHow¢!d us lo ~[en~,IolJ~, lht, lbsuh~ to the popt/]at[o:l at lal~.e 'lb~/~ thesltl/]y included onl5 lwo oflhe~a~nin[:s 3o~ mccon- skle~in/4 todn} Even then, ~orded dilib~onlly. 'J belt, is no dtqcnslhle en pili£al })axis to 5a~,t, csl ti/at an3 o~ the proposed lr~bol~ make~ any sense, [hM the) will achi(we Ih~i~ o}!it~c ~olll, v, hen ~,ou look at tht. l<,sults, t.~en with [~I] tt/e~/ ]inlila- lions, and if you control for the' format they t(sted ill tbeh sludy f/nit dif[~'r(~nt [t)l'nl~i~s and lh)c~-' intssa~[[,s tilt, re is i/o Si~9/i[lCallt diff*,)c,lll'<, h(~twl im lh( nwal{,)less of t~/c" I//o~ag(' based {m l}/[~ cu) ler~t one, and their pIoposed ones, ~hich basicalb sugF, ests that, evcll if you ~b~get all tile problems of tbt' ~ludy, lbei~ dat~ itally (to r~r)t s/Ippolt the conchlsiot/s that tilE' coltllllitlt'~ i!~ S/3~g-stillg }l~lt, h~ tonchmion then, il ~,p~>m~ tt~ m¢~ lhnt, ~)m, lh¢, tmsis on ~hkth the' [)ill is ba~ed, the notion that we aIe in a situation as staled b~ lhe commitlee, lhat the consumers are lana~are of the danger.- of Snlokillg J8 JllOo) )'eet al]d uT/suppolt(,d 132- facl 'lwo, Ihe bope 1hat a prescription to replace the current Sur~tolt General's Warllillg v, ith a rotaiional ~)S[elll ol'~,UVell (lifJb,lellt ~arll bl~[~ ~l'ilI have al~' ])ositi~.e (,[i[~ct oil coi~Bul/l(,i all~lle]/oss 141~ol~t snloki)/g and healt'h J~stte is )call3 speculative We do not lmve an3 ,qlltljlOl[ lbl this either co)teeptuall5 or emphically. I u)g,u thv cornmittee tho~vfor~ t~ ~'onsklt,r lh~ advisih I iy of the laheling plol'isions and I will be happ5 to ansl/el an5 qu~,stion~ 3ou might ha~e. [TestbF:otW restm~es o)~ I) 474 ] [MI. Wiltd's plepated statement fo[[ows:] U1 t~ O Ca ¢.0 O v
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462 i ~ Y~r~ {3erzyI wind si~ce i9:3 I b~e ~er~,ed 5q 0 5~ 5~ 0
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~.e ~¢:~ i~s~¢~t ~ c~vey~9 the ~e~l~ ~s~es %~ ~ ~.~e~n p~1~¢~ (~e~. ~l~)), i~ ~ ~te~ ~,!~ ~ C~ C;I Q~
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4~4 pr<po~d i~ H~R~ 5653 ~nd r~c~:ended by %he ~C ~t~ff ~0ul~ h~ve ~y positive impact on the 1¢v~i ~f publi~ ~w~e:~ess ~u% ~te~ent with ~ven fi~ff~rent ~ot~tlen~! w~,g~ ~h~ w~ld be to~lly ~rbltrery I w~uld l~ t~ eJab~%e o~ e~ch o~ the~e Foi~t~ ~h r~p~:~ ~o ~h~ ~xi~in~ level o£ ~biic aware- th~ ~mo~t ~ple are generally aware~ of ~he ci~l~ abou~ b~llev~ ~ha~ ~king A~ haz~r~cu~ to b~lth Si~r h~h ~,ver 9~ ~e~e~=~t of the public believes th~ heart ~izea~e he~ b~by; 97 percent of ~!%~ are cf ~h~ v~e~ that ~:~k~ ha~ been ~n~ t~ be as~c£~ted with c~ncer of the ~o~t~ a~ ~lth These response~ are re~ark~b!e. ~ional s~r~eys ~er:can p~bllc wh~ are unaware of ~j¢~ ~b~i¢ is~e~ zr:~ O
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~r 465 ~de~ '~e£~clentr' ~y ±~ ~t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~L~ ~ ~e ~¢ntlf~ed F~rst, th~¸ S~ff ~r~ly f~e~ on re~;,~n~e~ t,~ UI U1 U1 C~ 0
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466 TNi~ a~um~tlo~ is cor~trery to t~ ~ct::~l re~:lt~ cf are a~re 0f all ~f the ~ig;l~fic~nt ¢1~1~ about s~Nlt~ ~nd 5ealt~ It also violates f~!~e~%~l ~:i~c~p~e~ ~b*ut ~:ee~ure- me~g of Nn~wle~ge ~ awaro~,esa. ~hich call for th~ develo~ment ~f an overall k:?o~ie~e acore ot $core~ be~ed ~n r~y~:~e t~ e~eno-ic~, p~liti~ or Nealth, be asses~ ecc~e~y by ~u~ re~;~]se te ~ si:t~[e q~esti~n ¢~ ea0h ~iC? Yet thl~ a~ allal©~o~s to the F~C Staff'~ te!~anc~ o~ t~e xes~¢::~e %~ a ~:~!e qtlestion on t?~e ~e~?th ~ffe:I$ ~f g~k!r!~ ~rlc~i~dg0 ~ ~n~ff~ie~tiy a~re of the f~t o~ £~ue if! q~e~ti~ns invo:v~ precise detafIs, ~ch a~ ~Oat of e~,e~Z $~ff :aile~ correct ~- ~5 -- ~did ~t ~p~r~:~t~: t~:¢ a~v:!:ty ~f ~n~ c~cer" :~, £~a~, h~ever, ~Ee v~st me~erit3 of ~e~pch~e~!t~ cho~e ~lth~r ~%, ~5, cr SS, i~dicatin~ that ~?ley 1 of evez)2 ~f tho~e ~ffez~ £~: t~e d2aease ~n~ be!kef hatd:y s~;,orts ~he ~t~ff'~ cenclusi~:~
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467 ~iri!~1~. ~e ~t~ff ~rt<:~,~et~ '~;~t k~~ t~ the ~n~:~e~ati~n the< the ~es~o~i~:~t ~s ~ ~[ th~ ~t~e~ent pre~e~ted but i~ u~ure e~ th~ p~ec~e ~ta<L~¢$ ~7 ~ut of ~©~, ~h= ~n~: ~on't ~uo~'¸ The Ae;o:t ~ou~ ~t~l ~t~r 5nter~,re~t~ ~f t~ "~n't k~.,¸ ~:~ ~ d~d ~ ~!d ~ dish'% k~:~" ~?::izi~ig thi~, the ~er~ity ~f ~ehig~ ~t~ out th~ %~E~ ~ II L~v~ ~ ~n1~r o~ ~h~t'¸ c~ mean me~!y '~ a ~ut~. i ~ ,~% k~ov'¸ re~n~e~, ~ ~r~b!n~ ~ ~:~ed in the T~:d, ~y ~ the ~-C~IL~ 'r~<~t' ~ee~o~ t~ ~he ~t~die~ could h~v~ ~ulted f:o~ ei~ie !~c~ of u~!~r ~ ~he R~C~ ~n the ~s$~ ~ public aw~ene~ ~ere b~ee~ ¢~ ~A O ~n ~a
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4~ ~elcpho~e ~ivey~ In ~ch inte~vze~s, it ~ n~t ~a~o~a!~l~ questions such a~ these that were ~ked ~n the ~t~d~es h~ve re~aine~ ~nte~e~ad ~ al~r~ ~hr~eut the ~nterv±~ ~ one ~u~ ~£ six, ~ne ~ut of ten, ~z erie out ~,~ a ~un~e~~' ~'~e~'~ ~f~r %~ ~I ~,~¢~ ~ ~ ~ho~e w~o ~ke? ~ ~r
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4~9 ~if~h, ~ei~ha~ the st~ff ~ep~r~ nc~ the stu~i~s ~,~y ~ ~cc~i~ h,~ ~ele~.a~,t ~J~,pl~ta~F ant~r~t~e con~e×t~' ~q~, low ~r ~cdlu~ l~el Cf a~arene~ ~ the ~b~ence ~f ~ ~ta~ ~ ~e~n~ 1~nawar~'¸ ~ e ~ ~n~~ o~ ~Ln~t~n ~ (~TC O1 O
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470 search of the p~ce!se ~orre~t" ~n~er ~ not l¢~c,~ble, th~ ~te~ e£ co~cern; and unceEt~inty ~o~ ~% ne~es~arfiy r~p~e~en% l~ck of a~ler*ss. One ex~gr~e ~g this £a,,~[ty ~ef±ntt~*n o£ "a,~a~ene~" is the EIC Staff'a ~lsuse of the 1~$0 ~¢pe~ s~y ¢~t¢~ ~n t~l~ N~olt. ~at ~udy a~ked people "ho~ ~tu~ you ~grsena[ly t~li~RIr ~ part!culer statement ~s. ~he interviewer ~ ~n- ~tr~c~ ~C, ittro4ace those qu~estlons ±o the ~es~6e:,t~ ~ smoking a~5 health, e~d f~l each ~ne l~d li~e yo~ tc tekl '~,~¢~, it'~ ~et t:~e" The ~aff ccnclude~ ~et th~e ~es;c:~x- ~,~ ~r~ the 2atter three ca~eilorl~s ~!e 'u~a~are" ef the ir~folra- ti~r~ <onv~Fe~ by the ~;c~ifi~ statements fade. it i~ ~bVi~Ua, h=~ve:, that a ~es~nde~t could be n~a~e cf a clai: (~¢t e~mp~e, :ha= ~m~ktn~ i~cl~ ~n~ rf~k cf heart a~t~c~} y~t d!5~ee with ±t. ~he 5qC Staff ccns!~te~tly r,a~e~ the st~dle~ i~, t}li~ res[e~t tc ~pp~rt it~ er~e~us ~on~luslo~ abo[~ ~eness ~et m~ re~d ar~o~har exa~pi~ fr~, p~¢ ~-l~ of ~he ~e~or%: 'A~ord~ng t~ the Gallop ~plni~:~ Index, June. ~ha~ ~x~kln~ eau~e~ i,)r~ ~n~er .... Ancrtg ~e~:iy one-third -- 31~; -. dad not ~e!ies~ o~ ~,,,gl 0 t,a gl
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471 ~e~o~end~ by ~he Repo~ a~d bF ~ R ~5~ ~ not !f~e1¥ %o ~q ~3
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472 ha~ three ~aj~r limitations o~e, it i~ re~Lricted t~ ~ar~i~9 ~le ~f ~e~p~r,~cnt~ is ~t ~p~e±~tative ~f the ~eri~an ~ta~ea~ents t~ste~ a~e ~t ~¢ng t~e p~op~ ~ the ~e~er~t ~ve~ the~e ~i~it~ti¢~. t~ i~ ~!ea~ that t~ ~t~dF doe~ net pr~i~e e~pir~¢al ~tp~t~ for ~hc pre~e~ pr~al. the ~u!t~ ~ the s~udy ~s v~li~ t!t~y ~e~on~tr~te ~nly ~t~, for e~p~e, thc ~t~d~, ~o~hd that a sr~:cific !un~ ~a~cer and ~a~¢e:" tle~ that ~e~$~e ~I~!~ ~e~r seat ~!t~ ~E i~te~ ~pear 0
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473 Fo~tlal ccn~eq~nce~ of ~ ret~t~on~l ~ar~i~g ~y~te~ Ill. ~t ~he replace~,ent cf the current s~r~e~ ~e~rei'~ ~- Hence. i ~rqe thl~ Subc~t~ee ~ ~ec~nzi~er the aivi~a~:i~). (a (a (,3
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474 hiT. WAXMAr<. Thank you ~ery much We will have quesiions in S'I ATE53ENT Of:" |IO[;IQ~ D, ]ILACKWIEL3,, PH. I~. l)r. lit ~.<:~wr:l.f, Mr Chahman, 1 ~m t3ogei Illackw(dh a t,roFt's- sot ol mnrketing ~i Ohio State 131fiver.Mty, ~I)eci~Hzing in 3he ~l}al Ph 13 ¢](,~l~:o ~I~S oarn~'d ~[ Northwe~,tel~l Wniv~,l~ity, ~lilh a ¢o11. CC'IIUI~tiOI} ill COnsulnOt behavior. | have authored, or coauthored, 14 bi~oks and ovel 5(I articles puhlished ill ptofeK'donal or business jou, rtals that *¢'port risearch thnt I and oihei5 have conducted concelning 3h/,communlcations ]~l~.K-e',~, eon~/m~el d~,cision [lroc(,s;~.~e, hi~oh'~,d in bilbil}g ,nrld tP, inf~ ~mods ~md ~cl~ices, and ~ariables invoh'ed in n/alketin~ st~at~y One of my most ~ecen( books is the /ourlh edition of "Consmuer Beha~m~, pubhshcd t h~s ?,ear. 1 hinge heen asked to ri~xicw si.~tion 4 o~" 3hi, hill lhat ~,.~uld c})211)~(, th(. pres~llt labeling! i~quilt~in(mts to solne~hin/~ (.Is(. "~ht~ ioIat}o?~a~ ~)steiil ol w~t?iliilgs prot/osl:d by s('ctioI~ 4 i~ o~ couIsi, ~tllll" of {h~, ~'ei]el dl Ti~'l~[e t~]ol/l~lli~,-~]ol) Ji/ lily opillion, lhv ch,m~,c in the wa,ning statement 1)~o9o ed by section ,] is fundamentally na~x(d ]i,sh the h~beting provlsio]~s of section 4 ~ould ~eldacc a highly suc2esMul prog~m~ ot inihH~ling congulu¢~s about the <laim¢.'/ ]y ¢olllll('r[llodtlct~o col~s~'¢[~ll'l~ces All Of (tie ~[]f]i('S lOl~fhlC'~'d COI/¢]LI~IOII I}1~ f)~I)le ttl£" ~llliVtUf-:Q]y El,,y~re of Ihc. (l~itl/ thid smoklng is hamrdous to health, and 3ou can go hack il)lo H~e smokiui¢ SCLelion of a I)lm~( and shui)[y ~mifv thai by talkin3: I~ I~eoide and askhlg tht'm. S~ ~h) abm~don this program in favol of a com~e that is not cab uncha,ted b~t, a~ I hop lo den/onshate, Iikcl) 3o lead to re. sult~ ¢luitc the opposite of those api,me~¢tly intended by H~e bill's "lh( otheI basic t3r~l~ i~ sectilm 4 is that the syslem ot ~ot:~ted wdrnhlgs attHbuIing specihc health problems to slnoklng will prob- ahl) lead to one of two unhaI/py effkcls: l:ithe, co!l mne, s ~ill e~ ]ont.ou ly believe that they ~ill pe~solm[l3 sulfc'r the speeihc ht,~lh}/ pl Ibh,ms kh.nHfied in lhe ~talning siiltf,nl/.nl~, and s~ly )¢,s, I will have a heart attack o~ get lung ~ancc~. mid if people did thn~, al/d yotl ~I}(m ol/ly SOlllC will, ~.hc~II Cetiglc.ss Js II/~'/lld~(l]l)p ,'1 ](tw ;lhich ~tP~t:ivos so!lie p~ol)}£" Now t3t~i J one tlo~Mblu Coil /~qlloflll~ 'lh(, oihe; illl~,::ihh conut'quenl'e, imd p~(~bddy lhe mo~e likely ~ne, is iimt pr'op]e s~ouhl lead thv ad and say, some peop]v ~i/l gel heart discz~e, o~ lung dM, ase. But we know theft lhesc air millo~ily phonon~non~., those ale l'iS]~ f~tctois thal only ~lpI~[y lo ~ c(ltaili ]~roI~<~lt}on Ol lhe p/,/~l)le ).1o~} of the Fc~q)ic lfi}}, a~ }mlnLm n~lult ah/ ~5~ h. sa2, lh~t [~ fo~ the I~lh('I pl'I~,o!~ Nov, le~ Inc explaln just ~ lilt}e bit about the ponL FI. UI ~d l.a.
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( ,} 2¢ 15 1) il) Tht¸ pui~il }~ l/)il~o!~lit I(~ iv}~¢,Ihcr p/o])lo (~/J }/~lv(¸ t~ib J*~!~n)l~;~ wcll ~tlliltllril iyt(~ lt/(/~(¸ l~lt~L ~tTI(I 1{10<0 d~18 ~tl~ d¢~(Ei!~o~ i1~ p~ c~ ;~ lhro/l~th ~ b! l~ Sli~l(~l///ld~ SO } ~i)tl!/I n(£ l~l~eat ll~/,~il, lb~~ p~ob o{ hiklInm!i m ~ lii~l:lullmlvd Im *l/i sldLit' t i,* ~()i' !,izlliLq M) ('lai)i)l~n, I t!~[I1]; o!I~ of the I~o~[ ]nI(,~{,~1 i!lt, I}liItg~ is, i{ 5ill] ~ II,p]i~d Ihu>' ;{~/lit' lo ;ll} o[ t}' h'a!li)t ' ((m }//)/~ 5OLI ~lo',/]d (./)~/]( To idly olh(': COhC]il~iOI/*. lloIn l}l)~c ext)o/U- olhel thrm (h(' ())It lhat ll~'ol)]e d(~ k)II)ll, ol dll Bel I'v( li~,d slno), N~)xv, ~,o ] x/il} )lot IOp{'at tho~.(, ~pcci[ic~ Tt/(3 ~r( ill t}ll> slat(, i//£,:lt fill( t}tl)-,!, all! lil/ t'ml)i)Kll (~if]!!lw( ~'ht, o!hcI IiIoh[¢ll!, ~llfl I l}lilik Ibis i~> the Olll It~al both{'7~ iliI£'~l('illl ~ls-, hol}lpl:, t,~t,)~ ho@ pe/hap~, that if l)~'~)pie kno~ this th% ~ould a(l on it Did it x/ou}d bo ~,tolig to corl(l~td( t}tal ~on Lunt'I~ a)(, n//I itdpqu ~t~']3 it/ lol ml~d just b~c m~e ilv!2, dll n{d act up(m ~t /~ i~ I/~alT('l of l~,ttt, I}]/, Stll{]it~. donb }13' the }'1(~, Coz~/lni=,~iol/t,d h5 t}/~" Fq(, flatly rehlle 11/~ position '1"}/~ 195(I Chiltol/ sludy {,~ii i to t}/£, c'ollcltl-.]oIl ~-~ l~)]lo~s ~llci 1 all~ qLIC)~ils£ h(,ll/ t)ft~(" ~, "*} ~ctt)id l~no~llt'dgl' ~ll,l/ut I}le }u ~]i]l co!l~/qt~('m'l'- I)f sm!~I;int ~las lu <Abe) ~old~, the F~I(~ ol~n lol~xm{~',iol/ 5t/It~i('~, Jnc](~tc i{ p/o~/]c }~ad th]~ in//)lnl~t t]~ m, mo:t dJf~'tc]ict hi~t~ecn hlo~qtt]ge }£'III~ of sllloke)~ compiI~'d ~lith no)IsnlokI'Is ~('zI" fim)id !o h~' ~g nihc~,nt a( the 0.(I;~ ]e~c! of s~gnificu!/cc than ~'~- to bc e~,oc~cI~d h~ c~aIlc~ Sa bn~ieal~y in3 i)osJlilm is tidal if Mm me l)'ylng Io ],ul ih i)lIO~ tit risk ][1 hualt atti~cks, you a)c" h3 dc~mi(iou tiutthl~ ill iTdo)nm Ii()ll t})ai Js ielt.valil io i}l( i/cop]f, ~]10 do lioI col/ i~o1 lh~,il/',olx~,~. )/iy obiec'~iOl~~ and I arn ~1 t~ol/~.nlokt,l anrl I ~,LI pt,'~ 1 t'lnIIdhizd quite a ~c,it v, il]l the vJo~ of ~anti~g i,r.~p}l~ 1o ]J~l s~ ink(, ~ mu,lb t~tlt 1/l3 t/() i~iz'l] J~ yo0 Wo~i}d he cre tlin~ 0 I~lle ~}li~}l ~ald 10 I~/ati3 pcol)]l, ~}lJ~, is re)) p('op}t, who a?t. oldl:l" the O)/(", who V('I hta)[ a1- 1%,) ~xample, l>eopJe o',~ (5 l~ave ~ihnost 2,000 p(,ict,n( mu)( ]iku- }ihoo(I o~ maligt/F~licy lh~ll yoking p~oli~t' ~V¢ Iioi,, }/axe a ~y.',t('r)" ih ~}liC}l ]lflloldb t~[icl p~*el~, ',t}l(~ ploh~tb]}' hLl[tl(.ncc the i~.~ decision Io l~n/ol;e, call ~y the ~ttl~tOn (~el/~'l~il ~]a~ d(%tl)]/iI/('(I thfil SI~O~, Alld ~l}lat ~1¢, aIc duitlg ]~, tt~illg to [;ilk at )ut ~l syst(')/I t}lal ~ould }(,place that ~it}l one that ¢ons<,.luellce~, thai mc m/.J/altcd, rm(l ever~(hil~ i)~ lhe empirical (,~icluncc lha~ do(s exist a~)d in ]k've tiled thi~ v,][] lae nlo/c e[~hcli~e, ~md in fact thez,' at(' ~um(, v~r.v ~tz'ong prohabilhk,~ tl~,~t it ~ould bc counlcl Io tt/~ intenlion~ I]/al ptoll~h]3 mm/y ~t,ll nli,anil~g p(.oplo inil,l/d lb/t}3i~ hill Thank 5ou. [Testimony ~esumes on p ,18G} [13)-, Iflack~elFs prepa)ed stal(ment ff,liows:] UI 1.,.~ U1 al 6~
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476 Hark~.ti~q at t~ Ohi~ State ~iv~y~ sl~ec~ali~in? [~ tl~e c~n~tra~ion ~ ~u~er b~avi~r~ • have aut~,~r¢~d or co autO.red ~ourtee~ books ~n~ ~ver fi~y articles p~l~li~he~ ~ ~z~fessio~al ~r b~si~ess j~ur~als ~haf ~ep~t ~e~ea~c~ that • and ~the~ have coad~c~ed ~nce~n~ th~ c~an~catior:~ p~o- ~ess~ con~u~e~ de~l~ p~ce~ ~nv~,ed ~, buyi~9 and u~n~ ~t~u~ ~o reflect ~he v~e~s o~ ~ Oh~ ~e ~r~ve~, ~ a~I, ot~r ~n~tlt~t~n w~th ~hlch ~ ~ ~r bare bee~ ~£f~l~a~d, ~hich ~ou1~ c~ange ~he pre~t ~abe~g r~u~re~,~ ~or cigarette packag~ and adverti~e~ent~ ~he rotational sy~t~ o£ w~rair,9 ~ate~ents pro~sed ~y ~t~on 4 of t~ t, I11 ~ ~i~a~ to a U~
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477 ~i ~, ~inlol, t~L~ chau~e in tt~e warrLir~ ~t~te~T,t laCe!in9 prov~si~,ns ~f s~ct~n 4 ~l~ *ep~a~e ~ hi~ ~t~¢~$~ f~l program, of ~r~£u~ co~,s~rc~ a~,out the cl~i~e~ health ri~k~ Of ~kin9 wi~h ~ pr~a~ of uuknown 0n~ p~tcnti~lly cou~t~r~z~ti~e uo~enc~s. ~ll of the ~tudie~ con~u~t~d about con~er ~w~renes~ ~f s~kiu~ ~n6 health is~ue~ lea~ to the conclu~i~ thah people are ~ver~all~ ~w~re of the ciai~,~ tha~ z~Okiuq ~ hazardous t~ h~alth. ~y abandon thi~ pr~,gra~ to ~er~nstra~e, ~¢ly to ~ea~ to r~s~lt~ quite th~ opposite of Th~ ~th~r b~lc f~w in S~ttion 4 ~ t~t the ~yst~m of rotated warnin~ attr~hutiu9 ~¢~flc bealt~ prok,~eu~ te s~ok~ will probably lead to ~ne of t~ u~h~py ef~eet~ c~th~r eon~s ~i~ ~rrone<,~y ~,~l~ve th~ ~he7 w~l [,er- son~lly ~ffer the ~e~igi~ he~l%h pzoble~ ~den~ified in the ~aru~nq ~t~temen~s, even tho~ah ~uch pr~b~e~ affect o~ly perceive that o~y ~ s~ pr~port±o~ o~ the p~pu~tio~ ~ at risk from %he ~t~ted h~lth problems, ~ will th~ c~el~e that the ~urgeou ~eneral 0~d other health a~thorities h~ve n~w ~clde~ that ~i~9 is ~ot h~a~do~ to all pe~le. ~i~ce ~t ~;,;,~r6 that the ~p~fic d~ea~e~ i~entlfied in lhe p~;,o~e~ ~a~u~ ~te~ ~pply primarily t~ older people, the pr~able b~
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4?8 crfecL c,f the law ~ [,~ %o recl~ee ~reslieally the im~a~t of tt~e wa~'tl[~q s~atement on y~ung people. ~,e ~o~ionB1 ~a~E~in~ sys%e~, ~roposed i~ the present bill a~I ~he ~'TC S~af£ ~¢'porL apparently, ~ l~se¢~ on the assu~p- ~io~L t~t pre~t [,~,]ie aware~e~ of the claimed health co~e qucn~e~ of ~kln~ is ~i~uff~ei~nt,~ ~nd~ ? ~n Section ~ of ii ~ ~,~ i>~ ~ns~~ ~ ~o~e~'~n~ ~i~ ~ ~ ~e~l~ ~ ~" ~k~ i~ ~e~,~~ IR~ ~ ~ 211 ~i~~ leve~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~p~e~ ~ ~ ~ ca ba o ~n ¢0 ~0
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t 479 ~rl~kl~J, l.e,, ~at ~k~ ~ ~.ar~9~2,~u~,, ,1~ ~ p~'~¢i~l7 t~e ne~ a~J ~s ~L~,~r1~ by ~b~¢~ fa~t t'-~ ~a~e ~ ~o ba,~,~rL~ ~'~r ~t~ ~.~ 1~,~ll~.h t~,~r~Js ~.t~,u~.~ tc~ c~t~h¢l~ ~rc~t.~ su,~l~ ,~*~ ~til~ £*~r-re~Lc~.rk9 ~h~r~ge~ ~:~ed i~ Sect~o~ ~ o£ the b~l* th~ ~LC r~ ~ol~ ~h,~ pr~l~it~,~ ~/~ ~t~,~r~ ~e n~ su[f~c~e~.l~ ~,~re ~ the I~a~gt~r~ a~±al~ ~£,~h ~ki~,~3 ~-~vea~ that th¢~, stt~/~ aL-C d~fe=tive i~ S~V~,~I i~z~t.~nt ~r~pe~t s. U~ U1 UI g~
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480 P~Th~r~S ~o~t ~ignif~ca~h is ~hat ~ny of %he survey ~asu~cs a~scsse~ belief~ r~ther t~an awareness. ~,h~ d~i~c ~ting controversy over the heal%h thr~ts pres~ to be p~s~d b~, ~c~king. Consider %he likely ~i~ati~r~ ~f ~ survey participant who recognlz~ %bnt smoking h~ been four~ %o be ~n~ffi~ient for demonstrating tha~ smekln~ c~u~es ~hese h~alth pr~bI~m~k ~hu~. the verso~ [~ ~ware ~f ~he clai~ed l~nk h~%~e~n s~,okJn~ and so~ hea~th prohlem~ but does ~LO~ be~ve tha~ "Further doubt ak~ut %h~ direct rel~t~l~- ~hi~ of s~oklr~ ~nd c~cer ~ee~s ~ be re]~hed to th~ f~ct that the~ per~on~ h~d kno~ s~oke~s ~J~a~eed ~i~ ~,~e ~'~u~p~ ~e~ ~%~e~e~%~ ale c~tegorlzed as iJr~.~C. ~.]~,r~at~¢¢!~¸, the~e red,or,dents ~. be ~.0re of ~rela~e~'k t~ X, it ~o~ not ~c~e~ X. ~vldence suppozti~ ~Li~ ~]te~n~i~e e~,la~tion ls provided b), thc 198~ ChiI%~L ~dy cund~te~ for the FTC S~ff. At o~e poi~t SU~v~r ~tlc~pa~t~ O
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w~r~ a~ked ~L~er heart d~i~a~e ~h~ bccz #ou~6 to 1~ ~suci~ted ~t~ cigarette s~oklng.~ (Q~e~a~j ~) 0~:1~ 9.~% ~f ~he ~e~ (~e~, ~N~" and ~D,~n,t ~o~~ ~e~po~sl, I~er i~L ~he i~ervle~, ~ere p~c~d to bc "un~w~rc'~ of the C~i~:, ~,odie~ ir~ this %he S~ ~is~a~c, bu~ which di~fe~ in poslti~g s~ok~:~ ~ either ~uqqe~t that ~ny ~r~on~ cl~i%l~ ~s "un~arc~ in f~t ~ ~n ~ ~u~veF ~e~,~r~h. ~he F~C ~#~ Report aekn~e~ that eq~e~c~ wi~h ~he ~tate~nt '~klng ~ ~,y ~a~ the ~tea~s~ c~c ~ ~u,~g Can~er'~ ~c~ in ~he ~9~0 ~,pcr ~t~d} W~ ~o~,~b]y ~a~se ~f lu~,g ~n~er.~ We~d~y a~b~ui~y ¢~ a~o i~f~ence t~,~, 0
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4~2 "slq~ifJcan~iy increases," are very ~bje^tive, ~or ~za~Lp~, ~O~E~ ~eogl~ ~,dy ~ercei-¢e a )~% risk ~n~rca~c a~ a ~i9 iftc~t i~r¢~e, ~hi~ others ~y not. ~ is i~Lt¢~tln~ %0 note that the F~C ~ep~r~ ~ites e-:i~cnce tha~ people %end %o i~nore ~r disco~± ~tatl~tica~ Given this ~v~denc~, it ~eems ~con~i~¢nt to ~p)~ ~sur~s of ~£atlstical kn~-ledqe~ for assess~n~ the Ievel o~ ~arene~ con~r~i~g the clalmc~ ef~ec%s of ~ ~okJ~. Y~sur~s o~ this tygc, ho~e~'er, were frequently employ'e4 as i~i~ltors of co~ supers' aw~rene~ about th~ a~se~te~ da~er~ of smokinq (etq.~ "~at percent ~ ~,~n~ ~an~er ca~e~ are e~se~ b/ cigarette smok~g?- - Chilt~n 1980; "smoker~ ~r~ at lea~t %¢n t~e~ a~ likely t~ develop lung cancer than ~o~-smokers" - Eo;,er 198~), For these r~-a~o,~ it would ~[,~-a~ th~ curren~ ~tu~ic~ h~e u~der¢~i~at~d c~r~sum~,rs' a~arencs~ about the health haz~r(~ a~cia¢ed with smoking. ~e~e 1~. unfor~unateIy~ no w~y of p~edic~ing how ~ch underestimation e~r~r cxis%~ in these data~ 5~t in vi~ ~f the fac~ that these sa~e ~t~ies c~,,si~e~tly xe~y~ ~w~e+~es~ ~¢vel~ i~ t~,. 8O ~o 9O percent ra~e¢ it is f~ir to conclude that p~b) ic awareness of the v~ious c~oi~ about s~-ok[l~9 a~d health is as ~ pracLic~l ~,atte~ universal. It ~ou14 be wron~ to conclud0 %hat ~n~r~ ~re ~o~ ~dequ~e~y i~foz~e~ ~bc,~ the c~ai~.~ he~lth cons¢ [ucn~e~ of ~m~klr, g ~]~ply b~a~e ~an1, eon~er~ continue ~o s~ok~. ~,c FTC S~af[ Re~o~ s~tes several %i~.~ that ~T~kcrs ar~ n~t ~S 5~ t¢ O 5~ 5~ 5z t¢ -J
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48:~
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484 ~chicvc the go~l Of Informln~ the p~b]Ic, qhe little ~vJde~ce that exi~t~ nc~t Cnly fai3s to ~p~t that pro~sltlon, but ~n fa~t ~ontradicts ~t. A~ ~niti~l study f~r %he F~C Sf~ff wa~ u~der~ke~ J~ 1980 by ~Iker ~esearch to a~t iR the ~e~ection of ~pccif~c ~rnlng state~tenL~, ~i~ another ~udy con~c£ed by B~rke ~arketi~ Research examined ~n&u~rs' reca~l ~f ~rlous warnings. Impo~ka~ly. ~t~er ~udy e~a~,ine~ ~e impact ~f ~e~ ~r~ing~ o~ conjunct awareness, Th~r~ a~e a¢~rdlng~y nu data te i~dicate fha~ a ~otational ~y~t~ such a~ t~at proposed by fhe bill w~uld m~et th~ obJe~tiv~ Of pro~Id~n~ ~u~ers ~h ~suf~icie~%" if ~ufflo~e~c~ is g~uged ~y the very ~etaile~ ~,e~&~ ~ i~ the ~u~eys cited by the ~TC Staff. k~t t~ ~tudie~ do demo~trat~ i~ that c¢~su~el~ ~re likely to di~eeu:~t ~r~,i~g9 ~ha% ~i~k smoking to ~pe~c he~l~l~ proble~,~. ~n it~ ~u~,ary of Key Fin~i~g~ for ex~Dle, %~,o ~The ~e~sag~s related %0 birth Co~tr¢l ~ill~ a~d h~art ~t~auk~ t~n~ to confu~e th~ p~r~¢ip~its, ~h~ ~3~ not tLoroughly un~er~tan~ the ~ynergi~ti¢ ~[f~t~ ~h!ch ~tend~d ~for ~omeone else'.' [~n,pha~ The St~y thu~ co~clu~e~ & C3
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--I "Jt~ L~er~ that the t.~r~J c~o:itrol ~To~cjc~ 0~[ pc'c~2~ ~.tlo ~CJul~ b~ be~t zeachc,d t~,rc~u~-h t~ t~L~ ~pul~tio/~ as a ~."~,ole.~ ([~uzk~. ~oc,l~ Gron~ £t~y Z~I,~iS ~t p. 6.1 by }I.K. 5653. co~,a~'e,~ I-o t~,e ~,z~e~t ~z~r~ng ~tL~te~n~- th~ ~.nn~in~e~ ~,~ "~he~e f~dln~3s ~'e par~i~LJla~-ly s~3n~f'~c~nt irt v~e~ r~f ±nf~,r~"~l ~o~err~ii~9 s~oJ~iE~) and he~h ~o he ~rsr~,,~%]~, • ~.s ~.o~y ~L<, ~t.he ~+J~ez~ pe~-~or~,~ ~pee~f~e ~"i~it.~s that ~-i~j~it I~ pe~-sor~at~y irre~evc%r~. ~LO mo~t other co/~sti~,er~. ~o~- the $~J~.h i~,ic~]~ ~re [~ar t~=~:]~,~ l~Lkel~ "~C, be ~,ot~l~ co~t~ez~s ~.~hc~ ;,,ay b~ ~1~k{.r,~2 the 1~e~is~c~n ~f ~hether to s~,o~:e ~r n~Jt. ~[east. in the present. ~itt~".~o~ pa~en~L~ or p~-6 c~n ~. to ~k 0 c~
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496 people Who al, r, e]~oidinq %o s~ok~ that hthe s~rg~ol~ Ger~eral ha~ de~ermir,e~ *.hat ~o5~ is dat~ej~rous to your he~l~.~.~ (h,de~ Lh~ ProPose~l I~w w,~r~inas, Lh~- logical cOn~']~on woulr) I~e ~hat ~he $uro~OR C.~neral h~ Ilo l~nc~er da~rtaine¢I that ~m~kIT~g is ¢jen- ~la]ly L~h~l~hy~ b~t olll~, ~ni~ealthy ~ol" cel%ain olcler ~e~nt~ AS ~ ~n~ll,$~ ~f cor~s~mez t~ehavior an~ ~ecisi,.m ~kin~¢ am O£ %he opir~iol~ ~h~t }I~. 5~53 ~ay ~¢~11 have "uhe Opposite tiOn~ of the ~pons~r~, ~ ~ot deslz.~ble 3egj~lat!o~ i~ ~be ~o,~1 js Lo la*ave ~_he ¢lenel'~l Pop~l[a*~ion, anti espoc~ial~.y ~aokel's, a~c~r~ Mr \\'ax~.IaN ])~ ]/h~u - ~'ILI'Ij~'~j}~NL ()I- 'I]IEODORI[ II I~1,~,[. PH j) ]h ]/lr',/I. "j~haIIk ~oU, ~Jt (~h~ill/lall, !Of ~}:P OIIpOll{ll]i!) u! ~lP peaiilft }/lie rod0 l Will bc bli([ an/I SlLbmiL I[ot d/~ Of th~ l~ s('alC}l }~ £].~iouild of 111h stntt,nlt,nts [o \otll sl;t[!~ l~3r l~aule is 'l hoodor~' }llau ] hldd a doctoI~te it] p ~c}lolo~ s. ~' eei~l'd hlmlihe}'el~l~dvanb, Stniel.lli~e ily bl 1!151 l]mv'bl .n in it~/}ep n/I<,nt ill~cli(o of clini~ iI psb ]/o!o.) anl ~ol u]ting pb~ < ho/o;,~ i~ "l'~m~pa, ]qa, since 195:L l,olnl(.ly, l ~as ptoIo~sor of p~3chialc, al tllu l~l~di~,l Scho ~] of lhe Univ¢lsiLy Of South l~'lo~irJa> aI/d t/r<d~.ssol o! p~b4hello~y at that school and othe~ ] hold a diplomate i~ cli~lka] p~ycho]o~) froln ihe Anlel c~m Boald ot Prof~,~sional P~ycholo~h as well a the diploma t~om the AnlelJc&n Iloard o[ Folen~ic Psyc}~olo~ ] ~li/ ¢1 ine~l/bor &lid pa~ pl~sidell~ Ol ~}l~" ~%,[[ioIit Ill }'~(} ulo,4i call A uciafitl[~ an/[ aru c'ul/imil) ]llt.~i(]/ulL uf i}l~ Ari/llic~m P~5 cho]ob, ilLd l,'ollnd~ion ] /lrl~ also a i~lel[i],ol Ol l]le l:~/u~lion I{~, s('~tlt'J} ~oci~ty arid h,~\e con~cied ¢.va]l/a~io// SItldie~ lOl plivt~(, colp~l~tii~m a~ wo]J ds ~,~lula~](li/ itsooI(l/ J~r Yalio~l~ bl~tn(}l,~ of 1}~1: US lIiilite~Iy t~rtd eJl~leI ~:It. tl]ont~ Ol th(, (~01,(![~]l/ltril~ ] ;IIn th/ ~tLlthoI o[ 1 bgok. a lltllllbol ot" thatJlels ~iid t~l~ploxinl:~lel) 5~J l(.~eall}l ai/(~ ctll leld s1~lt o~ [ no%leI1)4t ~[)o/iI ~}l/, p>3cJlo!o~Jc~l~ ~ pools ol c[~illetlo >lI!o~.il/~£ "l}le owlltl~ion il~clttl{15- ~l thlltotlgtl oI I}{<, I(, l.ltlt'll L~I]CI [/llblic IliOll~ j/Pit lit/lll~ ill d~lrt, tlf{ullC(,, ~([dic liOII, ] ~llll I/O[~ [~I]~l gll>t~}lI~d I{ OL~IC}] ~ll~/ ~LII[UILI/ ;I:~[/L/~> Oj SI]/O - iI~l{ herb iviol In addition t/~ t}/] ]il~lIl{kllf~ l¢'si(i% I }/~\(' ~l[o foil/llltll/it[!ll'/~ v, ill~act[~l-,i,e,~lch/,i~s~olkin~il/the ~lea I;imlne¢~/t!3 l/litin~ 0 gl ¢0 la,
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487 tlE~ ~LWil~'y ~;~IIycl~]~di~ ~i I'~cl~1og~"' ill~I~ ;~ ~iiE~i~! iii~ ~!~I~LII~ !~ii~:~ ~I~ii~; I}ir~I ~!~ii~,!!iL ~iiii~I~ LI~!: i~ ~d~{i¢li\ i, ] ~ill ~t~ii~i ~ iltS~iI¸ I~II~y to I~i~ C~E~I~I~I~. iiIl~lJl~¸ Ii~ ~ill¸ u~ [ii~ ¢~I~LI~ }l~il, ~I Ii.~t ~iii~iI~ C~ it~ill ~Ii~i¸- ~l~li.~ i~I ~i~il li~i~ ()~,i~ eiliJ quit ~it}l ~ii~!i~,lll ~,~l~i¸ ~}li-, ~ili~n~!• ~ii.i~tiI~c Ioill~ ~ t~l(, ~Lll~,ii~i~l ~: ii¢]I ~ i~Jolo~i ~I ~l~l)i:cl~ i~f ~,i~iiI111i. sIlli~l~iul~, liiJ ~i~Ii~,r~l ~!~Ii<,iI!i,IiI ~TIIOIII~ ~i I}leil¸ c<~IlteIll~ ~Ii, ~c~¢J~ct~l ~, l'hlL b~l~Iviur ~!id le~l~Ilsc~ ul¸ ~i!:~i~le su~okei~ ~i~. (!~liI~: ~iilt~Li¸- "['hi,If! i~ EIIIIi~l~atl5¸ flu ~ifl~!I~II~! iI~ tllI~ sI!vI~rily ~i~¸ ee~lioll le- ho~ Sl~o~rI~ t~l~I I~IIL~(~ ¢~ ~II~ ~']t TilOIe ~i'~'~I~l~" ~ tho~ ~IiI0 Ii II~I~I~d CII~I~ bL11 did II~I sl~I: co[~l~letel~ tll~II ~ly I}iil~i¸ ~lhi~ ~b- st ~iTBI~d Iot~II5 A illi~d ~II~'cl lel~orte~/ I~¸ ~io~i~ ~'(~I,~l~e~s J~ 11~t sIlloldIlg (i~l~ioll (fluc[~ ~, i tLI~IIj~'el~¸ Iilild an~ ill $ol~l~r ~=~!~ lilill.[.xi~:!~nl 'lili~y ini: ol¸ ~i ii~IllI~, ~ii~ll Ili{~it J~ ~xpi:~e~J io Ioli~l¸ I~IC¸ I~S of ~II~I~I~il~I~ I~l¸ ~ela~iv~LI5r io:~g 1~I'~i~d~ ol ~i~l~ ~o~ I~a~ie~I saf~¸ o~¸ e~iill~le~ ~le Co~l] nlill¢is W]io iil~¸ no~ sLll~ke ~( Ill~ i1i~{~,, ~}IIll~ (If~x ~I~,~l,~ IvlEo ~i~r~ ~lll ~uloliiIEI~ ~I~ ~Lllldfl~/l 0:1 ~'liIl~¸ ~II~ ~:~ ~II,II~l~ ~hl, ~'~p~IS II~¸ II~(, ~Irl~I ~ilhdI~l~ll ~I~: ~OIl~i~[~'ll~ ~IIld I~r~dic~l~]e ~itl~ kI~Ii ~d~iicti~e ~ibstnilces d~.~i~i~, ~ ~i~¸ ~Ttg~ (~f ii~s, ~J~sclii~tioil~ of ~ob~o eI~¢I$ ~i~¸ e~trotll¢ly ~licJ ~ii~ ill ~f~Tl~isteTlt Ill ~l~i~ ~ij~Td, ~ol~'c~:~ iJs~ i~ T~IOI~¸ I~I~ i}II: I~ of ~ It has be~n ~epor~ed ~, ~osla, in ]9~0, t|lat t}~e ¢on~ir~tlaIlee of tl~¸ I~¢~i~l~ ~ho q~li~ sillokillg do ~ o~ tI~elr ~'I~. ~h~ J~ IioI oI~l~¸ pl~iioiIletla iIl ~alll co~Ir~ ~.o exl)~Ii~ ~,iill ~¢tllo~l~Ir~l~¸ ~iddi~ii~'~! ~ilbstoiic~ but oTlc ,.~r~liI!h reul~liEl8 to b~~ ~.x[~Iored (~]~iI~¸, iI~ail~ ~i~:a~ o~ slrlo~iil~ ~'ha~iol¸ ~i~ ~is ~.u~ ~i~u]oi~ ~i~]~dJilg l~lly ~olnc sliloke ~ly }l~l~il~.¸ ~ild ~Iiill~ do ilo~ (~le~llly
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J~ 488 tiim ¢*1 ~ht sm{~klng ]/o}lit con hi, e×pt,ct<,d l'tomtsirlg ~olk with ]{~ls ~lr~ Ie[/c~l{eg~ O¢~ndi~ioIl~II~ Jal)or~oI3' [~c~on~ Io gll~ok~ stu~5' ~igare~te smoki~ in ~ p~oI~r]~' coil{roiled labora~o~)' se~Ii~: Lln~ il s~l~h i lint i~l/ll!d aldrnal e~pt~l iiEml/I s; with I eliable nlo/lel~ o! se]~dll/ini~la~ioiI ¢~1~ loba~eo cali bc~ d~.~s~,(] and ('oIlducl~ ~ t!lt~ ~lav~ bc~l~ ~.vi{h t/~lllp!~l~e~ ¢~ocail/e~ and ~]~o]lol, (~le ~oltc~p/ o[ t~ ~¢~o ~¢Jdiclloll will plobrl~l]y l~m~in ~ h~[~/~[l£.{ic>al ~oll~,~lu¢~ onl3¸ paril • uIld/'rstood as sug~esled by Jarvik ]~77. And so, gen~len/en. le'~tl, smoking is ~dicti~o. I would very bti~f~y like ~o tell yo~l my clinical e×p~.'~ierlc~' wilh .~i~/(Ik~l~g l)kllii/~ ~tle i~,~ ~0 ~'eaTs I ~t~qv~¸ WOlI~II ~lld i,l~Tl~ill~l~. ~,~ WOl]~ with I/collie w]lo sfnok~' cig~llc~ll~& IIJ i¢~i~!'.~i11~ Iny ~xpl~li I~/g~T~y ~f ~]~I~ll/ WI~lt, }lt~lVy ~-illOl~tS. I ['illd 80/li/~ colltinla~d, e.~Ei/i, quit with ~l*,~,s, alld $~0r~/~, qu~ Will/ ]i~l/, ol¸ no ~11~:. 'l'hg.3~ p:~ ~i~ll~s of iilinl! ii/ l~ ~ ~l/'~ed like {he p~llicil~ lh~lt I h~vl, ~c,~l~ i~1~o ~titl/~g]e ~o I~u iei(~d 1"loin ~h~, ~t~/]ic~iolp. of ol/~al(~8 ol¸ ~lc~ h~l ot¸ ~lllli~l~t~llill~,8 {Ti~al~:~i~, s!Elo~r:~ ~lt-~¸ ~.,~l~¸ EttitLCll£,~l to ~]l~,il¸ ~mll~:il~!{ ~/~!a~i/Fl r~'~ic'~ ~ ~!~l~ ~IIIIIOV~ o~ ~l~i~!~*'cl ~/h/~ll ~hl~¸ ~lrc, 11~ ~ll/r~J lo 5.11~o~. ]Io/~v~l, I h&~'e ~]8o iio~t~ ]~//i}~]~ ll~lv~¸ ~tL~t~l~ 8{l~r~ Jtl- b/'I~ o~ 1t11' Illq)~l~it~~ ~i~x~ aIll] hI~rllbul~',t4~; p~t~ic~]aIly il! lr/3 ~ll~, ~ith c}/~ldlc~ oIt~ s~ rely :-t~ol/g ~l~l~ll~z/~ll~, {o I~l~l~lr/~t!¸-~, i~jl(l~ts, c~,l ~lill alticIe~ o[¸ ~]o{~llng., 'iV, tl]~llk~t~. ~ln¢] lE~]d5¸ J~!,al-~ t{t,lllov~/ lior~/ ~,~2 ~l('J~iJ~-~ t~l~,~ll~. Ill ~ll~l'~ CalI/ l~,Stll{ iTI ~i~!~ ~ati~l/, S](~,pl~,..:-ne~,, ~itiidi(~Ii, (}l~[~ty~sion, ~iIl~ ¢otli~'l¸ tll//Otlif011 ~1.~1~, Syil~]/i~)l//~ They x'~lly ~oll~id~,l~tl]~' ill iIiteIic.i{y ~I/cJ ¢l~l~l~]/~I~, ~s I]o 1 ~1~' ~t~ ~.~ of ¢l~)s[inl!r/c/! from l~ltl~t'/~) slnol~iil~ das"fo¸ ~" as [0~ea s ~f ~eh~[-~ • s~opp~d a~ theag~.ol~ 1 yt,al¸ b(,l~l,2 {he J]ls~ ~l~l't~t'olq (']ollci~l'8 ltp~lt, ~tn~ ~/~v~ I/Ill ~ii/ol:~:(~ ~.~i/('~ ] ~; ~ollt~}lgl~ ~ll~'oil!~oi~/lt¸ ~r ,9 ~11~1 t t<li(f~ (if t~l~l~ ~t~ v,a$ n~¢or ]li~hly uncoln~liI~!l~ Tile ¢l.~ving n£~vel¸ le~/hed t}l~ ]eve] t]lat ] have expt~li~n~d i~ nleJie~ weight lo~s i~log~/~m~ ol- ii~ a[coho!ie l c}/~b e]inics Ill sllml, nll]qll~}/ c'ib'~]~'~t/" si/~c~kin~ i~- ~ ~lntlEl/lll an/I pc!/r~l~ive l~l~i~, I ~ ~ind nO ~o~i~l¢ing ba~i~ 5I~ t)l~' scieli~ilic ]~ll'~a~u~t¸ ~,l ill lily OWll ]/Tot~:.sioJlal ¢litli¢~[ ~xl~o~i~I/('~ ~o j~ls,~ily ]aE~'lJI/g it COT¸ tli,~Iillg it ~t~, ~rl ~,d//~/.~ion ~.~I• ~ *~x~*x~, "l'l/~ll~ 5o~t very n~uch, ]It |l]Jltl. ]Jl¸. ~'ind~ I ~, ilt~eles{(~d it/ yo~lr evaluation o( ~/~¸ ~']'(: li,llo~{ ~['ladc~ (2oml~/]~..ion lopgr~ I~ ibl~ II~l~.i~ fl~l lhis Ii,~i~l~lill~l TI~ lll.~l~}£, /,~id~lt~3, ill ~/~Ul¸ opinion, k~l~ol~¸ ~]~O~lt ~I/t" ci~lIl~r~l.~. Ot¸ .,.l~/c>k 3.~I¸ k~,lNl~ y~ 3,it W~×~I~ ~}~l~y l/t~v~Ilhi']e!~s sli]l sJn!~k~' ])~ 30~1 b~]it/~e oil ~//~ o!~l i¸ l/~//l ~]/at t~le a~vlq~ising c~tn!~lii;l~ t~y ~t~c¸ to/~acco ill- OI t~ ba O ¢o ¢o
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489 {hlMl) l~w( 11 l.~tu ¢d le,l~i/m~hlp Io ~l{ bIl% l~mlb('l o[ [K qp]( i}l~il S!llr~l[~ !~ JMI WIND¸ ] d~n't unclcl~tand ~,~11¸ (!~l~.~Iil~ll .N~r¸ ~,VA×MAN I)O ~O~E hC]i(l't' ~: k~t I,l I~U(~J~]{' sn~llkt¸ bl(E~t~l c~l ~lIv(q I {*-( 111( 11U-~ ),It. ~.'INI~ ] dol/'l lhink t}lt'l(' i~ any (,vi(](.n((, t/) ~/Igl~($~ what ik th(¸ l(.]a[i~e hnp(llta~c~ of ~ld~clt]~inK ~iJK~kh//~ likt~ f~hV oI}/[~l¸ bc }l~ir)l¸ J~ ~J fm/iti(/l/ (~ l/l:ll!y t}l]n~ "l h{.It~ ~l~, nJ,~n~ hlct(,l> ~tfii('l iI~ it I doll'( think thJt knu~h'~ll4r of th( dm~t.~ ~tdctl3 sV.m~ llom h !;in~ the ]ahd ~hmc, Mr 'WAXMAW J,i~t(n ~o nly tbli,Mhm ]'(,~plc srl]uke [~1 n/my /i'll son~ I]o ~okl thh/li (llle ¢11 tht, f~t([(~l~ lhat (']/£0/11~('> [~l'(l[~]O I I smoke is the ~i~alctt~ ad~tltJsin~? MI WIS;I~. ] doubt it. ] }lave not s('cn nil} ¢;']clcnc( lo ~tl~lzcM t}l. mip!. tm~c¢ (d ~:d~rli'-il,f, in t(n/*ndnf d(,u/al!d f}. ~n/o~:ii,[, *}ylfi cdll5, th(~ d*t~ that l ha~e s(,cn focu (~ on swilching, tha (~d~.)ti~. in~ a]]k~.ts t}le swilc}/in[. ]]on/ OI}( brand lu al:o~h¢~, lo :~ bwl! t~ ('ipm uttl' and the' like M~. W,~x~!ax. flare yo~ s(~n ~idenc( of this (,fi(ct? }lave you ~.((.~) S!tlc~]<.s9 A}0 ~o~J ba£in;~ l}lts£, ~ollcItl~]o/is 0!i S[i['lllitic sil~d- ie~9 ~]1. \~INll '{h~,l(! ~llt £(ll[le studk'~ that .'-]1o~ hL~icdb that ad ~(./li~l/~ is I(] tcc{ to hi,rod switching Mr ~VAX'4AN /}O yOU l]/[nk a0x~.lti ilb: at tinb poll( htlps l~i]lh( [ i~ plO(]uCt ¢I/d in~l(,a~ts d(U/ahd ]o! Ih{ l/IOdtlct'~ ).~I. "G~]NI~ ('.,rlaii/)y ~1}~( illtyoc]tlclioli of ~lt/) 1}(%/ ])1o(] i£t. ]~dl l~[]V(,~[i~ill!~ i¢~ (}!1) ()11( J~t¢tOt ll/ ~11O' }lMrodtlotioll ot 11(1~ pzo~tlct, (h,maHd i~ :( fl]m'lhm of )om l~Hmmti(m, di tdbut[(h vmiIM" 31]otlIh I'~']~'CI{% (!X[KI]0]/C£ i~]II1 ~}]i' ],y~ hi([ {.t u(lol ~ r~ltlhi!MI/o~ir quentb i,u[.ha eda.dused p;oduct A&v~dsingt) pic~dG cmhdl, ~.OU ih t})(' ]IllrO(]LlC~iOIl of SUCh a 11(,/~ pIo(hltt, ftt'l)(,lll(( Ilial "Jtw ~ct,l'(~t is i~¢,t a funetlon of (~dvct [isin~ ~lb(' ltp(~t i~ 13pk d- ly a fonction ol the expurk.ncc vdth th(. blat/d ~ttd (~xtl~thil]~ ('l'. ~ul I(mI:l{il:g t}lt~ ol}wl inputs pt r:p]t' ~e'l ~]~, ~VAXMAN, It's t~d~ to say ~hile tllfclt al( ll/ati3 l]~clol;. [hM f(, into the introduction of a nt~ p~o:luc't, f~d~-lti~ing i~, ONe l~ctol [lwll {Ill ~ p!oml,h~ lhe ltial *If a nt'l~ pIogucC; M1, "WINI~ Colrect. This i~ typic din one of the ('ft'ccts ~,~l. ~*~rAXMAN ])0 yOU disagree ~dth that s(alemcnt, Dr, Black- ~lel[ ' l)l. lh a(;l-:~ xH. Not basically, no lhnes ;/e at( finding )~tlng people ~l'yi/l~q ci}~rt't~('9 hi,cause of a Jot of ili[[ercat fd¢tOl~, ont! o[ whicln is adve*lising, lit l~lau says that cigmctte smoking i~ not addictive; i~ that a co~ i('ct stt~teInent? ])~ B1AU The~eis no s~icntihc barb lo~ a stat(inl.nt Ihat cJga- ~(,tt<, amokh~g is addictive ML Wax~lt, N, l)o 3ou thh~k (i/at the use of c~gm(,ttv~, }ms ~o:nc kind ol re]~lionshil~ to ]~,ople wanting to continue u~il~t, thorn li{llt~ [lit n/olc lhnl othtl ](il/d~ of ptoduc{s thai 1,ighl b/ us{'d vl'ly ol'len? ]h }}IMr 1 Ihink that is a ¢ll~(.st[t3i~ (ff v(ly sclious concern ] Ilia(I( a vie, it ~0 1]1. }]~,al]£' lal~OlatOly ill }IOtI¢,tOlt ]It' %torks spocih- l¢ F~ ¢0
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490 (~ll~ Ilifh thL. qtK tioll of ho,~ (!~ p;.op]u ~tal[ s!nuk]n v,h t k/,t p:: 1 s!t¸ a ~l/~L~p (,v113 w~.~k inapt¸ ~/~ td¸ ~.(,/~1~ peoplc bc't~/url ~ ~[~d ]~ ye~/I~, o! u[~¢ lIltlJn~ the pLt~! ~ ~ll~. i h~x'(, o}~.~ ~t¢] I},(¸ t!/~, [hi ~ teelulTeJ~ me dla~n inlo the huhit "Jhe JirsL L']cnKnl J-~ tlK i~rt!/t~l mode,l, the ~,!,coz!d i~ the s[}llin~ luodE.k tilt¸ ~hizd, pe/~z ill (Kip ill (~g~, tli e i am q~lit~ ~ak¢l/ I/y ~h(, lacl th~l ll/aii)¸ of I/!y hcaviost !E/iok~'i~, i~%3¸ ~t,ell~l~c~$ that ] ~/o1~4 with, ('utl'I read¸ 'J'h/y ~ll, \~,1~¸ poo} l~r ~,VAXMAN ~0 thel;z ale di[[¢r~nt lactoI~ lh /~i~r. Many fhctol~ ~dr ~'AX:~IAN Once they take up u~h/~ the cigaIttt(, ]~roducl, ~u~t t}lt~ luJginal l ¢~a~ons to take il /~p? ])r. }IIAI:. Yes, sh¸. 1 t~liJlk lhere a~e pzob~bly a n/ultitude ol¸t~c- illl~ Ih~il tutvt~ l~t~/~Ii i~p~llt,d ill Ihe litel~tur~'. Thtlt, ah' JIIC][C~ lions that ttl¢ h*~bit, ,'~l'~l ~i1 ini[i~l ~'/~i~iv(~ I~'~KII/~ b~,~Oll/(,~ idoasuial~l~, ~Jr ~,ol/l~¸ h i(dicv(,~ l~n~ioll, it'~ ~ ~9¢}itl [~aL¢ ill soII/¢ I,eOp~e's mind¸ For a small t~o~ll~ of¸ s/~ ealk'd (]iddlel~, il's impoI larlt to Ila/~ ~omethdE/~ to do ~ilh oue's hallds II aEu/~-:~ some It 'J'}~ alno~nt Of r~.~ci~I¢}/ ~]~ic~ i~, (loll(. }1~ ~tir~¢d ii/i~3¸ qu~s iion~ that I1111~ be expIored mid an~weled I aln fLl~ly confidenl in llt~ (ll~llI(~ w(~ ~,lill t/~.~. ~l d(~'lil~lll(, aiisl/(,i¸ ~, 1o hol~ /~!olll~ Itch it ~u ~lnok~¸, ~lq/3¸ they (~ontinut, to s!noke And honl that, ~l<.aE-~ul d[. r¢~tioil~ ~- to how to ~2o at~o~l pl(,~n~iug th(, in0t~ptkm (if ~ i~ahit ]Mr ~AXM~,N ])Cl )Ira }ll~litwl~ the rl'u~/m l~/~l~p]l' c~miimll' ~l~ smoke after riley start snl<~]~hl/4 ha~ lt,~s t<~ do with advt,rti~in~! and iiio1(¸ Io dc~ ~]lh lhef, t, other t~L~tol >9 D1¸. }ll,Alr I ~nl ~fla[d I~lat J nlu~t pk,/u] inno~,n[ (m krl~lwk,dgl, o[ th~¸ ad~elti~h/~4 f(~ctor~. 1 can o11])¸ spoak ~[ tho oth/,r lavtol~ l lhink they are terribly slrong, the p~chosocia/ ~cioJs h~ n~y ob~c'~¸- ¥~1 ion, and eva]lla[iol~ of l}~(, data MI¸.WA×MAN l,~t nleask thenlarketh~ people, l)~ Wind,~hat 3o you thiI/k? Do you think tha! tht, zea~on ~hy people contiI~ue to siiioko r¢laies lllore to t~lo rea&oll~, that l)I ]~]a~ ~,~id~ tll~, p]~tlI(, l¢~pol~e, trallquility les[ionse? Oilce tl/~y tl)¸ this ne~ ploduct, ad verti~,hlg i~ not as irnpol[~nl a factor? ]~r ~,Vl~n I lh~nk it Wo~}d bo v¢ly daii}{~ro~ls to tz~ lo sp¢c~llal¢ he~c, This is m~ empbical question, 'lheze aze pzocedmes ~oday th~ allow us to find exactly what is the rela~h'c impac~ of adxe~tls ill~ oll bellavior, in vario~ls areas, f~lld I think what ~le have to do is conduct a study. I am nc~t familk~r with a sp¢~crif~ shM~" 1hal looked at ~his queslion, compmi~g the effec~ of adve~iiaing ~e~sus peer group, pal~nt alld o~hers hi terms of wha~ is theil itl~]t~ Ilee ] Ihl.k stlch a s{udy CaIl k~[~ CoiIdtlgled ttrl(I [uovide lhe lit'}lt I',u]d¢' lin~s. There is one other thing to remember he]e, ~hich is that ¢igtt- ~ettes in some r*2$[oo( are really not like ar~y other product M~st othel ploduc£~ do ]lot }l~tvf! ~'okln~(q ('J3tl/lllullieat[oll rl ~l£'it. is tl ll(' l~lelldOtls anlot~llt of educational lnateria], inrhl(~lltial mat~li[*l and 0
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491 £olmnLlni~ilion ~198~i/5~ slllokil]~ ,~0 1he pOISOn, iIl I/~a~l]~ tt/o d(,.[- ~IOT~ i~ b[]~iCa]ly boyl]b~l~e~ with bo~h pro ~l/d coil F~rg~m[,nts lbl, ]1, ~ll[] lnrlkl~ }1}5 ~ctis}o[] ]D soine iil~lllll[~l ~o ] ~o~t]d ~u~peeI, sll]t[]~ 8I/oc{l[~ltion, Ihnl Call [~e vt~li~od ]1~ ¢Inl;bica] testing, that advel'tlsiJlg ~ou]d h~e less of" a Io]e hei( be( ill( O[~ ttl~8 Couider COII/[[I~[/1Ca~IOll thai1 il~ O[hCl Si[U&[iOl/~ MI WAXMAI~ Because of the khld o[ vo!llIIl(lllicEdion? Ale yotl F]){ ctlblt] rig? 7,h. Wl:,;l~ That i~ speculatim~. ),I~ \'¢Axm~ You don't v, ant to speculate on %~heihe] ad%(lli~- h/i~ plays ~ ]e-~el ~o]e in whether people ¢olilJ[/~le [o £Illoke? ).If W~N~I It's a ]ly[iolhesis thd has t/I lie te~4ec] This would he ~q gcg,d hypol}/Isis fm ~ ~est'a/Ih plojert ML \V,xxm~ UnfbHunalely, x~e haw n Hnllted budget so I ~tmt c~,nt~ct with 2,ou f~r that study. ]~e~h~p~ tIK tobacco i~du~- U) lliil d/~ that 101 us ]b ~lm thitlk that i~ [ asked you ilt ~our Inuketing I'~llelti~l', ho~ ] couJd a~hil~¢~ the objl~clJve ol di~omagh~g young peoplt, ]~onq ~ *kil i: up lhe habit oi smoking, and ellcoula~ing, people ~}1o s~ok( to quit. thai the~e ~ould be s'olne eff~,cthe ~ay of doing thtt <,/-i I and above ?,hid ~e a~o (~o~l/~ now. thli)u~h the ~l¢~rnln[[ hi,{] tha~ i~ Im lbr' pae/a[~e and tJn~ugh tile ire( ngc'. l}mt lim/~ t]ll{~u~}l t;{nn het~il/g~ ]ikl l}li~ and Sul~eon (h nel:tl s Iep/llt~? ym~ mi txt~em~[) eff~ctive toda). You ha~e a ~ely high k~(l of [1% Illll~ I[ 3{1~1 ale [ly]l]~ [{9 Cl]~tll~,{ tK.~pl[Js [io]][l%iol', aIK{ yell ~e lr3 b¢~ ~o irl[luence people to cJHn~e Iheil he}lul]ol b5 levi lch,! ~nlokiu~, I think th<le ale x~aSs in ~lhieh nlalketing can l/tip irl the ~bllm~ big x/aS"; OnI., ~ ~,,JH condud a selie~ ot studies to find out why }x'~I te ~moke ~hy people don't smoke, ~hy people quit ()nc~ v.e md'.l- t[tlld lhe le:l~on~ ~}1)r, ~i( wl]] ~o to ~{.eond B:tep, ~Qll¢]l ~till t*% l(,l'~ Iib Io generate ~ sl,l}l,s {if alteHlut[~e stl~h% ic~ tt/~L v.e hop{ ~il] lead to Qm ~igh[ *e~ults. Three, on{.e t}l(80 al'e geileta~d go back to [[le cons~llnt, rs 81<1 t~) to test them to see ~hieh ol the~e stlaI(,gic,s is O~e h(,st in achiuling the lighl ii[jeciive NImt' {If the~e ~sas dolte il~ the ~t;eci~ k" sihlation here. The ]'i'O ~l'pmt ¢~l/t¢ %~[th ~ £~Ifllb(']" O~" SLl~ge$lifl[/¢" ]]le3 S[[~I(e<] ~e~e~llng ~d~out seven optiong, but thl\v me a ~e!ati~el3 Jim}ted ]an~e of opthlns \Vhy not tlb ~o open I]LiS? ~,Vh} nol bell' [he op tiOI] O~/ SOIIK ill~]g[l[ allll t~ilile£>[&lldiH~ why I/EODIe SIHo]~e, %1h3 the) continue smoking'.' ] t}]]nh the ~Qmk apl,~oach is faults. }l'~ not a It/gel keting appr¢~ach to deal ~tit}l the ploble]l I t}link the]e I~IC ~lppIo[K h('s thst co/l[d help nnd pli~vJd~, ~]uhJl.]~nL 8 7~]$ ~'AX!,IAN yOU thi2!~ %%U sho~ll(/ }l~i%e I[iQlketiIt~ 1(, /t[J~ to in dicaie ~hat ~uuld be lhe most ( frEe,ire %~13, l]ot jLIS.t Ot colin/ Ul/i- (at]nil a ll]cg~[,e ~l}/~c}l you [be[ 111~, alti~ld5 bven conununi[attcl, b~ll [oll/mtlldcatini[ a mo~sgtgc in I~ ~,~ that w/)llld £hahi0 b[h~v- iCI/] 5I, \VI×I, 2hal is 3ore obj(clive? ~ll ~,~, AX'4A~ Thele ale ~abs o[ doing' that I a~sume'! ~]~ ~,\'IN[~ Yes. th{ro are 01 0 CA U1
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492 MI'. WAXMAN. JUSt ag i}l~'I(~ are way.g of encouragblg pea])]e to take uI, cigarettes? }lave you do[~e matketin~ studie~ oll why ;leop]e slnoke~ why they pick Jl tlI>+ what ~r~ups ~ou]d he infix} enced most by kinds of smoking promotions? Is that done? M1¸. WINI*. I personal]y am not aware of such Mudies, but if you a~e trying Io do it. That i~ the approach ).~i • WAXMAN ]}on't ]Juop]e come to [natke~iIl~ experts Io figt~le out a strategy to pronmte their¸ o~ectives? MT. Wm'll. ~ (~, the5 do, Mr. WAXMAN l)o ~01t think that the cigarette con)panies aild to- bacco companies go to markctlng expe~ts to (~5 to figme oul }m~ t~, plonlote peop]e to smoke eigslettcs? mid testareh filuls ~ll}Iking [hi thenl, rl'hey have tht'il o~,~n Ili}HkL~ il/f~ It'>{'alch depsttm(.nts I don't knoll 'ahLthel the) follov, the }nocedme x~e just desclibed befc.c i1~ tO'ing to incTease the saR of P~I(4~U~q 10 IiOBSIllOk¢l.q. MI WAXMAN If you hwe it h)t Ill" mort/?,, you l'nn aff/nd to d/i a 1ol ,.,f dillbient things, hir~ malketve;s, outsick, expults, try thinps aim seeifit wozkgand ifnot, ahmdonit You can change3oul ad • ¢(itiscn~ents or tl5 new sttat(gies al~d ~lball(lon old ones The on/3 ]imitlfiion on that is nmne}? " Mr WIN1; Nol necessmiI3. You are ~s~;unlin~4 a s3mltlett3. ] stud ill le~panse to the first que tion that 3ou }l~d that you c~n ploh ably, if 5v,t/ find oul the causes fm smoking xmsug nonsmokinG the emls!~ lh~d lead I,eoph' ill quit, lo h/ ab}i to du.',iRn ef~'c'llge pro ffl,~tts that ~il/ (!lI((ll/Ilqf'~! ai%([ }[~lp ~0[1 ~l~hi(~v(' ~OU[ O]$j~+cti~( ~hi h ig ]((t{Ic~iOll ilk ~lltOkitlg Oi;ell th,q~ ~hele V, so lnu~h pte~ st+Iv af;ains[ slllOkill~f, ] ~ll/I llOl SllJ( [}l&t [hLl(+ iS fl gyl3/tll¢~I~ }wrt" That by findh/g d~ese ~easons, yot~ x~ilI be abl~ to d(sign Mra*¢'g[I thai will ittcle¢¢se {hi nun h~.l ofsnlokels M1 WAxr~l~.a. 'Phme is a IntssuI*' lo lake up o1~ smoking as well? MI. WINI~. ] find it ve~3 difhc~ll to accept q'he~c, ig no adam tis- i/Ig OI oth¢'t Ii](,:~,ag~.+ thai wil~ ¢on~Jiicc hie Io go b~¢k to smoke Mr WAxmt~x I don't think advertising, as you poinied out so to]leer]y, ]~ the onlv facto* that infiuencc.s buIl:BklI ML "WIxl> } haxt, clifhcult3 /~1 ~VAXMA~ I ~h~]/k s£,eill~ at/ athletic event sl,onsote6 b3 tI~e l{ J Ire3 nc4d~ Co, migt~t well it l am a lounger pelson imelesled In ~lih]etics, Jn[]uezlce rill You kncl/t the J{ ,) }{{,)'no}d~ (~tl ~[it,lll)~ n lot of I~lc,ne} t~t,rnt}tiug xaliou~ athletic cx~nts I ~onld ~}li+ll; that is one of the beneilts tile5" f, et I~ll/ lhet( ] think the iBarketJng stl,ttegists c~+/ [iJ~lne oul ~q ]oi (if %v~ly~, ~0 plomr,te p~oduct~ or de~is+, a stI.~tegy to enr.out~pe s:deg of the ploduct 1}1 tllacl;~t+]l, >ou chdm tho>+" ~alning hdwts me g~ing to fool peof,}e, they x~ill be' &.ceived into thiuki,tg that they ~ill not get the d{ ease ol that oil] old people wil~get the di ease;i~ thud t'ol f ~ CI? t}lt, ol c.+utse, [tl the l~l(' sttldit ~,~) ~,VAX~3AN I)1 ~.Vil/d NrlS'4 ~{' ~.I//I(I/(/H'[ ~_~([1 p~l~ alIIUII!~/III IO lhe F'I'(! ~tud es? % ha, 0 ~q &o .,,.I
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~I ~¥AX~IAN ])C~ yOU thi!lk Illl~st I~I~lll~[It ~IL~CI~ ~l~dcI~!~nd I~lz~ ci~ll~te ~lEl~iIl~ II~}¸ r~s/l]~ i1~ ]~itLh c]~/.lt~ (~l ~}~!lt~tl/~oll~ ])i¸ IIi A~!K~IqE1 ]~Oii~nu~l/~ ] dc~lb~ th~ Ilio~heIs /li~ ~'~ i~ I//)~ ~iol/ ill ~/~b]ic }el~,~,es, f~Ll~li~¸ ~iolnl~t~/~l/, l~ht,/ ~}~4h ~ l~]~'vi~iOIl MI WA×~I~.N ~)l~. l~]nu~ ] ~l~'l' just I~(} qL~f'~!i~l~s ~: ~0~ ~o~ld ~81 ~'ol l~l~tioi~ b~ll~I~ ~/l/~.iI/~ 81~d ~'~l~ou~ ]/~l~h ~i~¸ I~ ]ll~ ~k ~his ol¸ ~)~ ~1~'s~IIc~, ~'~u ~' ;~l(~b~bl~¸ ~'II~1¸ q/l~li~d. Ii¸ tht'I~ tw/~l~l~ ~iIio]~ill~ ~IId v~lriol~s lle~llt/ jis~ ~c~!ll~, ~lo!lld~/'{ ~/1i~ jpln~¸ ~1~ il~]~ol {~El~ ti~ll ill I~ubl~c health ~o]i~? }1~ c~llsiI~ dl~lb~ck~ ~1/~ ~l~Li~ i~ ~]~iC]l i~ d~lls 8re l~lli~t~ inI~ol// l~/siJl~ ]l/ o~l/l,i¸ ~voids, ~oll 8i~ d~l~IL~ ~/i~h di~nos~ Wc t~lll~/ ~t t~lc ll/oll~n~ lul/~ c8~¢~I¸ i~ I~ill~ o¥~I-di~llo~d ill ot~i~¸ ~olll~1 ~/l~l~ ~ol~ cl~iiip~1£¸ di~lI~ll~ llit~ [/os!iiiol ~cIl/, ~l~II oEI!~¸ ~ c~I~il/ ~I~l ~1 ~l~ s~/,I~E~¸ ~tl~ll ~ di~/i~d ~i ~l/• hc~[l!l/i!~ ~! ~hc, c~ll t~l~¸, ill ~11~~ ~/~'~ll]/irl.~ o~ th~ ¢~EI~ ~ho~lll ire tt~ ~ll~,£.oll ~;c, Ii{~l 81'~ lel~ol'l, t~¸ 8 tlel~lell~ous ~Tiiouil~ ~,'~ ~jl~lr lol¸ il~!~llC~¸. ~11 I~0~1]~' act~l~ll}¸ dyill~ t~oIl/ ]u~ c~l~c~'~', only ~ I~ccl~ ~11~¸ di~- ~Ii \¥AX~IA~ YO~ d~ll~t ~c~lie~ e~idt'I/li~lo~/~ t~i~/'l~i' II'~,~';~ls l)l¸ ~':~S~N~K ]~ i~ SO ~l~y it i~ ~'ry difti/~lli ~/~ d~¸ ~E~ t~/~I~/,T¸ ~ ~'A~A~ ~)i¸. ~1[~, ~l S!~d, ~t]l]~l£.lltl~ ~i~l/ ~llle C/~IIt~ ~h~.l~l~l ~i~Te~ ~Ii~ ~ddic~v~¸ ']'hc l~iI~lll¸ o~ ~tlc N~lli~l/~l Ill ~{hu~t~ i~l/ l}~/i~ Alli~e ~lld ~l~e A~i~l~l/l ~l~taT¸} (1~ ~1~.~11l~1 ln~dt~ il clc~¸ l}lat in ~heh¸ o~hlloll sT/~ol~illt~ w~s h/ ~ct ~dd[cLiv~ ~l/d thi~ ~a~ aI~ ttlc conc]usiol~ of the N~tlol/~l Advi~oI~¸ ~i~ci/ oil DILI~ A~LI~ ~hd 8 ~r)e~i~l ~k [oi~ ot¸ illllet~elkd~ll~ les~l<l~eis I)~. ~ll ~t/ ] al~t~e~E¸ belie ~'o~ ~ts ~//l ~'~1~o~ ~ciel/~st l~thl~ ~/~l i~ t|/~¸ a~cssnl~l~ of ii/i~'i~ It'~ ~ol{ ~l¸ like ~:i~ ~!lc' ~b~ts ~o ~ld ~}1~ leti~ic@ ii~]l i~ t~ll ~oLl ~s~ sc}~l }~ t~) lll~lb~ ~oil~ ~ii~¸ ~e~le181 ~lel~l/t~ 81)o~t ~]1~il ii,~t~lch. ~'hi~ ~r~¸ e~l/c~, c~ ~ci ~,llc£¸ i~ ~u~io]/. Oile of ~h~ ou~l/d~l~ I~s~l~tl~l~s ill ~/~l~acco ])l ~lLl~y S~hsct~r, ~ ]/1~11/~/1¸ (~ i~l~ di~ti[~i~]cl~ ~c~l/] ~h~ ~ol] ~o~t (if u~ ~,lh/} d~ ~l/ci~ o~1 ~ll/oki~ t1~ ~ s/~llc tir~¸ ~/1~1!/.
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494 ]Jion(.d th(, byt)otb/-M% t[~ctL ~-[gaI~l(c smoking ~sitb uico[hl~, ~s 1],( aclivc ag~n~ is an addlctlon " Son~elin/os, however, it's dil]icuh lo figme out why lbal oolitic llc~it i-~ ~o M~olhg qbt ddio $ulllKnlhtt ~be i~lopc,silion me not ttl ticulmly good In [,act, looked at with a *uthless e)e, tbt') mr, l~lhe~ flimsy Wben s~eniists are asked to weigh the exid(.ace ~ilil caI~ bl lelnl~ of the [llrl~4 ~on~zl" inlplicltkln~, theb f~eIIo~ill) ~4t et" Ihal ~¢ ha,,e ,,~ ]ollg way lt~ go b('fel o xv~, COIl g]~( gl ~¢']l,l/tifl~ SUpl<n t lo lho statement cigaret [u sn/oking is addieiiv£, Mr. WAXMAN Thank you w, ty lnucb Mt I lli[c\v. ] bulievl, lh Wind, thai ym~ suid in yam tt~thnon) tFml ~i~h 90 pelcent of the people knowing the dangers, that it would be ',el3 difficult Io cbanI~e DO you believe that by going to a t~y~,ttllq of ro I~1~1Ol1~11 I~ll IliI~¢'] I11ho/'4, lhai ils~ tv)~sibh, [o il%c I~?~tsft ~hl, ii~&'~l(ul(,, above iKI pe~ce.{? IH~, WINI~ No; I do~bi ~hethi,~ you ~ill t< able to fl:~d m~) plo • ~dule. un) m~ketiI~g gbllmi~k siraleKy ~q/ploach, that ~i/l iII- not ftlnliihlt ulth any ease, - ~dr ~IIIl Ey I don't xl~/It to JnterlotlI 3oil but I dotl'i ~It~Ilt i0 ¢0tt mm~elo~>mu'h time A~e3dt~s~bing thal tbcqeis nolhi~)~[thul ~ Call do thgtt will illei~,ase l[w a~l£D¢,s of *.t/t, d~llf~oI~, Dot jtlst be- bellini, b~lt anylhing el~e thai would inere,~e lhe 90 percent? 5il Wl~u [ccmtinuitlgI Yrm nrl collect In nil ol lily llfe a~ a it, begclcbel, s£ioI/tis~, h] ~/] of tb~.' matelial I ha~e SE'VlI, I hart' II('%t'l seen a sludy that ~ill doc/m ent that lbe~e is mole tbm~ 9t~-t>e~cel I i~1 dl£'ll(~S at ally ])bci~oil]el)fl Mt }hlllt" l)t Blackl',/dl, ] blare ob~t/~ecl r~utdly tmd keen[) ~(t~ed peot)h' J.cluding my wJfo buy]iiK clgme~tes I have n(ve~ s~:bn a pel.~on pick up a pick of ci~ale~te~ Jtl a slate ot a conntel> put coins in, rt.~ds a ~¢41 lling ~nd ~UTI1 ft%%'~% ~rld w~lk ~%% ~t%'. ] have seen them w~dk awa3 ~hen tbey tiidn't ha~e th~,~m~'cl change but not lbr zeading any t d)el Ilave ~ou done an studies ~i are Iht'ie all " studies that s}~o~ thai il/deed I am wrong in thai people do come along and pick up these tllings and read ~larning labels and iben discard ii? Ill l~l ACKWHI NO ~['iinI is an astute i~b r,I ~aiion ] }~fivp ,~,1l 110 sit,dies tbat ~ould ~eft~t~. that. Mr lhu~:~ l ~ee We ha~e bel.~ Ialkblg about studi¢'s and It 50/limb [~I £!~a[tl~itt' wh) ]l(~OJ)]t! E~lob(* ~13£] %%}I~ tbey stop m not as lhe case may b(' Hay, nltlth would it cost, ill youl opinion, ])l Wind, to do a study fat tb~ bel~efit of Con¢,ess mid this committee ~Ii [~ut~icula/, as to wbat Co.ust, poopJe to Stliolce, arid %~b~qt (,~c,~ ]~t'oplP to Stu[~] Mt Wire), I don't think 1 will be ahh, to answe~ ~ith a sp~ci[lc l/ullll)t,l lt'~ liar ~ SiI/,~I(' Sltl(~5 ]l't~ ~( tl]O~l~%Ili O[ r(, #~lr0h Yolt b~e to ~c~ diffi~ent.app~oach¢~ to tt3 to answer. Some o! them ;ll( llot as (,{{(cIi~t' b/ f¢'t!il/g *q v&lid at/~l~t'l, xl'ot~ bt~%e to CoIi]lu[~ 3ouls('lf to .~ ploplam of rt,sealch that l!llgbt co~t you kno~, a f-~ !, 0 01 ¢q
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III 495 hcu/dtl<d l}/ou attd doI[al o~£.1 a pt'!ioi (d tnle to find out t(lo C~iD~'~ ~d lhtll i(~ tl~¸ It) lli~vo illI¢~ ~i,ll(Itil;llit ~{~ttlt~ }t.> ~l~id th(,ll i vahu~tillV lh~n, ~[i WIND¸ I ica!ly cannot phlpoiul Ikl, lhtli~l]~¸ Iiul I would ~ay R's likely 5h. WA×~I*N lh. lliackue[[ 1)1 }{IAtE%'~ Ill '~})f~l WOlld hi a toot] s!J]ll eli ih y( Mt ]lIIl~:Y tl/)x~ hmf£ 2(/I ;4 5eats? 1)1 }k ~,[:gwl-ll I don't think ~ou will FUlSWtr il delhdih(iy IbJ £V('I}" pc'I~Oll t{II yUU (!ill i~-[~hlt<, SOHIt~ O~" Ill(, Iil~{i(~l L'~tUN~, {d l/]a}{ll ~l]/(~lll~ ill a te',t yeal~, aBd a [£,~ h/~l/dl~/~ ~ho/is[llld do}/al~ M[ II~u#~ lsee wi~h ~ tl[O~litIll Of ?t!~,£-~t1~'tl 'piw [tuJvt St~.+II d{+])(qld~ opt [h(, ]t,guks o[" lh(, fiist one. So k is ar~ ~VOhltlOl/aly pl ohl('nl ~l~oII IItod a coii1- ~litYll~llt, itl~I('&d Ol COl/lillg %lilh a plopos d lhitt Js IIOt bil~£'d 0I] all ~TIG]/Jli~'~tl b i~,i~, {ti/d ~,u~l~t'e;{~ he',ell labels, to COII~IIILI ~OLIFSfql Ill sa~. I ~%]1 nlake a bill based oil em ~]zicM data lhai zesponds to a [(~1[ })lo}d£'ll] Otll lhE~le slid that h, the hegt %xav ot adli(~hlg ill%- ot~e¢tive Mi. tllu 1-:'~ Thank you 'lhaI/k you very lllut:h, Mr. (;hairnlall, ]t probab]) ~otlll~ tom us less InOlX('y than setting up anothei bureauclacy at tllIS and ~ thieve better le~uhs in ~ couple el ?.ea+s l ~.it ]d bick the h~lallce elm3 timl~ ~h. ~VAXMAN ~[r. Dallnt, I~)~yel. MI<. IJANN~ :~It!~i-:l¢ I hart< a questiol/ lb: lb. l']}sel~ck You slate thai lh~ pel~Olla]iJ~ (d the people ilia.oiled i,- £ II/[di~t[ ing fr~clol hetwc, en cancll and sn/oking C:m you pie mlt fu! lkis ~liheOlnlni[~e ft }elsollality descllplloll eta ~l]](ik(~r~ 1)r }]Y~EN(IK ~l*s(" I, in sevela c ifI('l'ellt counll es the i>eopic who s!nok( l(nd Io hi' iypicall5 i'xilavcltpd," sclci~tl Is>(Iph', people who lik( to go> out hi the woild, mi× uith ethel pec+l/le, ~ho like to have stlOllg sellsoly pxpeliences People also Ielld I0 dlink and hay(> other social habits of lhat khld, lhat is one type of ~luokeL AllOi}l{'t OTi(' iS 1lie I/el fOilS tlTl(I ~motinnally ~oll/[~%h+ll IIIIgl~qhk~ indivlduah '}'hey smoke for a dlffe~el~t leasoih of course, /lie extro Vel{ slllok£'s bec>ause he easily get~ bored ~l/d hU h~s to ha½"k' golll(' kind of drag that elevate~ file level of arousal, which smokhlg does The Inoze en'~otionally llnstable type of })~-iso~l l/~(~xh, SOlnethhlg Io sedaie him, lo calm him down, a kind of libliuni more ea.~ily acces- Mble and more pleasurahle than a drug So lie smokes Then you have people who are g~<neiall5 nonaonh*lnli~t~, ~lho me s,~mewhat antisocial The5 al~o tend to smoke So you hay0 dig ferent l)rpea of personalilies thai go in lot smoking and they do ~o IE(ll difft'rf?rii F(~{IS{}IIS, Th~!ll* ks I~ large 81noklllt of ~%'id£qlce a~ailable at tht~ moment about molive~ for sn/okhlg and they ale illlimately linked ~ith pm~oitMity. Mr. DANNEEIEIER Thank you We pieviously had a gentleman IlOIt, frOiil the adv¢>rlisillg ffal~,rltity, llfJ% k~I hs"~,t> I%%0 prof~,s~,ors from the adveltlsing fratermt '> I can only assume thai you have, in the course of your tenme in aoademla, had the plk'ih,ge OF in- straeling studerds who have found their ~ay into lh~ ildvertisi~p, O1 0 0
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496 ~lmlum/it3 So ? ~ill ask 3ml penile~llerl ag~du: ]1~ yml believe that iI ~dvallc~s th~ catl~e of the ~cIveIIisill~ conlllltlnily t!l legpl~l Ihe~e prh~¢iples? Kee ~ it simple, clear~ repeat it often, be ~h~gleminded, ~nc coll~J~t ell{? Dr WiIld, do you thh~k that i~ a lab¸ as~essmeilt of what the ad- vel[isi~g ~!omnlullily shoul~ he doJl/g~ Mr. W[NI~ 'J'hme is a distinc(km bet~eeI~ what they should he 6eiz~g and what they are doing Should is a YlolJllallve st~tI!lll~'nt It sugKests that x~e have a theoly that tells ~4s ]low advl I rising \~olks Unforlunately, despite all of the lesearch thal has been going m~ OV('F l}l~ ~ears ill marketing al/d at~t, ttisillg, xle ¢Jo not had.e, tot~ay, a theory thai tells ua exactly how aldverlis}l/K work~ q'hele ~lr(~ difh~lent models atltt hypothesos thai augge~t what ale the la- sol~ahle ga)~ lit plocel!dil~g arid gelthlg N~Dllt tlllI])tl} l)iffcrtmt ageacivs ha~e diflelent philos~t~hles I)h'~¢elel~t agencies use difl¢'[ till ~pploac}le~ tJ'hat i~ th~ r~agall ~i[~(,I'(~Iit lllall/lt~4elLll~,l~, £(,hx't diflk'teIIt nlgencie~ thnt bling dil/brt nt philosophies W}lt, l]otiOll of ~,illlpliciIy, .}r~s, it has 8OII1(! IIl{~l i~ ~l~tlly yt!ftI'S ~'l~fl it was coiffed ill marketiiW as the unique selling plopc~sition, that you are tlyi[lg to com~" up with a shlgle mvssage, with a ~}ngle bu~efit There a~e studies ii1 lhe coi{nitlve psychology area t~dkh6: about Ih{" limitation of the eogliitive ability ol people, that typically llt'o])le Caf/flOI proceSS too llltlc'h itlfOlml~t{on ~o ~ou al'e x~olkiIl~; oil lelativt']y simpl~ typ!, of tlile m tlto major b/zlofits lhlt ] t}litlk the key issue hele is not sa nIuch tile f,~ct that ] ha;e a theory here Ihat guides me to com~ up with the singl( simple all 1}~o,qeh, but lhe fact that the Inalket is hetelogeneous "lhat we me T~Ot t/ilkil~ ~*bo~it a hoyllo~'tlaOu8 pop/llit~io[l (n3t the[(' that ~i gil}gh- lllt~ stlge will [i}J.ll !~[I Ill [,%[,ly DIll of thcB~ If evu~y st!ISle ad on TV will al/pt, aI Io ',ou appa~entl3 lh(5 aw ~iohl~' gOlllethhl~ ~l(lllg because yotl ~11~ i~o~ the, tat~t~t iguKlllciit o~ ¢v~'~5 one of these products. What the) me tr~i~g lo do, i~ dcu/ ~ith 1~[. ]}ANN*' ME~ ER ~hy dO S{I I~IFill3 ( XClll{l(~ Ill('? I must t~, dilielent? Mr WIN[~. Yes, 1 wo~dd assstlme that you don't hay all of d~e IIto~hicts advertised oll TV. Neilhei do I Fm the oi/es 5ou h[ly, ad ~.'(I l[si?l{~ ('l&lltl hkt~e heL.~l Oll~, OF ih{. inpLlt$ that ptovldt'd 3(JEt SOIII5' il/t~*llrtaliol/, q'he~e ale a lol of comt}atali~,t, acl~ertisiil~,, that plO. vJ{les }'oil CoIIIpal i$o11$ aTllOll~ hlal/d& ~}'ht l~' ate gOlllh, sophi tioated ad~ look at i~/dus~ria} advertising. I Ihi~k it i~ dailg~rou~ to g{,nc~ ahzl' aIId say alI ad~erti~itlg is poor, all ad~tlligh~g is ihSLllting I think s(ntle is }{ut it'~ I/{l~ihle thai s,omI I)i ihe ~tf[vellis[ii~, g'}ligh is ills~lti/lg is I~ot aJIIl~'~l at tiS AI~/] [h{*y placed it at tht, /%/o11~ media ol they had a pOOl eX{!gtl~[Ol~ OI Sg}//CO~/(~ (lh~ 1/o~ k13o% /~IL I)~.NN~,I~:V~:~¢ DI. Blackwel], I~ouid you ~at~, to ~e'sl~t/d to th~VI DI. }llA(?Kl~b]ll I ~I]~; lis[f,tli/l!~ [¢~ ]h ],}~ht's CIITII/II/~D~ a/lf} he qualified Io say rids ~a~'t Ininc[ph,s of atl~(,lt ~,ilig hut principle of ('onlmulli(ationg genela}ly, If one ~lel(' girting a political speech, foI ex~tl[ip[~', ol a I£,CILII~, ill [h( cla¢,sioo/l~ Jo~, ~Ic(~ilillth:, II }l(,yu i~ hook talltgl "J'}l~' Set'his of A Pio~}d/'nt" a lhw 5eai> a£o 5~atly I~e~xspap, qs h~we said lhe stair' ihlng "1 h~lt is fill{' L~t tO[l~llllllliC t ~q t~ 61 6~ p~
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li .,q 497 tloll }ri f elie~a] ~1'~) keop it s}IIp}c, sin~lv nll/lcl~.d, hdc~us!' o~ }}mit of t ~zki[ivt, ]~l~c~ssing '1 h~lt i~ pro~b]y t~ue for what might ]~i¸ c~l~l'~I I}~e reich{h. (;5 p~- ci.l/~ oj¸ l}~ to~l/ l]Oi~/ati~n 'lhE~l( ~1( p~<~tJ(¸ ol] ¢,it]l~I irtii:, l/ tho~(" d{stlib~ltiot~ 1 dun'~ klilJ~ whk~h l~i~ you i~lmh] t/{~ Im bu~ that i~ proh~blv llappl.nin~ Anti ~i ])ANNF:~.I~:~H: A~.k oin¸ c}/ailnlall, }1~ ~il] ~1] ~o~ ~l}lt,l(. ] I]1¸. }~1 ~.{!I{~I'L[.1 T}~(~I(, arc. l~/~ll~y q~la]ii'll~tiozl~ l{~ ~}l~st. ~.~n~pl~., [~ic ~'on}ll]/ll/ic~tioi]-< Ail~t~I1],~in~ tcl~ll~ Io }~ t~ ~ht~ n~..~ ]1/ cllnlln~lnJ{;~[ic}IL lh~.l/l~¸, !}1~1~ i~ ~oln~,~hiri~ ]~11(~ 1/ ~. ~ll~. ~i{Ii~l co)hi muI]i¢~l~c~ll all,] ~/o si(]e(l Cc~ll//l~ll][ca~iol/ Iii a Ol/e.s[(]~.d t'<}~/nll~lli. C~ion ~.ro~l OI]~y)~pl<'S~'ll~ ".~h~l~ you ~r~r~ p<'Op[~¸ tO kl/O~l' Ill ~ ~WO sidl~/] colu[IKIni~ :t[{oi~. yuLt ~('1] ~hclll '.~t]a~ l~ w/ollf~ v, ith yol/l plOll ~¢~ a~ well a~ w}~at i~ ligi~t ~ith it 1~o~¸ a~. a t~elleral~tloll, il'~ mo!~ ~ff~'ctive to t~ /~ ¢lle ~¢l{.d cl~lllll]l]Ii~'~l~(ll~ ~v~}l [~ Ii/~ [1~ i}~ p!ll~ul~}ol] }{L/~ ~ol¸ p{ot~]~ ~'ho hav~ hi~tl ed~catloll or high in~.llects~ nc>t t}lat t}~¢~{, a~e alway~ the ~al~e f~ ~.h<~e kind of pO~l,le ~he /w(~-~ktc.d c~mmm~i I ~ pl illcJ~ ~1~ ]]a~ ~t• ~ II~'I~IIy ~ ,..E ~.~ ~" i ¢ol 11l ~1/ic~ ~loi/~ ~1~]1 l~r I)A~.N~II:y~:I~ ] lh;mk you ~rc su~gt~ming, that ~" ci~a~tt/• ad~r~r~isi~ wi~}/ l~f" wa~nin~ (~l[te ~1o~l ) of )e¢~/~e? ']~hl. dual n]l~}.~a~(~ ~t~a]cI incl~3t~e n/~ only the ~all ~ ~witeh t~ thi~ btand i~l¸ la~{' ~his bral~d but also th~ t~.~e inky b~ ~ome heahh ploblem Ii~ tahi~lf, up smoking. ~ ~hal ~hi~ inc~a~? is i1o~ }~l~i[l~ ~imlln~lll[catl,{l ~ll [h~ Irla~, Ill ~l la~{~I¸ 1)1¸. }IIACttlWll I ~at a li~Ii~ lost wi~h tht" lir~ part ol¸ th~¸ ql~'~ lion¸ ]~r. ~..XMAN. If yo~ ale ~t~iIl~ that w]le~ lbc~ i~ ~ d/m] I/~- ihlit i'- ~l Ih~le Lit mor~ willing4 l~ read anc~ ulldelstand thai Ibm'I(" al~. t~vo sicI~ [o l}le advt~l[i~.t.meut ~ollld it l~e fail [o c~lnclu~e hon/ that, that mo~ people, in the mor~ general pofi~latiol~, clo~ft ~et l~l~' ritual t~essa~fe ~'h~'ll they s~e ~ll ~dv~rtis~nlent i~ cirga Iet[e~ l)r. }~I.A~!K~I'EI.I Till. h[~I]~l¸ ((llllp]l~x Itl~S~e ~lt~lld ~(~ }~ctt(.I¸ i~ ce~vecl v.ith p{~oph' with ]~ight.i (~ducaticm, ill gen~r~I Tt~e ~o~t~ ~iyl~tjt.' tJil.l..ci Ol¸ oi](. sidccl. ~hic]~ ill~L l]~{~l(~ ~il~ ~t~ ~ll¸ l}l~t!~ ~hii/y.s t{ain}4 oi~ lh~'le~ I}~e ~et~ .~implc me~.~ ~ould camnmi~icat~ betier ~ith tt~ i~la~se~ Thai may have all application to l]li< For t~xample, the pre~ent ~a~nin~ woul8 5e mosl ~{~'ct[ve. ff you could make tile leap oi" {~.i~h honl g~'l~eia{ i~'~eal~h to the ~p~ci{]c~ }lel~,, {h{~ llle~.a~ I~ i{ i~ Ilow coil~[i~t/~t'fJ ~o~}d plo}~a}J]~ ~l~ far m~le efl~cli~'e to ~hI~ ma~s of the' potmlation ~}/a~ thesis. lh:t i~r tie,pie wilh a }/igh amom~t of ~'dacalia~ or thI" elite ol l}l~, .NaI]~ii t}l¸ $c~lll~}lin.~, [~1~ iI]i~[1]l ~/~v~ .5~n~t. i11¢~}{~ (.f]ecli¥{ lle~~, ~oiii ~onJ~ ol" tl~[,~ .¢4o filial! al ~ ~.}ll~ ]~}llc} ol~ i~.u~}.~ .. MI W.~.~N. ~.~'ouldE~'I il ~o to ~he questiol~ of ~]lether ~tlly U1 t¢ ~n t~
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498 A~en~t )ou saying only certain peolde plck up a wari~hig inessag¢ and most don't? 1)I |ll a.CKV,'I hi, 1 don't lhi/lk I atn sa~ilL~ nloM d(m~t l~(l~t tin. delstand this A simple message is bettm ~,~f. WAXY-fAN, YoI~ are not sa)ing the reason mosl people under. stand thai smoking is dangerous is because of lhe label? I)/ Ill ¢,(:KwI~:II I nm sayhlg pt!lbplt~ do un/ht~and it fol n valiely of I easlms, irlr lading the label MI, W~.×~,IAN. What l am asking is whether the ~arning ]alJel, insofar as it is efl'ectlve, is cft~cllve only wlih people ~tho lead it? l~ it fair to say most pcolale don't read all of the advertisemel/ts and that those of the higher intelleclnal levels who ha',t mole thne ~O r~'fKt ihf" ~dvPrlist I~IpII~ ~tl ~1 pmtieular [IIO[IIPII~ ~lr~' lll(l~[ lik¢l) to read lhe ~hole thing and get the dual message, while thuse v.ho only get an impression flora tile ad do not get the dual message? I)l- ]hAC'NWt:LL Once th~'y .get tile nlessngE, there is no lea~gll fm them to continue to read it all of the lime As 1)~ l,ighl said, they can see (he symbol m~d it lell~ th(,m mmdcalion; is lhat a fair statement? Dr. Ill ACKW~;I,I, I ~ouldn't say that | ~ould say repetition ).~h ])AUNE~:~ tlOW ~bout it ",~e put on there, like Ret!~ie da/'ku/m said iL raihln~ ihan lhe Sutgeon Gemral Or that lqed sl)o~s wmhl in sou{hera CMiIbnda So is Vince ]"etragamo; ~hy 11OI [Ikl[ his rtal]~ oil th~lp I)o yoD thil~k tha~ %~otild ililpto~e i}~e credibiliib of the message9 Ih I~I~C~WHI, NO~ bpc~IIst~ ii Ic~'l~ly c~lllq hp imp]ovld If 11o orK" klw~ th( nll,ssage, if peolde roally didll~ [[link Cigatet(e smoking was hazmdous, your suggest~ol~ would be pet hops appropriate }lul }10%~ ~t130~1 improve above D0 l*et ceiit"J ~,~ WI~:D Can I intelliect a point~ I think it's dmzgero~s to t~y to yetleraliz( f~otll oth~q al<,as S~ml/! ol th~ worl~ i)11 lhl, twoskled r~lPllt8 pliIlKllily ill psychology We ale t['bing to ploject lhe lesults 5ore the~ to the specific siluatiml here. ] ~ould subnlit it is an interesting hypothesis that has Io be te~ted ']'he ~ame thing ~vilh ~he notion o[ endar~elnen~ by knm~l/ pl, lsonalilie~ There is ,qn issue h(,I( , )Is, 11 ]/)t of pelslmalitit,s ale with lhem, ~hat is lhei~ c~edibilit ' ~ilh lesp'ct to smokhlg? I)o they have lhe medlbiihy to dcIi~er'a me~sa~e ~ai people b(lievc? 1~1 I)AN*NEME'*'I-R They I~lo 8thieVes Piesulllab!%, ~o lllake d living, they hay/" ~l/ tnt'~t~lvI' the ahil ly ill ~h/it hi)dies (o pttfolm ove~ time elgo, smoking is inconsistent ~ith that "Ph(,*efme, if 3o'a %1m1~ I(/ he like them, doll'[ sil/ok(~? Mr. Wp,'~) ~A'hal do they know ~d,out heMth'/ Not ~dl teslimonil~]~ r~rc (,l[~t'~ive Whai yllt/ %,,alll ~(i do {s t(.[ il 'P(,sI nnd ~l,(,, t/i ~lhai (,~leltt ),~l ]}ANNE\IE¥~?I~ ~]'}1e advpl[i~ill~ l~ol]d ~q~p~r~,lltl} ~;t,h,(ts C(, hhlili¢~, flora the ~nteltahuuenl in(hlstt5 ol stlolts /udustl} and lht5 put t}l~ir I Ic'es oil t~d, the iuf~eI~tl h'il~/ tb~t pm m ie snr cessfu[, lhelef<~le if ~OU Sl/Iokt' OI hn3 t})6" tnoduct~ 3ou ~il] (njoy &a o &q
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~t ?l .1. t> d 499 1}1¢, ~:lnl{. su/,c(,~> I dlm'T krlolv iv]lal li/(¸) 8re t~l,i~illg 81iet hut ] ~Ble>-, Ih~d is what lh(,I 5vu~ h~ do ~II V¢INI~ Jo!lh "~VI~I~H/K4.e[ OTl/e ~dd 2fl~ peic(,lll o~ advcJtJ~ill~; i~, bl(fi<ct~v( Which h~dl"~ A ]ot ef lhi'- J ~sa~,!ed, a lot of Ih(- added lising is £1ot veI5 good "d,'gat s~e can do i- e>,pezhllenl [g{ ap- plo~zhe5 to ~eM £nrl s(,e whictl pbI.~fmality, ~}vzIhel il's tilE, ~tll I,~OD (~bnblal, Ii h~l}lL, i i~'s a spoIl~ poP<onrdily, a pol~tlcqaTi ol ~/}1o {vul, ~i/1 bt! Ibl' tlIM mot cl(ddll'e indi~idlml to doli~t'l ii ,M1 DANN~;~I~,H~ ]'Ul d{H5 }}logan oil ~}Ht ]abe~ Mr BI.II.~Y ] thank m5 colbngue £~l )ie]dD/g A collpl~ of timls duliIl£ th{, L-oul!.~. 61 ~tl6 h{.al il%g I~lls iiio1 ili11~~ ~11( nl i~[{q liars collie up abou1 cigaleIte ad~ei(~sing a~/d spolt.~ celeblities ]ll the slat( then1 of MI Holrit4'~m el lat]/~l alia(heal to l[1(, st!)ten/ellt, i~ a [i~t o~ plinoip~ds gv~ernill~ eigateite ad~ertJsMg And No 1; and l quota< ".'NCl 81JI)Ils O] ce~(!}ll{5 {~St[IIIUISiBI~ S}lall b{' Ilsed o! those ot ot}lel.- ;111o ~Aou/d have special appeal t~ pers~l~s un{k'l 21 ~t'als of So if an}on., }m~ the impression Ihe} me ushlg spoils celebrities in tl~,h/g to Jn]p]ov(, t}z(:h inalk(.t ~sJth ~,onng pcsp]c, ] ~SOU]~{ illS{ like this to bl a part of the ix,era d M~ Wa.x~N. If lhe gentleman would yield Io m(, 1 tidnk lid colleague f~om (sliforllla has lhe time. The ]{ d Reyno~d£ (o sup- p{/lts 8polliIlg ust'nls. ]hls,Jlless V~'e;,la i£pul is I}nii ][1 1!1~2 the tom pall3 x~i~l inclease the numbel of st,olts 6a£ iaces from 16 to ]9, a~ we]} as sl/jlpml 82 golf loutllanmnts 1 ~,ubmit that the3 do this be cause I /]lh;k the~ ~.'xpecl some plomot[o/la] b(neflts to come flora il, ~mt just good ~iil fm the R 3, t{eyn(dd~ Co a~ a ~o<,d cid~en Mr. lhu~:x. If lhe gentleman ~ould ykdd, lhe> are not uslng 1}}ayelg el D{{l(ioipaTIts to ad%eltbte t}ll, piodlacl 'ghey n/igl/t sport- sol lhe everds, bL}l {hey are riot tlsil/g ~hc p~lltleil)anl% s~}{dl a5 ]{eggit ~J;*ck~l)ll el I b/,li(,v(, wi~h ~ l~c(' c~tl. ~i:}lard P(tiy n/ig}l~ hi, mo~P ,~pplopriat{ ~o advmti~c 1he b~aI~d of }{ J }{~yBolds MI. VCAK:,IAW AIsylhhlg lUtl}ler, M~ ])a/monlc'sel? f3entlenl(ql, 1%silt Io lhank }OU ful 3OLH pal ticipst}oll YO'.I hal.( ~dvon tl~ a }el to think about I am paldctdarI5 interested [~ the id¢,a~ of the mnlketlng expe~ls bE'cause it .~-¢'em~ ~o rae that we have to do a lot mole to be as effeotive a~ we hope to be ]ll m) opinion, t}lat is in support{ of the }t,4islaliolL we o/]£}11 1o do ~omelhing lat}tel than me~el?, zely oi~ ~}~aI ~e have do),e to date llul ~e should ,'dso do mo~e lhan ~}H{ I am tnoposillg b/ {his legls]atlon If ~e added to ]]]Olley S.v~ellt 071 catlcel iesealch arid de ~oted h to develop efleelhe stt ategi<, to change bohaviol, x~e plob abl} would be doing a lot ol good in lesseim~g cancel lares il~ {his coulltl3' I would submii thaf you are abso~uteI?, collect, l)l Wb/d, a lilt I)l adxerti ing nl(>n['y is ~l~sh d But t}l[ tobacco i[lduMl', has a ]t)t Of iltorle~ to %~a~[(, in l}Io[lltlt big lhen ptoduci B'¢ don't have a lot of money to d[scoulagv smokiag. We will i'ece~<s slid colne back i~1 2 o'clock [Whereupon, at 12:35 plli, ~he sub{'ornn/itte(, le((ss(d, to ]econ- vene at ~ pro, the g~llle d#~}] 0
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590 A~7 FR I~ECE~g [The suboonlmltlee zecon~eaed at I] p.m, lion tIem3 A \'ca x nlaIi, ehai* man, pl osidlng [ ~1. W~kXMAN r['hO l//~"gtil]~ of the subconm/itteo will please c(ll/io to ruder. Our finnlx~itnessf~wil] testify asapanel this afternoon Adhur Furst is director emeritus of the Institute of Chemical Biologs, Uni~e~.',ity of San Francisco, Har~ey Selez~ee C<nter. Theodott D Stl,Iling is fIonl the Coalputing Scilnco |'lot, lum, Simon Fra~t,I Univtlsih',, Also w{ have Edx~in R Fishel of thc Shadyside tlos ~i- ta Patho og'y ,aborafoly. Alld, #IS[ y, we have She do~ SOlilr[/(!I's, o 1he Lenox IIill llosidlal, N.Y I would like to welcome you *to om hearing toda3 and have you oc*me thtuard Gentlemen, your p~epal~d staWments will be made part oi the record in full What ~e x~ould like to ask of you is to slJmmarize )oul Mntl, Irle11{ ire aIoI/rl¢~ ~ minu[es SO we cal] have all otl[)Ol[{I~l[[y for qllIs |ions; [tlld answers )r. Ft s , ~ v dol 't we 8 ~1 "~ h "ou S1ATI;MI:N'IS OF SII]:LIION (, SO2q311~:ltg. ~,l,ll,, NEW "~ (lt,'l~ CI'I "/, N.'£.; ARTIII'J~ DURST, |'11, Ik, ])I[{F:CTOR }:7~IE}{I*I [ S, ]NSIIT[;];: OF CIII~MICAL II]OI,O~;Y, ITNI'*'g~;~_RI'Iy 0}" ~AN FI~ANCIgCO; 'I'HI~;ODORE 1). ~THtlLiN(;, I{EgHARCH ]q{OFESS(IR, SIMON HIA,%I,:R ITNI'*I.;I{SIIY; AND ED'~IN R, DISIIE}L 3Ll)., PI'VJS- BUI{GI[, PA. ])I. So~It,l~:~(s II is my understar~ding ~ha{ I aln 1o speak fllsh if ] ~I WAXMA~ ]f yOU have worked out ally allalig~,mellt, that is lille ~ii]l us l/z ~onlmels, please ptocevd lb. So~I~!~s ] am Sheldon Smnmezs, MD,a ph)sicbm speclal- iz[ng ilt pathology, currently clinical p~ofossor el pathology at Co lumhia Umwrsity College el Physicians & Surgeons, New York, N.Y., ancl Univmsity of S~mthezn CMifolnia School of Medicine, Los A~xgeles, Calil~ Also, I am consultant in pathology, I,~nox Hill tlospi~al, NY; chairman, New York Slate Mental tlvgiene Medi- cal l{~it,~ Board; m~d plesldent elect, Al[hur ~'klI~ly ~'5{o~.tl S0Ci~ of Surglcal Pathologists. I am lmst president of ihe New England Pf~tholo,~ieal Society and Ni,w York Pathological SIiclety Since 1936, except for \Vofid \\'at 11 "eaIs,~! have been el~gaged tl Inediea/ r<search with t)2]llie~l~r l'ef(relt¢~'~{o canoer, endc~2til/e and gastrointeslinM diseases, ~ith o~er :~00 Iluh]icaliuns- nhout 1(1 pel*:enl dea/i~g ~lith lung caneel~ and also some o11 pancleal~c c,~nce~ I anl eoedi~or of Pathology Annual and Diagnostic Gynecof {~gv & Ob31etrie~ ai~d seive oil the editorial boaIds of five othm medical joulnals My ¢llrliculum vitae and publication list ale at- lathed Fm the tlus~ b n/imIh~, I havl, servi,d ~ls scienti[~c diltl:lot, Cuuu oil to~ Tolwcco Research USA, Inc 'lhis is a fmtding agen/:5 flit bio- medical ~esealch m the area el smoking and h~ahh, fm~ded b~ to- bacco m mui~ctme~s. The budge~ fb~ tesealch g~ants in 19S2 i~ $7 millh~n q G3 O UI UI g~ ¢.tl
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501 A ]i d( ( Applica{ioT~s ale acted upon b3 a ,qcienliti{ Advi~oly ]~mld, ~md lh~e npI/l~ved ~ith a ~Lvolahl~¸ lallng ~tll' lund~d tbJ up to ~ ~al~ w~lh ~JI/ iil~l~l~llunit~ ~11¸ contiiluation b.li~IIt~ thert~a{il~; The (?<~ull- oil fbl ~ba¢co }~c,s~at¢}k C~x~,lt~ iio jnf]u~.Iic~¸ upon 1}1(¸ ~,I~c~, iyh!) ~/~%, tl~!eI~, [~]i~ %%}~1~ th<,%, find a~ lhr,~ ~}~o~/L Ab:~llt ~-II ~eti~r~" ~t:ants now exisl il~ Ihe [~l~i~'~] ~l;~tt~. ~u/dk a~l~lai~ ~]y ~llp~l~nce at ttli~ heatiilg i~ %oltJii1~y, ~l/d l]~(¸ oi~iltlol~ ex. ~3r(~,~.l~d L~le tJc!~oll~ql, Ilo~ ictJr(,~q£,rl~il~ [ho~.e~, ol¸ ~l/y oli~l/iy;l~l(lll ']hi,5 el.~. ~ll~ rl,~ll]~ ii! ov~l¸ 4~ yl~ar~ of s{ud~, iIixes~igation g~rJc} plactiee 11, the field c~ ,athoIog~ a~l~l cl~nlcal-pa~h~,l~¢ic c~nlela- smoki,~g One ~pl/~oac~ to~2aI~ce~ lau~ation in~es~i~a[iol~ i~ efddemiolog- ica] a~/~ stati~lical }~i~emiolo~.ical ~t~i~tics ir~voh~.~ ai~ ~×l×'zi- mellt~l ~ul/ ~lli~ a eonlr~l group. For ~ wdid c/~np:~ri~on tht, groups n/Ll~l ~e ~tike a~ lle~l]y a9 ]~ossi})]e ill ~ll 1C.~petls excet~t fol lhe ilem beil~ h~vesti~ated In s~tld~e~ i~l¸ cigal~tt~ snlokiniL Iil~t~hiI~ ~m~].cL~ alld noli s!llok el~ b~¸ 8ox ~n~l ~e ~s~ ~thi~%'ell ~1 ha8 bei,i/ ~ss/l~llo,'~ ill ~]1 o~)!e~ r£~s )l!(:~s the ~i,o gtou])~ %~1~~ ¢on~palab~(~ '~hi~ i~ llot tttlcL sil~ce in hod, ~l~li~ extlox,ol.~qioii ol¸ i~l,o\er:~]oll l~lar~IsI ~i~toly, alcohol u~/~, iI~e ill illm ll~esl:r~l}on ntedit~tion% police i*2cold~ ii/ilitar~ le l!ll.¢d~ ~iic] otllc~l¸ ~q~p~c~ts~ c[ga~o~le slllokt./~ alt! (~t,n/on~il al~/3¸ diff,21¸. rl'he ~]]~cy ol¸ oil(, to oil{' c~31111~li~oll~ of ~.ll~ok~; ~i/t] Iloll ~[~/o~ ~ls ~il~l lt~st)l~ct to illoltalit3r ~a~ poin~{l out ill a Yl~Ol~ogz~IIh ]~y l~o~e and BeI] i1~ 1971. They sludied predictors l~l¸ longe~J~3¸ in ~a~¸ vl~[elan~ in }3ostol/ reox~qlll~l/~<] ,'4l int~v~]~ OJle o!1 o1~¸ {'olc~l~ali g/izls l~l~.~ ~i~,al.c{~, sllli~]<in~ Nil ] ~s ~ {n~il.lur E)~ ~al]) de&{h liM~ many ~the~¸ ~t~Idie~ 1~u]tilhctorla] ~qatls~ical anal~i~ d~op},e(~ smokiTEg to salnewhele b~lo~¸ No. ~0 a~ a p/odictor and di~ati~li~(¸ lioll w]lh job beoalno No ] '~he h~.on i~ i}l~ in t~o ple~tI~{ II~]~l li~.ly nIldlv~]l~l/(~] ~ta~e ill" epiiilioh~gy, to he.ale o/ ~acile alld Tv, o othel¸ poi~lt~ abo~t statistical epidetl/io]~v ]'kely t~{l±~ol: st~te~ them, every ,qe~ive s~ien~isl k~ws ~hem ]':pi~leEl~{o[ogi~ ~tud ~e~ t~y the natul~ of the lllathelll&lJc.~ so ~i¸ ~evt,]ol~.~ cle~ll inaiilly w~}l ~andom populations but smokers are sell.elected ~ are noll ~]it) onl); ]ol¸ l~i/~olll l~o]lu]ationg, e~llnot |~ exp~cled ~o l~lovidr2 ~a]id aIlswo~.> .%eond, epidemiok~gy ealmot prove cause and efti!tt All it c~m demol~slrale is a ;ela~iol~l~ip~ the lmlure ~f the re]ationshill, cau~al ~r otherwise has to bl' wl~rked out g~ other ~nel}/o¢3~, u~lally ex- 1~1 ii/lez/tal ~l~l! (~tlllc:il c~ 'l~lac~!i~ Rt~.e~rch in ]970 un(Im ~ook ~ lalgo ~ca~e Iesea~h program 1~ il~ves~igate whelhel cigarette smok~i/~ cau~e.~ lung cancer in animals¸ A]nlo~t $]d rnillkm went into Hie lu'oje~t ill ]Z 3"eal~ To take accmtnt ot¸ heredity, intl~ed mice we~'e ~e~ ~nd t~sted for ~iid vacein~ ~ains[ respi~l{or3~ ¥iruso~ To 8how I]le~e nni!ll~l~ cou]~ develop ~he major ~yl/~ of human ]ull~! Call- COI~, l~ll'e ¢]lell/ical calc~Itogeng were intto~te.'~ do~vn l]~eil¸ tla bio]o~ieally ~c~;ve folm.~ Aboul ~0 pelcen~ ill )~ln~gel¸ mice a~d UI O U1
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ovm 95 pe~c<,nl in ~klel mice (bve!opod "human type" lung can CCI~ g~S it I~Stllt ~f ~,XpOS~II(?S tO t~]ese ptll{! ch(~tt]icri[ <~TCili©~(ll! 'l hl~l~,all{~r ll~otis~l~ll~ of lnlc{~ w~I~ {~×tlos~d ~ail5¸ Io f~>}l ~l}lo[e cigmt4~t smoke of either low nlcolh~e arid high ta~ ol high nkOhm, alld high tal content up to maximum tolelance duling th¢,i~ whole ]iv(E tip (o d~) tllollth bl some eaRf:s z'~t olle pgJtlt thero v.elt ]],f)(}O tll/iIll~ll lllaI/ipLll~ttiOfl:, pll day illC]lldiI~g ~}ld/tl ~lllOkill~r olaf{ control mice Ah~l allthe~e yea~sof ci~aretlesmoking inactkaJ',v ~'mx~ Imlg 12[lllc(is developed i~llcl i1¢3~ one ease o{ the }lIInlan lyp~ £~IIIC(~I H/(I ~ Ofi{'[l }~l}~ttl/('fl nil smoking rJ'h(:lO W2JS 110 ( /If'gtiOI1 ~}~0 dgalet~ smoke had [>['Fi£'lla~£'tl ill~O t 1~., r tlllgs S l~ce t I s Was ~orke( OUt tl~Bl~titali~( 3. hi olhal l,×- ]ll~lilllt!tl{~, IIliC£~ WOlf' prhn/d W[{h ill/rattsc}lot]l pine Cf~l'elllo~L'lli0 cbelnietda, then e×posed to cigalt~tte sln/ikt~ dulillg tM'ir ~Qlole lives No il~Cl'(,~o ill ltlllg eahcer occtlllt.d ovel th( incJcl*,n¢,{, f~ulid flfff~l ~I¢-[[I}~ pKll(, ChOlll[ct4}~- lllooe al/d in olle exjt~,lilllL, lll smokinZ ~as as~ei ~ed ~ith a l~duced I~Ing (a[Ic£,i i~lt(! rJ'h(, ii[llil~[i- Of" animals anti colnpu~l,ti~t~d Jnf<~yll/at~oll al~ ~o ~Ltl¢/dall~ tlmt stfl~isticlll F*l%01ysig ~y mod(,In e×peximl,nlal mmlysis is; ~,tilf (onlinuing Smile ,l(l publicalions, ha~e in pall ilh{,~tdy lip Ilemed o~ me in part in plospect In the field <ff scivncl knowk'd~e i~ ~aintd Ihloufdh ffxFo~!l'iii/~lll atld bl[ett)let~llion In l})e s;,itntilic ]l/{qho[J ~I lheory is }lllll]o~(,(] TJl{,le~lft<n ~*x~Jl'Iill]pllts ('O]]{~]Jli ¢Jl ]f ibe [l~{t'l, ti llpW th¢,o~5 i~ d~,~¢.lopl,d II i~ El ('OllIiI~LI(IUS (,vO}/l licma~y process 8net I~e('d~ a ¢tit}cal stir} op(~l/ ll]}l]d Ol/c H%tIM br {Ol]~allt]y ahq~ for surprises as Louis Tholna has ~lrJtten Lm}i cancer is high o!1 ltlt, ]is{ (~f slstf,mf'l]t ill tho bill tI H 5~;04 attIib ll~illg (liq~';/N{~ 1[/ C]G3I~'l[e r-II]oking Th[~o flee l~o gene~M mell ods o[ in~est[~t[llg {lit' £a118{, o] Cot/eels ill tltll]l~i/s o! allJmals. One is ihc epide:niok~pie and stg~tistical mf,thod alread~ discussed ']he sl'co Id b thr! t/ilm/edical nletholt (%rose itli[ hl be thhni,d bi ~Io;,ic, I ]y as som{t]/ing bolb IIE'C(!SSSI& [4lid SUfi]cienl Io c ~last, a colvli{iOl/ Cigarette sl]lokhlg is not a n¢'ces.~£11~ t:lctor ill h[Itnall ]~ITIg cancer which t.xist~,d ~bl centuries in :adjure inhl(,~s ~ibte cif!,~- let~es wele illvell~{,d blll~g P~tl~f'{,i ~qc~ol)~t g~lii(,.% sc~ll'iD~ plo~'c:-Nl!s ill ~]lft Illl]~ dut f(I "~l~, COlll%f'ut~,~' tissue diseases trod vmJoug othel ahIIolJlla]il}~s 111 NOBSIHOkeI'~. It also faJ~s 1o l/]t'f.t the Ckttl~} OI}Lei iOIl of }/('illg 8lllt~ci©lil ']}ie lhc{ is that the ~as~ Inaj[/lit3 of smokt r~, nloti, them 90 l)plc<'n{ tff even heavv smokels do not develop king canc~,, tlence, ¢igalette smoking i~, neithel necessaly nol ,~Ll~licent it/ the de~eb~plnent of htnna:l ]urlg cancer and by the biological &'hnition is I~ot tile to lie IrluIli[ttctorial ~Itich n/ear~ 1})£" distqls(! is assooi~/(~ x/it}l ulanb ~bing inadclition to snaking ~ozs include N{I ], h¢,l/dity FamHie, wil}l a bifh inl:idenco oI itu!g C&lic(!l &t( kilo/Ill. ~['X mid l;Ic¢' M(n h~l' three t[n/es tile lunG c.aneel o[ %lOl~]OIl; [~!acks ~i[id otit'rltf~l dil[~i lm[oi/i %%JliI(,~, il] il](idoIIOf' !bt}~ll/. ('¢,ll51itl [I[})RI/ /{/f,lG }tl~ II~}l ]l;rg Cmclr lt~tt,!; ~}/kh ;~II t b" a¢(oul/tl'd fin b3 smokil g The~e ]ll(*~l~ ~11"( {}]%is(- with hifJ~ ai~ polh~ti{m No ,t, aecupatior~ A~ Mte~dy noted r~ i IL, UI tO 0 ¢/1 Ca ",a
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o~ !~8(lx~ I~!~;)ILI0!¢{ ~tll *l~Aa',~l{ ~01~ ~11~I ~ql~ ~JL~!~01~I~ a!l,)l ~!~ ~I~t~q uo!l~/!~0~ ~0!~!~ll~ II I~od~I ~!pnl~ ~!~Io!t/I~p!~ ~!l ~)~l~ ~tl~1 ~L~0 p~ll~ ~t~ JO ~0Io~cl aItl Jo s!~L~i~u~ II! ~ottz~ ~1~!o ,~(t p~po~(I Ilooq p~l[ x~,~l~l Io ~IIl~I Jo ~l,~u~o ~I J~ll~ ~1! ~! [8~o1~1 I~}/Ia~l!l~t[x,~ ~1~ IIl~lJolllu! '~olt ~oIl~ a~l0 ~l!~ll~)~ ~o,~oJ~I ~{ ~[1!1~ IJ{ J;)oIlllo ~ullI ~l~ u~o ~lI!~i~llI~ ,~I~1~!~ ~1~I ~Illll~/Io~I~p oI lIJ,~II!~x~ ;~!~IlI ~ ~i~IJ~{l~ [JI o~ ~!~ oI~ ~l~a:~ £9 l~loq~ ~ pal~od;~I ~t~aq s~l s!sot~fp ~a)~ ~l~{ Io o~'~ /i~o~ ~I{~ '~u!~ ~tlo,~;~ '[,)oIi~o ~II~l II~/Illll~ o~ ~{I!~!oI u!l~{dx,) <l!lll s!l{~L t~ll~l~ ~I~n{ ~l~lI~Aap ;~l~ ¢l!ml/Ilt/J! ~,~n~)I ~[~II~tl0tlI,lp /{l!/~ ~l~p!A!~ll[ ~,I/E,)I~II~U0~ ~IIlIlI/ILI ~01I 0p ~,~//~O ,¢
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504 i{~ne N~al ~vi~:e ~a~ ~d ~r~ea~-~a~, A~ ~r~¸ 8~ut $~¢£e~¸ of ~gieal ~athol~i~ts, ~ ~ pa~L pre~i~n~ ~f ~he ~±nc~ 1~3~ e×c~t for ~ ~;~r II ~e~, ~ Bav~ b~:~, ~ 6¥ae~¢~¸ ~ e~tet~Lc~ a~ ~r~e ~ ~e ed~c~ B~ac~, Co~rL~l fo~ ~o~ac~ ~earc~ US~, T~C~ T~!~ i~ ~ ~z~n~ l~ }~ i~ ~ ~111~ doi!a~s. ~p~llcat~5 are ac~¢~ ~ ~ a t-- t¢ O CJ~ L~ 6~ 1
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505 ~re i~n~(d ~or ~ to three year~ ~ith ~ :~p~rtunlt~ for C::tf~;<~ gc~n~ t;~rea£~et, ~h~ CO~ci~ for Eok~c~ t<e~uozu}~ e×c~L~ n:, 5 ~l~e:~c u~n the gr~lco~, ~ho ~y ftPeI~ ~xit~[~ ~!~aL t!~e~ 5ir,d ~ ~e~ ~hoose. ~nut elg~ active g:~nt~ nnw ewi~t l:~ th~ U,g, ~nd ~rOaC, ~ ~DDearance ~t this hea~in~ ~ w,2unta~y, ~n~ ~ 1~ve~g~tion an~ ~actice ±~ ~he ~ic2d o~ ~olog!, an~ Ciinic~l [~ibut~ ~o uzg~rehte ~;~o~i~9. e~p~im~n~ an~ ~nte~p~etatio~, ~E~ ~c~ensi~o r¢~!~o~. A t~e~,sy i~ proposed. ~h~r~f~e~, ~xpe~l~÷~g confl~ or ~ef~e it, ~f tho Lun~ o~noey ~ ~igh ~ the ~i~t o~ ~ta~o~cn~ in ~11]~ 4957 ~eth~ of ±~est~9~t~~ the ca~e ol ca]c~ ~n ~.a~s oz anf~a!~ a~ ~o:~oLhfng kot~ ~ce~ry ~n£ ~f~iczent to cause a co;~itior. Eig~ett¢ ~oklng i~ no~ a nece~n~r fac~o~ in ~l~ ~un~ c~r=cc[, ~cre ~nvente~. iun~ ~ancey ac~o~p~nie~ ~rrir~ p~ac~ zr~ nno O~ to O1 O
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abnor~,~allties in no~kers. A1s~. c~g~et~e ~}~i~ f~£1s to ~eeL t}~e ce~al c~e~£~ ~f b1~n~ ~uf~iclent. ~e L~t is ~h~t ~h~ vast ~aj~ri~7 ~uf~c~ent i~ the ~evel~:ent ~f hu~n ~g c~ncer, a~ b~~ Lhe Like ma~y ~th~z ~Se~S~ ~ older ~e. lunC cance~ ~p~ Other t~il~ have dec~ease~t ~ function. ~nc~nce. char~c~er±~,~ b~ severe ~in~er weat~ ±n~e~on ~tt~r~ ~th h~ a~r po~lutL~n. Cr~ k~ 0 Cll C~ C~
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5O7 ep~e~o~o~i~ ~%~ ~t~t~v~. U~ 0 f..rl
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508 s~ti~f~tia~ ~i~h ~1~~ ~,~a~ #1 ~ ~,~ ~ ~t ~n t~c p:~T~t i
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511 ~r~ ~o ~>~L L~ ~c~ce~ ~,~I~ i~¸ ~ ~e~, e~ ~r~ ~II', ~XSIA~ ~II~ ~01~i Ill¸, ~Iiltil~,l~ I]~i~, yl,U ~IIIkIC~ i~l ~lllI~ ~i~l ~I~i~ I~I~ ~ A1 }~ll~>~l" {~I~ Al~'l ll~I~ l'l'l~ • l~II, II. :~l~l)I~'i~It~ ~ ~t~t('Ill~ll~ IO ~l~I~ ~Ill~ ~i~I~, of the' ]~lil~te ol ~'~ic~l }~i~I~y ~t the LIJ~ive~iI~¸ ~ San }'la~l i~rov~ the l~ealth ~f ~l~e A~e~'~car~ l~e~,lo }lis co~J~e~ i~ ce~i~ly ~1~t~1~ ci~t e~ I q~e~Lio~l, howe~,er, the ~cientifi¢ b~sis of ~ ~ioJ~o~l I],~ ~57--~ ~ n~l the, ]~ul~li~ }1~.~1~ S~l vice' A~L algol the ]~k,d/.~al (!it~a~'el~l~ l~eling ,ai~d Ad~ttising Act I ~l'~uld tller(to!e Jil~e to subnlit ~ 1~l/ ~v~'i~'i~ st~aten~e~t for th~.~ ~u~orn~itlee's eo~/~ider~- I h~v~ j,~l tl/l 495~ ~th ~E~ i~ler~,si, ff~ I I~nve sj~lt ove~¸ s~c~k~ a~rl health¸ ~y o~ig~t~al lal~J~ato~¸ ~ork o~ ca~ci~og~,~les~ O~r the y~'~ls, ] h~q~'e s~u~li~t tl~e l~o~iblo ~t~ oil ~l~l~ll~ls o~" b~ih ~}1o1~~ ~ii~ok~ ~liid ~.~tl~ol~ ~.ll/rJk~ ~oiill~oil~ilt~, ~ ~l~v~ ~l~,/i ill ticulally t'rle ~qe~ ~eta]s, anal I I~ave ~ar~f~l~y t~/ol~itoled tl~e U1 © 01
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512 ~,,~ot~l~d vail help explain m) eoI/~'crns about Hit 4!157, v. hlch ] kl~>~" to be fia/~ght w~th uncellaintie~ A collgi~ion~l ~ildill~ lh~t "ci~Iette ~ll/okhlg ~ t~l~ iltln/[~i.i¸ oILe c~u~c~ ill ltlllg ~lllt't~t¸'' in/p/it,~ a ~/il~nti|~l' t't'Tt~linty ~hal I, a~ i/~ ~onl n~y extensive kiio~edgc ~f and tir~ baud experience with Feat¸ I1]~TI~¸ ~,~l~, ] tlic~ io illdlic~ l~ng C~l/¢~l¸ ill ~tnilllal~ ~li~ll cil~,~lc sn~oke, whh I~9 succt,~, despite the most sophisticated ~nl~klng nla~}lilll~ ~vail~ble ~o[ only were Ill:: t:ol~tqtgu~ ~lld [ ul]~t]~c~c~.~f/ll~ but ~ll ~v.'/~ i~viH ~¸ ot]~p]¸ iIiv~-~ti~,']tol ~t/iII/~ll~ li~ h/]II/~Ii', do ~tlontaTlco~]~¸ dc~(lof/ ]~li~g C~iicct ~:~ii i~/~,ll~tilln l~tlil~, ~ ~l~'~t ~]¢,~] ot¸ Soljlli~ti¢~i~lll ] I~L~, it, vi~wl,~ ~l~l ~lllTIIt~r Ill rl'~lrC~ t11~1p11~1~ ~tT/d It*tllll[~ ill ~}~t* ]1~1~ ~// yl:tli:.. ~H/~] ] C~I~ ~!IIC* ygU that R']~I~C IltliiI])~ Ol t~l~ ~Xl)l'liliiOllt;~] lit, /III]~/'nl~/t~ theft i~ o~teu o~ell~oked ~ th~ u~,l,d t/i ~lt ct fll~lll ~ittl.l¸ 15¸ th(, ~.~lll/i, ~ll~]Jl ot¸ ]Elic~, th~ 3~1]111~1]~' ~tl(lllt~l~l~(~l~ t~tt, (it¸ t~llll~>l /qJl~:~i~tiic~ ~1i]/ ~i~ly ft-ol~ oll~: ~llH)li~:l¸ to ~l/oth~F: th~ c~]/ c~ls(~ ~ i~}~ i~i~[~]t,Tii¢. wjl]l I~/~. iEl~t'ltlll,tlLl]Oll O~ t}lC (]~tI~ ~]'~11]% C~,T~ i~ ~l~iII/O~ (roIn ~ C~l~C~'~llt l~tt~I¸ nl,~,~, ~i~.]~I llOt]~IIg I~[111~11~] }/~cd oil 1~5¸ owl~ I~e~rch and ~ii/ilin~ity v:it~l lilt lil~'rat~e ] }J~ ~./lll~]~,i] [~l~tt ]/~1 i~]i~]~, i~]/lot~l~ibl~, ~rlilll~] ~lu~Jt~ ~l~lVt, ~h/~ll t~l~l ~}~, ~i~h(~l~tt]on ol ci~I~tI~, ~[noko ~tl,~,s. Iilllt~ c~llc:~¸ I ini~ht ~dd lhat skill painli~lg c×pe~im~t~ a~e inappropriate t~ th~kt ~lllill~l~ i~×]l¢'lil~l~'l~l~ ~ill~u]~lt~, ~ cl~!'ly ~1~ !~l~itl]~', thl¸ ht~iI/~Ti ~,~t~i~t~l/cc' ~l/~J ~ii-|l~intii/t!, ~ w~,l} ~. C~:it~ i~l}ll~r ~.x. pclitl/l,nt~] tt,chniqlle~, ~i] to n/in/it a~c/lu~t~,l~¸ hunmn illh~l~tti(~l/ rj~ arlil/~al data are si~t/i~]cal~ i~eg~tive evidei~ce They basically c~tltIaclic~ tht~ l~l~/uI~l¸ i[ztl~ll~ii,[t~lilll~ /~f till, c~tli/l/~in]o]/~icn] d~l~ "~'hy? ~,~'~ ll/~t }/~¥p ~ood t ~,s~/ch ~l/find t/~tt l ht,~qrlil)¸ ~l~v~. w]t~] ~llc lc'~'onll~l~i~/~tioll t~J&~ l~/ot~ ]~,~¢,~lci~ ~llis c~:.c, ~ ltli/g ¢:~i/c:t~i¸ c~:~i~<m ~l]/~ oniy tL~¸ ~/tlt~!ic~llio!~ o~' ~i}l ~uccl,~,~ ~ll~d ~hi!ul~ ~l']/i¢, i~ ~]i5¸ I il:~vl~ l~'li tlo~li~l~'d l]l~t ]t~ct ~l/:~]5~i,, ~l~l] d]~'ll/in~tl,'¸ ~rnc~l~il~/~ ~E/tl }/~Ei/lh illfl/IEI/~lti/Itl i~ ~×C~'ll~/t i[ both !~o~ili~¸ al~d I/ci~a~i~t~ lit~dhl~ ~ ~¢po~l/d (Jill5¸ I~/l~]J~ ilt ~nc~i~[ }o~ i1~,1 I ~,~] co~/ilio]l~_~ ~o s~' tiler lh~ II~t ]1~1¸ 01
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l{~ll*lan(/, b) ol icinl ag¢l/eils ba b{{1~ ;h/~ ~l~tli~t'd b) 1~i:}~13 ~( JLowt.vp~¸, 1}l~lt ~iiq col!~ult~til~, ~11o ] ~n/ s, tlit ~ll n//~iv~tcl t~y go~ll inicnlioll~- did l~c~t f'(~] il Ii~'oc~>~l~¸ 1o !)~' ~,(~]ll~t'l~¸ co~n]~l~¸ I fLtll I1(1~ ili ~tlly ~*;/~¸ gl(~vot!~!l~tl~ ~,~li/l!~]I/i~; ~1~ ~ ~,:i!q/i~/ I Elhl (ill/ i/~ili~l~ and ~/t~'~iti~¸ I a~n a/~/i vt~13¸ conct~lut,.'] ~l~ll if all ~ht¸ di~ t!lei~¸ lf]l/ il~ a 8~v~,le ~c}il/~ in li~,~c}~ ol/ ~t~1~ ~t~,lni~tc,(/ Col/ti~I Of ll/~lllv 1:11o/~1/ (it¸ ~.~ll~c[t,~ ~l/VilOlii~l~l C&~l~.L.< ~;t di>~p.~. ]~l c×~l/lple, Ibis [ ~dcl~ll law c~n /~ll[~¸ have ~1~ i;~{~l$e tf~c~ oll c~lo11~ ~1 01~tl ~lt/ f~h¸ ~ll~ilonlllotll Io eoI~il~le Stl/o~ el~n!lol~ in Cars, ahd l0 relllove ~h~ t?~l[ic~]a~:, ~lld 11oxJ0L~ ~!~-, Jl/ l~10 ~ll- I ~t~©c~ll/y sug~t thai £!ongl~.~ ~}/ould tncoul~g~ gl~gd 1~. sit;it]l; I h~ t~lell ~Dcl~ill~ ~}l]f. tol¸ ,'~0 years If ~i, }l~t~ ic0~,il¢ J ~llleql~te [!lll~li/If~ Of go~] i~Ich 3,1~;ll~. ~g~, t}~n J/in~3 o[ It/~ q~l~sti~?~g ~sis~(} i~(l~y inigl/t }in~.l, hr/.n and/it I~d ~ciellc~ r~c~ [;!1[~ licit5¸ campaifqls, ~ll .~o1~ om¸ p~ob]ems lib ]~u~st's p~epaled stalel~mll follows:] UI G~ U1 UI
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514 UI~Ix-~IA~:SIT'~~ OI~ SA~ F~.~ANCiSCO UA~N~y ~C!ENC~ ~ENI~ ~ O U1
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52105536O =
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~IN~\~RSI~'y Q~ SAIN FRA~CISGC~ i~T~ O~ C~ ~obo~ r~ ~ C~ ~,~ ~i~ ~ ~ tb~ t~ ~ ~3~, ~ ~ ~ ~, t~ ~ ~ ir~l~ ~ ±~ ~ i~ ~ ~2~~, ~ ~,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~i~ ~ ~2~ r~,~ t~ the ~ ~i ~i~t~o~ ~a~ ~ ~ 0
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= 517 [!XIX'~ }~%l'fh' ()} S,,\X ~ [~AXCII~<C<) ~,~t~ ng ~ n~tza~l. O ~q
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518 IJNi\rr!l~S~'~~ CIF SA~ l~L~i~;~l ~-,~i~o~ ~ tz~, lr~ ~ ~ in r5, ~k~ i~*.~.~. ~ ~s- i~-~d~ ~o~ ~1,~ ~ ~,.~j ~n~-~ ~ ~,~ ~ ~,~i~~, ~ ,,:~ ~,~ f.d
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UNIVLiI{SIq h" O~ NAN I:~2\NCt~,(~() 1 ~arLil¥ ~2~c wi~h ~. r~cw~-~Lo*: thsL ~e,e res<ar h ~s{ ~- O
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~20 LINI\~f~F~SITY OF 5AN ~Y~ANCISCO ~LE~ 0~ C~E~L~A~ ~ h~r~ ~id r~% ~, ~rcLr~m of ~ ~u~ r~ ~it~ t~ t,~ ~/~c/' LL~ ~ C~,: ~ ~o~" i~ b~,~Le~ ~ ~ ~ v~,ie!y of ~ ~:,:~. A]~,,
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~)N[V}-.F~I7 Y O} ~zXN f [{A,X£ IS( (~
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522 .~,~[ WAXMAN. "l'battk )uu, lb. Fulst Dr Slcrl(ng g'iA'l IqMI NT Of "] HF~OI)(I]¢Iq Ih Sl EI{I,1N(~ Mt ~qlI:[IIINC~ Mr ('bairnlan, Irtenlb~,r~ of (hi~ pi~ll(,h thmlk yo~l for Ih(! COtll[i,bly ill l(!Cl!iving IEly clIrllliblliilltl I i'/lll 'l'bcodolO ~t(l bng, lmiveI~.iIy leseaich ptoft'ssJ~i at ~iI/IO// ~°I~SOl Ulli'+£!l~it~ iD liritlsh CoIumbia ] have pio~ious]) /aught at sevelal univcrsitic:s in the Unile~l States I have s~r, ed a~ a. advise~ to the U.S Food and 1)t rig Adndnisttation, the l"edcrM 'bade CommisMon, the Na £bmal Science Foundation, the Natioiml Security Ageilcy, National Acaf~oIIly el ~Ci(!llC~g, lhe Vf2(el~ttlJ ]~d/ltiIIb,{I alilA?, ~llld Io sJwelal 1J S and (~'nl ~di m labor uniting, I have hoen dotted a fellow of the American Associalion f~a the Advaucen~vuI of Science and of the An/elican Statistical Associ- allen My l~lajor pioI~'ssional walk conceHls lhe co]]ecllon ai/d 8]ifd)'s]s; o] s¢2i£~11Ii1~2 dgt~% fronl (!xpfflJili(llls ~lDd ~IO111 stllvey s[Dd. ie,, I%~uch Of m5 lesealcb has conjured Oil If'~i~lli~l~ ~Jbou~ the tf- fl~ct~, of [~nvit onm(mtrd (!xpoNui~-s O11 [bp br,alib of l~lfltl} I anl opposed m the hill undo[ discussion today because I helkwe i~s f~>ll'aclfing ':findings" do'hal ]lavc adeilXmie sclcmlf c suppalt l'mthe~, if this bill becomes Iaw, il could umeasoimhl) eliot.it a1 ~('n[il~li ~llld l('sol/rc('g 8way frolll ()~ciall5' hl/pollot?[ oleos of public healih icsem'ch M3 inleli, I in Ibe po~ibie health effcc/s of cigm'.~tte smokilg goc'~ hack lo the ]:lit ]!}50's ~dlct tb(u/, J]/ a nunlhpI Iff pub]isb(d ~liliel(:s, ] have exl)ie sod I/I.Y t'oi1c£~ll] thai Ii/al/y sl?lokbl~ alid bealth sludies haxe lnk(n apploa(hes ~Ql{eh hav( vvei~inlplifled ~lmt in ?('~Iii[y }e, ftIl Ox~l£,l/tt'ly COIllp}CX pIo}~l(ml 'lh£ bulk of lhe daln iln snlokiil!~ uld blnhb ha~ <.'elll/e haul stud ies of population groups; that is, lIom epidemio!ogica/ ~tudies Tbe~e data have been anal)zeal using statiMical nlethod~ ~o detel- mille wh£'iber {htqe are z~,%~,OCiz411OllS bcIllo(ql C('II thl f¢1({075 ilIld disease e~d pobds As a statistician, 1 am flequ(nt/b a~loni~hed to ~eo ho~llln trl} people. CVell marly ~ho should know better, ileat slatlstica[ associ- aliens a~. luoof of cau~e-m~d-effeet lelationships "lhe hndings in the lie{ bling disctl~s0d loday SOClI/ to be a llerlec{ oggrl?]llc~ c,f this [l~iS~ SO Of N~ IiI isib'S, hi II13 wtittOll 81atetlient, ~Idch 1 tilldi'ls[~lld }to9 heeu 5~htllltt(~ lor the ~ecord, I have described nly published ciitiqtle8 of smokh~g alld htallh studie~ Briol~y, I hart evaluated in depth 1~o ed ill(' lllajol ptospec[[%o iiloita[itystlldie-~ the Amelic~nl (?allcel Socicf~'s, "Million I'eIso~s" study and lhe U.S xe!elans Mudy- and 1 have found that both of lhese studios had maim lnelhc>do'<ogkal fla~s which may ~eil invalidale their uidely q~loted conchasi ,ns Smokblg has also been statistieall5 linked with "e~:cess' illm, ~ and all>ability I bn~e lo anal)~td tht! ditl oll ~bich I his cbiim is ~aid to be based and I ha~v ~ound lbat th(.y may not, in ihct, wal- lallt ibis c~,llcltlgioll Fu~tbei, ] contend that sn/<lkillg and health .~tudios h~e fol lhe sliest tKut ignoti,d inJssible conhlunding tl/r(ir~ Mocbrn selcit,l} his Cleated It multitude of sotaces lol toxic ailbotne pti[icles al/d 0 t.a 5o
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528 ~I~ t~ s!i,~¸, II/~¸ Ii(,~tili~ ~il dl/~l, lhl¸ ~Ll~{~lil~il~ liJi] t~il,~¸, ~//~ ~1~, 1/~1~. ~ll/Ol:l,~i/'~ Of ~t ~lt~l /~!~!] I~t~ n/~/ll/l~lt~ ~i~, t~/~t~l( ~'~t~[ ~ ~LI~}~ ]/i~]l e!li~.r't~Jltl~li~Jl£ /~i I~//~ ~Jl~l d~l~tS ~ ~llt)¸ *',~i, ili Ill/, 'i~ tll~l£ ~ ~,~ll ~Ol~ll~K~li~rl~¸ lit~l~ ~'~i/~l tO ~]]~'~ ~l~/i ~I1~ 1~,'~~ I~[[~ I~II {J((/]t/FLI~OI!f~[ IX/~l~[ll'i~ I*'fj/¸ I~X:~!I/[~!F~ (~(,~/ ill ~!K~,Ld~ ~;~/OI1" Of Ol/l~ OI1~ ~'L~IIC~I¸ I(,~istl)¸ tl~t ¢(111(C[~ ~t~t~lol~l [qlll~ d~:t~i]~/ ilil~ IIl~i~li Ol~ li~(~tilll~ ~O1~ ~x~I~S~II'~ ~//O1/~2 ~li t}/t¸ ~li~Jl/y C~i~C~'I le~*i~[li{'~ tll~l~ illqUil¢' ~(~Ut th~¸ ~l~I~i~il~ ll~lbits (ff lilt, I~i~il,tt~l)¸ ¢d~Tll,/ l¸ ¢~. jt~ lh(,jE¸ fi[(,~ ~i~l 1l¢~1 (l~lt~!l Jl/t~,~ll/~tion (~l/ ind~J~lri~l ~i~o~t[i~5, (~1¸, i~¸ ~oii/~ lin/- ilcxI il/Jol ri/!ll](~n ~, ~d/Ab~¸, i~ w~q:, i/or S~I~U~ t(* ~t ]~i(.~l ~ll~l Ill ~1],*¸ ollfl it/~,~sij!~i]~li/~, | h~l, ~Jl[illl I~/lt t}llLll~ J~ ~ ~!i(~i/~ i~ I~ r ~1 hi~~ lel ] (I r~ ~ ~ o • s ~ ~ ~. wo!~ l/l~I~ to ~l! t}~ I}ll~ il/~I/~t,~ il~id~l/~ of iI~o~ ~*~li[~t~d ~o sI~kJ~ t>~,' ei~id~mioIo~ie~l studi~ theft ~il ~c~ c~t~o~ ~/l~tl~t~]~¸ fol¸ O~C~])~ItlO!I ~OUI~] l/~11 ~ (]/1~, to O¢~Ul~io~:~l [~ct(~l ~., ~[¸ I~1;~ di~ in (~:CL~i~tti(~l~/ll~¸ ~,xpo~!,d ~/(l!kt'l~ ~olil? OI¸ [~jt.~t ~l~il( vthcl~ h~• Jot~ii/l t'l~l~ h[~t~,~,i¸ di~/,a~i~ l~li~ ~l/Io!l~ Ii~li~l~li~k- .quI~l~L /~f ~Jl~¸ [~qlCillt~'~ ~iic~ ] ate ~lIl~Jlt/~¸ ~'ortdLlliill~ ~1 ~t~1¢~¸ ~. to toxi(" ~lJ~{ ~ll(J ~IEI/~.~ ~V}lil~ ~11~ ~1/~)~-[~ /~f ~111 ill~l¸ i]~Jt~ i~ i~llt-]~r rd];~nl~/~ ~>~lf~/l/ ~lilO~i~ ~li~I I~,~i)il~t~l~¸ (,al//-(/~ t~C~S b~l/ ~J t'~ttl~ nl~Yl/~fl~ ~I~C~U~ oth~l¸ ~/~tol~ ~t~lt, ll/ll (oil~id('J ~d, with l~l~t¸ at ~}lal ~]~tl~i Io b~ ~il/~i~l~ ~tn~w(,l~ J~t/l ~(, ¢oii/]>l~:x f~,~ ~[~/tt ~he ¢~l~llol~ o~" [~tll~ di~{~ ~jll l~lli~li ~//col//l]l(~l~ ~f ~1~, coi~tirl~4, to ~,iiil~Ii~lic~l])¸ ~l~ii~Li~ cif2~ttl~ill~ sl~/OI~rlf~ ~n4 ~'Ol~t[ntt~ ~.O ii!ll(~l~(* ~t1~ ill) li~d of ~llviloll!li~/ltz~l ~,c~¢~'iit ~ wtL ~11 ~Ill'l~ul/tt,~, ] b~lieve that ~hi~ I~[~la~ioi~ wotlld ~iId Jittle to [;;~'st~iit t~ub]i~: health effo~ l~ i~ ~o~dd ll~el~l~¸ ~ein~ec tl~ st~I{' of i~balaIlc~ t~lld c~I~l~ion which n~w exi~s in h/w~ii~ti/~n~ ~f th~ |l~lth ¢oIIse UI ~4 G~ ¢dl
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St~e~el~ C~ CO
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• or~l~ ~d±e~ ~ l~r~t ~f ~e~ v~ ~ ~'~]~ ~er~~' ~k~,~ ~ ~t7 ~, ~ ~ ~1~ ~ ~,~ o~ ~ ~ pr~=~r~ ~ ~ ~¢~ ~ ~o~ul~ni~,a A¢~ ~ ~e~7 ~ou~ l~ ~11 ~o~ ~e~ ~ ~e~o~ "~1~o~ ~so~'¸ ~y~ u~ ~ ~ ~o~e o~ ~J~ ~,,~t~ 0 0
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526 ~ec~ the ~b~ ~ d~,~ b~ ~ek~ ~l~s~ ~n~ ~ ~f F~u~iy ~l~n~ ~i~ce ~ v~te~n~' ~t~ ~ ~erio~l]~¸ l~nk~ ~th I~¢¢s~,' ~o~bid!~, ~h~ is, ,,~ce~,' ~l~=e~ ~d 0
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52? ~t~led ~ ~rp~h the ~r:t~ o~ v~rJ~.~ ~v~o,~,e~a~ ~c~, ,J~ Yet th~r~ h~s b~ e~p~v~y ~]~ ~f~?l~ ~ ~quat~y u~ 1~6 an~ even t~,~ ~e!~tivelv e~dc~ f~,d~ w~ ~ ~g~ recently. And ~ ~ ~ u~l~ I9~¢ ~h~t ~h~ ~d~e~ s~h a~ the ACS ~d v~er~s' studies ¢~h~ d~ e~ ~a~F~. l~le~ w~ b~g~ ~o ~ ~ the ~F~rt~,,c~ ,,~ ~ the ~n~a~ l~¢re~ ±~ respirator} ~l~e~ ra~e~ the q~e~n of the h~l~ e~ie:~c~ ~ ~ecl~! ~,~ of ~,~ ~q O
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528 t~ e~k~ ~ ~,~l~ ~ ~c~e~ ~ ~r~l~ ~i~l sr~~ ~a~,e ~B~ ~,~lt,11 ~ ~c~, ~ee~ ~r,,~i~ ~e ~r~:~ ~y ~ ~i~o]c~cal er~ie~ t ~ ~±] ~ co:~cl ~q~i~~ z~r 1~ ~ ~, ~ ~lac a~d 1~ ~u~r~, ~1~,~, ~{ ~!,~ ~c~ ~ ic~,~.~ In ~e~ ~o~, ~h~ ¢~,~]~ ~f ~hc ~1]~~ b2
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529 pl~t~~b ~u~ ele~e~ ~£ ¢~ ~ ~ ~ A ~c~y oE ¢~v~t~l~ ~b~ ,~n~ ~ C~~? 0
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530 On~ol~ s~u4ie~ ~ere al~os~ a~ a~th0u~h~. Ther~ ~ave ~en ~ew s=udJes d~i~B~d for ~he ~xp~e=s~ of ~alua~LnR ~ 7oss~ble Interact!on ~ ~o~l~ a~d o¢~p~¢£on. ~n order ~u fil~ that v~id, • number o~ ~o~?l~al of ~ow~ University ~ave ~oiaed ne in a ~Ody ~e~king ~o un~aa~le Che po~sibla lafluence~ o~ ;he l~e h~s~ o~ ~m~kin¢ ~eart~ d~nt~l ~nd 0¢he¢ hospital ~vlc~ We have d~vel~4 a ~horo~gh qu~stl~a~air~ nnd a practical £~tervl~in~ procedure to ~er~lne whethe~ a~ i~f~idual ha~ be¢~ ~o~4 ~ Occupa~ona~ haz~s, ~ t~e exeunt o£ any such e×po~ures ~hll~ ~he a~a~y~ of a%~ our ~a~n £a ~ yet complete, b~twe~n ~o~in~ a~d reap~r~ory ca~cer~ h~ been ~r~a21y ~a~n£f~d b~cau~ ot~¢r factor~ ~re ~o~ considered. I]~e ~uc~-publici~ed e×ag~ra~ed. Ind~ed~ £f o~r ~rel~inary flndi~g~ a~e substantiated ~epo~ed h~ othe:~ b~e~ amokinE a~d I~ar~ d~e~s~ m~y ~ve t~ ~ui~n~lfie ~e~ttgati~s ~ha~ ~re not w~dety publicized, and to ~lieve [ h~v~ ~l~Jy demonstrated tha~ ~h~ p~ssib~e ef~ec~ o~ ~mok£~ ~nd occupational e~po~ure~ have a~ y~ ~ee~ dise~t~l~. A~ hum~ liv~ in a ~r~hten£n~l~ co~pl~z ~orld, w~ ~ra~p ~lth ~el~e~ at wh~t ~F~ear CO be s~mp~e ans~. I~deed, ~he r~din~ wi~ w~i~h ~A~ exi~l~ evidence h~ ~n a~ce~ed de~i~a to keep o~r ~orld ~lmpie an& orderly. re believe ~au~e~ ~i~&ae, a~d ~he r~al world l~ no~ ~!wa~ di~ea|e w~l~ rema~ in¢om~!~ if w~ c~lnue to ~l~plis~icaliy ~Iec~u of c~:e workpla=c ~ ~he he$1e], of workers • ~m u~aid ~h~ t~ bll£ u~r cuasider~ion w~uid ~end ~ r~fcr~ ~ has b~n th~ d~mi:~an~ a~proa~h ~f ~ealth -5
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~xc~C~ ~ ~aJ~t ~I~C~ ~ the hea~th o[ ~a~ ~o~ ~o,~p~, ~,por~ ~y ~on~lo~ ~ ~h~ "£1;~d£~" ±~ t~e b~i are ~,~d C:I
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~ve~ Co~ntrlc~ ~dy,~ L~nac~ II: 5~ 62, Jul~ 11, ~, ~[~lt~ 65(~)~ 939 ~53, ~ber, ~5. ~.~ P~l~c ~h ~rv~¢~, "~¢~ 3, ~d~,'~ ~,~ T~ ~£ S~l~y~,'~ J O~¢u~ ~ ]~(111~ 7~3-75~, 1~6 ~, In~u~t~, ~x, ~ ~c~L¸ A~ch En~rc~ ~al~, 33(6): 0
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• L 533 I~eh]g~en, E., ~Lwg Ca~cei~ t'~rdi~vascular D~ase and ~:v~klng l~ a G,o~r of Htner~, Ls~er~dnt~g~*: ~5~ 4211- ~gl :,, t9~9. 1~. A~vls~r% 0., "gff~¢~ v~ [~,a level ~:¢1 Eec~¢r~u~d aadtetlo~ 15. Neigh, '~*, "The G~ga,e~ce F~<cov In L~g qanee~ £me to M~ \VA×~AX. Thank 3<a~ very much, lb. SteHMg lh Fisher. S~3A1EML;N'I 01" I~]I~]N I'ISIII;R 51D. I)i F~SH+:[/ Mr C}lairllla~, ] am Ed~i~¢ }t ~*'is}wt of PiH~bm'flh, P<+ ] tlm cllilelll}y i)ro~.ss(, of p~thzt]oA3 at the UI+i~I!+~}t5 (+f l'ilts bulgh Sc~}ll~o] ol Medicine z~I+d ditectol of I~ib/llatoiie.- at the Shady side }lO~l)ita] in }'ittsbutgh, Pa ]tl ad~itioll, ] arll a conskt]taIlt in l)at]~o]o~y al the Veterans' Ad- Inini~t~atio~ Hospital in Pittsburgh and the Broxlnsville (;en¢,sal ]]ospital el ]tlownsville, Pa I anl a 1947 gradtmte /~ the I.hfixclsily ol PJtlsburgh School ot M(dieine I leeei~ed pust+~dtmle tlainil~II at the Cle~ehmd Cimlc, Clew~land, Ohio, m~d the Natkmal ]n~ti lutes of Ileahh, Bethosda, Md ] s~as certified by the Ammican Ik,a~d of Padmlog) in both ana- toInic and clinical pathoiog3 ia 1!152 I am a member ot tile honor- ary medical society Alpha Omega Alpha and Sigma Xi, the honm a+y sociely [el scientific advancement I wa lhe ~eeipienl of th/' }'a~k( Davis A~md in E~,l):~inu'utal }'athology il~ ltG3 and the Man of the Yea~ in MediciI/e in the city <~f Pittsburgh in 19B~L 1 an/ a membel of man> scientific societies, including the Ameri- can Association el Cancer Resealch and the Ametlcan So iety ~or the Study of At teriosclelosis ] ~m tile mtthm tff 490 scienli[~c puldicatioI,~ in An eI+c.~n d+~d intel naliona] joul nals aud textbooks ] ha~.e st, t~t,d on the editorial boa]ds ol the jourmd (?an¢'cr and of theAmeliean,JournalolClinical]%+hok~gya~ell a~t). I/ocud of b~ U1 UI
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5B4 scit~ntifW dircl~tots of E[Ha Pihd Cancel }lus~l~itah Co!umb]a, Mo, at/d th~¸ boald of le~iewels for l})e Ame)ieaiL ~ucil t • of Atht,*o~lil¸ ~o~i~ and am ttlel,r~cct pathologist for the National Su)~ilal Ad juva)ltr lhea~t ~nd Colon Projee~ of the National Calbcer Institute 1 shl~u]d flis[ ]ik(! to dilcct nly l(!lnar]~', to i/¢)'~ona]]y eottdLictt~d C,Xj)C~; iin(~nt~ co)tcellliElg I}le j)of~siJJlo ath£~lo~(,llic e[~,cLb of nicotin(? p/,i¸ se Ath(~rogen('si~ i~, t}l( plo2~,s~ which l(,Suh'~ in Ih(, di,<aso ithleh \~,(~ Conlnloli]y 1,3gat.d a~ ha~denillg of the llrtelJt,~, tl~¢}lll~co]. ly ca[l(d nlhc'r~c]e;o~is "~Vv ]lave also colldtl£te~] such ~xl)elin~i~i/ts with actual ci~;arott~ stlioke which, of¸ co,it so, itlcJtl~E,~, the I elatioll~]~ip ot¸ c~l~)l)ll lnollox ide to the athe)'osclerotic process. Reprints describing these experi )l/(tlls live bli)lt[ Stlblnitted lls p~lt of this s(alolnenl h/ t}l~,S(¸ expolJnten(b it was C[ea)l~¸ delni)n~tlattd in lJl(~ i~hbi~ that ~(,ali~tic do~e~ of eithe) nicotines o* cig~rette smokt' Jailed lo in~ti~l(,, Cxa(~(l~(~t(", [o ot}Krwlqo in~llc)lce t}lo ~t}l/,r~l/ic }uo~e~ h/ th~l sl~b~Jc~ You wi}l nl)L[ct(~ t}~lt I U~I~ lhl~ d(,~i~nati~m "rt,ali~!ic ~lo~c,~' I th{l!k lhat Jg ~l~l~ JnIpol~aIit T~I('I~ h~v(¸ b((,it ~olne ~tLI(I[~,S wilich }mvt, t,x}/i])itcd )nlnl)r or qut,:~tlonabh, c}~allgcs ~]th tho t)~(, of all (C~LIJ~Icnl do~l, o/¸ ~l}(I i~¸ .1//(~1(, (,J~al(t[cs a ¢1~¸ in l)ian '~'ili> i,~ such a l~)~e nun~ber that l think nmn would I~nd it difficult to linfl ~}1(, lltr~£¸ 10 5rtlOl;~ ~}IL,I/I Anuthm p,)int ~l~ich I v, ould likt, to eniphasize is tiffs Oac c¢~u]d itl Ily S~' y(~kl fOtltld llothilt!: it/ 1]1( I~ibbit bul tin {lie t'XpClit'lK(' ill t}Jt' /~t[~}/~[ arsp]y to ?IIlD9 ~hat t}~c ~ckt ti!ic expc~iza~nt hi tb~, ];l~()lc~tol~ ('[~ll d¢~ i bldieatl, ~}l(~l,, ~,/.t, should /iK~k aTl¢l p t}mp. } t ~ e ~} I ] , look ,oI Jl~ the clinical • .trine, mid I m[yht ad tha! thi~ (oI~c/usk/II a]so ]J~ht~ulb apt)lies to epkIenliolo;~ic studies "J'}l(,) ¢~t.( nol <.onclLi [~e in thL, ln~-t.lvl,s ~3i~h lbese tllo pg:ll[s itl iJ/ifl¢~, ] ~}]o(i]lt ]ik( ~o COllliliLIt l[ Ill ,,~1[ ],(! ~l(~l[ 1(I i,inph~tsiz~, that thtI~ i5, n{i pharmt~eo](/ i, tit t~fh¢,l ~-Ittd) (ifanb geientifie validity ol ac'ceptabi[ity to me th t indicale~ that lli!x~till¢ ~t(!v¢.l.~]} a[]ect'~ ~(*1oi~t1~, ~l]ooc~ i~t0%%. ]ll([(,l!~, lllO [ Ot t]k' StU(]i('S l('Xt'~l l[laI this FI~('III ~etuall) a¢C~'IIIUlII~" and t't/}l~l~£('g (olllrl;ll~ ]l[llod IIOW J~eCilUlSt~ Itl~titl~ ~tfil~£r,~L, (fl~?L1S Ii~ (}l~tl(ql£' ~ll/ok( oil ~lltglna p~ti~,nts, [}/at i~, [~['1~ I1~ %1110 bLlitt't C}lt'sl pLUrl ~', I~ le till (If al't(,liosclorolie hem t d~ co:(, s}lould t~ot b( illtCI I~lct(d a~ indi(~t[ng that ci~llolte smoke i~ ctiologicall5 It ]g,t(,d [o t[l(, flt- telio~c'h')otic p I 0C~'~,5 ()J CIKI[~(! lht, to lit, rll[~lly [}l[rl!b /V]liC}l ¢l II/~llll I~i(}l Itt/ill~[ S])OU]([ not 1)(, doing "I'}IC iSSLI( iS v, ht, t])(I sl/Iok[l !~ c~/l~-t~ th(. con dhion which manil(,~t~ il-,(,~J a~, a)d. bm "['J)at is ~tt¢ ~ i ~l l()o~i-. ~:1([ (h~ on %%t,i tc~ Lhat i5~ it h~ls nc)[ b~n ch n~on~.~)tli(,d [¢~ do ~,¢) ~'tl/lh(i, il ~}~OLI}(] 1~(, i~ot(,(] I}1[~I 1}1( ~-tLl([it'S ~%}1C}/ p~llpOIt to) sJlo/~ lhat 811/01~{[/K ¢tJI~ad) affects pctsoil with ~l/~i)/~ in~t~lxcd \e~) li,~ [,~ ti(l/l~; I~S t]13n l0 l 9klblBit to }(ILl /lid (%¢1} 5,~i('[/[l'-t Ill I}1(' I (>tlllll% tbl~t J}ln i~ no n ~did 5,1il!lt ]i( ~-: 1:/1)1¢ upb)l /t}lic]/ Io bc,<~ ii/) <onchp, icm-, ] }lix¢, ~¢~itu((] thlc, s, if, iit[lil l[Itq ttule on Ihi, u~)[t, [ of (<>1o I~1} }/( II di~( / ( ;tTh([ ~-n?OI in2 ~nd lind oti/t,~ ~,[LI(I t ~ whi(h ~k]I) ]KII[ I/I} £X~ILlitIIOIIIH[ %XUlk I'ot CXIHIp~ S[U(![/~ Ol x%<ltxt[~ /'X [A t~ c; UI -O
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535 (xI/o~t,d wolk~l-~ do 1/ol b~tvt~ ~ll ill~r£,~t'd ]llcid£11ce oF ~lhc,~o~,(l{¸ 1 o!,i~ ~ (oll/l~,~lt d lo ill[, ~t,ll~l~iI i~t)pul~tiolL Olhi~r ~[Lldi~ i~i~(¸ ~(li<lt~ que~tJ¢~lz', abollt [}le S/l!o~:]l]!~ c/ttl~,a- [tOIL ll) [Jot[~esi~ Fol¸ eNal/ip]e, as h~t~ hcell ii/(~l/~iollld (at [i0i¸ I(KI~¸, ~ttldit~ oF twing in Sw/,d~n ~1~ V~ly illLItrld/at[l~ o:1 th[~ ~Llt!i~eL '~*'hc n the le~,ellr£her~ Jookt~d al 71/onoz)~{/)Iil [~in~, their i~ il~t,illicnl h(alt di~(~(¸ in lhl~ slnokbli~ twin a~, COlnpaled t!l tile non ~l/10hil/g t~ ill 'j'j/}~ ]e~} lh£¸ re~,~rcht~r~ lt~ ¢ollc]udt~ tb~t tb~Jr ~,ttldit~ '¢~n lip ilitelplc[ed ~-~ t~ho~lbl~ that bo1/i the dcv~kl~l~l/~t i1[ ld i~cha¢lnic ol¸ ~olill/~l~, b(,~lrt dK, l,a~ ~lld de[ith ftonl il al~, und~l a l~]~ti~e]) s~lolly ~l,nt~tic ]l~fluence " A c(;i/c]tl~ioll W]ttl ~hi£h ] heal[i/y a~re~ l,iLe~ise, IL 192il study of caldiova~culal disease ill Sv, itzeIland I(~kllld that ~hiic E~iss \~oll]ell ha~ b clea~.'d theb SlilOkill~' OVal the }~l¢,t qtlalt~l C~Ii~tll}, t}l¢']t" y31( of caldiov~lsclllal dL~eag~, has d~clillt'd s]gRliflc m/fly dtll ill~ the same pel [od '/bus, }l/ collclugioli yl]~ o~i/ ~,E[~ti~nl¢Iih~] v, olk all<] ICVJeW Of the sckntific l]te~attlre, ai~d 1 mus'~ add, critical review o! the sci t, ntifle literature, leads me to the eoneiklslon that cigarette smoking }II~E ylol buol/ scieatiIically establisb~,d to be a t~use of athelo~l h,z~l sis, l~z ha~ it b:' found to aid o~ abet lhi~ p~ocess, 'li~ank you \'el5' much 1~1 ~AXr,!AI4 'l'~Lank ~OLI, K(llt]~'~l]t!II, fol }Oil] t£.~li[llOlly ])1 Fi~hel. <]o you thiIll~ ~,~e hav( el/ouyh I)l iI St'iC!d][iCt bEKdq 10 (!vun ~l~lVe ~1 ~t~tlning label oi justil~ tht! \%allliIl~2 label ~1~ now li, qtl}l(~ Olt ciga~etI(,,~ s{aiill~ their tit(' SlllI~eOl/ (-~cnk,131 ha-~ d([£.l lnincd ~igaleiI~. slnoking is dangei'ous t~ youI }lea}t}t~ I]l l"lsli~:l~ ] believe thai the \latlling as iI~dicated. I ~ould pc'l- stmally ic'L~ald ~is slightly t!Xil¢,rtK~ from lhc' scientific .~tmK]l~cdn[ I wcmld like it to b{, stattd, llllt~ tit d[tllKt!IO~lg tO yOLll hP~dt}l ] am ~sillinK, ]lo~fever, to accept is <]altgl, lou~, with m3 own sciez/t[fic degrt.e of ~kept]cism If I had nay druthers, I would fike to set' nl~5 I0! dan~el 011E ]~ll ~VAX~ffAN, ]}1~, S(IIIIIIll'I~, t~bElt ate ~ollr vie~s oll tb~t[9 1}o ~,ou thblk the t~ e~c~nt v, al nb/g ]abp] ig ungall tnt(d? I}l SOM~.It.Rg. No, ] would agzee I,r'ilh ])r. l"ishez on that paiIIt l~]l WAXMAN I)0 :~OU think that it ~oul<] be fair to say t}~at ]ullg cancer may be caused by eigarette smoking? I)~. SOMMe:P,S It is a I~ossibility. MI ~.VAX~IAN. l)r. Sterlil/~, ',~baI do yotl think about that? ])o ~ou think that "smokin~ ci~ai({~c~, Cau~,p~ lul/g ctmcel ," ~lluld that be a 15i* slatement to make? I~I~ S~ Pa.FNC;. I would agrea with Dr. Sommers oil that. Mt W~xM*~ I)o you think ig is unwanante<] to say cigarette gI/Iok{Ilg ll]{I~ (!l{ug~ d~a{h ~Ionl bet]It f]is{,[l~(~ lung (~tTlci~l ol~ ¢nl- physema? Is that a statement you ¢'ould agree, to? tIo~ abo'at you, I)l, Fisher lit. £'zsH~ It may, a~ long as nla5 is underline<] Not as a gam- ing h~t as ~ gelIOl~d si~t~-'IIl~l~k of isstle, that it Iq/ay Mr. Wt~XMAN. Wily not as a ~ar~lin[z? ]h. ]"ISIIER, Or lalay not MI'. WAX:,IAN. Why not as a walah/g if 5ou think it i~ a lcgiti- illa~c s{a(c.roent to nlake9 O
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536 Dt ~']SIIER Well, ] t}litlk we COtll(] ltlfi(,j(ll(, illll L'I ]~Jt/g lisl of events thai ] ~hink we oughl to h~vc ~ou kTIo~, s~dur~od 1~11~ of ~lallling~, that thi~ may caLIge heal~ digease I ~hillk ~e could l-tlit a very ]m~g list of event.~ I think ~helhm one says heMth, Ihat is even niobe inclusive than whal is lnopused by the labels l~ll ~VAKMAN. ])0 any of you disagree with lhe ptopo~ilion lhat it xso11}cl br prudent fm people to avoid snlokinf cigaleltes in m¢le~ to avoid the pogslbi[ity of heart disease, Imlg disc ase, enlphysema and Dr ,'4oM~5~:us Did you s~y prudenl? ~,1~ \VaXMAN. Yes. l)I ~OMMEI¢S Well, I can't Coml)l(te]y aglec ~litb yotll 8tEl{e?liCllt boeltu%, pl tldellc~ lllgfl~(~ ev£~l~lalioll oi relative i@,ks alltl somP p/'ople ale I vidl ntly ni no Iisk fiilln disvase, and othci~ nla5 be at III(!~I]UIH {ly high lJsk To sa$ this gellela]]) 1o all lho poopl( I/1~ kes it app< ar that they me all at equal lisk 'lhis i~ not the [act. M] \VAx~ia~' Does it? ]t seems to lnc i~ we tmd the e*bJlit3 to liguli~ om ~hich pIIW}e ul{ h].Rh lisk mltl which hie not, if theb v, cte plt'dibpo~ozl, I~e cotlId [,e mole caleful al/ot~t i~ btlt ~f 3oii dol/'l k;/ow w}ll~[}l('l votl at(, ~trl il/divJdtlal at lisk O~ IIO[ ~tt lJgk, ba-*(,(~ Oil s{~lut, gell(iw pledi~positi/n, ~l(iklldl/'[ it ~e iiitld£11[ loI Di, },ISHEI/ Of Ct~Ii1~(~, Y,e ~1(', ~O/~ ldl]O~,V, ~1:4 }}/lln Ills, al I k ful hiWI3 t~lill~s, ~hethel we Slllok{" or doIl't smog.(' Inde~:l v,e take ;~ttloIo.~c}ttllsJs, hal(Jcnh/g of the allorio . This is a (l~soasc tt,at stalttdinth~ eladle ldnd, m the~taxc ~{l ~.VAX~IAN Yes, t}l~tt ig v. hlt xfq, at¢ wo~,ied abaut 7])1 ]IISIIH¢~ ~%~O1~ C~t~ ~.le iO£!ll[l{~ [)IC Ilgks 0~ [}10~(" 111 the ~t,lol¢ Now ~t xxt,~!](~ be ve~3 Optlll?u]ll 1.o ~o ~tt)l~' t() {l(I I]KIt* }('~ I[ x/f~ ~It" t Olive to al,i r(,~ch it ilo[ll Ih~l[ St~tlld!loillt. } cdll S('( In('lit ill it, lit vt ~ti!'alion illto identif2.ing lisks MI. ,ql~:~u,/x~; i~I~ (~hailnlan? iMI. ~,VAXMaN. ])0 any Of 3OU see patknts o~ do 5ou all ~o~l: on ~es{aloh? Do rely of yell see patients? ]lr. ~(15I~*I[ R$ 1 S(,e an occastoaal patient, yes I~IF ~'AX~IAt~ ~VhNt do you I('co111[1/611d [o 5ouI [}LLtio[/t~ J)l ~2ff}M~FRS ]i (](t*~*IHIS 011 iI }lJ ! [IO II IIiCIIl come~ to stt, in*, MI WAX~:~N Well, the AMA ]/a~ a poil¢5 statem(nt Ihitt do¢- tols should 2ocoiiitnelKI to t }1¢iI' patients, not to smoke !}1 SOMMEI!S J It111 110l ~r~ iil~l/b~r OJ {lle Ai~IA ),ll ~,'~AXMa, N ]]O yotl dis~tg'ro¢' v, ith {licit 1)(3S[I{OltS Oil i¢~(,(]{(t~lle'! lh S/I~Is~:~!s NI~, I don't dislg~re vith theil po~ition, but it in sollll cases wotl/ll be ~(~[ lol ~1/ illtli~ri(]~l~tl 10 s?nt)kt 1[ th(v [3a;e hKl So~ct~' ps3chic ot pz,3chologi¢ ptoblenls Jn ethel sittlUt'lOnS it ~]l. ~,VAXMAN ]1(I yOl~ have ~/l/y evidenct~ of that~ DI. Sost~l~:!:s {eonthmiugj ]ltd f~l t[l('l!i to sly/eke Oh, )es ]}1. ~i~SOllck (OII]l]l(~Ii[(.d OIl th/tl Lie exl)lain(d th( ({J[lf'l¢'IlI g?OUpS Oi ~u/oktl~, t]/¢, v¢~ly lie VOklS I){IsO!lg ~/ho lil]d sol,i(( ill SI]l(>]<il~I fll~([ O} tHq~; ~]1. ~,~'AXaIAN a/(q/'I throe olt)t!I outltt tia~ thnt t~lltn stilt/kin ~ ([~ ttttte &ll(I Iakillg the chance you cottl(I }-~' o1/( o[ ~hose rgc'Hc[[c3~ ]) disp/I*('(/ plop](~ U1 0 ffl ¢o
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537 J)l ~qD~,I~,IER-~ Yo~: t~l (×::ri:IJie !cGllf: t¢> th¢ c]ocfo~ i~ :IE/OIb(,I o/tt[(t I~ui Ill,Ill) h/lll/~ll b~itl~ (io)/'{ bit(¸ t(J g{~ I<l ([{~c Ii)l~ ;~1/(~ {lit)' find I(lti~!t¸ :ltld sl,IIl/' }tint} Ill b:'ll!}il llon~ ~;~lol~[t~g It i, tbtb Ilt~biL ]~b¸ WAXbtAN ~l(, thO:~( t}l(+ orJ]y t~/o (boic(,~? ])1% ~(l~.~:}tg O}l, lie, Ib(,l~¸ ~tl~, lll~tll~¸ t~©sBi(~]e ¢I/oice:- Iklt c,~ltt~] IN(; ~11 (~}/gilr~/~tl9 All WAXMAN Y~s ])+ $teJlblg ~rl]o]4t, I ~/OU]d StIJJt)flB[ J[ is plU(][']ll to Jl]~(,~[ ~i5(,]~ J~ i~ p~7(l~,~ii ll0[ l0 dtivl ~ C.~I. II is ]~;u¢]/'l]l l/0t lo I~oIk bl a II:~b/t ~]1o}2 ]t is wh~t )ou ~;¢" ~tie~ hele. ~,bat is I,~ ~dcl~t ilt IHo') ~l WAXMAN. We]], it s(~ll/S to Ill( ~}lal i[ yotl b:~l~ 1he b~'b sta- t~rJe~,l ¢ol~clation, peop]e g~'t~i~lg thee di~i,a~t,s tlw~t a~c so dt(ad- (d, ~}l t ~tlt, kil/t,l~ ht,~+lt d[c~.aso, ]l]r/~ d[sl'~ts~" £~lld c~tllC(l tb(tt Jl y/)u f~l~' I 0111liI/~ atl itloleasod Iis[~ el {h~t{, lbt'l e [~1(' ot]~Cl w~lys smoki~tf' i~ a h~t]oIl~tI, l/Ztltl~'t~t thi¢lf~ to do "~'ut iJeOll]:, ~I< it tmc[ {}['~ ill II;1' ;~ I]t l[s]l)II [{I [Ol [blkll~ ~HtOkill!~, I~ut I lI<~ itl,t tbil~h thlt bl Cd]colotb~! tb[, 1i~]; ~Jr~t] bi'II(l[tB t}l('2, cou]d (,l(~l CO~:lc .Ip /~il}1 :I c~lc[]a/i(,n i,.}~o+~, ~n/okinff is t:lolt~ 0l ~1 bellt,flt l]t~+ ~t lik J)o Jl],~ fll/o{b(l ~louI}d fell d[ cl~ssiorl it i~ IJI(:(]S('I~ t}t:~l }/(lilit [(~ ~llie/l x,,'e could a¢l(b'ess oul scl~ e~ %~ [l}t SOITIO Jlii c'}] ~!etlc,. "l[ ! l{h~(}i/ thOl~ 1S t~ eott'ellltioi~ beI~/~,t'J/ sl/iot;i¢l/~ tlh(] luliJ. c+m::~ inl:~g~ pa~t isduc loih¢~ii~<'t that ~+no]ingi~¢l:m¢ b> bl+~. sl!0ps, nn(] so o1~ Th(.~o ~t~, ihf ]~!,(q,b~ %~110 []0 ~ l~IIG£ ;tlII(ll]l]t tlf sl ~ok[lig !~0~'., 301~ ~fiy 10 t}lcI/l: "']¢,1i'{ it 1,1 ud~i/1 tbat 3(>u should give ~)p C]j~alttl(~ ~rllol:]llg?" ]'rolll nly c, xIK, li(,nce ] %/ol~l¢l ~ay Io {btzn: ']5%~ it pltldeziI tllat 3'on 8[loLlld [,[%0 U]~ WOlkillt~ i¢~ a ll~lit~t sl/opul' ~1 V%'AXMAN ~O, no 1 IbiIl/: thl~ t]uv.;iion is, Isn't it I)It~dt'l/t we' oil,}It ill reqtlilt, industrl to l[l[lli[lliZ~! ~t1~! ~'K[I(l~tl[(' (If Ibl'}l ~!tl t~0y(CS tO ddIlfJ(=IOtlS f'b©[/liell]s t]l~[ fll[tt w(]l CRU~(, L}l(,lll it) b(, It( [,teatel risk ful all these di~c,ases? Mt S~ ~:tCIIN(;. Absolutely, alld I k~/ow M1. WAXY.fAN. This ¢onlmiile¢, is working on ~ C[( aTi Air ACt W~, b£+d a disc~ssJon earlier this n/orl~in~o 1 make tile diMil:etio~x ~ery (le¢Jlly because %l'hf,thel- yo[i s[l~okf~ o? lie{ i~, ~q VtJIIIIIt:~) ac[[v[{~ t{LLI bit: t]li+lg nil lhl4t is p:,llut: d +rod pot'b~[)> dallgt~rtl~l~, i~, II/l~h- illg )OU C~lll choo~e to do ",1 ithout ~Ir ~:I(],IN(; That i,~ pr'(~c]~ol3 the level of the e~idenct, ~t: ha~e boon ta]kitlg abaut evidence /b~tt el~ates the illtlsion tt]~t luP/g cemcer o~dy bele, l~ thos¢ who smoke, bc,oau~( the studie~ which bay+ cxumil/cd the al~t~,cedents el lung c'*mcel }lnve sii~l,ly ~aiJ~'tt fol tb[, mo~t palt lo in¢'}ude flll(!e~IionN c(mt~e+~ling the, oct'up:ttitm U[ lh(' smoker, t¢ 0 t,a #
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538 MI ~VA×MAN }1o/i do 3o~ exld~Jn [ht, f~c~ lha~ p/'opl~ Who ~olk ill [}lOSt! kind~ (}f hJ~}l risk occLIpatiorl9 s(,01[t to be 8t ~te~[{,l lisk when t]l(.y ~]so ~nlokt? MI. S~:ml:';c:. I lefcr to this in my testhnoIu You know, there 81£~ g lllllilb(l Of studi¢& Some dont' b} p(,ople who have been lltldi tionalJy unhiendJy ~o smokiug, such as Di Weiss, v, hich huge foutld that in somf. occupations the plevalonce of ]llllg ¢LlllCCl J~ hi~hez Ik,l nonsmokels lhan tot smokeTs Yet ~e lall to lind ihese sludies quot,,d in the gertmal smoking trod }maltb ]it~atu,e I think the3 are ll/]pOl[al]l studies, The~e g~le g iltll]lbtq Of studies flora S~c<le, on mlmls, there ale studie~ in this C0~lll[[y, Of ch[ol- omethyl methyl efller ~orkers, in ~hich ~e lind this kind ol Ida ~.'1~ th&lL .¢ql]ok~.,is I gupposo i[ 1%VOle SO inclined, I could make a case that smokiug lnotects the ~olkers P~lhaps ]1 doos b[(attsc of lh~, Spkl(tlIXI ~tCCI/I//tll~q[loI% dl/~~ I0 gIl~ok[Ii~ ,~,~I ~,~tAXMAN I)0 yOU htW0 any c~iden& fm Olat? M, S~£UI,tN~ Ttds hspolhesis ha~ be~n sug4~sted b3 t~o v{~5 respected in~osligato~s, O11( of %1'110[I} }1£lS booII 8 }o~dot ill Dd~oclt ing anti~mokin;' JcKisJatioII, I aII/ I(']kqllrl~ to ])r William Wdss who, in his ieet./t ~(,T/o~ts in lhe domn~fl of Oeculmtiona~ Mcdicit~e on the inlle~/sed i)l'£,va}ollc~. O~ hlDjr, cancels Pdl]OD~ l/onsi~lokl,is cx pOS/~d I<, eh]OlOln~th3/ inethy] otht,l, h3po/]losiz(~d th/t snll,king ii~ f~t!)(!£1 S[lll/(! II]O[UC~{OI] (0 c}l]olollle[b3l otJl{.i OXIIOS~IC "J'he so.lie sut ~;eMion ~as llado by l)l /~xo]son, Ch~till]lgll of Ihp dIl,:illln{nt uI oei u[mtiona[ hca[t h, in Lindhol'ping, S/ll'den ~.1I "~AX~,IA2~ T}lcy z.t' both suggc, ring IbM ii 5ou ~nloke it is going lo be a dcfenst against Iung cancer v,l/en 3ou ~lo!k in~l h~z [H dou~ Ill ('ll p~lli0!/'! %I,' q~ttn~x~ The3 have suggested thai in o~d(~ to exphfin 1he dam whi{h ha~e colw up now in n ~mml,m {d studi~., timt th~, n/ay be a d(f~ nsive lnechanisnl inxolvcd The d~'*V[llSi%o ll~(c}lcl;r[slt] in ea~c of lh Axclson and William \Vdss ~l~ thought to be a thickening ol the hmg tissue or increased snmunt of spul[llli II 3'otl i[UIolc s/lob ([8t~ yotl do SO a[ ~(}kII (1%% tl lOIS MI ~*VAx~,IAN ~)[) yOtl think ~se shotlh[ Iccol/Itn6'IId it ~ou]d bc p~udent fm pt ople ;~ho ~olk in those t~cto~ies to smoke in orde~ to mn a lesst,~ risk ofgetiing disease? 5h Sar:m~xo 1 did not b~ing thi~ ul, I broufht it up iu a,:~c'~ to yOIIl" (]ttC&~iOJl ]rl which you stid isn't it tlue ill~ in cl'llnirl o:cu parlous ~e fred cnhan¢en~t,nl {f lung ¢ltll[(rs dLu~ 10 sluokin~. All[] m5 ~ ns~{q is no, ~c do not fi.d it unhels:dl2, at a]l MI WaxM,xx 1 didn't say unlvelsalI3. Don't v,( find a highel nIInl[/pI of poop}e x~hh lUrl~ canc~ r and hearl disease al/d lunf dis cast' who alc [,xposed not Oll]y [tCCtIt£dl[Olltd/3, ]l~t{ ]lt~i{'[~st' th£'h isk by smoking7 M~ Sl~:l{llx(; ] ~ould think that of tho studies th.ll cou}d be ({klOtCd s[tld[('s thai }lsd looked both 3[ I}1O OC'CklD~t[ion lllld tit t}]t %l]%0[i[N~ h b[[ Ol %/OlkpFs £'~1)os¢d to Cc!~oiii o l.llfKlliot/l] Ibk~, [htt t}/t, nir, ~l it', ~]}} i}loiv t,]~}l~l Ito t'll/([ dtll 1o ci~al{tt(" ,'-i;/ok- in~, o, vdll ~h.~ an dl~,ct but th¢,e xGll I. ob~bi~ be as ~mny il not n]olc t}l:d wi]l s}loxt ni~ jl}Clt,~ t, ]1} lttng (allOOl ~l l/t)]}~ ?/OI/S;//Okpl> t[l~?~ #[/~1~ ~i[I shill% ~ttl int:li,~;~l, in ftrlc t it}lt~l aluol g bmok~l> I 0 O~ O0
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53!~ wotlld ~;~L5, ll~i~ lla~ l~toll sll(Jwl~ ill IOC~II~ si~i ~ ic~[~tL! ~i~ l~r~ i~¸ g~ l~li ~t~, L{J l~+~[~ilt~% iii]~ to cil~o£oiIli [i~yi iiii,ll~l lq}J~l IX]~(~k}F~¸ ~It V,'~m!AN. M+. ]Ilile~ ~]p [IJ1++:~ q~LL~llkyou,'~11 £Dl~liImltt t.xpo]i(.nce ol o~et 30 3eal~- ~t~ #: pat}~oiogi~t I b!li~ \'(, >ou ~f~icl tl/~t ~,tu ~* olil])}ly.-e~l tJ oI ]tlliI, c,~tic£.l ~¢~ ¢.E~/I~(" ho(~/l ¢J]~,.,~,~(,. }~LI( tt/aI if we did so, ~ ~'.oLlid hat(' I~¢) m(~e justificallo~ lol doing [h~lL ~liitl 11 i~t, dlcl d(i it ~,.4 o/]!,~lL tl~ o/(I+_.l Jl oil m .*,,~lcl](~ ll(i l tl[ ot]/(~l i~lodll(t~ ]II~IIIuf~(tLtl(~ ill the Co,.i)~tl~. l)~ }'ISHH( I lllitlk lh~t u~uld I>e dolce ~,1y ]~lt('~lt 7~11'. ]liil(,~, ~a~ that (lange~o/~s to your health ] do ltot k+lo~ ~hy £~ltyl,ody ~otlld c(~i~lIo~01.~if~l iBSlle ill ~(l~C'l~d J(t ~lo]le ill ~])[+Ciii~" ~] J/i.~ i~ s~tlOl(' l find a llttl( r]ifl~culty ~ou a~ still acti~ t. a~ a l)~tho]ogi~l? l~,'[1 tilAl.~% '~VOLI](J ~]lO O[tlel D~+I~fdist~ g~'~le~T/s ~ffreo ~ilh lhis, ~'Jl}~ tll t"ish~'l ~- ii~,l)or~so to Iny questil)ll"~ I~It lIHH:~ lit Sterling, Dr F'ut~l? ~'[t ]tlIlh "][l~tIlk ,,,0tl lk~t Cl~[~illl/~m I [/~t~, ll0 ttltth('l (]tle~ tions ~l ~VAXSIAN Y(I~ }l~,{~ tl(~Otl ill,it(,(] tO DlIli('iI~2t[l! ill t}l}5 }lE'~ I itl~q by the 'Joty/iqco ]l/~lit/lt~ TJ/('y kllOW ol vouI /~otk il~ I]i,- t~i(l ~*llf[ yo/ll views, otl t~+e SIl[Lic~'I ~l//I l~+otl~,,hi il %~Otlld }~C illql<llttm~ fol U~ tO [teal tho~t, ,..ie%,,5 ~a) ] ,'~k %v}~(,~}~ql all). o! 5o~1 t~ lvt. ~ln5 p~ofl.ssJol~al ic.latio]/~]llp %it}~ Item ~l'(>b:~c¢(> l~lstit ut~¢? 1)% ,q~l~*lp+l~ i~-; J do I/Ol [la~'c D))~. ~tr 1V~x~ax. ])r, Sterlings? l~l W,xxP,1AN '['i~(' ~lnc,/~(,1 i~ 1/(>'~ l)J I"~}IE+; No. si~. a~{I ~I*~A],L,~IAN. Were at~y ol you cotnpen~ated for ?.our allt,e~+l*me(' hI,l I! thi~4 ~{~(!t Ito(151? 1)1 ~o~i~,l~;~/s ] havE, [lot l)e(~n al/d do r~ot (,xp~.,{ ~o })e l~t' S~II]+I~'c ] ;voultl ~,xl}ect tl~ai my (+xl>eog(.s L~II(] till!~' spent i¢1 tt+e ~+r¢'pg+ttltiot+ of Itt3 blief ~il} be (olnIl(l~,atcrl Dr t"Is}I~:~ Yes, t have the £ame tl~ing. Mr l~'t+l/£i / x~i}i be compet~sated by the Inw ~irm t~at ssked me to apIl(~at lit'l( to(l~t ,. '~Ptl£~y ~lil] COltlp¢~lls[~te Ine l'ol 1~1~ tillJE~ jtl~t a I ~ill b( ¢omp(r~sat~'d I~('xl week io~ ~ay time b3' I~]I~A and as 1 ~as ~+/~(~L~I 2 nl(~]lth> :*g(I b5 th(' N~tli(In(ll }ILll~'~*u (>t Sl:llld~lld~, t~,~ +1 c(m sult~lll | give opinion£; ] do wolk oll a time basi~. M1 ~,'¢AX~IAN, YOLI roll at(' independei~t ])roi~,s~.i(ll/al[y lrom II1~ 'l'ob~ti~co lIl~tiiute and you ate }+el~., il you air. l'mn+l>t,lls~e+l ~t :~1[, ~g C(lllSU}talltg tO Itlake e~ ~lleS¢,lltaLiOll [(~ tlm~ M~ ]Pt'~,~. X, Vou[d yo~t repeat that, si~? ~I I~VA~f~IAN P&rtloil? Ol t¢ ;.4, C~ O~ 4.
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540 MI 1,VAX~I¢,N ] yi/~:d(' t~%0 COI~TIIC';I(~ go/lr' [lIof~,~ioll~[ ,~c[JvilJ~ cx'el ;vith t}lc~ ]'ob~¢co II~.titute It ~vcls a l~xl' I~lm thal ~lske,tl inl. lbl ill)" opil~ioI1 At~d the)' said ihey ~ould comI~Cnsate m(. fc~i m?. t]llle ~lIId lily exp,'list's ~b]" c(liilillg ]telo aI~3 I~l~t}~¢>I lluc'stioiis? t~]l, ]lill ~;~. No fmiher questioils, ~l C}l~iimat/ M~ l~]ii~ ] ~tlld like' to s~*3, ~hJi. Cll~,itma[l. ;*t the co~lclusioil (~{ lh£.s.(, h~.ctljll~8 {]1~1{ i( tlas b[.tctl api} ~l(~Ilt to II/(~ ti]ioui:]totll ~}/[s.t h/'al~I]! S their %/tL t~le diS(L/SSiII~, I~O di[i~'i~IIt ~'~-,tt('S Tt/(, ¢}l¢~iti~/ tii llI~t ~ls lo },t. i~f (he o[>illioII Ill,It Ih~ ]lloof Ot ~ht. $tlC'~.t. Ot ~t l~d~.l ]11~, c~l~l V~]c, IIi~. hflx~ lzi~l]y J,¢'OIJlC qtli[ Slt]OkiIl/ ]ltbe]s Wil~ 110[ [0 lll(~('I/t 1]~o1~1¢ II'llI]l ~irl~k~ii~ bill ?~t]/(t lo ir/{or Itl )lavl }llrllfl lll¢tt g¢/<~} }ln~ c]t;~lI~ boron ~l(>c(,lllp]is]l/Ld 1'~'¢)I'1( cl(~tl]3 kt] ~v, the" (]~mg~'is ~'-socJatod ~it}/ s;ItokiI~g ~td hg~,t ltc¢.i3 ¢}~l)st, t~ to c~>l~ii~cl¢> I I/aai:lt~i~ tliat tile ~esl/ollsib[l[t?, ot (~oil~'It's:, to illfotil~ l}le ptlbllc }ins b{~t'l] tolflllc.cg TI~o t~'stim/>;~?, s,,~, l'ta~( h¢/~rd ~hIl~l~ a lJ[I pt,l(ellt ~llalt.n¢,~s f,~c~o/. ] beliex~, ~ll3, ftlli}l(I 1(~, 8] i. t[¢lll ill ~h}s ~tl~'~ Io I)~' btll(lerlsol/l(> ,~lld u?l%~ all~lllt~d TI]ttllk 3c~t'. Mr Ch~lJl'mrtl~ OIl t}iib, std~ic, ct gJl;qt ~'t/~i,-itl(]~,s OLII btlSi[]£'S8 ~,~'t, SI~I//] a(].i(~tlllr(>d [T~lc l~Llt~,Is a;~d st~tetlie;lts stlt)il]itte/I f~] iliclusic,il J~ tl~csc' as Scl>ial No !17 1(i7.] [WII< I~'t/pc>lt at 2:~tI ;,.m the ]]~'allil~ ~ld.'otlzl~d ] © t¢ 0 ~rl
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