Jump to:

Bliley PM

Tobacco Industry Research Committee -- Council for Tobacco Research

Date: 01 Jan 1992
Length: 14 pages
2015002362-2015002375
Jump To Images
bliley_pm 2015002362-2015002375

Abstract

Outlines the history of TIRC, what led to its establishment in 1954, and the release of the tobacco industry's Frank Statement to the media, which attested to the tobacco industry's commitment to research which would clear up the controversy of tobacco use and its link to lung cancer and other diseases. Discusses establishment of the Tobacco Institute in 1958 and TIRC's name change to Council for Tobacco Research in 1964. Names the various scientific directors of CTR, discusses the Scientific Activity Board and its purpose, and defines the CTR special projects, noting the involvement of outside counsel and industry executives. Duplicate of Bates #2015000059.

Fields

Company
Philip Morris Cos., Inc.
Type
SPEECH
Named Person
Gardner, William Ullman, Ph.D. (CTR Scientific Advisory Board grant reviewer)
Dr. Gardner worked for Counsel for Tobacco Research -- U.S.A., Inc. He was a member of CTR's committee which reviewed grant applications in 1974. (UCSF000134) Gardner served on the Scientific Advisory Board for CTR and was a CTR Scientific Director. (N.M.'s CTR Who's Who) (PMI's Introduction to Privilege Log and Glossary of Names, Estate of Burl Butler v. PMI, et al, April 19, 1996). See Gardiner, Bill, TTLA Almanac - Names.
Glenn, James Francis, M.D. (CTR Scientific Advisory Board.)
James F. Glenn was on CTR's Scientific Advisory Board. (PMI's Introduction to Privilege Log and Glossary of Names, Estate of Burl Butler v. PMI, et al, April 19, 1996). He was used as an expert in the Mississippi case.
Graham
Haag
Hartnett, Timothy V. (B&W exec)
Defense
Hoyt, Willson Thomas (W. Thomas) (CTR, President, Executive Director 1954-1984)
Previously with Hill & Knowlton
Larson
Levin
Little, Clarence Cook, Sc.D. (CTR Scientific Director, 1954-1971)
Sarokin, Hadden Lee Judge (Judge (Fed. Dist Court); tried Cipollone case)
Judge Hadden Lee Sarokin is a Federal District court judge, United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, Newark, NJ. Tried Cipollone case. Removed from Haines case by the U.S. Third Circuit Court of Appeals. Nominated 5/94? to the U.S. Third Circuit Court of Appeals (The Record 5/8/94). Sarokin later said his comments about the tobacco industry being "the king of concealment and disinformation" may have been unduly strong, "I agree the language was strong, maybe unduly strong"; "If I could take it back, I probably would" (AP 8/4/94).
Sommers, Sheldon Charles, M.D. (CTR Scientific Director c.1979, Industry Consultant)
Dr. Sheldon C. Sommers was an Industry Consultant, CTR Scientific Director and served on the CTR Scientific Advisory Board. (PMI's Introduction to Privilege Log and Glossary of Names, Estate of Burl Butler v. PMI, et al, April 19, 1996)
Warner
Wynder, Ernst L., M.D. (Epidemiologist, Sloan Kettering, Anti-Tobacco Expert)
1993 First scientist to report in 1950 on the carginocencity of cigarettes in rats painted with tar. Assistant at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research Directed the American Health Foundation (AHF) from 1984 to his death in 1998.
Lynch, Kenneth Merrill, M.D. (CTR Scientific Advisory Board 1954-74)
Kenneth Lynch was on the CTR SAB from 1954-1974. (Source: NM Tobacco Companies Personnel List)
Named Organization
AJPH
American Heart Association
AP
Arthur D. Little
*Council for Tobacco Research-- U.S.A. Inc. CTR (Formerly Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC))
Created and funded by the tobacco industry to award grants to study of the link between smoking and disease. Part of a four decade effort to cast doubt on the links between smoking and disease.
Hill & Knowlton Inc. (Tobacco industry PR firm, 1953-68)
Public relations firm for the tobacco industry from 1953 through 1968.
Industry Technical Committee
Liggett & Myers Inc. (Pioneer in the generic cigarette business)
Cigarette manufacturer; Pioneer in the generic cigarette business; L&M is the manufacturer of Chesterfield, Decade, Dorado, Duke of Durham in 1958, Eagle, Eve, L&M, Lark, Pyramid and Stride cigarettes
National Cancer Institute NCI
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute located in Rockville, MD
National Institutes of Health
New York Times
*Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) (Only use SAB with name of specific org.)
Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health
Time Magazine
Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC) (Renamed Council for Tobacco Research-USA (CTR))
Organized in 1954 as the Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC), and renamed the Council for Tobacco Research-USA (CTR) in 1964.
Industry Technical Committee
Tobacco Information Committee
Tobacco Institute (Industry Trade Association)
The purpose of the Institute was to defeat legislation unfavorable to the industry, put a positive spin on the tobacco industry, bolster the industry's credibility with legislators and the public, and help maintain the controversy over "the primary issue" (the health issue).
U.S. Public Health Service
Yale University
TIRC Board of Directors
Keyword
Frank Statement
CTR Special projects
Tobacco, Experimental and Clinical Studies
1964 Surgeon General Report
Microbiological Associates Project
Molecular biology
Immunology
Thesaurus Term
Test/Skin Painting (Testing)
industry response
antitrust legislation
cancer
heart disease
industry sponsored research
pathology
epidemiology
disease
litigation
media coverage
tobacco organization
public relations
lung cancer
newspaper

Document Images

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size:

Page 1: 2015002362
TOBACCO INDUSTRY RE:SEARCH COMMITTEE --COUNCIL FOR TOBACCO RESEARCH Atmosphere RegardingSmoking. and. HeaLth in, Early 1950s A. Absence:of credible science, pre-19,50 B. Epidemiologic studies beginning in 1950 i. Lev~n, et al. 2. British Doctors C. Wynder and Graham skin. painting experiment in 1.95!3 I. Received tremend0u~s publicity 2. Increasing pressure for industry response D. No trade olrgamizat~on because o~f anti,trust issues. II. A FrankStatement. to Cigarette Smokers Advertisement ran January 4, 1954, in 448 newspapers! in 258. U.S. cities** '~ i. Cited recentsc~entific developments 2. Stated industry position onsmoking and health Use over.head 2015002362
Page 2: 2015002363
Announced formation of organization to research, issues! amd ~nform public III. Formation of Tobacco~ ~ndustry Research Committee (TIRC) A. All cigarette mamufacturers except Liggett i. Liggett was funding, research at, Arthur D. Little 2. Representatives of companies, on Bo~ard of Directors 3. Officers electedl from Boardl B. Role of Hill & Knowlton i. Organizational andl administrative wo~rk performed a. TIRC located in Hill & Knowlton (H&K), offices 2¸. b. TOm Hoyt of H&K was Exe~cutiveSecretary Handled public relations aspects, of smoking and! C. health controversy FirstScientif~c Advisory Board** 1. Distinguished scientists, in relevant disciplines recruited! 2¸. Dr. Clarence Cook Little elected Chairman of SAB:
Page 3: 2015002364
3. Search forScientific Director D'. Research goals, andl policy i. General mission to study tobacco in relation to health (.~ncluding~ c6ronic disease, addiiction, personality, etc..) 2. Early focus on. basic mechanisms o~f diseases like cancer andl heart disease 3!. Grantees given complete freedom to research andl publish IV.. Org.anizational Activities. of TIRC, 1954:-1958 Most of 1954 spent analyzing research needs/directions I. Full time Chairman appointed --Timothy Hartn~ett 2:.~ Dir.. Little chosenas ScientificDirector a. Elected by other SAB members at one of their earlymeetings. B. Suspicion of scientific community
Page 4: 2015002365
Some universities would not let faculty apply for TIRC grants 2.. Major concern wa~s freedom to research and publish c. First studies funded in early 19,55 D. Research grant budget of $500,00~0 in 1954-1955. E:. Industry Technical Committee 1. Company research anddevelopment directors 2. Organized prior to SAB 3. Assisted Hill &Knowlton in identifyingfirstmembers Of SAB 4. Chairman of ITC attended SAB meetings V. Controversial Public Relations Function of TIRC Hill & Knowlton handled inquiries, from public and media regarding TIRe I. Period of increasing cla~ms regarding smoking and health 201500:Z365 -- 4i --
Page 5: 2015002366
2. Many issues dealt with scientific and technical matters B.: ~r. Little became ma~or spokesman C. Some SAB~ members expressed concern about Dr. L~ttle"s spokesman role i. Dr. Little stepped down a~s SAB. Chairman in. 1.958 2. Dr. Kenneth Lynch became SAB Chairman D¸ o, Toba~cco Information Committee of TIRC-- 1957 i. Arranged publication of"Smoking and Health,' 2. Bulk of 350,000~ copies sent to doctors and dentists E.. Formation of Tobacco Institute in 1958 I. Public relations function of TIRC diminished! 21. Role of Hill & Knowlton at TIRC lessened VI. TIRC Scientific Act~vities, 1954-1958! A. Conducted Pathologic-Anatomic Study i.~ Twelve distinguished U.S. pathologists. 20 15002366
Page 6: 2015002367
2:. Attempt to stamdardize diagnosis of lung cancer and study distribution of disease Embarked on broad: research program I.: Basic and targeted studies on various diseases such as CHD, GI, etc. 2:.. Experimental and animal studies (e.g.:, tobacco. chemistry, skin painting,, cell culture) 3.. Studies a~imed at d, evelopingl experimental techniques C. Fellowship, program i.. Awarded to. medical schools to support research activities of degree candidates 2. Selection amd area ofresearch left to medical school dean 3. In first year of program (195:5)77 out of 79:medical schools accepted fellowships D.. Scientiffc litelraturelibrary Z01500Z3G7 - 6 -
Page 7: 2015002368
I. Collected scientific literature regarding tobacco and hea~ith 2. Began publishing~ndex of relevant articles. E. Supported Larson and Haag's "~Tobacco, Experimental andl Clinica,lStudies" i. Authoritative monog~rap~ of a~stracts of worldl literature on tobacco, and health 2. Continuedsupportl throughfourvolumes a,s,a resource for tobacco, ~nvestigators VII.. TIRC from 1959-1964' A. SAB further refined research, focus I. FUnding ma,instream tobacco science Increasing r,espect from scientific communfty 3. FUnding of lung cancer pathology study taken over by U.S. Public Health Service B. Attendance at board meetings by representatives! of the Nationa~l Cancer Institute and American Heart Association
Page 8: 2015002369
Co, Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking, and Health 1. TIRC and health agencies made nom~nations 2.: TIRC submitted extensive scientif,fc information 3;. Dr. Little establ,~shed l,~nes of communication with the Advisory Committee 4., Cooperation from industry acMnowledged in final report but informatfon overlooked Indu,stry informatiqn~ primarily experimental b. 1964 S.,G.: Report mad, e its conclusions based! primarily on, epidemiology DI. Supportandlpublication ofsymposia, onsmok~ngand health El. Name change to Council, for TobaccoResearch (CTR)~n 19614 I., Clarify that organization devotedlto hea~ith, research and not industry technical or commercial stud!ies 2. Name change accompanied by complete relationshipwithHi~l & Knowlton [Summary: Early Years of Operation**] severance of
Page 9: 2015002370
VIII. CTR from, 1965-1970 A. Approval and review processes, for grants program refined** B. Dr.. Little resigns, in 1969 C. Dr. Wi.~.liam Gardner of Yale U:niversity appointed Sc:ientific Directorin 197.0 Funding activities in addition to Grants Program, E., Beginningof Special Projects i. Directed studies, to. analyze smoking andihea~h issues 21. Approved by Scientific Directo:r and not reviewed by SAB! Invo~vementof company andoutsidecounsel IX. Council forTobacco Research, 1971-19:80 A., Broadening~ focus of Grant-ln.Aid Program to include more inha~ational research B!., Use of research contracts. 1.. Microbiological Associates Projlect Development of smoke ~nhalation ma,chine
Page 10: 2015002371
Funding of the large-scale inhalation project C. SAB expands and grants budget increases D.: Increasing~ emphasis on basic science research i. Research focus! on basic mechanisms of chronic diseases Microbiological project, was attempt to fulfill purpose of researching tobacco and health directly Scientific areas, for research. F.~ CTR g~rantees often recipients of NIH and' health organization funding~ X. CTR, 1981~19!91 A.: Dr.. Sheldon Sommers becomes Scientific Directo~r in ~981 B. Publ icat f on of monograph regarding Microbiologica~ Associates research I. Largest cigarette smoke inhalation projiect ever performed Sent to universities, and medical schools ; 01500Z,371

Text Control

Highlight Text:

OCR Text Alignment:

Image Control

Image Rotation:

Image Size: