Jump to:

Bliley PM

Parental Smoking and Otitis Media in Children

Date: 09 Oct 1991
Length: 47 pages
2023479702-2023479748
Jump To Images
bliley_pm 2023479702-2023479748

Abstract

Summarizes and critiques environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) studies with chapters on: "Parental smoking and otitis media in children; ETS and adult respiratory disease/symptoms; ETS and adult lung function; ETS and compromised adults; Confounders (Household heating and cooking sources; Outdoor air pollution; Organic substances; Demographic, medical and socioeconomic factors); I. Health claims (Exposure; Lung function; Lung cancer; Allergy); II. Sick Building Syndrome; III. Ventilation; [and] IV. Accommodation". Includes extensive references by chapter.

Fields

Type
Report- Scientific
Named Person
Adlkofer, F.
Anderson, L.
Aviado, Domingo M., M.D. (CTR Consultant; Special Projects Recipient)
Dr. Aviado was a University of Pennsylvania professor and did work for tobacco companies. Dr. Aviado did secret dog inhalation studies in 1970s which were apparently covered up. Dogs were inhaling. No research papers were ever done, apparently (B.C. 7/7/94).
Badre, R.
Bailey
Berglund, B.
Berwick, M.
Binnie, P.
Black
Bouhuys
Brunekreef, B.
Burroughs, H.
Carson, J.
Collett, c.
Colley, J.R.T.
Comstock
Crawford, W.
Dahms
Ekwo
Erikson, C.
Eto, J.
First, M.
Fleming, D.W.
Fountain, L.H.
Freedman, A.
Froeb, H.
Gardner
Garfinkel, L.
Goren, A.I.
Gostomzyk, G.
Harrington, V.
Hellmann, S.
Hinds, W.
Hole
Holma, B.
Honicky, R.E.
Hosein, H.R.
Huber, G.
Ing
Janerich, D.
Jenkins, R.
Jones
Kabat, G.
Kalandidi
Kallail
Kauffmann
Kentner
Kerigan, A.
Kirk, P.
Kirkbride, J.
Kleven, S.
Knight
Koo, L.
Kraemer
Krupnick, A.J.
Layard, M.
Lebowitz, M.D.
Lee
Lee, P.
Lehrer, S.
Marin, C.
Masi
McCullough, J.
Melia, R.J.W.
Melius, J.
Mitchell, E.
Moorhead
Muramatsu, M.
Nordvall, S.L.
Oldaker, G.
Osborne, J.S.
Ownby, D.
Platt, S.
Pope, C.
Proctor, C.
Pukander
Robertson, G.
Romer
Ruppel, G.
Said
Shephard
Shimzu, H.
Speizer
Stable
Stankus
Sterling, Theodor D., PhD (Industry Consultant, Statistician Applied Mathematics)
Theodor Sterling was a statistician with Simon Fraser University, Canada. He is listed as a consulting scientist for the tobacco industry in 1988 memo PM 2023034933/4946 from Andrew Whist to R. Murray. Sterling presented the industry's point of view at indoor air symposia in Tokyo, 1987 and in the U.K. in 1988.Industry Consultant and CTR Special Project recipient.
Strachan
Svensson, C.
Turner, S.
Vinther
Watkins, C.J.
Weltle, D.
Wexler, L (Senior Vice President)
White
White, J.
Wiedmann
Williams, W.
Winding, O.
Witorsch, P.
Wu, A.
Wu, J.
Wu-Williams, A.
Wynder, E.
Zeilhuis
Named Organization
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers
ASHRAE (Am Society of Heating, Refrig and AC)
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH (NIOSH)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is NIOSH.
Region
Hong Kong
United States
Japan
Canada
Denmark
Germany
Keyword
Access to medical care
Age of mother
Air pollution
Allergies
Ambient sulfur levels
ASHRAE Standard 62-1981
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989
Asthma
Atopic sensitization
Birth weight
Breast feeding
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Cohort
Confounding factors
Cooking factors
COPD
Day care
Dietary factors
Emphysema
Environmental tobacco smoke
ETS
Familial factors
Gender factors
Genetic factors
Heating factors
Home dampness
Hospital spread of illness
Household pets
Lung function
Newborn illnesses
Nurture overcrowding
Odds ratios
Parental education
Parental infections
Pulmonary fibrosis
Residence
Respiratory diseases
SBS database
Seasonal variation
Sick building syndrome
Sulfur dioxide
Subject
Additives
Adults
Children
Cigarettes
data analysis
demographics
Diseases
Economic costs
epidemiology
Federal level
Government agencies
Health effects
Human subjects
industry sponsored research
International level
Men
nicotine
Nonsmokers
Research studies
secondhand smoke
Socioeconomic groups
Women
accommodation

Document Images

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size:

Page 11: 2023479712
Ruppel, Gregg. Manual of pulmonary function testing edition). The C.V. Mosby Company, 1986, pp. 33-38. (Fourth
Page 12: 2023479713
RESULTS OF SELECTED STUDIES: ETS AND ADULT LUNG FUNCTION Bouhuys, et al., 1978 The authors reported no associations between smoking in the home and increased symptoms or lung function loss among nonsmokers living in the same households. Shephard, et al., 1979 The authors raise the possibility that subjective reporting of symptoms could have been "suggested" by the odor of the cigarette smoke. White, et al., 1980 This study has received numerous criticisms. # Comstock, et al., 1981 Passive smoking in the home was not associated with the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and was only "suggestively associated" with impaired ventilatory function. Kauffmann, et al., 1983 Jones, et al., 1983 Opposite trends in FEVl and FEF25-75 were found in men passively exposed to tobacco smoke, and the differences observed in women were slight and not statistically significant. The use of cooking fuels was found to be associated with impaired ventilatory function in a group of nonsmoking women. Kentner, et al., 1984 Lebowitz, et al., 1985 Passive inhalation of tobacco smoke at home or the workplace was found not to be associated with impaired lung function in~ healthy nonsmokers. Reported no direct association between ETS and lung function parameters in adult nonsmokers.
Page 13: 2023479714
Hosein, et al., 1986 Masi, et al., 1988 Kalandidi, et al., 1990 The use of gas "stoves was found to be associated with impaired lung function in women. It was reported that passive smoking in households where gas stoves were used appeared to have no effect on lung function values. The authors concede that their use of multiple tests of significance (involving both exposure and response measurements) are likely to have resulted in some associations achieving statistical significance by chance. Assessment of exposure was based solely on the husband's smoking habit in terms of amount (daily) amount (total) , and duration.
Page 14: 2023479715
ETS AND COMPROMISED ADULTS
Page 15: 2023479716
COMPROMISED ADULTS The literature on environmental tobacco smoke includes a body of research on asthmatic adults. Studies have been conducted in order to attempt to determine whether there is a relationship between passive exposure to ETS and the development of asthma or the exacerbation of existing asthma in adults. The studies are varied in their results, and accordingly, no definitive conclusions have been reached by investigators. Following are the studies that examine ETS and its possible relation to asthma in adults.
Page 16: 2023479717
COMMENTS ON SELECTED STUDIES: Stable, et al., 1978 Shephard, et al., 1979 Dahms, et al., 1981 Ing, et al., 1983 Romer, et al., 1983 Knight, et al., 1985 Wiedemann, et al., 1986 Stankus, et at., 1988 Bailey, et al., 1990 ETS AND COMPROMISED ADULTS The authors suggest that tobacco smoke exposure might trigger asthma attacks by means of an allergic reaction. Reported that asthmatic subjects did not appear to have an unusual sensitivity to tobacco smoke exposure. Five of the ten subjects specifically reported sensitivity to tobacco smoke before their inclusion in this study. This study investigated only ~ix subjects. The authors concede that the small subject population of this study indicates that the results must be taken with caution. Only six subjects studied. The authors report that passive smoking presents no acute respiratory risk to young a symptomatic asthmatic patients. Only 21 subjects were included and all had complained of respiratory symptoms upon previous exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. No relationship was observ~ between passive smoki~ and pulmonary function asthmatic subjects.
Page 17: 2023479718
OCR for 2023479718 does not yet exist
Page 18: 2023479719
CONFOUNDERS Studies on parental smoking and childhood respiratory disease rarely address confounding variables. Confounding variables are factors that can create a "false" association between two elements by being associated with one or both of them. For example, factor X (socioeconomic status) may be associated with both factor ¥ (parental smoking)and factor Z (childhood respiratory disease). When factor X is not controlled for in epidemiological studies of the possible association between factor Y and factor Z, a false association may appear between factors ¥ and Z. Therefore, it is vital that epidemiologists control for confounding variables when conducting studies such as those on parental smoking. The possible confounding variables associated with parental smoking and childhood respiratory disease can be grouped into four major categories: (1) household heating and cooking sources; (2) outdoor air pollution; (3) organic substances; and (4) demographic, medical and socioeconomic factors.
Page 19: 2023479720
Household heating and cooking ..sources Children living in households with gas stoves have been reported, to have a greater history of respiratory illness before the age of two and small but significantly lower levels of FEV1 and FVC corrected for heightI (FEVl and FVC are standard measurements of lung capacity and function). Similarly, exposure of children to gas cooking in the first two years of life has been associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness2. There are reported associations of gas stove use with daily peak flow in asthmatic, normal, and allergic subjects.3 Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) arising from the use of gas stoves for cooking were proposed to be related to a reported increase in cough, "colds going to the chest," and bronchitis in a study of 5,758 English and Scottish children aged six to eleven years4. A number of other confounders were controlled for in this study, including "age,.soclal class, latitude, population density, family size, overcrowding, outdoor levels of smoke and sulphur dioxide and types of fuel used for heating." One group of researchers reported similar results for a five-year longitudinal study of 4827 boys and girls, ages five to ten years. This reported association was independent of age, sex, social class, number of cigarette smokers in the home, and latitude, and was only found in urban areas.5
Page 20: 2023479721
Use of unrented kerosene heaters, which release nitrogen dioxide (NO2) into the indoor environment, was associated with significantly more days of acute respiratory illness in exposed children6. In this study, there was no difference in the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the homes of exposed versus unexposed children. NO2 exposure was also reported to be associated with a risk of reporting lower respiratory symptoms in children under the age of seven7. One study reported increased proportions of chest illnesses and hospitalizations for chest illness before age two in young children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves. Medical histories, sociodemographic factors, or exposure to other pollutant sources did not account for the reported association8. In another report, hot water heating systems were reported to have a large effect on lung function in children, when compared to the use of forced air heating and air conditioning systems9.

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size: