Contains twelve ICOSI (International Commission on Smoking Issues) briefing papers. Presents two formats: claims levied against the industy with responses, and referenced papers on various smoking and health issues. Responds to claims concerning international tobacco company practices in developing companies, specifically, the lack of warning clauses, sale of high-yield cigarettes, opposition to publication of tar and nicotine deliveries, and advertising methods unacceptable in Western culture. Includes responses to claims that "[t]obacco growing in Third World countries inhibits the production of food crops," and "tobacco companies encourage farmers in Third World countries to use wood for the flue-curing of tobacco thus depriving the poor man of his national fuel resources." Discusses smoking as it relates to health, lung cancer, pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, and youth. Explores "The Use of terms 'evidence' and 'proof' in papers relating to smoking and health." Quotes sections of law encyclopedia, American Jurisprudence.
- Author (Organization)
- Various Joint Industry Counsel
- Stevens, Arthur Joseph (LOR Sr. VP '89-95 and TI Communications)
Served on Lorillard Board of Directors 1985-92, was Senior Vice President from 1989 to 1995, served as General Counsel for Lorillard '93-95. Served on Tobacco Institute Communications Committee.
- Recipient (Organization)
- Named Person
- Berge, T. Dr.
- Fisher, R. Sir
- Burch, P. Dr.
- Buck, C. Prof.
- Yerushalmy, J. Prof.
- Named Organization
- U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
- University of Lund
- University of California
- The Lancet
- North America
- Costa Rica
- Central America
- Ban on Advertising - What Then?
- Third World countries
- Thesaurus Term
- Tobacco manufacturer
- Warning label
- Government agency
- Tobacco farming
- Tobacco processing
- Tobacco use
- Adverse effects
- lung cancer
- research activity
- respiratory disease
- cardiovascular diease
- International level
Page 11: 03678383
scale of production of which would not otherwise have justified
the expense of irriga.tion. A similar "spin off" effect has occurred
with tractors and cultivation equipment in West Africa. In the
State of Western Nigeria, the tobacco companies' sponsored tractor
schemes are used both by tobacco and by non tobacco farmers and
through their example has led to the establishment of similar
schemes by Government and by other operators.
In the more advanced agricultural economies of Venezuela, Argentina
and Brazil, the tobacco companies have established soil analytical
programmes, often conducted in their own laboratories. This enables
advice to be given to farmers on lime and fertilizer requirements
for the best crop yields. Where tobacco is grown in rotation with
other crops, the soil analysis can be used to provide a fertilizer
programme for the alternate crop.
The rapid spread of intensive cropping in the Third world has
brought with it problems of soil erosion and loss of natural soil
condition and also weeds, pests and disease. Particularly in the
tropics, this loss of organic matter and soil structure are accen-
tuated where primitive tools and implements are used. Subsoiling
and deeper ploughing have been advised and are now common practice
in Central America and parts of East and West Africa as a means
of breaking up the hard pan which had developed. Water permeabi-
lity has been improved and the potential root zone of the soil
In Northern Nigeria, the tobacco companies are evaluating alterna-
tive cultivation techniques which result in reduced wind erosion
at the beginning of the wet season. On land which is undulating or
hilly, as in Kenya, farmers are advised and encouraged to construct
contours and plant on the contour. In Brazil, 95 per cent of the
tobacco crop is planted by farmers who observe the principles
and practive of soil conservation.
Traditionally, farmers have removed or burned crop residues.
However, the use of tractors and modern equipment had enabled them
to plough in crop residues to maintain the level of organic matter
-in the soil. In one country, Nicaragua, many farmers are indeed
growing a green manure crop specifically for this purpose.
llth May 1979
Page 12: 03678384
ICOSI BACKGROUND BRIEFING PAPER
The tobacco companies encourage farmers in Third World countries
to use wood for the flue-curing of tobacco thus depriving the
poor man of his national fuel resources.
The flue-curing of tobacco requires artificial heat, though other
methods of curing do not. In Canada, the United States, the
Caribbean, Central America, India and Indonesia, oil or coal or
sometimes natural gas is used for flue-curing.
The ideal unit for the production of flue-cured tobacco is however
the family farm, and in some parts of the Third world the use of
wood as fuel for flue-curing has had obvious advantages. Wood was
available; it was cheap; its use demanded a lower level of techno-
logy and did not involve the outlay of foreign exchange. In the
earlier stages of tobacco production, wood was available from land
clearance in many parts of Africa, from other agricultural activi-
ties such as rubber plantations in Malaysia, from Government forest
reserves in Sri Lanka, or from natural forests as in Brazil.
Unfortunately, although Governments in these countries have
generally encouraged the development of tobacco as a cash crop
within their agricultural economy, with a few notable exceptions
(such as Pakistan, where Government-initiated wood fuel plantations
now produce 30.5 million cubic feet of fuel a year) their forestry
Departments have been slow to see the need for reafforestation
Whenever natural resources are used for any purpose, it is impor-
tant to conserve them. For wood, reafforestation is a necessiry
programme. Therefore, the tobacco companies have taken the initia-
tive. It has not been possible for them to become directly involved
in plantation. They have however encouraged farmers to plant trees,
either on a co-operative basis or individually. Wood fuel colopera-
tires jointly owned and managed by the farmers were very successful
in Uganda but the agricultural systems in other countries have not
allowed them to be set up elsewhere. Tree planting by individual
farmers also encounters difficulties, sometimes because of the
land tenure system, sometimes because of the limited size of the
farmer's holding, and sometimes because he cannot envisage the
future fuel requirement. Nevertheless, in a number of countries
the tobacco companies have successfully encouraged farmers to
plant trees, usually exotic fast-growing species, on any free land
and using seedlings provided free by the company. As a result of
Page 13: 03678385
co-operation between the tobacco companies and the farmers,
115 million trees have been planted in Brazil since 1977 alone.
Other examples are in Kenya, where 3 million seedlings have been
issued during the past three years, and in Sri Lanka where
40 seedlings are issued free to each farmer every year.
Ii has also been possible to reduce fuel requirements by recommen-
ding improved curing techniques and by improving the efficiency
of wood furnaces. Technical improvements developed to meet problems
in one country have been transferred to other countries where
similar problems occur. '"
Several tobacco companies are conducting research into the use of
waste products as fuel. For example, the conversion into briquet-
tes of waste material from coir, rice husk and sawdust is currently
under investigation in Sri Lanka and the results could prove useful
in other countries including Brazil. Trials are being oonducted in
Kenya of solar energy as a supplementary source of heat for flue-
llth May 1979
Page 14: 03678386
ICOSI BACKGROUND BRIEFING PAPER
SMOKING AND HEALTH -- A PERSPECTIVE
For centuries, millions of people throughout the world
have enjoyed smoking tobacco in various forms. The explorer,
Christopher Columbus, encountered natives in the West Indies
smoking tobacco when he discovered the New World in 1492. Tobacco
was introduced to Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and
it was not long before the custom of smoking began to spread.
Nor was it long before smoking began to be attacked.
Today, tobacco use continues to be opposed primarily
on the grounds that it is a health hazard--a claimed cause of
lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and other disorders.
The claims that are made about imoking and health rely
mainly on reported statistical associations, but it is a scientific
principle that such associations cannot establish causal relationships.
Even the 1964 U.S. Terry Report noted that "statistical methods
cannot establish proof of a causal relationship in an association."
What statistical associations can do, however, is point to the
need for further clinical and laboratory research to determine
the precise relationships.l
Moreover, considerable scientific data are inconsisten~
with the smoking-disease hypothesis. Indeed, there is ample
scientific evidence showing that the smoking and health question
Page 15: 03678387
This is illustrated by an examination of the accusation
that tobacco use is a major cause of premature death. Some of
the major statistical studies of select populations contain findings
inconsistent with this accusation. In separate studies of Canadian
and U.S. veterans, it was found that veterans with longer smoking
histories did not necessarily experience higher mortality rates.
One showed that persons who had smoked for 25-34 years had lower
mortality rates than persons who had smoked for 15-24 years,
and the other that smokers of 15-29 years had lower rates than
persons who smoked for less than 15 years.2
Also of interest is the 10-year study of residents
of towns in Denmark and England.3 In the Danish town, researchers
found that nonsmokers had a higher death rate than those who
smoked cigarettes, pipes and cigarettes, and other forms of tobacco.
In the English town, they found that the "heavier" smokers had
lower death rates than the "lighter" smokers.
The reported statistical associations between smoking
and higher mortality rates may be more consistent with a genetic
hypothesis than a causal one, according to certain highly respected
scientists. Studies of identical human twins provide support
for this theory. Because identical twins have the same genetic
makeup, they are excellent subjects for the study of extrinsic
factors which may affect mortality. These studies have indicated~
that in identical twin pairs who have different smoking habits,
no excess mortality has been observed in the twins who smoked
more heavily.4 ~
Page 16: 03678388
In view of such scientific uncertainties, it is unfortu-
nate that discussions of smoking and health questions have frequently
become strident. Rationality is often replaced by emotionalism,
a situation commented on recently by Dr. Gary Huber of Harvard
University: "When it comes to tobacco, opinions are given often
with such emotionalism that there is very little discussion,
much less scientific objectivity."5
However, scientific objectivity is needed in considering
complex questions of disease causation. Despite the many claims
made about smoking and health, a legitimate and continuing scientific
controversy surrounds the subject. The smoking and health question
is unresolved and answers will be found cnly through unbiased
Page 17: 03678389
Berkson, J., "Smoking and Cancer of the Lung," Mayo
Clin Proc 35: 367-385, 1960.
Berkson, J.,. "Mortality and Marital Status: Reflections
on the Derivation of Etiology from Statistics," Amer J
Pub Hlth 52(8) : 1318-1329, 1962.
Berkson, J., "Smoking and Lung Cancer," Med Proc i0:
Burch, P. R. J., "Problems in the Interpretation of
Cancer Statistics with Special Reference to Lung Cancer,"
J Soc Occup Med 25(1): 2-10, 1975.
Fisher, R. A., "Dangers of Cigarette-Smoking," Brit Med
J 2(5039): 297-298, 1957.
Fisher, .R.A., "Cigarettes, Cancer and Statistics,"
Centennial Rev Arts Sci 2: 151-166, 1958.
Fisher, R. A., "Lung Cancer and Cigarettes?" Nature
182(4628): 108, 1958.
Fisher, R. A., Smoking: The Cancer Controversy.'
London: oliver & Boyd, 1959, pp. 7-47.
Rigdon, R. H., "Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer: A
Consideration of This Relationship," South Med J 62(2):
Rigdon, R. H., Statement presented at Hearings before
the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House
of Representatives, April 15 - May I, 1969. Serial No.
91-12, pp. 1018-1025.
Schoolman, H. M., et al., "Statistics in Medical Research:
Principles Versus Practices," J Lab Clin Med 71(3):
Seltzer, C. C., "An Evaluation of the Effect of Smoking
on Coronary Heart Disease," JAMA 203(3): 193-200,
Yerushalmy, J., "On Inferring Causality from Observed
Associations," Controversy in Internal Medicine, F. J.
Ingelfinger, et al. (eds.).--Philadel~hia: W. B. Saunders
Co., pp. 659-668, 1966.
Page 18: 03678390
U. S. Public Health Service. Smoking and Health, Report
of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the
Public Health Service. Washington, U. S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service
Publication No. 1103, p. 20, 1964.
2. Doll, R. and A. B. Hill, Mortality Study in British
Doctors, and Best, E. W. Ro, et al., Mortality of
Canadian War Pensioners, as Reported in: U. S. Public
Health Service. Smoking and Health, Report of the
Advisory Committee to the Surgeon of the Public Health
Service. Washington, U. S° Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service Publication
No. 1103, p. 93, 1964.
3. Cole, T. J., et al., "Bronchitis, Smoking and Obesity
in an English and a Danish Town: Male Deaths After a
10-Year Follow-up," Bull Physio Path Resp 10(5): 657-
4. Cederlof, R., et al., "Morbidity Among Monozygotic
Twins," Arch Environ Health 10(2): 346-350, 1965.
Cederlof, R., et al., "Respiratory Symptoms and 'Angina
Pectoris' in Twins with Reference to Smoking Habits.
An Epidemiological Study with Mailed Questionnaire,"
Arch Environ Health 13(6): 726-737, 1966.
Cederlof, R., et al., "Hereditary Factors and 'Angina
Pectoris,'" Arch Environ Health 14(3) : 397-400, 1967.
Cederlof, R., et al., "Hereditary Factors, 'Spontaneous
Cough' and 'Smoker's Cough,'" Arch Environ Health
14(3): 401-406, March, 1967.
Cederlof, R. and L. Friberg, "Tobacco Smoking and
Health: Results of Epidemiologic Studies in Twins,"
Lakartidningen 65(27): 2727-2734, July 3, 1968.
Cederlof, R., et al., "Cardiovascular and Respiratory
Symptoms in Relation to Tobacco Smoking: A Study on
American Twins," Arch Environ Health 18(6): 934-940,
Cederlof, R., Statement presented at Hearings Before
the Committee of Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House
of Representatives, April 15 - May i, 1969. Serial No.
91-11, pp. 873-882.
Page 19: 03678391
De Faire, U., et al., '"Concordance with Respect to
Mortality in Ischaemic Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular
Disease, A Study on the Swedish Twin Registry," CVD
Epidemiol Newsl 18(1): 21, 1975.
Friberg, L., et al., "Smoking Habits of Monozygotic and
Dizygotic Twins," Br Med J 1(5129): 1090-1092, 1959.
Friberg, L., et al., "Mortality in Smoking Discordant
Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins," Arch Environ Health
21(4): 508-512, 1970.
Friberg, L., et al., "Mortality in Twins in Relation to
Smoking Habits and Alcohol Problems," Arch Environ
Health 27(5): 294-304, 1973.
Huber, Gary, "State of the Art on Tobacco and Health,"
Paper presented at the American Thoracic Society Annual
Meeting, May 15, 1978.
Page 20: 03678392
ICOSI BACKGROUND BRIEFING PAPER
Smoking and Lung Cancer
The accusation that smoking causes lung cancer is
well publicized. What is perhaps not so well publicized is
the considerable amount of scientific evidence that questions
this causal hypothesis.
The claim that smoking causes lung cancer is based
mainly on studies in which smoking was reported to be statistically
associated with lung cancer mortality. But this reasoning
ignores the important question of whether or not such associations
have causal significance.
Scientists generally agree that statistical associations
do not establish causal relationships. Dr. Joseph Berkson,
the distinguished medical statistician now retired from the
famed Mayo Clinic in the United States, has stated that
"Cancer is a biologic, not a statistical, problem" and that
"if biologists permit statisticians to become the arbiters
of biologic questions, scientific disaster is inevitable.''I
However, such associations do point to the need for further ..~
clinical and laboratory investigations.
A number of laboratory and clinical findings have
raised serious questions about the alleged causal relationship
between smoking and lung cancer. These include the fact